Science.gov

Sample records for 7220rb hp compaq

  1. The Performance of PFS, the Compaq Sierra Product's Parallel File System

    SciTech Connect

    Uselton, A C

    2001-06-20

    In FY 2000 Livermore Computing took delivery of serial number one of the Compaq Sierra high performance cluster product. The Sierra product employs a derivative of the Tru64 UNIX operating system called Tru-Cluster, which provides a cluster-wide parallel file system called PFS. This report documents the observed performance of PFS along with the performance of some of the underlying file system components. Testing reveals that the underlying AdvFS file system does a good job of read-ahead and write-behind I/O performance enhancement at the expense of a high CPU utilization. On the other hand, PFS performs at only a fraction of the speed that the underlying I/O and communication hardware allow.

  2. University Relations: The HP Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, W. C.

    2003-01-01

    Hewlett-Packard benefited from one of the earliest examples of knowledge transfer in a strategic relationship, with the investment by Stanford University professor Frederick Terman in the work of former students Dave Packard and Bill Hewlett. Today, HP University Relations (UR) works with university partners to create similar valuable synergy. UR…

  3. Functions of Manduca sexta hemolymph proteinases HP6 and HP8 in two innate immune pathways.

    PubMed

    An, Chunju; Ishibashi, Jun; Ragan, Emily J; Jiang, Haobo; Kanost, Michael R

    2009-07-17

    Serine proteinases in insect plasma have been implicated in two types of immune responses; that is, activation of prophenoloxidase (proPO) and activation of cytokine-like proteins. We have identified more than 20 serine proteinases in hemolymph of the tobacco hornworm, Manduca sexta, but functions are known for only a few of them. We report here functions of two additional M. sexta proteinases, hemolymph proteinases 6 and 8 (HP6 and HP8). HP6 and HP8 are each composed of an amino-terminal clip domain and a carboxyl-terminal proteinase domain. HP6 is an apparent ortholog of Drosophila Persephone, whereas HP8 is most similar to Drosophila and Tenebrio spätzle-activating enzymes, all of which activate the Toll pathway. proHP6 and proHP8 are expressed constitutively in fat body and hemocytes and secreted into plasma, where they are activated by proteolytic cleavage in response to infection. To investigate activation and biological activity of HP6 and HP8, we purified recombinant proHP8, proHP6, and mutants of proHP6 in which the catalytic serine was replaced with alanine, and/or the activation site was changed to permit activation by bovine factor Xa. HP6 was found to activate proPO-activating proteinase (proPAP1) in vitro and induce proPO activation in plasma. HP6 was also determined to activate proHP8. Active HP6 or HP8 injected into larvae induced expression of antimicrobial peptides and proteins, including attacin, cecropin, gloverin, moricin, and lysozyme. Our results suggest that proHP6 becomes activated in response to microbial infection and participates in two immune pathways; activation of PAP1, which leads to proPO activation and melanin synthesis, and activation of HP8, which stimulates a Toll-like pathway. PMID:19487692

  4. Protein designs in HP models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Arvind; Khodabakhshi, Alireza Hadj; Maňuch, Ján; Rafiey, Arash; Stacho, Ladislav

    2009-07-01

    The inverse protein folding problem is that of designing an amino acid sequence which folds into a prescribed shape. This problem arises in drug design where a particular structure is necessary to ensure proper protein-protein interactions and could have applications in nanotechnology. A major challenge in designing proteins with native folds that attain a specific shape is to avoid proteins that have multiple native folds (unstable proteins). In this technical note we present our results on protein designs in the variant of Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) model introduced by Dill [6] on 2D square lattice. The HP model distinguishes only polar and hydrophobic monomers and only counts the number of hydrophobic contacts in the energy function. To achieve better stability of our designs we use the Hydrophobic-Polar-Cysteine (HPC) model which distinguishes the third type of monomers called "cysteines" and incorporates also the disulfid bridges (SS-bridges) into the energy function. We present stable designs in 2D square lattice and 3D hexagonal prism lattice in the HPC model.

  5. Hp: an inflammatory indicator in cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Graves, Karen L; Vigerust, David J

    2016-07-01

    Over the past decade significant advancement has occurred in the biological and pathological role that Hp has in cardiovascular disease. Hp is an acute-phase protein with a role in the neutralization and clearance of free heme. Iron has tremendous potential for initiating vascular oxidation, inflammation and exacerbating coronary atherosclerosis. Hp genotype has been linked as a prognostic biomarker of acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, restenosis and cardiac transplant rejection. The increased understanding of Hp as a biomarker has provided new insights into the mechanisms of inflammation after cardiac injury and support the concept that Hp is not only an important antioxidant in vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, but also an enhancer of inflammation in cardiac transplant. PMID:27203711

  6. Crystal Structure of the HP1-EMSY Complex Reveals an Unusual Mode of HP1 Binding

    SciTech Connect

    Huang,Y.; Myers, M.; Xu, R.

    2006-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein-1 (HP1) plays an essential role in both the assembly of higher-order chromatin structure and epigenetic inheritance. The C-terminal chromo shadow domain (CSD) of HP1 is responsible for homodimerization and interaction with a number of chromatin-associated nonhistone proteins, including EMSY, which is a BRCA2-interacting protein that has been implicated in the development of breast and ovarian cancer. We have determined the crystal structure of the HP1{beta} CSD in complex with the N-terminal domain of EMSY at 1.8 Angstroms resolution. Surprisingly, the structure reveals that EMSY is bound by two HP1 CSD homodimers, and the binding sequences differ from the consensus HP1 binding motif PXVXL. This structural information expands our understanding of HP1 binding specificity and provides insights into interactions between HP1 homodimers that are likely to be important for heterochromatin formation.

  7. DEC LSI-11/HP9895A software

    SciTech Connect

    Castleton, R.N.

    1984-04-20

    There is a need to exchange MSAD data between LLNL and Monsanto Research Corporation's Mound facility in Ohio. The LLNL tester is DEC LSI-11/23 based (as is all of the analysis software), and the Mound tester is HP9835 based. Data at Mound is stored on double density, double sided, HP-formatted 8 inch floppy disks. The software documented in this report makes possible the reading of these data disks by a DEC LSI-11/23 using an HP9895A disk drive.

  8. HP-UX: implementation of UNIX on the HP 900 series 500 computer systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.W.Y.; Lindberg, J.B.; Hetrick, M.V.; Connor, M.L.

    1984-03-01

    An implementation of the UNIX operating system kernel has been layered on top of an existing operating system kernel (SUN) for the HP 9000 series 500 computer systems. The mapping of UNIX functional requirements onto the capabilities of the underlying operating system is discussed in the article, along with the implementation of UNIX commands and libraries. These pieces of UNIX, along with other extensions added by HP, make up the HP-UX operating system.

  9. Clerget 100 hp heavy-oil engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leglise, Pierre

    1931-01-01

    A complete technical description of the Clerget heavy-oil engine is presented along with the general characteristics. The general characteristics are: 9 cylinders, bore 120 mm, stroke 130 mm, four-stroke cycle engine, rated power limited to 100 hp at 1800 rpm; weight 228 kg; propeller with direct drive and air cooling. Moving parts, engine block, and lubrication are all presented.

  10. Effect of Mutations on HP Lattice Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guangjie; Vogel, Thomas; Landau, David; Li, Ying; Wüst, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    Using Wang-Landau sampling with approriate trial moves[2], we investigate the effect of different types of mutations on lattice proteins in the HP model. While exact studies have been carried out for short HP proteins[3], the systems we investigate are of much larger size and hence not accessible for exact enumerations. Based on the estimated density of states, we systematically analyse the changes in structure and degeneracy of ground states of particular proteins and measure thermodynamic quantities like the stability of ground states and the specific heat, for example. Both, neutral mutations, which do not change the structure and stability of ground states, as well as critical mutations, which do change the thermodynamic behavior qualitatively, have been observed. Research supported by NSF

  11. The tree squirrel HP-25 gene is a pseudogene.

    PubMed

    Kojima, M; Shiba, T; Kondo, N; Takamatsu, N

    2001-11-01

    The gene for the hibernation-specific protein HP-25 is expressed in the liver in hibernating species of the squirrel family (chipmunk and ground squirrel), but not in a nonhibernating species (tree squirrel). To investigate why the HP-25 gene is not expressed in the tree squirrel, we isolated the tree squirrel HP-25 gene and compared its gene structure and promoter activity with that of the chipmunk. The tree squirrel HP-25 gene is composed of three exons, and the gene structures are conserved between the tree squirrel and chipmunk. However, the tree squirrel HP-25 gene has an insertional mutation of 13 nucleotides in exon 2 that disrupts the ORF. In the chipmunk HP-25 gene, the 80-bp 5' flanking sequence is sufficient for the liver-specific promoter activity, and HNF-4, which binds to the sequence from nucleotides -67 to -51, is involved in its transcriptional regulation. In contrast, the corresponding tree squirrel 5' flanking sequence had almost no promoter activity in HepG2 cells, and HNF-4 did not bind to the corresponding region of the tree squirrel HP-25 gene. Furthermore, a tree squirrel-type G to A mutation at -57 in the chipmunk HP-25 gene promoter context abolished its binding to and transactivation by HNF-4. Thus, the point mutation in the HNF-4-binding site is likely to be involved in the lack of HP-25 gene expression in the tree squirrel.

  12. Pattern Recognition of Adsorbing HP Lattice Proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Matthew S.; Shi, Guangjie; Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P.; Schmid, Friederike

    2015-03-01

    Protein adsorption is relevant in fields ranging from medicine to industry, and the qualitative behavior exhibited by course-grained models could shed insight for further research in such fields. Our study on the selective adsorption of lattice proteins utilizes the Wang-Landau algorithm to simulate the Hydrophobic-Polar (H-P) model with an efficient set of Monte Carlo moves. Each substrate is modeled as a square pattern of 9 lattice sites which attract either H or P monomers, and are located on an otherwise neutral surface. The fully enumerated set of 102 unique surfaces is simulated with each protein sequence. A collection of 27-monomer sequences is used- each of which is non-degenerate and protein-like. Thermodynamic quantities such as the specific heat and free energy are calculated from the density of states, and are used to investigate the adsorption of lattice proteins on patterned substrates. Research supported by NSF.

  13. 40 HP Electro-Mechanical Actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fulmer, Chris

    1996-01-01

    This report summarizes the work performed on the 40 BP electro-mechanical actuator (EMA) system developed on NASA contract NAS3-25799 for the NASA National Launch System and Electrical Actuation (ELA) Technology Bridging Programs. The system was designed to demonstrate the capability of large, high power linear ELA's for applications such as Thrust Vector Control (TVC) on rocket engines. It consists of a motor controller, high frequency power source, drive electronics and a linear actuator. The power source is a 25kVA 20 kHz Mapham inverter. The drive electronics are based on the pulse population modulation concept and operate at a nominal frequency of 40 kHz. The induction motor is a specially designed high speed, low inertia motor capable of a 68 peak HP. The actuator was originally designed by MOOG Aerospace under an internal R & D program to meet Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) TVC requirements. The design was modified to meet this programs linear rate specification of 7.4 inches/second. The motor and driver were tested on a dynamometer at the Martin Marietta Space Systems facility. System frequency response and step response tests were conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center facility. A complete description of the system and all test results can be found in the body of the report.

  14. Tonopah Test Range EGS graphics tracking display system: HP370

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, R.H.; Bauhs, K.C.

    1994-08-01

    This report describes the HP370 component of the Enhanced Graphics System (EGS) used at Tonopah Test Range (TTR). Selected Radar data is fed into the computer systems and the resulting tracking symbols are displayed on high-resolution video monitors in real time. These tracking symbols overlay background maps and are used for monitoring/controlling various flight vehicles. This report discusses both the operational aspects and the internal configuration of the HP370 Workstation portion of the EGS system.

  15. Upgrading of HP turbines for nuclear power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Marlow, B.A.; Brown, R.D.

    1998-12-31

    Many papers have been written on the upgrading of nuclear plant LP turbines but there are also strong reasons for the upgrading of the HP turbines. Two principal reasons are discussed in this paper. Fouling by deposition on the feedwater side of the stream generator tubes, frequently results in a reduction of pressure at the turbine stop valve and a consequent loss of power output. This loss of power can be largely offset by fitting increased capacity blading in part of the HP turbine which increases the swallowing capacity of the turbine. It is necessary to consider the increased capacity blading, bypassing of heaters and future fouling to arrive at an optimum solution. Since the design of the operating nuclear stations GEC ALSTHOM have made very significant advances in the design of steam turbine HP blading and it is now possible to upgrade the HP turbine with blades of modern design to give a substantial increase in power output. The pay back period for such a upgrade is short and the paper describes some of the Company`s successful nuclear HP upgrading in the UK. The two actions described above can be combined, or indeed, be carried out in conjunction with an LP upgrade.

  16. Differential Cooperation between Heterochromatin Protein HP1 Isoforms and MyoD in Myoblasts*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Yahi, Hakima; Fritsch, Lauriane; Philipot, Ophelie; Guasconi, Valentina; Souidi, Mouloud; Robin, Philippe; Polesskaya, Anna; Losson, Regine; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms of transcriptional repression are important during cell differentiation. Mammalian heterochromatin protein 1 isoforms HP1α, HP1β, and HP1γ play important roles in the regulation of chromatin structure and function. We explored the possibility of different roles for the three HP1 isoforms in an integrated system, skeletal muscle terminal differentiation. In this system, terminal differentiation is initiated by the transcription factor MyoD, whose target genes remain mainly silent until myoblasts are induced to differentiate. Here we show that HP1α and HP1β isoforms, but not HP1γ, interact with MyoD in myoblasts. This interaction is direct, as shown using recombinant proteins in vitro. A gene reporter assay revealed that HP1α and HP1β, but not HP1γ, inhibit MyoD transcriptional activity, suggesting a model in which MyoD could serve as a bridge between nucleosomes and chromatin-binding proteins such as HDACs and HP1. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show a preferential recruitment of HP1 proteins on MyoD target genes in proliferating myoblasts. Finally, modulation of HP1 protein level impairs MyoD target gene expression and muscle terminal differentiation. Together, our data show a nonconventional interaction between HP1 and a tissue-specific transcription factor, MyoD. In addition, they strongly suggest that HP1 isoforms play important roles during muscle terminal differentiation in an isoform-dependent manner. PMID:18599480

  17. Truncated HP1 lacking a functional chromodomain induces heterochromatinization upon in vivo targeting.

    PubMed

    Brink, Maartje C; van der Velden, Yme; de Leeuw, Wim; Mateos-Langerak, Julio; Belmont, Andrew S; van Driel, Roel; Verschure, Pernette J

    2006-01-01

    Packaging of the eukaryotic genome into higher order chromatin structures is tightly related to gene expression. Pericentromeric heterochromatin is typified by accumulations of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), methylation of histone H3 at lysine 9 (MeH3K9) and global histone deacetylation. HP1 interacts with chromatin by binding to MeH3K9 through the chromodomain (CD). HP1 dimerizes with itself and binds a variety of proteins through its chromoshadow domain. We have analyzed at the single cell level whether HP1 lacking its functional CD is able to induce heterochromatinization in vivo. We used a lac-operator array-based system in mammalian cells to target EGFP-lac repressor tagged truncated HP1alpha and HP1beta to a lac operator containing gene-amplified chromosome region in living cells. After targeting truncated HP1alpha or HP1beta we observe enhanced tri-MeH3K9 and recruitment of endogenous HP1alpha and HP1beta to the chromosome region. We show that CD-less HP1alpha can induce chromatin condensation, whereas the effect of truncated HP1beta is less pronounced. Our results demonstrate that after lac repressor-mediated targeting, HP1alpha and HP1beta without a functional CD are able to induce heterochromatinization.

  18. 78 FR 48468 - Hewlett Packard Company, Hewlett Packard Enterprise Business Unit, EG HP Storage, Enterprise...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-08

    ... Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard Company, Hewlett Packard Enterprise Business Unit, EG HP Storage, Enterprise Storage, Servers and Networking Storage, APP Management, Research and... behalf of workers of Hewlett Packard Company, Hewlett Packard Enterprise Business Unit, EG HP...

  19. DYRK1A phoshorylates histone H3 to differentially regulate the binding of HP1 isoforms and antagonize HP1-mediated transcriptional repression.

    PubMed

    Jang, Suk Min; Azebi, Saliha; Soubigou, Guillaume; Muchardt, Christian

    2014-06-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) proteins are chromatin-bound transcriptional regulators. While their chromodomain binds histone H3 methylated on lysine 9, their chromoshadow domain associates with the H3 histone fold in a region involved in chromatin remodeling. Here, we show that phosphorylation at histone H3 threonine 45 and serine 57 within this latter region differentially affects binding of the three mammalian HP1 isoforms HP1α, HP1β and HP1γ. Both phosphorylation events are dependent on the activity of the DYRK1A kinase that antagonizes HP1-mediated transcriptional repression and participates in abnormal activation of cytokine genes in Down's syndrome-associated megakaryoblastic leukemia. PMID:24820035

  20. HP1α is not necessary for the structural maintenance of centromeric heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Velichko, Artem K; Kantidze, Omar L; Razin, Sergey V

    2011-03-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) was discovered as a protein essential for maintaining the silent transcriptional status of genes located within or close to centromeric regions of Drosophila chromosomes. Mammals express three variants of HP1; of these, HP1α is a direct homolog of Drosophila HP1. The prevailing view states that HP1 is a structural component of heterochromatin and is essential for compact DNA packaging. HP1 contains a chromodomain that binds to di- and- tri-methylated lysine 9 of histone H3. Additionally, it contains a chromoshadow domain that allows HP1 to dimerize and interact with other proteins. HP1 is thought to form "bridges" between neighboring rows of nucleosomes in heterochromatin. In mammalian cells, a significant portion of HP1α is located in the centromeric regions of chromosomes. In this study, we show that the majority of HP1α is removed from centromeres upon heat shock. This occurs without a loss of H3K9 trimethylation and does not correlate with a decompaction of centromeres. Furthermore, HP1α is not degraded and remains bound to chromatin. Therefore, it is likely that HP1α is simply redistributed to euchromatic regions. We propose that this redistribution is essential for reversal of the transcriptional status of euchromatic and heterochromatic compartments. PMID:20962594

  1. HP1α is not necessary for the structural maintenance of centromeric heterochromatin.

    PubMed

    Velichko, Artem K; Kantidze, Omar L; Razin, Sergey V

    2011-03-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) was discovered as a protein essential for maintaining the silent transcriptional status of genes located within or close to centromeric regions of Drosophila chromosomes. Mammals express three variants of HP1; of these, HP1α is a direct homolog of Drosophila HP1. The prevailing view states that HP1 is a structural component of heterochromatin and is essential for compact DNA packaging. HP1 contains a chromodomain that binds to di- and- tri-methylated lysine 9 of histone H3. Additionally, it contains a chromoshadow domain that allows HP1 to dimerize and interact with other proteins. HP1 is thought to form "bridges" between neighboring rows of nucleosomes in heterochromatin. In mammalian cells, a significant portion of HP1α is located in the centromeric regions of chromosomes. In this study, we show that the majority of HP1α is removed from centromeres upon heat shock. This occurs without a loss of H3K9 trimethylation and does not correlate with a decompaction of centromeres. Furthermore, HP1α is not degraded and remains bound to chromatin. Therefore, it is likely that HP1α is simply redistributed to euchromatic regions. We propose that this redistribution is essential for reversal of the transcriptional status of euchromatic and heterochromatic compartments.

  2. Crosstalk between the HpArsRS two-component system and HpNikR is necessary for maximal activation of urease transcription.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, Beth M; West, Abby L; Gancz, Hanan; Servetas, Stephanie L; Pich, Oscar Q; Gilbreath, Jeremy J; Hallinger, Daniel R; Forsyth, Mark H; Merrell, D Scott; Michel, Sarah L J

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori NikR (HpNikR) is a nickel dependent transcription factor that directly regulates a number of genes in this important gastric pathogen. One key gene that is regulated by HpNikR is ureA, which encodes for the urease enzyme. In vitro DNA binding studies of HpNikR with the ureA promoter (PureA ) previously identified a recognition site that is required for high affinity protein/DNA binding. As a means to determine the in vivo significance of this recognition site and to identify the key DNA sequence determinants required for ureA transcription, herein, we have translated these in vitro results to analysis directly within H. pylori. Using a series of GFP reporter constructs in which the PureA DNA target was altered, in combination with mutant H. pylori strains deficient in key regulatory proteins, we confirmed the importance of the previously identified HpNikR recognition sequence for HpNikR-dependent ureA transcription. Moreover, we identified a second factor, the HpArsRS two-component system that was required for maximum transcription of ureA. While HpArsRS is known to regulate ureA in response to acid shock, it was previously thought to function independently of HpNikR and to have no role at neutral pH. However, our qPCR analysis of ureA expression in wildtype, ΔnikR and ΔarsS single mutants as well as a ΔarsS/nikR double mutant strain background showed reduced basal level expression of ureA when arsS was absent. Additionally, we determined that both HpNikR and HpArsRS were necessary for maximal expression of ureA under nickel, low pH and combined nickel and low pH stresses. In vitro studies of HpArsR-P with the PureA DNA target using florescence anisotropy confirmed a direct protein/DNA binding interaction. Together, these data support a model in which HpArsRS and HpNikR cooperatively interact to regulate ureA transcription under various environmental conditions. This is the first time that direct "cross-talk" between HpArsRS and HpNikR at

  3. Crosstalk between the HpArsRS two-component system and HpNikR is necessary for maximal activation of urease transcription

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Beth M.; West, Abby L.; Gancz, Hanan; Servetas, Stephanie L.; Pich, Oscar Q.; Gilbreath, Jeremy J.; Hallinger, Daniel R.; Forsyth, Mark H.; Merrell, D. Scott; Michel, Sarah L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Helicobacter pylori NikR (HpNikR) is a nickel dependent transcription factor that directly regulates a number of genes in this important gastric pathogen. One key gene that is regulated by HpNikR is ureA, which encodes for the urease enzyme. In vitro DNA binding studies of HpNikR with the ureA promoter (PureA) previously identified a recognition site that is required for high affinity protein/DNA binding. As a means to determine the in vivo significance of this recognition site and to identify the key DNA sequence determinants required for ureA transcription, herein, we have translated these in vitro results to analysis directly within H. pylori. Using a series of GFP reporter constructs in which the PureA DNA target was altered, in combination with mutant H. pylori strains deficient in key regulatory proteins, we confirmed the importance of the previously identified HpNikR recognition sequence for HpNikR-dependent ureA transcription. Moreover, we identified a second factor, the HpArsRS two-component system that was required for maximum transcription of ureA. While HpArsRS is known to regulate ureA in response to acid shock, it was previously thought to function independently of HpNikR and to have no role at neutral pH. However, our qPCR analysis of ureA expression in wildtype, ΔnikR and ΔarsS single mutants as well as a ΔarsS/nikR double mutant strain background showed reduced basal level expression of ureA when arsS was absent. Additionally, we determined that both HpNikR and HpArsRS were necessary for maximal expression of ureA under nickel, low pH and combined nickel and low pH stresses. In vitro studies of HpArsR-P with the PureA DNA target using florescence anisotropy confirmed a direct protein/DNA binding interaction. Together, these data support a model in which HpArsRS and HpNikR cooperatively interact to regulate ureA transcription under various environmental conditions. This is the first time that direct “cross-talk” between HpArsRS and HpNikR at

  4. Phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycle of HP1α governs accurate mitotic progression

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arindam; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α), a bona fide factor of silent chromatin, is required for establishing as well as maintaining the higher-order chromatin structure in eukaryotes. HP1α is decorated with several post-translational modifications, and many of these are critical for its cellular functions. HP1α is heavily phosphorylated; however, its physiological relevance had remained to be completely understood. We have recently demonstrated that human HP1α is a mitotic target for NDR kinase, and the phosphorylation at the hinge region of HP1α at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle is crucial for mitotic progression and Sgo1 loading at mitotic centromeres (Chakraborty et al., 2014). We now demonstrate that the dephosphorylation of HP1α within its hinge domain occurs during mitosis, specifically soon after prometaphase. In the absence of the hinge-specific HP1α phosphorylation, either as a consequence of depleting NDR1 or in cells expressing a non-phosphorylatable HP1α mutant, the cells arrest in prometaphase with several mitotic defects. In this study we show that NDR1-depleted cells expressing hinge-specific phosphomimetic HP1α mutant rescues the prometaphase arrest but displays defects in mitotic exit, suggesting that the dephosphorylation of HP1α is required for the completion of cytokinesis. Taken together, our results reveal that the phosphorylation–dephosphorylation cycle of HP1α orchestrates accurate progression of cells through mitosis. PMID:24786771

  5. Nucleosome compaction facilitates HP1γ binding to methylated H3K9

    PubMed Central

    Mishima, Yuichi; Jayasinghe, Chanika D.; Lu, Kai; Otani, Junji; Shirakawa, Masahiro; Kawakami, Toru; Kimura, Hironobu; Hojo, Hironobu; Carlton, Peter; Tajima, Shoji; Suetake, Isao

    2015-01-01

    The α, β and γ isoforms of mammalian heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) selectively bind to methylated lysine 9 of histone H3 via their chromodomains. Although the phenotypes of HP1-knockout mice are distinct for each isoform, the molecular mechanisms underlying HP1 isoform-specific function remain elusive. In the present study, we found that in contrast to HP1α, HP1γ could not bind tri-methylated H3 lysine 9 in a reconstituted tetra-nucleosomes when the nucleosomes were in an uncompacted state. The hinge region connecting HP1's chromodomain and chromoshadow domain contributed to the distinct recognition of the nucleosomes by HP1α and HP1γ. HP1γ, but not HP1α, was strongly enhanced in selective binding to tri-methylated lysine 9 in histone H3 by the addition of Mg2+ or linker histone H1, which are known to induce compaction of nucleosomes. We propose that this novel property of HP1γ recognition of lysine 9 in the histone H3 tail in different nucleosome structures plays a role in reading the histone code. PMID:26319017

  6. Phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle of HP1α governs accurate mitotic progression.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Arindam; Prasanth, Supriya G

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α), a bona fide factor of silent chromatin, is required for establishing as well as maintaining the higher-order chromatin structure in eukaryotes. HP1α is decorated with several post-translational modifications, and many of these are critical for its cellular functions. HP1α is heavily phosphorylated; however, its physiological relevance had remained to be completely understood. We have recently demonstrated that human HP1α is a mitotic target for NDR kinase, and the phosphorylation at the hinge region of HP1α at the G 2/M phase of the cell cycle is crucial for mitotic progression and Sgo1 loading at mitotic centromeres (Chakraborty et al., 2014). We now demonstrate that the dephosphorylation of HP1α within its hinge domain occurs during mitosis, specifically soon after prometaphase. In the absence of the hinge-specific HP1α phosphorylation, either as a consequence of depleting NDR1 or in cells expressing a non-phosphorylatable HP1α mutant, the cells arrest in prometaphase with several mitotic defects. In this study we show that NDR1-depleted cells expressing hinge-specific phosphomimetic HP1α mutant rescues the prometaphase arrest but displays defects in mitotic exit, suggesting that the dephosphorylation of HP1α is required for the completion of cytokinesis. Taken together, our results reveal that the phosphorylation-dephosphorylation cycle of HP1α orchestrates accurate progression of cells through mitosis.

  7. Perspectives on Industrial Innovation from Agilent, HP, and Bell Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenhorst, James

    2014-03-01

    Innovation is the life blood of technology companies. I will give perspectives gleaned from a career in research and development at Bell Labs, HP Labs, and Agilent Labs, from the point of view of an individual contributor and a manager. Physicists bring a unique set of skills to the corporate environment, including a desire to understand the fundamentals, a solid foundation in physical principles, expertise in applied mathematics, and most importantly, an attitude: namely, that hard problems can be solved by breaking them into manageable pieces. In my experience, hiring managers in industry seldom explicitly search for physicists, but they want people with those skills.

  8. Assessment of the Hewlett-Packard HP47210A capnometer.

    PubMed

    Kinsella, S M

    1985-09-01

    The Hewlett-Packard HP47210A Capnometer, a "mainstream" infra-red carbon dioxide analyser, has a sensor in-line with the patient circuit. The calibration apparatus is included within the unit, and an internal microprocessor corrects for the presence of nitrous oxide and varying concentrations of oxygen. Maximum error was 0.37 kPa for carbon dioxide partial pressures less than 5.3 kPa, and less than 3.6% for partial pressures of carbon dioxide greater than 5.3 kPa.

  9. The 300 H.P. Benz Aircraft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heller, A

    1921-01-01

    A description is given of the Benz 12-cylinder aircraft engine. The 300 H.P. engine, with the cylinders placed at an angle of 60 degrees not only realizes a long-cherished conception, but has received refinement in detail. It may be described as a perfect example of modern German aircraft engine construction. Here, a detailed description is given of the construction of this engine. Emphasis is placed on the design and construction of the cylinders, pistons, and connecting rods. Also discussed are engine fitting, lubrication, oil pumps, bearings, the oil tank, fuel pump, carburetors, and cooling system.

  10. Shigella flexneri targets the HP1γ subcode through the phosphothreonine lyase OspF

    PubMed Central

    Harouz, Habiba; Rachez, Christophe; Meijer, Benoit M; Marteyn, Benoit; Donnadieu, Françoise; Cammas, Florence; Muchardt, Christian; Sansonetti, Philippe; Arbibe, Laurence

    2014-01-01

    HP1 proteins are transcriptional regulators that, like histones, are targets for post-translational modifications defining an HP1-mediated subcode. HP1γ has multiple phosphorylation sites, including serine 83 (S83) that marks it to sites of active transcription. In a guinea pig model for Shigella enterocolitis, we observed that the defective type III secretion mxiD Shigella flexneri strain caused more HP1γ phosphorylation in the colon than the wild-type strain. Shigella interferes with HP1 phosphorylation by injecting the phospholyase OspF. This effector interacts with HP1γ and alters its phosphorylation at S83 by inactivating ERK and consequently MSK1, a downstream kinase. MSK1 that here arises as a novel HP1γ kinase, phosphorylates HP1γ at S83 in the context of an MSK1-HP1γ complex, and thereby favors its accumulation on its target genes. Genome-wide transcriptome analysis reveals that this mechanism is linked to up-regulation of proliferative gene and fine-tuning of immune gene expression. Thus, in addition to histones, bacteria control host transcription by modulating the activity of HP1 proteins, with potential implications in transcriptional reprogramming at the mucosal barrier. PMID:25216677

  11. Targeted Identification of Glycosylated Proteins in the Gastric Pathogen Helicobacter pylori (Hp)*

    PubMed Central

    Champasa, Kanokwan; Longwell, Scott A.; Eldridge, Aimee M.; Stemmler, Elizabeth A.; Dube, Danielle H.

    2013-01-01

    Virulence of the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori (Hp) is directly linked to the pathogen's ability to glycosylate proteins; for example, Hp flagellin proteins are heavily glycosylated with the unusual nine-carbon sugar pseudaminic acid, and this modification is absolutely essential for Hp to synthesize functional flagella and colonize the host's stomach. Although Hp's glycans are linked to pathogenesis, Hp's glycome remains poorly understood; only the two flagellin glycoproteins have been firmly characterized in Hp. Evidence from our laboratory suggests that Hp synthesizes a large number of as-yet unidentified glycoproteins. Here we set out to discover Hp's glycoproteins by coupling glycan metabolic labeling with mass spectrometry analysis. An assessment of the subcellular distribution of azide-labeled proteins by Western blot analysis indicated that glycoproteins are present throughout Hp and may therefore serve diverse functions. To identify these species, Hp's azide-labeled glycoproteins were tagged via Staudinger ligation, enriched by tandem affinity chromatography, and analyzed by multidimensional protein identification technology. Direct comparison of enriched azide-labeled glycoproteins with a mock-enriched control by both SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry-based analyses confirmed the selective enrichment of azide-labeled glycoproteins. We identified 125 candidate glycoproteins with diverse biological functions, including those linked with pathogenesis. Mass spectrometry analyses of enriched azide-labeled glycoproteins before and after cleavage of O-linked glycans revealed the presence of Staudinger ligation-glycan adducts in samples only after beta-elimination, confirming the synthesis of O-linked glycoproteins in Hp. Finally, the secreted colonization factors urease alpha and urease beta were biochemically validated as glycosylated proteins via Western blot analysis as well as by mass spectrometry analysis of cleaved glycan products. These data set the

  12. A repair station for HpGe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearman, Robert; Lister, Christopher; Mitchell, A. J.; Copp, Patrick; Jepeal, Steven; Chowdhury, Partha

    2013-10-01

    Hyper-pure Germanium detectors (HpGe) offer the highest energy resolution for gamma-ray nuclear spectroscopy (about 1.5 keV @ 1 MeV), and are used in all the world's leading detector arrays such as GammaSphere, AGATA and GRETINA. The detector crystals are operated in cryostats at 100 K to reduce thermal noise. To maintain low leakage current and low operating temperatures, cryostat hygiene is very important. Detectors must be regularly maintained by using a high-vacuum, oil-free annealing station. At elevated temperatures above 373 K the process of pumping and baking can also anneal away neutron damage to the detector crystals. This poster will show the design and building of a new HpGe repair station at U. Mass Lowell, and make comparisons of results obtained from this new station to the Gammasphere annealing factory at Argonne. This research is funded by the DOE National Nuclear Safety Administration and the Office of Science.

  13. Nektar++: An open-source spectral/ hp element framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantwell, C. D.; Moxey, D.; Comerford, A.; Bolis, A.; Rocco, G.; Mengaldo, G.; De Grazia, D.; Yakovlev, S.; Lombard, J.-E.; Ekelschot, D.; Jordi, B.; Xu, H.; Mohamied, Y.; Eskilsson, C.; Nelson, B.; Vos, P.; Biotto, C.; Kirby, R. M.; Sherwin, S. J.

    2015-07-01

    Nektar++ is an open-source software framework designed to support the development of high-performance scalable solvers for partial differential equations using the spectral/ hp element method. High-order methods are gaining prominence in several engineering and biomedical applications due to their improved accuracy over low-order techniques at reduced computational cost for a given number of degrees of freedom. However, their proliferation is often limited by their complexity, which makes these methods challenging to implement and use. Nektar++ is an initiative to overcome this limitation by encapsulating the mathematical complexities of the underlying method within an efficient C++ framework, making the techniques more accessible to the broader scientific and industrial communities. The software supports a variety of discretisation techniques and implementation strategies, supporting methods research as well as application-focused computation, and the multi-layered structure of the framework allows the user to embrace as much or as little of the complexity as they need. The libraries capture the mathematical constructs of spectral/ hp element methods, while the associated collection of pre-written PDE solvers provides out-of-the-box application-level functionality and a template for users who wish to develop solutions for addressing questions in their own scientific domains.

  14. Engineering of Helicobacter pylori Dimeric Oxidoreductase DsbK (HP0231)

    PubMed Central

    Bocian-Ostrzycka, Katarzyna M.; Grzeszczuk, Magdalena J.; Banaś, Anna M.; Jastrząb, Katarzyna; Pisarczyk, Karolina; Kolarzyk, Anna; Łasica, Anna M.; Collet, Jean-François; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of disulfide bonds that are catalyzed by proteins of the Dsb (disulfide bond) family is crucial for the correct folding of many extracytoplasmic proteins. Thus, this formation plays an essential, pivotal role in the assembly of many virulence factors. The Helicobacter pylori disulfide bond-forming system is uncomplicated compared to the best-characterized Escherichia coli Dsb pathways. It possesses only two extracytoplasmic Dsb proteins named HP0377 and HP0231. As previously shown, HP0377 is a reductase involved in the process of cytochrome c maturation. Additionally, it also possesses disulfide isomerase activity. HP0231 was the first periplasmic dimeric oxidoreductase involved in disulfide generation to be described. Although HP0231 function is critical for oxidative protein folding, its structure resembles that of dimeric EcDsbG, which does not confer this activity. However, the HP0231 catalytic motifs (CXXC and the so-called cis-Pro loop) are identical to that of monomeric EcDsbA. To understand the functioning of HP0231, we decided to study the relations between its sequence, structure and activity through an extensive analysis of various HP0231 point mutants, using in vivo and in vitro strategies. Our work shows the crucial role of the cis-Pro loop, as changing valine to threonine in this motif completely abolishes the protein function in vivo. Functioning of HP0231 is conditioned by the combination of CXXC and the cis-Pro loop, as replacing the HP0231 CXXC motif by the motif from EcDsbG or EcDsbC results in bifunctional protein, at least in E. coli. We also showed that the dimerization domain of HP0231 ensures contact with its substrates. Moreover, the activity of this oxidase is independent on the structure of the catalytic domain. Finally, we showed that HP0231 chaperone activity is independent of its redox function. PMID:27507968

  15. Engineering of Helicobacter pylori Dimeric Oxidoreductase DsbK (HP0231).

    PubMed

    Bocian-Ostrzycka, Katarzyna M; Grzeszczuk, Magdalena J; Banaś, Anna M; Jastrząb, Katarzyna; Pisarczyk, Karolina; Kolarzyk, Anna; Łasica, Anna M; Collet, Jean-François; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta K

    2016-01-01

    The formation of disulfide bonds that are catalyzed by proteins of the Dsb (disulfide bond) family is crucial for the correct folding of many extracytoplasmic proteins. Thus, this formation plays an essential, pivotal role in the assembly of many virulence factors. The Helicobacter pylori disulfide bond-forming system is uncomplicated compared to the best-characterized Escherichia coli Dsb pathways. It possesses only two extracytoplasmic Dsb proteins named HP0377 and HP0231. As previously shown, HP0377 is a reductase involved in the process of cytochrome c maturation. Additionally, it also possesses disulfide isomerase activity. HP0231 was the first periplasmic dimeric oxidoreductase involved in disulfide generation to be described. Although HP0231 function is critical for oxidative protein folding, its structure resembles that of dimeric EcDsbG, which does not confer this activity. However, the HP0231 catalytic motifs (CXXC and the so-called cis-Pro loop) are identical to that of monomeric EcDsbA. To understand the functioning of HP0231, we decided to study the relations between its sequence, structure and activity through an extensive analysis of various HP0231 point mutants, using in vivo and in vitro strategies. Our work shows the crucial role of the cis-Pro loop, as changing valine to threonine in this motif completely abolishes the protein function in vivo. Functioning of HP0231 is conditioned by the combination of CXXC and the cis-Pro loop, as replacing the HP0231 CXXC motif by the motif from EcDsbG or EcDsbC results in bifunctional protein, at least in E. coli. We also showed that the dimerization domain of HP0231 ensures contact with its substrates. Moreover, the activity of this oxidase is independent on the structure of the catalytic domain. Finally, we showed that HP0231 chaperone activity is independent of its redox function. PMID:27507968

  16. Affinity, stoichiometry and cooperativity of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) binding to nucleosomal arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teif, Vladimir B.; Kepper, Nick; Yserentant, Klaus; Wedemann, Gero; Rippe, Karsten

    2015-02-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) participates in establishing and maintaining heterochromatin via its histone-modification-dependent chromatin interactions. In recent papers HP1 binding to nucleosomal arrays was measured in vitro and interpreted in terms of nearest-neighbour cooperative binding. This mode of chromatin interaction could lead to the spreading of HP1 along the nucleosome chain. Here, we reanalysed previous data by representing the nucleosome chain as a 1D binding lattice and showed how the experimental HP1 binding isotherms can be explained by a simpler model without cooperative interactions between neighboring HP1 dimers. Based on these calculations and spatial models of dinucleosomes and nucleosome chains, we propose that binding stoichiometry depends on the nucleosome repeat length (NRL) rather than protein interactions between HP1 dimers. According to our calculations, more open nucleosome arrays with long DNA linkers are characterized by a larger number of binding sites in comparison to chains with a short NRL. Furthermore, we demonstrate by Monte Carlo simulations that the NRL dependent folding of the nucleosome chain can induce allosteric changes of HP1 binding sites. Thus, HP1 chromatin interactions can be modulated by the change of binding stoichiometry and the type of binding to condensed (methylated) and non-condensed (unmethylated) nucleosome arrays in the absence of direct interactions between HP1 dimers.

  17. Interaction between HP1{alpha} and replication proteins in mammalian cells

    SciTech Connect

    Auth, Tanja . E-mail: tauth@uni-bonn.de; Kunkel, Elisabeth; Grummt, Friedrich . E-mail: grummt@biozentrum.uni-wuerzburg.de

    2006-10-15

    HP1 is an essential heterochromatin-associated protein known to play an important role in the organization of heterochromatin as well as in the transcriptional regulation of heterochromatic and euchromatic genes both in repression and activation. Using the yeast two-hybrid system and immunoprecipitation, we report here that murine HP1{alpha} interacts with the preRC proteins ORC1, ORC2 and CDC6. Immunofluorescence staining and EGFP/DsRed fusion proteins revealed a colocalization of HP1{alpha} with ORC1, ORC2 and CDC6 in heterochromatin, supporting the notion that ORC and probably CDC6 play an important role in murine HP1{alpha} function. Besides that, we also observed a colocalization of HP1{alpha} with {gamma}-tubulin suggesting a centrosomal localization of HP1{alpha} in murine cells. To gain insight into HP1{alpha} function, we applied the RNAi technique. Depletion of HP1{alpha} leads to a slow down of cell proliferation, an aberrant cell cycle progression as well as to multinucleated cells with insufficiently organized microtubule. These results together indicate that HP1{alpha} exerts functions in mitosis and cytokinesis.

  18. 18. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 450 HP TURBINE INSTALLATION IN BASEMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF 450 HP TURBINE INSTALLATION IN BASEMENT OF GRANITEVILLE MILL. MAIN FEATURE OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS THE PENSTOCK CONDUCTING WATER TO THE TURBINE IN THE BACKGROUND. THE PENSTOCK IS OF RIVETED IRON CONSTRUCTION AND REPLACED A WOOD PENSTOCK IN 1882. THE COVERED OPENING IN THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH ORIGINALLY CONNECTED TO A STANDPIPE WHICH EXITED VERTICALLY THROUGH THE MILL. THE STANDPIPE MODERATED WATER PRESSURE AND SERVED AS A SAFETY FEATURE IN THE EVENT THE TURBINE GATES WERE RAPIDLY CLOSED. (IF LOAD IN THE MILL WERE SUDDENLY STOPPED-SAY AT QUITTING TIME-THE GATES WOULD SHUT DOWN FLOW TO THE TURBINE. THE STANDPIPE OFFERED A PLACE FOR THE WATER, RAPIDLY MOVING THROUGH THE PENSTOCK, TO ESCAPE. IN A SHUT-DOWN SITUATION WATER WOULD ... - Graniteville Mill, Marshall Street, Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

  19. 17. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF 450 HP TURBINE IN BASEMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF 450 HP TURBINE IN BASEMENT OF GRANITEVILLE MILL. THE MAIN BEARING OF THE TURBINE IS AT LEFT CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. A LOMBARD REGULATOR CAN BE SEEN AT THE LEFT CENTER REAR. THE LARGE HANDWHEEL AT THE LEFT CENTER IS GEARED TO A SECTIONAL GEAR AT THE CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH AND IS USED TO MANUALLY OPEN THE GATES AND ALLOW WATER INTO THE TURBINE. THE SMALL PULLEY ON THE END OF THE MAIN SHAFT NORMALLY WOULD HAVE A BELT CONNECTING IT TO A PULLEY ON THE LOMBARD REGULATOR. THIS BELT TRANSMITTED TURBINE SPEED (RPM) TO THE LOMBARD WHICH WOULD OPEN OR CLOSE THE GATES TO KEEP TURBINE SPEED CONSTANT UNDER VARYING LOADS. THIS TURBINE WAS INSTALLED IN THE REFIT OF 1912. - Graniteville Mill, Marshall Street, Graniteville, Aiken County, SC

  20. Absolute properties of the triple star HP Aurigae

    SciTech Connect

    Lacy, Claud H. Sandberg; Burks, Charles L.; Torres, Guillermo; Wolf, Marek E-mail: clburks@email.uark.edu E-mail: wolf@cesnet.cz

    2014-01-01

    New photometric, spectroscopic, and eclipse timing observations of the eclipsing binary star HP Aur allow for very accurate orbital determinations, even in the presence of a third body and transient starspot activity. The eclipsing binary masses are determined to an accuracy of ±0.4% and the radii to ±0.6%. The masses are 0.9543 ± 0.0041 and 0.8094 ± 0.0036 solar masses, and the radii are 1.0278 ± 0.0042 and 0.7758 ± 0.0034 solar radii, respectively. The orbital period in the outer orbit is accurately determined for the first time: 4.332 ± 0.011 yr. A comparison with current theories of stellar evolution shows that the components' absolute properties can be well-matched by the current models at an age of about 7 billion years.

  1. A Unix Print Filter for Controlling an HP Laserjet Printer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.M.

    1992-01-01

    This report describes a Unix print filter designed to control an Hewlett Packard Laserjet or other printer that uses Hewlett Packard's Printer Control Language (HP-PCL). The filter gives users the ability to control print pitch, orientation, and indentation by using standard flags to the Unix lpr command or multiple entries in the /etc/printcap file and allows both ascii and binary (i.e., graphics and down-loadable fonts) files to be printed. Additionally, the filter provides some accounting capability. The supported print pitch and orientation options are described, as are the different configuration options. The code for the filter is included in Appendix A and sample entries for the /etc/printcap file are included in Appendix B and C.

  2. A Unix print filter for controlling an HP Laserjet printer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes a Unix print filter designed to control an Hewlett Packard Laserjet or other printer that uses Hewlett Packard`s Printer Control Language (HP-PCL). The filter gives users the ability to control print pitch, orientation, and indentation by using standard flags to the Unix 1pr. command or multiple entries in the /etc/printcap file and allows both ascii and binary (i.e., graphics and down-loadable fonts) files to be printed. Additionally, the filter provides some accounting capability. The supported print pitch and orientation options are described, as are the different configuration options. The code for the filter and sample entries for the /etc/printcap file are included.

  3. A Unix print filter for controlling an HP Laserjet printer

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, F.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes a Unix print filter designed to control an Hewlett Packard Laserjet or other printer that uses Hewlett Packard's Printer Control Language (HP-PCL). The filter gives users the ability to control print pitch, orientation, and indentation by using standard flags to the Unix 1pr. command or multiple entries in the /etc/printcap file and allows both ascii and binary (i.e., graphics and down-loadable fonts) files to be printed. Additionally, the filter provides some accounting capability. The supported print pitch and orientation options are described, as are the different configuration options. The code for the filter and sample entries for the /etc/printcap file are included.

  4. Performance of the h, p and h-p versions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Babuska, I.; Gui, W.; Szabo, B.

    1984-01-01

    There are three basic versions of the finite element method, called the h, p and h-p versions. They are characterized by the way in which the finite element meshes and polynomial degree of elements are chosen. They differ in computer implementation (program architecture) and mathematical analysis. The manner in which the meshes and polynomial degree of the elements affect the accuracy of finite element solutions is examined. The approach is to fix certain parameters and increase the number of degrees of freedom so that the finie element solutions converge to the exact solution. Such a systematic increase of the number of degrees of freedom is called extension because it can be interpreted as a systematic extension of finite element spaces.

  5. Drosophila Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1)/Origin Recognition Complex (ORC) Protein Is Associated with HP1 and ORC and Functions in Heterochromatin-induced Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Shareef, Mohammed Momin; King, Chadwick; Damaj, Mona; Badagu, RamaKrishna; Huang, Da Wei; Kellum, Rebecca

    2001-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a conserved component of the highly compact chromatin of higher eukaryotic centromeres and telomeres. Cytogenetic experiments in Drosophila have shown that HP1 localization into this chromatin is perturbed in mutants for the origin recognition complex (ORC) 2 subunit. ORC has a multisubunit DNA-binding activity that binds origins of DNA replication where it is required for origin firing. The DNA-binding activity of ORC is also used in the recruitment of the Sir1 protein to silence nucleation sites flanking silent copies of the mating-type genes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A fraction of HP1 in the maternally loaded cytoplasm of the early Drosophila embryo is associated with a multiprotein complex containing Drosophila melanogaster ORC subunits. This complex appears to be poised to function in heterochromatin assembly later in embryonic development. Here we report the identification of a novel component of this complex, the HP1/ORC-associated protein. This protein contains similarity to DNA sequence-specific HMG proteins and is shown to bind specific satellite sequences and the telomere-associated sequence in vitro. The protein is shown to have heterochromatic localization in both diploid interphase and mitotic chromosomes and polytene chromosomes. Moreover, the gene encoding HP1/ORC-associated protein was found to display reciprocal dose-dependent variegation modifier phenotypes, similar to those for mutants in HP1 and the ORC 2 subunit. PMID:11408576

  6. POF and HP1 bind expressed exons, suggesting a balancing mechanism for gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Johansson, Anna-Mia; Stenberg, Per; Pettersson, Fredrik; Larsson, Jan

    2007-11-01

    Two specific chromosome-targeting and gene regulatory systems are present in Drosophila melanogaster. The male X chromosome is targeted by the male-specific lethal complex believed to mediate the 2-fold up-regulation of the X-linked genes, and the highly heterochromatic fourth chromosome is specifically targeted by the Painting of Fourth (POF) protein, which, together with heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), modulates the expression level of genes on the fourth chromosome. Here we use chromatin immunoprecipitation and tiling microarray analysis to map POF and HP1 on the fourth chromosome in S2 cells and salivary glands at high resolution. The enrichment profiles were complemented by transcript profiles to examine the link between binding and transcripts. The results show that POF specifically binds to genes, with a strong preference for exons, and the HP1 binding profile is a mirror image of POF, although HP1 displays an additional "peak" in the promoter regions of bound genes. HP1 binding within genes is much higher than the basal HP1 enrichment on Chromosome 4. Our results suggest a balancing mechanism for the regulation of the fourth chromosome where POF and HP1 competitively bind at increasing levels with increased transcriptional activity. In addition, our results contradict transposable elements as a major nucleation site for HP1 on the fourth chromosome.

  7. POF and HP1 Bind Expressed Exons, Suggesting a Balancing Mechanism for Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Johansson, Anna-Mia; Stenberg, Per; Pettersson, Fredrik; Larsson, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Two specific chromosome-targeting and gene regulatory systems are present in Drosophila melanogaster. The male X chromosome is targeted by the male-specific lethal complex believed to mediate the 2-fold up-regulation of the X-linked genes, and the highly heterochromatic fourth chromosome is specifically targeted by the Painting of Fourth (POF) protein, which, together with heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), modulates the expression level of genes on the fourth chromosome. Here we use chromatin immunoprecipitation and tiling microarray analysis to map POF and HP1 on the fourth chromosome in S2 cells and salivary glands at high resolution. The enrichment profiles were complemented by transcript profiles to examine the link between binding and transcripts. The results show that POF specifically binds to genes, with a strong preference for exons, and the HP1 binding profile is a mirror image of POF, although HP1 displays an additional “peak” in the promoter regions of bound genes. HP1 binding within genes is much higher than the basal HP1 enrichment on Chromosome 4. Our results suggest a balancing mechanism for the regulation of the fourth chromosome where POF and HP1 competitively bind at increasing levels with increased transcriptional activity. In addition, our results contradict transposable elements as a major nucleation site for HP1 on the fourth chromosome. PMID:18020713

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Ghazal, Shimaa; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W. Kelley; Khalil, Kamal M.

    2016-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 5.27-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, with a G+C content of 42.4% and containing 4,243 candidate protein-coding genes. PMID:26988056

  9. Draft Genome Sequence of Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, an Entomopathogenic Bacterium Isolated from Nematodes.

    PubMed

    Ghazal, Shimaa; Oshone, Rediet; Simpson, Stephen; Morris, Krystalynne; Abebe-Akele, Feseha; Thomas, W Kelley; Khalil, Kamal M; Tisa, Louis S

    2016-01-01

    Photorhabdus luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88 is an entomopathogenic bacterium that forms a symbiotic association with Heterorhabditis nematodes. We report here a 5.27-Mbp draft genome sequence for P. luminescens subsp. laumondii HP88, with a G+C content of 42.4% and containing 4,243 candidate protein-coding genes. PMID:26988056

  10. The CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health Promotion in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barry, Margaret M.; Battel-Kirk, Barbara; Dempsey, Colette

    2012-01-01

    Background: The CompHP Project on Developing Competencies and Professional Standards for Health Promotion in Europe was developed in response to the need for new and changing health promotion competencies to address health challenges. This article presents the process of developing the CompHP Core Competencies Framework for Health Promotion across…

  11. Recurring exon deletions in the haptoglobin (HP) gene associate with lower blood cholesterol levels

    PubMed Central

    Boettger, Linda M.; Salem, Rany M.; Handsaker, Robert E.; Peloso, Gina; Kathiresan, Sekar; Hirschhorn, Joel; McCarroll, Steven A.

    2016-01-01

    Two exons of the human haptoglobin (HP) gene exhibit copy number variation that affects HP multimerization and underlies one of the first protein polymorphisms identified in humans. The evolutionary origins and medical significance of this polymorphism have been uncertain. Here we show that this variation has likely arisen from the recurring reversion of an ancient hominin-specific duplication of these exons. Though this polymorphism has been largely invisible to genome-wide genetic studies to date, we describe a way to analyze it by imputation from SNP haplotypes and find among 22,288 individuals that these HP exonic deletions associate with reduced LDL and total cholesterol levels. We show that these deletions, and a SNP that affects HP expression, are the likely drivers of the strong but complex association of cholesterol levels to SNPs near HP. Recurring exonic deletions in the haptoglobin gene likely enhance human health by lowering cholesterol levels in the blood. PMID:26901066

  12. Directional motion of foreign plasmid DNA to nuclear HP1 foci.

    PubMed

    Ondrej, Vladan; Kozubek, Stanislav; Lukásová, Emílie; Falk, Martin; Matula, Pavel; Matula, Petr; Kozubek, Michal

    2006-01-01

    Movement of labelled plasmid DNA relative to heterochromatin foci in nuclei, visualized with HP1-GFP, was studied using live-cell imaging and object tracking. In addition to Brownian motion of plasmid DNA we found a pronounced, non-random movement of plasmid DNA towards the nearest HP1 focus, while time-lapse microscopy showed that HP1 foci are relatively immobile and positionally stable. The movement of plasmid DNA was much faster than that of the HP1 foci. Contact of transgene DNA with an HP1 focus usually resulted in cessation of the directional motion. Moreover, the motion of plasmid DNA inside the heterochromatin compartment was more restricted (limited to 0.25 microm) than when the plasmid DNA was outside heterochromatin (R = 0.7 microm). Three days after transfection most of the foreign labelled DNA colocalized with centromeric heterochromatin.

  13. Helicobacter pylori HP0231 Influences Bacterial Virulence and Is Essential for Gastric Colonization

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Yu; Anderl, Florian; Kruse, Tobias; Schindele, Franziska; Jagusztyn-Krynicka, Elżbieta Katarzyna; Fischer, Wolfgang; Gerhard, Markus

    2016-01-01

    The Dsb protein family is responsible for introducing disulfide bonds into nascent proteins in prokaryotes, stabilizing the structure of many proteins. Helicobacter pylori HP0231 is a Dsb-like protein, shown to catalyze disulfide bond formation and to participate in redox homeostasis. Notably, many H. pylori virulence factors are stabilized by the formation of disulfide bonds. By employing H. pylori HP0231 deficient strains we analyzed the effect of lack of this bacterial protein on the functionality of virulence factors containing putative disulfide bonds. The lack of H. pylori HP0231 impaired CagA translocation into gastric epithelial cells and reduced VacA-induced cellular vacuolation. Moreover, H. pylori HP0231 deficient bacteria were not able to colonize the gastric mucosa of mice, probably due to compromised motility. Together, our data demonstrate an essential function for H. pylori HP0231 in gastric colonization and proper function of bacterial virulence factors related to gastric pathology. PMID:27138472

  14. Global investigations of the satellite-based Fugro OmniSTAR HP service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pflugmacher, Andreas; Heister, Hansbert; Heunecke, Otto

    2009-12-01

    OmniSTAR is one of the world's leading suppliers of satellite-based augmentation services for onshore and offshore GNSS applications. OmniSTAR currently offers three services: VBS, HP and XP. OmniSTAR VBS is the code-based service, suitable for sub-metre positioning accuracy. The HP and XP services provide sub-decimetre accuracy, with the HP service based on a precise differential methodology and the XP service uses precise absolute positioning. The sub-decimetre HP and XP services both have distinctive convergence behaviour, and the positioning task is essentially a time-dependent process during which the accuracy of the estimated coordinates continuously improves over time. To validate the capabilities of the OmniSTAR services, and in particular the HP (High Performance) service, globally distributed measurement campaigns were performed. The results of these investigations confirm that the HP service satisfies its high accuracy specification, but only after a sufficient initialisation phase. Two kinds of disturbances can handicap HP operation: lack of GNSS observations and outages of the augmentation signal. The most serious kind of disturbance is the former. Within a few seconds the achieved convergence level is completely lost. Outages in the reception of augmentation data merely affect the relevant period of the outage - the accuracy during the outage is degraded. Only longer interruptions lead to a loss of the HP solution. When HP convergence is lost, the HP process has to be re-initialized. If there are known points (so-called “seed points”) available, a shortened “kick-start”-initialization is possible. With the aid of seed points it only takes a few minutes to restore convergence.

  15. Up-regulation of pro-inflammatory factors by HP-PRRSV infection in microglia: implications for HP-PRRSV neuropathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xin-Xin; Quan, Rong; Guo, Xue-Kun; Gao, Li; Shi, Jishu; Feng, Wen-Hai

    2014-05-14

    Atypical porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome (PRRS) caused by a highly pathogenic PRRS virus (HP-PRRSV) is characterized by high fever, high morbidity, high mortality, and associated with severe neurological symptoms. Microglia are the resident innate immune cells in central nervous system (CNS), and their activation has been implicated as an important contributor to the pathogenesis of CNS diseases. In the present study, we successfully cultured porcine microglia and demonstrated that microglia could support PRRSV infection and replication in vitro. We further showed that HP-PRRSV infection significantly up-regulated the key inflammatory factors including IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, IL-12, IL-8, CXCL10, MCP-1, CCL3, CCL4, and CCL5 in cultured microglia as well as in the CNS of HP-PRRSV-infected pigs. The transcription factors NF-κB and AP-1, which are widely reported to regulate cytokine and chemokine productions, were activated by HP-PRRSV infection in microglia. Meanwhile, we found that HP-PRRSV induced cellular ROS formation in microglia and ROS scavenger was proved to significantly abolish the activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-8), suggesting that ROS are crucial for pro-inflammatory gene production. Importantly, incubation with supernatants from HP-PRRSV-infected microglia cell culture remarkably induced SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell death. Collectively, these results showed that PRRSV infection induced cytokine and ROS up-regulation in microglia, which might contribute to neurotoxicity. These data have implications for us to understand the neuropathogenesis of HP-PRRSV in pigs. PMID:24581811

  16. EPA laboratory evaluation of PetroMoly HP motor oil

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The report describes EPA laboratory fuel economy and exhaust emission testing of PetroMoly HP 5W-30 motor oil (hereafter, PetroMoly) at EPA`s National Vehicle and Fuel Emissions Laboratory (NVFEL) in Ann Arbor, Michigan. PetroMoly, a product of Worldwide PetroMoly Corporation, is described in their Product Data Sheet as a high performance oil which, when used as a replacement for a conventional motor oil, offers ``Increased fuel economy up to 10%`` and ``Reduced toxic emissions up to 60%`` in addition to other claimed benefits. EPA`s Vehicle Programs and Compliance Division (VPCD) agreed to test PetroMoly on one vehicle because evidence from independent laboratory testing conducted on two vehicles exhibited a statistically significant improvement in fuel economy of four to five percent in city driving and two to three percent in highway driving. The conclusions drawn from EPA evaluation tests are necessarily of limited applicability. An all encompassing evaluation of the effectiveness of a product in achieving performance improvements on the many types of vehicles that are in actual use would require a large sample of test vehicles.

  17. HP9-4-.30 weld properties and microstructure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watt, George W.

    1991-01-01

    HP9-4-.30, ultra high strength steel, the case material for the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), must exhibit acceptable strength, ductility, toughness, and stress corrosion cracking (SCC) resistance after welding and a local post weld heat treatment (PWHT). Testing, to date, shows that the base metal (BM) properties are more than adequate for the anticipated launch loads. Tensile tests of test specimens taken transverse to the weld show that the weld metal overmatches the BM even in the PWHT condition. However, that is still some question about the toughness and SCC resistance of the weld metal in the as welded and post weld heat treated condition. To help clarify the as welded and post weld heat treated mechanical behavior of the alloy, subsize tensile specimens from the BM, the fusion zone (FZ) with and without PWHT, and the heat affected zone (HAZ) with and without PWHT were tested to failure and the fracture surfaces subsequently examined with a scanning electron microscope. Results are given and briefly discussed.

  18. Seven health physics calculator programs for the HP-41CV

    SciTech Connect

    Rittmann, P.D.

    1984-08-01

    Several user-oriented programs for the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV are explained. The first program builds, stores, alters, and ages a list of radionuclides. This program only handles single- and double-decay chains. The second program performs convenient conversions for the six nuclides of concern in plutonium handling. The conversions are between mass, activity, and weight percents of the isotopes. The source can be aged and/or neutron generation rates can be computed. The third program is a timekeeping program that improves the process of manually estimating and tracking personnel exposure during high dose rate tasks by replacing the pencil, paper, and stopwatch method. This program requires a time module. The remaining four programs deal with computations of time-integrated air concentrations at various distances from an airborne release. Building wake effects, source depletion by ground deposition, and sector averaging can all be included in the final printout of the X/Q - Hanford and X/Q - Pasquill programs. The shorter versions of these, H/Q and P/Q, compute centerline or sector-averaged values and include a subroutine to facilitate dose estimation by entering dose factors and quantities released. The horizontal and vertical dispersion parameters in the Pasquill-Gifford programs were modeled with simple, two-parameter functions that agreed very well with the usual textbook graphs. 8 references, 7 appendices.

  19. Bi-phasic expression of Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) during breast cancer progression: Potential roles of HP1 and chromatin structure in tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Ho; Ann, David K.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics in cancer prognosis and therapy is gaining recognition in recent years. Breast cancer is a genetic disease harboring numerous genetic mutations, including tumor suppressor BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations. However, the functions of BRCA1 in cancer cells are also altered by non-genetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation and chromatin structure. Therefore, identification of epigenetic markers for breast cancer is very important for early diagnosis and effective therapy. This review focuses on recent findings on the roles of Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) in BRCA1 functions and breast cancer progression. We previously showed that BRCA1 function and breast cancer progression are frequently associated with HP1 expression level and potentially with chromatin structure. Herein, we suggest that bi-phasic expression of HP1 during breast cancer progression indicates dual roles of HP1 in tumorigenesis. Exploiting differential HP1 expression in tumors could lead to effective cancer therapy. Re-setting the chromatin structure may be a critical step for high-efficiency cancer therapy for many breast cancer patients. PMID:26082944

  20. Dynamic Phosphorylation of HP1α Regulates Mitotic Progression in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Chakraborty, Arindam; Prasanth, Kannanganattu V.; Prasanth, Supriya G.

    2014-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α), a key player in the establishment and maintenance of higher-order chromatin regulates key cellular processes, including metaphase chromatid cohesion and centromere organization. However, how HP1α controls these processes is not well understood. Here we demonstrate that post-translational modifications of HP1α dictate its mitotic functions. HP1α is constitutively phosphorylated within its N-terminus whereas phosphorylation within the hinge domain occurs preferentially at G2/M phase of the cell cycle. The hinge-phosphorylated form of HP1α specifically localizes to kinetochores during early mitosis and this phosphorylation mediated by NDR1 kinase is required for mitotic progression and for Sgo1 binding to mitotic centromeres. Cells lacking NDR kinase show loss of mitosis-specific phosphorylation of HP1α leading to prometaphase arrest. Our results reveal that NDR kinase catalyzes the hinge-specific phosphorylation of human HP1α during G2/M in vivo and this orchestrates accurate chromosome alignment and mitotic progression. PMID:24619172

  1. Heterochromatin Protein 1 (HP1) Proteins Do Not Drive Pericentromeric Cohesin Enrichment in Human Cells

    PubMed Central

    Serrano, Ángel; Rodríguez-Corsino, Miriam; Losada, Ana

    2009-01-01

    Sister chromatid cohesion mediated by cohesin is essential for accurate chromosome segregation. Classical studies suggest that heterochromatin promotes cohesion, but whether this happens through regulation of cohesin remains to be determined. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is a major component of heterochromatin. In fission yeast, the HP1 homologue Swi6 interacts with cohesin and is required for proper targeting and/or stabilization of cohesin at the centromeric region. To test whether this pathway is conserved in human cells, we have examined the behavior of cohesin in cells in which the levels of HP1 alpha, beta or gamma (the three HP1 proteins present in mammalian organisms) have been reduced by siRNA. We have also studied the consequences of treating human cells with drugs that change the histone modification profile of heterochromatin and thereby affect HP1 localization. Our results show no evidence for a requirement of HP1 proteins for either loading of bulk cohesin onto chromatin in interphase or retention of cohesin at pericentric heterochromatin in mitosis. However, depletion of HP1gamma leads to defects in mitotic progression. PMID:19352502

  2. Optimization of an HP Scanjet for quantification of protein electrophoresis gels.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, N C; Johansen, J J; Lee, P R; Santek, D A

    1994-06-01

    An inexpensive desktop scanner, the Hewlett-Packard Scanjet IIp (HP), has been optimized for analysis of protein electrophoresis gels by comparison with a calibrated laser densitometer (Laser). Images from both densitometers were transferred to a personal computer and analyzed with QGEL software. Without correction the HP response was often in poor agreement with the Laser. However, when the HP response to Coomassie blue stained gels and x-ray films was linearized using a HP software option called Emphasis, the HP results agreed with results from the Laser. For 2D gels scanned with appropriate Emphasis applied, spot integrated density values were a constant multiple of 1.8 +/- 0.3 times the corresponding Laser value for x-ray films (CV = 17%) and 2.1 +/- 0.5 for Coomassie blue stained gels (CV = 24%). The highest error was observed for density extremes. For proteins quantified relative to standards using sodium dodecyl sulfate-slab gel electrophoresis, the HP values were within 15% of the Laser values. Data is shown concerning linearity and reproducibility of response, optical density range (about 0 to 1.8 OD units), variability of the imaging field, and resolution of the HP.

  3. Interaction of Helicobacter pylori (Hp) and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID) on gastric mucosa and risk of ulcerations.

    PubMed

    Konturek, Peter C; Konturek, Stanisław J; Cześnikiewicz, Marta; Płonka, Małgorzata; Bielański, Władysław

    2002-09-01

    Hp and NSAID are the most common pathogens in the stomach, but their interaction on gastro-duodenal mucosa has been little studied. Hp infection in humans does not interfere with NSAID-induced gastric ulcer healing by omeprazole, therefore, there is no rationale to eradicate the germ. Hp infection induces COX-2 expression resulting in excessive biosynthesis of gastroprotective prostaglandin (PG), which should in turn counteract NSAID-induced gastropathy and contribute to healing of existing ulcers. Some investigators claim that Hp infection acts synergistically with NSAID on ulcerogenesis and propose that Hp should be eradicated, particularly at the onset of long-term NSAID therapy. Our studies in about 6500 dyspeptic patients undergoing upper endoscopy and 13C-urea breath test revealed that about 70% of these patients are Hp positive and 31% of these develop gastro-duodenal ulcers. Of these ulcers, 66% were Hp positive and NSAID negative, 3%--NSAID positive and Hp negative, 8% were both Hp positive and NSAID positive, while 23% ulcers were Hp and NSAID negative. An evidence was obtained for negative interaction between Hp infection and NSAID on risk of gastro-duodenal ulcers suggesting that Hp may attenuate the peptic ulcerogenesis. Our results support the concept 1) the interaction between Hp infection and NSAID on gastro-duodenal ulcerations is antagonistic, 2) the Hp and NSAID are independent risk factors for peptic ulcerations in humans, 3) there is no need for the Hp eradication in NSAID-treated patients, and 4) the rate of ulcer complications (hemorrhage and perforation) remains constant despite the decrease in Hp and ulcer prevalence.

  4. HELICOBACTER PYLORI (HP) INFECTION IN OBESE PATIENTS UNDERGOING ROUXEN- Y GASTRIC BYPASS; EFFICACY OF TWO DIFFERENT TREATMENT REGIMENS IN HP ERADICATION.

    PubMed

    Cuesta Hernández, Martín; Pérez Peña, Celia; Matía Martín, Pilar; Cabrerizo García, Lucio; Pérez-Ferre, Natalia; Sánchez-Pernaute, Andrés; Torres García, Antonio; Rubio Herrera, Miguel Ángel

    2015-08-01

    Introducción: las causas implicadas en el aumento de incidencia de úlcera gástrica tras el bypass en Y de Roux no son completamente conocidas. El tratamiento de la infección por HP se recomienda antes de la cirugía en países cuya prevalencia sea elevada, como el caso de España, de cara a disminuir dicha complicación. Sin embargo, las pautas actuales de tratamiento pueden no ser adecuadas dados los elevados índices de resistencia. Pacientes y métodos: análisis retrospectivo de 243 pacientes operados de bypass en Y de Roux. De ellos, 111 pacientes (45%) presentaban infección por HP. Objetivo principal: comparación de la eficacia de dos terapias de erradicación de la infección por HP. Resultados: 70 pacientes recibieron OCA( Omeprazol 20 mg/12 h, Claritromicina 500 mg/12 h y Amoxicilina 1 g/12h durante 10 días), mientras que 41 pacientes recibieron OLA (Omeprazol 20 mg/12 h, Levofloxacino 500 mg/12 h y Amoxicilina 1 g/12 h durante 10 días). En 56/70 pacientes (80%) que recibieron OCA HP fue erradicado, comparado con 37/41 (91%) del grupo que recibió OLA como primera terapia (p = 0,283). La terapia con OLA usada de segunda línea fue eficaz en 13/14 pacientes con HP resistente a la terapia OCA. Conclusión: la resistencia de HP a Claritromicina es significativa en nuestra serie de pacientes, siendo la terapia con OLA una alternativa adecuada en las cepas resistentes.

  5. Laplace and Z Transform Solutions of Differential and Difference Equations With the HP-41C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Richard C.; Simons, Fred O., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A previously developed program for the HP-41C programmable calculator is extended to handle models of differential and difference equations with multiple eigenvalues. How to obtain difference equation solutions via the Z transform is described. (MNS)

  6. LOOKING DOWN ON GENERAL ELECTRIC 250HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR. LARGE HANDWHEEL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING DOWN ON GENERAL ELECTRIC 250-HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR. LARGE HANDWHEEL IN FOREGROUND USED TO TIGHTEN BRAKE BAND AROUND ARMATURE TO STOP BALL MILL AND MOTOR ROTATION. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  7. 22. ASSEMBLY OF 9700 H.P. ALLIS CHALMERS TURBINE, CENTERVILLE P.H. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. ASSEMBLY OF 9700 H.P. ALLIS CHALMERS TURBINE, CENTERVILLE P.H. Drawing no. 50153, traced from Allis Chalmers drawing #699, April 24, 1906. - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

  8. In-Plant Protection against Helicoverpa armigera by Production of Long hpRNA in Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Bally, Julia; McIntyre, Glen J.; Doran, Rachel L.; Lee, Karen; Perez, Alicia; Jung, Hyungtaek; Naim, Fatima; Larrinua, Ignacio M.; Narva, Kenneth E.; Waterhouse, Peter M.

    2016-01-01

    Expressing double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) in transgenic plants to silence essential genes within herbivorous pests is referred to as trans-kingdom RNA interference (TK-RNAi) and has emerged as a promising strategy for crop protection. However, the dicing of dsRNA into siRNAs by the plant’s intrinsic RNAi machinery may reduce this pesticidal activity. Therefore, genetic constructs, encoding ∼200 nt duplex-stemmed-hairpin (hp) RNAs, targeting the acetylcholinesterase gene of the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, were integrated into either the nuclear or the chloroplast genome of Nicotiana benthamiana. Undiced, full-length hpRNAs accumulated in transplastomic lines of N. benthamiana and conferred strong protection against H. armigera herbivory while the hpRNAs of nuclear-transformed plants were processed into siRNAs and gave more modest anti-feeding activity. This suggests that there is little or no RNAi machinery or activity in the chloroplast, that hpRNAs produced within this organelle do not enter the cytoplasm, and that oral delivery of chloroplast-packaged intact hpRNA is a more effective means of delivering TK-RNAi than using nuclear encoded hpRNAs. This contrasts with a recently reported correlation between siRNA expression and effectiveness of TK-RNAi targeting the chitinase gene of H. armigera, but is consistent with reports of efficient TK-RNAi by dsRNA generated in chloroplasts by converging promoters flanking a pest gene sequence and from very small (21 nt-stem) hpRNAs resembling artificial miRNAs. Here we demonstrate that hpRNAs, constructed along the conventional design principles of plant RNAi constructs but integrated into the chloroplast genome, are stable and effective over multiple generations, and hold the promise of providing durable pest resistance in crops. PMID:27746796

  9. The HP0256 gene product is involved in motility and cell envelope architecture of Helicobacter pylori

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Helicobacter pylori is the causative agent for gastritis, and peptic and duodenal ulcers. The bacterium displays 5-6 polar sheathed flagella that are essential for colonisation and persistence in the gastric mucosa. The biochemistry and genetics of flagellar biogenesis in H. pylori has not been fully elucidated. Bioinformatics analysis suggested that the gene HP0256, annotated as hypothetical, was a FliJ homologue. In Salmonella, FliJ is a chaperone escort protein for FlgN and FliT, two proteins that themselves display chaperone activity for components of the hook, the rod and the filament. Results Ablation of the HP0256 gene in H. pylori significantly reduced motility. However, flagellin and hook protein synthesis was not affected in the HP0256 mutant. Transmission electron transmission microscopy revealed that the HP0256 mutant cells displayed a normal flagellum configuration, suggesting that HP0256 was not essential for assembly and polar localisation of the flagella in the cell. Interestingly, whole genome microarrays of an HP0256 mutant revealed transcriptional changes in a number of genes associated with the flagellar regulon and the cell envelope, such as outer membrane proteins and adhesins. Consistent with the array data, lack of the HP0256 gene significantly reduced adhesion and the inflammatory response in host cells. Conclusions We conclude that HP0256 is not a functional counterpart of FliJ in H. pylori. However, it is required for full motility and it is involved, possibly indirectly, in expression of outer membrane proteins and adhesins involved in pathogenesis and adhesion. PMID:20377912

  10. Spectral/HP Element Method With Hierarchical Reconstruction for Solving Hyperbolic Conservation Laws

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhiliang; Lin, Guang

    2009-12-01

    Hierarchical reconstruction (HR) has been successfully applied to prevent oscillations in solutions computed by finite volume, discontinuous Galerkin, spectral volume schemes when solving hyperbolic conservation laws. In this paper, we demonstrate that HR can also be combined with spectral/hp element methods for solving hyperbolic conservation laws. We show that HR preserves the order of accuracy of spectral/hp element methods for smooth solutions and generate essentially non-oscillatory solution profiles for shock wave problems.

  11. Beyond the histone tale: HP1α deregulation in breast cancer epigenetics.

    PubMed

    Vad-Nielsen, Johan; Nielsen, Anders Lade

    2015-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) encoded from the CBX5-gene is an evolutionary conserved protein that binds histone H3 di- or tri-methylated at position lysine 9 (H3K9me2/3), a hallmark for heterochromatin, and has an essential role in forming higher order chromatin structures. HP1α has diverse functions in heterochromatin formation, gene regulation, and mitotic progression, and forms complex networks of gene, RNA, and protein interactions. Emerging evidence has shown that HP1α serves a unique biological role in breast cancer related processes and in particular for epigenetic control mechanisms involved in aberrant cell proliferation and metastasis. However, how HP1α deregulation plays dual mechanistic functions for cancer cell proliferation and metastasis suppression and the underlying cellular mechanisms are not yet comprehensively described. In this paper we provide an overview of the role of HP1α as a new sight of epigenetics in proliferation and metastasis of human breast cancer. This highlights the importance of addressing HP1α in breast cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25588111

  12. Beyond the histone tale: HP1α deregulation in breast cancer epigenetics

    PubMed Central

    Vad-Nielsen, Johan; Nielsen, Anders Lade

    2015-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) encoded from the CBX5-gene is an evolutionary conserved protein that binds histone H3 di- or tri-methylated at position lysine 9 (H3K9me2/3), a hallmark for heterochromatin, and has an essential role in forming higher order chromatin structures. HP1α has diverse functions in heterochromatin formation, gene regulation, and mitotic progression, and forms complex networks of gene, RNA, and protein interactions. Emerging evidence has shown that HP1α serves a unique biological role in breast cancer related processes and in particular for epigenetic control mechanisms involved in aberrant cell proliferation and metastasis. However, how HP1α deregulation plays dual mechanistic functions for cancer cell proliferation and metastasis suppression and the underlying cellular mechanisms are not yet comprehensively described. In this paper we provide an overview of the role of HP1α as a new sight of epigenetics in proliferation and metastasis of human breast cancer. This highlights the importance of addressing HP1α in breast cancer diagnostics and therapeutics. PMID:25588111

  13. HP1BP3, a Chromatin Retention Factor for Co-transcriptional MicroRNA Processing.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haoming; Liang, Chunyang; Kollipara, Rahul K; Matsui, Masayuki; Ke, Xiong; Jeong, Byung-Cheon; Wang, Zhiqiang; Yoo, Kyoung Shin; Yadav, Gaya P; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nicholas V; Nam, Yunsun; Corey, David R; Kittler, Ralf; Liu, Qinghua

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies suggest that the microprocessor (Drosha-DGCR8) complex can be recruited to chromatin to catalyze co-transcriptional processing of primary microRNAs (pri-miRNAs) in mammalian cells. However, the molecular mechanism of co-transcriptional miRNA processing is poorly understood. Here we find that HP1BP3, a histone H1-like chromatin protein, specifically associates with the microprocessor and promotes global miRNA biogenesis in human cells. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) studies reveal genome-wide co-localization of HP1BP3 and Drosha and HP1BP3-dependent Drosha binding to actively transcribed miRNA loci. Moreover, HP1BP3 specifically binds endogenous pri-miRNAs and facilitates the Drosha/pri-miRNA association in vivo. Knockdown of HP1BP3 compromises pri-miRNA processing by causing premature release of pri-miRNAs from the chromatin. Taken together, these studies suggest that HP1BP3 promotes co-transcriptional miRNA processing via chromatin retention of nascent pri-miRNA transcripts. This work significantly expands the functional repertoire of the H1 family of proteins and suggests the existence of chromatin retention factors for widespread co-transcriptional miRNA processing.

  14. Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Ganglioside Hp-s1 Analogues Varying at Glucosyl Moiety.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jung-Tung; Yeh, Chun-Hong; Yang, Shih-An; Lin, Chiu-Ya; Tai, Hung-Ju; Shelke, Ganesh B; Reddy, Daggula Mallikarjuna; Yu, Alice L; Luo, Shun-Yuan

    2016-08-17

    Ganglioside Hp-s1 is isolated from the ovary of sea urchin Diadema setosum. It exhibited better neuritogenic activity than GM1 in pheochromocytoma 12 cells. To explore the roles of glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 in contributing to the neurogenic activity, we developed feasible procedures for synthesis of Hp-s1 analogues (2a-2f). The glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 was replaced with α-glucose, α-galactose, β-galactose, α-mannose, and β-mannose, and their biological activities on SH-SY5Y cells and natural killer T (NKT) cells were evaluated. We found that the orientation of C-2 hydroxyl group at glucosyl moiety of Hp-s1 plays an important role to induce neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. Surprisingly, compound 2d could activate NKT cells to produce interleukin 2, although it did not show great activity on neurite outgrowth of SH-SY5Y cells. In general, the Hp-s1 might be considered as a lead compound for the development of novel drugs aimed at modulating the activity of neuronal cells. PMID:27276519

  15. Phosphorylation-Dependent Targeting of Tetrahymena HP1 to Condensed Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Yale, Katerina; Tackett, Alan J; Neuman, Monica; Bulley, Emily; Chait, Brian T; Wiley, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved proteins related to heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), originally described in Drosophila, are well known for their roles in heterochromatin assembly and gene silencing. Targeting of HP1 proteins to specific chromatin locales is mediated, at least in part, by the HP1 chromodomain, which binds to histone H3 methylated at lysine 9 that marks condensed regions of the genome. Mechanisms that regulate HP1 targeting are emerging from studies with yeast and metazoans and point to roles for posttranslational modifications. Here, we report that modifications of an HP1 homolog (Hhp1) in the ciliate model Tetrahymena thermophila correlated with the physiological state and with nuclear differentiation events involving the restructuring of chromatin. Results support the model in which Hhp1 chromodomain binds lysine 27-methylated histone H3, and we show that colocalization with this histone mark depends on phosphorylation at a single Cdc2/Cdk1 kinase site in the "hinge region" adjacent to the chromodomain. These findings help elucidate important functional roles of reversible posttranslational modifications of proteins in the HP1 family, in this case, regulating the targeting of a ciliate HP1 to chromatin regions marked with methylated H3 lysine 27. IMPORTANCE Compacting the genome to various degrees influences processes that use DNA as a template, such as gene transcription and replication. This project was aimed at learning more about the cellular mechanisms that control genome compaction. Posttranslational modifications of proteins involved in genome condensation are emerging as potentially important points of regulation. To help elucidate protein modifications and how they affect the function of condensation proteins, we investigated the phosphorylation of the chromatin protein called Hhp1 in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. This is one of the first functional investigations of these modifications of a nonhistone chromatin

  16. Phosphorylation-Dependent Targeting of Tetrahymena HP1 to Condensed Chromatin.

    PubMed

    Yale, Katerina; Tackett, Alan J; Neuman, Monica; Bulley, Emily; Chait, Brian T; Wiley, Emily

    2016-01-01

    The evolutionarily conserved proteins related to heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), originally described in Drosophila, are well known for their roles in heterochromatin assembly and gene silencing. Targeting of HP1 proteins to specific chromatin locales is mediated, at least in part, by the HP1 chromodomain, which binds to histone H3 methylated at lysine 9 that marks condensed regions of the genome. Mechanisms that regulate HP1 targeting are emerging from studies with yeast and metazoans and point to roles for posttranslational modifications. Here, we report that modifications of an HP1 homolog (Hhp1) in the ciliate model Tetrahymena thermophila correlated with the physiological state and with nuclear differentiation events involving the restructuring of chromatin. Results support the model in which Hhp1 chromodomain binds lysine 27-methylated histone H3, and we show that colocalization with this histone mark depends on phosphorylation at a single Cdc2/Cdk1 kinase site in the "hinge region" adjacent to the chromodomain. These findings help elucidate important functional roles of reversible posttranslational modifications of proteins in the HP1 family, in this case, regulating the targeting of a ciliate HP1 to chromatin regions marked with methylated H3 lysine 27. IMPORTANCE Compacting the genome to various degrees influences processes that use DNA as a template, such as gene transcription and replication. This project was aimed at learning more about the cellular mechanisms that control genome compaction. Posttranslational modifications of proteins involved in genome condensation are emerging as potentially important points of regulation. To help elucidate protein modifications and how they affect the function of condensation proteins, we investigated the phosphorylation of the chromatin protein called Hhp1 in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. This is one of the first functional investigations of these modifications of a nonhistone chromatin

  17. Phosphorylation-Dependent Targeting of Tetrahymena HP1 to Condensed Chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Yale, Katerina; Tackett, Alan J.; Neuman, Monica; Bulley, Emily; Chait, Brian T.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The evolutionarily conserved proteins related to heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1), originally described in Drosophila, are well known for their roles in heterochromatin assembly and gene silencing. Targeting of HP1 proteins to specific chromatin locales is mediated, at least in part, by the HP1 chromodomain, which binds to histone H3 methylated at lysine 9 that marks condensed regions of the genome. Mechanisms that regulate HP1 targeting are emerging from studies with yeast and metazoans and point to roles for posttranslational modifications. Here, we report that modifications of an HP1 homolog (Hhp1) in the ciliate model Tetrahymena thermophila correlated with the physiological state and with nuclear differentiation events involving the restructuring of chromatin. Results support the model in which Hhp1 chromodomain binds lysine 27-methylated histone H3, and we show that colocalization with this histone mark depends on phosphorylation at a single Cdc2/Cdk1 kinase site in the “hinge region” adjacent to the chromodomain. These findings help elucidate important functional roles of reversible posttranslational modifications of proteins in the HP1 family, in this case, regulating the targeting of a ciliate HP1 to chromatin regions marked with methylated H3 lysine 27. IMPORTANCE Compacting the genome to various degrees influences processes that use DNA as a template, such as gene transcription and replication. This project was aimed at learning more about the cellular mechanisms that control genome compaction. Posttranslational modifications of proteins involved in genome condensation are emerging as potentially important points of regulation. To help elucidate protein modifications and how they affect the function of condensation proteins, we investigated the phosphorylation of the chromatin protein called Hhp1 in the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila. This is one of the first functional investigations of these modifications of a nonhistone

  18. HP1 promotes tumor suppressor BRCA1 functions during the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young-Ho; Kuo, Ching-Ying; Stark, Jeremy M.; Shih, Hsiu-Ming; Ann, David K.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage response (DDR) involves both the control of DNA damage repair and signaling to cell cycle checkpoints. Therefore, unraveling the underlying mechanisms of the DDR is important for understanding tumor suppression and cellular resistance to clastogenic cancer therapeutics. Because the DDR is likely to be influenced by chromatin regulation at the sites of DNA damage, we investigated the role of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) during the DDR process. We monitored double-strand breaks (DSBs) using the γH2AX foci marker and found that depleting cells of HP1 caused genotoxic stress, a delay in the repair of DSBs and elevated levels of apoptosis after irradiation. Furthermore, we found that these defects in repair were associated with impaired BRCA1 function. Depleting HP1 reduced recruitment of BRCA1 to DSBs and caused defects in two BRCA1-mediated DDR events: (i) the homologous recombination repair pathway and (ii) the arrest of cell cycle at the G2/M checkpoint. In contrast, depleting HP1 from cells did not affect the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ) pathway: instead it elevated the recruitment of the 53BP1 NHEJ factor to DSBs. Notably, all three subtypes of HP1 seemed to be almost equally important for these DDR functions. We suggest that the dynamic interaction of HP1 with chromatin and other DDR factors could determine DNA repair choice and cell fate after DNA damage. We also suggest that compromising HP1 expression could promote tumorigenesis by impairing the function of the BRCA1 tumor suppressor. PMID:23589625

  19. Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) connects the FACT histone chaperone complex to the phosphorylated CTD of RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, So Hee; Florens, Laurence; Swanson, Selene K.; Washburn, Michael P.; Abmayr, Susan M.; Workman, Jerry L.

    2010-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) is well known as a silencing protein found at pericentric heterochromatin. Most eukaryotes have at least three isoforms of HP1 that play differential roles in heterochromatin and euchromatin. In addition to its role in heterochromatin, HP1 proteins have been shown to function in transcription elongation. To gain insights into the transcription functions of HP1, we sought to identify novel HP1-interacting proteins. Biochemical and proteomic approaches revealed that HP1 interacts with the histone chaperone complex FACT (facilitates chromatin transcription). HP1c interacts with the SSRP1 (structure-specific recognition protein 1) subunit and the intact FACT complex. Moreover, HP1c guides the recruitment of FACT to active genes and links FACT to active forms of RNA polymerase II. The absence of HP1c partially impairs the recruitment of FACT into heat-shock loci and causes a defect in heat-shock gene expression. Thus, HP1c functions to recruit the FACT complex to RNA polymerase II. PMID:20889714

  20. hp-Pseudospectral method for solving continuous-time nonlinear optimal control problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darby, Christopher L.

    2011-12-01

    In this dissertation, a direct hp-pseudospectral method for approximating the solution to nonlinear optimal control problems is proposed. The hp-pseudospectral method utilizes a variable number of approximating intervals and variable-degree polynomial approximations of the state within each interval. Using the hp-discretization, the continuous-time optimal control problem is transcribed to a finite-dimensional nonlinear programming problem (NLP). The differential-algebraic constraints of the optimal control problem are enforced at a finite set of collocation points, where the collocation points are either the Legendre-Gauss or Legendre-Gauss-Radau quadrature points. These sets of points are chosen because they correspond to high-accuracy Gaussian quadrature rules for approximating the integral of a function. Moreover, Runge phenomenon for high-degree Lagrange polynomial approximations to the state is avoided by using these points. The key features of the hp-method include computational sparsity associated with low-order polynomial approximations and rapid convergence rates associated with higher-degree polynomials approximations. Consequently, the hp-method is both highly accurate and computationally efficient. Two hp-adaptive algorithms are developed that demonstrate the utility of the hp-approach. The algorithms are shown to accurately approximate the solution to general continuous-time optimal control problems in a computationally efficient manner without a priori knowledge of the solution structure. The hp-algorithms are compared empirically against local (h) and global (p) collocation methods over a wide range of problems and are found to be more efficient and more accurate. The hp-pseudospectral approach developed in this research not only provides a high-accuracy approximation to the state and control of an optimal control problem, but also provides high-accuracy approximations to the costate of the optimal control problem. The costate is approximated by

  1. Systems genetics identifies Hp1bp3 as a novel modulator of cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Sarah M; Garfinkel, Benjamin P; Wilmott, Lynda A; Ignatowska-Jankowska, Bogna M; Citri, Ami; Orly, Joseph; Lu, Lu; Overall, Rupert W; Mulligan, Megan K; Kempermann, Gerd; Williams, Robert W; O'Connell, Kristen M S; Kaczorowski, Catherine C

    2016-10-01

    An individual's genetic makeup plays an important role in determining susceptibility to cognitive aging. Identifying the specific genes that contribute to cognitive aging may aid in early diagnosis of at-risk patients, as well as identify novel therapeutics targets to treat or prevent development of symptoms. Challenges to identifying these specific genes in human studies include complex genetics, difficulty in controlling environmental factors, and limited access to human brain tissue. Here, we identify Hp1bp3 as a novel modulator of cognitive aging using a genetically diverse population of mice and confirm that HP1BP3 protein levels are significantly reduced in the hippocampi of cognitively impaired elderly humans relative to cognitively intact controls. Deletion of functional Hp1bp3 in mice recapitulates memory deficits characteristic of aged impaired mice and humans, further supporting the idea that Hp1bp3 and associated molecular networks are modulators of cognitive aging. Overall, our results suggest Hp1bp3 may serve as a potential target against cognitive aging and demonstrate the utility of genetically diverse animal models for the study of complex human disease. PMID:27460150

  2. Systems genetics identifies Hp1bp3 as a novel modulator of cognitive aging.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Sarah M; Garfinkel, Benjamin P; Wilmott, Lynda A; Ignatowska-Jankowska, Bogna M; Citri, Ami; Orly, Joseph; Lu, Lu; Overall, Rupert W; Mulligan, Megan K; Kempermann, Gerd; Williams, Robert W; O'Connell, Kristen M S; Kaczorowski, Catherine C

    2016-10-01

    An individual's genetic makeup plays an important role in determining susceptibility to cognitive aging. Identifying the specific genes that contribute to cognitive aging may aid in early diagnosis of at-risk patients, as well as identify novel therapeutics targets to treat or prevent development of symptoms. Challenges to identifying these specific genes in human studies include complex genetics, difficulty in controlling environmental factors, and limited access to human brain tissue. Here, we identify Hp1bp3 as a novel modulator of cognitive aging using a genetically diverse population of mice and confirm that HP1BP3 protein levels are significantly reduced in the hippocampi of cognitively impaired elderly humans relative to cognitively intact controls. Deletion of functional Hp1bp3 in mice recapitulates memory deficits characteristic of aged impaired mice and humans, further supporting the idea that Hp1bp3 and associated molecular networks are modulators of cognitive aging. Overall, our results suggest Hp1bp3 may serve as a potential target against cognitive aging and demonstrate the utility of genetically diverse animal models for the study of complex human disease.

  3. HP1BP3 expression determines maternal behavior and offspring survival.

    PubMed

    Garfinkel, B P; Arad, S; Neuner, S M; Netser, S; Wagner, S; Kaczorowski, C C; Rosen, C J; Gal, M; Soreq, H; Orly, J

    2016-09-01

    Maternal care is an indispensable behavioral component necessary for survival and reproductive success in mammals, and postpartum maternal behavior is mediated by an incompletely understood complex interplay of signals including effects of epigenetic regulation. We approached this issue using our recently established mice with targeted deletion of heterochromatin protein 1 binding protein 3 (HP1BP3), which we found to be a novel epigenetic repressor with critical roles in postnatal growth. Here, we report a dramatic reduction in the survival of pups born to Hp1bp3(-/-) deficient mouse dams, which could be rescued by co-fostering with wild-type dams. Hp1bp3(-/-) females failed to retrieve both their own pups and foster pups in a pup retrieval test, and showed reduced anxiety-like behavior in the open-field and elevated-plus-maze tests. In contrast, Hp1bp3(-/-) females showed no deficits in behaviors often associated with impaired maternal care, including social behavior, depression, motor coordination and olfactory capability; and maintained unchanged anxiety-associated hallmarks such as cholinergic status and brain miRNA profiles. Collectively, our results suggest a novel role for HP1BP3 in regulating maternal and anxiety-related behavior in mice and call for exploring ways to manipulate this epigenetic process. PMID:27470444

  4. Early Cretaceous extensional reworking of the Triassic HP-UHP metamorphic orogen in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei; Ji, Wenbin; Faure, Michel; Wu, Lin; Li, Qiuli; Shi, Yonghong; Scharer, Urs; Wang, Fei; Wang, Qingchen

    2015-11-01

    Corresponding to the Early Mesozoic continental subduction between the North China Block (NCB) and the South China Block (SCB), the Tongbaishan-Hong'an-Dabieshan-Sulu massifs are famous for their HP-UHP metamorphism. More than 50% of the HP-UHP Orogenic Belt was significantly reworked by Early Cretaceous extensional tectonics. This Early Cretaceous event with a fast cooling period, at 130-120 Ma, superimposed on the Early Mesozoic HP-UHP orogenic belt and intensively changed the architecture of this orogen. Each individual segment documents different Early Cretaceous extensional structures, namely the central Tongbaishan domain is a metamorphic core complex (MCC) represented by an A-type non-cylindrical antiform; the central Dabieshan domain is a typical Cordilleran-type migmatite-cored MCC; the Southern Sulu UHP domain is a "wedge-shaped" structure exhumed by a simple detachment fault. These late stage extensional structures expose the previous HP-UHP orogenic belt as fragments along the NCB-SCB boundary. The geodynamic setting of this Early Cretaceous extensional tectonics along the HP-UHP orogen is a part of a 1000 km-scale crustal extension belt that is widespread in eastern Eurasia continent from Trans-Baikal to the central part of SCB. Convective erosion or delamination of the mantle lithosphere might be considered as a possible mechanism for mantle removal.

  5. Early Cretaceous extensional reworking of the Triassic HP-UHP metamorphic orogen in Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, W.; Ji, W.; Faure, M.; Wu, L.; Li, Q. L.; Shi, Y.; Scharer, U.; Wang, F.; Wang, Q.

    2015-12-01

    Corresponding to the Early Mesozoic continental subduction between the North China Block (NCB) and the South China Block (SCB), the Tongbaishan-Hong'an-Dabieshan-Sulu massifs are famous for their HP-UHP metamorphism. More than 50% of the HP-UHP Orogenic Belt was significantly reworked by Early Cretaceous extensional tectonics. This Early Cretaceous event with a fast cooling period, at 130-120 Ma, superimposed on the Early Mesozoic HP-UHP orogenic belt and intensively changed the architecture of this orogen. Each individual segment documents different Early Cretaceous extensional structures, namely the central Tongbaishan domain is a metamorphic core complex (MCC) represented by an A-type non-cylindrical antiform; the central Dabieshan domain is a typical Cordilleran-type migmatite-cored MCC; the Southern Sulu UHP domain is a "wedge-shaped" structure exhumed by a simple detachment fault. These late stage extensional structures expose the previous HP-UHP orogenic belt as fragments along the NCB-SCB boundary. The geodynamic setting of this Early Cretaceous extensional tectonics along the HP-UHP orogen is a part of a 1000 km-scale crustal extension belt that is widespread in eastern Eurasia continent from Trans-Baikal to the central part of the South China Block. Convective erosion or delamination of the mantle lithosphere might be considered as a possible mechanism for mantle removal.

  6. Intermediate term frequency measurements with the HP computing counter in the USNO clock time system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkler, G. M. R.

    1972-01-01

    High precision frequency measurements with various integration times can be made with conventional counters by using variable gate times. The Hewlett-Packard (HP) computing counter allows such measurements over a wide range of frequencies and measurement times. This instrument can also convert period measurements into frequency by means of its arithmetic capabilities: The program library contains programs to facilitate frequency stability measurements in the most direct and convenient way. This method was used as the basis for all time scale computations, until requirements for highest resolution justified the development of an automatic data acquisition system. The phase measurements are now being made with the HP computing counter (with time interval plug-in unit) under program control from the HP System Programmer.

  7. Fluence to Hp(3) conversion coefficients for neutrons from thermal to 15 MeV.

    PubMed

    Gualdrini, G; Ferrari, P; Tanner, R

    2013-12-01

    The recent statement on tissue reactions issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection in April 2011 recommends a very significant reduction in the equivalent dose annual limit for the eye lens from 150 to 20 mSv y(-1); this has stimulated a lot of interest in eye lens dosimetry in the radiation protection community. Until now no conversion coefficients were available for the operational quantity Hp(3) for neutrons. The scope of the present work was to extend previous evaluations of H*(10) and Hp(10) performed at the PTB in 1995 to provide also Hp(3) data for neutrons. The present work is also intended to complete the studies carried out on photons during the last 4 y within the European Union-funded ORAMED (optimisation of radiation protection for medical staff) project.

  8. Mitotic fidelity requires transgenerational action of a testis-restricted HP1.

    PubMed

    Levine, Mia T; Vander Wende, Helen M; Malik, Harmit S

    2015-07-07

    Sperm-packaged DNA must undergo extensive reorganization to ensure its timely participation in embryonic mitosis. Whereas maternal control over this remodeling is well described, paternal contributions are virtually unknown. In this study, we show that Drosophila melanogaster males lacking Heterochromatin Protein 1E (HP1E) sire inviable embryos that undergo catastrophic mitosis. In these embryos, the paternal genome fails to condense and resolve into sister chromatids in synchrony with the maternal genome. This delay leads to a failure of paternal chromosomes, particularly the heterochromatin-rich sex chromosomes, to separate on the first mitotic spindle. Remarkably, HP1E is not inherited on mature sperm chromatin. Instead, HP1E primes paternal chromosomes during spermatogenesis to ensure faithful segregation post-fertilization. This transgenerational effect suggests that maternal control is necessary but not sufficient for transforming sperm DNA into a mitotically competent pronucleus. Instead, paternal action during spermiogenesis exerts post-fertilization control to ensure faithful chromosome segregation in the embryo.

  9. Simulating the folding of HP-sequences with a minimalist model in an inhomogeneous medium.

    PubMed

    Alas, S J; González-Pérez, P P

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of protein folding is a fundamental issue in the field of the computational molecular biology. The protein folding inside the cells is performed in a highly inhomogeneous, tortuous, and correlated environment. Therefore, it is important to include in the theoretical studies the medium where the protein folding is developed. In this work we present the combination of three models to mimic the protein folding inside of an inhomogeneous medium. The models used here are Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) in 2D square arrangement, Evolutionary Algorithms (EA), and the Dual Site Bond Model (DSBM). The DSBM model is used to simulate the environment where the HP beads are folded; in this case the medium is correlated and is fractal-like. The analysis of five benchmark HP sequences shows that the inhomogeneous space provided with a given correlation length and fractal dimension plays an important role for correct folding of these sequences, which does not occur in a homogeneous space.

  10. Simulating the folding of HP-sequences with a minimalist model in an inhomogeneous medium.

    PubMed

    Alas, S J; González-Pérez, P P

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of protein folding is a fundamental issue in the field of the computational molecular biology. The protein folding inside the cells is performed in a highly inhomogeneous, tortuous, and correlated environment. Therefore, it is important to include in the theoretical studies the medium where the protein folding is developed. In this work we present the combination of three models to mimic the protein folding inside of an inhomogeneous medium. The models used here are Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) in 2D square arrangement, Evolutionary Algorithms (EA), and the Dual Site Bond Model (DSBM). The DSBM model is used to simulate the environment where the HP beads are folded; in this case the medium is correlated and is fractal-like. The analysis of five benchmark HP sequences shows that the inhomogeneous space provided with a given correlation length and fractal dimension plays an important role for correct folding of these sequences, which does not occur in a homogeneous space. PMID:27020756

  11. Bensal HP Attenuates the Inflammatory Response in Hair Shaving Associated Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anjana; Mordorski, Breanne; Landriscina, Angelo; Rosen, Jamie; Nosanchuk, Joshua; Friedman, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Shaving is an ubiquitous practice, and cutaneous irritation and inflammation are common sequelae, which may be worsened by underlying skin conditions or poor hair removal techniques. Moisturizing shaving creams and aftershaves are available to help maintain or restore the epidermal barrier; however, many continue to suffer from post-shave redness, itching, and pain. To reduce post-shave inflammation, some products have included botanical and other natural ingredients, which are often favored by consumers. We evaluated Bensal HP, an ointment containing 3% oak bark extract, 3% salicylic acid, and 6% benzoic acid, which has documented anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, in a murine model of shave irritation to determine whether it would be useful in this clinical setting. Shaving dermatitis was simulated using a depilatory agent and electric clippers, and the shaved area was photographed and treated with Bensal HP daily for four days. Compared to untreated controls, mice treated with Bensal HP experienced a visible reduction in skin irritation and inflammation. These findings were mirrored on histology, as Bensal HP-treated areas demonstrated increased epidermal integrity and decreased dermal inflammatory infiltrate compared to untreated skin. Using immunohistochemistry, fewer neutrophils and macrophages were noted, and cytokine analysis also revealed decreased IL-6 in Bensal HP-treated skin at 24 and 96 hours after shaving. These results highlight the potential of Bensal HP as an anti-inflammatory treatment for shave irritation. Given the product's application against a variety of inflammatory and infectious skin disorders, its use against shave irritation may also improve comorbid skin conditions, such as pseudofolliculitis barbae.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):836-840. PMID:27391633

  12. Bensal HP Attenuates the Inflammatory Response in Hair Shaving Associated Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Ray, Anjana; Mordorski, Breanne; Landriscina, Angelo; Rosen, Jamie; Nosanchuk, Joshua; Friedman, Adam

    2016-07-01

    Shaving is an ubiquitous practice, and cutaneous irritation and inflammation are common sequelae, which may be worsened by underlying skin conditions or poor hair removal techniques. Moisturizing shaving creams and aftershaves are available to help maintain or restore the epidermal barrier; however, many continue to suffer from post-shave redness, itching, and pain. To reduce post-shave inflammation, some products have included botanical and other natural ingredients, which are often favored by consumers. We evaluated Bensal HP, an ointment containing 3% oak bark extract, 3% salicylic acid, and 6% benzoic acid, which has documented anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, in a murine model of shave irritation to determine whether it would be useful in this clinical setting. Shaving dermatitis was simulated using a depilatory agent and electric clippers, and the shaved area was photographed and treated with Bensal HP daily for four days. Compared to untreated controls, mice treated with Bensal HP experienced a visible reduction in skin irritation and inflammation. These findings were mirrored on histology, as Bensal HP-treated areas demonstrated increased epidermal integrity and decreased dermal inflammatory infiltrate compared to untreated skin. Using immunohistochemistry, fewer neutrophils and macrophages were noted, and cytokine analysis also revealed decreased IL-6 in Bensal HP-treated skin at 24 and 96 hours after shaving. These results highlight the potential of Bensal HP as an anti-inflammatory treatment for shave irritation. Given the product's application against a variety of inflammatory and infectious skin disorders, its use against shave irritation may also improve comorbid skin conditions, such as pseudofolliculitis barbae.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(7):836-840.

  13. Influence on the plasma membrane of Candida albicans by HP (2-9)-magainin 2 (1-12) hybrid peptide.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong Gun; Park, Yoonkyung; Kim, Pyoung Il; Jeong, Hye Gwang; Woo, Eun-Rhan; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

    2002-10-01

    A 20-residue hybrid peptide (HP (2-9)-MA (1-12): HP-MA), incorporating 2-9 residues of Helicobacter pyroli ribosomal protein L1 (HP) and 1-12 residues of magainin 2 (MA), has more potent antibacterial activity than parent peptide HP (2-20) and magainin 2. In this study, the antifungal activity and its mechanism of HP-MA were investigated. HP-MA displayed a strong antifungal activity in an energy-dependent manner. To elucidate the antifungal mechanism(s) of HP-MA, FACScan analysis and the change in membrane dynamics using 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene (DPH) as a membrane probe of Candida albicans were examined. The results indicated that the HP-MA exerts its antifungal effect by acting on the plasma membrane. Furthermore, the peptide induced remarkable morphological change when tested for membrane disrupting activity using liposomes (PC/Cholesterol; 10:1, w/w). In C. albicans, dimorphism plays a crucial role in pathogenesis but HP-MA could disrupt the mycelial forms and exert its antifungal effect on the blastoconidia in 20% fetal bovine serum. PMID:12359236

  14. HP1BP3 is a novel histone H1 related protein with essential roles in viability and growth

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, Benjamin P.; Melamed-Book, Naomi; Anuka, Eli; Bustin, Michael; Orly, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic architecture of chromatin is vital for proper cellular function, and is maintained by the concerted action of numerous nuclear proteins, including that of the linker histone H1 variants, the most abundant family of nucleosome-binding proteins. Here we show that the nuclear protein HP1BP3 is widely expressed in most vertebrate tissues and is evolutionarily and structurally related to the H1 family. HP1BP3 contains three globular domains and a highly positively charged C-terminal domain, resembling similar domains in H1. Fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP) studies indicate that like H1, binding of HP1BP3 to chromatin depends on both its C and N terminal regions and is affected by the cell cycle and post translational modifications. HP1BP3 contains functional motifs not found in H1 histones, including an acidic stretch and a consensus HP1-binding motif. Transcriptional profiling of HeLa cells lacking HP1BP3 showed altered expression of 383 genes, suggesting a role for HP1BP3 in modulation of gene expression. Significantly, Hp1bp3−/− mice present a dramatic phenotype with 60% of pups dying within 24 h of birth and the surviving animals exhibiting a lifelong 20% growth retardation. We suggest that HP1BP3 is a ubiquitous histone H1 like nuclear protein with distinct and non-redundant functions necessary for survival and growth. PMID:25662603

  15. Red variables in the Hipparcos HpV-T2 system: lessons learned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platais, I.; Pourbaix, D.; Jorissen, A.; Makarov, V. V.

    2003-03-01

    For 4785 M, 50 S, and 321 C stars from Hipparcos Catalogue, we provide calibrated Cousins V-I color indices using the newly derived Hp-V-T2 color. The standard error of the mean V-I is 0.1 mag or better down to Hp 9. This photometry can be used to explore the chromaticity effects on the Hipparcos astrometry of red stars with extreme colors. It can also help to solve some problematic cases in the Hipparcos Catalogue, involving a red variable star in a real or a possible binary system.

  16. Functional impact of Aurora A-mediated phosphorylation of HP1γ at serine 83 during cell cycle progression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous elegant studies performed in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe have identified a requirement for heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) for spindle pole formation and appropriate cell division. In mammalian cells, HP1γ has been implicated in both somatic and germ cell proliferation. High levels of HP1γ protein associate with enhanced cell proliferation and oncogenesis, while its genetic inactivation results in meiotic and mitotic failure. However, the regulation of HP1γ by kinases, critical for supporting mitotic progression, remains to be fully characterized. Results We report for the first time that during mitotic cell division, HP1γ colocalizes and is phosphorylated at serine 83 (Ser83) in G2/M phase by Aurora A. Since Aurora A regulates both cell proliferation and mitotic aberrations, we evaluated the role of HP1γ in the regulation of these phenomena using siRNA-mediated knockdown, as well as phosphomimetic and nonphosphorylatable site-directed mutants. We found that genetic downregulation of HP1γ, which decreases the levels of phosphorylation of HP1γ at Ser83 (P-Ser83-HP1γ), results in mitotic aberrations that can be rescued by reintroducing wild type HP1γ, but not the nonphosphorylatable S83A-HP1γ mutant. In addition, proliferation assays showed that the phosphomimetic S83D-HP1γ increases 5-ethynyl-2´-deoxyuridine (EdU) incorporation, whereas the nonphosphorylatable S83A-HP1γ mutant abrogates this effect. Genome-wide expression profiling revealed that the effects of these mutants on mitotic functions are congruently reflected in G2/M gene expression networks in a manner that mimics the on and off states for P-Ser83-HP1γ. Conclusions This is the first description of a mitotic Aurora A-HP1γ pathway, whose integrity is necessary for the execution of proper somatic cell division, providing insight into specific types of posttranslational modifications that associate to distinct functional outcomes of this important chromatin

  17. ‘Modulation of the enzymatic activities of replicative helicase (DnaB) by interaction with Hp0897: a possible mechanism for helicase loading in Helicobacter pylori’

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Vijay; Kumar, Ajay; Nitharwal, Ram Gopal; Alam, Jawed; Mukhopadhyay, Asish Kumar; Dasgupta, Santanu; Dhar, Suman Kumar

    2016-01-01

    DNA replication in Helicobacter pylori is initiated from a unique site (oriC) on its chromosome where several proteins assemble to form a functional replisome. The assembly of H. pylori replication machinery is similar to that of the model gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli except for the absence of DnaC needed to recruit the hexameric DnaB helicase at the replisome assembly site. In the absence of an obvious DnaC homologue in H. pylori, the question arises as to whether HpDnaB helicase is loaded at the Hp-replication origin by itself or is assisted by other unidentified protein(s). A high-throughput yeast two-hybrid study has revealed two proteins of unknown functions (Hp0897 and Hp0340) that interact with HpDnaB. Here we demonstrate that Hp0897 interacts with HpDnaB helicase in vitro as well as in vivo. Furthermore, the interaction stimulates the DNA binding activity of HpDnaB and modulates its adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis and helicase activities significantly. Prior complex formation of Hp0897 and HpDnaB enhances the binding/loading of DnaB onto DNA. Hp0897, along with HpDnaB, colocalizes with replication complex at initiation but does not move with the replisome during elongation. Together, these results suggest a possible role of Hp0897 in loading of HpDnaB at oriC. PMID:27001508

  18. Developing Consensus on the CompHP Professional Standards for Health Promotion in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speller, Viv; Parish, Richard; Davison, Heather; Zilnyk, Anna

    2012-01-01

    Building on the CompHP Core Competencies for health promotion the Professional Standards for Health Promotion have been developed and consulted on across Europe. The standards were formulated to fit within the complexity of professional, occupational and educational standards frameworks in Europe as learning outcome standards with performance…

  19. Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwala, R.; Batzoglou, S.; Dancik, V.

    1997-06-01

    We consider the problem of determining the three-dimensional folding of a protein given its one-dimensional amino acid sequence. We use the HP model for protein folding proposed by Dill, which models protein as a chain of amino acid residues that are either hydrophobic or polar, and hydrophobic interactions are the dominant initial driving force for the protein folding. Hart and Istrail gave approximation algorithms for folding proteins on the cubic lattice under HP model. In this paper, we examine the choice of a lattice by considering its algorithmic and geometric implications and argue that triangular lattice is a more reasonable choice. We present a set of folding rules for a triangular lattice and analyze the approximation ratio which they achieve. In addition, we introduce a generalization of the HP model to account for residues having different levels of hydrophobicity. After describing the biological foundation for this generalization, we show that in the new model we are able to achieve similar constant factor approximation guarantees on the triangular lattice as were achieved in the standard HP model. While the structures derived from our folding rules are probably still far from biological reality, we hope that having a set of folding rules with different properties will yield more interesting folds when combined.

  20. Multivalency governs HP1α association dynamics with the silent chromatin state

    PubMed Central

    Kilic, Sinan; Bachmann, Andreas L.; Bryan, Louise C.; Fierz, Beat

    2015-01-01

    Multivalent interactions between effector proteins and histone post-translational modifications are an elementary mechanism of dynamic chromatin signalling. Here we elucidate the mechanism how heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α), a multivalent effector, is efficiently recruited to the silent chromatin state (marked by trimethylated H3 at Lys9, H3K9me3) while remaining highly dynamic. Employing chemically defined nucleosome arrays together with single-molecule total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy (smTIRFM), we demonstrate that the HP1α residence time on chromatin depends on the density of H3K9me3, as dissociated factors can rapidly rebind at neighbouring sites. Moreover, by chemically controlling HP1α dimerization we find that effector multivalency prolongs chromatin retention and, importantly, accelerates the association rate. This effect results from increased avidity together with strengthened nonspecific chromatin interactions of dimeric HP1α. We propose that accelerated chromatin binding is a key feature of effector multivalency, allowing for fast and efficient competition for binding sites in the crowded nuclear compartment. PMID:26084584

  1. New approach to calculate the true-coincidence effect of HpGe detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alnour, I. A.; Wagiran, H.; Ibrahim, N.; Hamzah, S.; Siong, W. B.; Elias, M. S.

    2016-01-01

    The corrections for true-coincidence effects in HpGe detector are important, especially at low source-to-detector distances. This work established an approach to calculate the true-coincidence effects experimentally for HpGe detectors of type Canberra GC3018 and Ortec GEM25-76-XLB-C, which are in operation at neutron activation analysis lab in Malaysian Nuclear Agency (NM). The correction for true-coincidence effects was performed close to detector at distances 2 and 5 cm using 57Co, 60Co, 133Ba and 137Cs as standard point sources. The correction factors were ranged between 0.93-1.10 at 2 cm and 0.97-1.00 at 5 cm for Canberra HpGe detector; whereas for Ortec HpGe detector ranged between 0.92-1.13 and 0.95-100 at 2 and 5 cm respectively. The change in efficiency calibration curve of the detector at 2 and 5 cm after correction was found to be less than 1%. Moreover, the polynomial parameters functions were simulated through a computer program, MATLAB in order to find an accurate fit to the experimental data points.

  2. Strategic Architecture for E-Learning at H.P. University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Kunal; Sood, Deepak; Singh, Amarjeet; Pandit, Pallvi

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the paper is to unravel a strategic architecture for e-learning for a traditional university like Himachal Pradesh University (H.P. University) and provide guidelines as to how to carry the implementation of e-learning for the university of the future. Design/methodology/approach: Getting to the future first is not just…

  3. Haptoglobin (HP) and Haptoglobin-related protein (HPR) copy number variation, natural selection, and trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Hardwick, Robert J; Ménard, Anne; Sironi, Manuela; Milet, Jacqueline; Garcia, André; Sese, Claude; Yang, Fengtang; Fu, Beiyuan; Courtin, David; Hollox, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    Haptoglobin, coded by the HP gene, is a plasma protein that acts as a scavenger for free heme, and haptoglobin-related protein (coded by the HPR gene) forms part of the trypanolytic factor TLF-1, together with apolipoprotein L1 (ApoL1). We analyse the polymorphic small intragenic duplication of the HP gene, with alleles Hp1 and Hp2, in 52 populations, and find no evidence for natural selection either from extended haplotype analysis or from correlation with pathogen richness matrices. Using fiber-FISH, the paralog ratio test, and array-CGH data, we also confirm that the HPR gene is copy number variable, with duplication of the whole HPR gene at polymorphic frequencies in west and central Africa, up to an allele frequency of 15 %. The geographical distribution of the HPR duplication allele overlaps the region where the pathogen causing chronic human African trypanosomiasis, Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, is endemic. The HPR duplication has occurred on one SNP haplotype, but there is no strong evidence of extended homozygosity, a characteristic of recent natural selection. The HPR duplication shows a slight, non-significant undertransmission to human African trypanosomiasis-affected children of unaffected parents in the Democratic Republic of Congo. However, taken together with alleles of APOL1, there is an overall significant undertransmission of putative protective alleles to human African trypanosomiasis-affected children.

  4. 29. INDUCTION MOTOR (6600 VOLTS, 5750 H.P.) DRIVES THE 21INCH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. INDUCTION MOTOR (6600 VOLTS, 5750 H.P.) DRIVES THE 21-INCH AND 18-INCH BILLET MILLS. MOTOR WAS MANUFACTURED BY THE GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY, SCHENECTADY, NEW YORK. - Corrigan, McKinney Steel Company, 3100 East Forty-fifth Street, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  5. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM DRIVE END. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250-HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM DRIVE END. MOTOR BADGE PLATE READS 263 AMP, 400 VOLT, FRAME 6274-D #4940649, 250 HORSEPOWER, TYPE TSR, 3 PHASE, 60 CYCLE, SPEED 300 RPM. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  6. DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM SLIP RING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF GENERAL ELECTRIC 250-HP SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR FROM SLIP RING END. NOTE BOLTS AND SPRINGS OF BRAKE BAND, HEAVY-WIRE ARMATURE WINDINGS, AND TIGHTLY WOUND STATOR (FIELD) COILS. - Shenandoah-Dives Mill, 135 County Road 2, Silverton, San Juan County, CO

  7. ENEA extremity dosemeter based on LiF(Mg,Cu,P) to evaluate Hp(3,alpha).

    PubMed

    Mariotti, F; Fantuzzi, E; Morelli, B; Gualdrini, G; Botta, M C; Uleri, G; Bordy, J M; Denoziere, M

    2011-03-01

    Recent epidemiological studies suggest a rather low-dose threshold (<0.5 Gy) for the induction of a cataract of the eye lens. Some other studies even assume that there is no threshold at all. Therefore, protection measures have to be optimised and current dose limits for the eye lens may be reduced in the future. ICRP Publication 103 on H(p)(d), in §(136), reads that '… a depth d = 3 mm has been proposed for the rare case of monitoring the dose to the lens of the eye. In practice, however, H(p)(3) has rarely been monitored and H(p)(0.07) can be used for the same monitoring purpose… '. As recommended on the EU 'Technical recommendations for monitoring individuals occupationally exposed to external radiation', a test on the ENEA TL extremity dosemeter is herein reported. The results within the actual EU founded Optimization of RAdiation protection for MEDical staff (ORAMED) Project, whose WP2 is aimed at the quantity H(p)(3) and eye lens dosimetry in practice, are taken into account. The paper summarises the main aspects of the study carried out at ENEA-Radiation Protection Institute (Bologna, Italy) to provide practical solutions (in the use and the design) to evaluate the response of the ENEA TL extremity dosemeter in terms of H(p)(3).

  8. Study of the inclusion interaction of HP-γ-cyclodextrin with bupropion and its analytical application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misiuk, Wieslawa; Jasiuk, Emilia

    2014-02-01

    Inclusion complex formation between bupropion (BUP) and hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin (HP-γ-CD) was studied by Fourier transformation infrared (FT-IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and UV spectroscopy. The main factors affecting inclusion interaction were discussed in detail. The inclusion complex of bupropion and hydroxypropyl-γ-cyclodextrin was studied at pH 5 in aqueous phase. Stoichiometry of the complex was found to be 1:1 and apparent formation constant (log K) was determined as 3.54 ± 0.01, suggesting a tendency of the drug to enter HP-γ-CD cavity. All obtained information proved the formation of BUP/HP-γ-CD inclusion complex. A significant enhancement of absorption intensity of bupropion in presence of HP-γ-CD was shown. Due to the property a sensitive spectrophotometric method was elaborated for determination of active substance in bulk solution. At optimum experimental conditions, a linear relationship between absorbance and concentration of bupropion is observed in range of 4-60 μg mL-1 with limit detection of 0.32 μg mL-1 and correlation coefficient of 0.9991. The proposed method was applied successfully to the determination of BUP in pharmaceutical preparations and the results were satisfactory in comparison to official method.

  9. 10. BOILER #16 (BUILDING L8) TO LEFT, L.P. AND H.P. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. BOILER #16 (BUILDING L8) TO LEFT, L.P. AND H.P. BOILER ROOMS (BUILDINGS L4 AND L2) TO RIGHT, AND STEPHENS SUBSTATION (BUILDING L6) IN BACKGROUND, FROM THE ROOF OF THE POWERHOUSE EXTENSION (BUILDING L5) - Portland General Electric Company, Station "L", 1841 Southeast Water Street, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 76 FR 14349 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-16

    ... issued British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1, dated... British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1, Jetstream Series 200, Jetstream Series...) of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin 32-JA090240, Revision 1,...

  11. Critical Success Factors in Crafting Strategic Architecture for E-Learning at HP University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, Kunal; Pandit, Pallvi; Pandit, Parul

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to outline the critical success factors for crafting a strategic architecture for e-learning at HP University. Design/methodology/approach: A descriptive survey type of research design was used. An empirical study was conducted on students enrolled with the International Centre for Distance and Open Learning…

  12. Detail, unit 4, 1,850 horsepower (hp) synchronous pump motor manufactured ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, unit 4, 1,850 horsepower (hp) synchronous pump motor manufactured by The Electric Products Company, Cleveland , Ohio. Pump units 1, 2, and 3 are identical to this unit. View to the west - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 3, South of Interstate 8, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  13. Detail, unit 1, 3,000 horsepower (hp) synchronous pump motor. Manufactured ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, unit 1, 3,000 horsepower (hp) synchronous pump motor. Manufactured by The Electric Machinery Manufacturing Company, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Units 2 and 3 are identical to this unit - Wellton-Mohawk Irrigation System, Pumping Plant No. 2, Bounded by Interstate 8 to south, Wellton, Yuma County, AZ

  14. Expression of hp1 family genes and their plausible role in formation of flamenco phenotype in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lavrenov, A R; Nefedova, L N; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2014-11-01

    Results of expression analysis of transcription of the flamenco locus that controls transposition of the mobile genetic element gypsy, RNA interference system genes ago3, zuc, aub, and HP1 heterochromatin protein family genes hp1a, hp1b, hp1c, hp1d (rhino), and hp1e in D. melanogaster SS strain mutant on the flamenco gene are presented. We show that the number of transcripts in the SS strain that are formed in the flamenco locus is unchanged in some freely chosen points, and this is different from the wild-type strain where a decreased number of transcripts is observed, which clearly is a result of processing of the flamenco locus primary transcript, a predecessor of piRNA. At the same time, expression of genes of the RNA interference system is not affected, but there is a reduced level of hp1d gene expression in ovary tissue. We suggest that the hp1d gene product is directly or indirectly involved in the flamenco locus primary transcript processing.

  15. Expression of hp1 family genes and their plausible role in formation of flamenco phenotype in D. melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lavrenov, A R; Nefedova, L N; Romanova, N I; Kim, A I

    2014-11-01

    Results of expression analysis of transcription of the flamenco locus that controls transposition of the mobile genetic element gypsy, RNA interference system genes ago3, zuc, aub, and HP1 heterochromatin protein family genes hp1a, hp1b, hp1c, hp1d (rhino), and hp1e in D. melanogaster SS strain mutant on the flamenco gene are presented. We show that the number of transcripts in the SS strain that are formed in the flamenco locus is unchanged in some freely chosen points, and this is different from the wild-type strain where a decreased number of transcripts is observed, which clearly is a result of processing of the flamenco locus primary transcript, a predecessor of piRNA. At the same time, expression of genes of the RNA interference system is not affected, but there is a reduced level of hp1d gene expression in ovary tissue. We suggest that the hp1d gene product is directly or indirectly involved in the flamenco locus primary transcript processing. PMID:25540013

  16. HP-9810A calculator programs for plotting the 2-dimensional motion of cyclindrical payloads relative to the shuttle orbiter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1976-01-01

    The HP-9810A calculator programs described provide the capability to generate HP-9862A plotter displays which depict the apparent motion of a free-flying cyclindrical payload relative to the shuttle orbiter body axes by projecting the payload geometry into the orbiter plane of symmetry at regular time intervals.

  17. Hp(3)/Φ conversion coefficients for neutrons: discussion on the basis of the new ICRP recommended limit for the eye lens.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, P; Gualdrini, G; Tanner, R; Fantuzzi, E

    2014-10-01

    The new recommendation issued by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) introducing a 20-mSv annual dose limit for the eye lens stimulated an interesting debate among the radiation protection community. In the present work the problem of estimating Hp(3) for neutron realistic workplace spectra is treated, employing the recently published Hp(3)/Φ conversion coefficients with the aim of establishing a workplace-dependent relationship between Hp(10) and Hp(3). The results demonstrate that, whilst the two quantities can differ by less than 10 %, in general, Hp(10) cannot be considered a conservative estimate of Hp(3).

  18. Identification and characterization of a nuclear localization signal of TRIM28 that overlaps with the HP1 box.

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Tetsuji; Sangel, Percival; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Obuse, Chikashi; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Oka, Masahiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-01

    Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) is a transcription regulator, which forms a repressor complex containing heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). Here, we report identification of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the 462-494 amino acid region of TRIM28 that overlaps with its HP1 binding site, HP1 box. GST-pulldown experiments revealed the interaction of the arginine-rich TRIM28 NLS with various importin α subtypes (α1, α2 and α4). In vitro transport assay demonstrated that nuclear localization of GFP-TRIM28 NLS is mediated by importin αs, in conjunction with importin β1 and Ran. Further, we demonstrated that HP1 and importin αs compete for binding to TRIM28. Together, our findings suggest that importin α has an essential role in the nuclear delivery and preferential HP1 interaction of TRIM28.

  19. RAD6 Promotes Homologous Recombination Repair by Activating the Autophagy-Mediated Degradation of Heterochromatin Protein HP1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Su; Wang, Chen; Sun, Luxi; Wang, Da-Liang; Chen, Lu; Huang, Zhuan; Yang, Qi; Gao, Jie; Yang, Xi-Bin; Chang, Jian-Feng; Chen, Ping; Lan, Li

    2014-01-01

    Efficient DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair is critical for the maintenance of genome stability. Unrepaired or misrepaired DSBs cause chromosomal rearrangements that can result in severe consequences, such as tumorigenesis. RAD6 is an E2 ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme that plays a pivotal role in repairing UV-induced DNA damage. Here, we present evidence that RAD6 is also required for DNA DSB repair via homologous recombination (HR) by specifically regulating the degradation of heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α). Our study indicates that RAD6 physically interacts with HP1α and ubiquitinates HP1α at residue K154, thereby promoting HP1α degradation through the autophagy pathway and eventually leading to an open chromatin structure that facilitates efficient HR DSB repair. Furthermore, bioinformatics studies have indicated that the expression of RAD6 and HP1α exhibits an inverse relationship and correlates with the survival rate of patients. PMID:25384975

  20. Petrographical records of multiple fluid-infiltration during HP-LT metamorphism (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujimori, T.

    2013-12-01

    In the subduction zone, flow of slab-derived fluids enriched in Si, Al, Na, and Ca enhances metamorphic + metasomatic reactions and precipitation of HP-LT minerals, and in some cases, the intraslab flow causes extensive elemental leaching (cf., Spandler & Pirard 2013). How does HP-LT rocks and minerals record subduction-zone fluid flow? Syn-metamorphic vein networks consisting of HP-LT minerals have been known in various blueschist- and low-temperature eclogites. The monomineralic and bimineralic veins includes a wide variety of HP-LT minerals: metamorphic pyroxenes, phengite, hydrous Ca-Al-silicate, and even rare garnet and rutile; oscillatory and sector zonings with resorption are common, suggesting precipitation from aqueous fluids. Natural observations imply that brittle fracturing and fluid infiltration during blueschist-to-eclogite-facies metamorphism are common phenomenon in the subducting oceanic crust attending progressive eclogitization. Another peculiar example of HP-LT rock preserving evidence of multiple fluid-infiltration is "lawsonitite", which is a metasomatic rock consisting of ~70-90 vol% lawsonite. Lawsonitite from the South Motagua Mélange consists principally of fluid precipitates and represents the extreme of lithological variation of "P-type" jadeitite (Tsujimori & Harlow 2012; Flores et al. 2013). Lawsonites show sector- and oscillatory-growth zoning on a millimeter to submicrometer scale. The rock shows millimeter-scale flow paths of Cr-rich fluids cross-cutting lawsonite crystals; the texture indicates that the fluid infiltration occurred after lawsonite crystallization/precipitation. The Cr-rich fluid flow-paths follow the track of Cr-bearing pinkish locally metasomatized lawsonite with inclusions of Cr-rich (kosmochloric) jadeite and Cr-rich phengite. These microtextures and mineral compositions indicate a chronological sequence of fluid infiltration events: lawsonite grains precipitated from subduction-zone aqueous fluids within

  1. Bensal HP Treatment for Burn and Excision Wounds: An In-Vivo Assessment of Wound Healing Efficacy and Immunological Impact.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Jamie; Landriscina, Angelo; Ray, Anjana; Tesfa, Lydia; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Friedman, Adam J

    2015-11-01

    Natural ingredients are of increasing interest within the field of dermatology. Bensal HP, an ointment containing 3% oak bark extract, 3% salicylic acid, and 6% benzoic acid, is believed to be efficacious against a variety of inflammatory and infectious dermatidites. Here we evaluate Bensal HP's ability to influence wound healing, which has yet to be studied in this setting. Bensal HP applied to burn wounds on the dorsal surface of BALB/c mice significantly attenuated wound expansion in the first few days post-injury as compared to controls. Histological analysis mirrored these findings with accelerated maturation of the wound bed and increased collagen deposition by the end of the study period. Cytokine analysis revealed decreased IL-6 and TNFα secretion in the Bensal HP-treated burns as compared to controls. Similarly, excisional wounds treated with Bensal HP demonstrated comparable wound healing as compared to controls with positive histologic features and increased collagen deposition. Furthermore, IL-6 production was attenuated in the Bensal-HP treated wounds at day 3, with no differences appreciated in IL-6 at day 7 or in TNFα at either time point. While Bensal-HP represents a therapeutic strategy to enhance the histologic and immunologic milieu in burn and excisional wounds, further study is needed to fully elucidate the full potential of this treatment.

  2. Identification and characterization of a nuclear localization signal of TRIM28 that overlaps with the HP1 box

    SciTech Connect

    Moriyama, Tetsuji; Sangel, Percival; Yamaguchi, Hiroki; Obuse, Chikashi; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Oka, Masahiro; Yoneda, Yoshihiro

    2015-07-03

    Tripartite motif-containing 28 (TRIM28) is a transcription regulator, which forms a repressor complex containing heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). Here, we report identification of a nuclear localization signal (NLS) within the 462-494 amino acid region of TRIM28 that overlaps with its HP1 binding site, HP1 box. GST-pulldown experiments revealed the interaction of the arginine-rich TRIM28 NLS with various importin α subtypes (α1, α2 and α4). In vitro transport assay demonstrated that nuclear localization of GFP-TRIM28 NLS is mediated by importin αs, in conjunction with importin β1 and Ran. Further, we demonstrated that HP1 and importin αs compete for binding to TRIM28. Together, our findings suggest that importin α has an essential role in the nuclear delivery and preferential HP1 interaction of TRIM28. - Highlights: • TRIM28 contains an NLS within the 462-494 amino acid region. • The nuclear import of TRIM28 is mediated by importin α/importin β1. • TRIM28 NLS overlaps with HP1 Box. • HP1 and importin α compete for binding to TRIM28.

  3. Development of an hp-version finite element method for computational optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Warner, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort is to develop a means to use, and to ultimately implement, hp-version finite elements in the numerical solution of optimal control problems. The hybrid MACSYMA/FORTRAN code GENCODE was developed which utilized h-version finite elements to successfully approximate solutions to a wide class of optimal control problems. In that code the means for improvement of the solution was the refinement of the time-discretization mesh. With the extension to hp-version finite elements, the degrees of freedom include both nodal values and extra interior values associated with the unknown states, co-states, and controls, the number of which depends on the order of the shape functions in each element.

  4. Fuzzy physical programming for Space Manoeuvre Vehicles trajectory optimization based on hp-adaptive pseudospectral method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Runqi; Savvaris, Al; Tsourdos, Antonios

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a fuzzy physical programming (FPP) method has been introduced for solving multi-objective Space Manoeuvre Vehicles (SMV) skip trajectory optimization problem based on hp-adaptive pseudospectral methods. The dynamic model of SMV is elaborated and then, by employing hp-adaptive pseudospectral methods, the problem has been transformed to nonlinear programming (NLP) problem. According to the mission requirements, the solutions were calculated for each single-objective scenario. To get a compromised solution for each target, the fuzzy physical programming (FPP) model is proposed. The preference function is established with considering the fuzzy factor of the system such that a proper compromised trajectory can be acquired. In addition, the NSGA-II is tested to obtain the Pareto-optimal solution set and verify the Pareto optimality of the FPP solution. Simulation results indicate that the proposed method is effective and feasible in terms of dealing with the multi-objective skip trajectory optimization for the SMV.

  5. Periodic trim solutions with hp-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, David A.; Hou, Lin-Jun

    1990-01-01

    Finite elements in time as an alternative strategy for rotorcraft trim problems are studied. The research treats linear flap and linearized flap-lag response both for quasi-trim and trim cases. The connection between Fourier series analysis and hp-finite elements for periodic a problem is also examined. It is proved that Fourier series is a special case of space-time finite elements in which one element is used with a strong displacement formulation. Comparisons are made with respect to accuracy among Fourier analysis, displacement methods, and mixed methods over a variety parameters. The hp trade-off is studied for the periodic trim problem to provide an optimum step size and order of polynomial for a given error criteria. It is found that finite elements in time can outperform Fourier analysis for periodic problems, and for some given error criteria. The mixed method provides better results than does the displacement method.

  6. Effect of surface attractive strength on structural transitions of a confined HP lattice protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanasiri, Busara; Li, Ying Wai; Wust, Thomas; Landau, David P.

    2015-09-01

    We investigate the influence of surface attractive strength on structural transitions of a hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein confined in a slit formed by two parallel, attractive walls. We apply Wang-Landau sampling together with efficient Monte Carlo updates to estimate the density of states of the system. The conformational transitions, namely, the debridging process and hydrophobic core formation, can be identified by analyzing the specific heat together with several structural observables, such as the numbers of surface contacts, the number of hydrophobic pairs, and radii of gyration in different directions. As temperature decreases, we find that the occurrence of the debridging process is conditional depending on the surface attractive strength. This, in turn, affects the nature of the hydrophobic core formation that takes place at a lower temperature. We illustrate these observations with the aid of a HP protein chain with 48 monomers.

  7. An hp-adaptivity and error estimation for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Kim S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an hp-adaptive discontinuous Galerkin method for linear hyperbolic conservation laws. A priori and a posteriori error estimates are derived in mesh-dependent norms which reflect the dependence of the approximate solution on the element size (h) and the degree (p) of the local polynomial approximation. The a posteriori error estimate, based on the element residual method, provides bounds on the actual global error in the approximate solution. The adaptive strategy is designed to deliver an approximate solution with the specified level of error in three steps. The a posteriori estimate is used to assess the accuracy of a given approximate solution and the a priori estimate is used to predict the mesh refinements and polynomial enrichment needed to deliver the desired solution. Numerical examples demonstrate the reliability of the a posteriori error estimates and the effectiveness of the hp-adaptive strategy.

  8. A comparative study of three ionizing chambers for measurements of personal dose equivalent, Hp(10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, C.; Cardoso, J.; Silva, H.

    2015-11-01

    A comparative study of three ionization chambers which directly measure the quantity personal dose equivalent Hp(10), was performed. Results show that the ratio between the response (air kerma) determined by Monte Carlo and the experimental response (collected charge) normalized by the monitor unit is the same whatever is the chamber and that this ratio is proportional to the conversion coefficients for air kerma from photon fluence.

  9. An h-p Taylor-Galerkin finite element method for compressible Euler equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demkowicz, L.; Oden, J. T.; Rachowicz, W.; Hardy, O.

    1991-01-01

    An extension of the familiar Taylor-Galerkin method to arbitrary h-p spatial approximations is proposed. Boundary conditions are analyzed, and a linear stability result for arbitrary meshes is given, showing the unconditional stability for the parameter of implicitness alpha not less than 0.5. The wedge and blunt body problems are solved with both linear, quadratic, and cubic elements and h-adaptivity, showing the feasibility of higher orders of approximation for problems with shocks.

  10. 5. INDUSTRIAL PIPING SYSTEM FOR 500 H.P. LLEWELLYN BOILER, ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. INDUSTRIAL PIPING SYSTEM FOR 500 H.P. LLEWELLYN BOILER, ADDITION TO POWER HOUSE. United Engineering Company Ltd., Alameda Shipyard. John Hudspeth, architect, foot of Main Street, Alameda, California. Sheet M1. Plan no. 10,551. Scale 1/4 inch to the foot. June 1, 1945. pencil on vellum - United Engineering Company Shipyard, Boiler House, 2900 Main Street, Alameda, Alameda County, CA

  11. Examination results of the Three Mile Island radiation detector HP-R-212

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, G M

    1984-01-01

    Area radiation detector HP-R-212 was removed from the Three Mile Island containment building on November 13, 1981. The detector apparently started to fail during November 1979 and by the first part of December 1979 the detector readings had degraded from 1 R/h to 20 mR/h. This report discusses the cause of ailure, detector radiation measurement characteristics, and our estimates of the total gamma radiation dose received by the detector electronics.

  12. 45. 800 H.P. WATER WHEEL UNIT (LEFT HAND) DIRECT CONNECTED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. 800 H.P. WATER WHEEL UNIT (LEFT HAND) DIRECT CONNECTED TO A 500 K.W. G.E. CO. GENERATOR, SPEED 176 R.P.M., HEAD OF WATER 305 FT EFF., FOR SANTA ANA RIVER NO. 2 PLANT. ABNER DOBLE CO., ENGINEERS, SAN FRANCISCO, AUG. 29, 1904. TRACED FROM DOBLE BLUE PRINT, SEPT. 9, 1911. SCE drawing no. 5698. - Santa Ana River Hydroelectric System, SAR-2 Powerhouse, Redlands, San Bernardino County, CA

  13. Detailed description of the HP-9825A HFRMP trajectory processor (TRAJ)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindall, S. M.; Wilson, S. W.

    1979-01-01

    The computer code for the trajectory processor of the HP-9825A High Fidelity Relative Motion Program is described in detail. The processor is a 12-degrees-of-freedom trajectory integrator which can be used to generate digital and graphical data describing the relative motion of the Space Shuttle Orbiter and a free-flying cylindrical payload. Coding standards and flow charts are given and the computational logic is discussed.

  14. Examination results of the Three Mile Island radiation detector HP-R-212

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, G.M.

    1983-12-01

    Area radiation detector HP-R-212 was removed from the Three Mile Island containment building on November 13, 1981. The detector apparently started to fail during November 1979 and by the first part of December 1979 the detector readings had degraded from 1 R/hr to 20 mR/hr. This report discusses the cause of failure, detector radiation measurement characteristics, and our estimates of the total gamma radiation dose received by the detector electronics.

  15. Improvement of pulmonary absorption of poorly absorbable macromolecules by hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin grafted polyethylenimine (HP-β-CD-PEI) in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hailong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Ya; Lu, Guangyou; Wang, Ke; Wang, Zhigang; Xing, Jianfeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-07-15

    Effects of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin grafted polyethylenimine (HP-β-CD-PEI) including HP-β-CD-PEI600, HP-β-CD-PEI1800, HP-β-CD-PEI10000 on the pulmonary absorption of insulin, calcitonin, 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextrans (FDs) with various molecular weights (FD4, FD10 and FD70) were examined by an pulmonary absorption study in rats. Pulmonary absorptions of these poorly absorbable drugs were significantly enhanced by HP-β-CD-PEI1800 and HP-β-CD-PEI10000, and HP-β-CD-PEI1800 with the concentration of 5% (w/v) provided maximal absorption enhancing effect on pulmonary absorption of these model drugs. The toxicity study demonstrated that HP-β-CD-PEI did not induce any toxic action to rat pulmonary membranes. In addition, zeta potential of insulin solution changed to positive by addition of various HP-β-CD-PEI, meanwhile, the degree of positive charge was linearly correlated with absorption enhancing effect of HP-β-CD-PEI, suggesting that positive charge of HP-β-CD-PEI might be related to their absorption enhancing mechanisms for enhancing pulmonary absorption of insulin in rats. In conclusion, HP-β-CD-PEI is a potential and safe absorption enhancer for improving absorption of hydrophilic macromolecules especially peptide and protein drugs by pulmonary delivery. PMID:25959121

  16. Improvement of pulmonary absorption of poorly absorbable macromolecules by hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin grafted polyethylenimine (HP-β-CD-PEI) in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hailong; Huang, Xiaoyan; Sun, Ya; Lu, Guangyou; Wang, Ke; Wang, Zhigang; Xing, Jianfeng; Gao, Yang

    2015-07-15

    Effects of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin grafted polyethylenimine (HP-β-CD-PEI) including HP-β-CD-PEI600, HP-β-CD-PEI1800, HP-β-CD-PEI10000 on the pulmonary absorption of insulin, calcitonin, 5(6)-carboxyfluorescein (CF) and fluorescein isothiocyanate dextrans (FDs) with various molecular weights (FD4, FD10 and FD70) were examined by an pulmonary absorption study in rats. Pulmonary absorptions of these poorly absorbable drugs were significantly enhanced by HP-β-CD-PEI1800 and HP-β-CD-PEI10000, and HP-β-CD-PEI1800 with the concentration of 5% (w/v) provided maximal absorption enhancing effect on pulmonary absorption of these model drugs. The toxicity study demonstrated that HP-β-CD-PEI did not induce any toxic action to rat pulmonary membranes. In addition, zeta potential of insulin solution changed to positive by addition of various HP-β-CD-PEI, meanwhile, the degree of positive charge was linearly correlated with absorption enhancing effect of HP-β-CD-PEI, suggesting that positive charge of HP-β-CD-PEI might be related to their absorption enhancing mechanisms for enhancing pulmonary absorption of insulin in rats. In conclusion, HP-β-CD-PEI is a potential and safe absorption enhancer for improving absorption of hydrophilic macromolecules especially peptide and protein drugs by pulmonary delivery.

  17. Generic transition hierarchies of lattice HP protein adsorption: A Wang-Landau study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying Wai; Landau, D. P.; Wüst, T.

    2012-02-01

    We have applied Wang-Landau sampling with appropriate trial movesootnotetextT. W"ust and D. P. Landau, Phy. Rev. Lett. 102, 178101 (2009). to investigate the thermodynamics and structural properties of the HP lattice protein modelootnotetextK. A. Dill, Biochemistry 24, 1501 (1985). interacting with an attractive substrate. The conformational ``phase transitions'' of several benchmark HP sequences have been identified by a comprehensive canonical analysis of the specific heat and structural observables, e. g. radius of gyration and thermal derivatives of number of surface contacts. Three major ``transitions'': adsorption, hydrophobic core formation, and ``flattening'' of adsorbed structures, are observed. Depending on the surface attractive strength relative to the intra-protein attraction among the H monomers, these processes take place in a different order upon cooling. We identify a small number of generic categories that are sufficient to classify the folding hierarchies for different HP chains consisting of assorted sequences and chain lengths, regardless of the monomer type that the surface attracts. We thus believe that this classification scheme is generally applicable to lattice protein adsorption problems.

  18. Wang-Landau sampling of the interplay between surface adsorption and folding of HP lattice proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ying Wai; Wuest, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2014-01-01

    Generic features associated with the adsorption of proteins on solid surfaces are reviewed within the framework of the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice protein model. The thermodynamic behavior and structural properties of various HP protein sequences interacting with attractive surfaces have been studied using extensive Wang-Landau sampling with different types of surfaces, each of which attracts either: all monomers, only hydrophobic (H) monomers, or only polar (P) monomers, respectively. Consequently, different types of folding behavior occur for varied surface strengths. Analysis of the combined patterns of various structural observables, e.g., the derivatives of the numbers of interaction contacts, together with the specific heat, leads to the identification of fundamental categories of folding and transition hierarchies. We also inferred a connection between the transition categories and the relative surface strengths, i.e., the ratios of the surface attractive strengths to the intra-chain attraction among H monomers. We thus believe that the folding hierarchies and identification scheme are generic for different HP sequences interacting with attractive surfaces, regardless of the chain length, sequence, or surface attraction.

  19. HP-Xe to go: Storage and transportation of hyperpolarized 129Xenon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repetto, M.; Zimmer, S.; Allmendinger, F.; Blümler, P.; Doll, M.; Grasdijk, J. O.; Heil, W.; Jungmann, K.; Karpuk, S.; Krause, H.-J.; Offenhäusser, A.; Schmidt, U.; Sobolev, Y.; Willmann, L.

    2016-04-01

    Recently the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of hyperpolarized (HP)-129Xe was significantly improved by using uncoated and Rb-free storage vessels of GE180 glass. For these cells, a simple procedure was established to obtain reproducible wall relaxation times of about 18 h. Then the limiting relaxation mechanism in pure Xe is due to the coupling between the nuclear spins and the angular momentum of the Xe-Xe van-der-Waals-molecules. This mechanism can be significantly reduced by using different buffer gases of which CO2 was discovered to be the most efficient so far. From these values, it was estimated that for a 1:1 mixture of HP-Xe with CO2 a longitudinal relaxation time of about 7 h can be expected, sufficient to transport HP-Xe from a production to a remote application site. This prediction was verified for such a mixture at a total pressure of about 1 bar in a 10 cm glass cell showing a storage time of T1 ≈ 9 h (for T1wall = (34 ± 9) h) which was transported inside a magnetic box over a distance of about 200 km by car.

  20. HP-Xe to go: Storage and transportation of hyperpolarized (129)Xenon.

    PubMed

    Repetto, M; Zimmer, S; Allmendinger, F; Blümler, P; Doll, M; Grasdijk, J O; Heil, W; Jungmann, K; Karpuk, S; Krause, H-J; Offenhäusser, A; Schmidt, U; Sobolev, Y; Willmann, L

    2016-04-01

    Recently the spin-lattice relaxation time T1 of hyperpolarized (HP)-(129)Xe was significantly improved by using uncoated and Rb-free storage vessels of GE180 glass. For these cells, a simple procedure was established to obtain reproducible wall relaxation times of about 18 h. Then the limiting relaxation mechanism in pure Xe is due to the coupling between the nuclear spins and the angular momentum of the Xe-Xe van-der-Waals-molecules. This mechanism can be significantly reduced by using different buffer gases of which CO2 was discovered to be the most efficient so far. From these values, it was estimated that for a 1:1 mixture of HP-Xe with CO2 a longitudinal relaxation time of about 7 h can be expected, sufficient to transport HP-Xe from a production to a remote application site. This prediction was verified for such a mixture at a total pressure of about 1 bar in a 10 cm glass cell showing a storage time of T1≈9 h (for T1(wall)=(34±9) h) which was transported inside a magnetic box over a distance of about 200 km by car. PMID:26927028

  1. Enhanced hybrid search algorithm for protein structure prediction using the 3D-HP lattice model.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changjun; Hou, Caixia; Zhang, Qiang; Wei, Xiaopeng

    2013-09-01

    The problem of protein structure prediction in the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice model is the prediction of protein tertiary structure. This problem is usually referred to as the protein folding problem. This paper presents a method for the application of an enhanced hybrid search algorithm to the problem of protein folding prediction, using the three dimensional (3D) HP lattice model. The enhanced hybrid search algorithm is a combination of the particle swarm optimizer (PSO) and tabu search (TS) algorithms. Since the PSO algorithm entraps local minimum in later evolution extremely easily, we combined PSO with the TS algorithm, which has properties of global optimization. Since the technologies of crossover and mutation are applied many times to PSO and TS algorithms, so enhanced hybrid search algorithm is called the MCMPSO-TS (multiple crossover and mutation PSO-TS) algorithm. Experimental results show that the MCMPSO-TS algorithm can find the best solutions so far for the listed benchmarks, which will help comparison with any future paper approach. Moreover, real protein sequences and Fibonacci sequences are verified in the 3D HP lattice model for the first time. Compared with the previous evolutionary algorithms, the new hybrid search algorithm is novel, and can be used effectively to predict 3D protein folding structure. With continuous development and changes in amino acids sequences, the new algorithm will also make a contribution to the study of new protein sequences. PMID:23824509

  2. Setting and Paleozoic age of the HP-complexes in the South Carpathians

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sàbàu, G.; Massonne, H.

    2007-12-01

    The metamorphic basement units of the South Carpathians (SC), being hardly overprinted by Alpine events, record a polymetamorphic evolution discernible by tectonic discontinuities, rock compositions indicative of different geotectonic settings and contrasting metamorphic assemblages. Very recent age determinations contribute to a better understanding of this evolution. Pre-Alpine high-pressure (HP) complexes appear in the structurally upper Alpine basement units of the SC: the Lotru Metamorphic Suite (LMS) of the Getic Nappe and the Fàgàraş (FM) and Leaota (LM) Massifs. In these units, HP-complexes are sandwiched in contrasting lithologies (gneisses, metapelites) forming structurally coherent metamorphic piles. This feature confirms large-scale imbrication along plate margins. However, the timing of the various HP-events is different compared to the dominant metamorphic overprint, the tectonic stacking of contrasting lithologic units, and igneous events. The deep-seated stacking (ca. 20 km) of the various units of the LMS postdates the HP-event and is coeval with the dominant metamorphic overprint and emplacement of concordant granitoids, grossly at the Ordovician- Silurian boundary (441.7±3.7 Ma, U-Pb zircon age). In the FM the gneiss unit on top of the eclogite-bearing unit records dominant ages similar to those of the LMS (442±2.4 Ma). However, this U-Pb age constrains only a maximum age for the tectonic stacking because the rocks are strongly overprinted by a medium-grade metamorphic event not recorded in zircon populations so far. Eclogites of the Leaota Massif appear as knockers in a semipelitic subduction-accretion complex overlaid by low grade thrust sheets which were paleontologically dated as Lower Paleozoic. U-Pb zircon dating yielded a metamorphic age of 537±13 Ma for the eclogites. The stacking process responsible for the enclosure of the eclogite-bearing unit postdated an intrusion age of a concordant metagranite below the subduction

  3. Negative-tone imaging with EUV exposure for 14nm hp and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubaki, Hideaki; Nihashi, Wataru; Tsuchihashi, Toru; Fujimori, Toru; Momota, Makoto; Goto, Takahiro

    2015-03-01

    Manipulation of dissolution properties by changing organic solvent developer and rinse material provides a novel technology to obtain fine pattern beyond the limitation of imaging system based on alkaline developer. QCM study showed no swelling character in negative-tone imaging (NTI) process even for current developer of n-butyl acetate (nBA). Actually, NTI process has shown advantages on resolution and line-width roughness (LWR) in loose pitch around 30 ~ 45 nm hp as a consequence of its non-swelling character. On the other hand, bridge and collapse limited its resolution below 20 nm hp, indicating that non-negligible amount of swelling still exists for tight pitch resolution. We investigated effects of solubility parameter of organic solvents on resolution below 20 nm hp. A bridge was reduced with a decrease in the solubility parameter dp from nBA. On the other hand, much lower dp caused film remaining due to its extremely slow Rmax. Based on these results, we newly developed FN-DP301 containing organic solvent with smaller dp than nBA. Although rinse solvent gave negligible effects on bridge, there is a clear improvement on pattern collapse only in case of using new rinse solvent of FN-RP311. Lithographic performances of NTI process using nBA and FN-DP301 together with the other organic solvents were described in this paper under exposures with an E-beam and a EUV light. It is emphasized that 14 nm hp resolution was obtained only using FN-DP301 as a developer and FN-RP311 as a rinse under E-beam exposure. NTI showed 43% faster photospeed in comparison with PTI at 16 nm hp, indicating that NTI is applicable to obtain high throughput with maintaining resolution. In addition, sub-20 nm trench was obtained using NTI without bridge under EUV exposure, all of which are attributed to the low swelling character of NTI process. Similarly, NTI was able to print 20 nm dots using NXE:3100 with only a little peeling. Conversely CH patterning was significantly worse with NTI

  4. 75 FR 41531 - Hewlett Packard (HP) Global Product Development, Working On-Site at General Motors Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration Hewlett Packard (HP) Global Product Development, Working On-Site at General Motors Corporation, Milford, MI; Notice of Revised Termination of Investigation Pursuant...

  5. Using the HP-41CV calculator as a data acquisition system for personal carbon monoxide exposure monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Fitz-Simons, T.; Sauls, H.B.

    1984-09-01

    The use of small, personal monitors as instruments for air pollution data acquisition, storage, and retrieval presents a new set of monitoring considerations. Portability, ruggedness, power supplies, and data capture are functions to be addressed in designing personal monitoring systems. The emphasis herein is on the data capture function. This paper describes experiences using the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV system as a data management system interfaced with personal carbon monoxide monitors (General Electric Carbon Monoxide Detector, Model 15EC53CO3). In general, the HP-41CV proved to be reliable, adaptable, and easy to use. Problems with the monitor power source (battery failure) were more frequent than with the HP-41CV itself. Using the HP-41CV for the specific data collection requirements of the Washington Microenvironment Study is a focal point of this presentation.

  6. Experimental study on port-wine stain treated by small dose HpD and variable pulsed 532nm laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Meixiang; Zhu, Jing; Yuan, Xiawen

    2005-07-01

    To obtain a new therapy for port-wine stain (PWS) with good effect and few side effects, the Leghorn chicken combs chosen as the animal models and treated by small dose HpD and variable pulsed 532nm laser were evaluated clinically using four different scoring systems commonly used in previous publication. Result: It was shown significant difference among 5 groups (p<0.01), and the treatment groups have better effect than the control groups. There's also difference among the four treatment groups and the higher dose of HpD has better effect. In all groups the higher the fluency of laser was used, the better the effect produce. Conclusion: The results provide evidence that small dose HpD and variable pulsed 532nm laser can increase the efficacy of treatment in PWS. Increasing the fluency of laser and the dose of HpD can improve the efficacy.

  7. Ag-ELISA and PCR for monitoring the vaccination of cattle against Taenia saginata cysticercosis using an oncospheral adhesion protein (HP6) with surface and secreted localization.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L J S; Garate, T; Bryce, D M; Gonzalez, L M; Foster-Cuevas, M; Wamae, L W; Onyango-Abuje, J A; Parkhouse, R M E

    2005-02-01

    A Taenia saginata oncosphere-derived adhesion protein (HP6) with surface and secreted localization was used to successfully vaccinate calves against oral challenge with T. saginata eggs. In contrast, vaccination using a combination of T. saginata oncosphere-derived peptides, selected on the basis of their antigenic index, and including three derived from the HP6 molecule (HP6-1, HP6-2 and HP6-3), was unsuccessful. This either indicated that the wrong peptides were selected or, in the case of the HP6 protein, that the protective epitope is conformational in nature. The protection experiments were monitored using a parasite antigen detection ELISA (HP10 Ag-ELISA), which allowed the early determination of the success of the vaccination protocol, subsequently confirmed at autopsy. PCR assays were used for the first time to confirm the presence of T. saginata DNA in lesions recovered at autopsy and thus verify the parasite origin of the lesions.

  8. Pharmacology of a new non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory agent: 6,11-dihydro-11-oxodibenz [b, e] oxepin-2-acetic acid (HP 549).

    PubMed

    Lassman, H B; Kirby, R E; Wilker, J C; Mc Fadden, A R; Aultz, D E; Hoffman, D; Helsley, G C; Novick, W J

    1977-05-01

    HP 549 is an orally effective non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent with moderate analgesic and antipyretic activity. It is active in adjuvant-induced polyarthritis when given prophylactically or therapeutically. HP 549 also inhibits carrageenan-induced paw edema in the rat, an activity which is not altered by adrenalectomy. The analgesic activity of HP 549 was demonstrated in phenylquinone writhing. However, HP 549 produced variable results in the Randall-Selitto analgesia test. The anti-pyretic activity of HP 549 appears to be weak. HP 549, unlike other pharmacologically active anti-inflammatory drugs, does not produce gastric irritation at effective doses and is 45 times less ulcerogenic than indomethacin. Also the acute therapeutic indices for HP 549 are more favorable than for indomethacin. PMID:901062

  9. Development of an hp-version finite element method for computational optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Warner, Michael S.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this research effort was to begin the study of the application of hp-version finite elements to the numerical solution of optimal control problems. Under NAG-939, the hybrid MACSYMA/FORTRAN code GENCODE was developed which utilized h-version finite elements to successfully approximate solutions to a wide class of optimal control problems. In that code the means for improvement of the solution was the refinement of the time-discretization mesh. With the extension to hp-version finite elements, the degrees of freedom include both nodal values and extra interior values associated with the unknown states, co-states, and controls, the number of which depends on the order of the shape functions in each element. One possible drawback is the increased computational effort within each element required in implementing hp-version finite elements. We are trying to determine whether this computational effort is sufficiently offset by the reduction in the number of time elements used and improved Newton-Raphson convergence so as to be useful in solving optimal control problems in real time. Because certain of the element interior unknowns can be eliminated at the element level by solving a small set of nonlinear algebraic equations in which the nodal values are taken as given, the scheme may turn out to be especially powerful in a parallel computing environment. A different processor could be assigned to each element. The number of processors, strictly speaking, is not required to be any larger than the number of sub-regions which are free of discontinuities of any kind.

  10. An HP Adaptive Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Hyperbolic Conservation Laws. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Kim S.

    1994-01-01

    This dissertation addresses various issues for model classes of hyperbolic conservation laws. The basic approach developed in this work employs a new family of adaptive, hp-version, finite element methods based on a special discontinuous Galerkin formulation for hyperbolic problems. The discontinuous Galerkin formulation admits high-order local approximations on domains of quite general geometry, while providing a natural framework for finite element approximations and for theoretical developments. The use of hp-versions of the finite element method makes possible exponentially convergent schemes with very high accuracies in certain cases; the use of adaptive hp-schemes allows h-refinement in regions of low regularity and p-enrichment to deliver high accuracy, while keeping problem sizes manageable and dramatically smaller than many conventional approaches. The use of discontinuous Galerkin methods is uncommon in applications, but the methods rest on a reasonable mathematical basis for low-order cases and has local approximation features that can be exploited to produce very efficient schemes, especially in a parallel, multiprocessor environment. The place of this work is to first and primarily focus on a model class of linear hyperbolic conservation laws for which concrete mathematical results, methodologies, error estimates, convergence criteria, and parallel adaptive strategies can be developed, and to then briefly explore some extensions to more general cases. Next, we provide preliminaries to the study and a review of some aspects of the theory of hyperbolic conservation laws. We also provide a review of relevant literature on this subject and on the numerical analysis of these types of problems.

  11. Hipparcos red stars in the HpVT2 and VIC systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platais, I.; Pourbaix, D.; Jorissen, A.; Makarov, V. V.; Berdnikov, L. N.; Samus, N. N.; Lloyd Evans, T.; Lebzelter, T.; Sperauskas, J.

    2003-01-01

    For Hipparcos M, S, and C spectral type stars, we provide calibrated instantaneous (epoch) Cousins V - I color indices using newly derived HpVT2 photometry. Three new sets of ground-based Cousins VI data have been obtained for more than 170 carbon and red M giants. These datasets in combination with the published sources of V I photometry served to obtain the calibration curves linking Hipparcos/Tycho Hp-VT2 with the Cousins V - I index. In total, 321 carbon stars and 4464 M- and S-type stars have new V - I indices. The standard error of the mean V - I is about 0.1 mag or better down to Hp~9 although it deteriorates rapidly at fainter magnitudes. These V - I indices can be used to verify the published Hipparcos V - I color indices. Thus, we have identified a handful of new cases where, instead of the real target, a random field star has been observed. A considerable fraction of the DMSA/C and DMSA/V solutions for red stars appear not to be warranted. Most likely such spurious solutions may originate from usage of a heavily biased color in the astrometric processing. Based on observations from the Hipparcos astrometric satellite operated by the European Space Agency (ESA 1997).}\\fnmsep\\thanks{Table 7 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/397/997

  12. Transcriptional repression of Hox genes by C. elegans HP1/HPL and H1/HIS-24.

    PubMed

    Studencka, Maja; Wesołowski, Radosław; Opitz, Lennart; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Wisniewski, Jacek R; Jedrusik-Bode, Monika

    2012-09-01

    Elucidation of the biological role of linker histone (H1) and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) in mammals has been difficult owing to the existence of a least 11 distinct H1 and three HP1 subtypes in mice. Caenorhabditis elegans possesses two HP1 homologues (HPL-1 and HPL-2) and eight H1 variants. Remarkably, one of eight H1 variants, HIS-24, is important for C. elegans development. Therefore we decided to analyse in parallel the transcriptional profiles of HIS-24, HPL-1/-2 deficient animals, and their phenotype, since hpl-1, hpl-2, and his-24 deficient nematodes are viable. Global transcriptional analysis of the double and triple mutants revealed that HPL proteins and HIS-24 play gene-specific roles, rather than a general repressive function. We showed that HIS-24 acts synergistically with HPL to allow normal reproduction, somatic gonad development, and vulval cell fate decision. Furthermore, the hpl-2; his-24 double mutant animals displayed abnormal development of the male tail and ectopic expression of C. elegans HOM-C/Hox genes (egl-5 and mab-5), which are involved in the developmental patterning of male mating structures. We found that HPL-2 and the methylated form of HIS-24 specifically interact with the histone H3 K27 region in the trimethylated state, and HIS-24 associates with the egl-5 and mab-5 genes. Our results establish the interplay between HPL-1/-2 and HIS-24 proteins in the regulation of positional identity in C. elegans males.

  13. Appendix A: The Impact of the HP 5071A on International Atomic Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allan, David W.; Lepek, Alex; Cutler, Len; Giffard, Robin; Kusters, Jack

    1996-01-01

    The international clock ensemble, which contributes to the generation of International Atomic Time (TAI and UTC) has improved dramatically over the last few years. The main change has been the introduction of a significant number of HP 5071A clocks. Of the 313 clocks contributing to TAI/UTC during 1994, 94 of these were HP 5071As. The environmental insensitivity of the HP 5071A clocks is more than an order of magnitude better than that of previously contributing clocks. This environmental insensitivity translates to outstanding long-term stability - with a typical flicker floor of a few x10(sup -15). in addition, there are now several hydrogen masers with cavity tuning contributing to TAI/UTC. These not only have outstanding short-term stability, but comparatively low frequency drifts and excellent intermediate-type frequency stability. By analyzing data available from the international ensemble, we have obtained two important results. First the frequency stability obtainable with an optimum algorithm is about 10(sup -15) for both the intermediate and long-term regions. It could be as good in the short-term (if time transfer measurement instabilities were reduced sufficiently. Second, with cooperation, this performance can be made available on an international basis in near real time. The recent enhancements in the contributing clocks are already providing a significant improvement in the accuracy with which UTC is made available to the world from several of the national timing centers, such as the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) and the US Naval Observatory (USNO).

  14. Stress corrosion evaluation of HP 9Ni-4Co-0.30C steel plate welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Pablo D.

    1993-01-01

    A stress corrosion cracking (SCC) investigation was conducted on HP 9Ni-4Co-0.30C steel plate welds (welded by using straight polarity plasma arc and HP 9Ni-4Co-0.20C weld wire) since this material is being considered for use in the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program. Prior to the welding, the material was double tempered at 538 C (1,000 F). After welding, only part of the material was stress relieved at 510 C (950 F) for 3 h. Round tensile specimens obtained from nonstress-relieved material were tested in 100-percent relative humidity at 38 C (100 F), in 3.5-percent NaCl alternate immersion, and in 5-percent salt spray at 35 C (95 F). Specimens obtained from stress-relieved material were tested in alternate immersion. The stress levels were 50, 75, and 90 percent of the corresponding 0.2-percent yield strength (YS). All the nonstress-relieved specimens exposed to salt spray and alternate immersion failed. Stress-relieved specimens (exposed to alternate immersion) failed at 75 and 90 percent of YS. No failures occurred at 50 percent of YS in the stress-relieved specimens which indicates a beneficial effect of the stress relief on the SCC resistance of these welds. The stress relief also had a positive effect on the mechanical properties of the welds (the most important being an increase of 21 percent on the YS). Under the conditions of these tests, the straight polarity plasma are welded HP 9Ni4Co-0.30C steel plate was found highly susceptible to SCC in the nonstress-relieved condition. This susceptibility to SCC was reduced by stress relieving.

  15. Identification and functional characterization of the HpALG11 and the HpRFT1 genes involved in N-linked glycosylation in the methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha.

    PubMed

    Song, Haolei; Qian, Weidong; Wang, Hui; Qiu, Bingsheng

    2010-12-01

    The initial steps in N-linked glycosylation involve the synthesis of a lipid-linked core oligosaccharide followed by the transfer of the core glycan to nascent polypeptides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In this study, we have identified two genes, HpALG11and HpRFT1, in the metylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha. Detailed analysis of the glycan structures of the N-linked glycans of secreted recombinant glucose oxidase in mutant strains Hpalg3Δ, Hpalg11Δ, and Hpalg3Δalg11Δ with the assistance of over-expression of RFT1 was performed by linkage-specific mannosidase digestion. The results suggest that HpALG11 and HpRFT1 were responsible for catalyzing the sequential transfer of terminal α-1,2-Man residues to form the Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol intermediate at the cytosolic side of the ER before flipping to the luminal side and encoding an evolutionarily conserved protein required for the translocation of Man(5)GlcNAc(2)-PP-Dol from the cytoplasmic to the lumenal leaflet of the ER membrane, respectively. Deletion of the HpALG11 gene leads to poor growth and temperature-sensitive lethality, whereas over-expression of HpRft1p can improve growth of the Hpalg11Δ and Hpalg3Δalg11Δ strains. Furthermore, deletion of the HpALG11 gene in the Hpalg3Δ strain resulted in the secretion of glycoproteins with a predicted structure mainly containing trimannosyl core N-linked glycans (Man(3)GlcNAc(2)). PMID:20696712

  16. On-line coupling of continuous-flow gel electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry to quantitatively evaluate intracellular metal binding properties of metallochaperones HpHypA and HpHspA in E. coli cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuchuan; Hu, Ligang; Yang, Xinming; Chang, Yuen-Yan; Hu, Xuqiao; Li, Hongyan; Sun, Hongzhe

    2015-10-01

    On-line coupling of gel electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (GE-ICP-MS) offers a strategy to monitor intracellular metals and their associated proteins simultaneously. Herein, we examine the feasibility of the GE-ICP-MS system in the quantitative analysis of intracellular metal binding properties using two Helicobacter pylori metallochaperones HypA and HspA overexpressed in E. coli cells as showcases. We show that parallel detection of metal and sulfur signals allows accurate quantification of intracellular metal-protein stoichiometries, even for metalloproteins that bind metal ions with micromolar affinities. Using this approach, we demonstrate that only a trace amount of Ni(2+) is associated with HpHypA in cells, distinct from the in vitro observation of stoichiometric binding, while HpHypA exhibits high fidelity towards its structural metal Zn(2+) with stoichiometric Zn(2+) binding. In contrast, HpHspA associates with Zn(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+) and Co(2+) from an essential metal pool with ca. 0.5 molar equivalents of total metals bound per HpHspA monomer. The metal binding properties of both HpHypA and HpHspA were altered by Bi(3+). The binding of both Zn(2+) and Ni(2+) to HpHypA was suppressed under the stress of Bi(3+) in cells, different from in vitro studies that showed that Bi(3+) interfered with Zn(2+) but not Ni(2+) binding. This study provides an analytical approach to investigate the intracellular metal selectivity of overexpressed metalloproteins.

  17. Reflections on Three Corporate Research Labs: Bell Labs, HP Labs, Agilent Labs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollenhorst, James

    2008-03-01

    This will be a personal reflection on corporate life and physics-based research in three industrial research labs over three decades, Bell Labs during the 1980's, HP Labs during the 1990's, and Agilent Labs during the 2000's. These were times of great change in all three companies. I'll point out some of the similarities and differences in corporate cultures and how this impacted the research and development activities. Along the way I'll mention some of the great products that resulted from physics-based R&D.

  18. Morphological study on permeating efficiency and localization of FCLA and HpD through membrane of lung cancer cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yunxia; Xing, Da; Tang, Yonghong

    2004-07-01

    It is reported that apoptosis of cancer cells in photodynamic therapy (PDT) is caused by 1O2 generated in photosensitization. In order to study the mechanism of this kind of 1O2-induced apoptosis, it is necessary to establish a special technique to dynamically detect intracellular production and localization of 1O2. FCLA, as a chemiluminescence probe to detect singlet oxygen (1O2) and superoxide (O2-.), has been used successfully in photodynamic and sonodynamic diagnosis in tissue level, recently. This paper reported a preliminary result of morphological study on permeating efficiency and localization of FCLA and hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) through cellular membrane. Human lung cancer cell line (ASTC-a-1) was used in the experiment. The result of this research showed that both HpD and FCLA could permeate through cellular membrane and localize to prinuclear area, when HpD or FCLA was incubated with cells. Although the molecular weight of HpD is close to FCLA's, the permeating efficiency of HpD through membrane was different from that of FCLA. Intracellular FCLA concentration reached a peak after incubation for only 30 - 45 minutes, but amount of HpD in cells approached the equilibrium after incubation for near 22 h. In the experiment, we did not observe the evidence of FCLA or HpD penetrating into nucleolus. This study suggests that it is possibly to use a specific chemiluminescence probe to dynamcially detect the production and localization of 1O2 or 02-. in cell.

  19. Proposal for a "Harmonized" strategy for the assessment of the HP 14 property.

    PubMed

    Pandard, Pascal; Römbke, Jörg

    2013-10-01

    In Europe, the decision whether waste is hazardous or not is based on 15 properties, among them the HP 14 property ("ecotoxic": waste that presents or may present immediate or delayed risks for 1 or more sectors of the environment). This document describes a strategy for assessing the HP 14 property, based on a combination of 2 approaches: the summation of classified compounds in the waste carried out according to the regulation on Classification, Labeling and Packaging (CLP) of substances and mixtures and the usage of the results of biotests performed on waste eluates and solid wastes. The proposal is based mainly on recommendations of a European ring test carried out in 2007, the work performed in the CEN/TC 292/WG 7 standardization working group, and the results of various research projects regarding the ecotoxicological characterization of waste carried out mainly in France and Germany. Examples are provided showing that, using this approach, a distinction between hazardous and nonhazardous wastes is possible, independent of which type of threshold values is used (currently, both effect concentrations [EC] or lowest ineffective dilutions [LID] values have been used successfully). Furthermore, a battery of tests (3 using waste eluates and 3 using solid waste samples, plus, under certain conditions, a genotoxicity test) is recommended for the ecotoxicological testing of wastes. We propose to consider this combined approach when defining the legal requirements for the ecotoxicological classification of wastes.

  20. Photodynamic therapy of endometriosis with HpD (Photosan III) in a new in vitro model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viereck, Volker; Werter, Wiebke; Rueck, Angelika C.; Steiner, Rudolf W.; Keckstein, J.

    1994-07-01

    As a new treatment model for endometriosis, photodynamic therapy was applied to endometriotic and endometrial cultures. It could be demonstrated that both endometrial components (epithelium and stroma) were present in the cultures, proved by immunocytology and electron microscopy. No major differences were seen between endometriotic and endometrial cells. The cultures were treated by HpD-sensitized PDT. Incubation time was 24 h and concentrations of 5 and 10 (mu) g/ml were used. Irradiation was performed by an argon-pumped dye laser at 630 nm with a power density of 80 mW/cm2. Evaluation both morphologically and by trypan blue exclusion test, was effected 24 h after irradiation. Toxicity in endometriotic and endometrial cultures was practically identical. Stroma cells were more sensitive to photodynamic treatment than epithelial cells. Complete stromal cell destruction was reached at 15 J/cm2, whereas epithelial cells showed 100 lethality at 40 J/cm2 (10(mu) g/ml HpD). These and subsequent results demonstrate that the sensitivity of stromal cells was about seven times higher than that of epithelial cells.

  1. TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell HP75 facilitates cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Pan, Suxia; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Huanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), a regulatory protein composed of 59 amino acids, has been suggested to be involved in pathogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, invasion, migration and apoptosis in multiple malignant tumors. This study thus investigated the effect of TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell line HP75 on cell apoptosis and related pathways. RNA interference approach was used to knock down the expression of TFF3 protein. The gene silencing was validated by RNA denaturing gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. The effect of TFF3 knockout on cell apoptosis was analyzed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. TFF3 protein level in pituitary adenoma was about 3.61 ± 0.48 folds of that in normal tissues (P < 0.01). After transfecting with small interference RNA (siRNA) against TFF3, the apoptotic ration was significantly elevated (P < 0.01). Apoptosis related protein Bcl-2 and caspase-3 levels were remarkably depressed after siRNA transfection, while Bax and cleaved caspase-3 levels were elevated. TFF3 protein knockout can facilitate apoptosis of human pituitary adenoma HP75 cells via mitochondrial pathway. PMID:26823779

  2. TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell HP75 facilitates cell apoptosis via mitochondrial pathway.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Pan, Suxia; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Huanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Trefoil factor 3 (TFF3), a regulatory protein composed of 59 amino acids, has been suggested to be involved in pathogenesis, proliferation, differentiation, invasion, migration and apoptosis in multiple malignant tumors. This study thus investigated the effect of TFF3 knockout in human pituitary adenoma cell line HP75 on cell apoptosis and related pathways. RNA interference approach was used to knock down the expression of TFF3 protein. The gene silencing was validated by RNA denaturing gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. The effect of TFF3 knockout on cell apoptosis was analyzed by Western blotting and flow cytometry. TFF3 protein level in pituitary adenoma was about 3.61 ± 0.48 folds of that in normal tissues (P < 0.01). After transfecting with small interference RNA (siRNA) against TFF3, the apoptotic ration was significantly elevated (P < 0.01). Apoptosis related protein Bcl-2 and caspase-3 levels were remarkably depressed after siRNA transfection, while Bax and cleaved caspase-3 levels were elevated. TFF3 protein knockout can facilitate apoptosis of human pituitary adenoma HP75 cells via mitochondrial pathway.

  3. Endogenous circannual clock and HP complex in a hibernation control system.

    PubMed

    Kondo, N

    2007-01-01

    Hibernation in mammals is a mysterious biological phenomenon that appears on a seasonal basis for surviving a potentially lethal low body temperature (Tb) near 0 degrees C and protecting organisms from various diseases and harmful events during hibernation. The exact mechanism by which such a unique ability is seasonally developed is still unknown. On the basis of our previous finding that the source of calcium ions for excitation-contraction coupling in myocardium of chipmunks, a rodent hibernator, is seasonally modulated for hibernation, the liver-derived hibernation-specific protein (HP) complex was discovered. Recently, the HP complex was identified as a promising candidate hormone that carries a hibernation signal to the brain independently of Tb and environmental changes for developing a capacity for tolerating low Tb. This finding will promote new approaches to understanding biological hibernation systems, including a circannual clock and its signaling pathway between the brain and the periphery. A new definition of hibernation and a possible model of a hibernation control system are proposed. PMID:18419320

  4. A replica exchange Monte Carlo algorithm for protein folding in the HP model

    PubMed Central

    Thachuk, Chris; Shmygelska, Alena; Hoos, Holger H

    2007-01-01

    Background The ab initio protein folding problem consists of predicting protein tertiary structure from a given amino acid sequence by minimizing an energy function; it is one of the most important and challenging problems in biochemistry, molecular biology and biophysics. The ab initio protein folding problem is computationally challenging and has been shown to be NP MathType@MTEF@5@5@+=feaafiart1ev1aaatCvAUfKttLearuWrP9MDH5MBPbIqV92AaeXatLxBI9gBaebbnrfifHhDYfgasaacH8akY=wiFfYdH8Gipec8Eeeu0xXdbba9frFj0=OqFfea0dXdd9vqai=hGuQ8kuc9pgc9s8qqaq=dirpe0xb9q8qiLsFr0=vr0=vr0dc8meaabaqaciaacaGaaeqabaqabeGadaaakeaat0uy0HwzTfgDPnwy1egaryqtHrhAL1wy0L2yHvdaiqaacqWFneVtcqqGqbauaaa@3961@-hard even when conformations are restricted to a lattice. In this work, we implement and evaluate the replica exchange Monte Carlo (REMC) method, which has already been applied very successfully to more complex protein models and other optimization problems with complex energy landscapes, in combination with the highly effective pull move neighbourhood in two widely studied Hydrophobic Polar (HP) lattice models. Results We demonstrate that REMC is highly effective for solving instances of the square (2D) and cubic (3D) HP protein folding problem. When using the pull move neighbourhood, REMC outperforms current state-of-the-art algorithms for most benchmark instances. Additionally, we show that this new algorithm provides a larger ensemble of ground-state structures than the existing state-of-the-art methods. Furthermore, it scales well with sequence length, and it finds significantly better conformations on long biological sequences and sequences with a provably unique ground-state structure, which is believed to be a characteristic of real proteins. We also present evidence that our REMC algorithm can fold sequences which exhibit significant interaction between termini in the hydrophobic core relatively easily. Conclusion We demonstrate that REMC utilizing the pull move neighbourhood

  5. Petrological and geochronological constraints on the origin of HP and UHP kyanite-quartzites from the Sulu orogen, Eastern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wei; Zhang, Zeming; Yu, Fei; Liu, Feng; Dong, Xin; Liou, J. G.

    2011-09-01

    Kyanite (Ky)-quartzites occur in both the high-pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic belts in the southern Sulu orogen. The HP Ky-quartzites consist of quartz, kyanite and minor rutile with or without topaz and phengite, whereas those from the UHP unit consist of quartz, kyanite, phengite and rutile. The HP Ky-quartzites are characterized by high Al 2O 3 (up to 32.9 wt.%) and low SiO 2 (down to 60.4 wt.%) with very low other oxides contents (<1 wt.%); whereas the UHP Ky-quartzites are characterized by high SiO 2 (77.7-78.4 wt.%) and relatively low Al 2O 3 (19.1-19.5 wt.%). Both HP and UHP quartzites have variable trace element concentrations, but show distinctly negative Nb and Ta anomalies, and positive Zr anomalies. Rare earth element (REE) patterns for both types of quartzites show LREE enrichment and HREE depletion without Eu anomalies. Zircons from HP quartzites have inherited magmatic cores and metamorphic rims; most zircon cores show oscillatory zoning, contain low-pressure (LP) mineral inclusions of Kfs, Pl and Qz, and have relatively high REE contents (av. 1236.6 ppm) and high Th/U ratios (av. 1.57). The metamorphic rims show patchy zoning, contain HP inclusions of Ky and Tpz and have relatively low REE contents (av. 199.1 ppm) and Th/U ratios (av. 0.015). Most zircons from the UHP quartzites show irregular or patchy zoning, have mineral inclusions of Coe, Ph, and Rt, low REE contents (av. 332.8 ppm) and low Th/U values (av. 0.027). Only a few zircons from the UHP quartzite have inherited magmatic cores. LA-ICP-MS zircon U-Pb dating yields Neoproterozoic protolithic ages (790-764 Ma) for magmatic zircon cores of the HP quartzites, whereas the rims give Triassic (222-218 Ma) ages for HP metamorphism. Similarly, zircons from the UHP quartzites yield a Neoproterozoic protolithic age (819 Ma) and Triassic UHP metamorphic ages (223 and 221 Ma). Based on the comparable petrochemical compositions, and consistent protolithic and metamorphic ages

  6. HP1a/KDM4A is involved in the autoregulatory loop of the oncogene gene c-Jun.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Zhang, Daoyong

    2015-01-01

    The proto-oncogene c-Jun plays crucial roles in tumorigenesis, and its aberrant expression has been implicated in many cancers. Previous studies have shown that the c-Jun gene is positively autoregulated by its product. Notably, it has also been reported that c-Jun proteins are enriched in its gene body region. However, the role of c-Jun proteins in its gene body region has yet to be uncovered. HP1a is an evolutionarily conserved heterochromatin-associated protein, which plays an essential role in heterochromatin-mediated gene silencing. Interestingly, accumulating evidence shows that HP1a is also localized to euchromatic regions to positively regulate gene transcription. However, the underlying mechanism has not been defined. In this study, we demonstrate that HP1a is involved in the positive autoregulatory loop of the Jra gene, the c-Jun homolog in Drosophila. Jra recruits the HP1a/KDM4A complex to its gene body region upon osmotic stress to reduce H3K36 methylation levels and disrupt H3K36 methylation-dependent histone deacetylation, resulting in high levels of histone acetylation in the Jra gene body region, thus promoting gene transcription. These results not only expand our knowledge toward the mechanism of c-Jun regulation, but also reveal the mechanism by which HP1a exerts its positive regulatory function in gene expression.

  7. Crystal structure of toxin HP0892 from Helicobacter pylori with two Zn(II) at 1.8 Å resolution

    PubMed Central

    Im, Hookang; Jang, Sun-Bok; Pathak, Chinar; Yang, Yeon-Jin; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Yu, Tae-Kyung; Suh, Jeong-Yong; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance and microorganism virulence have been consistently exhibited by bacteria and archaea, which survive in conditions of environmental stress through toxin–antitoxin (TA) systems. The HP0892–HP0893 TA system is one of the two known TA systems belonging to Helicobacter pylori. The antitoxin, HP0893, binds and inhibits the HP0892 toxin and regulates the transcription of the TA operon. Here, we present the crystal structure of the zinc-bound HP0892 toxin at 1.8 Å resolution. Reorientation of residues at the mRNase active site was shown. The involved residues, namely E58A, H86A, and H58A/ H60A, were mutated and the binding affinity was monitored by ITC studies. Through the structural difference between the apo and the metal-bound state, and using a homology modeling tool, the involvement of the metal ion in mRNase active site could be identified. The most catalytically important residue, His86, reorients itself to exhibit RNase activity. His47, Glu58, and His60 are involved in metal binding where Glu58 acts as a general base and His47 and His60 may also act as a general acid in enzymatic activity. Glu58 and Asp64 are involved in substrate binding and specific sequence recognition. Arg83 is involved in phosphate binding and stabilization of the transition state, and Phe90 is involved in base packing and substrate orientation. PMID:24677509

  8. The methyltransferase Suv39h1 links the SUMO pathway to HP1α marking at pericentric heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Maison, Christèle; Bailly, Delphine; Quivy, Jean-Pierre; Almouzni, Geneviève

    2016-01-01

    The trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 9 (H3K9me3) – a mark recognized by HP1 that depends on the Suv39h lysine methyltransferases (KMTs) – has provided a basis for the reader/writer model to explain HP1 accumulation at pericentric heterochromatin in mammals. Here, we identify the Suv39h1 paralog, as a unique enhancer of HP1α sumoylation both in vitro and in vivo. The region responsible for promoting HP1α sumoylation (aa1–167) is distinct from the KMT catalytic domain and mediates binding to Ubc9. Tethering the 1–167 domain of Suv39h1 to pericentric heterochromatin, but not mutants unable to bind Ubc9, accelerates the de novo targeting of HP1α to these domains. Our results establish an unexpected feature of Suv39h1, distinct from the KMT activity, with a major role for heterochromatin formation. We discuss how linking Suv39h1 to the SUMO pathway provides conceptual implications for our general view on nuclear domain organization and physiological functions. PMID:27426629

  9. Computation of conversion coefficients relating air Kerma to Hp(0.07,alpha), Hp(10,alpha), and H*(10) for x-ray narrow spectrum from 40 to 140 kV.

    PubMed

    Kharrati, Hedi; Zarrad, Boubaker

    2004-02-01

    A computation method was implemented to predict the conversion coefficients and the angular dependence factors relating air Kerma to Hp(0.07,alpha), Hp(10,alpha), and H*(10) in an ICRU slab phantom for tungsten anode x-ray spectra for tube potentials from 40 to 140 kV. The simulation of the unfiltered x-ray spectra is based on the Boone and Seibert model. The calculation of conversion coefficients were performed for an x-ray narrow spectrum at any filtration material and tube potentials in the diagnostic radiology range. This computation method has been checked for five narrow x-ray spectra using a comparison of the results with published data given by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), and American National Standards Institute (ANSI). In all cases, the mean deviation of the calculated mean conversion coefficients values do not exceed 1% for Hp (0.07,alpha) and 1.5% for Hp (10,alpha), except at 60 degrees where a mean deviation from the ISO values of 1.72% and of 2.27% was, respectively, found. But it is still lower than the mean deviation of 2.31% for Hp(0.07,alpha), and of 3.08% for Hp(10,alpha) observed at this angle between ISO and ANSI values. Otherwise, the computed values of conversion coefficients of H*(10) differ by only 0.41% from the ISO values. The results of this computation method can be considered satisfactory considering the accuracy required in radioprotection fields, and can allow an appreciable estimation of conversion coefficients for the narrow x-ray spectra indispensable to calibrate the personnel dosimeters in terms of the personal dose equivalent.

  10. CTCF-mediated reduction of vigilin binding affects the binding of HP1α to the satellite 2 locus.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen-Yan; Liu, Qiu-Ying; Wei, Ling; Yu, Xiao-Qin; Li, Ran; Yang, Wen-Li; Xie, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Wen-Quan; Huang, Yuan; Qin, Yang

    2014-05-01

    CCCTC-binding factor (CTCF) has been implicated in numerous aspects of chromosome biology, and vigilin, a multi-KH-domain protein, participates in heterochromatin formation and chromosome segregation. We previously showed that CTCF interacts with vigilin. Here, we show that human vigilin, but not CTCF, colocalizes with HP1α on heterochromatic satellite 2 and β-satellite repeats. CTCF up-regulates the transcription of satellite 2, while vigilin down-regulates it. Vigilin depletion or CTCF overexpression reduces the binding of HP1α on the satellite 2 locus. Furthermore, overexpression of CTCF resists the loading of vigilin onto the satellite 2 locus. Thus CTCF may regulate vigilin behavior and thus indirectly influence the binding of HP1α to the satellite 2 locus.

  11. A Conserved Helicobacter pylori Gene, HP0102, Is Induced Upon Contact With Gastric Cells and Has Multiple Roles in Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Saurabh; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Chowdhury, Rukhsana

    2016-07-15

    Contact with host cells is recognized as a signal capable of triggering expression of bacterial genes important for host pathogen interaction. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the gastric epithelial cell line AGS strongly upregulated expression of a gene, HP0102, in the adhered bacteria in all strains examined, including several Indian clinical isolates. The gene is highly conserved and ubiquitously present in all 69 sequenced H. pylori genomes at the same genomic locus, as well as in 15 Indian clinical isolates. The gene is associated with 2 distinct phenotypes related to pathogenicity. In AGS cell-adhered H. pylori, it has a role in upregulation of cagA expression from a specific σ(28)-RNAP promoter and consequent induction of the hummingbird phenotype in the infected AGS cells. Furthermore, HP0102 has a role in chemotaxis and a ΔHP0102 mutant exhibited low acid-escape response that might account for the poor colonization efficiency of the mutant.

  12. A Conserved Helicobacter pylori Gene, HP0102, Is Induced Upon Contact With Gastric Cells and Has Multiple Roles in Pathogenicity.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Saurabh; Mukherjee, Oindrilla; Mukhopadhyay, Asish K; Chowdhury, Rukhsana

    2016-07-15

    Contact with host cells is recognized as a signal capable of triggering expression of bacterial genes important for host pathogen interaction. Adherence of Helicobacter pylori to the gastric epithelial cell line AGS strongly upregulated expression of a gene, HP0102, in the adhered bacteria in all strains examined, including several Indian clinical isolates. The gene is highly conserved and ubiquitously present in all 69 sequenced H. pylori genomes at the same genomic locus, as well as in 15 Indian clinical isolates. The gene is associated with 2 distinct phenotypes related to pathogenicity. In AGS cell-adhered H. pylori, it has a role in upregulation of cagA expression from a specific σ(28)-RNAP promoter and consequent induction of the hummingbird phenotype in the infected AGS cells. Furthermore, HP0102 has a role in chemotaxis and a ΔHP0102 mutant exhibited low acid-escape response that might account for the poor colonization efficiency of the mutant. PMID:27056952

  13. Heterochromatin-Associated Proteins HP1a and Piwi Collaborate to Maintain the Association of Achiasmate Homologs in Drosophila Oocytes.

    PubMed

    Giauque, Christopher C; Bickel, Sharon E

    2016-05-01

    Accurate segregation of homologous chromosomes during meiosis depends on their ability to remain physically connected throughout prophase I. For homologs that achieve a crossover, sister chromatid cohesion distal to the chiasma keeps them attached until anaphase I. However, in Drosophila melanogaster wild-type oocytes, chromosome 4 never recombines, and the X chromosome fails to cross over in 6-10% of oocytes. Proper segregation of these achiasmate homologs relies on their pericentric heterochromatin-mediated association, but the mechanism(s) underlying this attachment remains poorly understood. Using an inducible RNA interference (RNAi) strategy combined with fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to monitor centromere proximal association of the achiasmate FM7a/X homolog pair, we asked whether specific heterochromatin-associated proteins are required for the association and proper segregation of achiasmate homologs in Drosophila oocytes. When we knock down HP1a, H3K9 methytransferases, or the HP1a binding partner Piwi during mid-prophase, we observe significant disruption of pericentric heterochromatin-mediated association of FM7a/X homologs. Furthermore, for both HP1a and Piwi knockdown oocytes, transgenic coexpression of the corresponding wild-type protein is able to rescue RNAi-induced defects, but expression of a mutant protein with a single amino acid change that disrupts the HP1a-Piwi interaction is unable to do so. We show that Piwi is stably bound to numerous sites along the meiotic chromosomes, including centromere proximal regions. In addition, reduction of HP1a or Piwi during meiotic prophase induces a significant increase in FM7a/X segregation errors. We present a speculative model outlining how HP1a and Piwi could collaborate to keep achiasmate chromosomes associated in a homology-dependent manner. PMID:26984058

  14. Laboratory and field evaluation of Teknar HP-D, a biolarvicidal formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis, against mosquito vectors.

    PubMed

    Gunasekaran, K; Doss, P S Boopathi; Vaidyanathan, K

    2004-10-01

    Larvicidal efficacy of Teknar HP-D, an improved biolarvicidal formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis ssp. israelensis (Bti), against Anopheles stephensi, Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti was determined in the laboratory, and in field the efficacy of the formulation was tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus breeding in cesspits, unused wells and drains. The toxicity of the formulation to Gambusia affinis (larvivorous fish), Notonecta sp. and Diplonychus indicus (water bugs) was also evaluated in the laboratory. Teknar HP-D was field tested at three recommended dosages, 1, 1.5 and 2l/ha, selecting five habitats for each dosage. Another five habitats were kept untreated as controls. Ae. aegypti showed greatest susceptibility to the Bti toxin in the laboratory. In cesspits, all the three dosages caused >80% reduction of pupal recruitment up to day 6 post-treatment, indicating that a weekly application at the lowest would be necessary for sustained control. The residual activity of the formulation was longer in unused wells, causing >80% reduction of pupal recruitment for 17 days from the day of treatment. In controlling pupal recruitment the three dosages produced equal effect. Application of Teknar HP-D at 1 l/ha once in three weeks is therefore recommended to control Cx. quinquefasciatus in unused wells. However, in drains, >80% reduction of pupal recruitment was observed for only 3 days and hence, application of Teknar HP-D at 2 l/ha that caused significantly higher level of reduction twice in a week at 3-day interval is necessary. At dosages from 0.032 to 3.2 mg/l (ppm), Teknar HP-D was non-toxic to Gambusia fish. The two predatory water bugs, Notonecta sp. and Diplonychus indicus that fed on the surviving larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus exposed to the sub-lethal doses (LC(50) and LC(80)) of Teknar HP-D were safe with out having any mortality.

  15. Strain and process development for poly(3HB-co-3HP) fermentation by engineered Shimwellia blattae from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Sato, Shunsuke; Andreeßen, Björn; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Poly(3-hydroxybytyrate-co-3-hydroxypropionate), poly(3HB-co-3HP), is a possible alternative to synthetic polymers such as polypropylene, polystyrene and polyethylene due to its low crystallinity and fragility. We already reported that recombinant strains of Shimwellia blattae expressing 1,3-propanediol dehydrogenase DhaT as well as aldehyde dehydrogenase AldD of Pseudomonas putida KT2442, propionate-CoA transferase Pct of Clostridium propionicum X2 and PHA synthase PhaC1 of Ralstonia eutropha H16 are able to accumulate up to 14.5% (wtPHA/wtCDW) of poly(3-hydroxypropionate), poly(3HP), homopolymer from glycerol as a sole carbon source (Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 98:7409-7422, 2014a). However, the cell density was rather low. In this study, we optimized the medium aiming at a more efficient PHA synthesis, and we engineered a S. blattae strain accumulating poly(3HB-co-3HP) with varying contents of the constituent 3-hydroxypropionate (3HP) depending on the cultivation conditions. Consequently, 7.12, 0.77 and 0.32 gPHA/L of poly(3HB-co-3HP) containing 2.1, 8.3 and 18.1 mol% 3HP under anaerobic/aerobic (the first 24 hours under anaerobic condition, thereafter, aerobic condition), low aeration/agitation (the minimum stirring rate required in medium mixing and small amount of aeration) and anaerobic conditions (the minimum stirring rate required in medium mixing without aeration), respectively, were synthesized from glycerol by the genetically modified S. blattae ATCC33430 strains in optimized culture medium. PMID:25852995

  16. Hairless Up-Regulates Tgf-β2 Expression via Down-Regulation of miR-31 in the Skin of "Hairpoor" (HrHp) Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bong-Kyu; Yoon, Sungjoo Kim

    2015-09-01

    Hairless (HR) has been shown to regulate hair follicle (HF) morphogenesis and hair cycling. The Hr mutant hair loss mouse referred to as "hairpoor" (Hr(Hp)) displays overexpression of the HR protein through translational derepression. In this study, we found that 64 miRNAs were differentially expressed between the skin of Hr(Hp)/Hr(Hp) and wild type mice at P7 using miRNA-microarray analysis and miR-31 displayed the most reduced expression in Hr(Hp)/Hr(Hp) skin. In vivo observation and investigation using an in vitro reporter expression system revealed that miR-31 and pri-miR-31 were consistently down-regulated in the HR over-expressed condition. In addition, we found that the transforming growth factor β2 (Tgf-β2), a known catagen inducer, is the putative target of miR-31. Furthermore, Tgf-β2 level was also increased in HR over-expressed keratinocyte and Hr(Hp)/Hr(Hp) mice. These study results suggest that HR controls Tgf-β2 expression via regulation of miR-31, thus causing abnormal hair cycle in Hr(Hp)/Hr(Hp) mice.

  17. HP3 on ExoMars - Cutting airbag cloths with the sharp tip of a mechanical mole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, C.; Izzo, M.; Re, E.; Mehls, C.; Richter, L.; Coste, P.

    2009-04-01

    The HP3 - Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package - is planned to be one of the Humboldt lander-based instruments on the ESA ExoMars mission. HP3 will allow the measurement of the subsurface temperature gradient and physical as well as thermophysical properties of the subsurface regolith of Mars down to a depth of 5 meters. From these measurements, the planetary heat flux can be inferred. The HP³ instrument package consists of a mole trailing a package of thermal and electrical sensors into the regolith. Beside the payload elements Thermal Excitation and Measurement Suite and a Permittivity Probe the HP3 experiment includes sensors to detect the forward motion and the tilt of the HP3 payload compartment. The HP3 experiment will be integrated into the lander platform of the ExoMars mission. The original accommodation featured a deployment device or a robotic arm to place HP3 onto the soil outside the deflated lander airbags. To avoid adding such deployment devices, it was suggested that the HP3 mole should be capable of piercing the airbags under the lander. The ExoMars lander airbag is made of 4 Kevlar layers (2 abrasive and 2 bladders). A double fold of the airbag (a worst case) would represent a pile of 12 layers. An exploratory study has examined the possibility of piercing airbag cloths by adding sharp cutting blades on the tip of a penetrating mole. In the experimental setup representative layers were laid over a Mars soil simulant. Initial tests used a hammer-driven cutting tip and had moderate to poor results. More representative tests used a prototype of the HP3 mole and were fully successful: the default 4 layer configuration was pierced as well as the 12 layer configuration, the latter one within 3 hours and about 3000 mole strokes This improved behaviour is attributed to the use of representative test hardware where guidance and suppression of mole recoil were concerned. The presentation will provide an explanation of the technical requirements on

  18. Stress corrosion evaluation of HP 9Ni-4Co-0.20C steel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torres, Pablo D.

    1993-01-01

    A stress corrosion cracking (SCC) evaluation was undertaken on HP 9Ni-4Co-0.20C steel in support of the Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM) program. This alloy was tested in plate, bar, and ring forging forms. Several heat treating procedures yielded ultimate tensile strengths ranging from 1,407 to 1,489 MPa (204 to 216 ksi). The test environments were high humidity, alternate immersion in 3.5-percent NaCl, and 5-percent salt spray. Stress levels ranged from 25 to 90 percent of the yield strengths. The majority of the tests were conducted for 90 days. Even though the specimens rusted significantly in salt spray and alternate immersion, no failures occurred. Therefore, it can be concluded that this alloy, in the forms and at the strength levels tested, is highly resistant to SCC in salt and high humidity environments.

  19. Adaptive hp-FEM with dynamical meshes for transient heat and moisture transfer problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solin, Pavel; Dubcova, Lenka; Kruis, Jaroslav

    2010-04-01

    We are concerned with the time-dependent multiphysics problem of heat and moisture transfer in the context of civil engineering applications. The problem is challenging due to its multiscale nature (temperature usually propagates orders of magnitude faster than moisture), different characters of the two fields (moisture exhibits boundary layers which are not present in the temperature field), extremely long integration times (30 years or more), and lack of viable error control mechanisms. In order to solve the problem efficiently, we employ a novel multimesh adaptive higher-order finite element method (hp-FEM) based on dynamical meshes and adaptive time step control. We investigate the possibility to approximate the temperature and humidity fields on individual dynamical meshes equipped with mutually independent adaptivity mechanisms. Numerical examples related to a realistic nuclear reactor vessel simulation are presented.

  20. A source reconstruction algorithm based on adaptive hp-FEM for bioluminescence tomography.

    PubMed

    Han, Runqiang; Liang, Jimin; Qu, Xiaochao; Hou, Yanbin; Ren, Nunu; Mao, Jingjing; Tian, Jie

    2009-08-17

    As a novel modality of molecular imaging, bioluminescence tomography (BLT) is used to in vivo observe and measure the biological process at cellular and molecular level in small animals. The core issue of BLT is to determine the distribution of internal bioluminescent sources from optical measurements on external surface. In this paper, a new algorithm is presented for BLT source reconstruction based on adaptive hp-finite element method. Using adaptive mesh refinement strategy and intelligent permissible source region, we can obtain more accurate information about the location and density of sources, with the robustness, stability and efficiency improved. Numerical simulations and physical experiment were both conducted to verify the performance of the proposed algorithm, where the optical data on phantom surface were obtained via Monte Carlo simulation and CCD camera detection, respectively. The results represent the merits and potential of our algorithm for BLT source reconstruction.

  1. Orbital HP-Clouds for Solving Schr?dinger Equation inQuantum Mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, J; Hu, W; Puso, M

    2006-10-19

    Solving Schroedinger equation in quantum mechanics presents a challenging task in numerical methods due to the high order behavior and high dimension characteristics in the wave functions, in addition to the highly coupled nature between wave functions. This work introduces orbital and polynomial enrichment functions to the partition of unity for solution of Schroedinger equation under the framework of HP-Clouds. An intrinsic enrichment of orbital function and extrinsic enrichment of monomial functions are proposed. Due to the employment of higher order basis functions, a higher order stabilized conforming nodal integration is developed. The proposed methods are implemented using the density functional theory for solution of Schroedinger equation. Analysis of several single and multi-electron/nucleus structures demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  2. Obscurumines H-P, new Lycopodium alkaloids from the club moss Lycopodium obscurum.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wei-Wei; Liu, Yu-Chen; Zhang, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Yan-Chun; He, Juan; Su, Jia; Cheng, Xiao; Peng, Li-Yan; Shao, Li-Dong; Wu, Xing-De; Yang, Jia-Hui; Zhao, Qin-Shi

    2016-03-01

    Seven new fawcettimine-type (1-7) and two new lycopodine-type (8 and 9) Lycopodium alkaloids, as well as 10 known compounds, were isolated from the club moss, Lycopodium obscurum L. The structures of obscurumines H-P (1-9) were determined based on high-resolution MS and 1D and 2D NMR data. Compounds 1 and 2 include a new skeleton that is formed via the linkage of C-9-N-2', which is rarely present in Lycopodium alkaloids. The in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity assay showed that 5 exhibited weak anti-AChE activity with an IC50 value of 81.0 μM. Compound 8 exhibited inhibition of the secretion of IL-2 in phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) stimulated Jurkat cells, and the IC50 value was 17.2 μM.

  3. Software quality assurance documentation for the release of NUFT 2.0 for HP platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Michael W.; Johnson, Gary L.; Preckshot, Gary G.

    1998-08-28

    This document is the Individual Software Plan (ISP) for version 2.0 of the Non-isothermal Unsaturated-saturated Flow and Transport (NUFT.) analysis computer program. This document addresses the applicable requirements of LLNL YMP procedure 033-YMP-QP 3.2, Section 4.2.1.1. The purpose of this ISP is to plan and organize the activities required to certify the NUFT code for quality affecting work involving problems that include cross drift analysis of the Yucca Mountain Repository facility. NUFT is software for application to the solution of a class of coupled mass and heat transport problems in porous geologic media including Yucca Mountain Repository Cross Drift Problem (YMRCDP- also known as the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB)). Solution of this class of problems requires a suite of multiphase, multi-component models for numerical solution of non- isothermal flow and transport in porous media with applications to subsurface contaminant transport problems. NUFT is a suite of multiphase, multi-component models for numerical solution of non- isothermal flow and transport in porous media, with application to subsurface contaminant transport problems, and in particular, to the hydrology in and about the Yucca Mountain Repository Site. NUFI is acquired software, as defined by 033-YMP-QP 3.2, and a preliminary baseline of source code, electronic documentation, and paper documentation has been established as required by 033-YMP-QP 3.2, Section 4.1. NUFT runs on Sun Unix platforms, Solaris operating system version 5.5 and HP-UX with operating system version 10.20. The product to be qualified under this ISP is the version running on HP- UX. The HP version will be labeled Version 2.0h. The "h" is included to distinguish the HP version from possible future versions qualified for Sun or other platforms. The scope of the plans and procedures outlined in this ISP is limited to the effort required to qualify NUFT for the class of problems identified in

  4. A Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Parabolic Problems with Modified hp-Finite Element Approximation Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, Hideaki; Bey, Kim S.; Hou, Gene J. W.

    2004-01-01

    A recent paper is generalized to a case where the spatial region is taken in R(sup 3). The region is assumed to be a thin body, such as a panel on the wing or fuselage of an aerospace vehicle. The traditional h- as well as hp-finite element methods are applied to the surface defined in the x - y variables, while, through the thickness, the technique of the p-element is employed. Time and spatial discretization scheme based upon an assumption of certain weak singularity of double vertical line u(sub t) double vertical line 2, is used to derive an optimal a priori error estimate for the current method.

  5. Mechanical Properties and Fracture Surfaces of Thixoformed HP9/4/30 Steel

    SciTech Connect

    Omar, M. Z.; Jaharah, A. G.; Atkinson, H. V.; Kapranos, P.

    2007-04-07

    Most work in semi-solid metal processing has been focused on relatively low-melting temperature materials such as aluminium, magnesium, tin, lead and their composites. Because of the high melting temperatures and related measurement difficulties, there is relatively small amount of experimental data available on the thixoforming of high temperature materials such as steels. This paper discusses the relationships between tensile tests data and the fracture surfaces of HP9/4/30 steel samples, in as-received and as-thixoformed conditions. Some of the as-thixoformed samples were subjected to commercial heat treatments before the tests were carried out. The as-received samples showed a typical ductile fracture of 'cup' and 'cone' surface appearance. The thixoformed samples, although showing some significant increase in tensile strength values, failed in a brittle manner, with the fracture surfaces showing a 'cobbled' surface appearance. The application of the commercial heat treatment to the thixoformed samples has significantly improved their ductility.

  6. Improved Speed Control System for the 87,000 HP Wind Tunnel Drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becks, Edward A.; Bencic, Timothy J.; Blumenthal, Philip Z.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the design, installation, and integrated systems tests for a new drive motor speed control system which was part of a recent rehab project for the NASA Lewis 8x6 Supersonic Wind Tunnel. The tunnel drive consists of three mechanically-coupled 29,000 HP wound rotor induction motors driving an axial flow compressor. Liquid rheostats are used to vary the impedance of the rotor circuits, thus varying the speed of the drive system. The new design utilizes a distributed digital control system with a dual touch screen CRT operator console to provide alarm monitoring, logging, and trending. The liquid rheostats are driven by brushtype servomotor systems with magnetostrictive linear displacement transducers used for position feedback. The new system achieved all goals for speed variations with load, motor load balance, and control of total power.

  7. METASTATS: behavioral science statistics for Microsoft Windows and the HP49G programmable calculator.

    PubMed

    Foster, Eric K

    2003-05-01

    METASTATS is an organized suite of approximately 150 programs designed for meta-analysis, power, effect sizes and their confidence intervals, significance test conversions, and other general statistics. This freeware works either on the HP49G calculator or preinstalled on a PC emulator under Windows. Many of the programs address gaps in commercially available software. The suite has a user-friendly interface: the screen prompts for input, and labels all output. Extensive documentation includes step-by-step examples, a fully annotated catalogue of the programs, and academic references for the formulas. Both versions of the programs (calculator and PC), documentation, and installation instructions are freely available from the author's Web site, http://www.netaxs.com/-efoster/.

  8. Developing consensus on the CompHP professional standards for health promotion in Europe.

    PubMed

    Speller, Viv; Parish, Richard; Davison, Heather; Zilnyk, Anna

    2012-12-01

    Building on the CompHP Core Competencies for health promotion the Professional Standards for Health Promotion have been developed and consulted on across Europe. The standards were formulated to fit within the complexity of professional, occupational and educational standards frameworks in Europe as learning outcome standards with performance criteria, following the approach of the European Qualifications Framework. Three phases of consultation included an electronic consultation survey, focus groups and workshops, and an online consultation. The standards were revised at each stage following comments received. Responses from across Europe and beyond indicate high levels of agreement with the standards and support for their implementation in education and employment settings to accredit health promotion practitioners and raise the profile of health promotion in Europe.

  9. The Eccentric-Orbit Eclipsing Double-Lined System HP Draconis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, Eugene F.; Kurpinska-Winiarska, M.; Oblak, E.

    2009-01-01

    The 10.76-d period EA system HP Dra was discovered through the HIPPARCOS mission (albeit with an incorrect period). Radial velocities from the Asiago and Haute Provence Observatories (HPO), and light curve data from Cracow Observatory (CO) and HIPPARCOS have been analyzed now with the most recent version of the Wilson-Devinney program. The Cracow photometry covers both eclipses completely, unlike the HIPPARCOS data in which only 3 and 7 points fall within the primary and secondary minima, respectively. Initial and unadjusted values came from our separate preliminary analyses. Color and spectral type suggest 6000 K as the temperature of Star 1, the hotter component. The analysis involved the simultaneous adjustment of 13 non-curve dependent parameters and 2 curve-dependent parameters, 19 parameters in total. The adjusted parameters were the semi-major axis, eccentricity, and its derivative, argument of periastron and its derivative, systemic radial velocity, secondary temperature, modified Kopal potentials of both components, period and its derivative, epoch, mass ratio (M2/M1), passband luminosity, and third light. From this analysis, there is no significant period variation, but a marginally significant apsidal motion and significant third light in each of the B, V, and hp passbands. This solution indicates that components 1 and 2 have masses of 1.15 and 1.11 Msun, radii of 1.38 and 1.06 Rsun, and have absolute bolometric magnitudes of 3.93 and 4.59, respectively. Work is continuing to verify the apsidal motion and to characterize better the 3rd light in the system, through new visual and infrared observations. This work was supported in part by grants from Canadian NSERC to EFM, and data acquisition at the HPO and CO was partly funded by the European program "Actions Integrees" POLONIUM and carried out within the framework of the European Associated Laboratory "Astrophysics Poland-France."

  10. Local rules for protein folding on a triangular lattice and generalized hydrophobicity in the HP model

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwala, R.; Batzoglou, S.; Dancik, V.

    1997-12-01

    A long standing problem in molecular biology is to determine the three-dimensional structure of a protein, given its amino acid sequence. A variety of simplifying models have been proposed abstracting only the {open_quotes}essential physical properties{close_quotes} of real proteins. In these models, the three dimensional space is often represented by a lattice. Residues which are adjacent in the primary sequence (i.e. covalently linked) must be placed at adjacent points in the lattice. A conformation of a protein is simply a self-avoiding walk along the lattice. The protein folding problem STRING-FOLD is that of finding a conformation of the protein sequence on the lattice such that the overall energy is minimized, for some reasonable definition of energy. This formulation leaves open the choices of a lattice and an energy function. Once these choices are made, one may then address the algorithmic complexity of optimizing the energy function for the lattice. For a variety of such simple models, this minimization problem is in fact NP-hard. In this paper, we consider the Hydrophobic-Polar (HP) Model introduced by Dill. The HP model abstracts the problem by grouping the 20 amino acids into two classes: hydrophobic (or non-polar) residues and hydrophilic (or polar) residues. For concreteness, we will take our input to be a string from (H,P){sup +}, where P represents polar residues, and H represents hydrophobic residues. Dill et.al. survey the literature analyzing this model. 8 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Particle removal challenges with EUV patterned mask for the sub-22nm HP node

    SciTech Connect

    Rastegar, A.; Eichenlaub, S.; Kadaksham, A. J.; Lee, B.; House, M.; Huh, S.; Cha, B.; Yun, H.; Mochi, I.; Goldberg, K. A.

    2010-03-12

    The particle removal efficiency (PRE) of cleaning processes diminishes whenever the minimum defect size for a specific technology node becomes smaller. For the sub-22 nm half-pitch (HP) node, it was demonstrated that exposure to high power megasonic up to 200 W/cm{sup 2} did not damage 60 nm wide TaBN absorber lines corresponding to the 16 nm HP node on wafer. An ammonium hydroxide mixture and megasonics removes {ge}50 nm SiO{sub 2} particles with a very high PRE, A sulfuric acid hydrogen peroxide mixture (SPM) in addition to ammonium hydroxide mixture (APM) and megasonic is required to remove {ge}28 nm SiO{sub 2} particles with a high PRE. Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectroscopy (TOFSIMS) studies show that the presence of O{sub 2} during a vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) ({lambda} = 172 nm) surface conditioning step will result in both surface oxidation and Ru removal, which drastically reduce extreme ultraviolet (EUV) mask life time under multiple cleanings. New EUV mask cleaning processes show negligible or no EUV reflectivity loss and no increase in surface roughness after up to 15 cleaning cycles. Reviewing of defect with a high current density scanning electron microscope (SEM) drastically reduces PRE and deforms SiO{sub 2} particles. 28 nm SiO{sub 2} particles on EUV masks age very fast and will deform over time, Care must be taken when reviewing EUV mask defects by SEM. Potentially new particles should be identified to calibrate short wavelength inspection tools, Based on actinic image review, 50 nm SiO{sub 2} particles on top of the EUV mask will be printed on the wafer.

  12. Assessment of four calculation methods proposed by the EC for waste hazardous property HP 14 'Ecotoxic'.

    PubMed

    Hennebert, Pierre; Humez, Nicolas; Conche, Isabelle; Bishop, Ian; Rebischung, Flore

    2016-02-01

    Legislation published in December 2014 revised both the List of Waste (LoW) and amended Appendix III of the revised Waste Framework Directive 2008/98/EC; the latter redefined hazardous properties HP 1 to HP 13 and HP 15 but left the assessment of HP 14 unchanged to allow time for the Directorate General of the Environment of the European Commission to complete a study that is examining the impacts of four different calculation methods for the assessment of HP 14. This paper is a contribution to the assessment of the four calculation methods. It also includes the results of a fifth calculation method; referred to as "Method 2 with extended M-factors". Two sets of data were utilised in the assessment; the first (Data Set #1) comprised analytical data for 32 different waste streams (16 hazardous (H), 9 non-hazardous (NH) and 7 mirror entries, as classified by the LoW) while the second data set (Data Set #2), supplied by the eco industries, comprised analytical data for 88 waste streams, all classified as hazardous (H) by the LoW. Two approaches were used to assess the five calculation methods. The first approach assessed the relative ranking of the five calculation methods by the frequency of their classification of waste streams as H. The relative ranking of the five methods (from most severe to less severe) is: Method 3>Method 1>Method 2 with extended M-factors>Method 2>Method 4. This reflects the arithmetic ranking of the concentration limits of each method when assuming M=10, and is independent of the waste streams, or the H/NH/Mirror status of the waste streams. A second approach is the absolute matching or concordance with the LoW. The LoW is taken as a reference method and the H wastes are all supposed to be HP 14. This point is discussed in the paper. The concordance for one calculation method is established by the number of wastes with identical classification by the considered calculation method and the LoW (i.e. H to H, NH to NH). The discordance is

  13. Chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein appears to be important for enhanced accumulation of carotenoids in hp1 tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Rameshwar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2013-04-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) high-pigment mutants with lesions in diverse loci such as DNA Damage-Binding Protein1 (high pigment1 [hp1]), Deetiolated1 (hp2), Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (hp3), and Intense pigment (Ip; gene product unknown) exhibit increased accumulation of fruit carotenoids coupled with an increase in chloroplast number and size. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms exaggerating the carotenoid accumulation and the chloroplast number in these mutants. A comparison of proteome profiles from the outer pericarp of hp1 mutant and wild-type (cv Ailsa Craig) fruits at different developmental stages revealed at least 72 differentially expressed proteins during ripening. Hierarchical clustering grouped these proteins into three clusters. We found an increased abundance of chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein (CHRC) in hp1 fruits at red-ripe stage that is also reflected in its transcript level. Western blotting using CHRC polyclonal antibody from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) revealed a 2-fold increase in the abundance of CHRC protein in the red-ripe stage of hp1 fruits compared with the wild type. CHRC levels in hp2 were found to be similar to that of hp1, whereas hp3 and Ip showed intermediate levels to those in hp1, hp2, and wild-type fruits. Both CHRC and carotenoids were present in the isolated plastoglobules. Overall, our results suggest that loss of function of DDB1, DET1, Zeaxanthin Epoxidase, and Ip up-regulates CHRC levels. Increase in CHRC levels may contribute to the enhanced carotenoid content in these high-pigment fruits by assisting in the sequestration and stabilization of carotenoids.

  14. Chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein appears to be important for enhanced accumulation of carotenoids in hp1 tomato fruits.

    PubMed

    Kilambi, Himabindu Vasuki; Kumar, Rakesh; Sharma, Rameshwar; Sreelakshmi, Yellamaraju

    2013-04-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) high-pigment mutants with lesions in diverse loci such as DNA Damage-Binding Protein1 (high pigment1 [hp1]), Deetiolated1 (hp2), Zeaxanthin Epoxidase (hp3), and Intense pigment (Ip; gene product unknown) exhibit increased accumulation of fruit carotenoids coupled with an increase in chloroplast number and size. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms exaggerating the carotenoid accumulation and the chloroplast number in these mutants. A comparison of proteome profiles from the outer pericarp of hp1 mutant and wild-type (cv Ailsa Craig) fruits at different developmental stages revealed at least 72 differentially expressed proteins during ripening. Hierarchical clustering grouped these proteins into three clusters. We found an increased abundance of chromoplast-specific carotenoid-associated protein (CHRC) in hp1 fruits at red-ripe stage that is also reflected in its transcript level. Western blotting using CHRC polyclonal antibody from bell pepper (Capsicum annuum) revealed a 2-fold increase in the abundance of CHRC protein in the red-ripe stage of hp1 fruits compared with the wild type. CHRC levels in hp2 were found to be similar to that of hp1, whereas hp3 and Ip showed intermediate levels to those in hp1, hp2, and wild-type fruits. Both CHRC and carotenoids were present in the isolated plastoglobules. Overall, our results suggest that loss of function of DDB1, DET1, Zeaxanthin Epoxidase, and Ip up-regulates CHRC levels. Increase in CHRC levels may contribute to the enhanced carotenoid content in these high-pigment fruits by assisting in the sequestration and stabilization of carotenoids. PMID:23400702

  15. Optimization of statistical methods for HpGe gamma-ray spectrometer used in wide count rate ranges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gervino, G.; Mana, G.; Palmisano, C.

    2016-07-01

    The need to perform γ-ray measurements with HpGe detectors is a common technique in many fields such as nuclear physics, radiochemistry, nuclear medicine and neutron activation analysis. The use of HpGe detectors is chosen in situations where isotope identification is needed because of their excellent resolution. Our challenge is to obtain the "best" spectroscopy data possible in every measurement situation. "Best" is a combination of statistical (number of counts) and spectral quality (peak, width and position) over a wide range of counting rates. In this framework, we applied Bayesian methods and the Ellipsoidal Nested Sampling (a multidimensional integration technique) to study the most likely distribution for the shape of HpGe spectra. In treating these experiments, the prior information suggests to model the likelihood function with a product of Poisson distributions. We present the efforts that have been done in order to optimize the statistical methods to HpGe detector outputs with the aim to evaluate to a better order of precision the detector efficiency, the absolute measured activity and the spectra background. Reaching a more precise knowledge of statistical and systematic uncertainties for the measured physical observables is the final goal of this research project.

  16. Production of high molecular weight pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans HP-2001 with soybean pomace as a nitrogen source.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hyung-Pil; Son, Chang-Woo; Chung, Chung-Han; Jung, Dae-Il; Kim, Sung-Koo; Gross, Richard A; Kaplan, David L; Lee, Jin-Woo

    2004-12-01

    The production of pullulan by Aureobasidium pullulans HP-2001 was enhanced by yeast extract as a nitrogen source as well as soybean pomace. The highest production of pullulan by A. pullulans HP-2001 with yeast extract was 5.5 g/l whereas that of pullulan with soybean pomace was 7.5 g/l. The gas chromatogram of pullulan produced by A. pullulans HP-2001 with soybean pomace as a nitrogen source showed that the major and minor components were glucose and mannose. The FTIR spectra of pullulans produced with yeast extract, a mixture of yeast extract and soybean pomace, and soybean pomace alone exhibited similar features. The increase in content of reducing sugars after pullulanase treatment of pullulans produced with different nitrogen sources indicated that all the pullulans had alpha-(1,6) glucosidic linkages of alpha-(1,4) linked maltotriose units. The average molecular weights of pullulans produced with various concentrations of yeast extract and soybean pomace ranged from 0.17 to 1.32x10(6) and from 1.32 to 5.66x10(6), respectively. All pullulans produced by A. pullulans HP-2001 in this study had the same basic structures, but their ratios of monomeric components were a little different, which might result in the production of pullulans with different molecular weights.

  17. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart Zzzz of... - Operating Limitations for New and Reconstructed 2SLB and CI Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... pursuant to the requirements of 40 CFR 63.8(f) for a different temperature range. ... Reconstructed 2SLB and CI Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions, New and Reconstructed 4SLB Stationary RICE â¥250 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions, Existing CI...

  18. 40 CFR Table 2b to Subpart Zzzz of... - Operating Limitations for New and Reconstructed 2SLB and CI Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... pursuant to the requirements of 40 CFR 63.8(f) for a different temperature range. ... Reconstructed 2SLB and CI Stationary RICE >500 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions, New and Reconstructed 4SLB Stationary RICE â¥250 HP Located at a Major Source of HAP Emissions, Existing CI...

  19. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - NOX, CO, and VOC Emission Standards for Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines ≥100 HP (Except...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 60—NOX, CO, and VOC Emission... Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines â¥100 HP (Except Gasoline and Rich Burn LPG), Stationary SI Landfill/Digester Gas Engines, and Stationary Emergency Engines >25 HP 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part...

  20. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - NOX, CO, and VOC Emission Standards for Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines ≥100 HP (Except...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 60—NOX, CO, and VOC Emission... Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines â¥100 HP (Except Gasoline and Rich Burn LPG), Stationary SI Landfill/Digester Gas Engines, and Stationary Emergency Engines >25 HP 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - NOX, CO, and VOC Emission Standards for Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines ≥100 HP (Except...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 60—NOX, CO, and VOC Emission... Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines â¥100 HP (Except Gasoline and Rich Burn LPG), Stationary SI Landfill/Digester Gas Engines, and Stationary Emergency Engines >25 HP 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part...

  2. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - NOX, CO, and VOC Emission Standards for Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines ≥100 HP (Except...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 60—NOX, CO, and VOC Emission... Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines â¥100 HP (Except Gasoline and Rich Burn LPG), Stationary SI Landfill/Digester Gas Engines, and Stationary Emergency Engines >25 HP 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part...

  3. 40 CFR Table 1 to Subpart Jjjj of... - NOX, CO, and VOC Emission Standards for Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines ≥100 HP (Except...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Combustion Engines Pt. 60, Subpt. JJJJ, Table 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part 60—NOX, CO, and VOC Emission... Stationary Non-Emergency SI Engines â¥100 HP (Except Gasoline and Rich Burn LPG), Stationary SI Landfill/Digester Gas Engines, and Stationary Emergency Engines >25 HP 1 Table 1 to Subpart JJJJ of Part...

  4. Development and validation of sensitive LC-MS/MS assays for quantification of HP-β-CD in human plasma and CSF

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Hui; Sidhu, Rohini; Fujiwara, Hideji; De Meulder, Marc; de Vries, Ronald; Gong, Yong; Kao, Mark; Porter, Forbes D.; Yanjanin, Nicole M.; Carillo-Carasco, Nuria; Xu, Xin; Ottinger, Elizabeth; Woolery, Myra; Ory, Daniel S.; Jiang, Xuntian

    2014-01-01

    2-Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD), a widely used excipient for drug formulation, has emerged as an investigational new drug for the treatment of Niemann-Pick type C1 (NPC1) disease, a neurodegenerative cholesterol storage disorder. Development of a sensitive quantitative LC-MS/MS assay to monitor the pharmacokinetics (PKs) of HP-β-CD required for clinical trials has been challenging owing to the dispersity of the HP-β-CD. To support a phase 1 clinical trial for ICV delivery of HP-β-CD in NPC1 patients, novel methods for quantification of HP-β-CD in human plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using LC-MS/MS were developed and validated: a 2D-LC-in-source fragmentation-MS/MS (2D-LC-IF-MS/MS) assay and a reversed phase ultra performance LC-MS/MS (RP-UPLC-MS/MS) assay. In both assays, protein precipitation and “dilute and shoot” procedures were used to process plasma and CSF, respectively. The assays were fully validated and in close agreement, and allowed determination of PK parameters for HP-β-CD. The LC-MS/MS methods are ∼100-fold more sensitive than the current HPLC assay, and were successfully employed to analyze HP-β-CD in human plasma and CSF samples to support the phase 1 clinical trial of HP-β-CD in NPC1 patients. PMID:24868096

  5. Zircon growth in (U)HP quartzo-feldspathic host gneisses exhumed in the Woodlark Rift of Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirakparvar, N. A.; Baldwin, S. L.; Schmitt, A. K.

    2014-04-01

    To understand zircon behavior as a function of bulk composition and metamorphic grade in the world's youngest (U)HP terrane, we report U-Pb SIMS spot-mode and depth-profiling analyses for quartzo-feldspathic gneisses. Zircons from two gneisses contain Cretaceous inherited cores, with μm sized metamorphic rims requiring depth profiling for reliable dating. Linear regression of the common-Pb uncorrected data for rims yield 206Pb/238U ages of 2.89 ± 0.29 Ma and 2.77 ± 0.99 Ma (concordia intercept ages at 95% confidence). The older age is within two-sigma error of previously reported 206Pb/238U ages on zircons from mafic eclogite within the gneiss, indicating that rims formed on inherited cores within host gneisses during eclogite facies metamorphism. At the (U)HP locality zircons from host gneiss lack inheritance and yield a 206Pb/238U age of 3.66 ± 0.13 Ma. These results are younger than previously reported 206Pb/238U ages on zircons from coesite eclogite within the gneiss, but are within error of the youngest reported LA-ICP-MS 206Pb/238U zircon ages on retrogressed mafic eclogite. We also report intragrain geochemical heterogeneity, indicated by zircon Hf, Y, and Ti variations in depth profiles which suggest chemical disequilibrium over the interval of zircon growth. Collectively, these results indicate that zircon recrystallization and new growth of zircon rims on relict grains occurred during eclogite facies metamorphism and during subsequent retrogression, but not at (U)HP conditions. Comparison between results from PNG and other (U)HP terranes bolsters previous suggestions that the PNG (U)HP terrane evolved rapidly.

  6. Conceptual Design of HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System for 110 kWe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2004-02-01

    A conceptual design of a Heat Pipe-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) space reactor power system (SRPS) for a net power of 110 kWe is developed. The parametric analysis changed the number of radiator's potassium heat pipes from 224 to 336 and calculated the effects on the operation parameters and total mass of the system. The reactor has a hexagonal core comprised of 126 heat pipe modules, each consists of three UN, 1.5 cm OD fuel pins brazed to a central lithium heat pipe of identical diameter. The Re cladding of the fuel pins is brazed along the active core length to the lithium heat pipe using 6 Re tri-cusps. The reactor control is accomplished using 12 B4C/BeO control drums, a large diameter one on each side of the hexagonal core and a small diameter one at each corner. The control drums are placed within the radial BeO reflector (7.1-9.1 cm thick). The fuel pin peak-to-average power ratio in the reactor core is 1.12-1.19. Despite its very high density and fabrication challenge, using rhenium structure in the reactor core is necessary for three main reasons: (a) the high reactor temperature (>= 1500 K) (b) excellent compatibility with the UN fuel and lithium; (c) to cause a spectrum shift that ensures having sufficient negative reactivity margin during a water submersion accident. The reference HP-STMC system with 324, 2.42-3.03 cm OD potassium heat pipes in the radiator is 9.60 m long and has a cone angle of 30°. The nominal operation of the reactor's lithium heat pipes and of the radiator's potassium heat pipes is at or below ~ 45% of the prevailing wicking and sonic limit, respectively. The masses of the reactor and radiation shadow shield are 753.7 kg and 999.5 kg, respectively; the average heat pipes temperature in the reactor is 1513 K; the mass of the reactor's lithium heat pipes with a C-C finned condenser that is 1.5 m long is 516.1 kg; the mass of the radiator is 557.5 kg, with an outer surface area of 87 m2 (6.41 kg/m2) and

  7. Conceptual Design of HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System for 110 kWe

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2004-02-04

    A conceptual design of a Heat Pipe-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) space reactor power system (SRPS) for a net power of 110 kWe is developed. The parametric analysis changed the number of radiator's potassium heat pipes from 224 to 336 and calculated the effects on the operation parameters and total mass of the system. The reactor has a hexagonal core comprised of 126 heat pipe modules, each consists of three UN, 1.5 cm OD fuel pins brazed to a central lithium heat pipe of identical diameter. The Re cladding of the fuel pins is brazed along the active core length to the lithium heat pipe using 6 Re tri-cusps. The reactor control is accomplished using 12 B4C/BeO control drums, a large diameter one on each side of the hexagonal core and a small diameter one at each corner. The control drums are placed within the radial BeO reflector (7.1-9.1 cm thick). The fuel pin peak-to-average power ratio in the reactor core is 1.12-1.19. Despite its very high density and fabrication challenge, using rhenium structure in the reactor core is necessary for three main reasons: (a) the high reactor temperature ({>=} 1500 K); (b) excellent compatibility with the UN fuel and lithium; (c) to cause a spectrum shift that ensures having sufficient negative reactivity margin during a water submersion accident. The reference HP-STMC system with 324, 2.42-3.03 cm OD potassium heat pipes in the radiator is 9.60 m long and has a cone angle of 30 deg. The nominal operation of the reactor's lithium heat pipes and of the radiator's potassium heat pipes is at or below {approx} 45% of the prevailing wicking and sonic limit, respectively. The masses of the reactor and radiation shadow shield are 753.7 kg and 999.5 kg, respectively; the average heat pipes temperature in the reactor is 1513 K; the mass of the reactor's lithium heat pipes with a C-C finned condenser that is 1.5 m long is 516.1 kg; the mass of the radiator is 557.5 kg, with an outer surface area of 87 m2 (6.41 kg/m2

  8. Negative-tone imaging with EUV exposure toward 13nm hp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsubaki, Hideaki; Nihashi, Wataru; Tsuchihashi, Toru; Yamamoto, Kei; Goto, Takahiro

    2016-03-01

    Negative-tone imaging (NTI) with EUV exposure has major advantages with respect to line-width roughness (LWR) and resolution due in part to polymer swelling and favorable dissolution mechanics. In NTI process, both resist and organic solvents play important roles in determining lithography performances. The present study describes novel chemically amplified resist materials based on NTI technology with EUV using a specific organic solvents. Lithographic performances of NTI process were described in this paper under exposures using ASML NXE:3300 EUV scanner at imec. It is emphasized that 14 nm hp was nicely resolved under exposure dose of 37 mJ/cm2 without any bridge and collapse, which are attributed to the low swelling character of NTI process. Although 13 nm hp resolution was potentially obtained, a pattern collapse still restricts its resolution in case coating resist film thickness is 40 nm. Dark mask limitation due mainly to mask defectivity issue makes NTI with EUV favorable approach for printing block mask to produce logic circuit. A good resolution of CD-X 21 nm/CD-Y 32 nm was obtained for block mask pattern using NTI with usable process window and dose of 49 mJ/cm2. Minimum resolution now reaches CD-X 17 nm / CD-Y 23 nm for the block. A 21 nm block mask resolution was not affected by exposure dose and explored toward low dose down to 18 mJ/cm2 by reducing quencher loading. In addition, there was a negligible amount of increase in LCDU for isolated dot pattern when decreasing exposure dose from 66 mJ/cm2 to 24 mJ/cm2. On the other hand, there appeared tradeoff relationship between LCDU and dose for dense dot pattern, indicating photon-shot noise restriction, but strong dependency on patterning features. Design to improve acid generation efficiency was described based on acid generation mechanism in traditional chemically amplified materials which contains photo-acid generator (PAG) and polymer. Conventional EUV absorber comprises of organic compounds is

  9. Life Cycle and Reproductive Potential of the Nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Strain HP88

    PubMed Central

    Zioni (Cohen-Nissan), Shlomit; Glazer, Itamar; Segal, Daniel

    1992-01-01

    Development of the entomopathogenic nematode Heterorhabditis bacteriophora strain HP88 was studied in vivo with larvae of the greater wax moth, Galleria mellonella, as host and in vitro. At 25 C in vivo, the duration of the life cycle from egg hatch to egg hatch was 96 hours. Juvenile development took 48 hours, with the duration of each juvenile stage ranging from 8 to 12 hours. Under crowded conditions, development proceeded to the infective juvenile (IJ) stage instead of the third juvenile stage (J3). Life-cycle duration and proportion of the various developmental stages in the population were similar in in vitro and in vivo cultures. When in vivo or in vitro development was initiated from the IJ stage, only hermaphrodites developed in the first generation and males appeared only in the second generation. The average (±SD) number of progeny per hermaphrodite was 243 ± 98. The ratio of males to hermaphrodites in the second generation was 1:9.4 ± 6.8. PMID:19283008

  10. [A multicenter study of a new Helicobacter pylori selective medium. Columbia horse blood agar HP].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Miyuki; Amano, Ayako; Muraoka, Hiroe; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Kimoto, Mami; Kato, Mototsugu; Fujioka, Toshio; Nasu, Masaru

    2002-05-01

    We conducted a study for the growth of and selectivity for the desired microorganisms using a newly developed selective culture medium for Helicobacter pylori, Columbia horse blood agar HP (CHBHP), at three different Japanese clinical laboratories, Hokkaido, Kanto and Kyusyu. When standard strains and clinical isolates of H. pylori were examined, the recovery of the organism on the CHBHP media was comparable to that of conventional selective and nonselective media. However, colonies were obviously larger on the CHBHP media. These media yielded the highest H. pylori positive rate for clinical specimens at all the three laboratories. The detection rate of the CHBHP media in H. pylori-positive specimens was higher than that of media commonly used at the three laboratories (98.1% to 100% vs. 88.0% to 96.2%). The CHBHP media also achieved a higher detection rate for specimens from H. pylori-infected animals. CHBHP media have an excellent growth supporting ability and selectivity originating from Columbia agar base and do not require the combined use of non-selective media for the growth and isolation of the organism, resulting in lower cost. Thus, they are useful media for the selective culture and isolation of H. pylori from clinical and animal specimens.

  11. Endogenous retrovirus EAV-HP linked to blue egg phenotype in Mapuche fowl.

    PubMed

    Wragg, David; Mwacharo, Joram M; Alcalde, José A; Wang, Chen; Han, Jian-Lin; Gongora, Jaime; Gourichon, David; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hanotte, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Oocyan or blue/green eggshell colour is an autosomal dominant trait found in native chickens (Mapuche fowl) of Chile and in some of their descendants in European and North American modern breeds. We report here the identification of an endogenous avian retroviral (EAV-HP) insertion in oocyan Mapuche fowl and European breeds. Sequencing data reveals 100% retroviral identity between the Mapuche and European insertions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of European oocyan chicken indicates over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene (P<0.05) in the shell gland and oviduct. Predicted transcription factor binding sites in the long terminal repeats (LTR) indicate AhR/Ar, a modulator of oestrogen, as a possible promoter/enhancer leading to reproductive tissue-specific over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene. Analysis of all jungle fowl species Gallus sp. supports the retroviral insertion to be a post-domestication event, while identical LTR sequences within domestic chickens are in agreement with a recent de novo mutation. PMID:23990950

  12. Endogenous Retrovirus EAV-HP Linked to Blue Egg Phenotype in Mapuche Fowl

    PubMed Central

    Alcalde, José A.; Wang, Chen; Han, Jian-Lin; Gongora, Jaime; Gourichon, David; Tixier-Boichard, Michèle; Hanotte, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Oocyan or blue/green eggshell colour is an autosomal dominant trait found in native chickens (Mapuche fowl) of Chile and in some of their descendants in European and North American modern breeds. We report here the identification of an endogenous avian retroviral (EAV-HP) insertion in oocyan Mapuche fowl and European breeds. Sequencing data reveals 100% retroviral identity between the Mapuche and European insertions. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis of European oocyan chicken indicates over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene (P<0.05) in the shell gland and oviduct. Predicted transcription factor binding sites in the long terminal repeats (LTR) indicate AhR/Ar, a modulator of oestrogen, as a possible promoter/enhancer leading to reproductive tissue-specific over-expression of the SLCO1B3 gene. Analysis of all jungle fowl species Gallus sp. supports the retroviral insertion to be a post-domestication event, while identical LTR sequences within domestic chickens are in agreement with a recent de novo mutation. PMID:23990950

  13. Development of an adaptive hp-version finite element method for computational optimal control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, Dewey H.; Warner, Michael S.

    1994-01-01

    In this research effort, the usefulness of hp-version finite elements and adaptive solution-refinement techniques in generating numerical solutions to optimal control problems has been investigated. Under NAG-939, a general FORTRAN code was developed which approximated solutions to optimal control problems with control constraints and state constraints. Within that methodology, to get high-order accuracy in solutions, the finite element mesh would have to be refined repeatedly through bisection of the entire mesh in a given phase. In the current research effort, the order of the shape functions in each element has been made a variable, giving more flexibility in error reduction and smoothing. Similarly, individual elements can each be subdivided into many pieces, depending on the local error indicator, while other parts of the mesh remain coarsely discretized. The problem remains to reduce and smooth the error while still keeping computational effort reasonable enough to calculate time histories in a short enough time for on-board applications.

  14. (HP)Ge Measurement of spectra for diagnostic X-ray beams.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, M S; Mota, H C; Campos, L L

    2004-01-01

    The X-ray spectra applied in diagnostic radiology to the energy range between 50 and 125 kVp, were experimentally determined using a high-purity germanium detector, (HP)Ge, coupled to a multichannel analyser. A simple stripping procedure was implemented, according to that described by Seelentag and Panzer, to correct the pulse height distribution and then to determine the photon spectra. The measurements were performed for those conditions where the X-ray beam is transmitted through Pb filters 0.2-0.7 mm thick. It was necessary to estimate the effective dose in the same way that it is done for radiology diagnosis room shielding projects. The spectra were also determined to the X-ray qualities recommended by the IEC for primary diagnostic X-ray and for X-ray beams attenuated by aluminium filters 2.5-42.5 mm thick. The spectra obtained were compared with data derived from the literature presenting good agreement. PMID:15367779

  15. H.P. Acthar Gel (repository corticotropin injection) treatment of patients with multiple sclerosis and diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kutz, Christen

    2016-01-01

    Background: Treatment of multiple sclerosis (MS) relapses can be complex in patients with concomitant diabetes. Corticosteroids and adrenocorticotropic hormones are known to cause alterations in glucose tolerance. Many patients have poor tolerability to therapy, necessitating alternative treatment options. Adrenocorticotropic hormone (H.P. Acthar Gel, repository corticotropin injection, Mallinckrodt ARD Inc., Hazelwood, MO, USA) is currently indicated for the treatment of MS relapses. Objectives: The objective of this study was to review patients’ experiences of Acthar Gel for the treatment of MS exacerbations in patients with MS and diabetes. Methods: A retrospective review of 13 patients’ experiences with treatment. Qualified healthcare providers completed a questionnaire following Acthar Gel treatment for MS relapse. Results: Previous corticosteroid treatment with either intravenous methylprednisolone or prednisone was reported by 84.6% of patients; eight patients had complications following administration of prior steroid treatment, seven of whom experienced elevated blood glucose levels. Acthar Gel was administered daily for a mean of 5.3 days, with 61.5% of patients reporting relapse resolution. Two patients experienced elevated blood glucose. Conclusion: The majority of patients experienced a timely resolution of their MS relapse with few hyperglycemic adverse events. Although more studies are necessary, these data suggest that Acthar Gel may be a well-tolerated and effective treatment option for patients with diabetes experiencing an MS relapse. PMID:27433309

  16. Direct spectral/hp element simulation of piloted jet non-premixed flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastase, Cristian R.

    2004-11-01

    The spectral/hp element method is used for direct numerical simulation (DNS) of piloted non premixed methane jet flames. This method combines the accuracy of spectral methods with versatility of finite element methods, and allows accurate simulations of complex flows on structured and unstructured grids. Here, the methodology is extended for simulation of multi-species, reactive flows using the discontinuous Galerkin formulation. Parallel computation is performed via MPI standards coupled with a domain decomposition methodology. The overall computational scheme allows for an efficient partitioning of the flow configuration. Tests performed with up to 64 processors show quasi-linear parallel performance and scalability. The flame configurations are similar to the piloted jet non-premixed flame considered at the Combustion Research Facility at the Sandia National Laboratories. For a momentum dominated flame, the simulated results portray many of the features observed experimentally. This pertains to both the spatial and the compositional structures of the flow. For a buoyancy controlled flame (at elevated gravity levels), the results indicate an increase in both the turbulence levels and flow acceleration. Departure from equilibrium, including localized extinction is observed on a significant portion of this flame.

  17. The nuclear oncogene SET controls DNA repair by KAP1 and HP1 retention to chromatin.

    PubMed

    Kalousi, Alkmini; Hoffbeck, Anne-Sophie; Selemenakis, Platonas N; Pinder, Jordan; Savage, Kienan I; Khanna, Kum Kum; Brino, Laurent; Dellaire, Graham; Gorgoulis, Vassilis G; Soutoglou, Evi

    2015-04-01

    Cells experience damage from exogenous and endogenous sources that endanger genome stability. Several cellular pathways have evolved to detect DNA damage and mediate its repair. Although many proteins have been implicated in these processes, only recent studies have revealed how they operate in the context of high-ordered chromatin structure. Here, we identify the nuclear oncogene SET (I2PP2A) as a modulator of DNA damage response (DDR) and repair in chromatin surrounding double-strand breaks (DSBs). We demonstrate that depletion of SET increases DDR and survival in the presence of radiomimetic drugs, while overexpression of SET impairs DDR and homologous recombination (HR)-mediated DNA repair. SET interacts with the Kruppel-associated box (KRAB)-associated co-repressor KAP1, and its overexpression results in the sustained retention of KAP1 and Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) on chromatin. Our results are consistent with a model in which SET-mediated chromatin compaction triggers an inhibition of DNA end resection and HR.

  18. The HP1 homolog Rhino anchors a nuclear complex that suppresses piRNA precursor splicing

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhao; Wang, Jie; Schultz, Nadine; Zhang, Fan; Parhad, Swapnil S.; Tu, Shikui; Vreven, Thom; Zamore, Phillip D.; Weng, Zhiping; Theurkauf, William E.

    2014-01-01

    Summary piRNAs guide an adaptive genome defense system that silences transposons during germline development. The Drosophila HP1 homolog Rhino is required for germline piRNA production. We show that Rhino binds specifically to the heterochromatic clusters that produce piRNA precursors, and that binding directly correlates with piRNA production. Rhino co-localizes to germline nuclear foci with Rai1/DXO related protein Cuff and the DEAD box protein UAP56, which are also required for germline piRNA production. RNA sequencing indicates that most cluster transcripts are not spliced, and that rhino, cuff and uap56 mutations increase expression of spliced cluster transcripts over 100 fold. LacI∷Rhino fusion protein binding suppresses splicing of a reporter transgene, and is sufficient to trigger piRNA production from a trans combination of sense and antisense reporters. We therefore propose that Rhino anchors a nuclear complex that suppresses cluster transcript splicing, and speculate that stalled splicing differentiates piRNA precursors from mRNAs. PMID:24906152

  19. Liquid-Hydrogen-Cooled 450-hp Electric Motor Test Stand Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Albert F.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    With growing concerns about global warming, there is a need to develop pollution-free aircraft. One approach is to use hydrogen-fueled aircraft that use fuel cells or turbogenerators to produce electric power to drive the electric motors that turn the aircraft s propulsive fans. Hydrogen fuel would be carried as a liquid, stored at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 F). Conventional electric motors, however, are too heavy for aircraft propulsion. We need to develop high-power, lightweight electric motors (highpower- density motors). One approach is to increase the conductivity of the wires by cooling them with liquid hydrogen (LH2). This would allow superconducting rotors with an ironless core. In addition, the motor could use very pure aluminum or copper, substances that have low resistances at cryogenic temperatures. A preliminary design of a 450-hp LH2-cooled electric motor was completed and is being manufactured by a contractor. This motor will be tested at the NASA Glenn Research Center and will be used to test different superconducting materials such as magnesium diboride (MgB2). The motor will be able to operate at speeds of up to 6000 rpm.

  20. Coupling between hydration layer dynamics and unfolding kinetics of HP-36

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bandyopadhyay, Sanjoy; Chakraborty, Sudip; Bagchi, Biman

    2006-08-01

    We have performed atomistic molecular dynamics simulations of aqueous solutions of HP-36 at 300K in its native state, as well as at high temperatures to explore the unfolding dynamics of the protein and its correlation with the motion of water around it. On increasing the temperature a partially unfolded molten globule state is formed where the smallest α helix (helix 2) unfolds into a coil. It is observed that the unfolding is initiated around the residue Phe-18 which shows a sharp displacement during unfolding. We have noticed that the unfolding of the protein affects the density of water near the protein surface. Besides, the dynamics of water in the protein hydration layer has been found to be strongly correlated with the time evolution of the unfolding process. We have introduced and calculated a displacement time correlation function to monitor the change in water motion relative to the protein backbone during unfolding. We find that the unfolding of helix 2 is associated with an increase in mobility of water around it as compared to water around the other two helices. We have also explored the microscopic aspects of secondary structure specific and site specific solvation dynamics of the protein. The calculations reveal that unfolding influences the solvation dynamics of the protein molecule in a heterogeneous manner depending on the location of the polar probe residues. This seems to be in agreement with recent experimental findings.

  1. Photon energy response of luminescence dosemeters and its impact on assessment of Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) in mixed fields of varying energies of photons and beta radiation.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, A S

    2002-01-01

    X and gamma rays continue to remain the main contributors to the dose to humans. As these photons of varying energies are encountered in various applications, the study of photon energy response of a dosemeter is an important aspect to ensure the accuracy in dose measurement. Responses of dosemeters have to be experimentally established because for luminescence dosemeters, they depend not only on the effective atomic number (ratio of mass energy absorption coefficients of dosemeter and tissue) of the detector, but also considerably on the luminescence efficiency and the material surrounding the dosemeters. Metal filters are generally used for the compensation of energy dependence below 200 keV and/or to provide photon energy discrimination. It is noted that the contribution to Hp(0.07) could be measured more accurately than Hp(10). For the dosemeters exhibiting high photon energy-dependent response, estimation of the beta component of Hp(0.07) becomes very difficult in the mixed field of beta radiation and photons of energy less than 100 keV. Recent studies have shown that the thickness and the atomic number of metal filters not only affect the response below 200 keV but also cause a significant over-response for high energy (>6 MeV) photons often encountered in the environments of pressurised heavy water reactors and accelerators. PMID:12382729

  2. Dynamic and flexible H3K9me3 bridging via HP1β dimerization establishes a plastic state of condensed chromatin.

    PubMed

    Hiragami-Hamada, Kyoko; Soeroes, Szabolcs; Nikolov, Miroslav; Wilkins, Bryan; Kreuz, Sarah; Chen, Carol; De La Rosa-Velázquez, Inti A; Zenn, Hans Michael; Kost, Nils; Pohl, Wiebke; Chernev, Aleksandar; Schwarzer, Dirk; Jenuwein, Thomas; Lorincz, Matthew; Zimmermann, Bastian; Walla, Peter Jomo; Neumann, Heinz; Baubec, Tuncay; Urlaub, Henning; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Histone H3 trimethylation of lysine 9 (H3K9me3) and proteins of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family are hallmarks of heterochromatin, a state of compacted DNA essential for genome stability and long-term transcriptional silencing. The mechanisms by which H3K9me3 and HP1 contribute to chromatin condensation have been speculative and controversial. Here we demonstrate that human HP1β is a prototypic HP1 protein exemplifying most basal chromatin binding and effects. These are caused by dimeric and dynamic interaction with highly enriched H3K9me3 and are modulated by various electrostatic interfaces. HP1β bridges condensed chromatin, which we postulate stabilizes the compacted state. In agreement, HP1β genome-wide localization follows H3K9me3-enrichment and artificial bridging of chromatin fibres is sufficient for maintaining cellular heterochromatic conformation. Overall, our findings define a fundamental mechanism for chromatin higher order structural changes caused by HP1 proteins, which might contribute to the plastic nature of condensed chromatin. PMID:27090491

  3. Extended string-like binding of the phosphorylated HP1α N-terminal tail to the lysine 9-methylated histone H3 tail

    PubMed Central

    Shimojo, Hideaki; Kawaguchi, Ayumi; Oda, Takashi; Hashiguchi, Nobuto; Omori, Satoshi; Moritsugu, Kei; Kidera, Akinori; Hiragami-Hamada, Kyoko; Nakayama, Jun-ichi; Sato, Mamoru; Nishimura, Yoshifumi

    2016-01-01

    The chromodomain of HP1α binds directly to lysine 9-methylated histone H3 (H3K9me). This interaction is enhanced by phosphorylation of serine residues in the N-terminal tail of HP1α by unknown mechanism. Here we show that phosphorylation modulates flexibility of HP1α’s N-terminal tail, which strengthens the interaction with H3. NMR analysis of HP1α’s chromodomain with N-terminal tail reveals that phosphorylation does not change the overall tertiary structure, but apparently reduces the tail dynamics. Small angle X-ray scattering confirms that phosphorylation contributes to extending HP1α’s N-terminal tail. Systematic analysis using deletion mutants and replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the phosphorylated serines and following acidic segment behave like an extended string and dynamically bind to H3 basic residues; without phosphorylation, the most N-terminal basic segment of HP1α inhibits interaction of the acidic segment with H3. Thus, the dynamic string-like behavior of HP1α’s N-terminal tail underlies the enhancement in H3 binding due to phosphorylation. PMID:26934956

  4. Dynamic and flexible H3K9me3 bridging via HP1β dimerization establishes a plastic state of condensed chromatin

    PubMed Central

    Hiragami-Hamada, Kyoko; Soeroes, Szabolcs; Nikolov, Miroslav; Wilkins, Bryan; Kreuz, Sarah; Chen, Carol; De La Rosa-Velázquez, Inti A.; Zenn, Hans Michael; Kost, Nils; Pohl, Wiebke; Chernev, Aleksandar; Schwarzer, Dirk; Jenuwein, Thomas; Lorincz, Matthew; Zimmermann, Bastian; Walla, Peter Jomo; Neumann, Heinz; Baubec, Tuncay; Urlaub, Henning; Fischle, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Histone H3 trimethylation of lysine 9 (H3K9me3) and proteins of the heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) family are hallmarks of heterochromatin, a state of compacted DNA essential for genome stability and long-term transcriptional silencing. The mechanisms by which H3K9me3 and HP1 contribute to chromatin condensation have been speculative and controversial. Here we demonstrate that human HP1β is a prototypic HP1 protein exemplifying most basal chromatin binding and effects. These are caused by dimeric and dynamic interaction with highly enriched H3K9me3 and are modulated by various electrostatic interfaces. HP1β bridges condensed chromatin, which we postulate stabilizes the compacted state. In agreement, HP1β genome-wide localization follows H3K9me3-enrichment and artificial bridging of chromatin fibres is sufficient for maintaining cellular heterochromatic conformation. Overall, our findings define a fundamental mechanism for chromatin higher order structural changes caused by HP1 proteins, which might contribute to the plastic nature of condensed chromatin. PMID:27090491

  5. Mapping of the exchangeable and dispensable domains of the RNA 2-encoded 2A(HP) protein of arabis mosaic nepovirus.

    PubMed

    Nourinejhad Zarghani, Shaheen; Dupuis-Maguiraga, Laurence; Bassler, Alexandra; Wetzel, Thierry

    2014-06-01

    The N-terminal domains of the RNA 2-encoded 2A(HP) proteins of the arabis mosaic (ArMV) and grapevine fanleaf (GFLV) nepoviruses were shown to be highly variable and a hotspot for intra- and inter-species recombination events. Chimeric ArMV-NW clones in which the N-terminal domain of 2A(HP) or the entire 2A(HP) of GFLV isolates replaced the corresponding domains of ArMV retained their infectivity, showing that the 2A(HP) proteins of ArMV-NW and GFLV are exchangeable. ArMN-NW clones with deletions of the N-terminal, core, or C-terminal domains of the ArMV-NW 2A(HP) were infectious in Chenopodium quinoa although viral RNA (especially RNA 2) accumulated at reduced levels. In contrast, deletion of the entire 2A(HP) protein or of the C-terminal two thirds of the protein abolished infectivity of the ArMV-NW clones. These results suggest that multiple functional domains are distributed throughout the 2A(HP) protein and are essential for the accumulation of viral RNA 2. PMID:24928043

  6. Extended string-like binding of the phosphorylated HP1α N-terminal tail to the lysine 9-methylated histone H3 tail.

    PubMed

    Shimojo, Hideaki; Kawaguchi, Ayumi; Oda, Takashi; Hashiguchi, Nobuto; Omori, Satoshi; Moritsugu, Kei; Kidera, Akinori; Hiragami-Hamada, Kyoko; Nakayama, Jun-Ichi; Sato, Mamoru; Nishimura, Yoshifumi

    2016-03-03

    The chromodomain of HP1α binds directly to lysine 9-methylated histone H3 (H3K9me). This interaction is enhanced by phosphorylation of serine residues in the N-terminal tail of HP1α by unknown mechanism. Here we show that phosphorylation modulates flexibility of HP1α's N-terminal tail, which strengthens the interaction with H3. NMR analysis of HP1α's chromodomain with N-terminal tail reveals that phosphorylation does not change the overall tertiary structure, but apparently reduces the tail dynamics. Small angle X-ray scattering confirms that phosphorylation contributes to extending HP1α's N-terminal tail. Systematic analysis using deletion mutants and replica exchange molecular dynamics simulations indicate that the phosphorylated serines and following acidic segment behave like an extended string and dynamically bind to H3 basic residues; without phosphorylation, the most N-terminal basic segment of HP1α inhibits interaction of the acidic segment with H3. Thus, the dynamic string-like behavior of HP1α's N-terminal tail underlies the enhancement in H3 binding due to phosphorylation.

  7. Chromatin Protein HP1α Interacts with the Mitotic Regulator Borealin Protein and Specifies the Centromere Localization of the Chromosomal Passenger Complex*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Song, Zhenwei; Huo, Yuda; Zhang, Jiahai; Zhu, Tongge; Wang, Jianyu; Zhao, Xuannv; Aikhionbare, Felix; Zhang, Jiancun; Duan, Hequan; Wu, Jihui; Dou, Zhen; Shi, Yunyu; Yao, Xuebiao

    2014-01-01

    Accurate mitosis requires the chromosomal passenger protein complex (CPC) containing Aurora B kinase, borealin, INCENP, and survivin, which orchestrates chromosome dynamics. However, the chromatin factors that specify the CPC to the centromere remain elusive. Here we show that borealin interacts directly with heterochromatin protein 1α (HP1α) and that this interaction is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved PXVXL motif in the C-terminal borealin with the chromo shadow domain of HP1α. This borealin-HP1α interaction recruits the CPC to the centromere and governs an activation of Aurora B kinase judged by phosphorylation of Ser-7 in CENP-A, a substrate of Aurora B. Consistently, modulation of the motif PXVXL leads to defects in CPC centromere targeting and aberrant Aurora B activity. On the other hand, the localization of the CPC in the midzone is independent of the borealin-HP1α interaction, demonstrating the spatial requirement of HP1α in CPC localization to the centromere. These findings reveal a previously unrecognized but direct link between HP1α and CPC localization in the centromere and illustrate the critical role of borealin-HP1α interaction in orchestrating an accurate cell division. PMID:24917673

  8. Investigation into the effects of VHF and UHF band radiation on Hewlett-Packard (HP) Cesium Beam Frequency Standards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickens, Andrew

    1995-01-01

    This paper documents an investigation into reports which have indicated that exposure to VHF and UHF band radiation has adverse effects on the frequency stability of HP cesium beam frequency standards. Tests carried out on the basis of these reports show that sources of VHF and UHF radiation such as two-way hand held police communications devices do cause reproducible adverse effects. This investigation examines reproducible effects and explores possible causes.

  9. Holo-Ni(II)HpNikR is an asymmetric tetramer containing two different nickel binding sites

    PubMed Central

    West, Abby L.; John, Franz St.; Lopes, Pedro E. M.; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Pozharski, Ed

    2010-01-01

    The metalloregulatory protein NikR from Helicobacter pylori (HpNikR) is a master regulator of gene expression which both activates and represses specific genes in response to nickel availability. Here, we report the first crystal structure (at 2.37Å resolution) of Ni(II)HpNikR prepared directly from the holo-protein. The protein contains four nickel ions located in two distinct coordination environments. Two nickel ions are bound to sites in a four-coordinate square planar geometry as predicted based on the structures of NikR from E. coli and P. horikoshii. The remaining two nickel ions are bound to sites with unexpected 5 or 6 coordination geometries which were previously thought to be involved in nickel incorporation into the protein. The nickel with 5/6 coordination geometry utilizes three histidines from two separate monomeric HpNikR units along with two or three water molecules as ligands. The spatial location of the nickel in the 5/6 coordinate site is within approximately 5 Å of the expected site if a 4- coordinate square planar geometry occurred. Two of the histidines that participate as ligands in 5/6 coordinate site would also participate as ligands if the 4-coordinate site was occupied making it impossible for both sites to be occupied simultaneously. DFT calculations show that the 5/6 coordinate geometries are energetically favorable when the local protein environment is included in the calculations. The presence of two distinct coordination environments in HpNikR is suggested to be related to the specificity and binding affinity of this transcription factor for DNA. PMID:20863122

  10. Calculation of Ambient (H*(10)) and Personal (Hp(10)) Dose Equivalent from a 252Cf Neutron Source

    SciTech Connect

    Traub, Richard J.

    2010-03-26

    The purpose of this calculation is to calculate the neutron dose factors for the Sr-Cf-3000 neutron source that is located in the 318 low scatter room (LSR). The dose factors were based on the dose conversion factors published in ICRP-21 Appendix 6, and the Ambient dose equivalent (H*(10)) and Personal dose equivalent (Hp(10)) dose factors published in ICRP Publication 74.

  11. A priori error estimates for an hp-version of the discontinuous Galerkin method for hyperbolic conservation laws

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bey, Kim S.; Oden, J. Tinsley

    1993-01-01

    A priori error estimates are derived for hp-versions of the finite element method for discontinuous Galerkin approximations of a model class of linear, scalar, first-order hyperbolic conservation laws. These estimates are derived in a mesh dependent norm in which the coefficients depend upon both the local mesh size h(sub K) and a number p(sub k) which can be identified with the spectral order of the local approximations over each element.

  12. Investigation into the effects of VHF and UHF band radiation on Hewlett-Packard (HP) Cesium Beam Frequency Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickens, Andrew

    1995-05-01

    This paper documents an investigation into reports which have indicated that exposure to VHF and UHF band radiation has adverse effects on the frequency stability of HP cesium beam frequency standards. Tests carried out on the basis of these reports show that sources of VHF and UHF radiation such as two-way hand held police communications devices do cause reproducible adverse effects. This investigation examines reproducible effects and explores possible causes.

  13. Evaluating Gaia performances on eclipsing binaries. IV. Orbits and stellar parameters for SV Cam, BS Dra and HP Dra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milone, E. F.; Munari, U.; Marrese, P. M.; Williams, M. D.; Zwitter, T.; Kallrath, J.; Tomov, T.

    2005-10-01

    This is the fourth in a series of papers that aim both to provide reasonable orbits for a number of eclipsing binaries and to evaluate the expected performance of Gaia of these objects and the accuracy that is achievable in the determination of such fundamental stellar parameters as mass and radius. In this paper, we attempt to derive the orbits and physical parameters for three eclipsing binaries in the mid-F to mid-G spectral range. As for previous papers, only the H_P, V_T, BT photometry from the Hipparcos/Tycho mission and ground-based radial velocities from spectroscopy in the region 8480-8740 Å are used in the analyses. These data sets simulate the photometric and spectroscopic data that are expected to be obtained by Gaia, the approved ESA Cornerstone mission to be launched in 2011. The systems targeted in this paper are SV Cam, BS Dra and HP Dra. SV Cam and BS Dra have been studied previously, allowing comparisons of the derived parameters with those from full scale and devoted ground-based investigations. HP Dra has no published orbital solution. SV Cam has a β Lyrae type light curve and the others have Algol-like light curves. SV Cam has the complication of light curve anomalies, usually attributed to spots; BS Dra has non-solar metallicity, and HP Dra appears to have a small eccentricity and a sizeable time derivative in the argument of the periastron. Thus all three provide interesting and different test cases.

  14. NikR mediates nickel-responsive transcriptional repression of the Helicobacter pylori outer membrane proteins FecA3 (HP1400) and FrpB4 (HP1512).

    PubMed

    Ernst, Florian D; Stoof, Jeroen; Horrevoets, Wannie M; Kuipers, Ernst J; Kusters, Johannes G; van Vliet, Arnoud H M

    2006-12-01

    The transition metal nickel plays an important role in gastric colonization and persistence of the important human pathogen Helicobacter pylori, as it is the cofactor of the abundantly produced acid resistance factor urease. Nickel uptake through the inner membrane is mediated by the NixA protein, and the expression of NixA is controlled by the NikR regulatory protein. Here we report that NikR also controls the nickel-responsive expression of the FecA3 (HP1400) and FrpB4 (HP1512) outer membrane proteins (OMPs), as well as the nickel-responsive expression of an ExbB-ExbD-TonB system, which may function in energization of outer membrane transport. Transcription and expression of the frpB4 and fecA3 genes were repressed by nickel in wild-type H. pylori 26695, but they were independent of nickel and derepressed in an isogenic nikR mutant. Both the frpB4 and fecA3 genes were transcribed from a promoter directly upstream of their start codon. Regulation by NikR was mediated via nickel-dependent binding to specific operators overlapping either the +1 or -10 sequence in the frpB4 and fecA3 promoters, respectively, and these operators contained sequences resembling the proposed H. pylori NikR recognition sequence (TATWATT-N(11)-AATWATA). Transcription of the HP1339-1340-1341 operon encoding the ExbB2-ExbD2-TonB2 complex was also regulated by nickel and NikR, but not by Fur and iron. In conclusion, H. pylori NikR controls nickel-responsive expression of the HP1400 (FecA3) and HP1512 (FrpB4) OMPs. We hypothesize that these two NikR-regulated OMPs may participate in the uptake of complexed nickel ions and that this process is energized by the NikR-regulated ExbB2-ExbD2-TonB2 system, another example of the specific adaptation of H. pylori to the gastric lifestyle.

  15. Reactor Lithium Heat Pipes for HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2004-02-01

    Design and performance analysis of the nuclear reactor's lithium heat pipes for a 110-kWe Heat Pipes-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) Space Reactor Power system (SRPS) are presented. The evaporator length of the heat pipes is the same as the active core height (0.45 m) and the C-C finned condenser is of the same length as the STMC panels (1.5 m). The C-C finned condenser section is radiatively coupled to the collector shoes of the STMCs placed on both sides. The lengths of the adiabatic section, the values of the power throughput and the evaporator wall temperature depend on the radial location of the heat pipe in the reactor core and the number and dimensions of the potassium heat pipes in the heat rejection radiator. The reactor heat pipes have a total length that varies from 7.57 to 7.73 m, and a 0.2 mm thick Mo-14%Re wick with an average pore radius of 12 μm. The wick is separated from the Mo-14%Re wall by a 0.5 mm annulus filled with liquid lithium, to raise the prevailing capillary limit. The nominal evaporator (or reactor) temperature varies from 1513 to 1591 K and the thermal power of the reactor is 1.6 MW, which averages 12.7 kW for each of the 126 reactor heat pipes. The power throughput per heat pipe increase to a nominal 15.24 kW at the location of the peak power in the core and to 20.31 kW when an adjacent heat pipe fails. The prevailing capillary limit of the reactor heat pipes is 28.3 kW, providing a design margin >= 28%.

  16. Reactor Lithium Heat Pipes for HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System

    SciTech Connect

    Tournier, Jean-Michel; El-Genk, Mohamed S.

    2004-02-04

    Design and performance analysis of the nuclear reactor's lithium heat pipes for a 110-kWe Heat Pipes-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) Space Reactor Power system (SRPS) are presented. The evaporator length of the heat pipes is the same as the active core height (0.45 m) and the C-C finned condenser is of the same length as the STMC panels (1.5 m). The C-C finned condenser section is radiatively coupled to the collector shoes of the STMCs placed on both sides. The lengths of the adiabatic section, the values of the power throughput and the evaporator wall temperature depend on the radial location of the heat pipe in the reactor core and the number and dimensions of the potassium heat pipes in the heat rejection radiator. The reactor heat pipes have a total length that varies from 7.57 to 7.73 m, and a 0.2 mm thick Mo-14%Re wick with an average pore radius of 12 {mu}m. The wick is separated from the Mo-14%Re wall by a 0.5 mm annulus filled with liquid lithium, to raise the prevailing capillary limit. The nominal evaporator (or reactor) temperature varies from 1513 to 1591 K and the thermal power of the reactor is 1.6 MW, which averages 12.7 kW for each of the 126 reactor heat pipes. The power throughput per heat pipe increase to a nominal 15.24 kW at the location of the peak power in the core and to 20.31 kW when an adjacent heat pipe fails. The prevailing capillary limit of the reactor heat pipes is 28.3 kW, providing a design margin {>=} 28%.

  17. Comparison of properties and microstructures of Trefimetaux and Hycon 3HP{trademark} after neutron irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.J.; Singh, B.N.; Toft, P.; Eldrup, M.

    1998-09-01

    The precipitation strengthened CuNiBe alloys are among three candidate copper alloys being evaluated for application in the first wall, divertor, and limiter components of ITER. Generally, CuNiBe alloys have higher strength but poorer conductivity compared to CuCrZr and CuAl{sub 2}O{sub 3} alloys. Brush-Wellman Inc. has manufactured an improved version of their Hycon CuNiBe alloy that has higher conductivity while maintaining a reasonable level strength. It is of interest, therefore, to investigate the effect of radiation on the physical and mechanical properties of this alloy. In the present work the authors have investigated the physical and mechanical properties of the Hycon 3HP{trademark} alloy both before and after neutron irradiation and have compared its microstructure and properties with the European CuNiBe candidate alloy manufactured by Trefirmetaux. Tensile specimens of both alloys were irradiated in the DR-3 reactor at Risoe to displacement dose levels up to 0.3 dpa at 100, 250 and 350 C. Both alloys were tensile tested in the unirradiated and irradiated conditions at 100, 250 and 350 C. Both pre- and post-irradiation microstructures of the alloys were investigated in detail using transmission electron microscopy. Fracture surfaces were examined under a scanning electron microscope. Electrical resistivity measurements were made on tensile specimens before and after irradiation; all measurements were made at 23 C. At this point it seems unlikely that CuNiBe alloys can be recommended for applications in neutron environments where the irradiation temperature exceeds 200 C. Applications at temperatures below 200 C might be plausible, but only after careful experiments have determined the dose dependence of the mechanical properties and the effect of sudden temperature excursions on the material to establish the limits on the use of the alloy.

  18. Age and duration of eclogite-facies metamorphism, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Bird, D.K.; Wu, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    Amphibolite-facies para-and orthogneisses near Dulan, at the southeast end of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor eclogite and peridotite which record ultra-high pressure (UHP) metamorphism associated with the Early Paleozoic continental collision of the Qilian and Qaidam microplates. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. SHRIMP-RG U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from four eclogites yield weighted mean ages of 449 to 422 Ma, and REE patterns (flat HREE, no Eu anomaly) and inclusions of garnet, omphacite, and rutile indicate these ages record eclogite-facies metamorphism. The coherent field relations of these samples, and the similar range of individual ages in each sample suggests that the ???25 m.y. age range reflects the duration of eclogite-facies conditions in the studied samples. Analyses from zircon cores in one sample yield scattered 433 to 474 Ma ages, reflecting partial overlap on rims, and constrain the minimum age of eclogite protolith crystallization. Inclusions of Th + REE-rich epidote, and zircon REE patterns are consistent with prograde metamorphic growth. In the Lu??liang Shan, approximately 350 km northwest in the North Qaidam terrane, ages interpreted to record eclogite-facies metamorphism of eclogite and garnet peridotite are as old as 495 Ma and as young as 414 Ma, which suggests that processes responsible for extended high-pressure residence are not restricted to the Dulan region. Evidence of prolonged eclogite-facies metamorphism in HP/UHP localities in the Northeast Greenland eclogite province, the Western Gneiss Region of Norway, and the western Alps suggests that long eclogite-facies residence may be globally significant in continental subduction/collision zones.

  19. A method for systematic mapping of protein lysine methylation identifies new functions for HP1β in DNA damage repair

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Huadong; Galka, Marek; Liu, Xuguang; Lin, Yu-fen; Pittock, Paula; Voss, Courtney; Dhami, Gurpreet; Li, Xing; Miyaji, Masaaki; Lajoie, Gilles; Chen, Benjamin; Li, Shawn S.-C.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Lysine methylation occurs on both histone and non-histone proteins. However, our knowledge on the prevalence and function of non-histone protein methylation is poor. We describe here an approach that combines peptide array, bioinformatic and mass spectrometric analyses to systematically identify lysine methylation sites in proteins and methyllysine-mediated protein-protein interactions. We demonstrate the utility of this approach by identifying a methyllysine-driven interactome of the heterochromatin protein (HP) 1β and uncovering, simultaneously, numerous methyllysine sites on non-histone proteins. The HP1β interactome is enriched with proteins involved in DNA damage repair and RNA splicing. We showed that lysine methylation played a pivotal role in the function of the DNA-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit (DNA-PKcs) and its interaction with HP1β during DNA damage response. Moreover, by combining heavy methyl SILAC with Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry (MS), we showed that lysine methylation underwent widespread and large changes in response to DNA damage. Our work indicates that lysine methylation is a highly dynamic post-translational modification occurring frequently on non-histone proteins and that the approach presented herein may be extended to many methyllysine-binding modules to systematically uncover lysine methylation events in the cell. PMID:23707759

  20. Development of a genetic system for Marinobacter adhaerens HP15 involved in marine aggregate formation by interacting with diatom cells.

    PubMed

    Sonnenschein, Eva C; Gärdes, Astrid; Seebah, Shalin; Torres-Monroy, Ingrid; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2011-11-01

    Diatom aggregation is substantial for organic carbon flux from the photic zone to deeper waters. Many heterotrophic bacteria ubiquitously found in diverse marine environments interact with marine algae and thus impact organic matter and energy cycling in the ocean. In particular, Marinobacter adhaerens HP15 induces aggregate formation while interacting with the diatom, Thalassiosira weissflogii. To study this effect at the molecular level, a genetic tool system was developed for strain HP15. The antibiotic susceptibility spectrum of this organism was determined and electroporation and conjugation protocols were established. Among various plasmids of different incompatibility groups, only two were shown to replicate in M. adhaerens. 1.4×10(-3) transconjugants per recipient were obtained for a broad-host-range vector. Electroporation efficiency corresponded to 1.1×10(5)CFU per μg of DNA. Transposon and gene-specific mutageneses were conducted for flagellum biosynthetic genes. Mutant phenotypes were confirmed by swimming assay and microscopy. Successful expression of two reporter genes in strain HP15 revealed useful tools for gene expression analyses, which will allow studying diverse bacteria-algae interactions at the molecular level and hence to gain a mechanistic understanding of micro-scale processes underlying ocean basin-scale processes. This study is the first report for the genetic manipulation of a Marinobacter species which specifically interacts with marine diatoms and serves as model to additionally analyze various previously reported Marinobacter-algae interactions in depth. PMID:21880271

  1. Antagonistic functions of SET-2/SET1 and HPL/HP1 proteins in C. elegans development.

    PubMed

    Simonet, T; Dulermo, R; Schott, S; Palladino, F

    2007-12-01

    Cellular identity during metazoan development is maintained by epigenetic modifications of chromatin structure brought about by the activity of specific proteins which mediate histone variant incorporation, histone modifications, and nucleosome remodeling. HP1 proteins directly influence gene expression by modifying chromatin structure. We previously showed that the Caenorhabditis elegans HP1 proteins HPL-1 and HPL-2 are required for several aspects of post-embryonic development. To gain insight into how HPL proteins influence gene expression in a developmental context, we carried out a candidate RNAi screen to identify suppressors of hpl-1 and hpl-2 phenotypes. We identified SET-2, the homologue of yeast and mammalian SET1, as an antagonist of HPL-1 and HPL-2 activity in growth and somatic gonad development. Yeast Set1 and its mammalian counterparts SET1/MLL are H3 lysine 4 (H3K4) histone methyltransferases associated with gene activation as part of large multisubunit complexes. We show that the nematode counterparts of SET1/MLL complex subunits also antagonize HPL function in post-embryonic development. Genetic analysis is consistent with SET1/MLL complex subunits having both shared and unique functions in development. Furthermore, as observed in other species, we find that SET1/MLL complex homologues differentially affect global H3K4 methylation. Our results suggest that HP1 and a SET1/MLL-related complex may play antagonistic roles in the epigenetic regulation of specific developmental programs.

  2. Push-out bond strength of MTA HP, a new high-plasticity calcium silicate-based cement.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emmanuel Jnl; Carvalho, Nancy Kudsi; Zanon, Mayara; Senna, Plínio Mendes; DE-Deus, Gustavo; Zuolo, Mário Luis; Zaia, Alexandre Augusto

    2016-06-14

    This study was designed to investigate the resistance to dislodgment provided by MTA HP, a new high-plasticity calcium silicate-based cement. Biodentine and White MTA Angelus were used as reference materials for comparison. Three discs 1 ± 0.1 mm thick were obtained from the middle third of the roots of 5 maxillary canines. Three 0.8-mm-wide holes were drilled on the axial surface of each root disc. Standardized irrigation was performed. Then the holes were dried with paper points and filled with one of the three tested cements. The filled dental slices were immersed in a phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution (pH 7.2) for 7 days before the push-out assessment. The Kruskal-Wallis test was applied to assess the effect of each endodontic cement on the push-out bond strength. Mann-Whitney with Bonferroni correction was used to isolate the differences. The alpha-type error was set at 0.05. All specimens had measurable push-out values and no premature failure occurred. There were significant differences among the materials (p <0.05). The Biodentine specimens had the highest push-out bond strength values (p < 0.05). MTA HP had significantly higher bond strength than White MTA (p < 0.05). MTA HP showed better push-out bond strength than its predecessor, White MTA; however, Biodentine had higher dislodgment resistance than both MTA formulations.

  3. HipHop interacts with HOAP and HP1 to protect Drosophila telomeres in a sequence-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guanjun; Walser, Jean-Claude; Beaucher, Michelle L; Morciano, Patrizia; Wesolowska, Natalia; Chen, Jie; Rong, Yikang S

    2010-02-17

    Telomeres prevent chromosome ends from being repaired as double-strand breaks (DSBs). Telomere identity in Drosophila is determined epigenetically with no sequence either necessary or sufficient. To better understand this sequence-independent capping mechanism, we isolated proteins that interact with the HP1/ORC-associated protein (HOAP) capping protein, and identified HipHop as a subunit of the complex. Loss of one protein destabilizes the other and renders telomeres susceptible to fusion. Both HipHop and HOAP are enriched at telomeres, where they also interact with the conserved HP1 protein. We developed a model telomere lacking repetitive sequences to study the distribution of HipHop, HOAP and HP1 using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). We discovered that they occupy a broad region >10 kb from the chromosome end and their binding is independent of the underlying DNA sequence. HipHop and HOAP are both rapidly evolving proteins yet their telomeric deposition is under the control of the conserved ATM and Mre11-Rad50-Nbs (MRN) proteins that modulate DNA structures at telomeres and at DSBs. Our characterization of HipHop and HOAP reveals functional analogies between the Drosophila proteins and subunits of the yeast and mammalian capping complexes, implicating conservation in epigenetic capping mechanisms. PMID:20057353

  4. HipHop interacts with HOAP and HP1 to protect Drosophila telomeres in a sequence-independent manner

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Guanjun; Walser, Jean-Claude; Beaucher, Michelle L; Morciano, Patrizia; Wesolowska, Natalia; Chen, Jie; Rong, Yikang S

    2010-01-01

    Telomeres prevent chromosome ends from being repaired as double-strand breaks (DSBs). Telomere identity in Drosophila is determined epigenetically with no sequence either necessary or sufficient. To better understand this sequence-independent capping mechanism, we isolated proteins that interact with the HP1/ORC-associated protein (HOAP) capping protein, and identified HipHop as a subunit of the complex. Loss of one protein destabilizes the other and renders telomeres susceptible to fusion. Both HipHop and HOAP are enriched at telomeres, where they also interact with the conserved HP1 protein. We developed a model telomere lacking repetitive sequences to study the distribution of HipHop, HOAP and HP1 using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). We discovered that they occupy a broad region >10 kb from the chromosome end and their binding is independent of the underlying DNA sequence. HipHop and HOAP are both rapidly evolving proteins yet their telomeric deposition is under the control of the conserved ATM and Mre11–Rad50–Nbs (MRN) proteins that modulate DNA structures at telomeres and at DSBs. Our characterization of HipHop and HOAP reveals functional analogies between the Drosophila proteins and subunits of the yeast and mammalian capping complexes, implicating conservation in epigenetic capping mechanisms. PMID:20057353

  5. HipHop interacts with HOAP and HP1 to protect Drosophila telomeres in a sequence-independent manner.

    PubMed

    Gao, Guanjun; Walser, Jean-Claude; Beaucher, Michelle L; Morciano, Patrizia; Wesolowska, Natalia; Chen, Jie; Rong, Yikang S

    2010-02-17

    Telomeres prevent chromosome ends from being repaired as double-strand breaks (DSBs). Telomere identity in Drosophila is determined epigenetically with no sequence either necessary or sufficient. To better understand this sequence-independent capping mechanism, we isolated proteins that interact with the HP1/ORC-associated protein (HOAP) capping protein, and identified HipHop as a subunit of the complex. Loss of one protein destabilizes the other and renders telomeres susceptible to fusion. Both HipHop and HOAP are enriched at telomeres, where they also interact with the conserved HP1 protein. We developed a model telomere lacking repetitive sequences to study the distribution of HipHop, HOAP and HP1 using chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP). We discovered that they occupy a broad region >10 kb from the chromosome end and their binding is independent of the underlying DNA sequence. HipHop and HOAP are both rapidly evolving proteins yet their telomeric deposition is under the control of the conserved ATM and Mre11-Rad50-Nbs (MRN) proteins that modulate DNA structures at telomeres and at DSBs. Our characterization of HipHop and HOAP reveals functional analogies between the Drosophila proteins and subunits of the yeast and mammalian capping complexes, implicating conservation in epigenetic capping mechanisms.

  6. Quantitative kinetics of In-111 autologous (In-AP) and homologous (Cr-HP) platelets in immune thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)

    SciTech Connect

    Lotter, M.G.; Heyns, A.D.P.; Badenhorst, P.N.; Minnaar, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    Contrary to the accepted view, the authors have found that platelet turnover is not always increased in ITP if the mean platelet survival time (PS) is measured with In-AP. The authors investigated the possible cause of the discrepancy by comparing kinetics of In-AP with those of Cr-HP in 10 patients with ITP. PS was estimated with the multiple hit model. The equilibrium and final in vivo distribution of In-AP was quantitated with the geometrical mean method. The patients could be divided into either those with splenic or diffuse RES platelet destruction. The authors conclude that in ITP platelet survival of In-AP is significantly (P < .05) longer than that of Cr-HP. Platelet turnover measured with In-AP is only normal in patients with mainly splenic platelet sequestration. Results with Cr-HP give a false impression of PS. It seems that in ITP those patients with severe disease also have a platelet production defect.

  7. Development of a genetic system for Marinobacter adhaerens HP15 involved in marine aggregate formation by interacting with diatom cells.

    PubMed

    Sonnenschein, Eva C; Gärdes, Astrid; Seebah, Shalin; Torres-Monroy, Ingrid; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Ullrich, Matthias S

    2011-11-01

    Diatom aggregation is substantial for organic carbon flux from the photic zone to deeper waters. Many heterotrophic bacteria ubiquitously found in diverse marine environments interact with marine algae and thus impact organic matter and energy cycling in the ocean. In particular, Marinobacter adhaerens HP15 induces aggregate formation while interacting with the diatom, Thalassiosira weissflogii. To study this effect at the molecular level, a genetic tool system was developed for strain HP15. The antibiotic susceptibility spectrum of this organism was determined and electroporation and conjugation protocols were established. Among various plasmids of different incompatibility groups, only two were shown to replicate in M. adhaerens. 1.4×10(-3) transconjugants per recipient were obtained for a broad-host-range vector. Electroporation efficiency corresponded to 1.1×10(5)CFU per μg of DNA. Transposon and gene-specific mutageneses were conducted for flagellum biosynthetic genes. Mutant phenotypes were confirmed by swimming assay and microscopy. Successful expression of two reporter genes in strain HP15 revealed useful tools for gene expression analyses, which will allow studying diverse bacteria-algae interactions at the molecular level and hence to gain a mechanistic understanding of micro-scale processes underlying ocean basin-scale processes. This study is the first report for the genetic manipulation of a Marinobacter species which specifically interacts with marine diatoms and serves as model to additionally analyze various previously reported Marinobacter-algae interactions in depth.

  8. The Mt. Ochi melange (South Evvia Island, Greece): a case study for HP metamorphism and syn-convergent exhumation.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moustaka, Eleni; Soukis, Konstantinos; Huet, Benjamin; Lozios, Stylianos; Magganas, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    The Attic-Cycladic complex (central Aegean Sea, Greece) experienced profound extension since at least the Oligo-Miocene boundary during which the previously thickened crust was reworked by a series of detachments forming the NE directed North Cycladic Detachment System (NCDS) and the SSW directed West Cycladic Detachment System (WCDS). South Evvia Island is located at the northwestern part of the Attic Cycladic complex linking the highly thinned and polymetamorphosed central part of the complex with mainland Greece. Furthermore, greenschists-facies retrograde metamorphism has only partially overprinted the HP mineral assemblages. Consequently, it is an ideal area to study tectonic processes associated with subduction, HP metamorphism and subsequent exhumation from eclogitic depths to the surface. Geological mapping in 1:2:000 scale revealed that the tectonostratigraphy of Mt. Ochi includes three distinct units all metamorphosed in HP conditions followed by greenschist facies overprint. These units are from top to bottom a) the Ochi Unit, a thick metavolcanosedimentary sequence with some intensely folded cipoline marble intercalations and isolated occurrences of metabasic rocks b) the ophiolitic mélange (metagabbros, metawherlites, peridotites, metabasites within a metasedimentary+serpentinite matrix) and c) the lowermost Styra Unit, a cipoline marble-dominated unit with thin mica schists and rare quartzitic layers often boudinaged. The thrust fault that was responsible for the juxtaposition of these three units acted in an early stage during HP metamorphism and it was isoclinally folded and sheared by the following syn-metamorphic deformation events. Detailed structural study in meso- and microscopic scale combined with petrological and geochemical analyses of the Mt Ochi rocks led to the distinction of at least three syn-metamorphic and two post-metamorphic deformation episodes that affected all units. The oldest structure identified is a relic foliation formed

  9. An Approach to Geochemical and Protolith Features of the Mesozoic HP/LT Rocks in the Biga Peninsula, NW Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Şengün, Firat; Yiǧitbaş, Erdinç; Onur Tunç, Ä.°Smail

    2010-05-01

    The Biga Peninsula in northwestern Anatolia is a tectonic mosaic comprised of different tectonic units which represented by continental and oceanic assemblages in different origin and ages. High-degree metamorphic rocks occur in the both Çamli ca metamorphics and Çetmi Group. HP eclogite/blueschists are associated with quartz-mica schist within the Çamli ca metamorphics. On the other hand, another HP eclogite/blueschist unit is associated with garnet-mica schist in the Çetmi Group. The host Çamli ca metamorphic rocks record only a single - stage greenschist - facies metamorphism and were juxtaposed with the high - grade metamorphic rocks along ductile - semi-brittle (?) strike - slip faults after the high degree metamorphism and during or after the low-grade metamorphism of the Çamli ca metamorphic unit. Major, trace and rare earth elements (REE) compositions of HP eclogite/blueschist and associated metasedimentary rocks from the Biga Peninsula have been determined to reveal their protolith, source area and tectonic setting. Whole-rock geochemistry for the HP eclogite/blueschist suggests that their protoliths were basalt with high TiO2 and K2O-Na2O content and Nb/Y ratios. Most HP metabasite samples plot in the tholeiitic basalt field. ∑ REE abundances range from 47.55 to 107.4 ppm. Europium anomolies are variable (Eu/Eu*= 0.9-1.1) and generally small negative (average Eu/Eu*=1) which is implying weak plagioclase fractionation. REE pattern and trace element contents similar to typical MORB based on tectonic discrimination diagrams. The relatively high concentrations of CaO and low concentrations of K2O suggest that the protoliths were derived from a depleted source. Metasedimentary rocks coexisting with HP metamorphic rocks have different SiO2, Al2O3 and TiO2 values in the both Çamli ca metamorphics and Çetmi Group. Those of the Çamli ca metamorphics have high SiO2 and low Al2O3 and TiO2 values. However, those of the Çetmi Group have low SiO2 and

  10. Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program Phase I: Clean Air Partners 0.5 g/hp-h NOx Engine Concept; Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, H. C.

    2003-07-01

    Subcontractor report details work done by Clean Air Partners to develop 0.5 g/hp-h NOx natural gas engine exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) technology for the Next Generation Natural Gas Vehicle Program.

  11. Comparative analysis of the folding dynamics and kinetics of an engineered knotted protein and its variants derived from HP0242 of Helicobacter pylori

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang-Wei; Liu, Yu-Nan; Lyu, Ping-Chiang; Jackson, Sophie E.; Hsu, Shang-Te Danny

    2015-09-01

    Understanding the mechanism by which a polypeptide chain thread itself spontaneously to attain a knotted conformation has been a major challenge in the field of protein folding. HP0242 is a homodimeric protein from Helicobacter pylori with intertwined helices to form a unique pseudo-knotted folding topology. A tandem HP0242 repeat has been constructed to become the first engineered trefoil-knotted protein. Its small size renders it a model system for computational analyses to examine its folding and knotting pathways. Here we report a multi-parametric study on the folding stability and kinetics of a library of HP0242 variants, including the trefoil-knotted tandem HP0242 repeat, using far-UV circular dichroism and fluorescence spectroscopy. Equilibrium chemical denaturation of HP0242 variants shows the presence of highly populated dimeric and structurally heterogeneous folding intermediates. Such equilibrium folding intermediates retain significant amount of helical structures except those at the N- and C-terminal regions in the native structure. Stopped-flow fluorescence measurements of HP0242 variants show that spontaneous refolding into knotted structures can be achieved within seconds, which is several orders of magnitude faster than previously observed for other knotted proteins. Nevertheless, the complex chevron plots indicate that HP0242 variants are prone to misfold into kinetic traps, leading to severely rolled-over refolding arms. The experimental observations are in general agreement with the previously reported molecular dynamics simulations. Based on our results, kinetic folding pathways are proposed to qualitatively describe the complex folding processes of HP0242 variants.

  12. Paleomagnetism of the Mississippian HP pipe and the western margin of the North American craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Symons, D. T. A.; Lewchuk, M. T.

    The HP pipe is a small oval (80m×40m) kimberlitic diatreme near Golden, B.C., in the fold-and-thrust belt of the Rocky Mountains. The pipe intrudes gently-dipping (˜10°S) Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician limestones with nearly vertical contacts. It is comprised of carbonate breccia fragments and pyroxenite nodules in a light-green serpentine matrix and gives a Rb-Sr age of 348±7 Ma. A later phase of dark-green dikes cut the breccia and adjacent limestones. AF and thermal step demagnetization of 168 specimens from 42 oriented blocks was done using an automated cryogenic magnetometer in a shielded room for remanence measurement. The diatreme breccia and dikes retain a stable A remanence component after thermal cleaning above ˜400°C and AF cleaning above ˜20 mT. Their combined mean direction of 129.8°, -44.3° (α95 = 6.5°) after tilt correction gives a concordant Mississippian pole position of 138.5°E, 44.5°N (Dp = 5.1°, Dm = 8.2°). The limestones provide a positive contact test by giving a stable B component direction of 114.4°, -22.7° (α95 = 12.4°) with a concordant Late Cambrian to Middle Ordovician pole of 141.0°E, 24.3°N (δp = 7.0°, δm = 13.3°). These concordant poles indicate that the fold-and-thrust belt is part of the North American craton. Thus the suture with allochthonous terranes to the west must be located at or west of the Rocky Mountain Trench. Both the diatreme and limestones retain a low-coercivity and unblocking-temperature C component, isolated by vector subtraction without tilt correction, that records a minor overprint from the Laramide Orogeny combined with Pleistocene viscous remanence.

  13. Performance Analysis of Potassium Heat Pipes Radiator for HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System

    SciTech Connect

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2004-02-04

    A detailed design and performance results of C-C finned, and armored potassium heat pipes radiator for a 110 kWe Heat Pipes-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) Space Reactor Power system (SRPS) are presented. The radiator consists of two sections; each serves an equal number of STMCs and has 162 longitudinal potassium heat pipes with 0.508 mm thick C-C fins. The width of the C-C fins at the minor diameter of the radiator is almost zero, but increases with distance along the radiator to reach 3.7 cm at the radiator's major diameter. The radiator's heat pipes (OD = 2.42 cm in front and 3.03 cm in rear) have thin titanium (0.0762 mm thick) liners and wicks (0.20 mm thick with an effective pore radius of 12-16 {mu}m) and a 1.016 mm thick C-C wall. The wick is separated from the titanium liner by a 0.4 mm annulus filled with liquid potassium to increase the capillary limit. The outer surfaces of the heat pipes in the front and rear sections of the radiator are protected with a C-C armor that is 2.17 mm and 1.70 mm thick, respectively. The inside surface of the heat pipes in the front radiator is thermally insulated while the C-C finned condensers of the rear heat pipes are exposed, radiating into space through the rear opening of the radiator cavity. The heat pipes in both the front and the rear radiators have a 1.5 m long evaporator section and each dissipates 4.47 kW while operating at 43.6% of the prevailing sonic limit. The front and rear radiator sections are 5.29 m and 2.61 m long with outer surface area and mass of 47.1 m2 and 314.3 kg, and 39.9 m2 and 243.2 kg, respectively. The total radiator is 7.63 m long and has minor and major diameters of 1.48 m and 5.57 m, respectively, and a total surface area of 87 m2; however, the effective radiator area, after accounting for heat rejection through the rear of the radiator cavity, is 98.8 m2. The radiator's total mass including the C-C armor is 557.5 kg and the specific area and specific mass are 6

  14. Performance Analysis of Potassium Heat Pipes Radiator for HP-STMCs Space Reactor Power System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Genk, Mohamed S.; Tournier, Jean-Michel

    2004-02-01

    A detailed design and performance results of C-C finned, and armored potassium heat pipes radiator for a 110 kWe Heat Pipes-Segmented Thermoelectric Module Converters (HP-STMCs) Space Reactor Power system (SRPS) are presented. The radiator consists of two sections; each serves an equal number of STMCs and has 162 longitudinal potassium heat pipes with 0.508 mm thick C-C fins. The width of the C-C fins at the minor diameter of the radiator is almost zero, but increases with distance along the radiator to reach 3.7 cm at the radiator's major diameter. The radiator's heat pipes (OD = 2.42 cm in front and 3.03 cm in rear) have thin titanium (0.0762 mm thick) liners and wicks (0.20 mm thick with an effective pore radius of 12-16 μm) and a 1.016 mm thick C-C wall. The wick is separated from the titanium liner by a 0.4 mm annulus filled with liquid potassium to increase the capillary limit. The outer surfaces of the heat pipes in the front and rear sections of the radiator are protected with a C-C armor that is 2.17 mm and 1.70 mm thick, respectively. The inside surface of the heat pipes in the front radiator is thermally insulated while the C-C finned condensers of the rear heat pipes are exposed, radiating into space through the rear opening of the radiator cavity. The heat pipes in both the front and the rear radiators have a 1.5 m long evaporator section and each dissipates 4.47 kW while operating at 43.6% of the prevailing sonic limit. The front and rear radiator sections are 5.29 m and 2.61 m long with outer surface area and mass of 47.1 m2 and 314.3 kg, and 39.9 m2 and 243.2 kg, respectively. The total radiator is 7.63 m long and has minor and major diameters of 1.48 m and 5.57 m, respectively, and a total surface area of 87 m2; however, the effective radiator area, after accounting for heat rejection through the rear of the radiator cavity, is 98.8 m2. The radiator's total mass including the C-C armor is 557.5 kg and the specific area and specific mass are 6

  15. Solubility and speciation of carbonate in aqueous fluids at HP-HT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, Isabelle

    2013-06-01

    We report an integrated experimental and theoretical study of the equilibration of CaCO3 minerals with aqueous solutions (pure H2O or NaCl solutions) at HP-HT (0.5 to 8 GPa, 250 to 500° C). The fluid speciation was studied using in situ Raman spectroscopy in an externally heated membrane-type diamond anvil cell. The aqueous fluid and a calcite crystal were loaded in a rhenium gasket. P was determined from the calibrated shift of the carbonate ν1 symmetric stretching mode of aragonite and the T measured with a K-type thermocouple. Spectra were recorded using a LabRam HR800 Raman spectrometer (Horiba Jobin-Yvon) coupled to a Spectra Physics Ar+ laser. At equilibrium with an aragonite crystal, the Raman data show that bicarbonate is the most abundant species in low-pressure fluids below 4 GPa whereas carbonate becomes progressively dominant at higher pressure. After correction from their Raman cross-sections, the relative amounts of dissolved carbonate and bicarbonate were estimated from the areas of the ν1 and ν5 symmetric stretching Raman modes of the carbonate and bicarbonate ions, respectively. The presence of sodium chloride extends the pressure range of predominance for bicarbonate species in the fluid. The Raman data were also used to constrain a theoretical thermodynamic model of the fluid speciation in equilibrium with CaCO3. Revised thermodynamic properties of aqueous CO2 and HCO3-,data for the aqueous CaHCO3+complex from 4 to 90° C, and estimated dielectric constants of water, enabled an equation of state characterization of the standard Gibbs free energy of CaHCO3+at the conditions of the Raman study. At 300-400° C, the Raman speciation results were used to constrain equilibrium constants involving the carbonate ion. The results indicate that CO2 is a minor species in fluids in equilibrium with aragonite at 300-500° C and P >1 GPa. Instead, the CaHCO3+species becomes important at high pressures until carbonate ion becomes the dominant C-species. The

  16. HpDTC1, a Stress-Inducible Bifunctional Diterpene Cyclase Involved in Momilactone Biosynthesis, Functions in Chemical Defence in the Moss Hypnum plumaeforme.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazunori; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Koji; Miyazaki, Sho; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Kimura, Honoka; Fujiwara, Kaoru; Natsume, Masahiro; Nojiri, Hideaki; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Yamane, Hisakazu; Hatano, Yuki; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-05-03

    Momilactones, which are diterpenoid phytoalexins with antimicrobial and allelopathic functions, have been found only in rice and the moss Hypnum plumaeforme. Although these two evolutionarily distinct plant species are thought to produce momilactones as a chemical defence, the momilactone biosynthetic pathway in H. plumaeforme has been unclear. Here, we identified a gene encoding syn-pimara-7,15-diene synthase (HpDTC1) responsible for the first step of momilactone biosynthesis in the moss. HpDTC1 is a bifunctional diterpene cyclase that catalyses a two-step cyclization reaction of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to syn-pimara-7,15-diene. HpDTC1 transcription was up-regulated in response to abiotic and biotic stress treatments. HpDTC1 promoter-GUS analysis in transgenic Physcomitrella patens showed similar transcriptional responses as H. plumaeforme to the stresses, suggesting that a common response system to stress exists in mosses. Jasmonic acid (JA), a potent signalling molecule for inducing plant defences, could not activate HpDTC1 expression. In contrast, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, an oxylipin precursor of JA in vascular plants, enhanced HpDTC1 expression and momilactone accumulation, implying that as-yet-unknown oxylipins could regulate momilactone biosynthesis in H. plumaeforme. These results demonstrate the existence of an evolutionarily conserved chemical defence system utilizing momilactones and suggest the molecular basis of the regulation for inductive production of momilactones in H. plumaeforme.

  17. HpDTC1, a Stress-Inducible Bifunctional Diterpene Cyclase Involved in Momilactone Biosynthesis, Functions in Chemical Defence in the Moss Hypnum plumaeforme.

    PubMed

    Okada, Kazunori; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Koji; Miyazaki, Sho; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Kimura, Honoka; Fujiwara, Kaoru; Natsume, Masahiro; Nojiri, Hideaki; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Yamane, Hisakazu; Hatano, Yuki; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ken-Ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Momilactones, which are diterpenoid phytoalexins with antimicrobial and allelopathic functions, have been found only in rice and the moss Hypnum plumaeforme. Although these two evolutionarily distinct plant species are thought to produce momilactones as a chemical defence, the momilactone biosynthetic pathway in H. plumaeforme has been unclear. Here, we identified a gene encoding syn-pimara-7,15-diene synthase (HpDTC1) responsible for the first step of momilactone biosynthesis in the moss. HpDTC1 is a bifunctional diterpene cyclase that catalyses a two-step cyclization reaction of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to syn-pimara-7,15-diene. HpDTC1 transcription was up-regulated in response to abiotic and biotic stress treatments. HpDTC1 promoter-GUS analysis in transgenic Physcomitrella patens showed similar transcriptional responses as H. plumaeforme to the stresses, suggesting that a common response system to stress exists in mosses. Jasmonic acid (JA), a potent signalling molecule for inducing plant defences, could not activate HpDTC1 expression. In contrast, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, an oxylipin precursor of JA in vascular plants, enhanced HpDTC1 expression and momilactone accumulation, implying that as-yet-unknown oxylipins could regulate momilactone biosynthesis in H. plumaeforme. These results demonstrate the existence of an evolutionarily conserved chemical defence system utilizing momilactones and suggest the molecular basis of the regulation for inductive production of momilactones in H. plumaeforme. PMID:27137939

  18. HpDTC1, a Stress-Inducible Bifunctional Diterpene Cyclase Involved in Momilactone Biosynthesis, Functions in Chemical Defence in the Moss Hypnum plumaeforme

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kazunori; Kawaide, Hiroshi; Miyamoto, Koji; Miyazaki, Sho; Kainuma, Ryosuke; Kimura, Honoka; Fujiwara, Kaoru; Natsume, Masahiro; Nojiri, Hideaki; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Yamane, Hisakazu; Hatano, Yuki; Nozaki, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Ken-ichiro

    2016-01-01

    Momilactones, which are diterpenoid phytoalexins with antimicrobial and allelopathic functions, have been found only in rice and the moss Hypnum plumaeforme. Although these two evolutionarily distinct plant species are thought to produce momilactones as a chemical defence, the momilactone biosynthetic pathway in H. plumaeforme has been unclear. Here, we identified a gene encoding syn-pimara-7,15-diene synthase (HpDTC1) responsible for the first step of momilactone biosynthesis in the moss. HpDTC1 is a bifunctional diterpene cyclase that catalyses a two-step cyclization reaction of geranylgeranyl diphosphate to syn-pimara-7,15-diene. HpDTC1 transcription was up-regulated in response to abiotic and biotic stress treatments. HpDTC1 promoter-GUS analysis in transgenic Physcomitrella patens showed similar transcriptional responses as H. plumaeforme to the stresses, suggesting that a common response system to stress exists in mosses. Jasmonic acid (JA), a potent signalling molecule for inducing plant defences, could not activate HpDTC1 expression. In contrast, 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid, an oxylipin precursor of JA in vascular plants, enhanced HpDTC1 expression and momilactone accumulation, implying that as-yet-unknown oxylipins could regulate momilactone biosynthesis in H. plumaeforme. These results demonstrate the existence of an evolutionarily conserved chemical defence system utilizing momilactones and suggest the molecular basis of the regulation for inductive production of momilactones in H. plumaeforme. PMID:27137939

  19. 700, 100, and 20 hp combustion test facility yearly activity report for the period April 1, 1979 to April 1, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Management and Technical Services Co./ General Electric was awarded the contract to operate, modify and maintain the DOE/PETC 700 hp, 100 hp, and 20 hp Combustion Test Facility. These facilities were designed and built by the Department of Energy at Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and its ultimate success is the responsibility of DOE/PETC. MATSCO/GE will provide support to assist in the goal of successful operation of this pilot plant facility. The primary objective of the DOE/PETC 700 hp and 100 hp CTF is to establish the practicality of coal oil slurry combustion as a technically, economically and environmentally feasible retrofit technology. The 20 hp CTF is to provide a test bed to evaluate synthetic fuels for its technical feasibility and its effect on the environment. Four series of combustion tests were completed. Coal-oil mixes for all tests were number 6 fuel oil and Pittsburgh Seam Coal. The tests were executed successfully. Operational problems were handled as required without excessive delay of the testing program. Additional studies performed concurrently with the combustion testing included flame studies, stack emissions studies during all tests, standard measurements of equipment wear after each test series and extensive erosion and corrosion analyses of boiler test coupons and the burner section of the fuel train after the 500 h endurance test. Testing activity and required facility modifications were coordinated through Department of Energy personnel.

  20. Effect of crustal heterogeneities and effective rock strength on the formation of HP and UHP rocks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuber, Georg; Kaus, Boris; Schmalholz, Stefan; White, Richard

    2015-04-01

    The formation of high pressure and ultra-high pressure rocks has been controversially discussed in recent years. Most existing petrological interpretations assume that pressure in the Earth is lithostatic and therefore HP and UHP rocks have to come from great depth, which usually involves going down a subduction channel and being exhumed again. Yet, an alternative explanation points out that pressure in the lithosphere is often non-lithostatic and can be either smaller or larger than lithostatic as a function of location and time. Whether this effect is tectonically significant or not depends on the magnitude of non-lithostatic pressure, and as a result a number of researchers have recently performed numerical simulations to address this. Somewhat disturbingly, they obtained widely differing results with some claiming that overpressures as large as a GPa can occur (Schmalholz et al. 2014), whereas others show that overpressures of exhumed rocks are generally less than 20% and thus insignificant (Li et al. 2010; Burov et al. 2014). In order to understand where these discrepancies come from, we reproduce the simulations of Li et al (2010) of a typical subduction and collision scenario, using an independently developed numerical code (MVEP2). For the same model setup and parameters, we confirm the earlier results of Li et al. (2010) and obtain no more than ~20% overpressure in exhumed rocks of the subduction channel. Yet, a critical assumption in their models is that the subducted crust is laterally homogeneous and that it has a low effective friction angle that is less than 7o. The friction angle of (dry) rocks is experimentally well-constrained to be around 30o, and low effective friction angles require, for example, high-fluid pressures. Whereas high fluid pressures might exist in the sediment-rich upper crust, they are likely to be much lower or absent in the lower crust from which melt has been extracted or in rocks that underwent a previous orogenic cycle. In a

  1. Raman spectroscopy of detrital garnet from the (U)HP terrane of eastern Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andò, Sergio; Baldwin, Suzanne L.; Fitzgerald, Paul G.; Malusà, Marco G.; Aliatis, Irene; Vezzoli, Giovanni; Garzanti, Eduardo

    2013-04-01

    Garnet is one of the most widespread heavy minerals in sediments derived from orogenic systems. Its chemical composition varies systematically with temperature and pressure conditions, and thus provides information on the metamorphic evolution of source areas that is crucial in tectonic and geodynamic reconstructions. Garnet is easily identified in mineral grain mounts and is relatively stable during burial diagenesis. Raman spectroscopy allows rapid determination of garnet compositions in grain mounts or thin sections of sand and sandstone samples, and can be used to assess their density and chemical composition quite accurately ("MIRAGEM" method of Bersani et al., 2009; Andò et al., 2009). In the D'Entrecastreaux Islands of southeastern Papua New Guinea, the world's youngest (U)HP rocks are exposed. There, mafic rocks and their felsic host gneisses were metamorphosed under eclogite facies conditions from late Miocene to Pliocene, before being exhumed from depths of ~90 km (Baldwin et al., 2004, 2008). The eclogite preserves a peak assemblage of garnet, omphacite, rutile, phengite and Si02 (Hill and Baldwin, 1993). A coesite-eclogite has been found in one small island outcrop. In order to sample garnet populations representative of a larger geographical area, we sampled and studied a heavy-mineral-dominated placer sand (HMC 80) from a beach from SE Goodenough Island. Garnet grains in beach sand are associated with blue-green to subordinately green-brown amphibole and minor epidote, omphacitic clinopyroxene, titanite, apatite and rutile. The subordinate low-density fraction is feldspatho-quartzose with high-rank metamorphic rock fragments and biotite (Q62 F35 Lm2; MI 360). Detrital garnets are mostly classified as almandine with relatively high Mg and Ca and lacking Mn, typical of the eclogite facies (Win et al., 2007; type Ci garnets of Mange and Morton 2007; Andò et al., 2013). In well-described stratigraphic sequences within syn-and post-tectonic basins

  2. Tectonic mélanges and the exhumation of HP ophiolites: a case-study from the Ligurian Alps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Federico, Laura; Crispini, Laura; Scambelluri, Marco; Capponi, Giovanni; Malatesta, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    Mélanges form in a variety of geodynamic settings and can be related to either sedimentary, tectonic or diapiric processes, or a combination of them. We studied in detail a 100 m-scale tectonic mélange formed in the context of the alpine subduction/collision and we tested if the local-scale pattern could be applicable at larger scale in the Ligurian Western Alps. The studied mélange crops out inside metamorphic serpentinites belonging to the high-pressure (HP), meta-ophiolitic Voltri Massif (southern end of the Western Alps). It is made up of a foliated chlorite-actinolite greenschist matrix enclosing 10m-scale lenses of metabasites and metasediments. These blocks appear to be exotic because similar rocks do not outcrop in the surrounding HP-units. The matrix records three sets of superposed folds from blueschist to greenschist-facies conditions. The metabasite lenses preserve internal HP schistosities forming high angles with the greenschist matrix foliation. The lenses equilibrated at different peak metamorphic conditions (ranging from eclogite- to blueschist-facies). The matrix is widely retrogressed in greenschist facies, but it contains rare relics of Na-amphibole. Individual lenses display different segments of typical subduction PT paths which apparently converge in the blueschist facies. Moreover, geochronological data for the different HP blocks show that two undistinguishable blueschist samples display distinct peak ages of 43 and 40 Ma. One blueschist age is contemporaneous with the eclogitic equilibration of another block (43.2 ± 0.5 Ma) (Federico et al., 2007). The described structural, metamorphic and geochronological features suggest that this mélange formed at depth in a subduction channel and was active at least from blueschist- to greenschist-facies conditions, but possibly also at higher pressures. The subduction channel formed between the overriding and the subducting plates, as a consequence of progressive hydration of the mantle wedge by

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Curcumin-Functionalized HP-β-CD-Modified GoldMag Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Agents.

    PubMed

    Lian, Ting; Peng, Mingli; Vermorken, Alphons J M; Jin, Yanyan; Luo, Zhiyi; Van de Ven, Wim J M; Wan, Yinsheng; Hou, Peng; Cui, Yali

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has emerged as a potent multimodal cancer-preventing agent. It may attenuate the spread of cancer and render chemotherapy more effective. However, curcumin is neither well absorbed nor well retained in the blood, resulting in low efficacy. In an attempt to enhance the potency and to improve the bioavailability of curcumin, new delivery agents, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD)-modified GoldMag nanoparticles (CD-GMNs) were designed and synthesized to incorporate curcumin. The CD-GMNs were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Dynamic Light Scattering measurements (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) analyses. For the magnetic carrier of CD-GMNs, the content of HP-β-CD was 26.9 wt%. CD-GMNs have a saturation magnetization of 22.7 emu/g with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 80 nm. The curcumin loading, encapsulation efficiency and releasing properties in vitro were also investigated. The results showed that the drug encapsulation ratio was 88% and the maximum curcumin loading capacity of CD-GMNs was 660 μg/5 mg. In vitro drug release studies showed a controlled and pH-sensitive curcumin release over a period of one week. Collectively, our data suggest that HP-β-CD-modified GoldMag nanoparticles can be considered to form a promising delivery system for curcumin to tumor sites. Targeting can be achieved by the combined effects of the application of an external magnetic field and the effect on drug release of lower pH values often found in the tumor microenvironment.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Curcumin-Functionalized HP-β-CD-Modified GoldMag Nanoparticles as Drug Delivery Agents.

    PubMed

    Lian, Ting; Peng, Mingli; Vermorken, Alphons J M; Jin, Yanyan; Luo, Zhiyi; Van de Ven, Wim J M; Wan, Yinsheng; Hou, Peng; Cui, Yali

    2016-06-01

    Curcumin, a polyphenol extracted from turmeric (Curcuma longa), has emerged as a potent multimodal cancer-preventing agent. It may attenuate the spread of cancer and render chemotherapy more effective. However, curcumin is neither well absorbed nor well retained in the blood, resulting in low efficacy. In an attempt to enhance the potency and to improve the bioavailability of curcumin, new delivery agents, hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD)-modified GoldMag nanoparticles (CD-GMNs) were designed and synthesized to incorporate curcumin. The CD-GMNs were characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Thermo-gravimetric Analysis (TGA), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Dynamic Light Scattering measurements (DLS), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) analyses. For the magnetic carrier of CD-GMNs, the content of HP-β-CD was 26.9 wt%. CD-GMNs have a saturation magnetization of 22.7 emu/g with an average hydrodynamic diameter of 80 nm. The curcumin loading, encapsulation efficiency and releasing properties in vitro were also investigated. The results showed that the drug encapsulation ratio was 88% and the maximum curcumin loading capacity of CD-GMNs was 660 μg/5 mg. In vitro drug release studies showed a controlled and pH-sensitive curcumin release over a period of one week. Collectively, our data suggest that HP-β-CD-modified GoldMag nanoparticles can be considered to form a promising delivery system for curcumin to tumor sites. Targeting can be achieved by the combined effects of the application of an external magnetic field and the effect on drug release of lower pH values often found in the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27427699

  5. HP and UHT metamorphic associations in the Day Nui Con Voi,northwestern Vietnam: The consequence of convergence between the Indian and the Eurasian plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Tran, M. D.; Nguyen, Q. L.

    2014-12-01

    The Red River shear zone (RRSZ) is the most significant geologic discontinuity in Southeast Asia. The Day Nui Con Voi (DNCV) massif at the southernmost part of the shear zone bears records of Cenozoic RRSZ activity. The DNCV in northwestern Vietnam predominantly consists of HP granulite facies metapelites, and lenticular enclaves of HP mafic granulites, calc-silicate granulites and UHT aluminum-rich rocks in the metapelites. HP granulites are characterized by the key associations of garnet-kyanite-ternary feldspar (in metapelites) and garnet-clinopyroxene-plagioclase-quartz (in mafic granulites). In the latter case, rocks are typically orthopyroxene-free. The peak assemblage of the HP metapelites includes garnet + kyanite + ternary feldspar + quartz + rutile. The peak assemblage of the HP mafic granulites is garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz. Meanwhile, the peak assemblage of the calc-silicate granulites is high-Ca garnet (Grs>50) + diopside + scapolite + quartz. On the other hand, characteristic UHT metamorphic assemblage occur as the coexistence of spinel and quartz which indicates the metamorphic temperature is higher than 900℃. The peak assemblage of the UHT rocks in DNCV is corundum + spinel + garnet + sillimanite + quartz. P-T conditions of peak metamorphism within HP granulite facies are: T = 750~850℃, P = 12.5~14kbar. The temperature of UHT metamorphism is higher than 900℃, the pressure is higher than 9~9.4 kbar. SHRIMP U-Pb dating of zircons from the HP mafic granulites and UHT rocks gave minimum ages of ca. 59 Ma and 40 Ma, respectively. HP metapelites gave ca. 60~50Ma and 30Ma. The above facts suggest the DNCV massif experienced HP granulite facies at its peak metamorphism at ˜59 Ma. Thermal disturbance on the local scale to UHT metamorphism occurred at ˜40 Ma. Then isothermal decompression to medium-pressure granulite facies occurred at ˜30Ma, which may reflect a rapid exhumation. The HP rocks are interpreted to be resulted

  6. High-order spectral/hp element discretisation for reaction–diffusion problems on surfaces: Application to cardiac electrophysiology☆

    PubMed Central

    Cantwell, Chris D.; Yakovlev, Sergey; Kirby, Robert M.; Peters, Nicholas S.; Sherwin, Spencer J.

    2014-01-01

    We present a numerical discretisation of an embedded two-dimensional manifold using high-order continuous Galerkin spectral/hp elements, which provide exponential convergence of the solution with increasing polynomial order, while retaining geometric flexibility in the representation of the domain. Our work is motivated by applications in cardiac electrophysiology where sharp gradients in the solution benefit from the high-order discretisation, while the computational cost of anatomically-realistic models can be significantly reduced through the surface representation and use of high-order methods. We describe and validate our discretisation and provide a demonstration of its application to modelling electrochemical propagation across a human left atrium. PMID:24748685

  7. Bioremediation of β-cypermethrin and 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde contaminated soils using Streptomyces aureus HP-S-01.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaohua; Geng, Peng; Xiao, Ying; Hu, Meiying

    2012-04-01

    Using laboratory and field experiments, the ability of Streptomyces aureus HP-S-01 to eliminate β-cypermethrin (β-CP) and its metabolite 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde (3-PBA) in soils was investigated. In the laboratory, 80.5% and 73.1% of the initial dose of β-CP and 3-PBA (50 mg kg(-1)) was removed in sterilized soils within 10 days, respectively, while in the same period, disappearance rate of β-CP and 3-PBA in non-sterilized soils was higher and reached 87.8% and 79.3%, respectively. Furthermore, the disappearance process followed the first-order kinetics and the half-life (T (1/2)) for β-CP and 3-PBA reduced by 20.3-52.9 and 133.7-186.8 days, respectively, as compared to the controls. The addition of sucrose to the soils enhanced the ability of strain HP-S-01 to eliminate β-CP and 3-PBA. Similar results were observed in the field experiments. The introduced strain HP-S-01 quickly adapted to the environment and rapidly removed β-CP and 3-PBA without any lag phases in the field experiments. Compared with the controls, 47.9% and 67.0% of applied dose of β-CP and 3-PBA was removed from the soils without extra carbon sources and 52.5% and 73.3% of β-CP and 3-PBA was eliminated in soils supplemented with sucrose within 10 days, respectively. Analysis of β-CP degradation products in soil indicated that the tested strain transform β-CP to 3-PBA and α-hydroxy-3-phenoxy-benzeneacetonitrile. However, both intermediates were transient and they disappeared after 10 days. Therefore, the selected actinomyces strain HP-S-01 is suitable for the efficient and rapid bioremediation of β-CP contaminated soils.

  8. Composition of the Subduction Component Fluid Estimated from Lithium Isotopes in Guatemalan HP-LT Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, K. K.; Sorensen, S.; Harlow, G. E.; Hemming, N. G.; Brueckner, H. K.; Langmuir, C. H.; Goldstein, S.; Hemming, S.

    2006-05-01

    eclogites (-4 to +1‰). This subduction channel fluid appears to be very enriched in Li concentration and has a range in δ7Li that overlaps with values from island arcs (~ +7 to +1‰). Dehydration of the altered oceanic crust alone does not result in the right combination of Li concentrations and isotope ratios to explain the data. Another component, most likely sediment, is required to account for the large enrichments in Li and Ba. Although the δ7Li values of the fluid vary with depth, the average values are similar to MORB. Our model is also consistent with Li abundance and isotope data of other HP-LT terrains in the literature. In conclusion these rocks are sensitive recorders of fluids in the subduction channel, and can constrain the characteristics of the fluids that give rise to arc volcanism as well as provide some limits on what is subtracted from the downgoing slab and ultimately recycled into the mantle.

  9. The Drosophila histone variant H2A.V works in concert with HP1 to promote kinetochore-driven microtubule formation

    PubMed Central

    Vernì, Fiammetta; Cenci, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Unlike other organisms that have evolved distinct H2A variants for different functions, Drosophila melanogaster has just one variant which is capable of filling many roles. This protein, H2A.V, combines the features of the conserved variants H2A.Z and H2A.X in transcriptional control/heterochromatin assembly and DNA damage response, respectively. Here we show that mutations in the gene encoding H2A.V affect chromatin compaction and perturb chromosome segregation in Drosophila mitotic cells. A microtubule (MT) regrowth assay after cold exposure revealed that loss of H2A.V impairs the formation of kinetochore-driven (k) fibers, which can account for defects in chromosome segregation. All defects are rescued by a transgene encoding H2A.V that lacks the H2A.X function in the DNA damage response, suggesting that the H2A.Z (but not H2A.X) functionality of H2A.V is required for chromosome segregation. We also found that loss of H2A.V weakens HP1 localization, specifically at the pericentric heterochromatin of metaphase chromosomes. Interestingly, loss of HP1 yielded not only telomeric fusions but also mitotic defects similar to those seen in H2A.V null mutants, suggesting a role for HP1 in chromosome segregation. We also show that H2A.V precipitates HP1 from larval brain extracts indicating that both proteins are part of the same complex. Moreover, we found that the overexpression of HP1 rescues chromosome missegregation and defects in the kinetochore-driven k-fiber regrowth of H2A.V mutants indicating that both phenotypes are influenced by unbalanced levels of HP1. Collectively, our results suggest that H2A.V and HP1 work in concert to ensure kinetochore-driven MT growth. PMID:25591068

  10. Spatio-temporal expression of a Netrin homolog in the sea urchin Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus (HpNetrin) during serotonergic axon extension.

    PubMed

    Katow, Hideki

    2008-01-01

    A netrin homolog of the sea urchin, Hemicentrotus pulcherrimus (HpNetrin) was characterized in terms of its expression behavior. The predicted amino acid sequence was an ortholog of hemichordate netrin-1. Reverse transcriptase-PCR, immunoblotting, and whole mount immunohistochemistry showed that gene transcription and protein expression occurred from 15-hour post-fertilization (hpf) swimming blastula stage to, at least 53-hpf pluteus stage. HpNetrin was detected on the entire basal surface of the ectoderm in swimming and 16-hpf mesenchyme blastulae. However, by 24-hpf prism stage, immunoreaction on the oral ectoderm decreased, whereas it increased in the aboral ectoderm including near the animal plate ectoderm (area-I). By 48-hpf pluteus stage, the HpNetrin-rich area-I comprised a 40mm wide dorsal midline belt (DMB) that stretched from the dorsal posterior edge of the animal plate to the posterior end of the larval body. Serotonergic cells were first detected in the HpNetrin-moderate area between the anterior DMB and the HpNetrin-poor oral ectoderm near the animal plate in 24-hpf prism larvae. By 48-hpf pluteus stage, these cells extended axons toward the middle-ridge to form a neural plexus of the apical ganglion. At 53-hpf pluteus stage, these axons extended further away from the apical ganglion directly or through the DMB toward the HpNetrin-poor contralateral ectoderm. The protein expression and axon extension pattern were reproduced in embryonic cell-aggregates formed from artificially dissociated 20-hpf gastrulae and resembled small blastula. In Hpnetrin morpholino anti-sense oligonucleotide-injected plutei, serotonergic axon extension was severely inhibited. Thus, HpNetrin functions as a serotonergic axon guidance cue in this basal deuterostome.

  11. Functional characterization of Helicobacter pylori 26695 sedoheptulose 7-phosphate isomerase encoded by hp0857 and its association with lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis and adhesion.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chung-Kai; Wang, Chun-Jen; Chew, Yongyu; Wang, Po-Chuan; Yin, Hsien-Sheng; Kao, Mou-Chieh

    2016-09-01

    Helicobacter pylori is a notorious human pathogen and the appearance of antibiotic resistance of this bacterium has posed a serious threat to human health. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is a key virulence factor and plays important roles in pathogenesis of H. pylori infection. Sedoheptulose 7-phosphate isomerase (GmhA), as an enzyme participating in the first step of heptose biosynthesis, is indispensable for the formation of inner core oligosaccharide of LPS. In this study, we cloned one putative gmhA ortholog, hp0857, from H. pylori 26695 and overexpressed it in Eschericha coli. Based on the results of molecular weight determination, the recombinant HP0857 is likely a homodimer. Analysis of enzymatic kinetic properties of this protein confirmed that hp0857 is indeed encoded a phosphoheptose isomerase which can utilize sedoheptulose 7-phosphate as the substrate in the ADP-L-glycero-D-manno-heptose (ADP- L,D-Hep) biosynthesis pathway. We also generated an HP0857 knockout mutant and explored its phenotypic changes. This mutant exhibited a decreased growth rate and displayed a "deep rough" type of LPS structure. In addition, it also had a slight decrease in its motility and was more susceptible to hydrophobic antibiotic novobiocin and detergents Triton X-100 and SDS. Furthermore, the adhesive capacity of the HP0857 knockout mutant to AGS cells was reduced significantly, and most of the infected cells didn't show a classic hummingbird phenotype. However, complementation of the HP0857 knockout mutation restored most of these phenotypic changes. In conclusion, we demonstrated that HP0857 protein is essential for inner core biosynthesis of H. pylori LPS and is a potential target for developing new antimicrobial agents against H. pylori infection. PMID:27369071

  12. Enhanced bioavailability of raloxifene hydrochloride via dry suspensions prepared from drug/HP-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Rong; Liu, Shan; Wang, Qilin; Li, Xia

    2015-12-01

    This study aimed to develop a dry suspension formulation of raloxifene (RLX) using its HP-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes to enhance the oral bioavailability. Dry suspensions loading RLX/HP-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (RLX-HICs) were prepared by solvent evaporation followed by a standard wet granulation process. The inclusion complexes were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The features of dry suspensions such as dispersibility, flowability and dissolution were compared with conventional suspensions. Dry suspensions containing RLX-HICs dramatically increased the dissolution of RLX. Pharmacokinetic studies in rats showed that dry suspensions with RLX-HICs significantly enhanced the oral bioavailabilities of RLX. The absolute and relative bioavailabilities were up to 13.04% and 413.97% compared with the solution formulation (i.v.) and conventional suspensions (i.g.), respectively. The bioavailability improvement for dry suspensions with RLX-HICs can be attributed to improved dissolution and physiochemical properties of RLX, by which the overall absorption was enhanced. Dry suspensions prepared from RLX-HICs may be an attractive formulation for the oral delivery of RLX. PMID:26817276

  13. Optimized Wang-Landau sampling of lattice polymers: ground state search and folding thermodynamics of HP model proteins.

    PubMed

    Wüst, Thomas; Landau, David P

    2012-08-14

    Coarse-grained (lattice-) models have a long tradition in aiding efforts to decipher the physical or biological complexity of proteins. Despite the simplicity of these models, however, numerical simulations are often computationally very demanding and the quest for efficient algorithms is as old as the models themselves. Expanding on our previous work [T. Wüst and D. P. Landau, Phys. Rev. Lett. 102, 178101 (2009)], we present a complete picture of a Monte Carlo method based on Wang-Landau sampling in combination with efficient trial moves (pull, bond-rebridging, and pivot moves) which is particularly suited to the study of models such as the hydrophobic-polar (HP) lattice model of protein folding. With this generic and fully blind Monte Carlo procedure, all currently known putative ground states for the most difficult benchmark HP sequences could be found. For most sequences we could also determine the entire energy density of states and, together with suitably designed structural observables, explore the thermodynamics and intricate folding behavior in the virtually inaccessible low-temperature regime. We analyze the differences between random and protein-like heteropolymers for sequence lengths up to 500 residues. Our approach is powerful both in terms of robustness and speed, yet flexible and simple enough for the study of many related problems in protein folding.

  14. Preparation, characterisation and antitumour activity of β-, γ- and HP-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of oxaliplatin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Da; Zhang, Jianqiang; Jiang, Kunming; Li, Ke; Cong, Yangwei; Pu, Shaoping; Jin, Yi; Lin, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Three water-soluble oxaliplatin complexes were prepared by inclusion complexation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), γ-CD and HP-β-CD. The structures of oxaliplatin/CDs were confirmed by NMR, FTIR, TGA, XRD as well as SEM analysis. The results show that the water solubility of oxaliplatin was increased in the complex with CDs in 1:1 stoichiometry inclusion modes, and the cyclohexane ring of oxaliplatin molecule was deeply inserted into the cavity of CDs. Moreover, the stoichiometry was established by a Job plot and the water stability constant (Kc) of oxaliplatin/CDs was calculated by phase solubility studies, all results show that the oxaliplatin/β-CD complex is more stable than free oxaliplatin, oxaliplatin/HP-β-CD and oxaliplatin/γ-CD. Meanwhile, the inclusion complexes displayed almost twice as high cytotoxicity compared to free oxaliplatin against HCT116 and MCF-7 cells. This satisfactory water solubility and higher cytotoxic activity of the oxaliplatin/CD complexes will potentially be useful for their application in anti-tumour therapy.

  15. Preparation, characterisation and antitumour activity of β-, γ- and HP-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes of oxaliplatin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Da; Zhang, Jianqiang; Jiang, Kunming; Li, Ke; Cong, Yangwei; Pu, Shaoping; Jin, Yi; Lin, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Three water-soluble oxaliplatin complexes were prepared by inclusion complexation with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), γ-CD and HP-β-CD. The structures of oxaliplatin/CDs were confirmed by NMR, FTIR, TGA, XRD as well as SEM analysis. The results show that the water solubility of oxaliplatin was increased in the complex with CDs in 1:1 stoichiometry inclusion modes, and the cyclohexane ring of oxaliplatin molecule was deeply inserted into the cavity of CDs. Moreover, the stoichiometry was established by a Job plot and the water stability constant (Kc) of oxaliplatin/CDs was calculated by phase solubility studies, all results show that the oxaliplatin/β-CD complex is more stable than free oxaliplatin, oxaliplatin/HP-β-CD and oxaliplatin/γ-CD. Meanwhile, the inclusion complexes displayed almost twice as high cytotoxicity compared to free oxaliplatin against HCT116 and MCF-7 cells. This satisfactory water solubility and higher cytotoxic activity of the oxaliplatin/CD complexes will potentially be useful for their application in anti-tumour therapy.

  16. Asf1/HIRA facilitate global histone deacetylation and associate with HP1 to promote nucleosome occupancy at heterochromatic loci

    PubMed Central

    Yamane, Kenichi; Mizuguchi, Takeshi; Cui, Bowen; Zofall, Martin; Noma, Ken-ichi; Grewal, Shiv I. S.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Heterochromatin impacts various nuclear processes by providing a recruiting platform for diverse chromosomal proteins. In fission yeast, HP1 proteins Chp2 and Swi6, which bind to methylated histone H3 lysine 9, associate with SHREC (Snf2/HDAC repressor complex) and Clr6 histone deacetylases (HDACs) involved in heterochromatic silencing. However, heterochromatic silencing machinery is not fully defined. We describe a histone chaperone complex containing Asf1 and HIRA that spreads across silenced domains via its association with Swi6 to enforce transcriptional silencing. Asf1 function in concert with a Clr6 HDAC complex to silence heterochromatic repeats, and it suppresses antisense transcription by promoting histone deacetylation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Asf1 and SHREC facilitate nucleosome occupancy at heterochromatic regions but TFIIIC transcription factor binding sites within boundary elements are refractory to these factors. These analyses uncover a role for Asf1 in global histone deacetylation and suggest that HP1-associated histone chaperone promote nucleosome occupancy to assemble repressive heterochromatin. PMID:21211723

  17. Writing time estimation of EB mask writer EBM-9000 for hp16nm/logic11nm node generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamikubo, Takashi; Takekoshi, Hidekazu; Ogasawara, Munehiro; Yamada, Hirokazu; Hattori, Kiyoshi

    2014-10-01

    The scaling of semiconductor devices is slowing down because of the difficulty in establishing their functionality at the nano-size level and also because of the limitations in fabrications, mainly the delay of EUV lithography. While multigate devices (FinFET) are currently the main driver for scalability, other types of devices, such as 3D devices, are being realized to relax the scaling of the node. In lithography, double or multiple patterning using ArF immersion scanners is still a realistic solution offered for the hp16nm node fabrication. Other lithography candidates are those called NGL (Next Generation Lithography), such as DSA (Directed-Self-Assembling) or nanoimprint. In such situations, shot count for mask making by electron beam writers will not increase. Except for some layers, it is not increasing as previously predicted. On the other hand, there is another aspect that increases writing time. The exposure dose for mask writing is getting higher to meet tighter specifications of CD uniformity, in other words, reduce LER. To satisfy these requirements, a new electron beam mask writer, EBM-9000, has been developed for hp16nm/logic11nm generation. Electron optical system, which has the immersion lens system, was evolved from EBM-8000 to achieve higher current density of 800A/cm2. In this paper, recent shot count and dose trend are discussed. Also, writing time is estimated for the requirements in EBM-9000.

  18. TAE+ 5.2 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.2 (HP9000 SERIES 700/800 VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    programs to display and control the user interfaces. Since the WPTs access the workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides a means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System and the Open Software Foundation's Motif. The HP 9000 Series 700/800 version of TAE 5.2 requires Version 11 Release 5 of the X Window System. All other machine versions of TAE 5.2 require Version 11, Release 4 of the X Window System. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.2 was released in 1993. TAE Plus 5.2 is available on media suitable for five different machine platforms: (1) IBM RS/6000 series workstations running AIX (.25 inch tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), (2) DEC RISC

  19. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction study of the histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein ZmHP1 from maize

    SciTech Connect

    Sugawara, Hajime Yamaya, Tomoyuki; Sakakibara, Hitoshi

    2005-04-01

    The histidine-containing phosphotransfer protein ZmHP1 from maize was crystallized. The removal of an N-terminal His tag resulted in a remarkable improvement of the diffraction data. In histidine-aspartate phosphorelays (two-component systems) involved in plant-hormone signalling, histidine-containing phosphotransfer (HPt) proteins mediate the transfer of a phosphoryl group from the sensory histidine kinase to the response regulator. The maize HPt protein ZmHP1 has been crystallized. Although ZmHP1 with an N-terminal His tag could be crystallized using sodium chloride as a precipitant, the crystals diffracted poorly to only 3.2 Å resolution. When the His tag was removed, ZmHP1 crystals were obtained using polyethylene glycol 4000 as a precipitant and the diffraction data were greatly enhanced to 2.4 Å resolution. The crystals belonged to the space group P4{sub 1}2{sub 1}2, with one ZmHP1 molecule in the asymmetric unit.

  20. Helicobacter pylori CheZ(HP) and ChePep form a novel chemotaxis-regulatory complex distinct from the core chemotaxis signaling proteins and the flagellar motor.

    PubMed

    Lertsethtakarn, Paphavee; Howitt, Michael R; Castellon, Juan; Amieva, Manuel R; Ottemann, Karen M

    2015-09-01

    Chemotaxis is important for Helicobacter pylori to colonize the stomach. Like other bacteria, H. pylori uses chemoreceptors and conserved chemotaxis proteins to phosphorylate the flagellar rotational response regulator, CheY, and modulate the flagellar rotational direction. Phosphorylated CheY is returned to its non-phosphorylated state by phosphatases such as CheZ. In previously studied cases, chemotaxis phosphatases localize to the cellular poles by interactions with either the CheA chemotaxis kinase or flagellar motor proteins. We report here that the H. pylori CheZ, CheZ(HP), localizes to the poles independently of the flagellar motor, CheA, and all typical chemotaxis proteins. Instead, CheZ(HP) localization depends on the chemotaxis regulatory protein ChePep, and reciprocally, ChePep requires CheZ(HP) for its polar localization. We furthermore show that these proteins interact directly. Functional domain mapping of CheZ(HP) determined the polar localization motif lies within the central domain of the protein and that the protein has regions outside of the active site that participate in chemotaxis. Our results suggest that CheZ(HP) and ChePep form a distinct complex. These results therefore suggest the intriguing idea that some phosphatases localize independently of the other chemotaxis and motility proteins, possibly to confer unique regulation on these proteins' activities.

  1. Activity of the HMGB1-Derived Immunostimulatory Peptide Hp91 Resides in the Helical C-terminal Portion and is Enhanced by Dimerization

    PubMed Central

    Saenz, R.; Messmer, B.; Futalan, D.; Tor, Y.; Larsson, M.; Daniels, G.; Esener, S.; Messmer, D.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously shown that an 18 amino acid long peptide, named Hp91, whose sequence corresponds to a region within the endogenous protein HMGB1, activates dendritic cells (DCs) and acts as adjuvant in vivo by potentiating Th1-type antigen-specific immune responses. We analyzed the structure-function relationship of the Hp91 peptide to investigate the amino acids and structure responsible for immune responses. We found that the cysteine at position 16 of Hp91 enabled formation of reversible peptide dimmers, monomer and dimmer were compared for DC binding and activation. Stable monomers and dimers were generated using a maleimide conjugation reaction. The dimer showed enhanced ability to bind to and activate DCs. Furthermore, the C-terminal 9 amino acids of Hp91, named UC1018 were sufficient for DC binding and Circular dichroism showed that UC1018 assumes an alpha-helical structure. The ninemer peptide UC1018 induced more potent antigen-specific CTL responses in vivo as compared to Hp91 and it protected mice from tumor development when used in a prophylactic vaccine setting. We have identified a short alpha helical peptide that acts as potent adjuvant inducing protective immune responses in vivo. PMID:24172222

  2. Structural role of RKS motifs in chromatin interactions: a molecular dynamics study of HP1 bound to a variably modified histone tail.

    PubMed

    Papamokos, George V; Tziatzos, George; Papageorgiou, Dimitrios G; Georgatos, Spyros D; Politou, Anastasia S; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2012-04-18

    The current understanding of epigenetic signaling assigns a central role to post-translational modifications that occur in the histone tails. In this context, it has been proposed that methylation of K9 and phosphorylation of S10 in the tail of histone H3 represent a binary switch that controls its reversible association to heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1). To test this hypothesis, we performed a comprehensive molecular dynamics study in which we analyzed a crystallographically defined complex that involves the HP1 chromodomain and an H3 tail peptide. Microsecond-long simulations show that the binding of the trimethylated K9 H3 peptide in the aromatic cage of HP1 is only slightly affected by S10 phosphorylation, because the modified K9 and S10 do not interact directly with one another. Instead, the phosphate group of S10 seems to form a persistent intramolecular salt bridge with R8, an interaction that can provoke a major structural change and alter the hydrogen-bonding regime in the H3-HP1 complex. These observations suggest that interactions between adjacent methyl-lysine and phosphoserine side chains do not by themselves provide a binary switch in the H3-HP1 system, but arginine-phosphoserine interactions, which occur in both histones and nonhistone proteins in the context of a conserved RKS motif, are likely to serve a key regulatory function.

  3. Measurement of penetration of haematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) encapsulated in liposomes into normal skin of female hairless rats by a tape stripping technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenaux, M. L.; Notter, Dominique; Labrude, P.; Vigneron, C.; Guillemin, Francois H.

    1994-12-01

    In order to increase the penetration of HpD through the skin and to prevent photosensitization from occurring in normal skin after systemic administration, HpD was encapsulated into topical form of liposomes, composed of egg phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol 6.5-1 (molar ratio). Multilamellar vesicles (MLV) and vesicles prepared by dehydration rehydration procedure (DRV) were tested. The topical delivery of the liposomally encapsulated HpD was measured in vitro on Hairless female rat biopsies by a stripping technique and spectrofluorimetry. We have got the following results: (1) The encapsulation ration ranged from 5% to 12% according to the liposome's type. (2) The penetration of liposomal HpD into the 10th strip was better for the MLV than for the DRV (90 to 180%). It was more efficient when the application time increased but the augmentation of lipids concentration had no effect on it. (3) The cumulated quantity of HpD collected on 10 strips was increased, for each type of liposomes, with higher application times or lipid concentrations. The next experiments will be carried out with another composition of liposomes close to the lipidic skin composition, with human skin and with a model of rat cutaneous tumor.

  4. Screening for Frailty in Hospitalized Older Adults: Reliability and Feasibility of the Maastricht Frailty Screening Tool for Hospitalized Patients (MFST-HP).

    PubMed

    Warnier, Ron M J; van Rossum, Erik; van Leendert, Jannic A A; Pijls, Noor A T; Mulder, Wubbo J; Schols, Jos M G A; Kempen, Gertrudis I J M

    2016-09-01

    As nurses in hospitals are confronted with increasing numbers of older patients, their geriatric nursing skills and knowledge must be integrated into daily clinical practice. Early risk identification via screening tools may help improve geriatric care. To reduce the assessment burden of nurses, the Maastricht Frailty Screening Tool for Hospitalized Patients (MFST-HP) was developed. The aim of the current study was to explore aspects of reliability, validity, and feasibility of the MFST-HP. Intrarater reliability was assessed by measuring patients two times within 24 hours. Interrater reliability was assessed by having patients screened by two different nurses. Construct validity was studied by the associations between the MFST-HP scores and age and comorbidities. Intraclass correlation coefficients for both intra- and interrater reliability were good (>0.93). Older patients and those with more comorbidity showed higher scores on the MFST-HP compared to younger patients and those with less comorbidity. The MFST-HP shows promise as a reliable, valid, and feasible screening tool for frailty among hospitalized older adults. [Res Gerontol Nurs. 2016; 9(5):243-251.]. PMID:27637112

  5. Solution structure of hpTX2, a toxin from Heteropoda venatoria spider that blocks Kv4.2 potassium channel.

    PubMed Central

    Bernard, C.; Legros, C.; Ferrat, G.; Bischoff, U.; Marquardt, A.; Pongs, O.; Darbon, H.

    2000-01-01

    HpTX2 is a toxin from the venom of Heteropoda venatoria spider that has been demonstrated to bind on Kv4.2 potassium channel. We have determined the solution structure of recombinant HpTX2 by use of conventional two-dimensional NMR techniques followed by distance-geometry and molecular dynamics. The calculated structure belongs to the Inhibitory Cystin Knot structural family that consists in a compact disulfide-bonded core, from which four loops emerge. A poorly defined two-stranded antiparallel beta-sheet (residues 20-23 and 25-28) is detected. Analysis of the electrostatic charge anisotropy allows us to propose a functional map of HpTX2 different from the one described for kappa-conotoxin PVIIA, but strongly related to the one of charybdotoxin. The orientation of the dipole moment of HpTX2 emerges through K27 which could therefore be the critical lysine residue. Close to this lysine are a second basic residue, R23, an aromatic cluster (F7, W25, W30) and an hydrophobic side chain (L24). The high density in aromatic side chains of the putative functional surface as well as the lack of an asparagine is proposed to be the structural basis of the specificity of HpTX2 toward Kv4.2 channel. PMID:11152117

  6. The crystal structure of Helicobacter pylori HP1029 highlights the functional diversity of the sialic acid-related DUF386 family.

    PubMed

    Vallese, Francesca; Percudani, Riccardo; Fischer, Wolfgang; Zanotti, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    The proteins of the YhcH/YjgK/YiaL (DUF386) family have been implicated in the bacterial metabolism of host-derived sialic acids and biofilm formation, although their precise biochemical function remains enigmatic. We present here the crystal structure of protein HP1029 from Helicobacter pylori. The protein is a homodimer, in which each monomer comprises a molecular core formed by 12 antiparallel β-strands arranged in two β-sheets flanked by helices. The sandwich formed by the sheets assumes the shape of a funnel opened at one end, with a zinc ion present at the bottom of the funnel. The crystal structure unequivocally shows that HP1029 belongs to the DUF386 family. Although no bioinformatics evidence has been found for sialic acid catabolism in H. pylori, the genomic context of HP1029 in Helicobacter and related organisms suggests a possible role in the metabolism of bacterial surface saccharides, such as pseudaminic acid and its derivatives.

  7. The validity of the Health-Relevant Personality Inventory (HP5i) and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI) among adolescents referred for a substance misuse problem.

    PubMed

    Hemphälä, Malin; Gustavsson, J Petter; Tengström, Anders

    2013-01-01

    The aim was to study the validity of 2 personality instruments, the Health-Relevant Personality Inventory (HP5i) and the Junior Temperament and Character Inventory (JTCI), among adolescents with a substance use problem. Clinical interviews were completed with 180 adolescents and followed up after 12 months. Discriminant validity was demonstrated in the lack of correlation to intelligence in both instruments' scales. Two findings were in support of convergent validity: Negative affectivity (HP5i) and harm avoidance (JTCI) were correlated to internalizing symptoms, and impulsivity (HP5i) and novelty seeking (JTCI) were correlated to externalizing symptoms. The predictive validity of JTCI was partly supported. When psychiatric symptoms at baseline were controlled for, cooperativeness predicted conduct disorder after 12 months. Summarizing, both instruments can be used in adolescent clinical samples to tailor treatment efforts, although some scales need further investigation. It is important to include personality assessment when evaluating psychiatric problems in adolescents.

  8. Exhumation of HP-LT metamorphic rocks in the Cyclades: constraints from Pressure-Temperature-time-strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Labrousse, L.; Huet, B.; Monié, P.; Jolivet, L.

    2010-12-01

    High Pressure - Low Temperature (HP-LT) rocks testify for burying and exhumation of crustal material in subduction zones. The question of their exhumation is nevertheless still unclear. The Aegean domain offers several HP-LT belts. Especially, the Attic-Cycladic Blueschist unit (ACBU) is an example of a HP-LT unit exhumed in a convergent and then in a divergent context. It actually appears in metamorphic core complexes (MCCs) formed in the back-arc of the subduction. The syn-convergence “message” is however difficult to read because of the post-convergence structural and thermal overprint that accompanied the formation of the MCCs. Particularly, the geometry, the timing and the amount of the syn-orogenic exhumation remain unclear. We investigate theses questions with metamorphic petrology (Andros and Ios islands) and phengite population, single grain and in situ 40Ar-39Ar geochronology (Andros, Tinos, Syros and Ios islands). Based on these new constraints and a synthesis of published data, we are able to refine the geometry, the timing and the modes of the exhumation of the ACBU. Data from the whole Cyclades exhibit little differences in the age and P-T conditions at the successive stages of syn-orogenic exhumation. The peak of pressure (500±50 °C-18±1 kbar) has been reached at 50-55 Ma. The onset of the exhumation occurred at 40-45 Ma in blueschist facies conditions, between a basal thrust and a summital detachment. The following decompression was accompanied by cooling until 30-35 Ma (400±50 °C-8±1 kbar). At that time, the boundary conditions switched to extension. The change in boundary conditions is recorded by slowing of the exhumation and isobare heating. The conditions of post-orogenic exhumation differ from an island to another. The onset of post-orogenic exhumation is dated around 30 Ma in the northern Cyclades and 25 Ma in the southern Cyclades. It is related to top-to-the-North deformation in all the studied domain. The end of ductile

  9. An effective evolutionary algorithm for protein folding on 3D FCC HP model by lattice rotation and generalized move sets

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Proteins are essential biological molecules which play vital roles in nearly all biological processes. It is the tertiary structure of a protein that determines its functions. Therefore the prediction of a protein's tertiary structure based on its primary amino acid sequence has long been the most important and challenging subject in biochemistry, molecular biology and biophysics. In the past, the HP lattice model was one of the ab initio methods that many researchers used to forecast the protein structure. Although these kinds of simplified methods could not achieve high resolution, they provided a macrocosm-optimized protein structure. The model has been employed to investigate general principles of protein folding, and plays an important role in the prediction of protein structures. Methods In this paper, we present an improved evolutionary algorithm for the protein folding problem. We study the problem on the 3D FCC lattice HP model which has been widely used in previous research. Our focus is to develop evolutionary algorithms (EA) which are robust, easy to implement and can handle various energy functions. We propose to combine three different local search methods, including lattice rotation for crossover, K-site move for mutation, and generalized pull move; these form our key components to improve previous EA-based approaches. Results We have carried out experiments over several data sets which were used in previous research. The results of the experiments show that our approach is able to find optimal conformations which were not found by previous EA-based approaches. Conclusions We have investigated the geometric properties of the 3D FCC lattice and developed several local search techniques to improve traditional EA-based approaches to the protein folding problem. It is known that EA-based approaches are robust and can handle arbitrary energy functions. Our results further show that by extensive development of local searches, EA can also be very

  10. High-resolution abundance analysis of red giants in the metal-poor bulge globular cluster HP 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuy, B.; Cantelli, E.; Vemado, A.; Ernandes, H.; Ortolani, S.; Saviane, I.; Bica, E.; Minniti, D.; Dias, B.; Momany, Y.; Hill, V.; Zoccali, M.; Siqueira-Mello, C.

    2016-06-01

    Context. The globular cluster HP 1 is projected at only 3.̊33 from the Galactic center. Together with its distance, this makes it one of the most central globular clusters in the Milky Way. It has a blue horizontal branch (BHB) and a metallicity of [Fe/H] ≈ -1.0. This means that it probably is one of the oldest objects in the Galaxy. Abundance ratios can reveal the nucleosynthesis pattern of the first stars as well as the early chemical enrichment and early formation of stellar populations. Aims: High-resolution spectra obtained for six stars were analyzed to derive the abundances of the light elements C, N, O, Na, and Al, the alpha-elements Mg, Si, Ca, and Ti, and the heavy elements Sr, Y, Zr, Ba, La, and Eu. Methods: High-resolution spectra of six red giants that are confirmed members of the bulge globular cluster HP 1 were obtained with the 8 m VLT UT2-Kueyen telescope with the UVES spectrograph in FLAMES-UVES configuration. The spectroscopic parameter derivation was based on the excitation and ionization equilibrium of Fe i and Fe ii. Results: We confirm a mean metallicity of [Fe/H] = -1.06 ± 0.10, by adding the two stars that were previously analyzed in HP 1. The alpha-elements O and Mg are enhanced by about +0.3 ≲ [O,Mg/Fe] ≲ +0.5 dex, Si is moderately enhanced with +0.15 ≲ [Si/Fe] ≲ +0.35 dex, while Ca and Ti show lower values of -0.04 ≲ [Ca,Ti/Fe] ≲ +0.28 dex. The r-element Eu is also enhanced with [Eu/Fe] ≈ +0.4, which together with O and Mg is indicative of early enrichment by type II supernovae. Na and Al are low, but it is unclear if Na-O are anticorrelated. The heavy elements are moderately enhanced, with -0.20 < [La/Fe] < +0.43 dex and 0.0 < [Ba/Fe] < +0.75 dex, which is compatible with r-process formation. The spread in Y, Zr, Ba, and La abundances, on the other hand, appears to be compatible with the spinstar scenario or other additional mechanisms such as the weak r-process. Observations collected at the European Southern

  11. High-pressure synthesis and crystal structure of the lithium borate HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Neumair, Stephanie C.; Vanicek, Stefan; Kaindl, Reinhard; Toebbens, Daniel M.; Wurst, Klaus; Huppertz, Hubert

    2011-09-15

    The new lithium borate HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} was synthesized under high-pressure/high-temperature conditions of 6 GPa and 1050 deg. C in a multianvil press with a Walker-type module. The compound crystallizes in the space group Pnma (no. 62) with the lattice parameters a=829.7(2), b=759.6(2), and c=1726.8(4) pm (Z=16). The high-pressure compound HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} is built up from a three-dimensional network of BO{sub 4} tetrahedra and BO{sub 3} groups, which incorporates Li{sup +} ions in channels along the b-axis. Band assignments of measured IR- and Raman spectra were done via quantum-mechanical calculations. Additionally, the thermal behavior of HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} was investigated. - Graphical abstract: The new high-pressure compound HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} is built up from a three-dimensional network of BO4 tetrahedra and BO{sub 3} groups, which incorporates Li{sup +} ions in channels along the b-axis. In this paper, the synthesis, the crystal structure, and the properties of HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} are described. Highlights: > Synthesis of a new lithium borate with the composition HP-LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5} at high pressure. > In contrast to the non-centrosymmetric phase LiB{sub 3}O{sub 5}, this high-pressure phase is centrosymmetric. > First example of ternary alkali borates exhibiting threefold bridging oxygen atoms.

  12. Design and development of Stirling engines for stationary-power-generation applications in the 500- to 3000-hp range. Phase I final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-10-01

    The first phase of the design and development of Stirling engines for stationary power generation applications in the 373 kW (500 hp) to 2237 kW (3000 hp) range was completed. The tasks in Phase I include conceptual designs of large Stirling cycle stationary engines and program plan for implementing Phases II through V. Four different heater head designs and five different machine designs were prepared in sufficient detail to select a design recommended for development in the near future. A second order analysis was developed for examining the various loss mechanisms in the Stirling engine and for predicting the thermodynamic performance of these engines. The predicted engine thermal brake efficiency excluding combustion efficiency is approximately 42% which exceeds the design objective of 40%. The combustion system designs were prepared for both a clean fuel combustion system and a two-stage atmospheric fluidized bed combustion system. The calculated combustion efficiency of the former is 90% and of the latter is 80%. Heat transport systems, i.e., a heat exchanger for the clean fuel combustion system and a sodium heat pipe system for coal and other nonclean fuel combustion systems were selected. The cost analysis showed that for clean fuels combustion the proposed 2237 kW (3000 hp) system production cost is $478,242 or $214/kW ($159/hp) which is approximately 1.86 times the cost of a comparable size diesel engine. For solid coal combustion the proposed 2237 kW (3000 hp) system production cost is approximately $2,246,242 which corresponds to a cost to power capacity ratio of $1004/kW ($749/hp). The two-stage atmospheric fluidized bed combustion system represents 81% of the total cost; the engine represents 14% depending on the future price differential between coal and conventional clean fuels, a short payback period of the proposed Stirling cycle engine/FBC system may justify the initial cost. (LCL)

  13. Two-stage Triassic exhumation of HP-UHP terranes in the western Dabie orogen of China: Constraints from structural geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Sanzhong; Kusky, Timothy M.; Zhao, Guochun; Liu, Xiaochun; Zhang, Guowei; Kopp, Heidrun; Wang, Lu

    2010-07-01

    Abundant exposures of widely-distributed HP-UHP metamorphic rocks in the western part of the Dabie orogen enable us to study the tectonic evolution of HP-UHP terranes associated with the world's largest preserved continental subduction zone. Previous tectonic models for the Dabie orogen were based largely on metamorphic studies, most of them lacking significant structural constraints. We present a comprehensive structural analysis based on detailed structural geology. The results suggest that syn-UHP (D0 at 241-231 Ma) and syn-HP (D1 at 225-215 Ma) southeast-vergent thrusting formed a series of stacked structural slices. This was followed by southeast-vergent folding under amphibolite facies conditions (D2 at 215-205 Ma); then a third generation of flexural folding occurred at shallow levels (D3 at 200-184 Ma). This leads us to proposes a two-stage Triassic exhumation model in which initially rapid vertical extrusion (D0-D1) from UHP to HP conditions to lower crustal levels is followed by slow southeastward extrusion (D3) from lower crustal levels to the Earth's surface. The tectonic model combines the early southeastward vertical extrusion with the later southeastward lateral extrusion, revealing two different stages and thus different types of Triassic extrusion for the exhumation of HP-UHP rocks in the Dabie orogen. The first stage extrusion occurred in the Middle Triassic, whereas the second stage extrusion lasted from the Late Triassic to Early Jurassic. These two extrusion episodes correlate with the two stages of Triassic exhumation of the Dabie HP-UHP rocks, respectively, during continental collision.

  14. HP1a, Su(var)3-9, SETDB1 and POF stimulate or repress gene expression depending on genomic position, gene length and expression pattern in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Lundberg, Lina E; Stenberg, Per; Larsson, Jan

    2013-04-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a) is a chromatin-associated protein important for the formation and maintenance of heterochromatin. In Drosophila, the two histone methyltransferases SETDB1 and Su(var)3-9 mediate H3K9 methylation marks that initiates the establishment and spreading of HP1a-enriched chromatin. Although HP1a is generally regarded as a factor that represses gene transcription, several reports have linked HP1a binding to active genes, and in some cases, it has been shown to stimulate transcriptional activity. To clarify the function of HP1a in transcription regulation and its association with Su(var)3-9, SETDB1 and the chromosome 4-specific protein POF, we conducted genome-wide expression studies and combined the results with available binding data in Drosophila melanogaster. The results suggest that HP1a, SETDB1 and Su(var)3-9 repress genes on chromosome 4, where non-ubiquitously expressed genes are preferentially targeted, and stimulate genes in pericentromeric regions. Further, we showed that on chromosome 4, Su(var)3-9, SETDB1 and HP1a target the same genes. In addition, we found that transposons are repressed by HP1a and Su(var)3-9 and that the binding level and expression effects of HP1a are affected by gene length. Our results indicate that genes have adapted to be properly expressed in their local chromatin environment.

  15. HP1a, Su(var)3-9, SETDB1 and POF stimulate or repress gene expression depending on genomic position, gene length and expression pattern in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Lundberg, Lina E.; Stenberg, Per; Larsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a) is a chromatin-associated protein important for the formation and maintenance of heterochromatin. In Drosophila, the two histone methyltransferases SETDB1 and Su(var)3-9 mediate H3K9 methylation marks that initiates the establishment and spreading of HP1a-enriched chromatin. Although HP1a is generally regarded as a factor that represses gene transcription, several reports have linked HP1a binding to active genes, and in some cases, it has been shown to stimulate transcriptional activity. To clarify the function of HP1a in transcription regulation and its association with Su(var)3-9, SETDB1 and the chromosome 4-specific protein POF, we conducted genome-wide expression studies and combined the results with available binding data in Drosophila melanogaster. The results suggest that HP1a, SETDB1 and Su(var)3-9 repress genes on chromosome 4, where non-ubiquitously expressed genes are preferentially targeted, and stimulate genes in pericentromeric regions. Further, we showed that on chromosome 4, Su(var)3-9, SETDB1 and HP1a target the same genes. In addition, we found that transposons are repressed by HP1a and Su(var)3-9 and that the binding level and expression effects of HP1a are affected by gene length. Our results indicate that genes have adapted to be properly expressed in their local chromatin environment. PMID:23476027

  16. Analysis and testing of the HP-R-214 dome monitor cable from Three Mile Island Unit 2

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, E.H.; Dandini, V.J.

    1986-03-01

    After the accident at Three Mile Island, Unit 2, two sections of a cable connected to the HP-R-214 dome monitor were removed for testing. One section had been directly exposed to the accident environment: the other had been installed in conduit. In addition, an unused section of cable, which was from the same reel as the dome monitor cable, was available as a control sample. These three sections were subjected to material tests, including density profiling, tensile-strength and elongation tests, and chemical analyses, to assess the effect of the accident on the cable and to identify whether any differences existed between the in-conduit and out-of-conduit sections.

  17. Analyzing powers in the dd{yields}{sup 3}Hen({sup 3}Hp) reactions at intermediate energies

    SciTech Connect

    Ladygin, V. P.; Kiselev, A. S.; Kurilkin, A. K.; Vasiliev, T. A.; Isupov, A. Yu.; Ladygina, N. B.; Malakhov, A. I.; Reznikov, S. G.; Uesaka, T.; Saito, T.; Hatano, M.; Kato, H.; Sakoda, S.; Uchigashima, N.; Yako, K.; Janek, M.; Maeda, Y.; Nishikawa, J.; Ohnishi, T.; Sakamoto, N.

    2008-04-29

    Data for the deuteron analyzing powers in the dd{yields}{sup 3}Hen({sup 3}Hp) reactions obtained at 140-270 MeV are discussed. The observed negative sign of the tensor analyzing powers A{sub yy}, A{sub xx} and A{sub xz} at small angles clearly demonstrate the sensitivity to the ratio of the D and S state components of the {sup 3}He wave function. The behavior of the tensor analyzing powers at backward angles is sensitive to the short-range spin structure of the deuteron. However, the one-nucleon exchange calculations using standard {sup 3}He and deuteron wave functions fail to reproduce the strong variation of the tensor analyzing powers as a function of angle in the cms. Sensitivity to relativistic effects is also discussed.

  18. Profiling of the Chromatin-associated Proteome Identifies HP1BP3 as a Novel Regulator of Cell Cycle Progression *

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Bamaprasad; Ren, Yan; Hao, Piliang; Sim, Kae Hwan; Cheow, Esther; Adav, Sunil; Tam, James P.; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2014-01-01

    The chromatin-associated proteome (chromatome) regulates cellular gene expression by restricting access of transcriptional machinery to template DNA, and dynamic re-modeling of chromatin structure is required to regulate critical cell functions including growth and replication, DNA repair and recombination, and oncogenic transformation in progression to cancer. Central to the control of these processes is efficient regulation of the host cell cycle, which is maintained by rapid changes in chromatin conformation during normal cycle progression. A global overview of chromatin protein organization is therefore essential to fully understand cell cycle regulation, but the influence of the chromatome and chromatin binding topology on host cell cycle progression remains poorly defined. Here we used partial MNase digestion together with iTRAQ-based high-throughput quantitative proteomics to quantify chromatin-associated proteins during interphase progression. We identified a total of 481 proteins with high confidence that were involved in chromatin-dependent events including transcriptional regulation, chromatin re-organization, and DNA replication and repair, whereas the quantitative data revealed the temporal interactions of these proteins with chromatin during interphase progression. When combined with biochemical and functional assays, these data revealed a strikingly dynamic association of protein HP1BP3 with the chromatin complex during different stages of interphase, and uncovered a novel regulatory role for this molecule in transcriptional regulation. We report that HP1BP3 protein maintains heterochromatin integrity during G1–S progression and regulates the duration of G1 phase to critically influence cell proliferative capacity. PMID:24830416

  19. Quantitative Profiling of Chromatome Dynamics Reveals a Novel Role for HP1BP3 in Hypoxia-induced Oncogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Bamaprasad; Yan, Ren; Lim, Sai Kiang; Tam, James P.; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2014-01-01

    In contrast to the intensely studied genetic and epigenetic changes that induce host cell transformation to initiate tumor development, those that promote the malignant progression of cancer remain poorly defined. As emerging evidence suggests that the hypoxic tumor microenvironment could re-model the chromatin-associated proteome (chromatome) to induce epigenetic changes and alter gene expression in cancer cells, we hypothesized that hypoxia-driven evolution of the chromatome promotes malignant changes and the development of therapy resistance in tumor cells. To test this hypothesis, we isolated chromatins from tumor cells treated with varying conditions of normoxia, hypoxia, and re-oxygenation and then partially digested them with DNase I and analyzed them for changes in euchromatin- and heterochromatin-associated proteins using an iTRAQ-based quantitative proteomic approach. We identified a total of 1446 proteins with a high level of confidence, including 819 proteins that were observed to change their chromatin association topology under hypoxic conditions. These hypoxia-sensitive proteins included key mediators of chromatin organization, transcriptional regulation, and DNA repair. Furthermore, our proteomic and functional experiments revealed a novel role for the chromatin organizer protein HP1BP3 in mediating chromatin condensation during hypoxia, leading to increased tumor cell viability, radio-resistance, chemo-resistance, and self-renewal. Taken together, our findings indicate that HP1BP3 is a key mediator of tumor progression and cancer cell acquisition of therapy-resistant traits, and thus might represent a novel therapeutic target in a range of human malignancies. PMID:25100860

  20. TAE+ 5.1 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.1 (HP9000 SERIES 300/400 VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    programs to display and control the user interfaces. Since the WPTs access the workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides a means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Release 4, and the Open Software Foundation's Motif. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.2 was released in 1993. TAE Plus 5.2 is expected to be available on media suitable for seven different machine platforms: 1) DEC VAX computers running VMS (TK50 cartridge in VAX BACKUP format), 2) IBM RS/6000 series workstations running AIX (.25 inch tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), 3) DEC RISC workstations running ULTRIX (TK50 cartridge in UNIX tar format), 4) HP9000 Series 300

  1. NTP-CERHR Monograph on the Potential Human Reproductive and Developmental Effects of Di-n-Hexyl Phthalate (DnHP).

    PubMed

    2003-05-01

    The National Toxicology Program (NTP) Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction (CERHR) conducted an evaluation of the potential for di-n-hexyl phthalate (DnHP) to cause adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans. DnHP is one of 7 phthalate chemicals evaluated by the NTP CERHR Phthalates Expert Panel. These phthalates were selected for evaluation because of high production volume, extent of human exposures, use in children's products, and/or published evidence of reproductive or developmental toxicity. Available information indicates that DnHP is manufactured in relatively small amounts but occurs in a variety of commercial products including dip-molded products such as tool handles or dishwasher baskets, flooring, vinyl gloves, flea collars, and conveyer belts used in food processing. The results of this evaluation on DnHP are published in an NTP-CERHR monograph which includes: 1) the NTP Brief, 2) the Expert Panel Report on the Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of DnHP, and 3) public comments received on the Expert Panel Report. As stated in the NTP Brief, the NTP reached the following conclusions regarding the possible effects of exposure to DnHP on human development and reproduction. The scientific evidence was insufficient to reach a conclusion regarding the potential for DnHP to adversely affect human development or reproduction. There was very limited information on developmental and reproductive toxicity available to the panel. The panel evaluated only a single developmental toxicity study using a high dose (9,900 mg/kg body weight/day on gestational days 6-13) of DnHP. No live pups were delivered. In a reproductive study, effects on fertility were noted in all treatment groups (380-1,670 mg/ kg body weight/day). These studies provided sufficient information in experimental animals to conclude that DnHP is a reproductive and developmental toxicant at the doses tested. However, the treatment doses were high and these

  2. The Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV Hand-Held Computer as a Medium for Teaching Mathematics to Fire Control Systems Repairers. Research Report 1408.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldovici, John A.; Scott, Thomas D.

    A study compared the benefits of using the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV hand-held computer, as opposed to conventional training without computers, in teaching mathematics to fire control systems repairers. Thirty soldiers in a course to train fire control systems repairers received training in technical mathematics using the hand-held computer, whereas…

  3. Full load shop testing of 18,000-hp gas turbine driven centrifugal compressor for offshore platform service: Evaluation of rotor dynamics performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kirk, R. G.; Simpson, M.

    1985-01-01

    The results for in-plant full load testing of a 13.4 MW (18000 HP) gas turbine driven centrifugal compressor are presented and compared to analytical predictions of compressor rotor stability. Unique problems from both oil seals and labyrinth gas seals were encountered during the testing. The successful resolution of these problems are summarized.

  4. Program Plan: research and development for improved efficiency, small steam turbine project No. 1380, Phase II. [For 500 to 5,000 hp

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The approach that will be taken to execute and manage a program to provide a catalyst for the introduction of higher efficiency steam engines in the 500 to 5,000 hp range is described. Task breakdown and details are given in Section I. Section II presents plan cost, manpower plan, and includes reporting forms. (MCW)

  5. Revealing the local properties of β-HP4N7, a promising candidate for high pressure synthesis of new materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales-García, A.; del Corro, E.

    2015-04-01

    A computational investigation of β-HP4N7 system is accurately performed using the density functional theory formalism coupled with quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The aim of this work is to understand the behavior of β-HP4N7 under compression. At ambient conditions, the N atoms occupy around 81% of the unit cell volume; for this reason the N atoms are the ones contributing significantly to the bulk properties. The particular tetrahedron (PN4) connection promotes high flexibility to this structure. The atoms composing the solid show significant differences in their compressibilities. The high compressibility (or low resistence to pressure) of the N atoms indicates that the reorganization of these atoms is the key in the densification process that takes place when pressure is increased. When compresing the β-HP4N7 from 0 to 130 GPa the formation of PN6 units is observed, leading to a phase transition. The analysis of the elastic constants reveals the stability of this new phase at 110 GPa. This study shows that β-HP4N7 could be a potential candidate for high pressure synthesis of new phases where P atoms would be 6-fold coordinated.

  6. Switching the JLab Accelerator Operations Environment from an HP-UX Unix-based to a PC/Linux-based environment

    SciTech Connect

    Mcguckin, Theodore

    2008-10-01

    The Jefferson Lab Accelerator Controls Environment (ACE) was predominantly based on the HP-UX Unix platform from 1987 through the summer of 2004. During this period the Accelerator Machine Control Center (MCC) underwent a major renovation which included introducing Redhat Enterprise Linux machines, first as specialized process servers and then gradually as general login servers. As computer programs and scripts required to run the accelerator were modified, and inherent problems with the HP-UX platform compounded, more development tools became available for use with Linux and the MCC began to be converted over. In May 2008 the last HP-UX Unix login machine was removed from the MCC, leaving only a few Unix-based remote-login servers still available. This presentation will explore the process of converting an operational Control Room environment from the HP-UX to Linux platform as well as the many hurdles that had to be overcome throughout the transition period (including a discussion of

  7. Recruitment of the cohesin loading factor NIPBL to DNA double-strand breaks depends on MDC1, RNF168 and HP1{gamma} in human cells

    SciTech Connect

    Oka, Yasuyoshi; Suzuki, Keiji; Yamauchi, Motohiro; Mitsutake, Norisato; Yamashita, Shunichi

    2011-08-12

    Highlights: {yields} NIPBL is recruited to DSBs. {yields} Localization of NIPBL to DSBs is regulated by MDC1 and RNF168. {yields} HP1{gamma} is required for NIPBL accumulation at DSBs. -- Abstract: The cohesin loading factor NIPBL is required for cohesin to associate with chromosomes and plays a role in DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair. Although the NIPBL homolog Scc2 is recruited to an enzymatically generated DSB and promotes cohesin-dependent DSB repair in yeast, the mechanism of the recruitment remains poorly understood. Here we show that the human NIPBL is recruited to the sites of DNA damage generated by micro-irradiation as well as to the sites of DSBs induced by homing endonuclease, I-PpoI. The recruitment of NIPBL was impaired by RNAi-mediated knockdown of MDC1 or RNF168, both of which also accumulate at DSBs. We also show that the recruitment of NIPBL to the sites of DNA damage is mediated by its C-terminal region containing HEAT repeats and Heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) interacting motif. Furthermore, NIPBL accumulation at damaged sites was also compromised by HP1{gamma} depletion. Taken together, our study reveals that human NIPBL is a novel protein recruited to DSB sites, and the recruitment is controlled by MDC1, RNF168 and HP1{gamma}.

  8. Cross-Validation of the Spanish HP-Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy Confirmed with Some Cross-Cultural Differences

    PubMed Central

    Alcorta-Garza, Adelina; San-Martín, Montserrat; Delgado-Bolton, Roberto; Soler-González, Jorge; Roig, Helena; Vivanco, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Context: Medical educators agree that empathy is essential for physicians' professionalism. The Health Professional Version of the Jefferson Scale of Empathy (JSE-HP) was developed in response to a need for a psychometrically sound instrument to measure empathy in the context of patient care. Although extensive support for its validity and reliability is available, the authors recognize the necessity to examine psychometrics of the JSE-HP in different socio-cultural contexts to assure the psychometric soundness of this instrument. The first aim of this study was to confirm its psychometric properties in the cross-cultural context of Spain and Latin American countries. The second aim was to measure the influence of social and cultural factors on the development of medical empathy in health practitioners. Methods: The original English version of the JSE-HP was translated into International Spanish using back-translation procedures. The Spanish version of the JSE-HP was administered to 896 physicians from Spain and 13 Latin American countries. Data were subjected to exploratory factor analysis using principal component analysis (PCA) with oblique rotation (promax) to allow for correlation among the resulting factors, followed by a second analysis, using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Two theoretical models, one based on the English JSE-HP and another on the first Spanish student version of the JSE (JSE-S), were tested. Demographic variables were compared using group comparisons. Results: A total of 715 (80%) surveys were returned fully completed. Cronbach's alpha coefficient of the JSE for the entire sample was 0.84. The psychometric properties of the Spanish JSE-HP matched those of the original English JSE-HP. However, the Spanish JSE-S model proved more appropriate than the original English model for the sample in this study. Group comparisons among physicians classified by gender, medical specialties, cultural and cross-cultural backgrounds yielded

  9. Effects of the Preparation Method on the Formation of True Nimodipine SBE-β-CD/HP-β-CD Inclusion Complexes and Their Dissolution Rates Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Semcheddine, Farouk; Guissi, Nida El Islem; Liu, XueYin; Wu, ZuoMin; Wang, Bo

    2015-06-01

    The aims of this study were to enhance the solubility and dissolution rate of nimodipine (ND) by preparing the inclusion complexes of ND with sulfobutylether-b-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) and 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and to study the effect of the preparation method on the in vitro dissolution profile in different media (0.1 N HCl pH 1.2, phosphate buffer pH 7.4, and distilled water). Thus, the inclusion complexes were prepared by kneading, coprecipitation, and freeze-drying methods. Phase solubility studies were conducted to characterize the complexes in the liquid state. The inclusion complexes in the solid state were investigated with differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), X-ray diffractometry (X-RD), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). Stable complexes of ND/SBE-β-CD and ND/HP-β-CD were formed in distilled water in a 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex as indicated by an AL-type diagram. The apparent stability constants (Ks) were 1334.4 and 464.1 M(-1) for ND/SBE-β-CD and ND/HP-β-CD, respectively. The water-solubility of ND was significantly increased in an average of 22- and 8-fold for SBE-β-CD and HP-β-CD, respectively. DSC results showed the formation of true inclusion complexes between the drug and both SBE-β-CD and HP-β-CD prepared by the kneading method. In contrast, crystalline drug was detectable in all other products. The dissolution studies showed that all the products exhibited higher dissolution rate than those of the physical mixtures and ND alone, in all mediums. However, the kneading complexes displayed the maximum dissolution rate in comparison with drug and other complexes, confirming the influence of the preparation method on the physicochemical properties of the products.

  10. Exhumation of HP-LT metamorphic rocks in the Cyclades. What do Pressure-Temperature-time-strain paths tell us ?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huet, Benjamin; Labrousse, Loïc.; Monié, Patrick; Jolivet, Laurent

    2010-05-01

    High Pressure - Low Temperature (HP-LT) rocks testify for burying and exhumation of crustal material in subduction zones. Their complete exhumation is the result of processes acting during (syn-orogenic) and after (post-orogenic) subduction is active, the latter partly obliterating the first. In the Aegean domain, the Attic-Cycladic Blueschist unit (ACBU) is a HP-LT unit exhumed in metamorphic core complexes (MCCs) in the back-arc domain of the Hellenic subduction zone. This study is an attempt to distinguish features related to syn-orogenic exhumation processes responsible for the first stages of exhumation This syn-orogenic "message" has to be read through the post-convergence structural and thermal overprint that accompanied the formation of the MCCs. Particularly, the geometry, the timing and the amount of the syn-orogenic exhumation has to be determined. We investigate these features with coupled field, metamorphic petrology and radiochronology studies First, based on observations on Ios (southern Cyclades), it has recently been proposed that syn-orogenic exhumation of the ACBU was accommodated by a basal thrust over the Cycladic Basement (CB) [Huet, et al., 2009]. The peak conditions, deduced from pseudosections calculation for the Ios main lithologies, are 500 °C-19 kbar for the ACBU and 550 °C-16 kbar for the CB. Exhumation until 400 °C-8 kbar is considered as syn-orogenic. Second, phengites populations, single grains and in situ 40Ar-39Ar geochronology has been carried out on samples from Tinos and Andros (northern Cyclades), Syros (central Cyclades) and Ios. The results gather in several clusters: 50-55 Ma, 40-45 Ma, 30-35 Ma, and 22-26 Ma. Based on these new P-T-t data and a synthesis of published data, we are able to refine the geometry and the timing of the exhumation of the ACBU. Data from the whole Cyclades exhibit little differences in ages and P-T conditions for the successive stages of exhumation. The peak of pressure (500±50 °C-18±1 kbar

  11. A 3D hp-Discontinuous Galerkin Method: Revisiting the M7.3 Landers Earthquake Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tago, J.; Cruz-Atienza, V. M.; Virieux, J.; Etienne, V.; Sanchez-Sesma, F. J.

    2011-12-01

    Reliable dynamic source models should account of both fault geometry and heterogeneities in the surrounding medium. In this work we introduce a novel numerical method for modeling the dynamic rupture based on a 3D hp-Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme. Our method is derived from the scheme proposed by Benjemaa et al. (2009), which is based on a Finite Volume (FV) approach. Migrating from such approach to the hp-Discontinuous Galerkin philosophy is somehow straightforward since the FV method can be seen as the DG method with its lowest order or approximation (i.e. P0 element). We present a novel approach for treating dynamic rupture boundary conditions using an hp-Discontinuous Galerkin method for unstructured tetrahedral meshes. Although the theory we have developed holds for fault elements with arbitrary order, we show that second order (P2) elements yield a very good convergence. Since the DG method does not impose continuity between elements, our strategy consists in the way we compute the fluxes across the fault elements. During rupture propagation, the fluxes in the elements where the shear traction overcomes the fault strength are such that continuity of every wavefield is imposed except for the tangential fault velocities, while in the unbroken elements tangential continuity is also imposed. Because the fault nodes of a given element are coupled through the Mass and Flux matrices, when a fault node breaks we impose the shear traction on that node and need to recompute the values throughout the rest, to avoid any violation of the friction law throughout the element. This procedure repeats itself iteratively following a predictor-corrector scheme for a given time step until the element solutions stabilize. We point out that our scheme for the fault fluxes in the case of P0 elements is exactly the same as the one proposed by Benjemaa et al. who compute them through energy balance considerations. To verify our mathematical and computational model we have solved

  12. Stability of Basalt plus Anhydrite plus Calcite at HP-HT: Implications for Venus, the Earth and Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, A. M.; Righter, K.; Treiman, A. H.

    2010-01-01

    "Canali" observed at Venus surface by Magellan are evidence for very long melt flows, but their composition and origin remain uncertain. The hypothesis of water-rich flow is not reasonable regarding the temperature at Venus surface. The length of these channels could not be explained by a silicate melt composition but more likely, by a carbonate-sulfate melt which has a much lower viscosity (Kargel et al 1994). One hypothesis is that calcite CaCO3 and anhydrite CaSO4 which are alteration products of basalts melted during meteorite impacts. A famous example recorded on the Earth (Chicxulub) produced melt and gas rich in carbon and sulfur. Calcite and sulfate evaporites are also present on Mars surface, associated with basalts. An impact on these materials might release C- and S-rich melt or fluid. Another type of planetary phenomenon (affecting only the Earth) might provoke a high pressure destabilization of basalt+anhydrite+calcite. Very high contents of C and S are measured in some Earth s magmas, either dissolved or in the form of crystals (Luhr 2008). As shown by the high H content and high fO2 of primary igneous anhydrite-bearing lavas, the high S content in their source may be explained by subduction of an anhydrite-bearing oceanic crust, either directly (by melting followed by eruption) or indirectly (by release of S-rich melt or fluid that metasomatize the mantle) . Calcite is a major product of oceanic sedimentation and alteration of the crust. Therefore, sulfate- and calcite-rich material may be subducted to high pressures and high temperatures (HP-HT) and release S- and C-rich melts or fluids which could influence the composition of subduction zone lavas or gases. Both phenomena - meteorite impact and subduction - imply HP-HT conditions - although the P-T-time paths are different. Some HP experimental/theoretical studies have been performed on basalt/eclogite, calcite and anhydrite separately or on a combination of two. In this study we performed piston

  13. Pseudomorphs of Neotethyan Evaporites in Anatolia's HP/LT belts - Aptian basin-wide pelagic gypsum deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffler, Franziska; Oberhänsli, Roland; Pourteau, Amaury; Immenhauser, Adrian; Candan, Osman

    2015-04-01

    Rosetta Marble was defined in SW Anatolia as 3D-radiating textures of dm-to-m-long calcite rods in the HP/LT metamorphosed Mid-Cretaceous pelagic carbonate sequence of the Ören Unit. Rosetta Marble in the type locality are interbedded with meta-chert beds, and may constitute entire carbonate beds. Rare aragonite relicts and Sr-rich, fibrous calcite pseudomorphs after aragonite witness the HP metamorphic imprint of this sequence during the closure of a Neotethyan oceanic domain during latest Cretaceous-Palaeocene times. We investigated the Rosetta Marble of the Ören Unit, as well as other known and newly found localities in the Tavşanlı and Afyon zones, and the Alanya Massif and Malatya area, to decipher the metamorphic, diagenetic and sedimentologic significance of these uncommon textures. Based on field, petrographic and geochemical investigations, we document a wide variety of Rosetta-type textures. A striking resemblance with well-known gypsum morphologies (e.g. shallow-tail, palm-tree textures) leads us to argue that Rosetta Marble was initially composed of giant gypsum crystals (selenite). The absence of anhydrite relicts of pseudomorphs indicate that gypsum transformed into calcite soon after the deposition by the mean of a sulphate reduction reaction. The gypsum-to-calcite transformation requires that organic matter intervened as a reactant phase. Mid Cretaceous oceanic domains in the Tethyan realm are characterised by overall anoxic conditions that allowed the preservation of organic material. Rosetta Marble exposures are widely distributed over 600 km along the Neotethyan suture zone. During deepening of the Neotethyan ocean in Mid Cretaceous times, basin-wide and cyclic sedimentation of gypsum and radiolarite occurred. The origin of high-salinity waters needed for gypsum precipitation was located at shelf levels. Density and gravity effects forced the brines to cascade downwards into the deep ocean. Favorable climatic conditions trigger the formation

  14. Nanosuspensions Containing Oridonin/HP-β-Cyclodextrin Inclusion Complexes for Oral Bioavailability Enhancement via Improved Dissolution and Permeability.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xingwang; Zhang, Tianpeng; Lan, Yali; Wu, Baojian; Shi, Zhihai

    2016-04-01

    Chemotherapy via oral route of anticancer drugs offers much convenience and compliance to patients. However, oral chemotherapy has been challenged by limited absorption due to poor drug solubility and intestinal efflux. In this study, we aimed to develop a nanosuspension formulation of oridonin (Odn) using its cyclodextrin inclusion complexes to enhance oral bioavailability. Nanosuspensions containing Odn/2 hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complexes (Odn-CICs) were prepared by a solvent evaporation followed by wet media milling technique. The nanosuspensions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and dissolution. The resulting nanosuspensions were approximately 313.8 nm in particle size and presented a microcrystal morphology. Nanosuspensions loading Odn-CICs dramatically enhanced the dissolution of Odn. Further, the intestinal effective permeability of Odn was markedly enhanced in the presence of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and poloxamer. Bioavailability studies showed that nanosuspensions with Odn-CICs can significantly promote the oral absorption of Odn with a relative bioavailability of 213.99% (Odn suspensions as reference). Odn itself possesses a moderate permeability and marginal intestinal metabolism. Thus, the enhanced bioavailability for Odn-CIC nanosuspensions can be attributed to improved dissolution and permeability by interaction with absorptive epithelia and anti-drug efflux. Nanosuspensions prepared from inclusion complexes may be a promising approach for the oral delivery of anticancer agents.

  15. Hp-β-CD-Voriconazole In Situ Gelling System for Ocular Drug Delivery: In Vitro, Stability, and Antifungal Activities Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Pravin; Kashyap, Heena; Malhotra, Sakshi; Sindhu, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to design ophthalmic delivery systems based on polymeric carriers that undergo sol-to-gel transition upon change in temperature or in the presence of cations so as to prolong the effect of HP-β-CD Voriconazole (VCZ) in situ gelling formulations. The in situ gelling formulations of Voriconazole were prepared by using pluronic F-127 (PF-127) or with combination of pluronic F-68 (PF-68) and sodium alginate by cold method technique. The prepared formulations were evaluated for their physical appearance, drug content, gelation temperature (Tgel), in vitro permeation studies, rheological properties, mucoadhesion studies, antifungal studies, and stability studies. All batches of in situ formulations had satisfactory pH ranging from 6.8 to 7.4, drug content between 95% and 100%, showing uniform distribution of drug. As the concentration of each polymeric component was increased, that is, PF-68 and sodium alginate, there was a decrease in Tgel with increase in viscosity and mucoadhesive strength. The in vitro drug release decreased with increase in polymeric concentrations. The stability data concluded that all formulations showed the low degradation and maximum shelf life of 2 years. The antifungal efficiency of the selected formulation against Candida albicans and Asperigillus fumigatus confirmed that designed formulation has prolonged effect and retained its properties against fungal infection. PMID:23762839

  16. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume A. Southern Research Institute report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Combustion tests were performed using three forms of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) as the fuel for a 700 hp oil-designed water-tube boiler at the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC). This report contains the results from a program of measurements and analyses performed by Southern Research Institute (SoRI) under contract to the International Coal Refining Company (ICRC). The major objectives of the work performed by Southern Research Institute were: (1) to characterize the particulate matter resulting from the combustion of Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) and its fuel forms, and (2) to develop estimates of the specific collection areas required for varying levels of collection of fly ash from SRC combustion in electrostatic precipitators. The report contains physical and chemical characterizations of particles collected during the combustion experiments, and a discussion of electrostatic precipitation of SRC fly ash based on performance measurements with a small-scale precipitator and on simulations using a mathematical model. 9 references, 90 figures, 14 tables.

  17. UHT overprint of HP rocks? A case study from the Adula nappe complex (Central Alps, N Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumiati, Simone; Zanchetta, Stefano; Malaspina, Nadia; Poli, Stefano

    2014-05-01

    The Adula-Cima Lunga nappe complex is located on the eastern flank of the Lepontine Dome and represents the highest of the Lower Penninic units of the Central Alps. The Adula nappe largely consists of orthogneiss and paragneiss of pre-Mesozoic origin, variably retrogressed eclogites preserved as boudins within paragneiss, minor ultramafic bodies and metasedimentary rocks of presumed Mesozoic age. The higher metamorphic conditions have been estimated for the peridotite lenses in the southern part of the nappe at pressure over 3.0 GPa and temperature of 800-850°C. Garnet lherzolite bodies crop out at three localities, from west to east: Cima di Gagnone, Alpe Arami and Mt. Duria. After the partial subduction of the European distal margin beneath the Africa-Adria margin, the HP rocks were overprinted by an upper amphibolite facies metamorphism that postdates the main phase of nappe stacking. In the southern sector of the Lepontine Dome, adjacent to the Insubric Fault, metamorphic conditions promoted extensive migmatization of both metasedimentary and metagranitoid rocks. In one single outcrop, at Monte Duria, garnet lherzolites occur in m-sized boudins hosted within partly granulitized amphibole-bearing and k-feldspar gneisses that contain also some decimeter-sized boudins of both mafic and metapelitic eclogites. This rock association is in turn embedded within the migmatitic gneisses that form most of the southern sector of the Adula nappe. Petrographic and chemical analyses indicate that garnet peridotite is composed of olivine (XMg=0.88), orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene and garnet (Py68; Cr2O3 up to 1.45 wt%) with inclusions of Cr-rich spinel (up to Cr/(Al+Cr)=0.55) surrounded by kelyphitic symplectites of opx + cpx/amph + spl. These reaction produced double coronas, one composed of opx (former ol) and one composed of cpx + opx+ spl. In one kelyphite, we observed the uncommon occurrence of ZrO2 (baddeleyite) and ZrTi2O6 (srilankite). Tiny crystals of these two Zr

  18. Study of neutron scattering contribution on Hp(10) and H*(10) calibration in the Brazilian National Low Scattering Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Freitas, B M; Pereira, W W; Patrão, K C S; Fonseca, E S; Mauricio, C L P

    2014-10-01

    The neutron scattering at the Low Scattering Laboratory of the Brazilian National Neutron Laboratory has been studied using three different methods. The measurements have been done with a traceable standard (241)Am-Be from source-to-detector distances of 0.52-3.00 m. The obtained results with the variation distance methods are in agreement. Measurements with a large shadow cone are not worth for larger distances due to overshadowing. As the quantity required in a calibration is the response of the device being calibrated to the scattered neutron component in order to subtract this from the total response, for these purposes, the distance variation method must be used for each device. To quantify absolutely the scattering contribution on the quantity rates of fluence, Hp(10) and H*(10) in irradiation procedures, a Bonner sphere spectrometer with the shadow cone was employed. The evaluated scattering correction factor value may be employed for a distance of 1.00 m. PMID:24984874

  19. The Drosophila HP1 homologue Rhino is required for transposon silencing and piRNA production by dual strand clusters

    PubMed Central

    Klattenhoff, Carla; Xi, Hualin; Li, Chengjian; Lee, Soohyun; Xu, Jia; Khurana, Jaspreet S.; Zhang, Fan; Schultz, Nadine; Koppetsch, Birgit S.; Nowosielska, Anetta; Seitz, Herve; Zamore, Phillip D.; Weng, Zhiping; Theurkauf, William E.

    2009-01-01

    Summary piRNAs silence transposons and maintain genome integrity during germ-line development. In Drosophila, transposon-rich heterochromatic clusters encode piRNAs either on both genomic strands (dual-strand clusters) or predominantly one genomic strand (uni-strand clusters). Primary piRNAs derived from these clusters are proposed to drive a ping-pong amplification cycle catalyzed by proteins that localize to the perinuclear nuage. We show that the HP1 homologue Rhino is required for nuage organization, transposon silencing, and ping-pong amplification of piRNAs. rhi mutations virtually eliminate piRNAs from the dual-strand clusters and block production of putative precursor RNAs from both strands of the major 42AB dual-strand cluster, but do not block production of transcripts or piRNAs from the uni-strand clusters. Furthermore, Rhino protein associates with the 42AB dual-strand cluster, but does not bind to uni-strand cluster 2 or flamenco. Rhino thus appears to promote transcription of dual-strand clusters, leading to production of piRNAs that drive the ping-pong amplification cycle. PMID:19732946

  20. TAE+ 5.1 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.1 (HP9000 SERIES 300/400 VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    programs to display and control the user interfaces. Since the WPTs access the workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides a means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System, Version 11 Release 4, and the Open Software Foundation's Motif. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.2 was released in 1993. TAE Plus 5.2 is expected to be available on media suitable for seven different machine platforms: 1) DEC VAX computers running VMS (TK50 cartridge in VAX BACKUP format), 2) IBM RS/6000 series workstations running AIX (.25 inch tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), 3) DEC RISC workstations running ULTRIX (TK50 cartridge in UNIX tar format), 4) HP9000 Series 300

  1. Tensile and electrical properties of unirradiated and irradiated Hycon 3HP{trademark} CuNiBe

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Eatherly, W.S.

    1996-10-01

    The unirradiated tensile properties of two different heats of Hycon 3HP{trademark} CuNiBe (HT Temper) have been measured over the temperature range of 20-500{degrees}C for longitudinal and long transverse orientations. The room temperature electrical conductivity has also been measured for both heats. Both heats exhibited a very good combination of strength and conductivity at room temperature. The strength remained relatively high at all test temperatures, with a yield strength of 420-520 MPa at 500{degrees}C. However, low levels of ductility (<5% uniform elongation) were observed at test temperatures above 200-250{degrees}C, due to flow localization adjacent to grain boundaries. Fission neutron irradiation to a dose of {approximately}0.7 dpa at temperatures between 100 and 240{degrees}C produced a slight increase in strength and a significant decrease in ductility. The measured tensile elongation increased with increasing irradiation temperature, with a uniform elongation of {approximately}3.3% observed at 240{degrees}C. The electrical conductivity decreased slightly following irradiation, due to the presence of defect clusters and Ni, Zn, Co transmutation products. The data indicate that CuNiBe alloys have irradiated tensile and electrical properties comparable or superior to CuCrZr and oxide dispersion strengthened copper at temperatures <250{degrees}C, and may be suitable for certain fusion energy structural applications.

  2. H-P adaptive methods for finite element analysis of aerothermal loads in high-speed flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H. J.; Bass, J. M.; Tworzydlo, W.; Oden, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    The commitment to develop the National Aerospace Plane and Maneuvering Reentry Vehicles has generated resurgent interest in the technology required to design structures for hypersonic flight. The principal objective of this research and development effort has been to formulate and implement a new class of computational methodologies for accurately predicting fine scale phenomena associated with this class of problems. The initial focus of this effort was to develop optimal h-refinement and p-enrichment adaptive finite element methods which utilize a-posteriori estimates of the local errors to drive the adaptive methodology. Over the past year this work has specifically focused on two issues which are related to overall performance of a flow solver. These issues include the formulation and implementation (in two dimensions) of an implicit/explicit flow solver compatible with the hp-adaptive methodology, and the design and implementation of computational algorithm for automatically selecting optimal directions in which to enrich the mesh. These concepts and algorithms have been implemented in a two-dimensional finite element code and used to solve three hypersonic flow benchmark problems (Holden Mach 14.1, Edney shock on shock interaction Mach 8.03, and the viscous backstep Mach 4.08).

  3. Enhancement of cypermethrin degradation by a coculture of Bacillus cereus ZH-3 and Streptomyces aureus HP-S-01.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shaohua; Luo, Jianjun; Hu, Meiying; Lai, Kaiping; Geng, Peng; Huang, Huasheng

    2012-04-01

    Degradation of cypermethrin was significantly enhanced in a coculture of Bacillus cereus ZH-3 and Streptomyces aureus HP-S-01. In the pure culture, longer half-lives (t(1/2)=32.6-43.0h) of cypermethrin were observed, as compared to the mixed cocultures (t(1/2)=13.0h). The optimal degradation conditions were determined to be 28.2°C and pH 7.5 based on response surface methodology (RSM). Under these conditions, the mixed cultures completely metabolized cypermethrin (50mgL(-1)) within 72h. Analysis of degradation products of cypermethrin indicated that the microbial consortium converted cypermethrin to α-hydroxy-3-phenoxy-benzeneacetonitrile, 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde and 4-phenoxyphenyl-2,2-dimethyl-propiophenone, and subsequently transformed these compounds with a maximum specific degradation rate (q(max)), half-saturation constant (K(s)) and inhibition constant (K(i)) of 0.1051h(-1), 31.2289mgL(-1) and 220.5752mgL(-1), respectively. This is the first report of a proposed pathway of degradation of cypermethrin by hydrolysis of ester linkage and oxidization of 3-phenoxybenzyl in a coculture. Finally, this coculture is the first described mixed microbial consortium capable of metabolizing cypermethrin.

  4. Pressure-temperature history of the Brooks Range and Seward Peninsula, Alaska HP-LT units and geodynamic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemonnier, N.; Labrousse, L.; Agard, P.; Till, A. B.

    2013-12-01

    Metamorphic rocks in the inner zones of mountain belts constitute a marker of vertical movements within orogenic wedges, themselves controled by balance between boundary conditions and volume forces. They provide key evidence for paleogeographic and tectonic reconstruction of convergence zones. In the Arctic, the Amerasian basin opened in cretaceous time and evolved in the upper plate of the Pacific subduction system. The tectonic evolution of the Brooks Range, northern Alaska, is a key issue for understanding possible coupling between these two dynamics. HP-LT metamorphic rocks, now exposed in the Schist belt, Brooks Range, and the Nome Complex, Seward Peninsula, were brought to the surface during Early Cretaceous to Paleocene time. The processes responsible for their exhumation (syn-collisional nappe-stacking or post-collisional extensional detachment) are still a matter of debate, and have direct implications in terms of orogenic boundary conditions and coupling between subduction processes (to the south) and basin response (to the north; the North Slope). Systematic thermometry via Raman Spectrometry (RSCM) on carbonaceous material from regional transects in the Schist Belt and the Seward Peninsula as well as pseudosections calculations allow the determination of units with contrasting pressure-temperature histories and a comparison of thermal evolution of the two areas. Geodynamic implications of their exhumation is then discussed.

  5. Tracking the exhumation of a Pliocene (U)HP terrane: U-Pb and trace-element constraints from zircon, D'Entrecasteaux Islands, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DesOrmeau, Joel W.; Gordon, Stacia M.; Little, Timothy A.; Bowring, Samuel A.

    2014-10-01

    structures within the D'Entrecasteaux Islands of eastern Papua New Guinea expose ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) Pliocene (5.6-4.6 Ma) eclogites and evidence for partial melting. To better interpret the (U)HP exhumation history, U-Pb geochronology and trace-element abundances were determined in zircon from variably deformed host gneiss and crystallized melt (leucosomes, sills, dikes, and plutons) from the Goodenough and Normanby Domes by ID-TIMS (isotope-dilution thermal ionization mass spectrometry) and ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry), respectively, to constrain the timing of melt crystallization and deformation relative to UHP metamorphism. Zircons extracted from orthogneiss and deformed granodiorite sills of Normanby Dome, located ˜40 km southeast of the UHP eclogite, record HP metamorphism from 5.66 ± 0.02 to 5.04 ± 0.07 Ma, and melt crystallization at ˜4.1 Ma. Strongly deformed, layer-parallel leucosomes from Goodenough Dome, ˜20 km northwest of the UHP eclogite, began to crystallize by 3.85 ± 0.02 Ma. These dates indicate that melt crystallization began in the Goodenough and Normanby Domes within ˜0.75 m.y. of (U)HP metamorphism. The ID-TIMS dates from the orthogneiss and crystallized melt show that exhumation and cooling of the (U)HP rocks in the PNG terrane began first in the east, within Normanby Dome, then to the west, in the Goodenough Dome ˜1 m.y. later, and finally the middle dome rocks, exposed within the Mailolo Dome, cooled ˜2 m.y. after exhumation of Normanby Dome. All domes reveal synchronous crystallization of late, nondeformed melts, and final extension-driven exhumation by 1.82 ± 0.03 Ma.

  6. Measuring Heat Flow on the Moon and Mars- The Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package HP-cubed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spohn, T.; Grott, M.; Ho, T.; van Zoest, T.; Kargl, G.; Smrekar, S. E.; Hudson, T. L.

    2010-12-01

    With only two successful heat flow measurements performed on the surface of the Moon to date, the thermal state of the Moon remains poorly constrained. Furthermore, measurements were taken close to the boundary of the Procellarum KREEP terraine, and the obtained values may not be representative for the bulk of the planet. For Mars, no heat flow measurement is yet available. Here we will present the Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package HP-cubed a self-penetrating, robotic heat flow probe. The instrument consists of electrical and temperature sensors that will be emplaced into the lunar subsurface by means of an electro-mechanical hammering mechanism. The instruement is foreseen to penetrate 3-5 m into the planet’s soil and will perform depth resolved measurements, from which the surface planetary heat flow can be directly deduced. The instrument has been pre-developed in two ESA funded precursor studies and has been further developed in the framework of ESA’s ExoMars mission. The current readiness level of the instrument is TRL 5.62 (ESA PDR Apr. 2009) which has been achieved with several Breadboards developed and tested between 2004 and 2009. As no drilling is required to achieve soil penetration, HP-cubed is a relatively lightweight heat flow probe, weighting less than 1800 g. It has been further studied as parts of the discovery proposals Lunette and GEMS and for the proposed Japanese lunar mission SELENE 2 The instrument consists of an electro-mechanic mole, a pay-load compartment, and a tether equipped with temperature sensors. The latter can be actively heated for thermal conductivity measurements. A tiltmeter and acceleraometer will help to track the path of the mole. The payload compartment has room for sensors such as a permittivity probe, a bore-hole camera, and/or a masspectrometer. Following deployment of the instrument, instrument operations will be split into two phases: During the penetration phase soil intrusion is achieved by means of the

  7. Deformation and Metasomatic Evolution at the Subduction Plate Interface As Viewed from Study of HP/UHP Metamorphic Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bebout, G. E.; Penniston-Dorland, S.

    2014-12-01

    We provide a view of lithologic makeup, deformation, and fluid-rock interaction along the deep forearc to subarc plate interface, based on insights gained from study of HP/UHP metamorphic rocks. Exposures of plate-boundary shear zones on which we base our perspective represent 30-80 km depths and are on Catalina Island and at Monviso, Syros, and New Caledonia. Each contains highly deformed zones with schistose matrix, commonly with a large ultramafic component, containing bodies of less deformed mafic, sedimentary, and ultramafic rocks. These "blocks" have varying geometries, are up to km-scale, and can preserve disparate P-T histories reflecting dynamics of incorporation and entrainment. Sheared matrices contain high-variance, hydrous mineral assemblages in some cases resembling metasomatic zones ("rinds") at block-matrix contacts, and rinds and matrices have homogenized isotopic compositions reflecting extensive fluid-rock interaction. Shearing and related physical juxtaposition of disparate metasomatic rocks can result in mixed or 'hybrid' chemical compositions. The chlorite-, talc-, and amphibole-rich schists developed by these processes can stabilize H2O to great depth and influence its cycling. Fluids (hydrous fluids, silicate melts) released within slabs necessarily interact with highly deformed, lithologically hybridized zones at the plate interface as they ascend to potentially enter mantle wedges. Fluids bearing chemical/isotopic signatures of hybrid rocks appear capable of producing arc magma compositions interpreted as reflecting multiple, chemically distinct fluids sources. Geophysical signatures of these rheologically weak zones are equivocal but many recognize the presence of zones of low seismic velocity at/near the top of slabs and attribute them to hydrated rocks. Whether rocks from this interface buoyantly ascend into mantle wedges, indicated in some theoretical models, remains largely untested by field and geophysical observations.

  8. New High-Performance Droplet Freezing Assay (HP-DFA) for the Analysis of Ice Nuclei with Complex Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunert, Anna Theresa; Scheel, Jan Frederik; Helleis, Frank; Klimach, Thomas; Pöschl, Ulrich; Fröhlich-Nowoisky, Janine

    2016-04-01

    Freezing of water above homogeneous freezing is catalyzed by ice nucleation active (INA) particles called ice nuclei (IN), which can be of various inorganic or biological origin. The freezing temperatures reach up to -1 °C for some biological samples and are dependent on the chemical composition of the IN. The standard method to analyze IN in solution is the droplet freezing assay (DFA) established by Gabor Vali in 1970. Several modifications and improvements were already made within the last decades, but they are still limited by either small droplet numbers, large droplet volumes or inadequate separation of the single droplets resulting in mutual interferences and therefore improper measurements. The probability that miscellaneous IN are concentrated together in one droplet increases with the volume of the droplet, which can be described by the Poisson distribution. At a given concentration, the partition of a droplet into several smaller droplets leads to finely dispersed IN resulting in better statistics and therefore in a better resolution of the nucleation spectrum. We designed a new customized high-performance droplet freezing assay (HP-DFA), which represents an upgrade of the previously existing DFAs in terms of temperature range and statistics. The necessity of observing freezing events at temperatures lower than homogeneous freezing due to freezing point depression, requires high-performance thermostats combined with an optimal insulation. Furthermore, we developed a cooling setup, which allows both huge and tiny temperature changes within a very short period of time. Besides that, the new DFA provides the analysis of more than 750 droplets per run with a small droplet volume of 5 μL. This enables a fast and more precise analysis of biological samples with complex IN composition as well as better statistics for every sample at the same time.

  9. Response to metronidazole and oxidative stress is mediated through homeostatic regulator HsrA (HP1043) in Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Olekhnovich, Igor N; Vitko, Serhiy; Valliere, Meaghan; Hoffman, Paul S

    2014-02-01

    Metronidazole (MTZ) is often used in combination therapies to treat infections caused by the gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori. Resistance to MTZ results from loss-of-function mutations in genes encoding RdxA and FrxA nitroreductases. MTZ-resistant strains, when cultured at sub-MICs of MTZ (5 to 20 μg/ml), show dose-dependent defects in bacterial growth; depressed activities of many Krebs cycle enzymes, including pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR); and low transcript levels of porGDAB (primer extension), phenotypes consistent with an involvement of a transcriptional regulator. Using a combination of protein purification steps, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs), and mass spectrometry analyses of proteins bound to porG promoter sequences, we identified HP1043, an essential homeostatic global regulator (HsrA [for homeostatic stress regulator]). Competition EMSAs and supershift analyses with HsrA-enriched protein fractions confirmed specific binding to porGDAB and hsrA promoter sequences. Exposure to MTZ resulted in >10-fold decreases in levels of HsrA and in levels of the HsrA-regulated gene products PFOR and TlpB. Exposure to paraquat (PQ), hydrogen peroxide, or organic peroxides showed near equivalence with MTZ, revealing a common oxidative stress response pathway. Finally, direct superoxide dismutase (SOD) assays showed an inverse relationship between HsrA levels and SOD activity, suggesting that HsrA may serve as a repressor of sodB. As a homeostatic sentinel, HsrA appears to be ideally positioned to enable rapid shutdown of genes associated with metabolism and growth while activating (directly or indirectly) oxidative defense genes in response to low levels of toxic metabolites (MTZ or oxygen) before they reach DNA-damaging levels. PMID:24296668

  10. Correlation between rate of folding, energy landscape, and topology in the folding of a model protein HP-36

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Arnab; Bagchi, Biman

    2003-03-01

    We explore the correlation between the energy landscape and topology in the folding of a model protein (chicken villin headpiece HP-36) by using a force-field which incorporates the effects of water through a hydropathy scale and the role of helical propensity of amino acids through a nonlocal harmonic potential. Each amino acid is represented by one side chain atom which is attached to the backbone Cα atom. Sizes and interactions of all the side chain residues are different and depend on the hydrophobicity of a particular amino acid, whereas helical propensities are incorporated in the interaction of Cα atoms. Simulations have been carried out by quenching from a fixed high temperature to two different low temperatures for many initial random configurations. The simulated structures resemble the real native state rather closely, with the root mean square deviation of the best structure being 4.5 Å. Moreover, the structure shows both the helices and bends at the appropriate positions of the model protein. The simplified model allows the study of energy landscape and also of the correlation between energy landscape with the dynamics of folding and topology. The initial part of folding is very fast, followed by two distinct slow stages, with the last stage being certainly the rate determining of the folding process. The initial fast dynamics is primarily due to hydrophobic collapse. The very slow last stage of folding is accompanied by a significant and sharp increase in the relative contact order parameter but relatively small decrease in energy. Analysis of the time dependence of the formation of the individual contact pairs show rich and complicated dynamics, where some contacts wait for a long time to form. This seems to suggest that the slow late stage folding is due to long range contact formation and also that the free energy barrier is entropic in origin. Results have been correlated with the theories of protein folding.

  11. Structure of trihydrated rare-earth acid diphosphates LnHP 2O 7·3H 2O ( Ln=La, Er)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Moussa, S.; Ventemillas, S.; Cabeza, A.; Gutierrez-Puebla, E.; Sanz, J.

    2004-06-01

    In trihydrated lanthanum acid-diphosphates LnHP 2O 7·3H 2O, prepared from acid LnCl 3 and Na 4P 2O 7 solutions (pH=1), two crystal forms were obtained. Layered structures of two representative members of this family have been determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. In the case of orthorhombic LaHP 2O 7·3H 2O (type I), lanthanum cations are ninefold coordinated and diphosphate groups adopt a staggered (alternated) configuration. In the case of triclinic ErHP 2O 7·3H 2O (type II), erbium cations are eightfold coordinated and diphosphate groups adopt an eclipsed configuration. In agreement with Infrared (IR) spectroscopic data, a bended configuration for diphosphate groups has been deduced. In both structures, one-dimensional chains of edge-sharing rare-earth polyhedra are linked together by diphosphate groups to form the phosphate layers. In both diphosphates, PO 4 and HPO 4 environments have been identified by 31P MAS-NMR technique. In the two compounds, OH groups of HPO 4 tetrahedra point out of diphosphate planes interacting with adjacent layers. In La-diphosphate, the interaction between HPO 4 groups and water molecules of adjacent layers is favored; however, in Er-diphosphate, the interaction between phosphate acid groups of contiguous layers is produced. Based on structural information deduced, differences detected in IR and NMR spectra of two disphosphates are discussed.

  12. Effect of seawater salinity on pore-size distribution on a poly(styrene)-based HP20 resin and its adsorption of diarrhetic shellfish toxins.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lin; Sun, Geng; Qiu, Jiangbing; Ma, Qimin; Hess, Philipp; Li, Aifeng

    2014-12-19

    In the present study, okadaic acid (OA) and dinophysistoxin-1 (DTX1) were spiked into artificial seawater at low, medium and high estuarine salinities (9‰, 13.5‰ and 27‰). Passive samplers (HP20 resin) used for solid phase adsorption toxin tracking (SPATT) technology were exposed in these seawaters for 12-h periods. Adsorption curves well fitted a pseudo-secondary kinetics model. The highest initial sorption rates of both toxins occurred in the seawater of medium salinity, followed by seawater of low and high estuarine salinity. Pore volumes of micropores (<2 nm) and small mesopores (2 nmHP20 resin decreased after adsorption of toxins in seawater at high and low salinity but not in seawater at medium salinity, which demonstrated that the toxin molecules entered into micropores and mesopores (below 10nm in size) in seawaters of high and low salinity. More toxin or other matrix agglomerates were displayed on the surface of resin deployed in the seawater of medium salinity. Taking into consideration the pore-size distribution and surface images, it appears that intra-particle diffusion governs toxin adsorption in seawater at high salinity while film diffusion mainly controls the adsorption process in seawater at medium salinity. This is the first study to confirm that molecules of OA and DTX1 are able to enter into micropores (<2nm) and small mesopores (2-10nm) of HP20 resin in estuarine seawater with high salinity (∼27‰).

  13. Structural alterations induced by photodynamic action of hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) in plasma membrane of glioblastoma (U-87MG) cells: time dependent fluorescence spectroscopic study.

    PubMed

    Joshi, K; Joshi, P G; Joshi, N B

    1995-08-01

    Photodynamic action of hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) on the plasma membrane of human glioblastoma U-87MG cells was investigated using lipid and protein specific fluorescent probes trimethylammonium-1,6-diphenyl 1,3,5-hexatriene (TMA-DPH) and N-(1-pyrene)-maleimide (PM) respectively. Steady state anisotropy, decay time and time dependent anisotropy of these probes in U-87MG cells were measured. Light irradiation caused an increase in the steady state anisotropy of TMA-DPH in cells treated with HpD; however, no change in decay time was observed. Time dependent anisotropy measurements were performed and the data were analyzed using wobbling in cone model. A decrease in the rotational relaxation time (phi) as well as the cone angle (theta(c)) and an increase in the order parameter (S) of TMA-DPH were observed on photosensitization of cells. A decrease in the order parameter (S) of TMA-DPH were observed on photosensitization of cells. A decrease in the steady rate anisotropy and the rotational relaxation time (phi) of PM and enhancement in the lipid peroxidation were also observed. Our results show that the photodynamic action of HpD increases the order in the lipid bilayer and the mobility of the proteins in the plasma membrane of cells. PMID:8655188

  14. The crystal structure of Helicobacter pylori HP1029 highlights the functional diversity of the sialic acid-related DUF386 family.

    PubMed

    Vallese, Francesca; Percudani, Riccardo; Fischer, Wolfgang; Zanotti, Giuseppe

    2015-09-01

    The proteins of the YhcH/YjgK/YiaL (DUF386) family have been implicated in the bacterial metabolism of host-derived sialic acids and biofilm formation, although their precise biochemical function remains enigmatic. We present here the crystal structure of protein HP1029 from Helicobacter pylori. The protein is a homodimer, in which each monomer comprises a molecular core formed by 12 antiparallel β-strands arranged in two β-sheets flanked by helices. The sandwich formed by the sheets assumes the shape of a funnel opened at one end, with a zinc ion present at the bottom of the funnel. The crystal structure unequivocally shows that HP1029 belongs to the DUF386 family. Although no bioinformatics evidence has been found for sialic acid catabolism in H. pylori, the genomic context of HP1029 in Helicobacter and related organisms suggests a possible role in the metabolism of bacterial surface saccharides, such as pseudaminic acid and its derivatives. PMID:26096900

  15. Fate and transport of mercury in soil systems : a numerical model in HP1 and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Jacques, Diederik

    2013-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) poses threats for human health and the environment, notably due to its persistence and its ability to bioaccumulate in ecosystems. Anthropogenic activities are major contributors of mercury release to soils. Main sources of contamination include manufacturing (chlor-alkali plants, manometer spill), mine tailings from mercury, gold and silver mining industries, wood preservation. The objective of this study was to develop a reactive transport model for simulating mercury fate and transport in the unsaturated zone, and to gain insight in the fate and transport of Hg following anthropogenic soil contamination. The present work is done in the framework of the IMaHg project, which aims at providing recommendations to improve management of sites contaminated by mercury within the SNOWMAN funding framework. A model of mercury fate and transport in soil systems was developed using the reactive transport code HP1 (Jacques and Šimůnek, 2010). The geochemical database THERMODDEM (Blanc et al., 2012) is used, augmented with some speciation data from (Skyllberg, 2012). The main processes accounted for in the model are : Hg aqueous speciation (including complexation with dissolved organic matter (DOM) - humic and fulvic acids, and thiol groups), Hg sorption to solid organic matter (SOM), dissolution of solid phase Hg (e.g. cinnabar HgS(s)), dissolution of Hg non-aqueous liquid phase (NAPL), sunlight-driven Hg(II) reduction to Hg(0), Hg(0) diffusion in the gas phase and volatilization, DOM sorption to soil minerals. Colloid facilitated transport is implicitly accounted for by solute transport of Hg-DOM complexes. Because we focused on soil systems having a high Hg contamination, some processes showing relatively smaller Hg fluxes could be neglected such as vegetation uptake and atmospheric wet and dry deposition. NAPL migration and entrapment is not modelled, as pollution is assumed to be historical and only residual NAPL to be present. Mercury methylation and

  16. High Power Diode Laser-Treated HP-HVOF and Twin Wire Arc-Sprayed Coatings for Fossil Fuel Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, B. S.

    2013-08-01

    This article deals with high power diode laser (HPDL) surface modification of twin wire arc-sprayed (TWAS) and high pressure high velocity oxy-fuel (HP-HVOF) coatings to combat solid particle erosion occurring in fossil fuel power plants. To overcome solid particle impact wear above 673 K, Cr3C2-NiCr-, Cr3C2-CoNiCrAlY-, and WC-CrC-Ni-based HVOF coatings are used. WC-CoCr-based HVOF coatings are generally used below 673 K. Twin wire arc (TWA) spraying of Tafa 140 MXC and SHS 7170 cored wires is used for a wide range of applications for a temperature up to 1073 K. Laser surface modification of high chromium stainless steels for steam valve components and LPST blades is carried out regularly. TWA spraying using SHS 7170 cored wire, HP-HVOF coating using WC-CoCr powder, Ti6Al4V alloy, and high chromium stainless steels (X20Cr13, AISI 410, X10CrNiMoV1222, 13Cr4Ni, 17Cr4Ni) were selected in the present study. Using robotically controlled parameters, HPDL surface treatments of TWAS-coated high strength X10CrNiMoV1222 stainless steel and HP-HVOF-coated AISI 410 stainless steel samples were carried out and these were compared with HPDL-treated high chromium stainless steels and titanium alloy for high energy particle impact wear (HEPIW) resistance. The HPDL surface treatment of the coatings has improved the HEPIW resistance manifold. The improvement in HPDL-treated stainless steels and titanium alloys is marginal and it is not comparable with that of HPDL-treated coatings. These coatings were also compared with "as-sprayed" coatings for fracture toughness, microhardness, microstructure, and phase analyses. The HEPIW resistance has a strong relationship with the product of fracture toughness and microhardness of the HPDL-treated HP-HVOF and TWAS SHS 7170 coatings. This development opens up a possibility of using HPDL surface treatments in specialized areas where the problem of HEPIW is very severe. The HEPIW resistance of HPDL-treated high chromium stainless steels and

  17. Comparison of gadolinium Cy{sub 2}DOTA, a new hepatobiliary agent, and gadolinium HP-DO3A, an extracellular agent, in healthy liver and metastatic disease

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, V.M.; Wells, J.W.; Williams, N.M.

    1995-02-01

    A new gadolinium (Gd) chelate with preferential hepatobiliary uptake, Gd Cy{sub 2}DOTA, was compared in two animal species with Gd HP-DO3A (gadoteridol), a clinically approved contrast agent with extracellular distribution. Liver enhancement was evaluated for these two contrast agents using magnetic resonance imaging, whereas an experimental model of metastatic disease was used to evaluate the agents` efficacy for liver-lesion delineation. The two agents were compared in four healthy Rhesus monkeys (eight studies) and five New Zealand White rabbits with implanted VX-2 liver tumors (ten studies). The contrast dose was 0.1 mmol/kg, with the agents given in random order and at least 72 hours between contrast injections. Breathhold T1-weighted spin echo scans were obtained at 1.5 tesla (T) before and after contrast was administered. Postcontrast scans were obtained 1 to 90 minutes after injection in the monkeys and 1 to 240 minutes after injection in the rabbits. Prolonged hepatic enhancement, superior in degree to that with Gd HP-DO3A, was noted to both monkeys and rabbits after injection of Gd Cy{sub 2}DOTA. Two minutes after contrast, liver SI was 1.94 {+-} 0.05 with Gd Cy{sub 2}DOTA compared with 1.5 {+-} 0.05 with Gd HP-DO3A in monkeys. Sixty minutes after contrast, liver SI was 1.60 {+-} 0.09 compared with 1.20 {+-} 0.02. The difference between agents was significant at all times from 2 to 60 minutes after contrast injection (P < 0.01). Excretion of contrast into the gall bladder was observed in both animal species with Gd Cy{sub 2}DOTA but not with Gd HP-DO3A. The maximum improvement in lesion conspicuity (rabbit) occurred 45 minutes after injection of Gd Cy{sub 2}DOTA and 5 minutes after injection of Gd HP-DO3A. 22 refs., 12 figs.

  18. Final test report on the combustion of solvent-refined coal in a 100 hp firetube boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Y.S.; Wieczenski, D.E.; Snedden, R.B.; Bellas, G.T.; Joubert, J.I.; Curio, A.R.; Wildman, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Although solid Solvent-Refined Coal (SRC-I) was burned successfully in a coal-designed utility boiler in 1977, the feasibility of using this fuel in more compact oil- or gas-designed units at signficantly higher heat liberation rates remained uncertain. Combustion tests were conducted at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center using a 100 hp (3450 lb of steam per hour) firetube boiler, designed to burn No. 6 oil. The fuel was produced at an SRC pilot plant in Wilsonville, Alabama, from high-sulfur Kentucky coal, and 0.8% sulfur and 0.3% ash. In the combustion tests, SRC was fed to the boiler in three different physical forms: (1) a slurry composed of 70% by weight SRC-I process solvent and 30% by weight solid SRC pulverized to 92% minus 200 mesh; (2) a molten liquid at approx. 600/sup 0/F, using superheated steam at 800/sup 0/F for atomization, and preheated combustion air at 400/sup 0/F in a conventional oil burner; and (3) a solid, pulverized to 90% minus 325 mesh, using preheated secondary combustion air at 550/sup 0/F. The slurry and molten forms were burned at full boiler load at a heat liberation rate of 184,000 Btu/ft/sup 3/-hr. Carbon conversion efficiencies were generally 99.7% or greater, and boiler efficiencies were about 82%, the same as when burning No. 6 fuel oil. The pulverized SRC was burned at approx. 50% of full boiler load (1656 to 1803 lb of steam per hour) due to the limitations on the burner that was available. Carbon conversion efficiencies ranged from 98.6 to 99.6%, and boiler efficiency again was about 82%. The test results indicate that SRC-I, including the solid form, can probably be burned without derating in larger oil-designed industrial boilers of watertube design. Such units usually operate at heat liberation rates in the range of 25,000-50,000 Btu/ft/sup 3/-hr, significantly lower than rates employed in these tests.

  19. TAE+ 5.2 - TRANSPORTABLE APPLICATIONS ENVIRONMENT PLUS, VERSION 5.2 (HP9000 SERIES 700/800 VERSION)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    TAE SUPPORT OFFICE

    1994-01-01

    programs to display and control the user interfaces. Since the WPTs access the workbench-generated resource files during each execution, details such as color, font, location, and object type remain independent from the application code, allowing changes to the user interface without recompiling and relinking. In addition to WPTs, TAE Plus can control interaction of objects from the interpreted TAE Command Language. TCL provides a means for the more experienced developer to quickly prototype an application's use of TAE Plus interaction objects and add programming logic without the overhead of compiling or linking. TAE Plus requires MIT's X Window System and the Open Software Foundation's Motif. The HP 9000 Series 700/800 version of TAE 5.2 requires Version 11 Release 5 of the X Window System. All other machine versions of TAE 5.2 require Version 11, Release 4 of the X Window System. The Workbench and WPTs are written in C++ and the remaining code is written in C. TAE Plus is available by license for an unlimited time period. The licensed program product includes the TAE Plus source code and one set of supporting documentation. Additional documentation may be purchased separately at the price indicated below. The amount of disk space required to load the TAE Plus tar format tape is between 35Mb and 67Mb depending on the machine version. The recommended minimum memory is 12Mb. Each TAE Plus platform delivery tape includes pre-built libraries and executable binary code for that particular machine, as well as source code, so users do not have to do an installation. Users wishing to recompile the source will need both a C compiler and either GNU's C++ Version 1.39 or later, or a C++ compiler based on AT&T 2.0 cfront. TAE Plus was developed in 1989 and version 5.2 was released in 1993. TAE Plus 5.2 is available on media suitable for five different machine platforms: (1) IBM RS/6000 series workstations running AIX (.25 inch tape cartridge in UNIX tar format), (2) DEC RISC

  20. Corifollitropin alfa followed by hpHMG in GnRH agonist protocols. Two prospective feasibility studies in poor ovarian responders.

    PubMed

    Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Corona, Roberta; Van De Vijver, Arne; Blockeel, Christophe; Drakopoulos, Panagiotis; Vloeberghs, Veerle; De Vos, Michel; Camus, Michel; Humaidan, Peter; Tournaye, Herman

    2015-01-01

    In two prospective uncontrolled feasibility trials, we examined the effect of corifollitropin alfa (CFA) followed by highly purified human menopausal gonadotrophin (hpHMG) in a short flare-up gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist and a long GnRH agonist protocol for women with poor ovarian response. Overall, 45 patients were treated with short flare-up and 47 patients with the long agonist protocol. All patients received a single dose of 150 μg CFA, followed by 300 IU hpHMG 7 days later, triggering with 10 000 IU hCG, CSI and day 3 embryo transfer. Ongoing pregnancy rates (OPRs) did not differ between the short 15.6% and the long 17% agonist protocol (p = 0.85). Among patients treated with the short flare-up protocol, OPRs were 20% for younger patients (<40 years old) and 12% in older women (≥40 years old), p = 0.68. Similarly, in patients treated with the long agonist protocol younger women had an OPR of 26.7% versus 12.5% in older women, p = 0.23. Among patients treated with the short flare-up, live births rate were 15% and 4.3% for younger (<40 years old) and older patients (≥40 years old), respectively, p = 0.32. Similarly, in patients treated with the long agonist protocol, live births rate were 25% and 12.9% for younger (<40 years old) and older patients (≥40 years old), respectively, p = 0.41. None of the patients reported any serious adverse event related to treatment. According to our results, CFA followed by hpHMG in a short flare-up or long GnRH agonist protocol appears to be a feasible option for poor ovarian responders. Large phase III trials are mandatory prior to introduction in clinical practice. PMID:26172925

  1. Phenotypical and genetic characterization of Trichosporon sp. HP-2023. A yeast isolate from Las Yungas rainforest (Tucumán, Argentina) with dye-decolorizing ability.

    PubMed

    Pajot, Hipólito F; Figueroa, Lucía I C; Spencer, John F T; Fariña, Julia I

    2008-08-01

    A basidiomycetous yeast isolated from Las Yungas rainforest (Tucumán, Argentina) and arbitrarily named HP-2023 was selected based on its outstanding textile dye decolorizing ability. Complete decolorization of Vilmafix Red 7B-HE and Vilmafix Blue RR-BB (200 mg/l) was achieved after 16 h of cultivation. Yeast characterization was accomplished by means of both traditional and molecular methods. Results concerning molecular fingerprinting and phenotypic characterization led to identify it as Trichosporon sp., closely related to the T. multisporum-T. laibachii complex. The present work represents the first description of a Trichosporon yeast involved in reactive textile dye decolorization processes. PMID:18437525

  2. Monte Carlo determination of the conversion coefficients Hp(3)/Ka in a right cylinder phantom with 'PENELOPE' code. Comparison with 'MCNP' simulations.

    PubMed

    Daures, J; Gouriou, J; Bordy, J M

    2011-03-01

    This work has been performed within the frame of the European Union ORAMED project (Optimisation of RAdiation protection for MEDical staff). The main goal of the project is to improve standards of protection for medical staff for procedures resulting in potentially high exposures and to develop methodologies for better assessing and for reducing, exposures to medical staff. The Work Package WP2 is involved in the development of practical eye-lens dosimetry in interventional radiology. This study is complementary of the part of the ENEA report concerning the calculations with the MCNP-4C code of the conversion factors related to the operational quantity H(p)(3). In this study, a set of energy- and angular-dependent conversion coefficients (H(p)(3)/K(a)), in the newly proposed square cylindrical phantom made of ICRU tissue, have been calculated with the Monte-Carlo code PENELOPE and MCNP5. The H(p)(3) values have been determined in terms of absorbed dose, according to the definition of this quantity, and also with the kerma approximation as formerly reported in ICRU reports. At a low-photon energy (up to 1 MeV), the two results obtained with the two methods are consistent. Nevertheless, large differences are showed at a higher energy. This is mainly due to the lack of electronic equilibrium, especially for small angle incidences. The values of the conversion coefficients obtained with the MCNP-4C code published by ENEA quite agree with the kerma approximation calculations obtained with PENELOPE. We also performed the same calculations with the code MCNP5 with two types of tallies: F6 for kerma approximation and *F8 for estimating the absorbed dose that is, as known, due to secondary electrons. PENELOPE and MCNP5 results agree for the kerma approximation and for the absorbed dose calculation of H(p)(3) and prove that, for photon energies larger than 1 MeV, the transport of the secondary electrons has to be taken into account.

  3. From fighter aircraft to pipeline: The development of the first ''third generation'' aero-derived gas turbine in the 16,000-8,000 HP class

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, G.N.; Mathers, W.G.

    1987-01-01

    Two totally unrelated sources of hot gas energy the FCCU oil refining process and the aircraft engine - both utilize the same range of basic aerodynamic and machinery design technologies for mechanical drive power recovery. this paper shows how these technologies came together and discusses the development of the Ingersoll-Rand GT-60 gas turbine, the first to use a general Electric LM1600 hot gas generator (from the F404 fighter engine program); it also illustrates how it was possible for the first ''third generation'' aero-derived gas turbine in the 16,000 - 18,000 hp class to be developed in a much shorter than normal lead time.

  4. Fate and transport of mercury in soil systems : a numerical model in HP1 and sensitivity analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leterme, Bertrand; Jacques, Diederik

    2013-04-01

    Mercury (Hg) poses threats for human health and the environment, notably due to its persistence and its ability to bioaccumulate in ecosystems. Anthropogenic activities are major contributors of mercury release to soils. Main sources of contamination include manufacturing (chlor-alkali plants, manometer spill), mine tailings from mercury, gold and silver mining industries, wood preservation. The objective of this study was to develop a reactive transport model for simulating mercury fate and transport in the unsaturated zone, and to gain insight in the fate and transport of Hg following anthropogenic soil contamination. The present work is done in the framework of the IMaHg project, which aims at providing recommendations to improve management of sites contaminated by mercury within the SNOWMAN funding framework. A model of mercury fate and transport in soil systems was developed using the reactive transport code HP1 (Jacques and Šimůnek, 2010). The geochemical database THERMODDEM (Blanc et al., 2012) is used, augmented with some speciation data from (Skyllberg, 2012). The main processes accounted for in the model are : Hg aqueous speciation (including complexation with dissolved organic matter (DOM) - humic and fulvic acids, and thiol groups), Hg sorption to solid organic matter (SOM), dissolution of solid phase Hg (e.g. cinnabar HgS(s)), dissolution of Hg non-aqueous liquid phase (NAPL), sunlight-driven Hg(II) reduction to Hg(0), Hg(0) diffusion in the gas phase and volatilization, DOM sorption to soil minerals. Colloid facilitated transport is implicitly accounted for by solute transport of Hg-DOM complexes. Because we focused on soil systems having a high Hg contamination, some processes showing relatively smaller Hg fluxes could be neglected such as vegetation uptake and atmospheric wet and dry deposition. NAPL migration and entrapment is not modelled, as pollution is assumed to be historical and only residual NAPL to be present. Mercury methylation and

  5. Constraining the amount of radiogenic elements in the interior of Mars from the HP3 heat flow measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grott, Matthias; Plesa, Ana-Catalina; Tosi, Nicola; Breuer, Doris

    2014-05-01

    The InSight mission (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) to be launched in 2016 will carry a seismometer (SEIS) and heat flow probe (HP3) to the martian surface, and address questions related to the size, physical state, and composition of the core and mantle, the thickness of the crust, and the thermal state of the interior. The heat flow measured at the surface depends on the amount of heat producing elements (HPE) present in the interior and offers a measurable quantity that can help to constrain the planetary heat budget. If the Urey ratio - the ratio between internal heat production and surface heat loss - is known, the heat production rate in the interior can be determined. We run thermal evolution models of increasing complexity and compared the obtained present-day Urey ratio for a set of different models/parameters. To this end, we used the 2D-3D mantle convection code Gaia [1], as well as 1D parameterized models [2]. We varied the initial amount of HPE [3, 4,5,6], used various viscosity formulations (temperature-, temperature- and depth-dependent viscosity, viscosity jump in the mid mantle), varied the size of the core, and considered models with and without phase transitions in the mantle. Additionally, we tested the effects of different partitioning of HPE between mantle and a fixed crust, different initial conditions (temperatures and boundary layer thicknesses) and reference viscosities. Our simulations show that, for a one-plate planet like Mars, the Urey ratio is mainly sensitive to the efficiency of mantle cooling, i.e. the mantle viscosity, and to the mean half-life of long-lived radiogenic isotopes. Given that models of the thermo-chemical evolution of Mars generally indicate reference viscosities below 1021 Pa s [3, 7], the martian Urey ratio is likely only a function of the Thorium concentration in the planetary interior. Surface radiogenic abundances determined from gamma-ray spectroscopy [8] are best

  6. [European Registry on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection (Hp-EuReg protocol): The first results of Russian centers].

    PubMed

    Bordin, D S; Yanova, O B; Abdulkhakov, R A; Tsukanov, V V; Livzan, M A; Burkov, S G; Zakharova, N V; Plotnikova, E Yu; Osipenko, M F; Tarasova, L V; Maev, I V; Kucheryavyi, Yu A; Butov, M A; Sablin, O A; Kolbasnikov, S V; Voinovan, I N; Abdulkhakov, S R; Vasyutin, A V; Lyalyukova, E A; Golubev, N N; Savilova, I V; Grigoryeva, L V; Kononova, A G; O'Morain, Colm; Ramas, Mercedes; Mcnicholl, Adrian G; Gisbert, Javier P

    2016-01-01

    Резюме Цель исследования. Оценка клинической практики диагностики и лечения больных с инфекцией Helicobacter pylori и сопоставление этой практики с международными рекомендациями в Европейском регистре (European Registry on the management of Helicobacter pylori infection, протокол: «Hp-EuReg») — наблюдательном многоцентровом проспективном исследовании, инициированном Европейской группой по изучению H. pylori и микробиоты (EHMSG). Материалы и методы. Проведен анализ данных 813 больных, инфицированных H. pylori и внесенных в регистр Российскими центрами исследования «Hp-EuReg» в 2013—2015 гг. Результаты. Наиболее распространенными методами первичной диагностики инфекции H. pylori являются гистологический (40,3%), быстрый уреазный тест (35,7%) и серологический (17,2%). Длительность антихеликобактерной терапии в 18% случаев составила 7 дней, в 49,3% — 10 дней, в 25,1% — 14 дней. Для контроля эффективности лечения используются гистологический метод (34%), уреазный дыхательный тест (27,3%), антиген H. pylori в кале (22,8%), быстрый уреазный тест (16,3%). В 2,5% случаев использовался серологический метод. У 13,5% больных контроль не проводился. Средняя эффективность эрадикации

  7. Attainment of dual-band edge work function by using a single metal gate and single high-k dielectric via ion implantation for HP CMOS device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Qiuxia; Xu, G.; Zhou, H.; Zhu, H.; Liu, J.; Wang, Y.; Li, J.; Xiang, J.; Liang, Q.; Wu, H.; Zhong, J.; Xu, M.; Xu, W.; Ma, X.; Wang, X.; Tong, X.; Chen, D.; Yan, J.; Zhao, C.; Ye, T.

    2016-01-01

    Attainment of dual band-edge effective work functions by using a single metal gate and single high k gate dielectric via P/BF2 implantation into a TiN metal gate for HP HKMG CMOS device applications are investigated under a gate-last process flow for the first time. The flat band voltage (VFB) modulations of about -750 mV/570 mV for N-/P-type MOS device with P/BF2 implanted TiN/HfO2/ILSiO2 gate stack are obtained respectively in the experiment range. Suitable low threshold voltages of CMOSFETs are gotten while simultaneously shrinking the EOT. The effects of P/BF2 ion implantation energy, dose and TiN gate thickness on the properties of implanted TiN/HfO2/ILSiO2 gate stack are studied, the possible mechanisms are discussed. This technique has been successfully integrated into the fabrications of aggressively scaled HP HKMG CMOSFETs and 32 CMOS frequency dividers under a gate-last process flow.

  8. Effect of high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments of in-package food on additive migration from conventional and bio-sourced materials.

    PubMed

    Mauricio-Iglesias, M; Jansana, S; Peyron, S; Gontard, N; Guillard, V

    2010-01-01

    Migration was assessed during and after two high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments intended for a pasteurization (800 MPa for 5 min, from 20 to 40 degrees C) and a sterilization treatment (800 MPa for 5 min, from 90 to 115 degrees C) and were compared with conventional pasteurization and sterilization, respectively. The specific migration of actual packaging additives used as antioxidants and ultraviolet light absorbers (Irganox 1076, Uvitex OB) was investigated in a number of food-packaging systems combining one synthetic common packaging (LLDPE) and a bio-sourced one (PLA) in contact with the four food-simulating liquids defined by European Commission regulations. After standard HP/T processing, migration kinetics was followed during the service life of the packaging material using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectroscopy. LLDPE withstood the high-pressure sterilization, whereas it melted during the conventional sterilization. No difference was observed on migration from LLDPE for both treatments. In the case of PLA, migration of Uvitex OB was very low or not detectable for all the cases studied. PMID:19809898

  9. Synthesis, structure refinement at 296 K and physico-chemical characterizations of KMnHP{sub 3}O{sub 10}

    SciTech Connect

    Mechergui, J.; Belam, W.

    2008-12-01

    Potassium manganese(III) monohydrogentriphosphate KMnHP{sub 3}O{sub 10} was synthesized by flux method and characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, crystallizes in the monoclinic system with centric space group C2/c. The parameters of the unit cell are a = 12.104(1), b = 8.287(1). c = 9.150(1) A, {beta} = 110.97(1) deg. and Z = 4. The structure was solved at 296 K using 893 independent reflections and refined until R(F) = 0.022; wR(F{sup 2}) = 0.045. The atomic arrangement of the title compound consists of MnO{sub 6} octahedra linked by hydrogentriphosphate anions to form a three-dimensional framework containing tunnels parallel to the c-axis where the K{sup +} cations are inserted. The structure of KMnHP{sub 3}O{sub 10} contains a single Mn site which is surrounded by typical Jahn-Teller [2 + 2 + 2] distorted octahedron. The title material has been also characterized by different physico-chemical techniques: powder X-ray diffraction, IR, NMR and CI spectroscopies and DTA-TGA-DSC thermal analysis.

  10. Hp-normogram (normo-graham) for Assessing the Outcome of H. pylori Therapy: Effect of Resistance, Duration, and CYP2C19 Genotype.

    PubMed

    Graham, David Y

    2016-04-01

    There have been hundreds of H. pylori eradication trials and yet doubt remains regarding the best regimen for any situation. With most regimens, treatment failure is the result of resistance to one component (e.g., clarithromycin). Thus, if one knows the treatment success with two groups (all with susceptible and with all with resistant infections), one can construct a normogram that provides a reliable estimate of the outcome at any prevalence of resistance. The same data can be used to estimate the prevalence of resistance in any clinical trial, the effects duration of therapy, and effects of any procedures to improve outcome (e.g., increasing the proton-pump inhibitor dose, the duration of therapy, etc.). Because the Hp-normo-graham can reliably predict the outcome of clinical trials, it can also obviate the need for many clinical trials in populations where resistance is common. Here, we illustrate the construction of Hp-normo-graham and its use to describe the effects of resistance, duration of therapy, attempts to improve results, and the prevalence of resistance and to obviate the need for many clinical trials.

  11. A Reestimate of the Protosolar (^2^H/^1^H)_p_ ratio from (^3^He/^4^He)_SW_ solar wind measurements.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautier, D.; Morel, P.

    1997-07-01

    We reanalyze the inference of the protosolar abundance of deuterium made by Geiss (1993, in Origin and Evolution of the Elements, Eds., N. Prantzos, E. Vangioni-Flam, M. Casse, Cambridge University Press, p. 90) from measurements of (^3^He/^4^He)_SW_ in the solar wind. We use an evolutionary solar model with microscopic diffusion, constrained to fit the present age, radius and luminosity, as well as the observed ratio of heavy elements to hydrogen. The protosolar (^2^H/^1^H)_p_ is obtained from the best fit of (^3^He/^4^He)_SW_. Taking for the protosolar (^3^He/^4^He)_p_ the value measured in Jupiter by the Galileo probe (Niemann et al., 1996Sci...272..846N), we derive (^2^H/^1^H)_p_=(3.01+/-0.17)x10^-5^. Compared to the present interstellar medium value (Linsky et al., 1993ApJ...402..694L), this result is compatible with models of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy in the solar neighborhood; it is also marginally compatible with the Jovian (^2^H/^1^H)_J_=(5+/-2)x10^-5^ ratio measured by Galileo.

  12. Growth promotion in pigs by oxytetracycline coincides with down regulation of serum inflammatory parameters and of hibernation-associated protein HP-27.

    PubMed

    Soler, Laura; Miller, Ingrid; Hummel, Karin; Razzazi-Fazeli, Ebrahim; Jessen, Flemming; Escribano, Damian; Niewold, Theo

    2016-05-01

    The growth promoting effect of supplementing animal feed with antibiotics like tetracycline has traditionally been attributed to their antibiotic character. However, more evidence has been accumulated on their direct anti-inflammatory effect during the last two decades. Here we used a pig model to explore the systemic molecular effect of feed supplementation with sub therapeutic levels of oxytetracycline (OTC) by analysis of serum proteome changes. Results showed that OTC promoted growth, coinciding with a significant down regulation of different serum proteins related to inflammation, oxidation and lipid metabolism, confirming the anti-inflammatory mechanism of OTC. Interestingly, apart from the classic acute phase reactants also down regulation was seen of a hibernation associated plasma protein (HP-27), which is to our knowledge the first description in pigs. Although the exact function in non-hibernators is unclear, down regulation of HP-27 could be consistent with increased appetite, which is possibly linked to the anti-inflammatory action of OTC. Given that pigs are good models for human medicine due to their genetic and physiologic resemblance, the present results might also be used for rational intervention in human diseases in which inflammation plays an important role such as obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. PMID:26914286

  13. SETDB1, HP1 and SUV39 promote repositioning of 53BP1 to extend resection during homologous recombination in G2 cells.

    PubMed

    Alagoz, Meryem; Katsuki, Yoko; Ogiwara, Hideaki; Ogi, Tomoo; Shibata, Atsushi; Kakarougkas, Andreas; Jeggo, Penny

    2015-09-18

    Recent studies have shown that homologous recombination (HR) requires chromatin repression as well as relaxation at DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). HP1 and SUV39H1/2 are repressive factors essential for HR. Here, we identify SETDB1 as an additional compacting factor promoting HR. Depletion of HP1, SUV39, SETDB1 or BRCA1 confer identical phenotypes. The repressive factors, like BRCA1, are dispensable for the initiation of resection but promote the extension step causing diminished RPA or RAD51 foci and HR in irradiated G2 cells. Depletion of the compacting factors does not inhibit BRCA1 recruitment but at 8 h post IR, BRCA1 foci are smaller and aberrantly positioned compared to control cells. BRCA1 promotes 53BP1 repositioning to the periphery of enlarged foci and formation of a devoid core with BRCA1 becoming enlarged and localized internally to 53BP1. Depletion of the compacting factors precludes these changes at irradiation-induced foci. Thus, the repressive factors are required for BRCA1 function in promoting the repositioning of 53BP1 during HR. Additionally, depletion of these repressive factors in undamaged cells causes diminished sister chromatid association at centromeric sequences. We propose a model for how these findings may be functionally linked. PMID:26206670

  14. Effect of high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments of in-package food on additive migration from conventional and bio-sourced materials.

    PubMed

    Mauricio-Iglesias, M; Jansana, S; Peyron, S; Gontard, N; Guillard, V

    2010-01-01

    Migration was assessed during and after two high-pressure/temperature (HP/T) treatments intended for a pasteurization (800 MPa for 5 min, from 20 to 40 degrees C) and a sterilization treatment (800 MPa for 5 min, from 90 to 115 degrees C) and were compared with conventional pasteurization and sterilization, respectively. The specific migration of actual packaging additives used as antioxidants and ultraviolet light absorbers (Irganox 1076, Uvitex OB) was investigated in a number of food-packaging systems combining one synthetic common packaging (LLDPE) and a bio-sourced one (PLA) in contact with the four food-simulating liquids defined by European Commission regulations. After standard HP/T processing, migration kinetics was followed during the service life of the packaging material using Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) spectroscopy. LLDPE withstood the high-pressure sterilization, whereas it melted during the conventional sterilization. No difference was observed on migration from LLDPE for both treatments. In the case of PLA, migration of Uvitex OB was very low or not detectable for all the cases studied.

  15. Correlation Between Presence of imaA (HP0289) and Inflammation in H. pylori Infected Patients through Analysis of Bacterial DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, A.; Jain, S.

    2012-12-01

    The bacterium Helicobacter pylori inhabits the stomachs of nearly half of the world's human population, yet only a small fraction (20%) of those people are harmfully affected by the organism. Inflammation caused by the species often results in stomach ulcers or even cancer in these infected patients. Previous studies indicate that the uncharacterized H. pylori gene imaA (HP0289) may be responsible for suppressing this inflammation. Correlation between the intactness of the gene and inflammation levels in patients was determined through analysis of 105 DNA samples from H. pylori infected patients. Traditional PCR and gel electrophoresis techniques were used in the experimentation process. Primers including AC235, 5'imaARev, 3'imaAFor2446, 3'imaARevClinical, ureA637For, ureA637Rev, interFor1, interRev1, interFor2, and interRev2 were used to identify deletions in HP0289 in each DNA sample. The results from this analysis could allow for eventual remediation of the adverse effects of H. pylori.

  16. Petrology of HP metamorphic veins in coesite-bearing eclogite from western Tianshan, China: Fluid processes and elemental mobility during exhumation in a cold subduction zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Zeng; Zhang, Lifei; Du, Jinxue; Yang, Xin; Tian, Zuolin; Xia, Bin

    2012-04-01

    A petrological study was carried out for high pressure (HP) veins which cut through the host coesite-bearing eclogites at Habutengsu-Kebuerte in western Tianshan, China. The results place constraints on the origin and property of metamorphic fluids during subduction-zone metamorphism. Omphacite-, clinozoisite- and quartz-dominated veins occur on centimeter to meter scales within lens-shaped and layered eclogites, or cutting into the country rocks of garnet phengite schists. Coesite-bearing eclogites mainly consist of fibrous fine-grained omphacite and porphyroblastic garnet, with minor amounts of amphibole (mainly barroisite), clinozoisite, white mica (mainly paragonite) and rutile. The veins are pronouncedly coarse-grained compared to the host eclogites and commonly consist of quartz, clinozosite, rutile, white mica (phengite and paragonite) and garnet, with or without omphacite, titanite, apatite, carbonate (mainly dolomite) and glaucophane. Fluid inclusions are abundant in vein omphacite, titanite and apatite, but are rare in the equivalent minerals of host eclogites. Rounded vein garnets usually occur close to the sharp interface of vein and host eclogite. Omphacite in the veins is characterized by its euhedral form surrounded by quartz, or coarse bladed aggregates in contrast to the fibrous or patchy one, suggesting dynamic recrystallization in the host rocks. Omphacite in both veins and host eclogites has similar jadeite contents (Jd40-50), indicating formation at eclogite-facies metamorphic conditions. Vein phengite uniformly contains certain amounts of Ba with maximum BaO content of 3.16-4.25 wt.%, suggesting that Ba was mobilized during the exhumation of UHP rocks. Specific textures of vein minerals, such as the enclosure of magnesite (or calcite) in dolomite, rutile in titanite, and the occurrence of zoned Ba-rich phengite, indicate the chemical variability of channelized fluids over time. Based on Zr content in rutile and the presence of paragonite

  17. Lithium isotopes in Guatemalan and Franciscan HP-LT rocks: Insights into the role of sediment-derived fluids during subduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simons, Kyla K.; Harlow, George E.; Brueckner, Hannes K.; Goldstein, Steven L.; Sorensen, Sorena S.; Hemming, N. Gary; Langmuir, Charles H.

    2010-06-01

    High-pressure, low-temperature (HP-LT) rocks from a Cretaceous age subduction complex occur as tectonic blocks in serpentinite mélange along the Motagua Fault (MF) in central Guatemala. Eclogite and jadeitite among these are characterized by trace element patterns with enrichments in fluid mobile elements, similar to arc lavas. Eclogite is recrystallized from MORB-like altered oceanic crust, presumably at the boundary between the down-going plate and overlying mantle wedge. Eclogite geochemistry, mineralogy and petrography suggest a two step petrogenesis of (1) dehydration during prograde metamorphism at low temperatures (<500 °C) followed by (2) partial rehydration/fertilization at even lower T during exhumation. In contrast, Guatemalan jadeitites are crystallized directly from low- T aqueous fluid as veins in serpentinizing mantle during both subduction and exhumation. The overall chemistry and mineralogy of Guatemalan eclogites are similar to those from the Franciscan Complex, California, implying similar P- T- x paths. Li concentrations (⩽90 ppm) in mineral separates and whole rocks (WR) from Guatemalan and Franciscan HP-LT rocks are significantly higher than MORB (4-6 ppm), but similar to HP-LT rocks globally. Li isotopic compositions range from -5‰ to +5‰ for Guatemalan HP-LT rocks, and -4‰ to +1‰ for Franciscan eclogites, overlapping previous findings for other HP-LT suites. The combination of Li concentrations greater than MORB, and Li isotopic values lighter than MORB are inconsistent with a simple dehydration model. We prefer a model in which Li systematics in Guatemalan and Franciscan eclogites reflect reequilibration with subduction fluids during exhumation. Roughly 5-10% of the Li in these fluids is derived from sediments. Model results predict that the dehydrated bulk ocean crust is isotopically lighter (δ 7Li ⩽ +1 ± 3‰) than the depleted mantle (˜+3.5 ± 0.5‰), while the mantle wedge beneath the arc is the isotopic complement of

  18. Fi Investigations On Hp-Rocks From The Lower Engadine Window New Insights On Its Late Tectono-Metamorphic Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertle, R. J.; Götzinger, M. A.; Koller, F.

    2003-04-01

    Fluid inclusions studies in metamorphic rocks allow to reconstruct not only the chemistry of the fluids enabling and/or supporting metamorphic reactions but also the late metamorphic evolution of orogenesis. Therefore late, discordant quarz-calcite veins were investigated using FI-techniques. The Engadine Window which is exposed at the Swiss-Austrian-border exposes the penninic units of the Western Alps as a tectonic window within the Austroalpine nappes of the Eastern Alps. The nappes of the Engadine window underwent metamorphism and deformation during Tertiary times (THÖNI 1981, BERTLE 2000). The highest unit (Fimber unit) and the core of the window (= Zone of Pfunds) suffered HP-LT-metamorphism. P-T-conditions for parts of the Zone of Pfunds at the region of Piz Mundin are at 13-15 kbar at 380^oC (BOUSQUET et al. 2002) indicated by the occurrence of carpholite and glaucophane. The late metamorphic history is not very well constrained. There exist only a few FI-data published in an abstract by STÖCKHERT et al. 1990 and some unpublished data in RING 1989. During the ongoing mapping campaign of the first author samples from the Fimber unit and the Zone of Pfunds were collected and investigated using a LINKHAM freezing-cooling-stage. The investigated veins are discordant in respect to the main-foliation of the rocks and show nice cristalls of quarz, calcite and sometimes feldspar (adularia). Structural data implie that the investigated veins correspond to a set of ac-joints that correlate to the late updoming of the large "Engadiner Gewölbe" (Engadin anticlinal structure, MATTMÜLLER 1996). All investigated veins (from all tectonic units) show the same relationship to the anticlinal structure. FI-investigations show, that a large amount of the primary FI are decrepitated, however it was possible to find enough to provide a serious statistical data set. FI from Piz Mundin in the core of the Engadine window exhibit at the base of the vein quarz at the contact to

  19. Towards the study of 2H(p, γ)3He reaction in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis energy range in LUNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochanek, Izabela

    2016-04-01

    The Big Bang Nucleosynthesis began a few minutes after the Big Bang, when the Universe was sufficiently cold to allow deuterium nuclei to survive photo-disintegration. The total amount of deuterium produced in the Universe during the first minutes depends on the cosmological parameters (like the energy density in baryons, Ω bh 2, and the effective neutrino number, Neff ) and on the nuclear cross sections of the relevant reactions. The main source of uncertainty in the deuterium estimation comes from the 2H(p, γ)3He cross section. Measurements of Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) anisotropies obtained by the Planck satellite are in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions of the minimal ΛCDM cosmological model, significantly reducing the uncertainty on its parameters. The Planck data allows to indirectly deduce with very high precision the abundances of primodial nuclides, such as the primodial deuterium fraction 2H/H = (2.65 ± 0.07) .10-5 (68% C.L.). The astrophysical observations in damped Lyman-a systems at high redshifts provide a second high accuracy measurement of the primodial abundance of deuterium 2H/H = (2.53 ± 0.04) · 10-5 (68% C.L.). The present experimental status on the astrophysical S-factor of the 2H(p, γ)3He reaction in the BBN energy range, gives a systematic uncertainties of 9%. Also the difference between ab-initio calculations and experimental values of S12 is at the level of 10%. In order to clarify the actual scenario, a measurement of 2H(p, γ)3He cross section with a precision of a few percent in the 70-400 keV energy range is planned at LUNA in 2016. A feasibility test of the measurement has been performed in October 2014, giving the preliminary results on the cross section. The experimental setup for the test and final measurement campaign will be presented.

  20. The early Cretaceous orogen-scale Dabieshan metamorphic core complex: implications for extensional collapse of the Triassic HP-UHP orogenic belt in east-central China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wenbin; Lin, Wei; Faure, Michel; Shi, Yonghong; Wang, Qingchen

    2016-03-01

    The Dabieshan massif is famous as a portion of the world's largest HP-UHP metamorphic belt in east-central China that was built by the Triassic North-South China collision. The central domain of the Dabieshan massif is occupied by a huge migmatite-cored dome [i.e., the central Dabieshan dome (CDD)]. Origin of this domal structure remains controversial. Synthesizing previous and our new structural and geochronological data, we define the Cretaceous Dabieshan as an orogen-scale metamorphic core complex (MCC) with a multistage history. Onset of lithospheric extension in the Dabieshan area occurred as early as the commencement of crustal anatexis at the earliest Cretaceous (ca. 145 Ma), which was followed by primary (early-stage) detachment during 142-130 Ma. The central Dabieshan complex in the footwall and surrounding detachment faults recorded a consistently top-to-the-NW shearing. It is thus inferred that the primary detachment was initiated from a flat-lying detachment zone at the middle crust level. Removal of the orogenic root by delamination at ca. 130 Ma came into the extensional climax, and subsequently isostatic rebound resulted in rapid doming. Along with exhumation of the footwall, the mid-crustal detachment zone had been warped as shear zones around the CDD. After 120 Ma, the detachment system probably experienced a migration accommodated to the crustal adjustment, which led to secondary (late-stage) detachment with localized ductile shearing at ca. 110 Ma. The migmatite-gneiss with HP/UHP relicts in the CDD (i.e., the central Dabieshan complex) was product of the Cretaceous crustal anatexis that consumed the deep-seated part of the HP-UHP slices and the underlying para-autochthonous basement. Compared with the contemporaneous MCCs widely developed along the eastern margin of the Eurasian continent, we proposed that occurrence of the Dabieshan MCC shares the same tectonic setting as the "destruction of the North China craton". However, geodynamic trigger

  1. Loss of HP1 causes depletion of H3K27me3 from facultative heterochromatin and gain of H3K27me2 at constitutive heterochromatin

    PubMed Central

    Jamieson, Kirsty; Wiles, Elizabeth T.; McNaught, Kevin J.; Sidoli, Simone; Leggett, Neena; Shao, Yanchun; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Selker, Eric U.

    2016-01-01

    Methylated lysine 27 on histone H3 (H3K27me) marks repressed “facultative heterochromatin,” including developmentally regulated genes in plants and animals. The mechanisms responsible for localization of H3K27me are largely unknown, perhaps in part because of the complexity of epigenetic regulatory networks. We used a relatively simple model organism bearing both facultative and constitutive heterochromatin, Neurospora crassa, to explore possible interactions between elements of heterochromatin. In higher eukaryotes, reductions of H3K9me3 and DNA methylation in constitutive heterochromatin have been variously reported to cause redistribution of H3K27me3. In Neurospora, we found that elimination of any member of the DCDC H3K9 methylation complex caused massive changes in the distribution of H3K27me; regions of facultative heterochromatin lost H3K27me3, while regions that are normally marked by H3K9me3 became methylated at H3K27. Elimination of DNA methylation had no obvious effect on the distribution of H3K27me. Elimination of HP1, which “reads” H3K9me3, also caused major changes in the distribution of H3K27me, indicating that HP1 is important for normal localization of facultative heterochromatin. Because loss of HP1 caused redistribution of H3K27me2/3, but not H3K9me3, these normally nonoverlapping marks became superimposed. Indeed, mass spectrometry revealed substantial cohabitation of H3K9me3 and H3K27me2 on H3 molecules from an hpo strain. Loss of H3K27me machinery (e.g., the methyltransferase SET-7) did not impact constitutive heterochromatin but partially rescued the slow growth of the DCDC mutants, suggesting that the poor growth of these mutants is partly attributable to ectopic H3K27me. Altogether, our findings with Neurospora clarify interactions of facultative and constitutive heterochromatin in eukaryotes. PMID:26537359

  2. Identification of novel scaffolds for potential anti-Helicobacter pylori agents based on the crystal structure of H. pylori 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonate 8-phosphate synthase (HpKDO8PS).

    PubMed

    Cho, Sujin; Im, Hookang; Lee, Ki-Young; Chen, Jie; Kang, Hae Ju; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Min, Kyung Hoon; Lee, Kang Ro; Park, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Bong-Jin

    2016-01-27

    The crystal structure of 3-deoxy-d-manno-octulosonate-8-phosphate synthase (KDO8PS) from Helicobacter pylori (HpKDO8PS) was determined alone and within various complexes, revealing an extra helix (HE) that is absent in the structures of KDO8PS from other organisms. In contrast to the metal coordination of the KDO8PS enzyme from Aquifex aeolicus, HpKDO8PS is specifically coordinated with Cd(2+) or Zn(2+) ions, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF) revealed that Cd(2+) thermally stabilizes the protein structure more efficiently than Zn(2+). In the substrate-bound structure, water molecules play a key role in fixing residues in the proper configuration to achieve a compact structure. Using the structures of HpKDO8PS and API [arabinose 5-phosphate (A5P) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) bisubstrate inhibitor], we generated 21 compounds showing potential HpKDO8PS-binding properties via in silico virtual screening. The capacity of three, avicularin, hyperin, and MC181, to bind to HpKDO8PS was confirmed through saturation transfer difference (STD) experiments, and we identified their specific ligand binding modes by combining competition experiments and docking simulation analysis. Hyperin was confirmed to bind to the A5P binding site, primarily via hydrophilic interaction, whereas MC181 bound to both the PEP and A5P binding sites through hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions. These results were consistent with the epitope mapping by STD. Our results are expected to provide clues for the development of HpKDO8PS inhibitors.

  3. Rheological and geodynamic controls on the mechanisms of subduction, HP/UHP exhumation and PT conditions within crustal rocks during continental collision: insights from numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Evgueni

    2014-05-01

    Mechanisms of continental convergence are so versatile that it is impossible to elucidate them from conventional set of observations. Additional discriminatory data are needed such as those derived from petrology data, since burial/exhumation dynamics inferred from metamorphic P-T-t paths potentially provides independent constraints on the collision mechanism. While subduction of crustal rocks is increasingly accepted as common phenomenon inherent to convergent processes involving continental plates and micro-continents, the conditions of their formation and mechanisms of their exhumation in the form of high- and ultra-high-pressure (HP/UHP) units remain a subject of controversy. In particular, deep burial and exhumation of continental crust occur in various settings, including subduction of micro-continental terrains carried down with the subducting oceanic lithosphere and transition between the oceanic and continental subduction. Geodynamic inferences from P-T data can be made only after providing a consistent approach to decryption of both pressure and temperature in terms of depth or at least in terms of characteristic geodynamic conditions. Thermo-mechanical thermodynamically coupled numerical models of continental collision provide some elements of solution to this problem through testing various geodynamic scenarios within relatively unconstrained framework which allows for account of non-lithostatic pressure variations and for deviations of temperature from commonly inferred thermal models. We here explore several possible scenarios of subduction and exhumation of continental crust, and their relation to PT conditions and mechanisms of HP/UHP exhumation inferred from conceptual and thermo-mechanical numerical models accounting for thermo-rheological complexity and diversity of the continental lithosphere. Numerical experiments suggest that in most cases both exhumation and continental subduction are transient processes, so that long-lasting (> 10-15 Myr

  4. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance - Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2005-09-30

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2004 through September 2005. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all Phase 1 testing and is planning Phase 2 development.

  5. Engineering description of the OMS/RCS/DAP modes used in the HP-9825A High Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1978-01-01

    Simplified mathematical models are reported for the space shuttle's Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), Reaction Control System (RCS), and on-orbit Digital Autopilot (DAP) that have been incorporated in the High-Fidelity Relative Motion Program (HFRMP) for the HP-9825A desk-top calculator. Comparisons were made between data generated by the HFRMP and by the Space Shuttle Functional Simulator (SSFS), which models the cited shuttle systems in much greater detail. These data include propellant requirements for representative translational maneuvers, rotational maneuvers, and attitude maintenance options. Also included are data relating to on-orbit trajectory deviations induced by RCS translational cross coupling. Potential close-range stationkeeping problems that are suggested by HFRMP simulations of 80 millisecond (as opposed to 40 millisecond) DAP cycle effects are described. The principal function of the HFRMP is to serve as a flight design tool in the area of proximity operations.

  6. An adaptable parallel algorithm for the direct numerical simulation of incompressible turbulent flows using a Fourier spectral/hp element method and MPI virtual topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolis, A.; Cantwell, C. D.; Moxey, D.; Serson, D.; Sherwin, S. J.

    2016-09-01

    A hybrid parallelisation technique for distributed memory systems is investigated for a coupled Fourier-spectral/hp element discretisation of domains characterised by geometric homogeneity in one or more directions. The performance of the approach is mathematically modelled in terms of operation count and communication costs for identifying the most efficient parameter choices. The model is calibrated to target a specific hardware platform after which it is shown to accurately predict the performance in the hybrid regime. The method is applied to modelling turbulent flow using the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in an axisymmetric pipe and square channel. The hybrid method extends the practical limitations of the discretisation, allowing greater parallelism and reduced wall times. Performance is shown to continue to scale when both parallelisation strategies are used.

  7. A personal neutron monitoring system based on CR-39 recoil proton track detectors: assessment of Hp(10) using image process algorithms.

    PubMed

    Bedogni, R; Fantuzzi, E

    2002-01-01

    At the Individual Monitoring Service (IMS) of the ENEA Institute for Radiation Protection (IRP), the Hp(10) fast neutron dosemeter consists of a CR-39 (PADC, poly allyl diglycol carbonate) recoil protons track detector. The tracks across the detector surface are magnified through a chemical etching procedure and counted by a semi-automated system which consists of a microscope, a camera and a PC. A new analysis system, based on the National Instruments vision tools, was developed. The track area distribution for each reading field is recorded and numerical algorithms were developed in order to correct the energy dependence of the response and to recognise the tracks due to the background. This improves the dose evaluation system in terms of accuracy and discrimination or the background. PMID:12382731

  8. High rates of non-adherence to antihypertensive treatment revealed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HP LC-MS/MS) urine analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tomaszewski, Maciej; White, Christobelle; Patel, Prashanth; Masca, Nicholas; Damani, Ravi; Hepworth, Joanne; Samani, Nilesh J; Gupta, Pankaj; Madira, Webster; Stanley, Adrian; Williams, Bryan

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Non-adherence to therapy is an important cause of suboptimal blood pressure control but few practical tools exist to accurately and routinely detect it. We used a simple urine-based assay to evaluate the prevalence of antihypertensive treatment non-adherence and its impact on blood pressure in a specialist hypertension centre. Methods 208 hypertensive patients (125 new referrals, 66 follow-up patients with inadequate blood pressure control and 17 renal denervation referrals) underwent assessment of antihypertensive drug intake using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HP LC-MS/MS) urine analysis at the time of clinical appointment. A total of 40 most commonly prescribed antihypertensive medications (or their metabolites) were screened for in spot urine samples. Results Overall, 25% of patients were totally or partially non-adherent to antihypertensive treatment (total non-adherence 10.1%, partial non-adherence 14.9%). The highest prevalence of partial and total non-adherence was among follow-up patients with inadequate blood pressure control (28.8%) and those referred for consideration of renal denervation (23.5%), respectively. There was a linear relationship between blood pressure and the numerical difference in detected/prescribed antihypertensive medications—every unit increase in this difference was associated with 3.0 (1.1) mm Hg, 3.1 (0.7) mm Hg and 1.9 (0.7) mm Hg increase in adjusted clinic systolic blood pressure, clinic diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and 24 h mean daytime DBP (p=0.0051, p=8.62×10−6, p=0.0057), respectively. Conclusions Non-adherence to blood pressure lowering therapy is common, particularly in patients with suboptimal blood pressure control and those referred for renal denervation. HP LC-MS/MS urine analysis could be used to exclude non-adherence and better stratify further investigations and intervention. PMID:24694797

  9. Cathodoluminescence guided zircon Hf isotope depth profiling: Mobilization of the Lu-Hf system during (U)HP rock exhumation in the Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zirakparvar, N. A.

    2015-04-01

    Cathodoluminescence image guided Hf isotope depth profiling by laser ablation of zircons from two quartzofeldspathic host gneisses constrains the Lu-Hf system's behavior during rapid exhumation of (U)HP rocks in the Woodlark Rift, Papua New Guinea. Investigation of the depth profiling technique in individual and composite zircon standards demonstrates that it is possible to resolve ~ 8 μm thick domains in which εHf(present) differs by as little as 4 units. In a metasedimentary gneiss, 2.89 ± 0.29 Ma zircon overgrowths on Cretaceous aged inherited cores have radiogenic εHf(present) indicating growth in a medium that was originally in equilibrium with garnet undergoing recrystallization (the 'garnet effect' of Zheng et al., 2005). In a separate gneiss sample that originated as an exhumation related anatectic melt, 3.66 ± 0.13 Ma zircons lacking inheritance contain sub-domains that differ from each other by > 15 εHf(present). Some of these sub-domains are radiogenic and can be explained by the 'garnet effect', whereas others also contain highly elevated Lu and Yb in addition to their radiogenic Hf compositions, thus necessitating a medium derived from the complete breakdown of garnet. Zircons in this sample also contain non-radiogenic sub-domains that grew in the presence of Hf mobilized from the surrounding rocks of the subducted and metamorphosed remnants of the Australian continental margin. The results confirm that rapid exhumation of (U)HP rocks can result in the following: 1) transmission of radiogenic Hf (and sometimes Lu and the other HREE) from garnet bearing mafic lithologies into the quartzofeldspathic gneisses, and 2) mobilization and transport of unradiogenic Hf present within the quartzofeldspathic remnants of subducted continental crust.

  10. Machining-induced deformation in stepped specimens of PH 13-8 Mo, 18 nickel maraging steel grade 200T1 and grain-refined HP 9-4-20

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wigley, D. A.

    1985-01-01

    The results of a study to evaluate the dimensional changes created during machining and subsequent cycling to cryogenic temperatures for three different metallic alloys are presented. Experimental techniques are described and results presented for 18 Ni Grade 200 maraging steel, PH-13-8 Mo stainless steel, and Grain-refined HP 9-4-20.

  11. Clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of HP-human FSH (Fostimon®) versus rFSH (Gonal-F®) in IVF-ICSI cycles: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Gerli, Sandro; Bini, Vittorio; Favilli, Alessandro; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo

    2013-06-01

    Clinical efficacy of human-derived follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) versus recombinant FSH (rFSH) in IVF-ICSI cycles has long been compared, but no clear evidence of the superiority of a preparation over the other has been found. Human gonadotropins have been often grouped together, but a different glycosylation may be present in each preparation, therefore influencing the specific bioactivity. To exclude confounding factors, a meta-analysis and a cost-effectiveness analysis were designed to compare effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a specific highly purified human FSH (HP-hFSH) (Fostimon®) versus rFSH (Gonal-F®) in IVF/ICSI cycles. Research methodology filters were applied in MEDLINE, Current Contents and Web of Science from 1980 to February 2012. Eight randomized trials met selection criteria. The meta-analysis showed no significant differences between rFSH and HP-hFSH treatment in live-birth rate (odds ratio [OR] 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63-1.11), clinical pregnancy rate (OR 0.85, 95% CI 0.68-1.07), number of oocytes retrieved, number of mature oocytes and days of stimulation. The cost-effectiveness ratio was € 7174 in the rFSH group and € 2056 in the HP-hFSH group. HP-hFSH is as effective as rFSH in ovarian stimulation for IVF-ICSI cycles, but the human preparation is more cost-effective.

  12. Interconversion of ketoprofen recognition in firefly luciferase-catalyzed enantioselective thioesterification reaction using from Pylocoeria miyako (PmL) and Hotaria parvura (HpL) just by mutating two amino acid residues.

    PubMed

    Kato, Dai-ichiro; Hiraishi, Yoshihiro; Maenaka, Mika; Yokoyama, Keisuke; Niwa, Kazuki; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Takeo, Masahiro; Negoro, Seiji

    2013-11-01

    We identified the critical amino acid residues for substrate recognition using two firefly luciferases from Pylocoeria miyako (PmL) and Hotaria parvura (HpL), as these two luciferase enzymes exhibit different activities toward ketoprofen. Specifically, PmL can catalyze the apparent enantioselective thioesterification reaction, while HpL cannot. By comparing the amino acid sequences around the active site, we identified two residues (I350 and M397 in PmL and F351 and S398 in HpL) that were different between the two enzymes, and the replacement of these amino acids resulted in changing the ketoprofen recognition pattern. The inactive HpL was converted to the active enzyme toward ketoprofen and vice versa for PmL. These residues also affected the enantioselectivity toward ketoprofen; however, the bioluminescent color was not affected. In addition, using molecular dynamics calculations, the replacement of these two amino acids induced changes in the state of hydrogen bonding between ketoprofen and the S349 side chain through the active site water. As S349 is not considered to influence color tuning, these changes specifically caused the differences in ketoprofen recognition in the enzyme.

  13. Rheological and geodynamic controls on the mechanisms of subduction and HP/UHP exhumation of crustal rocks during continental collision: Insights from numerical models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burov, Evgene; Francois, Thomas; Agard, Philippe; Le Pourhiet, Laetitia; Meyer, Bertrand; Tirel, Celine; Lebedev, Sergei; Yamato, Philippe; Brun, Jean-Pierre

    2014-09-01

    While subduction of crustal rocks is increasingly accepted as a common scenario inherent to convergent processes involving continental plates and micro-continents, its occurrence in each particular context, as well as its specific mechanisms and conditions is still debated. The presence of ultra-high pressure(UHP) terranes is often interpreted as a strong evidence for continental subduction (subduction of continental crust) since the latter is seen as the most viable mechanism of their burial to UHP depths, yet if one admits nearly lithostatic pressure conditions in the subduction interface (or "channel"). The presumed links of continental subduction to exhumation of high- and ultra-high-pressure (HP/UHP) units also remain a subject of controversy despite the fact that recent physically consistent thermo-mechanical numerical models of convergent processes suggest that subduction can create specific mechanisms for UHP exhumation. We hence review and explore possible scenarios of subduction of continental crust, and their relation to exhumation of HP and UHP rocks as inferred from last generation of thermo-mechanical numerical models accounting for thermo-rheological complexity and structural diversity of the continental lithosphere. The inferences from these models are matched with the petrology data, in particular, with P-T-t paths, allowing for better understanding of subtleties of both subduction and burial/exhumation mechanisms. Numerical models suggest that exhumation and continental subduction are widespread but usually transient processes that last for less than 5-10 Myr, while long-lasting (> 10-15 Myr) subduction can take place only in rare cases of fast convergence of cold strong lithospheres (e.g. India). The models also show that tectonic heritage can play a special role in subduction/exhumation processes. In particular, when thicker continental terrains are embedded in subducting oceanic plate, exhumation of UHP terranes results in the formation of

  14. Petrology of HP/LT metapelitic rocks of an accretionary wedge, the Central Pontides, Turkey: evidence for tectonic stacking and syn-subduction exhumation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aygül, Mesut; Okay, Aral; Oberhänsli, Roland

    2015-04-01

    Cretaceous HP/LT chloritoid-bearing metapelitic rocks crop out widely in the central part of the Pontides, northern Turkey. They are associated with eclogite to blueschist-facies metabasites and represent deep levels of an underplated subduction-accretion complex, which is tectonically overlain by low-grade HP phyllite/metasandstone intercalation along an extensional shear zone. Close to the shear zone, the footwall micaschists consist of quartz, phengite, paragonite, chlorite, rutile with syn-kinematic albite porphyroblast formed by pervasive shearing during exhumation. This type of micaschists is tourmaline-bearing and their retrograde nature suggests high-fluid flux along shear zones. Peak metamorphic assemblages are partly preserved in the chloritoid-micaschist farther away from the shear zone. Three peak metamorphic assemblages are identified and their PT conditions are constrained by pseudosections produced by Theriak-Domino and by Raman spectra of carbonaceous material: 1) garnet-chloritoid-glaucophane with lawsonite pseudomorphs (P: 17.5 ± 1 Kbar, T: 390-450 °C) 2) chloritoid with glaucophane pseudomorphs (P: 16-18 Kbar, T: 475 ± 40 °C) and 3) relatively high-Mg chloritoid (17%) with jadeite pseudomorphs (22-25 Kbar; T: 440 ± 30 °C) in addition to phengite, paragonite, quartz, chlorite, rutile. The last mineral assemblage is interpreted as transformation of the chloritoid + glaucophane assemblage to chloritoid + jadeite paragenesis with increasing pressure. Absence of tourmaline suggests that the chloritoid-micaschist did not interact with B-rich fluids during zero strain exhumation. Peak metamorphic assemblages and PT estimates suggest tectonic stacking within wedge with different depths of burial. 40Ar/39Ar phengite age of a pervasively sheared footwall micaschist is constrained to 100.6 ± 1.3 Ma and that of a chloritoid-micaschist is constrained to 91.8 ± 1.8 Ma suggesting exhumation during on-going subduction. Coupling and exhumation of the

  15. How precisely evidences of P-T stages are preserved in HP rocks? Insights from micro-mapping of local effective bulk.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loury, Chloé; Rolland, Yann; Lanari, Pierre; Guillot, Stéphane; Ganino, Clément; Cenki-Tok, Bénédicte

    2015-04-01

    Understanding geodynamic processes in subduction zones critically relies on the reconstruction of precise and accurate pressure-temperature-time-deformation (P-T-t-ɛ) paths from metamorphic rocks. P-T paths may be obtained using quantitative thermobarometry such as forward thermodynamics models. Most of the models assume that the equilibrium scale in the rock is big enough to use the XRF composition as input composition. However, natural samples of HP rocks show local heterogeneities at the thin section scale with preservation of zoned minerals that are evidences of disequilibrium and reflect changes in growth conditions. In such cases, the concept of LEB (local effective bulk) composition is essential, and the question is how to determine this composition. In this study, we use quantitative X-ray maps together with the program XMapTools to measure LEB compositions. Forward models are then created to constrain P-T conditions of crystallization of the local assemblages. The studied samples come from two different areas along the carboniferous South-Tianshan suture (Central Asia). The first sample is a well-preserved eclogite made of mm-size garnet, omphacite and rutile. LEB compositions were calculated from the standardized X-ray map and combined with Gibbs free energy minimization to model the composition of the equilibration volume and reconstruct the P-T path. In this example, as the eclogite does not show evidence of retrogression, this micro-mapping approach allows to model the evolution of water content released by the rock along the prograde path. The second sample is a garnet amphibolite made of garnet, diopside, amphibole and plagioclase. This rock preserves domains with local assemblages reflecting the successive stages of the P-T path. The garnet porphyroblasts crystallize at the peak conditions and two types of symplectites are related to the decompression during the exhumation. Following the same strategy, LEB were derived from the chemical maps and

  16. HP and HT Polymorphism of AlPO4 and its Solubility in SiO2 -Stishovite : Implication for Phosphorus Geochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunet, F.; Irifune, T.; Sanehira, T.; Yamazaki, D.; Shinmei, T.

    2004-12-01

    The understanding of phosphorus behavior in the deep Earth requires to evaluate the ability of minor phosphorus to be incorporated in the octahedral site of high-pressure mineral structures. For that purpose, we studied the solubility of AlPO4 in SiO2-stishovite, the extend of which will indicate the phosphorus affinity for octahedral oxygen coordination. The choice of those compounds was also motivated by their importance in material sciences (e.g. pressure induced amorphization properties). Synthetic AlPO4 (berlinite) as well as a 1 to 2 molar mixture of AlPO4 (berlinite) : SiO4 (quartz) where encapsulated separately in a Pt container and held together at 1600° C, 18 GPa (4.5 h) in the 2000-ton split-sphere apparatus at GRC (Matsuyama, Japan). In the second capsule, micrometer-size stishovite crystals could be analyzed using the electron microprobe and revealed around 0.5 wt.% P2O5 (balanced by Al2O3). Berlinite, in the first capsule, totally reacted at HP and HT into a form which could not be quenched. This result was the incentive for a characterization of AlPO4 polymorphism using in-situ HP-HT x-ray diffraction (Spring 8, BL04B1). Upon compression in the MgO-based assembly, the diffraction pattern of AlPO4 berlinite showed indication of partial amorphization in keeping with the non-hydrostatic nature of the pressure cell at room temperature. Upon the first heating stage, crystallization of another AlPO4 polymorph had occurred at 600° C, 6.9 GPa (gold scale) in a first experiment and 900° C, 17.3 GPa in a second one. The corresponding diffraction pattern could be indexed in the InPO4 -structure (Cmcm) where Al is octahedrally coordinated whereas P is fourfold. No other transformation was identified up to 21 GPa, 1600° C. Although, no rutile-type structure was observed for AlPO4 up to 21 GPa, phosphorus, which is likely to be stored in garnet down to the transition zone, is expected to be further incorporated into silicate structures to greater depths.

  17. System and component design and test of a 10 hp, 18,000 rpm AC dynamometer utilizing a high frequency AC voltage link, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lipo, Thomas A.; Alan, Irfan

    1991-01-01

    Hard and soft switching test results conducted with one of the samples of first generation MOS-controlled thyristor (MCTs) and similar test results with several different samples of second generation MCT's are reported. A simple chopper circuit is used to investigate the basic switching characteristics of MCT under hard switching and various types of resonant circuits are used to determine soft switching characteristics of MCT under both zero voltage and zero current switching. Next, operation principles of a pulse density modulated converter (PDMC) for three phase (3F) to 3F two-step power conversion via parallel resonant high frequency (HF) AC link are reviewed. The details for the selection of power switches and other power components required for the construction of the power circuit for the second generation 3F to 3F converter system are discussed. The problems encountered in the first generation system are considered. Design and performance of the first generation 3F to 3F power converter system and field oriented induction moter drive based upon a 3 kVA, 20 kHz parallel resonant HF AC link are described. Low harmonic current at the input and output, unity power factor operation of input, and bidirectional flow capability of the system are shown via both computer and experimental results. The work completed on the construction and testing of the second generation converter and field oriented induction motor drive based upon specifications for a 10 hp squirrel cage dynamometer and a 20 kHz parallel resonant HF AC link is discussed. The induction machine is designed to deliver 10 hp or 7.46 kW when operated as an AC-dynamo with power fed back to the source through the converter. Results presented reveal that the proposed power level requires additional energy storage elements to overcome difficulties with a peak link voltage variation problem that limits reaching to the desired power level. The power level test of the second generation converter after the

  18. Thermal Evolution of Juvenile Subduction Zones ' New Constraints from Lu-Hf Geochronology on HP oceanic rocks (Halilbaǧi, Central Anatolia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourteau, Amaury; Scherer, Erik; Schmidt, Alexander; Bast, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    The thermal structure of subduction zones plays a key role on mechanical and chemical processes taking place along the slab-mantle interface. Until now, changes through time of this thermal structure have been explored mostly by the means of numerical simulations. However, both "warm" (i.e., epidote-bearing), and "cold" (i.e., lawsonite-bearing) HP oceanic rocks have been reported in some fossil subduction complexes exposed at the Earth's surface (e.g., Franciscan Complex, California; Rio San Juan Complex, Hispañola; Halilbağı Unit, Central Anatolia). These a-priori "incompatible" rocks witness different thermal stages of ancient subduction zones and their study might provide complementary constraints to numerical models. To decipher the meaning of these contrasting metamorphic rocks in the Halilbağı Unit, we are carrying out Lu-Hf geochronology on garnet (grt) and lws from a variety of HP oceanic rocks, as well as the metamorphic sole of the overlying ophiolite. We selected five samples that are representative of the variety of metamorphic evolutions (i.e. peak conditions and P-T paths) encountered in this area. Preliminary analyses yielded 110 Ma (grt-hbl isochron) for a sub-ophiolitic grt amphibolite; 92 Ma (grt-omp) for an eclogite with prograde and retrograde ep; 90 Ma (grt-omp) for an eclogitic metabasite with prograde ep and retrograde ep+lws; 87 Ma (grt-gln) for a lws eclogite with prograde ep; and 86 Ma (grt-gln) for a blueschist with prograde and retrograde lws. These ages are mainly two-point isochrons. Further-refined data will be presented at the EGU General Assembly 2015, in Vienna. The consistent younging trend from "warm" to "cold" metamorphic rocks revealed by these first-order results points to metamorphic-sole formation during the initiation of intra-oceanic subduction at ~110 Ma, and subsequent cooling of the slab-mantle interface between 92 and 86 Ma. Therefore, the contrasting metamorphic evolutions encountered in the Halilbağı Unit

  19. White mica K-Ar geochronology of HP-UHP units in the Lago di Cignana area, western Alps, Italy: Tectonic implications for exhumation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouzu, Chitaro; Yagi, Koshi; Thanh, Ngo Xuan; Itaya, Tetsumaru; Compagnoni, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    High-pressure and ultra-high pressure (HP-UHP) blueschist- and eclogite-facies metabasaltic and metasedimentary rocks occur in four different tectonic units near Lago di Cignana, western Alps. We have determined K-Ar ages for white micas (matrix phengite and paragonite) from the Lago di Cignana UHP unit (LCU; 39-41 Ma); the lower and upper units of the Zermatt-Saas meta-ophiolite (LU and UU; 37-38 Ma and 38-41 Ma respectively), and the Combin unit (CU; 36-40 Ma). These K-Ar ages overlap with single-grain Ar-Ar plateau ages (36-42 Ma) previously determined for phengites from LCU metasediments. Matrix white micas have been severely deformed during exhumation, and their chemistries differ from those of micas included in garnet. Although individual mica grains in the matrix could have experienced different degrees of deformation which have reset their K-Ar systems, "bulk" white mica separates provide the average age of all the individual grains in the separate. The similarity of ages determined for white micas from the LCU, LU, UU and CU units, regardless of rock type and mineral species, suggests that these four units were metamorphosed together as part of a single metamorphic sequence in the Piemonte-Liguria paleosubduction zone and were subsequently exhumed together. However, present-day structural relationship among those units and the limited occurrence of UHP minerals in LCU suggests that the exhumation of LCU was more rapid than that for LU, UU and CU. The age gaps between the youngest value of white mica K-Ar ages in each unit and the inferred timing of the metamorphic peak (U-Pb age: 44 Ma) is 5, 7, 6 and 8 Myr for LCU, LU, UU and CU, respectively. These intervals are considerably shorter than that determined for the Sanbagawa HP metamorphic belt of Southwest Japan (> 31 Myr). The short interval observed for the Lago di Cignana units that we have studied is consistent with the model of rapid exhumation of the UHP-bearing metamorphic domain, suggesting the

  20. An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    TerraTek

    2007-06-30

    A deep drilling research program titled 'An Industry/DOE Program to Develop and Benchmark Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits and HP/HT Drilling Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration' was conducted at TerraTek's Drilling and Completions Laboratory. Drilling tests were run to simulate deep drilling by using high bore pressures and high confining and overburden stresses. The purpose of this testing was to gain insight into practices that would improve rates of penetration and mechanical specific energy while drilling under high pressure conditions. Thirty-seven test series were run utilizing a variety of drilling parameters which allowed analysis of the performance of drill bits and drilling fluids. Five different drill bit types or styles were tested: four-bladed polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC), 7-bladed PDC in regular and long profile, roller-cone, and impregnated. There were three different rock types used to simulate deep formations: Mancos shale, Carthage marble, and Crab Orchard sandstone. The testing also analyzed various drilling fluids and the extent to which they improved drilling. The PDC drill bits provided the best performance overall. The impregnated and tungsten carbide insert roller-cone drill bits performed poorly under the conditions chosen. The cesium formate drilling fluid outperformed all other drilling muds when drilling in the Carthage marble and Mancos shale with PDC drill bits. The oil base drilling fluid with manganese tetroxide weighting material provided the best performance when drilling the Crab Orchard sandstone.

  1. Implementation and efficiency analysis of an adaptive hp-finite element method for solving boundary value problems for the stationary reaction-diffusion equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotareva, N. D.; Nikolaev, E. S.

    2016-05-01

    An iterative process implementing an adaptive hp-version of the finite element method (FEM) previously proposed by the authors for the approximate solution of boundary value problems for the stationary reaction-diffusion equation is described. The method relies on piecewise polynomial basis functions and makes use of an adaptive strategy for constructing a sequence of finite-dimensional subspaces based on the computation of correction indicators. Singularly perturbed boundary value test problems with smooth and not very smooth solutions are used to analyze the efficiency of the method in the situation when an approximate solution has to be found with high accuracy. The convergence of the approximate solution to the exact one is investigated depending on the value of the small parameter multiplying the highest derivative, on the family of basis functions and the quadrature formulas used, and on the internal parameters of the method. The method is compared with an adaptive h-version of FEM that also relies on correction indicators and with its nonadaptive variant based on the bisection of grid intervals.

  2. Air kerma to HP(3) conversion coefficients for photons from 10 keV to 10 MeV, calculated in a cylindrical phantom.

    PubMed

    Gualdrini, G; Bordy, J M; Daures, J; Fantuzzi, E; Ferrari, P; Mariotti, F; Vanhavere, F

    2013-05-01

    In the framework of the ORAMED project (Optimization of RAdiation protection for MEDical staff), funded by the European Union Seventh Framework Programme, different studies were aimed at improving the quality of radiation protection in interventional radiology and nuclear medicine. The main results of the project were presented during a final workshop held in Barcelona in January 2011, the proceedings of which are available in the open literature. One of the ORAMED tasks was focused on the problem of eye-lens photon exposure of the medical staff, a topic that gained more importance especially after the ICRP decision to lower the limiting equivalent dose to 20 mSv per year. The present technical note has the scope, besides briefly summarising the physical reasons of the proposal and the practical implications, to provide, in tabular form, a set of air kerma to Hp(3) conversion coefficients based on the adoption of a theoretical cylindrical model that is well suited for reproduction of the mass and the shape of a human head.

  3. The Drosophila HP1 homolog Rhino is required for transposon silencing and piRNA production by dual-strand clusters.

    PubMed

    Klattenhoff, Carla; Xi, Hualin; Li, Chengjian; Lee, Soohyun; Xu, Jia; Khurana, Jaspreet S; Zhang, Fan; Schultz, Nadine; Koppetsch, Birgit S; Nowosielska, Anetta; Seitz, Herve; Zamore, Phillip D; Weng, Zhiping; Theurkauf, William E

    2009-09-18

    Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence transposons and maintain genome integrity during germline development. In Drosophila, transposon-rich heterochromatic clusters encode piRNAs either on both genomic strands (dual-strand clusters) or predominantly one genomic strand (uni-strand clusters). Primary piRNAs derived from these clusters are proposed to drive a ping-pong amplification cycle catalyzed by proteins that localize to the perinuclear nuage. We show that the HP1 homolog Rhino is required for nuage organization, transposon silencing, and ping-pong amplification of piRNAs. rhi mutations virtually eliminate piRNAs from the dual-strand clusters and block production of putative precursor RNAs from both strands of the major 42AB dual-strand cluster, but not of transcripts or piRNAs from the uni-strand clusters. Furthermore, Rhino protein associates with the 42AB dual-strand cluster,but does not bind to uni-strand cluster 2 or flamenco. Rhino thus appears to promote transcription of dual-strand clusters, leading to production of piRNAs that drive the ping-pong amplification cycle. PMID:19732946

  4. Formation of Microcracks During Micro-Arc Oxidation in a Phytic Acid-Containing Solution on Two-Phase AZ91HP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, R. F.; Chang, W. H.; Jiang, L. F.; Qu, B.; Zhang, S. F.; Qiao, L. P.; Xiang, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    Micro-arc oxidation (MAO) is an effective method to produce ceramic coatings on magnesium alloys and can considerably improve their corrosion resistance. The coating properties are closely related with microcracks, which are always inevitably developed on the coating surface. In order to find out the formation and development regularity of microcracks, anodic coatings developed on two-phase AZ91HP after different anodizing times were fabricated in a solution containing environmentally friendly organic electrolyte phytic acid. The results show that anodic film is initially developed on the α phase. At 50 s, anodic coatings begin to develop on the β phase, evidencing the formation of a rough area. Due to the coating successive development, the microcracks initially appear at the boundary between the initially formed coating on the α phase and the subsequently developed coating on the β phase. With the prolonging treatment time, the microcracks near the β phase become evident. After treating for 3 min, the originally rough area on the β phase disappears and the coatings become almost uniform with microcracks randomly distributed on the sample surface. Inorganic phosphates are found in MAO coatings, suggesting that phytate salts are decomposed due to the high instantaneous temperature on the sample surface resulted from spark discharge.

  5. Simultaneous frequency stabilization and high-power dense wavelength division multiplexing (HP-DWDM) using an external cavity based on volume Bragg gratings (VBGs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hengesbach, Stefan; Klein, Sarah; Holly, Carlo; Witte, Ulrich; Traub, Martin; Hoffmann, Dieter

    2016-03-01

    Multiplexing technologies enable the development of high-brightness diode lasers for direct industrial applications. We present a High-Power Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexer (HP-DWDM) with an average channel spacing of 1.7 (1.5) nm and a subsequent external cavity mirror to provide feedback for frequency stabilization and multiplexing in one step. The "self-optimizing" multiplexing unit consists of four reflective Volume Bragg Gratings (VBGs) with 99% diffraction efficiency and seven dielectric mirrors to overlay the radiation of five input channels with an adjustable channel spacing of 1-2 nm. In detail, we focus on the analysis of the overall optical efficiency, the change of the beam parameter product and the spectral width. The performance is demonstrated using five 90 μm multimode 9xx single emitters with M2<=17. Because of the feedback the lateral (multimodal) spatial and angular intensity distribution changes strongly and the beam parameter product decreases by a factor of 1.2 to 1.9. Thereby the angular intensity distribution is more affected than the width of the beam waist. The spectral width per emitter decreases to 3-200 pm (FWHM) depending on the injection current and the reflectance of the feedback mirror (0.75%, 1.5%, 4%, 6% or 8%). The overall optical multiplexing efficiency ranges between 77% and 86%. With some modifications (e.g. enhanced AR-coatings) we expect 90-95%.

  6. Single-molecule investigation of the interactions between reconstituted planar lipid membranes and an analogue of the HP(2-20) antimicrobial peptide

    SciTech Connect

    Mereuta, Loredana; Luchian, Tudor Park, Yoonkyung; Hahm, Kyung-Soo

    2008-09-05

    In this study, we employed electrophysiology experiments carried out at the single-molecule level to study the mechanism of action of the HPA3 peptide, an analogue of the linear antimicrobial peptide, HP(2-20), isolated from the N-terminal region of the Helicobacter pylori ribosomal protein. Amplitude analysis of currents fluctuations induced by HPA3 peptide at various potentials in zwitterionic lipid membranes reveal the existence of reproducible conductive states in the stochastic behavior of such events, which directly supports the existence of transmembrane pores induced the peptide. From our data recorded both at the single-pore and macroscopic levels, we propose that the HPA3 pore formation is electrophoretically facilitated by trans-negative transmembrane potentials, and HPA3 peptides translocate into the trans monolayers after forming the pores. We present evidence according to which the decrease in the membrane dipole potential of a reconstituted lipid membranes leads to an augmentation of the membrane activity of HPA3 peptides, and propose that a lower electric dipole field of the interfacial region of the membrane caused by phloretin facilitates the surface-bound HPA3 peptides to break free from one leaflet of the membrane, insert into the membrane and contribute to pore formation spanning the entire thickness of the membrane.

  7. MCNP SIMULATION OF THE HP(10) ENERGY RESPONSE OF A BRAZILIAN TLD ALBEDO NEUTRON INDIVIDUAL DOSEMETER, FROM THERMAL TO 20 MeV.

    PubMed

    Freitas, B M; Martins, M M; Pereira, W W; da Silva, A X; Mauricio, C L P

    2016-09-01

    The Brazilian Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD) runs a neutron individual monitoring system with a home-made TLD albedo dosemeter. It has already been characterised and calibrated in some reference fields. However, the complete energy response of this dosemeter is not known, and the calibration factors for all monitored workplace neutron fields are difficult to be obtained experimentally. Therefore, to overcome such difficulties, Monte Carlo simulations have been used. This paper describes the simulation of the HP(10) neutron response of the IRD TLD albedo dosemeter using the MCNPX transport code, for energies from thermal to 20 MeV. The validation of the MCNPX modelling is done comparing the simulated results with the experimental measurements for ISO standard neutron fields of (241)Am-Be, (252)Cf, (241)Am-B and (252)Cf(D2O) and also for (241)Am-Be source moderated with paraffin and silicone. Bare (252)Cf are used for normalisation. PMID:26276807

  8. SRC burn test in 700-hp oil-designed boiler. Annex Volume B. DOE-Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center report. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    Solvent Refined Coal (SRC) combustion tests were conducted at the U.S. Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. Combustion and flue-gas treatment of three different physical forms of SRC, as well as a No. 6 fuel oil, were evaluated. The three SRC fuels were (1) pulverized SRC Fuel; (2) SRC Residual Fuel Oil; and (3) SRC/Water Slurry. The SRC Residual Fuel Oil was a solution of SRC Fuel dissolved in heated process solvent. Approximately 500 tons of pulverized SRC Fuel and 30,000 gallons of SRC Residual Fuel Oil were combusted in a 700 hp (30 x 130 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr fuel input) oil-designed watertube package boiler. Sixty four-hour ASME combustion tests with three different SRC fuels were successfully concluded. The principal parameters evaluated were excess air levels and combustion air preheat temperature levels. Extensive data were collected on flue-gas levels of O/sub 2/, CO/sub 2/, CO, unburned hydrocarbons, SO/sub x/, NO/sub x/, uncontrolled particulates, uncontrolled opacity and carbon content of the flue-gas particulates. Boiler and combustion efficiencies were measured. The particulates were characterized via mass loadings, impactors, in-situ resistivity measurements, ultra-fine sampling, optical large particle sampling, five-stage cyclone sampling and chemical analysis of various cut sizes. A three-field pilot electrostatic precipitator (ESP) containing over 1000 square feet of plate collection area, a reverse air fabric filter pilot dust collector and a commercial pulse-jet fabric filter dust collector were operated at high collection efficiency. The results will be valuable in making recommendations for future tests and will provide a basis for conversion of industrial oil-fired boilers to SRC fuels. 11 references, 20 figures, 29 tables.

  9. Field-Based High Resolution P-T-t Mapping Shows Recrystallization to BE Highly Localized, Even at HP and Uhp Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassley, W. E.; Korstgård, J.; Sorensen, K.

    2015-12-01

    Reconstructing tectonic histories relies on the ability to establish P-T-t paths from samples and data collected in the field. Efforts to establish detailed P-T-t pathways have benefitted recently from dramatically improved ability to resolve mineral chemical and isotopic properties at the micron scale. We present here a new interpretation of the HP and UHP metamorphic history of a 1.8 Gya terrain in West Greenland (Glassley et al., 2014) that is based on these new analytical capabilities, coupled with sampling at high spatial density. The terrain consists of a tectonic assemblage of metasomatically altered pillow basalts, ultramafic bodies, exhalative and chemical oceanic metasediments, pelites, and quartzo-feldspathic gneisses, that are the preserved remnants of a subduction channel. Using LA-SF-ICP-MS analyses on zircons, we time-correlated recrystallization events that could be well-documented using micro-analytical techniques (EBMA; Raman; LA-ICP-MS). More than 700 207Pb/206Pb dates and more than 1,000 electron microprobe mineral analyses were used in this correlation effort. The results demonstrate that: 1) Recrystallization is highly localized, often restricted to tectonic domains of less than a few 10s of km2. Few tectonic lenses preserve evidence of the most extreme P-T conditions (5 GPa at temperatures of approximately 1,000 C); 2) The extent of area involved in a recrystallization "event" is mainly a reflection of local rock chemistry/mineralogy and fluid activity; 3) Since individual crystals preserve multiple parts of a P-T-t path in compositional zoning, isotopic dates must be very carefully correlated with corresponding mineral compositions in order to establish t at P & T; 4) Preservation of the prograde P-T-t path during subduction is rare.

  10. Purification and characterization of halo-alkali-thermophilic protease from Halobacterium sp. strain HP25 isolated from raw salt, Lake Qarun, Fayoum, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Elbanna, Khaled; Ibrahim, Ibrahim M; Revol-Junelles, Anne-Marie

    2015-07-01

    A total of 33 halophilic protease producers were isolated from different salt samples collected from Emisal salt company at Lake Qarun, Fayoum, Egypt. Of these strains, an extremely halophilic strain that grew optimally at 30 % (w/v) NaCl was characterized and identified as Halobacterium sp. strain HP25 based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing and phenotypic characterization. A halo-alkali-thermophilic protease was purified in three successive steps from the culture supernatant. The purified halophilic protease consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular mass of 21 kDa and was enriched 167-fold to a specific activity of 6350 U mg(-1). The purified enzyme was active over a broad pH range from 6.0 to 11.0, with maximum activity at pH 8.0, exhibited a broad temperature range from 30 to 80 °C with optimum activity at 60 °C, and was active at salt concentrations ranging from 5 to 25 % (w/v), with optimum activity at 17 % NaCl (w/v). The K M and V max values of the purified halophilic protease with casein as a substrate were 523 µg mL(-1) and 2500 µg min(-1) mL(-1), respectively. In addition, this enzyme was stable in the tested organic solvents and laundry detergents such methanol, propanol, butanol, hexane, Persil and Ariel. The unusual properties of this enzyme allow it to be used for various applications, such as the ripening of salted fish. Furthermore, its stability and activity in the presence of organic solvents and detergents also allow the use of this enzyme for further novel applications and as an additive in detergent formulations.

  11. Matrix deformation mechanisms in HP-LT tectonic mélanges — Microstructural record of jadeite blueschist from the Franciscan Complex, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassmann, Sara; Stöckhert, Bernhard

    2012-09-01

    Exhumed high pressure-low temperature metamorphic mélanges of tectonic origin are believed to reflect high strain accumulated in large scale interplate shear zones during subduction. Rigid blocks of widely varying size are embedded in a weak matrix, which takes up the deformation and controls the rheology of the composite. The microfabrics of a highly deformed jadeite-blueschist from the Franciscan Complex, California, are investigated to help understand deformation mechanisms at depth. The specimen shows a transposed foliation with dismembered fold hinges and boudinage structures. Several generations of open fractures have been sealed to become veins at high-pressure metamorphic conditions. The shape of these veins, frequently restricted to specific layers, indicates distributed host rock deformation during and after sealing. Small cracks in jadeite and lawsonite are healed, with tiny quartz inclusions aligned along the former fracture surface. Large jadeite porphyroblasts show strain caps and strain shadows. Open fractures are sealed by quartz and new jadeite epitactically grown on the broken host. Monophase glaucophane aggregates consist of undeformed needles with a diameter between 0.1 and 2 μm, grown after formation of isoclinal folds. Only quartz microfabrics indicate some stage of crystal-plastic deformation, followed by annealing and grain growth. Aragonite in the latest vein generation shows retrogression to calcite along its rims. The entire deformation happened under HP-LT metamorphic conditions in the stability field of jadeite and quartz, at temperatures between 300 and 450 °C and pressures exceeding 1-1.4 GPa. The microfabrics indicate that dissolution precipitation creep was the predominant deformation mechanism, accompanied by brittle failure and vein formation at quasi-lithostatic pore fluid pressure. This indicates low flow strength and, combined with high strain rates expected for localized deformation between the plates, a very low viscosity

  12. Optimization of Deep Drilling Performance--Development and Benchmark Testing of Advanced Diamond Product Drill Bits & HP/HT Fluids to Significantly Improve Rates of Penetration

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2003-10-01

    This document details the progress to date on the OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS AND HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION contract for the year starting October 2002 through September 2002. The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit--fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit--fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. Accomplishments to date include the following: 4Q 2002--Project started; Industry Team was assembled; Kick-off meeting was held at DOE Morgantown; 1Q 2003--Engineering meeting was held at Hughes Christensen, The Woodlands Texas to prepare preliminary plans for development and testing and review equipment needs; Operators started sending information regarding their needs for deep drilling challenges and priorities for large-scale testing experimental matrix; Aramco joined the Industry Team as DEA 148 objectives paralleled the DOE project; 2Q 2003--Engineering and planning for high pressure drilling at TerraTek commenced; 3Q 2003--Continuation of engineering and design work for high pressure drilling at TerraTek; Baker Hughes INTEQ drilling Fluids and Hughes Christensen commence planning for Phase 1 testing--recommendations for bits and fluids.

  13. Immunomodulatory effects of H.P. Acthar Gel on B cell development in the NZB/W F1 mouse model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Decker, D A; Grant, C; Oh, L; Becker, P M; Young, D; Jordan, S

    2014-07-01

    H.P. Acthar Gel® (Acthar) is a highly purified repository gel preparation of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH1-39), a melanocortin peptide that can bind and activate specific receptors expressed on a range of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-relevant target cells and tissues. This study was performed to evaluate the effects of Acthar in a mouse model of SLE, using an F1 hybrid of the New Zealand Black and New Zealand White strains (NZB/W F1). Twenty-eight week old NZB/W F1 mice with established autoimmune disease were treated with Acthar, Placebo Gel (Placebo), or prednisolone and monitored for 19 weeks. Outcomes assessed included disease severity (severe proteinuria, ≥ 20% body weight loss, or prostration), measurement of serial serum autoantibody titers, terminal spleen immunophenotyping, and evaluation of renal histopathology. Acthar treatment was linked with evidence of altered B cell differentiation and development, manifested by a significant reduction in splenic B cell follicular and germinal center cells, and decreased levels of circulating total and anti-double-stranded DNA (IgM, IgG, and IgG2a) autoantibodies as compared with Placebo. Additionally, Acthar treatment resulted in a significant decrease of proteinuria, reduced renal lymphocyte infiltration, and attenuation of glomerular immune complex deposition. These data suggest that Acthar diminished pathogenic autoimmune responses in the spleen, peripheral blood, and kidney of NZB/W F1 mice. This is the first preclinical evidence demonstrating Acthar's potential immunomodulatory activity and efficacy in a murine model of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  14. Provenance of eclogitic metasediments in the north Qilian HP/LT metamorphic terrane, western China: Geodynamic implications for early Paleozoic subduction-erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, J. X.; Li, J. P.; Yu, S. Y.; Meng, F. C.; Mattinson, C. G.; Yang, H. J.; Ker, C. M.

    2012-10-01

    In this contribution, we present new petrological, geochemical, zircon U-Pb and Hf isotopic data for eclogitic metasediments from the north Qilian orogenic belt, in which early Paleozoic ophiolitic sequences and HP/LT metamorphic rocks have been previously recognized. The studied metasediments contain eclogite facies assemblages reflecting P-T conditions of 450-560 °C and 1.9-2.4 GPa, consistent with those of adjacent eclogites. REE compositions of the eclogitic metasediments overlap those of average upper continental crust. The SHRIMP and LA-MC-ICPMS U-Pb data of zircons from metasediments demonstrate input from sources with major age components about 500 Ma and 1600-1900 Ma (peak at ~ 1800 Ma), with a smaller population at 660-800 Ma (peak at 750 Ma), and minor > 1.9 Ga zircon ages. The youngest detrital zircons suggest a maximum depositional age of ca. 475 Ma, and combined with P-T conditions and previously determined metamorphic age suggest a burial rate of > 0.6-0.7 cm/yr. Zircon Hf isotopic analyses show that 500 Ma zircons have positive εHf(t) (mainly between + 8 and + 16). By contrast, Meso- to Paleoproterozoic detrital zircons show a broad spectrum of εHf(t) (mainly between - 5 and + 10) with TDMHf of 1800-2500 Ma. These data suggest that eclogitic metasediments are derived from a mixture of Proterozoic continent crust and juvenile early Paleozoic oceanic and/or island arc crust, and their protoliths likely were deposited in a terrigenous-dominated continental margin basin rather than a pelagic oceanic crust environment. The new results are consistent with subduction erosion of the active continental margin during south-dipping subduction, as these sediments, formed in a fore-arc environment close to the Qilian block to the south, were transported in the subduction zone to 60-70 km depth prior to their exhumation.

  15. Magnetized Jets Driven by the Sun, the Structure of the Heliosphere Revisited: Consequences for Draping of BISM ahead of the HP and Time Variability of ENAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opher, M.; Drake, J. F.; Zieger, B.; Michael, A.; Toth, G.; Swisdak, M.; Gombosi, T. I.

    2015-12-01

    field in a small layer ahead of the HP in agreement with Voyager 1 observations (as seen in Opher & Drake 2013). We present results of the heliospheric jets for a weaker magnetic field, representative of the 2010-2012 period and what is expected to be seen in the ENA maps with solar cycle.

  16. HP-Lattice QSAR for dynein proteins: experimental proteomics (2D-electrophoresis, mass spectrometry) and theoretic study of a Leishmania infantum sequence.

    PubMed

    Dea-Ayuela, María Auxiliadora; Pérez-Castillo, Yunierkis; Meneses-Marcel, Alfredo; Ubeira, Florencio M; Bolas-Fernández, Francisco; Chou, Kuo-Chen; González-Díaz, Humberto

    2008-08-15

    The toxicity and inefficacy of actual organic drugs against Leishmaniosis justify research projects to find new molecular targets in Leishmania species including Leishmania infantum (L. infantum) and Leishmaniamajor (L. major), both important pathogens. In this sense, quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) methods, which are very useful in Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry to discover small-sized drugs, may help to identify not only new drugs but also new drug targets, if we apply them to proteins. Dyneins are important proteins of these parasites governing fundamental processes such as cilia and flagella motion, nuclear migration, organization of the mitotic splinde, and chromosome separation during mitosis. However, despite the interest for them as potential drug targets, so far there has been no report whatsoever on dyneins with QSAR techniques. To the best of our knowledge, we report here the first QSAR for dynein proteins. We used as input the Spectral Moments of a Markov matrix associated to the HP-Lattice Network of the protein sequence. The data contain 411 protein sequences of different species selected by ClustalX to develop a QSAR that correctly discriminates on average between 92.75% and 92.51% of dyneins and other proteins in four different train and cross-validation datasets. We also report a combined experimental and theoretic study of a new dynein sequence in order to illustrate the utility of the model to search for potential drug targets with a practical example. First, we carried out a 2D-electrophoresis analysis of L. infantum biological samples. Next, we excised from 2D-E gels one spot of interest belonging to an unknown protein or protein fragment in the region M<20,200 and pI<4. We used MASCOT search engine to find proteins in the L. major data base with the highest similarity score to the MS of the protein isolated from L. infantum. We used the QSAR model to predict the new sequence as dynein with probability of 99.99% without

  17. A new LA-ICP-MS method for Ti-in-Quartz: Implications and application to HP rutile-quartz veins from the Czech Erzgebirge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz-Uribe, A. M.; Mertz-Kraus, R.; Zack, T.; Feineman, M. D.; Woods, G.

    2014-12-01

    Experimental determination of the pressure and temperature controls on Ti solubility in quartz provide a calibration of the Ti-in-quartz (TitaniQ) geothermometer applicable to geologic conditions up to ~20 kbar (Thomas et al. (2010) Contrib Mineral Petrol 160, 743-759). One of the greatest limitations to analyzing Ti in metamorphic quartz by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) is the lack of a suitable matrix-matched reference material. Typically LA-ICP-MS analyses of Ti in minerals use 49Ti as a normalizing mass because of an isobaric interference from 48Ca, which is present in most well characterized reference glasses, on 48Ti. The benefit of using a matrix-matched reference material to analyze Ti in quartz is the opportunity to use 48Ti (73.8 % abundance) as a normalizing mass, which results in an order of magnitude increase in signal strength compared to the less abundant isotope 49Ti (5.5 % abundance), thereby increasing the analytical precision. Here we characterize Ti-bearing SiO2 glasses from Heraeus Quarzglas and natural quartz grains from the Bishop Tuff by cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging, electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), and LA-ICP-MS, in order to determine their viability as reference materials for Ti in quartz. Titanium contents in low-CL rims in the Bishop Tuff quartz grains were determined to be homogenous by EPMA (41 ± 2 µg/g Ti, 2σ), and are a potential natural reference material. We present a new method for determining 48Ti concentrations in quartz by LA-ICP-MS at the 1 µg/g level, relevant to quartz in HP-LT terranes. We suggest that natural quartz such as the homogeneous low-CL rims of the Bishop Tuff quartz are more suitable than NIST reference glasses as an in-house reference material for low Ti concentrations because matrix effects are limited and Ca isobaric interferences are avoided, thus allowing for the use of 48Ti as a normalizing mass. Titanium concentration from 33 analyses of low

  18. Burial and exhumation of high- and ultra high-pressure (U) HP rocks: some lessons on orogenic root-zone dynamics from the Scandinavian Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, T. B.

    2011-12-01

    The Caledonides of southern Norway have some of the best-exposed examples of (U) HP rocks in the world. A regional southeast to northwest metamorphic gradient in eclogite bearing rocks from ~550-600C; 1.8 GPa, to ~800C; >2.8-3GPa is documented in several studies. In addition there are several examples of diamond and majorite-bearing extreme UHP rocks indicating pressures up to 5.5 to 6 GPa (e.g. Van Roermund, 2009). The Proterozoic protoliths of the Western Gneiss Region (WGR) and trailing ends of Caledonian allochthons were deeply buried during the Scandian continental collision at 430-400 Ma. The initial response of the down-going Fennoscandian crust below the Caledonian floor-thrust was brittle failure and coseismic deformation as recorded by eclogite pseudotachylytes and localized high-strain zones (e.g. Austrheim & Boundy 1994). The co-facial brittle and ductile high-strain zones provide important lessons about the mechanism controlling deformation, particularly intermediate depth earthquakes in collision zones (e.g. Labrousse et al. 2010). Restorations of regional SE-NW cross-sections show that burial- and exhumation of coesite eclogites from 90-100 km can be reconciled with the observable structures. The exhumation can be explained by: 1) >50% pure shear vertical shortening at eclogite to amphibolite facies, 2) large-scale (>100 km) rotational deformation along extensional detachments at amphibolite to greenschist facies, 3) upper crustal normal faulting and 4) an average of 15 km erosion (e.g., Andersen et al. 1991). Preservation of the regional metamorphic gradient strongly suggests that the WGR was buried and exhumed as a mostly coherent unit. Within the coesite UHP-domains some occurrences of diamond, majorite and extreme-UHP opx-eclogites suggest pressure anomalies of up to 6 GPa, perturbing the regional metamorphic gradient by very local doubling of the regional P-max. Radiometric ages from the majorite-diamond UHP, coesite UHP and normal eclogites are

  19. A Sm-Nd eclogite and U-Pb detrital zircon study of a probable Baltic HP-UHP metamorphic terrane in the Greenland Caledonides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, S. M.; Brueckner, H. K.; Belousova, E. A.; Medaris, L. G., Jr.; Griffin, W. L.; Hartz, E. H.; Hemming, S. R.; Bubbico, R.

    2015-12-01

    Liverpool Land, at the southern tip of the Greenland Caledonides, exposes the small eclogite-facies, peridotite-bearing Tvaerdal complex tectonically juxtaposed against the mid-crustal, high-pressure granulite facies Jaettedal complex. Recent literature supports a Laurentian origin for the Jættedal complex, but the structurally lower Tværdal complex has been tentatively correlated with Baltica. Their juxtaposition raises the possibility of lower plate to upper plate terrane transfer during continental subduction. Pressure-temperature estimates from Tvaerdal eclogites indicate ultrahigh pressure (UHP) metamorphic conditions during recrystallization. Sm-Nd mineral isochrons from the eclogites indicate UHP recrystallization occured ≈400 millions years ago, the same time HP/UHP metamorphism occurred in the Western Gneiss Complex of the Scandinavian Caledonides. Almost half of detrital zircons collected from a modern stream channel within the Tvaerdal complex give LA-ICPMS U-Pb ages of 1.68 and 1.3-0.95 Ma ages, which are dates characteristic of both Baltic and Laurentia. However, none of the detrital zircons give the Archean or ≈1.8 Ga Proterozoic ages that are also characteristic of Laurentia. Most of the remaining detrital zircons from the Tvaerdal Complex give younger U-Pb ages that range between 411-375 Ma which contrast with the older 450-410 Ma ages obtained from the Jaettedal as well as from other gneiss terranes in the southern Greenland Caledonides. The different age patterns provide compelling evidence that the Tvaerdal Complex is indeed an orphaned Baltic Terrane. The Jaettedal complex took part in the lengthy evolution of a compressional continental arc complex along the eastern Laurentian margin during the closure of Iapetus while the Tvaerdal complex was a fragment of the approaching Baltic passive margin. Eclogite-facies metamorphism of the Tvaerdal Complex occurred when Iapetus closed and the edge of Baltica subducted to UHP mantle conditions

  20. Clinical assessment and C-reactive protein (CRP), haptoglobin (Hp), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI) values of brachycephalic dogs with upper airway obstruction before and after surgery.

    PubMed

    Planellas, Marta; Cuenca, Rafaela; Tabar, Maria-Dolores; Bertolani, Coralie; Poncet, Cyrill; Closa, Josep M; Lorente, Juan; Cerón, José J; Pastor, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Brachycephalic dogs have unique upper respiratory anatomy with abnormal breathing patterns that are similar to those in humans with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). The objectives of this multicenter prospective study were to assess the effects of surgical correction on clinical signs in dogs with brachycephalic airway obstructive syndrome (BAOS) and to evaluate the levels of several biomarkers [C-reactive protein (CRP); haptoglobin (Hp), and cardiac troponin I (cTnI)] used to determine systemic inflammation and myocardial damage. This study was conducted on 33 dogs with BAOS that were evaluated before and 1 to 2 mo after surgical correction. Palatoplasty was carried out by means of 2 different surgical techniques: carbon dioxide (CO2) laser (n = 12) and electrical scalpel (n = 21). Biomarker levels (CRP, Hp, and cTnI) were determined before and after surgery. There was a significant reduction in respiratory and gastrointestinal signs in dogs with BAOS after surgical treatment (P < 0.001). A greater reduction in respiratory signs (P < 0.002) was obtained using the CO2 laser. No statistical differences were found between CRP and cTnI levels, either before or after surgical correction. Haptoglobin concentration did increase significantly in the postsurgical period (P < 0.008). Surgical treatment in dogs with BAOS reduces clinical signs, regardless of the anatomical components present. Surgical treatment for BAOS is not useful to reduce CRP and Hp levels, probably because BAOS does not induce as obvious an inflammatory process in dogs as in human patients with OSAS. No reduction in cTnI levels was observed 1 mo after surgery in dogs with BAOS, which suggests that some degree of myocardial damage remains.

  1. Gas-phase chemistry of diphosphate anions as a tool to investigate the intrinsic requirements of phosphate ester enzymatic reactions: the [M1M2HP2O7]- ions.

    PubMed

    Pepi, Federico; Barone, Vincenzo; Cimino, Paola; Ricci, Andreina

    2007-01-01

    Experimental studies on gaseous inorganic phosphate ions are practically nonexistent, yet they can prove helpful for a better understanding of the mechanisms of phosphate ester enzymatic processes. The present contribution extends our previous investigations on the gas-phase ion chemistry of diphosphate species to the [M(1)M(2)HP(2)O(7)](-) ions where M(1) and M(2) are the same or different and correspond to the Li, Na, K, Cs, and Rb cations. The diphosphate ions are formed by electrospray ionization of 10(-4) M solutions of Na(5)P(3)O(10) in CH(3)CN/H(2)O (1/1) and MOH bases or M salts as a source of M(+) cations. The joint application of mass spectrometric techniques and quantum-mechanical calculations makes it possible to characterize the gaseous [M(1)M(2)HP(2)O(7)](-) ions as a mixed ionic population formed by two isomeric species: linear diphosphate anion coordinated to two M(+) cations (group I) and [PO(3)M(1)M(2)HPO(4)](-) clusters (group II). The relative gas-phase stabilities and activation barriers for the isomerization I-->II, which depend on the nature of the M(+) cations, highlight the electronic susceptibility of P-O-P bond breaking in the active site of enzymes. The previously unexplored gas-phase reactivity of [M(1)M(2)HP(2)O(7)](-) ions towards alcohols of different acidity was investigated by Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR/MS). The reaction proceeds by addition of the alcohol molecule followed by elimination of a water molecule.

  2. Fluid-mediated metal transport in subduction zones and its link to arc-related giant ore deposits: Constraints from a sulfide-bearing HP vein in lawsonite eclogite (Tianshan, China)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ji-Lei; Gao, Jun; John, Timm; Klemd, Reiner; Su, Wen

    2013-11-01

    High-pressure (HP) veins in eclogites provide insight into element mobility during fluid-rock interaction in subduction zones. Here, we present a petrological-geochemical study of a sulfide-bearing HP vein and its massive lawsonite eclogite host rock from the Chinese Tianshan (ultra-)high-pressure/low-temperature metamorphic belt. The omphacite-dominated vein is enveloped by a garnet-poor, sulfide-bearing eclogite-facies reaction selvage. Lawsonite, garnet, omphacite, glaucophane and other HP minerals occur as inclusions in pyrite porphyroblasts of the selvage rock, indicating that the selvage formed prograde under eclogite-facies conditions. Relicts of wall-rock garnet (Grt_I) cores in recrystallized selvage garnet (Grt_II) close to the wall rock and the Ca distribution in Grt_II, which images the overgrown selvage matrix, indicate that the selvage formed due to dissolution-precipitation processes as a consequence of fluid-rock interaction of the wall rock eclogite with the vein-forming fluid. The peak metamorphic P-T conditions of the wall-rock eclogite are estimated at ca. 590 °C and 23 kbar. Mass-balance calculations indicate that the reaction selvage experienced: (1) a depletion of the large-ion lithophile elements (K-Rb-Ba) of up to 100% relative to their concentrations in the wall-rock eclogite; (2) a moderate depletion of the HREE and some transition metal elements including Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn, Co, Cr, and Mn (10-40%); (3) a significant enrichment of CaO (up to 50-80%), Sr (up to ˜200%), Pb (up to ˜170%) and S (up to ˜210%); (4) a slight to moderate enrichment of the LREE (10-20%) and MREE (0-40%); whereas (5) the HFSE show no significant variations.

  3. Non-linear curve-fitting programs for Phadezyme IgE PRIST using a Hewlett-Packard HP-97 and a Texas Instruments TI-59 with a PC-100A printer.

    PubMed

    Weston, R J; Weston, M E; Bollinger, R O

    1984-01-01

    A non-linear curve-fitting program using a modified Hoerl's function on the Hewlett-Packard HP-97 and Texas Instruments TI-59 programmable calculators for the determination of Phadezaym IgE PRIST (IgE) results is described. Excellent correlation between the reference serum concentration and the curve fit concentration results were obtained. The equation used in the curve fit is ln y = A + B ln x + CxD, where A, B, C and an accuracy of fit term R are calculated by the program. The value of D must be specified by the user before the curve fit is performed.

  4. Timing and processes for exhumation of HP/LT rocks of the southern Brooks Range (AK): Insight from combined geochemistry and 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of white mica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, T.; Miller, E. L.; Grove, M. J.; Hayden, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The obduction of an island arc onto the Arctic Alaska continental margin in the Jura-Cretaceous led to southward subduction of continental crust and high-pressure/low-temperature (HP/LT) epidote-blueschist facies metamorphism in the southern Brooks Range (BR). A regionally developed greenschist facies normal-sense shear zone system along the southern margin of the BR suggests that extensional faulting had an influential role in the exhumation of the metamorphic core. To better constrain the exhumation history of the metamorphic core of the BR, samples were collected from a N-S transect through the metamorphic core of the orogen. Electron microprobe (EMP) analyses of white micas reveal that they are composed of phengite (Si > 3.0 pfu) or a combination of phengite + paragonite. Si-content of phengites reveal a southward increase in Si from 3.1 to 3.4 pfu (corresponding to an increase in pressure). Si-contents in higher-P phengites are scattered, reflecting subsequent muscovite growth. The Si trend is matched by a southward increase in the 40Ar/39Ar total gas ages of white micas. Phengite from the north are characterized by younger ages (~115 Ma) and flatter 40Ar/39Ar spectra. Farther south, phengites and paragonites yield older 40Ar/39Ar ages. These samples yield convex, staircase 40Ar/39Ar spectra that initiate ~115-120 Ma and flatten-out ~130-138 Ma. Modeling using MacArgon proposes that an initial cooling of HP/LT metamorphism occurred ~130-138 Ma, recorded in the high-Si phengites and paragonites. Following initial cooling, modeling suggests HP/LT rocks stalled in the greenschist facies field before subsequent exhumation, resulting in the staircase 40Ar/39Ar spectra. Flatter 40Ar/39Ar spectra recorded by the northern samples and modeling of 40Ar/39Ar results from the southern samples suggest that these rocks from metamorphic core of the BR were exhumed to temperatures < 300°C by ~115 Ma.

  5. Host-guest inclusion systems of daidzein with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD): Preparation, binding behaviors and water solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Yinghui; Pang, Yanhua; Guo, Yafei; Ren, Yufeng; Wang, Fen; Liao, Xiali; Yang, Bo

    2016-08-01

    Daidzein is an isoflavone of naturally abundance existing in plants and foods which has attracted much attention for its significant benefits on human health. However, its application was severely limited by its poor solubilities, instability and low bioavailability. To overcome these drawbacks, inclusion complexes of daidzein with two cyclodextrin (CD) derivatives, i.e., 2-hydropropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) and sulfobutyl ether-β-cyclodextrin (SBE-β-CD) were prepared and characterized both in solution and solid state by 1D and 2D NMR, XRD, SEM and elemental analyses. Fluorescence spectroscopy and the Job plot were used to demonstrate a mainly 1:1 inclusion mode between daidzein and CDs. Their thermal stabilities were evaluated with TG and DSC experiments. Moreover, water solubility of daidzein was significantly improved by inclusion complexation with CDs. These results might suggest valuable approaches to developments of new pharmaceutical formulations of daidzein.

  6. Delayed expression of hpS2 and prolonged expression of CIP1/WAF1/SDI1 in human tumour cells irradiated with X-rays, fission neutrons or 1 GeV/nucleon Fe ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balcer-Kubiczek, E. K.; Zhang, X. F.; Harrison, G. H.; Zhou, X. J.; Vigneulle, R. M.; Ove, R.; McCready, W. A.; Xu, J. F.

    1999-01-01

    PURPOSE: Differences in gene expression underlie the phenotypic differences between irradiated and unirradiated cells. The goal was to identify late-transcribed genes following irradiations differing in quality, and to determine the RBE of 1 GeV/n Fe ions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Clonogenic assay was used to determine the RBE of Fe ions. Differential hybridization to cDNA target clones was used to detect differences in expression of corresponding genes in mRNA samples isolated from MCF7 cells irradiated with iso-survival doses of Fe ions (0 or 2.5 Gy) or fission neutrons (0 or 1.2 Gy) 7 days earlier. Northern analysis was used to confirm differential expression of cDNA-specific mRNA and to examine expression kinetics up to 2 weeks after irradiation. RESULTS: Fe ion RBE values were between 2.2 and 2.6 in the lines examined. Two of 17 differentially expressed cDNA clones were characterized. hpS2 mRNA was elevated from 1 to 14 days after irradiation, whereas CIP1/WAF1/SDI1 remained elevated from 3 h to 14 days after irradiation. Induction of hpS2 mRNA by irradiation was independent of p53, whereas induction of CIP1/WAF1/SDI1 was observed only in wild-type p53 lines. CONCLUSIONS: A set of coordinately regulated genes, some of which are independent of p53, is associated with change in gene expression during the first 2 weeks post-irradiation.

  7. A consensus segment in the M2 domain of the hP2X(7) receptor shows ion channel activity in planar lipid bilayers and in biological membranes.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Cristina Alves Magalhães; Teixeira, Pedro Celso Nogueira; Faria, Robson Xavier; Krylova, Oxana; Pohl, Peter; Alves, Luiz Anastacio

    2012-01-01

    The P2X(7) receptor (P2X(7)R) is an ATP-gated, cation-selective channel permeable to Na(+), K(+) and Ca(2+). This channel has also been associated with the opening of a non-selective pore that allows the flow of large organic ions. However, the biophysical properties of the P2X(7)R have yet to be characterized unequivocally. We investigated a region named ADSEG, which is conserved among all subtypes of P2X receptors (P2XRs). It is located in the M2 domain of hP2X(7)R, which aligns with the H5 signature sequence of potassium channels. We investigated the channel forming ability of ADSEG in artificial planar lipid bilayers and in biological membranes using the cell-attached patch-clamp techniques. ADSEG forms channels, which exhibit a preference for cations. They are voltage independent and show long-term stability in planar lipid bilayers as well as under patch-clamping conditions. The open probability of the ADSEG was similar to that of native P2X(7)R. The conserved part of the M2 domain of P2X(7)R forms ionic channels in planar lipid bilayers and in biological membranes. Its electrophysiological characteristics are similar to those of the whole receptor. Conserved and hydrophobic part of the M2 domain forms ion channels.

  8. Design and development of Stirling Engines for stationary power generation applications in the 500 to 3000 hp range. Subtask 1A report: state-of-the-art conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    1980-03-01

    The first portion of the Conceptual Design Study of Stirling Engines for Stationary Power Application in the 500 to 3000 hp range which was aimed at state-of-the-art stationary Stirling engines for a 1985 hardware demonstration is summarized. The main goals of this effort were to obtain reliable cost data for a stationary Stirling engine capable of meeting future needs for total energy/cogeneration sysems and to establish a pragmatic and conservative base design for a first generation hardware. Starting with an extensive screening effort, 4 engine types, i.e., V-type crank engine, radial engine, swashplate engine, and rhombic drive engine, and 3 heat transport systems, i.e., heat pipe, pressurized gas heat transport loop, and direct gas fired system, were selected. After a preliminary layout cycle, the rhombic drive engine was eliminated due to intolerable maintenance difficulties on the push rod seals. V, radial and swashplate engines were taken through a detailed design/layout cycle, to establish all important design features and reliable engine weights. After comparing engine layouts and analyzing qualitative and quantitative evaluation criteria, the V-crank engine was chosen as the candidate for a 1985 hardware demonstration.

  9. 80 HP PLASMA ASSISTED CATALYST SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Slone, Ralph

    2001-08-05

    The US economy is linked to efficient heavy vehicle transportation and diesel remains the fuel of choice for mass transportation of goods and services. Diesel engines remain the most reliable and cost effective system for commerce. Recent deleterious effects of diesel exhaust on health and environment have led to an urgent need for cost effective technologies that would bring about reduction in NOx and PM. CARB estimates on-road diesel mobile source will contribute almost 50% NOx and 78% PM emissions by 2010. As a result recent Federal and State mandates have been adopted to reduce emissions from diesel exhaust to 1 Gm/bhp.-Hr of NOx and 0.05 Gm/bhp-hr of PM by the year 2007. The 2007 standard is to be achieved in a stepwise manner starting with the standards for 2002 namely 2 Gm/bhp-hr NOx and 0.1 Gm/bhp-hr of PM. 2002 standards are likely to be met by most engine manufacturer by some modified form of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system or by employing a sophisticated engine control system. Importance of cost effective technology requirement is further exaggerated by the fact that in recent years diesel engine production have increased dramatically see figure 1 and has out stripped the gasoline engine production almost 4:1 see figure 2. Currently gasoline engine employs a 3-way catalytic system for NOx and HC reduction and in order for the 3-way system to work the engine is run near stoichiometric air : fuel ratio so that exhaust has virtually no oxygen. This strategy has resulted in a poorer efficiency and hence less efficient utilization of our natural resources. By contrast diesel engine operate on a lean burn principals i.e. air rich and currently there are no commercial technologies available for treating NOx and PM. Technologies being considered for reducing NOx from lean burn (diesel) exhaust are; Lean NOx catalyst systems, NOx adsorber system, Selective Catalytic Reduction systems and plasma assisted catalyst system. Of all these technologies Plasma assisted catalyst system is probably the most attractive since it can use currently available fuel onboard.

  10. The Matpar Server on the HP Exemplar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Springer, Paul

    2000-01-01

    This presentation reviews the design of Matlab for parallel processing on a parallel system. Matlab was found to be too slow on many large problems, and with the Next Generation Space Telescope requiring greater capability, the work was begun in early 1996 on parallel extensions to Matlab, called Matpar. This presentation reviews the architecture, the functionality, and the design of MatPar. The design utilizes a client server strategy, with the client code written in C, and the object-oriented server code written in C++. The client/server approach for Matpar provides ease of use an good speed.

  11. Development of a frequency-domain electromagnetic scattering measurement system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Kenneth K.

    1993-12-01

    This thesis describes the development of a system for measuring frequency-domain scattered fields in the Transient Electromagnetic Scattering Range at the Naval Postgraduate School. The new system employs a stepped-frequency CW waveform and utilizes an HP-8510B network analyzer as an RF front-end and a coherent receiver. A pair of AEL H1498 antennas was installed to cover a frequency range of 2 GHz to 18 GHz. An HP-82300C BASIC Language Processor was installed on a COMPAQ Deskpro-386 PC, and an HP-BASIC program was developed for remote control of the HP-8510B with data acquisition over the HPIB bus. A post-processing algorithm was created using MatLab for background subtraction, calibration, and deconvolution. A set of RCS measurements was made using various size spheres, and the postprocessing outputs were compared to computed values. Good agreement between these measurements and computed data indicates excellent accuracy of the measurement system and valid operations of the postprocessing algorithm.

  12. Structure and physical properties of new iron hydrogenophosphates: K2Fe(HP2O7)(H2PO4)2, LiH3Fe2(P2O7)2, and FeH2P2O7.

    PubMed

    Pralong, V; Baies, R; Caignaert, V; Raveau, B

    2009-07-20

    The exploration of the systems Fe-H-P-O, Li-Fe-H-P-O, and K-Fe-H-P-O using soft chemistry methods has allowed three new hydrogenophosphates to be synthesized, whose structures have been determined by ab initio calculations. The structures of two of them--FeH(2)P(2)O(7) and LiH(3)Fe(P(2)O(7))(2)--exhibit close relationships: their 3D framework consists of [FeO(4)](infinity) and [LiFe(2)O(12)](infinity) chains of edge-sharing octahedra, respectively, interconnected through diphosphate groups. These two diphosphates exhibit a paramagnetic to antiferromagnetic transition at low temperatures. The former phase exhibits intrachain ferromagnetic interactions (theta(p) > 0) in competition with the antiferromagnetic interchain ordering, whereas for the second one, the ferromagnetic interactions have disappeared due to the presence of Li in the chains. Differently, the third phosphate, K(2)Fe(HP(2)O(7))(H(2)PO(4))(2), exhibits a chain structure, involving isolated FeO(6) octahedra, and consequently is paramagnetic in the whole temperature range (4-300 K). Among these three phosphates, only the latter exhibits ionic conductivity, which may originate from the proton mobility.

  13. Extracting New Meaning out of Bib Cites at HP

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhu, Qin

    2013-01-01

    Today data is everywhere. Businesses, governments, universities, scientists, and individuals are creating it at an unprecedented level and pace. Everybody is talking about it. We were just getting used to the concept of gigabytes of data. Then, it changed to petabytes. Now, various technology firms claim that more than an exabyte of data is…

  14. Disciplines. Course HP08b: Part Time BA Degree Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith Univ., Brisbane (Australia). School of Humanities.

    This course, one of 16 sequential courses comprising phase one of a part-time Bachelor of Arts degree program in Australian Studies, deals with the ways in which knowledge is historically classified into distinct fields. The example used is the 19th century demarcation between science and psuedo-science. The course is designed for independent…

  15. Chain-growth simulations of the HP model for proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Fabricio S. H.; Martins, Paulo H. L.; Bachmann, Michael

    2016-01-01

    We consider a generalized hydrophobic-polar model for proteins on square lattices. Besides the attraction between nonbonded hydrophobic monomers, the present model also takes into account an interaction between hydrophobic and polar units. By using the pruned- enriched Rosenbluth method (PERM), we investigate a specific polymer sequence composed of 42 monomers that has been proposed to simulate the physical properties of the parallel β- helix of pectate lyase C. For each temperature, the total number of generated chains varies from 106 to 107. Physical observables such as specific heat, total energy, end-to-end distance, radius of gyration, and the average number of hydrophobic-hydrophobic and hydrophobic-polar contacts are evaluated for different values of the ratio between the hydrophobic-hydrophobic and the hydrophobic-polar contact energies. Eventually, a pseudo-phase diagram in the space of temperature and the ratio of contact energy scales is constructed.

  16. Traditions. Course HP01b: Part Time BA Degree Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith Univ., Brisbane (Australia). School of Humanities.

    This course, one of 16 sequential courses comprising phase one of a part-time Bachelor of Arts degree program in Australian Studies, analyses how versions of the past are maintained through rituals and ceremonies, and through institutions such as schools and museums. It further develops the notion of identity, particularly as it applies to…

  17. An Overview of HP's Research Towards Optical Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beausoleil, Ray

    2006-05-01

    Quantum Information Science is an emerging discipline with the potential to revolutionize computation and communication, but with an extremely high barrier to realizing practical results. After describing a framework for performing optical quantum information processing [1], we will outline a set of key scientific and engineering challenges which must be met before a quantum information technology industry can materialize. As a first step toward developing scalable systems, we will describe experiments showing coherent population trapping in nitrogen- vacancy centers in diamond under optical excitation at zero magnetic field. [2] In addition, we will describe experiments demonstrating fabrication of massive photonic crystals using nanoimprint lithography, and the construction of an all-fiber self-calibrating random number generator based on polarization-entangled photons that generates high-quality cryptographic random numbers and is immune to back-door attacks. [1] W. J. Munro, et al., J. Opt. B: Quant. Semiclass. Opt. 7, S135--S140 (2005). [2] C. Santori et. al., arXiv:cond-mat/0602573 (2006).

  18. Baryon-Number Transfer in High-Energy hp Collisions

    SciTech Connect

    Bopp, F.; Shabelski, Yu. M.

    2005-12-01

    The processes of baryon-number transfer due to string-junction propagation in rapidity is considered. It has a significant effect on the net baryon production in pp collisions at mid-rapidities and an even larger effect in the forward hemisphere in the cases of {pi}p and {gamma}p interactions. The results of numerical calculations in the framework of the quark-gluon string model are in reasonable agreement with the data with the same parameter values for different energies.

  19. Operating Procedures for HP Mathematics Drill and Practice Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewlett Packard Co., Cupertino, CA.

    This book is one of a series of five providing a description of the Hewlett-Packard Mathematics Drill and Practice Program for the computer. Complete operating procedures for the program are given. Contents include: (1) introduction; (2) things to know before operating the system; (3) creating records and files; (4) daily tasks; (5) occasional…

  20. Curriculum Guide for HP Mathematics Drill and Practice Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewlett Packard Co., Cupertino, CA.

    This curriculum guide is one of a series of five books published to supply all appropriate information related to the Hewlett-Packard Mathematics Drill and Practice Program for the computer. This text serves as the primary reference source for the program. The content is divided into two sections. A brief explanation of the curriculum structure is…

  1. Proctor's Handbook for HP Mathematics Drill and Practice Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewlett Packard Co., Cupertino, CA.

    This handbook has been prepared for the proctor at a school using the Hewlett-Packard Mathematics Drill and Practice Program. Procedures are given for supervising students, maintaining the terminals, and supplying information to others concerned with the program. Contents include: (1) introduction; (2) starting the drill and practice program; (3)…

  2. High Power Selective Laser Melting (HP SLM) of Aluminum Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchbinder, D.; Schleifenbaum, H.; Heidrich, S.; Meiners, W.; Bültmann, J.

    Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is one of the Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies that enables the production of light weight structured components with series identical mechanical properties without the need for part specific tooling or downstream sintering processes, etc. Especially aluminum is suited for such eco-designed components due to its low weight and superior mechanical and chemical properties. However, SLM's state-of-the-art process and cost efficiency is not yet suited for series-production. In order to improve this efficiency it is indispensable to increase the build rate significantly. Thus, aluminum is qualified for high build rate applications using a new prototype machine tool including a 1 kW laser and a multi-beam system.

  3. Classifications. Course HP08a: Part Time BA Degree Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith Univ., Brisbane (Australia). School of Humanities.

    This course, one of 16 sequential courses comprising phase one of a part-time Bachelor of Arts degree program in Australian Studies, discusses the conditions, mechanisms, and functions that characterize classificatory systems, taking as an example the 19th century classification of some types of behavior as madness. It is designed for independent…

  4. Graphics-Printing Program For The HP Paintjet Printer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkins, Victor R.

    1993-01-01

    IMPRINT utility computer program developed to print graphics specified in raster files by use of Hewlett-Packard Paintjet(TM) color printer. Reads bit-mapped images from files on UNIX-based graphics workstation and prints out three different types of images: wire-frame images, solid-color images, and gray-scale images. Wire-frame images are in continuous tone or, in case of low resolution, in random gray scale. In case of color images, IMPRINT also prints by use of default palette of solid colors. Written in C language.

  5. Mild hydrothermal synthesis, crystal structure, spectroscopic and magnetic properties of the [M{sub x}{sup II}M{sub 2.5-x}{sup III}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(HP{sup III}O{sub 3}){sub y}(P{sup V}O{sub 4}){sub 2-y}F; M=Fe, x=2.08, y=1.58; M=Co, Ni, x=2.5, y=2] compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Orive, Joseba

    2009-08-15

    The [M{sub x}{sup II}M{sub 2.5-x}{sup III}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(HP{sup III}O{sub 3}){sub y}(P{sup V}O{sub 4}){sub 2-y}F; M=Fe (1), x=2.08, y=1.58; M=Co (2), x=2.5, y=2; Ni (3), x=2.5, y=2] compounds have been synthesized using mild hydrothermal conditions at 170 deg. C during five days. Single-crystals of (1) and (2), and polycrystalline sample of (3) were obtained. These isostructural compounds crystallize in the orthorhombic system, space group Aba2, with a=9.9598(2), b=18.8149(4) and c=8.5751(2) A for (1), a=9.9142(7), b=18.570(1) and c=8.4920(5) A for (2) and a=9.8038(2), b=18.2453(2) and c=8.4106(1) A for (3), with Z=8 in the three phases. An X-ray diffraction study reveals that the crystal structure is composed of a three-dimensional skeleton formed by [MO{sub 5}F] and [MO{sub 4}F{sub 2}] (M=Fe, Co and Ni) octahedra and [HPO{sub 3}] tetrahedra, partially substituted by [PO{sub 4}] tetrahedra in phase (1). The IR spectra show the vibrational modes of the water molecules and those of the (HPO{sub 3}){sup 2-} tetrahedral oxoanions. The thermal study indicates that the limit of thermal stability of these phases is 195 deg. C for (1) and 315 deg. C for (2) and (3). The electronic absorption spectroscopy shows the characteristic bands of the Fe(II), Co(II) and Ni(II) high-spin cations in slightly distorted octahedral geometry. Magnetic measurements indicate the existence of global antiferromagnetic interactions between the metallic centers with a ferromagnetic transition in the three compounds at 28, 14 and 21 K for (1), (2) and (3), respectively. Compound (1) exhibits a hysteresis loop with remnant magnetization and coercive field values of 0.72 emu/mol and 880 Oe, respectively. - Abstract: Polyhedral view of the crystal structure of the [M{sub x}{sup II}M{sub 2.5-x}{sup III}(H{sub 2}O){sub 2}(HP{sup III}O{sub 3}){sub y}(P{sup IV}O{sub 4}){sub 2-y}F; M=Fe, x=2.08, y=1.58; M=Co, Ni, x=2.5, y=2] compounds showing the sheets along the [001] direction.

  6. 75 FR 62424 - EDS, an HP Company (Re-Branded as HP-Enterprise Services) Including On-Site Workers From: Abel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ...., Optimum Technology, Oracle USA Inc., Pinnacle Technical Resources Inc., Professional Data Dimensions... above. The notice was published in the Federal Register on March 12, 2010 (75 FR 11924). At the request...., Pinnacle Technical Resources Inc., Professional Data Dimensions, Randstad Staffing Services, S2tech,...

  7. TOP500 Sublist for November 2001

    SciTech Connect

    Strohmaier, Erich; Meuer, Hans W.; Dongarra, Jack J.; Simon,Horst D.

    2001-11-09

    18th Edition of TOP500 List of World's Fastest Supercomputers Released MANNHEIM, GERMANY; KNOXVILLE, TENN.; BERKELEY, CALIF. In what has become a much-anticipated event in the world of high-performance computing, the 18th edition of the TOP500 list of the world's fastest supercomputers was released today (November 9, 2001). The latest edition of the twice-yearly ranking finds IBM as the leader in the field, with 32 percent in terms of installed systems and 37 percent in terms of total performance of all the installed systems. In a surprise move Hewlett-Packard captured the second place with 30 percent of the systems. Most of these systems are smaller in size and as a consequence HP's share of installed performance is smaller with 15 percent. This is still enough for second place in this category. SGI, Cray and Sun follow in the number of TOP500 systems with 41 (8 percent), 39 (8 percent), and 31 (6 percent) respectively. In the category of installed performance Cray Inc. keeps the third position with 11 percent ahead of SGI (8 percent) and Compaq (8 percent).

  8. Mineral inclusions in rutile: A novel recorder of HP-UHP metamorphism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Emma; Storey, Craig; Bruand, Emilie; Schertl, Hans-Peter; Alexander, Bruce D.

    2016-07-01

    The ability to accurately constrain the secular record of high- and ultra-high pressure metamorphism on Earth is potentially hampered as these rocks are metastable and prone to retrogression, particularly during exhumation. Rutile is among the most widespread and best preserved minerals in high- and ultra-high pressure rocks and a hitherto untested approach is to use mineral inclusions within rutile to record such conditions. In this study, rutiles from three different high- and ultrahigh-pressure massifs have been investigated for inclusions. Rutile is shown to contain inclusions of high-pressure minerals such as omphacite, garnet and high silica phengite, as well as diagnostic ultrahigh-pressure minerals, including the first reported occurrence of exceptionally preserved monomineralic coesite in rutile from the Dora-Maira massif. Chemical comparison of inclusion and matrix phases show that inclusions generally represent peak metamorphic assemblages; although rare prograde phases such as titanite, omphacite and corundum have also been identified implying that rutile grows continuously during prograde burial and traps mineralogic evidence of this evolution. Pressure estimates obtained from mineral inclusions, when used in conjunction with Zr-in-rutile thermometry, can provide additional constraints on the metamorphic conditions of the host rock. This study demonstrates that rutile is an excellent repository for high- and ultra-high pressure minerals and that the study of mineral inclusions in rutile may profoundly change the way we investigate and recover evidence of such events in both detrital populations and partially retrogressed samples.

  9. Community and Control. Course HP03a: Part Time BA Degree Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith Univ., Brisbane (Australia). School of Humanities.

    This course, one of 16 sequential courses comprising phase one of a part-time Bachelor of Arts degree program in Australian Studies, surveys different forms of community, ranging from closely knit, cohesive groups to institutionalized groups, their characteristic forms of social control, and their methods of social organization. The concept of…

  10. 75 FR 3418 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... proposed AD. Discussion On May 9, 2007, we issued AD 2007-10-14, Amendment 39-15055 (72 FR 28587, May 22... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will.... 39.13 by removing Amendment 39-15055 (72 FR 28587; May 22, 2007), and adding the following new...

  11. 76 FR 10403 - Hewlett Packard (HP), Global Product Development, Engineering Workstation Refresh Team, Working...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-24

    ... Workstation Refresh Team, Working On-Site at General Motors Corporation, Milford, MI; Notice of Revised... Development Team, the Engineering Application Support Team, and the Engineering Workstation Refresh Team. On... Hewlett Packard, Global Product Development, Non-Information Technology Business Development Team...

  12. Blading designs to improve thermal performance of HP and IP steam turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, S.; Martin, H.F.

    1996-12-31

    Improved blade designs are available for high pressure and intermediate pressure steam turbines for increased thermal efficiency. These designs and the technology used to develop and verify them are discussed in this paper. The blading designs include twisted blade designs and full three dimensional designs. Appropriate strategies are discussed for the application of these different types of blading for new and retrofit applications. The market place in the electric energy industry in the United States is changing. The impact of this change on the need for improved blade designs and application strategies for the use of this blading is also discussed.

  13. Line-pattern collapse mitigation status for EUV at 32nm HP and below

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carcasi, Michael; Bassett, Derek; Printz, Wallace; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Miyata, Yuichiro

    2012-03-01

    Line pattern collapse (LPC) becomes a critical concern as integrated circuit fabrication continues to advance towards the 22 nm node and below. Tokyo Electron Limited (TEL) has been investigating LPC mitigation methods for many years [1]. These mitigation methods include surfactant rinses to help reduce surface tension and Laplace pressures forces that accompany traditional DIW rinses. However, the ability to explore LPC mitigation techniques at EUV dimensions is experimentally limited by the cost and availability of EUV exposures. With this in mind, TEL has adopted a combined experimental and simulation approach to further explore LPC mitigation methods. Several analytical models have been proposed [2, 3, 4] for a LPC simulation approach. However, the analytical models based on Euler beam theory are limited in the complexity of profile and material assumptions. Euler beam based models are also now questionable because they are outside the beam theory's intended aspect ratio regime [5]. The authors explore the use of finite element models in addition to Euler beam theory based models to understand resist collapse under typical EUV patterning conditions. The versatility of current finite element techniques allows for exploration of resist material property effects, profile and geometry effects, surface versus bulk modulus effects, and rinse and surfactant rinse effects. This paper will discuss pattern-collapse trends and offers critical learning from this simulation approach combined with experimental results from an EUV exposure system and TEL CLEAN TRACK ACTTM 12 platform, utilizing state of the art collapse mitigation methods.

  14. Dornier "Superwal" commercial seaplane with : two Rolls-Royce "Condor" 600 HP. engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1927-01-01

    In November 1926, an exhibition flight of the Dornier giant flying boat was made for 3/4 of an hour. It was a larger version of the Dornier Wal, with a stepped hull, and wing stubs for lateral stability. It has a range of 1200 miles and is outfitted for baggage and 8 passengers.

  15. Applications of p-hydroxyphenacyl (pHP) and coumarin-4-ylmethyl photoremovable protecting groups.

    PubMed

    Givens, Richard S; Rubina, Marina; Wirz, Jakob

    2012-03-01

    Most applications of photoremovable protecting groups have used o-nitrobenzyl compounds and their (often commercially available) derivatives that, however, have several disadvantages. The focus of this review is on applications of the more recently developed title compounds, which are especially well suited for time-resolved biochemical and physiological investigations, because they release the caged substrates in high yield within a few nanoseconds or less. Together, these two chromophores cover the action spectrum for photorelease from >700 nm to 250 nm.

  16. Numerical Linear Algebra on the HP-28 or How to Lie with Supercalculators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nievergelt, Yves

    1991-01-01

    Described are ways that errors of magnitude can be unwittingly caused when using various supercalculator algorithms to solve linear systems of equations that are represented by nearly singular matrices. Precautionary measures for the unwary student are included. (JJK)

  17. Gr and hp-1 tomato mutants unveil unprecedented interactions between arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis and fruit ripening

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The roots of plants interact with soil mycorrhizal fungi to facilitate soil nutrient acquisition by the plant and carbon transfer to the fungus. Here we use tomato fruit ripening mutations to demonstrate that this root interaction communicates with and supports genetic mechanisms associated with th...

  18. Metrology of 50nm HP wire-grid polarizer: a SEM-scatterometry comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ruichao; Munoz, Alexander; Brueck, S. R. J.; Singhanl, Shrawan; Sreenivasan, S. V.

    2015-03-01

    The capabilities and limitations of angular scatterometry for a structure pitch much less than the optical wavelength are experimentally investigated using a 100-nm pitch Al-wire grid polarizer on a SiO2 substrate. Three CW laser sources of wavelengths (244 nm, 405 nm and 633 nm) are used to measure the 0-order diffraction (reflection) across an incident angle range of 8° to 80°. The grating profile is defined by seven parameters (pitch, bottom linewidth, top linewidth, fused silica undercut, Al thickness, horizontal and vertical extent of top rounding). Rigorous coupled wave analysis (RCWA) simulations show that the reflectivity versus angle results are sensitive to changes in all of these parameters. The simulations act as a baseline library for the scatterometry measurements. Fitting the experimental curves with the corresponding simulation parameters results in a determination of the grating profile. As expected the shorter wavelength measurements provide the most sensitivity, but good precision is obtained at all three wavelengths. The measurements are in good agreement with destructive cross section scanning electron microscopy measurements.

  19. Electrical conductivity of Icelandic deep geothermal reservoirs: insight from HT-HP laboratory experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nono, Franck; Gibert, Benoit; Loggia, Didier; Parat, Fleurice; Azais, Pierre; Cichy, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Although the Icelandic geothermal system has been intensively investigated over the years, targeting increasingly deeper reservoirs (i.e. under supercritical conditions) requires a good knowledge of the behaviour of physical properties of the host rock in order to better interpret large scale geophysical observations. In particular, the interpretation of deep electrical soundings remains controversial as only few studies have investigated the influence of altered minerals and pore fluid properties on electrical properties of rocks at high temperature and pressure. In this study, we investigate the electrical conductivity of drilled samples from different Icelandic geothermal fields at elevated temperature, confining pressure and pore pressure conditions (100°C < T < 600°C, confining pressure up to 100 MPa and pore pressure up to 35 MPa). The investigated rocks are composed of hyaloclastites, dolerites and basalts taken from depths of about 800 m for the hyaloclastites, to almost 2500 m for the dolerites. They display different porosity structures, from vuggy and intra-granular to micro-cracked porosities, and have been hydrothermally alterated in the chlorite to amphibolite facies. Electrical conductivity measurements are first determined at ambient conditions as a function of pore fluid conductivity in order to establish their relationships with lithology and pore space topology, prior to the high pressure and temperature measurements. Cementation factor varies from 1.5 for the dolerites to 2.83 for the basalt, reflecting changes in the shape of the conductive channels. The surface conductivities, measured at very low fluid conductivity, increases with the porosity and is correlated with the cation exchange capacity. At high pressure and temperature, we used the two guard-ring electrodes system. Measurements have been performed in dry and saturated conditions as a function of temperature and pore pressure. The supercritical conditions have been investigated and temperature cycles have been performed systematically. Dry electrical conductivity measurements show for most of the samples irreversible changes when temperatures exceed 500°C. These changes are interpreted as destabilization/dehydration of alteration minerals that could lead to the presence of a conductive fluid phase in the samples. Very low and high salinity (NaCl) electrical conductivity measurements have been performed as a function of temperature. At supercritical conditions, electrical conductivity at low salinity is not pore pressure dependent and surface conduction is preponderant. At saturated conditions, the rock's electrical conductivity increases linearly (as a function of T-1) until 350°C. Above 350°C, the conductivity decreases. All rock types exhibit the same increasing rate. This work was funded by the of the EC project IMAGE (Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration, grant agreement No. 608553).

  20. Permeability of Icelandic deep geothermal reservoirs: insight from HP and HT measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nono, Franck; Gibert, Benoit; Loggia, Didier; Parat, Fleurice; Azais, Pierre; Cichy, Sarah

    2016-04-01

    Although the Icelandic geothermal system has been intensively investigated over the years, targeting increasingly deeper reservoirs (e.g. under supercritical conditions) requires a good knowledge of the behaviour of physical properties of the host rock types at high temperatures and pressures. In particular permeability, which is the key parameter controlling the dynamics of such unconventional reservoir, is poorly known under these conditions. Up to this date, there is only very limited data available on this topic, especially for magmatic rocks, which is attributed to the difficulty to access these extreme conditions in the presence of pore fluids. Three types of rocks, representative of the lithology are investigated: dolerite, basalt and hyaloclastite. These rocks experienced a high degree of alteration with actinolite, epidote +/- chlorite and talc, representing high temperature conditions (>350°C). We used an internally heated pressure vessel (the Paterson Press) to perform permeability measurements at high temperature and pressure. The effective pressure varied up to 120 MPa while the temperature varied up to 800°C. Inert Argon gas was used as the pore fluid to avoid fluid/rocks interaction. Due to the wide range in permeability, we combined different methods of measurements (steady-state, harmonic, pulse and numerical methods) in order to maintain the accuracy of the permeability measurements. We observed a significant decrease of permeability with effective pressure for the micro-fissural samples (dolerites) when compared to the generally inter-granular hyaloclastites. The decrease is about 1 to 2 orders of magnitude for the dolerites, ranging from about 1 μDarcy to 0.01 μDarcy, while the effective pressure increases from 10 to 120 MPa, respectively. We related this rapid decrease of permeability to the closure of micro-cracks at low effective pressures. This effect has hysteresis as it is not reversible when the effective pressure is re-decreased. On the other hand, effective pressure seems to have little effect on the permeability of hyaloclastites. The logarithm of the varies linearly with the effective pressure. At high temperature, permeability generally decreases with increasing temperature. However, some samples (dolerites) displayed a reproductive increase by about two orders of magnitude from 0.01 μDarcy to 1 μDarcy between 200°C and 300°C. This increase is related to thermal cracking. At 500°C, we also observed a time-dependent behaviour for some hyaloclastites, showing a decrease of permeability over a time span of one hour, while the other samples showed very little temperature-dependance. Important changes in microstructures, such a pore collapse, fracture sealing, or thermal cracking, are invoked by microscopic observations to explain such behaviours. Permeability is highly variable from one rock type to another making interpretation difficult. This work was funded by the of the EC project IMAGE (Integrated Methods for Advanced Geothermal Exploration, grant agreement No. 608553).

  1. Periodic trim solutions with HP-version finite elements in time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Finite Element in Time has been proven to be a powerful alternative solving strategy for the rotor craft trim problem. Additionally, Finite Element Method in Time has been developed in various versions like time-marching framework, Galerkin framework, Rayleigh-Ritz framework, and mixed formulation. Recently, this method was applied to the rotorcraft trim problem to obtain linearized solutions. The rotorcraft trim problem consists of trying to find a period solution for period-coefficient, differential equations subject to side constraints where certain force and momentum balance equations are forced to be equal to zero. There are free (or trim) parameters that are chosen to meet these side constraints. This project aims at expanding the application, in terms of the rotorcraft trim problem, from a linearized solution to nonlinear solution.

  2. Coencapsulation of Ferulic and Gallic acid in hp-b-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Olga, Gortzi; Styliani, Christophoridou; Ioannis, Roussis G

    2015-10-15

    The complexes formed by two polyphenols, trans-Ferulic acid (FA) and Gallic acid (GA) with 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin (HPβCD), by the spray-drying method, were studied. Encapsulation-efficiencies (EE) of the complexes prepared were evaluated by HPLC. In the case of co-encapsulation, the EE of GA was lowered, whereas that of FA was almost stable, indicating a possible antagonistic relationship between the two phenols for the HPβCD cavity. The physicochemical characterization of the complexes was carried out by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). SEM observations revealed that the coencapsulated phenolic complex resulted in a more rounded shape outer surfaces of HPβCD than when encapsulated separately. FT-IR and DSC data indicated that the two polyphenols exhibit a possible interaction in the coencapsulated complex. The complexes showed no loss of their ability to scavenge DPPH radical relatively to the single agent at the concentrations used.

  3. Highly ordered antigorite from Cerro del Almirez HP-HT serpentinites, SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padrón-Navarta, J. A.; López Sánchez-Vizcaíno, V.; Garrido, C. J.; Gómez-Pugnaire, M. T.; Jabaloy, A.; Capitani, G. C.; Mellini, M.

    2008-11-01

    The Cerro del Almirez ultramafic massif offers an example of high pressure and high temperature antigorite serpentinites. A sharp antigorite-out isograd separates them from Chl-harzburgites, consisting of olivine + enstatite + chlorite. Antigorite is characterized by aluminium contents as high as 4 wt.% Al2O3. The microstructural study shows that, prior to the transformation, antigorite is exceptionally ordered and consists of the polysome m = 17. No polysomatic defect occurs in antigorite forming most of the Cerro del Almirez serpentinites. Close to the antigorite-out isograd, limited disorder features may occur, mainly as (001) twins, reaction rims and reduction of m down to 14-15. Here, local recrystallization phenomena lead to sporadic growth of large antigorite and chlorite crystals.

  4. User's guide to noise data acquisition and analysis programs for HP9845: Nicolet analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgary, M. C.

    1982-01-01

    A software interface package was written for use with a desktop computer and two models of single channel Fast Fourier analyzers. This software features a portable measurement and analysis system with several options. Two types of interface hardware can alternately be used in conjunction with the software. Either an IEEE-488 Bus interface or a 16-bit parallel system may be used. Two types of storage medium, either tape cartridge or floppy disc can be used with the software. Five types of data may be stored, plotted, and/or printed. The data types include time histories, narrow band power spectra, and narrow band, one-third octave band, or octave band sound pressure level. The data acquisition programming includes a front panel remote control option for the FFT analyzers. Data analysis options include choice of line type and pen color for plotting.

  5. Detectability and printability of EUVL mask blank defects for the32 nm HP node

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Wonil; Han, Hak-Seung; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Kearney,Patrick A.; Jeon, Chan-Uk

    2007-08-01

    The readiness of a defect-free extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) mask blank infrastructure is one of the main enablers for the insertion of EUVL technology into production. It is essential to have sufficient defect detection capability and understanding of defect printability to develop a defect-free EUVL mask blank infrastructure. The SEMATECH Mask Blank Development Center (MBDC) has been developing EUVL mask blanks with low defect densities with the Lasertec M1350 and M7360, the 1st and 2nd generations, respectively, of visible light EUVL mask blank inspection tools. Although the M7360 represents a significant improvement in our defect detection capability, it is time to start developing a 3rd generation tool for EUVL mask blank inspection. The goal of this tool is to detect all printable defects; therefore, understanding defect printability criteria is critical to this tool development. In this paper, we will investigate the defect detectability of a 2nd generation blank inspection tool and a patterned EUVL mask inspection tool. We will also compare the ability of the inspection tools to detect programmed defects whose printability has been estimated from wafer printing results and actinic aerial images results.

  6. HP-9825A calculator programs for plotting orbiter RCS jet dynamic pressure contours

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, S. W.

    1977-01-01

    Computer programs which generate displays of the dynamic pressure fields generated by orbiter RCS thruster firings are described. The programs can be used to generate dynamic contours for an isolated RCS jet and to superimpose the plume contours for specific jets or jet clusters on front and side views of the orbiter profile.

  7. Phosphorylation of an HP1-like Protein Regulates Heterochromatin Body Assembly for DNA Elimination

    PubMed Central

    Kataoka, Kensuke; Mochizuki, Kazufumi

    2015-01-01

    Summary Heterochromatic loci are often assembled into higher-order heterochromatin bodies in diverse eukaryotes. However, the formation and biological roles of heterochromatin bodies are poorly understood. In the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena, de novo heterochromatin body formation is accompanied by programmed DNA elimination. Here, we show that the heterochromatin body component Jub1p promotes heterochromatin body formation and dephosphorylation of the Heterochromatin Protein 1-like protein Pdd1p. Through the mutagenesis of the phosphorylated residues of Pdd1p, we demonstrate that Pdd1p dephosphorylation promotes the electrostatic interaction between Pdd1p and RNA in vitro and heterochromatin body formation in vivo. We therefore propose that heterochromatin body is assembled by the Pdd1p-RNA interaction. Pdd1p dephosphorylation and Jub1p are required for heterochromatin body formation and DNA elimination but not for local heterochromatin assembly, indicating that heterochromatin body plays an essential role in DNA elimination. PMID:26688337

  8. Fulminant sepsis is a cardinal sign of HP-PRRSV in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006 a unique syndrome with high morbidity and mortality was recognized in growing pigs in China that became known as porcine high fever disease (PHFD). One consistent finding in affected pigs was the detection of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) that had unique nsp2 ge...

  9. ASASSN-16hp: Discovery of A Probable Supernova in ESO 509-IG064

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shappee, B. J.; Holoien, T. W.-S.; Stanek, K. Z.; Kochanek, C. S.; Brown, J. S.; Shields, J.; Godoy-Rivera, D.; Basu, U.; Prieto, J. L.; Bersier, D.; Dong, Subo; Bose, S.; Chen, Ping; Brimacombe, J.

    2016-07-01

    During the ongoing All Sky Automated Survey for SuperNovae (ASAS-SN or "Assassin"), using data from the quadruple 14-cm "Cassius" telescope in Cerro Tololo, Chile, we discovered a new transient source, most likely a supernova, in the galaxy ESO 509-IG064.

  10. Hierarchical parallelisation of functional renormalisation group calculations - hp-fRG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohe, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The functional renormalisation group (fRG) has evolved into a versatile tool in condensed matter theory for studying important aspects of correlated electron systems. Practical applications of the method often involve a high numerical effort, motivating the question in how far High Performance Computing (HPC) can leverage the approach. In this work we report on a multi-level parallelisation of the underlying computational machinery and show that this can speed up the code by several orders of magnitude. This in turn can extend the applicability of the method to otherwise inaccessible cases. We exploit three levels of parallelisation: Distributed computing by means of Message Passing (MPI), shared-memory computing using OpenMP, and vectorisation by means of SIMD units (single-instruction-multiple-data). Results are provided for two distinct High Performance Computing (HPC) platforms, namely the IBM-based BlueGene/Q system JUQUEEN and an Intel Sandy-Bridge-based development cluster. We discuss how certain issues and obstacles were overcome in the course of adapting the code. Most importantly, we conclude that this vast improvement can actually be accomplished by introducing only moderate changes to the code, such that this strategy may serve as a guideline for other researcher to likewise improve the efficiency of their codes.

  11. The "Dornier Mercury" commercial airplane with B.M.W. VI 600 HP. engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1927-01-01

    The Dornier Mercury (Merkur) is an outgrowth of the Dornier Komet. It is designed as a passenger aircraft with the Alpine routes in mind. Its fuselage is made of steel for high stressed parts and duraluminum for all others. It can also be outfitted as a seaplane.

  12. Evaluation of the failure of the HP nozzle block at the Nebraska City Station

    SciTech Connect

    Karloff, J.A.; Weins, W.N.

    1995-12-31

    Since the start-up of the Nebraska City Station unit in 1978, the nozzle block section of the high pressure turbine has had to be replaced or repaired each time this section of the turbine was disassembled. In nearly all cases the damage was limited to the lower half of the nozzle block, where many airfoils had been chipped away. This damage not only dramatically increased maintenance costs, but also reduced the efficiency of the nozzle block. The objective of this report is to evaluate if corrosion-fatigue is part of the failure mechanism and what role if any solid particle erosion played in this process. Results and analysis show that both corrosion and SPE were shown to be minor contributors in the failure analysis process. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photographs revealed that fatigue was the major contributor in the failure. It is speculated that the blade passing pressure disturbance caused the trailing edge of the nozzle to vacillate. As the metal reached its fatigue limit, minute fatigue cracks began to form parallel and in a direction opposite to the steam flow. When a crack grew large enough, part of the metal would be torn away leaving the ``chipped`` away appearance. SPE may have initially accelerated the crack growth by decreasing the thickness of the trailing edge. Intergranular corrosion; which was shown to be present, could have weakened the metal at its grain boundaries essentially reducing its fatigue strength.

  13. Efficacy of type 2 PRRSV vaccine against Chinese and Vietnamese HP-PRRSV challenge in pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) causes significant reproductive losses in the sow herd and respiratory disease in growing pigs. It is a virus that belongs to the family Arteriviridae virus for which there are two major genotypes, Type 1 represented by Lelystad virus, the ...

  14. Rapid Conversion of Adolescent MMPI Raw Scores to T Scores Using the HP-67 Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hembling, David W.

    1984-01-01

    Used a programmable Hewlett-Packard scientific calculator to rapidly convert raw scores from adolescent MMPI protocols to T scores, scale by scale. The K factor is handled, as needed, automatically. Complete scoring and profiling of the R-form MMPI can be done in less than 10 minutes. (Author/JAC)

  15. Initiating intermediate-depth earthquakes: Insights from a HP-LT ophiolite from Corsica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deseta, N.; Ashwal, L. D.; Andersen, T. B.

    2014-10-01

    The hypocentres of intermediate-depth earthquakes have been shown to overlap with the regions in subducting slabs that contain high abundances of hydrous minerals. This relationship was initially revealed using geophysical and numerical modelling and until recently has lacked corroboration from direct field-based research. We evaluated the relationship of the coincidence of intermediate-depth earthquakes with hydrous minerals in the slab by undertaking detailed geochemical analyses of blueschist to lawsonite to eclogite facies pseudotachylytes and their hostrocks located within an exhumed ophiolite, the Eocene Schistes Lustres Complex in Corsica. These units comprise incompletely metamorphosed metagabbro and peridotite. The wallrocks of the pseudotachylytes contain variable amounts of hydrous minerals: tremolite, Mg-hornblende, glaucophane in the metagabbro, and serpentine, tremolite and chlorite in the peridotite. Back-scatter-electron images show that the hydrous minerals entrained in the melt undergo fusion rather than dehydration. Vesicular and H2O-rich melt veins are observed cross-cutting partially molten pseudotachylyte fault veins and show evidence of H2O exsolution during melt solidification. The crystallisation products of these melts indicate formation under high temperature, high pressure conditions (1400-1700 °C; 1.5 GPa). The peridotite-hosted pseudotachylytes crystallised olivine, orthopyroxene and diopside, which are surrounded by interstitial Al- and H2O-rich glass. The metagabbro pseudotachylyte is dominated by Al-rich omphacite, ilmenite and high-Fe anorthite. XRF bulk analyses of the wallrock of the pseudotachylyte and electron microprobe analyses of the pseudotachylyte matrix, entrained survivor clasts and the crystallisation products show that near-total disequilibrium melting took place. The peridotite-hosted pseudotachylyte composition is skewed strongly towards chlorite; however, the preservation of delicate dendritic diopside and olivine hopper crystals suggests that the pseudotachylyte is unaltered, indicating that preferential fusion of chlorite took place. The metagabbro-hosted pseudotachylyte matrix composition is very similar to the bulk wallrock composition but slightly skewed by the preferential melting of Mg-hornblende and tremolite. Not all the pseudotachylytes are hydrous as the H2O content of the melts is highly variable; the metagabbro-pseudotachylyte ranges from 0 to 4 wt.% and the peridotite-pseudotachylyte ranges from 0 to 14 wt.%. The range in H2O content of the pseudotachylytes has lead us to conclude that the localised dehydration of hydrous minerals may be a second order factor in initiating intermediate-depth seismicity. However, we have observed that the pseudotachylytes with the most chaotic vein networks, thickest fault veins and most comminuted material have the highest abundances of hydrous wallrock minerals, possibly owing to repeated fluid ingress in between pseudotachylyte-generating events. This implies that free fluids enhance pseudotachylyte generation and possibly seismicity, but are not a first order requirement. Microtextural and geochemical results from this study suggest that the presence of abundant H2O-rich minerals in the slab exerts a strong rheological control during high strain-rate deformation, facilitating thermally-triggered localising shear instabilities. These field-based observations allow us to explore the assumption of the causal link between slab hydration and earthquake nucleation, and offer fresh insight into the debate of how intermediate-depth earthquakes take place.

  16. hp-Adaptive time integration based on the BDF for viscous flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hay, A.; Etienne, S.; Pelletier, D.; Garon, A.

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents a procedure based on the Backward Differentiation Formulas of order 1 to 5 to obtain efficient time integration of the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations. The adaptive algorithm performs both stepsize and order selections to control respectively the solution accuracy and the computational efficiency of the time integration process. The stepsize selection (h-adaptivity) is based on a local error estimate and an error controller to guarantee that the numerical solution accuracy is within a user prescribed tolerance. The order selection (p-adaptivity) relies on the idea that low-accuracy solutions can be computed efficiently by low order time integrators while accurate solutions require high order time integrators to keep computational time low. The selection is based on a stability test that detects growing numerical noise and deems a method of order p stable if there is no method of lower order that delivers the same solution accuracy for a larger stepsize. Hence, it guarantees both that (1) the used method of integration operates inside of its stability region and (2) the time integration procedure is computationally efficient. The proposed time integration procedure also features a time-step rejection and quarantine mechanisms, a modified Newton method with a predictor and dense output techniques to compute solution at off-step points.

  17. Liquid-Hydrogen-Cooled 450-hp Electric Motor Test Stand Being Developed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kascak, Albert F.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Brown, Gerald V.

    2005-01-01

    With growing concerns about global warming, there is a need to develop pollution-free aircraft. One approach is to use hydrogen-fueled airc raft that use fuel cells or turbogenerators to produce electric power to drive the electric motors that turn the aircraft#s propulsive fan s. Hydrogen fuel would be carried as a liquid, stored at its boiling point of 20.5 K (-422.5 ?F). Conventional electric motors, however, are too heavy to use on an aircraft. We need to develop high-power, lig htweight electric motors (high-powerdensity motors).

  18. 76 FR 28635 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-18

    ... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant economic impact, positive or...://www.baesystems.com/WorldWideLocations/UK/ . E-mail: RApublications@baesystems.com . You may review...-4148. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Taylor Martin, Aerospace Engineer, FAA, Small...

  19. 75 FR 19209 - Airworthiness Directives; British Aerospace Regional Aircraft Model HP.137 Jetstream Mk.1...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-14

    ... Register approved the incorporation by reference of British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100 & 3200 Service Bulletin No. 32-JA030644, Revision No. 1, dated August 19, 2008; British Aerospace Jetstream Series 3100... Register approved the incorporation by reference of BAE Systems British Aerospace Jetstream Series...

  20. Urban Australia. Course HP02b: Part Time BA Degree Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith Univ., Brisbane (Australia). School of Humanities.

    This course, one of 16 sequential courses comprising phase one of a part-time Bachelor of Arts degree program in Australian Studies, contrasts the literary image of an Australian rural national character with the evidence of a predominantly urban character for postwar Australia. It is designed for independent study combined with tutorial sessions.…

  1. The Bush Legend. Course HP02a: Part Time BA Degree Programme.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith Univ., Brisbane (Australia). School of Humanities.

    This course, one of 16 sequential courses comprising phase one of a part-time Bachelor of Arts degree program in Australian Studies, uses Australian literary and documentary writings of the 19th century to examine the formation of the proposition that the Australian national character is based on rural life. The course is designed for independent…

  2. A New Heuristic Algorithm for Protein Folding in the HP Model.

    PubMed

    Traykov, Metodi; Angelov, Slav; Yanev, Nicola

    2016-08-01

    This article presents an efficient heuristic for protein folding. The protein folding problem is to predict the compact three-dimensional structure of a protein based on its amino acid sequence. The focus is on an original integer programming model derived from a platform used for Contact Map Overlap problem.

  3. 75 FR 34169 - Hewlett-Packard Company, Inkjet Consumer Solutions, HP Consumer Hardware Inkjet Lab, Including...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... published in the Federal Register on November 10, 2008 (73 FR 66676). The notice was amended on January 9... in the Federal Register on January 26, 2009 (74 FR 4460). At the request of the State agency, the... Hardware Inkjet Lab, Including Leased Workers From Hightower Technology Capital, Inc., Syncro Design,...

  4. Paragneiss zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, western China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Zhang, J.X.; Bird, D.K.

    2009-01-01

    In the southeastern part of the North Qaidam terrane, near Dulan, paragneiss hosts minor peridotite and UHP eclogite. Zircon geochronology and trace element geochemistry of three paragneiss samples (located within a ???3 km transect) indicates that eclogite-facies metamorphism resulted in variable degrees of zircon growth and recrystallization in the three samples. Inherited zircon core age groups at 1.8 and 2.5 Ga suggest that the protoliths of these rocks may have received sediments from the Yangtze or North China cratons. Mineral inclusions, depletion in HREE, and absence of negative Eu anomalies indicate that zircon U-Pb ages of 431 ?? 5 Ma and 426 ?? 4 Ma reflect eclogite-facies zircon growth in two of the samples. Ti-in-zircon thermometry results are tightly grouped at ???660 and ???600 ??C, respectively. Inclusions of metamorphic minerals, scarcity of inherited cores, and lack of isotopic or trace element inheritance demonstrate that significant new metamorphic zircon growth must have occurred. In contrast, zircon in the third sample is dominated by inherited grains, and rims show isotopic and trace element inheritance, suggesting solid-state recrystallization of detrital zircon with only minor new growth. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Process feasibility investigation of freezing free litho-litho-etch process for below 32nm hp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi; Takeshita, Masaru; Yokoya, Jiro; Yoshii, Yasuhiro; Saito, Hirokuni; Takasu, Ryoichi; Ohmori, Katsumi

    2010-04-01

    Double patterning with 193nm immersion lithography becomes to most promising candidate for 32nm half pitch node and possibly below 32nm half pitch. Several double patterning methods have been suggested such as LELE (Litho-Etch -Litho-Etch), LLE (Litho-Litho-Etch) and Spacer defined process, however, LLE process is pointed out as low cost double patterning technique because of its simplicity. But LLE process needs new method to maintain 1st lithography pattern and additional freezing processes have been suggested In SPIE Advanced Lithography 2009, freezing free "Posi/Posi" process was introduced as candidate for LLE process. This is LLE process that uses two different positive tone photoresists without freezing process. The resist for 2nd lithography contains a specific solvent to prevent the mixing of two resists and there is an activation energy gap between 1st and 2nd resists to maintain 1st lithography pattern. The double patterning can be successfully processed by these specific resists without freezing process. In this study, the performance of this freezing free "Posi/Posi" process is investigated for pitch splitting pattern using 1.35 NA exposure tool. The imaging results including CD control capability, and etching results are collected for 32nm half pitch and below. Additionally the two-dimensional pattern imaging is also obtained for 76nm minimum pitch.

  6. HP-PRRSV challenge of 4 and 10-week-old pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006 a unique syndrome was recognized in growing pigs in China with the predominant clinical signs being high fever, anorexia, listlessness, red discoloration of skin, and respiratory distress. The disease had a very high morbidity and mortality rate and became known as porcine high fever disease...

  7. 77 FR 4023 - Hewlett-Packard Company, Provisional Acceptance of a Settlement Agreement and Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-26

    ..., Hewlett-Packard Company, Senior Vice President & General Manager, Personal Systems Group, PC Global Business Unit, 11445 Compaq Center Dr W, Houston, TX 77070. Dated: December 20, 2011. Sarah L....

  8. Concurrent Collections (CnC): A new approach to parallel programming

    SciTech Connect

    2010-05-07

    A common approach in designing parallel languages is to provide some high level handles to manipulate the use of the parallel platform. This exposes some aspects of the target platform, for example, shared vs. distributed memory. It may expose some but not all types of parallelism, for example, data parallelism but not task parallelism. This approach must find a balance between the desire to provide a simple view for the domain expert and provide sufficient power for tuning. This is hard for any given architecture and harder if the language is to apply to a range of architectures. Either simplicity or power is lost. Instead of viewing the language design problem as one of providing the programmer with high level handles, we view the problem as one of designing an interface. On one side of this interface is the programmer (domain expert) who knows the application but needs no knowledge of any aspects of the platform. On the other side of the interface is the performance expert (programmer or program) who demands maximal flexibility for optimizing the mapping to a wide range of target platforms (parallel / serial, shared / distributed, homogeneous / heterogeneous, etc.) but needs no knowledge of the domain. Concurrent Collections (CnC) is based on this separation of concerns. The talk will present CnC and its benefits. About the speaker Kathleen Knobe has focused throughout her career on parallelism especially compiler technology, runtime system design and language design. She worked at Compass (aka Massachusetts Computer Associates) from 1980 to 1991 designing compilers for a wide range of parallel platforms for Thinking Machines, MasPar, Alliant, Numerix, and several government projects. In 1991 she decided to finish her education. After graduating from MIT in 1997, she joined Digital Equipment’s Cambridge Research Lab (CRL). She stayed through the DEC/Compaq/HP mergers and when CRL was acquired and absorbed by Intel. She currently works in the Software and

  9. Human factors involvement in bringing the power of AI to a heterogeneous user population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czerwinski, Mary; Nguyen, Trung

    1994-01-01

    The Human Factors involvement in developing COMPAQ QuickSolve, an electronic problem-solving and information system for Compaq's line of networked printers, is described. Empowering customers with expert system technology so they could solve advanced networked printer problems on their own was a major goal in designing this system. This process would minimize customer down-time, reduce the number of phone calls to the Compaq Customer Support Center, improve customer satisfaction, and, most importantly, differentiate Compaq printers in the marketplace by providing the best, and most technologically advanced, customer support. This represents a re-engineering of Compaq's customer support strategy and implementation. In its first generation system, SMART, the objective was to provide expert knowledge to Compaq's help desk operation to more quickly and correctly answer customer questions and problems. QuickSolve is a second generation system in that customer support is put directly in the hands of the consumers. As a result, the design of QuickSolve presented a number of challenging issues. Because the produce would be used by a diverse and heterogeneous set of users, a significant amount of human factors research and analysis was required while designing and implementing the system. Research that shaped the organization and design of the expert system component as well.

  10. HP-GPC characterization of asphalt and modified asphalts from gulf countries and their relation to performance based properties

    SciTech Connect

    Wahhab, H.I.A.; Ali, M.F.; Asi, I.M.; Dubabe, I.A.

    1996-12-31

    Asphalt producing refineries in the Gulf countries include Ras Tanura and Riyadh (Saudi Arabia), Al-Ahmadi (Kuwait), and BAPCO (Bahrain). Riyadh and Ras Tanura refineries are located in the central and eastern Saudi Arabia respectively. Arabian light crude oil is used to produce 2000 to 3000 tons of asphalt per day using vacuum distillation, air blowing and grade blending techniques to produce 60/70 penetration grade asphalts in each of these two Saudi refineries. All of the asphalt cement used in Saudi Arabia, Qatar and parts of the United Arab Emirates is supplied by Riyadh and Ras Tanura refineries. Al-Ahmadi refinery supplies all of the asphalt cement needed for construction in the state of Kuwait. Ratwi-Burgan crude off mix is used to produce 750 to 1000 tons of asphalt per day using vacuum distillation and air blowing processes. This study was initiated to evaluate different locally available polymers in order to identify potential polymers to modify asphalts to satisfy the performance requirements in the Gulf countries environmental conditions.

  11. hp discontinuous Galerkin methods for the vertical extent of the water column in coastal settings part I: Barotropic forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conroy, Colton J.; Kubatko, Ethan J.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, we present novel, high-order, discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods for the vertical extent of the water column in coastal settings. We examine the shallow water equations (SWE) in the context of DG spatial discretizations coupled with explicit Runge-Kutta (RK) time stepping. All the primary variables, including the free surface elevation, are discretized using discontinuous polynomial spaces of arbitrary order. The difficulty of mismatched lateral boundary faces that accompanies the use of a discontinuous free surface is overcome through the use of a so-called sigma-coordinate system in the vertical, which transforms the bottom boundary and free surface into coordinate surfaces. We develop high-order methods for the SWE that exhibit optimal orders of convergence for all the primary variables via two distinct paths: the first involves the use of a convolution kernel made up of B-splines to filter out errors in the DG discretization of the surface elevation and the corresponding pressure flux. The second involves a method that evaluates the discrete depth-integrated velocity exactly, eliminating the need to solve the depth-integrated momentum equation altogether. The result is a simple and efficient high-order scheme that can be extended to the full three-dimensional SWE.

  12. Inclusion complexes of HP-β-cyclodextrin with agomelatine: Preparation, characterization, mechanism study and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yunhui; Zhang, Xuefei; Li, Chenglin; Huang, Yanjuan; Lei, Ming; Yan, Mina; Zhou, Yuefang; Zhao, Chunshun

    2016-08-20

    Agomelatine (AGM), is efficacious in both the acute phase and the continuation phase of depression. However, its poor water-solubility, low bioavailability and polymorphism limit its pharmacological effects. To address these problems, agomelatine-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin inclusion complex (AGM/HPβ-CD) was prepared successfully by freeze-drying. The products was evaluated by structural characterization, solubilization test, in-situ absorption of rat intestinal tract and pharmacokinetic study. In addition, thermodynamic studies were performed, the results indicated that the inclusion process was enthalpy-determined and exothermic nature of complexation, signifying the role of steric interactions in complex formation. Molecular docking of AGM with HPβ-CD has been conducted as well to verify the experimental findings and predict the stable molecular structure of the inclusion complex. The in vivo data showed that, AGM was mainly absorbed in duodenum and jejunum by passive diffusion. AGM/HPβ-CD inclusion complex displayed earlier Tmax and higher Cmax, and the AUC0-12h was approximately twice larger than its physical mixture. These results suggested that AGM/HPβ-CD inclusion complex was established with 1:1 stoichiometry through the naphthalene group of AGM and it was deeply inserted into the cavity of HPβ-CD, and the inclusion complex could significantly enhance the oral bioavailability of AGM. PMID:27178948

  13. Studies on the Preparation, Characterization, and Solubility of 2-HP-β-Cyclodextrin-Meclizine HCl Inclusion Complexes.

    PubMed

    George, Sj; Vasudevan, Dt

    2012-10-01

    Meclizine HCl is a poorly water-soluble drug having a very slow-onset of action. The effect of 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrins and β-cyclodextrins on its aqueous solubility and dissolution rate was investigated. The phase solubility profile indicated that the solubility of Meclizine HCl was significantly increased in the presence of both 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and β- cyclodextrin; an extend of increase being more for 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. It was classified as AL-type, indicating the 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complexes. The complexes formed were quite stable. The solid complexes prepared by physical mixtures, kneading methods, and co-precipitation methods were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and FTIR. An in vitro study showed that the solubility and dissolution rate of Meclizine HCl were significantly improved by complexation with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin. Tablet formulation using 1:1 kneading complex of Meclizine HCl and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with drug equivalent to 25 mg was prepared by a direct compression method. A dissolution study of prepared tablets was performed in 0.5% SLS in water (pH 7.0). Almost 96% drug was released from the formulation at the end of 30min. A comparison study of prepared tablets was done with marketed a Meclizine HCl 25 mg conventional tablet. From the results of dissolution study, it was found that the prepared formulation was showing better release, which was statistically significant P < 0.01 than a marketed tablet (paired t-test). Only 54% drug release was observed from the marketed tablet at the end of 30 min. Hence this study concludes that the solubility enhancement of Meclizine HCl could be successfully achieved using the inclusion complexation technique. PMID:23493156

  14. HP41C/CV program computes torque factors for any rod pumping unit to spot problems early

    SciTech Connect

    Rdissi, A.

    1984-01-01

    The principal artificial lift method in U.S. oil fields is sucker-rod pumping, which encompasses over 85% of all producing wells. Dynamometer tests have never been run on the majority of these wells. A dynamometer is an electromechanical device which measures load vs. position of the polish rod at any given point in a stroke cycle. The graphical representation of the polish rod load vs. its position is called a dynagraph or dynamometer card. The components of a dynamometer system are: Although torque factors are furnished by some manufactureers for various size units, exact unit dimensions may vary slightly; therefore, more accurate torque factors should be calculated. This program offers the user a quick, accurate evaluation of gear box operating conditions; thus minimizing the risk of exposing rod pumping units to overtorque and eliminating tedious hand calculations.

  15. Dry development rinse (DDR) process and material for ArF/EUV extension technique toward 1Xnm hp and beyond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shigaki, Shuhei; Onishi, Ryuji; Sakamoto, Rikimaru

    2015-03-01

    Since the pattern pitch is getting smaller and smaller, the pattern collapse issue has been getting sever problem in the lithography process. Pattern collapse is one of the main reasons for minimizing of process margin at fine pitch by ArF-immersion or EUV lithography. The possible major cause of pattern collapse is the surface tension of the rinsing liquid and the shrinkage of resist pattern's surface. These surface tension or shrinkage are occurred in the spin drying process of the rinsing liquid. The influence of surface tension against very small pitch pattern is particularly severe. One of the most effective solution for this problem is thinning of the resist film thickness, however this strategy is reaching to its limits in terms of substrate etching process anymore. Recently the tri-layer resist process or hard mask processes have been used, but there is a limit to the thinning of resist film and there is no essential solution for this problem. On the other hand, dry development process such a supercritical drying method or DSA patterning by dry etching have been known as an ultimate way to suppress the pattern collapse issue. However, these processes are not applied to the mass production process right now because these have some problems such a defect issue, requirement of the special equipment and so on. We newly developed the novel process and material which can prevent the pattern collapse issue perfectly without using any special equipment. The process is Dry Development Rinse process (DDR process), and the material used in the process is Dry Development Rinse material (DDR material). DDR material is containing the special polymer which can replace the exposed and developed part. And finally, the resist pattern is developed by dry etching process without any pattern collapse issue. In this paper, we will discuss the approach for preventing the pattern collapse issue in ArF and EUV lithography process, and propose DDR process and DDR material as the solution.

  16. Varations of molecular weight estimation by HP-size exclusion chromatography with UVA versus online DOC detection.

    PubMed

    Her, Namguk; Amy, Gary; Foss, David; Chow, Jaeweon

    2002-08-01

    High performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) with ultraviolet absorbance (UVA) detection has been widely utilized to estimate the molecular weight (MW) and MW distribution of natural organic matter (NOM). However, the estimation of MW with UVA detection is inherently inaccurate because UVA at 254 nm only detects limited components (mostly pi bonded molecules) of NOM, and the molar absorptivity of these different NOM constituents is not equal. In comparison, a SEC chromatogram obtained with a DOC detector showed significant differences compared to a corresponding UVA chromatogram, resulting in different MW values as well as different estimates of polydispersivity. The MWs of Suwannee River humic acid (SRHA), Suwannee River fulvic acid (SRFA), and various mixtures thereof were estimated with HPSEC coupled with UVA and DOC detectors. The results show that UVA is not an adequate detector for quantitative analysis of MW estimation but rather can be used only for limited qualitative analysis. The NOM in several natural waters (Irvine Ranch, California groundwater, and Barr Lake, Colorado surface water) were also characterized to demonstrate the different MWs obtained with the two detectors. The results of the SEC-DOC chromatograms revealed NOM constituent peaks that went undetected by UVA. Utilizing online DOC detection, a better representation of NOM MWs was suggested, with NOM displaying higher weight-averaged MW (Mw) and lower number-averaged MW (Mn) as well as higher polydispersivity. A method for estimation of the MWs of NOM fractional components and polydispersivities is presented. PMID:12188370

  17. hp-melting and fluid evolution of pan-african metasediments in the mozambique belt of central tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sommer, H.; Kröner, A.; Konopasek, J.; Hauzenberger, C.; Muhongo, S.

    2003-04-01

    The Mozambique belt (MB) of East Africa contains large areas of granulite-facies rocks as well as migmatitic orthogneisses of Neoproterozoic, Palaeoproterozoic and Archaean age. The studied area is situated in central Tanzania along the Great Ruaha River where granitoid orthogneisses are interlayered with granulite-facies migmatitic metasediments. Our study concentrated on the evolution of mineral assemblages, fluid inclusions and zircon geochronology to constrain the evolution of high-grade metamorphic rocks. Mineral data suggests a clockwise PT-path with the peak assemblage Grt-Bt-Ky-Kf-Plg±Ox±melt and the retrograde assemblage Grt-Bt-Sill-Ms-Kf-Plg-Qtz±Ox. This is consistent with the presence of Ky inclusions, complete chemical homogenisation in the core of garnets, and a well developed retrograde zoning pattern in the outermost garnet rims. The positions of the melt-bearing peak metamorphic assemblage and the melt-free retrograde assemblage in PT-space were estimated using bulk composition dependent pseudo-sections (Thermocalc software), whereas the exact PT-conditions for formation of the granulites and the retrograde overprint were calculated from mineral compositions using the Vertex software. The granulites reveal PT-conditions of 12-13 kbar at 700-800 oC. Retrogression and the release of fluids from crystallising melt occurred at ~7 kbar and 650-700 oC. The fluid inclusions study has shown two non-mixing groups consisting of H2O-NaCl and H2O-CO2 mixtures. We suggest that these two groups represent trapped fluids from in-situ crystallised melt. The PT-conditions did not allow for mixing of the above components, resulting in the appearance of two groups of inclusions with different composition. The granulite-facies event was dated using the Pb-Pb single zircon evaporation method, and the estimated age of ~640 Ma is consistent with ages from other parts of the MB in Tanzania, but slightly higher than in Mozambique and significantly higher than in Malawi.

  18. Chinese and Vietnamese strains of HP-PRRSV cause different pathogenic outcomes in United States high health swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An infectious clone of a highly pathogenic PRRSV strain from Vietnam (rSRV07) was prepared, analyzed and compared to Chinese highly pathogenic PRRSV rJXwn06 and US Type 2 prototype VR-2332 in order to examine the effects of virus phenotype and genotype on growth in MARC-145 cells, as well as the imp...

  19. Exhumation of Triassic HP-LT rocks by upright extrusional domes and overlying detachment faults, Ishigaki-jima, Ryukyu islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osozawa, Soichi; Wakabayashi, John

    2012-10-01

    The Tomuru Formation of Ishigaki-jima in the southernmost part of the Ryukyu arc, comprises blueschist facies subduction complex rocks metamorphosed in Triassic time. D1 structures related to subduction, blueschist facies mineral growth, and possibly early stages of exhumation, are deformed by D2 structures that appear to reflect the last stage of exhumation. D2 structures define several anticlines with parasitic overturned folds verging away from anticlinal axes. The shortening recorded by this deformation appears to reflect upward extrusion relative to flanking material. The anticlines are flanked by detachment faults with normal sense-of-shear parallel to D2 vergence. Hanging wall rocks that include the Fusaki Formation, an accretionary prism with early Cretaceous metamorphic ages, and late Eocene limestone, conglomerate, and andesitic volcanics. The Eocene strata contain metamorphic detritus derived from the Tomuru and Fusaki Formations indicating pre-late Eocene surface exposure of these units. Ultramafic rocks and gabbro blocks of the Tomuru Formation were incorporated by sedimentary sliding into the trench prior to subduction and high-pressure metamorphism rather than being emplaced as diapirs along a post-metamorphic fault as previously proposed. Geochronologic, metamorphic, and thermal considerations suggest exhumation of the Tomuru Formation to relatively shallow crustal depths prior to or concurrent with early Cretaceous metamorphism of the Fusaki Formation. Arcward-vergent thrusting may have placed the younger, and formerly structurally lower, subduction complex (Fusaki Formation) over the older one (Tomuru Formation). D2 extrusional doming began after the emplacement of the Fusaki Formation at high structural levels. The D2 transport directions are subparallel to the strike of the orogen suggesting that the upright extrusion may have occurred along a forearc strike-slip fault system. This final stage of exhumation concluded in the late Eocene with extensional collapse and the development of detachment faults. The progression from initial exposure of the Tomuru and Fusaki Formations, deposition of late Eocene strata, extrusional doming and late detachment faulting may have been associated with migrating step-overs rather than changes in regional tectonics.

  20. Rheological Heterogeneity Along the Deep Subduction Interface: Insights from Exhumed HP Metamorphic Rocks Exposed on Syros Island, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotowski, A. J.; Behr, W. M.; Stockli, D. F.; Ashley, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    Rheological properties of subduction interface shear zones control several aspects of subduction zone dynamics, including shear tractions along the plate interface, rates and amounts of exhumation, and depths and styles of seismicity. We document the rheological properties of a deep subduction interface using exhumed eclogite and blueschist-facies rocks from Syros Island, Greece. These rocks were subducted to ~60 km depth during the Eocene, were exhumed part way along the top of the subducting slab, and were then exhumed to upper-crustal levels beneath Miocene detachment faults. Localization of strain during exhumation allowed prograde fabrics to be preserved. The PT conditions (400-550°C, 12-16kb) of these fabrics are comparable to conditions of episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) observed in some modern subduction zones, including Cascadia. Two types of prograde fabrics were distinguished after analyzing macro-scale distributions of strain and microphysical mechanisms of creep in metamafic rocks. Type 1 fabrics contain eclogite pods boudinaged within a blueschist matrix. The eclogites show brittle deformation with cross-cutting veins containing high-pressure minerals. Deformation in matrix blueschists is accommodated by rigid rotation of amphibole and diffusion creep in plagioclase. Type 2 fabrics contain blueschists and eclogites that are isoclinally folded at similar wavelengths, thus are approximately isoviscous. Deformation is again accommodated by diffusion creep in blueschists, but by dislocation creep of omphacite in eclogites. These deformation types characterizing boudin-matrix and isoviscous rheologies of blueschist-eclogite assemblages appear to reflect varying amounts of finite strain, but work is in progress to determine whether they also record different PT conditions. The transition from Type 1 to 2 fabrics represents a significant change in bulk viscosity and seismic anisotropy, and may correspond to a transition from ETS-type behavior—a coupled seismic (brittle)-aseismic (ductile creep) phenomena—to fully ductile aseismic creep. Rheological heterogeneity appears to be an inherent feature of subduction terranes, involving changes in deformation mechanisms from subduction to exhumation and strain partitioning between lithologies in the subduction shear zone.

  1. Thermal structure of the Brooks Ranges and Seward Peninsula, Alaska HP-LT units : insights from RSCM thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    nicolas, Lemonnier; loic, Labrousse; philippe, Agard; Buschendorf Maelianna, Bigot; Frédéric, Mouthereau; Alison, Till

    2013-04-01

    Inner parts of mountain belts expose metamorphic rocks that record the thermal evolution of orogenic wedges, from burial to final exhumation. As such, they provide key constraints for paleogeographic and tectonic reconstructions of convergent zones. In order to understand the relationships between the Pacific subduction system and the Arctic geodynamics, we herein reappraise the key tectonic evolution of the Brooks Ranges (Northern Alaska). High-pressure low-temperature metamorphic rocks cropping out in the Schist belt of the Brooks Ranges, and the Nome Complex schists (Seward Peninsula), were exposed during Early Cretaceous to Paleocene times. Processes and structures responsible for their exhumation (i.e., syn-collisional nappe-stacking or post-collisional extensional detachment), which are still a matter of debate, have direct implications in terms of orogenic boundary conditions and mechanical coupling between subduction processes in southern Alaska and basin response to the north (North Slope). In this study systematic thermometry via Raman Spectrometry (RSCM) of Carbonaceous material along two regional transects in the Schist Belt and Seward Penisula (Nome area) allows the identification of units with contrasting thermal histories and a comparison of the thermal evolutions of the two areas. Geodynamic implications are finally discussed.

  2. Cumulative second-harmonic analysis of ultrasonic Lamb waves for ageing behavior study of modified-HP austenite steel.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Yanxun; Deng, Mingxi; Xuan, Fu-Zhen; Liu, Chang-Jun

    2011-12-01

    The cumulative second-harmonic analysis of ultrasonic Lamb wave has been performed to study the precipitation kinetics and microvoid initiation of ferritic Cr-Ni alloy steel during the ageing process. Ageing of ferritic Cr-Ni alloy materials have been done at 1223 K and 1173 K for different degradation time intervals and air cooled. The results show that the normalized acoustic nonlinearity of Lamb wave increases with the formation of fine precipitates at the early stage of ageing till about 1000 h and keeps as a plateau with the precipitates dynamic balance for a long-term ageing, and then decreases gradually at the final holding time with the coarsening of precipitates and initiation of microvoids. The results also show that the variation of nonlinear Lamb wave follows the same trend as that of hardness in materials. Therefore, the cumulative second-harmonic of ultrasonic Lamb waves has been found to be strongly sensitive to the precipitates behavior and microstructure evolution during the thermal ageing of ferritic Cr-Ni alloy steel.

  3. HP-LT metamorphism in Elba Island: Implications for the geodynamic evolution of the inner Northern Apennines (Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bianco, Caterina; Brogi, Andrea; Caggianelli, Alfredo; Giorgetti, Giovanna; Liotta, Domenico; Meccheri, Marco

    2015-11-01

    The inner Northern Apennines belt (i.e., northern Tyrrhenian Sea and Tuscany) is an Alpine chain affected by high-P metamorphic conditions during its evolution. Although Elba Island is structurally located close to the Adria-Europe suture zone, for several authors it represents a sector of the orogen affected by low-P metamorphism. The involvement of Elba Island tectonic units in high-P metamorphism was only suspected for the sparse presence of phengitic white mica in the metasedimentary rocks. This paper presents the first clear evidence of high-P and low-T metamorphism found in metabasite rocks embedded in the Cretaceous calcschist of eastern Elba Island. Mineral composition of metabasite includes Gln + Cpx + Ep + Ab + Act + Qtz + Ilm ± Ti-oxide ± Spn and is indicative of a former equilibration in the epidote blueschist subfacies and subsequent retrogression in the greenschist facies. Recorded metamorphic conditions are P = 0.9-1.0 GPa and T = 330-350 °C. Tectonic discrimination using immobile elements in the metabasite does not point to an oceanic setting. As a consequence, the metasedimentary succession containing metabasite is explained as belonging to the Tuscan continental domain and not to the Ligurian-Piedmont Ocean, as previously interpreted. Our results have two significant implications: (i) it is confirmed and strengthened that the tectonic stacking of the Elba Island units did not occur in a low-pressure context; (ii) Elba Island is now completely reconciled in the tectonic and metamorphic evolution of the inner Northern Apennines.

  4. Geochronology and tectonic significance of Middle Proterozoic granitic orthogneiss, North Qaidam HP/UHP terrane, Western China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mattinson, C.G.; Wooden, J.L.; Liou, J.G.; Bird, D.K.; Wu, C.L.

    2006-01-01

    Amphibolite-facies para- and orthogneisses near Dulan, in the southeast part of the North Qaidam terrane, enclose minor ultra-high pressure (UHP) eclogite and peridotite. Field relations and coesite inclusions in zircons from paragneiss suggest that felsic, mafic, and ultramafic rocks all experienced UHP metamorphism and a common amphibolite-facies retrogression. Ion microprobe U-Pb and REE analyses of zircons from two granitic orthogneisses indicate magmatic crystallization at 927 ?? Ma and 921 ?? 7 Ma. Zircon rims in one of these samples yield younger ages (397-618 Ma) compatible with partial zircon recrystallization during in-situ Ordovician-Silurian eclogite-facies metamorphism previously determined from eclogite and paragneiss in this area. The similarity between a 2496 ?? 18 Ma xenocrystic core and 2.4-2.5 Ga zircon cores in the surrounding paragneiss suggests that the granites intruded the sediments or that the granite is a melt of the older basement which supplied detritus to the sediments. The magmatic ages of the granitic orthogneisses are similar to 920-930 Ma ages of (meta)granitoids described further northwest in the North Qaidam terrane and its correlative west of the Altyn Tagh fault, suggesting that these areas formed a coherent block prior to widespread Mid Proterozoic granitic magmatism. ?? Springer-Verlag 2006.

  5. Parallel Semi-Implicit Spectral Element Atmospheric Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fournier, A.; Thomas, S.; Loft, R.

    2001-05-01

    The shallow-water equations (SWE) have long been used to test atmospheric-modeling numerical methods. The SWE contain essential wave-propagation and nonlinear effects of more complete models. We present a semi-implicit (SI) improvement of the Spectral Element Atmospheric Model to solve the SWE (SEAM, Taylor et al. 1997, Fournier et al. 2000, Thomas & Loft 2000). SE methods are h-p finite element methods combining the geometric flexibility of size-h finite elements with the accuracy of degree-p spectral methods. Our work suggests that exceptional parallel-computation performance is achievable by a General-Circulation-Model (GCM) dynamical core, even at modest climate-simulation resolutions (>1o). The code derivation involves weak variational formulation of the SWE, Gauss(-Lobatto) quadrature over the collocation points, and Legendre cardinal interpolators. Appropriate weak variation yields a symmetric positive-definite Helmholtz operator. To meet the Ladyzhenskaya-Babuska-Brezzi inf-sup condition and avoid spurious modes, we use a staggered grid. The SI scheme combines leapfrog and Crank-Nicholson schemes for the nonlinear and linear terms respectively. The localization of operations to elements ideally fits the method to cache-based microprocessor computer architectures --derivatives are computed as collections of small (8x8), naturally cache-blocked matrix-vector products. SEAM also has desirable boundary-exchange communication, like finite-difference models. Timings on on the IBM SP and Compaq ES40 supercomputers indicate that the SI code (20-min timestep) requires 1/3 the CPU time of the explicit code (2-min timestep) for T42 resolutions. Both codes scale nearly linearly out to 400 processors. We achieved single-processor performance up to 30% of peak for both codes on the 375-MHz IBM Power-3 processors. Fast computation and linear scaling lead to a useful climate-simulation dycore only if enough model time is computed per unit wall-clock time. An efficient SI

  6. Concurrent Collections (CnC): A new approach to parallel programming

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    A common approach in designing parallel languages is to provide some high level handles to manipulate the use of the parallel platform. This exposes some aspects of the target platform, for example, shared vs. distributed memory. It may expose some but not all types of parallelism, for example, data parallelism but not task parallelism. This approach must find a balance between the desire to provide a simple view for the domain expert and provide sufficient power for tuning. This is hard for any given architecture and harder if the language is to apply to a range of architectures. Either simplicity or power is lost. Instead of viewing the language design problem as one of providing the programmer with high level handles, we view the problem as one of designing an interface. On one side of this interface is the programmer (domain expert) who knows the application but needs no knowledge of any aspects of the platform. On the other side of the interface is the performance expert (programmer or program) who demands maximal flexibility for optimizing the mapping to a wide range of target platforms (parallel / serial, shared / distributed, homogeneous / heterogeneous, etc.) but needs no knowledge of the domain. Concurrent Collections (CnC) is based on this separation of concerns. The talk will present CnC and its benefits. About the speaker Kathleen Knobe has focused throughout her career on parallelism especially compiler technology, runtime system design and language design. She worked at Compass (aka Massachusetts Computer Associates) from 1980 to 1991 designing compilers for a wide range of parallel platforms for Thinking Machines, MasPar, Alliant, Numerix, and several government projects. In 1991 she decided to finish her education. After graduating from MIT in 1997, she joined Digital Equipment’s Cambridge Research Lab (CRL). She stayed through the DEC/Compaq/HP mergers and when CRL was acquired and absorbed by Intel. She currently works in the Software and

  7. FERM3D: A finite element R-matrix electron molecule scattering code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonzani, Stefano

    2007-01-01

    FERM3D is a three-dimensional finite element program, for the elastic scattering of a low energy electron from a general polyatomic molecule, which is converted to a potential scattering problem. The code is based on tricubic polynomials in spherical coordinates. The electron-molecule interaction is treated as a sum of three terms: electrostatic, exchange, and polarization. The electrostatic term can be extracted directly from ab initio codes ( GAUSSIAN 98 in the work described here), while the exchange term is approximated using a local density functional. A local polarization potential based on density functional theory [C. Lee, W. Yang, R.G. Parr, Phys. Rev. B 37 (1988) 785] describes the long range attraction to the molecular target induced by the scattering electron. Photoionization calculations are also possible and illustrated in the present work. The generality and simplicity of the approach is important in extending electron-scattering calculations to more complex targets than it is possible with other methods. Program summaryTitle of program:FERM3D Catalogue identifier:ADYL_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADYL_v1_0 Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University of Belfast, N. Ireland Computer for which the program is designed and others on which it has been tested:Intel Xeon, AMD Opteron 64 bit, Compaq Alpha Operating systems or monitors under which the program has been tested:HP Tru64 Unix v5.1, Red Hat Linux Enterprise 3 Programming language used:Fortran 90 Memory required to execute with typical data:900 MB (neutral CO 2), 2.3 GB (ionic CO 2), 1.4 GB (benzene) No. of bits in a word:32 No. of processors used:1 Has the code been vectorized?:No No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.:58 383 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.:561 653 Distribution format:tar.gzip file CPC Program library subprograms used:ADDA, ACDP Nature of physical problem:Scattering of an

  8. Phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-Kinase 1α Modulates Ribosomal RNA Gene Silencing through Its Interaction with Histone H3 Lysine 9 Trimethylation and Heterochromatin Protein HP1-α*

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Rajarshi; Sanyal, Sulagna; Ghosh, Amit; Bhar, Kaushik; Das, Chandrima; Siddhanta, Anirban

    2015-01-01

    Phosphoinositide signaling has been implicated in the regulation of numerous cellular processes including cytoskeletal dynamics, cellular motility, vesicle trafficking, and gene transcription. Studies have also shown that nuclear phosphoinositide(s) regulates processes such as mRNA export, cell cycle progression, gene transcription, and DNA repair. We have shown previously that the nuclear form of phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate 5-kinase 1α (PIP5K), the enzyme responsible for phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate synthesis, is modified by small ubiquitin-like modifier (SUMO)-1. In this study, we have shown that due to the site-specific Lys to Ala mutations of PIP5K at Lys-244 and Lys-490, it is unable to localize in the nucleus and nucleolus, respectively. Furthermore, by using chromatin immunoprecipitation assays, we have observed that PIP5K associates with the chromatin silencing complex constituted of H3K9me3 and heterochromatin protein 1α at multiple ribosomal DNA (rDNA) loci. These interactions followed a definite cyclical pattern of occupancy (mostly G1) and release from the rDNA loci (G1/S) throughout the cell cycle. Moreover, the immunoprecipitation results clearly demonstrate that PIP5K SUMOylated at Lys-490 interacts with components of the chromatin silencing machinery, H3K9me3 and heterochromatin protein 1α. However, PIP5K does not interact with the gene activation signature protein H3K4me3. This study, for the first time, demonstrates that PIP5K, an enzyme actively associated with lipid modification pathway, has additional roles in rDNA silencing. PMID:26157143

  9. Assessment of Abrasive Wear of Nanostructured WC-Co and Fe-Based Coatings Applied by HP-HVOF, Flame, and Wire Arc Spray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, C. R. C.; Libardi, R.; Camargo, F.; Fals, H. C.; Ferraresi, V. A.

    2014-10-01

    Thermal spray processes have been widely used to minimize losses caused by wear mechanisms. Sprayed deposits using conventional wire and powder materials have been long solving tribological problems in engineering equipment. More recently, the option for new different technologies and consumables like nanostructured powder materials and nanocomposite cored wires have expanded the possibilities for technical solutions. Cored wire technology allows the use of compositions that cannot be drawn into wire form like carbides in metallic matrix and high-temperature materials, thus, intensifying the use of spraying processes with low operating cost to demanding wear and corrosion applications. The objective of this work was to study the mechanical characteristics and wear performance of coatings obtained by Flame, Wire Arc, and HVOF spraying using selected nanostructured WC10Co4Cr, WC12Co, and Fe-based 140 MXC powder and wire materials. Abrasive wear performance of the coatings was determinate following the ASTM G-65 standard. Based on the results, a higher abrasive wear resistance was found for the HVOF-sprayed WC10Co4Cr nanostructured coating.

  10. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States. A Program for Capital Recovery Assessment for the HP-97 and Other Desk Calculators

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Kwang; Briesen, Roy Von

    1980-08-07

    The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory and the Center for Metropolitan Planning and Research support the Division of Geothermal Energy, U.S. Department of Energy, in the development of geothermal energy in the Eastern United States. In this role, many tools have been developed to assist in the analysis of the economics of the application of geothermal energy. This report documents one computer program that has proved useful.

  11. Impact of clocking on the aero-thermodynamics of a second stator tested in a one and a half stage HP turbine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billiard, N.; Paniagua, Guillermo; Dénos, R.

    2008-06-01

    This paper focuses on the experimental investigation of the time-averaged and time-accurate aero-thermodynamics of a second stator tested in a 1.5 stage high-pressure turbine. The effect of clocking on aerodynamic and heat transfer are investigated. Tests are performed under engine representative conditions in the VKI compression tube CT3. The test program includes four different clocking positions, i.e. relative pitch-wise positions between the first and the second stator. Probes located upstream and downstream of the second stator provide the thermodynamic conditions of the flow field. On the second stator airfoil, measurements are taken around the blade profile at 15, 50 and 85% span with pressure sensors and thin-film gauges. Both time-averaged and time-resolved aspects of the flow field are addressed. Regarding the time-averaged results, clocking effects are mainly observed within the leading edge region of the second stator, the largest effects being observed at 15% span. The surface static pressure distribution is changed locally, hence affecting the overall airfoil performance. For one clocking position, the thermal load of the airfoil is noticeably reduced. Pressure fluctuations are attributed to the passage of the upstream transonic rotor and its associated pressure gradients. The pattern of these fluctuations changes noticeably as a function of clocking. The time-resolved variations of heat flux and static pressure are analyzed together showing that the major effect is due to a potential interaction. The time-resolved pressure distribution integrated along the second stator surface yields the unsteady forces on the vane. The magnitude of the unsteady force is very dependent on the clocking position.

  12. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the HP roll mill grinding of coal. Quarterly technical progress report No. 13, September 1, 1995--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.

    1995-12-01

    The objective of this research is the development of improved technology of the preparation of coal-water slurries that have potential for replacing fuel oil in direct combustion. Research accomplishments are summarized for: standardization of experimental procedures; investigation of effect of high-pressure roll mill/ball mill grinding on the energetics of fine grinding and the rheology of coal-water slurries prepared with such fines; study of aging behavior of slurries; and ways of improving rheology of slurries. The rheological behavior of slurries is a manifestation of particle-particle and particle-fluid interactions in the slurry. Improvement in the rheology of slurries could be brought about by suitably altering these interactions. The research directed towards investigation of the influence of co-addition of sodium hexametaphosphate and vacuum oil, with CoalMaster as the primary dispersant, showed that co-addition of the reagents significantly improved the rheology of coal-water slurries. Further research conducted in this quarter indicated that co-addition of reagents also improves the long-term rheological behavior of coal-water slurries.

  13. OPTIMIZATION OF DEEP DRILLING PERFORMANCE--DEVELOPMENT AND BENCHMARK TESTING OF ADVANCED DIAMOND PRODUCT DRILL BITS & HP/HT FLUIDS TO SIGNIFICANTLY IMPROVE RATES OF PENETRATION

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Black; Arnis Judzis

    2004-10-01

    The industry cost shared program aims to benchmark drilling rates of penetration in selected simulated deep formations and to significantly improve ROP through a team development of aggressive diamond product drill bit--fluid system technologies. Overall the objectives are as follows: Phase 1--Benchmark ''best in class'' diamond and other product drilling bits and fluids and develop concepts for a next level of deep drilling performance; Phase 2--Develop advanced smart bit-fluid prototypes and test at large scale; and Phase 3--Field trial smart bit-fluid concepts, modify as necessary and commercialize products. As of report date, TerraTek has concluded all major preparations for the high pressure drilling campaign. Baker Hughes encountered difficulties in providing additional pumping capacity before TerraTek's scheduled relocation to another facility, thus the program was delayed further to accommodate the full testing program.

  14. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Zzzz of... - Operating Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed SI 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZ, Table 1b Table 1b to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63—Operating... and not using NSCR. 1 Sources can petition the Administrator pursuant to the requirements of 40 CFR...

  15. 40 CFR Table 1b to Subpart Zzzz of... - Operating Limitations for Existing, New, and Reconstructed SI 4SRB Stationary RICE >500 HP...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Internal Combustion Engines Pt. 63, Subpt. ZZZZ, Table 1b Table 1b to Subpart ZZZZ of Part 63—Operating... and not using NSCR. 1 Sources can petition the Administrator pursuant to the requirements of 40 CFR...

  16. 75 FR 57506 - EDS, an HP Company, A Subsidiary of Hewlett-Packard Company Including On-Site Leased Workers from...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-21

    ... Federal Register on February 16, 2010 (75 FR 7033). At the request of the State agency, the Department... to information technology (IT) outsourcing services. New information shows that workers leased...

  17. From oceanic subduction to continental collision: An overview of HP-UHP metamorphic rocks in the North Qaidam UHP belt, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guibin; Zhang, Lifei; Christy, Andrew G.

    2013-02-01

    The North Qaidam UHPM belt is unique among "continental type" subduction zones in showing well-preserved subducted oceanic relics that predate continental subduction and collision. We review petrologic, thermobarometric, geochemical and geochronological studies for the Yuka, Luliang Shan, Xitieshan and Dulan terranes in this belt. UHP conditions are demonstrated by coesite inclusions in eclogite and country gneiss, and diamond inclusions from garnet peridotite. The relict subducted oceanic lithology crops out in the Shaliuhe cross-section in Dulan terrane; it originated as the floor of a Paleo-Qilian Ocean that existed between Qaidam and Qilian blocks before the early Ordovician. Whereas most eclogites of this belt are derived from mafic rocks of either a Neoproterozoic continental rift or incipient oceanic basin setting, which were subducted along with continental rocks in the early Paleozoic. The data, especially the two protolith sources for eclogites, demonstrate tectonic evolution of the North Qaidam UHPM belt from oceanic subduction to continental collision.

  18. The HP 85192B EEFet3 GaAs FET Nonlinear Model Used in the High Efficiency Microwave Power Amplifier (HEMPA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sims, William Herbert, III; Bell, Joseph L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Most nonlinear circuit analysis programs that exist today were designed primarily for transient analysis. By incorporating more accurate models in simulation programs, accurate predictions of GaAs field effect transistors (FET) behavior can be accomplished. However, should the designer need to simulate GaAs FETs that operate at high DC-to-RF conversion efficiencies, a more sophisticated model is needed. A relevant and appropriate method is called harmonic-balance, as described by Quere et al.

  19. Procedures for processing satellite-transmitted weather data: Conversion of data from the HP (Hewlett-Packard) computer to the IBM PC system

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.M.

    1988-06-30

    Since 1982, weather data from three sites in the Marshall Islands have been transmitted by satellite, retrieved by a local communications program, and stored on disk. Occasionally, descriptive reports were generated displaying rainfall and insolation data from this database. Both the data storage and processing programs resided on a Hewlett-Packard desktop computer system no longer in use by researchers in Environmental Sciences. Furthermore, the format and processing of data over the six years the system has been in operation have not been consistent. The goals of this conversion project were to document the existing data formats, develop processing program(s) capable of managing the various formats, and establish procedures for the continuing transfer of new data from the GOES system in Virginia to its final storage on an IBM PC system. To achieve these goals, the following materials were developed: the computer program MITRANS, which translates raw data retrieved by the old communications program into edited, self-documenting files organized by site and year, nineteen consolidated data input files, which contain all data from 1982 to May 31, 1988, a comprehensive data dictionary, reflecting all that is known about the 13 different data formats that have been used over the last 6 years, procedures for managing the communications program still running on the Hewlett-Packard computer and transferring its raw data files to the IBM PC, sample input and output files that test the various data formats, and this project report and reference manual. 20 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Tillandsia stricta Sol (Bromeliaceae) leaves as monitors of airborne particulate matter-A comparative SEM methods evaluation: Unveiling an accurate and odd HP-SEM method.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Martha Lima; de Melo, Edésio José Tenório; Miguens, Flávio Costa

    2016-09-01

    Airborne particulate matter (PM) has been included among the most important air pollutants by governmental environment agencies and academy researchers. The use of terrestrial plants for monitoring PM has been widely accepted, particularly when it is coupled with SEM/EDS. Herein, Tillandsia stricta leaves were used as monitors of PM, focusing on a comparative evaluation of Environmental SEM (ESEM) and High-Pressure SEM (HPSEM). In addition, specimens air-dried at formaldehyde atmosphere (AD/FA) were introduced as an SEM procedure. Hydrated specimen observation by ESEM was the best way to get information from T. stricta leaves. If any artifacts were introduced by AD/FA, they were indiscernible from those caused by CPD. Leaf anatomy was always well preserved. PM density was determined on adaxial and abaxial leaf epidermis for each of the SEM proceedings. When compared with ESEM, particle extraction varied from 0 to 20% in air-dried leaves while 23-78% of particles deposited on leaves surfaces were extracted by CPD procedures. ESEM was obviously the best choice over other methods but morphological artifacts increased in function of operation time while HPSEM operation time was without limit. AD/FA avoided the shrinkage observed in the air-dried leaves and particle extraction was low when compared with CPD. Structural and particle density results suggest AD/FA as an important methodological approach to air pollution biomonitoring that can be widely used in all electron microscopy labs. Otherwise, previous PM assessments using terrestrial plants as biomonitors and performed by conventional SEM could have underestimated airborne particulate matter concentration. PMID:27357408