Science.gov

Sample records for 7220rb hp compaq

  1. The raw disk i/o performance of compaq storage works RAID arrays under tru64 unix

    SciTech Connect

    Uselton, A C

    2000-10-19

    We report on the raw disk i/o performance of a set of Compaq StorageWorks RAID arrays connected to our cluster of Compaq ES40 computers via Fibre Channel. The best cumulative peak sustained data rate is l17MB/s per node for reads and 77MB/s per node for writes. This value occurs for a configuration in which a node has two Fibre Channel interfaces to a switch, which in turn has two connections to each of two Compaq StorageWorks RAID arrays. Each RAID array has two HSG80 RAID controllers controlling (together) two 5+p RAID chains. A 10% more space efficient arrangement using a single 1l+p RAID chain in place of the two 5+P chains is 25% slower for reads and 40% slower for writes.

  2. HP1/ORC complex and heterochromatin assembly.

    PubMed

    Shareef, Mohammed M; Badugu, RamaKrishna; Kellum, Rebecca

    2003-03-01

    We have used the highly conserved heterochromatin component, heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), as a molecular tag for purifying other protein components of Drosophila heterochromatin. A complex of HP1 associated with the origin recognition complex (ORC) and an HP1/ORC-associated protein (HOAP) was purified from the maternally loaded cytoplasm of early Drosophila embryo. We propose that the DNA-binding activities of ORC and HOAP function to recruit underphosphorylatedisoforms of HP1 to sites of heterochromatin nucleation. The roles of highly phosphorylated HP1, other DNA-binding proteins known to interact with HP1, and histone modifying activities in heterochromatin assembly are also addressed.

  3. Protein designs in HP models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Arvind; Khodabakhshi, Alireza Hadj; Maňuch, Ján; Rafiey, Arash; Stacho, Ladislav

    2009-07-01

    The inverse protein folding problem is that of designing an amino acid sequence which folds into a prescribed shape. This problem arises in drug design where a particular structure is necessary to ensure proper protein-protein interactions and could have applications in nanotechnology. A major challenge in designing proteins with native folds that attain a specific shape is to avoid proteins that have multiple native folds (unstable proteins). In this technical note we present our results on protein designs in the variant of Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) model introduced by Dill [6] on 2D square lattice. The HP model distinguishes only polar and hydrophobic monomers and only counts the number of hydrophobic contacts in the energy function. To achieve better stability of our designs we use the Hydrophobic-Polar-Cysteine (HPC) model which distinguishes the third type of monomers called "cysteines" and incorporates also the disulfid bridges (SS-bridges) into the energy function. We present stable designs in 2D square lattice and 3D hexagonal prism lattice in the HPC model.

  4. DIGLIB for HP-1000 computers

    SciTech Connect

    Treadway, T.R.

    1983-11-01

    DIGLIB (Device Independent Graphic LIBrary), originally developed by Hal R. Brand for DEC computers, has been modified for use by HP 1000 computers running under RTE. DIGLIB consists of a small but functionally complete set of FORTRAN-callable library subroutines for creating arbitrary views of two-dimensional objects and for supporting interaction between the graphic application program and its user. Graphic presentation is oriented towards interactive graphic display devices (such as the HP 2648A or Tektronix 4025) and line-drawing plotters (like the CalComp pen plotters). In addition, a high density Versatec V-80 or 1200 electrostatic printer/plotter interface is available. DIGLIB makes the application program independent of the specific graphic hardware devices, thereby presenting a uniform programmer interface to the graphics library, requiring few modifications (typically one) to the application program in order to accommodate a different graphics configuration. A device-independent subroutine library provides a high level of program portability, allowing support of a variety of different display controllers and operating environments.

  5. Haptoglobin levels, but not Hp1-Hp2 polymorphism, are associated with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Laura M L; Ferreira, Cláudia N; de Oliveira, Daisy K D; Rodrigues, Kathryna F; Duarte, Rita C F; Teixeira, Márcia F A; Xavier, Luana B; Candido, Ana Lúcia; Reis, Fernando M; Silva, Ieda F O; Campos, Fernanda M F; Gomes, Karina B

    2017-09-13

    Proteomic studies suggest an association between haptoglobin (Hp) and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). Hp is a classic inflammatory marker and binds to the intravascular hemoglobin, avoiding the oxidative damages that can be caused by free hemoglobin. Inflammation and oxidative stress are important in the pathogenesis of the PCOS, one of the most frequent metabolic diseases in women. To validate these proteomic studies, we developed a controlled cross-sectional study that aimed to evaluate the Hp levels and allelic and genotypic frequencies of Hp1-Hp2 polymorphism in Brazilian women with PCOS. We also investigated the correlation between Hp levels and several important parameters in PCOS as follows: body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), fasting glucose, post-prandial glucose, homeostatic model assessment (HOMA), lipid accumulation product (LAP), C-reactive protein (CRP), and metabolization test of tetrazolium salts (MTTs-serum antioxidant capacity). Plasma Hp levels were higher in the PCOS group than in controls [8.20 (4.04) g/L; 7.98 (3.31) g/L; p = 0.018]. No significant difference was observed in the frequency of Hp1-Hp2 genotypes under additive, recessive, or dominant model of inheritance between the PCOS and the control groups. Plasma Hp levels did not differ according to the genotype. However, plasma Hp showed a negative correlation with MTT (r = - 0.383; p = 0.028), as well as a positive correlation with CRP (r = 0.361; p = 0.014) in the PCOS group. Hp1-Hp2 polymorphism is not associated with PCOS but plasma Hp could be a potential biomarker for PCOS and its complications.

  6. HP-UX: implementation of UNIX on the HP 900 series 500 computer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.W.Y.; Lindberg, J.B.; Hetrick, M.V.; Connor, M.L.

    1984-03-01

    An implementation of the UNIX operating system kernel has been layered on top of an existing operating system kernel (SUN) for the HP 9000 series 500 computer systems. The mapping of UNIX functional requirements onto the capabilities of the underlying operating system is discussed in the article, along with the implementation of UNIX commands and libraries. These pieces of UNIX, along with other extensions added by HP, make up the HP-UX operating system.

  7. Operation of the HP2250 with the HP9000 series 200 using PASCAL 3.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, John; Stroud, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    A computer program has been written to provide an interface between the HP Series 200 desktop computers, operating under HP Standard Pascal 3.0, and the HP2250 Data Acquisition and Control System. Pascal 3.0 for the HP9000 desktop computer gives a number of procedures for handling bus communication at various levels. It is necessary, however, to reach the lowest possible level in Pascal to handle the bus protocols required by the HP2250. This makes programming extremely complex since these protocols are not documented. The program described solves those problems and allows the user to immediately program, simply and efficiently, any measurement and control language (MCL/50) application with a few procedure calls. The complete set of procedures is available on a 5 1/4 inch diskette from Cosmic. Included in this group of procedures is an Exerciser which allows the user to exercise his HP2250 interactively. The exerciser operates in a fashion similar to the Series 200 operating system programs, but is adapted to the requirements of the HP2250. The programs on the diskette and the user's manual assume the user is acquainted with both the MCL/50 programming language and HP Standard Pascal 3.0 for the HP series 200 desktop computers.

  8. Hydrogen Peroxide (HP) Potential for Space Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grafwallner, F.

    2004-10-01

    Low toxicity or "green" propellants are now under study by organizations around the world. Especially ultra high concentrated hydrogen peroxide (HP) may be a significant step toward less toxic, storable und safer operation of upper stages and spacecrafts. HP can be used as a monopropellant, when catalytically decomposed or as a bipropellant constituting the propellant combination`s oxidizer. Serving as a monopropellant, catalytic decomposition will result in exhaust of superheated steam and oxygen which can be used to drive gas turbines and feed life support systems or provide thrust as a monopropellant, provide the oxidizer, or function as an igniter for bipropellant engines. HP can be used in fuel cells to produce electrical power, heat and water.

  9. Clerget 100 hp heavy-oil engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leglise, Pierre

    1931-01-01

    A complete technical description of the Clerget heavy-oil engine is presented along with the general characteristics. The general characteristics are: 9 cylinders, bore 120 mm, stroke 130 mm, four-stroke cycle engine, rated power limited to 100 hp at 1800 rpm; weight 228 kg; propeller with direct drive and air cooling. Moving parts, engine block, and lubrication are all presented.

  10. Effect of Mutations on HP Lattice Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guangjie; Vogel, Thomas; Landau, David; Li, Ying; Wüst, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Using Wang-Landau sampling with approriate trial moves[2], we investigate the effect of different types of mutations on lattice proteins in the HP model. While exact studies have been carried out for short HP proteins[3], the systems we investigate are of much larger size and hence not accessible for exact enumerations. Based on the estimated density of states, we systematically analyse the changes in structure and degeneracy of ground states of particular proteins and measure thermodynamic quantities like the stability of ground states and the specific heat, for example. Both, neutral mutations, which do not change the structure and stability of ground states, as well as critical mutations, which do change the thermodynamic behavior qualitatively, have been observed. Research supported by NSF

  11. HP-41 Calculates Dykstra-Parsons permeability

    SciTech Connect

    Bixler, B.

    1983-07-01

    A new program for the HP-41 programmable calculator has been written which will calculate the often used Dykstra-Parsons permeability variation factor, V. No longer must numerous individual permeability values be plotted on log probability paper as a first step in determining V. Input is simply these same permeability values selected at equal spacing along the interval in question. For most core analysis this spacing will be 1 ft. This program is labeled ''KVAR'' (for permeability variation) and is listed here, along with its bar code for those with optical wands. It requires only nine registers for program storage (since it uses HP built-in statistical functions) and eight registers for data storage. Also, it can be stored on one track of the standard two-track magnetic card. Data entry is terminated by entering ''O''. Lastly, it will run with or without a printer.

  12. 175Hp contrarotating homopolar motor design report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cannell, Michael J.; Drake, John L.; McConnell, Richard A.; Martino, William R.

    1994-06-01

    A normally conducting contrarotating homopolar motor has been designed and constructed. The reaction torque, in the outer rotor, from the inner rotor is utilized to produce true contrarotation. The machine utilizes liquid cooled conductors, high performance liquid metal current collectors, and ferrous conductors in the active region. The basic machine output is 175 hp at + or - 1,200 rpm with an input of 4 volts and 35,000 amps.

  13. Some properties of the noncommutative Hp(r ,s ) (𝒜; ℓ∞) and Hp(𝒜; ℓ1) spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tulenov, Kanat

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, we introduce the noncommutative Hp(r ,s ) (𝒜; ℓ∞) and Hp (𝒜; ℓ1) spaces. Then, it is shown that both spaces are Banach spaces for r, s ≥ 2 (and resp. p ≥ 1) and the analogue of Saito's theorem for the Hp(r ,s ) (𝒜; ℓ∞) and Hp(𝒜; ℓ1) spaces are proved.

  14. Structural basis of HP1/PXVXL motif peptide interactions and HP1 localisation to heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Thiru, Abarna; Nietlispach, Daniel; Mott, Helen R; Okuwaki, Mitsuru; Lyon, Debbie; Nielsen, Peter R; Hirshberg, Miriam; Verreault, Alain; Murzina, Natalia V; Laue, Ernest D

    2004-01-01

    HP1 family proteins are adaptor molecules, containing two related chromo domains that are required for chromatin packaging and gene silencing. Here we present the structure of the chromo shadow domain from mouse HP1β bound to a peptide containing a consensus PXVXL motif found in many HP1 binding partners. The shadow domain exhibits a novel mode of peptide recognition, where the peptide binds across the dimer interface, sandwiched in a β-sheet between strands from each monomer. The structure allows us to predict which other shadow domains bind similar PXVXL motif-containing peptides and provides a framework for predicting the sequence specificity of the others. We show that targeting of HP1β to heterochromatin requires shadow domain interactions with PXVXL-containing proteins in addition to chromo domain recognition of Lys-9-methylated histone H3. Interestingly, it also appears to require the simultaneous recognition of two Lys-9-methylated histone H3 molecules. This finding implies a further complexity to the histone code for regulation of chromatin structure and suggests how binding of HP1 family proteins may lead to its condensation. PMID:14765118

  15. PULSION® HP: Tunable, High Productivity Plasma Doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Felch, S. B.; Torregrosa, F.; Etienne, H.; Spiegel, Y.; Roux, L.; Turnbaugh, D.

    2011-01-01

    Plasma doping has been explored for many implant applications for over two decades and is now being used in semiconductor manufacturing for two applications: DRAM polysilicon counter-doping and contact doping. The PULSION HP is a new plasma doping tool developed by Ion Beam Services for high-volume production that enables customer control of the dominant mechanism—deposition, implant, or etch. The key features of this tool are a proprietary, remote RF plasma source that enables a high density plasma with low chamber pressure, resulting in a wide process space, and special chamber and wafer electrode designs that optimize doping uniformity.

  16. An unusually simple HP1 gene set in Hymenopteran insects.

    PubMed

    Fang, C; Schmitz, L; Ferree, P M

    2015-12-01

    The heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) gene family includes a set of paralogs in higher eukaryotes that serve fundamental roles in heterochromatin structure and maintenance, and other chromatin-related functions. At least 10 full and 16 partial HP1 genes exist among Drosophila species, with multiple gene gains, losses, and sub-functionalizations within this insect group. An important question is whether this diverse set of HP1 genes and their dynamic evolution represent the standard rule in eukaryotic groups. Here we have begun to address this question by bio-informatically identifying the HP1 family genes in representative species of the insect order Hymenoptera, which includes all ants, bees, wasps, and sawflies. Compared to Drosophila species, Hymenopterans have a much simpler set of HP1 genes, including one full and two partial HP1s. All 3 genes appear to have been present in the common ancestor of the Hymenopterans and they derive from a Drosophila HP1B-like gene. In ants, a partial HP1 gene containing only a chromoshadow domain harbors amino acid changes at highly conserved sites within the PxVxL recognition region, suggesting that this gene has undergone sub-functionalization. In the jewel wasp Nasonia vitripennis, the full HP1 and partial chromoshadow-only HP1 are expressed in both germ line and somatic tissues. However, the partial chromodomain-only HP1 is expressed exclusively in the ovary and testis, suggesting that it may have a specialized chromatin role during gametogenesis. Our findings demonstrate that the HP1 gene family is much simpler and evolutionarily less dynamic within the Hymenopterans compared to the much younger Drosophila group, a pattern that may reflect major differences in the range of chromatin-related functions present in these and perhaps other insect groups.

  17. Pattern Recognition of Adsorbing HP Lattice Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Matthew S.; Shi, Guangjie; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P.; Schmid, Friederike

    2015-03-01

    Protein adsorption is relevant in fields ranging from medicine to industry, and the qualitative behavior exhibited by course-grained models could shed insight for further research in such fields. Our study on the selective adsorption of lattice proteins utilizes the Wang-Landau algorithm to simulate the Hydrophobic-Polar (H-P) model with an efficient set of Monte Carlo moves. Each substrate is modeled as a square pattern of 9 lattice sites which attract either H or P monomers, and are located on an otherwise neutral surface. The fully enumerated set of 102 unique surfaces is simulated with each protein sequence. A collection of 27-monomer sequences is used- each of which is non-degenerate and protein-like. Thermodynamic quantities such as the specific heat and free energy are calculated from the density of states, and are used to investigate the adsorption of lattice proteins on patterned substrates. Research supported by NSF.

  18. HP41C formation evaluation programs

    SciTech Connect

    Hallenburg, J.K.

    1984-01-01

    Over 30 programmable calculator programs for fast, on-the-job analysis are included in this book. They are short, simple, and useable in the field, office, or laboroatory. Each program comes with equations and simple solutions that are geared around the HP41C programmable calculator. The programs are useful for petroleum well log analysis as well as mineral and engineering applications. Contents include: Preliminary Methods - estimating and filtrate, solution temperature correction; Determining R/sub WE/, and calculating average temperature gradient downhole; Analysis Methods - calculating porosity, determining water saturation, acoustic-neutron crossplot for lithology and porosity, and estimating permeability of a sandstone; Troubleshooting Methods - obtaining probable density from porosity and Obtaining R/sub O/ and R/sub XO/; General Programs - determining area under a logged curve, calculating vertical thickness of a bed, determining horizontal displacement of a deviated hole, and estimating cuttings lag while drilling.

  19. Functional study of gene hp0169 in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huilin; Ji, Xiaofei; Chen, Xingxing; Li, Jiaojiao; Zhang, Ying; Du, Zhenzhen; Zhang, Yumei; Li, Boqing

    2017-03-01

    Many virulence genes have been reported to play important roles in Helicobacter pylori pathogenesis. However the detailed mechanisms of many of them have not been completely clear. In this study, we found gene hp0169, encoding a putative collagenase (HpPrtC), was involved in pathogenesis of H. pylori. Recombinant HpPrtC shows activities to both native and heat-denatured collagens. This result indicated that HpPrtC may act as a virulence factor to help the bacterium colonize in their host stomach by degrading surrounding collagens. hp0169 was deleted by homologous recombination to study its function in bacterium-host cell interaction. For the pathogenic functions on the host cells, the hp0169 mutant exhibits no significant changes on inducing apoptosis of GES-1 cells. However, the viability and proliferation rate of GES-1 cells infected with mutant strain were higher than the cells infected with wild-type strain. These results indicated that except for its collagenolytic activity, HpPrtC might participate in H. pylori pathogenesis through an additional pathway. Functional studies on hp0169 involved in pathogenesis would shed light on deep understanding of the pathogenic mechanism of H. pylori. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. 40 HP Electro-Mechanical Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulmer, Chris

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed on the 40 BP electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) system developed on NASA contract NAS3-25799 for the NASA National Launch System and Electrical Actuation (ELA) Technology Bridging Programs. The system was designed to demonstrate the capability of large, high power linear ELA's for applications such as Thrust Vector Control (TVC) on rocket engines. It consists of a motor controller, high frequency power source, drive electronics and a linear actuator. The power source is a 25kVA 20 kHz Mapham inverter. The drive electronics are based on the pulse population modulation concept and operate at a nominal frequency of 40 kHz. The induction motor is a specially designed high speed, low inertia motor capable of a 68 peak HP. The actuator was originally designed by MOOG Aerospace under an internal R & D program to meet Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) TVC requirements. The design was modified to meet this programs linear rate specification of 7.4 inches/second. The motor and driver were tested on a dynamometer at the Martin Marietta Space Systems facility. System frequency response and step response tests were conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center facility. A complete description of the system and all test results can be found in the body of the report.

  1. Transcriptional Profiling of Type II Toxin-Antitoxin Genes of Helicobacter pylori under Different Environmental Conditions: Identification of HP0967-HP0968 System.

    PubMed

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G; Ares, Miguel A; Panunzi, Leonardo G; Pacheco, Sabino; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Girón, Jorge A; Torres, Javier; De la Cruz, Miguel A

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric mucosa and is responsible for causing peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. The expression of virulence factors allows the persistence of H. pylori in the stomach, which results in a chronic, sometimes uncontrolled inflammatory response. Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems have emerged as important virulence factors in many pathogenic bacteria. Three type II TA systems have previously been identified in the genome of H. pylori 26695: HP0315-HP0316, HP0892-HP0893, and HP0894-HP0895. Here we characterized a heretofore undescribed type II TA system in H. pylori, HP0967-HP0968, which is encoded by the bicistronic operon hp0968-hp0967 and belongs to the Vap family. The predicted HP0967 protein is a toxin with ribonuclease activity whereas HP0968 is an antitoxin that binds to its own regulatory region. We found that all type II TA systems were expressed in H. pylori during early stationary growth phase, and differentially expressed in the presence of urea, nickel, and iron, although, the hp0968-hp0967 pair was the most affected under these environmental conditions. Transcription of hp0968-hp0967 was strongly induced in a mature H. pylori biofilm and when the bacteria interacted with AGS epithelial cells. Kanamycin and chloramphenicol considerably boosted transcription levels of all the four type II TA systems. The hp0968-hp0967 TA system was the most frequent among 317 H. pylori strains isolated from all over the world. This study is the first report on the transcription of type II TA genes in H. pylori under different environmental conditions. Our data show that the HP0967 and HP0968 proteins constitute a bona fide type II TA system in H. pylori, whose expression is regulated by environmental cues, which are relevant in the context of infection of the human gastric mucosa.

  2. The h-p Version of the Finite Element Method.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    commerical code (released in 1985) using the p and h-p versions. The h-p version combines the h and p-versions. The p-version was first theoretically studied ...satisfied 121 L1]- We will study the approximation (in the space H1 ) of functions u B2 ,d 2) by the h-p version and will show that exponential rate...where its various properties were studied . Let us mention the following lemma proven in [51 which will be needed r later. 2 2 0- Lemma 2.1. H5 (0 ) C

  3. Tonopah Test Range EGS graphics tracking display system: HP370

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.H.; Bauhs, K.C.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the HP370 component of the Enhanced Graphics System (EGS) used at Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Selected Radar data is fed into the computer systems and the resulting tracking symbols are displayed on high-resolution video monitors in real time. These tracking symbols overlay background maps and are used for monitoring/controlling various flight vehicles. This report discusses both the operational aspects and the internal configuration of the HP370 Workstation portion of the EGS system.

  4. Electron beam inspection of 16nm HP node EUV masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimomura, Takeya; Narukawa, Shogo; Abe, Tsukasa; Takikawa, Tadahiko; Hayashi, Naoya; Wang, Fei; Ma, Long; Lin, Chia-Wen; Zhao, Yan; Kuan, Chiyan; Jau, Jack

    2012-11-01

    EUV lithography (EUVL) is the most promising solution for 16nm HP node semiconductor device manufacturing and beyond. The fabrication of defect free EUV mask is one of the most challenging roadblocks to insert EUVL into high volume manufacturing (HVM). To fabricate and assure the defect free EUV masks, electron beam inspection (EBI) tool will be likely the necessary tool since optical mask inspection systems using 193nm and 199nm light are reaching a practical resolution limit around 16nm HP node EUV mask. For production use of EBI, several challenges and potential issues are expected. Firstly, required defect detection sensitivity is quite high. According to ITRS roadmap updated in 2011, the smallest defect size needed to detect is about 18nm for 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Secondly, small pixel size is likely required to obtain the high sensitivity. Thus, it might damage Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer due to accumulated high density electron beam bombardments. It also has potential of elevation of nuisance defects and reduction of throughput. These challenges must be solved before inserting EBI system into EUV mask HVM line. In this paper, we share our initial inspection results for 16nm HP node EUV mask (64nm HP absorber pattern on the EUV mask) using an EBI system eXplore® 5400 developed by Hermes Microvision, Inc. (HMI). In particularly, defect detection sensitivity, inspectability and damage to EUV mask were assessed. As conclusions, we found that the EBI system has capability to capture 16nm defects on 64nm absorber pattern EUV mask, satisfying the sensitivity requirement of 15nm NAND Flash HP node EUV mask. Furthermore, we confirmed there is no significant damage to susceptible Ru capped Mo/Si multilayer. We also identified that low throughput and high nuisance defect rate are critical challenges needed to address for the 16nm HP node EUV mask inspection. The high nuisance defect rate could be generated by poor LWR and stitching errors during EB writing

  5. Design of an advanced 500-HP helicopter transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braddock, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    A 500-hp Advanced Technology Demonstrator helicopter transmission was designed by an American aerospace company under a NASA contract. The project was mainly concerned with designing a 500-hp version of the OH-58C 317-hp transmission which would have the capabilities for a long, quiet life at a minimum increase in cost, weight, and space, which usually increase along with power increases. This objective was accomplished by implementing advanced technology which has been developed during the last decade and by making improvements dictated by field experience. The improvements are related to bearings made of cleaner gear steels, spiral bevel gears made of cleaner gear steels, high contact ratio spur gear teeth in the planetary which will reduce noise level and increase gear life, and modifications concerning the sun gear.

  6. Effect of Single-Site Mutations on HP Lattice Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Guangjie; Vogel, Thomas; Wuest, Thomas; Li, Ying Wai; Landau, David P

    2014-01-01

    We developed a heuristic method for determining the ground-state degeneracy of hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice proteins, based on Wang-Landau and multicanonical sampling. It is applied during comprehensive studies of single-site mutations in specific HP proteins with different sequences. The effects in which we are interested include structural changes in ground-states, changes of ground-state energy, degeneracy, and thermodynamic properties of the system. With respect to mutations, both extremely sensitive and insensitive positions in the HP sequence have been found. That is, ground state energies and degeneracies, as well as other thermodynamic and structural quantities may be either largely unaffected or may change significantly due to mutation.

  7. Differential Cooperation between Heterochromatin Protein HP1 Isoforms and MyoD in Myoblasts*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Yahi, Hakima; Fritsch, Lauriane; Philipot, Ophelie; Guasconi, Valentina; Souidi, Mouloud; Robin, Philippe; Polesskaya, Anna; Losson, Regine; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms of transcriptional repression are important during cell differentiation. Mammalian heterochromatin protein 1 isoforms HP1α, HP1β, and HP1γ play important roles in the regulation of chromatin structure and function. We explored the possibility of different roles for the three HP1 isoforms in an integrated system, skeletal muscle terminal differentiation. In this system, terminal differentiation is initiated by the transcription factor MyoD, whose target genes remain mainly silent until myoblasts are induced to differentiate. Here we show that HP1α and HP1β isoforms, but not HP1γ, interact with MyoD in myoblasts. This interaction is direct, as shown using recombinant proteins in vitro. A gene reporter assay revealed that HP1α and HP1β, but not HP1γ, inhibit MyoD transcriptional activity, suggesting a model in which MyoD could serve as a bridge between nucleosomes and chromatin-binding proteins such as HDACs and HP1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show a preferential recruitment of HP1 proteins on MyoD target genes in proliferating myoblasts. Finally, modulation of HP1 protein level impairs MyoD target gene expression and muscle terminal differentiation. Together, our data show a nonconventional interaction between HP1 and a tissue-specific transcription factor, MyoD. In addition, they strongly suggest that HP1 isoforms play important roles during muscle terminal differentiation in an isoform-dependent manner. PMID:18599480

  8. Transcriptional Profiling of Type II Toxin–Antitoxin Genes of Helicobacter pylori under Different Environmental Conditions: Identification of HP0967–HP0968 System

    PubMed Central

    Cárdenas-Mondragón, María G.; Ares, Miguel A.; Panunzi, Leonardo G.; Pacheco, Sabino; Camorlinga-Ponce, Margarita; Girón, Jorge A.; Torres, Javier; De la Cruz, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a Gram-negative bacterium that colonizes the human gastric mucosa and is responsible for causing peptic ulcers and gastric carcinoma. The expression of virulence factors allows the persistence of H. pylori in the stomach, which results in a chronic, sometimes uncontrolled inflammatory response. Type II toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems have emerged as important virulence factors in many pathogenic bacteria. Three type II TA systems have previously been identified in the genome of H. pylori 26695: HP0315–HP0316, HP0892–HP0893, and HP0894–HP0895. Here we characterized a heretofore undescribed type II TA system in H. pylori, HP0967–HP0968, which is encoded by the bicistronic operon hp0968–hp0967 and belongs to the Vap family. The predicted HP0967 protein is a toxin with ribonuclease activity whereas HP0968 is an antitoxin that binds to its own regulatory region. We found that all type II TA systems were expressed in H. pylori during early stationary growth phase, and differentially expressed in the presence of urea, nickel, and iron, although, the hp0968–hp0967 pair was the most affected under these environmental conditions. Transcription of hp0968–hp0967 was strongly induced in a mature H. pylori biofilm and when the bacteria interacted with AGS epithelial cells. Kanamycin and chloramphenicol considerably boosted transcription levels of all the four type II TA systems. The hp0968–hp0967 TA system was the most frequent among 317 H. pylori strains isolated from all over the world. This study is the first report on the transcription of type II TA genes in H. pylori under different environmental conditions. Our data show that the HP0967 and HP0968 proteins constitute a bona fide type II TA system in H. pylori, whose expression is regulated by environmental cues, which are relevant in the context of infection of the human gastric mucosa. PMID:27920769

  9. A methodology to split the total cumulative Hp(10) dose into the Hp(10) i doses received during various procedures performed by interventional cardiologist.

    PubMed

    Domienik, Joanna

    2017-03-01

    The methodology describing how to split the cumulative Hp(10) dose of interventional cardiologists into Hp(10) i doses received during procedures of various types based on procedure-specific ELDO coefficients and Hp(3) doses per procedure is presented. The appropriate equations for Hp(10) i (Hp(10) for procedure type i), depending on the number of various procedure types (i  =  1 … 4) performed by a particular physician, are derived. The methodology can be applied to whole-body doses measured on the lead apron and therefore can be used for optimisation of work practices in those catheterisation labs where routine dosimeter is worn above the apron.

  10. Human Hp1-1 and Hp2-2 Phenotype-Specific Haptoglobin Therapeutics Are Both Effective In Vitro and in Guinea Pigs to Attenuate Hemoglobin Toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lipiski, Miriam; Deuel, Jeremy W.; Baek, Jin Hyen; Engelsberger, Wolfgang R.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Aims: Infusion of purified haptoglobin (Hp) functions as an effective hemoglobin (Hb) scavenging therapeutic in animal models of hemolysis to prevent cardiovascular and renal injury. Epidemiologic studies demonstrate the phenotype heterogeneity of human Hp proteins and suggest differing vascular protective potential imparted by the dimeric Hp1-1 and the polymeric Hp2-2. Results: In vitro experiments and in vivo studies in guinea pigs were performed to evaluate phenotype-specific differences in Hp therapeutics. We found no differences between the two phenotypes in Hb binding and intravascular compartmentalization of Hb in vivo. Both Hp1-1 and Hp2-2 attenuate Hb-induced blood pressure response and renal iron deposition. These findings were consistent with equal prevention of Hb endothelial translocation. The modulation of oxidative Hb reactions by the two Hp phenotypes was not found to be different. Both phenotypes stabilize the ferryl (Fe4+) Hb transition state, provide heme retention within the complex, and prevent Hb-driven low-density lipoprotein (LDL) peroxidation. Hb-mediated peroxidation of LDL resulted in endothelial toxicity, which was equally blocked by the addition of Hp1-1 and Hp2-2. Innovation and Conclusion: The present data do not provide support for the concept that phenotype-specific Hp therapeutics offer differential efficacy in mitigating acute Hb toxicity. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 19, 1619–1633. PMID:23418677

  11. Involvement of the HP0165-HP0166 Two-Component System in Expression of Some Acidic-pH-Upregulated Genes of Helicobacter pylori†

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Feng, Jing; Scott, David R.; Marcus, Elizabeth A.; Sachs, George

    2006-01-01

    About 200 genes of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori increase expression at medium pHs of 6.2, 5.5, and 4.5, an increase that is abolished or much reduced by the buffering action of urease. Genes up-regulated by a low pH include the two-component system HP0165-HP0166, suggesting a role in the regulation of some of the pH-sensitive genes. To identify targets of HP0165-HP0166, the promoter regions of genes up-regulated by a low pH were grouped based on sequence similarity. Probes for promoter sequences representing each group were subjected to electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) with recombinant HP0166-His6 or a mutated response regulator, HP0166-D52N-His6, that can specifically determine the role of phosphorylation of HP0166 in binding (including a control EMSA with in-vitro-phosphorylated HP0166-His6). Nineteen of 45 promoter-regulatory regions were found to interact with HP0166-His6. Seven promoters for genes encoding α-carbonic anhydrase, omp11, fecD, lpp20, hypA, and two with unknown function (pHP1397-1396 and pHP0654-0675) were clustered in gene group A, which may respond to changes in the periplasmic pH at a constant cytoplasmic pH and showed phosphorylation-dependent binding in EMSA with HP0166-D52N-His6. Twelve promoters were clustered in groups B and C whose up-regulation likely also depends on a reduction of the cytoplasmic pH at a medium pH of 5.5 or 4.5. Most of the target promoters in groups B and C showed phosphorylation-dependent binding with HP0166-D52N-His6, but promoters for ompR (pHP0166-0162), pHP0682-0681, and pHP1288-1289 showed phosphorylation-independent binding. These findings, combined with DNase I footprinting, suggest that HP0165-0166 is an acid-responsive signaling system affecting the expression of pH-sensitive genes. Regulation of these genes responds either to a decrease in the periplasmic pH alone (HP0165 dependent) or also to a decrease in the cytoplasmic pH (HP0165 independent). PMID:16484186

  12. Involvement of the HP0165-HP0166 two-component system in expression of some acidic-pH-upregulated genes of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yi; Feng, Jing; Scott, David R; Marcus, Elizabeth A; Sachs, George

    2006-03-01

    About 200 genes of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori increase expression at medium pHs of 6.2, 5.5, and 4.5, an increase that is abolished or much reduced by the buffering action of urease. Genes up-regulated by a low pH include the two-component system HP0165-HP0166, suggesting a role in the regulation of some of the pH-sensitive genes. To identify targets of HP0165-HP0166, the promoter regions of genes up-regulated by a low pH were grouped based on sequence similarity. Probes for promoter sequences representing each group were subjected to electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) with recombinant HP0166-His(6) or a mutated response regulator, HP0166-D52N-His(6), that can specifically determine the role of phosphorylation of HP0166 in binding (including a control EMSA with in-vitro-phosphorylated HP0166-His(6)). Nineteen of 45 promoter-regulatory regions were found to interact with HP0166-His(6). Seven promoters for genes encoding alpha-carbonic anhydrase, omp11, fecD, lpp20, hypA, and two with unknown function (pHP1397-1396 and pHP0654-0675) were clustered in gene group A, which may respond to changes in the periplasmic pH at a constant cytoplasmic pH and showed phosphorylation-dependent binding in EMSA with HP0166-D52N-His(6). Twelve promoters were clustered in groups B and C whose up-regulation likely also depends on a reduction of the cytoplasmic pH at a medium pH of 5.5 or 4.5. Most of the target promoters in groups B and C showed phosphorylation-dependent binding with HP0166-D52N-His(6), but promoters for ompR (pHP0166-0162), pHP0682-0681, and pHP1288-1289 showed phosphorylation-independent binding. These findings, combined with DNase I footprinting, suggest that HP0165-0166 is an acid-responsive signaling system affecting the expression of pH-sensitive genes. Regulation of these genes responds either to a decrease in the periplasmic pH alone (HP0165 dependent) or also to a decrease in the cytoplasmic pH (HP0165 independent).

  13. Performance modeling of Arabian asphalt using HP-GPC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asi, I. M.; Wahhab, H. I. Al-Abdul; Al-Dubabi, I. A.; Ali, M. F.

    1997-08-01

    In this study, Arabian neat asphalt samples were collected from different asphalt producing refineries in the Gulf countries. Another set of polymer modified samples was also included in this study. In the polymer modification process, 5,10, and 15% crumb rubber (CRT) and 3,6, and 9% styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) were used. All asphalt samples were subjected to two aging processes to simulate heating, mixing, compaction, and in-service aging. The asphalt samples at the different aging stages were subjected to performance-based tests that were adapted and/or modified by the Strategic Highway Research Program (SHRP) team. High pressure gel permeation chromatography (HP-GPC) was used to chemically analyze the test samples by generating profiles of their molecular size distribution. Models were built to predict the performance-based properties from the produced HP-GPC profiles.

  14. Adsorption of HP Lattice Proteins on Patterned Surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Matthew; Shi, Guangjie; Landau, David P.; Li, Ying Wai; Wuest, Thomas

    2014-03-01

    The HP lattice model[2] is a course-grained, yet useful tool for modeling protein sequences where amino acids are treated as either hydrophobic (H) or polar (P) monomers. With the use of Wang-Landau sampling and an efficient set of Monte-Carlo moves[3], HP lattice proteins adsorbed on patterned surfaces are studied. Each substrate is modeled as a periodically bounded pattern of lattice sites that interact with either H or P monomers in the lattice protein, where the energy contributions of the surface are determined by assigned coupling strengths. By analyzing energy degeneracies, along with the thermodynamic and structural quantities of the protein, both the protein folding and surface adsorption can be observed. The adsorption behavior of the lattice proteins on patterned surfaces will be compared to those interacting with uniform surfaces. Research supported by NSF.

  15. Maintenance of HP 5071A Primary Frequency Standards at USNO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-12-01

    29th Annual Precise Time and Time Interual (PTTI) Meeting MAINTENANCE OF HP 5071A PRIMARY FREQUENCY STANDARDS USNO AT H. Chadsey (hc...planck.usno.navy.mil A. Kubik (tony@ simon.usno.navy.rni1) Time Service Department U.S. Naval Observatory Washington, D.C. 20392 Abstract The US. Naval...show any correlation of them with the time , frequency, and environmental changes. This paper will also ofet some indicators to predict future device

  16. The 3600 hp split-torque helicopter transmission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, G.

    1985-01-01

    Final design details of a helicopter transmission that is powered by GE twin T 700 engines each rated at 1800 hp are presented. It is demonstrated that in comparison with conventional helicopter transmission arrangements the split torque design offers: weight reduction of 15%; reduction in drive train losses of 9%; and improved reliability resulting from redundant drive paths between the two engines and the main shaft. The transmission fits within the NASA LeRC 3000 hp Test Stand and accepts the existing positions for engine inputs, main shaft, connecting drive shafts, and the cradle attachment points. One necessary change to the test stand involved gear trains of different ratio in the tail drive gearbox. Progressive uprating of engine input power from 3600 to 4500 hp twin engine rating is allowed for in the design. In this way the test transmission will provide a base for several years of analytical, research, and component development effort targeted at improving the performance and reliability of helicopter transmission.

  17. Exploring HP protein models using Wang-Landau sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P.

    2008-03-01

    The hydrophobic-polar (HP) protein model has become a standard in assessing the efficiency of computational methods for protein structure prediction as well as for exploring the statistical physics of protein folding in general. Numerous methods have been proposed to address the challenges of finding minimal energy conformations within the rough energy landscape of this lattice heteropolymer model. However, only a few studies have been dedicated to the more revealing - but also more demanding - problem of estimating the density of states which allows access to thermodynamic properties of a system at any temperature. Here, we show that Wang-Landau sampling, in connection with a suitable move set (``pull moves''), provides a powerful route for the ground state search and the precise determination of the density of states for HP sequences (with up to 100 monomers) in both, two and three dimensions. Our procedure possesses an intrinsic simplicity and overcomes the inevitable limitations inherent in other more tailored approaches. The main advantage lies in its general applicability to a broad range of lattice protein models that go beyond the scope of the HP model.

  18. Intelligence Aid for Evaluating Enemy Courses of Action (ENCOA): Guide for Manual and HP41-C/HP41-CV Calculator Procedures

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-06-01

    Research Product 82-6 Intelligence Aid for Evaluating Enemy Courses of Action (ENCOA): Guide for Manual and HP41-CIHP41-CV Calculator Procedures...NUMBER 2.GOVT A CEiN No. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER Research Product 82-06 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Intelligence ...necesarmy mid identity by block number) * intelligence analysis aid multiattribute-utility analysis decision-making aid * HP4l-C/HP41-CV calculator IM

  19. Haptoglobin polymorphism among Saharian and West African groups. Haptoglobin phenotype determination by radioimmunoelectrophoresis on Hp O samples.

    PubMed Central

    Constans, J; Viau, M; Gouaillard, C; Clerc, A

    1981-01-01

    The haptoglobin (Hp) polymorphism is investigated in 11 African groups living in an area from the Algerian Sahara to Central Africa. More than 4,000 samples were examined. In the Saharian samples, the Hp1 gene frequency is higher than in any other African group. From north to south, a decrease in the Hp1 gene frequency is observed; in the Pygmy sample only, this frequency is lower than the frequency of the Hp2 gene. By means of a sensitive radioimmunoelectrophoresis, the presence of a residual Hp in Hp O sera in which the Hp polymorphism can also be determined can be revealed. Absence of Hp 1-1 and significant excess of Hp 2-2 individuals were observed. More Hp 2-1M phenotypes were detected in the Hp O population than in the non-Hp O population examined. In the Hp O samples, the influence of the phenotype distribution on the Hp gene frequencies is discussed. The heavy polymers of the Hp related to the presence of the alpha 2 chain (Hp2 gene product) are involved only in the biological mechanisms responsible for the presence of Hp O and Hp 2-1 M phenotypes among African groups. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7258189

  20. Crosstalk between the HpArsRS two-component system and HpNikR is necessary for maximal activation of urease transcription

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Beth M.; West, Abby L.; Gancz, Hanan; Servetas, Stephanie L.; Pich, Oscar Q.; Gilbreath, Jeremy J.; Hallinger, Daniel R.; Forsyth, Mark H.; Merrell, D. Scott; Michel, Sarah L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori NikR (HpNikR) is a nickel dependent transcription factor that directly regulates a number of genes in this important gastric pathogen. One key gene that is regulated by HpNikR is ureA, which encodes for the urease enzyme. In vitro DNA binding studies of HpNikR with the ureA promoter (PureA) previously identified a recognition site that is required for high affinity protein/DNA binding. As a means to determine the in vivo significance of this recognition site and to identify the key DNA sequence determinants required for ureA transcription, herein, we have translated these in vitro results to analysis directly within H. pylori. Using a series of GFP reporter constructs in which the PureA DNA target was altered, in combination with mutant H. pylori strains deficient in key regulatory proteins, we confirmed the importance of the previously identified HpNikR recognition sequence for HpNikR-dependent ureA transcription. Moreover, we identified a second factor, the HpArsRS two-component system that was required for maximum transcription of ureA. While HpArsRS is known to regulate ureA in response to acid shock, it was previously thought to function independently of HpNikR and to have no role at neutral pH. However, our qPCR analysis of ureA expression in wildtype, ΔnikR and ΔarsS single mutants as well as a ΔarsS/nikR double mutant strain background showed reduced basal level expression of ureA when arsS was absent. Additionally, we determined that both HpNikR and HpArsRS were necessary for maximal expression of ureA under nickel, low pH and combined nickel and low pH stresses. In vitro studies of HpArsR-P with the PureA DNA target using florescence anisotropy confirmed a direct protein/DNA binding interaction. Together, these data support a model in which HpArsRS and HpNikR cooperatively interact to regulate ureA transcription under various environmental conditions. This is the first time that direct “cross-talk” between HpArsRS and HpNikR at

  1. Crosstalk between the HpArsRS two-component system and HpNikR is necessary for maximal activation of urease transcription.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Beth M; West, Abby L; Gancz, Hanan; Servetas, Stephanie L; Pich, Oscar Q; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Hallinger, Daniel R; Forsyth, Mark H; Merrell, D Scott; Michel, Sarah L J

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori NikR (HpNikR) is a nickel dependent transcription factor that directly regulates a number of genes in this important gastric pathogen. One key gene that is regulated by HpNikR is ureA, which encodes for the urease enzyme. In vitro DNA binding studies of HpNikR with the ureA promoter (PureA ) previously identified a recognition site that is required for high affinity protein/DNA binding. As a means to determine the in vivo significance of this recognition site and to identify the key DNA sequence determinants required for ureA transcription, herein, we have translated these in vitro results to analysis directly within H. pylori. Using a series of GFP reporter constructs in which the PureA DNA target was altered, in combination with mutant H. pylori strains deficient in key regulatory proteins, we confirmed the importance of the previously identified HpNikR recognition sequence for HpNikR-dependent ureA transcription. Moreover, we identified a second factor, the HpArsRS two-component system that was required for maximum transcription of ureA. While HpArsRS is known to regulate ureA in response to acid shock, it was previously thought to function independently of HpNikR and to have no role at neutral pH. However, our qPCR analysis of ureA expression in wildtype, ΔnikR and ΔarsS single mutants as well as a ΔarsS/nikR double mutant strain background showed reduced basal level expression of ureA when arsS was absent. Additionally, we determined that both HpNikR and HpArsRS were necessary for maximal expression of ureA under nickel, low pH and combined nickel and low pH stresses. In vitro studies of HpArsR-P with the PureA DNA target using florescence anisotropy confirmed a direct protein/DNA binding interaction. Together, these data support a model in which HpArsRS and HpNikR cooperatively interact to regulate ureA transcription under various environmental conditions. This is the first time that direct "cross-talk" between HpArsRS and HpNikR at

  2. Phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycle of HP1α governs accurate mitotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arindam; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α), a bona fide factor of silent chromatin, is required for establishing as well as maintaining the higher-order chromatin structure in eukaryotes. HP1α is decorated with several post-translational modifications, and many of these are critical for its cellular functions. HP1α is heavily phosphorylated; however, its physiological relevance had remained to be completely understood. We have recently demonstrated that human HP1α is a mitotic target for NDR kinase, and the phosphorylation at the hinge region of HP1α at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle is crucial for mitotic progression and Sgo1 loading at mitotic centromeres (Chakraborty et al., 2014). We now demonstrate that the dephosphorylation of HP1α within its hinge domain occurs during mitosis, specifically soon after prometaphase. In the absence of the hinge-specific HP1α phosphorylation, either as a consequence of depleting NDR1 or in cells expressing a non-phosphorylatable HP1α mutant, the cells arrest in prometaphase with several mitotic defects. In this study we show that NDR1-depleted cells expressing hinge-specific phosphomimetic HP1α mutant rescues the prometaphase arrest but displays defects in mitotic exit, suggesting that the dephosphorylation of HP1α is required for the completion of cytokinesis. Taken together, our results reveal that the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycle of HP1α orchestrates accurate progression of cells through mitosis. PMID:24786771

  3. Perspectives on Industrial Innovation from Agilent, HP, and Bell Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenhorst, James

    2014-03-01

    Innovation is the life blood of technology companies. I will give perspectives gleaned from a career in research and development at Bell Labs, HP Labs, and Agilent Labs, from the point of view of an individual contributor and a manager. Physicists bring a unique set of skills to the corporate environment, including a desire to understand the fundamentals, a solid foundation in physical principles, expertise in applied mathematics, and most importantly, an attitude: namely, that hard problems can be solved by breaking them into manageable pieces. In my experience, hiring managers in industry seldom explicitly search for physicists, but they want people with those skills.

  4. The 300 H.P. Benz Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, A

    1921-01-01

    A description is given of the Benz 12-cylinder aircraft engine. The 300 H.P. engine, with the cylinders placed at an angle of 60 degrees not only realizes a long-cherished conception, but has received refinement in detail. It may be described as a perfect example of modern German aircraft engine construction. Here, a detailed description is given of the construction of this engine. Emphasis is placed on the design and construction of the cylinders, pistons, and connecting rods. Also discussed are engine fitting, lubrication, oil pumps, bearings, the oil tank, fuel pump, carburetors, and cooling system.

  5. PULSION registered HP: Tunable, High Productivity Plasma Doping

    SciTech Connect

    Felch, S. B.; Torregrosa, F.; Etienne, H.; Spiegel, Y.; Roux, L.; Turnbaugh, D.

    2011-01-07

    Plasma doping has been explored for many implant applications for over two decades and is now being used in semiconductor manufacturing for two applications: DRAM polysilicon counter-doping and contact doping. The PULSION HP is a new plasma doping tool developed by Ion Beam Services for high-volume production that enables customer control of the dominant mechanism--deposition, implant, or etch. The key features of this tool are a proprietary, remote RF plasma source that enables a high density plasma with low chamber pressure, resulting in a wide process space, and special chamber and wafer electrode designs that optimize doping uniformity.

  6. Shigella flexneri targets the HP1γ subcode through the phosphothreonine lyase OspF

    PubMed Central

    Harouz, Habiba; Rachez, Christophe; Meijer, Benoit M; Marteyn, Benoit; Donnadieu, Françoise; Cammas, Florence; Muchardt, Christian; Sansonetti, Philippe; Arbibe, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    HP1 proteins are transcriptional regulators that, like histones, are targets for post-translational modifications defining an HP1-mediated subcode. HP1γ has multiple phosphorylation sites, including serine 83 (S83) that marks it to sites of active transcription. In a guinea pig model for Shigella enterocolitis, we observed that the defective type III secretion mxiD Shigella flexneri strain caused more HP1γ phosphorylation in the colon than the wild-type strain. Shigella interferes with HP1 phosphorylation by injecting the phospholyase OspF. This effector interacts with HP1γ and alters its phosphorylation at S83 by inactivating ERK and consequently MSK1, a downstream kinase. MSK1 that here arises as a novel HP1γ kinase, phosphorylates HP1γ at S83 in the context of an MSK1-HP1γ complex, and thereby favors its accumulation on its target genes. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals that this mechanism is linked to up-regulation of proliferative gene and fine-tuning of immune gene expression. Thus, in addition to histones, bacteria control host transcription by modulating the activity of HP1 proteins, with potential implications in transcriptional reprogramming at the mucosal barrier. PMID:25216677

  7. Roles of Piwi Proteins in Transcriptional Regulation Mediated by HP1s in Cultured Silkworm Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tatsuke, Tsuneyuki; Zhu, Li; Li, Zhiqing; Mitsunobu, Hitoshi; Yoshimura, Kaito; Mon, Hiroaki; Lee, Jae Man; Kusakabe, Takahiro

    2014-01-01

    Piwi proteins are part of a superfamily of Argonaute proteins, which are one of the core components of the RNA silencing pathway in many eukaryotes. Piwi proteins are thought to repress the transposon expression both transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally. Recently, Drosophila melanogaster Piwi was recently reported to associate with chromatin and to interact directly with the Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1a). However, similar interactions have not been reported in other higher eukaryotes. Here we show that silkworm Piwi proteins interact with HP1s in the nucleus. The silkworm, Bombyx mori, has two Piwi proteins, Ago3 and Siwi, and two typical HP1 proteins, HP1a and HP1b. We found that HP1a plays an important role in the interaction between Ago3/Siwi and HP1b in the ovary-derived BmN4 cell line. We also found that Ago3/Siwi regulates the transcription in an HP1-dependent manner. These results suggest that silkworm Piwi proteins function as a chromatin regulator in collaboration with HP1a and HP1b. PMID:24637637

  8. Targeted Identification of Glycosylated Proteins in the Gastric Pathogen Helicobacter pylori (Hp)*

    PubMed Central

    Champasa, Kanokwan; Longwell, Scott A.; Eldridge, Aimee M.; Stemmler, Elizabeth A.; Dube, Danielle H.

    2013-01-01

    Virulence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is directly linked to the pathogen's ability to glycosylate proteins; for example, Hp flagellin proteins are heavily glycosylated with the unusual nine-carbon sugar pseudaminic acid, and this modification is absolutely essential for Hp to synthesize functional flagella and colonize the host's stomach. Although Hp's glycans are linked to pathogenesis, Hp's glycome remains poorly understood; only the two flagellin glycoproteins have been firmly characterized in Hp. Evidence from our laboratory suggests that Hp synthesizes a large number of as-yet unidentified glycoproteins. Here we set out to discover Hp's glycoproteins by coupling glycan metabolic labeling with mass spectrometry analysis. An assessment of the subcellular distribution of azide-labeled proteins by Western blot analysis indicated that glycoproteins are present throughout Hp and may therefore serve diverse functions. To identify these species, Hp's azide-labeled glycoproteins were tagged via Staudinger ligation, enriched by tandem affinity chromatography, and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology. Direct comparison of enriched azide-labeled glycoproteins with a mock-enriched control by both SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry-based analyses confirmed the selective enrichment of azide-labeled glycoproteins. We identified 125 candidate glycoproteins with diverse biological functions, including those linked with pathogenesis. Mass spectrometry analyses of enriched azide-labeled glycoproteins before and after cleavage of O-linked glycans revealed the presence of Staudinger ligation-glycan adducts in samples only after beta-elimination, confirming the synthesis of O-linked glycoproteins in Hp. Finally, the secreted colonization factors urease alpha and urease beta were biochemically validated as glycosylated proteins via Western blot analysis as well as by mass spectrometry analysis of cleaved glycan products. These data set the

  9. Haptoglobin Hp2 Variant Promotes Premature Cardiovascular Death in Stroke Survivors.

    PubMed

    Ijäs, Petra; Melkas, Susanna; Saksi, Jani; Jula, Antti; Jauhiainen, Matti; Oksala, Niku; Pohjasvaara, Tarja; Kaste, Markku; Karhunen, Pekka J; Lindsberg, Perttu; Erkinjuntti, Timo

    2017-06-01

    Haptoglobin (Hp) is an acute phase plasma protein protecting tissues from oxidative damage. It exists in 2 variant alleles (hp1/hp2) giving rise to 3 protein isoforms with different biochemical properties and efficiency to limit oxidative stress. We previously found that hp2 variant is associated with stroke risk in the patients with carotid stenosis and the risk of ischemic cardiovascular events in a general population cohort. This study examined the hypothesis that Hp genotype is associated with general cardiovascular risk in patients with stroke. Hp was genotyped in SAM study (Helsinki Stroke Aging Memory, n=378). A total of 1426 individuals ascertained from a nationally representative cross-sectional health survey served as population controls. Hp genotype frequencies were 15.6% (hp1-1), 44.2% (hp1-2), and 40.2% (hp2-2) in patients with stroke. During a mean of 7.5-year follow-up after first-ever stroke, hp2 carriers had a substantially higher rate of cardiac deaths (24.5% versus 8.5%; P=0.006) and a trend toward more fatal strokes (23.5% versus 13.6%; P=0.122). The combined risk of ischemic cardiovascular deaths was 2.4-fold higher among hp2 carriers (95% confidence interval, 1.28-4.43) after adjustment for major cardiovascular risk factors. Hp2 allele is associated with premature ischemic cardiovascular deaths after first-ever ischemic stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. DAMT - DISTRIBUTED APPLICATION MONITOR TOOL (HP9000 VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keith, B.

    1994-01-01

    processes. The independent processes communicate with each other via UNIX sockets through a Virtual Path router, or Switcher. The Switcher maintains a routing table showing the host of each component process of the tool, eliminating the need for each process to do so. The Central Monitor Complex provides the single application program interface (API) to the user and coordinates the activities of DAMT. The Central Monitor Complex is itself divided into independent objects that perform its functions. The component objects are the Central Monitor, the Process Locator, the Circuit Locator, and the Traffic Reporter. Each of these objects is an independent, asynchronously executing process. User requests to the tool are interpreted by the Central Monitor. The Process Locator identifies whether a named process is running on a monitored host and which host that is. The circuit between any two processes in the distributed application is identified using the Circuit Locator. The Traffic Reporter handles communication with the LAN Analyzer and accumulates traffic updates until it must send a traffic report to the user. The Remote Monitor process is replicated on each monitored host. It serves the Central Monitor Complex processes with application process information. The Remote Monitor process provides access to operating systems information about currently executing processes. It allows the Process Locator to find processes and the Circuit Locator to identify circuits between processes. It also provides lifetime information about currently monitored processes. The LAN Analyzer consists of two processes. Low-level monitoring is handled by the Sniffer. The Sniffer analyzes the raw data on a single, physical LAN. It responds to commands from the Analyzer process, which maintains the interface to the Traffic Reporter and keeps track of which circuits to monitor. DAMT is written in C-language for HP-9000 series computers running HP-UX and Sun 3 and 4 series computers running SunOS. DAMT

  11. Nektar++: An open-source spectral/ hp element framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantwell, C. D.; Moxey, D.; Comerford, A.; Bolis, A.; Rocco, G.; Mengaldo, G.; De Grazia, D.; Yakovlev, S.; Lombard, J.-E.; Ekelschot, D.; Jordi, B.; Xu, H.; Mohamied, Y.; Eskilsson, C.; Nelson, B.; Vos, P.; Biotto, C.; Kirby, R. M.; Sherwin, S. J.

    2015-07-01

    Nektar++ is an open-source software framework designed to support the development of high-performance scalable solvers for partial differential equations using the spectral/ hp element method. High-order methods are gaining prominence in several engineering and biomedical applications due to their improved accuracy over low-order techniques at reduced computational cost for a given number of degrees of freedom. However, their proliferation is often limited by their complexity, which makes these methods challenging to implement and use. Nektar++ is an initiative to overcome this limitation by encapsulating the mathematical complexities of the underlying method within an efficient C++ framework, making the techniques more accessible to the broader scientific and industrial communities. The software supports a variety of discretisation techniques and implementation strategies, supporting methods research as well as application-focused computation, and the multi-layered structure of the framework allows the user to embrace as much or as little of the complexity as they need. The libraries capture the mathematical constructs of spectral/ hp element methods, while the associated collection of pre-written PDE solvers provides out-of-the-box application-level functionality and a template for users who wish to develop solutions for addressing questions in their own scientific domains.

  12. A repair station for HpGe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearman, Robert; Lister, Christopher; Mitchell, A. J.; Copp, Patrick; Jepeal, Steven; Chowdhury, Partha

    2013-10-01

    Hyper-pure Germanium detectors (HpGe) offer the highest energy resolution for gamma-ray nuclear spectroscopy (about 1.5 keV @ 1 MeV), and are used in all the world's leading detector arrays such as GammaSphere, AGATA and GRETINA. The detector crystals are operated in cryostats at 100 K to reduce thermal noise. To maintain low leakage current and low operating temperatures, cryostat hygiene is very important. Detectors must be regularly maintained by using a high-vacuum, oil-free annealing station. At elevated temperatures above 373 K the process of pumping and baking can also anneal away neutron damage to the detector crystals. This poster will show the design and building of a new HpGe repair station at U. Mass Lowell, and make comparisons of results obtained from this new station to the Gammasphere annealing factory at Argonne. This research is funded by the DOE National Nuclear Safety Administration and the Office of Science.

  13. The essential function of HP1 beta: a case of the tail wagging the dog?

    PubMed

    Billur, Mustafa; Bartunik, Hans D; Singh, Prim B

    2010-02-01

    A large body of work in various organisms has shown that the presence of HP1 structural proteins and methylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me) represent the characteristic hallmarks of heterochromatin. We propose that a more critical assessment of the physiological importance of the H3K9me-HP1 interaction is warranted in light of recent studies on the mammalian HP1 beta protein. Based on this new research, we conclude that the essential function of HP1 beta (and perhaps that of its orthologues in other species) lies outside the canonical heterochromatic H3K9me-HP1 interaction. We suggest instead that binding of a small fraction of HP1 beta to the H3 histone fold performs a critical role in heterochromatin function and organismal survival. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Human origin recognition complex is essential for HP1 binding to chromatin and heterochromatin organization

    PubMed Central

    Prasanth, Supriya G.; Shen, Zhen; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.; Stillman, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The origin recognition complex (ORC) is a DNA replication initiator protein also known to be involved in diverse cellular functions including gene silencing, sister chromatid cohesion, telomere biology, heterochromatin localization, centromere and centrosome activity, and cytokinesis. We show that, in human cells, multiple ORC subunits associate with hetereochromatin protein 1 (HP1) α- and HP1β-containing heterochromatic foci. Fluorescent bleaching studies indicate that multiple subcomplexes of ORC exist at heterochromatin, with Orc1 stably associating with heterochromatin in G1 phase, whereas other ORC subunits have transient interactions throughout the cell-division cycle. Both Orc1 and Orc3 directly bind to HP1α, and two domains of Orc3, a coiled-coil domain and a mod-interacting region domain, can independently bind to HP1α; however, both are essential for in vivo localization of Orc3 to heterochromatic foci. Direct binding of both Orc1 and Orc3 to HP1 suggests that, after the degradation of Orc1 at the G1/S boundary, Orc3 facilitates assembly of ORC/HP1 proteins to chromatin. Although depletion of Orc2 and Orc3 subunits by siRNA caused loss of HP1α association to heterochromatin, loss of Orc1 and Orc5 caused aberrant HP1α distribution only to pericentric heterochromatin-surrounding nucleoli. Depletion of HP1α from human cells also shows loss of Orc2 binding to heterochromatin, suggesting that ORC and HP1 proteins are mutually required for each other to bind to heterochromatin. Similar to HP1α-depleted cells, Orc2 and Orc3 siRNA-treated cells also show loss of compaction at satellite repeats, suggesting that ORC together with HP1 proteins may be involved in organizing higher-order chromatin structure and centromere function. PMID:20689044

  15. Engineering of Helicobacter pylori Dimeric Oxidoreductase DsbK (HP0231)

    PubMed Central

    Bocian-Ostrzycka, Katarzyna M.; Grzeszczuk, Magdalena J.; Banaś, Anna M.; Jastrząb, Katarzyna; Pisarczyk, Karolina; Kolarzyk, Anna; Łasica, Anna M.; Collet, Jean-François; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of disulfide bonds that are catalyzed by proteins of the Dsb (disulfide bond) family is crucial for the correct folding of many extracytoplasmic proteins. Thus, this formation plays an essential, pivotal role in the assembly of many virulence factors. The Helicobacter pylori disulfide bond-forming system is uncomplicated compared to the best-characterized Escherichia coli Dsb pathways. It possesses only two extracytoplasmic Dsb proteins named HP0377 and HP0231. As previously shown, HP0377 is a reductase involved in the process of cytochrome c maturation. Additionally, it also possesses disulfide isomerase activity. HP0231 was the first periplasmic dimeric oxidoreductase involved in disulfide generation to be described. Although HP0231 function is critical for oxidative protein folding, its structure resembles that of dimeric EcDsbG, which does not confer this activity. However, the HP0231 catalytic motifs (CXXC and the so-called cis-Pro loop) are identical to that of monomeric EcDsbA. To understand the functioning of HP0231, we decided to study the relations between its sequence, structure and activity through an extensive analysis of various HP0231 point mutants, using in vivo and in vitro strategies. Our work shows the crucial role of the cis-Pro loop, as changing valine to threonine in this motif completely abolishes the protein function in vivo. Functioning of HP0231 is conditioned by the combination of CXXC and the cis-Pro loop, as replacing the HP0231 CXXC motif by the motif from EcDsbG or EcDsbC results in bifunctional protein, at least in E. coli. We also showed that the dimerization domain of HP0231 ensures contact with its substrates. Moreover, the activity of this oxidase is independent on the structure of the catalytic domain. Finally, we showed that HP0231 chaperone activity is independent of its redox function. PMID:27507968

  16. Interaction between HP1{alpha} and replication proteins in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Auth, Tanja . E-mail: tauth@uni-bonn.de; Kunkel, Elisabeth; Grummt, Friedrich . E-mail: grummt@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-10-15

    HP1 is an essential heterochromatin-associated protein known to play an important role in the organization of heterochromatin as well as in the transcriptional regulation of heterochromatic and euchromatic genes both in repression and activation. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and immunoprecipitation, we report here that murine HP1{alpha} interacts with the preRC proteins ORC1, ORC2 and CDC6. Immunofluorescence staining and EGFP/DsRed fusion proteins revealed a colocalization of HP1{alpha} with ORC1, ORC2 and CDC6 in heterochromatin, supporting the notion that ORC and probably CDC6 play an important role in murine HP1{alpha} function. Besides that, we also observed a colocalization of HP1{alpha} with {gamma}-tubulin suggesting a centrosomal localization of HP1{alpha} in murine cells. To gain insight into HP1{alpha} function, we applied the RNAi technique. Depletion of HP1{alpha} leads to a slow down of cell proliferation, an aberrant cell cycle progression as well as to multinucleated cells with insufficiently organized microtubule. These results together indicate that HP1{alpha} exerts functions in mitosis and cytokinesis.

  17. 78 FR 48468 - Hewlett Packard Company, Hewlett Packard Enterprise Business Unit, EG HP Storage, Enterprise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... HP Storage, Enterprise Storage, Servers and Networking Storage, APP Management, Research and..., Enterprise Storage, Servers and Networking Storage Division, APP Management, Research and Development Group...

  18. Affinity, stoichiometry and cooperativity of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) binding to nucleosomal arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teif, Vladimir B.; Kepper, Nick; Yserentant, Klaus; Wedemann, Gero; Rippe, Karsten

    2015-02-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) participates in establishing and maintaining heterochromatin via its histone-modification-dependent chromatin interactions. In recent papers HP1 binding to nucleosomal arrays was measured in vitro and interpreted in terms of nearest-neighbour cooperative binding. This mode of chromatin interaction could lead to the spreading of HP1 along the nucleosome chain. Here, we reanalysed previous data by representing the nucleosome chain as a 1D binding lattice and showed how the experimental HP1 binding isotherms can be explained by a simpler model without cooperative interactions between neighboring HP1 dimers. Based on these calculations and spatial models of dinucleosomes and nucleosome chains, we propose that binding stoichiometry depends on the nucleosome repeat length (NRL) rather than protein interactions between HP1 dimers. According to our calculations, more open nucleosome arrays with long DNA linkers are characterized by a larger number of binding sites in comparison to chains with a short NRL. Furthermore, we demonstrate by Monte Carlo simulations that the NRL dependent folding of the nucleosome chain can induce allosteric changes of HP1 binding sites. Thus, HP1 chromatin interactions can be modulated by the change of binding stoichiometry and the type of binding to condensed (methylated) and non-condensed (unmethylated) nucleosome arrays in the absence of direct interactions between HP1 dimers.

  19. A Unix print filter for controlling an HP Laserjet printer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes a Unix print filter designed to control an Hewlett Packard Laserjet or other printer that uses Hewlett Packard's Printer Control Language (HP-PCL). The filter gives users the ability to control print pitch, orientation, and indentation by using standard flags to the Unix 1pr. command or multiple entries in the /etc/printcap file and allows both ascii and binary (i.e., graphics and down-loadable fonts) files to be printed. Additionally, the filter provides some accounting capability. The supported print pitch and orientation options are described, as are the different configuration options. The code for the filter and sample entries for the /etc/printcap file are included.

  20. A Unix print filter for controlling an HP Laserjet printer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes a Unix print filter designed to control an Hewlett Packard Laserjet or other printer that uses Hewlett Packard`s Printer Control Language (HP-PCL). The filter gives users the ability to control print pitch, orientation, and indentation by using standard flags to the Unix 1pr. command or multiple entries in the /etc/printcap file and allows both ascii and binary (i.e., graphics and down-loadable fonts) files to be printed. Additionally, the filter provides some accounting capability. The supported print pitch and orientation options are described, as are the different configuration options. The code for the filter and sample entries for the /etc/printcap file are included.

  1. A Unix Print Filter for Controlling an HP Laserjet Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a Unix print filter designed to control an Hewlett Packard Laserjet or other printer that uses Hewlett Packard's Printer Control Language (HP-PCL). The filter gives users the ability to control print pitch, orientation, and indentation by using standard flags to the Unix lpr command or multiple entries in the /etc/printcap file and allows both ascii and binary (i.e., graphics and down-loadable fonts) files to be printed. Additionally, the filter provides some accounting capability. The supported print pitch and orientation options are described, as are the different configuration options. The code for the filter is included in Appendix A and sample entries for the /etc/printcap file are included in Appendix B and C.

  2. 17. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF 450 HP TURBINE IN BASEMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF 450 HP TURBINE IN BASEMENT OF GRANITEVILLE MILL. THE MAIN BEARING OF THE TURBINE IS AT LEFT CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. A LOMBARD REGULATOR CAN BE SEEN AT THE LEFT CENTER REAR. THE LARGE HANDWHEEL AT THE LEFT CENTER IS GEARED TO A SECTIONAL GEAR AT THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH AND IS USED TO MANUALLY OPEN THE GATES AND ALLOW WATER INTO THE TURBINE. THE SMALL PULLEY ON THE END OF THE MAIN SHAFT NORMALLY WOULD HAVE A BELT CONNECTING IT TO A PULLEY ON THE LOMBARD REGULATOR. THIS BELT TRANSMITTED TURBINE SPEED (RPM) TO THE LOMBARD WHICH WOULD OPEN OR CLOSE THE GATES TO KEEP TURBINE SPEED CONSTANT UNDER VARYING LOADS. THIS TURBINE WAS INSTALLED IN THE REFIT OF 1912. - Graniteville Mill, Marshall Street, Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

  3. Absolute properties of the triple star HP Aurigae

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Burks, Charles L.; Torres, Guillermo; Wolf, Marek E-mail: clburks@email.uark.edu E-mail: wolf@cesnet.cz

    2014-01-01

    New photometric, spectroscopic, and eclipse timing observations of the eclipsing binary star HP Aur allow for very accurate orbital determinations, even in the presence of a third body and transient starspot activity. The eclipsing binary masses are determined to an accuracy of ±0.4% and the radii to ±0.6%. The masses are 0.9543 ± 0.0041 and 0.8094 ± 0.0036 solar masses, and the radii are 1.0278 ± 0.0042 and 0.7758 ± 0.0034 solar radii, respectively. The orbital period in the outer orbit is accurately determined for the first time: 4.332 ± 0.011 yr. A comparison with current theories of stellar evolution shows that the components' absolute properties can be well-matched by the current models at an age of about 7 billion years.

  4. Protein folding in HP model on hexagonal lattices with diagonals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Three dimensional structure prediction of a protein from its amino acid sequence, known as protein folding, is one of the most studied computational problem in bioinformatics and computational biology. Since, this is a hard problem, a number of simplified models have been proposed in literature to capture the essential properties of this problem. In this paper we introduce the hexagonal lattices with diagonals to handle the protein folding problem considering the well researched HP model. We give two approximation algorithms for protein folding on this lattice. Our first algorithm is a 53-approximation algorithm, which is based on the strategy of partitioning the entire protein sequence into two pieces. Our next algorithm is also based on partitioning approaches and improves upon the first algorithm. PMID:24564789

  5. Performance of the h, p and h-p versions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babuska, I.; Gui, W.; Szabo, B.

    1984-01-01

    There are three basic versions of the finite element method, called the h, p and h-p versions. They are characterized by the way in which the finite element meshes and polynomial degree of elements are chosen. They differ in computer implementation (program architecture) and mathematical analysis. The manner in which the meshes and polynomial degree of the elements affect the accuracy of finite element solutions is examined. The approach is to fix certain parameters and increase the number of degrees of freedom so that the finie element solutions converge to the exact solution. Such a systematic increase of the number of degrees of freedom is called extension because it can be interpreted as a systematic extension of finite element spaces.

  6. 18. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 450 HP TURBINE INSTALLATION IN BASEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 450 HP TURBINE INSTALLATION IN BASEMENT OF GRANITEVILLE MILL. MAIN FEATURE OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS THE PENSTOCK CONDUCTING WATER TO THE TURBINE IN THE BACKGROUND. THE PENSTOCK IS OF RIVETED IRON CONSTRUCTION AND REPLACED A WOOD PENSTOCK IN 1882. THE COVERED OPENING IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH ORIGINALLY CONNECTED TO A STANDPIPE WHICH EXITED VERTICALLY THROUGH THE MILL. THE STANDPIPE MODERATED WATER PRESSURE AND SERVED AS A SAFETY FEATURE IN THE EVENT THE TURBINE GATES WERE RAPIDLY CLOSED. (IF LOAD IN THE MILL WERE SUDDENLY STOPPED-SAY AT QUITTING TIME-THE GATES WOULD SHUT DOWN FLOW TO THE TURBINE. THE STANDPIPE OFFERED A PLACE FOR THE WATER, RAPIDLY MOVING THROUGH THE PENSTOCK, TO ESCAPE. IN A SHUT-DOWN SITUATION WATER WOULD ... - Graniteville Mill, Marshall Street, Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

  7. HP-β-cyclodextrin as an inhibitor of amyloid-β aggregation and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ren, Baiping; Jiang, Binbo; Hu, Rundong; Zhang, Mingzhen; Chen, Hong; Ma, Jie; Sun, Yan; Jia, Lingyun; Zheng, Jie

    2016-07-27

    Amyloid deposits of misfolded amyloid-β protein (Aβ) on neuronal cells are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Prevention of the abnormal Aβ aggregation has been considered as a promising therapeutic strategy for AD treatment. To prevent reinventing the wheel, we proposed to search the existing drug database for other diseases to identify potential Aβ inhibitors. Herein, we reported the inhibitory activity of HP-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), a well-known sugar used in drug delivery, genetic vector, environmental protection and treatment of Niemann-Pick disease type C1 (NPC1), against Aβ1-42 aggregation and Aβ-induced toxicity, with the aim of adding a new function as a sugar-based Aβ inhibitor. Experimental data showed that HP-β-CD molecules were not only nontoxic to cells, but also greatly inhibited Aβ fibrillization and reduced Aβ-induced toxicity in a concentration-dependent manner. At an optimal molar ratio of Aβ : HP-β-CD = 1 : 2, HP-β-CD enabled the reduction of 60% of Aβ fibrils and increased the cell viability to 92%. Such concentration-dependent inhibitor capacity of HP-β-CD was likely attributed to several combined effects, including the enhancement of Aβ-HP-β-CD interactions, prevention of structural transition of Aβ peptides towards β-sheet structures, and reduction of self-aggregation of HP-β-CD. In parallel, molecular simulations further revealed the atomic details of HP-β-CD interacting with the Aβ oligomer, showing that HP-β-CD had a high tendency to interact with hydrophobic residues of Aβ in two β-strands and the N-terminal tail. More importantly, we identified that the inner hydrophobic cavity of HP-β-CD was a key active site for Aβ inhibition. Once the inner cavity of HP-β-CD was blocked by a small hydrophobic molecule of ferulic acid, HP-β-CD completely lost its inhibition capacity against Aβ. Given the already established pharmaceutical functions of HP-β-CD in drug delivery, our findings

  8. Helicobacter pylori HP0425 Targets the Nucleus with DNase I-Like Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung-Min; Choe, Min-Ho; Asaithambi, Killivalavan; Song, Jae-Young; Lee, Yong Seok; Lee, Je Chul; Seo, Ji-Hyun; Kang, Hyung-Lyun; Lee, Kon Ho; Lee, Woo-Kon; Cho, Myung-Je; Rhee, Kwang-Ho; Youn, Hee-Shang; Baik, Seung-Chul

    2016-06-01

    Nuclear targeting of bacterial proteins has a significant impact on host cell pathology. Helicobacter pylori have many nuclear targeting proteins that translocate into the nucleus of host cells. H. pylori HP0425, annotated as hypothetical, has a nuclear localization signal (NLS) sequence, but its function has not been demonstrated. The aim of this experiment was to address the nuclear translocation of HP0425 and determine the effect of HP0425 pathology on host cells. To investigate the nuclear localization of HP0425, it was expressed in AGS and MKN-1 cells as a GFP fusion protein (pEGFP-HP0425), and its localization was analyzed by confocal microscopy. Recombinant HP0425 (rHP0425) protein was overproduced as a GST fusion protein in Escherichia coli and purified by glutathione-affinity column chromatography. Purified rHP0425 was examined for cytotoxicity and DNase activity. The pEGFP-HP0425 fluorescence was expressed in the nucleus and cytosol fraction of cells, while it was localized in the cytoplasm in the negative control. This protein exhibited DNase activity under various conditions, with the highest DNase activity in the presence of manganese. In addition, the rHP0425 protein efficiently decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner. These results suggest that HP0425 carrying a nuclear localization signal sequence translocates into the nucleus of host cells and degrades genomic DNA by DNase I-like enzymatic activity, which is a new pathogenic strategy of H. pylori in the host. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Peptide recognition by heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) chromoshadow domains revisited: Plasticity in the pseudosymmetric histone binding site of human HP1.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanli; Qin, Su; Lei, Ming; Tempel, Wolfram; Zhang, Yuzhe; Loppnau, Peter; Li, Yanjun; Min, Jinrong

    2017-04-07

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), a highly conserved non-histone chromosomal protein in eukaryotes, plays important roles in the regulation of gene transcription. Each of the three human homologs of HP1 includes a chromoshadow domain (CSD). The CSD interacts with various proteins bearing the PXVXL motif but also with a region of histone H3 that bears the similar PXXVXL motif. The latter interaction has not yet been resolved in atomic detail. Here we demonstrate that the CSDs of all three human HP1 homologs have comparable affinities to the PXXVXL motif of histone H3. The HP1 C-terminal extension enhances the affinity, as does the increasing length of the H3 peptide. The crystal structure of the human HP1γ CSD (CSDγ) in complex with an H3 peptide suggests that recognition of H3 by CSDγ to some extent resembles CSD-PXVXL interaction. Nevertheless, the prolyl residue of the PXXVXL motif appears to play a role distinct from that of Pro in the known HP1β CSD-PXVXL complexes. We consequently generalize the historical CSD-PXVXL interaction model and expand the search scope for additional CSD binding partners.

  10. Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1)/origin recognition complex (ORC) protein is associated with HP1 and ORC and functions in heterochromatin-induced silencing.

    PubMed

    Shareef, M M; King, C; Damaj, M; Badagu, R; Huang, D W; Kellum, R

    2001-06-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a conserved component of the highly compact chromatin of higher eukaryotic centromeres and telomeres. Cytogenetic experiments in Drosophila have shown that HP1 localization into this chromatin is perturbed in mutants for the origin recognition complex (ORC) 2 subunit. ORC has a multisubunit DNA-binding activity that binds origins of DNA replication where it is required for origin firing. The DNA-binding activity of ORC is also used in the recruitment of the Sir1 protein to silence nucleation sites flanking silent copies of the mating-type genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A fraction of HP1 in the maternally loaded cytoplasm of the early Drosophila embryo is associated with a multiprotein complex containing Drosophila melanogaster ORC subunits. This complex appears to be poised to function in heterochromatin assembly later in embryonic development. Here we report the identification of a novel component of this complex, the HP1/ORC-associated protein. This protein contains similarity to DNA sequence-specific HMG proteins and is shown to bind specific satellite sequences and the telomere-associated sequence in vitro. The protein is shown to have heterochromatic localization in both diploid interphase and mitotic chromosomes and polytene chromosomes. Moreover, the gene encoding HP1/ORC-associated protein was found to display reciprocal dose-dependent variegation modifier phenotypes, similar to those for mutants in HP1 and the ORC 2 subunit.

  11. Drosophila Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1)/Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) Protein Is Associated with HP1 and ORC and Functions in Heterochromatin-induced Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Shareef, Mohammed Momin; King, Chadwick; Damaj, Mona; Badagu, RamaKrishna; Huang, Da Wei; Kellum, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a conserved component of the highly compact chromatin of higher eukaryotic centromeres and telomeres. Cytogenetic experiments in Drosophila have shown that HP1 localization into this chromatin is perturbed in mutants for the origin recognition complex (ORC) 2 subunit. ORC has a multisubunit DNA-binding activity that binds origins of DNA replication where it is required for origin firing. The DNA-binding activity of ORC is also used in the recruitment of the Sir1 protein to silence nucleation sites flanking silent copies of the mating-type genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A fraction of HP1 in the maternally loaded cytoplasm of the early Drosophila embryo is associated with a multiprotein complex containing Drosophila melanogaster ORC subunits. This complex appears to be poised to function in heterochromatin assembly later in embryonic development. Here we report the identification of a novel component of this complex, the HP1/ORC-associated protein. This protein contains similarity to DNA sequence-specific HMG proteins and is shown to bind specific satellite sequences and the telomere-associated sequence in vitro. The protein is shown to have heterochromatic localization in both diploid interphase and mitotic chromosomes and polytene chromosomes. Moreover, the gene encoding HP1/ORC-associated protein was found to display reciprocal dose-dependent variegation modifier phenotypes, similar to those for mutants in HP1 and the ORC 2 subunit. PMID:11408576

  12. The CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health Promotion in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Margaret M.; Battel-Kirk, Barbara; Dempsey, Colette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The CompHP Project on Developing Competencies and Professional Standards for Health Promotion in Europe was developed in response to the need for new and changing health promotion competencies to address health challenges. This article presents the process of developing the CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health Promotion across…

  13. 75 FR 11937 - EDS, HP Company, Fairfield Township, OH; Notice of Termination of Investigation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration EDS, HP Company, Fairfield Township, OH; Notice of Termination of... response to a petition filed on October 29, 2009 by the State on behalf of workers of EDS, HP Company...

  14. POF and HP1 bind expressed exons, suggesting a balancing mechanism for gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anna-Mia; Stenberg, Per; Pettersson, Fredrik; Larsson, Jan

    2007-11-01

    Two specific chromosome-targeting and gene regulatory systems are present in Drosophila melanogaster. The male X chromosome is targeted by the male-specific lethal complex believed to mediate the 2-fold up-regulation of the X-linked genes, and the highly heterochromatic fourth chromosome is specifically targeted by the Painting of Fourth (POF) protein, which, together with heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), modulates the expression level of genes on the fourth chromosome. Here we use chromatin immunoprecipitation and tiling microarray analysis to map POF and HP1 on the fourth chromosome in S2 cells and salivary glands at high resolution. The enrichment profiles were complemented by transcript profiles to examine the link between binding and transcripts. The results show that POF specifically binds to genes, with a strong preference for exons, and the HP1 binding profile is a mirror image of POF, although HP1 displays an additional "peak" in the promoter regions of bound genes. HP1 binding within genes is much higher than the basal HP1 enrichment on Chromosome 4. Our results suggest a balancing mechanism for the regulation of the fourth chromosome where POF and HP1 competitively bind at increasing levels with increased transcriptional activity. In addition, our results contradict transposable elements as a major nucleation site for HP1 on the fourth chromosome.

  15. Looking-Free Mixed hp Finite Element Methods for Linear and Geometrically Nonlinear Elasticity

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-06-09

    hp mixed methods has been addressed by Stenberg and Suri[20]. They identify sufficient conditions for selecting mixed method spaces on parallelogram...spaces of piecewise polynomials. Math. Modeling Num. Anal., 19:111-143, 1985. [20] R. Stenberg and M. Suri. Mixed hp finite element methods for

  16. Pulmonary haptoglobin (pHp) is part of the surfactant system in the human lung.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mahdi; Goldmann, Torsten

    2012-11-20

    Since the existence of pHp was demonstrated, it has been shown that this molecule and its receptor CD163 are regulated by different stimuli. Furthermore, a comparably fast secretion of pHp was described as well as the immuno-stimulatory effects. The intention of this study was to elucidate the role of pHp in the human lungs further. Here we show, by means of confocal microscopy and immune-electron-microscopy, a clear co-localization of pHp with surfactant protein-B in lamellar bodies of alveolar epithelial cells type II. These results are underlined by immunohistochemical stainings in differently fixed human lung tissues, which show pHp in vesicular and released form. The images of the released form resemble the intended position of surfactant in the human alveolus. pHp is secreted by Alveolar epithelial cells type II as previously shown. Moreover, pHp is co-localized with Surfactant protein-B. We conclude that the presented data shows that pHp is a native part of the surfactant system in the human lung. http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2563584738239912.

  17. Pulmonary haptoglobin (pHp) is part of the surfactant system in the human lung

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Since the existence of pHp was demonstrated, it has been shown that this molecule and its receptor CD163 are regulated by different stimuli. Furthermore, a comparably fast secretion of pHp was described as well as the immuno-stimulatory effects. The intention of this study was to elucidate the role of pHp in the human lungs further. Here we show, by means of confocal microscopy and immune-electron-microscopy, a clear co-localization of pHp with Surfactant protein-B in lamellar bodies of Alveolar Epithelial Cells Type II. These results are underlined by immunohistochemical stainings in differently fixed human lung tissues, which show pHp in vesicular and released form. The images of the released form resemble the intended position of surfactant in the human alveolus. pHp is secreted by Alveolar epithelial cells type II as previously shown. Moreover, pHp is co-localized with Surfactant protein-B. We conclude that the presented data shows that pHp is a native part of the surfactant system in the human lung. Virtual slides http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/2563584738239912. PMID:23164167

  18. Differential contribution of HP1 proteins to DNA end resection and homology-directed repair.

    PubMed

    Soria, Gaston; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2013-02-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 paralogs (HP1α, β and γ in mammals) are not only central in heterochromatin organization, but have also been linked to transcriptional activation at euchromatic regions, maintenance of telomere stability and, most recently, to the DNA damage response (DDR). However, how HP1 proteins contribute to the DDR at a molecular level, and whether HP1 paralogs within the same organism, as well as their respective orthologs, have overlapping or unique roles in the DDR, remain to be elucidated. Herein, we have combined the analysis of the efficiency and kinetics of recruitment of key repair proteins to sites of DNA damage with specific DNA repair assays to demonstrate that human HP1 paralogs differentially modulate homology-directed repair (HDR) pathways, including homologous recombination (HR) and single-strand annealing (SSA). We find that while HP1α and β stimulate HR and SSA, HP1γ has an inhibitory role. In addition, we show that the stimulatory role of HP1α and β in HDR is linked to the DNA-end resection step of DNA breaks, through the promotion of RPA loading and phosphorylation at damage sites. Altogether, our findings provide mechanistic insight into how human HP1 proteins participate in the recombination process, emerging as important chromatin regulators during HDR.

  19. The CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health Promotion in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Margaret M.; Battel-Kirk, Barbara; Dempsey, Colette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The CompHP Project on Developing Competencies and Professional Standards for Health Promotion in Europe was developed in response to the need for new and changing health promotion competencies to address health challenges. This article presents the process of developing the CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health Promotion across…

  20. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Ghazal, Shimaa; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W. Kelley; Khalil, Kamal M.

    2016-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 5.27-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, with a G+C content of 42.4% and containing 4,243 candidate protein-coding genes. PMID:26988056

  1. Molecular modeling and cytotoxicity of diffractaic acid: HP-β-CD inclusion complex encapsulated in microspheres.

    PubMed

    Silva, Camilla V N S; Barbosa, Jéssica A P; Ferraz, Milena S; Silva, Nicácio H; Honda, Neli K; Rabello, Marcelo M; Hernandes, Marcelo Z; Bezerra, Beatriz P; Cavalcanti, Isabella M F; Ayala, Alejandro P; Santos, Noemia P S; Santos-Magalhães, Nereide S

    2016-11-01

    In this pioneer study, 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) was used to improve the solubility of the diffractaic acid (DA) via inclusion complex (DA:HP-β-CD). Subsequently, DA:HP-β-CD was incorporated into poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) microspheres (DA:HP-β-CD-MS). Microspheres containing DA (DA-MS) or DA:HP-β-CD (DA:HP-β-CD-MS) were prepared using the multiple W/O/W emulsion-solvent evaporation technique. The phase-solubility diagram of DA in HP-β-CD (10-50mM) showed an AL type curve with a stability constant K1:1=821M(-1). (1)H NMR, FTIR, X-ray diffraction and thermal analysis showed changes in the molecular environment of DA in DA:HP-β-CD. The molecular modeling approach suggests a guest-host complex formation between the carboxylic moiety of both DA and the host (HP-β-CD). The mean particle size of the microspheres were ∅DA-MS=5.23±1.65μm and ∅DA:HP-β-CD-MS=4.11±1.39μm, respectively. The zeta potential values of the microspheres were ζDA-MS=-7.85±0.32mV and ζDA:HP-β-CD-MS=-6.93±0.46mV. Moreover, the encapsulation of DA:HP-β-CD into microspheres resulted in a more slower release (k2=0.042±0.001; r(2)=0.996) when compared with DA-MS (k2=0.183±0.005; r(2)=0.996). The encapsulation of DA or DA:HP-β-CD into microspheres reduced the cytotoxicity of DA (IC50=43.29μM) against Vero cells (IC50 of DA-MS=108.48μM and IC50 of DA:HP-β-CD-MS=142.63μM).

  2. TSOL18/HP6-Tsol, an immunogenic Taenia solium oncospheral adhesion protein and potential protective antigen.

    PubMed

    Parkhouse, R Michael E; Bonay, Pedro; González, Luis Miguel; Ferrer, Elizabeth; Gárate, Teresa; Aguilar, Cruz M; Cortez A, Milagros M; Harrison, Leslie J S

    2008-04-01

    In this study, we employed Taenia solium mRNA extracted from a tapeworm of Venezuelan origin to clone express and test the recombinant protein of the T. solium homologue of the 18-kDa oncospheral adhesion molecule of Taenia saginata (HP6-Tsag/TSA18). We first confirm the conserved nature of the sequence of the T. solium homologue (TSOL18/HP6-Tsol) and demonstrate that the recombinant protein, which, as with its T. saginata homologue, is characterised by a fibronectin type III homology region, functions as an adhesion molecule. This emphasises the possible importance of TSOL18/HP6-Tsol in tissue invasion, thus providing a rational explanation for its efficacy as a vaccine. As protection against Taenia spp., oncospheres is antibody mediated, logically, therefore, TSOL18/HP6-Tsol may also serve as a diagnostic antigen, as is indeed the case for recombinant HP6-Tsag/TSA18.

  3. Recurring exon deletions in the haptoglobin (HP) gene associate with lower blood cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Boettger, Linda M.; Salem, Rany M.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Peloso, Gina; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hirschhorn, Joel; McCarroll, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Two exons of the human haptoglobin (HP) gene exhibit copy number variation that affects HP multimerization and underlies one of the first protein polymorphisms identified in humans. The evolutionary origins and medical significance of this polymorphism have been uncertain. Here we show that this variation has likely arisen from the recurring reversion of an ancient hominin-specific duplication of these exons. Though this polymorphism has been largely invisible to genome-wide genetic studies to date, we describe a way to analyze it by imputation from SNP haplotypes and find among 22,288 individuals that these HP exonic deletions associate with reduced LDL and total cholesterol levels. We show that these deletions, and a SNP that affects HP expression, are the likely drivers of the strong but complex association of cholesterol levels to SNPs near HP. Recurring exonic deletions in the haptoglobin gene likely enhance human health by lowering cholesterol levels in the blood. PMID:26901066

  4. Heparin/heparan sulfate (HP/HS) interacting protein (HIP) supports cell attachment and selective, high affinity binding of HP/HS.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Hoke, D; Julian, J; Carson, D D

    1997-10-10

    Heparin/heparan sulfate (HP/HS), HS proteoglycans, and their binding proteins play important roles in a variety of biological processes. Previously, we identified a novel cell surface HP/HS interacting protein (HIP) from human uterine epithelia and a variety of other human epithelial and endothelial cells and cell lines (Liu, S., Smith, S. E., Julian, J., Rohde, L. H., Karin, N. J., and Carson, D. D. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 11817-11823; Rohde, L. H., Julian, J., Babaknia, A., and Carson, D. D. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 11824-11830). In the current studies, we have purified and characterized HIP from HEC cells, a human uterine epithelial cell line, as well as recombinant HIP from a bacterial expression system. HIP supports attachment of the human trophoblastic cell line, JAR, in a HS-dependent fashion. Predigestion of JAR cells with a mixture of heparitinases, but not chondroitinase AC, abolished cell attachment to HIP. In addition, JAR cell attachment to HIP is highly sensitive to HP inhibition and much more selective for HP/HS than other glycosaminoglycans. Dermatan sulfate displays partial inhibitory activity as well, consistent with the observation that chondroitinase ABC digestion partially reduces JAR cell attachment to HIP. Solid-phase binding assays indicate HIP binds [3H]HP with high affinity (apparent KD = 8 nM). Furthermore, HIP bound cell surface/extracellular matrix-associated HS, expressed by RL95 cells, a human uterine epithelial cell line. Anti-HIP antibody generated against a synthetic peptide derived from a putative HP/HS-binding motif resident within HIP inhibited about half of [3H]HP binding to HIP, indicating that this domain is a functional HP-binding domain of HIP. Similarly, this same synthetic peptide motif of HIP could block about 50% of [3H]HP binding to HIP; however, this peptide almost completely inhibited cell attachment to HIP, suggesting a critical role, in this regard. Collectively, these results suggest that HIP can function as

  5. Global investigations of the satellite-based Fugro OmniSTAR HP service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflugmacher, Andreas; Heister, Hansbert; Heunecke, Otto

    2009-12-01

    OmniSTAR is one of the world's leading suppliers of satellite-based augmentation services for onshore and offshore GNSS applications. OmniSTAR currently offers three services: VBS, HP and XP. OmniSTAR VBS is the code-based service, suitable for sub-metre positioning accuracy. The HP and XP services provide sub-decimetre accuracy, with the HP service based on a precise differential methodology and the XP service uses precise absolute positioning. The sub-decimetre HP and XP services both have distinctive convergence behaviour, and the positioning task is essentially a time-dependent process during which the accuracy of the estimated coordinates continuously improves over time. To validate the capabilities of the OmniSTAR services, and in particular the HP (High Performance) service, globally distributed measurement campaigns were performed. The results of these investigations confirm that the HP service satisfies its high accuracy specification, but only after a sufficient initialisation phase. Two kinds of disturbances can handicap HP operation: lack of GNSS observations and outages of the augmentation signal. The most serious kind of disturbance is the former. Within a few seconds the achieved convergence level is completely lost. Outages in the reception of augmentation data merely affect the relevant period of the outage - the accuracy during the outage is degraded. Only longer interruptions lead to a loss of the HP solution. When HP convergence is lost, the HP process has to be re-initialized. If there are known points (so-called “seed points”) available, a shortened “kick-start”-initialization is possible. With the aid of seed points it only takes a few minutes to restore convergence.

  6. An hp symplectic pseudospectral method for nonlinear optimal control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Haijun; Wang, Xinwei; Li, Mingwu; Chen, Biaosong

    2017-01-01

    An adaptive symplectic pseudospectral method based on the dual variational principle is proposed and is successfully applied to solving nonlinear optimal control problems in this paper. The proposed method satisfies the first order necessary conditions of continuous optimal control problems, also the symplectic property of the original continuous Hamiltonian system is preserved. The original optimal control problem is transferred into a set of nonlinear equations which can be solved easily by Newton-Raphson iterations, and the Jacobian matrix is found to be sparse and symmetric. The proposed method, on one hand, exhibits exponent convergence rates when the number of collocation points are increasing with the fixed number of sub-intervals; on the other hand, exhibits linear convergence rates when the number of sub-intervals is increasing with the fixed number of collocation points. Furthermore, combining with the hp method based on the residual error of dynamic constraints, the proposed method can achieve given precisions in a few iterations. Five examples highlight the high precision and high computational efficiency of the proposed method.

  7. Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1984-08-01

    Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices.

  8. Preparation, characterization, and evaluation in vivo of Ins-SiO₂-HP55 (insulin-loaded silica coating HP55) for oral delivery of insulin.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiuhua; Shan, Chang; Zu, Yuangang; Zhang, Ying; Wang, Weiguo; Wang, Kunlun; Sui, Xiaoyu; Li, Ruiqiang

    2013-09-15

    Insulin is the most effective and durable drug in the treatment of advanced stage diabetes. However, oral delivering insulin was a tough task for rapid enzymatic degradation. In this work, we designed and developed a delivery system composed of enteric nanosphere for oral delivery of insulin. The silica was selected for loading insulin, which surface has a lot of pores with a powerful adsorption capacity, advantages for permeability and slow-release. The insulin-loaded silica (Ins-SiO2) was prepared by adsorption in HCl solution. The Ins-SiO2 obtained was coated with the hydroxypropyl methylcellulose phthalate (HP55) by desolvation method, which is a good enteric coating material. The Ins-SiO2-HP55, an enteric nanosphere of insulin obtained were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), surface area, Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed that insulin was loaded most in the pores of silica, while the HP55 coated on the extent of Ins-SiO2. In vitro drug release results revealed that the release of insulin from Ins-SiO2-HP55 was markedly reduced in simulated gastric fluid (SGF). By contrast, the release amount of insulin from Ins-SiO2-HP55 was increased significantly in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF). In vivo evaluation on diabetic animals showed the blood glucose level of diabetic rats could be effectively reduced after oral administration Ins-SiO2-HP55. There is marked hypoglycemic effect after 1h of taking the Ins-SiO2-HP55. After 3h, the GLU of rats of the Ins-SiO2-HP55 stably kept from 4.85 to 2.67 mmol/L that was significantly less than the normal level (6.7 mmol/L). However, that of rats taking raw insulin kept from 8.03 to 6.56 mmol/L that is higher than the normal level. These results suggested that Ins-SiO2-HP55 could have potential value in oral administration systems of diabetes chemotherapy.

  9. Dynamics of the HP1β-PCNA-containing complexes in DNA replication and repair.

    PubMed

    Trembecka-Lucas, Dominika O; Szczurek, Aleksander T; Dobrucki, Jurek W

    2013-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), a small non-histone chromosomal protein, was recently shown to form a complex in vivo with Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA), a key factor in DNA replication. The complex, which requires HP1β in a form of a dimer, is engaged in DNA repair and replication. We now provide further evidence based on FRET-FLIM live cell studies confirming the association and close proximity between HP1β and PCNA in the complex. We also demonstrate using FRAP, that although HP1β-PCNA complexes are highly mobile in nonreplicating nuclei, when engaged in DNA replication, they become bound and do not exchange with the mobile pool. These observations are in agreement with a notion that a subpopulation of HP1 molecules interact with PCNA in vivo during DNA replication. Similarly, HP1β which is associated with PCNA in regions of DNA repair, is bound and does not exchange with the mobile pool, suggesting that HP1β in association with PCNA may be a component of a DNA repair complex.

  10. Role of the Epigenetic Regulator HP1γ in the Control of Embryonic Stem Cell Properties

    PubMed Central

    Caillier, Maïa; Thénot, Sandrine; Tribollet, Violaine; Birot, Anne-Marie; Samarut, Jacques; Mey, Anne

    2010-01-01

    The unique properties of embryonic stem cells (ESC) rely on long-lasting self-renewal and their ability to switch in all adult cell type programs. Recent advances have shown that regulations at the chromatin level sustain both ESC properties along with transcription factors. We have focused our interest on the epigenetic modulator HP1γ (Heterochromatin Protein 1, isoform γ) that binds histones H3 methylated at lysine 9 (meH3K9) and is highly plastic in its distribution and association with the transcriptional regulation of specific genes during cell fate transitions. These characteristics of HP1γ make it a good candidate to sustain the ESC flexibility required for rapid program changes during differentiation. Using RNA interference, we describe the functional role of HP1γ in mouse ESC. The analysis of HP1γ deprived cells in proliferative and in various differentiating conditions was performed combining functional assays with molecular approaches (RT-qPCR, microarray). We show that HP1γ deprivation slows down the cell cycle of ESC and decreases their resistance to differentiating conditions, rendering the cells poised to differentiate. In addition, HP1γ depletion hampers the differentiation to the endoderm as compared with the differentiation to the neurectoderm or the mesoderm. Altogether, our results reveal the role of HP1γ in ESC self-renewal and in the balance between the pluripotent and the differentiation programs. PMID:21085495

  11. Cyclic utilization of HP-β-CD in the bioconversion of cortisone acetate by Arthrobacter simplex.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yanbing; Wang, Fang; Wang, Yanping; Zhao, Qing; Wang, Min

    2016-04-01

    To establish a method for the recovery and reutilization of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) to lower the cost of its industrial application in cortisone acetate bioconversion. HP-β-CD is not degraded by Arthrobacter simplex CPCC140451 (ASP) resting cells and 96.4 % HP-β-CD could be recovered by isobutyl acetate extraction. Moreover, the inclusion ability of recovered HP-β-CD barely decreased. The saccharide metabolic and catalytic activities of ASP were greater in the aqueous phase after extracting with isobutyl acetate than other organic solvents. Cyclic utilization tests showed that cortisone acetate conversion ratio was 91.0 % after eight cycles and reached 95.7 % with 0.2-0.6 mM HP-β-CD. Furthermore, >90 % conversion ratio was reached per cycle through a co-cyclic-utilization method with HP-β-CD and immobilized ASP. Cortisone acetate conversion ratio in the HP-β-CD cyclic-utilization method is promising for industrial applications. The method can also be expanded to other CDs and other hydrophobic compounds bioconversion.

  12. Position Determination with LORAN-C Triplets and the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV Programmable Calculator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California POSITION DETERMINATION WITH LORAN-C TRIPLETS AND THE HEWLETT-PACKARD HP-41CV PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR by...HP-41CV PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 6. CONTRACT O GRANT NUMBER(*) Rex H. Shudd? 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Hyperbolic Fixing Programmable Calculator Loran-C Radio Positioning HP-41C Navigation Geodetics HP-41CV Position Determination Geodetic Distances

  13. Commercial EUV mask blank readiness for 32 nm HP manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Phil

    2007-05-01

    Successful commercialization of extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) requires high quality EUV mask blanks for patterned masks that are essentially defect-free and very flat with high performance reflective multilayers. For 32 nm half-pitch (HP) integrated circuit manufacturing, such blanks require zero defects down to 25 nm diameter sizes while simultaneously meeting other specifications. At least three critical specifications that need continued improvements (total defects, defect size inspection, and substrate flatness control) are challenging to attain individually; meeting all requirements simultaneously will be especially challenging. Since early 2003, SEMATECH has been engaged with the mask blank materials and mask tool supplier community to drive the readiness of alpha, beta, and production mask blanks to support EUV lithography introduction. SEMATECH uses its commercial mask blank development roadmap together with neutral metrology evaluations of commercial suppliers' materials to monitor progress against needed production requirements. Commercial blank capability has improved significantly over the past two years; however, beta-level performance has still not been attained for all requirements. Attaining integrated blank specifications is more difficult than meeting individual specifications. Significant improvements including defectivity, flatness, coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), reflectivity, wavelength control, and buffer/absorber stack performances are needed. Several orders of magnitude improvement is needed in defectivity levels alone coupled with increased detection sensitivity to 25 nm diameter defects. This paper will illustrate the recent rate of improvements along with an updated SEMATECH commercial roadmap, highlighting individual specification performances and total blank integrated performance levels currently better than 0.2 def/cm2 at >= 80 nm polystyrene latex (PSL), peak reflectivity >= 64.0%, substrate flatnesses <= 175 nm

  14. The middle region of an HP1-binding protein, HP1-BP74, associates with linker DNA at the entry/exit site of nucleosomal DNA.

    PubMed

    Hayashihara, Kayoko; Uchiyama, Susumu; Shimamoto, Shigeru; Kobayashi, Shouhei; Tomschik, Miroslav; Wakamatsu, Hidekazu; No, Daisuke; Sugahara, Hiroki; Hori, Naoto; Noda, Masanori; Ohkubo, Tadayasu; Zlatanova, Jordanka; Matsunaga, Sachihiro; Fukui, Kiichi

    2010-02-26

    In higher eukaryotic cells, DNA molecules are present as chromatin fibers, complexes of DNA with various types of proteins; chromatin fibers are highly condensed in metaphase chromosomes during mitosis. Although the formation of the metaphase chromosome structure is essential for the equal segregation of replicated chromosomal DNA into the daughter cells, the mechanism involved in the organization of metaphase chromosomes is poorly understood. To identify proteins involved in the formation and/or maintenance of metaphase chromosomes, we examined proteins that dissociated from isolated human metaphase chromosomes by 0.4 m NaCl treatment; this treatment led to significant chromosome decondensation, but the structure retained the core histones. One of the proteins identified, HP1-BP74 (heterochromatin protein 1-binding protein 74), composed of 553 amino acid residues, was further characterized. HP1-BP74 middle region (BP74Md), composed of 178 amino acid residues (Lys(97)-Lys(274)), formed a chromatosome-like structure with reconstituted mononucleosomes and protected the linker DNA from micrococcal nuclease digestion by approximately 25 bp. The solution structure determined by NMR revealed that the globular domain (Met(153)-Thr(237)) located within BP74Md possesses a structure similar to that of the globular domain of linker histones, which underlies its nucleosome binding properties. Moreover, we confirmed that BP74Md and full-length HP1-BP74 directly binds to HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1) and identified the exact sites responsible for this interaction. Thus, we discovered that HP1-BP74 directly binds to HP1, and its middle region associates with linker DNA at the entry/exit site of nucleosomal DNA in vitro.

  15. HELICOBACTER PYLORI (HP) INFECTION IN OBESE PATIENTS UNDERGOING ROUXEN- Y GASTRIC BYPASS; EFFICACY OF TWO DIFFERENT TREATMENT REGIMENS IN HP ERADICATION.

    PubMed

    Cuesta Hernández, Martín; Pérez Peña, Celia; Matía Martín, Pilar; Cabrerizo García, Lucio; Pérez-Ferre, Natalia; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres García, Antonio; Rubio Herrera, Miguel Ángel

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: las causas implicadas en el aumento de incidencia de úlcera gástrica tras el bypass en Y de Roux no son completamente conocidas. El tratamiento de la infección por HP se recomienda antes de la cirugía en países cuya prevalencia sea elevada, como el caso de España, de cara a disminuir dicha complicación. Sin embargo, las pautas actuales de tratamiento pueden no ser adecuadas dados los elevados índices de resistencia. Pacientes y métodos: análisis retrospectivo de 243 pacientes operados de bypass en Y de Roux. De ellos, 111 pacientes (45%) presentaban infección por HP. Objetivo principal: comparación de la eficacia de dos terapias de erradicación de la infección por HP. Resultados: 70 pacientes recibieron OCA( Omeprazol 20 mg/12 h, Claritromicina 500 mg/12 h y Amoxicilina 1 g/12h durante 10 días), mientras que 41 pacientes recibieron OLA (Omeprazol 20 mg/12 h, Levofloxacino 500 mg/12 h y Amoxicilina 1 g/12 h durante 10 días). En 56/70 pacientes (80%) que recibieron OCA HP fue erradicado, comparado con 37/41 (91%) del grupo que recibió OLA como primera terapia (p = 0,283). La terapia con OLA usada de segunda línea fue eficaz en 13/14 pacientes con HP resistente a la terapia OCA. Conclusión: la resistencia de HP a Claritromicina es significativa en nuestra serie de pacientes, siendo la terapia con OLA una alternativa adecuada en las cepas resistentes.

  16. A cis-Encoded Antisense Small RNA Regulated by the HP0165-HP0166 Two-Component System Controls Expression of ureB in Helicobacter pylori▿

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Feng, Jing; Scott, David R.; Marcus, Elizabeth A.; Sachs, George

    2011-01-01

    Expression of urease is essential for gastric colonization by Helicobacter pylori. The increased level of urease in gastric acidity is due, in part, to acid activation of the two-component system (TCS) consisting of the membrane sensor HP0165 and its response regulator, HP0166, which regulates transcription of the seven genes of the urease gene cluster. We now find that there are two major ureAB transcripts: a 2.7-kb full-length ureAB transcript and a 1.4-kb truncated transcript lacking 3′ ureB. Acidic pH (pH 4.5) results in a significant increase in transcription of ureAB, while neutral pH (pH 7.4) increases the truncated 1.4-kb transcript. Northern blot analysis with sense RNA and strand-specific oligonucleotide probes followed by 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends detects an antisense small RNA (sRNA) encoded by the 5′ ureB noncoding strand consisting of ∼290 nucleotides (5′ureB-sRNA). Deletion of HP0165 elevates the level of the truncated 1.4-kb transcript along with that of the 5′ureB-sRNA at both pH 7.4 and pH 4.5. Overexpression of 5′ureB-sRNA increases the 1.4-kb transcript, decreases the 2.7-kb transcript, and decreases urease activity. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay shows that unphosphorylated HP0166 binds specifically to the 5′ureB-sRNA promoter. The ability of the HP0165-HP0166 TCS to both increase and decrease ureB expression at low and high pHs, respectively, facilitates gastric habitation and colonization over the wide range of intragastric pHs experienced by the organism. PMID:20971914

  17. A peptide sequence of heparin/heparan sulfate (HP/HS)-interacting protein supports selective, high affinity binding of HP/HS and cell attachment.

    PubMed

    Liu, S; Julian, J; Carson, D D

    1998-04-17

    We previously have identified a novel cell surface heparan sulfate/heparin (HS/HP)-interacting protein (HIP) found in human uterine epithelia and a variety of other human epithelial and endothelial cells and cell lines (Liu, S., Smith, S. E., Julian, J., Rohde, L. H., Karin, N. J., and Carson, D. D. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 11817-11823; Rohde, L. H., Julian, J., Babaknia, A., and Carson, D. D. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 11824-11830). The amino acid sequence predicted for HIP revealed a potential HS/HP-binding motif. In the present studies, a synthetic peptide corresponding to this putative HS/HP-binding motif, HIP peptide, was synthesized and examined with regard to its HS/HP binding and cell attachment promoting activity. Results using solid phase binding assays demonstrate that HIP peptide binds HS/HP with high selectivity and has high affinity for bulk HP (50% saturation congruent with 300 nM) and even higher affinity for a subset of polysaccharides found in commercial [3H]HP (half-saturation congruent with 10 nM). Moreover, HIP peptide binds subsets of cell and extracellular matrix-associated HS and dermatan sulfate expressed by RL95 cells, a human uterine adenocarcinoma cell line. HIP peptide also binds a similar fraction of HS as well as dermatan sulfate expressed by JAR cells, a human choriocarcinoma cell line. In contrast to binding of cell- or extracellular matrix-associated HS, HIP peptide does not bind secreted or released forms of HS or DS from either RL95 or JAR cells to a significant extent. HS species that bind to HIP peptide are generally larger, have a higher negative charge density, and have a larger proportion of di- and trisulfated disaccharide units than HS species that do not bind to HIP peptide, demonstrating structural differences among these polysaccharides. This same peptide supports HS-dependent JAR cell attachment. Collectively, these data demonstrate that a linear peptide sequence found within HIP can account, at least in part, for

  18. Helicobacter pylori Secreted Protein HP1286 Triggers Apoptosis in Macrophages via TNF-Independent and ERK MAPK-Dependent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Raquel; Pathak, Sushil Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages constitute a powerful line of defense against H. pylori. The final disease outcome is highly dependent on the bacterial ability to modulate the effector functions of activated macrophages. Here, we report that H. pylori secreted protein HP1286 is a novel regulator of macrophage responses. Differential expression and release of HP1286 homologues were observed among H. pylori strains. Recombinant purified HP1286 (rHP1286) had the ability to bind to primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and macrophage cell lines. Exposure to rHP1286 induced apoptosis in macrophages in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Although interaction of rHP1286 was observed for several other cell types, such as human monocytes, differentiated neutrophil-like HL60 cells, and the T lymphocyte Jurkat cell line, rHP1286 failed to induce apoptosis under similar conditions, indicating a macrophage-specific effect of the protein. A mutant strain of H. pylori lacking HP1286 protein expression was significantly impaired in its ability to induce apoptosis in macrophages. Significantly higher caspase 3 activity was detected in rHP1286-challenged macrophages. Furthermore, rHP1286-induced macrophages apoptosis was not inhibited in the presence of neutralizing antibodies against TNF. These observations indicate that rHP1286 induced a caspase-dependent and TNF-independent macrophage apoptosis. Pre-treatment of macrophages with U0126, an inhibitor of the ERK MAPK signaling pathway significantly reduced rHP1286-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, nuclear translocation of ERK and phosphorylation of c-Fos was detected in rHP1286-treated macrophages. These results provide functional insight into the potential role of HP1286 during H. pylori infection. Considering the ability of HP1286 to induce macrophage apoptosis, the protein could possibly help in the bacterial escape from the activated macrophages and persistence in the stomach. PMID:28293545

  19. An HP1 isoform-specific feedback mechanism regulates Suv39h1 activity under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Raurell-Vila, Helena; Bosch-Presegue, Laia; Gonzalez, Jessica; Kane-Goldsmith, Noriko; Casal, Carmen; Brown, Jeremy P; Marazuela-Duque, Anna; Singh, Prim B; Serrano, Lourdes; Vaquero, Alejandro

    2017-02-01

    The presence of H3K9me3 and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) are hallmarks of heterochromatin conserved in eukaryotes. The spreading and maintenance of H3K9me3 is effected by the functional interplay between the H3K9me3-specific histone methyltransferase Suv39h1 and HP1. This interplay is complex in mammals because the three HP1 isoforms, HP1α, β, and γ, are thought to play a redundant role in Suv39h1-dependent deposition of H3K9me3 in pericentric heterochromatin (PCH). Here, we demonstrate that despite this redundancy, HP1α and, to a lesser extent, HP1γ have a closer functional link to Suv39h1, compared to HP1β. HP1α and γ preferentially interact in vivo with Suv39h1, regulate its dynamics in heterochromatin, and increase Suv39h1 protein stability through an inhibition of MDM2-dependent Suv39h1-K87 polyubiquitination. The reverse is also observed, where Suv39h1 increases HP1α stability compared HP1β and γ. The interplay between Suv39h1 and HP1 isoforms appears to be relevant under genotoxic stress. Specifically, loss of HP1α and γ isoforms inhibits the upregulation of Suv39h1 and H3K9me3 that is observed under stress conditions. Reciprocally, Suv39h1 deficiency abrogates stress-dependent upregulation of HP1α and γ, and enhances HP1β levels. Our work defines a specific role for HP1 isoforms in regulating Suv39h1 function under stress via a feedback mechanism that likely regulates heterochromatin formation.

  20. 76 FR 10403 - Hewlett Packard (HP), Global Product Development, Engineering Workstation Refresh Team, Working...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard (HP), Global Product Development, Engineering... investigation to determine whether workers and former workers of Hewlett Packard, Global Product Development.... Information obtained by the Department revealed that Hewlett Packard's Global Product Development unit...

  1. LOOKING DOWN ON GENERAL ELECTRIC 250HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR. LARGE HANDWHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING DOWN ON GENERAL ELECTRIC 250-HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR. LARGE HANDWHEEL IN FOREGROUND USED TO TIGHTEN BRAKE BAND AROUND ARMATURE TO STOP BALL MILL AND MOTOR ROTATION. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  2. 22. ASSEMBLY OF 9700 H.P. ALLIS CHALMERS TURBINE, CENTERVILLE P.H. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. ASSEMBLY OF 9700 H.P. ALLIS CHALMERS TURBINE, CENTERVILLE P.H. Drawing no. 50153, traced from Allis Chalmers drawing #699, April 24, 1906. - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

  3. Laplace and Z Transform Solutions of Differential and Difference Equations With the HP-41C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Richard C.; Simons, Fred O., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed program for the HP-41C programmable calculator is extended to handle models of differential and difference equations with multiple eigenvalues. How to obtain difference equation solutions via the Z transform is described. (MNS)

  4. HP1-Assisted Aurora B Kinase Activity Prevents Chromosome Segregation Errors.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yusuke; Sako, Kosuke; Takagaki, Kentaro; Hirayama, Youko; Uchida, Kazuhiko S K; Herman, Jacob A; DeLuca, Jennifer G; Hirota, Toru

    2016-03-07

    Incorrect attachment of kinetochore microtubules is the leading cause of chromosome missegregation in cancers. The highly conserved chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), containing mitotic kinase Aurora B as a catalytic subunit, ensures faithful chromosome segregation through destabilizing incorrect microtubule attachments and promoting biorientation of chromosomes on the mitotic spindle. It is unknown whether CPC dysfunction affects chromosome segregation fidelity in cancers and, if so, how. Here, we show that heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is an essential CPC component required for full Aurora B activity. HP1 binding to the CPC becomes particularly important when Aurora B phosphorylates kinetochore targets to eliminate erroneous microtubule attachments. Remarkably, a reduced proportion of HP1 bound to CPC is widespread in cancers, which causes an impairment in Aurora B activity. These results indicate that HP1 is an essential modulator for CPC function and identify a molecular basis for chromosome segregation errors in cancer cells.

  5. [Comparison of port needle with safety device between Huber Plus (HP) and Poly PERF Safe (PPS)].

    PubMed

    Shimono, Chigusa; Tanaka, Atsuko; Fujita, Ai; Ishimoto, Miki; Oura, Shoji; Yamaue, Hiroki; Sato, Morio

    2010-05-01

    An embedded port is frequently used for outpatients with advanced cancer in central venous chemotherapy or hepatic arterial chemoinfusion. The port needle with a safety device in an ambulatory treatment center is indispensable for medical employees and patient plus family to reduce the risk of a needle puncture accident and to prevent iatrogenic infection. The port needle with safety system has been already introduced in our chemotherapy center. There are two types of port needle with safety device; Huber Plus (HP, Medicon Co., Ltd.) and POLY PERF Safe (PPS, Pyolax Device, Co., Ltd.). The comparison of the feasibility between HP and PPS was conducted by both medical employees and patients plus family using an inquiry score method. HP was highly regarded for its stability plus fixation and PPS for its usefulness in puncture and extraction of the needle. PPS was found to be preferable to HP based on the overall evaluation.

  6. Functional Association between Eyegone and HP1a Mediates wingless Transcriptional Repression during Development

    PubMed Central

    Salvany, Lara; Requena, David

    2012-01-01

    The eyegone (eyg) gene encodes Eyg, a transcription factor of the Pax family with multiple roles during Drosophila development. Although Eyg has been shown to act as a repressor, nothing is known about the mechanism by which it represses its target genes. Here, we show that Eyg forms a protein complex with heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a). Both proteins bind to the same chromatin regions on polytene chromosomes and act cooperatively to suppress variegation and mediate gene silencing. In addition, Eyg binds to a wingless (wg) enhancer region, recruiting HP1a to assemble a closed, heterochromatin-like conformation that represses transcription of the wg gene. We describe here the evidence that suggests that Eyg, encoded by eyegone (eyg), represses wingless (wg) during eye development by association with HP1a. We show that Eyg forms a protein complex with HP1a and both proteins colocalize on salivary gland polytene chromosomes. Using position effect variegation (PEV) experiments, we demonstrated that eyg has a dose-dependent effect on heterochromatin gene silencing and identified a genetic interaction with HP1a in this process. We further demonstrated that HP1a binds to the same wg enhancer element as Eyg. DNase I sensitivity assays indicated that this enhancer region has a closed heterochromatin-like conformation, which becomes open in eyg mutants. In these mutants, much less HP1a binds to the wg enhancer region, as shown by ChIP experiments. Furthermore, as previously described for Eyg, a reduction in the amount of HP1a in the eye imaginal disc derepresses wg. Together, our results suggest a model in which Eyg specifically binds to the wg enhancer region, recruiting HP1a to that site. The recruitment of HP1a prevents transcription by favoring a closed, heterochromatin-like structure. Thus, for the first time, we show that HP1a plays a direct role in the repression of a developmentally regulated gene, wg, during Drosophila eye development. PMID:22547675

  7. Double pattern EDA solutions for 32nm HP and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bailey, George E.; Tritchkov, Alexander; Park, Jea-Woo; Hong, Le; Wiaux, Vincent; Hendrickx, Eric; Verhaegen, Staf; Xie, Peng; Versluijs, Janko

    2007-03-01

    The fate of optical-based lithography hinges on the ability to deploy viable resolution enhancement techniques (RET). One such solution is double patterning (DP). Like the double-exposure technique, double patterning is a decomposition of the design to relax the pitch that requires dual masks, but unlike double-exposure techniques, double patterning requires an additional develop and etch step, which eliminates the resolution degradation due to the cross-coupling that occurs in the latent images of multiple exposures. This additional etch step is worth the effort for those looking for an optical extension [1]. The theoretical k I for a double-patterning technique of a 32nm half-pitch (HP) design for a 1.35NA 193nm imaging system is 0.44 whereas the k I for a single-exposure technique of this same design would be 0.22 [2], which is sub-resolution. There are other benefits to the DP technique such as the ability to add sub-resolution assist features (SRAF) in the relaxed pitch areas, the reduction of forbidden pitches, and the ability to apply mask biases and OPC without encountering mask constraints. Similarly to AltPSM and SRAF techniques one of the major barriers to widespread deployment of double patterning to random logic circuits is design compliance with split layout synthesis requirements [3]. Successful implementation of DP requires the evolution and adoption of design restrictions by specifically tailored design rules. The deployment of double patterning does spawn a couple of issues that would need addressing before proceeding into a production environment. As with any dual-mask RET application, there are the classical overlay requirements between the two exposure steps and there are the complexities of decomposing the designs to minimize the stitching but to maximize the depth of focus (DoF). In addition, the location of the design stitching would require careful consideration. For example, a stitch in a field region or wider lines is preferred over a

  8. Spectral/HP Element Method With Hierarchical Reconstruction for Solving Hyperbolic Conservation Laws

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhiliang; Lin, Guang

    2009-12-01

    Hierarchical reconstruction (HR) has been successfully applied to prevent oscillations in solutions computed by finite volume, discontinuous Galerkin, spectral volume schemes when solving hyperbolic conservation laws. In this paper, we demonstrate that HR can also be combined with spectral/hp element methods for solving hyperbolic conservation laws. We show that HR preserves the order of accuracy of spectral/hp element methods for smooth solutions and generate essentially non-oscillatory solution profiles for shock wave problems.

  9. The HP0256 gene product is involved in motility and cell envelope architecture of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent for gastritis, and peptic and duodenal ulcers. The bacterium displays 5-6 polar sheathed flagella that are essential for colonisation and persistence in the gastric mucosa. The biochemistry and genetics of flagellar biogenesis in H. pylori has not been fully elucidated. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the gene HP0256, annotated as hypothetical, was a FliJ homologue. In Salmonella, FliJ is a chaperone escort protein for FlgN and FliT, two proteins that themselves display chaperone activity for components of the hook, the rod and the filament. Results Ablation of the HP0256 gene in H. pylori significantly reduced motility. However, flagellin and hook protein synthesis was not affected in the HP0256 mutant. Transmission electron transmission microscopy revealed that the HP0256 mutant cells displayed a normal flagellum configuration, suggesting that HP0256 was not essential for assembly and polar localisation of the flagella in the cell. Interestingly, whole genome microarrays of an HP0256 mutant revealed transcriptional changes in a number of genes associated with the flagellar regulon and the cell envelope, such as outer membrane proteins and adhesins. Consistent with the array data, lack of the HP0256 gene significantly reduced adhesion and the inflammatory response in host cells. Conclusions We conclude that HP0256 is not a functional counterpart of FliJ in H. pylori. However, it is required for full motility and it is involved, possibly indirectly, in expression of outer membrane proteins and adhesins involved in pathogenesis and adhesion. PMID:20377912

  10. In-Plant Protection against Helicoverpa armigera by Production of Long hpRNA in Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Bally, Julia; McIntyre, Glen J.; Doran, Rachel L.; Lee, Karen; Perez, Alicia; Jung, Hyungtaek; Naim, Fatima; Larrinua, Ignacio M.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Waterhouse, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in transgenic plants to silence essential genes within herbivorous pests is referred to as trans-kingdom RNA interference (TK-RNAi) and has emerged as a promising strategy for crop protection. However, the dicing of dsRNA into siRNAs by the plant’s intrinsic RNAi machinery may reduce this pesticidal activity. Therefore, genetic constructs, encoding ∼200 nt duplex-stemmed-hairpin (hp) RNAs, targeting the acetylcholinesterase gene of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, were integrated into either the nuclear or the chloroplast genome of Nicotiana benthamiana. Undiced, full-length hpRNAs accumulated in transplastomic lines of N. benthamiana and conferred strong protection against H. armigera herbivory while the hpRNAs of nuclear-transformed plants were processed into siRNAs and gave more modest anti-feeding activity. This suggests that there is little or no RNAi machinery or activity in the chloroplast, that hpRNAs produced within this organelle do not enter the cytoplasm, and that oral delivery of chloroplast-packaged intact hpRNA is a more effective means of delivering TK-RNAi than using nuclear encoded hpRNAs. This contrasts with a recently reported correlation between siRNA expression and effectiveness of TK-RNAi targeting the chitinase gene of H. armigera, but is consistent with reports of efficient TK-RNAi by dsRNA generated in chloroplasts by converging promoters flanking a pest gene sequence and from very small (21 nt-stem) hpRNAs resembling artificial miRNAs. Here we demonstrate that hpRNAs, constructed along the conventional design principles of plant RNAi constructs but integrated into the chloroplast genome, are stable and effective over multiple generations, and hold the promise of providing durable pest resistance in crops. PMID:27746796

  11. In-Plant Protection against Helicoverpa armigera by Production of Long hpRNA in Chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Bally, Julia; McIntyre, Glen J; Doran, Rachel L; Lee, Karen; Perez, Alicia; Jung, Hyungtaek; Naim, Fatima; Larrinua, Ignacio M; Narva, Kenneth E; Waterhouse, Peter M

    2016-01-01

    Expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in transgenic plants to silence essential genes within herbivorous pests is referred to as trans-kingdom RNA interference (TK-RNAi) and has emerged as a promising strategy for crop protection. However, the dicing of dsRNA into siRNAs by the plant's intrinsic RNAi machinery may reduce this pesticidal activity. Therefore, genetic constructs, encoding ∼200 nt duplex-stemmed-hairpin (hp) RNAs, targeting the acetylcholinesterase gene of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, were integrated into either the nuclear or the chloroplast genome of Nicotiana benthamiana. Undiced, full-length hpRNAs accumulated in transplastomic lines of N. benthamiana and conferred strong protection against H. armigera herbivory while the hpRNAs of nuclear-transformed plants were processed into siRNAs and gave more modest anti-feeding activity. This suggests that there is little or no RNAi machinery or activity in the chloroplast, that hpRNAs produced within this organelle do not enter the cytoplasm, and that oral delivery of chloroplast-packaged intact hpRNA is a more effective means of delivering TK-RNAi than using nuclear encoded hpRNAs. This contrasts with a recently reported correlation between siRNA expression and effectiveness of TK-RNAi targeting the chitinase gene of H. armigera, but is consistent with reports of efficient TK-RNAi by dsRNA generated in chloroplasts by converging promoters flanking a pest gene sequence and from very small (21 nt-stem) hpRNAs resembling artificial miRNAs. Here we demonstrate that hpRNAs, constructed along the conventional design principles of plant RNAi constructs but integrated into the chloroplast genome, are stable and effective over multiple generations, and hold the promise of providing durable pest resistance in crops.

  12. Suppression and recovery of BRCA1-mediated transcription by HP1γ via modulation of promoter occupancy

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Duk; Park, Mi Ae; Lee, Jong-Soo

    2012-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1γ (HP1γ) is a chromatin protein involved in gene silencing. Herein, we show that HP1γ interacts with breast cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) and regulates BRCA1-mediated transcription via modulation of promoter occupancy and histone modification. We used several HP1γ mutants and small interfering RNAs for histone methyltransferases to show that BRCA1–HP1γ interaction, but not methylated histone binding, is important in HP1γ repression of BRCA1-mediated transcription. Time-lapse studies on promoter association and histone methylation after DNA damage revealed that HP1γ accumulates at the promoter before DNA damage, but BRCA1 is recruited at the promoter after the damage while promoter-resident HP1γ is disassembled. Importantly, HP1γ assembly recovers after release from the damage in a BRCA1–HP1γ interaction-dependent manner and targets SUV39H1. HP1γ/SUV39H1 restoration at the promoter results in BRCA1 disassembly and histone methylation, after which transcription repression resumes. We propose that through interaction with BRCA1, HP1γ is guided to the BRCA1 target promoter during recovery and functions in the activation-repression switch and recovery from BRCA1-mediated transcription in response to DNA damage. PMID:23074186

  13. Beyond the histone tale: HP1α deregulation in breast cancer epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Vad-Nielsen, Johan; Nielsen, Anders Lade

    2015-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) encoded from the CBX5-gene is an evolutionary conserved protein that binds histone H3 di- or tri-methylated at position lysine 9 (H3K9me2/3), a hallmark for heterochromatin, and has an essential role in forming higher order chromatin structures. HP1α has diverse functions in heterochromatin formation, gene regulation, and mitotic progression, and forms complex networks of gene, RNA, and protein interactions. Emerging evidence has shown that HP1α serves a unique biological role in breast cancer related processes and in particular for epigenetic control mechanisms involved in aberrant cell proliferation and metastasis. However, how HP1α deregulation plays dual mechanistic functions for cancer cell proliferation and metastasis suppression and the underlying cellular mechanisms are not yet comprehensively described. In this paper we provide an overview of the role of HP1α as a new sight of epigenetics in proliferation and metastasis of human breast cancer. This highlights the importance of addressing HP1α in breast cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25588111

  14. Development and analytical performance evaluation of FREND-SAA and FREND-Hp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Eunha; Seong, Jihyun; Lee, Seiyoung; Han, Sunmi

    2017-07-01

    The FREND System is a portable cartridge reader, quantifying analytes by measuring laser-induced fluorescence in a single-use reagent cartridge. The objective of this study was to evaluate FREND-SAA and FREND-Hp assays. The FREND-SAA and Hp assays were standardized to the WHO and IFCC reference materials. Analytical performance studies of Precision, Linearity, Limits of Detections, Interferences, and Method Comparisons for both assays were performed according to the CLSI guidelines. Both assays demonstrated acceptable imprecision of %CV in three different levels of samples. The linearity of the assays was found to be acceptable (SAA 5 150 mg/L, Hp 30 400 mg/dL). The detection limits were 3.8 mg/L (SAA) and 10.2 mg/dL (Hp). No significant interference and no significant deviation from linearity was found in the both comparison studies. In conclusion, NanoEnTek's FREND-SAA and Hp assays represent rapid, accurate and convenient means to quantify SAA and Hp in human serum on FREND system.

  15. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Ganglioside Hp-s1 Analogues Varying at Glucosyl Moiety.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jung-Tung; Yeh, Chun-Hong; Yang, Shih-An; Lin, Chiu-Ya; Tai, Hung-Ju; Shelke, Ganesh B; Reddy, Daggula Mallikarjuna; Yu, Alice L; Luo, Shun-Yuan

    2016-08-17

    Ganglioside Hp-s1 is isolated from the ovary of sea urchin Diadema setosum. It exhibited better neuritogenic activity than GM1 in pheochromocytoma 12 cells. To explore the roles of glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 in contributing to the neurogenic activity, we developed feasible procedures for synthesis of Hp-s1 analogues (2a-2f). The glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 was replaced with α-glucose, α-galactose, β-galactose, α-mannose, and β-mannose, and their biological activities on SH-SY5Y cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells were evaluated. We found that the orientation of C-2 hydroxyl group at glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 plays an important role to induce neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. Surprisingly, compound 2d could activate NKT cells to produce interleukin 2, although it did not show great activity on neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. In general, the Hp-s1 might be considered as a lead compound for the development of novel drugs aimed at modulating the activity of neuronal cells.

  16. Hp1404, a New Antimicrobial Peptide from the Scorpion Heterometrus petersii

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhongjie; Xu, Xiaobo; Meng, Lanxia; Zhang, Qian; Cao, Luyang; Li, Wenxin; Wu, Yingliang; Cao, Zhijian

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides have attracted much interest as a novel class of antibiotics against a variety of microbes including antibiotics resistant strains. In this study, a new cationic antimicrobial peptide Hp1404 was identified from the scorpion Heterometrus petersii, which is an amphipathic α-helical peptide and has a specific inhibitory activity against gram-positive bacteria including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. Hp1404 can penetrate the membrane of S. aureus at low concentration, and disrupts the cellular membrane directly at super high concentration. S. aureus does not develop drug resistance after multiple treatments with Hp1404 at sub MIC concentration, which is possibly associated with the antibacterial mechanism of the peptide. In addition, Hp1404 has low toxicity to both mammalian cells (HC50  =  226.6 µg/mL and CC50 > 100 µg/mL) and balb-c mice (Non-toxicity at 80 mg/Kg by intraperitoneal injection and LD50  =  89.8 mg/Kg by intravenous injection). Interestingly, Hp1404 can improve the survival rate of the MRSA infected balb-c mice in the peritonitis model. Taken together, Hp1404 may have potential applications as an antibacterial agent. PMID:24826994

  17. The HP1a Disordered C-terminus and Chromo Shadow Domain Cooperate to Select Target Peptide Partners

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Deanna L.; Kim, Daesung; Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Stephens, Gena E.; Minor, Wladek

    2011-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster Heterochromatin Protein 1a (HP1a) is essential for compacted heterochromatin structure and associated gene silencing. Its chromo shadow domain (CSD) is well-known for binding to peptides that contain a PXVXL motif. Heterochromatin protein 2 (HP2) is a nonhistone chromosomal protein that associates with HP1a in the pericentric heterochromatin, telomeres and the fourth chromosome. Using NMR spectroscopy, fluorescence polarization and site-directed mutagenesis, we identified an LCVKI motif in HP2 that binds to the HP1a CSD. The binding affinity of the HP2 fragment is approximately two orders of magnitude higher than that of peptides from PIWI (with a PRVKV motif), AF10 (with a PLVVL motif), or CG15356 (with LYPLL and LSIVA motifs). To delineate differential interactions of the HP1a CSD, we characterized its structure, backbone dynamics and dimerization constant. We find that the dimerization constant is bracketed by the affinities of HP2 and PIWI, which dock to the same HP1a homodimer surface. This suggests that HP2, but not PIWI, interaction can drive homodimerization of HP1a. Interestingly, the integrity of the disordered C-terminal extension (CTE) of HP1a is essential for discriminatory binding, whereas swapping the PXVXL motifs does not confer specificity. Serine phosphorylation at the peptide binding surface of the CSD is thought to regulate heterochromatin assembly. Glutamic acid substitution at these sites destabilizes HP1a dimers, but improves the interaction with both binding partners. Our studies underscore the importance of CSD dimerization and cooperation with the CTE in forming distinct complexes of HP1a. PMID:21472955

  18. Characterization of promising resist platforms for sub-30-nm HP manufacturability and EUV CAR extendibility study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Chawon; Georger, Jacque; Ren, Liping; Huang, George; Goodwin, Frank; Wurm, Stefan; Ashworth, Dominic; Montgomery, Warren; Pierson, Bill; Park, Joo-on; Naulleau, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is the most effective way to print sub-30 nm features. We characterized EUVL readiness of the three major resist platforms for sub-30 nm half-pitch (HP) manufacturability using a full-field ASML alpha demo tool (ADT) scanner and studied the extendibility of EUV chemically amplified resist (CAR). Based on an "M-factor" analysis, which shows the maturity of EUV resist for 28 nm HP manufacturability, a polymer-bound photoacid generator (PAG) resist was 78% ready, a PHS hybrid resist was 81%, and a molecular glass EUV resist was 58%. The polymer-bound resist showed good resolution for 25 nm HP using the ASML ADT. It also demonstrated fair linewidth roughness (LWR) and a good lithographic process margin of 18% exposure latitude (EL) and 160 nm depth of field (DOF) for 28 nm HP patterning compared with the other resist platforms, but its resist collapse and etch resistance need to be improved for manufacturability. PHS hybrid resist showed a fair etch resistance and resist collapse performance compared to the other resist platforms, but LWR needs to be improved. The molecular resist needs to mature further, especially in resist collapse and iso-dense (ID) bias. When considering its many strong points and control of lower acid diffusion, the polymer-bound PAG resist appears to be the most suitable platform for manufacturability and EUV CAR extension. We therefore would like to encourage the development of next generation polymer-bound PAG resist with a higher etch resistance. A process window of 80 nm DOF was demonstrated for 26 nm HP patterning and a measurable DOF for 25 nm HP was achieved with the polymer-bound PAG resist. Resist collapse and LWR are major issues for 22 nm HP patterning in manufacturing. LWR improvements were achieved with various techniques, and resist collapse was greatly improved with a novel approach that uses a residual resist layer. 16 nm HP line/space (L/S) image modulation and 18 nm HP resolution were

  19. Neurocysticercosis: HP10 Antigen Detection Is Useful for the Follow-up of the Severe Patients

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Agnès; Garcia, Esperanza; Hernández, Marisela; Carrillo, Roger; Govezensky, Tzipe; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Harrison, Leslie J. S.; Parkhouse, R. Michael Evans

    2013-01-01

    Background The most severe clinical form of neurocysticercosis (NC) occurs when cysticerci are located in the subarachnoid space at the base of the brain (SaB). The diagnosis, monitoring and treatment of NC-SaB, constitutes a severe clinical challenge. Herein we evaluate the potential of the HP10 antigen detection enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HP10 Ag-ELISA) in the long term follow-up of NC-SaB cases. Assay performance was compared with that of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). In addition, the robustness of the HP10 Ag-ELISA was evaluated independently at two different institutions. Methodology/Principal Findings A double-blind prospective cohort trial was conducted involving 38 NC-SaB cases and a total of 108 paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples taken at intervals of 4 to 8 months for up to 43 months. At each medical visit, results of sera and CSF HP10 Ag-ELISA and MRI obtained at last visit were compared and their accuracy was evaluated retrospectively, considering radiological evolution between appointments. In the long-term follow-up study, HP10 Ag-ELISA had a better agreement than MRI with retrospective radiological evaluation. High reproducibility of HP10 Ag-ELISA between laboratories was also demonstrated. Conclusions Results reported in this study establish for the first time the usefulness of the comparatively low cost HP10 Ag-ELISA for long term follow-up of NC-SaB patients. PMID:23505587

  20. Phosphorylation-Dependent Targeting of Tetrahymena HP1 to Condensed Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Yale, Katerina; Tackett, Alan J; Neuman, Monica; Bulley, Emily; Chait, Brian T; Wiley, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved proteins related to heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), originally described in Drosophila, are well known for their roles in heterochromatin assembly and gene silencing. Targeting of HP1 proteins to specific chromatin locales is mediated, at least in part, by the HP1 chromodomain, which binds to histone H3 methylated at lysine 9 that marks condensed regions of the genome. Mechanisms that regulate HP1 targeting are emerging from studies with yeast and metazoans and point to roles for posttranslational modifications. Here, we report that modifications of an HP1 homolog (Hhp1) in the ciliate model Tetrahymena thermophila correlated with the physiological state and with nuclear differentiation events involving the restructuring of chromatin. Results support the model in which Hhp1 chromodomain binds lysine 27-methylated histone H3, and we show that colocalization with this histone mark depends on phosphorylation at a single Cdc2/Cdk1 kinase site in the "hinge region" adjacent to the chromodomain. These findings help elucidate important functional roles of reversible posttranslational modifications of proteins in the HP1 family, in this case, regulating the targeting of a ciliate HP1 to chromatin regions marked with methylated H3 lysine 27. IMPORTANCE Compacting the genome to various degrees influences processes that use DNA as a template, such as gene transcription and replication. This project was aimed at learning more about the cellular mechanisms that control genome compaction. Posttranslational modifications of proteins involved in genome condensation are emerging as potentially important points of regulation. To help elucidate protein modifications and how they affect the function of condensation proteins, we investigated the phosphorylation of the chromatin protein called Hhp1 in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. This is one of the first functional investigations of these modifications of a nonhistone chromatin

  1. Phosphorylation-Dependent Targeting of Tetrahymena HP1 to Condensed Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Yale, Katerina; Tackett, Alan J.; Neuman, Monica; Bulley, Emily; Chait, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The evolutionarily conserved proteins related to heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), originally described in Drosophila, are well known for their roles in heterochromatin assembly and gene silencing. Targeting of HP1 proteins to specific chromatin locales is mediated, at least in part, by the HP1 chromodomain, which binds to histone H3 methylated at lysine 9 that marks condensed regions of the genome. Mechanisms that regulate HP1 targeting are emerging from studies with yeast and metazoans and point to roles for posttranslational modifications. Here, we report that modifications of an HP1 homolog (Hhp1) in the ciliate model Tetrahymena thermophila correlated with the physiological state and with nuclear differentiation events involving the restructuring of chromatin. Results support the model in which Hhp1 chromodomain binds lysine 27-methylated histone H3, and we show that colocalization with this histone mark depends on phosphorylation at a single Cdc2/Cdk1 kinase site in the “hinge region” adjacent to the chromodomain. These findings help elucidate important functional roles of reversible posttranslational modifications of proteins in the HP1 family, in this case, regulating the targeting of a ciliate HP1 to chromatin regions marked with methylated H3 lysine 27. IMPORTANCE Compacting the genome to various degrees influences processes that use DNA as a template, such as gene transcription and replication. This project was aimed at learning more about the cellular mechanisms that control genome compaction. Posttranslational modifications of proteins involved in genome condensation are emerging as potentially important points of regulation. To help elucidate protein modifications and how they affect the function of condensation proteins, we investigated the phosphorylation of the chromatin protein called Hhp1 in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. This is one of the first functional investigations of these modifications of a nonhistone

  2. Phylogenomic analysis reveals dynamic evolutionary history of the Drosophila heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) gene family.

    PubMed

    Levine, Mia T; McCoy, Connor; Vermaak, Danielle; Lee, Yuh Chwen G; Hiatt, Mary Alice; Matsen, Frederick A; Malik, Harmit S

    2012-01-01

    Heterochromatin is the gene-poor, satellite-rich eukaryotic genome compartment that supports many essential cellular processes. The functional diversity of proteins that bind and often epigenetically define heterochromatic DNA sequence reflects the diverse functions supported by this enigmatic genome compartment. Moreover, heterogeneous signatures of selection at chromosomal proteins often mirror the heterogeneity of evolutionary forces that act on heterochromatic DNA. To identify new such surrogates for dissecting heterochromatin function and evolution, we conducted a comprehensive phylogenomic analysis of the Heterochromatin Protein 1 gene family across 40 million years of Drosophila evolution. Our study expands this gene family from 5 genes to at least 26 genes, including several uncharacterized genes in Drosophila melanogaster. The 21 newly defined HP1s introduce unprecedented structural diversity, lineage-restriction, and germline-biased expression patterns into the HP1 family. We find little evidence of positive selection at these HP1 genes in both population genetic and molecular evolution analyses. Instead, we find that dynamic evolution occurs via prolific gene gains and losses. Despite this dynamic gene turnover, the number of HP1 genes is relatively constant across species. We propose that karyotype evolution drives at least some HP1 gene turnover. For example, the loss of the male germline-restricted HP1E in the obscura group coincides with one episode of dramatic karyotypic evolution, including the gain of a neo-Y in this lineage. This expanded compendium of ovary- and testis-restricted HP1 genes revealed by our study, together with correlated gain/loss dynamics and chromosome fission/fusion events, will guide functional analyses of novel roles supported by germline chromatin.

  3. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) connects the FACT histone chaperone complex to the phosphorylated CTD of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, So Hee; Florens, Laurence; Swanson, Selene K.; Washburn, Michael P.; Abmayr, Susan M.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2010-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is well known as a silencing protein found at pericentric heterochromatin. Most eukaryotes have at least three isoforms of HP1 that play differential roles in heterochromatin and euchromatin. In addition to its role in heterochromatin, HP1 proteins have been shown to function in transcription elongation. To gain insights into the transcription functions of HP1, we sought to identify novel HP1-interacting proteins. Biochemical and proteomic approaches revealed that HP1 interacts with the histone chaperone complex FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription). HP1c interacts with the SSRP1 (structure-specific recognition protein 1) subunit and the intact FACT complex. Moreover, HP1c guides the recruitment of FACT to active genes and links FACT to active forms of RNA polymerase II. The absence of HP1c partially impairs the recruitment of FACT into heat-shock loci and causes a defect in heat-shock gene expression. Thus, HP1c functions to recruit the FACT complex to RNA polymerase II. PMID:20889714

  4. hp-Pseudospectral method for solving continuous-time nonlinear optimal control problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, Christopher L.

    2011-12-01

    In this dissertation, a direct hp-pseudospectral method for approximating the solution to nonlinear optimal control problems is proposed. The hp-pseudospectral method utilizes a variable number of approximating intervals and variable-degree polynomial approximations of the state within each interval. Using the hp-discretization, the continuous-time optimal control problem is transcribed to a finite-dimensional nonlinear programming problem (NLP). The differential-algebraic constraints of the optimal control problem are enforced at a finite set of collocation points, where the collocation points are either the Legendre-Gauss or Legendre-Gauss-Radau quadrature points. These sets of points are chosen because they correspond to high-accuracy Gaussian quadrature rules for approximating the integral of a function. Moreover, Runge phenomenon for high-degree Lagrange polynomial approximations to the state is avoided by using these points. The key features of the hp-method include computational sparsity associated with low-order polynomial approximations and rapid convergence rates associated with higher-degree polynomials approximations. Consequently, the hp-method is both highly accurate and computationally efficient. Two hp-adaptive algorithms are developed that demonstrate the utility of the hp-approach. The algorithms are shown to accurately approximate the solution to general continuous-time optimal control problems in a computationally efficient manner without a priori knowledge of the solution structure. The hp-algorithms are compared empirically against local (h) and global (p) collocation methods over a wide range of problems and are found to be more efficient and more accurate. The hp-pseudospectral approach developed in this research not only provides a high-accuracy approximation to the state and control of an optimal control problem, but also provides high-accuracy approximations to the costate of the optimal control problem. The costate is approximated by

  5. Theoretical study on the polar hydrogen-π (Hp-π) interactions between protein side chains

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In the study of biomolecular structures and interactions the polar hydrogen-π bonds (Hp-π) are an extensive molecular interaction type. In proteins 11 of 20 natural amino acids and in DNA (or RNA) all four nucleic acids are involved in this type interaction. Results The Hp-π in proteins are studied using high level QM method CCSD/6-311 + G(d,p) + H-Bq (ghost hydrogen basis functions) in vacuum and in solutions (water, acetonitrile, and cyclohexane). Three quantum chemical methods (B3LYP, CCSD, and CCSD(T)) and three basis sets (6-311 + G(d,p), TZVP, and cc-pVTZ) are compared. The Hp-π donors include R2NH, RNH2, ROH, and C6H5OH; and the acceptors are aromatic amino acids, peptide bond unit, and small conjugate π-groups. The Hp-π interaction energies of four amino acid pairs (Ser-Phe, Lys-Phe, His-Phe, and Tyr-Phe) are quantitatively calculated. Conclusions Five conclusion points are abstracted from the calculation results. (1) The common DFT method B3LYP fails in describing the Hp-π interactions. On the other hand, CCSD/6-311 + G(d,p) plus ghost atom H-Bq can yield better results, very close to the state-of-the-art method CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ. (2) The Hp-π interactions are point to π-plane interactions, possessing much more interaction conformations and broader energy range than other interaction types, such as common hydrogen bond and electrostatic interactions. (3) In proteins the Hp-π interaction energies are in the range 10 to 30 kJ/mol, comparable or even larger than common hydrogen bond interactions. (4) The bond length of Hp-π interactions are in the region from 2.30 to 3.00 Å at the perpendicular direction to the π-plane, much longer than the common hydrogen bonds (~1.9 Å). (5) Like common hydrogen bond interactions, the Hp-π interactions are less affected by solvation effects. PMID:23705926

  6. [Effects of intergenic interaction of the high pigmentation gene hp-2(dg) (high pigment-2 dark green) with the gene B (beta-carotene) in tomato].

    PubMed

    Kuzemenskiĭ, A V

    2008-01-01

    It was shown that during intergenic interaction of genes hp-2(dg) and B in dihomozygote an additive factor is formed activating biogenesis of beta-carotene in tomato fruits. In the genotype B/B//hp-2(dg)/hp-2(dg) there is preserved the positive effects of the gene hp-2(dg) on the content of ascorbic acid and the negative one on the content of titrated acids. With this stabilization of the gene hp-2(dg) genetic depression is observed, which is manifested in the increased productivity of B/B//hp-2(dg)/hp-2(dg)-genotypes.

  7. New electron optics for mask writer EBM-7000 to challenge hp 32nm generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamikubo, Takashi; Golladay, Steven; Kendall, Rodney; Katsap, Victor; Ohtoshi, Kenji; Ogasawara, Munehiro; Nishimura, Shinsuke; Nishimura, Rieko; Iizuka, Osamu; Nakayama, Takahito; Shinkawa, Shunji; Nishiyama, Tetsurou; Tamamushi, Shuichi

    2008-10-01

    Semiconductor scaling is expected to continue to hp32nm and beyond, accompanied by explosive data volume expansion. Required minimum feature size at hp 32nm will be less than 50nm on the mask, according to ITRS2007(1). EBM 7000 is a newly designed mask writer for the hp32 nm node with an improved electron optical column providing the beam resolution (10 nm measured in situ) and beam current density (200 A/cm2) necessary for cost effective mask production at hp32nm node. In this paper we report on column improvements, the in situ beam blur measurement method and writing results from EBM 7000. Written patterns show dose margin (CD change [nm] / 1 % dose change) of .94 nm /1 % dose for line/space arrays using chemically amplified resist PRL009 and our standard processing. Using a simple model to relate the measured beam intensity distribution to the measured dose margin, we infer an effective total blur of 30 nm, dominated by a contribution of 28 nm from the resist exposure and development process. Further evidence of the dominance of the process contribution is the measured improvement in dose margin to .64 nm/% dose obtained by modifying our standard process. Even larger process improvements will be needed for successful fabrication of hp22nm masks.

  8. Molecular dynamics simulation on HP1 protein binding by histone H3 tail methylation and phosphorylation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yan-Ke; Zou, Jian-Wei; Wu, Yu-Qian; Zhang, Na; Yu, Qing-Sen; Jiang, Yong-Jun

    Trimethylation of histone H3 lysine 9 is important for recruiting heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) to discrete regions of the genome, thereby regulating gene expression, chromatin packaging, and heterochromatin formation. Phosphorylation of histone H3 has been linked with mitotic chromatin condensation. During mitosis in vivo, H3 lysine 9 methylation and serine 10 phosphorylation can occur concomitantly on the same histone tail, whereas the influence of phosphorylation to trimethylation H3 tail recruiting HP1 remains controversial. In this work, molecular dynamics simulation of HP1 complexed with both trimethylated and phosphorylated H3 tail were performed and compared with the results from the previous methylated H3-HP1 trajectory. It is clear from the 10-ns dynamics simulation that two adjacent posttranslational modifications directly increase the flexibility of the H3 tail and weaken HP1 binding to chromatin. A combinatorial readout of two adjacent posttranslational modifications-a stable methylation and a dynamic phosphorylation mark-establish a regulatory mechanism of protein-protein interactions.

  9. Systems genetics identifies Hp1bp3 as a novel modulator of cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Sarah M; Garfinkel, Benjamin P; Wilmott, Lynda A; Ignatowska-Jankowska, Bogna M; Citri, Ami; Orly, Joseph; Lu, Lu; Overall, Rupert W; Mulligan, Megan K; Kempermann, Gerd; Williams, Robert W; O'Connell, Kristen M S; Kaczorowski, Catherine C

    2016-10-01

    An individual's genetic makeup plays an important role in determining susceptibility to cognitive aging. Identifying the specific genes that contribute to cognitive aging may aid in early diagnosis of at-risk patients, as well as identify novel therapeutics targets to treat or prevent development of symptoms. Challenges to identifying these specific genes in human studies include complex genetics, difficulty in controlling environmental factors, and limited access to human brain tissue. Here, we identify Hp1bp3 as a novel modulator of cognitive aging using a genetically diverse population of mice and confirm that HP1BP3 protein levels are significantly reduced in the hippocampi of cognitively impaired elderly humans relative to cognitively intact controls. Deletion of functional Hp1bp3 in mice recapitulates memory deficits characteristic of aged impaired mice and humans, further supporting the idea that Hp1bp3 and associated molecular networks are modulators of cognitive aging. Overall, our results suggest Hp1bp3 may serve as a potential target against cognitive aging and demonstrate the utility of genetically diverse animal models for the study of complex human disease. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Complete genome sequence of Marinobacter adhaerens type strain (HP15), a diatom-interacting marine microorganism.

    PubMed

    Gärdes, Astrid; Kaeppel, Eva; Shehzad, Aamir; Seebah, Shalin; Teeling, Hanno; Yarza, Pablo; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2010-09-28

    Marinobacter adhaerens HP15 is the type strain of a newly identified marine species, which is phylogenetically related to M. flavimaris, M. algicola, and M. aquaeolei. It is of special interest for research on marine aggregate formation because it showed specific attachment to diatom cells. In vitro it led to exopolymer formation and aggregation of these algal cells to form marine snow particles. M. adhaerens HP15 is a free-living, motile, rod-shaped, Gram-negative gammaproteobacterium, which was originally isolated from marine particles sampled in the German Wadden Sea. M. adhaerens HP15 grows heterotrophically on various media, is easy to access genetically, and serves as a model organism to investigate the cellular and molecular interactions with the diatom Thalassiosira weissflogii. Here we describe the complete and annotated genome sequence of M. adhaerens HP15 as well as some details on flagella-associated genes. M. adhaerens HP15 possesses three replicons; the chromosome comprises 4,422,725 bp and codes for 4,180 protein-coding genes, 51 tRNAs and three rRNA operons, while the two circular plasmids are ~187 kb and ~42 kb in size and contain 178 and 52 protein-coding genes, respectively.

  11. HP1 Binding to Chromatin Methylated at H3K9 Is Enhanced by Auxiliary Factors▿

    PubMed Central

    Eskeland, Ragnhild; Eberharter, Anton; Imhof, Axel

    2007-01-01

    A large portion of the eukaryotic genome is packaged into transcriptionally silent heterochromatin. Several factors that play important roles during the establishment and maintenance of this condensed form have been identified. Methylation of lysine 9 within histone H3 and the subsequent binding of the chromodomain protein heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) are thought to initiate heterochromatin formation in vivo and to propagate a heterochromatic state lasting through several cell divisions. For the present study we analyzed the binding of HP1 to methylated chromatin in a fully reconstituted system. In contrast to its strong binding to methylated peptides, HP1 binds only weakly to methylated chromatin. However, the addition of recombinant SU(VAR) protein, such as ACF1 or SU(VAR)3-9, facilitates HP1 binding to chromatin methylated at lysine 9 within the H3 N terminus (H3K9). We propose that HP1 has multiple target sites that contribute to its recognition of chromatin, only one of them being methylated at H3K9. These findings have implications for the mechanisms of recognition of specific chromatin modifications in vivo. PMID:17101786

  12. SALL4 promotes glycolysis and chromatin remodeling via modulating HP1α-Glut1 pathway.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Xu, S; Xiong, L; Yu, L; Fu, X; Xu, Y

    2017-07-31

    SALL4 has recently been identified to promote chemo-resistance in multiple types of cancer, but the underlying mechanism remains to be fully established. Open chromatin structure is important for DNA damage response (DDR) and DNA repair. Here, we demonstrate that SALL4 promotes open chromatin by destabilizing heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) by recruiting ubiquitin E3 ligase CUL4B to HP1α. The silencing of SALL4 in cancer cells decreased the expression levels of Glut1 and inhibited glycolysis in cancer cells. The upregulation of HP1α in human cancer cells suppressed open chromatin, glycolysis and Glut1 expression levels. Therefore, SALL4 promotes the expression of Glut1 and open chromatin through a HP1α-dependent mechanism. Impaired DDR in SALL4-deficient human cancer cells can be rescued by the restored expression of Glut1, indicating the importance of HP1α-Glut1 axis in SALL4-mediated DDR. These findings demonstrate that SALL4 could induce drug resistance by enhancing DDR and DNA repair through promoting glycolysis and subsequent chromatin remodeling.Oncogene advance online publication, 31 July 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.265.

  13. Early Cretaceous extensional reworking of the Triassic HP-UHP metamorphic orogen in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.; Ji, W.; Faure, M.; Wu, L.; Li, Q. L.; Shi, Y.; Scharer, U.; Wang, F.; Wang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Corresponding to the Early Mesozoic continental subduction between the North China Block (NCB) and the South China Block (SCB), the Tongbaishan-Hong'an-Dabieshan-Sulu massifs are famous for their HP-UHP metamorphism. More than 50% of the HP-UHP Orogenic Belt was significantly reworked by Early Cretaceous extensional tectonics. This Early Cretaceous event with a fast cooling period, at 130-120 Ma, superimposed on the Early Mesozoic HP-UHP orogenic belt and intensively changed the architecture of this orogen. Each individual segment documents different Early Cretaceous extensional structures, namely the central Tongbaishan domain is a metamorphic core complex (MCC) represented by an A-type non-cylindrical antiform; the central Dabieshan domain is a typical Cordilleran-type migmatite-cored MCC; the Southern Sulu UHP domain is a "wedge-shaped" structure exhumed by a simple detachment fault. These late stage extensional structures expose the previous HP-UHP orogenic belt as fragments along the NCB-SCB boundary. The geodynamic setting of this Early Cretaceous extensional tectonics along the HP-UHP orogen is a part of a 1000 km-scale crustal extension belt that is widespread in eastern Eurasia continent from Trans-Baikal to the central part of the South China Block. Convective erosion or delamination of the mantle lithosphere might be considered as a possible mechanism for mantle removal.

  14. Early Cretaceous extensional reworking of the Triassic HP-UHP metamorphic orogen in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Ji, Wenbin; Faure, Michel; Wu, Lin; Li, Qiuli; Shi, Yonghong; Scharer, Urs; Wang, Fei; Wang, Qingchen

    2015-11-01

    Corresponding to the Early Mesozoic continental subduction between the North China Block (NCB) and the South China Block (SCB), the Tongbaishan-Hong'an-Dabieshan-Sulu massifs are famous for their HP-UHP metamorphism. More than 50% of the HP-UHP Orogenic Belt was significantly reworked by Early Cretaceous extensional tectonics. This Early Cretaceous event with a fast cooling period, at 130-120 Ma, superimposed on the Early Mesozoic HP-UHP orogenic belt and intensively changed the architecture of this orogen. Each individual segment documents different Early Cretaceous extensional structures, namely the central Tongbaishan domain is a metamorphic core complex (MCC) represented by an A-type non-cylindrical antiform; the central Dabieshan domain is a typical Cordilleran-type migmatite-cored MCC; the Southern Sulu UHP domain is a "wedge-shaped" structure exhumed by a simple detachment fault. These late stage extensional structures expose the previous HP-UHP orogenic belt as fragments along the NCB-SCB boundary. The geodynamic setting of this Early Cretaceous extensional tectonics along the HP-UHP orogen is a part of a 1000 km-scale crustal extension belt that is widespread in eastern Eurasia continent from Trans-Baikal to the central part of SCB. Convective erosion or delamination of the mantle lithosphere might be considered as a possible mechanism for mantle removal.

  15. Up-regulation of HP1γ expression during neuronal maturation promotes axonal and dendritic development in mouse embryonic neocortex.

    PubMed

    Oshiro, Hiroaki; Hirabayashi, Yusuke; Furuta, Yasuhide; Okabe, Shigeo; Gotoh, Yukiko

    2015-02-01

    Immature neurons undergo morphological and physiological changes including axonal and dendritic development to establish neuronal networks. As the transcriptional status changes at a large number of genes during neuronal maturation, global changes in chromatin modifiers may take place in this process. We now show that the amount of heterochromatin protein 1γ (HP1γ) increases during neuronal maturation in the mouse neocortex. Knockdown of HP1γ suppressed axonal and dendritic development in mouse embryonic neocortical neurons in culture, and either knockdown or knockout of HP1γ impaired the projection of callosal axons of superficial layer neurons to the contralateral hemisphere in the developing neocortex. Conversely, forced expression of HP1γ facilitated axonal and dendritic development, suggesting that the increase of HP1γ is a rate limiting step in neuronal maturation. These results together show an important role for HP1γ in promoting axonal and dendritic development in maturing neurons.

  16. HP1 knockdown is associated with abnormal condensation of almost all chromatin types in a grasshopper (Eyprepocnemis plorans).

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Estévez, Mercedes; Bakkali, Mohammed; Cabrero, Josefa; Camacho, Juan Pedro M; López-León, María Dolores

    2014-09-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a highly conserved family of eukaryotic proteins required for heterochromatic gene silencing and euchromatic gene transcription regulation. In addition, HP1 is involved in chromatin organization and protection of chromosome integrity during cell division. Here, we present a cytological and molecular analysis of the effects of HP1 knockdown in Eyprepocnemis plorans, a grasshopper species polymorphic for supernumerary heterochromatic chromosomes. Our results revealed contrasting effects of HP1 knockdown on gene activity. While the Bub1 gene decreased in expression level in HP1 knockdown animals, NOR activity, rRNA and, contrarily to previous reports in Drosophila, Hsp70 gene expression remained unchanged. Furthermore, HP1 knockdown resulted in abnormal chromatin condensation, chromosomal bridges, higher frequency of macrospermatids, loss of muscle mass and hemolymph amount as well as a low number of dividing cells and survival reduction. All these phenotypes are very likely due to the chromatin condensation disruption observed for almost all kinds of chromatin.

  17. Fluence to Hp(3) conversion coefficients for neutrons from thermal to 15 MeV.

    PubMed

    Gualdrini, G; Ferrari, P; Tanner, R

    2013-12-01

    The recent statement on tissue reactions issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in April 2011 recommends a very significant reduction in the equivalent dose annual limit for the eye lens from 150 to 20 mSv y(-1); this has stimulated a lot of interest in eye lens dosimetry in the radiation protection community. Until now no conversion coefficients were available for the operational quantity Hp(3) for neutrons. The scope of the present work was to extend previous evaluations of H*(10) and Hp(10) performed at the PTB in 1995 to provide also Hp(3) data for neutrons. The present work is also intended to complete the studies carried out on photons during the last 4 y within the European Union-funded ORAMED (optimisation of radiation protection for medical staff) project.

  18. Dynamical characteristics of an HP memristor based on an equivalent circuit model in a chaotic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Fang; Wang, Guang-Yi; Wang, Xiao-Yuan

    2015-06-01

    To develop real world memristor application circuits, an equivalent circuit model which imitates memductance (memory conductance) of the HP memristor is presented. The equivalent circuit can be used for breadboard experiments for various application circuit designs of memristor. Based on memductance of the realistic HP memristor and Chua’s circuit a new chaotic oscillator is designed. Some basic dynamical behaviors of the oscillator, including equilibrium set, Lyapunov exponent spectrum, and bifurcations with various circuit parameters are investigated theoretically and numerically. To confirm the correction of the proposed oscillator an analog circuit is designed using the proposed equivalent circuit model of an HP memristor, and the circuit simulations and the experimental results are given. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61271064 and 60971046), the Natural Science Foundation of Zhejiang Province, China (Grant No. LZ12F01001), and the Program for Zhejiang Leading Team of Science and Technology Innovation, China (Grant No. 2010R50010-07).

  19. Ray-tracing polymorphic multidomain spectral/hp elements for isosurface rendering.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Blake; Kirby, Robert M

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a ray-tracing isosurface rendering algorithm for spectral/hp (high-order finite) element methods in which the visualization error is both quantified and minimized. Determination of the ray-isosurface intersection is accomplished by classic polynomial root-finding applied to a polynomial approximation obtained by projecting the finite element solution over element-partitioned segments along the ray. Combining the smoothness properties of spectral/hp elements with classic orthogonal polynomial approximation theory, we devise an adaptive scheme which allows the polynomial approximation along a ray-segment to be arbitrarily close to the true solution. The resulting images converge toward a pixel-exact image at a rate far faster than sampling the spectral/hp element solution and applying classic low-order visualization techniques such as marching cubes.

  20. Bensal HP Attenuates the Inflammatory Response in Hair Shaving Associated Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anjana; Mordorski, Breanne; Landriscina, Angelo; Rosen, Jamie; Nosanchuk, Joshua; Friedman, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Shaving is an ubiquitous practice, and cutaneous irritation and inflammation are common sequelae, which may be worsened by underlying skin conditions or poor hair removal techniques. Moisturizing shaving creams and aftershaves are available to help maintain or restore the epidermal barrier; however, many continue to suffer from post-shave redness, itching, and pain. To reduce post-shave inflammation, some products have included botanical and other natural ingredients, which are often favored by consumers. We evaluated Bensal HP, an ointment containing 3% oak bark extract, 3% salicylic acid, and 6% benzoic acid, which has documented anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, in a murine model of shave irritation to determine whether it would be useful in this clinical setting. Shaving dermatitis was simulated using a depilatory agent and electric clippers, and the shaved area was photographed and treated with Bensal HP daily for four days. Compared to untreated controls, mice treated with Bensal HP experienced a visible reduction in skin irritation and inflammation. These findings were mirrored on histology, as Bensal HP-treated areas demonstrated increased epidermal integrity and decreased dermal inflammatory infiltrate compared to untreated skin. Using immunohistochemistry, fewer neutrophils and macrophages were noted, and cytokine analysis also revealed decreased IL-6 in Bensal HP-treated skin at 24 and 96 hours after shaving. These results highlight the potential of Bensal HP as an anti-inflammatory treatment for shave irritation. Given the product's application against a variety of inflammatory and infectious skin disorders, its use against shave irritation may also improve comorbid skin conditions, such as pseudofolliculitis barbae.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):836-840.

  1. HP0197 contributes to CPS synthesis and the virulence of Streptococcus suis via CcpA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Anding; Chen, Bo; Yuan, Zhengzhi; Li, Ran; Liu, Cheng; Zhou, Hongbo; Chen, Huanchun; Jin, Meilin

    2012-01-01

    Streptococcus suis serotype 2 (SS2), a major swine pathogen and an emerging zoonotic agent, has greatly challenged global public health. The encoding proteins with unknown functions the bacterium encodes are an obstruction to studies of the pathogenesis. A novel surface protective antigen HP0197 is one of these proteins which have no sequence homology to any known protein. In the present study, the protein was determined to be involved in bacterial virulence through an evaluation of the isogenic mutant (Δhp0197) in both mice and pigs. The experimental infection also indicated that Δhp0197 could be cleared easily during infection, which could be attributed to the reduced thickness of the capsular polysaccharides (CPS) and the significantly reduced phagocytotic resistance. Microarrays-based comparative transcriptome analysis suggested that the suppressed expression of the operon responsible for CPS synthesis might be reversed by CcpA activity, which controlled global regulation of carbon catabolite through the binding of the CcpA and HPr-Ser-46-P to the catabolite-responsive elements (cre) of the target operons. The hypothesis was approved by the fact that the purified FLAG-tagged HPr from WT stain exhibited a higher binding activity to cre with CcpA compared to the Δhp0197 by the Electrophoretic Mobility Shift Assay, suggesting lower level of phosphorylation of the phosphocarrier protein HPr at residue Ser-46 (HPr-Ser-46P) in Δhp0197. These indicated that HP0197 could enhance CcpA activity to control the expression of genes involved in carbohydrate utilization and CPS synthesis, thus contributing to the virulence of S. suis.

  2. Widespread expression of SAA and Hp RNA in bovine tissues after evaluation of suitable reference genes.

    PubMed

    Lecchi, Cristina; Dilda, Francesca; Sartorelli, Paola; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2012-01-15

    The serum amyloid A (SAA) and haptoglobin (Hp) are the most prominent acute phase proteins (APPs) in cow. Liver mainly produces APPs, but extra hepatic expression has also been demonstrated in some tissues. The major aim of the present study was to assess the constitutive SAA and Hp mRNA expression by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in a wide panel of 33 bovine tissues, including gastrointestinal tract, respiratory system, urogenital system, mammary gland, hematopoietic system, central nervous system, eye, thyroid and heart. Normalization of gene expression in different samples requires reference genes, which are stably expressed. Therefore, seven reference genes were investigated (ACTB, GAPDH, HMBS, SDHA, YWHAZ, SF3A1, EEF1A2) and three genes, namely SF3A1, HMBS and ACTB, were selected after assessing their stability with geNorm™ and NormFinder(©) softwares. The qPCR analysis confirmed liver as the principal source of SAA and Hp, but also identified both APPs' mRNA in almost all tissues. The highest expression rate of SAA was found in thyroid, followed by pancreas and submandibulary gland. Hp mRNA expression was detected at high concentration in pancreas and submandibulary gland. The present data indicated a widespread expression of SAA and Hp also in non pathological conditions, thus envisaging a possible role as immunomodulatory and protective molecules. To understand where SAA and Hp come from is the prerequisite to their utilization as Acute Phase Reaction biomarkers. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A catalytic antibody heavy chain HpU-2 degrading its epitope peptide and H. pylori urease.

    PubMed

    Hifumi, Emi; Yamada, Yukiko; Uda, Taizo

    2006-02-28

    The HpU-2 monoclonal antibody (mAb) raised against Helicobacter pylori urease mainly recognized the alpha-subunit of the urease. On the other hand, the heavy chain of HpU-2 mAb (HpU-2-H) isolated from the parent mAb recognized both the alpha- and beta-subunit, in which the beta-subunit was recognized more strongly than the beta-subunit. HpU-2-H cleaved a peptide, SVELIDIGGNRRIFGFNALVD, which is the epitope sequence recognized by HpU-2 mAb, showing a double-phase reaction profile at 25 degrees C in a phosphate buffer. After an induction time of 24h, the cleavage of the peptide was initiated by HpU-2-H at a high rate and it was completed at 80 h of incubation. By mass spectroscopy, two main fragmented peptides, SVELIDIGGNRR and SVELIDIGGNRRIFG, were identified. In addition, many small peptide fragments were produced by successive cleavage of the fragmented peptides. Cleavage tests for H. pylori urease by HpU-2-H revealed that the beta-subunit of the urease was cleaved first and completely decomposed at 20 h of incubation. Cleavage of the alpha-subunit started after the complete decomposition of the beta-subunit. These cleavage results were in good agreement with the immunological features of HpU-2-H. The irrelevant proteins, BSA and HSA, were hardly cleaved by HpU-2-H.

  4. HP1BP3 is a novel histone H1 related protein with essential roles in viability and growth.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, Benjamin P; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Anuka, Eli; Bustin, Michael; Orly, Joseph

    2015-02-27

    The dynamic architecture of chromatin is vital for proper cellular function, and is maintained by the concerted action of numerous nuclear proteins, including that of the linker histone H1 variants, the most abundant family of nucleosome-binding proteins. Here we show that the nuclear protein HP1BP3 is widely expressed in most vertebrate tissues and is evolutionarily and structurally related to the H1 family. HP1BP3 contains three globular domains and a highly positively charged C-terminal domain, resembling similar domains in H1. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies indicate that like H1, binding of HP1BP3 to chromatin depends on both its C and N terminal regions and is affected by the cell cycle and post translational modifications. HP1BP3 contains functional motifs not found in H1 histones, including an acidic stretch and a consensus HP1-binding motif. Transcriptional profiling of HeLa cells lacking HP1BP3 showed altered expression of 383 genes, suggesting a role for HP1BP3 in modulation of gene expression. Significantly, Hp1bp3(-/-) mice present a dramatic phenotype with 60% of pups dying within 24 h of birth and the surviving animals exhibiting a lifelong 20% growth retardation. We suggest that HP1BP3 is a ubiquitous histone H1 like nuclear protein with distinct and non-redundant functions necessary for survival and growth.

  5. HP1BP3 is a novel histone H1 related protein with essential roles in viability and growth

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, Benjamin P.; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Anuka, Eli; Bustin, Michael; Orly, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic architecture of chromatin is vital for proper cellular function, and is maintained by the concerted action of numerous nuclear proteins, including that of the linker histone H1 variants, the most abundant family of nucleosome-binding proteins. Here we show that the nuclear protein HP1BP3 is widely expressed in most vertebrate tissues and is evolutionarily and structurally related to the H1 family. HP1BP3 contains three globular domains and a highly positively charged C-terminal domain, resembling similar domains in H1. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies indicate that like H1, binding of HP1BP3 to chromatin depends on both its C and N terminal regions and is affected by the cell cycle and post translational modifications. HP1BP3 contains functional motifs not found in H1 histones, including an acidic stretch and a consensus HP1-binding motif. Transcriptional profiling of HeLa cells lacking HP1BP3 showed altered expression of 383 genes, suggesting a role for HP1BP3 in modulation of gene expression. Significantly, Hp1bp3−/− mice present a dramatic phenotype with 60% of pups dying within 24 h of birth and the surviving animals exhibiting a lifelong 20% growth retardation. We suggest that HP1BP3 is a ubiquitous histone H1 like nuclear protein with distinct and non-redundant functions necessary for survival and growth. PMID:25662603

  6. hp-DPI: Helicobacter pylori database of protein interactomes--embracing experimental and inferred interactions.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chung-Yen; Chen, Chia-Ling; Cho, Chi-Shiang; Wang, Li-Ming; Chang, Chia-Ming; Chen, Pao-Yang; Lo, Chen-Zen; Hsiung, Chao A

    2005-04-01

    We implemented a statistical model into our protein interaction database for validation of two-hybrid assays of Helicobacter pylori, and prediction of putative protein interactions not yet discovered experimentally. To present the enormous amount of experimental and inferred protein interaction networking maps, the H.pylori Database of Protein Interactomes (hp-DPI) is developed with a succinct yet comprehensive visualization tool integrated with annotation from Genbank, GO, and KEGG. hp-DPI is first built with, but not limited to, H.pylori protein interactions and is expected to naturally include other organisms' protein interacting relationships in the future.

  7. Red variables in the Hipparcos HpV-T2 system: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platais, I.; Pourbaix, D.; Jorissen, A.; Makarov, V. V.

    2003-03-01

    For 4785 M, 50 S, and 321 C stars from Hipparcos Catalogue, we provide calibrated Cousins V-I color indices using the newly derived Hp-V-T2 color. The standard error of the mean V-I is 0.1 mag or better down to Hp 9. This photometry can be used to explore the chromaticity effects on the Hipparcos astrometry of red stars with extreme colors. It can also help to solve some problematic cases in the Hipparcos Catalogue, involving a red variable star in a real or a possible binary system.

  8. Rapid conversion of adolescent MMPI raw scores to T scores using the HP-67 programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Hembling, D W

    1984-01-01

    Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator (HP-67, 97, 41C, 41CV) to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. The program is stored on one side of a standard HP magnetic card. The norm data for adolescents (or optionally any other group) in the age groups less than 15, 15, 16, and 17 occupy two sides per sex per age group of eight magnetic data cards. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes.

  9. Using the Mass Storage System at ZIB within I3HP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stüben, H.; Wollny, S.

    2006-03-01

    In the framework of I3HP there are two Transnational Access Activities related to Computational Hadron Physics. One of these activities is access to the mass storage system at Konrad-Zuse-Zentrum für Information-stechnik Berlin (ZIB). European lattice physics collaborations can apply for mass storage capacity in order to store and share their configurations or other data (see http://www.zib.de/i3hp/). In this paper formal and technical aspects of usage as well as the conformance to the International Lattice DataGrid (ILDG) are explained.

  10. An hp-adaptive finite element/boundary element coupling method for electromagnetic problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, E. P.; Maischak, M.; Leydecker, F.

    2007-04-01

    We present an hp-version of the finite element / boundary element coupling method to solve the eddy current problem for the time-harmonic Maxwell’s equations. We use H(curl, Ω -conforming vector-valued polynomials to approximate the electric field in the conductor Ω and surface curls of continuous piecewise polynomials on the boundary Γ of Ω to approximate the twisted tangential trace of the magnetic field on Γ. We present both a priori and a posteriori error estimates together with a three-fold hp-adaptive algorithm to compute the fem/bem coupling solution with appropriate distributions of polynomial degrees on suitably refined meshes.

  11. Phase 3 evaluation of HP802-247 in the treatment of chronic venous leg ulcers.

    PubMed

    Kirsner, Robert S; Vanscheidt, Wolfgang; Keast, David H; Lantis, John C; Dove, Cyaandi R; Cazzell, Shawn M; Vartivarian, Mher; Augustin, Matthias; Marston, William A; McCoy Bs, Nicholas D; Cargill PhD, D Innes; Lee Mshs, Tommy D; Dickerson, Jaime E; Slade Md, Herbert B

    2016-09-01

    In 2012 we reported promising results from a phase 2 clinical trial of HP802-247, a novel spray-applied investigational treatment for chronic venous leg ulcers consisting of human, allogeneic fibroblasts and keratinocytes. We now describe phase 3 clinical testing of HP802-247, its failure to detect efficacy, and subsequent investigation into the root causes of the failure. Two randomized, controlled trials enrolled a total of 673 adult outpatients at 96 centers in North America and Europe. The primary endpoint was the proportion of ulcers with confirmed closure at the end of 12 weeks of treatment. An investigation into the root cause for the failure of HP802-247 to show efficacy in these two phase 3 trials was initiated immediately following the initial review of the North American trial results. Four hundred twenty-one patients were enrolled in the North American (HP802-247, 211; Vehicle 210) and 252 in the European (HP802-247, 131; Vehicle 121) trials. No difference in proportion of closed ulcers at week 12 was observed between treatment groups for either the North American (HP802-247, 61.1%; Vehicle 60.0%; p = 0.5896) or the European (HP802-247, 47.0%; Vehicle 50.0%; p = 0.5348) trials. Thorough investigation found no likelihood that design or execution of the trials contributed to the failure. Variability over time during the trials in the clinical response implicated the quality of the cells comprising HP802-247. Concordance between the two separate, randomized, controlled trials with distinct, nonoverlapping investigative sites and independent monitoring teams renders the possibility of a Type II error vanishingly small and provides strong credibility for the unexpected lack of efficacy observed. The most likely causative factors for the efficacy failure in phase 3 was phenotypic change in the cells (primarily keratinocytes) leading to batch to batch variability due to the age of the cell banks.

  12. The p and h-p Versions of the Finite Element Method; State of the Art.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    the h-p version was first theoretically studied in Babu’ka and Dorr [1981]. For theoretical analy- - sis of the p-version in 3-dimensions, we refer to...1985], Szab6 [1986] and Szab6 [1986a]. The p and h-p versions for two dimensional problems were implemented in the commercial system PROBE by Noetic Tech...approximation for H1 = HI(Q), i.e. we will study the magnitude of Z(K H’(9), S(T,p)). Numerical illustration will be given S., in Section 7. First let

  13. An hp -local discontinuous Galerkin method for some quasilinear elliptic boundary value problems of nonmonotone type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudi, Thirupathi; Nataraj, Neela; Pani, Amiya K.

    2008-06-01

    In this paper, an hp -local discontinuous Galerkin method is applied to a class of quasilinear elliptic boundary value problems which are of nonmonotone type. On hp -quasiuniform meshes, using the Brouwer fixed point theorem, it is shown that the discrete problem has a solution, and then using Lipschitz continuity of the discrete solution map, uniqueness is also proved. A priori error estimates in broken H^1 norm and L^2 norm which are optimal in h , suboptimal in p are derived. These results are exactly the same as in the case of linear elliptic boundary value problems. Numerical experiments are provided to illustrate the theoretical results.

  14. Functional impact of Aurora A-mediated phosphorylation of HP1γ at serine 83 during cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous elegant studies performed in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have identified a requirement for heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) for spindle pole formation and appropriate cell division. In mammalian cells, HP1γ has been implicated in both somatic and germ cell proliferation. High levels of HP1γ protein associate with enhanced cell proliferation and oncogenesis, while its genetic inactivation results in meiotic and mitotic failure. However, the regulation of HP1γ by kinases, critical for supporting mitotic progression, remains to be fully characterized. Results We report for the first time that during mitotic cell division, HP1γ colocalizes and is phosphorylated at serine 83 (Ser83) in G2/M phase by Aurora A. Since Aurora A regulates both cell proliferation and mitotic aberrations, we evaluated the role of HP1γ in the regulation of these phenomena using siRNA-mediated knockdown, as well as phosphomimetic and nonphosphorylatable site-directed mutants. We found that genetic downregulation of HP1γ, which decreases the levels of phosphorylation of HP1γ at Ser83 (P-Ser83-HP1γ), results in mitotic aberrations that can be rescued by reintroducing wild type HP1γ, but not the nonphosphorylatable S83A-HP1γ mutant. In addition, proliferation assays showed that the phosphomimetic S83D-HP1γ increases 5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation, whereas the nonphosphorylatable S83A-HP1γ mutant abrogates this effect. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed that the effects of these mutants on mitotic functions are congruently reflected in G2/M gene expression networks in a manner that mimics the on and off states for P-Ser83-HP1γ. Conclusions This is the first description of a mitotic Aurora A-HP1γ pathway, whose integrity is necessary for the execution of proper somatic cell division, providing insight into specific types of posttranslational modifications that associate to distinct functional outcomes of this important chromatin

  15. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM DRIVE END. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250-HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM DRIVE END. MOTOR BADGE PLATE READS 263 AMP, 400 VOLT, FRAME 6274-D #4940649, 250 HORSEPOWER, TYPE TSR, 3 PHASE, 60 CYCLE, SPEED 300 RPM. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  16. Developing Consensus on the CompHP Professional Standards for Health Promotion in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speller, Viv; Parish, Richard; Davison, Heather; Zilnyk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Building on the CompHP Core Competencies for health promotion the Professional Standards for Health Promotion have been developed and consulted on across Europe. The standards were formulated to fit within the complexity of professional, occupational and educational standards frameworks in Europe as learning outcome standards with performance…

  17. Citrullination of Histone H3 Interferes with HP1-Mediated Transcriptional Repression

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Priyanka; Azebi, Saliha; England, Patrick; Christensen, Tove; Møller-Larsen, Anné; Petersen, Thor; Batsché, Eric; Muchardt, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease associated with abnormal expression of a subset of cytokines, resulting in inappropriate T-lymphocyte activation and uncontrolled immune response. A key issue in the field is the need to understand why these cytokines are transcriptionally activated in the patients. Here, we have examined several transcription units subject to pathological reactivation in MS, including the TNFα and IL8 cytokine genes and also several Human Endogenous RetroViruses (HERVs). We find that both the immune genes and the HERVs require the heterochromatin protein HP1α for their transcriptional repression. We further show that the Peptidylarginine Deiminase 4 (PADI4), an enzyme with a suspected role in MS, weakens the binding of HP1α to tri-methylated histone H3 lysine 9 by citrullinating histone H3 arginine 8. The resulting de-repression of both cytokines and HERVs can be reversed with the PADI-inhibitor Cl-amidine. Finally, we show that in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from MS patients, the promoters of TNFα, and several HERVs share a deficit in HP1α recruitment and an augmented accumulation of histone H3 with a double citrulline 8 tri-methyl lysine 9 modifications. Thus, our study provides compelling evidence that HP1α and PADI4 are regulators of both immune genes and HERVs, and that multiple events of transcriptional reactivation in MS patients can be explained by the deficiency of a single mechanism of gene silencing. PMID:23028349

  18. Haptoglobin (HP) and Haptoglobin-related protein (HPR) copy number variation, natural selection, and trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Hardwick, Robert J; Ménard, Anne; Sironi, Manuela; Milet, Jacqueline; Garcia, André; Sese, Claude; Yang, Fengtang; Fu, Beiyuan; Courtin, David; Hollox, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    Haptoglobin, coded by the HP gene, is a plasma protein that acts as a scavenger for free heme, and haptoglobin-related protein (coded by the HPR gene) forms part of the trypanolytic factor TLF-1, together with apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1). We analyse the polymorphic small intragenic duplication of the HP gene, with alleles Hp1 and Hp2, in 52 populations, and find no evidence for natural selection either from extended haplotype analysis or from correlation with pathogen richness matrices. Using fiber-FISH, the paralog ratio test, and array-CGH data, we also confirm that the HPR gene is copy number variable, with duplication of the whole HPR gene at polymorphic frequencies in west and central Africa, up to an allele frequency of 15 %. The geographical distribution of the HPR duplication allele overlaps the region where the pathogen causing chronic human African trypanosomiasis, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, is endemic. The HPR duplication has occurred on one SNP haplotype, but there is no strong evidence of extended homozygosity, a characteristic of recent natural selection. The HPR duplication shows a slight, non-significant undertransmission to human African trypanosomiasis-affected children of unaffected parents in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, taken together with alleles of APOL1, there is an overall significant undertransmission of putative protective alleles to human African trypanosomiasis-affected children.

  19. 29. INDUCTION MOTOR (6600 VOLTS, 5750 H.P.) DRIVES THE 21INCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. INDUCTION MOTOR (6600 VOLTS, 5750 H.P.) DRIVES THE 21-INCH AND 18-INCH BILLET MILLS. MOTOR WAS MANUFACTURED BY THE GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM SLIP RING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250-HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM SLIP RING END. NOTE BOLTS AND SPRINGS OF BRAKE BAND, HEAVY-WIRE ARMATURE WINDINGS, AND TIGHTLY WOUND STATOR (FIELD) COILS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  1. The Structure of Helicobacter pylori HP0310 Reveals an Atypical Peptidoglycan Deacetylase

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Md Munan; Cendron, Laura; Percudani, Riccardo; Zanotti, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    Peptidoglycan deacetlyase (HP0310, HpPgdA) from the gram-negative pathogen Helicobacter pylori, has been indicated as the enzyme responsible for a peptidoglycan modification that counteracts the host immune response. HpPgdA has been cloned, purified and expressed in good yield in E. coli. It has been crystallized, its structure determined and activity tests in vitro performed. The enzyme, which belongs to the polysaccharide deacetylases protein family, is a homo-tetramer. The four polypeptide chains, each folded into a single domain characterized by a non-canonical TIM-barrel fold, are arranged around a four-fold symmetry axis. The active site, one per monomer, contains a heavy ion coordinated in a way similar to other deacetylases. However, the enzyme showed no in vitro activity on the typical polysaccharide substrates of peptidoglycan deacetylases. In striking contrast with the known peptidoglycan deacetylases, HpPgdA does not exhibit a solvent-accessible polysaccharide binding groove, suggesting that the enzyme binds a small molecule at the active site. PMID:21559431

  2. New approach to calculate the true-coincidence effect of HpGe detector

    SciTech Connect

    Alnour, I. A. E-mail: ibrahim.elnour@yahoo.com; Wagiran, H.; Ibrahim, N.; Hamzah, S.; Elias, M. S.; Siong, W. B.

    2016-01-22

    The corrections for true-coincidence effects in HpGe detector are important, especially at low source-to-detector distances. This work established an approach to calculate the true-coincidence effects experimentally for HpGe detectors of type Canberra GC3018 and Ortec GEM25-76-XLB-C, which are in operation at neutron activation analysis lab in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM). The correction for true-coincidence effects was performed close to detector at distances 2 and 5 cm using {sup 57}Co, {sup 60}Co, {sup 133}Ba and {sup 137}Cs as standard point sources. The correction factors were ranged between 0.93-1.10 at 2 cm and 0.97-1.00 at 5 cm for Canberra HpGe detector; whereas for Ortec HpGe detector ranged between 0.92-1.13 and 0.95-100 at 2 and 5 cm respectively. The change in efficiency calibration curve of the detector at 2 and 5 cm after correction was found to be less than 1%. Moreover, the polynomial parameters functions were simulated through a computer program, MATLAB in order to find an accurate fit to the experimental data points.

  3. Detail, unit 1, 3,000 horsepower (hp) synchronous pump motor. Manufactured ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, unit 1, 3,000 horsepower (hp) synchronous pump motor. Manufactured by The Electric Machinery Manufacturing Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Units 2 and 3 are identical to this unit - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  4. 10. Photographic copy of blueprint dated 1931; H.P. Henschien, Chicago, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photographic copy of blueprint dated 1931; H.P. Henschien, Chicago, architect; Original in collection of Rath drawings and blueprints owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloom, Iowa; SECTION OF BUILDING 92, SHOWING STRUCTURAL SYSTEM - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  5. 9. Photographic copy of blueprint dated 1931; H.P. Henschien, Chicago, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. Photographic copy of blueprint dated 1931; H.P. Henschien, Chicago, architect; Original in collection of Rath drawings and blueprints owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloom, Iowa; PLAN OF HOG DRESSING FLOOR ON 4TH LEVEL OF BUILDING 92; SHOWS LAYOUT OF DRESSING EQUIPMENT - Rath Packing Company, Hog Dressing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  6. Study of the inclusion interaction of HP-γ-cyclodextrin with bupropion and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiuk, Wieslawa; Jasiuk, Emilia

    2014-02-01

    Inclusion complex formation between bupropion (BUP) and hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (HP-γ-CD) was studied by Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and UV spectroscopy. The main factors affecting inclusion interaction were discussed in detail. The inclusion complex of bupropion and hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin was studied at pH 5 in aqueous phase. Stoichiometry of the complex was found to be 1:1 and apparent formation constant (log K) was determined as 3.54 ± 0.01, suggesting a tendency of the drug to enter HP-γ-CD cavity. All obtained information proved the formation of BUP/HP-γ-CD inclusion complex. A significant enhancement of absorption intensity of bupropion in presence of HP-γ-CD was shown. Due to the property a sensitive spectrophotometric method was elaborated for determination of active substance in bulk solution. At optimum experimental conditions, a linear relationship between absorbance and concentration of bupropion is observed in range of 4-60 μg mL-1 with limit detection of 0.32 μg mL-1 and correlation coefficient of 0.9991. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of BUP in pharmaceutical preparations and the results were satisfactory in comparison to official method.

  7. The Weak Link HP-41C hand-held calculator program

    Treesearch

    Ross A. Phillips; Penn A. Peters; Gary D. Falk

    1982-01-01

    The Weak Link hand-held calculator program (HP-41C) quickly analyzes a system for logging production and costs. The production equations model conventional chain saw, skidder, loader, and tandemaxle truck operations in eastern mountain areas. Production of each function of the logging system may be determined so that the system may be balanced for minimum cost. The...

  8. Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwala, R.; Batzoglou, S.; Dancik, V.

    1997-06-01

    We consider the problem of determining the three-dimensional folding of a protein given its one-dimensional amino acid sequence. We use the HP model for protein folding proposed by Dill, which models protein as a chain of amino acid residues that are either hydrophobic or polar, and hydrophobic interactions are the dominant initial driving force for the protein folding. Hart and Istrail gave approximation algorithms for folding proteins on the cubic lattice under HP model. In this paper, we examine the choice of a lattice by considering its algorithmic and geometric implications and argue that triangular lattice is a more reasonable choice. We present a set of folding rules for a triangular lattice and analyze the approximation ratio which they achieve. In addition, we introduce a generalization of the HP model to account for residues having different levels of hydrophobicity. After describing the biological foundation for this generalization, we show that in the new model we are able to achieve similar constant factor approximation guarantees on the triangular lattice as were achieved in the standard HP model. While the structures derived from our folding rules are probably still far from biological reality, we hope that having a set of folding rules with different properties will yield more interesting folds when combined.

  9. ENEA extremity dosemeter based on LiF(Mg,Cu,P) to evaluate Hp(3,alpha).

    PubMed

    Mariotti, F; Fantuzzi, E; Morelli, B; Gualdrini, G; Botta, M C; Uleri, G; Bordy, J M; Denoziere, M

    2011-03-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low-dose threshold (<0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimised and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. ICRP Publication 103 on H(p)(d), in §(136), reads that '… a depth d = 3 mm has been proposed for the rare case of monitoring the dose to the lens of the eye. In practice, however, H(p)(3) has rarely been monitored and H(p)(0.07) can be used for the same monitoring purpose… '. As recommended on the EU 'Technical recommendations for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation', a test on the ENEA TL extremity dosemeter is herein reported. The results within the actual EU founded Optimization of RAdiation protection for MEDical staff (ORAMED) Project, whose WP2 is aimed at the quantity H(p)(3) and eye lens dosimetry in practice, are taken into account. The paper summarises the main aspects of the study carried out at ENEA-Radiation Protection Institute (Bologna, Italy) to provide practical solutions (in the use and the design) to evaluate the response of the ENEA TL extremity dosemeter in terms of H(p)(3).

  10. Integration of hp-Adaptivity and a Two Grid Solver. II. Electromagnetic Problems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    for lower order FE spaces. More precisely, let T be a grid,M the associated lowest order Nedelec subspaces ofHD(curl; Ω) of the first kind [24], and W... Nedelec , Mixed finite elements in IR3., Numer. Math., 35 (1980), pp. 315–341. [25] D. Pardo and L. Demkowicz, Integration of hp-adaptivity with a two

  11. Critical Success Factors in Crafting Strategic Architecture for E-Learning at HP University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Kunal; Pandit, Pallvi; Pandit, Parul

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the critical success factors for crafting a strategic architecture for e-learning at HP University. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive survey type of research design was used. An empirical study was conducted on students enrolled with the International Centre for Distance and Open Learning…

  12. HP1 Recruitment in the Absence of Argonaute Proteins in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Moshkovich, Nellie; Lei, Elissa P.

    2010-01-01

    Highly repetitive and transposable element rich regions of the genome must be stabilized by the presence of heterochromatin. A direct role for RNA interference in the establishment of heterochromatin has been demonstrated in fission yeast. In metazoans, which possess multiple RNA–silencing pathways that are both functionally distinct and spatially restricted, whether RNA silencing contributes directly to heterochromatin formation is not clear. Previous studies in Drosophila melanogaster have suggested the involvement of both the AGO2-dependent endogenous small interfering RNA (endo-siRNA) as well as Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) silencing pathways. In order to determine if these Argonaute genes are required for heterochromatin formation, we utilized transcriptional reporters and chromatin immunoprecipitation of the critical factor Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) to monitor the heterochromatic state of piRNA clusters, which generate both endo-siRNAs and the bulk of piRNAs. Surprisingly, we find that mutation of AGO2 or piwi increases silencing at piRNA clusters corresponding to an increase of HP1 association. Furthermore, loss of piRNA production from a single piRNA cluster results in genome-wide redistribution of HP1 and reduction of silencing at a distant heterochromatic site, suggesting indirect effects on HP1 recruitment. Taken together, these results indicate that heterochromatin forms independently of endo-siRNA and piRNA pathways. PMID:20300658

  13. Displacement of D1, HP1 and topoisomerase II from satellite heterochromatin by a specific polyamide.

    PubMed

    Blattes, Roxane; Monod, Caroline; Susbielle, Guillaume; Cuvier, Olivier; Wu, Jian-hong; Hsieh, Tao-shih; Laemmli, Ulrich K; Käs, Emmanuel

    2006-06-07

    The functions of DNA satellites of centric heterochromatin are difficult to assess with classical molecular biology tools. Using a chemical approach, we demonstrate that synthetic polyamides that specifically target AT-rich satellite repeats of Drosophila melanogaster can be used to study the function of these sequences. The P9 polyamide, which binds the X-chromosome 1.688 g/cm3 satellite III (SAT III), displaces the D1 protein. This displacement in turn results in a selective loss of HP1 and topoisomerase II from SAT III, while these proteins remain bound to the adjacent rDNA repeats and to other regions not targeted by P9. Conversely, targeting of (AAGAG)n satellite V repeats by the P31 polyamide results in the displacement of HP1 from these sequences, indicating that HP1 interactions with chromatin are sensitive to DNA-binding ligands. P9 fed to larvae suppresses the position-effect variegation phenotype of white-mottled adult flies. We propose that this effect is due to displacement of the heterochromatin proteins D1, HP1 and topoisomerase II from SAT III, hence resulting in stochastic chromatin opening and desilencing of the nearby white gene.

  14. Detail, unit 4, 1,850 horsepower (hp) synchronous pump motor manufactured ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, unit 4, 1,850 horsepower (hp) synchronous pump motor manufactured by The Electric Products Company, Cleveland , Ohio. Pump units 1, 2, and 3 are identical to this unit. View to the west - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  15. Detail, unit 4, 3,000 hp synchronous pump motor. Manufactured by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, unit 4, 3,000 hp synchronous pump motor. Manufactured by The Electric Products Company, Cleveland, Ohio. Unit 5 is identical to this unit - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  16. Detail, unit 3, 1,100 horsepower (hp) pump motor. Manufactured by ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, unit 3, 1,100 horsepower (hp) pump motor. Manufactured by the Electric Products Company, Cleveland, Ohio, USA. Units 1,2, and 4 are identical to this unit - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 1, Bounded by Gila River & Union Pacific Railroad, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  17. Strategic Architecture for E-Learning at H.P. University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Kunal; Sood, Deepak; Singh, Amarjeet; Pandit, Pallvi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to unravel a strategic architecture for e-learning for a traditional university like Himachal Pradesh University (H.P. University) and provide guidelines as to how to carry the implementation of e-learning for the university of the future. Design/methodology/approach: Getting to the future first is not just…

  18. Critical Success Factors in Crafting Strategic Architecture for E-Learning at HP University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Kunal; Pandit, Pallvi; Pandit, Parul

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the critical success factors for crafting a strategic architecture for e-learning at HP University. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive survey type of research design was used. An empirical study was conducted on students enrolled with the International Centre for Distance and Open Learning…

  19. Developing Consensus on the CompHP Professional Standards for Health Promotion in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speller, Viv; Parish, Richard; Davison, Heather; Zilnyk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Building on the CompHP Core Competencies for health promotion the Professional Standards for Health Promotion have been developed and consulted on across Europe. The standards were formulated to fit within the complexity of professional, occupational and educational standards frameworks in Europe as learning outcome standards with performance…

  20. 10. BOILER #16 (BUILDING L8) TO LEFT, L.P. AND H.P. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BOILER #16 (BUILDING L8) TO LEFT, L.P. AND H.P. BOILER ROOMS (BUILDINGS L4 AND L2) TO RIGHT, AND STEPHENS SUBSTATION (BUILDING L6) IN BACKGROUND, FROM THE ROOF OF THE POWERHOUSE EXTENSION (BUILDING L5) - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  1. Strategic Architecture for E-Learning at H.P. University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Kunal; Sood, Deepak; Singh, Amarjeet; Pandit, Pallvi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to unravel a strategic architecture for e-learning for a traditional university like Himachal Pradesh University (H.P. University) and provide guidelines as to how to carry the implementation of e-learning for the university of the future. Design/methodology/approach: Getting to the future first is not just…

  2. dAdd1 and dXNP prevent genome instability by maintaining HP1a localization at Drosophila telomeres.

    PubMed

    Chavez, Joselyn; Murillo-Maldonado, Juan Manuel; Bahena, Vanessa; Cruz, Ana Karina; Castañeda-Sortibrán, América; Rodriguez-Arnaiz, Rosario; Zurita, Mario; Valadez-Graham, Viviana

    2017-07-07

    Telomeres are important contributors to genome stability, as they prevent linear chromosome end degradation and contribute to the avoidance of telomeric fusions. An important component of the telomeres is the heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a). Mutations in Su(var)205, the gene encoding HP1a in Drosophila, result in telomeric fusions, retrotransposon regulation loss and larger telomeres, leading to chromosome instability. Previously, it was found that several proteins physically interact with HP1a, including dXNP and dAdd1 (orthologues to the mammalian ATRX gene). In this study, we found that mutations in the genes encoding the dXNP and dAdd1 proteins affect chromosome stability, causing chromosomal aberrations, including telomeric defects, similar to those observed in Su(var)205 mutants. In somatic cells, we observed that dXNP and dAdd1 participate in the silencing of the telomeric HTT array of retrotransposons, preventing anomalous retrotransposon transcription and integration. Furthermore, the lack of dAdd1 results in the loss of HP1a from the telomeric regions without affecting other chromosomal HP1a binding sites; mutations in dxnp also affected HP1a localization but not at all telomeres, suggesting a specialized role for dAdd1 and dXNP proteins in locating HP1a at the tips of the chromosomes. These results place dAdd1 as an essential regulator of HP1a localization and function in the telomere heterochromatic domain.

  3. HP-9810A calculator programs for plotting the 2-dimensional motion of cyclindrical payloads relative to the shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    The HP-9810A calculator programs described provide the capability to generate HP-9862A plotter displays which depict the apparent motion of a free-flying cyclindrical payload relative to the shuttle orbiter body axes by projecting the payload geometry into the orbiter plane of symmetry at regular time intervals.

  4. Expression of hp1 family genes and their plausible role in formation of flamenco phenotype in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lavrenov, A R; Nefedova, L N; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2014-11-01

    Results of expression analysis of transcription of the flamenco locus that controls transposition of the mobile genetic element gypsy, RNA interference system genes ago3, zuc, aub, and HP1 heterochromatin protein family genes hp1a, hp1b, hp1c, hp1d (rhino), and hp1e in D. melanogaster SS strain mutant on the flamenco gene are presented. We show that the number of transcripts in the SS strain that are formed in the flamenco locus is unchanged in some freely chosen points, and this is different from the wild-type strain where a decreased number of transcripts is observed, which clearly is a result of processing of the flamenco locus primary transcript, a predecessor of piRNA. At the same time, expression of genes of the RNA interference system is not affected, but there is a reduced level of hp1d gene expression in ovary tissue. We suggest that the hp1d gene product is directly or indirectly involved in the flamenco locus primary transcript processing.

  5. Hp(3)/Φ conversion coefficients for neutrons: discussion on the basis of the new ICRP recommended limit for the eye lens.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, P; Gualdrini, G; Tanner, R; Fantuzzi, E

    2014-10-01

    The new recommendation issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) introducing a 20-mSv annual dose limit for the eye lens stimulated an interesting debate among the radiation protection community. In the present work the problem of estimating Hp(3) for neutron realistic workplace spectra is treated, employing the recently published Hp(3)/Φ conversion coefficients with the aim of establishing a workplace-dependent relationship between Hp(10) and Hp(3). The results demonstrate that, whilst the two quantities can differ by less than 10 %, in general, Hp(10) cannot be considered a conservative estimate of Hp(3).

  6. RAD6 Promotes Homologous Recombination Repair by Activating the Autophagy-Mediated Degradation of Heterochromatin Protein HP1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Su; Wang, Chen; Sun, Luxi; Wang, Da-Liang; Chen, Lu; Huang, Zhuan; Yang, Qi; Gao, Jie; Yang, Xi-Bin; Chang, Jian-Feng; Chen, Ping; Lan, Li

    2014-01-01

    Efficient DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is critical for the maintenance of genome stability. Unrepaired or misrepaired DSBs cause chromosomal rearrangements that can result in severe consequences, such as tumorigenesis. RAD6 is an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that plays a pivotal role in repairing UV-induced DNA damage. Here, we present evidence that RAD6 is also required for DNA DSB repair via homologous recombination (HR) by specifically regulating the degradation of heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α). Our study indicates that RAD6 physically interacts with HP1α and ubiquitinates HP1α at residue K154, thereby promoting HP1α degradation through the autophagy pathway and eventually leading to an open chromatin structure that facilitates efficient HR DSB repair. Furthermore, bioinformatics studies have indicated that the expression of RAD6 and HP1α exhibits an inverse relationship and correlates with the survival rate of patients. PMID:25384975

  7. Identification and characterization of a nuclear localization signal of TRIM28 that overlaps with the HP1 box.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Tetsuji; Sangel, Percival; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Obuse, Chikashi; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Oka, Masahiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-03

    Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) is a transcription regulator, which forms a repressor complex containing heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). Here, we report identification of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the 462-494 amino acid region of TRIM28 that overlaps with its HP1 binding site, HP1 box. GST-pulldown experiments revealed the interaction of the arginine-rich TRIM28 NLS with various importin α subtypes (α1, α2 and α4). In vitro transport assay demonstrated that nuclear localization of GFP-TRIM28 NLS is mediated by importin αs, in conjunction with importin β1 and Ran. Further, we demonstrated that HP1 and importin αs compete for binding to TRIM28. Together, our findings suggest that importin α has an essential role in the nuclear delivery and preferential HP1 interaction of TRIM28.

  8. SUMOylation of HP1α supports association with ncRNA to define responsiveness of breast cancer cells to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Lin, Feng-Ming; Kumar, Santosh; Ren, Jing; Karami, Samaneh; Bahnassy, Shaymaa; Li, Yue; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Wang, Jing; Bawa-Khalfe, Tasneem

    2016-05-24

    Epigenetic reprogramming allows cancer cells to bypass normal checkpoints and potentiate aberrant proliferation. Several chromatin regulators are subject to reversible SUMO-modification but little is known about how SUMOylation of chromatin-remodelers modulates the cancer epigenome. Recently, we demonstrated that SUMO-protease SENP7L is upregulated in aggressive BCa and maintains hypoSUMOylated heterochromatin protein 1-α (HP1α). Canonical models define HP1α as a "reader" of repressive H3K9m3 marks that supports constitutive heterochromatin. It is unclear how SUMOylation affects HP1α function in BCa cells. This report shows HP1α SUMO-dynamics are closely regulated in a complex with SENP7L and SUMO-E3 Polycomb-2 (PC2/CBX4). This complex accumulates at H3K9m3 sites, hypoSUMOylates HP1α and PC2, and reduces PC2's SUMO-E3 activity. HyperSUMO conditions cause complex dissociation, SUMOylation of PC2 and HP1α, and recruitment of SUMOylated HP1α to multiple DNA-repair genes including Rad51C. SUMOylated HP1α's enrichment at euchromatin requires chromatin-bound non-coding RNA (ncRNA), reduces Rad51C protein, and increases DNA-breaks in BCa cells. Hence, HP1α SUMOylation and consistently low SENP7L increase efficacy of DNA-damaging chemotherapeutic agents. BCa patients on chemotherapy that express low SENP7L exhibit greater survival rates than patients with high SENP7L. Collectively, these studies suggest that SUMOylated HP1α is a critical epigenetic-regulator of DNA-repair in BCa that could define chemotherapy responsiveness.

  9. Petrographical records of multiple fluid-infiltration during HP-LT metamorphism (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimori, T.

    2013-12-01

    In the subduction zone, flow of slab-derived fluids enriched in Si, Al, Na, and Ca enhances metamorphic + metasomatic reactions and precipitation of HP-LT minerals, and in some cases, the intraslab flow causes extensive elemental leaching (cf., Spandler & Pirard 2013). How does HP-LT rocks and minerals record subduction-zone fluid flow? Syn-metamorphic vein networks consisting of HP-LT minerals have been known in various blueschist- and low-temperature eclogites. The monomineralic and bimineralic veins includes a wide variety of HP-LT minerals: metamorphic pyroxenes, phengite, hydrous Ca-Al-silicate, and even rare garnet and rutile; oscillatory and sector zonings with resorption are common, suggesting precipitation from aqueous fluids. Natural observations imply that brittle fracturing and fluid infiltration during blueschist-to-eclogite-facies metamorphism are common phenomenon in the subducting oceanic crust attending progressive eclogitization. Another peculiar example of HP-LT rock preserving evidence of multiple fluid-infiltration is "lawsonitite", which is a metasomatic rock consisting of ~70-90 vol% lawsonite. Lawsonitite from the South Motagua Mélange consists principally of fluid precipitates and represents the extreme of lithological variation of "P-type" jadeitite (Tsujimori & Harlow 2012; Flores et al. 2013). Lawsonites show sector- and oscillatory-growth zoning on a millimeter to submicrometer scale. The rock shows millimeter-scale flow paths of Cr-rich fluids cross-cutting lawsonite crystals; the texture indicates that the fluid infiltration occurred after lawsonite crystallization/precipitation. The Cr-rich fluid flow-paths follow the track of Cr-bearing pinkish locally metasomatized lawsonite with inclusions of Cr-rich (kosmochloric) jadeite and Cr-rich phengite. These microtextures and mineral compositions indicate a chronological sequence of fluid infiltration events: lawsonite grains precipitated from subduction-zone aqueous fluids within

  10. Detection of HP10 antigen in serum for diagnosis and follow‐up of subarachnoidal and intraventricular human neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, A; Hernández, M; Avila, M; Cárdenas, G; Bobes, R J; Huerta, M; Fragoso, G; Uribe‐Campero, L; Harrison, L J S; Parkhouse, R M E; Sciutto, E

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Neurocysticercosis (NC), a parasitic disease caused by Taenia solium, may be either asymptomatic or show a mild to severe clinical picture with intracranial hypertension. The most severe form of the disease is caused when viable cysticerci are localised in the ventricles or in subarachnoidal cisterns at the base of the skull. Detection of the secreted metacestode antigen HP10 in cerebrospinal fluid is a sensitive and specific method for the diagnosis of these severe NC cases. Objective and methods To evaluate the validity of HP10 antigen detection ELISA when applied to serum, using paired serum and cerebrospinal fluid samples from 116 radiologically and clinically characterised NC patients. Results The HP10 antigen assay exhibited a similarly high sensitivity in identifying severe NC cases from sera (84.8%) and CSF (91.3%). In contrast, HP10 antigen was rarely detected in asymptomatic or mild NC cases (3 of 57). Importantly, the HP10 antigen assay applied to serum showed high specificity (94%) when used in 126 serum samples of non‐NC subjects from an endemic community with a confirmed coproparasitological diagnosis of intestinal parasitic infections. Finally, the HP10 assay also proved to be of value in the follow‐up of treated patients. Conclusion This study confirms that detection of the metacestode HP10 antigen in serum is a useful tool for diagnosis and follow‐up of patients with severe forms of NC treated with cysticidal drugs. PMID:17337467

  11. Cbx3/HP1γ deficiency confers enhanced tumor-killing capacity on CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Michael; Ha, Ngoc; Pham, Duc-Hung; Frederick, Megan; Sharma, Bandana; Naruse, Chie; Asano, Masahide; Pipkin, Matthew E.; George, Rani E.; Thai, To-Ha

    2017-01-01

    Cbx3/HP1γ is a histone reader whose function in the immune system is not completely understood. Here, we demonstrate that in CD8+ T cells, Cbx3/HP1γ insufficiency leads to chromatin remodeling accompanied by enhanced Prf1, Gzmb and Ifng expression. In tumors obtained from Cbx3/HP1γ-insufficient mice or wild type mice treated with Cbx3/HP1γ-insufficient CD8+ T cells, there is an increase of CD8+ effector T cells expressing the stimulatory receptor Klrk1/NKG2D, a decrease in CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Treg cells) as well as CD25+ CD4+ T cells expressing the inhibitory receptor CTLA4. Together these changes in the tumor immune environment may have mitigated tumor burden in Cbx3/HP1γ-insufficient mice or wild type mice treated with Cbx3/HP1γ-insufficient CD8+ T cells. These findings suggest that targeting Cbx3/HP1γ can represent a rational therapeutic approach to control growth of solid tumors. PMID:28220815

  12. Heterochromatin-associated interactions of Drosophila HP1a with dADD1, HIPP1, and repetitive RNAs.

    PubMed

    Alekseyenko, Artyom A; Gorchakov, Andrey A; Zee, Barry M; Fuchs, Stephen M; Kharchenko, Peter V; Kuroda, Mitzi I

    2014-07-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1a) has conserved roles in gene silencing and heterochromatin and is also implicated in transcription, DNA replication, and repair. Here we identify chromatin-associated protein and RNA interactions of HP1a by BioTAP-XL mass spectrometry and sequencing from Drosophila S2 cells, embryos, larvae, and adults. Our results reveal an extensive list of known and novel HP1a-interacting proteins, of which we selected three for validation. A strong novel interactor, dADD1 (Drosophila ADD1) (CG8290), is highly enriched in heterochromatin, harbors an ADD domain similar to human ATRX, displays selective binding to H3K9me2 and H3K9me3, and is a classic genetic suppressor of position-effect variegation. Unexpectedly, a second hit, HIPP1 (HP1 and insulator partner protein-1) (CG3680), is strongly connected to CP190-related complexes localized at putative insulator sequences throughout the genome in addition to its colocalization with HP1a in heterochromatin. A third interactor, the histone methyltransferase MES-4, is also enriched in heterochromatin. In addition to these protein-protein interactions, we found that HP1a selectively associated with a broad set of RNAs transcribed from repetitive regions. We propose that this rich network of previously undiscovered interactions will define how HP1a complexes perform their diverse functions in cells and developing organisms.

  13. Development of a novel viral DNA vaccine against human papillomavirus: AcHERV-HP16L1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hee-Jung; Park, Nuri; Cho, Hee-Jeong; Yoon, Jong Kwang; Van, Nguyen Dinh; Oh, Yu-Kyoung; Kim, Young Bong

    2010-02-10

    In this study, we developed a novel DNA vaccine for HPV; a recombinant baculovirus bearing human endogenous retrovirus (HERV) envelope protein, which cannot replicate in mammals, was used as a nano-carrier for HPV-16L1 DNA vaccine (AcHERV-HP16L1). For in vivo test, mice were injected intramuscularly with 107 particles of the constructs, with two boosts at 2-week intervals. Compared with Gardasil (25 microL/dose), the AcHERV-HP16L1 immunized mice showed similar high levels of humoral immunity in IgG/IgA and in neutralization of HPV pseudovirions. Combined immunization (prime with AcHERV-HP16L1 and boost with Gardasil) induced slightly higher neutralizing activity. As compared to the group treated with Gardasil, the mice immunized with AcHERV-HP16L1 showed 450- and 490-fold increase in the IFN-gamma at 5 and 20 weeks after the first priming, respectively. The combined immunization conferred lower T cell immunity than AcHERV-HP16L1 treatment. The advantages of our novel AcHERV-HP16L1 vaccine over Gardasil include higher cellular immunogenicity, considerably lower production cost, and comparable safety. Therefore, we suggest that AcHERV-HP16L1 can be developed as an efficient prophylactic vaccine and therapeutic vaccine.

  14. Identification and characterization of a nuclear localization signal of TRIM28 that overlaps with the HP1 box

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, Tetsuji; Sangel, Percival; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Obuse, Chikashi; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Oka, Masahiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-03

    Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) is a transcription regulator, which forms a repressor complex containing heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). Here, we report identification of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the 462-494 amino acid region of TRIM28 that overlaps with its HP1 binding site, HP1 box. GST-pulldown experiments revealed the interaction of the arginine-rich TRIM28 NLS with various importin α subtypes (α1, α2 and α4). In vitro transport assay demonstrated that nuclear localization of GFP-TRIM28 NLS is mediated by importin αs, in conjunction with importin β1 and Ran. Further, we demonstrated that HP1 and importin αs compete for binding to TRIM28. Together, our findings suggest that importin α has an essential role in the nuclear delivery and preferential HP1 interaction of TRIM28. - Highlights: • TRIM28 contains an NLS within the 462-494 amino acid region. • The nuclear import of TRIM28 is mediated by importin α/importin β1. • TRIM28 NLS overlaps with HP1 Box. • HP1 and importin α compete for binding to TRIM28.

  15. Electron beam mask writer EBM-7000 for hp 32nm generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamikubo, Takashi; Ohtoshi, Kenji; Nakayamada, Noriaki; Nishimura, Rieko; Sunaoshi, Hitoshi; Akeno, Kiminobu; Mitsui, Soichiro; Tachikawa, Yuichi; Inoue, Hideo; Oogi, Susumu; Higurashi, Hitoshi; Mine, Akinori; Ishimura, Takiji; Tsuchiya, Seiichi; Gomi, Yoshitada; Matsui, Hideki; Tamamushi, Shuichi

    2009-10-01

    Optical lithography is facing resolution limit. To overcome this issue, highly complicated patterns with high data volume are being adopted for optical mask fabrications. With this background, new electron beam mask writing system, EBM- 7000 is developed to satisfy requirements of hp 32nm generation. Electron optical system with low aberrations is developed to resolve finer patterns like 30nm L/S. In addition, high current density of 200 A/cm2 is realized to avoid writing time increase. In data path, distributed processing system is newly built to handle large amounts of data efficiently. The data processing speed of 500MB/s, fast enough to process all the necessary data within exposure time in parallel for hp32nm generation, is achieved. And this also makes it possible to handle such large volume dense data as 2G shots/mm2 local pattern density. In this paper, system configuration of EBM-7000 with accuracy data obtained are presented.

  16. Fuzzy physical programming for Space Manoeuvre Vehicles trajectory optimization based on hp-adaptive pseudospectral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Runqi; Savvaris, Al; Tsourdos, Antonios

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy physical programming (FPP) method has been introduced for solving multi-objective Space Manoeuvre Vehicles (SMV) skip trajectory optimization problem based on hp-adaptive pseudospectral methods. The dynamic model of SMV is elaborated and then, by employing hp-adaptive pseudospectral methods, the problem has been transformed to nonlinear programming (NLP) problem. According to the mission requirements, the solutions were calculated for each single-objective scenario. To get a compromised solution for each target, the fuzzy physical programming (FPP) model is proposed. The preference function is established with considering the fuzzy factor of the system such that a proper compromised trajectory can be acquired. In addition, the NSGA-II is tested to obtain the Pareto-optimal solution set and verify the Pareto optimality of the FPP solution. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method is effective and feasible in terms of dealing with the multi-objective skip trajectory optimization for the SMV.

  17. Periodic trim solutions with hp-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.; Hou, Lin-Jun

    1990-01-01

    Finite elements in time as an alternative strategy for rotorcraft trim problems are studied. The research treats linear flap and linearized flap-lag response both for quasi-trim and trim cases. The connection between Fourier series analysis and hp-finite elements for periodic a problem is also examined. It is proved that Fourier series is a special case of space-time finite elements in which one element is used with a strong displacement formulation. Comparisons are made with respect to accuracy among Fourier analysis, displacement methods, and mixed methods over a variety parameters. The hp trade-off is studied for the periodic trim problem to provide an optimum step size and order of polynomial for a given error criteria. It is found that finite elements in time can outperform Fourier analysis for periodic problems, and for some given error criteria. The mixed method provides better results than does the displacement method.

  18. Characterization of welded HP 9-4-30 steel for the advanced solid rocket motor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, George William

    1990-01-01

    Solid rocket motor case materials must be high-strength, high-toughness, weldable alloys. The Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) cases currently being developed will be made from a 9Ni-4Co quench and temper steel called HP 9-4-30. These ultra high-strength steels must be carefully processed to give a very clean material and a fine grained microstructure, which insures excellent ductility and toughness. The HP 9-4-30 steels are vacuum arc remelted and carbon deoxidized to give the cleanliness required. The ASRM case material will be formed into rings and then welded together to form the case segments. Welding is the desired joining technique because it results in a lower weight than other joining techniques. The mechanical and corrosion properties of the weld region material were fully studied.

  19. Effect of surface attractive strength on structural transitions of a confined HP lattice protein

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanasiri, Busara; Li, Ying Wai; Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the influence of surface attractive strength on structural transitions of a hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein confined in a slit formed by two parallel, attractive walls. We apply Wang-Landau sampling together with efficient Monte Carlo updates to estimate the density of states of the system. The conformational transitions, namely, the debridging process and hydrophobic core formation, can be identified by analyzing the specific heat together with several structural observables, such as the numbers of surface contacts, the number of hydrophobic pairs, and radii of gyration in different directions. As temperature decreases, we find that the occurrence of the debridging process is conditional depending on the surface attractive strength. This, in turn, affects the nature of the hydrophobic core formation that takes place at a lower temperature. We illustrate these observations with the aid of a HP protein chain with 48 monomers.

  20. Crystal structure of the secreted protein HP1454 from the human pathogen Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Quarantini, Sandra; Cendron, Laura; Zanotti, Giuseppe

    2014-10-01

    HP1454 is a protein of 303 amino acids found in the extracellular milieu of Helicobacter pylori. The protein structure, crystallized in the orthorhombic C222₁ space group with one molecule per asymmetric unit, has been determined using the single-wavelength anomalous dispersion method. HP1454 exhibits an elongated bent shape, composed of three distinct domains. Each domain possesses a fold already present in other structures: Domain I contains a three-strand antiparallel β-barrel flanked by a long α-helix, Domain II is an anti-parallel three-helix bundle, and Domain III a β-sheet flanked by two α-helices. The overall assembly of the protein does not bear any similarity with known structures.

  1. Periodic trim solutions with hp-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Lin-Jun; Peters, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Finite elements in time as an alternative strategy for rotorcraft trim problems are studied. The research treats linear flap and linearized flap-lag response both for quasi-trim and trim cases. The connection between Fourier series analysis and hp-finite elements for periodic a problem is also examined. It is proved that Fourier series is a special case of space-time finite elements in which one element is used with a strong displacement formulation. Comparisons are made with respect to accuracy among Fourier analysis, displacement methods, and mixed methods over a variety parameters. The hp trade-off is studied for the periodic trim problem to provide an optimum step size and order of polynomial for a given error criteria. It is found that finite elements in time can outperform Fourier analysis for periodic problems, and for some given error criteria. The mixed method provides better results than does the displacement method.

  2. Development of an hp-version finite element method for computational optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Warner, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to develop a means to use, and to ultimately implement, hp-version finite elements in the numerical solution of optimal control problems. The hybrid MACSYMA/FORTRAN code GENCODE was developed which utilized h-version finite elements to successfully approximate solutions to a wide class of optimal control problems. In that code the means for improvement of the solution was the refinement of the time-discretization mesh. With the extension to hp-version finite elements, the degrees of freedom include both nodal values and extra interior values associated with the unknown states, co-states, and controls, the number of which depends on the order of the shape functions in each element.

  3. Periodic trim solutions with hp-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hou, Lin-Jun; Peters, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Finite elements in time as an alternative strategy for rotorcraft trim problems are studied. The research treats linear flap and linearized flap-lag response both for quasi-trim and trim cases. The connection between Fourier series analysis and hp-finite elements for periodic a problem is also examined. It is proved that Fourier series is a special case of space-time finite elements in which one element is used with a strong displacement formulation. Comparisons are made with respect to accuracy among Fourier analysis, displacement methods, and mixed methods over a variety parameters. The hp trade-off is studied for the periodic trim problem to provide an optimum step size and order of polynomial for a given error criteria. It is found that finite elements in time can outperform Fourier analysis for periodic problems, and for some given error criteria. The mixed method provides better results than does the displacement method.

  4. HP-MoO2: A High-Pressure Polymorph of Molybdenum Dioxide.

    PubMed

    Lüdtke, Tobias; Wiedemann, Dennis; Efthimiopoulos, Ilias; Becker, Nils; Seidel, Stefan; Janka, Oliver; Pöttgen, Rainer; Dronskowski, Richard; Koch-Müller, Monika; Lerch, Martin

    2017-02-20

    High-pressure molybdenum dioxide (HP-MoO2) was synthesized using a multianvil press at 18 GPa and 1073 K, as motivated by previous first-principles calculations. The crystal structure was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The new polymorph crystallizes isotypically to HP-WO2 in the orthorhombic crystal system in space group Pnma and was found to be diamagnetic. Theoretical investigations using structure optimization at density-functional theory (DFT) level indicate a transition pressure of 5 GPa at 0 K and identify the new compound as slightly metastable at ambient pressure with respect to the thermodynamically stable monoclinic MoO2 (α-MoO2; ΔEm = 2.2 kJ·mol(-1)).

  5. Effect of surface attractive strength on structural transitions of a confined HP lattice protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanasiri, Busara; Li, Ying Wai; Wust, Thomas; Landau, David P.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the influence of surface attractive strength on structural transitions of a hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein confined in a slit formed by two parallel, attractive walls. We apply Wang-Landau sampling together with efficient Monte Carlo updates to estimate the density of states of the system. The conformational transitions, namely, the debridging process and hydrophobic core formation, can be identified by analyzing the specific heat together with several structural observables, such as the numbers of surface contacts, the number of hydrophobic pairs, and radii of gyration in different directions. As temperature decreases, we find that the occurrence of the debridging process is conditional depending on the surface attractive strength. This, in turn, affects the nature of the hydrophobic core formation that takes place at a lower temperature. We illustrate these observations with the aid of a HP protein chain with 48 monomers.

  6. Surface adsorption of lattice HP proteins: Thermodynamics and structural transitions using Wang-Landau sampling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying Wai; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P.

    2012-12-01

    Wang-Landau sampling has been applied to investigate the thermodynamics and structural properties of a lattice hydrophobic-polar heteropolymer (the HP protein model) interacting with an attractive substrate. For simplicity, we consider a short HP sequence consisting of only 36 monomers interacting with a substrate which attracts all monomers in the sequence. The conformational “phase transitions” have been identified by a canonical analysis of the specific heat and suitable structural observables. Three major “transitions”, namely, adsorption, hydrophobic core formation and “flattening” of adsorbed structures, are observed. Depending on the surface attractive strength relative to the intra-protein attraction among the H monomers, these processes take place in different sequences upon cooling.

  7. Wang-Landau sampling of protein adsorption using the HP model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying-Wai; Landau, D. P.; Wuest, T.

    2011-03-01

    We have applied Wang-Landau sampling with appropriate trial moves to investigate the thermodynamics and structural properties of lattice hydrophobic-polar heteropolymers (commonly known as the HP protein model) interacting with an attractive substrate. We estimate the density of states of the system, from which the partition function and all thermodynamic quantities, e.g. specific heat, radius of gyration, end-to-end distance and surface contacts, can be calculated. ``Transitions'' between ``phases'' are then identified based on a comprehensive analysis of these observables. Generally speaking, three transition processes are observed: adsorption-desorption, collapse (formation of hydrophobic core), and ``flattening'' of adsorbed structures. These have been confirmed by ``snapshots'' of typical states of the system. Depending on the surface attractive strength, these transitions take place in different order upon cooling, giving rise to different thermodynamic behaviors. Such dependence of folding hierarchy on the surface attraction is found to be universal for different HP sequences. Research supported by NSF.

  8. Approach to hp10nm resolution by applying Dry Development Rinse Process (DDRP) and Materials (DDRM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibayama, Wataru; Shigaki, Shuhei; Takeda, Satoshi; Onishi, Ryuji; Nakajima, Makoto; Sakamoto, Rikimaru

    2016-03-01

    EUV lithography has been desired as the leading technology for single nm half-pitch patterning. However, the source power, masks and resist materials still have critical issues for mass production. Especially in resist materials, RLS trade-off is the key issue. To overcome this issue, we are suggesting Dry Development Rinse Process (DDRP) and Materials (DDRM) as the pattern collapse mitigation approach. This DDRM can perform not only as pattern collapse free materials for fine pitch, but also as the etching hard mask against bottom layer (spin on carbon : SOC). In this paper, we especially propose new approaches to achieve high resolution around hp10nm. The key points of our concepts are 1) control PR profiles, 2) new solvent system to avoid chemical mixture, 3) high etching selective DDR materilas and 4) high planar DDR materials. This new DDRM technology can be the promising approach for hp10nm level patterning in N7/N5 and beyond.

  9. [Alpha-amylase polymorphism. 1. A comparative study of alpha-amylase Hp and Gm].

    PubMed

    Baltova, S; Popov, K; Kŭnchev, V

    1989-01-01

    Individual phenotypes, phenotypical and genetic frequencies of the alpha-amylase enzyme have been established by means of populational genetic researches. The most common phenotype is AmylA Amyl2A (85.15%) followed by AmylA Amyl2A 2B (6.27%), AmylAIB Amyl2A (5.37%), Amyl IA Amyl2A 2B (2.15%), AmylA Amyl2B (0.53%), AmylC Amyl2B (0.35%), AmylC Amyl2A 2B (0.18%). The difference between the observed and theoretically expected phenotypes of Amy, Hp and M Gm(1) is insignificant. The examined contingent from the Bulgarian population is found to be in genetic balance. Statistical analysis of the reuö results does not prove a genetic link between Amy, Hp and Gm (1).

  10. An hp-adaptivity and error estimation for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Kim S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an hp-adaptive discontinuous Galerkin method for linear hyperbolic conservation laws. A priori and a posteriori error estimates are derived in mesh-dependent norms which reflect the dependence of the approximate solution on the element size (h) and the degree (p) of the local polynomial approximation. The a posteriori error estimate, based on the element residual method, provides bounds on the actual global error in the approximate solution. The adaptive strategy is designed to deliver an approximate solution with the specified level of error in three steps. The a posteriori estimate is used to assess the accuracy of a given approximate solution and the a priori estimate is used to predict the mesh refinements and polynomial enrichment needed to deliver the desired solution. Numerical examples demonstrate the reliability of the a posteriori error estimates and the effectiveness of the hp-adaptive strategy.

  11. Conceptual design of 500 to 3000 hp Stirling engines for stationary power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toscano, W. M.; Chandrasehkar, R.; Harvey, A. C.; Lee, K.

    Both near term and far term conceptual designs of a 373 kW (500 hp) to 2237 kW (3000 hp) Stirling engine for stationary power generation have been prepared. The recommended near term conceptual design is modular, consisting of a basic Stirling engine cylinder of 100 kW that is easily adaptable to any type of heat input or machine output. The engine output configuration selected is the single crank, narrow V, multicylinder arrangement in which any number of cylinders, in groups of four or five, provide the desired power rating. For clean fuel combustion, the prevaporized, premixed, combustion method with exhaust gas recirculation is employed. For coal combustion a Wormser Grate two-stage atmospheric fluidized bed combustion system with a high pressure gas circulation loop system is recommended. The predicted overall fuel to electrical energy conversion efficiency varied between 25 and 34 percent, depending on the system configuration.

  12. 45. 800 H.P. WATER WHEEL UNIT (LEFT HAND) DIRECT CONNECTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 800 H.P. WATER WHEEL UNIT (LEFT HAND) DIRECT CONNECTED TO A 500 K.W. G.E. CO. GENERATOR, SPEED 176 R.P.M., HEAD OF WATER 305 FT EFF., FOR SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PLANT. ABNER DOBLE CO., ENGINEERS, SAN FRANCISCO, AUG. 29, 1904. TRACED FROM DOBLE BLUE PRINT, SEPT. 9, 1911. SCE drawing no. 5698. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. Detailed description of the HP-9825A HFRMP trajectory processor (TRAJ)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindall, S. M.; Wilson, S. W.

    1979-01-01

    The computer code for the trajectory processor of the HP-9825A High Fidelity Relative Motion Program is described in detail. The processor is a 12-degrees-of-freedom trajectory integrator which can be used to generate digital and graphical data describing the relative motion of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and a free-flying cylindrical payload. Coding standards and flow charts are given and the computational logic is discussed.

  14. An h-p Taylor-Galerkin finite element method for compressible Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demkowicz, L.; Oden, J. T.; Rachowicz, W.; Hardy, O.

    1991-01-01

    An extension of the familiar Taylor-Galerkin method to arbitrary h-p spatial approximations is proposed. Boundary conditions are analyzed, and a linear stability result for arbitrary meshes is given, showing the unconditional stability for the parameter of implicitness alpha not less than 0.5. The wedge and blunt body problems are solved with both linear, quadratic, and cubic elements and h-adaptivity, showing the feasibility of higher orders of approximation for problems with shocks.

  15. The CompHP core competencies framework for health promotion in Europe.

    PubMed

    Barry, Margaret M; Battel-Kirk, Barbara; Dempsey, Colette

    2012-12-01

    The CompHP Project on Developing Competencies and Professional Standards for Health Promotion in Europe was developed in response to the need for new and changing health promotion competencies to address health challenges. This article presents the process of developing the CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health Promotion across the European Union Member States and Candidate Countries. A phased, multiple-method approach was employed to facilitate a consensus-building process on the development of the core competencies. Key stakeholders in European health promotion were engaged in a layered consultation process using the Delphi technique, online consultations, workshops, and focus groups. Based on an extensive literature review, a mapping process was used to identify the core domains, which informed the first draft of the Framework. A consultation process involving two rounds of a Delphi survey with national experts in health promotion from 30 countries was carried out. In addition, feedback was received from 25 health promotion leaders who participated in two focus groups at a pan-European level and 116 health promotion practitioners who engaged in four country-specific consultations. A further 54 respondents replied to online consultations, and there were a number of followers on various social media platforms. Based on four rounds of redrafting, the final Framework document was produced, consisting of 11 core domains and 68 core competency statements. The CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health Promotion provides a resource for workforce development in Europe, by articulating the necessary knowledge, skills, and abilities that are required for effective practice. The core domains are based on the multidisciplinary concepts, theories, and research that make health promotion distinctive. It is the combined application of all the domains, the knowledge base, and the ethical values that constitute the CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health

  16. 5. INDUSTRIAL PIPING SYSTEM FOR 500 H.P. LLEWELLYN BOILER, ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INDUSTRIAL PIPING SYSTEM FOR 500 H.P. LLEWELLYN BOILER, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. John Hudspeth, architect, foot of Main Street, Alameda, California. Sheet M1. Plan no. 10,551. Scale 1/4 inch to the foot. June 1, 1945. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Boiler House, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  17. An h-p Taylor-Galerkin finite element method for compressible Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demkowicz, L.; Oden, J. T.; Rachowicz, W.; Hardy, O.

    1991-01-01

    An extension of the familiar Taylor-Galerkin method to arbitrary h-p spatial approximations is proposed. Boundary conditions are analyzed, and a linear stability result for arbitrary meshes is given, showing the unconditional stability for the parameter of implicitness alpha not less than 0.5. The wedge and blunt body problems are solved with both linear, quadratic, and cubic elements and h-adaptivity, showing the feasibility of higher orders of approximation for problems with shocks.

  18. Evaluation of a next generation EB mask writer for hp 32nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komagata, Tadashi; Hasegawa, Takahisa; Goto, Kazuya; Kono, Kenji; Yamamoto, Ryuuji; Nishida, Naoki; Nakagawa, Yasutoshi

    2010-05-01

    Lithography technologies promising for the half pitch (HP) 32 nm generation include 193 nm immersion with water, extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL), and nano-imprint lithography (NIL). Among these, 193 nm immersion with water is considered a mainstream for hp 32 nm device fabrication in terms of performance and device production costs. Meanwhile, according to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS) 2009, the optical masks for hp 32 nm devices need to meet extremely strict requirements; for example, an image placement accuracy of 3.8 nm (2.7 nm for double patterning), and CD uniformities of 1.5 nm (isolated lines) and 2.4 nm (dense lines). To meet these accuracy requirements, we have developed JBX-3200MV, a variable shaped beam mask writer featuring an accelerating voltage of 50 kV and a current density of 70 A/cm2. For this new writer, we developed a new digital-to-analog converter (DAC) amplifier designed to reduce noises input to electron beam optics components such as the main and sub positioning deflectors and the beam shaping deflectors. The stage and exposure chambers were enhanced in rigidity to reduce mechanical noises. The position of the stage is measured by laser devices with a finer resolution of 0.15 nm, and the measured results are fed back to the beam position. In addition, data transfer speed and proximity correction speed were improved to handle larger data volumes. Our exposure test results demonstrate that the new lithography system, installed at the leading-edge mask production facility, achieved the hp 32 nm mask accuracies required by the ITRS 2009.

  19. Examination results of the Three Mile Island radiation detector HP-R-212

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, G.M.

    1983-12-01

    Area radiation detector HP-R-212 was removed from the Three Mile Island containment building on November 13, 1981. The detector apparently started to fail during November 1979 and by the first part of December 1979 the detector readings had degraded from 1 R/hr to 20 mR/hr. This report discusses the cause of failure, detector radiation measurement characteristics, and our estimates of the total gamma radiation dose received by the detector electronics.

  20. A conformational switch in HP1 releases auto-inhibition to drive heterochromatin assembly

    PubMed Central

    Canzio, Daniele; Liao, Maofu; Naber, Nariman; Pate, Ed; Larson, Adam; Wu, Shenping; Marina, Diana B.; Garcia, Jennifer F.; Madhani, Hiten D.; Cooke, Roger; Schuck, Peter; Cheng, Yifan; Narlikar, Geeta J.

    2014-01-01

    A hallmark of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) methylated heterochromatin, conserved from fission yeast,Schizosaccharomyces pombe (S. pombe), to humans, is its ability to spread to adjacent genomic regions1–6. Central to heterochromatin spread is the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), which recognizes H3K9 methylated chromatin, oligomerizes, and forms a versatile platform that participates in diverse nuclear functions, ranging from gene silencing to chromosome segregation1–6. How HP1 proteins assemble on methylated nucleosomal templates and how the HP1-nucleosome complex achieves functional versatility remain poorly understood. Here, we show that binding of the major S. pombe HP1 protein, Swi6, to methylated nucleosomes drives a switch from an auto-inhibited state to a spreading competent state. In the auto-inhibited state, a histone mimic sequence in one Swi6 monomer blocks methyl mark recognition by the chromodomain of another monomer. Auto-inhibition is relieved by recognition of two template features, the H3K9 methyl mark and nucleosomal DNA. Cryo-Electron Microscopy (EM) based reconstruction of the Swi6-nucleosome complex provides the overall architecture of the spreading-competent state in which two unbound chromodomain sticky ends appear exposed. Disruption of the switch between the auto-inhibited and spreading competent state disrupts heterochromatin assembly and gene silencing in vivo. These findings are reminiscent of other conditionally activated polymerization processes, such as actin nucleation, and open up a new class of regulatory mechanisms that operate on chromatin in vivo. PMID:23485968

  1. Advances in the p and h-p Versions of the Finite Element Method. A survey

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    p versions is the code PROBE which was developed by NOETIC Technologies, St. Louis, MO [49] [60]. PROBE solves two dimensional problems of linear...p and h-p versions of the finite element method was studied in detail from various point of view. We will mention here some essential illustrative...49] PROBE - Sample Problems. Series of reports, Noetic Technologies, St. Louis, MO 63117. [50] Rank, E., Babu’ka, I., An expert system for the

  2. The p- and h-p Versions of the Finite Element Method: An Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    and h-p versions was studied in detail for 1 dimension in [48] and for 2 dimensions in [491. Let us mention some one dimensional results. We consider...Supercomputing in the Automotive Industry, Oct. 25-28 1988, Seville Spain, Report of Noetic Tech., St. Louis, NO 63117. 70. H. Vogelius, An analysis of the p...collaboration with govern- ment agencies such as the National Bureau of Standards. " To be an international center of study and research for foreign

  3. TST from geofinder traverse data on HP41CV programmable calculator

    SciTech Connect

    Carman, G.J. )

    1989-02-01

    Using program subroutines designed for the HP41CV programmable calculator and the geometric data recorded from Geofinder traversing or other pace-and-compass-type methods, the true stratigraphic thickness (TST) of dipping or gently folded strata is calculated at a rate of about 30 seconds per station. TST information is therefore readily available for reviewing stratigraphic and structure data and for post survey graphical plots.

  4. Examination results of the Three Mile Island radiation detector HP-R-212

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, G M

    1984-01-01

    Area radiation detector HP-R-212 was removed from the Three Mile Island containment building on November 13, 1981. The detector apparently started to fail during November 1979 and by the first part of December 1979 the detector readings had degraded from 1 R/h to 20 mR/h. This report discusses the cause of ailure, detector radiation measurement characteristics, and our estimates of the total gamma radiation dose received by the detector electronics.

  5. 75 FR 57506 - EDS, an HP Company, A Subsidiary of Hewlett-Packard Company Including On-Site Leased Workers from...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration EDS, an HP Company, A Subsidiary of Hewlett-Packard Company Including... to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on December 17, 2009, applicable to workers of EDS, an HP... Compuware Corporation were employed on-site at the Detroit, Michigan location of EDS, an HP Company, a...

  6. Improvement of pulmonary absorption of poorly absorbable macromolecules by hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin grafted polyethylenimine (HP-β-CD-PEI) in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hailong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Ya; Lu, Guangyou; Wang, Ke; Wang, Zhigang; Xing, Jianfeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-07-15

    Effects of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin grafted polyethylenimine (HP-β-CD-PEI) including HP-β-CD-PEI600, HP-β-CD-PEI1800, HP-β-CD-PEI10000 on the pulmonary absorption of insulin, calcitonin, 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextrans (FDs) with various molecular weights (FD4, FD10 and FD70) were examined by an pulmonary absorption study in rats. Pulmonary absorptions of these poorly absorbable drugs were significantly enhanced by HP-β-CD-PEI1800 and HP-β-CD-PEI10000, and HP-β-CD-PEI1800 with the concentration of 5% (w/v) provided maximal absorption enhancing effect on pulmonary absorption of these model drugs. The toxicity study demonstrated that HP-β-CD-PEI did not induce any toxic action to rat pulmonary membranes. In addition, zeta potential of insulin solution changed to positive by addition of various HP-β-CD-PEI, meanwhile, the degree of positive charge was linearly correlated with absorption enhancing effect of HP-β-CD-PEI, suggesting that positive charge of HP-β-CD-PEI might be related to their absorption enhancing mechanisms for enhancing pulmonary absorption of insulin in rats. In conclusion, HP-β-CD-PEI is a potential and safe absorption enhancer for improving absorption of hydrophilic macromolecules especially peptide and protein drugs by pulmonary delivery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced hybrid search algorithm for protein structure prediction using the 3D-HP lattice model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Xiaopeng

    2013-09-01

    The problem of protein structure prediction in the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice model is the prediction of protein tertiary structure. This problem is usually referred to as the protein folding problem. This paper presents a method for the application of an enhanced hybrid search algorithm to the problem of protein folding prediction, using the three dimensional (3D) HP lattice model. The enhanced hybrid search algorithm is a combination of the particle swarm optimizer (PSO) and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Since the PSO algorithm entraps local minimum in later evolution extremely easily, we combined PSO with the TS algorithm, which has properties of global optimization. Since the technologies of crossover and mutation are applied many times to PSO and TS algorithms, so enhanced hybrid search algorithm is called the MCMPSO-TS (multiple crossover and mutation PSO-TS) algorithm. Experimental results show that the MCMPSO-TS algorithm can find the best solutions so far for the listed benchmarks, which will help comparison with any future paper approach. Moreover, real protein sequences and Fibonacci sequences are verified in the 3D HP lattice model for the first time. Compared with the previous evolutionary algorithms, the new hybrid search algorithm is novel, and can be used effectively to predict 3D protein folding structure. With continuous development and changes in amino acids sequences, the new algorithm will also make a contribution to the study of new protein sequences.

  8. HP-Xe to go: Storage and transportation of hyperpolarized 129Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repetto, M.; Zimmer, S.; Allmendinger, F.; Blümler, P.; Doll, M.; Grasdijk, J. O.; Heil, W.; Jungmann, K.; Karpuk, S.; Krause, H.-J.; Offenhäusser, A.; Schmidt, U.; Sobolev, Y.; Willmann, L.

    2016-04-01

    Recently the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of hyperpolarized (HP)-129Xe was significantly improved by using uncoated and Rb-free storage vessels of GE180 glass. For these cells, a simple procedure was established to obtain reproducible wall relaxation times of about 18 h. Then the limiting relaxation mechanism in pure Xe is due to the coupling between the nuclear spins and the angular momentum of the Xe-Xe van-der-Waals-molecules. This mechanism can be significantly reduced by using different buffer gases of which CO2 was discovered to be the most efficient so far. From these values, it was estimated that for a 1:1 mixture of HP-Xe with CO2 a longitudinal relaxation time of about 7 h can be expected, sufficient to transport HP-Xe from a production to a remote application site. This prediction was verified for such a mixture at a total pressure of about 1 bar in a 10 cm glass cell showing a storage time of T1 ≈ 9 h (for T1wall = (34 ± 9) h) which was transported inside a magnetic box over a distance of about 200 km by car.

  9. Nighttime thermospheric meridional winds inferred from ionospheric h-F and hpF2 data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muella, M. T. A. H.; Fagundes, P. R.; Bittencourt, J. A.; Sahai, Y.; Lima, W. L. C.; Becker-Guedes, F.; Pillat, V. G.

    Nighttime thermospheric meridional winds along the magnetic meridian have been inferred using ionospheric parameters h F and hpF2 obtained at two equatorial stations Manaus 2 9 o S 60 0 o W dip latitude 6 4 o N and Palmas 10 2 o S 48 o W dip latitude5 5 o S and one low latitude station S a o Jos e dos Campos 23 2 o S 45 9 o W dip latitude 17 6 o S during geomagnetically quiet periods in the months of August and September 2002 The height variations of the parameters h F and hpF2 were obtained by three digital ionosondes of the type known as the Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde CADI which are operated in time-synchronized mode and takes ionograms every 5 minutes An extension of the servo model is applied in order to infer the magnetic meridional component of the thermospheric neutral winds over the low latitude region The coefficients of diffusion recombination and loss rate required in the servo equations were calculated using an appropriated atmospheric model MSIS-90 In this work we show that the servo model gives similar results using either h F or hpF2 This result is interesting because it shows that during the months of August and September the wind systems are similar at both bottomside and peak of the F-layer

  10. Microstructural characterization of dissimilar welds between alloy 800 and HP heat-resistant steel

    SciTech Connect

    Dehmolaei, R.; Shamanian, M. Kermanpur, A.

    2008-10-15

    In this study, dissimilar welds between HP heat-resistant steel and Incoloy 800 were made with four different filler materials including: 309 stainless steel and nickel-based Inconel 82, 182 and 617. The microstructure of the base metals, weld metals and their interfaces were characterized by utilizing optical and scanning electron microscopy. Grain boundaries migration in the weld metals was studied. It was found that the migration of grain boundaries in the Inconel 82 weld metal was very extensive. Precipitates of TiC and M{sub 23}C{sub 6} (M = Cr and Mo) in the Inconel 617 weld metal are identified. The necessary conditions for the formation of cracks close to the fusion line of the 309-HP joints are described. Furthermore unmixed zone near the fusion line between HP steel base metal and Inconel 82 weld metal is discussed. An epitaxial growth is characterized at the fusion line of the 309-Alloy 800 and Inconel 617-Alloy 800 joints.

  11. Characterization and cloning of oxygen-tolerant hydrogenase from Klebsiella oxytoca HP1.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaobing; Liang, Yi; Li, Qianyi; Zhou, Juan; Long, Minnan

    2011-04-01

    Hydrogenase from a hot spring bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca HP1 was purified and found to have a specific activity of 199.8 U/mg of protein and a yield of 7.3%. The purified enzyme was determined to consist of six subunits (65, 33, 28, 23, 21 and 18 kDa), similar to hydrogenase-3 from Escherichia coli, and therefore it was named Hyd3. The enzyme displayed remarkable oxygen tolerance. For the purified enzyme, 50% maximal activity was maintained following incubation for 24 h in air at room temperature. The hydrogenase gene cluster (hyc) was cloned and found to consist of hycD, hycE, hycF, hycdG, hycH and hycI genes. hycE and hycG genes encode for the large and small subunit of the hydrogenase, respectively. A hycE gene deletion mutant, ΔhycE, was constructed for elucidating the function of the hyc-operon in hydrogen metabolism. Compared with the wild type strain HP1, the mutant strain showed a dramatic decrease in hydrogen production in the presence of formate, sodium pyruvate and glucose under O(2)-stressed conditions, while substantial activity was detected under anaerobic conditions. This strongly suggests that K. oxytoca HP1 carries a number of hydrogenases or hydrogen metabolic pathways independently of Hyd3. However, Hyd3 is the main factor responsible for hydrogen production under O(2) stress conditions.

  12. Wang-Landau sampling of the interplay between surface adsorption and folding of HP lattice proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying Wai; Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2014-01-01

    Generic features associated with the adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces are reviewed within the framework of the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein model. The thermodynamic behavior and structural properties of various HP protein sequences interacting with attractive surfaces have been studied using extensive Wang-Landau sampling with different types of surfaces, each of which attracts either: all monomers, only hydrophobic (H) monomers, or only polar (P) monomers, respectively. Consequently, different types of folding behavior occur for varied surface strengths. Analysis of the combined patterns of various structural observables, e.g., the derivatives of the numbers of interaction contacts, together with the specific heat, leads to the identification of fundamental categories of folding and transition hierarchies. We also inferred a connection between the transition categories and the relative surface strengths, i.e., the ratios of the surface attractive strengths to the intra-chain attraction among H monomers. We thus believe that the folding hierarchies and identification scheme are generic for different HP sequences interacting with attractive surfaces, regardless of the chain length, sequence, or surface attraction.

  13. Generic transition hierarchies of lattice HP protein adsorption: A Wang-Landau study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying Wai; Landau, D. P.; Wüst, T.

    2012-02-01

    We have applied Wang-Landau sampling with appropriate trial movesootnotetextT. W"ust and D. P. Landau, Phy. Rev. Lett. 102, 178101 (2009). to investigate the thermodynamics and structural properties of the HP lattice protein modelootnotetextK. A. Dill, Biochemistry 24, 1501 (1985). interacting with an attractive substrate. The conformational ``phase transitions'' of several benchmark HP sequences have been identified by a comprehensive canonical analysis of the specific heat and structural observables, e. g. radius of gyration and thermal derivatives of number of surface contacts. Three major ``transitions'': adsorption, hydrophobic core formation, and ``flattening'' of adsorbed structures, are observed. Depending on the surface attractive strength relative to the intra-protein attraction among the H monomers, these processes take place in a different order upon cooling. We identify a small number of generic categories that are sufficient to classify the folding hierarchies for different HP chains consisting of assorted sequences and chain lengths, regardless of the monomer type that the surface attracts. We thus believe that this classification scheme is generally applicable to lattice protein adsorption problems.

  14. Novel preparation of PLGA/HP55 nanoparticles for oral insulin delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhi Min; Ling, Li; Zhou, Li Ying; Guo, Xin Dong; Jiang, Wei; Qian, Yu; Luo, Kathy Qian; Zhang, Li Juan

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to develop the PLGA/HP55 nanoparticles with improved hypoglycemic effect for oral insulin delivery. The insulin-loaded PLGA/HP55 nanoparticles were produced by a modified multiple emulsion solvent evaporation method. The physicochemical characteristics, in vitro release of insulin, and in vivo efficacy in diabetic rats of the nanoparticles were evaluated. The insulin encapsulation efficiency was up to 94%, and insulin was released in a pH-dependent manner under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. When administered orally (50 IU/kg) to diabetic rats, the nanoparticles can decrease rapidly the blood glucose level with a maximal effect between 1 and 8 h. The relative bioavailability compared with subcutaneous injection (5 IU/kg) in diabetic rats was 11.3% ± 1.05%. This effect may be explained by the fast release of insulin in the upper intestine, where it is better absorbed by the high gradient concentration of insulin than other regions. These results show that the PLGA/HP55 nanoparticles developed in the study might be employed as a potential method for oral insulin delivery.

  15. HP 0.35, a cephalosporin degradation product is a specific inhibitor of lentiviral RNAses H.

    PubMed Central

    Hafkemeyer, P; Neftel, K; Hobi, R; Pfaltz, A; Lutz, H; Lüthi, K; Focher, F; Spadari, S; Hübscher, U

    1991-01-01

    Penicillins, cephalosporins and other betalactam antibiotics are widely used antibacterial drugs. Recently it was found that some of them also have effects on proliferating eukaryotic cells (Neftel, K.A. and Hübscher, U. (1987) Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31, 1657-1661), and one such effect was shown to be the inhibition of DNA polymerase alpha (Huynh Do,U., Neftel, K.A., Spadari, S. and Hübscher, U. (1987) Nucl. Acids Res. 15, 10495-10506). The data suggested that degradation products of betalactam antibiotics were responsible for the inhibitory effect on DNA polymerase alpha. There is some confirmation at the structural level, since we found that penicillin binding proteins, the natural target of the cephalosporins, share amino-acid homologies to DNA polymerases and also to reverse transcriptase from HIV1 (Hafkemeyer, P., Neftel, K.A. and Hübscher, U. Meth. Find. Exp. Clin. Pharmacol. 12, 43-46, 1990). We have purified and determined the structure of one product from the cephalosporin Ceftazidim and found one molecule (HP 0.35) that did not interfere with eukaryotic cell proliferation but rather had a specific inhibitory effect on the RNase H activity of human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV1) and feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) reverse transcriptases, while the DNA polymerising activity of these enzymes was not affected. RNases H from HeLa cells, calf thymus and Escherichia coli on the other hand were much less affected by HP 0.35. The inhibitory concentration of 50% (IC50) was more than 10 times lower compared to those of all cellular RNases H. We therefore tested the effect of HP 0.35 on in vitro lentivirus infection as exemplified by FIV-infection of CD(4+)-cat lymphocytes in cell culture. Under conditions where cell proliferation was absolutely unaffected, HP 0.35 was able to inhibit FIV-infection in CD(4+)-cat lymphocytes. Moreover, preincubation of these lymphocytes with HP 0.35 rendered the cells completely unsusceptible to FIV-infection. These

  16. OSMEAN - OSCULATING/MEAN CLASSICAL ORBIT ELEMENTS CONVERSION (HP9000/7XX VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, J. R.

    1994-01-01

    OSMEAN is a sophisticated FORTRAN algorithm that converts between osculating and mean classical orbit elements. Mean orbit elements are advantageous for trajectory design and maneuver planning since they can be propagated very quickly; however, mean elements cannot describe the exact orbit at any given time. Osculating elements will enable the engineer to give an exact description of an orbit; however, computation costs are significantly higher due to the numerical integration procedure required for propagation. By calculating accurate conversions between osculating and mean orbit elements, OSMEAN allows the engineer to exploit the advantages of each approach for the design and planning of orbital trajectories and maneuver planning. OSMEAN is capable of converting mean elements to osculating elements or vice versa. The conversion is based on modelling of all first order aspherical and lunar-solar gravitation perturbations as well as a second-order aspherical term based on the second degree central body zonal perturbation. OSMEAN is written in FORTRAN 77 for HP 9000 series computers running HP-UX (NPO-18796) and DEC VAX series computers running VMS (NPO-18741). The HP version requires 388K of RAM for execution and the DEC VAX version requires 254K of RAM for execution. Sample input and output are listed in the documentation. Sample input is also provided on the distribution medium. The standard distribution medium for the HP 9000 series version is a .25 inch streaming magnetic IOTAMAT tape cartridge in UNIX tar format. It is also available on a .25 inch streaming magnetic tape cartridge in UNIX tar format or on a 3.5 inch diskette in UNIX tar format. The standard distribution medium for the DEC VAX version is a 1600 BPI 9-track magnetic tape in DEC VAX BACKUP format. It is also available on a TK50 tape cartridge in DEC VAX BACKUP format. OSMEAN was developed on a VAX 6410 in 1989, and was ported to the HP 9000 series platform in 1991. It is a copyrighted work with

  17. Negative-tone imaging with EUV exposure for 14nm hp and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubaki, Hideaki; Nihashi, Wataru; Tsuchihashi, Toru; Fujimori, Toru; Momota, Makoto; Goto, Takahiro

    2015-03-01

    Manipulation of dissolution properties by changing organic solvent developer and rinse material provides a novel technology to obtain fine pattern beyond the limitation of imaging system based on alkaline developer. QCM study showed no swelling character in negative-tone imaging (NTI) process even for current developer of n-butyl acetate (nBA). Actually, NTI process has shown advantages on resolution and line-width roughness (LWR) in loose pitch around 30 ~ 45 nm hp as a consequence of its non-swelling character. On the other hand, bridge and collapse limited its resolution below 20 nm hp, indicating that non-negligible amount of swelling still exists for tight pitch resolution. We investigated effects of solubility parameter of organic solvents on resolution below 20 nm hp. A bridge was reduced with a decrease in the solubility parameter dp from nBA. On the other hand, much lower dp caused film remaining due to its extremely slow Rmax. Based on these results, we newly developed FN-DP301 containing organic solvent with smaller dp than nBA. Although rinse solvent gave negligible effects on bridge, there is a clear improvement on pattern collapse only in case of using new rinse solvent of FN-RP311. Lithographic performances of NTI process using nBA and FN-DP301 together with the other organic solvents were described in this paper under exposures with an E-beam and a EUV light. It is emphasized that 14 nm hp resolution was obtained only using FN-DP301 as a developer and FN-RP311 as a rinse under E-beam exposure. NTI showed 43% faster photospeed in comparison with PTI at 16 nm hp, indicating that NTI is applicable to obtain high throughput with maintaining resolution. In addition, sub-20 nm trench was obtained using NTI without bridge under EUV exposure, all of which are attributed to the low swelling character of NTI process. Similarly, NTI was able to print 20 nm dots using NXE:3100 with only a little peeling. Conversely CH patterning was significantly worse with NTI

  18. Biosynthesis of platform chemical 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) directly from CO2 in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yunpeng; Sun, Tao; Gao, Xingyan; Shi, Mengliang; Wu, Lina; Chen, Lei; Zhang, Weiwen

    2016-03-01

    3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform chemical with a wide range of applications. So far large-scale production of 3-HP has been mainly through petroleum-based chemical processes, whose sustainability and environmental issues have attracted widespread attention. With the ability to fix CO2 directly, cyanobacteria have been engineered as an autotrophic microbial cell factory to produce fuels and chemicals. In this study, we constructed the biosynthetic pathway of 3-HP in cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803, and then optimized the system through the following approaches: i) increasing expression of malonyl-CoA reductase (MCR) gene using different promoters and cultivation conditions; ii) enhancing supply of the precursor malonyl-CoA by overexpressing acetyl-CoA carboxylase and biotinilase; iii) improving NADPH supply by overexpressing the NAD(P) transhydrogenase gene; iv) directing more carbon flux into 3-HP by inactivating the competing pathways of PHA and acetate biosynthesis. Together, the efforts led to a production of 837.18 mg L(-1) (348.8 mg/g dry cell weight) 3-HP directly from CO2 in Synechocystis after 6 days cultivation, demonstrating the feasibility photosynthetic production of 3-HP directly from sunlight and CO2 in cyanobacteria. In addition, the results showed that overexpression of the ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) gene from Anabaena sp. PCC 7120 and Synechococcus sp. PCC 7942 led to no increase of 3-HP production, suggesting CO2 fixation may not be a rate-limiting step for 3-HP biosynthesis in Synechocystis.

  19. The Orphan Response Regulator HP1021 of Helicobacter pylori Regulates Transcription of a Gene Cluster Presumably Involved in Acetone Metabolism▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Pflock, Michael; Bathon, Melanie; Schär, Jennifer; Müller, Stefanie; Mollenkopf, Hans; Meyer, Thomas F.; Beier, Dagmar

    2007-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a gastric pathogen for which no nonhuman reservoir is known. In accordance with the tight adaptation to its unique habitat, the human stomach, H. pylori is endowed with a very restricted repertoire of regulatory proteins. Nevertheless, the three complete two-component systems of H. pylori were shown to be involved in the regulation of important virulence traits like motility and acid resistance and in the control of metal homeostasis. HP1021 is an orphan response regulator with an atypical receiver domain whose inactivation has a considerable impact on the growth of H. pylori. Here we report the identification of HP1021-regulated genes by whole-genome transcriptional profiling. We show that the transcription of the essential housekeeping genes nifS and nifU, which are required for the assembly of Fe-S clusters, is activated by HP1021. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the expression of a gene cluster comprising open reading frames hp0690 to hp0693 and hp0695 to hp0697 which is probably involved in acetone metabolism is strongly upregulated by HP1021. Evidence is provided for a direct regulation of the hp0695-to-hp0697 operon by the binding of HP1021 to its promoter region. PMID:17220217

  20. HP-NAP inhibits the growth of bladder cancer in mice by activating a cytotoxic Th1 response.

    PubMed

    Codolo, Gaia; Fassan, Matteo; Munari, Fabio; Volpe, Andrea; Bassi, Piefrancesco; Rugge, Massimo; Pagano, Francesco; D'Elios, Mario Milco; de Bernard, Marina

    2012-01-01

    Intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the gold standard treatment for intermediate and high-risk non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer. BCG therapy is the most successful example of immunotherapy in cancer. Unfortunately, the treatment-related side effects are still relevant. Furthermore, non-responder patients are candidate to radical cystectomy in the absence of valuable alternative options. These aspects have prompted the search for newer biological response modifiers (BRM) with a better benefit/side effects ratio. The toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 ligand, Helicobacter pylori protein HP-NAP, has been shown to deserve a potential role as BRM. HP-NAP is capable of driving the differentiation of T helper (Th) 1 cells, both in vitro and in vivo, because of its ability to create an IL-12-enriched milieu. Herein, we report that local administration of HP-NAP decreases tumour growth by triggering tumour necrosis in a mouse model of bladder cancer implant. The effect is accompanied by a significant accumulation of both CD4+ and CD8+ IFN-γ-secreting cells, within tumour and regional lymph nodes. Noteworthy, HP-NAP-treated tumours show also a reduced vascularization due to the anti-angiogenic activity of IFN-γ induced by HP-NAP. Our findings strongly indicate that HP-NAP might become a novel therapeutic "bullet" for the cure of bladder tumours.

  1. Investigation of the inclusion behavior of HP-β-cyclodextrin with polydatin in solution and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Songsong; He, Jiang; Sun, Lijuan; Ren, Dong; Ban, Yihe

    2013-04-01

    The inclusion complex of the slight water solubility, polydatin (PD), with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) was investigated for the first time in solution. The effect of HP-β-CD on the spectral feature of PD was measured using fluorescence technique by varying the concentrations of HP-β-CD. Meanwhile, the molecular mechanism of the formation of inclusion complex of PD with HP-β-CD was studied and discussed by molecular modeling. The experimental result clearly indicated that the benzene ring of PD was encapsulated within the HP-β-CD cavity to form a 1:1 stoichiometry host-guest compound. The apparent formation constants (K) was obtained by the typical double reciprocal plots and phase solubility studies. Due to the remarkable enhancement of the fluorescence intensity of PD, a spectrofluorimetric method was developed for the determination of PD in bulk aqueous solution in the presence of HP-β-CD. The linear range was 2.00 × 10-7-2.00 × 10-5 mol/L (r = 0.998) with the detection limit 9.50 × 10-9 mol/L. The present study provided useful information for a more rational determination of PD in serum with recoveries of 97-104%.

  2. A Comparison between the hp-version of Finite Element Method with EIDORS for Electrical Impedance Tomography.

    PubMed

    Saeedizadeh, N; Kermani, S; Rabbani, H

    2011-07-01

    In this study, a hp-version of Finite Element Method (FEM) was applied for forward modeling in image reconstruction of Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT). The EIT forward solver is normally based on the conventional Finite Element Method (h-FEM). In h-FEM, the polynomial order (p) of the element shape functions is constant and the element size (h) is decreasing. To have an accurate simulation with the h-FEM, a mesh with large number of nodes and elements is usually needed. In order to overcome this problem, the high order finite element method (p-FEM) was proposed. In the p-version, the polynomial order is increasing and the mesh size is constant. Combining the advantages of two previously mentioned methods, the element size (h) was decreased and the polynomial order (p) was increased, simultaneously, which is called the hp-version of Finite Element Method (hp-FEM). The hp-FEM needs a smaller number of nodes and consequently, less computational time and less memory to achieve the same or even better accuracy than h-FEM. The SNR value is 42db for hp-FEM and is 9db for h-FEM. The numerical results are presented and verified that the performance of the hp-version is better than of the h-version in image reconstruction of EIT.

  3. Serum haptoglobin-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Hp-MMP 9) complex as a biomarker of systemic inflammation in cattle.

    PubMed

    Bannikov, G A; Hinds, C A; Rajala-Schultz, P J; Premanandan, C; Rings, D M; Lakritz, J

    2011-01-01

    A reliable and specific test that discriminates between acute neutrophil activation and chronic inflammatory disease may be useful in clinical decision making in a variety of conditions encountered in veterinary medical practice. An ELISA specific for neutrophil-derived haptoglobin-matrix metalloproteinase 9 (Hp-MMP 9) complexes was used to determine serum concentrations of Hp-MMP 9 and was compared to ELISA assays for Haptoglobin (Hp) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP 9) in 15 animals with acute sepsis, 10 animals with chronic inflammatory or metabolic disease and 10 healthy cows. Animal disease classifications were completed prior to the determination of serum concentrations of the 3 proteins. Duration of illness, disease process and lesions observed at necropsy were used to place animals into a specific classification. The serum MMP 9 concentrations in healthy cows differed significantly from those measured in sera of acutely septic and chronically ill animals. Serum haptoglobin concentrations in healthy cows were negligible when compared to animals with acute septic or chronic diseases. There was substantial overlap in MMP 9 and Hp concentrations between acute and chronic disease animals. In contrast, serum concentrations of Hp-MMP 9 complexes found almost exclusively in sera from acutely septic animals but not in chronically ill and normal cattle. The Hp-MMP 9 ELISA may be the serological test of choice in the determination of systemic inflammation associated with bacterial sepsis. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Serum levels of acute phase proteins: SAA, Hp and progesterone (P4) in mares with early embryonic death.

    PubMed

    Krakowski, L; Krawczyk, C H; Kostro, K; Stefaniak, T; Novotny, F; Obara, J

    2011-08-01

    The study involved 46 healthy purebred Arabian mares exhibiting regular oestrous cycles that underwent artificial insemination (AI). Pregnancy was detected ultrasonographically (US) in 40 mares. In 15 mares in foal, early embryonic death (EED) was observed during the pregnancy days 14-21. Blood for determinations of serum acute phase proteins (SAA and Hp) and progesterone (P4) was sampled 12-24 h before ovulation and the first insemination, at 12, 24, 72, 96 h and on day 7, 10, 14, 21, 35 and 55 after ovulation. The results revealed that in 25 mares without EED, the serum levels of P4, SAA and Hp were within physiological limits; in 15 mares with EED, the levels of SAA and Hp were significantly increased. In seven mares with EED, high levels of SAA and Hp were already found before ovulation and at 12, 24, 72, 96 h as well as on day 7 and 10 post-ovulation, whereas the level of P4 was normal for early pregnancy. In the remaining eight mares with EED, increased levels of SAA and Hp were found at 72 h after ovulation and maintained until day 55. In this group, the level of P4 decreased since 96 h after ovulation. Determinations of SAA, Hp and P4 in mares in early pregnancy (EP) are useful for monitoring normal development of pregnancy and for diagnosis of subclinical genital inflammations, which may lead to EED. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  5. [Extraction of oleanolic acid from leaves of Chaenomeles speciosa and processing techniques of its HP-beta-cyclodextrin inclusion compound].

    PubMed

    Chen, Qiu-shi; Wu, Jie; Li, Wei; Cheng, Bei

    2010-05-01

    To select the best extraction of oleanolic acid from leaves of Chaenomeles speciosa and processing techniques of its HP-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) inclusion compound. The study was carried out with orthogonal experiment. Ultrasonic treatment time, extraction time, temperature of extraction and ratio of material to liquor were used as indices. The optimum inclusion technique was chosen by determining the oleanolic acid-bearing rate. The processing techniques of the HP-beta-CD inclusion compound was optimized by taking the ratio of HP-beta-CD to oleanolic acid, the time and temperature of the inclusion process as factors and with the yield of the inclusion compound and the inclusion rate of the volatile oil as the indices. The optimal process for oleanolic acid extraction were as following: ultrasonic treatment time as 40 min, extraction time as 70 min, temperature of extraction as 60 degrees C, ratio of material to liquor as 1:10. The optimal processing conditions for HP-beta-CD inclusion compound of oleanolic acid were as following: the ratio of HP-beta-CD to oleanolic acid was 1:2, the inclusion time of the compound was 3.0 hours at 60 degrees C. High extraction yield of oleanolic acid and stable inclusion compound can be obtained using the above method.

  6. Hinge and chromoshadow of HP1α participate in recognition of K9 methylated histone H3 in nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Mishima, Yuichi; Watanabe, Makoto; Kawakami, Toru; Jayasinghe, Chanika D; Otani, Junji; Kikugawa, Yusuke; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Kimura, Hiroshi; Nishimura, Osamu; Aimoto, Saburo; Tajima, Shoji; Suetake, Isao

    2013-01-09

    The majority of the genome in eukaryotes is packaged into transcriptionally inactive chromatin. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a major player in the establishment and maintenance of heterochromatin. HP1 specifically recognizes a methylated lysine residue at position 9 in histone H3 through its N-terminal chromo domain (CD). To elucidate the binding properties of HP1α to nucleosomes in vitro, we reconstituted nucleosomes containing histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 9. HP1α exhibited high-affinity binding to nucleosomes containing methylated histone H3 in a nucleosome core-number-dependent manner. The hinge region (HR) connecting the CD and C-terminal chromoshadow domain (CSD), and the CSD contributed to the selective binding of HP1α to histone H3 with trimethylated lysine 9 through weak DNA binding and by suppressing the DNA binding, respectively. We propose that not only the specific recognition of lysine 9 methylation of histone H3 by the CD but also the HR and the CSD cooperatively contribute to the selective binding of HP1α to histone H3 lysine 9 methylated nucleosomes.

  7. An HP Adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Kim S.

    1994-01-01

    This dissertation addresses various issues for model classes of hyperbolic conservation laws. The basic approach developed in this work employs a new family of adaptive, hp-version, finite element methods based on a special discontinuous Galerkin formulation for hyperbolic problems. The discontinuous Galerkin formulation admits high-order local approximations on domains of quite general geometry, while providing a natural framework for finite element approximations and for theoretical developments. The use of hp-versions of the finite element method makes possible exponentially convergent schemes with very high accuracies in certain cases; the use of adaptive hp-schemes allows h-refinement in regions of low regularity and p-enrichment to deliver high accuracy, while keeping problem sizes manageable and dramatically smaller than many conventional approaches. The use of discontinuous Galerkin methods is uncommon in applications, but the methods rest on a reasonable mathematical basis for low-order cases and has local approximation features that can be exploited to produce very efficient schemes, especially in a parallel, multiprocessor environment. The place of this work is to first and primarily focus on a model class of linear hyperbolic conservation laws for which concrete mathematical results, methodologies, error estimates, convergence criteria, and parallel adaptive strategies can be developed, and to then briefly explore some extensions to more general cases. Next, we provide preliminaries to the study and a review of some aspects of the theory of hyperbolic conservation laws. We also provide a review of relevant literature on this subject and on the numerical analysis of these types of problems.

  8. Development of an hp-version finite element method for computational optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Warner, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort was to begin the study of the application of hp-version finite elements to the numerical solution of optimal control problems. Under NAG-939, the hybrid MACSYMA/FORTRAN code GENCODE was developed which utilized h-version finite elements to successfully approximate solutions to a wide class of optimal control problems. In that code the means for improvement of the solution was the refinement of the time-discretization mesh. With the extension to hp-version finite elements, the degrees of freedom include both nodal values and extra interior values associated with the unknown states, co-states, and controls, the number of which depends on the order of the shape functions in each element. One possible drawback is the increased computational effort within each element required in implementing hp-version finite elements. We are trying to determine whether this computational effort is sufficiently offset by the reduction in the number of time elements used and improved Newton-Raphson convergence so as to be useful in solving optimal control problems in real time. Because certain of the element interior unknowns can be eliminated at the element level by solving a small set of nonlinear algebraic equations in which the nodal values are taken as given, the scheme may turn out to be especially powerful in a parallel computing environment. A different processor could be assigned to each element. The number of processors, strictly speaking, is not required to be any larger than the number of sub-regions which are free of discontinuities of any kind.

  9. Appendix A: The Impact of the HP 5071A on International Atomic Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, David W.; Lepek, Alex; Cutler, Len; Giffard, Robin; Kusters, Jack

    1996-01-01

    The international clock ensemble, which contributes to the generation of International Atomic Time (TAI and UTC) has improved dramatically over the last few years. The main change has been the introduction of a significant number of HP 5071A clocks. Of the 313 clocks contributing to TAI/UTC during 1994, 94 of these were HP 5071As. The environmental insensitivity of the HP 5071A clocks is more than an order of magnitude better than that of previously contributing clocks. This environmental insensitivity translates to outstanding long-term stability - with a typical flicker floor of a few x10(sup -15). in addition, there are now several hydrogen masers with cavity tuning contributing to TAI/UTC. These not only have outstanding short-term stability, but comparatively low frequency drifts and excellent intermediate-type frequency stability. By analyzing data available from the international ensemble, we have obtained two important results. First the frequency stability obtainable with an optimum algorithm is about 10(sup -15) for both the intermediate and long-term regions. It could be as good in the short-term (if time transfer measurement instabilities were reduced sufficiently. Second, with cooperation, this performance can be made available on an international basis in near real time. The recent enhancements in the contributing clocks are already providing a significant improvement in the accuracy with which UTC is made available to the world from several of the national timing centers, such as the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) and the US Naval Observatory (USNO).

  10. A GAL4-HP1 fusion protein targeted near heterochromatin promotes gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Seum, C; Spierer, A; Delattre, M; Pauli, D; Spierer, P

    2000-11-01

    We have constructed a new reporter transgene, Winkelried, equipped with a synthetic binding site for the yeast GAL4 transcriptional activator. The binding site is inserted between the white and lacZ reporter genes, and is flanked by FRT sequences. These elements allow excision of the GAL4 binding site by crossing the transgenic line with an FLP recombinase producing strain. We have generated by X-ray irradiation two independent chromosomal rearrangements, Heidi and Tell, relocating Winkelried next to pericentromeric heterochromatin. These rearrangements induce variegation of both white and lacZ. Variegation of Winkelried in the rearranged transgenic lines responds to the loss and excess of doses of the dominant suppressors of position-effect variegation (PEV) Su(var)3-7 and Su(var)2-5. Winkelried therefore constitutes a unique tool to test the effect on variegation in cis of any factor fused to the GAL4 DNA binding domain. Indeed, a chimeric protein, made of the DNA binding site of GAL4 and of HP1, the modifier of PEV encoded by Su(var)2-5, is shown to enhance variegation of Heidi and Tell. Excision of the binding sites for GAL4 in the variegating rearrangements Heidi and Tell abolishes the modifier effect of the GAL4-HP1 chimera. Therefore, in the Heidi and Tell rearrangements, enhancement of position-effect variegation depends strictly both on the concentration of GAL4-HP1 and on the presence of its binding site in the vicinity of the reporter genes.

  11. Hipparcos red stars in the HpVT2 and VIC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platais, I.; Pourbaix, D.; Jorissen, A.; Makarov, V. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Samus, N. N.; Lloyd Evans, T.; Lebzelter, T.; Sperauskas, J.

    2003-01-01

    For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibrated instantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derived HpVT2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins VI data have been obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasets in combination with the published sources of V I photometry served to obtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-VT2 with the Cousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-type stars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I is about 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly at fainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify the published Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified a handful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random field star has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/V solutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely such spurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color in the astrometric processing. Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operated by the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\\fnmsep\\thanks{Table 7 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

  12. Stress corrosion evaluation of HP 9Ni-4Co-0.30C steel plate welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Pablo D.

    1993-01-01

    A stress corrosion cracking (SCC) investigation was conducted on HP 9Ni-4Co-0.30C steel plate welds (welded by using straight polarity plasma arc and HP 9Ni-4Co-0.20C weld wire) since this material is being considered for use in the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program. Prior to the welding, the material was double tempered at 538 C (1,000 F). After welding, only part of the material was stress relieved at 510 C (950 F) for 3 h. Round tensile specimens obtained from nonstress-relieved material were tested in 100-percent relative humidity at 38 C (100 F), in 3.5-percent NaCl alternate immersion, and in 5-percent salt spray at 35 C (95 F). Specimens obtained from stress-relieved material were tested in alternate immersion. The stress levels were 50, 75, and 90 percent of the corresponding 0.2-percent yield strength (YS). All the nonstress-relieved specimens exposed to salt spray and alternate immersion failed. Stress-relieved specimens (exposed to alternate immersion) failed at 75 and 90 percent of YS. No failures occurred at 50 percent of YS in the stress-relieved specimens which indicates a beneficial effect of the stress relief on the SCC resistance of these welds. The stress relief also had a positive effect on the mechanical properties of the welds (the most important being an increase of 21 percent on the YS). Under the conditions of these tests, the straight polarity plasma are welded HP 9Ni4Co-0.30C steel plate was found highly susceptible to SCC in the nonstress-relieved condition. This susceptibility to SCC was reduced by stress relieving.

  13. Posteriori error estimation of h-p finite element approximations of frictional contact problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, C. Y.; Oden, J. T.

    1994-03-01

    Dynamic and static fractional contact problems are described using the normal compliance law on the contact boundary. Dynamic problems are recast into quasistatic problems by time discretization. An a posteriori error estimator is developed for nonlinear elliptic equation of corresponding static or quasistatic problems. The a posteriori error estimator is applied to a frictionless case and extended to frictional contact problems. An adaptive strategy is introduced and h-p finite element meshes are obtained through a procedure based on a priori and a posteriori error estimations. Numerical examples are given to support the theoretical results.

  14. Conversion of the NOLAPS (Navy Operational Local Atmospheric Prediction System) Model to the HP9845.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-01

    Research and Data Systems Corp. 2C Lanham, MD 20706 Contract No. N00228-84-D-3155 DTIC$E LECTE JUL 7 1986 >1 FEBRUARY 1986 B UAPPROVED FOR PUBLIC...TESS coruputer will be a follow-on to the current-generation HP9845 A, and B option 275, shipboard microcouputers. For this task, the NLAPS FID model...enhanceTents shall be made in this report. 4 ~~~~~~~~~. . . . . . . . ... .. .... . .,.- .. . .-.... ". -.- -.-. ..... " ,’.- -"-’.". ... " -.Y’YY .- r , b t

  15. The Impact of the HP 5071A on International Atomic Time. Appendix A

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-12-01

    APPENDIX A THE IMPACT OF THE HP 5071A ON INTERNATIONAL ATOMlC TIME D a v i d W. Allan, Allan’s TIME , Foun ta in Green, UT A l e x Lepek, Tech...algorithm is about 10-’"or both the intermediate and long-term regions. It could be as good in the short-term if time transfer measurement...instabilities were reduced sulfieiently. Second, with cooperation, this performance can be made available on an internakiond basis in near real time . The

  16. HP17, a new pigment-like antibiotic produced by a new strain of Spirillospora.

    PubMed

    Hacéne, H; Lefebvre, G

    1996-05-01

    Spirillospora strain 719 produces several antibiotics. On solid and liquid media, a deep red pigments is formed and diffuses throughout the culture. It was extracted with methanol from the mycelium cake and from the fermentation broth after precipitation at pH 2 and purified using TLC and HPLC. Its u.v. absorption spectrum and its physicochemical characteristics place this antibiotic in the 3.3.2.2.8 of the Berdy et al. classification. In most respects, it resembles proteinaceous pigment from Spirillospora 1655 and 1309-b that was studied and named spirillomycin. However, HP17 differs from spirillomycin principally in molecular weight and chemical nature.

  17. Monte Carlo simulations of the HP model (the "Ising model" of protein folding)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying Wai; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P.

    2011-09-01

    Using Wang-Landau sampling with suitable Monte Carlo trial moves (pull moves and bond-rebridging moves combined) we have determined the density of states and thermodynamic properties for a short sequence of the HP protein model. For free chains these proteins are known to first undergo a collapse "transition" to a globule state followed by a second "transition" into a native state. When placed in the proximity of an attractive surface, there is a competition between surface adsorption and folding that leads to an intriguing sequence of "transitions". These transitions depend upon the relative interaction strengths and are largely inaccessible to "standard" Monte Carlo methods.

  18. Monte Carlo simulations of the HP model (the "Ising model" of protein folding).

    PubMed

    Li, Ying Wai; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2011-09-01

    Using Wang-Landau sampling with suitable Monte Carlo trial moves (pull moves and bond-rebridging moves combined) we have determined the density of states and thermodynamic properties for a short sequence of the HP protein model. For free chains these proteins are known to first undergo a collapse "transition" to a globule state followed by a second "transition" into a native state. When placed in the proximity of an attractive surface, there is a competition between surface adsorption and folding that leads to an intriguing sequence of "transitions". These transitions depend upon the relative interaction strengths and are largely inaccessible to "standard" Monte Carlo methods.

  19. Electron-beam mask writer EBM-6000 for 45 nm HP node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashima, Jun; Ohtoshi, Kenji; Nakayamada, Noriaki; Anze, Hirohito; Katsumata, Takehiko; Iijima, Tomohiro; Nishimura, Rieko; Fukutome, Syuuichiro; Miyamoto, Nobuo; Wake, Seiji; Sakai, Yusuke; Sakamoto, Shinji; Hara, Shigehiro; Higurashi, Hitoshi; Hattori, Kiyoshi; Saito, Kenichi; Kendall, Rodney; Tamamushi, Shuichi

    2007-05-01

    In order to comply with the demanding technology requirements for 45 nm half pitch (HP) node (32 nm technology node), Nuflare Technology Inc. (NFT) has developed Electron-beam mask writing equipment, EBM-6000, with increased current density (70A/cm2), while its other primary features basically remain unchanged, namely 50 kV acceleration voltage, Variable Shaped Beam (VSB)/vector scan, like its predecessors [1-5]. In addition, new functionalities and capabilities such as astigmatism correction in subfield, optimized variable stage speed control, electron gun with multiple cathodes (Turret electron gun), and optimized data handling system have been employed to improve writing accuracy, throughput, and up-time. VSB-12 is the standard input data format for EBM-6000, and as optional features to be selected by users, direct input function for VSB-11 and CREF-flatpoly are offered as well. In this paper, the new features and capabilities of EBM-6000 together with supporting technologies are reported to solidly prove the viability of EBM-6000 for 45 nm HP node.

  20. Plasma arc welding Hp-9Ni-4Co-0.30C steel

    SciTech Connect

    Harwig, D.D.; Hunt, J.F.; Theus, G.J.

    1994-12-31

    The plasma arc welding process is used to fabricate the advanced solid rocket motor (ASRM) casing for the Space Shuttle. Plasma arc welding (PAW) was chosen because this process assures a full penetration root pass with the keyhole mode. The HP 9Ni-4Co-0.30C steel was chosen for the ASRM application because the material has excellent strength, toughness, and weldability. The minimum mechanical property requirements of the weldment are 190 ksi yield, 205 ksi ultimate, 8% elongation, 25% reduction in area and 90 ksi/in. fracture toughness. Therefore, a comprehensive development plan was performed to fully characterize plasma arc welding HP 9Ni-4Co-0.30 steel. The test technique systematically varied the essential plasma arc parameters: current, travel speed, plasma gas or wire feed speed while maintaining constant arc length and torch set-up conditions. This PWHT produced the best combination of strength, toughness, and acceptable residual stresses. Variations in land thickness, plasma gas flow rate, current, travel speed, and arc length were characterized by measuring weld bead shape geometry. The weld procedure was found to be tolerant to rather wide parameter variations.

  1. Measuring the Permittivity on Mars: The Permittivity Sensor of the HP3 Instrument.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargl, G.; Stiegler, A.; Berghofer, G.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the development and first results from a bore-hole permittivity probe to be used on the surface of Mars. A permittivity probe covering the frequency range of 4 - 20 000 Hz with a 1 Hz resolution was developed as part of the HP3 instrument. The sensor approach follows the classical concept of a Wenner array [1] of equally spaced electrodes wrapped around the outer envelope of the HP3 payload compartment, where an electrical field is projected into the adjacent material. With the two receiver electrodes this field is measured back and compared with the output signal. From amplitude and gain changes the electrical properties of the ambient material can be inferred. For calibration, measurements were performed with three different environmental stable polymers, namely polyethylene (PE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). We also used assorted Martian analogue materials As reference values for the sample permittivity data gained from a high precision impedance spectrometer were used. In comparison to common literature values and the reference samples, an accuracy of better than 5% can be achieved with the calibrated sensor breadboard for frequency ranges > 1 kHz.

  2. Measuring the Permittivity on Mars: The Permittivity Sensor of the HP3 Instrument.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargl, G.; Stiegler, A.; Berghofer, G.

    2011-10-01

    We report on the development and first results from a bore-hole permittivity probe to be used on the surface of Mars. A permittivity probe covering the frequency range of 4 - 20 000 Hz with a 1 Hz resolution was developed as part of the HP3 instrument. The sensor approach follows the classical concept of a Wenner array of equally spaced electrodes wrapped around the outer envelope of the HP3 payload compartment, where an electrical field is projected into the adjacent material. With the two receiver electrodes this field is measured back and compared with the output signal. From amplitude and gain changes the electrical properties of the ambient material can be inferred. For calibration, measurements were performed with three different environmental stable polymers, namely polyethylene (PE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). We also used assorted Martian analogue materials As reference values for the sample permittivity data gained from a high precision impedance spectrometer were used. In comparison to common literature values and the reference samples, an accuracy of better than 5% can be achieved with the calibrated sensor breadboard for frequency ranges > 1 kHz.

  3. Simulated and measured Hp(10) response of the personal dosemeter Seibersdorf.

    PubMed

    Hranitzky, C; Stadtmann, H

    2007-01-01

    The Hp(10) energy response of the personal dosemeter Seibersdorf and its two different filtered LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) thermoluminescence (TL) detectors are investigated. A close-to-reality simulation model of the personal dosemeter badge including the wrapped detector card was implemented with the MCNP Monte Carlo N-particle transport code. The comparison of measured and computationally calculated response using a semi-empirical TL efficiency function is carried out to provide information about the quality of the results of both methods, experiment and simulation. Similar to the experimental calibration conditions, the irradiation of dosemeters centred on the front surface of the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) water slab phantom is simulated using ISO-4037 reference photon radiation qualities with mean energies between 24 keV and 1.25 MeV and corresponding ISO conversion coefficients. The comparison of the simulated and measured relative Hp(10) energy responses resulted in good agreement within some percent except for the filtered TL element at lower photon energies.

  4. [The preparation, characterization and ultraviolet photodegradation of LNG-HP-beta-CD].

    PubMed

    Wang, Da-wei; Liu, Qi; Liu, Ming; Liu, Xiao-hui

    2011-03-01

    The characteristics of levonorgestrel (LNG), low solubility and the quick degradation under ultraviolet, limited its study and application in rodent contraception. The inclusion complex of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) with LNG was investigated in present study. The inclusion complex was prepared by solution method and characterized by ultraviolet absorption spectrum and infrared spectrum spectra. And the stability was evaluated by being exposed to ultraviolet. The authors' results showed that the accurate and simple method of quantitative determination for LNG was established by ultraviolet spectrum, the molar ratio of the complex was 1:1 calculated from the phase solubility diagram, the stability constant was 187.3 L x mol(-1) at 25 degrees C, and the formation of the inclusion complex was validated by UV-Vis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Moreover, the degradation rate of the inclusion complex was less than 5%, which was slower than the LNG monomer. The present study indicated that HP-beta-CD could be formed inclusion complexes with LNG and the solubility, and stability were obviously enhanced.

  5. Photodynamic therapy of endometriosis with HpD (Photosan III) in a new in vitro model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viereck, Volker; Werter, Wiebke; Rueck, Angelika C.; Steiner, Rudolf W.; Keckstein, J.

    1994-07-01

    As a new treatment model for endometriosis, photodynamic therapy was applied to endometriotic and endometrial cultures. It could be demonstrated that both endometrial components (epithelium and stroma) were present in the cultures, proved by immunocytology and electron microscopy. No major differences were seen between endometriotic and endometrial cells. The cultures were treated by HpD-sensitized PDT. Incubation time was 24 h and concentrations of 5 and 10 (mu) g/ml were used. Irradiation was performed by an argon-pumped dye laser at 630 nm with a power density of 80 mW/cm2. Evaluation both morphologically and by trypan blue exclusion test, was effected 24 h after irradiation. Toxicity in endometriotic and endometrial cultures was practically identical. Stroma cells were more sensitive to photodynamic treatment than epithelial cells. Complete stromal cell destruction was reached at 15 J/cm2, whereas epithelial cells showed 100 lethality at 40 J/cm2 (10(mu) g/ml HpD). These and subsequent results demonstrate that the sensitivity of stromal cells was about seven times higher than that of epithelial cells.

  6. Optimization and mechanisms for biodecoloration of a mixture of dyes by Trichosporon akiyoshidainum HP 2023.

    PubMed

    Martorell, María M; Rosales Soro, María Del M; Pajot, Hipólito F; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2017-09-16

    Trichosporon akiyoshidainum HP2023 is a basidiomycetous yeast isolated from Las Yungas rainforest (Tucumán, Argentina) and selected based on its outstanding textile-dye-decolorizing ability. In this work, the decolorization process was optimized using Reactive Black 5 as dye model. Lactose and urea were chosen as carbon and nitrogen sources through a one-at-time approach. Afterwards, factorial designs were employed for medium optimization, leading to the formulation of a simpler optimized medium which contains in g L(-1): lactose 10, yeast extract 1, urea 0.5, KH2PO4 1 and MgSO4 1. Temperature and agitation conditions were also optimized. The optimized medium and incubation conditions for dye removal were extrapolated to other dyes individually and a mixture of them. Dye removal process happened through both biosorption and biodegradation mechanisms, depending primarily on the dye structure. A positive relation between initial inoculum and dye removal rate and a negative relation between initial dye concentration and final dye removal percentages were found. Under optimized conditions, T. akiyoshidainum HP2023 was able to completely remove a mixture of dyes up to a concentration of 300 mg L(-1), a concentration much higher than those expected in real effluents.

  7. Thermodynamics and structural properties of a confined HP protein determined by Wang-Landau simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanasiri, Busara; Li, Ying Wai; Landau, David P.; Wüst, Thomas; Triampo, Wannapong

    2013-08-01

    Understanding protein folding confined by surfaces is important for both biological sciences and the development of nanomaterials. In this work, we study the properties of a confined HP model protein by three different types of surfaces, namely, surfaces that attract: (a) all monomers; (b) only P monomers; and (c) only H monomers. The thermodynamic and structural quantities, such as the specific heat, number of surface contacts, and number of hydrophobic pairs, are obtained by using Wang-Landau sampling. The conformational "transitions", specifically, the debridging process and hydrophobic core formation, can be identified based on an analysis of these quantities. We found that these transitions take place at different temperatures, and the ground state configurations show variations in structural properties when different surface type is used. These scenarios are confirmed by snapshots of typical states of the systems. From our study, we conclude that the thermodynamics of these transitions and the structural changes depend on the combined actions of both the composition of the H monomers and the P monomers in the HP chain and the surface types.

  8. Dose rate constants for the quantity Hp(3) for frequently used radionuclides in nuclear medicine.

    PubMed

    Szermerski, Bastian; Bruchmann, Iris; Behrens, Rolf; Geworski, Lilli

    2016-12-01

    According to recent studies, the human eye lens is more sensitive to ionising radiation than previously assumed. Therefore, the dose limit for personnel occupationally exposed to ionising radiation will be lowered from currently 150 mSv to 20 mSv per year. Currently, no data base for a reliable estimation of the dose to the lens of the eye is available for nuclear medicine. Furthermore, the dose is usually not monitored. The aim of this work was to determine dose rate constants for the quantity Hp(3), which is supposed to estimate the dose to the lens of the eye. For this, Hp(3)-dosemeters were fixed to an Alderson Phantom at different positions. The dosemeters were exposed to radiation from nuclides typically used in nuclear medicine in their geometries analog to their application in nuclear medicine, e.g. syringe or vial. The results show that the handling of high-energy beta (i.e. electron or positron) emitters may lead to a relevant dose to the lens of the eye. For low-energy beta emitters and gamma emitters, an exceeding of the lowered dose limit seems to be unlikely. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  9. Lightning and Radar Observations of the 29 May 2004 Tornadic HP Supercell during TELEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macgorman, D. R.; Kuhlman, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    On 29 May 2004, a tornadic heavy-precipitation (HP) supercell storm moved through central Oklahoma and through the Thunderstorm Electrification and Lightning Experiment (TELEX) domain. Three dimensional lightning location data from the Oklahoma Lightning Mapping Array (OK-LMA) depict the evolution of the storm, including convective surges, overshooting tops, and the formation and dissipation of lightning weak holes. In addition to the OK-LMA, the storm was also observed by two C-band mobile radars (SMART-R radars) providing three-minute volume scans and by the KOUN polarimetric S-band radar. Analysis of a lightning weak hole showed that it was co-located horizontally with a core of strong updrafts and with a bounded weak echo region. The majority of the cloud-to-ground lightning detected in the storm by the National Lightning Detection Network lowered negative charge to ground. However, during genesis of the strongest tornado, the dominant polarity of ground flashes near the reflectivity core of the storm evolved to positive. Also at approximately this time, negative ground strikes began occurring under the anvil, tens of kilometers from the reflectivity core, as lightning activity surged roughly 100 km into the anvil. Observations from these platforms provide insight into HP supercell evolution and structure and into relationships of lightning with other properties of the storm.

  10. A replica exchange Monte Carlo algorithm for protein folding in the HP model

    PubMed Central

    Thachuk, Chris; Shmygelska, Alena; Hoos, Holger H

    2007-01-01

    Background The ab initio protein folding problem consists of predicting protein tertiary structure from a given amino acid sequence by minimizing an energy function; it is one of the most important and challenging problems in biochemistry, molecular biology and biophysics. The ab initio protein folding problem is computationally challenging and has been shown to be NP MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaat0uy0HwzTfgDPnwy1egaryqtHrhAL1wy0L2yHvdaiqaacqWFneVtcqqGqbauaaa@3961@-hard even when conformations are restricted to a lattice. In this work, we implement and evaluate the replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) method, which has already been applied very successfully to more complex protein models and other optimization problems with complex energy landscapes, in combination with the highly effective pull move neighbourhood in two widely studied Hydrophobic Polar (HP) lattice models. Results We demonstrate that REMC is highly effective for solving instances of the square (2D) and cubic (3D) HP protein folding problem. When using the pull move neighbourhood, REMC outperforms current state-of-the-art algorithms for most benchmark instances. Additionally, we show that this new algorithm provides a larger ensemble of ground-state structures than the existing state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, it scales well with sequence length, and it finds significantly better conformations on long biological sequences and sequences with a provably unique ground-state structure, which is believed to be a characteristic of real proteins. We also present evidence that our REMC algorithm can fold sequences which exhibit significant interaction between termini in the hydrophobic core relatively easily. Conclusion We demonstrate that REMC utilizing the pull move neighbourhood

  11. Petrological and geochronological constraints on the origin of HP and UHP kyanite-quartzites from the Sulu orogen, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Zeming; Yu, Fei; Liu, Feng; Dong, Xin; Liou, J. G.

    2011-09-01

    Kyanite (Ky)-quartzites occur in both the high-pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belts in the southern Sulu orogen. The HP Ky-quartzites consist of quartz, kyanite and minor rutile with or without topaz and phengite, whereas those from the UHP unit consist of quartz, kyanite, phengite and rutile. The HP Ky-quartzites are characterized by high Al 2O 3 (up to 32.9 wt.%) and low SiO 2 (down to 60.4 wt.%) with very low other oxides contents (<1 wt.%); whereas the UHP Ky-quartzites are characterized by high SiO 2 (77.7-78.4 wt.%) and relatively low Al 2O 3 (19.1-19.5 wt.%). Both HP and UHP quartzites have variable trace element concentrations, but show distinctly negative Nb and Ta anomalies, and positive Zr anomalies. Rare earth element (REE) patterns for both types of quartzites show LREE enrichment and HREE depletion without Eu anomalies. Zircons from HP quartzites have inherited magmatic cores and metamorphic rims; most zircon cores show oscillatory zoning, contain low-pressure (LP) mineral inclusions of Kfs, Pl and Qz, and have relatively high REE contents (av. 1236.6 ppm) and high Th/U ratios (av. 1.57). The metamorphic rims show patchy zoning, contain HP inclusions of Ky and Tpz and have relatively low REE contents (av. 199.1 ppm) and Th/U ratios (av. 0.015). Most zircons from the UHP quartzites show irregular or patchy zoning, have mineral inclusions of Coe, Ph, and Rt, low REE contents (av. 332.8 ppm) and low Th/U values (av. 0.027). Only a few zircons from the UHP quartzite have inherited magmatic cores. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating yields Neoproterozoic protolithic ages (790-764 Ma) for magmatic zircon cores of the HP quartzites, whereas the rims give Triassic (222-218 Ma) ages for HP metamorphism. Similarly, zircons from the UHP quartzites yield a Neoproterozoic protolithic age (819 Ma) and Triassic UHP metamorphic ages (223 and 221 Ma). Based on the comparable petrochemical compositions, and consistent protolithic and metamorphic ages

  12. Comparative proteomic analysis of the Haemophilus ducreyi porin-deficient mutant 35000HP::P2AB.

    PubMed

    Davie, Jeremiah J; Campagnari, Anthony A

    2009-04-01

    Haemophilus ducreyi is an obligate human pathogen and the causative agent of the sexually transmitted, genital ulcerative disease chancroid. The genome of strain 35000HP contains two known porin proteins, OmpP2A and OmpP2B. Loss of OmpP2A and OmpP2B expression in the mutant 35000HP::P2AB resulted in no obvious growth defect or phenotype. Comparison of outer membrane profiles indicated increased expression of the 58.5-kDa chaperone, GroEL, in the porin-deficient mutant. A proteomics-based comparison resulted in the identification of 231 proteins present in membrane-associated protein samples, of which a subset of 56 proteins was differentially expressed at a level of 1.5-fold or greater in the porin-deficient strain 35000HP::P2AB relative to that in 35000HP. Twenty of the differentially expressed proteins were selected for real-time PCR, resulting in the validation of 90% of the selected subgroup. Proteins identified in these studies suggested a decreased membrane stability phenotype, which was verified by disk diffusion assay. Loss of OmpP2A and OmpP2B resulted in global protein expression changes which appear to compensate for the absence of porin expression in 35000HP::P2AB.

  13. The methyltransferase Suv39h1 links the SUMO pathway to HP1α marking at pericentric heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Maison, Christèle; Bailly, Delphine; Quivy, Jean-Pierre; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    The trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9me3) – a mark recognized by HP1 that depends on the Suv39h lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) – has provided a basis for the reader/writer model to explain HP1 accumulation at pericentric heterochromatin in mammals. Here, we identify the Suv39h1 paralog, as a unique enhancer of HP1α sumoylation both in vitro and in vivo. The region responsible for promoting HP1α sumoylation (aa1–167) is distinct from the KMT catalytic domain and mediates binding to Ubc9. Tethering the 1–167 domain of Suv39h1 to pericentric heterochromatin, but not mutants unable to bind Ubc9, accelerates the de novo targeting of HP1α to these domains. Our results establish an unexpected feature of Suv39h1, distinct from the KMT activity, with a major role for heterochromatin formation. We discuss how linking Suv39h1 to the SUMO pathway provides conceptual implications for our general view on nuclear domain organization and physiological functions. PMID:27426629

  14. Prospective evaluation of a new high-power argon plasma coagulation system (hp-APC) in therapeutic gastrointestinal endoscopy.

    PubMed

    Manner, Hendrik; May, Andrea; Rabenstein, Thomas; Pech, Oliver; Nachbar, Lars; Enderle, Markus D; Gossner, Liebwin; Ell, Christian

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate a new high-power argon plasma coagulation system (hp-APC) in therapeutic gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy. From February to June 2005, 216 patients (167 M (77.3%), mean age 66 years) underwent treatment with hp-APC in a total of 275 sessions. Main indications were additive ablation therapy in Barrett's esophagus, palliative treatment of esophageal cancer, gastric polyps/carcinomas, angiodysplasias, Zenker's diverticula, and duodenal adenomas. The new hp-APC device (VIO 300 D with APC 2) was used (15-120 W) in upper GI endoscopy, push-enteroscopy, and double-balloon enteroscopy. The mean number of treatment sessions required was 1.7 (1-5). For palliative tumor ablation in the esophagus, the number of sessions was 2.3 (1-5). Minor complications (pain, dysphagia, neuromuscular irritation, asymptomatic gas accumulation in the intestinal wall) were observed in 29/216 patients (13.4%). Major complications (perforation, stenosis occurred) in 2 patients (0.9%). Hp-APC appears to be safe and effective in the treatment of various GI condition using different types of endoscopes including double-balloon enteroscopy. Because of the low number of treatment sessions required, hp-APC could be used as an alternative to Nd:YAG laser treatment in tumor debulking.

  15. Oral Immunization with Recombinant Lactobacillus acidophilus Expressing the Adhesin Hp0410 of Helicobacter pylori Induces Mucosal and Systemic Immune Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hongying, Fan; Xianbo, Wu; Fang, Yu; Yang, Bai

    2014-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is relatively common worldwide and is closely related to gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, chronic gastritis, and stomach ulcers. Therefore, a safe and effective method for preventing H. pylori infection is urgently needed. Given that developing an effective vaccine against H. pylori is one of the best alternatives, H. pylori adhesin Hp0410 was expressed in the food-grade bacterium Lactobacillus acidophilus. The recombinant live bacterial vaccine was then used to orally vaccinate mice, and the immunoprotective effects of Hp0410-producing strains were investigated. H. pylori colonization in the stomach of mice immunized with the recombinant L. acidophilus was significantly reduced, in comparison with that in control groups. Furthermore, mucosal secretory IgA antibodies were elicited in the mucosal tissue of mice immunized with the recombinant bacteria, and specific anti-Hp0410 IgG responses were also detected in mouse serum. There was a significant increase in the level of protection against gastric Helicobacter infection following a challenge with H. pylori Sydney strain 1 (SS1). Our results collectively indicate that adhesin Hp0410 is a promising candidate vaccine antigen, and recombinant L. acidophilus expressing Hp0410 is likely to constitute an effective, low-cost, live bacterial vaccine against H. pylori. PMID:24285819

  16. The capsid-coding region hairpin element (cHP) is a critical determinant of dengue virus and West Nile virus RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Clyde, Karen; Barrera, Julio; Harris, Eva

    2008-09-30

    Dengue virus (DENV) and West Nile virus (WNV) are members of the Flavivirus genus of positive-strand RNA viruses. RNA sequences and structures, primarily in the untranslated regions, have been shown to modulate flaviviral gene expression and genome replication. Previously, we demonstrated that a structure in the DENV coding region (cHP) enhances translation start codon selection and is required for viral replication. Here we further characterize the role of the cHP in the DENV life cycle. We demonstrate that the cHP is required for efficient viral RNA synthesis in a sequence-independent manner. Viruses with a disrupted cHP are rescued by a spontaneous compensatory mutation that restabilizes the structure. Furthermore, the cHP, which is predicted to be conserved among arthropod-borne flaviviruses, is required for WNV replication. We propose that the cHP is a multifunctional determinant of flavivirus replication, functioning in both translation and RNA synthesis.

  17. CTCF-mediated reduction of vigilin binding affects the binding of HP1α to the satellite 2 locus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Yan; Liu, Qiu-Ying; Wei, Ling; Yu, Xiao-Qin; Li, Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Wen-Quan; Huang, Yuan; Qin, Yang

    2014-05-02

    CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has been implicated in numerous aspects of chromosome biology, and vigilin, a multi-KH-domain protein, participates in heterochromatin formation and chromosome segregation. We previously showed that CTCF interacts with vigilin. Here, we show that human vigilin, but not CTCF, colocalizes with HP1α on heterochromatic satellite 2 and β-satellite repeats. CTCF up-regulates the transcription of satellite 2, while vigilin down-regulates it. Vigilin depletion or CTCF overexpression reduces the binding of HP1α on the satellite 2 locus. Furthermore, overexpression of CTCF resists the loading of vigilin onto the satellite 2 locus. Thus CTCF may regulate vigilin behavior and thus indirectly influence the binding of HP1α to the satellite 2 locus.

  18. A 3-D hp finite/infinite element method to calculate power deposition in the human head.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dong; Demkowicz, Leszek; Hao, Ling

    2007-04-01

    The electromagnetic power deposition and transfer properties of a G1 continuous head model reconstructed from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data are investigated by using the coupled hp finite/infinite element (FE/IE) method. The discretization error is controlled by a self-adaptive process driven by an explicit a posteriori error estimate. Based on the benchmark problem of reproducing the Mie series solution, the scattering of a plane wave on the curvilinear head model is used to evaluate the hp FE/IE approach and calibrate the error bound. The radiation pattern from a short dipole antenna modeling a cell phone, is analyzed in terms of the level and distribution of the specific absorption rates (SAR). The numerical experiments show that the hybrid hp FE/IE implementation is a competitive tool for accurate assessment of human electromagnetic exposure.

  19. Transcriptional response of a novel HpCDPK1 kinase gene from Hippeastrum x hybr. to wounding and fungal infection.

    PubMed

    Pawełek, Agnieszka; Duszyn, Maria; Świeżawska, Brygida; Szmidt-Jaworska, Adriana; Jaworski, Krzysztof

    2017-09-01

    Calcium dependent protein kinases (CDPK) are well established plant sensor and effectors for calcium ions and participate in regulation of multiple abiotic and biotic stress responses in plant cells. Here we present the identification and characterization of a new CDPK kinase gene from bulbous plant Hippeastrum x hybr. and examine the role of this kinase in stress responses leading to phytoalexin (PA) production in plant tissues. In the previous research, it was shown that Hippeastrum bulbs mechanically wounded or infected with Peyronellaea curtisii (=Phoma narcissi) are inducted to an antifungal red substance synthesis. In this research, we demonstrated Ca(2+) dependence of the phytoalexin production by wounded bulbs. Furthermore, the isolated HpCDPK1 cDNA for ORF was found to be 1596bp long and encoded 531 amino acid protein with CDPK kinase activity, as was shown by recombinant GST-HpCDPK1 enzyme production and analysis. HpCDPK1 transcript was present in all vegetative and chosen generative organs of Hippeastrum plant. The dynamics of the observed HpCDPK1 mRNA changes in bulbs depended on stressor type. The mechanical injury caused one wave of transcript increase while more complex transcript changes were observed within 48h after Peyronellaea inoculation. In plant bulbs already accumulating red phytoalexin, increases in HpCDPK1 mRNA level were observed at certain intervals within 48h whereas, in the case of fungal infection, only one big increment in the transcript amount at the 10th minute after inoculation was detected. The observed transcriptional response of HpCDPK1 gene to wounding and pathogen infection stress suggests a positive correlation with phytoalexin synthesis and maintenance in bulb tissues and puts more light on CDPK kinase role in the plant stress response regulation. This also bears some potential for understanding the mechanism of a phytoalexin formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  20. Heterochromatin-Associated Proteins HP1a and Piwi Collaborate to Maintain the Association of Achiasmate Homologs in Drosophila Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Giauque, Christopher C; Bickel, Sharon E

    2016-05-01

    Accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis depends on their ability to remain physically connected throughout prophase I. For homologs that achieve a crossover, sister chromatid cohesion distal to the chiasma keeps them attached until anaphase I. However, in Drosophila melanogaster wild-type oocytes, chromosome 4 never recombines, and the X chromosome fails to cross over in 6-10% of oocytes. Proper segregation of these achiasmate homologs relies on their pericentric heterochromatin-mediated association, but the mechanism(s) underlying this attachment remains poorly understood. Using an inducible RNA interference (RNAi) strategy combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to monitor centromere proximal association of the achiasmate FM7a/X homolog pair, we asked whether specific heterochromatin-associated proteins are required for the association and proper segregation of achiasmate homologs in Drosophila oocytes. When we knock down HP1a, H3K9 methytransferases, or the HP1a binding partner Piwi during mid-prophase, we observe significant disruption of pericentric heterochromatin-mediated association of FM7a/X homologs. Furthermore, for both HP1a and Piwi knockdown oocytes, transgenic coexpression of the corresponding wild-type protein is able to rescue RNAi-induced defects, but expression of a mutant protein with a single amino acid change that disrupts the HP1a-Piwi interaction is unable to do so. We show that Piwi is stably bound to numerous sites along the meiotic chromosomes, including centromere proximal regions. In addition, reduction of HP1a or Piwi during meiotic prophase induces a significant increase in FM7a/X segregation errors. We present a speculative model outlining how HP1a and Piwi could collaborate to keep achiasmate chromosomes associated in a homology-dependent manner.

  1. [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-nitroimidazole: a promising agent for PET detection of tumor hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yunkou; Hao, Guiyang; Ramezani, Saleh; Saha, Debabrata; Zhao, Dawen; Sun, Xiankai; Sherry, A Dean

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate a new (68) Ga-based imaging agent for detecting tumor hypoxia using positron emission tomography (PET). The new hypoxia targeting agent reported here, [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-nitroimidazole ([(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-NI), was constructed by linking a nitroimidazole moiety with the macrocyclic ligand component of ProHance®, HP-DO3A. The hypoxia targeting capability of this agent was evaluated in A549 lung cancer cells in vitro and in SCID mice bearing subcutaneous A549 tumor xenografts. The cellular uptake assays showed that significantly more [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-NI accumulates in hypoxic tumor cells at 30, 60 and 120 min than in the same cells exposed to 21% O2 . The agent also accumulated in hypoxic tumors in vivo to give a tumor/muscle ratio (T/M) of 5.0 ± 1.2 (n = 3) as measured by PET at 2 h post-injection (p.i.). This was further confirmed by ex vivo biodistribution data. In addition, [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A-NI displayed very favorable pharmacokinetic properties, as it was cleared largely through the kidneys with little to no accumulation in liver, heart or lung (%ID/g < 0.5%) at 2 h p.i. The specificity of the agent for hypoxic tissues was further validated in a comparative study with a control compound, [(68) Ga]-HP-DO3A, which lacks the nitroimidazole moiety, and by PET imaging of tumor-bearing mice breathing air versus 100% O2 . Given the commercial availability of cGMP (68) Ge/(68) Ga generators and the ease of (68) Ga labeling, the new agent could potentially be widely applied for imaging tumor hypoxia prior to radiation therapy.

  2. Host-guest kinetic interactions between HP-β-cyclodextrin and drugs for prediction of bitter taste masking.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhen; Wu, Fei; Singh, Vikramjeet; Guo, Tao; Ren, Xiaohong; Yin, Xianzhen; Shao, Qun; York, Peter; Patterson, Laurence H; Zhang, Jiwen

    2017-06-05

    Cyclodextrins (CD) are widely used bitter taste masking agents, for which the binding equilibrium constant (K) for the drug-CD complex is a conventional parameter for quantitating the taste masking effects. However, some exceptions have been reported to the expected relationship between K and bitterness reduction and the relationship between kinetic parameters of a drug-CD interaction, including association rate constant (Ka) and disassociation rate constant (Kd), and taste masking remains unexplored. In this study, based upon a database of kinetic parameters of drugs-HP-β-CD generated by Surface Plasmon Resonance Imaging for 485 drugs, the host-guest kinetic interactions between drugs and HP-β-CD for prediction of taste masking effects have been investigated. The taste masking effects of HP-β-CD for 13 bitter drugs were quantitatively determined using an electronic gustatory system (α-Astree e-Tongue). Statistical software was used to establish a model based on Euclidean distance measurements, Ka and Kd of the bitter drugs/HP-β-CD-complexes (R(2)=0.96 and P<0.05). Optimized parameters, Ka(3), Kd, KaKd, Kd(3), Ka(2) and Ka/Kd with notable influence, were obtained by stepwise regression from 12 parameters derived from Ka, Kd and K (Ka/Kd). 10-fold cross-validation was used to verify the reliability of the model (correlation coefficient of 0.84, P<0.05). The established model indicated a relationship between Ka, Kd, K and taste masking by HP-β-CD and was successful in predicting the extent of taste masking by HP-β-CD of 44 bitter drugs, which was in accordance with the literature reported. In conclusion, the relationship between kinetics of drug-CD interactions and taste masking was established and providing a new strategy for predicting the cyclodextrin mediated bitter taste masking. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Laboratory and field evaluation of Teknar HP-D, a biolarvicidal formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, against mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, K; Doss, P S Boopathi; Vaidyanathan, K

    2004-10-01

    Larvicidal efficacy of Teknar HP-D, an improved biolarvicidal formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis (Bti), against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was determined in the laboratory, and in field the efficacy of the formulation was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding in cesspits, unused wells and drains. The toxicity of the formulation to Gambusia affinis (larvivorous fish), Notonecta sp. and Diplonychus indicus (water bugs) was also evaluated in the laboratory. Teknar HP-D was field tested at three recommended dosages, 1, 1.5 and 2l/ha, selecting five habitats for each dosage. Another five habitats were kept untreated as controls. Ae. aegypti showed greatest susceptibility to the Bti toxin in the laboratory. In cesspits, all the three dosages caused >80% reduction of pupal recruitment up to day 6 post-treatment, indicating that a weekly application at the lowest would be necessary for sustained control. The residual activity of the formulation was longer in unused wells, causing >80% reduction of pupal recruitment for 17 days from the day of treatment. In controlling pupal recruitment the three dosages produced equal effect. Application of Teknar HP-D at 1 l/ha once in three weeks is therefore recommended to control Cx. quinquefasciatus in unused wells. However, in drains, >80% reduction of pupal recruitment was observed for only 3 days and hence, application of Teknar HP-D at 2 l/ha that caused significantly higher level of reduction twice in a week at 3-day interval is necessary. At dosages from 0.032 to 3.2 mg/l (ppm), Teknar HP-D was non-toxic to Gambusia fish. The two predatory water bugs, Notonecta sp. and Diplonychus indicus that fed on the surviving larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus exposed to the sub-lethal doses (LC(50) and LC(80)) of Teknar HP-D were safe with out having any mortality.

  4. Helicobacter pylori antigen HP0986 (TieA) interacts with cultured gastric epithelial cells and induces IL8 secretion via NF-κB mediated pathway.

    PubMed

    Devi, Savita; Ansari, Suhail A; Vadivelu, Jamuna; Mégraud, Francis; Tenguria, Shivendra; Ahmed, Niyaz

    2014-02-01

    The envisaged roles and partly understood functional properties of Helicobacter pylori protein HP0986 are significant in the context of proinflammatory and or proapoptotic activities, the two important facilitators of pathogen survival and persistence. In addition, sequence analysis of this gene predicts a restriction endonuclease function which remained unknown thus far. To evaluate the role of HP0986 in gastric inflammation, we studied its expression profile using a large number of clinical isolates but a limited number of biopsies and patient sera. Also, we studied antigenic role of HP0986 in altering cytokine responses of human gastric epithelial (AGS) cells including its interaction with and localization within the AGS cells. For in vitro expression study of HP0986, 110 H. pylori clinical isolates were cultured from patients with functional dyspepsia. For expression analysis by qRT PCR of HP0986, 10 gastric biopsy specimens were studied. HP0986 was also used to detect antibodies in patient sera. AGS cells were incubated with recombinant HP0986 to determine cytokine response and NF-κB activation. Transient transfection with HP0986 cloned in pEGFPN1 was used to study its subcellular localization or homing in AGS cells. Out of 110 cultured H. pylori strains, 34 (31%) were positive for HP0986 and this observation was correlated with in vitro expression profiles. HP0986 mRNA was detected in 7 of the 10 biopsy specimens. Further, HP0986 induced IL-8 secretion in gastric epithelial cells in a dose and time-dependent manner via NF-κB pathway. Serum antibodies against HP0986 were positively associated with H. pylori positive patients. Transient transfection of AGS cells revealed both cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of HP0986. HP0986 was moderately prevalent in clinical isolates and its expression profile in cultures and gastric biopsies points to its being naturally expressed. Collective observations including the induction of IL-8 via TNFR1 and NF

  5. The WRKY transcription factor HpWRKY44 regulates CytP450-like1 expression in red pitaya fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus).

    PubMed

    Cheng, Mei-Nv; Huang, Zi-Juan; Hua, Qing-Zhu; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-Fei; Lu, Wang-Jin; Qin, Yong-Hua; Chen, Jian-Ye

    2017-01-01

    Red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) fruit is a high-value, functional food, containing a high level of betalains. Several genes potentially related to betalain biosynthesis, such as cytochrome P450-like (CytP450-like), have been identified in pitaya fruit, while their transcriptional regulation remains unclear. In this work, the potential involvement of a WRKY transcription factor, HpWRKY44, in regulating CytP450-like1 expression in pitaya fruit was examined. HpWRKY44, a member of the Group 1 WRKY family, contains two conserved WRKY motifs and is localized in the nucleus. HpWRKY44 also exhibits trans-activation ability. Gene expression analysis showed that the expression of HpCytP450-like1 and HpWRKY44 increased steadily during pitaya fruit coloration, which corresponded with the production of elevated betalain levels in the fruit. HpWRKY44 was also demonstrated to directly bind to and activate the HpCytP450-like1 promoter via the recognition of the W-box element present in the promoter. Collectively, our findings indicate that HpWRKY44 transcriptionally activates HpCytP450-like1, which perhaps, at least in part, contributes to betalain biosynthesis in pitaya fruit. The information provided in the current study provides novel insights into the regulatory network associated with betalain biosynthesis during pitaya fruit coloration.

  6. The WRKY transcription factor HpWRKY44 regulates CytP450-like1 expression in red pitaya fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus)

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Mei-nv; Huang, Zi-juan; Hua, Qing-zhu; Shan, Wei; Kuang, Jian-fei; Lu, Wang-jin; Qin, Yong-hua; Chen, Jian-ye

    2017-01-01

    Red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) fruit is a high-value, functional food, containing a high level of betalains. Several genes potentially related to betalain biosynthesis, such as cytochrome P450-like (CytP450-like), have been identified in pitaya fruit, while their transcriptional regulation remains unclear. In this work, the potential involvement of a WRKY transcription factor, HpWRKY44, in regulating CytP450-like1 expression in pitaya fruit was examined. HpWRKY44, a member of the Group 1 WRKY family, contains two conserved WRKY motifs and is localized in the nucleus. HpWRKY44 also exhibits trans-activation ability. Gene expression analysis showed that the expression of HpCytP450-like1 and HpWRKY44 increased steadily during pitaya fruit coloration, which corresponded with the production of elevated betalain levels in the fruit. HpWRKY44 was also demonstrated to directly bind to and activate the HpCytP450-like1 promoter via the recognition of the W-box element present in the promoter. Collectively, our findings indicate that HpWRKY44 transcriptionally activates HpCytP450-like1, which perhaps, at least in part, contributes to betalain biosynthesis in pitaya fruit. The information provided in the current study provides novel insights into the regulatory network associated with betalain biosynthesis during pitaya fruit coloration. PMID:28785415

  7. Drosophila HP1c isoform interacts with the zinc-finger proteins WOC and Relative-of-WOC to regulate gene expression.

    PubMed

    Font-Burgada, Joan; Rossell, David; Auer, Herbert; Azorín, Fernando

    2008-11-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins are conserved in eukaryotes, with most species containing several isoforms. Based on the properties of Drosophila HP1a, it was proposed that HP1s bind H3K9me2,3 and recruit factors involved in heterochromatin assembly and silencing. Yet, it is unclear whether this general picture applies to all HP1 isoforms and functional contexts. Here, we report that Drosophila HP1c regulates gene expression, as (1) it localizes to active chromatin domains, where it extensively colocalizes with the poised form of RNApolymerase II (RNApol II), Pol IIo(ser5), and H3K4me3, suggesting a contribution to transcriptional regulation; (2) its targeting to a reporter gene does not induce silencing but, on the contrary, increases its expression, and (3) it interacts with the zinc-finger proteins WOC (without children) and Relative-of-WOC (ROW), which are putative transcription factors. Here, we also show that, although HP1c efficiently binds H3K9me2,3 in vitro, its binding to chromatin strictly depends on both WOC and ROW. Moreover, expression profiling indicates that HP1c, WOC, and ROW regulate a common gene expression program that, in part, is executed in the context of the nervous system. From this study, which unveils the essential contribution of DNA-binding proteins to HP1c functionality and recruitment, HP1 proteins emerge as an increasingly diverse family of chromatin regulators.

  8. HP3 on ExoMars - Cutting airbag cloths with the sharp tip of a mechanical mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, C.; Izzo, M.; Re, E.; Mehls, C.; Richter, L.; Coste, P.

    2009-04-01

    The HP3 - Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package - is planned to be one of the Humboldt lander-based instruments on the ESA ExoMars mission. HP3 will allow the measurement of the subsurface temperature gradient and physical as well as thermophysical properties of the subsurface regolith of Mars down to a depth of 5 meters. From these measurements, the planetary heat flux can be inferred. The HP³ instrument package consists of a mole trailing a package of thermal and electrical sensors into the regolith. Beside the payload elements Thermal Excitation and Measurement Suite and a Permittivity Probe the HP3 experiment includes sensors to detect the forward motion and the tilt of the HP3 payload compartment. The HP3 experiment will be integrated into the lander platform of the ExoMars mission. The original accommodation featured a deployment device or a robotic arm to place HP3 onto the soil outside the deflated lander airbags. To avoid adding such deployment devices, it was suggested that the HP3 mole should be capable of piercing the airbags under the lander. The ExoMars lander airbag is made of 4 Kevlar layers (2 abrasive and 2 bladders). A double fold of the airbag (a worst case) would represent a pile of 12 layers. An exploratory study has examined the possibility of piercing airbag cloths by adding sharp cutting blades on the tip of a penetrating mole. In the experimental setup representative layers were laid over a Mars soil simulant. Initial tests used a hammer-driven cutting tip and had moderate to poor results. More representative tests used a prototype of the HP3 mole and were fully successful: the default 4 layer configuration was pierced as well as the 12 layer configuration, the latter one within 3 hours and about 3000 mole strokes This improved behaviour is attributed to the use of representative test hardware where guidance and suppression of mole recoil were concerned. The presentation will provide an explanation of the technical requirements on

  9. Photodynamic action and chromosomal damage: a comparison of haematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) and light with X-irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Evensen, J. F.; Moan, J.

    1982-01-01

    Chromosomal aberrations (CA) are induced in human cells (NHIK 3025) in vitro when exposed to X-rays and to haematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) plus light. At the 0 . 1 survival level X-rays induce about 10 times more breaks per chromosome than the photodynamic treatment. There is some evidence for non-random distribution of the CA induced by HpD plus light; i.e. they seem to be localized at the centromeric and telomeric regions. Such non-random distribution of CA could be explained if centromeric and telomeric chromatin were associated with the inner nuclear membrane. Images Fig. 5 PMID:7073939

  10. Simulating water flow, heat and solute transport and biogeochemistry in variably-saturated porous media using HP1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacques, Diederik; Simunek, Jirka; Mallants, Dirk; van Genuchten, Rien

    2010-05-01

    Coupling physical and biogeochemical processes within one integrated numerical simulator provides a process-based tool for investigating the fate of contaminants as affected by changing hydrologic regimes and geochemical conditions. The numerical simulator HP1 attempts to bridge these two interactive processes. The code is especially geared for variably-saturated conditions, thus serving as a powerful tool for vadose zone research and engineering applications. HP1 extends the capabilities of HYDRUS-1D to simulate physical soil processes by including the capabilities of PHREEQC to account for biogeochemical processes, all embedded in a user-friendly windows interface. The HP1 reactive transport simulator was obtained by weak, non-iterative coupling of HYDRUS-1D and PHREEQC-2. HP1 is free software and can be obtained at http://www.pc-progress.com as part of HYDRUS-1D. A detailed account is given of the new features and processes that were recently incorporated in HP1: (i) full implementation of HP1 into the graphical user interface of HYDRUS-1D, (ii) dynamic changes in porosity, permeability and tortuosity when minerals dissolve or precipitate, and (iii) diffusion of gas components in the gaseous phase. The implementation of the porosity-permeability-tortuosity changes was benchmarked against results from the MIN3P code. HP1 users can implement their own porosity-permeability and porosity-tortuosity relationships using BASIC statements in the input file. Additionally, hydraulic conductivity and pressure head scaling factors can now also vary with time depending upon the geochemical state variables. An example is further presented in which HP1 is coupled with the model-independent optimization tool UCODE_2005 (Poeter et al., 2005) . The resulting software allows thermodynamic, kinetic and geochemical parameters to be estimated from experimental data. The optimization features are illustrated for an experimental data set involving transient water flow, solute transport

  11. Software quality assurance documentation for the release of NUFT 2.0 for HP platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Michael W.; Johnson, Gary L.; Preckshot, Gary G.

    1998-08-28

    This document is the Individual Software Plan (ISP) for version 2.0 of the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT.) analysis computer program. This document addresses the applicable requirements of LLNL YMP procedure 033-YMP-QP 3.2, Section 4.2.1.1. The purpose of this ISP is to plan and organize the activities required to certify the NUFT code for quality affecting work involving problems that include cross drift analysis of the Yucca Mountain Repository facility. NUFT is software for application to the solution of a class of coupled mass and heat transport problems in porous geologic media including Yucca Mountain Repository Cross Drift Problem (YMRCDP- also known as the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB)). Solution of this class of problems requires a suite of multiphase, multi-component models for numerical solution of non- isothermal flow and transport in porous media with applications to subsurface contaminant transport problems. NUFT is a suite of multiphase, multi-component models for numerical solution of non- isothermal flow and transport in porous media, with application to subsurface contaminant transport problems, and in particular, to the hydrology in and about the Yucca Mountain Repository Site. NUFI is acquired software, as defined by 033-YMP-QP 3.2, and a preliminary baseline of source code, electronic documentation, and paper documentation has been established as required by 033-YMP-QP 3.2, Section 4.1. NUFT runs on Sun Unix platforms, Solaris operating system version 5.5 and HP-UX with operating system version 10.20. The product to be qualified under this ISP is the version running on HP- UX. The HP version will be labeled Version 2.0h. The "h" is included to distinguish the HP version from possible future versions qualified for Sun or other platforms. The scope of the plans and procedures outlined in this ISP is limited to the effort required to qualify NUFT for the class of problems identified in

  12. Stress corrosion evaluation of HP 9Ni-4Co-0.20C steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Pablo D.

    1993-01-01

    A stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation was undertaken on HP 9Ni-4Co-0.20C steel in support of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program. This alloy was tested in plate, bar, and ring forging forms. Several heat treating procedures yielded ultimate tensile strengths ranging from 1,407 to 1,489 MPa (204 to 216 ksi). The test environments were high humidity, alternate immersion in 3.5-percent NaCl, and 5-percent salt spray. Stress levels ranged from 25 to 90 percent of the yield strengths. The majority of the tests were conducted for 90 days. Even though the specimens rusted significantly in salt spray and alternate immersion, no failures occurred. Therefore, it can be concluded that this alloy, in the forms and at the strength levels tested, is highly resistant to SCC in salt and high humidity environments.

  13. Thermodynamics and structural properties of a confined HP protein determined by Wang-Landau simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Pattanasiri, Busara; Li, Ying Wai; Landau, David P; Wuest, Thomas; Triampo, Wannapong

    2013-01-01

    We used Wang-Landau sampling with inventive Monte Carlo moves to study the influence of surface characteristics on physical behavior of a hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein model confined between two attractive surfaces. Three types of surfaces, namely, surfaces that attract: (a) all monomers; (b) only P monomers; or (c) only H monomers, have been considered. After obtaining the densities of states, we then found the thermodynamic and structural quantities, such as specific heat, number of surface contacts, and number of hydrophobic interaction pairs. A few conformational transitions , e.g., debridging process and hydrophobic core formation, can be identified based on an analysis of these quantities. Depending on the surface types, these transitions take place at different temperatures, while the ground state configurations show structural variations. These scenarios are confirmed by snapshots of typical states of the systems.

  14. Investigation of HP Turbine Blade Failure in a Military Turbofan Engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, R. K.; Thomas, Johny; Srinivasan, K.; Nandi, Vaishakhi; Bhatt, R. Raghavendra

    2017-04-01

    Failure of a high pressure (HP) turbine blade in a military turbofan engine is investigated to determine the root cause of failure. Forensic and metallurgical investigations are carried out on the affected blades. The loss of coating and the presence of heavily oxidized intergranular fracture features including substrate material aging and airfoil curling in the trailing edge of a representative blade indicate that the coating is not providing adequate oxidation protection and the blade material substrate is not suitable for the application at hand. Coating spallation followed by substrate oxidation and aging leading to intergranular cracking and localized trailing edge curling is the root cause of the blade failure. The remaining portion of the blade fracture surface showed ductile overload features in the final failure. The damage observed in downstream components is due to secondary effects.

  15. Improved speed control system for an 87,000 HP wind tunnel drive

    SciTech Connect

    Becks, E.A.; Blumenthal, P.Z.; Bencic, T.J.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes the design, installation, and integrated systems tests for a new drive motor speed control system which was part of a recent rehab project for the NASA Lewis 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The tunnel drive consists of three mechanically-coupled 29,000 HP wound rotor induction motors driving an axial flow compressor. Liquid rheostats are used to vary the impedance of the rotor circuits, thus varying the speed of the drive system. The new design utilizes a distributed digital control system with a dual touch screen CRT operator console to provide alarm monitoring, logging, and trending. The liquid rheostats are driven by brush-type servomotor systems with magnetostrictive linear displacement transducers used for position feedback. The new system achieved all goals for speed variations with load, motor load balance, and control of total power.

  16. A posteriori error estimation for hp -adaptivity for fourth-order equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Peter K.; Rangelova, Marina

    2010-04-01

    A posteriori error estimates developed to drive hp-adaptivity for second-order reaction-diffusion equations are extended to fourth-order equations. A C^1 hierarchical finite element basis is constructed from Hermite-Lobatto polynomials. A priori estimates of the error in several norms for both the interpolant and finite element solution are derived. In the latter case this requires a generalization of the well-known Aubin-Nitsche technique to time-dependent fourth-order equations. We show that the finite element solution and corresponding Hermite-Lobatto interpolant are asymptotically equivalent. A posteriori error estimators based on this equivalence for solutions at two orders are presented. Both are shown to be asymptotically exact on grids of uniform order. These estimators can be used to control various adaptive strategies. Computational results for linear steady-state and time-dependent equations corroborate the theory and demonstrate the effectiveness of the estimators in adaptive settings.

  17. Simulation studies on a prototype ionisation chamber for measurement of personal dose equivalent, Hp(10).

    PubMed

    Cardoso, J; Carvalho, A F; Oliveira, C

    2007-01-01

    A prototype ionisation chamber for direct measurement of the personal dose equivalent, Hp(10), similar to the one developed by the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesantalt (PTB), was designed and constructed by the Metrological Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation (LMRI) of Nuclear and Technological Institute (ITN). Tests already performed have shown that the behaviour of this chamber is very similar to the PTB chamber, mainly the energy dependence for the X-ray radiation qualities of the ISO 4037-1 narrow series N-30, N-40, N-60, N-80, N-100 and N-120 and also for gamma radiation of 137Cs and 60Co. However, the results obtained also show a dependence on the energy and angles of incident radiation and a low magnitude of the electrical response of the ionisation chamber. In order to optimise the performance of the chamber, the LMRI initiated numerical simulation of this ionisation chamber by Monte Carlo method using the MCNPX code.

  18. Test report for run-in acceptance testing of Project W-151 300 HP mixing pumps

    SciTech Connect

    Berglin, B.G.

    1998-01-29

    This report documents the results of a performance demonstration and operational checkout of three 300 HP mixer pumps in accordance with WHC-SD-WI51-TS-001 ``Mixer Pump Test Specification for Project W-151`` and Statement of Work 8K520-EMN-95-004 ``Mixer Pump Performance Demonstration at MASF`` in the 400 Area Maintenance and Storage Facility (MASF) building. Testing of the pumps was performed by Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) Engineering and funded by the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Project W-151. Testing began with the first pump on 04-01-95 and ended with the third pump on 11-01-96. Prior to testing, the MASF was modified and prepared to meet the pump testing requirements set forth by the Test Specification and the Statement of Work.

  19. Orbital HP-Clouds for Solving Schr?dinger Equation inQuantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J; Hu, W; Puso, M

    2006-10-19

    Solving Schroedinger equation in quantum mechanics presents a challenging task in numerical methods due to the high order behavior and high dimension characteristics in the wave functions, in addition to the highly coupled nature between wave functions. This work introduces orbital and polynomial enrichment functions to the partition of unity for solution of Schroedinger equation under the framework of HP-Clouds. An intrinsic enrichment of orbital function and extrinsic enrichment of monomial functions are proposed. Due to the employment of higher order basis functions, a higher order stabilized conforming nodal integration is developed. The proposed methods are implemented using the density functional theory for solution of Schroedinger equation. Analysis of several single and multi-electron/nucleus structures demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  20. A Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Parabolic Problems with Modified hp-Finite Element Approximation Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, Hideaki; Bey, Kim S.; Hou, Gene J. W.

    2004-01-01

    A recent paper is generalized to a case where the spatial region is taken in R(sup 3). The region is assumed to be a thin body, such as a panel on the wing or fuselage of an aerospace vehicle. The traditional h- as well as hp-finite element methods are applied to the surface defined in the x - y variables, while, through the thickness, the technique of the p-element is employed. Time and spatial discretization scheme based upon an assumption of certain weak singularity of double vertical line u(sub t) double vertical line 2, is used to derive an optimal a priori error estimate for the current method.

  1. METASTATS: behavioral science statistics for Microsoft Windows and the HP49G programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Foster, Eric K

    2003-05-01

    METASTATS is an organized suite of approximately 150 programs designed for meta-analysis, power, effect sizes and their confidence intervals, significance test conversions, and other general statistics. This freeware works either on the HP49G calculator or preinstalled on a PC emulator under Windows. Many of the programs address gaps in commercially available software. The suite has a user-friendly interface: the screen prompts for input, and labels all output. Extensive documentation includes step-by-step examples, a fully annotated catalogue of the programs, and academic references for the formulas. Both versions of the programs (calculator and PC), documentation, and installation instructions are freely available from the author's Web site, http://www.netaxs.com/-efoster/.

  2. Improved Speed Control System for the 87,000 HP Wind Tunnel Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becks, Edward A.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Blumenthal, Philip Z.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design, installation, and integrated systems tests for a new drive motor speed control system which was part of a recent rehab project for the NASA Lewis 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The tunnel drive consists of three mechanically-coupled 29,000 HP wound rotor induction motors driving an axial flow compressor. Liquid rheostats are used to vary the impedance of the rotor circuits, thus varying the speed of the drive system. The new design utilizes a distributed digital control system with a dual touch screen CRT operator console to provide alarm monitoring, logging, and trending. The liquid rheostats are driven by brushtype servomotor systems with magnetostrictive linear displacement transducers used for position feedback. The new system achieved all goals for speed variations with load, motor load balance, and control of total power.

  3. The Eccentric-Orbit Eclipsing Double-Lined System HP Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, Eugene F.; Kurpinska-Winiarska, M.; Oblak, E.

    2009-01-01

    The 10.76-d period EA system HP Dra was discovered through the HIPPARCOS mission (albeit with an incorrect period). Radial velocities from the Asiago and Haute Provence Observatories (HPO), and light curve data from Cracow Observatory (CO) and HIPPARCOS have been analyzed now with the most recent version of the Wilson-Devinney program. The Cracow photometry covers both eclipses completely, unlike the HIPPARCOS data in which only 3 and 7 points fall within the primary and secondary minima, respectively. Initial and unadjusted values came from our separate preliminary analyses. Color and spectral type suggest 6000 K as the temperature of Star 1, the hotter component. The analysis involved the simultaneous adjustment of 13 non-curve dependent parameters and 2 curve-dependent parameters, 19 parameters in total. The adjusted parameters were the semi-major axis, eccentricity, and its derivative, argument of periastron and its derivative, systemic radial velocity, secondary temperature, modified Kopal potentials of both components, period and its derivative, epoch, mass ratio (M2/M1), passband luminosity, and third light. From this analysis, there is no significant period variation, but a marginally significant apsidal motion and significant third light in each of the B, V, and hp passbands. This solution indicates that components 1 and 2 have masses of 1.15 and 1.11 Msun, radii of 1.38 and 1.06 Rsun, and have absolute bolometric magnitudes of 3.93 and 4.59, respectively. Work is continuing to verify the apsidal motion and to characterize better the 3rd light in the system, through new visual and infrared observations. This work was supported in part by grants from Canadian NSERC to EFM, and data acquisition at the HPO and CO was partly funded by the European program "Actions Integrees" POLONIUM and carried out within the framework of the European Associated Laboratory "Astrophysics Poland-France."

  4. Reactivity of the immunological system of rats stimulated with Biolex-Beta HP after cyclophosphamide immunosuppression.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Roman

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the stimulating effect of the Biolex-Beta HP (β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan) dietary supplement on selected parameters of specific and non-specific humoral and cellular immunity in rats immunosuppressed with cyclophosphamide. The experimental material comprised 40 Wistar rats, divided into two equal groups: control and experimental. In the course of 3 successive days, the rats from the experimental group were administered cyclophosphamide intramuscularly at a rate of 50 mg/kg BW per day. On the 8(th) day of the experiment, 10 control and 10 experimental rats were sacrificed, and total protein and γ-globulin levels, lysozyme and ceruloplasmin activity were determined in the blood serum. The proliferative response of blood lymphocytes after stimulation with lipopolysaccharide or concanavalin A, respiratory burst activity and the potential killing activity of phagocytes were determined in whole heparinised blood. Starting on the 8(th) day of the experiment, the feed of the remaining rats from the experimental and control groups was supplemented for 14 consecutive days with Biolex-Beta HP at a rate of 50 mg/kg BW per day. On day 22, arterial blood samples were collected and immune parameters were determined. The results indicate that β-1,3/1,6-D-glucan has a positive effect on the analysed parameters of non-specific cellular and humoral immunity after cyclophosphamide-induced suppression. Nevertheless, the observed effect only marked a return to the norm, as most of the analysed parameters were merely restored to their initial levels, with the exception of lysozyme activity, which considerably exceeded the level noted before immunosuppression.

  5. Analysis of Regolith Properties Using Seismic Signals Generated by InSight's HP3 Penetrator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kedar, Sharon; Andrade, Jose; Banerdt, Bruce; Delage, Pierre; Golombek, Matt; Grott, Matthias; Hudson, Troy; Kiely, Aaron; Knapmeyer, Martin; Knapmeyer-Endrun, Brigitte; Krause, Christian; Kawamura, Taichi; Lognonne, Philippe; Pike, Tom; Ruan, Youyi; Spohn, Tilman; Teanby, Nick; Tromp, Jeroen; Wookey, James

    2017-07-01

    InSight's Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) provides a unique and unprecedented opportunity to conduct the first geotechnical survey of the Martian soil by taking advantage of the repeated seismic signals that will be generated by the mole of the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3). Knowledge of the elastic properties of the Martian regolith have implications to material strength and can constrain models of water content, and provide context to geological processes and history that have acted on the landing site in western Elysium Planitia. Moreover, it will help to reduce travel-time errors introduced into the analysis of seismic data due to poor knowledge of the shallow subsurface. The challenge faced by the InSight team is to overcome the limited temporal resolution of the sharp hammer signals, which have significantly higher frequency content than the SEIS 100 Hz sampling rate. Fortunately, since the mole propagates at a rate of ˜1 mm per stroke down to 5 m depth, we anticipate thousands of seismic signals, which will vary very gradually as the mole travels. Using a combination of field measurements and modeling we simulate a seismic data set that mimics the InSight HP3-SEIS scenario, and the resolution of the InSight seismometer data. We demonstrate that the direct signal, and more importantly an anticipated reflected signal from the interface between the bottom of the regolith layer and an underlying lava flow, are likely to be observed both by Insight's Very Broad Band (VBB) seismometer and Short Period (SP) seismometer. We have outlined several strategies to increase the signal temporal resolution using the multitude of hammer stroke and internal timing information to stack and interpolate multiple signals, and demonstrated that in spite of the low resolution, the key parameters—seismic velocities and regolith depth—can be retrieved with a high degree of confidence.

  6. Multidimensional free energy surface of unfolding of HP-36: Microscopic origin of ruggedness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Rikhia; Roy, Susmita; Bagchi, Biman

    2014-10-01

    The protein folding funnel paradigm suggests that folding and unfolding proceed as directed diffusion in a multidimensional free energy surface where a multitude of pathways can be traversed during the protein's sojourn from initial to final state. However, finding even a single pathway, with the detail chronicling of intermediates, is an arduous task. In this work we explore the free energy surface of unfolding pathway through umbrella sampling, for a small globular α-helical protein chicken-villin headpiece (HP-36) when the melting of secondary structures is induced by adding DMSO in aqueous solution. We find that the unfolding proceeds through the initial separation or melting of aggregated hydrophobic core that comprises of three phenylalanine residues (Phe7, Phe11, and Phe18). This separation is accompanied by simultaneous melting of the second helix. Unfolding is found to be a multistage process involving crossing of three consecutive minima and two barriers at the initial stage. At a molecular level, Phe18 is observed to reorient itself towards other hydrophobic grooves to stabilize the intermediate states. We identify the configuration of the intermediates and correlate the intermediates with those obtained in our previous works. We also give an estimate of the barriers for different transition states and observe the softening of the barriers with increasing DMSO concentration. We show that higher concentration of DMSO tunes the unfolding pathway by destabilizing the third minimum and stabilizing the second one, indicating the development of a solvent modified, less rugged pathway. The prime outcome of this work is the demonstration that mixed solvents can profoundly transform the nature of the energy landscape and induce unfolding via a modified route. A successful application of Kramer's rate equation correlating the free energy simulation results shows faster rate of unfolding with increasing DMSO concentration. This work perhaps presents the first

  7. Particle removal challenges with EUV patterned mask for the sub-22nm HP node

    SciTech Connect

    Rastegar, A.; Eichenlaub, S.; Kadaksham, A. J.; Lee, B.; House, M.; Huh, S.; Cha, B.; Yun, H.; Mochi, I.; Goldberg, K. A.

    2010-03-12

    The particle removal efficiency (PRE) of cleaning processes diminishes whenever the minimum defect size for a specific technology node becomes smaller. For the sub-22 nm half-pitch (HP) node, it was demonstrated that exposure to high power megasonic up to 200 W/cm{sup 2} did not damage 60 nm wide TaBN absorber lines corresponding to the 16 nm HP node on wafer. An ammonium hydroxide mixture and megasonics removes {ge}50 nm SiO{sub 2} particles with a very high PRE, A sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM) in addition to ammonium hydroxide mixture (APM) and megasonic is required to remove {ge}28 nm SiO{sub 2} particles with a high PRE. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS) studies show that the presence of O{sub 2} during a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ({lambda} = 172 nm) surface conditioning step will result in both surface oxidation and Ru removal, which drastically reduce extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask life time under multiple cleanings. New EUV mask cleaning processes show negligible or no EUV reflectivity loss and no increase in surface roughness after up to 15 cleaning cycles. Reviewing of defect with a high current density scanning electron microscope (SEM) drastically reduces PRE and deforms SiO{sub 2} particles. 28 nm SiO{sub 2} particles on EUV masks age very fast and will deform over time, Care must be taken when reviewing EUV mask defects by SEM. Potentially new particles should be identified to calibrate short wavelength inspection tools, Based on actinic image review, 50 nm SiO{sub 2} particles on top of the EUV mask will be printed on the wafer.

  8. Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwala, R.; Batzoglou, S.; Dancik, V.

    1997-12-01

    A long standing problem in molecular biology is to determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein, given its amino acid sequence. A variety of simplifying models have been proposed abstracting only the {open_quotes}essential physical properties{close_quotes} of real proteins. In these models, the three dimensional space is often represented by a lattice. Residues which are adjacent in the primary sequence (i.e. covalently linked) must be placed at adjacent points in the lattice. A conformation of a protein is simply a self-avoiding walk along the lattice. The protein folding problem STRING-FOLD is that of finding a conformation of the protein sequence on the lattice such that the overall energy is minimized, for some reasonable definition of energy. This formulation leaves open the choices of a lattice and an energy function. Once these choices are made, one may then address the algorithmic complexity of optimizing the energy function for the lattice. For a variety of such simple models, this minimization problem is in fact NP-hard. In this paper, we consider the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) Model introduced by Dill. The HP model abstracts the problem by grouping the 20 amino acids into two classes: hydrophobic (or non-polar) residues and hydrophilic (or polar) residues. For concreteness, we will take our input to be a string from (H,P){sup +}, where P represents polar residues, and H represents hydrophobic residues. Dill et.al. survey the literature analyzing this model. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Assessment of four calculation methods proposed by the EC for waste hazardous property HP 14 'Ecotoxic'.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Pierre; Humez, Nicolas; Conche, Isabelle; Bishop, Ian; Rebischung, Flore

    2016-02-01

    Legislation published in December 2014 revised both the List of Waste (LoW) and amended Appendix III of the revised Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC; the latter redefined hazardous properties HP 1 to HP 13 and HP 15 but left the assessment of HP 14 unchanged to allow time for the Directorate General of the Environment of the European Commission to complete a study that is examining the impacts of four different calculation methods for the assessment of HP 14. This paper is a contribution to the assessment of the four calculation methods. It also includes the results of a fifth calculation method; referred to as "Method 2 with extended M-factors". Two sets of data were utilised in the assessment; the first (Data Set #1) comprised analytical data for 32 different waste streams (16 hazardous (H), 9 non-hazardous (NH) and 7 mirror entries, as classified by the LoW) while the second data set (Data Set #2), supplied by the eco industries, comprised analytical data for 88 waste streams, all classified as hazardous (H) by the LoW. Two approaches were used to assess the five calculation methods. The first approach assessed the relative ranking of the five calculation methods by the frequency of their classification of waste streams as H. The relative ranking of the five methods (from most severe to less severe) is: Method 3>Method 1>Method 2 with extended M-factors>Method 2>Method 4. This reflects the arithmetic ranking of the concentration limits of each method when assuming M=10, and is independent of the waste streams, or the H/NH/Mirror status of the waste streams. A second approach is the absolute matching or concordance with the LoW. The LoW is taken as a reference method and the H wastes are all supposed to be HP 14. This point is discussed in the paper. The concordance for one calculation method is established by the number of wastes with identical classification by the considered calculation method and the LoW (i.e. H to H, NH to NH). The discordance is

  10. Chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein appears to be important for enhanced accumulation of carotenoids in hp1 tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Rameshwar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2013-04-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) high-pigment mutants with lesions in diverse loci such as DNA Damage-Binding Protein1 (high pigment1 [hp1]), Deetiolated1 (hp2), Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (hp3), and Intense pigment (Ip; gene product unknown) exhibit increased accumulation of fruit carotenoids coupled with an increase in chloroplast number and size. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms exaggerating the carotenoid accumulation and the chloroplast number in these mutants. A comparison of proteome profiles from the outer pericarp of hp1 mutant and wild-type (cv Ailsa Craig) fruits at different developmental stages revealed at least 72 differentially expressed proteins during ripening. Hierarchical clustering grouped these proteins into three clusters. We found an increased abundance of chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein (CHRC) in hp1 fruits at red-ripe stage that is also reflected in its transcript level. Western blotting using CHRC polyclonal antibody from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) revealed a 2-fold increase in the abundance of CHRC protein in the red-ripe stage of hp1 fruits compared with the wild type. CHRC levels in hp2 were found to be similar to that of hp1, whereas hp3 and Ip showed intermediate levels to those in hp1, hp2, and wild-type fruits. Both CHRC and carotenoids were present in the isolated plastoglobules. Overall, our results suggest that loss of function of DDB1, DET1, Zeaxanthin Epoxidase, and Ip up-regulates CHRC levels. Increase in CHRC levels may contribute to the enhanced carotenoid content in these high-pigment fruits by assisting in the sequestration and stabilization of carotenoids.

  11. Chromoplast-Specific Carotenoid-Associated Protein Appears to Be Important for Enhanced Accumulation of Carotenoids in hp1 Tomato Fruits1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Rameshwar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2013-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) high-pigment mutants with lesions in diverse loci such as DNA Damage-Binding Protein1 (high pigment1 [hp1]), Deetiolated1 (hp2), Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (hp3), and Intense pigment (Ip; gene product unknown) exhibit increased accumulation of fruit carotenoids coupled with an increase in chloroplast number and size. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms exaggerating the carotenoid accumulation and the chloroplast number in these mutants. A comparison of proteome profiles from the outer pericarp of hp1 mutant and wild-type (cv Ailsa Craig) fruits at different developmental stages revealed at least 72 differentially expressed proteins during ripening. Hierarchical clustering grouped these proteins into three clusters. We found an increased abundance of chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein (CHRC) in hp1 fruits at red-ripe stage that is also reflected in its transcript level. Western blotting using CHRC polyclonal antibody from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) revealed a 2-fold increase in the abundance of CHRC protein in the red-ripe stage of hp1 fruits compared with the wild type. CHRC levels in hp2 were found to be similar to that of hp1, whereas hp3 and Ip showed intermediate levels to those in hp1, hp2, and wild-type fruits. Both CHRC and carotenoids were present in the isolated plastoglobules. Overall, our results suggest that loss of function of DDB1, DET1, Zeaxanthin Epoxidase, and Ip up-regulates CHRC levels. Increase in CHRC levels may contribute to the enhanced carotenoid content in these high-pigment fruits by assisting in the sequestration and stabilization of carotenoids. PMID:23400702

  12. 75 FR 41531 - Hewlett Packard (HP) Global Product Development, Working On-Site at General Motors Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard (HP) Global Product Development, Working On-Site at General Motors Corporation, Milford, MI; Notice of Revised Termination of Investigation Pursuant to...

  13. Inhibitory effects of rHP-NAP IgY against Helicobacter pylori attachment to AGS cell line.

    PubMed

    Borhani, Katayoun; Mohabati Mobarez, Ashraf; Khabiri, Ali Reza; Behmanesh, Mehrdad; Khoramabadi, Nima

    2016-08-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a major human pathogen related to gastric adenocarcinoma and gastroduodenal diseases. Treatment of H. pylori infections is complicated by the rise of antibiotic resistance, necessitating investigation of alternative therapies. One such alternative is passive immunization by oral administration of antibacterial immunoglobulin. In the present study, chicken immunoglobulin (IgY) was used for passive immunotherapy against a major virulence factor of H. pylori, namely recombinant HP-Nap protein. Recombinant HP-Nap was prepared and used to immunize hens. IgY was purified from the eggs by polyethylene glycol precipitation method with a total IgY-HP-NAP yield of 30 mg per egg. The inhibitory effect of specific IgY on H. pylori attachment was investigated in AGS cell line infected by the bacteria. The results demonstrate the potent effect of IgY- HP-NAP in inhibition of H. pylori attachment to the AGS cells.

  14. An alternative medicine treatment for Parkinson's disease: results of a multicenter clinical trial. HP-200 in Parkinson's Disease Study Group.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The natural occurrence of antiparkinsonian drugs in plants--anticholinergics in Datura stramonium, levodopa in Mucuna pruriens and Vicia faba, dopamine agonist activity in Claviceps purpura, and MAO inhibitor activity in Banisteria caapi-are known. Our study examined the efficacy and tolerability of HP-200, derived from Mucuna prurient, in patients with Parkinson's disease. Sixty patients with Parkinson's disease (46 male and 14 female) with a mean (+/- SD) age of 59 +/- 9 years were treated in an open study for 12 weeks. Of these, 26 patients were taking synthetic levodopa/carbidopa formulations before treatment with HP-200, and the remaining 34 were levodopa naive. HP-200, a powder (supplied as a 7.5 g sachet), was mixed with water and given orally. The Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) was used at baseline and periodically during the 12-week evaluation. Statistically significant reductions in Hoehn and Yahr stage and UPDRS scores were seen from baseline to the end of the 12-week treatment (p < 0.0001, t-test). The group mean (+/- SD) dose for optimal control of symptoms was 6 +/- 3 sachets. Adverse effects were mild and were mainly gastrointestinal in nature. No adverse effects were seen in clinical laboratory reports. HP-200, developed from an alternative medicine source, Ayurveda, was found to be an effective treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease.

  15. Optimization of statistical methods for HpGe gamma-ray spectrometer used in wide count rate ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Mana, G.; Palmisano, C.

    2016-07-01

    The need to perform γ-ray measurements with HpGe detectors is a common technique in many fields such as nuclear physics, radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and neutron activation analysis. The use of HpGe detectors is chosen in situations where isotope identification is needed because of their excellent resolution. Our challenge is to obtain the "best" spectroscopy data possible in every measurement situation. "Best" is a combination of statistical (number of counts) and spectral quality (peak, width and position) over a wide range of counting rates. In this framework, we applied Bayesian methods and the Ellipsoidal Nested Sampling (a multidimensional integration technique) to study the most likely distribution for the shape of HpGe spectra. In treating these experiments, the prior information suggests to model the likelihood function with a product of Poisson distributions. We present the efforts that have been done in order to optimize the statistical methods to HpGe detector outputs with the aim to evaluate to a better order of precision the detector efficiency, the absolute measured activity and the spectra background. Reaching a more precise knowledge of statistical and systematic uncertainties for the measured physical observables is the final goal of this research project.

  16. A method for systematic mapping of protein lysine methylation identifies functions for HP1β in DNA damage response.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huadong; Galka, Marek; Mori, Eiichiro; Liu, Xuguang; Lin, Yu-Fen; Wei, Ran; Pittock, Paula; Voss, Courtney; Dhami, Gurpreet; Li, Xing; Miyaji, Masaaki; Lajoie, Gilles; Chen, Benjamin; Li, Shawn Shun-Cheng

    2013-06-06

    Lysine methylation occurs on both histone and nonhistone proteins. However, our knowledge on the prevalence and function of nonhistone protein methylation is poor. We describe an approach that combines peptide array, bioinformatics, and mass spectrometry to systematically identify lysine methylation sites and map methyllysine-driven protein-protein interactions. Using this approach, we identified a high-confidence and high-resolution interactome of the heterochromatin protein 1β (HP1β) and uncovered, simultaneously, numerous methyllysine sites on nonhistone proteins. We found that HP1β binds to DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and regulates its localization to double-strand breaks (DSBs) during DNA damage response (DDR). Mutation of the methylation sites in DNA-PKcs or depletion of HP1β in cells caused defects in DDR. Furthermore, we showed that the methylation of DNA-PKcs and many other proteins in the HP1β interactome undergoes large changes in response to DNA damage, indicating that Lys methylation is a highly dynamic posttranslational modification. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Helicobacter pylori acidic stress response factor HP1286 is a YceI homolog with new binding specificity.

    PubMed

    Sisinni, Lorenza; Cendron, Laura; Favaro, Gabriella; Zanotti, Giuseppe

    2010-04-01

    HP1286 from Helicobacter pylori is among the proteins that play a relevant role in bacterial colonization and persistence in the stomach. Indeed, it was demonstrated to be overexpressed under acidic stress conditions, together with other essential virulence factors. Here we describe its crystal structure, determined at 2.1 A resolution. The molecular model, a dimer characterized by two-fold symmetry, shows that HP1286 structurally belongs to the YceI-like protein family, which in turn is characterized by the lipocalin fold. The latter characterizes proteins possessing an internal cavity with the function of binding and/or transport of amphiphilic molecules. Surprisingly, a molecule of erucamide was found bound in the internal cavity of each monomer of recombinant HP1286, cloned and expressed in an Escherichia coli heterologous system. The shape and length of the cavity indicate that, at variance with other members of the family, HP-YceI has a binding specificity for amphiphilic compounds with a linear chain of about 22 carbon atoms. These features, along with the fact that the protein is secreted by the bacterium and is involved in adaptation to an acidic environment, suggest that its function could be that of sequestering specific fatty acids or amides from the environment, either to supply the bacterium with the fatty acids necessary for its metabolism, or to protect and detoxify it from the detergent-like antimicrobial activity of fatty acids that are eventually present in the external milieu.

  18. A chromatin code for alternative splicing involving a putative association between CTCF and HP1α proteins.

    PubMed

    Agirre, Eneritz; Bellora, Nicolás; Alló, Mariano; Pagès, Amadís; Bertucci, Paola; Kornblihtt, Alberto R; Eyras, Eduardo

    2015-05-02

    Alternative splicing is primarily controlled by the activity of splicing factors and by the elongation of the RNA polymerase II (RNAPII). Recent experiments have suggested a new complex network of splicing regulation involving chromatin, transcription and multiple protein factors. In particular, the CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF), the Argonaute protein AGO1, and members of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family have been implicated in the regulation of splicing associated with chromatin and the elongation of RNAPII. These results raise the question of whether these proteins may associate at the chromatin level to modulate alternative splicing. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing (ChIP-Seq) data for CTCF, AGO1, HP1α, H3K27me3, H3K9me2, H3K36me3, RNAPII, total H3 and 5metC and alternative splicing arrays from two cell lines, we have analyzed the combinatorial code of their binding to chromatin in relation to the alternative splicing patterns between two cell lines, MCF7 and MCF10. Using Machine Learning techniques, we identified the changes in chromatin signals that are most significantly associated with splicing regulation between these two cell lines. Moreover, we have built a map of the chromatin signals on the pre-mRNA, that is, a chromatin-based RNA-map, which can explain 606 (68.55%) of the regulated events between MCF7 and MCF10. This chromatin code involves the presence of HP1α, CTCF, AGO1, RNAPII and histone marks around regulated exons and can differentiate patterns of skipping and inclusion. Additionally, we found a significant association of HP1α and CTCF activities around the regulated exons and a putative DNA binding site for HP1α. Our results show that a considerable number of alternative splicing events could have a chromatin-dependent regulation involving the association of HP1α and CTCF near regulated exons. Additionally, we find further evidence for the involvement of HP1α and AGO1 in chromatin-related splicing regulation.

  19. Insight into the essential role of the Helicobacter pylori HP1043 orphan response regulator: genome-wide identification and characterization of the DNA-binding sites

    PubMed Central

    Pelliciari, Simone; Pinatel, Eva; Vannini, Andrea; Peano, Clelia; Puccio, Simone; De Bellis, Gianluca; Danielli, Alberto; Scarlato, Vincenzo; Roncarati, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Many bacterial regulatory genes appear to be dispensable, as they can be deleted from the genome without loss of bacterial functionalities. In Helicobacter pylori, the hp1043 gene, also known as hsrA, is one of the transcriptional regulator that is essential for cell viability. This gene could not be deleted, nor the amount of protein modulated, supporting the hypothesis that HP1043 could be involved in the regulation of crucial cellular processes. Even though detailed structural data are available for the HP1043 protein, its targets are still ill-defined. Using Chromatin Immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-seq), one of the most powerful approaches to characterize protein-DNA interactions in vivo, we were able to identify genome-wide several new HP1043 binding sites. Moreover, in vitro DNA binding assays enabled precise mapping of the HP1043 binding sites on the new targets, revealing the presence of a conserved nucleotide sequence motif. Intriguingly, a significant fraction of the newly identified binding sites overlaps promoter regions controlling the expression of genes involved in translation. Accordingly, when protein translation was blocked, a significant induction of almost all HP1043 target genes was detected. These observations prompted us to propose HP1043 as a key regulator in H. pylori, likely involved in sensing and in coordinating the response to environmental conditions that provoke an arrest of protein synthesis. The essential role of HP1043 in coordinating central cellular processes is discussed. PMID:28112213

  20. The Effect of Replacing Fish Meal in the Diet with Enzyme-Treated Soybean Meal (HP310) on Growth and Body Composition of Rainbow Trout Fry.

    PubMed

    Haghbayan, Samira; Shamsaie Mehrgan, Mehdi

    2015-11-26

    The potential of enzyme-treated soybean meal powder (HP310) as fish meal alternative in diets for rainbow trout weighing 1.17 ± 0.3 g was evaluated for 60 days. Fish meal was replaced with HP310 at 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of experimental diets. A control group was also considered. The results showed that diets containing 75% and 100% HP310 had significantly higher feed conversion ratio and lower feed intake, weight gain and specific growth rate compared to fish feed diets containing higher levels of fish protein ingredients (p < 0.05). Results suggested use of 50% HP310 in trout diet had a positive effect on growth performance (p < 0.05). All fish feed diets with HP310 had lower hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cells compared to the control group, but the differences between the control and the other treatments up to 75% HP310 replacement levels of diet (p > 0.05). However increasing in level of HP310 in the diet caused a significant increase of the white blood cells (p < 0.05). The fish fed with a diet totally replaced by HP310 showed the highest values of ash and moisture content among the diets and showed significantly different levels when compared with the control and other feeding treatments (p < 0.05).

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - NOX, CO, and VOC Emission Standards for Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines ≥100 HP (Except...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 60—NOX, CO, and VOC Emission... Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines â¥100 HP (Except Gasoline and Rich Burn LPG), Stationary SI Landfill/Digester Gas Engines, and Stationary Emergency Engines >25 HP 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - NOX, CO, and VOC Emission Standards for Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines ≥100 HP (Except...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 60—NOX, CO, and VOC Emission... Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines â¥100 HP (Except Gasoline and Rich Burn LPG), Stationary SI Landfill/Digester Gas Engines, and Stationary Emergency Engines >25 HP 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - NOX, CO, and VOC Emission Standards for Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines ≥100 HP (Except...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 60—NOX, CO, and VOC Emission... Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines â¥100 HP (Except Gasoline and Rich Burn LPG), Stationary SI Landfill/Digester Gas Engines, and Stationary Emergency Engines >25 HP 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - NOX, CO, and VOC Emission Standards for Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines ≥100 HP (Except...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 60—NOX, CO, and VOC Emission... Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines â¥100 HP (Except Gasoline and Rich Burn LPG), Stationary SI Landfill/Digester Gas Engines, and Stationary Emergency Engines >25 HP 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part...

  5. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - NOX, CO, and VOC Emission Standards for Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines ≥100 HP (Except...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 60—NOX, CO, and VOC Emission... Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines â¥100 HP (Except Gasoline and Rich Burn LPG), Stationary SI Landfill/Digester Gas Engines, and Stationary Emergency Engines >25 HP 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part...

  6. HP-HMG versus rFSH in treatments combining fresh and frozen IVF cycles: success rates and economic evaluation.

    PubMed

    Wex-Wechowski, Jaro; Abou-Setta, Ahmed M; Kildegaard Nielsen, Sandy; Kennedy, Richard

    2010-08-01

    The economic implications of the choice of gonadotrophin influence decision making but their cost-effectiveness in frozen-embryo transfer cycles has not been adequately studied. An economic evaluation was performed comparing highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (HP-HMG) and recombinant FSH (rFSH) using individual patient data (n=986) from two large randomized controlled trials using a long agonist IVF protocol. The simulation model incorporated live birth data and published UK costs of IVF-related medical resources. After treatment for up-to-three cycles (one fresh and up to two subsequent fresh or frozen cycles conditional on availability of cryopreserved embryos), the cumulative live birth rate was 53.7% (95% CI 49.3-58.1%) for HP-HMG and 44.6% (40.2-49.0%) for rFSH (OR 1.44, 95% CI 1.12-1.85; P<0.005). The mean costs per IVF treatment for HP-HMG and rFSH were pound5393 ( pound5341-5449) and pound6269 ( pound6210-6324), respectively (number needed to treat to fund one additional treatment was seven; P<0.001). With maternal and neonatal costs applied, the median cost per IVF baby delivered with HP-HMG was pound11,157 ( pound11,089-11,129) and pound14,227 ( pound14,183-14,222) with rFSH (P<0.001). The cost saving using HP-HMG remained after varying model parameters in a probabilistic sensitivity analysis.

  7. Extended Pile Driving Model to Predict the Penetration of the Insight/HP3 Mole into the Martian Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poganski, Joshua; Kömle, Norbert I.; Kargl, Günter; Schweiger, Helmut F.; Grott, Matthias; Spohn, Tilman; Krömer, Olaf; Krause, Christian; Wippermann, Torben; Tsakyridis, Georgios; Fittock, Mark; Lichtenheldt, Roy; Vrettos, Christos; Anrade, Jose E.

    2016-11-01

    The NASA InSight mission will provide an opportunity for soil investigations using the penetration data of the heat flow probe built by the German Aerospace Center DLR. The Heat flow and Physical Properties Probe (HP3) will penetrate 3 to 5 meter into the Martian subsurface to investigate the planetary heat flow. The measurement of the penetration rate during the insertion of the HP3 will be used to determine the physical properties of the soil at the landing site. For this purpose, numerical simulations of the penetration process were performed to get a better understanding of the soil properties influencing the penetration performance of HP3. A pile driving model has been developed considering all masses of the hammering mechanism of HP3. By cumulative application of individual stroke cycles it is now able to describe the penetration of the Mole into the Martian soil as a function of time, assuming that the soil parameters of the material through which it penetrates are known. We are using calibrated materials similar to those expected to be encountered by the InSight/HP3 Mole when it will be operated on the surface of Mars after the landing of the InSight spacecraft. We consider various possible scenarios, among them a more or less homogeneous material down to a depth of 3-5 m as well as a layered ground, consisting of layers with different soil parameters. Finally we describe some experimental tests performed with the latest prototype of the InSight Mole at DLR Bremen and compare the measured penetration performance in sand with our modeling results. Furthermore, results from a 3D DEM simulation are presented to get a better understanding of the soil response.

  8. Conceptual Design of HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System for 110 kWe

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2004-02-04

    A conceptual design of a Heat Pipe-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) space reactor power system (SRPS) for a net power of 110 kWe is developed. The parametric analysis changed the number of radiator's potassium heat pipes from 224 to 336 and calculated the effects on the operation parameters and total mass of the system. The reactor has a hexagonal core comprised of 126 heat pipe modules, each consists of three UN, 1.5 cm OD fuel pins brazed to a central lithium heat pipe of identical diameter. The Re cladding of the fuel pins is brazed along the active core length to the lithium heat pipe using 6 Re tri-cusps. The reactor control is accomplished using 12 B4C/BeO control drums, a large diameter one on each side of the hexagonal core and a small diameter one at each corner. The control drums are placed within the radial BeO reflector (7.1-9.1 cm thick). The fuel pin peak-to-average power ratio in the reactor core is 1.12-1.19. Despite its very high density and fabrication challenge, using rhenium structure in the reactor core is necessary for three main reasons: (a) the high reactor temperature ({>=} 1500 K); (b) excellent compatibility with the UN fuel and lithium; (c) to cause a spectrum shift that ensures having sufficient negative reactivity margin during a water submersion accident. The reference HP-STMC system with 324, 2.42-3.03 cm OD potassium heat pipes in the radiator is 9.60 m long and has a cone angle of 30 deg. The nominal operation of the reactor's lithium heat pipes and of the radiator's potassium heat pipes is at or below {approx} 45% of the prevailing wicking and sonic limit, respectively. The masses of the reactor and radiation shadow shield are 753.7 kg and 999.5 kg, respectively; the average heat pipes temperature in the reactor is 1513 K; the mass of the reactor's lithium heat pipes with a C-C finned condenser that is 1.5 m long is 516.1 kg; the mass of the radiator is 557.5 kg, with an outer surface area of 87 m2 (6.41 kg/m2

  9. Did the entire Seve Nappe Complex in the Scandinavian Caledonides undergo HP metamorphism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klonowska, I.; Rosén, Š.; Majka, J.; Ladenberger, A.; Gee, D. G.

    2012-04-01

    The Seve Nappe Complex (SNC) in the Scandinavian Caledonides is composed of high grade metamorphic rocks, derived from the outer(most) parts of the Baltica margin. The main lithologies are represented by amphibolite facies metasediments and granulite facies gneisses, locally with migmatites. Granulites from the SNC on Åreskutan and Snasahögarna in west-central Jämtland (Sweden), give an excellent opportunity to investigate the high grade metamorphic history of these far-travelled nappes. As there are only two areas within the SNC, where eclogites have been found, there is a necessity to look for other evidence of HP metamorphism elsewhere to unravel a more complete history of the SNC. The latest zircon ion microprobe dating (Ladenberger et.al., 2012) of the Åreskutan Nappe indicate that the peak (temperature) of metamorphism occurred at 442-436 Ma. An earlier history of higher pressure metamorphism has been identified by EMP monazite dating (Majka et. al., in press), probably occurring in the mid-late Ordovician as in northwestern Jämtland (Root and Corfu, 2011, Brueckner and van Roermund, 2007). Kyanite-bearing leucogranulite and pyroxene-dominated paleosome samples from granulite facies migmatites were collected in the Åreskutan Nappe, as well as garnet-clinopyroxene granulite on Tväråklumparna in the Snasahögarna area near Storlien. Garnet chemistry and kyanite-sillimanite transformation were investigated in thin sections using light microscopy, WDS analysis and Raman spectroscopy. In the Tväråklumparna granulite almandine with high Ca content (19-20% grs) contain inclusions of diopside. Garnets from the Åreskutan granulite are homogenous, have high Ca content (26-27% grs) and lack inclusions. Preliminary estimates from garnet - clinopyroxene geothermobarometric calculations give 760°C and 18kbar for the Tväråklumparna granulite and 740°C and 20kbar for the Åreskutan mafic granulite. The presence of HP kyanite- replaced by LP sillimanite

  10. Overexpression of HP1γ is associated with poor prognosis in non-small cell lung cancer cell through promoting cell survival.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji; Bi, Hui; Zhan, Ping; Chang, Cunjie; Xu, Chunhua; Huang, Xiaojing; Yu, Like; Yao, Xin; Yan, Jun

    2014-10-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1γ (HP1γ), which binds to di- or trimethylated lysine 9 on histone H3 (H3K9), plays an important role in chromatin packaging and gene transcriptional regulation. Recently, HP1γ has been implicated in cancer development. However, its clinical relevance and functional role in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) remain elusive. In this study, we found that HP1γ expression was elevated in NSCLC samples at the messenger RNA (mRNA) level compared to adjacent normal lung tissues. In a cohort of 108 NSCLC patients, HP1γ overexpression is significantly associated with N stage (P = 0.003), pathological tumor-node-metastasis (TNM) stage (P = 0.013), smoking status (P = 0.009), and gender (P = 0.042). Patients with a high level of HP1γ expression showed a poorer overall survival rate than those with low HP1γ expression (P = 0.017). Multivariate analysis revealed that HP1γ expression is an independent prognostic marker. We also found knockdown of HP1γ in A549 and NCI-H1975 cells induced apoptosis accompanied with suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation. Consistently, pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and GADD45α, were upregulated in response to HP1γ depletion. Altogether, our data suggested that HP1γ plays an important role in promoting NSCLC and may represent a novel prognostic biomarker and therapeutic target for the disease.

  11. Coupling between hydration layer dynamics and unfolding kinetics of HP-36.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy; Chakraborty, Sudip; Bagchi, Biman

    2006-08-28

    We have performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous solutions of HP-36 at 300 K in its native state, as well as at high temperatures to explore the unfolding dynamics of the protein and its correlation with the motion of water around it. On increasing the temperature a partially unfolded molten globule state is formed where the smallest alpha helix (helix 2) unfolds into a coil. It is observed that the unfolding is initiated around the residue Phe-18 which shows a sharp displacement during unfolding. We have noticed that the unfolding of the protein affects the density of water near the protein surface. Besides, the dynamics of water in the protein hydration layer has been found to be strongly correlated with the time evolution of the unfolding process. We have introduced and calculated a displacement time correlation function to monitor the change in water motion relative to the protein backbone during unfolding. We find that the unfolding of helix 2 is associated with an increase in mobility of water around it as compared to water around the other two helices. We have also explored the microscopic aspects of secondary structure specific and site specific solvation dynamics of the protein. The calculations reveal that unfolding influences the solvation dynamics of the protein molecule in a heterogeneous manner depending on the location of the polar probe residues. This seems to be in agreement with recent experimental findings.

  12. Marinobacter adhaerens HP15 harbors two CzcCBA efflux pumps involved in zinc detoxification.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Antje; Pletzer, Daniel; Mehmood, Amna; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2015-09-01

    Several members of the ubiquitously found γ-proteobacterial genus Marinobacter were described or assumed to inhabit marine environments naturally enriched in heavy metals. However, direct studies that describe the ability of this genus to occupy such environments have not been conducted. To cope with heavy metal stress, bacteria possess specific efflux pumps as tools for detoxification, among which the CzcCBA type efflux system is one representative. Previous studies showed that this system plays an important role in resistance towards cadmium, zinc, and cobalt. Up to now, no study had focused on characterization of Czc pumps in Marinobacter sp. or other marine prokaryotes. Herein, we elucidated the function of two CzcCBA pumps encoded by Marinobacter adhaerens HP15's genome during exposure to cadmium, zinc, and cobalt. Single and double knock-out mutants lacking the corresponding two czcCBA operons were generated and analyzed in terms of their resistance profiles. Both operons appeared to be important for zinc resistance but had no role in tolerance towards cadmium or cobalt. One of the mutations was genetically complemented thereby restoring the wild type phenotype. In accordance with the resistance pattern, expression of the genes coding for both CzcCBA pumps was induced by zinc but neither by cadmium nor cobalt.

  13. Endogenous retrovirus EAV-HP linked to blue egg phenotype in Mapuche fowl.

    PubMed

    Wragg, David; Mwacharo, Joram M; Alcalde, José A; Wang, Chen; Han, Jian-Lin; Gongora, Jaime; Gourichon, David; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hanotte, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Oocyan or blue/green eggshell colour is an autosomal dominant trait found in native chickens (Mapuche fowl) of Chile and in some of their descendants in European and North American modern breeds. We report here the identification of an endogenous avian retroviral (EAV-HP) insertion in oocyan Mapuche fowl and European breeds. Sequencing data reveals 100% retroviral identity between the Mapuche and European insertions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of European oocyan chicken indicates over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene (P<0.05) in the shell gland and oviduct. Predicted transcription factor binding sites in the long terminal repeats (LTR) indicate AhR/Ar, a modulator of oestrogen, as a possible promoter/enhancer leading to reproductive tissue-specific over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene. Analysis of all jungle fowl species Gallus sp. supports the retroviral insertion to be a post-domestication event, while identical LTR sequences within domestic chickens are in agreement with a recent de novo mutation.

  14. Endogenous Retrovirus EAV-HP Linked to Blue Egg Phenotype in Mapuche Fowl

    PubMed Central

    Alcalde, José A.; Wang, Chen; Han, Jian-Lin; Gongora, Jaime; Gourichon, David; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hanotte, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Oocyan or blue/green eggshell colour is an autosomal dominant trait found in native chickens (Mapuche fowl) of Chile and in some of their descendants in European and North American modern breeds. We report here the identification of an endogenous avian retroviral (EAV-HP) insertion in oocyan Mapuche fowl and European breeds. Sequencing data reveals 100% retroviral identity between the Mapuche and European insertions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of European oocyan chicken indicates over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene (P<0.05) in the shell gland and oviduct. Predicted transcription factor binding sites in the long terminal repeats (LTR) indicate AhR/Ar, a modulator of oestrogen, as a possible promoter/enhancer leading to reproductive tissue-specific over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene. Analysis of all jungle fowl species Gallus sp. supports the retroviral insertion to be a post-domestication event, while identical LTR sequences within domestic chickens are in agreement with a recent de novo mutation. PMID:23990950

  15. Emergent protein folding modeled with evolved neural cellular automata using the 3D HP model.

    PubMed

    Santos, José; Villot, Pablo; Diéguez, Martin

    2014-11-01

    We used cellular automata (CA) for the modeling of the temporal folding of proteins. Unlike the focus of the vast research already done on the direct prediction of the final folded conformations, we will model the temporal and dynamic folding process. To reduce the complexity of the interactions and the nature of the amino acid elements, lattice models like HP were used, a model that categorizes the amino acids regarding their hydrophobicity. Taking into account the restrictions of the lattice model, the CA model defines how the amino acids interact through time to obtain a folded conformation. We extended the classical CA models using artificial neural networks for their implementation (neural CA), and we used evolutionary computing to automatically obtain the models by means of Differential Evolution. As the iterative folding also provides the final folded conformation, we can compare the results with those from direct prediction methods of the final protein conformation. Finally, as the neural CA that provides the iterative folding process can be evolved using several protein sequences and used as operators in the folding of another protein with different length, this represents an advantage over the NP-hard complexity of the original problem of the direct prediction.

  16. New approach for calibration the efficiency of HpGe detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Alnour, I. A.; Wagiran, H.; Ibrahim, N.; Hamzah, S.; Siong, W. B.; Elias, M. S.

    2014-02-12

    This work evaluates the efficiency calibrating of HpGe detector coupled with Canberra GC3018 with Genie 2000 software and Ortec GEM25-76-XLB-C with Gamma Vision software; available at Neutron activation analysis laboratory in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM). The efficiency calibration curve was constructed from measurement of an IAEA, standard gamma–point sources set composed by {sup 214}Am, {sup 57}Co, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 152}Eu, {sup 137}Cs and {sup 60}Co. The efficiency calibrations were performed for three different geometries: 5, 10 and 15 cm distances from the end cap detector. The polynomial parameters functions were simulated through a computer program, MATLAB in order to find an accurate fit to the experimental data points. The efficiency equation was established from the known fitted parameters which allow for the efficiency evaluation at particular energy of interest. The study shows that significant deviations in the efficiency, depending on the source-detector distance and photon energy.

  17. Preparation and characterization of chitosan/HP-β-cyclodextrins composites with high sorption capacity for carvacrol.

    PubMed

    Higueras, Laura; López-Carballo, Gracia; Cerisuelo, Josep P; Gavara, Rafael; Hernández-Muñoz, Pilar

    2013-09-12

    The aim of this work was to design new polymer-based systems exhibiting an adjustable loading capacity of carvacrol depending on the film formulation. For this purpose, biocomposite films were developed employing chitosan (CS) as the polymer matrix and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrins (HP-βCDs) as an adjuvant to improve the sorption of carvacrol in the polymer matrix. The morphology, optical, mechanical and barrier properties of the resulting films were investigated, and the sorption capacity of carvacrol evaluated. Biocomposites resulted highly transparent with higher mechanical resistance and moisture barrier properties. Sorption of carvacrol was greatly affected by the humidity (RH) and glycerol (G) content of the biocomposites. The highest sorption values were achieved for composites incorporating 35% glycerol and conditioned at 75% these composites retained 216% carvacrol (g/100 g dry matter). These results indicate that inclusion of carvacrol in the films could be occurring by mechanisms other than formation of inclusion complexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. KIVA-hpFE. Predictive turbulent reactive and multiphase flow in engines - An Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Carrington, David Bradley

    2016-05-23

    Research and development of KIVA-hpFE for turbulent reactive and multiphase flow particularly as related to engine modeling program has relevance to National energy security and climate change. Climate change is a source problem, and energy national security is consumption of petroleum products problem. Accurately predicting engine processes leads to, lower greenhouse gas (GHG) emission, where engines in the transportation sector currently account for 26% of the U.S. GHG emissions. Less dependence on petroleum products leads to greater energy security. By Environmental Protection Agency standards, some vehicles are now reaching 42 to the 50 mpg mark. These are conventional gasoline engines. Continued investment and research into new technical innovations, the potential exists to save more than 4 million barrels of oil per day or approximately $200 to $400 million per day. This would be a significant decrease in emission and use of petroleum and a very large economic stimulus too! It is estimated with further advancements in combustion, the current emissions can be reduced up to 40%. Enabling better understanding of fuel injection and fuel-air mixing, thermodynamic combustion losses, and combustion/emission formation processes enhances our ability to help solve both problems. To provide adequate capability for accurately simulating these processes, minimize time and labor for development of engine technology, are the goals of our KIVA development program.

  19. An hp-Adaptive Discretization Algorithm for Signed Distance Field Generation.

    PubMed

    Koschier, Dan; Deul, Crispin; Brand, Magnus; Bender, Jan

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we present an hp-adaptive algorithm to generate discrete higher-order polynomial Signed Distance Fields (SDFs) on axis-aligned hexahedral grids from manifold polygonal input meshes. Using an orthonormal polynomial basis, we efficiently fit the polynomials to the underlying signed distance function on each cell. The proposed error-driven construction algorithm is globally adaptive and iteratively refines the SDFs using either spatial subdivision ( h-refinement) following an octree scheme or by cell-wise adaption of the polynomial approximation's degree ( p-refinement). We further introduce a novel decision criterion based on an error-estimator in order to decide whether to apply p- or h-refinement. We demonstrate that our method is able to construct more accurate SDFs at significantly lower memory consumption compared to previous approaches. While the cell-wise polynomial approximation will result in highly accurate SDFs, it can not be guaranteed that the piecewise approximation is continuous over cell interfaces. Therefore, we propose an optimization-based post-processing step in order to weakly enforce continuity. Finally, we apply our generated SDFs as collision detector to the physically-based simulation of geometrically highly complex solid objects in order to demonstrate the practical relevance and applicability of our method.

  20. Development of an adaptive hp-version finite element method for computational optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Warner, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    In this research effort, the usefulness of hp-version finite elements and adaptive solution-refinement techniques in generating numerical solutions to optimal control problems has been investigated. Under NAG-939, a general FORTRAN code was developed which approximated solutions to optimal control problems with control constraints and state constraints. Within that methodology, to get high-order accuracy in solutions, the finite element mesh would have to be refined repeatedly through bisection of the entire mesh in a given phase. In the current research effort, the order of the shape functions in each element has been made a variable, giving more flexibility in error reduction and smoothing. Similarly, individual elements can each be subdivided into many pieces, depending on the local error indicator, while other parts of the mesh remain coarsely discretized. The problem remains to reduce and smooth the error while still keeping computational effort reasonable enough to calculate time histories in a short enough time for on-board applications.

  1. H.P. Acthar Gel (repository corticotropin injection) treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kutz, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses can be complex in patients with concomitant diabetes. Corticosteroids and adrenocorticotropic hormones are known to cause alterations in glucose tolerance. Many patients have poor tolerability to therapy, necessitating alternative treatment options. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (H.P. Acthar Gel, repository corticotropin injection, Mallinckrodt ARD Inc., Hazelwood, MO, USA) is currently indicated for the treatment of MS relapses. Objectives: The objective of this study was to review patients’ experiences of Acthar Gel for the treatment of MS exacerbations in patients with MS and diabetes. Methods: A retrospective review of 13 patients’ experiences with treatment. Qualified healthcare providers completed a questionnaire following Acthar Gel treatment for MS relapse. Results: Previous corticosteroid treatment with either intravenous methylprednisolone or prednisone was reported by 84.6% of patients; eight patients had complications following administration of prior steroid treatment, seven of whom experienced elevated blood glucose levels. Acthar Gel was administered daily for a mean of 5.3 days, with 61.5% of patients reporting relapse resolution. Two patients experienced elevated blood glucose. Conclusion: The majority of patients experienced a timely resolution of their MS relapse with few hyperglycemic adverse events. Although more studies are necessary, these data suggest that Acthar Gel may be a well-tolerated and effective treatment option for patients with diabetes experiencing an MS relapse. PMID:27433309

  2. Direct spectral/hp element simulation of piloted jet non-premixed flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastase, Cristian R.

    2004-11-01

    The spectral/hp element method is used for direct numerical simulation (DNS) of piloted non premixed methane jet flames. This method combines the accuracy of spectral methods with versatility of finite element methods, and allows accurate simulations of complex flows on structured and unstructured grids. Here, the methodology is extended for simulation of multi-species, reactive flows using the discontinuous Galerkin formulation. Parallel computation is performed via MPI standards coupled with a domain decomposition methodology. The overall computational scheme allows for an efficient partitioning of the flow configuration. Tests performed with up to 64 processors show quasi-linear parallel performance and scalability. The flame configurations are similar to the piloted jet non-premixed flame considered at the Combustion Research Facility at the Sandia National Laboratories. For a momentum dominated flame, the simulated results portray many of the features observed experimentally. This pertains to both the spatial and the compositional structures of the flow. For a buoyancy controlled flame (at elevated gravity levels), the results indicate an increase in both the turbulence levels and flow acceleration. Departure from equilibrium, including localized extinction is observed on a significant portion of this flame.

  3. Gr and hp-1 tomato mutants unveil unprecedented interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and fruit ripening.

    PubMed

    Chialva, Matteo; Zouari, Inès; Salvioli, Alessandra; Novero, Mara; Vrebalov, Julia; Giovannoni, James J; Bonfante, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Systemic responses to an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus reveal opposite phenological patterns in two tomato ripening mutants depending whether ethylene or light reception is involved. The availability of tomato ripening mutants has revealed many aspects of the genetics behind fleshy fruit ripening, plant hormones and light signal reception. Since previous analyses revealed that arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis influences tomato berry ripening, we wanted to test the hypothesis that an interplay might occur between root symbiosis and fruit ripening. With this aim, we screened seven tomato mutants affected in the ripening process for their responsiveness to the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Funneliformis mosseae. Following their phenological responses we selected two mutants for a deeper analysis: Green ripe (Gr), deficient in fruit ethylene perception and high-pigment-1 (hp-1), displaying enhanced light signal perception throughout the plant. We investigated the putative interactions between ripening processes, mycorrhizal establishment and systemic effects using biochemical and gene expression tools. Our experiments showed that both mutants, notwithstanding a normal mycorrhizal phenotype at root level, exhibit altered arbuscule functionality. Furthermore, in contrast to wild type, mycorrhization did not lead to a higher phosphate concentration in berries of both mutants. These results suggest that the mutations considered interfere with arbuscular mycorrhiza inducing systemic changes in plant phenology and fruits metabolism. We hypothesize a cross talk mechanism between AM and ripening processes that involves genes related to ethylene and light signaling.

  4. COMPARISON METHODOLOGIES FOR CALIBRATION OF Hp(10) PERSONAL DOSEMETERS USING ISO 4037 AND ISO 29661 STANDARDS.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, J; Santos, L; Carvalhal, G; Oliveira, C

    2016-09-01

    The calibration of electronic personal dosemeters at the Portuguese ionizing radiation metrology laboratory uses the standard IEC 61526 for calibration methodology. This standard describes the irradiation geometry for testing and indicates that the standard ISO 4037-1, 2, 3 and 4 should be used. The ISO 4037 establishes that the reference point of test is a point in the radiation monitor, known or established, and the calibration phantom should be placed on its back in order to simulate the trunk body. Recently, ISO published another standard, the ISO 29661, that changes the reference point from the radiation monitor to the front face of the calibration phantom. The aim of this work is to present the result of the comparison of these two methodologies on personal dosemeters from five different manufacturers. The work shows differences in the Hp(10) response up to 4% resulting from the two different reference point concepts. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  5. Status of EUV reticle handling solution in meeting 32 nm HP EUV lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Long; Wurm, Stefan; Seidel, Phil; Orvek, Kevin; Betancourt, Ernie; Underwood, Jon

    2008-03-01

    Significant progress has been made over the past several years in developing extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask infrastructure, especially in EUV reticle handling and protection. Today, the industry has converged to standardize the dual pod reticle carrier approach in developing EUV reticle handling solutions. SEMATECH has already established reticle handling infrastructure compliant with industry's draft standard, including carrier, robotic carrier handling, automated carrier cleaning, vacuum protection, and state-of-the-art particulate contamination testing capabilities. It proves to be one of the key enablers in developing EUV reticle protection solutions, through broad collaboration with industry stakeholders and suppliers. In this paper, we discuss our in-house reticle handling infrastructure and provide insights on how to apply it in EUV lithography pilot line development and future production line. We present particulate contamination free baseline results of state-of-the-art EUV reticle carriers, i.e., sPod, throughout lifecycle uses. We will also compare the results against requirements for 32 nm half-pitch (HP) EUV lithography, to identify the remaining challenges ahead of the industry.

  6. Liquid-Hydrogen-Cooled 450-hp Electric Motor Test Stand Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Albert F.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    With growing concerns about global warming, there is a need to develop pollution-free aircraft. One approach is to use hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbogenerators to produce electric power to drive the electric motors that turn the aircraft s propulsive fans. Hydrogen fuel would be carried as a liquid, stored at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are too heavy for aircraft propulsion. We need to develop high-power, lightweight electric motors (highpower- density motors). One approach is to increase the conductivity of the wires by cooling them with liquid hydrogen (LH2). This would allow superconducting rotors with an ironless core. In addition, the motor could use very pure aluminum or copper, substances that have low resistances at cryogenic temperatures. A preliminary design of a 450-hp LH2-cooled electric motor was completed and is being manufactured by a contractor. This motor will be tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center and will be used to test different superconducting materials such as magnesium diboride (MgB2). The motor will be able to operate at speeds of up to 6000 rpm.

  7. The nuclear oncogene SET controls DNA repair by KAP1 and HP1 retention to chromatin.

    PubMed

    Kalousi, Alkmini; Hoffbeck, Anne-Sophie; Selemenakis, Platonas N; Pinder, Jordan; Savage, Kienan I; Khanna, Kum Kum; Brino, Laurent; Dellaire, Graham; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G; Soutoglou, Evi

    2015-04-07

    Cells experience damage from exogenous and endogenous sources that endanger genome stability. Several cellular pathways have evolved to detect DNA damage and mediate its repair. Although many proteins have been implicated in these processes, only recent studies have revealed how they operate in the context of high-ordered chromatin structure. Here, we identify the nuclear oncogene SET (I2PP2A) as a modulator of DNA damage response (DDR) and repair in chromatin surrounding double-strand breaks (DSBs). We demonstrate that depletion of SET increases DDR and survival in the presence of radiomimetic drugs, while overexpression of SET impairs DDR and homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair. SET interacts with the Kruppel-associated box (KRAB)-associated co-repressor KAP1, and its overexpression results in the sustained retention of KAP1 and Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) on chromatin. Our results are consistent with a model in which SET-mediated chromatin compaction triggers an inhibition of DNA end resection and HR. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. (HP)Ge Measurement of spectra for diagnostic X-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, M S; Mota, H C; Campos, L L

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray spectra applied in diagnostic radiology to the energy range between 50 and 125 kVp, were experimentally determined using a high-purity germanium detector, (HP)Ge, coupled to a multichannel analyser. A simple stripping procedure was implemented, according to that described by Seelentag and Panzer, to correct the pulse height distribution and then to determine the photon spectra. The measurements were performed for those conditions where the X-ray beam is transmitted through Pb filters 0.2-0.7 mm thick. It was necessary to estimate the effective dose in the same way that it is done for radiology diagnosis room shielding projects. The spectra were also determined to the X-ray qualities recommended by the IEC for primary diagnostic X-ray and for X-ray beams attenuated by aluminium filters 2.5-42.5 mm thick. The spectra obtained were compared with data derived from the literature presenting good agreement.

  9. Liquid-Hydrogen-Cooled 450-hp Electric Motor Test Stand Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Albert F.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    With growing concerns about global warming, there is a need to develop pollution-free aircraft. One approach is to use hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbogenerators to produce electric power to drive the electric motors that turn the aircraft s propulsive fans. Hydrogen fuel would be carried as a liquid, stored at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are too heavy for aircraft propulsion. We need to develop high-power, lightweight electric motors (highpower- density motors). One approach is to increase the conductivity of the wires by cooling them with liquid hydrogen (LH2). This would allow superconducting rotors with an ironless core. In addition, the motor could use very pure aluminum or copper, substances that have low resistances at cryogenic temperatures. A preliminary design of a 450-hp LH2-cooled electric motor was completed and is being manufactured by a contractor. This motor will be tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center and will be used to test different superconducting materials such as magnesium diboride (MgB2). The motor will be able to operate at speeds of up to 6000 rpm.

  10. Fully automatic hp-adaptivity for acoustic and electromagnetic scattering in three dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtz, Jason Patrick

    We present an algorithm for fully automatic hp-adaptivity for finite element approximations of elliptic and Maxwell boundary value problems in three dimensions. The algorithm automatically generates a sequence of coarse grids, and a corresponding sequence of fine grids, such that the energy norm of the error decreases exponentially with respect to the number of degrees of freedom in either sequence. At each step, we employ a discrete optimization algorithm to determine the refinements for the current coarse grid such that the projection-based interpolation error for the current fine grid solution decreases with an optimal rate with respect to the number of degrees of freedom added by the refinement. The refinements are restricted only by the requirement that the resulting mesh is at most 1-irregular, but they may be anisotropic in both element size h and order of approximation p. While we cannot prove that our method converges at all, we present numerical evidence of exponential convergence for a diverse suite of model problems from acoustic and electromagnetic scattering. In particular we show that our method is well suited to the automatic resolution of exterior problems truncated by the introduction of a perfectly matched layer. To enable and accelerate the solution of these problems on commodity hardware, we include a detailed account of three critical aspects of our implementation, namely an efficient implementation of sum factorization, several efficient interfaces to the direct multi-frontal solver MUMPS, and some fast direct solvers for the computation of a sequence of nested projections.

  11. Functional and evolutionary analyses of Helicobacter pylori HP0231 (DsbK) protein with strong oxidative and chaperone activity characterized by a highly diverged dimerization domain.

    PubMed

    Bocian-Ostrzycka, Katarzyna M; Łasica, Anna M; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanisław; Grzeszczuk, Magdalena J; Drabik, Karolina; Dobosz, Aneta M; Godlewska, Renata; Nowak, Elżbieta; Collet, Jean-Francois; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori does not encode the classical DsbA/DsbB oxidoreductases that are crucial for oxidative folding of extracytoplasmic proteins. Instead, this microorganism encodes an untypical two proteins playing a role in disulfide bond formation - periplasmic HP0231, which structure resembles that of EcDsbC/DsbG, and its redox partner, a membrane protein HpDsbI (HP0595) with a β-propeller structure. The aim of presented work was to assess relations between HP0231 structure and function. We showed that HP0231 is most closely related evolutionarily to the catalytic domain of DsbG, even though it possesses a catalytic motif typical for canonical DsbA proteins. Similarly, the highly diverged N-terminal dimerization domain is homologous to the dimerization domain of DsbG. To better understand the functioning of this atypical oxidoreductase, we examined its activity using in vivo and in vitro experiments. We found that HP0231 exhibits oxidizing and chaperone activities but no isomerizing activity, even though H. pylori does not contain a classical DsbC. We also show that HP0231 is not involved in the introduction of disulfide bonds into HcpC (Helicobacter cysteine-rich protein C), a protein involved in the modulation of the H. pylori interaction with its host. Additionally, we also constructed a truncated version of HP0231 lacking the dimerization domain, denoted HP0231m, and showed that it acts in Escherichia coli cells in a DsbB-dependent manner. In contrast, HP0231m and classical monomeric EcDsbA (E. coli DsbA protein) were both unable to complement the lack of HP0231 in H. pylori cells, though they exist in oxidized forms. HP0231m is inactive in the insulin reduction assay and possesses high chaperone activity, in contrast to EcDsbA. In conclusion, HP0231 combines oxidative functions characteristic of DsbA proteins and chaperone activity characteristic of DsbC/DsbG, and it lacks isomerization activity.

  12. Functional and evolutionary analyses of Helicobacter pylori HP0231 (DsbK) protein with strong oxidative and chaperone activity characterized by a highly diverged dimerization domain

    PubMed Central

    Bocian-Ostrzycka, Katarzyna M.; Łasica, Anna M.; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanisław; Grzeszczuk, Magdalena J.; Drabik, Karolina; Dobosz, Aneta M.; Godlewska, Renata; Nowak, Elżbieta; Collet, Jean-Francois; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori does not encode the classical DsbA/DsbB oxidoreductases that are crucial for oxidative folding of extracytoplasmic proteins. Instead, this microorganism encodes an untypical two proteins playing a role in disulfide bond formation – periplasmic HP0231, which structure resembles that of EcDsbC/DsbG, and its redox partner, a membrane protein HpDsbI (HP0595) with a β-propeller structure. The aim of presented work was to assess relations between HP0231 structure and function. We showed that HP0231 is most closely related evolutionarily to the catalytic domain of DsbG, even though it possesses a catalytic motif typical for canonical DsbA proteins. Similarly, the highly diverged N-terminal dimerization domain is homologous to the dimerization domain of DsbG. To better understand the functioning of this atypical oxidoreductase, we examined its activity using in vivo and in vitro experiments. We found that HP0231 exhibits oxidizing and chaperone activities but no isomerizing activity, even though H. pylori does not contain a classical DsbC. We also show that HP0231 is not involved in the introduction of disulfide bonds into HcpC (Helicobacter cysteine-rich protein C), a protein involved in the modulation of the H. pylori interaction with its host. Additionally, we also constructed a truncated version of HP0231 lacking the dimerization domain, denoted HP0231m, and showed that it acts in Escherichia coli cells in a DsbB-dependent manner. In contrast, HP0231m and classical monomeric EcDsbA (E. coli DsbA protein) were both unable to complement the lack of HP0231 in H. pylori cells, though they exist in oxidized forms. HP0231m is inactive in the insulin reduction assay and possesses high chaperone activity, in contrast to EcDsbA. In conclusion, HP0231 combines oxidative functions characteristic of DsbA proteins and chaperone activity characteristic of DsbC/DsbG, and it lacks isomerization activity. PMID:26500620

  13. Wound stimulation by growth-arrested human keratinocytes and fibroblasts: HP802-247, a new-generation allogeneic tissue engineering product.

    PubMed

    Goedkoop, René; Juliet, Rodney; You, Percy Hou Kang; Daroczy, Judit; de Roos, Kees-Peter; Lijnen, Raf; Rolland, Eric; Hunziker, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    HP802-247 is a new-generation, allogeneic tissue engineering product consisting of growth-arrested, human keratinocytes (K) and fibroblasts (F) delivered in a fibrin matrix by a spray device. To identify the preferred dose of HP802-247 based on cell concentration and K/F ratio. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, explorative phase II study of 6 different doses of HP802-247 administered once per week for 12 consecutive weeks in chronic venous leg ulcers. HP802-247 was safe and well tolerated and showed increasing efficacy dependent on cell concentration and K/F ratio, in line with in vitro growth factor release data. The mean complete closure rate at week 12 for all patients treated with HP802-247 was 40%, and for placebo it was 33%. In contrast to placebo, all HP802-247 dose groups improved from week 12 to 24. As an integral part of a rational tissue engineering product development, this explorative trial identified the preferred dose of HP802-247 for further clinical studies.

  14. Vulvar hidradenoma papilliferum (HP) is located on the sites of mammary-like anogenital glands (MLAGs): Analysis of the photographs of 52 tumors.

    PubMed

    El-Khoury, Jinane; Renald, Marie-Hélène; Plantier, Françoise; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Moyal-Barracco, Micheline

    2016-08-01

    Hidradenoma papilliferum (HP) is a benign tumor that primarily affects the anogenital area of adult women. Previously considered apocrine tumors, anogenital HP tumors are now interpreted as adenomas of mammary-like anogenital glands based on their histologic features. This clinical study was undertaken to determine whether vulvar HP is located on mammary-like anogenital gland sites and to describe its morphologic features. The clinical photographs of 52 histologically confirmed vulvar HP provided by 7 vulva specialists were analyzed. In all, 90.4% of the HP were located on the interlabial sulcus, adjacent zone, or the perineum. These tumors were polymorphous in terms of number (1 or multiple), size (<1-4.5 cm), color (pink, red, blue), surface (ulcerated or not), and architecture (unilobular or multilobular). Eight histologic reports could not be reviewed by the authors but the contributors confirmed that the photographs sent were only those of histologically confirmed HPs. Vulvar HP is mainly located on mammary-like anogenital gland sites, thereby providing further evidence to their histogenesis. Although a nonulcerated or ulcerated tumor of the interlabial sulcus should evoke a HP diagnosis, the latter must be confirmed histologically. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamic and flexible H3K9me3 bridging via HP1β dimerization establishes a plastic state of condensed chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Hiragami-Hamada, Kyoko; Soeroes, Szabolcs; Nikolov, Miroslav; Wilkins, Bryan; Kreuz, Sarah; Chen, Carol; De La Rosa-Velázquez, Inti A.; Zenn, Hans Michael; Kost, Nils; Pohl, Wiebke; Chernev, Aleksandar; Schwarzer, Dirk; Jenuwein, Thomas; Lorincz, Matthew; Zimmermann, Bastian; Walla, Peter Jomo; Neumann, Heinz; Baubec, Tuncay; Urlaub, Henning; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Histone H3 trimethylation of lysine 9 (H3K9me3) and proteins of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family are hallmarks of heterochromatin, a state of compacted DNA essential for genome stability and long-term transcriptional silencing. The mechanisms by which H3K9me3 and HP1 contribute to chromatin condensation have been speculative and controversial. Here we demonstrate that human HP1β is a prototypic HP1 protein exemplifying most basal chromatin binding and effects. These are caused by dimeric and dynamic interaction with highly enriched H3K9me3 and are modulated by various electrostatic interfaces. HP1β bridges condensed chromatin, which we postulate stabilizes the compacted state. In agreement, HP1β genome-wide localization follows H3K9me3-enrichment and artificial bridging of chromatin fibres is sufficient for maintaining cellular heterochromatic conformation. Overall, our findings define a fundamental mechanism for chromatin higher order structural changes caused by HP1 proteins, which might contribute to the plastic nature of condensed chromatin. PMID:27090491

  16. Chromatin Protein HP1α Interacts with the Mitotic Regulator Borealin Protein and Specifies the Centromere Localization of the Chromosomal Passenger Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Song, Zhenwei; Huo, Yuda; Zhang, Jiahai; Zhu, Tongge; Wang, Jianyu; Zhao, Xuannv; Aikhionbare, Felix; Zhang, Jiancun; Duan, Hequan; Wu, Jihui; Dou, Zhen; Shi, Yunyu; Yao, Xuebiao

    2014-01-01

    Accurate mitosis requires the chromosomal passenger protein complex (CPC) containing Aurora B kinase, borealin, INCENP, and survivin, which orchestrates chromosome dynamics. However, the chromatin factors that specify the CPC to the centromere remain elusive. Here we show that borealin interacts directly with heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) and that this interaction is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved PXVXL motif in the C-terminal borealin with the chromo shadow domain of HP1α. This borealin-HP1α interaction recruits the CPC to the centromere and governs an activation of Aurora B kinase judged by phosphorylation of Ser-7 in CENP-A, a substrate of Aurora B. Consistently, modulation of the motif PXVXL leads to defects in CPC centromere targeting and aberrant Aurora B activity. On the other hand, the localization of the CPC in the midzone is independent of the borealin-HP1α interaction, demonstrating the spatial requirement of HP1α in CPC localization to the centromere. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized but direct link between HP1α and CPC localization in the centromere and illustrate the critical role of borealin-HP1α interaction in orchestrating an accurate cell division. PMID:24917673

  17. Intercomparison 2013 on measurements of the personal dose equivalent Hp(10) in photon fields in the African region.

    PubMed

    Arib, M; Herrati, A; Dari, F; Ma, J; Lounis-Mokrani, Z

    2015-02-01

    An intercomparison exercise on the measurement of personal dose equivalent Hp(10) was jointly organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Nuclear Research Centre of Algiers through its Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory in the African region. This intercomparison exercise was aimed at verifying the performance of the individual monitoring services of the participants in order to assess their capabilities to measure the quantity Hp(10) in photon (gamma and X ray) fields helping them to comply with dose limitation requirements. The scope of this intercomparison was aimed at passive dosemeters, which determine the personal dose equivalent in photon radiation fields, mainly for thermoluminescence and optically stimulated luminescence dosemeters. Twenty-seven countries from the Africa region and from outside Africa participated in this exercise. The intercomparison protocol, including the preparation of the dosemeters and the irradiation procedures, is described and the results are presented, analysed and discussed.

  18. Heterochromatin Protein 1 Alpha (HP1α: CBX5) is a Key Regulator in Differentiation of Endothelial Progenitor Cells to Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Maeng, Yong-Sun; Kwon, Ja Young; Kim, Eung Kweon; Kwon, Young-Guen

    2015-05-01

    As the ability to control the differentiation of endothelial stem/progenitor cells (EPCs) into vascular endothelial cell lineages could be useful for promoting neovascularization, it is important to obtain a deeper understanding of the epigenetic mechanisms that regulate EPC differentiation and neovascularization. Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) is known to be involved in the epigenetic regulation of gene silencing. However, recent reports demonstrate that HP1α can also activate gene expression during cell differentiation. In this study, microarray analysis revealed that HP1α expression was induced during EPC differentiation and is associated with the expression of outgrowing endothelial cell (OEC)-specific protein markers. To explore the role of HP1α in the differentiation of EPCs to OECs, its expression was knocked-down or over-expressed in differentiating EPCs. Overexpression of HP1α promoted the differentiation and angiogenic activity of EPCs in vitro and in vivo, whereas knockdown of HP1α led to a defect in OEC migration, tube formation, and angiogenic sprouting activity. Gene expression profiling showed increased expression of angiogenic genes, including NOTCH1, cadherin-5, and angiopoietin-like-2, and decreased expression of progenitor cell marker genes, including CD133, CXCR4, and C-KIT, in HP1α-overexpressing EPCs. Also, increased HP1α at an early stage of EPC differentiation may regulate angiogenic gene transcription by interacting with chromatin that modifies epigenetic factors such as the methyl-CpG binding domain, Polycomb group ring finger 2, and DNA methyltransferases. Our findings demonstrate, for the first time, that HP1α plays an important role in the differentiation and angiogenic function of EPCs by regulating endothelial gene expression. Stem Cells 2015;33:1512-1522. © 2015 AlphaMed Press.

  19. Efficacy, safety and mechanism of HP-β-CD-PEI polymers as absorption enhancers on the intestinal absorption of poorly absorbable drugs in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hailong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Yongjing; Gao, Yang

    2017-03-01

    Oral bioavailability of some hydrophilic therapeutic macromolecules was very poor, thus leading to their limited application in clinic. To investigate the efficacy, safety and mechanism of HP-β-CD-PEI polymers on the intestinal absorption of some poorly absorbable drugs in rats. Effects of HP-β-CD-PEI polymers on the intestinal absorptions of drugs were investigated by an in situ closed loop method in rats. The safety of HP-β-CD-PEI polymer was evaluated by measurement of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and amount of protein released from rat intestinal perfusate. The absorption enhancing mechanisms were explored by the measurement of zeta potential, transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) and in vitro transport of FD4 (a paracellular marker) across rat intestinal membranes, respectively. HP-β-CD-PEI polymers, especially HP-β-CD-PEI1800, demonstrated excellent absorption enhancing effects on drug absorption in a concentration-dependent manner and the enhancing effect was more efficient in the small intestine than that in the large intestine. Five percent (w/v) HP-β-CD-PEI1800 obviously decreased the TEER, accompanied with increase in the intestinal transport of FD4, indicating that absorption enhancing actions of HP-β-CD-PEI polymers were possibly performed by loosening tight junctions of intestinal epithelium cells, thereby increasing drug permeation via a paracellular pathway. A good liner relationship between absorption enhancing effects of HP-β-CD-PEI polymers and their zeta potentials suggested the contribution of positive charge on the surface of these polymers to their absorption enhancing effects. HP-β-CD-PEI polymers might be potential and safe absorption enhancers for improving oral delivery of poorly absorbable macromolecules including peptides and proteins.

  20. Comparing Hp(3) evaluated from the conversion coefficients from air kerma to personal dose equivalent for eye lens dosimetry calibrated on a new cylindrical PMMA phantom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esor, J.; Sudchai, W.; Monthonwattana, S.; Pungkun, V.; Intang, A.

    2017-06-01

    Based on a new occupational dose limit recommended by ICRP (2011), the annual dose limit for the lens of the eye for workers should be reduced from 150 mSv/y to 20 mSv/y averaged over 5 consecutive years in which no single year exceeding 50 mSv. This new dose limit directly affects radiologists and cardiologists whose work involves high radiation exposure over 20 mSv/y. Eye lens dosimetry (Hp(3)) has become increasingly important and should be evaluated directly based on dosimeters that are worn closely to the eye. Normally, Hp(3) dose algorithm was carried out by the combination of Hp(0.07) and Hp(10) values while dosimeters were calibrated on slab PMMA phantom. Recently, there were three reports from European Union that have shown the conversion coefficients from air kerma to Hp(3). These conversion coefficients carried out by ORAMED, PTB and CEA Saclay projects were performed by using a new cylindrical head phantom. In this study, various delivered doses were calculated using those three conversion coefficients while nanoDot, small OSL dosimeters, were used for Hp(3) measurement. These calibrations were performed with a standard X-ray generator at Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratory (SSDL). Delivered doses (Hp(3)) using those three conversion coefficients were compared with Hp(3) from nanoDot measurements. The results showed that percentage differences between delivered doses evaluated from the conversion coefficient of each project and Hp(3) doses evaluated from the nanoDots were found to be not exceeding -11.48 %, -8.85 % and -8.85 % for ORAMED, PTB and CEA Saclay project, respectively.

  1. Episodic exhumation of HP rocks inferred from structural data and P-T paths from the southwestern Massif Central (Variscan belt, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellot, Jean-Philippe; Roig, Jean-Yves

    2007-09-01

    In the southwestern Massif Central (France), HP rocks are found in lower allochthonous units (i.e. HP units), sandwiched between upper allochthonous units (i.e. LP units) and the Parautochthonous unit, both devoid of HP rocks. HP rocks were formed at minimum conditions of 1.7 GPa/700 °C in response to the northward subduction of Gondwana beneath Armorica during the Silurian (430-390 Ma). Their exhumation results from an 80-Ma-long sequence of tectonic processes effective at various scales and active specifically at each main stage of the evolution of the Gondwana lithosphere. HP rocks were first exhumed by upward, southwestward extrusion during the Early Devonian (390-380 Ma), in relation to late stage of subduction. In the northern area, exhumation is achieved by rifting during the Upper Devonian (˜365 Ma). The most obvious event corresponds to the northwestward thrusting of LP units above HP units during early stages of continental collision (˜355 Ma). HP rocks were exhumed for a second time during orogen-parallel transpression in response to late stage of continental collision (350-345 Ma). Exhumation in internal zones is achieved by crustal-scale normal faulting and erosion during the Middle Carboniferous (335-315 Ma) synorogenic extension, while compression was still active in the southern external zones. Exhumation of the whole region is completed by regional uplift and erosional denudation during the Upper Carboniferous (310-290 Ma) postorogenic extension. Subduction and collision have played a key role for driving HP rocks to the surface, but their efficiency and the resulting strain pattern depend on the angle of convergence. Upper Devonian rifting and the subsequent Early Carboniferous crustal thickening prevents to consider exhumation of Variscan HP rocks as a single and continuous process and open new questions on the related Paleozoic lithosphere history.

  2. A priori error estimates for an hp-version of the discontinuous Galerkin method for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Kim S.; Oden, J. Tinsley

    1993-01-01

    A priori error estimates are derived for hp-versions of the finite element method for discontinuous Galerkin approximations of a model class of linear, scalar, first-order hyperbolic conservation laws. These estimates are derived in a mesh dependent norm in which the coefficients depend upon both the local mesh size h(sub K) and a number p(sub k) which can be identified with the spectral order of the local approximations over each element.

  3. Investigation into the effects of VHF and UHF band radiation on Hewlett-Packard (HP) Cesium Beam Frequency Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    This paper documents an investigation into reports which have indicated that exposure to VHF and UHF band radiation has adverse effects on the frequency stability of HP cesium beam frequency standards. Tests carried out on the basis of these reports show that sources of VHF and UHF radiation such as two-way hand held police communications devices do cause reproducible adverse effects. This investigation examines reproducible effects and explores possible causes.

  4. Contrasting styles of (U)HP rock exhumation along the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary (Western Alps, Calabria, Corsica)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malusà, Marco G.; Faccenna, Claudio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Rossetti, Federico; Balestrieri, Maria Laura; Danišík, Martin; Ellero, Alessandro; Ottria, Giuseppe; Piromallo, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Since the first discovery of ultrahigh pressure (UHP) rocks 30 years ago in the Western Alps, the mechanisms for exhumation of (U)HP terranes worldwide are still debated. In the western Mediterranean, the presently accepted model of synconvergent exhumation (e.g., the channel-flow model) is in conflict with parts of the geologic record. We synthesize regional geologic data and present alternative exhumation mechanisms that consider the role of divergence within subduction zones. These mechanisms, i.e., (i) the motion of the upper plate away from the trench and (ii) the rollback of the lower plate, are discussed in detail with particular reference to the Cenozoic Adria-Europe plate boundary, and along three different transects (Western Alps, Calabria-Sardinia, and Corsica-Northern Apennines). In the Western Alps, (U)HP rocks were exhumed from the greatest depth at the rear of the accretionary wedge during motion of the upper plate away from the trench. Exhumation was extremely fast, and associated with very low geothermal gradients. In Calabria, HP rocks were exhumed from shallower depths and at lower rates during rollback of the Adriatic plate, with repeated exhumation pulses progressively younging toward the foreland. Both mechanisms were active to create boundary divergence along the Corsica-Northern Apennines transect, where European southeastward subduction was progressively replaced along strike by Adriatic northwestward subduction. The tectonic scenario depicted for the Western Alps trench during Eocene exhumation of (U)HP rocks correlates well with present-day eastern Papua New Guinea, which is presented as a modern analog of the Paleogene Adria-Europe plate boundary.

  5. Calculation of Ambient (H*(10)) and Personal (Hp(10)) Dose Equivalent from a 252Cf Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Traub, Richard J.

    2010-03-26

    The purpose of this calculation is to calculate the neutron dose factors for the Sr-Cf-3000 neutron source that is located in the 318 low scatter room (LSR). The dose factors were based on the dose conversion factors published in ICRP-21 Appendix 6, and the Ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) and Personal dose equivalent (Hp(10)) dose factors published in ICRP Publication 74.

  6. The h-p Version of the Finite Element Method for Problems with Nonhomogeneous Essential Boundary Condition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    one commercial code based on the p and h-p version of the finite element, the program PROBE of NOETIC Technologies (St. Louis, MO). PROBE deals with two...Standards. o To be an international center of study and research for foreign students in numerical mathematics who are supported by foreign govern- ments or...ment agencies such as the National Bureau of Standards. o To be an international center of study and research for foreign students in numerical

  7. Age and duration of eclogite-facies metamorphism, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Bird, D.K.; Wu, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    Amphibolite-facies para-and orthogneisses near Dulan, at the southeast end of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor eclogite and peridotite which record ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism associated with the Early Paleozoic continental collision of the Qilian and Qaidam microplates. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from four eclogites yield weighted mean ages of 449 to 422 Ma, and REE patterns (flat HREE, no Eu anomaly) and inclusions of garnet, omphacite, and rutile indicate these ages record eclogite-facies metamorphism. The coherent field relations of these samples, and the similar range of individual ages in each sample suggests that the ???25 m.y. age range reflects the duration of eclogite-facies conditions in the studied samples. Analyses from zircon cores in one sample yield scattered 433 to 474 Ma ages, reflecting partial overlap on rims, and constrain the minimum age of eclogite protolith crystallization. Inclusions of Th + REE-rich epidote, and zircon REE patterns are consistent with prograde metamorphic growth. In the Lu??liang Shan, approximately 350 km northwest in the North Qaidam terrane, ages interpreted to record eclogite-facies metamorphism of eclogite and garnet peridotite are as old as 495 Ma and as young as 414 Ma, which suggests that processes responsible for extended high-pressure residence are not restricted to the Dulan region. Evidence of prolonged eclogite-facies metamorphism in HP/UHP localities in the Northeast Greenland eclogite province, the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, and the western Alps suggests that long eclogite-facies residence may be globally significant in continental subduction/collision zones.

  8. Double-patterning decomposition, design compliance, and verification algorithms at 32nm hp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tritchkov, Alexander; Glotov, Petr; Komirenko, Sergiy; Sahouria, Emile; Torres, Andres; Seoud, Ahmed; Wiaux, Vincent

    2008-10-01

    Double patterning (DP) technology is one of the main candidates for RET of critical layers at 32nm hp. DP technology is a strong RET technique that must be considered throughout the IC design and post tapeout flows. We present a complete DP technology strategy including a DRC/DFM component, physical synthesis support and mask synthesis. In particular, the methodology contains: - A DRC-like layout DP compliance and design verification functions; - A parameterization scheme that codifies manufacturing knowledge and capability; - Judicious use of physical effect simulation to improve double-patterning quality; - An efficient, high capacity mask synthesis function for post-tapeout processing; - A verification function to determine the correctness and qualify of a DP solution; Double patterning technology requires decomposition of the design to relax the pitch and effectively allows processing with k1 factors smaller than the theoretical Rayleigh limit of 0.25. The traditional DP processes Litho-Etch-Litho- Etch (LELE) [1] requires an additional develop and etch step, which eliminates the resolution degradation which occurs in multiple exposure processed in the same resist layer. The theoretical k1 for a double-patterning technology applied to a 32nm half-pitch design using a 1.35NA 193nm imaging system is 0.44, whereas the k1 for a single-patterning of this same design would be 0.22 [2], which is sub-resolution. This paper demonstrates the methods developed at Mentor Graphics for double patterning design compliance and decomposition in an effort to minimize the impact of mask-to-mask registration and process variance. It also demonstrates verification solution implementation in the chip design flow and post-tapeout flow.

  9. Comparison of properties and microstructures of Trefimetaux and Hycon 3HP{trademark} after neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.J.; Singh, B.N.; Toft, P.; Eldrup, M.

    1998-09-01

    The precipitation strengthened CuNiBe alloys are among three candidate copper alloys being evaluated for application in the first wall, divertor, and limiter components of ITER. Generally, CuNiBe alloys have higher strength but poorer conductivity compared to CuCrZr and CuAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys. Brush-Wellman Inc. has manufactured an improved version of their Hycon CuNiBe alloy that has higher conductivity while maintaining a reasonable level strength. It is of interest, therefore, to investigate the effect of radiation on the physical and mechanical properties of this alloy. In the present work the authors have investigated the physical and mechanical properties of the Hycon 3HP{trademark} alloy both before and after neutron irradiation and have compared its microstructure and properties with the European CuNiBe candidate alloy manufactured by Trefirmetaux. Tensile specimens of both alloys were irradiated in the DR-3 reactor at Risoe to displacement dose levels up to 0.3 dpa at 100, 250 and 350 C. Both alloys were tensile tested in the unirradiated and irradiated conditions at 100, 250 and 350 C. Both pre- and post-irradiation microstructures of the alloys were investigated in detail using transmission electron microscopy. Fracture surfaces were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Electrical resistivity measurements were made on tensile specimens before and after irradiation; all measurements were made at 23 C. At this point it seems unlikely that CuNiBe alloys can be recommended for applications in neutron environments where the irradiation temperature exceeds 200 C. Applications at temperatures below 200 C might be plausible, but only after careful experiments have determined the dose dependence of the mechanical properties and the effect of sudden temperature excursions on the material to establish the limits on the use of the alloy.

  10. Reactor Lithium Heat Pipes for HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2004-02-01

    Design and performance analysis of the nuclear reactor's lithium heat pipes for a 110-kWe Heat Pipes-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) Space Reactor Power system (SRPS) are presented. The evaporator length of the heat pipes is the same as the active core height (0.45 m) and the C-C finned condenser is of the same length as the STMC panels (1.5 m). The C-C finned condenser section is radiatively coupled to the collector shoes of the STMCs placed on both sides. The lengths of the adiabatic section, the values of the power throughput and the evaporator wall temperature depend on the radial location of the heat pipe in the reactor core and the number and dimensions of the potassium heat pipes in the heat rejection radiator. The reactor heat pipes have a total length that varies from 7.57 to 7.73 m, and a 0.2 mm thick Mo-14%Re wick with an average pore radius of 12 μm. The wick is separated from the Mo-14%Re wall by a 0.5 mm annulus filled with liquid lithium, to raise the prevailing capillary limit. The nominal evaporator (or reactor) temperature varies from 1513 to 1591 K and the thermal power of the reactor is 1.6 MW, which averages 12.7 kW for each of the 126 reactor heat pipes. The power throughput per heat pipe increase to a nominal 15.24 kW at the location of the peak power in the core and to 20.31 kW when an adjacent heat pipe fails. The prevailing capillary limit of the reactor heat pipes is 28.3 kW, providing a design margin >= 28%.

  11. Reactor Lithium Heat Pipes for HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2004-02-04

    Design and performance analysis of the nuclear reactor's lithium heat pipes for a 110-kWe Heat Pipes-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) Space Reactor Power system (SRPS) are presented. The evaporator length of the heat pipes is the same as the active core height (0.45 m) and the C-C finned condenser is of the same length as the STMC panels (1.5 m). The C-C finned condenser section is radiatively coupled to the collector shoes of the STMCs placed on both sides. The lengths of the adiabatic section, the values of the power throughput and the evaporator wall temperature depend on the radial location of the heat pipe in the reactor core and the number and dimensions of the potassium heat pipes in the heat rejection radiator. The reactor heat pipes have a total length that varies from 7.57 to 7.73 m, and a 0.2 mm thick Mo-14%Re wick with an average pore radius of 12 {mu}m. The wick is separated from the Mo-14%Re wall by a 0.5 mm annulus filled with liquid lithium, to raise the prevailing capillary limit. The nominal evaporator (or reactor) temperature varies from 1513 to 1591 K and the thermal power of the reactor is 1.6 MW, which averages 12.7 kW for each of the 126 reactor heat pipes. The power throughput per heat pipe increase to a nominal 15.24 kW at the location of the peak power in the core and to 20.31 kW when an adjacent heat pipe fails. The prevailing capillary limit of the reactor heat pipes is 28.3 kW, providing a design margin {>=} 28%.

  12. Dynamics of the folded and unfolded villin headpiece (HP35) measured with ultrafast 2D IR vibrational echo spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jean K.; Thielges, Megan C.; Fayer, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    A series of two-dimensional infrared vibrational echo experiments performed on nitrile-labeled villin headpiece [HP35-(CN)2] is described. HP35 is a small peptide composed of three alpha helices in the folded configuration. The dynamics of the folded HP35-(CN)2 are compared to that of the guanidine-induced unfolded peptide, as well as the nitrile-functionalized phenylalanine (PheCN), which is used to differentiate the peptide dynamic contributions to the observables from those of the water solvent. Because the viscosity of solvent has a significant effect on fast dynamics, the viscosity of the solvent is held constant by adding glycerol. For the folded peptide, the addition of glycerol to the water solvent causes observable slowing of the peptide’s dynamics. Holding the viscosity constant as GuHCl is added, the dynamics of unfolded peptide are much faster than those of the folded peptide, and they are very similar to that of PheCN. These observations indicate that the local environment of the nitrile in the unfolded peptide resembles that of PheCN, and the dynamics probed by the CN are dominated by the fluctuations of the solvent molecules, in contrast to the observations on the folded peptide. PMID:21321226

  13. The structure of mouse HP1 suggests a unique mode of single peptide recognition by the shadow chromo domain dimer

    PubMed Central

    Brasher, Sally V.; Smith, Brian O.; Fogh, Rasmus H.; Nietlispach, Daniel; Thiru, Abarna; Nielsen, Peter R.; Broadhurst, R.William; Ball, Linda J.; Murzina, Natalia V.; Laue, Ernest D.

    2000-01-01

    The heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family of proteins is involved in gene silencing via the formation of heterochromatic structures. They are composed of two related domains: an N–terminal chromo domain and a C–terminal shadow chromo domain. Present results suggest that chromo domains may function as protein interaction motifs, bringing together different proteins in multi-protein complexes and locating them in heterochromatin. We have previously determined the structure of the chromo domain from the mouse HP1β protein, MOD1. We show here that, in contrast to the chromo domain, the shadow chromo domain is a homodimer. The intact HP1β protein is also dimeric, where the interaction is mediated by the shadow chromo domain, with the chromo domains moving independently of each other at the end of flexible linkers. Mapping studies, with fragments of the CAF1 and TIF1β proteins, show that an intact, dimeric, shadow chromo domain structure is required for complex formation. PMID:10747027

  14. Recent advances with quiescent power supply current (I(sub DDQ)) testing at Sandia using the HP82000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, A. W.; Leong, D. J.; Cox, L. B.

    Last year at the HP82000 Users Group Meeting, Sandia National Laboratories gave a presentation on I(sub DDQ) testing. This year, some advances are presented on this testing including DUT board fixturing, external DC PMU measurement, and automatic IDD-All circuit calibration. Implementation is examined more than theory, with results presented from Sandia tests. After a brief summary I(sub DDQ) theory and testing concepts, how the break (hold state) vector and data formatting present a test vector generation concern for the HP82000 is described. Fixturing of the DUT board for both types of I(sub DDQ) measurement is then discussed, along with how the continuity test and test vector generation must be taken into account. Results of a test including continuity, IDD-All and I(sub DDQ) Value measurements is shown. Next, measurement of low current using an external PMU is discussed, including noise considerations, implementation and some test results showing nA-range measurements. A method is presented for automatic calibration of the IDD-All analog comparator circuit using RM BASIC on the HP82000, with implementation and measurement results. Finally, future directions for research in this area is explored.

  15. HP3-RAD: a compact radiometer design with on-site calibration for in-situ exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, Emanuel; Mueller, Nils; Grott, Matthias; Walter, Ingo; Knollenberg, Jörg; Hanschke, Frank; Kessler, Ernst; Meyer, Hans-Georg

    2016-09-01

    Many processes on planetary bodies are driven by their respective surface energy balance, and while planetary climate is influenced by the dynamics of the atmospheric boundary layer, surface radiation drives the Yarkovksy and YORB effects on small airless bodies. In addition, insolation governs cometary activity and drives the dust cycle on Mars. The radiative flux received and emitted at the surface of solar system bodies is thus a fundamental quantity, which is driven by the reception of solar radiation in the visible wavelength band, while re-radiation primarily occurs in the thermal infrared. Knowledge of the relevant radiative fluxes enables studies of thermo-physical surface properties, and radiometers to measure surface brightness temperatures have been payloads on many missions. The HP3-RAD is part of the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package (HP3) on the InSight mission to Mars. It is a light-weight thermal infrared radiometer with compact design. HP3-RAD measures radiative flux in 3 spectral bands using thermopile detectors. The 120 g device includes integrated front-end electronics as well as a deployable cover that protects the sensors from dust contamination during landing. In addition, the cover is simultaneously used as a calibration target. The instrument concept as well as its implementation will be described, and special emphasis will be put on technological challenges encountered during instrument development. Potential future improvements of the design will be discussed.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro release studies of a new acetazolamide-HP-beta-CD-TEA inclusion complex.

    PubMed

    Granero, Gladys E; Maitre, Marcos M; Garnero, Claudia; Longhi, Marcela R

    2008-03-01

    The aim of our work was to develop a multicomponent inclusion complex of acetazolamide (ACZ) in order to investigate the combined effect of hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-beta-CD) and triethanolamine (TEA) on the solubility of ACZ and its possibility of ophthalmic delivery. Phase solubility study was used to evaluate the complexation in solution at 25 degrees C. Complex formation was also evaluated by comparing the infrared (FT-IR) spectra of the solid complexes with a simple physical mixture containing the same amount of ACZ. FT-IR experiments provided data indicating that the carbonamido group of ACZ is involved in the inclusion process. In vitro release data showed that both formulations, containing the freeze-dried ternary complex and the corresponding simple physical mixture of ACZ with HP-beta-CD and TEA presented the fastest release rate of ACZ. These results suggest that the ACZ-HP-beta-CD-TEA complex represents an effective novel formulation to enhance ACZ solubility in water, turning it promising for ophthalmic administration.

  17. Nuclear levels and patterns of histone H3 modification and HP1 proteins after inhibition of histone deacetylases.

    PubMed

    Bártová, Eva; Pacherník, Jirí; Harnicarová, Andrea; Kovarík, Ales; Kovaríková, Martina; Hofmanová, Jirina; Skalníková, Magdalena; Kozubek, Michal; Kozubek, Stanislav

    2005-11-01

    The effects of the histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) trichostatin A (TSA) and sodium butyrate (NaBt) were studied in A549, HT29 and FHC human cell lines. Global histone hyperacetylation, leading to decondensation of interphase chromatin, was characterized by an increase in H3(K9) and H3(K4) dimethylation and H3(K9) acetylation. The levels of all isoforms of heterochromatin protein, HP1, were reduced after HDAC inhibition. The observed changes in the protein levels were accompanied by changes in their interphase patterns. In control cells, H3(K9) acetylation and H3(K4) dimethylation were substantially reduced to a thin layer at the nuclear periphery, whereas TSA and NaBt caused the peripheral regions to become intensely acetylated at H3(K9) and dimethylated at H3(K4). The dispersed pattern of H3(K9) dimethylation was stable even at the nuclear periphery of HDACi-treated cells. After TSA and NaBt treatment, the HP1 proteins were repositioned more internally in the nucleus, being closely associated with interchromatin compartments, while centromeric heterochromatin was relocated closer to the nuclear periphery. These findings strongly suggest dissociation of HP1 proteins from peripherally located centromeres in a hyperacetylated and H3(K4) dimethylated environment. We conclude that inhibition of histone deacetylases caused dynamic reorganization of chromatin in parallel with changes in its epigenetic modifications.

  18. Push-out bond strength of MTA HP, a new high-plasticity calcium silicate-based cement.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emmanuel Jnl; Carvalho, Nancy Kudsi; Zanon, Mayara; Senna, Plínio Mendes; DE-Deus, Gustavo; Zuolo, Mário Luis; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto

    2016-06-14

    This study was designed to investigate the resistance to dislodgment provided by MTA HP, a new high-plasticity calcium silicate-based cement. Biodentine and White MTA Angelus were used as reference materials for comparison. Three discs 1 ± 0.1 mm thick were obtained from the middle third of the roots of 5 maxillary canines. Three 0.8-mm-wide holes were drilled on the axial surface of each root disc. Standardized irrigation was performed. Then the holes were dried with paper points and filled with one of the three tested cements. The filled dental slices were immersed in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution (pH 7.2) for 7 days before the push-out assessment. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to assess the effect of each endodontic cement on the push-out bond strength. Mann-Whitney with Bonferroni correction was used to isolate the differences. The alpha-type error was set at 0.05. All specimens had measurable push-out values and no premature failure occurred. There were significant differences among the materials (p <0.05). The Biodentine specimens had the highest push-out bond strength values (p < 0.05). MTA HP had significantly higher bond strength than White MTA (p < 0.05). MTA HP showed better push-out bond strength than its predecessor, White MTA; however, Biodentine had higher dislodgment resistance than both MTA formulations.

  19. A method for systematic mapping of protein lysine methylation identifies new functions for HP1β in DNA damage repair

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huadong; Galka, Marek; Liu, Xuguang; Lin, Yu-fen; Pittock, Paula; Voss, Courtney; Dhami, Gurpreet; Li, Xing; Miyaji, Masaaki; Lajoie, Gilles; Chen, Benjamin; Li, Shawn S.-C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Lysine methylation occurs on both histone and non-histone proteins. However, our knowledge on the prevalence and function of non-histone protein methylation is poor. We describe here an approach that combines peptide array, bioinformatic and mass spectrometric analyses to systematically identify lysine methylation sites in proteins and methyllysine-mediated protein-protein interactions. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by identifying a methyllysine-driven interactome of the heterochromatin protein (HP) 1β and uncovering, simultaneously, numerous methyllysine sites on non-histone proteins. The HP1β interactome is enriched with proteins involved in DNA damage repair and RNA splicing. We showed that lysine methylation played a pivotal role in the function of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and its interaction with HP1β during DNA damage response. Moreover, by combining heavy methyl SILAC with Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry (MS), we showed that lysine methylation underwent widespread and large changes in response to DNA damage. Our work indicates that lysine methylation is a highly dynamic post-translational modification occurring frequently on non-histone proteins and that the approach presented herein may be extended to many methyllysine-binding modules to systematically uncover lysine methylation events in the cell. PMID:23707759

  20. Determination of the heat of hydride formation/decomposition by high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HP-DSC).

    PubMed

    Rongeat, Carine; Llamas-Jansa, Isabel; Doppiu, Stefania; Deledda, Stefano; Borgschulte, Andreas; Schultz, Ludwig; Gutfleisch, Oliver

    2007-11-22

    Among the thermodynamic properties of novel materials for solid-state hydrogen storage, the heat of formation/decomposition of hydrides is the most important parameter to evaluate the stability of the compound and its temperature and pressure of operation. In this work, the desorption and absorption behaviors of three different classes of hydrides are investigated under different hydrogen pressures using high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HP-DSC). The HP-DSC technique is used to estimate the equilibrium pressures as a function of temperature, from which the heat of formation is derived. The relevance of this procedure is demonstrated for (i) magnesium-based compounds (Ni-doped MgH2), (ii) Mg-Co-based ternary hydrides (Mg-CoHx) and (iii) Alanate complex hydrides (Ti-doped NaAlH4). From these results, it can be concluded that HP-DSC is a powerful tool to obtain a good approximation of the thermodynamic properties of hydride compounds by a simple and fast study of desorption and absorption properties under different pressures.

  1. An Approach to Geochemical and Protolith Features of the Mesozoic HP/LT Rocks in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, Firat; Yiǧitbaş, Erdinç; Onur Tunç, Ä.°Smail

    2010-05-01

    The Biga Peninsula in northwestern Anatolia is a tectonic mosaic comprised of different tectonic units which represented by continental and oceanic assemblages in different origin and ages. High-degree metamorphic rocks occur in the both Çamli ca metamorphics and Çetmi Group. HP eclogite/blueschists are associated with quartz-mica schist within the Çamli ca metamorphics. On the other hand, another HP eclogite/blueschist unit is associated with garnet-mica schist in the Çetmi Group. The host Çamli ca metamorphic rocks record only a single - stage greenschist - facies metamorphism and were juxtaposed with the high - grade metamorphic rocks along ductile - semi-brittle (?) strike - slip faults after the high degree metamorphism and during or after the low-grade metamorphism of the Çamli ca metamorphic unit. Major, trace and rare earth elements (REE) compositions of HP eclogite/blueschist and associated metasedimentary rocks from the Biga Peninsula have been determined to reveal their protolith, source area and tectonic setting. Whole-rock geochemistry for the HP eclogite/blueschist suggests that their protoliths were basalt with high TiO2 and K2O-Na2O content and Nb/Y ratios. Most HP metabasite samples plot in the tholeiitic basalt field. ∑ REE abundances range from 47.55 to 107.4 ppm. Europium anomolies are variable (Eu/Eu*= 0.9-1.1) and generally small negative (average Eu/Eu*=1) which is implying weak plagioclase fractionation. REE pattern and trace element contents similar to typical MORB based on tectonic discrimination diagrams. The relatively high concentrations of CaO and low concentrations of K2O suggest that the protoliths were derived from a depleted source. Metasedimentary rocks coexisting with HP metamorphic rocks have different SiO2, Al2O3 and TiO2 values in the both Çamli ca metamorphics and Çetmi Group. Those of the Çamli ca metamorphics have high SiO2 and low Al2O3 and TiO2 values. However, those of the Çetmi Group have low SiO2 and

  2. The Mt. Ochi melange (South Evvia Island, Greece): a case study for HP metamorphism and syn-convergent exhumation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustaka, Eleni; Soukis, Konstantinos; Huet, Benjamin; Lozios, Stylianos; Magganas, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The Attic-Cycladic complex (central Aegean Sea, Greece) experienced profound extension since at least the Oligo-Miocene boundary during which the previously thickened crust was reworked by a series of detachments forming the NE directed North Cycladic Detachment System (NCDS) and the SSW directed West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). South Evvia Island is located at the northwestern part of the Attic Cycladic complex linking the highly thinned and polymetamorphosed central part of the complex with mainland Greece. Furthermore, greenschists-facies retrograde metamorphism has only partially overprinted the HP mineral assemblages. Consequently, it is an ideal area to study tectonic processes associated with subduction, HP metamorphism and subsequent exhumation from eclogitic depths to the surface. Geological mapping in 1:2:000 scale revealed that the tectonostratigraphy of Mt. Ochi includes three distinct units all metamorphosed in HP conditions followed by greenschist facies overprint. These units are from top to bottom a) the Ochi Unit, a thick metavolcanosedimentary sequence with some intensely folded cipoline marble intercalations and isolated occurrences of metabasic rocks b) the ophiolitic mélange (metagabbros, metawherlites, peridotites, metabasites within a metasedimentary+serpentinite matrix) and c) the lowermost Styra Unit, a cipoline marble-dominated unit with thin mica schists and rare quartzitic layers often boudinaged. The thrust fault that was responsible for the juxtaposition of these three units acted in an early stage during HP metamorphism and it was isoclinally folded and sheared by the following syn-metamorphic deformation events. Detailed structural study in meso- and microscopic scale combined with petrological and geochemical analyses of the Mt Ochi rocks led to the distinction of at least three syn-metamorphic and two post-metamorphic deformation episodes that affected all units. The oldest structure identified is a relic foliation formed

  3. Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program Phase I: Clean Air Partners 0.5 g/hp-h NOx Engine Concept; Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, H. C.

    2003-07-01

    Subcontractor report details work done by Clean Air Partners to develop 0.5 g/hp-h NOx natural gas engine exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

  4. Paleomagnetism of the Mississippian HP pipe and the western margin of the North American craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, D. T. A.; Lewchuk, M. T.

    The HP pipe is a small oval (80m×40m) kimberlitic diatreme near Golden, B.C., in the fold-and-thrust belt of the Rocky Mountains. The pipe intrudes gently-dipping (˜10°S) Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician limestones with nearly vertical contacts. It is comprised of carbonate breccia fragments and pyroxenite nodules in a light-green serpentine matrix and gives a Rb-Sr age of 348±7 Ma. A later phase of dark-green dikes cut the breccia and adjacent limestones. AF and thermal step demagnetization of 168 specimens from 42 oriented blocks was done using an automated cryogenic magnetometer in a shielded room for remanence measurement. The diatreme breccia and dikes retain a stable A remanence component after thermal cleaning above ˜400°C and AF cleaning above ˜20 mT. Their combined mean direction of 129.8°, -44.3° (α95 = 6.5°) after tilt correction gives a concordant Mississippian pole position of 138.5°E, 44.5°N (Dp = 5.1°, Dm = 8.2°). The limestones provide a positive contact test by giving a stable B component direction of 114.4°, -22.7° (α95 = 12.4°) with a concordant Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician pole of 141.0°E, 24.3°N (δp = 7.0°, δm = 13.3°). These concordant poles indicate that the fold-and-thrust belt is part of the North American craton. Thus the suture with allochthonous terranes to the west must be located at or west of the Rocky Mountain Trench. Both the diatreme and limestones retain a low-coercivity and unblocking-temperature C component, isolated by vector subtraction without tilt correction, that records a minor overprint from the Laramide Orogeny combined with Pleistocene viscous remanence.

  5. Performance Analysis of Potassium Heat Pipes Radiator for HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2004-02-04

    A detailed design and performance results of C-C finned, and armored potassium heat pipes radiator for a 110 kWe Heat Pipes-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) Space Reactor Power system (SRPS) are presented. The radiator consists of two sections; each serves an equal number of STMCs and has 162 longitudinal potassium heat pipes with 0.508 mm thick C-C fins. The width of the C-C fins at the minor diameter of the radiator is almost zero, but increases with distance along the radiator to reach 3.7 cm at the radiator's major diameter. The radiator's heat pipes (OD = 2.42 cm in front and 3.03 cm in rear) have thin titanium (0.0762 mm thick) liners and wicks (0.20 mm thick with an effective pore radius of 12-16 {mu}m) and a 1.016 mm thick C-C wall. The wick is separated from the titanium liner by a 0.4 mm annulus filled with liquid potassium to increase the capillary limit. The outer surfaces of the heat pipes in the front and rear sections of the radiator are protected with a C-C armor that is 2.17 mm and 1.70 mm thick, respectively. The inside surface of the heat pipes in the front radiator is thermally insulated while the C-C finned condensers of the rear heat pipes are exposed, radiating into space through the rear opening of the radiator cavity. The heat pipes in both the front and the rear radiators have a 1.5 m long evaporator section and each dissipates 4.47 kW while operating at 43.6% of the prevailing sonic limit. The front and rear radiator sections are 5.29 m and 2.61 m long with outer surface area and mass of 47.1 m2 and 314.3 kg, and 39.9 m2 and 243.2 kg, respectively. The total radiator is 7.63 m long and has minor and major diameters of 1.48 m and 5.57 m, respectively, and a total surface area of 87 m2; however, the effective radiator area, after accounting for heat rejection through the rear of the radiator cavity, is 98.8 m2. The radiator's total mass including the C-C armor is 557.5 kg and the specific area and specific mass are 6

  6. Comparative analysis of the folding dynamics and kinetics of an engineered knotted protein and its variants derived from HP0242 of Helicobacter pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang-Wei; Liu, Yu-Nan; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Jackson, Sophie E.; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanism by which a polypeptide chain thread itself spontaneously to attain a knotted conformation has been a major challenge in the field of protein folding. HP0242 is a homodimeric protein from Helicobacter pylori with intertwined helices to form a unique pseudo-knotted folding topology. A tandem HP0242 repeat has been constructed to become the first engineered trefoil-knotted protein. Its small size renders it a model system for computational analyses to examine its folding and knotting pathways. Here we report a multi-parametric study on the folding stability and kinetics of a library of HP0242 variants, including the trefoil-knotted tandem HP0242 repeat, using far-UV circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. Equilibrium chemical denaturation of HP0242 variants shows the presence of highly populated dimeric and structurally heterogeneous folding intermediates. Such equilibrium folding intermediates retain significant amount of helical structures except those at the N- and C-terminal regions in the native structure. Stopped-flow fluorescence measurements of HP0242 variants show that spontaneous refolding into knotted structures can be achieved within seconds, which is several orders of magnitude faster than previously observed for other knotted proteins. Nevertheless, the complex chevron plots indicate that HP0242 variants are prone to misfold into kinetic traps, leading to severely rolled-over refolding arms. The experimental observations are in general agreement with the previously reported molecular dynamics simulations. Based on our results, kinetic folding pathways are proposed to qualitatively describe the complex folding processes of HP0242 variants.

  7. An effective treatment of experimental osteomyelitis using the antimicrobial titanium/silver-containing nHP66 (nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide-66) nanoscaffold biomaterials

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Minpeng; Liao, Junyi; Dong, Jing; Wu, Jun; Qiu, Hao; Zhou, Xin; Li, Jidong; Jiang, Dianming; He, Tong-Chuan; Quan, Zhengxue

    2016-01-01

    Effective treatment of osteomyelitis remains a formidable clinical challenge. The rapid emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria has renewed interest in developing antimicrobial biomaterials using antiseptic silver ions to treat osteomyelitis. However, inadequate local retention and severe cytotoxic effects have limited the clinical use of ionic silver for bone grafts. We recently developed novel porous nano-hydroxyapatite/polyamide 66 (nHP66)-based nanoscaffold materials containing varied concentrations of silver ions (Ag+) (TA-nHAPA66) and oxidized titanium (TiO2), which was added as a second binary element to enhance antibacterial activity and biocompatibility. In this study, we establish a large cohort of rabbit model of experimental osteomyelitis and investigate the in vivo antimicrobial and therapeutic effects of TA-nHP66 biomaterials and their in vivo silver release kinetics. We find the TA-nHP66 scaffolds exhibit potent antibacterial activities against E. coli and S. aureus, support cell adhesion and cell proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, and stimulate osteogenic regulator/marker expression. Moreover, the TA2-nHP66 scaffold exerts potent antibacterial/anti-inflammation effects in vivo and promotes bone formation at the lesion site of osteomyelitis. We further demonstrate that TA2-nHP66 exhibits excellent biosafety profile without apparent systemic toxicities. Therefore, the TA-nHP66 scaffold biomaterials may be further explored as an effective adjuvant therapy for infected bone defects and/or osteomyelitis debridement. PMID:27982110

  8. Genetic screening for modifiers of the DREF pathway in Drosophila melanogaster: identification and characterization of HP6 as a novel target of DREF.

    PubMed

    Ida, Hiroyuki; Suzusho, Noriyuki; Suyari, Osamu; Yoshida, Hideki; Ohno, Katsuhito; Hirose, Fumiko; Itoh, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2009-04-01

    The DNA replication-related element-binding factor (DREF) regulates cell proliferation-related gene expression in Drosophila. By genetic screening, taking advantage of the rough eye phenotype of transgenic flies that express DREF in the eye discs, we identified 24 genes that suppressed and 12 genes that enhanced the rough eye phenotype when heterozygous for mutations. Five genes, HP6, pigeon, lace, X box binding protein 1 and guftagu were found to carry replication-related element (DRE) sequences in their 5'-flanking regions. Of these, the HP6 gene carries two sequences that match seven out of eight nucleotides of DRE and two additional sequences that match six out of eight nucleotides of DRE in the 5'-flanking region. Band mobility shift assays using Drosophila Kc cell nuclear extracts demonstrated DREF binding to two of these sites and chromatin immunoprecipitation using anti-DREF antibodies confirmed that this occurs in vivo. Knockdown of DREF in Drosophila S2 cells decreased the HP6 mRNA level. The results, taken together, indicate that DREF directly regulates expression of the HP6 gene. HP6 mRNA was detected throughout development by RT-PCR with highest levels in adult males. In addition, immunostaining analyses revealed colocalization of HP6 and DREF in nuclei at the apical tips in the testes.

  9. Molecular cloning and characterization of a novel adenylyl cyclase gene, HpAC1, involved in stress signaling in Hippeastrum x hybridum.

    PubMed

    Swieżawska, Brygida; Jaworski, Krzysztof; Pawełek, Agnieszka; Grzegorzewska, Weronika; Szewczuk, Piotr; Szmidt-Jaworska, Adriana

    2014-07-01

    Adenylyl cyclases (ACs) are enzymes that generate cyclic AMP, which is involved in different physiological and developmental processes in a number of organisms. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a new plant adenylyl cyclases (AC) gene, designated HpAC1, from Hippeastrum x hybridum. This gene encodes a protein of 206 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 23 kD and an isoelectric point of 5.07. The predicted amino acid sequence contains all the typical features of and shows high identity with putative plant ACs. The purified, recombinant HpAC1 is able to convert ATP to cAMP. The complementation test that was performed to analyze the ability of HpAC1 to compensate for the AC deficiency in the Escherichia coli SP850 strain revealed that HpAC1 functions as an adenylyl cyclase and produces cyclic AMP. Moreover, it was shown that the transcript level of HpAC1 and cyclic AMP concentration changed during certain stress conditions. Both mechanical damage and Phoma narcissi infection lead to two sharp increases in HpAC1 mRNA levels during a 72-h test cycle. Changes in intracellular cAMP level were also observed. These results may indicate the participation of a cAMP-dependent pathway both in rapid and systemic reactions induced after disruption of symplast and apoplast continuity.

  10. HpDTC1, a Stress-Inducible Bifunctional Diterpene Cyclase Involved in Momilactone Biosynthesis, Functions in Chemical Defence in the Moss Hypnum plumaeforme.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazunori; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Koji; Miyazaki, Sho; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Kimura, Honoka; Fujiwara, Kaoru; Natsume, Masahiro; Nojiri, Hideaki; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Yamane, Hisakazu; Hatano, Yuki; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-05-03

    Momilactones, which are diterpenoid phytoalexins with antimicrobial and allelopathic functions, have been found only in rice and the moss Hypnum plumaeforme. Although these two evolutionarily distinct plant species are thought to produce momilactones as a chemical defence, the momilactone biosynthetic pathway in H. plumaeforme has been unclear. Here, we identified a gene encoding syn-pimara-7,15-diene synthase (HpDTC1) responsible for the first step of momilactone biosynthesis in the moss. HpDTC1 is a bifunctional diterpene cyclase that catalyses a two-step cyclization reaction of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to syn-pimara-7,15-diene. HpDTC1 transcription was up-regulated in response to abiotic and biotic stress treatments. HpDTC1 promoter-GUS analysis in transgenic Physcomitrella patens showed similar transcriptional responses as H. plumaeforme to the stresses, suggesting that a common response system to stress exists in mosses. Jasmonic acid (JA), a potent signalling molecule for inducing plant defences, could not activate HpDTC1 expression. In contrast, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, an oxylipin precursor of JA in vascular plants, enhanced HpDTC1 expression and momilactone accumulation, implying that as-yet-unknown oxylipins could regulate momilactone biosynthesis in H. plumaeforme. These results demonstrate the existence of an evolutionarily conserved chemical defence system utilizing momilactones and suggest the molecular basis of the regulation for inductive production of momilactones in H. plumaeforme.

  11. Genetic screening for modifiers of the DREF pathway in Drosophila melanogaster: identification and characterization of HP6 as a novel target of DREF

    PubMed Central

    Ida, Hiroyuki; Suzusho, Noriyuki; Suyari, Osamu; Yoshida, Hideki; Ohno, Katsuhito; Hirose, Fumiko; Itoh, Masanobu; Yamaguchi, Masamitsu

    2009-01-01

    The DNA replication-related element-binding factor (DREF) regulates cell proliferation-related gene expression in Drosophila. By genetic screening, taking advantage of the rough eye phenotype of transgenic flies that express DREF in the eye discs, we identified 24 genes that suppressed and 12 genes that enhanced the rough eye phenotype when heterozygous for mutations. Five genes, HP6, pigeon, lace, X box binding protein 1 and guftagu were found to carry replication-related element (DRE) sequences in their 5′-flanking regions. Of these, the HP6 gene carries two sequences that match seven out of eight nucleotides of DRE and two additional sequences that match six out of eight nucleotides of DRE in the 5′-flanking region. Band mobility shift assays using Drosophila Kc cell nuclear extracts demonstrated DREF binding to two of these sites and chromatin immunoprecipitation using anti-DREF antibodies confirmed that this occurs in vivo. Knockdown of DREF in Drosophila S2 cells decreased the HP6 mRNA level. The results, taken together, indicate that DREF directly regulates expression of the HP6 gene. HP6 mRNA was detected throughout development by RT-PCR with highest levels in adult males. In addition, immunostaining analyses revealed colocalization of HP6 and DREF in nuclei at the apical tips in the testes. PMID:19136464

  12. HpDTC1, a Stress-Inducible Bifunctional Diterpene Cyclase Involved in Momilactone Biosynthesis, Functions in Chemical Defence in the Moss Hypnum plumaeforme

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kazunori; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Koji; Miyazaki, Sho; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Kimura, Honoka; Fujiwara, Kaoru; Natsume, Masahiro; Nojiri, Hideaki; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Yamane, Hisakazu; Hatano, Yuki; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Momilactones, which are diterpenoid phytoalexins with antimicrobial and allelopathic functions, have been found only in rice and the moss Hypnum plumaeforme. Although these two evolutionarily distinct plant species are thought to produce momilactones as a chemical defence, the momilactone biosynthetic pathway in H. plumaeforme has been unclear. Here, we identified a gene encoding syn-pimara-7,15-diene synthase (HpDTC1) responsible for the first step of momilactone biosynthesis in the moss. HpDTC1 is a bifunctional diterpene cyclase that catalyses a two-step cyclization reaction of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to syn-pimara-7,15-diene. HpDTC1 transcription was up-regulated in response to abiotic and biotic stress treatments. HpDTC1 promoter-GUS analysis in transgenic Physcomitrella patens showed similar transcriptional responses as H. plumaeforme to the stresses, suggesting that a common response system to stress exists in mosses. Jasmonic acid (JA), a potent signalling molecule for inducing plant defences, could not activate HpDTC1 expression. In contrast, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, an oxylipin precursor of JA in vascular plants, enhanced HpDTC1 expression and momilactone accumulation, implying that as-yet-unknown oxylipins could regulate momilactone biosynthesis in H. plumaeforme. These results demonstrate the existence of an evolutionarily conserved chemical defence system utilizing momilactones and suggest the molecular basis of the regulation for inductive production of momilactones in H. plumaeforme. PMID:27137939

  13. 3-Hydroxypropionic acid production by recombinant Escherichia coli ZJU-3HP01 using glycerol-glucose dual-substrate fermentative strategy.

    PubMed

    Niu, Kun; Xiong, Tao; Qin, Hai-Bin; Wu, Hao; Liu, Zhi-Qiang; Zheng, Yu-Guo

    2017-07-01

    3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP) is an important platform synthesis block for sets of chemicals, but the relatively low production of 3-HP from biological sources presented major barriers for its industrial applications. In this study, a dual-substrate fermentative strategy by glycerol and glucose was proposed, and the aim was to evaluate the effect of different substrate addition strategies on the fermentation process. The results indicated that the optimal cosubstrate was glucose (20 g/L), and the enzymatic activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (AldH) could be improved 3.5-fold as compared with no glucose addition. Continuous fed-batch fermentation at a constant speed displayed better 3-HP production of 17.20 g/L and highest specific 3-HP productivity of 1.79 mmol/(g cell·H) than the other fed-batch mode. The addition of glucose could greatly reduce the imbalance of the activity between glycerol dehydratase and AldH and provide a feasible method for improving 3-HP production. These results would be helpful in developing the 3-HP fermentation process. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Raman spectroscopy of detrital garnet from the (U)HP terrane of eastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andò, Sergio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Malusà, Marco G.; Aliatis, Irene; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Garnet is one of the most widespread heavy minerals in sediments derived from orogenic systems. Its chemical composition varies systematically with temperature and pressure conditions, and thus provides information on the metamorphic evolution of source areas that is crucial in tectonic and geodynamic reconstructions. Garnet is easily identified in mineral grain mounts and is relatively stable during burial diagenesis. Raman spectroscopy allows rapid determination of garnet compositions in grain mounts or thin sections of sand and sandstone samples, and can be used to assess their density and chemical composition quite accurately ("MIRAGEM" method of Bersani et al., 2009; Andò et al., 2009). In the D'Entrecastreaux Islands of southeastern Papua New Guinea, the world's youngest (U)HP rocks are exposed. There, mafic rocks and their felsic host gneisses were metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions from late Miocene to Pliocene, before being exhumed from depths of ~90 km (Baldwin et al., 2004, 2008). The eclogite preserves a peak assemblage of garnet, omphacite, rutile, phengite and Si02 (Hill and Baldwin, 1993). A coesite-eclogite has been found in one small island outcrop. In order to sample garnet populations representative of a larger geographical area, we sampled and studied a heavy-mineral-dominated placer sand (HMC 80) from a beach from SE Goodenough Island. Garnet grains in beach sand are associated with blue-green to subordinately green-brown amphibole and minor epidote, omphacitic clinopyroxene, titanite, apatite and rutile. The subordinate low-density fraction is feldspatho-quartzose with high-rank metamorphic rock fragments and biotite (Q62 F35 Lm2; MI 360). Detrital garnets are mostly classified as almandine with relatively high Mg and Ca and lacking Mn, typical of the eclogite facies (Win et al., 2007; type Ci garnets of Mange and Morton 2007; Andò et al., 2013). In well-described stratigraphic sequences within syn-and post-tectonic basins

  15. Effect of crustal heterogeneities and effective rock strength on the formation of HP and UHP rocks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuber, Georg; Kaus, Boris; Schmalholz, Stefan; White, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The formation of high pressure and ultra-high pressure rocks has been controversially discussed in recent years. Most existing petrological interpretations assume that pressure in the Earth is lithostatic and therefore HP and UHP rocks have to come from great depth, which usually involves going down a subduction channel and being exhumed again. Yet, an alternative explanation points out that pressure in the lithosphere is often non-lithostatic and can be either smaller or larger than lithostatic as a function of location and time. Whether this effect is tectonically significant or not depends on the magnitude of non-lithostatic pressure, and as a result a number of researchers have recently performed numerical simulations to address this. Somewhat disturbingly, they obtained widely differing results with some claiming that overpressures as large as a GPa can occur (Schmalholz et al. 2014), whereas others show that overpressures of exhumed rocks are generally less than 20% and thus insignificant (Li et al. 2010; Burov et al. 2014). In order to understand where these discrepancies come from, we reproduce the simulations of Li et al (2010) of a typical subduction and collision scenario, using an independently developed numerical code (MVEP2). For the same model setup and parameters, we confirm the earlier results of Li et al. (2010) and obtain no more than ~20% overpressure in exhumed rocks of the subduction channel. Yet, a critical assumption in their models is that the subducted crust is laterally homogeneous and that it has a low effective friction angle that is less than 7o. The friction angle of (dry) rocks is experimentally well-constrained to be around 30o, and low effective friction angles require, for example, high-fluid pressures. Whereas high fluid pressures might exist in the sediment-rich upper crust, they are likely to be much lower or absent in the lower crust from which melt has been extracted or in rocks that underwent a previous orogenic cycle. In a

  16. Tectonic mélanges and the exhumation of HP ophiolites: a case-study from the Ligurian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Laura; Crispini, Laura; Scambelluri, Marco; Capponi, Giovanni; Malatesta, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Mélanges form in a variety of geodynamic settings and can be related to either sedimentary, tectonic or diapiric processes, or a combination of them. We studied in detail a 100 m-scale tectonic mélange formed in the context of the alpine subduction/collision and we tested if the local-scale pattern could be applicable at larger scale in the Ligurian Western Alps. The studied mélange crops out inside metamorphic serpentinites belonging to the high-pressure (HP), meta-ophiolitic Voltri Massif (southern end of the Western Alps). It is made up of a foliated chlorite-actinolite greenschist matrix enclosing 10m-scale lenses of metabasites and metasediments. These blocks appear to be exotic because similar rocks do not outcrop in the surrounding HP-units. The matrix records three sets of superposed folds from blueschist to greenschist-facies conditions. The metabasite lenses preserve internal HP schistosities forming high angles with the greenschist matrix foliation. The lenses equilibrated at different peak metamorphic conditions (ranging from eclogite- to blueschist-facies). The matrix is widely retrogressed in greenschist facies, but it contains rare relics of Na-amphibole. Individual lenses display different segments of typical subduction PT paths which apparently converge in the blueschist facies. Moreover, geochronological data for the different HP blocks show that two undistinguishable blueschist samples display distinct peak ages of 43 and 40 Ma. One blueschist age is contemporaneous with the eclogitic equilibration of another block (43.2 ± 0.5 Ma) (Federico et al., 2007). The described structural, metamorphic and geochronological features suggest that this mélange formed at depth in a subduction channel and was active at least from blueschist- to greenschist-facies conditions, but possibly also at higher pressures. The subduction channel formed between the overriding and the subducting plates, as a consequence of progressive hydration of the mantle wedge by

  17. Industrial scale HP-HT synthesis of hard and wear resistant c-Zr3N4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dzivenko, Dmytro; Riedel, Ralf; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chauveau, Thierry; Zerr, Andreas

    2013-06-01

    We present a large scale high-pressure high-temperature (HP-HT) synthesis of hard and wear resistant cubic zirconium nitride having Th3P4-type structure,c-Zr3N4. This material, also available as well-adhesive coatings with exceptional wear resistance, represents a compound competitive to diamond and c-BN with respect to machining of low-carbon steels and other ferrous alloys. We obtained c-Zr3N4 powder at pressures as low as 6.5 GPa and temperatures of 1400-1600 °C from nanocrystalline Zr3N4+x precursor using a belt-type apparatus - a static HP-HT device widely employed for the commercial production of diamond and c-BN. The HP products are characterized in details by means of powder X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and combustion elemental analysis. In addition to major polycrystalline c-Zr3N4, we unveil the formation of a quaternary compound c-(Zr1-xTax)3 (N1-yOy)4 which indicates the possibility of doping of c-Zr3N4, thus introducing it for practical application as a multifunctional material. Moreover, we consider ways of cementing the c-Zr3N4 powders (similar to cemented tungsten carbides) which would allow economic fabrication of large bodies based on this compound. Supported by the DFG (Bonn, Germany) within SPP 1236 and by the IFR ``Paris Nord Plaine de France''.

  18. Unique epitopes recognized by monoclonal antibodies against HP-PRRSV: deep understanding of antigenic structure and virus-antibody interaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Peng, Jinmei; Sun, Yan; Chen, Jiazeng; An, Tongqing; Leng, Chaoliang; Li, Lin; Zhao, Hongyuan; Guo, Xin; Ge, Xinna; Yang, Hanchun; Tian, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) is a member of the genus Arterivirus within the family Arteriviridae. N and GP3 proteins are the immunodominance regions of the PRRSV viral proteins. To identify the B-cell linear antigenic epitopes within HP-PRRSV N and GP3 proteins, two monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against N and GP3 proteins were generated and characterized, designated as 3D7 and 1F10 respectively. The mAb 3D7 recognized only HuN4-F112 not the corresponding virulent strain (HuN4-F5). It also recognized two other commercial vaccines (JXA1-R and TJM-F92), but not two other HP-PRRSV strains (HNZJJ-F1 and HLJMZ-F2). The B-cell epitope recognized by the mAb 3D7 was localized to N protein amino acids 7-33. Western blot showed that the only difference amino acid between HuN4-F112-N and HuN4-F5-N did not change the mAb 3D7 recognization to N protein. The epitope targeted by the mAb 1F10 was mapped by truncated proteins. We found a new epitope (68-76aa) can be recognized by the mAb. However, the epitope could not be recognized by the positive sera, suggesting the epitope could not induce antibody in pigs. These results should extend our understanding of the antigenic structure of the N protein and antigen-antibody reactions of the GP3 protein in different species.

  19. Dynamics simulation on the flexibility and backbone motions of HP1 chromodomain bound to free and lysine 9-methylated histone H3 tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yanke; Zou, Jianwei; Zeng, Min; Zhang, Na; Yu, Qingsen

    Histone methylation has emerged as a central epigenetic modification with both activating and repressive roles in eukaryotic chromatin. Drosophila HP1 (heterochromatin-associated protein 1) is one of the chromodomain proteins that contain the essential aromatic residues as the recognition pocket for lysine methylated histone H3 tail. The aromatic cage indicates that the complex of chromodomain protein binding lysine methylated histone H3 tail can be seen as a typical host-guest system between protein and protein. About 10-ns molecular dynamics simulations have been carried out in this study to examine how the presence of mono-, trimethylated lysine 9 histone H3 tail (Me1K9, Me3K9 H3) influences the motions of HP1 protein receptor. The study shows that the conformation of HP1 protein free of H3 tail easily changes, whereas that of HP1 protein bound to methylated H3 tail does not. But the conformation of inserted Me1K9 H3 changes obviously as the Me1K recognition makes hydrogen-bonded interactions associated with the aromatic cage even more unstable than those in free HP1 protein. The conformational change of Me1K9 H3 is correlated with the motions of HP1 protein. As the recognition factor going from Me1K to Me3K produces a more favorable interaction for aromatic ring, hydrogen-bonded interactions associated with aromatic cage in Me3K9 H3-HP1 complex were observed to be much more stable than those in Me1K9 H3-HP1 complex and free HP1. Because of correlation, the flexibility of Me3K9 H3 decreases. The simulations indicate that both the MeK and the surrounding histone tail sequence are necessary features of recognition which significantly affect the flexibility and backbone motions of HP1 chromodomain. These findings confirm a regulatory mechanism of protein-protein interactions through a trimethylated post-translational modification.

  20. Development of a new ionisation chamber, for HP(10) measurement, using Monte-Carlo simulation and experimental methods.

    PubMed

    Silva, H; Cardoso, J; Oliveira, C

    2011-03-01

    An ionisation chamber that directly measures the quantity personal dose equivalent, H(p)(10), is used as a secondary standard in some metrology laboratories. An ionisation chamber of this type was first developed by Ankerhold. Using the Monte-Carlo simulation, the dose in the sensitive volume as a function of the IC dimensions and the effects of the several components of the ionising chamber have been investigated. Based on these results, a new ionising chamber, lighter than the previous ones, is constructed and experimentally tested.

  1. An EAV-HP insertion in 5' Flanking region of SLCO1B3 causes blue eggshell in the chicken.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhepeng; Qu, Lujiang; Yao, Junfeng; Yang, Xiaolin; Li, Guangqi; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Junying; Wang, Xiaotong; Bai, Jirong; Xu, Guiyun; Deng, Xuemei; Yang, Ning; Wu, Changxin

    2013-01-01

    The genetic determination of eggshell coloration has not been determined in birds. Here we report that the blue eggshell is caused by an EAV-HP insertion that promotes the expression of SLCO1B3 gene in the uterus (shell gland) of the oviduct in chicken. In this study, the genetic map location of the blue eggshell gene was refined by linkage analysis in an F(2) chicken population, and four candidate genes within the refined interval were subsequently tested for their expression levels in the shell gland of the uterus from blue-shelled and non-blue-shelled hens. SLCO1B3 gene was found to be the only one expressed in the uterus of blue-shelled hens but not in that of non-blue-shelled hens. Results from a pyrosequencing analysis showed that only the allele of SLCO1B3 from blue-shelled chickens was expressed in the uterus of heterozygous hens (O*LC/O*N). SLCO1B3 gene belongs to the organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP) family; and the OATPs, functioning as membrane transporters, have been reported for the transportation of amphipathic organic compounds, including bile salt in mammals. We subsequently resequenced the whole genomic region of SLCO1B3 and discovered an EAV-HP insertion in the 5' flanking region of SLCO1B3. The EAV-HP insertion was found closely associated with blue eggshell phenotype following complete Mendelian segregation. In situ hybridization also demonstrated that the blue eggshell is associated with ectopic expression of SLCO1B3 in shell glands of uterus. Our finding strongly suggests that the EAV-HP insertion is the causative mutation for the blue eggshell phenotype. The insertion was also found in another Chinese blue-shelled breed and an American blue-shelled breed. In addition, we found that the insertion site in the blue-shelled chickens from Araucana is different from that in Chinese breeds, which implied independent integration events in the blue-shelled chickens from the two continents, providing a parallel evolutionary example at the

  2. High-order spectral/hp element discretisation for reaction–diffusion problems on surfaces: Application to cardiac electrophysiology☆

    PubMed Central

    Cantwell, Chris D.; Yakovlev, Sergey; Kirby, Robert M.; Peters, Nicholas S.; Sherwin, Spencer J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical discretisation of an embedded two-dimensional manifold using high-order continuous Galerkin spectral/hp elements, which provide exponential convergence of the solution with increasing polynomial order, while retaining geometric flexibility in the representation of the domain. Our work is motivated by applications in cardiac electrophysiology where sharp gradients in the solution benefit from the high-order discretisation, while the computational cost of anatomically-realistic models can be significantly reduced through the surface representation and use of high-order methods. We describe and validate our discretisation and provide a demonstration of its application to modelling electrochemical propagation across a human left atrium. PMID:24748685

  3. The total synthesis of a ganglioside Hp-s1 analogue possessing neuritogenic activity by chemoselective activation glycosylation.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Yow-Fu; Shih, Cheng-Hua; Su, Yu-Ting; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Lian, Jang-Feng; Liao, Chun-Chen; Hsia, Ching-Wu; Shui, Hao-Ai; Rani, Rashmi

    2012-02-07

    The total synthesis of ganglioside 2, an analogue of the ganglioside Hp-s1 (1) which displays neuritogenic activity toward the rat pheochromocytoma cell line PC-12 cell in the presence of nerve growth factor (NGF) with an effect (34.0%) greater than that of the mammalian ganglioside GM 1 (25.4%), was accomplished by applying a chemoselective-activation glycosylation strategy. Moreover, we also demonstrate that the synthesized ganglioside 2 exhibited neuritogenic activity toward the human neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y without the presence of NGF.

  4. Serum protein polymorphisms (HP, TF-, GC- and PI subtypes) in two mountain communities of Sierra de Gredos (central Spain).

    PubMed

    Moral, P; Vives, S; Fisac, R; Martín, J; Mesa, M S

    1994-12-01

    The genetic variation of four highly polymorphic serum proteins, haptoglobin (HP), transferrin (TF), group-specific component (GC) and alpha-1-antitrypsin (PI) was examined in two representative samples of the autochthonous populations living on either slope of Sierra de Gredos in central Spain. The genetic markers studied do not provide any evidence that the mountain chain has contributed to the maintenance of a genetic differentiation between the two populations. The allele frequency distributions in these Gredos samples are discussed in relation to the variability of these markers in the Iberian Peninsula populations.

  5. Phase equilibria of HP mica schists from the Kamieniec Metamorphic Belt (Sudetes, NE Bohemian Massif)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szczepanski, Jacek; Golen, Marcin; Anczkiewicz, Robert

    2017-04-01

    The Kamieniec Metamorphic Belt (KMB), situated in the north-eastern part of the Bohemian Massif, represents the easternmost part of the Variscan Belt of Europe and is interpreted as a fragment of Central Sudetic accretionary wedge containg vestiges of the Saxothuringian crust (Mazur et al., 2015). The KMB comprises a volcano-sedimentary succession dominated by mica schists with intercalations of quartzo-feldspatic schists and subordinate marbles, amphibolites and eclogites. These rocks bear an imprint of Variscan tectonometamorphic reworking. PT conditions of these events were previously estimated at ca. 550 - 590 oC and 7.5 up to 12 kbars (Nowak, 1998; Józefiak, 2000) for mica schists and at 15 kbar and 575 oC for eclogites (Achramowicz et al., 1997). The metamorphic evolution of micaschists comprise the early HP/LT assemblage M1 with Cld+Phe and also earlier reported pseudomorphs after lawsonite (Nowak, 1998) followed by MP/MT mineral assemblage M2 comprising Grt+Pl+Bt+Ms+Qtz±St. Minerals of the M1 and M2 metamorphic events were overprinted by the LP/MT assemblage M3 containing Pl+Chl+Bt+Ms+Qtz±And. Thermodynamic modelling suggests that mineral assemblages record peak-pressure conditions of 20-25 kbar at 520 oC (M1) followed by nearly isothermal decompression to 6-7 kbar, and subsequent metamorphism with record of temperature progression from 500 to 600 oC at 10 kbar (M2) and final retrogression to 3 kbar and 550 oC (M3). The calculated PT conditions indicate a surprisingly low geothermal gradient during the M1 event of 5.5-7.1 oC/km. However, similar eclogitic mica schists with recognised geothermal gradient of ca. 8 oC/km were documented elsewhere from the Saxothuringian domain (Konopásek, 2001). Presented data provides the first report on mica schists from the KMB metamorphosed under eclogite-facies conditions at such low geothermal gradient. Acknowledgements: The study was supported from NCN research grant UMO-2015/17/B/ST10/02212. References Achramowicz

  6. 3D dynamic rupture with anelastic wave propagation using an hp-adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tago, J.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Etienne, V.; Virieux, J.; Benjemaa, M.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2010-12-01

    Simulating any realistic seismic scenario requires incorporating physical basis into the model. Considering both the dynamics of the rupture process and the anelastic attenuation of seismic waves is essential to this purpose and, therefore, we choose to extend the hp-adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin finite-element method to integrate these physical aspects. The 3D elastodynamic equations in an unstructured tetrahedral mesh are solved with a second-order time marching approach in a high-performance computing environment. The first extension incorporates the viscoelastic rheology so that the intrinsic attenuation of the medium is considered in terms of frequency dependent quality factors (Q). On the other hand, the extension related to dynamic rupture is integrated through explicit boundary conditions over the crack surface. For this visco-elastodynamic formulation, we introduce an original discrete scheme that preserves the optimal code performance of the elastodynamic equations. A set of relaxation mechanisms describes the behavior of a generalized Maxwell body. We approximate almost constant Q in a wide frequency range by selecting both suitable relaxation frequencies and anelastic coefficients characterizing these mechanisms. In order to do so, we solve an optimization problem which is critical to minimize the amount of relaxation mechanisms. Two strategies are explored: 1) a least squares method and 2) a genetic algorithm (GA). We found that the improvement provided by the heuristic GA method is negligible. Both optimization strategies yield Q values within the 5% of the target constant Q mechanism. Anelastic functions (i.e. memory variables) are introduced to efficiently evaluate the time convolution terms involved in the constitutive equations and thus to minimize the computational cost. The incorporation of anelastic functions implies new terms with ordinary differential equations in the mathematical formulation. We solve these equations using the same order

  7. The exhumation of the (U)HP rocks of the Central and Western Penninic Alps: comparison study between thermo-mechanical models and field data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenker, Filippo Luca; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Baumgartner, Lukas P.; Pleuger, Jan

    2015-04-01

    The Central and Western Penninic (CWP) Alps form an orogenic wedge of imbricate tectonic nappes. Orogenic wedges form typically at depths < 60 km. Nevertheless, a few nappes and massifs (i.e. Adula/Cima Lunga, Dora-Maira, Monte Rosa, Gran Paradiso, Zermatt-Saas) exhibit High- and Ultra-High-Pressure (U)HP metamorphic rocks suggesting that they were buried by subduction to depths >60 km and subsequently exhumed into the accretionary wedge. Mechanically, the exhumation of the (U)HP rocks from mantle depths can be explained by two contrasting buoyancy-driven models: (1) overall return flow of rocks in a subduction channel and (2) upward flow of individual, lighter rock units within a heavier material (Stokes flow). In this study we compare published numerical exhumation models of (1) and (2) with structural and metamorphic data of the CWP Alps. Model (1) predicts the exhumation of large volumes of (U)HP rocks within a viscous channel (1100-500 km2 in a 2D cross-section through the subduction zone). The moderate volume (e.g. ~7 km2 in a geological cross-section of the UHP unit of the Dora-Maira) and the coherent architecture of the (U)HP nappes suggests that the exhumation through (1) is unlikely for (U)HP nappes of the CWP Alps. Model (2) predicts the exhumation of appropriate volumes of (U)HP rocks, but generally the (U)HP rocks exhume vertically in the overriding plate and are not incorporated into the orogenic wedge. Nevertheless, the exhumation through (2) is feasible either with a vertical or with an extremely viscous and dense subduction channel. Whether these characteristics are applicable to the CWP UHP nappes will be discussed in light of field observations.

  8. Proportionate Dwarfism in Mice Lacking Heterochromatin Protein 1 Binding Protein 3 (HP1BP3) Is Associated With Alterations in the Endocrine IGF-1 Pathway.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, Benjamin P; Arad, Shiri; Le, Phuong T; Bustin, Michael; Rosen, Clifford J; Gabet, Yankel; Orly, Joseph

    2015-12-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 binding protein 3 (HP1BP3) is a recently described histone H1-related protein with roles in chromatin structure and transcriptional regulation. To explore the potential physiological role of HP1BP3, we have previously described an Hp1bp3(-/-) mouse model with reduced postnatal viability and growth. We now find that these mice are proportionate dwarfs, with reduction in body weight, body length, and organ weight. In addition to their small size, microcomputed tomography analysis showed that Hp1bp3(-/-) mice present a dramatic impairment of their bone development and structure. By 3 weeks of age, mice of both sexes have severely impaired cortical and trabecular bone, and these defects persist into adulthood and beyond. Primary cultures of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts from Hp1bp3(-/-) bone marrow and splenocytes, respectively, showed normal differentiation and function, strongly suggesting that the impaired bone accrual is due to noncell autonomous systemic cues in vivo. One major endocrine pathway regulating both body growth and bone acquisition is the IGF regulatory system, composed of IGF-1, the IGF receptors, and the IGF-binding proteins (IGFBPs). At 3 weeks of age, Hp1bp3(-/-) mice exhibited a 60% reduction in circulating IGF-1 and a 4-fold increase in the levels of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. These alterations were reflected in similar changes in the hepatic transcripts of the Igf1, Igfbp1, and Igfbp2 genes. Collectively, these results suggest that HP1BP3 plays a key role in normal growth and bone development by regulating transcription of endocrine IGF-1 components.

  9. Haptoglobin HP2-2 genotype, α-thalassaemia and acute seizures in children living in a malaria-endemic area

    PubMed Central

    Idro, Richard; Williams, Thomas N.; Gwer, Samson; Uyoga, Sophie; Macharia, Alex; Opi, Herbert; Atkinson, Sarah; Maitland, Kathryn; Kager, Piet A.; Kwiatkowski, Dominic; Neville, Brian G.R.; Newton, Charles R.J.C.

    2008-01-01

    Summary Polymorphisms of the haptoglobin (HP) gene and deletions in α-globin gene (α-thalassaemia) are common in malaria-endemic Africa. The same region also has high incidence rates for childhood acute seizures. The haptoglobin HP2-2 genotype has been associated with idiopathic generalized epilepsies and altered iron metabolism in children with α-thalassaemia can potentially interfere with neurotransmission and increase the risk of seizures. We investigated the hypothesis that the HP2-2 genotype and the common African α-globin gene deletions are associated with the increased risk of seizures. 288 children aged 3–156 months admitted with acute seizures to Kilifi District Hospital (Kenya), were matched for ethnicity to an equal number of community controls. The proportion of cases (72/288 [25.0%]) and controls (80/288 [27.8%]) with HP2-2 genotype was similar, p = 0.499. The allele frequency of HP2 gene in cases (49.3%) and controls (48.6%) was also similar, p = 0.814. Similarly, we found no significant difference between the proportion of cases (177/267 [66.3%]) and controls (186/267 [69.7%]) with deletions in α-globin gene (p = 0.403). Among cases, HP2-2 polymorphism and deletions in α-globin gene were neither associated with changes in the type, number or duration of seizures nor did they affect outcome. We conclude that the HP2-2 polymorphism and deletions in α-globin gene are not risk factors for acute seizures in children. Future studies should examine other susceptibility genes. PMID:18554871

  10. Towards the development of an oral vaccine against porcine cysticercosis: expression of the protective HP6/TSOL18 antigen in transgenic carrots cells.

    PubMed

    Monreal-Escalante, Elizabeth; Govea-Alonso, Dania O; Hernández, Marisela; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Salazar-González, Jorge A; Romero-Maldonado, Andrea; Rosas, Gabriela; Garate, Teresa; Fragoso, Gladis; Sciutto, Edda; Rosales-Mendoza, Sergio

    2016-03-01

    The Taenia solium HP6/TSOL18 antigen was produced in carrot cells, yielding an immunogenic protein that induced significant protection in an experimental murine model against T. crassiceps cysticercosis when orally administered. This result supports the potential of HP6/TSOL18-carrot as a low-cost anti-cysticercosis vaccine candidate. Cysticercosis is a zoonosis caused by Taenia solium that can be prevented by interrupting the parasite life cycle through pig vaccination. Several injectable vaccine candidates have been reported, but the logistic difficulties and costs for its application limited its use in nationwide control programs. Oral plant-based vaccines can deal with this limitation, because of their easy administration and low cost. A stable expression of the HP6/TSOL18 anti-T. solium cysticercosis protective antigen in carrot calli transformed with an optimized transgene is herein reported. An antigen accumulation up to 14 µg g(-1) of dry-weight biomass was achieved in the generated carrot lines. Mouse immunization with one of the transformed calli induced both specific IgG and IgA anti-HP6/TSOL18 antibodies. A statistically significant reduction in the expected number of T. crassiceps cysticerci was observed in mice orally immunized with carrot-made HP6/TSOL18, in a similar extent to that obtained by subcutaneous immunization with recombinant HP6/TSOL18 protein. In this study, a new oral plant-made version of the HP6/TSOL18 anti-cysticercosis vaccine is reported. The vaccine candidate should be further tested against porcine cysticercosis.

  11. Functional conservation of the pre-sensor one beta-finger hairpin (PS1-hp) structures in mini-chromosome maintenance proteins of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and archaea.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Christopher J; Sclafani, Robert A

    2014-05-28

    Mini-chromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins form complexes that are required for DNA replication and are highly conserved throughout evolution. The replicative helicase of eukaryotic organisms is composed of the six paralogs MCM2-7, which form a heterohexameric ring structure. In contrast, the structure of the archaean replicative MCM helicase is a single Mcm protein that forms a homohexameric complex. Atomic structures of archaeal MCMs have identified multiple beta-finger structures in Mcm proteins whose in vivo function is unknown. In the present study, we have investigated the physiological role of the pre-sensor 1 beta-hairpin (PS1-hp) beta-fingers of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Mcm4p and Mcm5p in DNA replication initiation and elongation in vivo. The PS1-hp beta-finger mutant of Mcm5p (mcm5-HAT K506A::URA3) has a growth defect at both 18° and 37°. Mutation of the Mcm4p PS1-hp beta-finger (mcm4-HA K658A::TRP1) does not have a growth defect, indicating different functional contributions of the PS1-hp beta-finger structures of different MCM helicase subunits. Both Mcm4p and Mcm5p PS1-hp beta-finger mutants can coimmunoprecipitate Mcm2p, indicating the formation of the hexameric MCM helicase complex. Both PS1-hp beta-finger mutants have a plasmid loss phenotype that is suppressible by origin dosage, indicating a defective replication initiation. Surprisingly, a defect in the binding of PS1-hp MCM mutants to origins of DNA replication was not found by chromatin immunoprecipitation, suggesting a novel interpretation in which the defect is in a subsequent step of DNA strand separation by the MCM helicase. The double mutant mcm4-HA K658A::TRP1 mcm5-HAT K506A::URA3 is lethal, displaying a terminal MCM mutant phenotype of large budded cells.

  12. Preparation, characterisation and antitumour activity of β-, γ- and HP-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of oxaliplatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da; Zhang, Jianqiang; Jiang, Kunming; Li, Ke; Cong, Yangwei; Pu, Shaoping; Jin, Yi; Lin, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Three water-soluble oxaliplatin complexes were prepared by inclusion complexation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), γ-CD and HP-β-CD. The structures of oxaliplatin/CDs were confirmed by NMR, FTIR, TGA, XRD as well as SEM analysis. The results show that the water solubility of oxaliplatin was increased in the complex with CDs in 1:1 stoichiometry inclusion modes, and the cyclohexane ring of oxaliplatin molecule was deeply inserted into the cavity of CDs. Moreover, the stoichiometry was established by a Job plot and the water stability constant (Kc) of oxaliplatin/CDs was calculated by phase solubility studies, all results show that the oxaliplatin/β-CD complex is more stable than free oxaliplatin, oxaliplatin/HP-β-CD and oxaliplatin/γ-CD. Meanwhile, the inclusion complexes displayed almost twice as high cytotoxicity compared to free oxaliplatin against HCT116 and MCF-7 cells. This satisfactory water solubility and higher cytotoxic activity of the oxaliplatin/CD complexes will potentially be useful for their application in anti-tumour therapy.

  13. Writing time estimation of EB mask writer EBM-9000 for hp16nm/logic11nm node generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamikubo, Takashi; Takekoshi, Hidekazu; Ogasawara, Munehiro; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hattori, Kiyoshi

    2014-10-01

    The scaling of semiconductor devices is slowing down because of the difficulty in establishing their functionality at the nano-size level and also because of the limitations in fabrications, mainly the delay of EUV lithography. While multigate devices (FinFET) are currently the main driver for scalability, other types of devices, such as 3D devices, are being realized to relax the scaling of the node. In lithography, double or multiple patterning using ArF immersion scanners is still a realistic solution offered for the hp16nm node fabrication. Other lithography candidates are those called NGL (Next Generation Lithography), such as DSA (Directed-Self-Assembling) or nanoimprint. In such situations, shot count for mask making by electron beam writers will not increase. Except for some layers, it is not increasing as previously predicted. On the other hand, there is another aspect that increases writing time. The exposure dose for mask writing is getting higher to meet tighter specifications of CD uniformity, in other words, reduce LER. To satisfy these requirements, a new electron beam mask writer, EBM-9000, has been developed for hp16nm/logic11nm generation. Electron optical system, which has the immersion lens system, was evolved from EBM-8000 to achieve higher current density of 800A/cm2. In this paper, recent shot count and dose trend are discussed. Also, writing time is estimated for the requirements in EBM-9000.

  14. The Helicobacter pylori mutY homologue HP0142 is an antimutator gene that prevents specific C to A transversions.

    PubMed

    Kulick, Stefan; Moccia, Claudia; Kraft, Christian; Suerbaum, Sebastian

    2008-03-01

    Extensive genetic variability resulting from a high mutation rate and frequent recombination is a characteristic of Helicobacter pylori. Its average mutation rate is 1 x 10(-6), similar to that of Escherichia coli mutator strains. Few genes involved in DNA repair have been functionally characterized in H. pylori. In E. coli, the DNA glycosylase MutY is a part of the base excision repair system. The H. pylori mutY homolog HP0142 was analyzed in this study. HP0142 was disrupted by inserting a kanamycin resistance cassette. Mutation rates were determined by measuring the frequency of point mutations in rpoB conferring resistance against rifampicin. Inactivation of mutY in H. pylori resulted in an increase of the mutation frequency by a factor of up to 34. Sequence analysis of rpoB in rifampicin-resistant clones selected from the mutY mutant showed a modest increase of G:C/T:A transversions in comparison to clones selected from wild type strains. In contrast, inactivation of mutY had a profound impact on the distribution of mutations within rpoB. This finding suggests that the efficiency with which mutY prevents transversions is strongly dependent upon the sequence context. Inactivation of mutY was associated with a stationary phase fitness deficit in competitive cultures with the wild type strain.

  15. Developmental validation of the Quantifiler(®) HP and Trio Kits for human DNA quantification in forensic samples.

    PubMed

    Holt, Allison; Wootton, Sharon Chao; Mulero, Julio J; Brzoska, Pius M; Langit, Emanuel; Green, Robert L

    2016-03-01

    The quantification of human genomic DNA is a necessary first step in the DNA casework sample analysis workflow. DNA quantification determines optimal sample input amounts for subsequent STR (short tandem repeat) genotyping procedures, as well as being a useful screening tool to identify samples most likely to provide probative genotypic evidence. To better mesh with the capabilities of newest-generation STR analysis assays, the Quantifiler(®) HP and Quantifiler(®) Trio DNA Quantification Kits were designed for greater detection sensitivity and more robust performance with samples that contain PCR inhibitors or degraded DNA. The new DNA quantification kits use multiplex TaqMan(®) assay-based fluorescent probe technology to simultaneously quantify up to three human genomic targets, allowing samples to be assessed for total human DNA, male contributor (i.e., Y-chromosome) DNA, as well as a determination of DNA degradation state. The Quantifiler HP and Trio Kits use multiple-copy loci to allow for significantly improved sensitivity compared to earlier-generation kits that employ single-copy target loci. The kits' improved performance provides better predictive ability for results with downstream, newest-generation STR assays, and their shortened time-to-result allows more efficient integration into the forensic casework analysis workflow.

  16. Histone H1 and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) regulate specific gene expression and not global transcription

    PubMed Central

    Jedrusik-Bode, Monika

    2013-01-01

    The highly conserved Hox transcription factors define positional identity along the anterior-posterior body axis during development. Inappropriate expression of Hox genes causes homeotic transformation, which leads to abnormal development of a specific region or segment. C. elegans offers an excellent model for studying factors required for the establishment of the spatially-restricted expression of Hox genes. We have recently identified chromatin factors, including a linker histone (H1) variant, HIS-24 and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) homolog, HPL-2, which contribute to the regulation of specific Hox gene expression through their binding to the repressive mark, H3K27me3. Furthermore, HIS-24 and HPL-2 act in a parallel pathway as members of the evolutionally conserved Polycomb group (PcG) silencing complex, MES-2/3/6. By microarray analysis, we found that HIS-24 and HPL-2 are not global transcriptional repressors as suggested by early studies, but rather are fine tuners of selected genes. Here, we discuss how HIS-24 and HPL-2 are responsible for the repression of specific genes in C. elegans. We suggest possible mechanisms for such an unanticipated function of an individual H1 variant and HP1 in the transcriptional repression of Hox genes. PMID:24058872

  17. Stability analysis of arbitrarily shaped moderately thick viscoelastic plates using Laplace-Carson transformation and a simple hp cloud method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Nasrin; Azhari, Mojtaba

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, the stability analysis of moderately thick time-dependent viscoelastic plates with various shapes is studied using the Laplace-Carson transformation and simple hp cloud meshless method. The shear effect of the plate is described by the first order shear deformation theory. The mechanical properties of the materials are supposed to be linear viscoelastic based on the constant bulk modulus. The displacement field is assumed to be the product of two functions, one being a function of geometrical parameters and the other a known exponential function of time. The simple hp cloud method is used for discretization which is based on Kronecker-delta properties. Thus, the essential boundary conditions can be imposed directly. A numerical investigation is made by employing the inverse of Laplace-Carson transformation. The time history of buckling coefficients of viscoelastic plates of various shapes with different boundary conditions is considered. Moreover, a number of numerical results are presented to study the effect of thickness, aspect ratio, different boundary conditions, and various shapes on the time history of buckling coefficients of the viscoelastic plate.

  18. Stability analysis of arbitrarily shaped moderately thick viscoelastic plates using Laplace-Carson transformation and a simple hp cloud method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jafari, Nasrin; Azhari, Mojtaba

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, the stability analysis of moderately thick time-dependent viscoelastic plates with various shapes is studied using the Laplace-Carson transformation and simple hp cloud meshless method. The shear effect of the plate is described by the first order shear deformation theory. The mechanical properties of the materials are supposed to be linear viscoelastic based on the constant bulk modulus. The displacement field is assumed to be the product of two functions, one being a function of geometrical parameters and the other a known exponential function of time. The simple hp cloud method is used for discretization which is based on Kronecker-delta properties. Thus, the essential boundary conditions can be imposed directly. A numerical investigation is made by employing the inverse of Laplace-Carson transformation. The time history of buckling coefficients of viscoelastic plates of various shapes with different boundary conditions is considered. Moreover, a number of numerical results are presented to study the effect of thickness, aspect ratio, different boundary conditions, and various shapes on the time history of buckling coefficients of the viscoelastic plate.

  19. TAE+ 5.2 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.2 (HP9000 SERIES 700/800 VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    programs to display and control the user interfaces. Since the WPTs access the workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides a means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System and the Open Software Foundation's Motif. The HP 9000 Series 700/800 version of TAE 5.2 requires Version 11 Release 5 of the X Window System. All other machine versions of TAE 5.2 require Version 11, Release 4 of the X Window System. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.2 was released in 1993. TAE Plus 5.2 is available on media suitable for five different machine platforms: (1) IBM RS/6000 series workstations running AIX (.25 inch tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), (2) DEC RISC

  20. Optimized Wang-Landau sampling of lattice polymers: Ground state search and folding thermodynamics of HP model proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P.

    2012-08-01

    Coarse-grained (lattice-) models have a long tradition in aiding efforts to decipher the physical or biological complexity of proteins. Despite the simplicity of these models, however, numerical simulations are often computationally very demanding and the quest for efficient algorithms is as old as the models themselves. Expanding on our previous work [T. Wüst and D. P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 178101 (2009)], 10.1103/PhysRevLett.102.178101, we present a complete picture of a Monte Carlo method based on Wang-Landau sampling in combination with efficient trial moves (pull, bond-rebridging, and pivot moves) which is particularly suited to the study of models such as the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice model of protein folding. With this generic and fully blind Monte Carlo procedure, all currently known putative ground states for the most difficult benchmark HP sequences could be found. For most sequences we could also determine the entire energy density of states and, together with suitably designed structural observables, explore the thermodynamics and intricate folding behavior in the virtually inaccessible low-temperature regime. We analyze the differences between random and protein-like heteropolymers for sequence lengths up to 500 residues. Our approach is powerful both in terms of robustness and speed, yet flexible and simple enough for the study of many related problems in protein folding.

  1. Testing of YUH-61A helicopter transmission in NASA Lewis 2240-kW (3000-hp facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, A. M.; Oswald, F. B.; Schuller, F. T.

    1986-01-01

    A helicopter transmission that was being considered for the Army's Utility Tactical Transport Attack System (UTTAS) was tested in the NASA Lewis 2240-kW (3000-hp) test facility to obtain the transmission's operational data. The results will form a vibration and efficiency data base for evaluation similar-class helicopter transmissions. The transmission's mechanical efficiency was determined to be 98.7 percent at its rated power level of 2080 kW (2792 hp). At power levels up to 113 percent of rated the transmission displayed 56 percent higher vibration acceleration levels on the right input than on the left input. Both vibration signature analysis and final visual inspection indicated that the right input spiral-bevel gear had poor contact patterns. The highest vibration meter level was 52 g's rms at the accessory gear, which had free-wheeling gearsets. At 113 percent power and 100 percent rated speed the vibration meter levels generally ranged from 3 to 25 g's rms.

  2. Optimized Wang-Landau sampling of lattice polymers: ground state search and folding thermodynamics of HP model proteins.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2012-08-14

    Coarse-grained (lattice-) models have a long tradition in aiding efforts to decipher the physical or biological complexity of proteins. Despite the simplicity of these models, however, numerical simulations are often computationally very demanding and the quest for efficient algorithms is as old as the models themselves. Expanding on our previous work [T. Wüst and D. P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 178101 (2009)], we present a complete picture of a Monte Carlo method based on Wang-Landau sampling in combination with efficient trial moves (pull, bond-rebridging, and pivot moves) which is particularly suited to the study of models such as the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice model of protein folding. With this generic and fully blind Monte Carlo procedure, all currently known putative ground states for the most difficult benchmark HP sequences could be found. For most sequences we could also determine the entire energy density of states and, together with suitably designed structural observables, explore the thermodynamics and intricate folding behavior in the virtually inaccessible low-temperature regime. We analyze the differences between random and protein-like heteropolymers for sequence lengths up to 500 residues. Our approach is powerful both in terms of robustness and speed, yet flexible and simple enough for the study of many related problems in protein folding.

  3. The crystal structure of ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose-6-epimerase (HP0859) from Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Md Munan; Zanotti, Giuseppe; Cendron, Laura

    2011-12-01

    Helicobacter pylori, the human pathogen that affects about half of the world population and that is responsible for gastritis, gastric ulcer and adenocarcinoma and MALT lymphoma, owes much of the integrity of its outer membrane on lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). Together with their essential structural role, LPSs contribute to the bacterial adherence properties, as well as they are well characterized for the capability to modulate the immuno-response. In H. pylori the core oligosaccharide, one of the three main domains of LPSs, shows a peculiar structure in the branching organization of the repeating units, which displayed further variability when different strains have been compared. We present here the crystal structure of ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose-6-epimerase (HP0859, rfaD), the last enzyme in the pathway that produces L-glycero-D-manno-heptose starting from sedoheptulose-7-phosphate, a crucial compound in the synthesis of the core oligosaccharide. In a recent study, a HP0859 knockout mutant has been characterized, demonstrating a severe loss of lipopolysaccharide structure and a significant reduction of adhesion levels in an infection model to AGS cells, if compared with the wild type strain, in good agreement with its enzymatic role. The crystal structure reveals that the enzyme is a homo-pentamer, and NAD is bound as a cofactor in a highly conserved pocket. The substrate-binding site of the enzyme is very similar to that of its orthologue in Escherichia coli, suggesting also a similar catalytic mechanism.

  4. Effect of quench rate and refrigeration on the mechanical properties of HP9-4-20 steel

    SciTech Connect

    Klimowicz, T.F.; Lippold, J.C.

    1982-02-01

    Difficulties in obtaining adequate mechanical properties in the HP9-4-20 portion of the B83 structural midcase have raised some questions concerning the effect of quench rate and post-quench refrigeration on the strength and toughness of the material. As a result, a program was initiated to determine if either of these parameters contributed to the observed degradation in properties or whether some other step in the processing history of the material was responsible. Initially, the nominal cooling rate of a full size mid-case was calculated numerically using a finite difference thermal conduction code. A series of HP9-4-20 steel samples was then processed with quench rates which bracketed this calculated cooling rate. It was found that neither quench rate nor refrigeration had a significant effect on the mechanical properties at cooling rates that might reasonably be encountered in production hardware. Consequently, it was concluded that the inadequate mechanical properties exhibited by early B83 mid-case components were related to an improper tempering heat treatment, and not an inadequate quench.

  5. TAE+ 5.2 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.2 (HP9000 SERIES 700/800 VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    programs to display and control the user interfaces. Since the WPTs access the workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides a means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System and the Open Software Foundation's Motif. The HP 9000 Series 700/800 version of TAE 5.2 requires Version 11 Release 5 of the X Window System. All other machine versions of TAE 5.2 require Version 11, Release 4 of the X Window System. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.2 was released in 1993. TAE Plus 5.2 is available on media suitable for five different machine platforms: (1) IBM RS/6000 series workstations running AIX (.25 inch tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), (2) DEC RISC

  6. A proposal for a test method for assessment of hazard property HP 12 ("Release of an acute toxic gas") in hazardous waste classification - Experience from 49 waste.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Pierre; Samaali, Ismahen; Molina, Pauline

    2016-12-01

    A stepwise method for assessment of the HP 12 is proposed and tested with 49 waste samples. The hazard property HP 12 is defined as "Release of an acute toxic gas": waste which releases acute toxic gases (Acute Tox. 1, 2 or 3) in contact with water or an acid. When a waste contains a substance assigned to one of the following supplemental hazards EUH029, EUH031 and EUH032, it shall be classified as hazardous by HP 12 according to test methods or guidelines (EC, 2014a, 2014b). When the substances with the cited hazard statement codes react with water or an acid, they can release HCl, Cl2, HF, HCN, PH3, H2S, SO2 (and two other gases very unlikely to be emitted, hydrazoic acid HN3 and selenium oxide SeO2 - a solid with low vapor pressure). Hence, a method is proposed:For a set of 49 waste, water addition did not produce gas. Nearly all the solid waste produced a gas in contact with hydrochloric acid in 5 min in an automated calcimeter with a volume >0.1L of gas per kg of waste. Since a plateau of pressure is reached only for half of the samples in 5 min, 6 h trial with calorimetric bombs or glass flasks were done and confirmed the results. Identification of the gases by portable probes showed that most of the tested samples emit mainly CO2. Toxic gases are emitted by four waste: metallic dust from the aluminum industry (CO), two air pollution control residue of industrial waste incinerator (H2S) and a halogenated solvent (organic volatile(s) compound(s)). HF has not been measured in these trials started before the present definition of HP 12. According to the definition of HP 12, only the H2S emission of substances with hazard statement EUH031 is accounted for. In view of the calcium content of the two air pollution control residue, the presence of calcium sulphide (EUH031) can be assumed. These two waste are therefore classified potentially hazardous for HP 12, from a total of 49 waste. They are also classified as hazardous for other properties (HP 7, 10and14 for one

  7. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of the histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein ZmHP1 from maize

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, Hajime Yamaya, Tomoyuki; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2005-04-01

    The histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein ZmHP1 from maize was crystallized. The removal of an N-terminal His tag resulted in a remarkable improvement of the diffraction data. In histidine-aspartate phosphorelays (two-component systems) involved in plant-hormone signalling, histidine-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) proteins mediate the transfer of a phosphoryl group from the sensory histidine kinase to the response regulator. The maize HPt protein ZmHP1 has been crystallized. Although ZmHP1 with an N-terminal His tag could be crystallized using sodium chloride as a precipitant, the crystals diffracted poorly to only 3.2 Å resolution. When the His tag was removed, ZmHP1 crystals were obtained using polyethylene glycol 4000 as a precipitant and the diffraction data were greatly enhanced to 2.4 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to the space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with one ZmHP1 molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  8. The influence of gonadotropins on clinico-biological ICSI outcome: a retrospective comparative study rFsH vs HP-hmg.

    PubMed

    Khlifi, Abdeljalil; Kacem, Olfa; Maroueni, Maher; Elgoul, Leila; Hidar, Samir; Fekih, Meriem; Boughizane, Sassi; Essaidi, Habib; Ben Regaya, Lassad; Bibi, Mohamed; Ajina, Mounir; Khairi, Hedi

    2016-06-01

    Objective To investigate the difference in the outcome of ICSI-ET cycles among respondents patients, taking into account the molecule inducer of controlled ovarian stimulation: HP-hMG ou rFSH. Patients and Methods A comparative retrospective study over 62 months including a total of 1005 infertile couples, divided into two groups: HP-HMG (n=125) and rFSH (n=880). Results - The average numbers of retrieved oocytes and matures oocytes were significantly higher in rFSH group rFSH (7,94 ± 2,49, HP-HMG vs 9,05 ± 3,40, rFSH, p=0.0001and  3±2,68, HP-HMG vs 6,65±3,05 , rFSH, p=0,02 respectively). There was no statistically significant difference in the endometrial thickness and estradiol level on hCG injection day, the total amount of administrated gonadotropin and the duration of stimulation. In addition, we did not find a significant difference between the two groups regarding the fertilization, the maturation, the cleavage, top quality embryo, implantation, clinical pregnancy, multiple pregnancies, live birth and miscarriage rates. There was no case of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome. Conclusion - Inspite of a higher number of retrieved and mature oocytes obtained with rFSH, the latter showed no superiority over HP-hMG which seem to be equally efficient and safe for ICSI treatment cycles.

  9. Hydroxycinnamic acids and UV-B depletion: Profiling and biosynthetic gene expression in flesh and peel of wild-type and hp-1.

    PubMed

    Calvenzani, Valentina; Castagna, Antonella; Ranieri, Annamaria; Tonelli, Chiara; Petroni, Katia

    2015-06-01

    Hydroxycinnamic acids (HCAs) are phenolic compounds widely found in most plant families. Aim of the present work was to investigate their accumulation and biosynthetic gene expression in presence or absence of UV-B radiation in tomato fruits of wild-type and hp-1, a mutant characterized by exaggerated photoresponsiveness and increased fruit pigmentation. Gene expression and HCAs content were higher in hp-1 than in wild type peel and UV-B depletion determined a decrease in HCAs accumulation in wild-type and an increase in hp-1 fruits, generally in accordance with biosynthetic gene expression. In flesh, despite a similar transcript level of most genes between the two genotypes, HCAs content was generally higher in wild type than in hp-1, although remaining at a lower level with respect to wild type peel. Under UV-B depletion, a general reduction of HCAs content was observed in wild-type flesh, whereas an increase in the content of p-coumaric acid and caffeic acid was observed in hp-1 flesh.

  10. Helicobacter pylori CheZ(HP) and ChePep form a novel chemotaxis-regulatory complex distinct from the core chemotaxis signaling proteins and the flagellar motor.

    PubMed

    Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Howitt, Michael R; Castellon, Juan; Amieva, Manuel R; Ottemann, Karen M

    2015-09-01

    Chemotaxis is important for Helicobacter pylori to colonize the stomach. Like other bacteria, H. pylori uses chemoreceptors and conserved chemotaxis proteins to phosphorylate the flagellar rotational response regulator, CheY, and modulate the flagellar rotational direction. Phosphorylated CheY is returned to its non-phosphorylated state by phosphatases such as CheZ. In previously studied cases, chemotaxis phosphatases localize to the cellular poles by interactions with either the CheA chemotaxis kinase or flagellar motor proteins. We report here that the H. pylori CheZ, CheZ(HP), localizes to the poles independently of the flagellar motor, CheA, and all typical chemotaxis proteins. Instead, CheZ(HP) localization depends on the chemotaxis regulatory protein ChePep, and reciprocally, ChePep requires CheZ(HP) for its polar localization. We furthermore show that these proteins interact directly. Functional domain mapping of CheZ(HP) determined the polar localization motif lies within the central domain of the protein and that the protein has regions outside of the active site that participate in chemotaxis. Our results suggest that CheZ(HP) and ChePep form a distinct complex. These results therefore suggest the intriguing idea that some phosphatases localize independently of the other chemotaxis and motility proteins, possibly to confer unique regulation on these proteins' activities.

  11. Methylation of Lysine 9 in Histone H3 Directs Alternative Modes of Highly Dynamic Interaction of Heterochromatin Protein hHP1β with the Nucleosome*

    PubMed Central

    Munari, Francesca; Soeroes, Szabolcs; Zenn, Hans Michael; Schomburg, Adrian; Kost, Nils; Schröder, Sabrina; Klingberg, Rebecca; Rezaei-Ghaleh, Nasrollah; Stützer, Alexandra; Gelato, Kathy Ann; Walla, Peter Jomo; Becker, Stefan; Schwarzer, Dirk; Zimmermann, Bastian; Fischle, Wolfgang; Zweckstetter, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Binding of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) to the histone H3 lysine 9 trimethylation (H3K9me3) mark is a hallmark of establishment and maintenance of heterochromatin. Although genetic and cell biological aspects have been elucidated, the molecular details of HP1 binding to H3K9me3 nucleosomes are unknown. Using a combination of NMR spectroscopy and biophysical measurements on fully defined recombinant experimental systems, we demonstrate that H3K9me3 works as an on/off switch regulating distinct binding modes of hHP1β to the nucleosome. The methyl-mark determines a highly flexible and very dynamic interaction of the chromodomain of hHP1β with the H3-tail. There are no other constraints of interaction or additional multimerization interfaces. In contrast, in the absence of methylation, the hinge region and the N-terminal tail form weak nucleosome contacts mainly with DNA. In agreement with the high flexibility within the hHP1β-H3K9me3 nucleosome complex, the chromoshadow domain does not provide a direct binding interface. Our results report the first detailed structural analysis of a dynamic protein-nucleosome complex directed by a histone modification and provide a conceptual framework for understanding similar interactions in the context of chromatin. PMID:22815475

  12. HP1330 Contributes to Streptococcus suis Virulence by Inducing Toll-Like Receptor 2- and ERK1/2-Dependent Pro-inflammatory Responses and Influencing In Vivo S. suis Loads.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Huang, Jingjing; Yu, Junping; Xu, Zhongmin; Liu, Liang; Song, Yajing; Sun, Xiaomei; Zhang, Anding; Jin, Meilin

    2017-01-01

    Streptococcus suis 2 (SS2) has evolved into a highly invasive pathogen responsible for two large-scale outbreaks of streptococcal toxic shock-like syndrome (STSLS) in China. Excessive inflammation stimulated by SS2 is considered a hallmark of STSLS, even it also plays important roles in other clinical symptoms of SS2-related disease, including meningitis, septicemia, and sudden death. However, the mechanism of SS2-caused excessive inflammation remains poorly understood. Here, a novel pro-inflammatory protein was identified (HP1330), which could induce robust expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MCP-1, and IL-1β) in RAW264.7 macrophages. To evaluate the role of HP1330 in SS2 virulence, an hp1330-deletion mutant (Δhp1330) was constructed. In vitro, hp1330 disruption led to a decreased pro-inflammatory ability of SS2 in RAW 264.7 macrophages. In vivo, Δhp1330 showed reduced lethality, pro-inflammatory activity, and bacterial loads in mice. To further elucidate the mechanism of HP1330-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, antibody blocking and gene-deletion experiments with macrophages were performed. The results revealed that the pro-inflammatory activity of HP1330 depended on the recognition of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Furthermore, a specific inhibitor of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) pathways could significantly decrease HP1330-induced pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and western blot analysis showed that HP1330 could induce activation of the ERK1/2 pathway. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that HP1330 contributes to SS2 virulence by inducing TLR2- and ERK1/2-dependent pro-inflammatory cytokine production and influencing in vivo bacterial loads, implying that HP1330 may be associated with STSLS caused by SS2.

  13. Enantiomer separation of the four diastereomers of guaiacyl glycerol from Hydnocarpus annamensis by capillary electrophoresis with HP-beta-CD as a chiral selector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Shi, Haiming; Sun, Zhe; Ling, Xiaomei; Tu, Pengfei

    2007-10-01

    A capillary electrophoresis method with HP-beta-CD as the chiral selector is established for the enantioseparation of two pairs of phenylpropanoids, which are isolated from Hydnocarpus annamensis. The effects of buffer pH, HP-beta-CD and buffer concentration, applied voltage, and cartridge temperature on the enantioseparation are optimized. A baseline separation of the four diastereomers of guaiacyl glycerol is achieved in less than 10 min under these optimized conditions: 25 mmol/L Borax-NaOH buffer (pH 10.01) in the presence of 30 mmol/L HP-beta-CD at 15 degrees C and 30 kV. The experimental results show that the reported method by capillary electrophoresis for the separation of the four diastereomers of guaiacyl glycerol is powerful, sensitive, and fast, requires smaller amounts of reagents, and can be employed as a reliable alternative to other methods.

  14. The validity of the Health-Relevant Personality Inventory (HP5i) and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI) among adolescents referred for a substance misuse problem.

    PubMed

    Hemphälä, Malin; Gustavsson, J Petter; Tengström, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to study the validity of 2 personality instruments, the Health-Relevant Personality Inventory (HP5i) and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), among adolescents with a substance use problem. Clinical interviews were completed with 180 adolescents and followed up after 12 months. Discriminant validity was demonstrated in the lack of correlation to intelligence in both instruments' scales. Two findings were in support of convergent validity: Negative affectivity (HP5i) and harm avoidance (JTCI) were correlated to internalizing symptoms, and impulsivity (HP5i) and novelty seeking (JTCI) were correlated to externalizing symptoms. The predictive validity of JTCI was partly supported. When psychiatric symptoms at baseline were controlled for, cooperativeness predicted conduct disorder after 12 months. Summarizing, both instruments can be used in adolescent clinical samples to tailor treatment efforts, although some scales need further investigation. It is important to include personality assessment when evaluating psychiatric problems in adolescents.

  15. Preparation and characterization of the inclusion complex of Baicalin (BG) with beta-CD and HP-beta-CD in solution: an antioxidant ability study.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinxia; Zhang, Min; Chao, Jianbin; Shuang, Shaomin

    2009-08-15

    The formation of the complexes of BG with beta-CD and HP-beta-CD was studied by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence spectra, Phase-solubility measurements and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR) in solution. The formation constants (K) of complexes were determined by fluorescence method and Phase-solubility measurements. The results showed that the inclusion ability of beta-CD and its derivatives was the order: HP-beta-CD>beta-CD. In addition, the experimental resulted confirmed the existence of 1:1 inclusion complex of BG with CDs. The antioxidant ability studies of BG and CDs complexes were done. The results obtained indicated that the BG/HP-beta-CD complex was the most reactive form, and then was the BG/beta-CD complex; the last was BG. Special configuration of complex has been proposed on NMR technique.

  16. An effective evolutionary algorithm for protein folding on 3D FCC HP model by lattice rotation and generalized move sets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteins are essential biological molecules which play vital roles in nearly all biological processes. It is the tertiary structure of a protein that determines its functions. Therefore the prediction of a protein's tertiary structure based on its primary amino acid sequence has long been the most important and challenging subject in biochemistry, molecular biology and biophysics. In the past, the HP lattice model was one of the ab initio methods that many researchers used to forecast the protein structure. Although these kinds of simplified methods could not achieve high resolution, they provided a macrocosm-optimized protein structure. The model has been employed to investigate general principles of protein folding, and plays an important role in the prediction of protein structures. Methods In this paper, we present an improved evolutionary algorithm for the protein folding problem. We study the problem on the 3D FCC lattice HP model which has been widely used in previous research. Our focus is to develop evolutionary algorithms (EA) which are robust, easy to implement and can handle various energy functions. We propose to combine three different local search methods, including lattice rotation for crossover, K-site move for mutation, and generalized pull move; these form our key components to improve previous EA-based approaches. Results We have carried out experiments over several data sets which were used in previous research. The results of the experiments show that our approach is able to find optimal conformations which were not found by previous EA-based approaches. Conclusions We have investigated the geometric properties of the 3D FCC lattice and developed several local search techniques to improve traditional EA-based approaches to the protein folding problem. It is known that EA-based approaches are robust and can handle arbitrary energy functions. Our results further show that by extensive development of local searches, EA can also be very

  17. High-resolution abundance analysis of red giants in the metal-poor bulge globular cluster HP 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, B.; Cantelli, E.; Vemado, A.; Ernandes, H.; Ortolani, S.; Saviane, I.; Bica, E.; Minniti, D.; Dias, B.; Momany, Y.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Siqueira-Mello, C.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The globular cluster HP 1 is projected at only 3.̊33 from the Galactic center. Together with its distance, this makes it one of the most central globular clusters in the Milky Way. It has a blue horizontal branch (BHB) and a metallicity of [Fe/H] ≈ -1.0. This means that it probably is one of the oldest objects in the Galaxy. Abundance ratios can reveal the nucleosynthesis pattern of the first stars as well as the early chemical enrichment and early formation of stellar populations. Aims: High-resolution spectra obtained for six stars were analyzed to derive the abundances of the light elements C, N, O, Na, and Al, the alpha-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, and the heavy elements Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, and Eu. Methods: High-resolution spectra of six red giants that are confirmed members of the bulge globular cluster HP 1 were obtained with the 8 m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with the UVES spectrograph in FLAMES-UVES configuration. The spectroscopic parameter derivation was based on the excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe i and Fe ii. Results: We confirm a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.06 ± 0.10, by adding the two stars that were previously analyzed in HP 1. The alpha-elements O and Mg are enhanced by about +0.3 ≲ [O,Mg/Fe] ≲ +0.5 dex, Si is moderately enhanced with +0.15 ≲ [Si/Fe] ≲ +0.35 dex, while Ca and Ti show lower values of -0.04 ≲ [Ca,Ti/Fe] ≲ +0.28 dex. The r-element Eu is also enhanced with [Eu/Fe] ≈ +0.4, which together with O and Mg is indicative of early enrichment by type II supernovae. Na and Al are low, but it is unclear if Na-O are anticorrelated. The heavy elements are moderately enhanced, with -0.20 < [La/Fe] < +0.43 dex and 0.0 < [Ba/Fe] < +0.75 dex, which is compatible with r-process formation. The spread in Y, Zr, Ba, and La abundances, on the other hand, appears to be compatible with the spinstar scenario or other additional mechanisms such as the weak r-process. Observations collected at the European Southern

  18. Tectonic Origin of Serpentinites on Syros, Greece: Geochemical Signatures of Seafloor Serpentinization Preserved in the HP/LT Subduction Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raia, N. H.; Cooperdock, E. H. G.; Barnes, J.; Stockli, D. F.; Schwarzenbach, E. M.

    2016-12-01

    Serpentinized ultramafic rocks are commonly found in exhumed HP/LT subduction complexes, but their tectonic origins (i.e., setting of serpentinization) are difficult to decipher due to extensive alteration. Growing literature and geochemical datasets demonstrate that immobile elements (REE, HFSE) in serpentinites can retain magmatic signatures indicative of the tectonic setting of parent peridotite, while fluid-mobile elements and stable isotopic signatures shed light on the fluids causing serpentinization. This study combines whole-rock trace and major element geochemistry, stable isotope (δD and δO) analyses with petrographic observation to determine the tectonic origin of ultramafic rocks in the HP/LT Aegean subduction complex. The best-preserved HP rocks of the Cycladic Blueschist Unit (CBU) are found on Syros, Greece, where serpentinized ultramafic rocks within the CBU are closely associated with metamorphosed remnants of subducted oceanic crust. All samples are completely serpentinized, lacking relict pyroxene or spinel grains, with typical assemblages consisting of serpentine, talc, chlorite, magnetite, and minor carbonate. The serpentinizing fluid was characterized using stable isotopes. δD and δO values of bulk-rock serpentinite powders and chips, respectively, suggest seafloor serpentinites hydrated by seawater at low T, typical of alteration at mid-ocean ridges and hyper-extended margins (δD = -64 to -33‰ and δO = 5.2 to 9.0‰). To fingerprint a tectonic origin, whole rock serpentinite REE patterns are compared to a global database of whole rock serpentinite analyses from fore-arc mantle wedge, mid-ocean ridge, and hyper-extended margin tectonic settings. Whole rock major element, trace element, and REE analyses are consistent with limited melt extraction, flat REE patterns (LaN/SmN = 0.2-2.6, SmN/YbN = 0.3-3.5; N= C1 normalized), and do not show pronounced Eu anomalies. These data are consistent with abyssal peridotites derived from hyper

  19. Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary-power-generation applications in the 500- to 3000-hp range. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    The first phase of the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 373 kW (500 hp) to 2237 kW (3000 hp) range was completed. The tasks in Phase I include conceptual designs of large Stirling cycle stationary engines and program plan for implementing Phases II through V. Four different heater head designs and five different machine designs were prepared in sufficient detail to select a design recommended for development in the near future. A second order analysis was developed for examining the various loss mechanisms in the Stirling engine and for predicting the thermodynamic performance of these engines. The predicted engine thermal brake efficiency excluding combustion efficiency is approximately 42% which exceeds the design objective of 40%. The combustion system designs were prepared for both a clean fuel combustion system and a two-stage atmospheric fluidized bed combustion system. The calculated combustion efficiency of the former is 90% and of the latter is 80%. Heat transport systems, i.e., a heat exchanger for the clean fuel combustion system and a sodium heat pipe system for coal and other nonclean fuel combustion systems were selected. The cost analysis showed that for clean fuels combustion the proposed 2237 kW (3000 hp) system production cost is $478,242 or $214/kW ($159/hp) which is approximately 1.86 times the cost of a comparable size diesel engine. For solid coal combustion the proposed 2237 kW (3000 hp) system production cost is approximately $2,246,242 which corresponds to a cost to power capacity ratio of $1004/kW ($749/hp). The two-stage atmospheric fluidized bed combustion system represents 81% of the total cost; the engine represents 14% depending on the future price differential between coal and conventional clean fuels, a short payback period of the proposed Stirling cycle engine/FBC system may justify the initial cost. (LCL)

  20. High-pressure synthesis and crystal structure of the lithium borate HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Neumair, Stephanie C.; Vanicek, Stefan; Kaindl, Reinhard; Toebbens, Daniel M.; Wurst, Klaus; Huppertz, Hubert

    2011-09-15

    The new lithium borate HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} was synthesized under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 6 GPa and 1050 deg. C in a multianvil press with a Walker-type module. The compound crystallizes in the space group Pnma (no. 62) with the lattice parameters a=829.7(2), b=759.6(2), and c=1726.8(4) pm (Z=16). The high-pressure compound HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} is built up from a three-dimensional network of BO{sub 4} tetrahedra and BO{sub 3} groups, which incorporates Li{sup +} ions in channels along the b-axis. Band assignments of measured IR- and Raman spectra were done via quantum-mechanical calculations. Additionally, the thermal behavior of HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} was investigated. - Graphical abstract: The new high-pressure compound HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} is built up from a three-dimensional network of BO4 tetrahedra and BO{sub 3} groups, which incorporates Li{sup +} ions in channels along the b-axis. In this paper, the synthesis, the crystal structure, and the properties of HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} are described. Highlights: > Synthesis of a new lithium borate with the composition HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} at high pressure. > In contrast to the non-centrosymmetric phase LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}, this high-pressure phase is centrosymmetric. > First example of ternary alkali borates exhibiting threefold bridging oxygen atoms.

  1. Two-stage Triassic exhumation of HP-UHP terranes in the western Dabie orogen of China: Constraints from structural geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sanzhong; Kusky, Timothy M.; Zhao, Guochun; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Guowei; Kopp, Heidrun; Wang, Lu

    2010-07-01

    Abundant exposures of widely-distributed HP-UHP metamorphic rocks in the western part of the Dabie orogen enable us to study the tectonic evolution of HP-UHP terranes associated with the world's largest preserved continental subduction zone. Previous tectonic models for the Dabie orogen were based largely on metamorphic studies, most of them lacking significant structural constraints. We present a comprehensive structural analysis based on detailed structural geology. The results suggest that syn-UHP (D0 at 241-231 Ma) and syn-HP (D1 at 225-215 Ma) southeast-vergent thrusting formed a series of stacked structural slices. This was followed by southeast-vergent folding under amphibolite facies conditions (D2 at 215-205 Ma); then a third generation of flexural folding occurred at shallow levels (D3 at 200-184 Ma). This leads us to proposes a two-stage Triassic exhumation model in which initially rapid vertical extrusion (D0-D1) from UHP to HP conditions to lower crustal levels is followed by slow southeastward extrusion (D3) from lower crustal levels to the Earth's surface. The tectonic model combines the early southeastward vertical extrusion with the later southeastward lateral extrusion, revealing two different stages and thus different types of Triassic extrusion for the exhumation of HP-UHP rocks in the Dabie orogen. The first stage extrusion occurred in the Middle Triassic, whereas the second stage extrusion lasted from the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic. These two extrusion episodes correlate with the two stages of Triassic exhumation of the Dabie HP-UHP rocks, respectively, during continental collision.

  2. Atmospheric Ar and Ne trapped in coesite eclogite during Late Miocene (U)HP metamorphism: implications for the recycling of noble gases in subduction zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, S.; Das, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    Several isotopic methods, including 40Ar/39Ar dating of phengite, have been used to determine the timing and duration of (U)HP metamorphism. However, in some (U)HP terranes phengite 40Ar/39Ar data , has yielded anomalously old ages interpreted to result from the presence of extraneous Ar (i.e., either inherited or excess Ar). We analyzed Ar and Ne extracted from phengite and omphacite from coesite eclogite in the Papua New Guinea (U)HP terrane to 1) assess the reliability of 40Ar/39Ar phengite ages to record the timing of (U)HP metamorphism in the youngest (U)HP terrane on Earth, and 2) to assess the non-radiogenic trapped Ar and Ne compositions in minerals that crystallized during subduction zone metamorphism. Step heat experiments on irradiated phengite yielded a 40Ar/39Ar weighted mean age of 8.31 +/- 0.32 Ma (2σ) corresponding to ~88% 39Ar released. These results are concordant with previously published 238U/206Pb zircon ages, and nearly concordant with a Lu-Hf garnet isochron age, both obtained on the same sample. Results suggest that phengite reliably records the timing of peak (U)HP metamorphism and that excess 40Ar is not present in this coesite eclogite. Step heat experiments on irradiated phengite and pyroxene yielded 38Ar/36Ar above atmospheric values (>0.1885). These higher 38Ar/36Ar ratios from outgassed irradiated samples results from reactor-produced 38ArCl likely due to the presence of Cl-derived from fluid inclusions (i.e., via the nuclear reaction 37Cl(n,γ)38Cl(β)38Ar). The high temperature release of 38ArCl may result from smaller fluid inclusions (<1-2 μm). To further investigate the composition of non-radiogenic trapped Ar and Ne in coesite eclogite, step heat experiments were performed on multiple unirradiated splits of phengite and omphacite. Both minerals yielded atmospheric 38Ar/36Ar, including for high temperature (>1400°C) steps. The abundance of radiogenic 40Ar corresponds to the respective [K] and ~8 Ma age of minerals also

  3. High-Pressure Spark Plasma Sintering (HP SPS): A Promising and Reliable Method for Preparing Ti–Al–Si Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Knaislová, Anna; Novák, Pavel; Cygan, Sławomir; Jaworska, Lucyna; Cabibbo, Marcello

    2017-01-01

    Ti–Al–Si alloys are prospective material for high-temperature applications. Due to low density, good mechanical properties, and oxidation resistance, these intermetallic alloys can be used in the aerospace and automobile industries. Ti–Al–Si alloys were prepared by powder metallurgy using reactive sintering, milling, and spark plasma sintering. One of the novel SPS techniques is high-pressure spark plasma sintering (HP SPS), which was tested in this work and applied to a Ti–10Al–20Si intermetallic alloy using a pressure of 6 GPa and temperatures ranging from 1318 K (1045 °C) to 1597 K (1324 °C). The low-porosity consolidated samples consist of Ti5Si3 silicides in an aluminide (TiAl) matrix. The hardness varied between 720 and 892 HV 5. PMID:28772824

  4. Improved O2-tolerance in variants of a H2-evolving [NiFe]-hydrogenase from Klebsiella oxytoca HP1.

    PubMed

    Huang, Gang-Feng; Wu, Xiao-Bing; Bai, Li-Ping; Liu, Ke; Jiang, Li-Jing; Long, Min-Nan; Chen, Qing-Xi

    2015-04-02

    In this study, we investigated the mechanism of O2 tolerance of Klebsiella oxytoca HP1 H2-evolving hydrogenase 3 (KHyd3) by mutational analysis and three-dimensional structure modeling. Results revealed that certain surface amino acid residues of KHyd3 large subunit, in particular those at the outer entrance of the gas channel, have a visible effect on its oxygen tolerance. Additionally, solution pH, immobilization and O2 partial pressure also affect KHyd3 O2-tolerance to some extent. We propose that the extent of KHyd3 O2-tolerance is determined by a balance between the rate of O2 access to the active center through gas channels and the deoxidation rate of the oxidized active center. Based on our findings, two higher O2-tolerant KHyd3 mutations G300E and G300M were developed.

  5. Metamorphism and exhumation of the youngest known HP/UHP terrane on Earth, eastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, S. L.; Webb, L. E.; Monteleone, B. D.; Little, T. A.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Chappell, J. L.

    2005-12-01

    Variably retrogressed Late Miocene-Pliocene HP/UHP rocks occur in the exhumed lower plates of the D'Entrecasteaux Islands (DI) metamorphic core complexes (mccs) in eastern Papua New Guinea (PNG). There, HP/UHP exhumation occurred in a rapidly extending (>2 cm/yr) region where the Woodlark Basin seafloor spreading system (sfs) terminates into a zone of rifting. The evolution of this complex plate boundary zone involved northward subduction of the Australian continental margin beneath oceanic lithosphere, a collision that led to HP/UHP metamorphism of Jurassic-Cretaceous sediments and basalts, and southward obduction of oceanic crust and mantle (Papuan Ultramafic Belt). P-T-t-D data reveal the variability in paths followed by rocks as they were subducted and subsequently exhumed via top-to-the-north normal-sense motion on kilometer scale mylonitic shear zones. In situ ion probe analyses on zircons and garnets yielded trace and REE patterns indicative of coeval growth under eclogite facies conditions and 206Pb/238U zircon ages ranging from 7.9-2.8 Ma. In western Fergusson Island a 7.9 Ma eclogite contains coesite, recognized petrographically as an inclusion in omphacite, and confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. Garnet - cpx - phengite barometry (~26 kbar) underestimates peak pressures required by the presence of coesite. Thermochronology (40Ar/39Ar, fission track and (U-Th)/He) on host felsic gneisses record rapid cooling during exhumation at average rates of >1 cm/yr, and indicate lower plate rocks reached shallow crustal levels by ~1.5 Ma. On Goodenough Island, in situ ion probe analyses on zircon inclusions in garnet from retrogressed eclogite lenses within host felsic gneisses yielded 206Pb/238U ages of 2.8-2.9 Ma. Zircon/garnet REE patterns support an interpretation of coeval growth at (retrograde?) HP conditions. 206Pb/238U ages for the youngest zircon population from felsic host gneisses are concordant with in situ zircon analyses from retrogressed eclogite lenses

  6. Testing of UH-60A helicopter transmission in NASA Lewis 2240-kW (3000-hp) facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, A. M.; Oswald, F. B.; Coe, H. H.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Army's UH-60A Black Hawk 2240-kW (3000-hp) class, twin-engine helicopter transmission was tested at the NASA Lewis Research Center. The vibration and efficiency test results will be used to enhance the data base for similar-class helicopters. Most of the data were obtained for a matrix of test conditions of 50 to 100 percent of rated rotor speed and 20 to 100 percent of rated input power. The transmission's mechanical efficiency at 100 percent of rated power was 97.3 and 97.5 percent with its inlet oil maintained at 355 and 372 K (180 and 210 F), respectively. The highest vibration reading was 72 g's rms at the upper housing side wall. Other vibration levels measured near the gear meshes are reported.

  7. Analysis and testing of the HP-R-214 dome monitor cable from Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, E.H.; Dandini, V.J.

    1986-03-01

    After the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, two sections of a cable connected to the HP-R-214 dome monitor were removed for testing. One section had been directly exposed to the accident environment: the other had been installed in conduit. In addition, an unused section of cable, which was from the same reel as the dome monitor cable, was available as a control sample. These three sections were subjected to material tests, including density profiling, tensile-strength and elongation tests, and chemical analyses, to assess the effect of the accident on the cable and to identify whether any differences existed between the in-conduit and out-of-conduit sections.

  8. Protein folding simulations of 2D HP model by the genetic algorithm based on optimal secondary structures.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chenhua; Yang, Xiangbo; He, Zhihong

    2010-06-01

    In this paper, based on the evolutionary Monte Carlo (EMC) algorithm, we have made four points of ameliorations and propose a so-called genetic algorithm based on optimal secondary structure (GAOSS) method to predict efficiently the protein folding conformations in the two-dimensional hydrophobic-hydrophilic (2D HP) model. Nine benchmarks are tested to verify the effectiveness of the proposed approach and the results show that for the listed benchmarks GAOSS can find the best solutions so far. It means that reasonable, effective and compact secondary structures (SSs) can avoid blind searches and can reduce time consuming significantly. On the other hand, as examples, we discuss the diversity of protein GSC for the 24-mer and 85-mer sequences. Several GSCs have been found by GAOSS and some of the conformations are quite different from each other. It would be useful for the designing of protein molecules. GAOSS would be an efficient tool for the protein structure predictions (PSP).

  9. TAE+ 5.1 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.1 (HP9000 SERIES 300/400 VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    programs to display and control the user interfaces. Since the WPTs access the workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides a means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Release 4, and the Open Software Foundation's Motif. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.2 was released in 1993. TAE Plus 5.2 is expected to be available on media suitable for seven different machine platforms: 1) DEC VAX computers running VMS (TK50 cartridge in VAX BACKUP format), 2) IBM RS/6000 series workstations running AIX (.25 inch tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), 3) DEC RISC workstations running ULTRIX (TK50 cartridge in UNIX tar format), 4) HP9000 Series 300

  10. New petrological data on the hp-rocks of the zone of pfunds (lower engadine window, Switzerland/Austria).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertle, R. J.; Koller, F.; Frank, W.

    2003-04-01

    Within the Engadine Window of the western Eastern Alps, which exposes HP-LT-rocks, penninic units are exposed. 3 main units can be differentiated (from bottom to top): Zone of Pfunds (Valais), Tasna unit (Brianconnais), Fimber unit (Piemontais). In this paper we discuss new occurrences of HP-minerals in the Zone of Pfunds at Piz Mundin which are typical for subduction related metamorphism. The Piz Mundin represents an ophiolitic sequence that is overprinted by HP-LT-metamorphism during the Tertiary. The geochemistry of the basalts identifies them as tholeiitic basalts. The sediments covering the basalts are of Cretaceous age. BOUSQUET 1998 reports carpholite, high-Si-phengite and glaucophane from that region. Crossite - following him can be found in late veins within the basalts. His petrological calculations define pressures up to 15 kbar at 380^o C based on carpholite and glaucophane. He distinguished a region with carpholite and UCHP-metamorphism from a region without carpholite and "normal" HP-metamorphism. During detailed geological mapping of the first author it was possible to demonstrate that the occurrence of carpholite is limited by the bulk chemistry of the metasedimentary host rock. Metasediments with clastic input show no carpholite - there might be too much detrital feldspar in the sediment, preventing the development of carpholite. Moreover in the basic rocks (metapillows and metabasalts) it was possible to find also metamorphic clinopyroxen and aragonite. Clinopyroxene is rimmed by glaucophane and/or stilpnomelane. Glaucophane itselfs shows high zonation: blue core with pigments, rimmed by an inclusion-free blue amphibole which itself is rimmed by a slightly green to colourless amphibole (actinolite? or tremolite). The metamorphic pyroxene shows about 25 % jadeite- and 40 % acmite-component. HP-conditions might be higher than those given by BOUSQUET et al. 2002 as pyroxene is a precursor of glaucophane. The new findings of metamorphic aragonite are

  11. TAE+ 5.1 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.1 (HP9000 SERIES 300/400 VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    programs to display and control the user interfaces. Since the WPTs access the workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides a means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Release 4, and the Open Software Foundation's Motif. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.2 was released in 1993. TAE Plus 5.2 is expected to be available on media suitable for seven different machine platforms: 1) DEC VAX computers running VMS (TK50 cartridge in VAX BACKUP format), 2) IBM RS/6000 series workstations running AIX (.25 inch tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), 3) DEC RISC workstations running ULTRIX (TK50 cartridge in UNIX tar format), 4) HP9000 Series 300

  12. Microbial synthesis of a novel terpolyester P(LA-co-3HB-co-3HP) from low-cost substrates.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yilin; Meng, Dechuan; Wu, Linping; Chen, Jinchun; Wu, Qiong; Chen, Guo-Qiang

    2017-03-01

    Polylactide (PLA) is a bio-based plastic commonly synthesized by chemical catalytic reaction using lactic acid (LA) as a substrate. Here, novel LA-containing terpolyesters, namely, P[LA-co-3-hydroxybutyrate (3HB)-co-3-hydroxypropionate (3HP)], short as PLBP, were successfully synthesized for the first time by a recombinant Escherichia coli harbouring polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase from Pseudomonas stutzeri (PhaC1Ps ) with 4-point mutations at E130D, S325T, S477G and Q481K, and 3-hydroxypropionyl-CoA (3HP-CoA) synthesis pathway from glycerol, 3-hydroxybutyryl-CoA (3HB-CoA) as well as lactyl-CoA (LA-CoA) pathways from glucose. Combining these pathways with the PHA synthase mutant phaC1Ps (E130D S325T S477G Q481K), the random terpolyester P(LA-co-3HB-co-3HP), or PLBP, was structurally confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance to consist of 2 mol% LA, 90 mol% 3HB, and 8 mol% 3HP respectively. Remarkably, the PLBP terpolyester was produced from low-cost sustainable glycerol and glucose. Monomer ratios of PLBP could be regulated by ratios of glycerol to glucose. Other terpolyester thermal and mechanical properties can be manipulated by adjusting the monomer ratios. More PLBP applications are to be expected.

  13. HP1a Targets the Drosophila KDM4A Demethylase to a Subset of Heterochromatic Genes to Regulate H3K36me3 Levels

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chia-Hui; Paulson, Ariel; Abmayr, Susan M.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2012-01-01

    The KDM4 subfamily of JmjC domain-containing demethylases mediates demethylation of histone H3K36me3/me2 and H3K9me3/me2. Several studies have shown that human and yeast KDM4 proteins bind to specific gene promoters and regulate gene expression. However, the genome-wide distribution of KDM4 proteins and the mechanism of genomic-targeting remain elusive. We have previously identified Drosophila KDM4A (dKDM4A) as a histone H3K36me3 demethylase that directly interacts with HP1a. Here, we performed H3K36me3 ChIP-chip analysis in wild type and dkdm4a mutant embryos to identify genes regulated by dKDM4A demethylase activity in vivo. A subset of heterochromatic genes that show increased H3K36me3 levels in dkdm4a mutant embryos overlap with HP1a target genes. More importantly, binding to HP1a is required for dKDM4A-mediated H3K36me3 demethylation at a subset of heterochromatic genes. Collectively, these results show that HP1a functions to target the H3K36 demethylase dKDM4A to heterochromatic genes in Drosophila. PMID:22761891

  14. Recruitment of the cohesin loading factor NIPBL to DNA double-strand breaks depends on MDC1, RNF168 and HP1{gamma} in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Keiji; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Mitsutake, Norisato; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} NIPBL is recruited to DSBs. {yields} Localization of NIPBL to DSBs is regulated by MDC1 and RNF168. {yields} HP1{gamma} is required for NIPBL accumulation at DSBs. -- Abstract: The cohesin loading factor NIPBL is required for cohesin to associate with chromosomes and plays a role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Although the NIPBL homolog Scc2 is recruited to an enzymatically generated DSB and promotes cohesin-dependent DSB repair in yeast, the mechanism of the recruitment remains poorly understood. Here we show that the human NIPBL is recruited to the sites of DNA damage generated by micro-irradiation as well as to the sites of DSBs induced by homing endonuclease, I-PpoI. The recruitment of NIPBL was impaired by RNAi-mediated knockdown of MDC1 or RNF168, both of which also accumulate at DSBs. We also show that the recruitment of NIPBL to the sites of DNA damage is mediated by its C-terminal region containing HEAT repeats and Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) interacting motif. Furthermore, NIPBL accumulation at damaged sites was also compromised by HP1{gamma} depletion. Taken together, our study reveals that human NIPBL is a novel protein recruited to DSB sites, and the recruitment is controlled by MDC1, RNF168 and HP1{gamma}.

  15. Full load shop testing of 18,000-hp gas turbine driven centrifugal compressor for offshore platform service: Evaluation of rotor dynamics performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. G.; Simpson, M.

    1985-01-01

    The results for in-plant full load testing of a 13.4 MW (18000 HP) gas turbine driven centrifugal compressor are presented and compared to analytical predictions of compressor rotor stability. Unique problems from both oil seals and labyrinth gas seals were encountered during the testing. The successful resolution of these problems are summarized.

  16. Evaluation of the Efficacy of the H. pylori Protein HP-NAP as a Therapeutic Tool for Treatment of Bladder Cancer in an Orthotopic Murine Model.

    PubMed

    Codolo, Gaia; Munari, Fabio; Fassan, Matteo; de Bernard, Marina

    2015-05-29

    Bladder cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the urogenital tract. Intravesical injection of Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the gold standard treatment for the high-grade non-muscle invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). However, since the treatment-related side effects are relevant, newer biological response modifiers with a better benefit/side effects ratio are needed. The tumour microenvironment can influence both tumour development and therapy efficacy. In order to obtain a good model, it is desirable to implant tumour cells in the organ from which the cancer originates. In this protocol, we describe a method for establishing a tumour in the bladder cavity of female mice and subsequent delivery of therapeutic agents; the latter are exemplified by our use of Helicobacter pylori neutrophil activating protein (HP-NAP). A preliminary chemical burn of the mucosa, followed by the injection of mouse urothelial carcinoma cell line MB49 via urethral catheterization, enables the cells to attach to the bladder mucosa. After a period, required to allow an initial proliferation of the cells, mice are treated with HP-NAP, administrated again via catheterization. The anti-tumour activity of HP-NAP is evaluated comparing the tumour volume, the extent of necrosis and the degree of vascularization between vehicle- and HP-NAP-treated animals.

  17. Hyperforin/HP-β-Cyclodextrin Enhances Mechanosensitive Ca2+ Signaling in HaCaT Keratinocytes and in Atopic Skin Ex Vivo Which Accelerates Wound Healing

    PubMed Central

    Takada, Hiroya; Yonekawa, Jun; Matsumoto, Masami; Sokabe, Masahiro

    2017-01-01

    Cutaneous wound healing is accelerated by mechanical stretching, and treatment with hyperforin, a major component of a traditional herbal medicine and a known TRPC6 activator, further enhances the acceleration. We recently revealed that this was due to the enhancement of ATP-Ca2+ signaling in keratinocytes by hyperforin treatment. However, the low aqueous solubility and easy photodegradation impede the topical application of hyperforin for therapeutic purposes. We designed a compound hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin- (HP-β-CD-) tetracapped hyperforin, which had increased aqueous solubility and improved photoprotection. We assessed the physiological effects of hyperforin/HP-β-CD on wound healing in HaCaT keratinocytes using live imaging to observe the ATP release and the intracellular Ca2+ increase. In response to stretching (20%), ATP was released only from the foremost cells at the wound edge; it then diffused to the cells behind the wound edge and activated the P2Y receptors, which caused propagating Ca2+ waves via TRPC6. This process might facilitate wound closure, because the Ca2+ response and wound healing were inhibited in parallel by various inhibitors of ATP-Ca2+ signaling. We also applied hyperforin/HP-β-CD on an ex vivo skin model of atopic dermatitis and found that hyperforin/HP-β-CD treatment for 24 h improved the stretch-induced Ca2+ responses and oscillations which failed in atopic skin. PMID:28210627

  18. Switching the JLab Accelerator Operations Environment from an HP-UX Unix-based to a PC/Linux-based environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mcguckin, Theodore

    2008-10-01

    The Jefferson Lab Accelerator Controls Environment (ACE) was predominantly based on the HP-UX Unix platform from 1987 through the summer of 2004. During this period the Accelerator Machine Control Center (MCC) underwent a major renovation which included introducing Redhat Enterprise Linux machines, first as specialized process servers and then gradually as general login servers. As computer programs and scripts required to run the accelerator were modified, and inherent problems with the HP-UX platform compounded, more development tools became available for use with Linux and the MCC began to be converted over. In May 2008 the last HP-UX Unix login machine was removed from the MCC, leaving only a few Unix-based remote-login servers still available. This presentation will explore the process of converting an operational Control Room environment from the HP-UX to Linux platform as well as the many hurdles that had to be overcome throughout the transition period (including a discussion of

  19. dDsk2 regulates H2Bub1 and RNA polymerase II pausing at dHP1c complex target genes.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Roman; Tisserand, Johan; Font-Burgada, Joan; Reina, Oscar; Coch, Laura; Attolini, Camille Stephan-Otto; Garcia-Bassets, Ivan; Azorín, Fernando

    2015-04-28

    dDsk2 is a conserved extraproteasomal ubiquitin receptor that targets ubiquitylated proteins for degradation. Here we report that dDsk2 plays a nonproteolytic function in transcription regulation. dDsk2 interacts with the dHP1c complex, localizes at promoters of developmental genes and is required for transcription. Through the ubiquitin-binding domain, dDsk2 interacts with H2Bub1, a modification that occurs at dHP1c complex-binding sites. H2Bub1 is not required for binding of the complex; however, dDsk2 depletion strongly reduces H2Bub1. Co-depletion of the H2Bub1 deubiquitylase dUbp8/Nonstop suppresses this reduction and rescues expression of target genes. RNA polymerase II is strongly paused at promoters of dHP1c complex target genes and dDsk2 depletion disrupts pausing. Altogether, these results suggest that dDsk2 prevents dUbp8/Nonstop-dependent H2Bub1 deubiquitylation at promoters of dHP1c complex target genes and regulates RNA polymerase II pausing. These results expand the catalogue of nonproteolytic functions of ubiquitin receptors to the epigenetic regulation of chromatin modifications.

  20. Cross-Validation of the Spanish HP-Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Confirmed with Some Cross-Cultural Differences

    PubMed Central

    Alcorta-Garza, Adelina; San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Soler-González, Jorge; Roig, Helena; Vivanco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Context: Medical educators agree that empathy is essential for physicians' professionalism. The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP) was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care. Although extensive support for its validity and reliability is available, the authors recognize the necessity to examine psychometrics of the JSE-HP in different socio-cultural contexts to assure the psychometric soundness of this instrument. The first aim of this study was to confirm its psychometric properties in the cross-cultural context of Spain and Latin American countries. The second aim was to measure the influence of social and cultural factors on the development of medical empathy in health practitioners. Methods: The original English version of the JSE-HP was translated into International Spanish using back-translation procedures. The Spanish version of the JSE-HP was administered to 896 physicians from Spain and 13 Latin American countries. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation (promax) to allow for correlation among the resulting factors, followed by a second analysis, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two theoretical models, one based on the English JSE-HP and another on the first Spanish student version of the JSE (JSE-S), were tested. Demographic variables were compared using group comparisons. Results: A total of 715 (80%) surveys were returned fully completed. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the JSE for the entire sample was 0.84. The psychometric properties of the Spanish JSE-HP matched those of the original English JSE-HP. However, the Spanish JSE-S model proved more appropriate than the original English model for the sample in this study. Group comparisons among physicians classified by gender, medical specialties, cultural and cross-cultural backgrounds yielded

  1. Comparative analysis of the biological effects of the endodontic bioactive cements MTA Angelus, MTA Repair HP and NeoMTA Plus on human dental pulp stem cells.

    PubMed

    Tomás-Catalá, C J; Collado-González, M; García-Bernal, D; Oñate-Sánchez, R E; Forner, L; Llena, C; Lozano, A; Castelo-Baz, P; Moraleda, J M; Rodríguez-Lozano, F J

    2017-09-11

    To evaluate the biological effects in vitro of MTA Angelus (MTA-Ang; Angelus, Londrina, PR, Brazil), MTA Repair HP (MTA-HP; Angelus,) and NeoMTA Plus (NeoMTA-P; Avalon Biomed Inc, Bradenton, FL, USA) on human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs). Cell viability and cell migration assays were performed using eluates of each material. To evaluate cell morphology and cell attachment to the different materials, hDPSCs were directly seeded onto the material surfaces and analyzed by immunocytofluorescence and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. The chemical composition of the materials was determined by energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and eluates were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Statistical analysis was performed with analysis of variance and Bonferroni or Tukey post-test (α <0.05). Undiluted MTA-Ang, MTA-HP and NeoMTA-P displayed a significant increase in cell viability greater than that obtained using complete medium alone (control) (*p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001). Moreover, a cell migration assay revealed cell migration rates after incubation with extracts of MTA-Ang, MTA-HP and NeoMTA-P, that were similar to levels obtained in the control group. In addition, stretched cytoskeletal F-actin fibres were detected in the cells treated with the three material extracts. SEM studies revealed a high degree of cell proliferation and attachment on all three materials. EDX analysis demonstrated similar weight percentages of C, O and Ca in all three materials, while other elements such as Al, Si and S were also found. MTA-Ang, MTA-HP, and NeoMTA-P were associated with biological effects on hDPSCs in terms of cell proliferation, morphology, migration and attachment. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Analysis of acute-phase proteins, AHSG, C3, CLI, HP and SAA, reveals distinctive expression patterns associated with breast, colorectal and lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Dowling, Paul; Clarke, Colin; Hennessy, Kim; Torralbo-Lopez, Beatriz; Ballot, Jo; Crown, John; Kiernan, Ingrid; O'Byrne, Kenneth J; Kennedy, M John; Lynch, Vincent; Clynes, Martin

    2012-08-15

    Early detection, clinical management and disease recurrence monitoring are critical areas in cancer treatment in which specific biomarker panels are likely to be very important in each of these key areas. We have previously demonstrated that levels of alpha-2-heremans-schmid-glycoprotein (AHSG), complement component C3 (C3), clusterin (CLI), haptoglobin (HP) and serum amyloid A (SAA) are significantly altered in serum from patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lung. Here, we report the abundance levels for these proteins in serum samples from patients with advanced breast cancer, colorectal cancer (CRC) and lung cancer compared to healthy controls (age and gender matched) using commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Logistic regression (LR) models were fitted to the resulting data, and the classification ability of the proteins was evaluated using receiver-operating characteristic curve and leave-one-out cross-validation (LOOCV). The most accurate individual candidate biomarkers were C3 for breast cancer [area under the curve (AUC) = 0.89, LOOCV = 73%], CLI for CRC (AUC = 0.98, LOOCV = 90%), HP for small cell lung carcinoma (AUC = 0.97, LOOCV = 88%), C3 for lung adenocarcinoma (AUC = 0.94, LOOCV = 89%) and HP for squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (AUC = 0.94, LOOCV = 87%). The best dual combination of biomarkers using LR analysis were found to be AHSG + C3 (AUC = 0.91, LOOCV = 83%) for breast cancer, CLI + HP (AUC = 0.98, LOOCV = 92%) for CRC, C3 + SAA (AUC = 0.97, LOOCV = 91%) for small cell lung carcinoma and HP + SAA for both adenocarcinoma (AUC = 0.98, LOOCV = 96%) and squamous cell carcinoma of the lung (AUC = 0.98, LOOCV = 84%). The high AUC values reported here indicated that these candidate biomarkers have the potential to discriminate accurately between control and cancer groups both individually and in combination with other proteins. Copyright © 2011 UICC.

  3. Stability of Basalt plus Anhydrite plus Calcite at HP-HT: Implications for Venus, the Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Treiman, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    "Canali" observed at Venus surface by Magellan are evidence for very long melt flows, but their composition and origin remain uncertain. The hypothesis of water-rich flow is not reasonable regarding the temperature at Venus surface. The length of these channels could not be explained by a silicate melt composition but more likely, by a carbonate-sulfate melt which has a much lower viscosity (Kargel et al 1994). One hypothesis is that calcite CaCO3 and anhydrite CaSO4 which are alteration products of basalts melted during meteorite impacts. A famous example recorded on the Earth (Chicxulub) produced melt and gas rich in carbon and sulfur. Calcite and sulfate evaporites are also present on Mars surface, associated with basalts. An impact on these materials might release C- and S-rich melt or fluid. Another type of planetary phenomenon (affecting only the Earth) might provoke a high pressure destabilization of basalt+anhydrite+calcite. Very high contents of C and S are measured in some Earth s magmas, either dissolved or in the form of crystals (Luhr 2008). As shown by the high H content and high fO2 of primary igneous anhydrite-bearing lavas, the high S content in their source may be explained by subduction of an anhydrite-bearing oceanic crust, either directly (by melting followed by eruption) or indirectly (by release of S-rich melt or fluid that metasomatize the mantle) . Calcite is a major product of oceanic sedimentation and alteration of the crust. Therefore, sulfate- and calcite-rich material may be subducted to high pressures and high temperatures (HP-HT) and release S- and C-rich melts or fluids which could influence the composition of subduction zone lavas or gases. Both phenomena - meteorite impact and subduction - imply HP-HT conditions - although the P-T-time paths are different. Some HP experimental/theoretical studies have been performed on basalt/eclogite, calcite and anhydrite separately or on a combination of two. In this study we performed piston

  4. Stability of basalt+anhydrite+calcite at HP-HT: implications for Venus, the Earth and Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Treiman, A. H.

    2010-12-01

    “Canali” observed at Venus’ surface by Magellan are evidence for very long melt flows, but their composition and origin remain uncertain. The hypothesis of water-rich flow is not reasonable regarding Venus’ surface temperature. The length of these channels could not be explained by a silicate melt composition but more likely, by a carbonate-sulfate melt which has a much lower viscosity (Kargel et al 1994). One hypothesis is that calcite CaCO3 and anhydrite CaSO4 - which are alteration products of basalts - melted during meteorite impacts. A famous example recorded on the Earth (Chicxulub) produced melt and gas rich in carbon and sulfur. Calcite and sulfate evaporites are also present on Mars surface, associated with basalts. An impact on these materials may release C- and S-rich melt or fluid. Another type of planetary phenomenon (affecting only the Earth) might provoke a high pressure destabilization of basalt+anhydrite+calcite. Very high contents of C and S are measured in some Earth’s magmas, either dissolved or in the form of crystals (Luhr 2008). As shown by the high H content and high fO2 of primary igneous anhydrite-bearing lavas, the high S content in their source may be explained by the subduction of an anhydrite-bearing oceanic crust, either directly (by melting followed by eruption) or indirectly (by release of S-rich melt or fluid that metasomatize the mantle). Calcite is a major product of oceanic sedimentation and alteration of the crust. Therefore, sulfate- and calcite-rich material may be subducted to high pressures and high temperatures (HP-HT) and release S- and C-rich melts or fluids which could influence the composition of subduction zone lavas or gases. Both phenomena - meteorite impact and subduction - imply HP-HT conditions - although the P-T-time paths are different. Some HP experimental/theoretical studies have been performed on basalt/eclogite, calcite and anhydrite separately or on a combination of two. In this study we

  5. Development of voltage contrast defect inspection technique for line monitoring 300mm ULSI hp90 logic contact layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Fukunaga, Yuji; Yamasaki, Masayoshi; Nagai, Takamitsu; Yamazaki, Yuichiro

    2005-05-01

    We had investigated the voltage contrast defect inspection technique using 300mm wafer size hp 90nm contact logic devices for line-monitoring implementation. The investigation was carried out on the basis of signal intensity analysis of the voltage contrast image in relation to landing energy, charge control voltage, beam current, diffusion types and charge quantities of wafer surface. As a results, it was determined that voltage contrast was not only dependent on the balance between the surface potential of the Si-oxide surface due to charge-up and surface potential of contact, but it was also dependent on the balance between the surface potential of contact and each diffusion layer. By adjusting the parameters of landing energy, charge control voltage and beam current on basis of D.O.E. (Design of an experiment using 3 x 3 parameters) for contact logic device inspection, we were able to optimize EB condition for the best sensitivity, namely, 100% capture rate, 20% nuisance rate, and the best signal intensity of voltage contrast defect. In the next step, we attempted to reduce the nuisance rate. We adopted on i-ADC (In-line automated defect mode clas sification) function, namely, a nuisance filter. By adjusting the parameters of intensity, polarity, and size of nuisance defects, we were able to confirm the reduction of the nuisance rate less than 0.5%. Using this technique, the inspection of 300mm wafer size hp 90nm contact logic production wafer for line monitoring was carried out. In the case of line monitoring, the required inspection performances were robustness between different lots, and fast-throughput. On the basis of the results of the inspection, we confirmed that a nuisance rate of less than 0.5% between different lots could be achieved by using these techniques (optimized EB condition and nuisance filter).Robustness of inspection between different lots was achieved. In a further step, we attempted to achieve fast throughput. The target inspection time

  6. Pseudomorphs of Neotethyan Evaporites in Anatolia's HP/LT belts - Aptian basin-wide pelagic gypsum deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, Franziska; Oberhänsli, Roland; Pourteau, Amaury; Immenhauser, Adrian; Candan, Osman

    2015-04-01

    Rosetta Marble was defined in SW Anatolia as 3D-radiating textures of dm-to-m-long calcite rods in the HP/LT metamorphosed Mid-Cretaceous pelagic carbonate sequence of the Ören Unit. Rosetta Marble in the type locality are interbedded with meta-chert beds, and may constitute entire carbonate beds. Rare aragonite relicts and Sr-rich, fibrous calcite pseudomorphs after aragonite witness the HP metamorphic imprint of this sequence during the closure of a Neotethyan oceanic domain during latest Cretaceous-Palaeocene times. We investigated the Rosetta Marble of the Ören Unit, as well as other known and newly found localities in the Tavşanlı and Afyon zones, and the Alanya Massif and Malatya area, to decipher the metamorphic, diagenetic and sedimentologic significance of these uncommon textures. Based on field, petrographic and geochemical investigations, we document a wide variety of Rosetta-type textures. A striking resemblance with well-known gypsum morphologies (e.g. shallow-tail, palm-tree textures) leads us to argue that Rosetta Marble was initially composed of giant gypsum crystals (selenite). The absence of anhydrite relicts of pseudomorphs indicate that gypsum transformed into calcite soon after the deposition by the mean of a sulphate reduction reaction. The gypsum-to-calcite transformation requires that organic matter intervened as a reactant phase. Mid Cretaceous oceanic domains in the Tethyan realm are characterised by overall anoxic conditions that allowed the preservation of organic material. Rosetta Marble exposures are widely distributed over 600 km along the Neotethyan suture zone. During deepening of the Neotethyan ocean in Mid Cretaceous times, basin-wide and cyclic sedimentation of gypsum and radiolarite occurred. The origin of high-salinity waters needed for gypsum precipitation was located at shelf levels. Density and gravity effects forced the brines to cascade downwards into the deep ocean. Favorable climatic conditions trigger the formation

  7. Lu-Hf garnet geochronology applied to plate boundary zones: Insights from the (U)HP terrane exhumed within the Woodlark Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirakparvar, N. A.; Baldwin, S. L.; Vervoort, J. D.

    2011-09-01

    High-pressure and ultra high-pressure (U)HP metamorphic rocks occur in many of the world's major orogenic belts, suggesting that subduction of continental lithosphere is a geologically important process. Despite the widespread occurrence of these rocks, relatively little is known about the timescales associated with (U)HP metamorphism. This is because most (U)HP terranes are tectonically overprinted and juxtaposed against rocks with a different history. An exception to this are the Late Miocene (U)HP metamorphic rocks found in active metamorphic core complexes (MCC) in the Woodlark Rift of southeastern Papua New Guinea. This region provides a rare opportunity to study the garnet Lu-Hf isotopic record of (U)HP metamorphism in a terrane that is not tectonically overprinted. In order to constrain the timing of garnet growth relative to the history of (U)HP metamorphism and the evolution of the Woodlark Rift, Lu-Hf ages were determined, in conjunction with measurements of Lu and major element zoning, for garnets from three metamorphic rocks. Garnets from the three samples yielded different ages that, instead of recording the spatial and temporal evolution associated with a single metamorphic event, provide information on the timing of three separate plate boundary events. The youngest Lu-Hf age determined was 7.1 ± 0.7 Ma for garnets in a Late Miocene coesite eclogite. The age is interpreted to record the time when a garnet-bearing partial melt of the mantle crystallized within subducted continental lithosphere at (U)HP conditions. The young Lu-Hf age from the coesite eclogite is in contrast to a 68 ± 3.6 Ma Lu-Hf age obtained on large (1-2 cm) garnet porphyroblasts, from within the Pleistocene amphibolite facies shear zone carapace bounding exposures of (U)HP rocks in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands. This older age records the growth of garnet in response to continental subduction and ophiolite obduction in the region north and east of Australia during late Mesozoic

  8. Linking deep earth to surface processes in the Woodlark Rift of Papua New Guinea; a framework for understanding (U)HP exhumation globally

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldwin, S.; Fitzgerald, P. G.; Bermudez, M. A.; Webb, L. E.; Moucha, R.; Miller, S. R.; Catalano, J. P.; Zirakparvar, N. A.

    2012-12-01

    During the Cenozoic the leading edge of the AUS plate was subducted northwards beneath the forearc of oceanic island arc(s), during its north-northeast passage over a complexly structured mantle. Sediments and basalts were metamorphosed under (U)HP conditions to form blueschists and eclogites, and lower-grade metamorphic rocks that are now exposed throughout New Guinea, primarily south of, and structurally beneath, obducted ophiolites. In the Woodlark Rift the youngest (2-8 Ma) (U)HP rocks on Earth were exhumed from mantle depths (>90 km) at plate tectonic rates (1-4 cm yr-1) west of the active Woodlark Basin seafloor spreading center rift tip. How these (U)HP rocks were exhumed is the focus of an ongoing collaborative multidisciplinary project which aims to understand linkages between deep earth, plate tectonic, and surface processes in the Woodlark Rift. Since the Late Miocene, a regionally extensive subduction complex was exhumed on the southern-rifted margin of the Woodlark Basin (Pocklington Rise), and in the lower plates of the D'Entrecasteaux, Misima, and Dayman dome metamorphic core complexes. Late Miocene-to-Pliocene metamorphism of sediments and basalts preceded diachronous exhumation from east to west, in the same direction as rift propagation. In contrast the northern-rifted margin (Woodlark Rise) comprises mid-Miocene to Pliocene volcanic flows and pyroclastic material ranging in composition from basalt to rhyolite, with capping limestone. The age of volcanic rocks on the northern-rifted margin also youngs from east to west. Pliocene to active syn-rift volcanism on the Woodlark Rise and in the D'Entrecasteaux Islands is synchronous with (U)HP exhumation, and results from decompression melting of a relict mantle wedge. As lithospheric extension proceeds, volcanic compositions evolve from subduction zone geochemical signatures (i.e., negative HFSE anomalies) toward E-MORB. Preliminary mantle convection models investigate large-scale background mantle

  9. Real-time simulation of H-P noisy Schrödinger equation and Belavkin filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Naman; Parthasarathy, Harish; Upadhyay, D. K.

    2017-05-01

    The Hudson-Parthasarathy noisy Schrödinger equation is an infinite-dimensional differential equation where the noise operators—Creation, Annihilation and Conservation processes—take values in Boson Fock space. We choose a finite truncated basis of exponential vectors for the Boson Fock space and obtained the unitary evolution in a truncated orthonormal basis using the Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization process to the exponential vectors. Then, this unitary evolution is used to obtained the approximate evolution of the system state by tracing out over the bath space. This approximate evolution is compared to the exact Gorini-Kossakowski-Sudarshan-Lindblad equation for the system state. We also perform a computation of the rate of change of the Von Neumann entropy for the system assuming vacuum noise state and derive condition for entropy increase. Finally, by taking non-demolition measurement in the sense of Belavkin, we simulate the Belavkin quantum filter and show that the Frobenius norm of the error observables j_t(X)-π _t(X) becomes smaller with time for a class of observable X. Here j_t(X) is the H-P equation observable and π _t(X) is the Belavkin filter output observable. In last, we have derived an approximate expression for the filtered density and entropy of the system after filtering.

  10. Results of the regional intercomparison exercise for the determination of operational quantity HP(10) in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Saraví, M; Zaretzky, A; Lindner, C; Díaz, J; Walwyn, G; Amorim, R; De Souza, D; Gregori, B; Papadópulos, S; Meghzifene, A; Ferruz, P; Suárez, R Cruz

    2007-01-01

    Several intercomparison exercises were organised by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) on the determination of operational quantities at the regional or interregional basis. In the Latin American region an intercomparison for the determination of the operational quantity Hp(10) was completed mid-2004, as a follow-up to previous exercises carried out during the 1990s. Eighteen individual external monitoring services from nineteen Member States participated in the first phase. The second phase grouped 15 services that had participated in the first phase. Dosemeter irradiations in photon beams were done by four Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) of the region. The preparation of this exercises involved an audit by the IAEA SSDL, where reference irradiations were provided to all participants for verification of their systems. During the first phase (2002-2003) only 9 out of 18 services met the performance requirements for such monitoring services. Necessary corrective actions and procedure verification were implemented. During the second phase (2004) 11 out of 15 services fulfilled the performance criteria. This intercomparison shows that there has been improvement in the second phase and most participants demonstrated a satisfactory performance of the quantity tested.

  11. Efficiency transfer in the calibration of a coaxial p-type HpGe detector using the Monte Carlo method.

    PubMed

    Vargas, M Jurado; Díaz, N Cornejo; Sánchez, D Pérez

    2003-06-01

    Monte Carlo simulation was applied to the efficiency transfer exercise described in the EUROMET428 project (Appl. Radiat. Isot. 55 (2001) 493), evaluating the peak efficiencies in the energy range 60-2000 keV for a typical coaxial p-type HpGe detector and several types of source configuration: point sources located at various distances from the detector and a cylindrical box containing three matrices. The efficiency values were derived in two ways: (a) by direct calculation taking into account the physical dimensions of the detector provided by the supplier, and (b) by means of relative computation (efficiency transfer) taking also into consideration the known efficiency values for a reference point source. As expected, some significant discrepancies between the calculated and experimental values were found when a direct computation was made using the data provided by the supplier. On the contrary, the results for the peak efficiency derived by relative calculation by means of an efficiency transfer were in good agreement with the experimental values. The deviations found with this last procedure were generally below 5% for all the geometries considered, which is entirely satisfactory for the purposes of routine measurements.

  12. Nanosuspensions Containing Oridonin/HP-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes for Oral Bioavailability Enhancement via Improved Dissolution and Permeability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingwang; Zhang, Tianpeng; Lan, Yali; Wu, Baojian; Shi, Zhihai

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy via oral route of anticancer drugs offers much convenience and compliance to patients. However, oral chemotherapy has been challenged by limited absorption due to poor drug solubility and intestinal efflux. In this study, we aimed to develop a nanosuspension formulation of oridonin (Odn) using its cyclodextrin inclusion complexes to enhance oral bioavailability. Nanosuspensions containing Odn/2 hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (Odn-CICs) were prepared by a solvent evaporation followed by wet media milling technique. The nanosuspensions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and dissolution. The resulting nanosuspensions were approximately 313.8 nm in particle size and presented a microcrystal morphology. Nanosuspensions loading Odn-CICs dramatically enhanced the dissolution of Odn. Further, the intestinal effective permeability of Odn was markedly enhanced in the presence of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and poloxamer. Bioavailability studies showed that nanosuspensions with Odn-CICs can significantly promote the oral absorption of Odn with a relative bioavailability of 213.99% (Odn suspensions as reference). Odn itself possesses a moderate permeability and marginal intestinal metabolism. Thus, the enhanced bioavailability for Odn-CIC nanosuspensions can be attributed to improved dissolution and permeability by interaction with absorptive epithelia and anti-drug efflux. Nanosuspensions prepared from inclusion complexes may be a promising approach for the oral delivery of anticancer agents.

  13. A high frequency high power IGBT inverter drive for 45 HP/16,000 rpm brushless homopolar inductor motor

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.; Lin, F.

    1995-12-31

    A microprocessor-based ultra-high speed brushless homopolar inductor motor drive system (HiDrive) with no gearing and using a high frequency IGBT inverter switching at 32 kHz is described and discussed in this paper. The homopolar motor features a solid steel rotor without magnets, windings, or laminations, which allows the motor to be operated at very high speed. The HiDrive system achieves 16,000 RPM, 45 Hp continuously. The drive system discussed in this paper can be used to replace conventional motors and speed increasing gear boxes in very high speed industrial applications such as centrifuges, compressors, blowers, pumps, and machine tool spindles. The HiDrive system discussed in this paper is used to drive a compressor for nuclear power application. In this paper, the detailed descriptions of the motor construction, equivalent circuit, operation and control principle are offered. The IGBT inverter drive system design and controls including motor speed sensing, load angle control, synchronization, brake control, power device switchings, and thermal issues are addressed. The simulation results various test results, and the typical application examples of the high speed drives are also presented in this paper.

  14. H-P adaptive methods for finite element analysis of aerothermal loads in high-speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H. J.; Bass, J. M.; Tworzydlo, W.; Oden, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    The commitment to develop the National Aerospace Plane and Maneuvering Reentry Vehicles has generated resurgent interest in the technology required to design structures for hypersonic flight. The principal objective of this research and development effort has been to formulate and implement a new class of computational methodologies for accurately predicting fine scale phenomena associated with this class of problems. The initial focus of this effort was to develop optimal h-refinement and p-enrichment adaptive finite element methods which utilize a-posteriori estimates of the local errors to drive the adaptive methodology. Over the past year this work has specifically focused on two issues which are related to overall performance of a flow solver. These issues include the formulation and implementation (in two dimensions) of an implicit/explicit flow solver compatible with the hp-adaptive methodology, and the design and implementation of computational algorithm for automatically selecting optimal directions in which to enrich the mesh. These concepts and algorithms have been implemented in a two-dimensional finite element code and used to solve three hypersonic flow benchmark problems (Holden Mach 14.1, Edney shock on shock interaction Mach 8.03, and the viscous backstep Mach 4.08).

  15. Full Discretisations for Nonlinear Evolutionary Inequalities Based on Stiffly Accurate Runge-Kutta and hp-Finite Element Methods.

    PubMed

    Gwinner, J; Thalhammer, M

    The convergence of full discretisations by implicit Runge-Kutta and nonconforming Galerkin methods applied to nonlinear evolutionary inequalities is studied. The scope of applications includes differential inclusions governed by a nonlinear operator that is monotone and fulfills a certain growth condition. A basic assumption on the considered class of stiffly accurate Runge-Kutta time discretisations is a stability criterion which is in particular satisfied by the Radau IIA and Lobatto IIIC methods. In order to allow nonconforming hp-finite element approximations of unilateral constraints, set convergence of convex subsets in the sense of Glowinski-Mosco-Stummel is utilised. An appropriate formulation of the fully discrete variational inequality is deduced on the basis of a characteristic example of use, a Signorini-type initial-boundary value problem. Under hypotheses close to the existence theory of nonlinear first-order evolutionary equations and inequalities involving a monotone main part, a convergence result for the piecewise constant in time interpolant is established.

  16. UHT overprint of HP rocks? A case study from the Adula nappe complex (Central Alps, N Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumiati, Simone; Zanchetta, Stefano; Malaspina, Nadia; Poli, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The Adula-Cima Lunga nappe complex is located on the eastern flank of the Lepontine Dome and represents the highest of the Lower Penninic units of the Central Alps. The Adula nappe largely consists of orthogneiss and paragneiss of pre-Mesozoic origin, variably retrogressed eclogites preserved as boudins within paragneiss, minor ultramafic bodies and metasedimentary rocks of presumed Mesozoic age. The higher metamorphic conditions have been estimated for the peridotite lenses in the southern part of the nappe at pressure over 3.0 GPa and temperature of 800-850°C. Garnet lherzolite bodies crop out at three localities, from west to east: Cima di Gagnone, Alpe Arami and Mt. Duria. After the partial subduction of the European distal margin beneath the Africa-Adria margin, the HP rocks were overprinted by an upper amphibolite facies metamorphism that postdates the main phase of nappe stacking. In the southern sector of the Lepontine Dome, adjacent to the Insubric Fault, metamorphic conditions promoted extensive migmatization of both metasedimentary and metagranitoid rocks. In one single outcrop, at Monte Duria, garnet lherzolites occur in m-sized boudins hosted within partly granulitized amphibole-bearing and k-feldspar gneisses that contain also some decimeter-sized boudins of both mafic and metapelitic eclogites. This rock association is in turn embedded within the migmatitic gneisses that form most of the southern sector of the Adula nappe. Petrographic and chemical analyses indicate that garnet peridotite is composed of olivine (XMg=0.88), orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and garnet (Py68; Cr2O3 up to 1.45 wt%) with inclusions of Cr-rich spinel (up to Cr/(Al+Cr)=0.55) surrounded by kelyphitic symplectites of opx + cpx/amph + spl. These reaction produced double coronas, one composed of opx (former ol) and one composed of cpx + opx+ spl. In one kelyphite, we observed the uncommon occurrence of ZrO2 (baddeleyite) and ZrTi2O6 (srilankite). Tiny crystals of these two Zr

  17. An h-p Finite Element Vibration Analysis of Open Conical Sandwich Panels and Conical Sandwich Frusta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    BARDELL, N. S.; LANGLEY, R. S.; DUNSDON, J. M.; AGLIETTI, G. S.

    1999-09-01

    The vibration study of a general three-layer conical sandwich panel based on theh -p version of the finite element method is presented in this paper. No restriction is placed on the degree of curvature of the shell, thereby relaxing the strictures associated with shallow shell theory. The methodology incorporates a new set of trigonometric functions to provide the element p -enrichment, and elements may be joined together to model either open conical panels, or complete conical frusta (circumferentially connected, but open at each end). The full range of classical boundary conditions, which includes free, clamped, simply supported and shear diaphragm edges, may be applied in any combination to open and closed panels, thereby facilitating the study of a wide range of conical sandwich shells. The convergence properties of this element have been established for different combinations of the h - and p -parameters, thereby assuring its integrity for more general use. Since very little work has been reported on the vibration characteristic of either circumferentially closed or open conical sandwich panels, the main thrust of this work has been to present and validate an efficient modelling technique, rather than to perform numerous parameter and/or sensitivity studies. To this end, some new results are presented and subsequently validated using a commercially available finite element package. It is shown that for results of comparable accuracy, models constructed using the h-p formulation require significantly fewer degrees of freedom than those assembled using the commercial package. Some preliminary experimental results are also included for completeness.

  18. Strength of Hycon 3 HP Be-Cu and other copper alloys from 20 C to 200 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weggel, Robert J.; Ratka, John O.; Spiegelberg, William D.; Sakai, Yoshikazu

    1994-07-01

    To be suitable for high-performance water-cooled magnets a conductor must have an excellent combination of electrical conductivity and tensile strength at moderately elevated temperatures. We have measured the 0.2% yield and ultimate tensile strengths, elongation and modulus of five copper alloys, in the form of heavily cold-worked strip 0.4 mm to 1.2 mm thick, at temperatures up to 200 C. The alloys are Hycon 3 HP Be-Cu (UNS alloy C17510), a 24% silver-copper being developed by NRIM (Tsukuba, Japan), Glidcop(sup (R)), Zr-Cu and electrolytic tough pitch copper. Be-Cu, Zr-Cu and Ag-Cu all retained strength very well. Be-Cu decreased in U.T.S. only 10% from room temperature to 200 C, Zr-Cu, 15%. For Ag-Cu the decrease was 10% from 20 C to 150 C, and another 10% during the next 50 C. Glidcop weakened 20% by 150 C. So did ETP copper, whose strength then plummeted another 50% by 200 C. Except for Ag-Cu, with its filamentary microstructure, all alloys were isotropic within about 5%. The anisotropy of Ag-Cu was about 12%, with the transverse direction being the stronger.

  19. Hp-β-CD-Voriconazole In Situ Gelling System for Ocular Drug Delivery: In Vitro, Stability, and Antifungal Activities Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Pravin; Kashyap, Heena; Malhotra, Sakshi; Sindhu, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to design ophthalmic delivery systems based on polymeric carriers that undergo sol-to-gel transition upon change in temperature or in the presence of cations so as to prolong the effect of HP-β-CD Voriconazole (VCZ) in situ gelling formulations. The in situ gelling formulations of Voriconazole were prepared by using pluronic F-127 (PF-127) or with combination of pluronic F-68 (PF-68) and sodium alginate by cold method technique. The prepared formulations were evaluated for their physical appearance, drug content, gelation temperature (Tgel), in vitro permeation studies, rheological properties, mucoadhesion studies, antifungal studies, and stability studies. All batches of in situ formulations had satisfactory pH ranging from 6.8 to 7.4, drug content between 95% and 100%, showing uniform distribution of drug. As the concentration of each polymeric component was increased, that is, PF-68 and sodium alginate, there was a decrease in Tgel with increase in viscosity and mucoadhesive strength. The in vitro drug release decreased with increase in polymeric concentrations. The stability data concluded that all formulations showed the low degradation and maximum shelf life of 2 years. The antifungal efficiency of the selected formulation against Candida albicans and Asperigillus fumigatus confirmed that designed formulation has prolonged effect and retained its properties against fungal infection. PMID:23762839

  20. Development and comparison of HP-41C software to predict solar irradiation of tilted surfaces, based upon cloud cover factors

    SciTech Connect

    Nawrocki, A.D.; Anderson, S.P.

    1982-01-01

    Summarized is a comparison between predicted and measured solar radiation and cloud cover data from NOAA weather stations and Solar Energy Meterological Research and Training Sites at various locations throughout the US, based upon a semiempirical method which was used recently to generate synthetic insolation data for correlation with measured solar performance under the SUEDE program. This method is unique, since it predicts irradiation of a tilted surface from sky cover estimates by weather observers, using a modified ASHRAE method to compute direct and diffuse insolation on a clear day. Data comparisons were made using an HP-41C programmable calculator, card reader, printer, and eight magnetic cards. Although a more detailed study with a larger data base is desirable, these particular findings, using hourly summations to obtain monthly averages in 1980, indicate that approximately -5 to 15% difference between measured and calculated monthly results is typical of continental US sites. A sensitivity study indicated that monthly percentage differences are reduced by centering ASHRAE constants and earth declination on the 15th day of each month instead of the 21st day.

  1. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Volume 1. Integrated report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    This burn test program was conducted during the period of August 1982 to February 1983 to demonstrate that Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) products can displace petroleum as a boiler fuel in oil- and gas-designed boilers. The test program was performed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). Three forms of SRC (pulverized SRC, a solution of SRC dissolved in process-derived distillates, and a slurry of SRC and water) and No. 6 Fuel Oil were evaluated in the 700-hp (30 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hour) watertube, oil-designed boiler facility at PETC. The test program was managed by the International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) and sponsored by the Department of Energy. Other organizations were involved as necessary to provide the expertise required to execute the test program. This final report represents an integrated overview of the test program conducted at PETC. More detailed information with preliminary data can be obtained from separate reports prepared by PETC, Southern Research Institute, Wheelabrator-Frye, Babcock and Wilcox, and Combustion Engineering. These are presented as Annex Volumes A-F. 25 references, 41 figures, 15 tables.

  2. The Drosophila HP1 homologue Rhino is required for transposon silencing and piRNA production by dual strand clusters

    PubMed Central

    Klattenhoff, Carla; Xi, Hualin; Li, Chengjian; Lee, Soohyun; Xu, Jia; Khurana, Jaspreet S.; Zhang, Fan; Schultz, Nadine; Koppetsch, Birgit S.; Nowosielska, Anetta; Seitz, Herve; Zamore, Phillip D.; Weng, Zhiping; Theurkauf, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary piRNAs silence transposons and maintain genome integrity during germ-line development. In Drosophila, transposon-rich heterochromatic clusters encode piRNAs either on both genomic strands (dual-strand clusters) or predominantly one genomic strand (uni-strand clusters). Primary piRNAs derived from these clusters are proposed to drive a ping-pong amplification cycle catalyzed by proteins that localize to the perinuclear nuage. We show that the HP1 homologue Rhino is required for nuage organization, transposon silencing, and ping-pong amplification of piRNAs. rhi mutations virtually eliminate piRNAs from the dual-strand clusters and block production of putative precursor RNAs from both strands of the major 42AB dual-strand cluster, but do not block production of transcripts or piRNAs from the uni-strand clusters. Furthermore, Rhino protein associates with the 42AB dual-strand cluster, but does not bind to uni-strand cluster 2 or flamenco. Rhino thus appears to promote transcription of dual-strand clusters, leading to production of piRNAs that drive the ping-pong amplification cycle. PMID:19732946

  3. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume A. Southern Research Institute report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Combustion tests were performed using three forms of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) as the fuel for a 700 hp oil-designed water-tube boiler at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). This report contains the results from a program of measurements and analyses performed by Southern Research Institute (SoRI) under contract to the International Coal Refining Company (ICRC). The major objectives of the work performed by Southern Research Institute were: (1) to characterize the particulate matter resulting from the combustion of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) and its fuel forms, and (2) to develop estimates of the specific collection areas required for varying levels of collection of fly ash from SRC combustion in electrostatic precipitators. The report contains physical and chemical characterizations of particles collected during the combustion experiments, and a discussion of electrostatic precipitation of SRC fly ash based on performance measurements with a small-scale precipitator and on simulations using a mathematical model. 9 references, 90 figures, 14 tables.

  4. Tensile and electrical properties of unirradiated and irradiated Hycon 3HP{trademark} CuNiBe

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Eatherly, W.S.

    1996-10-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties of two different heats of Hycon 3HP{trademark} CuNiBe (HT Temper) have been measured over the temperature range of 20-500{degrees}C for longitudinal and long transverse orientations. The room temperature electrical conductivity has also been measured for both heats. Both heats exhibited a very good combination of strength and conductivity at room temperature. The strength remained relatively high at all test temperatures, with a yield strength of 420-520 MPa at 500{degrees}C. However, low levels of ductility (<5% uniform elongation) were observed at test temperatures above 200-250{degrees}C, due to flow localization adjacent to grain boundaries. Fission neutron irradiation to a dose of {approximately}0.7 dpa at temperatures between 100 and 240{degrees}C produced a slight increase in strength and a significant decrease in ductility. The measured tensile elongation increased with increasing irradiation temperature, with a uniform elongation of {approximately}3.3% observed at 240{degrees}C. The electrical conductivity decreased slightly following irradiation, due to the presence of defect clusters and Ni, Zn, Co transmutation products. The data indicate that CuNiBe alloys have irradiated tensile and electrical properties comparable or superior to CuCrZr and oxide dispersion strengthened copper at temperatures <250{degrees}C, and may be suitable for certain fusion energy structural applications.

  5. Comparative evaluation of electrostatic repulsion-hydrophilic interaction chromatography (ERLIC) and high-pH reversed phase (Hp-RP) chromatography in profiling of rat kidney proteome.

    PubMed

    Hao, Piliang; Ren, Yan; Dutta, Bamaprasad; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2013-04-26

    ERLIC and high-pH RP (Hp-RP) have been reported to be promising alternatives to strong cation exchange (SCX) in proteome fractionation. Here we compared the performance of ERLIC, concatenated ERLIC and concatenated Hp-RP in proteome profiling. The protein identification is comparable in these three strategies, but significantly more unique peptides are identified by the two concatenation methods, resulting in a significant increase of the average protein sequence coverage. The pooling of fractions from spaced intervals results in more uniform distribution of peptides in each fraction compared with the chromatogram-based pooling of adjacent fractions. ERLIC fractionates peptides according to their pI and GRAVY values. These properties remains but becomes less remarkable in concatenated ERLIC. In contrast, the average pI and GRAVY values of the peptides are comparable in each fraction in concatenated Hp-RP. ERLIC performs the best in identifying peptides with pI>9 among the three strategies, while concatenated Hp-RP is good at identifying peptides with pI<4. These advantages are useful when either basic or acidic peptides/proteins are analytical targets. The power of ERLIC in identification of basic peptides seems to be due to their efficient separation from acidic peptides. This study facilitates the choice of proper fractionation strategies based on specific objectives. For in-depth proteomic analysis of a cell, tissue and plasma, multidimensional liquid chromatography (MDLC) is still necessary to reduce sample complexity for improving analytical dynamic range and proteome coverage. This work conducts a direct comparison of three promising first-dimensional proteome fractionation methods. They are comparable in identifying proteins, but concatenated ERLIC and concatenated Hp-RP identify significantly more unique peptides than ERLIC. ERLIC is good at analyzing basic peptides, while concatenated Hp-RP performs the best in analyzing acidic peptides with pI<4. This

  6. Tip-alpha (hp0596 gene product) is a highly immunogenic Helicobacter pylori protein involved in colonization of mouse gastric mucosa.

    PubMed

    Godlewska, Renata; Pawlowski, Marcin; Dzwonek, Artur; Mikula, Michal; Ostrowski, Jerzy; Drela, Nadzieja; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elzbieta K

    2008-03-01

    A product of the Helicobacter pylori hp0596 gene (Tip-alpha) is a highly immunogenic homodimeric protein, unique for this bacterium. Cell fractionation experiments indicate that Tip-alpha is anchored to the inner membrane. In contrast, the three-dimensional model of the protein suggests that Tip-alpha is soluble or, at least, largely exposed to the solvent. hp0596 gene knockout resulted in a significant decrease in the level of H. pylori colonization as measured by real-time PCR assay. In addition, the Tip-alpha recombinant protein was determined to stimulate macrophage to produce IL-1alpha and TNF-alpha. Both results imply that Tip-alpha is rather loosely connected to the inner membrane and potentially released during infection.

  7. Tracking the exhumation of a Pliocene (U)HP terrane: U-Pb and trace-element constraints from zircon, D'Entrecasteaux Islands, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DesOrmeau, Joel W.; Gordon, Stacia M.; Little, Timothy A.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2014-10-01

    structures within the D'Entrecasteaux Islands of eastern Papua New Guinea expose ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) Pliocene (5.6-4.6 Ma) eclogites and evidence for partial melting. To better interpret the (U)HP exhumation history, U-Pb geochronology and trace-element abundances were determined in zircon from variably deformed host gneiss and crystallized melt (leucosomes, sills, dikes, and plutons) from the Goodenough and Normanby Domes by ID-TIMS (isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry) and ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), respectively, to constrain the timing of melt crystallization and deformation relative to UHP metamorphism. Zircons extracted from orthogneiss and deformed granodiorite sills of Normanby Dome, located ˜40 km southeast of the UHP eclogite, record HP metamorphism from 5.66 ± 0.02 to 5.04 ± 0.07 Ma, and melt crystallization at ˜4.1 Ma. Strongly deformed, layer-parallel leucosomes from Goodenough Dome, ˜20 km northwest of the UHP eclogite, began to crystallize by 3.85 ± 0.02 Ma. These dates indicate that melt crystallization began in the Goodenough and Normanby Domes within ˜0.75 m.y. of (U)HP metamorphism. The ID-TIMS dates from the orthogneiss and crystallized melt show that exhumation and cooling of the (U)HP rocks in the PNG terrane began first in the east, within Normanby Dome, then to the west, in the Goodenough Dome ˜1 m.y. later, and finally the middle dome rocks, exposed within the Mailolo Dome, cooled ˜2 m.y. after exhumation of Normanby Dome. All domes reveal synchronous crystallization of late, nondeformed melts, and final extension-driven exhumation by 1.82 ± 0.03 Ma.

  8. The host-seeking inhibitory peptide, Aea-HP-1, is made in the male accessory gland and transferred to the female during copulation.

    PubMed

    Naccarati, Chiara; Audsley, Neil; Keen, Jeffrey N; Kim, Jung-Ha; Howell, Gareth J; Kim, Young-Joon; Isaac, R Elwyn

    2012-03-01

    Male accessory glands (MAGs) of insects are responsible for the production of many of the seminal fluid proteins and peptides that elicit physiological and behavioral responses in the post-mated female. In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, seminal fluid components are responsible for stimulating egg production, changing female behavior away from host-seeking toward egg-laying and mating refractoriness, but hitherto no behavior-modifying molecule from the MAGs has been structurally characterized. We now show using mass spectrometry and HPLC/ELISA that the MAG is a major site of synthesis of the biologically active decapeptide, Aea-HP-1 (pERPhPSLKTRFamide) that was first characterized by Matsumoto and colleagues in 1989 from mosquito head extracts and shown to have host-seeking inhibitory properties. The peptide is localized to the anterior portion of the MAG, occurs at high concentrations in the gland and is transferred to the female reproductive tract on copulation. Aea-HP-1 has a pyroglutamic acid at the N-terminus, an amidated carboxyl at the C-terminus and an unusual 4-hydroxyproline in position 4 of the peptide. The structure of the peptide with its blocked N- and C-termini confers resistance to metabolic inactivation by MAG peptidases; however the peptide persists for less than 2h in the female reproductive tract after copulation. Aea-HP-1 is not a ligand for the mosquito sex peptide/myoinhibitory peptide receptor. A. aegypti often mate close to the host and therefore it is possible that male-derived Aea-HP-1 induces short-term changes to female host-seeking behavior to reduce potentially lethal encounters with hosts soon after insemination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. A new finite element method for solving compressible Navier-Stokes equations based on an operator splitting method and h-p adaptivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demkowicz, L.; Oden, J. T.; Rachowicz, W.

    1990-01-01

    A new finite element method solving compressible Navier-Stokes equations is proposed. The method is based on a version of Strang's operator splitting and an h-p adaptive finite element approximation in space. This paper contains the formulation of the method with a detailed discussion of boundary conditions, a sample adaptive strategy and numerical examples involving compressible viscous flow over a flat plate with Reynolds number Re = 1000 and Re = 10,000.

  10. Simulation of 3D Resistivity Logging Measurements with a Parallel Implementation of 2D hp-Adaptive Goal-Oriented Finite Element Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paszyński, Maciej; Pardo, David; Torres-Verdín, Carlos

    2007-09-01

    The paper presents parallel simulations of 3D resistivity logging measurements. These simulations are performed with a new geometry-based formulation with a 2D self-adaptive goal-oriented hp-adaptive strategy combined with a Fourier series expansion in a non-orthogonal system of coordinates. Numerical simulations analyze 3D resistivity effects occuring on deviated wells. We present a parallel implementation based on both domain decomposition and functional decomposition paradigms.

  11. Determination of the maximal carcinoma/normal skin ratio after HpD or m-THPC administration in Hairless mice (SKH-1) by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bossu, E; Padilla-Ybarra, J J; Notter, D; Vigneron, C; Guillemin, F

    2000-02-01

    The two major steps in our study on the treatment of skin carcinomas by photochemotherapy (PCT) were the development of a skin tumor model in Hairless mice by a chemical carcinogenesis and the use of fluorescence spectroscopy, a semi-quantitative and non-invasive method, in order to determine the time after i.p. injection of photosensitizer when the tumor/normal skin ratio was the highest. A three-step carcinogenesis protocol provided mice bearing carcinomas and these were used to determine the tumor/normal skin ratios of two photosensitizers by fluorescence spectroscopy. Hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) (5 mg/kg body weight) and m-tetra(hydroxyphenyl) chlorine (m-THPC) (0.3 mg/kg body weight) were injected i.p., and fluorescence was measured at 1, 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h after injection. The best carcinoma/normal skin ratio would be 3.2+/-1.4 for HpD and 2.7+/-2.1 for m-THPC, respectively. The delays required to reach these ratios were 72 h for HpD and 24 h for m-THPC. These results have to be considered with caution due to the high SEs and they must be confirmed by organic extraction. Photodynamic therapy with the same doses of HpD and m-THPC used in this pharmacokinetic study has to be carried out in order to compare the toxicities of the two photosensitizers and to determine which one is the best for this type of tumor.

  12. Efficacy of Fostera® PRRS modified live virus (MLV) vaccination strategy against a Thai highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (HP-PRRSV) infection.

    PubMed

    Charoenchanikran, Ponlakrit; Kedkovid, Roongtham; Sirisereewan, Chaitawat; Woonwong, Yonlayong; Arunorat, Jirapat; Sitthichareonchai, Panchan; Sopipan, Natthawan; Jittimanee, Suphattra; Kesdangsakonwut, Sawang; Thanawongnuwech, Roongroje

    2016-10-01

    Recently, the Chinese highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) (HP-PRRSV) belonging to lineage 8 causes severe symptom with high morbidity and high mortality rates to the Asian pig industry. A recent study showed that pigs immunized with Fostera® PRRS modified live virus (MLV) of lineage 8 could provide a degree of protection against a Vietnamese HP-PRRSV infection. It should be noted that PRRSV commonly found after weaning causes porcine respiratory disease complex (PRDC). Vaccination strategy should be evaluated in each farm scenario. Eighty-one PRRSV-free piglets obtained from a PRRS-free herd were divided into two experiments with the major difference of infection timing after vaccination, 42 days in experiment 1 (n = 42) and 28 days in experiment 2 (n = 39). Each experiment had similar protocol containing three groups including a negative control, unvaccinated challenged, and vaccinated challenged groups. Pigs in vaccination groups were immunized with Fostera® PRRS MLV vaccine at 3 weeks of age. Then, unvaccinated challenged and vaccinated challenged groups were intranasally inoculated with a Thai HP-PRRSV (10PL01). Vaccinated challenged pigs showed significantly lower levels of mean rectal temperatures, clinical severity, lung lesion scores, and viral titers in serum and lung tissue compared to the unvaccinated challenged pigs (p < 0.05). Vaccinated challenged pigs had higher survival rate than those of unvaccinated challenged pigs in both experiments. It should be noted that pigs challenged 42 days after vaccination showed a better performance than pigs challenged 28 days after vaccination. In conclusion, Fostera® PRRS MLV vaccine was able to improve the survival rate against the Thai HP-PRRSV infection in both 42- and 28-day vaccination-to-infection protocols.

  13. The host-seeking inhibitory peptide, Aea-HP-1, is made in the male accessory gland and transferred to the female during copulation

    PubMed Central

    Naccarati, Chiara; Audsley, Neil; Keen, Jeffrey N.; Kim, Jung-Ha; Howell, Gareth J.; Kim, Young-Joon; Isaac, R. Elwyn

    2012-01-01

    Male accessory glands (MAGs) of insects are responsible for the production of many of the seminal fluid proteins and peptides that elicit physiological and behavioral responses in the post-mated female. In the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti, seminal fluid components are responsible for stimulating egg production, changing female behavior away from host-seeking toward egg-laying and mating refractoriness, but hitherto no behavior-modifying molecule from the MAGs has been structurally characterized. We now show using mass spectrometry and HPLC/ELISA that the MAG is a major site of synthesis of the biologically active decapeptide, Aea-HP-1 (pERPhPSLKTRFamide) that was first characterized by Matsumoto and colleagues in 1989 from mosquito head extracts and shown to have host-seeking inhibitory properties. The peptide is localized to the anterior portion of the MAG, occurs at high concentrations in the gland and is transferred to the female reproductive tract on copulation. Aea-HP-1 has a pyroglutamic acid at the N-terminus, an amidated carboxyl at the C-terminus and an unusual 4-hydroxyproline in position 4 of the peptide. The structure of the peptide with its blocked N- and C-termini confers resistance to metabolic inactivation by MAG peptidases; however the peptide persists for less than 2 h in the female reproductive tract after copulation. Aea-HP-1 is not a ligand for the mosquito sex peptide/myoinhibitory peptide receptor. A. aegypti often mate close to the host and therefore it is possible that male-derived Aea-HP-1 induces short-term changes to female host-seeking behavior to reduce potentially lethal encounters with hosts soon after insemination. PMID:22080116

  14. Monocrotophos, an organophosphorus insecticide, disrupts the expression of HpNetrin and its receptor neogenin during early development in the sea urchin (Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaona; Xu, Lei; Tian, Hua; Wang, Cuicui; Wang, Wei; Ru, Shaoguo

    2017-06-20

    Netrins, chemotropic guidance cues, can guide the extension of serotonergic axons by binding to netrin receptors during neural development. However, little is known about whether disruption of netrin signaling is involved in the mechanisms by which organophosphorus pesticides affect serotonergic nervous system (SNS) development. In this study, we evaluated the effects of the pesticide monocrotophos (MCP) on the expression patterns of HpNetrin and its receptor neogenin as well as on the intracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) levels in Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus (sea urchin) by exposing fertilized embryos to 0, 0.01, 0.10, and 1.00mg/L MCP. The results showed that MCP disrupted HpNetrin and neogenin expression at different developmental stages in H. pulcherrimus and that Ca(2+) appeared to be involved in the MCP-induced developmental neurotoxicity. Specifically, the lower concentrations of MCP elevated HpNetrin and neogenin transcription, resulting in higher intracellular Ca(2+) levels during the early developmental stages in the sea urchin; this may affect netrin-directed cell migration/axon extension and subsequently disrupt serotonergic axon branching and synapse formation. In contrast, 1.00mg/L MCP exhibited an inhibito