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Sample records for 73-year-old caucasian woman

  1. [A 73-year-old woman with familial Parkinson's disease].

    PubMed

    Takanashi, M; Urabe, T; Ohta, S; Hamano, Y; Mori, H; Shirai, T; Kondo, T; Mizuno, Y

    1999-12-01

    We report a 73-year-old Japanese woman with familial Parkinson's disease. The patient was well until her 67 years of the age, when she noted rest tremor in her right hand. Soon after her gait became short stepped. She visited our clinic on October 6, 1992 when she was 68 years old. She was alert and well oriented without dementia. She showed masked face, small voice, small stepped gait, retropulsion, resting tremor in her right hand, rigidity in the neck, and bradykinesia. She was treated with 400 mg/day of levodopa-carbidopa, which improved her symptoms, however, she developed wearing off phenomenon 3 years after the initiation of levodopa treatment. On August 26, 1998, she developed abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vomiting. She was admitted to another hospital, where abdominal plain x-ray revealed an evidence of intestinal obstruction (ileus). She was treated with nasogastric suction and intravenous fluid. Her condition did not improve and she was transferred to our hospital on August 29, 1998. Her family history revealed no consanguineous marriage. She had two elder brothers and three elder sisters. One of her brothers had been diagnosed as Parkinson's disease. Her husband also suffered from Parkinson's disease, however, her parents apparently did not have Parkinson's disease. On admission, she appeared to be drowsy. Her blood pressure was 102/70 mmHg, body temperature 36.2 degrees C. The lungs were clear and no cardiac murmur was present. Abdomen was flat and bowel sound was audible. No abnormal mass was palpable. Neurologic examination revealed mild consciousness disturbance, masked face, and small voice. No motor paralysis was noted. Muscle tone was hypotonic. No abnormal involuntary movement was noted. Abnormal laboratory findings on admission were as follows; WBC 11,300/microliter, amylase 1,373 IU/l, CK 446 IU/l, BUN 50 mg/dl, creatinine 1.17 mg/dl, CRP 22.7 mg/ dl, Na 134 mEq/l, K 3.1 mEq/l, and Cl 81 mEq/l. A chest x-ray film revealed pneumonic shadows in

  2. 73-year-old woman with abdominal pain in the right lower quadrant

    SciTech Connect

    Bond, J.R.

    1987-03-20

    A 73-year-old woman presented with a six-day history of abdominal pain that had started in the epigastrium, but recently had become more intense in the right lower quadrant. Peptic ulcer had been diagnosed three years prior to presentation and had been managed medically. On physical examination, epigastric tenderness as well as guarding and rebound tenderness in the right lower quandrant were present. Mild leukocytosis was reported. Computed tomography demonstrated a 5-cm retrocecal mass with low attenuation (fluid content) surrounded by an irregularly thickened uncalcified wall. Multiple areas of tissue debris were seen extending into the mass, but no true separation was present.

  3. Solitary Encapsulated Neurofibroma Not Associated with Neurofibromatosis-1 Affecting Tongue in a 73-Year-Old Female

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Sk. Abdul; Chattaraj, Moumita; Gayen, Swagata

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromas are benign tumors of nerve cell origin arising due to proliferation of Schwann cells and fibroblasts. They are usually asymptomatic and hence remain undiagnosed. They are commonly found on the skin and intraorally tongue is the most common site for their occurrence. Here, we present a unique case of solitary encapsulated neurofibroma in the oral cavity without any clinical manifestations or family history of Neurofibromatosis type 1 in a 73-year-old female patient who presented with a painless swelling on the tongue. The histopathologic findings closely mimicked benign fibrous histiocytoma. In our case, definitive diagnosis of neurofibroma was made based on clinical findings, family history, and histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Through this case report we want to emphasize the role of biopsy and immunohistochemistry in arriving at a confirmatory diagnosis. The patient was treated by surgical excision and showed no signs of recurrence over a follow-up period of 12 months. PMID:27525129

  4. Solitary Encapsulated Neurofibroma Not Associated with Neurofibromatosis-1 Affecting Tongue in a 73-Year-Old Female.

    PubMed

    Mahmud, Sk Abdul; Shah, Neha; Chattaraj, Moumita; Gayen, Swagata

    2016-01-01

    Neurofibromas are benign tumors of nerve cell origin arising due to proliferation of Schwann cells and fibroblasts. They are usually asymptomatic and hence remain undiagnosed. They are commonly found on the skin and intraorally tongue is the most common site for their occurrence. Here, we present a unique case of solitary encapsulated neurofibroma in the oral cavity without any clinical manifestations or family history of Neurofibromatosis type 1 in a 73-year-old female patient who presented with a painless swelling on the tongue. The histopathologic findings closely mimicked benign fibrous histiocytoma. In our case, definitive diagnosis of neurofibroma was made based on clinical findings, family history, and histopathological and immunohistochemical evaluation. Through this case report we want to emphasize the role of biopsy and immunohistochemistry in arriving at a confirmatory diagnosis. The patient was treated by surgical excision and showed no signs of recurrence over a follow-up period of 12 months. PMID:27525129

  5. Refractory High Intracranial Pressure following Intraventricular Hemorrhage due to Moyamoya Disease in a Pregnant Caucasian Woman

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, Virginie; Grandin, Cécile; Goffette, Pierre; Fomekong, Edward; Hantson, Philippe

    2009-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage during pregnancy is usually followed by a poor recovery. When caused by moyamoya disease, ischemic or hemorrhagic episodes may complicate the management of high intracranial pressure. A 26-year-old Caucasian woman presented with generalized seizures and a Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) of 3 during the 36th week of pregnancy. The fetus was delivered by caesarean section. The brain CT in the mother revealed bilateral intraventricular hemorrhage, a callosal hematoma, hydrocephalus and right frontal ischemia. Refractory high intracranial pressure developed and required bilateral ventricular drainage and intensive care treatment with barbiturates and hypothermia. Magnetic resonance imaging and cerebral angiography revealed a moyamoya syndrome with rupture of the abnormal collateral vascular network as the cause of the hemorrhage. Intracranial pressure could only be controlled after the surgical removal of the clots after a large opening of the right ventricle. Despite an initially low GCS, this patient made a good functional recovery at one year follow-up. Management of refractory high intracranial pressure following moyamoya related intraventricular bleeding should require optimal removal of ventricular clots and appropriate control of cerebral hemodynamics to avoid ischemic or hemorrhagic complications. PMID:20508823

  6. A conversion disorder or a stroke? A proximal basilar artery thrombosis induced 'locked-in' syndrome in a young Caucasian woman.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Brandon, Ohman; Smith, Debbie Villarreal; Petersen, Eric

    2013-03-14

    The incidence of the basilar artery occlusion is relatively low among all strokes. Clinical presentation varies depending on the location of the occlusion. The symptoms include mild dysarthria to coma or sudden death. The initial subtle clinical presentation could lead to misdiagnosis. Psychogenic diagnosis in the differential could make the timely diagnosis more difficult. This case involves a 34-year-old woman presenting with a gradual onset of slurred speech. The initial CT scan of head did not indicate any intracranial pathology, and she was initially treated for an anxiety/conversion disorder. With progression of the pathology, the patient quickly developed a 'locked-in' syndrome, with preserved high cognitive function and vertical eye movement, but otherwise total loss of motor function. The diagnosis was confirmed with MRI/MR angiography studies, which indicated thrombosis of the proximal basilar artery. Serological studies did not disclose any relevant risk factors.

  7. [Pyomyositis, sacroiliitis and spondylodiscitis caused by Staphylococcus hominis in a immunocompetent woman].

    PubMed

    Gómez Rodríguez, N; Durán Muñoz, O

    2006-12-01

    In absence of risk factors, osteoarticular infections by coagulase-negative staphylococci are very infrequent. We described the case of a immunocompetent 73-year-old-woman that suffered pyomyositis, left sacroiliitis and spondylodiscitis involving the first and second thoracic vertebrae by Staphylococcus hominis. This multifocal infection occurred five-weeks after intramuscular administration of NSAI for treatment of low back pain associated with a herniated disc L4-L5. This is the first know case of a multifocal muscle skeletal infection by Staphylococcus hominis in a patient immunocompetent.

  8. Uterine Serous Adenocarcinoma in an Elderly Postmenopausal Woman: Clinically Misdiagnosed as Uterine Cervix Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Jeong-A; Lee, Hae-Hyeog; Chung, Soo-Ho; Heo, Gyeong-Eun; Jeon, Dong-Su; Kwak, Jeong Ja; Choi, Seung Do; Han, Eunkyung

    2015-01-01

    Uterine serous adenocarcinoma (USC) is rare and invasive cancer. This cancer is more often reported in the ovary, the fallopian tube, and the endometrium than uterine cervix. No matter where the tumor is located, the tumor exhibits similar histological characteristics. So when uterine cancer is proven to be serous adenocarcinoma, it is necessary to see if the tumor originated from ovary or endometrium and invaded the cervix. We report a case of a 73-year-old postmenopausal woman with USC arising near the internal os of endocervical canal, clinically misdiagnosed as uterine cervix cancer. PMID:26793684

  9. A 73-Year-Old Male with Cervical Spine Osteomyelitis Presenting as Urosepsis

    PubMed Central

    Kakarlapudi, H.; Speirs, S.; Lal, A.P.; Alaie, D.; Petrillo, R.; Ashraf, M.B.; Kolanuvada, B.; Bhargava, M.

    2015-01-01

    Vertebral osteomyelitis is a serious debilitating infection if not detected early. Involvement of cervical vertebrae is usually seen in the presence of specific risk factors. Urinary tract infection commonly spreads to the lumbar vertebrae. This is a case presentation of an elderly male who, in the absence of specific risk factors for cervical osteomyelitis, presented with symptoms of urinary tract infection and was found to have cervical spine osteomyelitis. PMID:26715867

  10. Food hypersensitivity among Caucasian and non-Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Dias, Renuka P; Summerfield, Alison; Khakoo, G A

    2008-02-01

    There are little data regarding the frequency of different foods that cause hypersensitivity in the UK. Furthermore, there are no data regarding food hypersensitivity related to ethnic variations. This prospective study involved 76 children with IgE-mediated food allergy presenting consecutively over 18 months to a Paediatric Allergy Clinic serving a well-defined population that is 21% non-Caucasian. A total of 52.6% of the paediatric allergy clinic population was non-Caucasian compared with 35.9% in General Paediatric Clinics giving a mean difference in percentage of 16.7 (5.6, 27.8), p < 0.01. The average number of food allergens per child in the non-Caucasian group was 2.05 vs. 1.22 in the Caucasian group, mean difference 0.83, which is significant (t = 4.15, d.f. = 74, p < 0.01). Analysis of other allergic conditions revealed no significant increase in the non-Caucasian group. The mean age of first reaction to any food was 2.6 yr (range 0.3-12 yr) in Caucasian, and 1.7 yr (range 0.3-8 yr) in non-Caucasian, children (p < 0.05). There were 125 reactions in the study population, with egg, peanut, tree nut, cow milk and cod being the commonest food allergens. Some novel foods, such as kiwi, lentil and sesame, were also represented in the top 10 food allergies, particularly in the non-Caucasian population. Ethnic minorities are over-represented in terms of the number of children with food allergy and number of food allergies per child, present at an earlier age with food allergy, and possibly have a greater variety of food allergies compared with Caucasians. This is important in terms of health education. Our findings need confirmation by a more detailed population based study, ideally using food challenges in addition to history and skin prick testing.

  11. Ovarian Cavernous Hemangioma Presenting as a Large Growing Mass in a Postmenopausal Woman: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun Suk; Han, Si Eun; Lee, Nam Kyung; Choi, Kyung Un; Joo, Jong Kil; Suh, Dong Soo; Kim, Heung Yeol

    2015-01-01

    Ovarian hemangiomas are usually of the cavernous type, and are rarely encountered. A 73-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal discomfort. Subsequent physical examination depicted a palpable mass in the lower abdomen. Abdominopelvic computed tomography (CT) revealed a well-circumscribed mass with thin septa measuring 12.1 × 9.0 cm in the right ovary. Levels of the tumor markers cancer antigen (CA)-125 and CA 19-9 were within the normal range. At laparoscopy, the tumor was found to be confined to the right ovary and to have a smooth surface. The final histopathological result was ovarian cavernous hemangioma. Microscopically, the mass consisted of multiple, dilated, blood-filled vascular channels separated by loose connective tissue, and all were lined by a single layer of flattened endothelium. The authors present a case of ovarian cavernous hemangioma presenting as a large growing mass in a postmenopausal woman and review previously published literature. PMID:26793681

  12. Meetings with Elaine, an African and Native American Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Melanie Merola

    2006-01-01

    The author, a Caucasian doctoral student of clinical psychology, examined her ongoing interaction with Elaine, an adult woman of African and Native American descent. Incidents of learning during the interaction process are reviewed and qualitative and quantitative assessments are provided to examine the effectiveness of such interactions in a…

  13. The dermatoglyphics of American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Plato, C C; Cereghino, J J; Steinberg, F S

    1975-03-01

    Digital and palmar dermatoglyphics were collected from 360 male and 360 female seven year old Caucasians from the greater Boston area. All participants were screened and found to be free of minor anomalies or chronic diseases. All individuals with I. Q. scores below 70 were also excluded. The results were presented in such a way as to give information on bilateral symmetry as well as overall frequencies of the various dermatoglyphic features. The results were compared with those of the corresponding sample of seven year old normal male and female Negroes of the accompanying report. A review of the distribution of the dermatoglyphic features in different Caucasian populations has also been presented and the overall dermatoglyphics of the Caucasians were discussed in reference to the distribution of the same features in the other major "racial" groups. The method of collection and selection of the subjects, described in the text, makes this set of data unique and one of the most suitable for use as controls in studying the dermatoglyphics of the individuals with diseases or congenital anomalies.

  14. Vaginal foreign body mimicking cervical cancer in postmenopausal woman - case study.

    PubMed

    Ciebiera, Michał; Słabuszewska-Jóźwiak, Aneta; Ledowicz, Witold; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2015-09-01

    We present a case report of a 73-year-old, postmenopausal woman with detailed history of breast cancer and oncology treatment including tamoxifen therapy. She presented at the clinic of gynecology and obstetrics with recurrent inflammation of the urinary and genital tract and suspicion of a cervical mass. She also presented occasional abdominal complaints and malodorous vaginal discharge. These symptoms were observed in the patient for several years. Before hospitalization she received many kinds of empirical, antimicrobial treatment such as chlorquinaldol, metronidazole, nifuratel, and nystatin. She did not receive further guidance from doctors about the causes of ailments and further diagnostic and treatment capabilities. In our clinic a detailed diagnostic process including ultrasound transvaginal examination and a minisurgical procedure revealed the presence of a vaginal foreign body (which turned out to be a plastic, shampoo bottle cap) surrounded by a mass of inflamed tissue mimicking a cervical tumor. All symptoms and complaints subsided after surgical removal of the foreign body and antibacterial therapy with metronidazole and cefuroxime. Our study draws attention to the need of thorough gynecological care including prophylaxis, especially in the case of complaints of an intimate nature. Even trivial, frequently occurring disorders can be dangerous and require proper and responsible doctor's supervision and management through the healing process. PMID:26528112

  15. Vaginal foreign body mimicking cervical cancer in postmenopausal woman – case study

    PubMed Central

    Słabuszewska-Jóźwiak, Aneta; Ledowicz, Witold; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2015-01-01

    We present a case report of a 73-year-old, postmenopausal woman with detailed history of breast cancer and oncology treatment including tamoxifen therapy. She presented at the clinic of gynecology and obstetrics with recurrent inflammation of the urinary and genital tract and suspicion of a cervical mass. She also presented occasional abdominal complaints and malodorous vaginal discharge. These symptoms were observed in the patient for several years. Before hospitalization she received many kinds of empirical, antimicrobial treatment such as chlorquinaldol, metronidazole, nifuratel, and nystatin. She did not receive further guidance from doctors about the causes of ailments and further diagnostic and treatment capabilities. In our clinic a detailed diagnostic process including ultrasound transvaginal examination and a minisurgical procedure revealed the presence of a vaginal foreign body (which turned out to be a plastic, shampoo bottle cap) surrounded by a mass of inflamed tissue mimicking a cervical tumor. All symptoms and complaints subsided after surgical removal of the foreign body and antibacterial therapy with metronidazole and cefuroxime. Our study draws attention to the need of thorough gynecological care including prophylaxis, especially in the case of complaints of an intimate nature. Even trivial, frequently occurring disorders can be dangerous and require proper and responsible doctor's supervision and management through the healing process. PMID:26528112

  16. Japanese vs. Caucasian Intelligence and Social Attainment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagoshi, Craig T.

    1998-01-01

    Summarizes a series of studies from the Hawaii Family Study of Cognition on possible genetic and social environmental determinants of individual differences in and racial/ethnic differences between groups on intelligence and attainment. These studies, which focused on Japanese and Caucasian Americans, illustrate the complex, interactive, and…

  17. Do Caucasian and Asian clocks tick differently?

    PubMed

    Barbosa, A A; Pedrazzoli, M; Koike, B D V; Tufik, S

    2010-01-01

    The Period 3 and Clock genes are important components of the mammalian molecular circadian system. Studies have shown association between polymorphisms in these clock genes and circadian phenotypes in different populations. Nevertheless, differences in the pattern of allele frequency and genotyping distribution are systematically observed in studies with different ethnic groups. To investigate and compare the pattern of distribution in a sample of Asian and Caucasian populations living in Brazil, we evaluated two well-studied polymorphisms in the clock genes: a variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR) in PER3 and a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in CLOCK. The aim of this investigation was to search for clues about human evolutionary processes related to circadian rhythms. We selected 109 Asian and 135 Caucasian descendants. The frequencies of the shorter allele (4 repeats) in the PER3 gene and the T allele in the CLOCK gene among Asians (0.86 and 0.84, respectively) were significantly higher than among Caucasians (0.69 and 0.71, respectively). Our results directly confirmed the different distribution of these polymorphisms between the Asian and Caucasian ethnic groups. Given the genetic differences found between groups, two points became evident: first, ethnic variations may have implications for the interpretation of results in circadian rhythm association studies, and second, the question may be raised about which evolutionary conditions shaped these genetic clock variations.

  18. The Black Woman's Burden

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Not even the first lady of the most powerful nation in the world is immune to stereotypes that have plagued Black women since first setting foot on American soil. Stereotypes of being the "angry Black woman" and curiosity about differences in appearance still persist from the academy to 1600 Pennsylvania Ave. As African-American women rise in…

  19. The (East) Indian Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, Josephine

    The focus of this paper is on the social, cultural, and psychological problems women of East Indian origin share with other immigrant women in Canada. Also examined are problems that are unique to the East Indian woman and the ways in which she deals with the challenges, conflicting cultural values, and expectations that confront her. The…

  20. Bioactive oat β-glucan reduces LDL cholesterol in Caucasians and non-Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is increasing global acceptance that viscous soluble fibers lower serum LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), but most evidence for this comes from studies in Caucasians. To see if oat β-glucan lowers LDL-C in Caucasians and non-Caucasians we conducted a post-hoc analysis of the results of a randomized, controlled, double-blind, multi-center clinical trial whose primary aim was to determine if molecular-weight (MW) influenced the LDL-C-lowering effect of oat β-glucan. Results Caucasian and non-Caucasian subjects with LDL-C-C ≥ 3.0 and ≤ 5.0 mmol/L (n = 786 screened, n = 400 ineligible, n = 19 refused, n = 367 randomized, n = 345 completed, n = 1 excluded for missing ethnicity) were randomly assigned to consume cereal containing wheat-fiber (Control, n = 74:13 Caucasian:non-Caucasian) or 3 g high-MW (3H, 2,250,000 g/mol, n = 67:19), 4 g medium-MW (4 M, 850,000 g/mol, n = 50:17), 3 g medium-MW (3M, 530,000 g/mol, n = 54:9) or 4 g low-MW (4 L, 210,000 g/mol, n = 51:12) oat β-glucan daily for 4 weeks. LDL-C after 4 weeks was influenced by baseline LDL-C (p < 0.001) and treatment (p = 0.003), but not ethnicity (p = 0.74). In all subjects, compared to control, 3 H, 4 M and 3 M reduced LDL-C significantly by 4.8 to 6.5%, but 4 L had no effect. Compared to control, the bioactive oat β-glucan treatments (3H, 4M and 3M) reduced LDL-C by a combined mean (95% CI) of 0.18 (0.06, 0.31) mmol/L (4.8%, n = 171, p = 0.004) in Caucasians, a value not significantly different from the 0.37 (0.09, 0.65) mmol/L (10.3%, n = 45, p = 0.008) reduction in non-Caucasians. Conclusion We conclude that oat β-glucan reduces LDL-C in both Caucasians and non-Caucasians; there was insufficient power to determine if the magnitude of LDL-C-lowering differed by ethnicity. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00981981 PMID:22118569

  1. Haematological studies on pre-menopausal Indian and Caucasian vegetarians compared with Caucasian omnivores.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S; Sanders, T A

    1990-09-01

    Full blood counts, serum ferritin, vitamin B12 and folate, erythrocyte folate concentrations and nutrient intakes were estimated in twenty-three Indian vegetarian, twenty-two Caucasian omnivores and eighteen Caucasian vegetarian women aged 25-40 years. Energy and copper intakes were lower in the Indian women than in the Caucasians. Intakes of dietary fibre, vitamin C and folate were greater and the proportion of energy derived from fat was lower in the vegetarians than in the omnivores. Vitamin B12 and protein intakes were lower in both vegetarian groups than in the omnivores. Fe intake was similar in all the groups but haem Fe provided one-quarter of the Fe intake of the omnivores. Haemoglobin concentrations were generally inside the normal range in all groups, but were lower in the Indians as were mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH). Higher MCV, MCH and lower erythrocyte (RBC) counts were observed in Caucasian vegetarians compared with the Caucasian omnivores. In both groups of vegetarians, concentrations of serum vitamin B12 and ferritin were markedly lower than in the omnivores. RBC folate concentrations were lower in the Indians than in either of the Caucasian groups when subjects taking supplements were excluded. It is concluded that vegetarians need to ensure they have adequate intakes of Fe and vitamin B12.

  2. Unveiling the mystery about adult ADHD: one woman's journey.

    PubMed

    Waite, Roberta; Ivey, Nicole

    2009-09-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), a neurobiological disorder, affects millions of individuals and can significantly impact an individual's life course. Research guidelines used in assessment, diagnosis, and treatment have focused primarily on Caucasian males generating, in part, the need to redress how gender and other contextual factors are considered. Consequently many women and persons from diverse cultural groups can be ignored or misdiagnosed. Undiagnosed and untreated women with ADHD are therefore limited in their potential to flourish socially, academically, interpersonally, and in their family roles. This case example of a 38-year-old African American woman illustrates how her life journey was affected by undiagnosed ADHD. PMID:19657868

  3. The Caucasian oil and gas province

    SciTech Connect

    Adamia, S.H.; Akhvlediani, K.; Chabukiant, A. ); Kilasonia, V. )

    1991-08-01

    The Caucasus lies between the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on the west and the Caspian Sea on the east. The main morphological elements of the Caucasus are the mountain ranges of Greater and Lesser Caucasus, which are divided by the Rioni (Colchis) and Kura intermontane troughs and the pre-Caucasian plain and Araks Depression. The tectonic features of the region result from its position between the Eurasian and Africa-Arabian plates. Two tectonic units of the highest order are distinguished within its limits, the young Scythian platform in the north and the Alpine fold belt in the south. Oil and gas deposits have been found only in the lowlands of the Caucasus, in the pre-Caucasian foreland, and within the Transcaucasian intermontane depressions. The North Caucasian province is made up of the Scythian platform and the marginal troughs of the Alpine Greater Caucasus. Oil and gas accumulations occur at all levels within the sedimentary cover from Triassic the Neogene. In the South Caspian oil and gas subprovince, oil and gas occurs within reservoirs range in age from Late Cretaceous to the Apsheronian stage of the Neogene. The Black Sea subprovince comprises the northwestern part of the sea and the western part of Georgia. The bulk of the explored oil reserves lies within the Neogene and Upper Cretaceous units. The potential in this region is associated with Jurassic terrigenous, Upper Cretaceous carbonate, and Paleogene terrigenous sediments.

  4. Feederism in a woman.

    PubMed

    Terry, Lesley L; Vasey, Paul L

    2011-06-01

    Feederism is a fat fetish subculture in which individuals eroticize weight gain and feeding. Feeders are individuals who claim to become sexually aroused by feeding their partners and encouraging them to gain weight. Conversely, Feedees are individuals who claim to become sexually aroused by eating, being fed, and the idea or act of gaining weight. Very little is known about this population. This report describes a woman who self-identified as a Feedee. It is unclear, at present, whether female Feederism represents a unique paraphilia or a thematic variation of morphophilia or sexual masochism. PMID:20041284

  5. [The glass woman].

    PubMed

    Zeul, M

    1995-01-01

    The author recounts the case of history of a woman patient seeking psychoanalytic treatment for a variety of extremely severe symptoms. In the course of treatment the original symptom constellation changed, revealing new facets but never disappearing completely. Discussing the compulsive, phobic symptomatology of the patient in terms of the traumatic sexual conflicts underlying them and the attendant break with outward reality and psychotic fabrication of a world of the patient's own making, Zeul warns against premature nosological classification. She contends that, in a case like the present one, the diagnosis of the disturbance into a neat set of nosological compartments--borderline/hysteria/psychosis etc.--makes little sense and should be supplanted by an attempt to describe the psychic mechanisms of mental illness. PMID:7480813

  6. [The glass woman].

    PubMed

    Zeul, M

    1995-01-01

    The author recounts the case of history of a woman patient seeking psychoanalytic treatment for a variety of extremely severe symptoms. In the course of treatment the original symptom constellation changed, revealing new facets but never disappearing completely. Discussing the compulsive, phobic symptomatology of the patient in terms of the traumatic sexual conflicts underlying them and the attendant break with outward reality and psychotic fabrication of a world of the patient's own making, Zeul warns against premature nosological classification. She contends that, in a case like the present one, the diagnosis of the disturbance into a neat set of nosological compartments--borderline/hysteria/psychosis etc.--makes little sense and should be supplanted by an attempt to describe the psychic mechanisms of mental illness.

  7. Armenian Woman in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zazyan, Mary

    2009-04-01

    Armenia is a country with a recorded history of about 3,500 years. Over the millennia Armenia has survived wars, persecutions, changing borders, and changing political and social systems. The only stable institution throughout has been the family. The woman has always had the leading role in the family, giving her an essential role in society. Today women are taking up even more responsibilities in various fields of social activities, including education and scientific research. Unfortunately, the story of Armenian science during the last two decades is a story more of survival and adaptation to new conditions. This paper focuses on the following questions: What is the role of Armenian women in the society? What happened to science in Armenia? What is the status of Armenian women in physics?

  8. Multiple sclerosis in Caucasians and Latino Americans.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Cruz, Lucinda; Flores-Rivera, José; De La Cruz-Aguilera, Dora Luz; Rangel-López, Edgar; Corona, Teresa

    2011-11-01

    Epidemiological and genetic studies suggest that the prevalence, median age of onset, and specific phenotypes of multiple sclerosis (MS) are different in Caucasians and Latino Americans. Recent epidemiological studies indicate an increase in MS prevalence in Latin America (LA), where the south-north gradient of latitude described for Nordic countries does not exist. Analysis of MS epidemiological and specific aspects in LA suggests that susceptibility and clinical behavior of the disease are related to mixtures and admixtures of genes in the population. MS is not present in Amerindians with Mongoloid genes, such as occurs in other pure ethnic groups. Surely, future studies will be carried out to obtain more reliable information. In this review, we contrast and analyze the available data of MS in LA and endemic countries.

  9. The invisible woman.

    PubMed

    Krausz, R

    1994-02-01

    This paper explores the meaning of experiences of invisibility in women. It was inspired in the course of psychotherapy with a woman who felt invisible in her feminine identity and who hid her feminine desire within an imaginary paper bag. Her visual imagery traces a pattern of pathological feminine development through a faulty sensory connection between her body, the external world, and her unconscious symbolic self-representation. Questions about her invisibility have evoked an exploration of two developmental models of visual thinking--a cognitive and a psychoanalytic model. A study of the myth of Persephone contributes a literary prototype for the understanding of the transmission of invisibility across the generations of mothers and daughters. Furthermore, the analysis of several literary passages from the work of Angela Carter serves the purpose of drawing the reader into the experiential world of femininity as it moves from the invisible to the visible. The paper blends together ideas from various, often contending, theorists in a way which highlights how theories can complement one another in explaining clinical phenomena. PMID:8005765

  10. A woman's choice.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Margaret June

    2004-04-01

    Abortion is now the most common gynaecological operation in New Zealand and Australia. Early legal abortion is a safe procedure whether carried out surgically or medically. In contrast, the traditional use of abortifacients has been mostly unscientific, illegal and shrouded in secrecy. Mifepristone as an option for induced abortion has only recently become available in New Zealand and is not yet available in Australia. The reasons for the delay in introducing a significant new abortion technique are political, professional, legal, socioeconomic and commercial. Istar, a not-for-profit company, was formed in New Zealand in 1999 to import mifepristone. The drug was approved for use in New Zealand on 30 August 2001. It was first used in October 2001 in Wellington for mid-trimester abortions and in April 2002 for early medical abortions. Legal ambiguities were clarified in a High Court Judgment on 10 April 2003. The experience with mifepristone raises concerns about the introduction of new drugs for reproductive health care, given the commercial risks associated with their development. The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists has a role to play in ensuring that safe abortion services are available for women. Advocates of women's rights in reproductive health care have made a significant impact in the last three decades and the conclusion that abortion must be the woman's choice is strongly supported.

  11. Femidom -- a woman's condom.

    PubMed

    Kamungulu, P

    1994-01-01

    FEMIDOM is a polyurethane sheath approximately 17 cm long manufactured by the Chartex company in the United Kingdom for intravaginal application as a device to protect against unwanted pregnancy and the transmission of sexually transmitted diseases. Its effectiveness can be favorably compared with that of the male condom. Unlike traditional erection-dependent, penis-applied condoms, FEMIDOM may be inserted into the vagina by the woman prior to coitus with or without the knowledge and cooperation of the male sex partner. FEMIDOM is therefore a device which allows women to protect themselves against sexually transmitted diseases. Described as successful by Dr. Elizabeth Musaba of the University Teaching Hospital, it is being given freely to HIV-discordant couples. Many couples have reported their satisfaction with the method. At about US$3 each, however, FEMIDOMs are far more expensive than traditional condoms. Some women have also complained that FEMIDOM is ugly, messy, hard to insert, unfamiliar, and too big. Men had mixed feelings about them. Dr. Musaba, however, counters that the device has been carefully designed to fit women of all ages and sizes. Users of FEMIDOM simply must grow accustomed to the method. She also notes that FEMIDOM conforms to the body temperature of the user, and that used devices should be burned or buried instead of flushed in waterborne toilets; the sewage system may become obstructed. Finally, since each FEMIDOM may be used only once, researchers are investigating the feasibility of cleaning them for reuse. PMID:12287981

  12. The Body Esteem of Hmong and Caucasian Young Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzoi, Stephen L.; Chang, Zoua

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated race and gender differences among 73 Hmong American and 80 Caucasian American college students. Racial differences were found only among the women, with Hmong women holding more positive attitudes toward weight concern body items and expressing less interest in changing these body items than Caucasian women. There were no…

  13. Sarcoidosis in Caucasians, Blacks and Asians in London.

    PubMed

    Edmondstone, W M; Wilson, A G

    1985-01-01

    The incidence and clinical features of sarcoidosis were studied in a retrospective survey of 156 patients attending two South London hospitals between 1969 and 1982. Sixty-eight patients were Caucasian, 59 were Black West Indian or African immigrants and 29 were immigrants racially derived from Indo-Pakistan (Asians). The annual incidence of sarcoidosis in the local community in 1977-78 was 19.8 per 10(5) for Blacks and 16.8 per 10(5) for Asians compared with 1.5 per 10(5) for Caucasians. Erythema nodosum was a more common presenting feature in Caucasians than in Blacks (P less than 0.001) or Asians (P less than 0.05). Blacks developed sarcoidosis at a later age than Caucasians (P less than 0.05) and were less likely to present as a chance finding on a chest radiograph (P less than 0.05). They had more widespread extrathoracic disease than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and were more commonly treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.001). In the Asians there was a male predominance compared with Caucasians (P less than 0.01). Asians also had more extrathoracic sarcoidosis than Caucasians (P less than 0.001) and more of them were treated with corticosteroids (P less than 0.05). A stage 2 chest radiograph at presentation (P less than 0.05) and skin sarcoidosis (P less than 0.05) were less common in Asians than in Blacks, but otherwise there were no significant differences between the two groups. In this study the incidence of sarcoidosis in Asians approached that in Blacks, while the clinical features were intermediate in severity between Blacks and Caucasians. In both Blacks and Asians the disease was more common, more severe and more extensive than in Caucasians.

  14. Assessment of the older woman.

    PubMed

    Miller, D K; Kaiser, F E

    1993-02-01

    Our knowledge of the aging woman will continue to grow, and that knowledge will begin with obtaining assessments that are appropriate and complete for this population. It is important to recognize that assessment can lead to improved diagnoses, more appropriate intervention, and improved outcomes, which hopefully will contribute to an improved quality of life for all older women.

  15. Every Woman's Right to Learn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ward, Jane; Turner, Cheryl; Watts, Jane; Eldred, Jan

    2011-01-01

    As people celebrate the 100th anniversary of International Women's Day this year, NIACE has organised an event, "Every woman's right to learn," that will offer an opportunity for educators and learners to celebrate women's progress and achievements in and through learning, to find one's hopes and aspirations for the future and work collaboratively…

  16. Can Stress Lower a Woman's Fertility?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161057.html Can Stress Lower a Woman's Fertility? Greatest impact is around ... HealthDay News) -- New research seems to confirm that stress lowers a woman's chances of becoming pregnant, particularly ...

  17. Differences in endothelial function between Korean-Asians and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Yim, Jongeun; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Berk, Lee; Daher, Noha; Lohman, Everett

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The vascular endothelium plays an integral role in maintaining vascular homeostasis, including the regulation of blood flow, vascular tone, and platelet aggregation. The aim of this study was to see if there were any differences in endothelial function between Koreans and Caucasians. Material/Methods This was accomplished by 2 measures of endothelial function – the response to local heat and the response to vascular occlusion. Ten Caucasian and 10 Korean male and female subjects participated (<35 years old). Endothelial function was assessed by the skin blood flow response to local heat using a thermode for 6 minutes at 3 temperatures (38°C, 40°C and 42°C) and by vascular occlusion for 4 minutes followed by release and measurement of skin blood flow for 2 minutes. Results When applying 6 minutes of local heat at 3 different temperatures (38°C, 40°C, and 42°C), the skin blood flows were significantly higher for all temperatures in Caucasians as compared with Koreans, with peak blood flow of 223±48.1, 413.7±132.1, and 517.4±135.8 flux in Caucasians and 126.4±41.3, 251±77.9, and 398±97.2 flux in Koreans, respectively (p=0.001). Results of this study support the idea that the skin blood flow response to occlusion was significantly higher in Caucasians (peak 411.9±88.9 flux) than Koreans (peak 332.4±75.8 flux) (p=0.016). Conclusions These findings suggest that Koreans may have lower endothelial function than Caucasians, which may be explained, in part, by genetic variations between the 2 ethnic groups. PMID:22648248

  18. The older woman's body image.

    PubMed

    Price, Bob

    2010-02-01

    Body image is an important concept that has a significant effect on a person's self-esteem and self-confidence. Appreciating how the older body is perceived by a woman is an important first step to understanding how nurses might support patient dignity. This article reviews the latest literature on ageing and body image and suggests practical dialogues that nurses and patients can share.

  19. Eating Attitudes and Body Satisfaction among Asian and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Sameena; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated whether religious affiliation (Hindu or Muslim) and gender were important factors in explaining difference in unhealthy eating attitudes of Asian adolescents living in United Kingdom compared with Caucasians. Muslim adolescents had most characteristic pattern of eating psychopathology. Muslim boys' eating attitudes were particularly…

  20. Eating Disorders: Explanatory Variables in Caucasian and Hispanic College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aviña, Vanessa; Day, Susan X.

    2016-01-01

    The authors explored Hispanic and Caucasian college women's (N = 264) behavioral and attitudinal symptoms of eating disorders after controlling for body mass index and internalization of the thinness ideal, as well as the roles of ethnicity and ethnic identity in symptomatology. Correlational analysis, multivariate analysis of variance, and…

  1. Psychological Factors of Familial Alcoholism in American Indians and Caucasians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Saumty, Deborah; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Investigated within-group differences for Indians with (N=28) and without (N=32) familial history of alcoholism; and assessed cross-cultural differences for Indian (N=31) and Caucasian (N=39) social drinkers with a familial history of alcoholism. Results showed no psychological functioning differences between the Indian groups, but cross-cultural…

  2. Pharmacokinetics of drospirenone and ethinylestradiol in Caucasian and Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Blode, Hartmut; Kowal, Kristin; Roth, Katrin; Reif, Stefanie

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the pharmacokinetics of drospirenone (DRSP) and ethinylestradiol (EE) in Caucasian and Japanese women. Method Three open-label, non-randomised studies were performed to assess the pharmacokinetics following single doses of EE 0.02 mg/DRSP 3 mg or DRSP monotherapy (1, 3 or 6 mg) in Caucasian (Study 1) and Japanese (Study 2) women, and daily doses with EE 0.02 mg/DRSP 3 mg over 21 consecutive days in Caucasian and Japanese women (Study 3). Results In Studies 1 and 2, there was a linear dose-dependent increase in DRSP Cmax and systemic exposure across the range of doses used in both ethnic groups. The coadministration of EE had no relevant effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of 3 mg DRSP. In Study 3, steady-state DRSP concentrations were achieved after about eight days of treatment in both ethnic groups with approximately a threefold accumulation.There was about a twofold EE accumulation over 21 days in both ethnic groups. There were no differences in DRSP or EE exposure at day 21 between ethnic groups; the ratio of the geometric means (Japanese/Caucasian) of the AUC0−24h were 1.05 (90% CI: 0.95–1.17) and 1.02 (90% CI: 0.76–1.38), respectively. Conclusion Ethnic origin had no clinically relevant influence on the pharmacokinetics of DRSP and EE. PMID:22680989

  3. Perceived Counselor Acculturation Levels: Their Pertinence to Caucasian Client Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Huan-Chung Scott; Schneider, Lawrence J.

    After reading 1 of 4 randomly-assigned written descriptions of a counselor, a group of 257 Caucasian undergraduates completed the Expectations sbout Counseling: Brief Form (Tinsley, 1982), Confidence Rating scales and Willingness items to examine how the perceived levels of acculturation of the counselor influenced client's perceptions of the…

  4. Racially Based Trust Expectancies of Native American and Caucasian Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rotenberg, Ken J.; Cerda, Carrie

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of trust expectancies among 113 Native American and Caucasian intermediate grade students in same-race and mixed-race schools. Finds that both racial groups had more trust expectancy of their own race. Also finds that this trust expectancy pattern was somewhat less evident in mixed-race schools. (CFR)

  5. In vitro permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Du Plessis, J L

    2015-02-01

    The majority of the South African workforce are Africans, therefore potential racial differences should be considered in risk and exposure assessments in the workplace. Literature suggests African skin to be a superior barrier against permeation and irritants. Previous in vitro studies on metals only included skin from Caucasian donors, whereas this study compared the permeation of platinum through African and Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3 mg/ml of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (K₂PtCl₄) dissolved in synthetic sweat was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. Skin from three female African and three female Caucasian donors were included (n=21). The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24 h experiment, and analysed with high resolution inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Skin was digested and analysed by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Significantly higher permeation of platinum through intact African skin (p=0.044), as well as a significantly higher mass of platinum retention in African skin in comparison with Caucasian skin (p=0.002) occurred. Significant inter-donor variation was found in both racial groups (p<0.02). Results indicate that African workers have increased risk of dermal permeation and therefore possible sensitisation caused by dermal exposure to platinum salts. These results are contradictory to limited literature suggesting a superior barrier in African skin and further investigation is necessary to explain the higher permeation through African skin.

  6. A quantitative study of Australian aboriginal and Caucasian brains.

    PubMed Central

    Klekamp, J; Riedel, A; Harper, C; Kretschmann, H J

    1987-01-01

    The brain volumes of 8 male Australian Aborigines and 11 male Caucasians were determined. Total brain volume was significantly smaller for Aborigines (1199 +/- 84 ml) compared to Caucasians (1386 +/- 98 ml). Significantly smaller volumes were also found for cerebellum, prosencephalon-mesencephalon unit, cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, parieto-occipitotemporal cortex, and hippocampus. Volumes of ponsmedulla oblongata unit (21 +/- 3 ml for Aborigines and 22 +/- 3 ml for Caucasians) and visual cortex (14.9 ml +/- 2.6 ml and 14.6 +/- 2.2 ml, respectively) did not differ significantly. The striate cortex extended further onto the lateral surface of the occipital lobe in Aboriginal brains. The frontal portion of cerebral cortex was larger in Aboriginal than in Caucasian brains. According to the specific growth periods for the areas studied, these differences could be explained by the higher incidence of malnutrition and infectious diseases for Aboriginals during the development of the brain in early childhood, especially after the 6th postnatal month. However, genetic influences cannot be excluded. The results for the visual cortex of Aborigines might represent an adaptation to living conditions in the bush and desert regions of Australia. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3654333

  7. [Tracheal paraganglioma in pregnant woman].

    PubMed

    Djurhuus, Bjarki Ditlev; Krogdahl, Annelise Solveig; Godballe, Christian

    2010-07-01

    Paraganglioma with tracheal location is a rare tumor. Twelve cases with involvement of the trachea have been reported in English literature, including six cases of solely tracheal paragangliomas. We present a case of a paraganglioma confined to the tracheal wall in a 33-year-old pregnant woman. The tumor was locally resected. Follow-up 17 months later showed no evidence of relapse. Based on the literature, we found that the most common symptoms are respiratory impairment and haemoptysis. None of the cases showed malignant behaviour. PMID:20594539

  8. Evaluation of dose conversion coefficients for external exposure using Taiwanese reference man and woman.

    PubMed

    Chang, S J; Hung, S Y; Liu, Y L; Jiang, S H; Wu, J

    2015-11-01

    Reference man has been widely used for external and internal dose evaluation of radiation protection. The parameters of the mathematical model of organs suggested by the International Commission of Radiological Protection (ICRP) are adopted from the average data of Caucasians. However, the organ masses of Asians are significantly different from the data of Caucasians, leading to potentially dosimetric errors. In this study, a total of 40 volunteers whose heights and weights corresponded to the statistical average of Taiwanese adults were recruited. Magnetic resonance imaging was performed, and T2-weighted images were acquired. The Taiwanese reference man and woman were constructed according to the measured organ masses. The dose conversion coefficients (DCFs) for anterior-posterior (AP), posterior-anterior (PA), right lateral (RLAT) and left lateral (LLAT) irradiation geometries were simulated. For the Taiwanese reference man, the average differences of the DCFs compared with the results of ICRP-74 were 7.6, 5.1 and 11.1 % for 0.1, 1 and 10 MeV photons irradiated in the AP direction. The maximum difference reached 51.7 % for the testes irradiated by 10 MeV photons. The size of the trunk, the volume and the geometric position of organs can cause a significant impact on the DCFs for external exposure of radiation. The constructed Taiwanese reference man and woman can be used in radiation protection to increase the accuracy of dose evaluation for the Taiwanese population. PMID:25944957

  9. First reports of esophageal adenocarcinoma with white globe appearance in Japanese and Caucasian patients

    PubMed Central

    Tonai, Yusuke; Ishihara, Ryu; Yamasaki, Yasushi; Kanesaka, Takashi; Yamamoto, Sachiko; Akasaka, Tomofumi; Hanaoka, Noboru; Takeuchi, Yoji; Higashino, Koji; Uedo, Noriya; Tomita, Yasuhiko; Iishi, Hiroyasu

    2016-01-01

    Background and study aims: Better endoscopic diagnosis in case of Barrett’s esophagus is still needed. White globe appearance (WGA) is a novel endoscopic marker for gastric adenocarcinoma, with high sensitivity for differentiating between gastric cancer/high-grade dysplasia and other lesions. We report 2 cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma with WGA. In Case 1, esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) revealed a 10-mm esophageal adenocarcinoma in a 48-year-old Japanese woman with short-segment Barrett’s esophagus. A small (< 1 mm) white globular lesion, typical of WGA, was observed under the epithelium by magnifying narrow-band imaging. A dilated neoplastic gland with eosinophilic material and necrotic epithelial fragments was identified at the site of the WGA by histologic examination. In Case 2, EGD revealed a 5-mm esophageal adenocarcinoma in a 60-year-old Caucasian man with long-segment Barrett’s esophagus. A typical WGA was observed by magnifying narrow-band imaging and similar histologic findings were identified at the site of the WGA. WGA could be a reliable endoscopic finding for target biopsy in esophageal adenocarcinoma, if its specificity is as high as in gastric cancer. The clinical implications of WGA in patients with Barrett’s esophagus should be investigated further. PMID:27747281

  10. [A woman with gingival hyperplasia].

    PubMed

    van Montfort, Monique; Huisman, Linette

    2014-01-01

    A woman visited her dentist with complaints of swollen gums. If there was a serious infection of multiple teeth, the surgeon had to do a total extraction of the upper jaw. The clinical picture was suspicious for a lymphoma, a fibromatosis or a gingivitis. The biopsy showed a chronical infection. In this case the gingival overgrowth and the subsequent infection of the teeth were caused by nifedipine. Gingival enlargement can be a consequence of the administration of calcium channel blockers and can occur if these are administered during a few months or years. The incidence is 0,01-0,1% and the prevalence is 20%. Drug substitution should be considered a valid treatment option and can be successful within a few weeks.

  11. Decreased physical activity in Pima Indian compared with Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Fontvieille, A M; Kriska, A; Ravussin, E

    1993-08-01

    Since reduced physical activity might be a risk factor for body weight gain, we studied the relationship between physical activity and body composition in 43 Pima Indian children (22 male/21 female, mean +/- s.d.: 9.9 +/- 1.1 years) and 42 Caucasian children (21 male/21 female, 9.7 +/- 1.2 years). A list of usual sport leisure activities was established (e.g. bicycling, swimming, basketball) and the subjects were asked how much time they had devoted to each activity over the past week and the last year. Data on time spent playing outside (excluding sport leisure activities for the estimation of physical activity) and watching television/videos were also collected. Pima Indians were taller (143 +/- 9 vs. 137 +/- 8 cm, P < 0.001), heavier (48.6 +/- 15.8 vs. 32.9 +/- 7.8 kg, P < 0.0001) and fatter (39 +/- 16 vs. 24 +/- 7% fat, P < 0.001) than Caucasians. Pima Indian girls showed significantly lower past year and past week sport leisure activity than Caucasian girls (P < 0.01) and spent significantly more time watching television/videos (P < 0.05). Pima boys also showed significantly lower past week sport leisure activity than Caucasian boys (P < 0.05). In Pima Indian boys, past year sport leisure activity correlated negatively (P < 0.05) with body mass index (r = -0.49) and percentage body fat (r = -0.56). However, such correlations were not found in Pima Indian girls, possibly due their very low levels of activity.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  12. The African American Woman. Runta (Truth).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Monica L.; Watson, Betty Collier, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    The African American woman has commanded widespread public attention, but popular misconceptions of her socioeconomic role and status differ sharply from her actual situation. The following basic characteristics of the contemporary African American woman, drawn from census figures, are outlined: (1) demographically, females comprise a majority of…

  13. The Social Standing of a Married Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nilson, Linda Burzotta

    1976-01-01

    The traditional manner of designating a married womans' social status by her husbands' occupational attainment is questioned, and a framework is proposed for re-conceptualizing a married womans' social standing in terms of both her own and her husbands' occupational attainments. Presents the results of a Milwaukee area survey of a random sample of…

  14. New Woman, New World: The American Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnall, Carlene; And Others

    A college-level women's studies course on the experience of American women is presented in three units on the emerging American woman, woman and others, and the transcendent self. Unit 1 focuses on biological and psychological explanations of being female; the socialization process; Black, Native American, and immigrant women; schooling and its…

  15. "Bionic Woman" (2007): Gender, Disability and Cyborgs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinlan, Margaret M.; Bates, Benjamin R.

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores a representation of overlapping categories of gender, disability and cyborgs in "Bionic Woman" (2007). The television show "Bionic Woman" (2007) is a popular culture representation that uniquely brings together these categories. Three themes emerged from an analysis of blogger discourse surrounding the show. The themes reveal…

  16. Professional practice among woman dentist

    PubMed Central

    Pallavi, S. K.; Rajkumar, G. C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This review aims to give an inside view of professional career of a women dentist, addresses the unique demands of being a woman dentist, and highlight ways to address these issues. Materials and Methods: The Medline database, scholarly literature, and informal literature were considered for this review. Results: Working hours of female dentists do not differ significantly from the working hours of their male counterparts, until they have children. The female dentists’ working hours showed a distinct drop as soon as they started a family. It was also found that women dentists are more likely to take career break. It is clear that childrearing and family responsibilities have a great impact on women's working life. Significant differences between males and females in work title and specialization were evident in an academic institution. Due to the societal orientation which regards women as primarily home makers, the responsibilities for family caretaking continues to fall disproportionately on women, and this fact could explain why women abandon their careers in the advanced stages. Conclusions: Efforts should be made to identify and reduce barriers to women's advancement in dentistry. PMID:24478948

  17. Well-Woman Task Force: Components of the Well-Woman Visit.

    PubMed

    Conry, Jeanne A; Brown, Haywood

    2015-10-01

    The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010 includes strong well-woman health care provisions as a means of optimizing preventive health care across a woman's lifetime. In 2013, The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists convened a task force of leading professional associations representing women's health clinicians to develop age-specific well-woman health care guidelines with a goal of improving health outcomes. The charge of the Well-Woman Task Force was to provide guidance to women and clinicians with age-appropriate recommendations for a well-woman visit. Evidence-based guidelines, evidence-informed guidelines, and uniform expert agreement formed the foundation for the final recommendations. The resulting list of recommendations, "Components of the Well-Woman Visit," identifies needs across a woman's lifespan and is intended for use by any provider who cares for adolescents or women.

  18. Abundance of Hepatic Transporters in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Burt, Howard J.; Riedmaier, Arian Emami; Harwood, Matthew D.; Crewe, H. Kim; Gill, Katherine L.

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to derive quantitative abundance values for key hepatic transporters suitable for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby data on abundance measurements, sample preparation methods, and donor demography were collated from the literature. To define values for a healthy Caucasian population, a subdatabase was created whereby exclusion criteria were applied to remove samples from non-Caucasian individuals, those with underlying disease, or those with subcellular fractions other than crude membrane. Where a clinically relevant active genotype was known, only samples from individuals with an extensive transporter phenotype were included. Authors were contacted directly when additional information was required. After removing duplicated samples, the weighted mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity of transporter abundances were determined. From the complete database containing 24 transporters, suitable abundance data were available for 11 hepatic transporters from nine studies after exclusion criteria were applied. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 showed the highest population abundance in healthy adult Caucasians. For several transporters, the variability in abundance was reduced significantly once the exclusion criteria were applied. The highest variability was observed for OATP1B3 > OATP1B1 > multidrug resistance protein 2 > multidrug resistance gene 1. No relationship was found between transporter expression and donor age. To our knowledge, this study provides the first in-depth analysis of current quantitative abundance data for a wide range of hepatic transporters, with the aim of using these data for in vitro–in vivo extrapolation, and highlights the significance of investigating the background of tissue(s) used in quantitative transporter proteomic studies. Similar

  19. Abundance of Hepatic Transporters in Caucasians: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Burt, Howard J; Riedmaier, Arian Emami; Harwood, Matthew D; Crewe, H Kim; Gill, Katherine L; Neuhoff, Sibylle

    2016-10-01

    This study aimed to derive quantitative abundance values for key hepatic transporters suitable for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation within a physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling framework. A meta-analysis was performed whereby data on abundance measurements, sample preparation methods, and donor demography were collated from the literature. To define values for a healthy Caucasian population, a subdatabase was created whereby exclusion criteria were applied to remove samples from non-Caucasian individuals, those with underlying disease, or those with subcellular fractions other than crude membrane. Where a clinically relevant active genotype was known, only samples from individuals with an extensive transporter phenotype were included. Authors were contacted directly when additional information was required. After removing duplicated samples, the weighted mean, geometric mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, and between-study homogeneity of transporter abundances were determined. From the complete database containing 24 transporters, suitable abundance data were available for 11 hepatic transporters from nine studies after exclusion criteria were applied. Organic anion transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 showed the highest population abundance in healthy adult Caucasians. For several transporters, the variability in abundance was reduced significantly once the exclusion criteria were applied. The highest variability was observed for OATP1B3 > OATP1B1 > multidrug resistance protein 2 > multidrug resistance gene 1. No relationship was found between transporter expression and donor age. To our knowledge, this study provides the first in-depth analysis of current quantitative abundance data for a wide range of hepatic transporters, with the aim of using these data for in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, and highlights the significance of investigating the background of tissue(s) used in quantitative transporter proteomic studies. Similar

  20. High-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma presenting in a 28-year-old woman during pregnancy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction To the best of our knowledge, soft tissue sarcomas have not prevously been reported as a complication during pregnancy. Case presentation A 28-year-old Caucasian woman was diagnosed with a transperitoneal sarcoma during pregnancy. Morphological, immunohistochemical, chromosomal and mutational analyses pointed towards a high-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma. Although surgery and chemotherapy are possible during pregnancy, we were unable to perform these in this case. Conclusion The potential to treat gynecological cancer during pregnancy should always be assessed individually. PMID:20684773

  1. Dental Maturity of Caucasian Children in the Indianapolis Area

    PubMed Central

    Weddell, Lauren S.; Hartsfield, James K.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare chronologic and dental age using Demirjian’s method. Methods Two hundred and fifty-seven panoramic radiographs of healthy 5- to 17.5-year-old Caucasian children in the Indianapolis area were evaluated using Demirjian’s 7 tooth method. Results The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for agreement with Demirjian was 0.94 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.87, 0.97). The ICC for repeatability of the investigator was 0.97 (95% CI=0.95, 0.99). Calculated dental age was significantly greater than chronologic age by 0.59 years (P<.001). There was no significant difference in the mean difference in ages between sexes (P=.73). Medicaid subjects had a significantly higher (P<.001) mean difference (0.82 years) than private insurance subjects (0.32 years). There was a significant negative correlation between the chronologic age and the difference in ages (r=−0.29, P<.001). Overweight (P<.001) and obese (P=.004) subjects were significantly more dentally advanced than normal (P=.35) and underweight (P=.42) subjects. Conclusions Demirjian’s method has high inter- and intraexaminer repeatability. Caucasian children in the Indianapolis area are more advanced dentally than the French-Canadian children studied by Demirjian. Difference between dental age and chronologic age varies depending on the age of the child, socioeconomic status, and body mass index. PMID:21703074

  2. Detection and characterization of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population.

    PubMed

    Balcells, Georgina; Pozo, Oscar J; Garrostas, Lorena; Esquivel, Argitxu; Matabosch, Xavier; Kotronoulas, Aristotelis; Joglar, Jesús; Ventura, Rosa

    2016-06-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are synthetic testosterone derivatives which undergo extensive metabolism in man. Differences in the excretion of phase II metabolites are strongly associated with inter-individual and inter-ethnic variations. Sulfate metabolites have been described as long-term metabolites for some AAS. Clostebol is the 4-chloro derivative of testosterone and the aim of the present study was the evaluation of clostebol sulfate metabolites in Caucasian population by LC-MS/MS technology. Clostebol was orally administered to four healthy Caucasian male volunteers, and excretion study urines were collected up to 31 days. Several analytical strategies (neutral loss scan, precursor ion scan and selected reaction monitoring acquisitions modes) were applied to detect sulfate metabolites in post-administration samples. Sixteen sulfate metabolites were detected, five of them having detectability times above 10 days (S1a, S2a, S3b, S3g and S4b). Interestingly, metabolite S1a could be detected up to the last collected sample of all excretion studies and it was characterized by LC-MS/MS and GC-MS as 4ξ-chloro-5α-androst-3β-ol-17-one 3β-sulfate. Thus, monitoring of S1a improves the detection time of clostebol misuse with respect to the commonly monitored metabolites, excreted in the glucuronide fraction. Importantly, this new metabolite can be incorporated into recently developed LC-MS/MS screening methods base on the direct detection of phase II metabolites. PMID:27085012

  3. Uterine prolapse in a primigravid woman

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jeong Ok; Jang, Shin A; Yun, Nae Ri; Lee, Sang-Hun; Hwang, Sung Ook

    2016-01-01

    Uterine prolapse during pregnancy is an uncommon condition. It can cause preterm labor, spontaneous abortion, fetal demise, maternal urinary complication, maternal sepsis and death. We report the case of uterine prolapse in a 32-year-old healthy primigravid woman. She had no risk factors associated with uterine prolapse. She was conservatively treated, resulting in a successful vaginal delivery. This report is a very rare case of uterine prolapse in a young healthy primigravid woman, resulting in a successful vaginal delivery. PMID:27200317

  4. Effects of examiner familiarity on Black, Caucasian, and Hispanic children: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, D; Fuchs, L S

    1989-01-01

    This article presents a quantitative synthesis of examiner familiarity effects on Caucasian and minority students' test performance. Fourteen controlled studies were coded in terms of methodological quality (high vs. low) and race-ethnicity (Caucasian vs. Black and Hispanic). An analogue to analysis of variance conducted on weighted unbiased effect sizes indicated that examiner familiarity produced a significant effect, with Caucasian and minority examinees' test performance raised by .05 and .72 standard deviations, respectively. Examiner familiarity's differential effect on Caucasian and minority examinees did not interact with the methodological quality of the studies. Nevertheless, limitations of the extant data base require caution in drawing implications for assessment practice. PMID:2914572

  5. Tucson Woman's Clinic v. Eden.

    PubMed

    2004-01-01

    information and did not provide safeguards to protect private patient information despite the potential for harm. The court did not find a provision requiring incident reports to the medical licensing board following death or serious injury to violate the right of informational privacy because the type of information requested was narrowly tailored, the information was only required in limited circumstances, the potential for harm was minimized by existing statutory safeguards, and there was a strong state interest in having professional physician licensing boards monitor serious incidences. The court held that the law's provision requiring patients "be treated with consideration, respect and full recognition of the patient's dignity and individuality" was unconstitutionally vague because the meanings of "consideration," "respect," "dignity," and "individuality" were widely variable and the words were not medical terms. As such, the provision was too vague and subjective for providers to know how they should act and did not limit arbitrary enforcement. Finally, the court held that a provision requiring a hospital-admitted physician be on-site was constitutional because it did not violate procedural or substantive due process. The court remanded the case for determination of whether the law unduly burdened a woman's right to an abortion.

  6. Severe facial swelling in a pregnant woman after using hair dye.

    PubMed

    van Genderen, Michel E; Carels, Ginette; Lonnee, Edward R; Dees, Adriaan

    2014-03-31

    A 33-year-old Caucasian pregnant woman (26 weeks' gestation) presented to the emergency department. She had a 2-day history of severe itching of the scalp and steadily worsening swelling of the face over the previous 12 h, which had extended to the neck. She had no difficulty breathing. The itching and swelling had developed 3 days after she had used hair dye. The patient had no history of allergic responses to hair dye or black henna tattoos. A diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction was made. Permanent hair dyes are the most frequently used professional hair dyes and are most commonly based on paraphenylenediamine (PPD) or related chemicals. PPD is known to be one of the most potent allergens which cause allergic contact dermatitis. After treatment with intravenous antihistamines and steroids, the facial swelling reduced and the patient had completely recovered by the following day.

  7. Severe facial swelling in a pregnant woman after using hair dye

    PubMed Central

    van Genderen, Michel E; Carels, Ginette; Lonnee, Edward R; Dees, Adriaan

    2014-01-01

    A 33-year-old Caucasian pregnant woman (26 weeks’ gestation) presented to the emergency department. She had a 2-day history of severe itching of the scalp and steadily worsening swelling of the face over the previous 12 h, which had extended to the neck. She had no difficulty breathing. The itching and swelling had developed 3 days after she had used hair dye. The patient had no history of allergic responses to hair dye or black henna tattoos. A diagnosis of type IV delayed hypersensitivity reaction was made. Permanent hair dyes are the most frequently used professional hair dyes and are most commonly based on paraphenylenediamine (PPD) or related chemicals. PPD is known to be one of the most potent allergens which cause allergic contact dermatitis. After treatment with intravenous antihistamines and steroids, the facial swelling reduced and the patient had completely recovered by the following day. PMID:24686800

  8. A Temporal Correlation Between Electrocardiogram and Computed Tomography in Acquired Postpneumonectomy Dextrocardia.

    PubMed

    Chhabra, Lovely; Chaudhry, Waseem

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we describe a temporal correlation between the electrocardiographic changes and the chest computed tomographic findings in a 73-year-old woman who underwent a right pneumonectomy (RP) for lung adenocarcinoma.

  9. The woman I love and the woman I cannot live without.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Martin S

    2013-10-01

    The relationship between love and the symbiotic phase of childhood is explored from a new angle in terms of a conflict between "the woman I love" and "the woman I cannot live without." Love requires dependency, but it can also lead to giving up independent existence; then it becomes inimical to the relationship.

  10. Counselling Expectations of a Sample of East Asian and Caucasian Canadian Undergraduates in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, Darren M.; Glenwright, Brittni J.; Bhatia, Maneet; Drapeau, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated whether East Asians differ from Caucasian Canadians in their expectations about counselling. Participants in this study included 31 East Asian and 53 Caucasian Canadian university students. The East Asian participants were all first-generation East Asians living in Canada, originally from China, Korea, Japan, or Vietnam.…

  11. Cultural Differences in Psychological Distress between Asian and Caucasian American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, David; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined possible cultural differences in psychological distress between 50 Asian-American and 48 Caucasian-American college students using the Brief Symptom Inventory. Found significant differences between the two groups on six of the nine symptom scales. Asians scored significantly higher than Caucasians on obsessive compulsiveness,…

  12. Physical Activities and Sedentary Pursuits in African American and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.; Felton, Gwen M.; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S.; Dishman, Rod K.; Trost, Stewart G.

    2004-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure…

  13. Bilateral dacryocystoceles in a pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Hirabayashi, Kristin E; Yang, Elizabeth; Echegoyen, Julio; Yoon, Steven J; Tao, Jeremiah P

    2014-01-01

    The authors describe, for the first time, bilateral, sequential large dacryocystoceles during pregnancy and review the literature for this presentation. A 26-year-old, 15-week pregnant woman presented with OD epiphora, diplopia, and pain in the setting of an inferomedial orbital mass. Surgical exploration and histopathology were consistent with a dacryocystocele, and a dacryocystorhinostomy was curative. She returned at 34-week gestation, with an identical presentation on the left side. Review of the literature reveals that dacryocystoceles occasionally present in adults; however, bilateral involvement may be unusual. Bilateral dacryocystoceles have not been previously reported in a pregnant woman.

  14. How a Married Woman`s Characteristics Affect her Contraceptive Behavior?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Rana Ejaz Ali; Khan, Tasnim

    In Pakistan, population growth rate is 2.2% and Total Fertility Rate (TFR) is as high as 5.4. It is the result of low Contraceptive Prevalence Rate (CPR) of only 28%. Due to low CPR, women have high rate of unwanted births in Pakistan. In this study using probit estimation on primary data, we have analyzed the woman=s characteristics responsible for low contraceptive prevalence among married women in urban areas of Punjab (Pakistan). For the purpose one thousand married women in the age group of 15-49 years, who were not currently pregnant were interviewed from urban areas of Bahawalpur and Lahore. The individual characteristics of married women were focused, although household characteristics, socio-economic conditions of the community where woman is living, religious and cultural factors are also important. It is found that age of woman, education of woman, woman`s status, her economic activity, income level and age at marriage were found major determinants of contraceptive prevalence in women. The policies towards the education of women, status of women, labor force participation of women and legal interventions towards the increase in marriage age are stressed to increase the CPR.

  15. Fatal Monocytic Ehrlichiosis in Woman, Mexico, 2013

    PubMed Central

    Sosa-Gutierrez, Carolina G.; Solorzano-Santos, Fortino; Walker, David H.; Torres, Javier; Serrano, Carlos A.

    2016-01-01

    Human monocytic ehrlichiosis is a febrile illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an intracellular bacterium transmitted by ticks. In Mexico, a case of E. chaffeensis infection in an immunocompetent 31-year-old woman without recognized tick bite was fatal. This diagnosis should be considered for patients with fever, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated liver enzyme levels. PMID:27088220

  16. Grass Woman Stories. Blackfeet Heritage Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground, Mary

    During her lifetime Mary Ground, whose Indian name is Grass Woman, has experienced extreme changes in the life of Blackfeet Indians. Born in 1883, she remembers the travois and teepee days as well as the change to reservation life when the reservation was a fenced compound patrolled by the U.S. military. She has seen the decline in the use of…

  17. Sherry Red Owl, Stands at Dawn Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crazy Bull, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This article introduces Sherry Red Owl, also known as "Stands at Dawn Woman," because she greets each day as a new opportunity and has spent her life working at new things. She worked at Sinte Gleska University (SGU) during its founding years, taught at an elementary school when few Native teachers were employed in the school systems,…

  18. Nature, Education, and the Natural Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Peter J.

    1974-01-01

    An examination of 18th and 19th century naturalistic educational theory reveals that appeals to nature confirmed and strengthened contemporary attitudes and practices restricting woman's access to knowledge and her freedom to make decisions and to act. (Author/DW)

  19. The Black Woman Cross-Culturally.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steady, Filomina Chioma, Ed.

    This is a collection of anthropological and sociological articles on the black woman. Essays cover the experiences of black women in Africa, the Caribbean, South America, and the United States in politics, business, the community, the arts, the family, and social change. Several themes are present throughout this anthology, including black women's…

  20. Renaissance Woman: A Portrait of Carolyn Brodie

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenney, Brian

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author profiles Carolyn Brodie, winner of this year's Scholastic Library Publishing Award. One can be completely charmed by Brodie's soft-spoken Arkansas accent, warm demeanor, and genteel manners. While the graciousness is authentic, the woman behind it is fearless, with a clear vision for youth services, remarkable tenacity,…

  1. A Profile of the Woman Engineer, 1984.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hetrick, Haydee; And Others

    This biennial report is based on responses from 2,112 of the 4,453 non-student members of the Society of Women Engineers (SWE) who were surveyed during the winter of 1983-84. All responses to the survey questionnaire (included in an appendix) were considered in the data analysis. Any woman with an engineering degree, holding state engineering…

  2. Struma ovarii: hyperthyroidism in a postmenopausal woman

    SciTech Connect

    March, D.E.; Desai, A.G.; Park, C.H.; Hendricks, P.J.; Davis, P.S.

    1988-02-01

    A rare case of struma ovarii producing hyperthyroidism in a postmenopausal woman is reported. The ovarian tumor demonstrated uptake of both (/sup 99m/Tc)pertechnetate and /sup 131/I, allowing preoperative diagnosis of the condition. In females with unexplained hyperthyroidism and low /sup 131/I uptake by the cervical thyroid gland, imaging of the pelvis should be considered

  3. What Happened to Woman the Gatherer?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zihlman, Adrienne L.

    Reactions to the "woman the gatherer" theory, introduced in the 1970's as an alternative to the "man the hunter" thesis in anthropology, have been to accept, ignore it, or combine it with the hunting theory. The "man the hunter" model stresses that primitive males hunted for meat and provided food and protection for their mates and children who…

  4. Carrie Chapman Catt and Woman Suffrage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hardesty, Carolyn, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Most of the material for this issue of the "Goldfinch," which explores the life of Carrie Chapman Catt, came from the archives of the State Historical Society of Iowa. Carrie Chapman Catt (1859-1947) was an Iowan who advocated woman suffrage and spent 26 years actively working for that cause. The issue contains a biography of Catt, and information…

  5. From College Girl to Working Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Susan

    Written for the woman just graduated from college who wants a big-city job, the book provides coverage of the job scene from New York to San Francisco and offers methods and suggestions on how to create an exciting new career. Tips on where to look for jobs, the resume, and the job interview are some of the introductory topics, followed by a…

  6. Communication Effectiveness and the Professional Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Larry D.

    1981-01-01

    Historically, women have been socialized toward virtue and acceptance, and men have been socialized toward power and competence. M. Brewster Smith contends that opportunity, respect from others, and power must be present in order for one to cultivate a sense of competence. To be successful, the competent woman must combine skills, talents, and a…

  7. Can "Word Choices" Compromise a Woman's Career?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mendoza, Sylvia

    2011-01-01

    A letter of recommendation can catapult a woman into the next phase of the interview process for a particular job--or land her in the slush pile. Word choice in describing this female candidate can make or break her career. Letters of recommendation--especially when a reference's word choice paints a negative, less than stellar picture of the…

  8. The Fabric of a Black Woman President.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evelyn, Jamilah

    2001-01-01

    Presents an interview with Dr. Joyce F. Brown, the first female and first African American president of the Fashion Institute of Technology in New York. Explores the intricacies of being a Black woman president, working in New York higher education systems, and training students for an industry not renowned for its diversity. (EV)

  9. Toe and plantar dermatoglyphics in adult American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Fox, K M; Plato, C C

    1987-09-01

    The scarcity of information on control data of toe and plantar dermatoglyphics led us to undertake this study of adult American Caucasians. Toe and sole prints of 168 male and 83 female participants of the Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging were analyzed. Toe pattern frequencies demonstrate that fibular loops are the most prevalent pattern on the toes in both males and females. Pattern distribution by digit shows that arches are most often located on the fifth toe while whorls are found with greatest frequency on the third toe. Plantar pattern frequencies indicate that the most common pattern found in the hallucal area is the distal loop. Open fields are frequently found in the II and IV interdigital areas while distal loops are prevalent in the III area. These results are compared to the finger and palmar patterns of the same individuals. The distribution of patterns on the toes and fingers of the same individuals appear to be quite different. Population comparisons did not demonstrate a clear racial difference in the toe pattern frequencies or in the plantar areas.

  10. Caucasian infants scan own- and other-race faces differently.

    PubMed

    Wheeler, Andrea; Anzures, Gizelle; Quinn, Paul C; Pascalis, Olivier; Omrin, Danielle S; Lee, Kang

    2011-04-13

    Young infants are known to prefer own-race faces to other race faces and recognize own-race faces better than other-race faces. However, it is entirely unclear as to whether infants also attend to different parts of own- and other-race faces differently, which may provide an important clue as to how and why the own-race face recognition advantage emerges so early. The present study used eye tracking methodology to investigate whether 6- to 10-month-old Caucasian infants (N = 37) have differential scanning patterns for dynamically displayed own- and other-race faces. We found that even though infants spent a similar amount of time looking at own- and other-race faces, with increased age, infants increasingly looked longer at the eyes of own-race faces and less at the mouths of own-race faces. These findings suggest experience-based tuning of the infant's face processing system to optimally process own-race faces that are different in physiognomy from other-race faces. In addition, the present results, taken together with recent own- and other-race eye tracking findings with infants and adults, provide strong support for an enculturation hypothesis that East Asians and Westerners may be socialized to scan faces differently due to each culture's conventions regarding mutual gaze during interpersonal communication.

  11. In vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Franken, A; Eloff, F C; Du Plessis, J; Badenhorst, C J; Jordaan, A; Du Plessis, J L

    2014-12-01

    During platinum group metals (PGMs) refining the possibility exists for dermal exposure to PGM salts. The dermal route has been questioned as an alternative route of exposure that could contribute to employee sensitisation, even though literature has been focused on respiratory exposure. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro permeation of platinum and rhodium through intact Caucasian skin. A donor solution of 0.3mg/ml of metal, K2PtCl4 and RhCl3 respectively, was applied to the vertical Franz diffusion cells with full thickness abdominal skin. The receptor solution was removed at various intervals during the 24h experiment, and analysed with high resolution ICP-MS. Skin was digested and analysed by ICP-OES. Results indicated cumulative permeation with prolonged exposure, with a significantly higher mass of platinum permeating after 24h when compared to rhodium. The mass of platinum retained inside the skin and the flux of platinum across the skin was significantly higher than that of rhodium. Permeated and skin retained platinum and rhodium may therefore contribute to sensitisation and indicates a health risk associated with dermal exposure in the workplace.

  12. Determinants of basal fat oxidation in healthy Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Nagy, T R; Goran, M I; Weinsier, R L; Toth, M J; Schutz, Y; Poehlman, E T

    1996-05-01

    In a retrospective study, we examined several determinants of basal fat oxidation in 720 healthy Caucasian volunteers. Adult men (n = 427) and women (n = 293) were characterized for resting energy expenditure and substrate oxidation by indirect calorimetry (after a 12-h overnight fast), peak O2 consumption by a treadmill test to exhaustion, body composition by hydrodensitometry, food intake from a 3-day food diary, and hormonal status by fasting hormone concentrations. Fat oxidation was negatively correlated with fat mass in men (r = -0.11; P < 0.05), but no statistical relationship was found in women. In a stepwise multiple regression analysis, fat oxidation was best predicted by peak O2 consumption and fat-free mass in men (model R2 = 0.142) and by free thyroxine, fat-free mass, and fasting insulin in women (model R2 = 0.153). Relative rates of fat oxidation (fat oxidation adjusted for differences in resting energy expenditure) were not correlated with fat mass in either gender. Women showed a lower rate of basal fat oxidation (both absolute and adjusted) than did men. Our results show that fat oxidation is not greater in individuals with a greater fat mass. Furthermore, our results support a sexual dimorphism in basal rates of fat oxidation. PMID:8727562

  13. Metabolic syndrome risk in black South African women compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Schutte, A E; Olckers, A

    2007-09-01

    Rapid urbanisation has led African women to have an obesity prevalence double than that of Caucasian women, and this also holds true for the stroke prevalence in Africans. The study aimed to compare various metabolic syndrome (MS) criteria of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) of body mass index and age-matched African (n=102) and Caucasian women (n=115). More Caucasian (30.4%) than African women (24.8%) had MS. Only 48% of African women had waist circumferences (WC) higher than the IDF cutoff, compared to 62.6% of Caucasians. Caucasian women were significantly taller and heavier and had higher triglycerides, plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 activity, and cortisol. African women had significantly higher blood pressure, leptin, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein, and higher odds ratios for having the MS for HDL-cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting glucose than Caucasians. It is concluded that the IDF WC criterion needs a downward adjustment for African women due to a smaller body size. Lean African women seem to be at higher risk for MS than Caucasians. South Africa needs to stem the increasing rates of type 2 diabetes by decreasing obesity and by education (unschooled African women showed a 4.8 times higher likelihood of having MS than schooled women). PMID:17846972

  14. Similarities and Differences in Chinese and Caucasian Adults' Use of Facial Cues for Trustworthiness Judgments

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Fen; Wu, Dingcheng; Toriyama, Rie; Ma, Fengling; Itakura, Shoji; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Background All cultural groups in the world place paramount value on interpersonal trust. Existing research suggests that although accurate judgments of another's trustworthiness require extensive interactions with the person, we often make trustworthiness judgments based on facial cues on the first encounter. However, little is known about what facial cues are used for such judgments and what the bases are on which individuals make their trustworthiness judgments. Methodology/Principal Findings In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that individuals may use facial attractiveness cues as a “shortcut” for judging another's trustworthiness due to the lack of other more informative and in-depth information about trustworthiness. Using data-driven statistical models of 3D Caucasian faces, we compared facial cues used for judging the trustworthiness of Caucasian faces by Caucasian participants who were highly experienced with Caucasian faces, and the facial cues used by Chinese participants who were unfamiliar with Caucasian faces. We found that Chinese and Caucasian participants used similar facial cues to judge trustworthiness. Also, both Chinese and Caucasian participants used almost identical facial cues for judging trustworthiness and attractiveness. Conclusions/Significance The results suggest that without opportunities to interact with another person extensively, we use the less racially specific and more universal attractiveness cues as a “shortcut” for trustworthiness judgments. PMID:22514680

  15. Differences in esophageal cancer characteristics and survival between Chinese and Caucasian patients in the SEER database

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Min-Qiang; Li, Yue-Ping; Wu, San-Gang; Sun, Jia-Yuan; Lin, Huan-Xin; Zhang, Shi-Yang; He, Zhen-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare the clinicopathologic characteristics and survival of Chinese and Caucasian esophageal cancer (EC) patients residing in the US, using a population-based national registry (Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results [SEER]) database. Methods Patients with EC were identified from the SEER program from 1988 to 2012. Kaplan–Meier survival methods and Cox proportional hazards regression were performed. Results A total of 479 Chinese and 35,748 Caucasian EC patients were identified. Compared with Caucasian patients, the Chinese patients had a later year of diagnosis, remained married after EC was diagnosed, had esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (ESCCs) more frequently, had tumors located in the upper-third and middle-third of the esophagus more frequently, and fewer patients presented with poorly/undifferentiated EC and underwent cancer-directed surgery. In Chinese patients, the incidence of esophageal adenocarcinomas (EACs) increased from 1988 to 2012 (P=0.054), and the majority of EAC patients had tumors located in the lower thoracic esophagus. The overall survival (OS) was not significantly different between Chinese and Caucasian patients (P=0.767). However, Chinese patients with ESCC had a significantly better OS when compared to their Caucasian counterparts, whereas there was no significant difference in the OS between Chinese and Caucasian patients with EAC. Conclusion The presenting demographic features, tumor characteristics, and outcomes of EC patients differed between Chinese and Caucasian patients residing in the US. Chinese patients diagnosed with EAC tended to share similar clinical features with their Caucasian counterparts, and the Chinese patients with ESCC had better OS than their Caucasian counterparts. PMID:27799791

  16. Immunogenetic Risk and Protective Factors for Juvenile Dermatomyositis in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Mamyrova, Gulnara; O’Hanlon, Terrance P.; Monroe, Jason B.; Carrick, Danielle Mercatante; Malley, James D.; Adams, Sharon; Reed, Ann M.; Shamim, Ejaz A.; James‐Newton, Laura; Miller, Frederick W.; Rider, Lisa G.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To define the relative importance of MHC Class II alleles and peptide binding motifs as risk and protective factors for juvenile dermatomyositis (DM) and to compare these to HLA associations in adult DM. Methods DRB1 and DQA1 typing was performed in 142 Caucasian patients with juvenile DM, and compared to HLA typing from 193 patients with adult DM and 797 race‐matched controls. Random Forests classification and multiple logistic regression assessed the relative importance of the HLA associations. Results The HLA DRB1*0301 allele was a primary risk factor (Odds Ratio [OR] 3.9), while DQA1*0301 (OR 2.8), DQA1*0501 (OR 2.1), and homozygosity of DQA1*0501 (OR 3.2) were additional risk factors for juvenile DM. These risk factors were not present in adult DM without defined autoantibodies. DQA1 *0201 (OR 0.37), *0101 (OR 0.38), and *0102 (OR 0.51) were identified as novel protective factors for juvenile DM, the latter two being shared with adult DM. The peptide binding motif DRB1 9EYSTS13 was a risk factor and DQA1 motifs F25, S26 and 45(V/A) W (R/K)47 were protective. Random Forests classification analysis revealed DRB1*0301 (Relative Importance [RI] 100%) had higher relative importance than DQA1*0301 (RI 57%), DQA1*0501 (RI 42%), or the peptide binding motifs among risk factors for juvenile DM. In a logistic regression model, DRB1*0301 and DQA*0201 were the strongest risk and protective factors, respectively, for juvenile DM. Conclusion DRB1*0301 has higher relative importance than DQA1*0501 as a risk factor for juvenile DM. DQA1*0301 has been identified as a new HLA risk factor for juvenile DM. Three DQA1 alleles are newly identified protective factors for juvenile DM. PMID:17133612

  17. Heritability of left ventricular structure and function in Caucasian families

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yu; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Bochud, Murielle; Richart, Tom; Thijs, Lutgarde; Cusi, Daniele; Fagard, Robert; Staessen, Jan A.

    2011-01-01

    Aims The aim of this study was to investigate the heritability as well as genetic and environmental correlations of left ventricular (LV) structural and functional traits in complex pedigrees of a Caucasian population. Methods and results We randomly recruited 459 white European subjects from 52 families (50% women; mean age 45 years). LV structure was measured by M-mode and 2D echocardiography and LV function was measured by conventional Doppler and tissue Doppler imaging (TDI). Other measurements included blood pressure, anthropometric, and biochemical measurements. We estimated the heritability of LV traits while adjusting for covariables, including sex, age, body height and weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, and heart rate. With full adjustment, heritability of LV mass was 0.23 (P= 0.025). The TDI-derived mitral annular velocities Ea and Aa showed moderate heritability (h2= 0.36 and 0.53, respectively), whereas the mitral inflow A peak had weak heritability (h2 = 0.25) and the E peak was not heritable (h2 = 0.11). We partitioned the total phenotypic correlation when it reached significance, into a genetic and an environmental component. The genetic correlations were 0.61 between the E and Ea peaks and 0.90 between the A and Aa peaks. Conclusion Our study demonstrated moderate heritability for LV mass as well as the mitral annular Ea and Aa peaks. We also found significant genetic correlations between the E and Ea peaks and between the A and Aa peaks. Our current findings support the ongoing research to map and detect genetic variants that contribute to the variation in LV mass and other LV structural and functional phenotypes. PMID:21398654

  18. Natural Uranium Tissue Content of Three Caucasian Males.

    PubMed

    Kathren, Ronald L; Tolmachev, Sergei Y

    2015-09-01

    Uranium content and concentrations were measured in the tissues of three Caucasian male whole body donors to the U.S. Transuranium and Uranium Registries with no known intake other than from natural environmental sources. Average total body uranium content in the three cases was 81.3 ± 22.3 μg, of which 37.2 ± 2.1 μg (46%) was in the skeleton. The skeleton had a mean concentration of 3.79 ± 0.45 μg U kg(-1) wet weight and 11.72 ± 1.49 μg U kg(-1) ash. Distribution was in bone volume and not predominately on bone surfaces. Soft tissue concentrations ranged over about an order of magnitude, averaging about 0.5 μg kg wet weight for all tissues except the thoracic lymph nodes, which averaged 32.3 times the mean for soft tissue of the three cases. Observed thyroid tissue concentrations were about an order of magnitude greater than the average soft tissue concentration in two of the three background cases, suggestive of a possible long-term depot in this organ. Kidney content of uranium averaged 0.38 ± 0.21 μg for the three cases, an order of magnitude lower than the 7 μg recommended for Reference Man. The lower content and concentration in the kidney do not support a significant long-term depot for uranium in that organ. Assuming equilibrium between intake and excretion, the tissue data suggest a transfer coefficient from blood to skeleton of 0.14 with a residence half-life in the skeleton of 4,950 d (13.56 y), significantly greater than the 1,500 d (4.1 y) half-time proposed by ICRP.

  19. African and Caucasian body ideals in South Africa and the United States.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Vinet; Perrett, David I

    2011-01-01

    African women are often thought to be protected from developing eating disorder pathology because they experience less cultural pressure to be thin. Yet, to our knowledge, no previous study has quantified the African body ideals portrayed by the media. We determined the African and Caucasian body ideals portrayed by the media in the United States (US) and South Africa (RSA), by calculating the average body mass index of male and female fashion models in the respective countries. The African female body ideal was significantly heavier than the Caucasian body ideal in the US, but significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in RSA. The African male body ideal was significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in both countries. Findings indicate that the body ideals portrayed by the media parallel the previously reported eating disorder pathology for both sexes, and in both countries. PMID:21184978

  20. Cultural influences on stigmatization of problem gambling: East Asian and Caucasian canadians.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Jasmin; Horch, Jenny D; Hodgins, David C

    2011-12-01

    Cultural influences on problem gambling stigma were examined using a between subject vignette study design. Students of East Asian (n = 64) and Caucasian (n = 50) ancestry recruited from a Canadian University rated a vignette describing either an East Asian problem gambler or a Caucasian problem gambler on a measure of attitudinal social distance. In accordance with the hypothesis, a factorial ANOVA revealed that East Asian Canadians stigmatize problem gambling more than Caucasian Canadians. Moreover, East Asian participants stigmatized the East Asian individual described in the vignette more than they did the Caucasian individual. Individuals with gambling problems were generally not perceived as being dangerous. However, participants who perceived problem gambling as a dangerous condition wanted more social distance than those who did not perceive individuals with a gambling problem as dangerous.

  1. African and Caucasian body ideals in South Africa and the United States.

    PubMed

    Coetzee, Vinet; Perrett, David I

    2011-01-01

    African women are often thought to be protected from developing eating disorder pathology because they experience less cultural pressure to be thin. Yet, to our knowledge, no previous study has quantified the African body ideals portrayed by the media. We determined the African and Caucasian body ideals portrayed by the media in the United States (US) and South Africa (RSA), by calculating the average body mass index of male and female fashion models in the respective countries. The African female body ideal was significantly heavier than the Caucasian body ideal in the US, but significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in RSA. The African male body ideal was significantly thinner than the Caucasian body ideal in both countries. Findings indicate that the body ideals portrayed by the media parallel the previously reported eating disorder pathology for both sexes, and in both countries.

  2. Garbhini Paricharya (Regimen for the pregnant woman).

    PubMed

    Koppikar, Vaidya S

    2008-07-01

    Ayurveda considers food to be the best source of nourishment as well as medication for the pregnant woman. The nine monthly diet is singularly unique to Ayurveda. It changes in accordance with the growth of the fetus in the womb and at the same time ensures health of the mother. One can find remnants of this dietics with midwives and older women, but a detailed and comprehensive diet plan is being practiced only by the vaidyas of the classical medical tradition. In this paper we are giving a broad expanse of the month wise diet, which can be modified according to the age, season, place, constitution and the digestive fire of the pregnant woman. PMID:22557296

  3. Oscar Wilde and the scarlet woman.

    PubMed

    Hanson, E

    1997-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, England was embroiled in a political debate over the importation of Roman Catholic rituals into the Anglican Church, not to mention the re-establishment of the Roman Church itself in Great Britain. Victorian anti-Catholic rhetoric draws upon the figure of the Whore of Babylon to depict the Roman Catholic Church as the Scarlet Woman, a femme fatale who perverts Christianity and seduces Englishmen with elaborate rituals and lascivious whisperings in the confessional. In writing Salomé, Oscar Wilde played ironically on the hysterical eroticism of the No Popery movement by mining the paradox of biblical sensuality. He invested his play with a biblical wealth of archaic metaphors and gestures that took their cues from The Song of Songs and The Book of Revelation. He became the ecclesiastical dandy that evangelicals feared most, a poet enamored of the Scarlet Woman, a would-be convert who exposed the scandal of Christianity as art.

  4. Harriet Brooks: Canada's First Woman Physicist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rayner-Canham, Geoffrey

    2004-03-01

    During those early halcyon days of the study of radioactivity, one young Canadian woman, Harriet Brooks, joined Ernest Rutherford's group as his first research student. Later, she joined J.J. Thomson's group in Cambridge and, finally, Marie Curie's group in Paris. During her short research career, she made several important contributions to science. She investigated the nature of 'emanation' from radium; discovered that radioactive substances could undergo successive decay; and first reported the recoil of the radioactive atom. Much of this research was published under her name alone though Rutherford made extensive reference to her discoveries in his Bakerian lecture of 1904. Brooks life is of interest not only in what she accomplished, but also in the challenges she faced as a pioneering woman scientist in the early part of the twentieth century. In the presentation we will blend the account of her life and work with the societal context. This work was accomplished jointly with Marelene F. Rayner-Canham.

  5. Garbhini Paricharya (Regimen for the pregnant woman)

    PubMed Central

    Koppikar, Vaidya S

    2008-01-01

    Ayurveda considers food to be the best source of nourishment as well as medication for the pregnant woman. The nine monthly diet is singularly unique to Ayurveda. It changes in accordance with the growth of the fetus in the womb and at the same time ensures health of the mother. One can find remnants of this dietics with midwives and older women, but a detailed and comprehensive diet plan is being practiced only by the vaidyas of the classical medical tradition. In this paper we are giving a broad expanse of the month wise diet, which can be modified according to the age, season, place, constitution and the digestive fire of the pregnant woman. PMID:22557296

  6. Oscar Wilde and the scarlet woman.

    PubMed

    Hanson, E

    1997-01-01

    In the late nineteenth century, England was embroiled in a political debate over the importation of Roman Catholic rituals into the Anglican Church, not to mention the re-establishment of the Roman Church itself in Great Britain. Victorian anti-Catholic rhetoric draws upon the figure of the Whore of Babylon to depict the Roman Catholic Church as the Scarlet Woman, a femme fatale who perverts Christianity and seduces Englishmen with elaborate rituals and lascivious whisperings in the confessional. In writing Salomé, Oscar Wilde played ironically on the hysterical eroticism of the No Popery movement by mining the paradox of biblical sensuality. He invested his play with a biblical wealth of archaic metaphors and gestures that took their cues from The Song of Songs and The Book of Revelation. He became the ecclesiastical dandy that evangelicals feared most, a poet enamored of the Scarlet Woman, a would-be convert who exposed the scandal of Christianity as art. PMID:9378935

  7. [Aged woman's vulnerability related to AIDS].

    PubMed

    Silva, Carla Marins; Lopes, Fernanda Maria do Valle Martins; Vargens, Octavio Muniz da Costa

    2010-09-01

    This article is a systhematic literature review including the period from 1994 to 2009, whose objective was to discuss the aged woman's vulnerability in relation to Acquired Imunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids). The search for scientific texts was accomplished in the following databases: Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS) and Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE). The descriptors used were vulnerability, woman and Aids. Eighteen texts were analyzed, including articles in scientific journals, thesis and dissertations. As a conclusion, it was noted that aged women and vulnerability to Aids are directly related, through gender characteristics including submission and that were built historical and socially. We consider as fundamental the development of studies which may generate publications accessible to women, in order to help them see themselves as persons vulnerable to Aids contagion just for being women.

  8. The Old Woman, California, IIAB iron meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plotkin, Howard; Clarke, Roy S.; McCoy, Timothy J.; Corrigan, Catherine M.

    2012-05-01

    The Old Woman meteorite, discovered in March 1976 by two prospectors searching for a fabled lost Spanish gold mine in mountains ˜270 km east of Los Angeles, has achieved the status of a legend among meteorite hunters and collectors. The question of the ownership of the 2753 kg group IIAB meteorite, the second largest ever found in the United States (34°28'N, 115°14'W), gave rise to disputes involving the finders, the Bureau of Land Management, the Secretary of the Department of the Interior, the State of California, the California members of the U.S. Congress, various museums in California, the Smithsonian Institution, and the Department of Justice. Ultimately, ownership of the meteorite was transferred to the Smithsonian under the powers of the 1906 Antiquities Act, a ruling upheld in a U.S. District Court and a U.S. Court of Appeals. After additional debate, the Smithsonian removed a large cut for study and curation, and for disbursement of specimens to qualified researchers. The main mass was then returned to California on long-term loan to the Bureau of Land Management's Desert Discovery Center in Barstow. The Old Woman meteorite litigation served as an important test case for the ownership and control of meteorites found on federal lands. The Old Woman meteorite appears to be structurally unique in containing both hexahedral and coarsest octahedral structures in the same mass, unique oriented schreibersites within hexahedral areas, and polycrystalline parent austenite crystals. These structures suggest that different portions of the meteorite may have transformed via different mechanisms upon subsolidus cooling, making the large slices of Old Woman promising targets for future research.

  9. Nasopharyngeal angiofibroma in an elderly woman.

    PubMed

    Patrocínio, José Antônio; Patrocínio, Lucas Gomes; Borba, Bruno Henrique Carrijo; Bonatti, Bruno De Santi; Guimarães, Aparecida Helena B

    2005-01-01

    "Juvenile" nasopharyngeal angiofibroma is a locally aggressive, yet histologically benign, vascular neoplasm. This neoplasm accounts for less than 0.5% of neoplasms of the head and neck and occurs almost exclusively in adolescent males. We report a rare case of a 64-year-old woman with a red lobulated mass in the right nostril, diagnosed as nasopharyngeal angiofibroma on postoperative histopathologic and immunohistochemical analysis.

  10. Perceived discrimination, coping, and quality of life for African-American and Caucasian persons with cancer.

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2015-07-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p < 001) and attributed mistreatment more to race or ethnicity (p < .001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = -.39; CI .13-.83) and African Americans (B = -.20; CI .07-.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = -.48; CI .18-.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship.

  11. Emotional and cognitive health correlates of leisure activities in older Latino and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Herrera, Angelica P; Meeks, Thomas W; Dawes, Sharron E; Hernandez, Dominique M; Thompson, Wesley K; Sommerfeld, David H; Allison, Matthew A; Jeste, Dilip V

    2011-12-01

    This study examined differences in the frequency of leisure activity participation and relationships to depressive symptom burden and cognition in Latino and Caucasian women. Cross-sectional data were obtained from a demographically matched subsample of Latino and Caucasian (n = 113 each) postmenopausal women (age ≥60 years), interviewed in 2004-2006 for a multiethnic cohort study of successful aging in San Diego County. Frequencies of engagement in 16 leisure activities and associations between objective cognitive performance and depressive symptom burden by ethnicity were identified using bivariate and linear regression, adjusted for physical functioning and demographic covariates. Compared to Caucasian women, Latinas were significantly more likely to be caregivers and used computers less often. Engaging in organized social activity was associated with fewer depressive symptoms in both groups. Listening to the radio was positively correlated with lower depressive symptom burden for Latinas and better cognitive functioning in Caucasians. Cognitive functioning was better in Latinas who read and did puzzles. Housework was negatively associated with Latinas' emotional health and Caucasians' cognitive functioning. Latino and Caucasian women participate in different patterns of leisure activities. Additionally, ethnicity significantly affects the relationship between leisure activities and both emotional and cognitive health.

  12. The Ideal Man and Woman According to University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio V.; Peterson, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined if the ideal man has changed over the years and who and what the ideal woman is. We asked students at Cameron University to rate the importance of character traits that define the ideal man and woman. Subjects also provided examples of famous people exemplifying the ideal, good, average, and inferior man and woman. We…

  13. Multimodal imaging and diagnosis of myopic choroidal neovascularization in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Paolo; Massacesi, Amedeo; Moschini, Stefania; Setaccioli, Marco; Bulone, Ennio; Tremolada, Gemma; Ciaccia, Stefano; Mantovani, Elena; Morale, Daniela; Bergamini, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) by fluorescein angiography (FA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) reflectance, and autofluorescence (AF). Methods This retrospective study included 65 eyes of 62 Caucasian patients with a mean age of 66.72 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 63–70 years) and a mean refraction of −9.72 diopters (95% CI −8.74 to −10.70 diopters). Results Most of the mCNV cases were foveal-juxtafoveal (60/65, 92.3%), with thickening of the corresponding retina (62/65, 95.3%) and leakage on FA (44/65, 67.6%). No retinal fluid was detectable in 32 (49.2%) eyes and there was no hemorrhage in 25 (38.4%) eyes. Papillary chorioretinal atrophy was evident in 58 (89.2%), a shadowing effect in 48 (73.8%), and an epiretinal membrane in 38 (58.4%) eyes. If an area of macular chorioretinal atrophy was present, mCNV frequently developed adjacent to it and was hyperfluorescent rather than with leakage (P⩽0.001). In eyes with edema or hemorrhage, hyper-reflective foci were more frequent (P⩽0.005). NIR and AF features were indeterminable in 19 (29.2%) and 27 (41.5%) eyes, respectively. The predominant feature was black or grayish on NIR (34/65, 52.3%) and patchy (hypo- and hyperfluorescence was observed) on AF (25/65, 38.4%). FA and SD-OCT correctly detected mCNV in 49 (75.3%) and 48 (73.8%) eyes, respectively, whereas NIR and AF exhibited limited diagnostic sensitivity. Doubtful diagnosis was associated with hyperfluorescent mCNV (P⩽0.001), absence of retinal fluid and epiretinal membrane (P⩽0.05), and presence of macular chorioretinal atrophy (P⩽0.01). Conclusion Tomographic, angiographic, AF, and NIR features of mCNV are described in this study. Combination of SD-OCT and FA is recommendable for diagnosis. PMID:27672306

  14. Multimodal imaging and diagnosis of myopic choroidal neovascularization in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Paolo; Massacesi, Amedeo; Moschini, Stefania; Setaccioli, Marco; Bulone, Ennio; Tremolada, Gemma; Ciaccia, Stefano; Mantovani, Elena; Morale, Daniela; Bergamini, Fulvio

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate myopic choroidal neovascularization (mCNV) by fluorescein angiography (FA), spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), near-infrared (NIR) reflectance, and autofluorescence (AF). Methods This retrospective study included 65 eyes of 62 Caucasian patients with a mean age of 66.72 years (95% confidence interval [CI] 63–70 years) and a mean refraction of −9.72 diopters (95% CI −8.74 to −10.70 diopters). Results Most of the mCNV cases were foveal-juxtafoveal (60/65, 92.3%), with thickening of the corresponding retina (62/65, 95.3%) and leakage on FA (44/65, 67.6%). No retinal fluid was detectable in 32 (49.2%) eyes and there was no hemorrhage in 25 (38.4%) eyes. Papillary chorioretinal atrophy was evident in 58 (89.2%), a shadowing effect in 48 (73.8%), and an epiretinal membrane in 38 (58.4%) eyes. If an area of macular chorioretinal atrophy was present, mCNV frequently developed adjacent to it and was hyperfluorescent rather than with leakage (P⩽0.001). In eyes with edema or hemorrhage, hyper-reflective foci were more frequent (P⩽0.005). NIR and AF features were indeterminable in 19 (29.2%) and 27 (41.5%) eyes, respectively. The predominant feature was black or grayish on NIR (34/65, 52.3%) and patchy (hypo- and hyperfluorescence was observed) on AF (25/65, 38.4%). FA and SD-OCT correctly detected mCNV in 49 (75.3%) and 48 (73.8%) eyes, respectively, whereas NIR and AF exhibited limited diagnostic sensitivity. Doubtful diagnosis was associated with hyperfluorescent mCNV (P⩽0.001), absence of retinal fluid and epiretinal membrane (P⩽0.05), and presence of macular chorioretinal atrophy (P⩽0.01). Conclusion Tomographic, angiographic, AF, and NIR features of mCNV are described in this study. Combination of SD-OCT and FA is recommendable for diagnosis.

  15. Perceptual Differences Between Married and Single College Women for the Concepts of Self, Ideal Woman, and Man's Ideal Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappaport, Alan F.; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Study results indicate that the single group is significantly more family oriented than the married group in perceiving self and ideal woman. No significant differences were found between the two groups in perceiving man's ideal woman. Both married and single women indicated belief that most men would desire an ideal woman with a strong…

  16. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of intravenous and inhaled fluticasone furoate in healthy Caucasian and East Asian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ann; Bal, Joanne; Cheesbrough, Anne; Hamilton, Melanie; Kempsford, Rodger

    2014-01-01

    AIM The aim of the study was to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of inhaled and intravenous (i.v.) fluticasone furoate (FF) in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects. METHOD This was an open label, randomized, two way crossover study in healthy Caucasian, Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects (n = 20 per group). Inhaled FF (200 μg for 7 days, then 800 μg for 7 days from a dry powder inhaler [DPI]) was administered in one treatment period and i.v.FF (250 μg infusion) in the other. FF PK and serum cortisol (inhaled 200 μg only) were compared between the ethnic groups using analysis of variance. P450 CYP3A4 activity and safety were also assessed. RESULTS Ethnic differences in i.v. FF PK were accounted for by body weight differences. CYP3A4 activity was similar across the groups. Higher FF systemic exposure was seen following inhaled dosing in Chinese, Japanese and Korean subjects compared with Caucasian subjects. Absolute bioavailability was greater (36%–55%) in all East Asian groups than for Caucasian subjects following inhaled FF 800 μg. Deconvolution analysis suggested inhaled FF resided in the lung of East Asian subjects longer than for Caucasians (time for 90% to be absorbed [t90]: 29.1–30.8 h vs. 21.4 h). In vitro simulation method predicted comparable delivered lung dose across ethnic groups. Serum cortisol weighted mean was similar between Caucasians and Chinese or Koreans, while in Japanese was on average 22% lower than in Caucasians. All FF treatments were safe and well tolerated. CONCLUSION Modestly higher (<50%) FF systemic exposure seen in East Asian subjects following inhaled dosing was not associated with a clinically significant effect on serum cortisol, suggesting that a clinical dose adjustment in East Asian subjects is not required. PMID:24152086

  17. Recurrent varicella in an immunocompetent woman.

    PubMed

    Dyer, Joseph; Greenfield, Melinda

    2016-01-01

    Varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection causes 2 distinct disease processes. Primary VZV infection results in varicella (chickenpox), a common generalized eruption, and subsequent reactivation of VZV classically results in herpes zoster (shingles), which presents as a unilateral, dermatomal eruption. Although a single VZV infection typically confers protection against its reactivation, recurrent varicella rarely is reported, particularly in immunocompetent patients. We present the case of a 52-year-old black woman with an intact immune system who demonstrated 3 VZV infections. PMID:26919358

  18. [Urachal cyst in an adult woman].

    PubMed

    Tica, V I; Beghim, M; Beghim, Esra; Dehelean, I; Zaher, M; Tica, Irina

    2007-01-01

    Urachal abnormalities represent a rare pathology and, in case of presence, they are more frequent in children and, among adults, in men. We report a case of urachal cyst in an adult woman in whom it was difficult to determine preoperatively the origin of the abdominal tumor. Positive diagnosis and treatment implied surgical exploration and resection. Even rare, this pathology should be considered in the differential diagnosis of an abdominal cyst. While the diagnosis may be established by clinical examination and imaging methods, surgical exploration is justified and, besides, offers the therapeutic opportunity.

  19. [A woman with Christmas in sight].

    PubMed

    Fickweiler, Ward; de Vries, Margriet M; Postma, Gina

    2011-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman was referred because of vision deterioration of her right eye since several months. With optimal spheric correction of +2.50 in her right eye she had a vision of 0.7. The intraocular pressure was 10 mmHg. There were no abnormalities in the anterior chamber of the eye. The right eye did show a palette of coloured needle-shaped opacities in the cortex and anterior nucleus of the lens, consistent with unilateral Christmas tree cataract.

  20. Assessing inflammatory bowel disease-associated antibodies in Caucasian and First Nations cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, Charles N; El-Gabalawy, Hani; Sargent, Michael; Landers, Carol J; Rawsthorne, Patricia; Elias, Brenda; Targan, Stephan R

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: First Nation populations in Canada have a very low incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Based on typical infections in this population, it is plausible that the First Nations react differently to microbial antigens with a different antibody response pattern, which may shed some light as to why they experience a low rate of IBD. OBJECTIVE: To compare the positivity rates of antibodies known to be associated with IBD in Canadian First Nations compared with a Canadian Caucasian population. METHODS: Subjects with Crohn’s disease, ulcerative colitis (UC), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) (as an immune disease control) and healthy controls without a personal or family history of chronic immune diseases, were enrolled in a cohort study aimed to determine differences between First Nations and Caucasians with IBD or RA. Serum from a random sample of these subjects (n=50 for each of First Nations with RA, First Nations controls, Caucasians with RA, Caucasians with Crohn’s disease, Caucasians with UC and Caucasians controls, and as many First Nations with either Crohn’s disease or UC as could be enrolled) was analyzed in the laboratory for the following antibodies: perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (pANCA), and four Crohn’s disease-associated antibodies including anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the outer membrane porin C of Escherichia coli, I2 – a fragment of bacterial DNA associated with Pseudomonas fluorescens, and the bacterial flagellin CBir-1. The rates of positive antibody responses and mean titres among positive results were compared. RESULTS: For pANCA, First Nations had a positivity rate of 55% in those with UC, 32% in healthy controls and 48% in those with RA. The pANCA positivity rate was 32% among Caucasians with RA. The rates of the Crohn’s disease-associated antibodies for the First Nations and Caucasians were comparable. Among First Nations, up to one in four healthy controls were positive for any one of the Crohn

  1. Differences in coagulation among Asians and Caucasians and the implication for reconstructive microsurgery.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Dhruv; Smorodinsky, Emmanuil; Guo, Lifei

    2011-01-01

    Microvascular reconstructive surgery has seen a revival with the introduction of muscle-sparing perforator flaps. Recognition of potential ethnic differences in coagulation profiles would be important to a microvascular surgeon. Based on clinical observations, we hypothesize that Asian patients have a less thrombogenic coagulation profile than Caucasians. An extensive retrospective review was performed. The annual incidence of venous thromboembolism in the United States is generally accepted to range from 70 to 120 events per 100,000 people versus 16 to 17 events per 100,000 persons in Asia. Autopsy analysis of pulmonary embolism incidence was noted to be 15% in North Americans and less than 1% in Asian populations. Thromboelastography analysis of Asian and Caucasian patients undergoing cholecystectomy revealed different hemostatic mechanisms. Comparison of Asians and Caucasians undergoing the Fontan procedure revealed significantly lower postoperative factor levels in Asians than Caucasians. Baseline comparison of factor and serum levels revealed Asians with the least thrombogenic profiles compared with other ethnic groups. Asians and Caucasians demonstrate different baseline rates of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, different hemostatic responses to surgery, and different baseline levels of clotting factors. Further study may lead to better pre-, intra-, and postoperative care of the free flap patient based on their ethnic coagulation profile.

  2. The Needs of the Spanish Speaking Mujer [Woman] in Woman-Manpower Training Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nieto-Gomez, Anna

    Although the Spanish Speaking woman is usually considered to be outside the labor market, 36 percent of the 52 percent Spanish Speaking women were in the labor force in March 1972. These women suffer economic-sexist discrimination due to ascription of work according to sex and race by a racial-sexual hierarchy existing within the traditional…

  3. Am I a Woman? The Normalisation of Woman in US History

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Sandra J.

    2012-01-01

    The curriculum of US History has improved substantially in its presentation of women over the 40 years since Trecker's 1971 study of US History textbooks. While studies show increased inclusions, they also suggest that women have not yet claimed their own place in the school curriculum. This paper seeks to better understand the woman who is…

  4. Perceived racism and alcohol consequences among African American and Caucasian college students.

    PubMed

    Grekin, Emily R

    2012-12-01

    Few studies have assessed relationships between perceived racism, racism-related stress, and alcohol problems. The current study examined these relationships within the context of tension reduction models of alcohol consumption. Participants were 94 African American and 189 Caucasian college freshmen who completed an online survey assessing perceived racism, alcohol consequences, alcohol consumption, negative affect, and deviant behavior. Hierarchical multiple regressions indicated that racism-related stress predicted alcohol consequences for both African American and Caucasian college students, even after controlling for alcohol consumption, negative affect, and behavioral deviance. The frequency of racist events predicted alcohol consequences for Caucasian but not African American students. These findings highlight the need to address racism and racism-related stress in college-based alcohol prevention and intervention efforts.

  5. Comparative study of dental cephalometric patterns of Japanese-Brazilian, Caucasian and Mongoloid patients

    PubMed Central

    Sathler, Renata; Pinzan, Arnaldo; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; de Almeida, Renato Rodrigues; Henriques, José Fernando Castanha

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this study was to identify the patterns of dental variables of adolescent Japanese-Brazilian descents with normal occlusion, and also to compare them with a similar Caucasian and Mongoloid sample. Methods Lateral cephalometric radiographs were used to compare the groups: Caucasian (n = 40), Japanese-Brazilian (n = 32) and Mongoloid (n = 33). The statistical tests used were one-way ANOVA and ANCOVA. The cephalometric measurements used followed the analyses of Steiner, Tweed and McNamara Jr. Results Statistical differences (P < 0.05) indicated a smaller interincisal angle and overbite for the Japanese-Brazilian sample, when compared to the Caucasian sample, although with similar values to the Mongoloid group. Conclusion The dental patterns found for the Japanese-Brazilian descents were, in general, more similar to those of the Mongoloid sample. PMID:25279521

  6. Average heterozgosity of STRPs in the Pima Indians is lower than in Caucasians

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.B.; Norman, R.A.; Robertson, D.

    1994-09-01

    The Pima Indians of Arizona have the highest reported prevalence of non-insulin dependent diabetes (NIDDM) in the world. To localize regions of the genome which may contain genes important in the predisposition to NIDDM, we are producing a high density genetic map in this population. In contrast to previous studies in the Pima which have examined polymorphisms in single genes or small genetic regions, we are using short tandem repeated polymorphisms (STRPs) as genetic markers covering the entire genome. We have genotyped over 150 STRPs in a sample consisting of approximately 1000 individuals comprising 250 nuclear families. Many of these STRPs were originally typed in a sample of Caucasians (CEPH) thus allowing direct comparisons between populations. Our analyses indicate that the average heterozygosity of the STRPs is 11% lower in the Pima (P<0.001). A survey of 8 different blood group markers in the Pima showed a 17% difference in average heterozygosity when compared with North American Caucasians (P<0.001). In contrast, a sample of 11 restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) does not show a similar difference in average heterozygosity. The average heterozygosity is 3% higher in the Pima as compared to Caucasians for these 11 RFLPs (P<0.001). There is a significant correlation between estimates of heterozygosity based on the sample of STRP markers in Pima and Caucasians (R=0.48 P<0.001), but less than 25% of the variance is explained by this relationship, presumably reflecting different evolutionary histories for each group since divergence of these two populations. In addition to differences in allele frequencies between the two populations, we have tentatively identified a number of markers which differ from Caucasians in the allele sizes. The decrease in average heterozygosity observed with STRP markers supports the view that the Pima Indians represent a more genetically homogenous population than Caucasians.

  7. Digestibility, apparent mineral absorption, and voluntary intake by horses fed alfalfa, tall fescue, and caucasian bluestem.

    PubMed

    Crozier, J A; Allen, V G; Jack, N E; Fontenot, J P; Cochran, M A

    1997-06-01

    Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), low-endophyte (< 5%) tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), and caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica [Trin.] C.E. Hubbard) were fed as chopped hay to six Arabian geldings (BW 441 kg; SE 2) in intake and digestibility experiments to determine nutritional value for horses at maintenance. Each experimental design was a replicated Latin square. Alfalfa was higher in DM and CP digestibility, IVDMD, apparent absorption of Ca, K, and S, and voluntary intake than the grasses (P < .05). Caucasian bluestem was higher in Zn but was lower in CP, TNC, Mg, P, K, S, and Cu concentrations than tall fescue. Crude protein digestibility and apparent absorption of Mg, K, and S were higher (P < .05) for tall fescue than for caucasian bluestem. Geldings fed alfalfa for ad libitum intake had higher serum concentrations of vitamin A, blood urea nitrogen, P, S, and Cu than geldings fed grass hays. Serum Zn was higher (P < .05), whole blood Se tended to be higher (P < .06), and BUN was lower (P < .05) in geldings fed caucasian bluestem than in those fed tall fescue. All forages met requirements for CP, Ca, Mg, K, and Fe when fed for ad libitum intake but were deficient in Cu for horses at maintenance. Caucasian bluestem was borderline in CP and was deficient in P but was the only forage that met the Zn requirement for the horses. Based on these results, caucasian bluestem could be a useful hay for horses but may require supplementation of CP and P. PMID:9250529

  8. An Older Transgender Woman's Quest for Identity.

    PubMed

    Walker, Charles A; Cohen, Harriet; Jenkins, David

    2016-02-01

    Despite sensationalized media attention, transgender individuals are the most marginalized and misunderstood group in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. The current article presents a case study of one woman's quest for identity. Narrative inquiry was used to analyze data from interview transcripts and four themes emerged during analysis: (a) naming the ambiguity, (b) revealing-concealing the authentic self, (c) discovering the transgender community, and (d) embracing the "T" identity. Lifespan and empowerment theories were used to harvest meanings from these themes. Implications for nursing practice and research were examined based on study findings. Participatory action research offers an approach for future studies in which researchers advocate for transgender individuals and remove obstacles to their health care access. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(2), 31-38.].

  9. The contraception needs of the perimenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Hardman, Sarah M R; Gebbie, Ailsa E

    2014-08-01

    Perimenopausal women have low fertility but must still be advised to use contraception until natural sterility is reached if they are sexually active. Patterns of contraceptive use vary in different countries worldwide. Long-acting reversible contraceptive methods offer reliable contraception that may be an alternative to sterilisation. Hormonal methods confer significant non-contraceptive benefits, and each individual woman should weigh up the benefits and risks of a particular method. No method of contraception is contraindicated by age alone, although combined hormonal contraception and injectable progestogens are not recommended for women over the age of 50 years. The intrauterine system has particular advantages as a low-dose method of effective hormonal contraception, which also offers control of menstrual dysfunction and endometrial protection in women requiring oestrogen replacement. Condoms are recommended for personal protection against sexually transmitted infections in new relationships. Standard hormone replacement therapy is not a method of contraception.

  10. Collins named First Woman Shuttle Commander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    Just a few hours after NASA revealed that there is water ice on the Moon, U.S. First Lady Hillary Rodham Clinton introduced Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Eileen Collins to a packed auditorium at Dunbar Senior High School in Washington, D.C., as the first woman who will command a NASA space shuttle mission. With students at this school, which is noted for its pre-engineering program, cheering, Clinton said that Collins' selection “is one big step forward for women and one giant step for humanity.” Clinton added, “It doesn't matter if you are a boy or a girl, you can be an astronaut or a pilot, if you get a first-rate education in math and science.”

  11. An Older Transgender Woman's Quest for Identity.

    PubMed

    Walker, Charles A; Cohen, Harriet; Jenkins, David

    2016-02-01

    Despite sensationalized media attention, transgender individuals are the most marginalized and misunderstood group in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender (LGBT) community. The current article presents a case study of one woman's quest for identity. Narrative inquiry was used to analyze data from interview transcripts and four themes emerged during analysis: (a) naming the ambiguity, (b) revealing-concealing the authentic self, (c) discovering the transgender community, and (d) embracing the "T" identity. Lifespan and empowerment theories were used to harvest meanings from these themes. Implications for nursing practice and research were examined based on study findings. Participatory action research offers an approach for future studies in which researchers advocate for transgender individuals and remove obstacles to their health care access. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(2), 31-38.]. PMID:27648872

  12. Primary progressive aphasia in a bilingual woman.

    PubMed

    Filley, Christopher M; Ramsberger, Gail; Menn, Lise; Wu, Jiang; Reid, Bessie Y; Reid, Allan L

    2006-10-01

    Multilingual aphasias are common because most people in the world know more than one language, but little is known of these syndromes except in patients who have had a stroke. We present a 76-year-old right-handed woman, fluent in English and Chinese, who developed anomia at age 70 and then progressed to aphasia. Functional neuroimaging disclosed mild left temporoparietal hypometabolism. Neurolinguistic testing was performed in both English and Chinese, representing a unique contribution to the literature. Results revealed conduction-like aphasia that was comparable in the two languages, although English was slightly better preserved. Primary progressive aphasia has disrupted 2 languages in a similar manner, suggesting their close neuroanatomic relationship in this case.

  13. Conservative coloprotectomy for the sexually active woman.

    PubMed

    Entman, S S; Coleman, J L; Wilson, G

    1982-07-01

    The procedure described herein, capitalizes on a knowledge of the relationships between the pelvic viscera, its autonomic innervation and its tissue support. Operative time is shorter, not only because of the presence of a simultaneous second surgical team, but also because the improved exposure and use of bloodless planes facilitates dissection and reduces blood loss. The careful treatment of the cul-de-sac peritoneum helps protect the autonomic innervation of the pelvis, preserving the function of the bladder and sexual response. Preserving the perineal body and obliterating the dead space behind the posterior vaginal wall with the levator ani muscle provides a muscular cushion for the vagina, preserving maximum coital function. For the woman who is sexually active, these are important goals. Her improved sense of well-being following successful surgical therapy of the disease will result in increasing libido, and her successful adaptation to her new condition will be influenced favorably by her ability to function sexually.

  14. Morbidly obese woman unaware of pregnancy until full-term and complicated by intraamniotic sepsis with pseudomonas.

    PubMed

    Muppala, H; Rafi, J; Arthur, I

    2007-01-01

    A 32-year-old Caucasian woman of body mass index (BMI) 46 presented with urinary symptoms to accident and emergency (A&E). Acute pyelonephritis was the diagnosis. Transabdominal scan revealed a live term fetus. Both the partners were unaware of the ongoing pregnancy until diagnosed. She underwent emergency cesarean under general anaesthesia (GA) for nonreassuring CTG, severe chorioamnionitis, and moderate preecclampsia. A live male baby weighing 4400 grams delivered in poor condition. Placental tissue on culture exhibited scanty growth of pseudomonas aeruginosa. Chorioamnionitis due to pseudomonas is rare, with high neonatal morbidity and mortality. It is mostly reported among preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM). Educating the community especially morbidly obese women if they put on excessive weight or with irregular periods should seek doctor's advice and exclude pregnancy. For the primary care provider, it is of great importance to exclude pregnancy in any reproductive woman presenting with abdominal complaints. This case also brings to clinicians notice that pseudomonas can be community-acquired and can affect term pregnancies with intact or prolonged rupture of membranes.

  15. Reliability and Validity of the Beck Depression and Anxiety Inventories in Caucasian Americans and Latinos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Contreras, Sandra; Fernandez, Senaida; Malcarne, Vanessa L.; Ingram, Rick E.; Vaccarino, Vivian Ruiz

    2004-01-01

    Although the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory are two of the most widely used instruments for assessing depressive and anxious symptoms in both clinical and nonclinical populations, their cross-cultural reliability and validity have yet to be fully established. In this study, 2,703 Caucasian American and 1,110 Latino college…

  16. Photoprotection by melanin--a comparison of black and Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Kaidbey, K H; Agin, P P; Sayre, R M; Kligman, A M

    1979-09-01

    The photoprotective role of melanin was evaluated by comparing the transmission of ultraviolet (UV) radiation through skin samples of blacks and Caucasians, using both biologic and spectroscopic techniques. UVA transmission was measured using fluoranthene, which causes a phototoxic response to UVA wavelength. UVB was measured by monitoring erythema produced by either a 150-watt xenon arc or FS-20 sunlamps. It was found that on the average, five times as much ultraviolet light (UVB and UVA) reaches the upper dermis of Caucasians as reaches that of blacks. Differences in transmission between the stratum corneum of blacks and of Caucasians were far less striking. The main site of UV filtration in Caucasians is the stratum corneum, whereas in blacks it is the malpighian layers. Melanin acts as a neutral density filter, reducing all wavelengths of light equally. The superior photoprotection of black epidermis is due not only to increased melanin content but also to other factors related to packaging and distribution of melanosomes. Not only are these data consistent with epidemiologic evidence, but they also may indicate why blacks are less disposed to phototoxic drug responses as well as less susceptible to acute and chronic actinic damage. PMID:512075

  17. Theory of planned behavior and multivitamin supplement use in Caucasian college females

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to identify predictors of the use of multivitamin supplements among Caucasian college females utilizing the Theory of Planned Behavior. Variables of the Theory of Planned Behavior and the self-reported use of multivitamin supplements were measured by two separate surv...

  18. The Educational Attainment of Minority Learners Who Attended 2-Year Colleges Compared to Caucasian Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Angel N.

    2013-01-01

    In this educational study, Caucasian and minority learners' grade point averages and overall academic success were examined at learning institutions. Several minorities experienced problems with completing college courses at universities and community colleges. Individuals from various racial backgrounds had school enrollment issues compared…

  19. Visible Minority, Aboriginal, and Caucasian Children Investigated by Canadian Protective Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavergne, Chantal; Dufour, Sarah; Trocme, Nico; Larrivee, Marie-Claude

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to compare the report profiles of Caucasian, Aboriginal, and other visible minority children whose cases were assessed by child protective services in Canada. The results show that children of Aboriginal ancestry and from visible minority groups are selected for investigation by child protective services 1.77…

  20. Factors That Contribute to Learning Difference among African American and Caucasian Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Stephen Earl

    This report examines the learning styles of Caucasian and African-American students. While research supports the claim that low academic achievement is prevalent in the minority community, there is no consensus regarding the causes. There are two schools of thought that involve (1) the cognitive deficit or genetic cause, and (2) the cultural…

  1. Size and form of the human temporomandibular joint in African-Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Cecilia; Magnusson, Tomas

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine contemporary human skull material for possible differences between Caucasians and African-Americans in respect to size and form of the temporomandibular condyles. The material consisted of a total of 129 Caucasian skulls (94 males and 35 females) and 76 African-American skulls (40 males and 36 females). Their mean age at death was 46 years for the Caucasians (range: 19-89 years) and 37 years for the African-Americans (range: 18-70 years). The mediolateral and anteroposterior dimensions of the 410 condyles were measured, and the condylar form was estimated using both anterior and superior views. No statistically significant differences could be found between Caucasians and African-Americans for any of the recorded variables. In conclusion, the present results lend no support for the existence of ethnic differences between the two groups examined in respect of temporomandibular joint size and form. It is likely that other factors such as evolution, overall cranial size, dietary differences, and genetic factors, irrespective of ethnicity, can explain the differences found in different skull samples.

  2. Alcohol Use and Depression among African-American and Caucasian Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maag, John W.; Irvin, Deborah M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine differences in reported alcohol use and depressive symptomatology among a sample of 524 African-American and Caucasian adolescents. Of specific interest was determining if ethnicity, gender, and age predicted severity of scores obtained on the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale (RADS) and Adolescent…

  3. Melodies in Motherese in Tonal and Nontonal Languages: Mandarin Chinese, Caucasian American, and German.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Papousek, Mechthild

    In a comparison of the melodies in the speech of Mandarin Chinese and Caucasian American mothers, striking similarities were found: (1) in the overall distribution and average structure of melodic contours; (2) in close contextual links to given forms of intuitive parental care; and (3) in a tendency to neglect lexical tones in favor of pitch…

  4. Brief Daily Exposures to Asian Females Reverses Perceptual Narrowing for Asian Faces in Caucasian Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate…

  5. Physical Activity Attitudes, Preferences, and Practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B.; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G.

    2006-01-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in…

  6. Photoprotection by melanin--a comparison of black and Caucasian skin.

    PubMed

    Kaidbey, K H; Agin, P P; Sayre, R M; Kligman, A M

    1979-09-01

    The photoprotective role of melanin was evaluated by comparing the transmission of ultraviolet (UV) radiation through skin samples of blacks and Caucasians, using both biologic and spectroscopic techniques. UVA transmission was measured using fluoranthene, which causes a phototoxic response to UVA wavelength. UVB was measured by monitoring erythema produced by either a 150-watt xenon arc or FS-20 sunlamps. It was found that on the average, five times as much ultraviolet light (UVB and UVA) reaches the upper dermis of Caucasians as reaches that of blacks. Differences in transmission between the stratum corneum of blacks and of Caucasians were far less striking. The main site of UV filtration in Caucasians is the stratum corneum, whereas in blacks it is the malpighian layers. Melanin acts as a neutral density filter, reducing all wavelengths of light equally. The superior photoprotection of black epidermis is due not only to increased melanin content but also to other factors related to packaging and distribution of melanosomes. Not only are these data consistent with epidemiologic evidence, but they also may indicate why blacks are less disposed to phototoxic drug responses as well as less susceptible to acute and chronic actinic damage.

  7. Information Processed by Negro and Caucasian Children Engaged in Problem-Solving Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felen, Barbara K.

    The memory model, based on information theory proposed by Moser (see SE 013 578), was used to compare the cognitive processing patterns of second and eighth grade Negro and Caucasian students in solving the "parallel circuits" problem. (Connecting two light bulbs and a dry cell so that when both bulbs light, one bulb can be unscrewed, leaving the…

  8. Sex-biased gene flow in African Americans but not in American Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, V F; Prosdocimi, F; Santos, L S; Ortega, J M; Pena, S D J

    2007-01-01

    We have previously shown evidence of strong sex-biased genetic blending in the founding and ongoing history of the Brazilian population, with the African and Amerindian contribution being highest from maternal lineages (as measured by mitochondrial DNA) and the European contribution foremost from paternal lineages (estimated from Y-chromosome haplogroups). The same phenomenon has been observed in several other Latin American countries, suggesting that it might constitute a universal characteristic of the Iberian colonization of the Americas. However, it has also recently been detected in the Black population of the United States. We thus wondered if the same could be observed in American Caucasians. To answer that question, we retrieved 1387 hypervariable I Caucasian mitochondrial DNA sequences from the FBI population database and established their haplogroups and continental geographical sources. In sharp contrast with the situation of the Caucasian population of Latin American countries, only 3.1% of the American Caucasian sequences had African and/or Amerindian origin. To explain this discrepancy we propose that the finding of elevated genomic contributions from European males and Amerindian or African females depends not only on the occurrence of directional mating, but also on the "racial" categorization of the children born from these relations. In this respect, social practices in Latin America and in the United States diverge considerably; in the former socially significant "races" are normally designated according to physical appearance, while in the latter descent appears to be the most important factor. PMID:17573655

  9. Male/Female Role Values: A Comparison of Caucasian and Japanese American College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engel, John W.

    Research in America on sex role attitudes and beliefs tends to neglect the views of minorities. While there is some research on the sex role attitudes of Chinese Americans, little is known about Japanese American attitudes and beliefs. To assess and compare Japanese and Caucasian American college students' attitudes, a questionnaire assessing…

  10. Cultural Variations in Parenting: Perceptions of Caucasian, African-American, Hispanic, and Asian-American Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julian, Teresa W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined cultural variations in parenting attitudes, behavior, and involvement of mothers and fathers in two-parent families. Findings from Caucasian (n=2,642), African-American (n=469), Hispanic-American (n=357), and Asian-American (n=49) parents revealed that, as group, ethnic parents indicated greater general emphasis on children exerting…

  11. Differences in Career and Life Planning between African American and Caucasian Undergraduate Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Booth, Caroline S.; Myers, Jane E.

    2011-01-01

    Women, especially African American women, have traditionally been in low-paying careers. This exploratory study examined how career aspirations are affected by future career and family plans. Results revealed that African American undergraduate women had higher career aspirations than Caucasian undergraduate women and also planned for multiple…

  12. Noninvasive Screening for Risk Factors of Type 2 Diabetes in Young, Rural, Caucasian Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Sharon; Sheffer, Sarah; Long Roth, Sara; Bennett, Paul A.; Lloyd, Les

    2010-01-01

    School nurses play an important role in identifying students who are at risk for Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Few studies have screened Caucasian students, and none have targeted rural, low-income, elementary children. The five noninvasive risk factors used for this study were family history, high body mass index (BMI) for age/sex,…

  13. Nonsuicidal self-injury in Asian versus Caucasian university students: who, how, and why?

    PubMed

    Turner, Brianna J; Arya, Shalini; Chapman, Alexander L

    2015-04-01

    The correlates of nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) among Asian and Caucasian university students; differences in the rates, frequency, forms, severity, and emotional contexts of NSSI among self-injuring students; and whether Asian students who are highly oriented toward Asian culture differed from those less oriented toward Asian culture in NSSI characteristics were investigated. University students (N = 931), including 360 Caucasian students (n = 95, 26.4%, with a history of ≥ 1 episode of NSSI) and 571 Asian students (n = 107, 18.7%, with a history of NSSI), completed questionnaires assessing NSSI, acculturation, and putative risk factors for NSSI. Caucasian students were more likely to report NSSI, particularly cutting behavior, self-injured with greater frequency and versatility, and reported greater increases in positively valenced, high arousal emotions following NSSI, compared to Asian students. Among Asian students, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, experiential avoidance, and anger suppression increased the likelihood of reporting a history of NSSI. Among Caucasian students, lack of emotional clarity and anger suppression increased likelihood of NSSI. Finally, some tentative findings suggested potentially important differences in rates and frequency of NSSI among Asian students who were highly oriented toward Asian culture compared with those less oriented toward Asian culture.

  14. Spiritual Well-Being Scale Ethnic Differences between Caucasians and African-Americans: Follow Up Analyses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Geri; Gridley, Betty; Fleming, Willie

    This follow up study is in response to Miller, Fleming, and Brown-Andersons (1998) study of ethnic differences between Caucasians and African-Americans where the authors suggested that the Spiritual Well-Being (SWB) Scale may need to be interpreted differently depending on ethnicity. In this study, confirmatory factor analyses were conducted for…

  15. Antisocial Behavior and Psychoactive Substance Involvement among Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Caucasian Adolescents in Substance Abuse Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, David G.; Brown, Sandra A.; Myers, Mark G.

    1997-01-01

    Compared conduct disorder behaviors and substance involvement of Hispanic (n=34) and non-Hispanic Caucasian (n=34) adolescents so as to determine pre-treatment problem behavior. Results indicate that non-Hispanic Caucasian youth were three times as likely to be diagnosed with conduct disorder prior to substance involvement than were their Hispanic…

  16. Effects of Ethnically Diverse Photographic Stimuli on Preference and Discourse Tasks in African American and Caucasian American Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramkissoon, Ishara; Dagenais, Paul A.; Evans, Kelli J.; Camp, Travis J.; Ferguson, Neina N.

    2013-01-01

    This study determined whether using photographic stimuli displaying different ethnicity (African American vs. Caucasian American) influenced preference, word count, and number of content units produced by African American or Caucasian American participants. Six photograph pairs depicting common scenes were developed, differing only by model…

  17. Body composition is the main determinant for the difference in type 2 diabetes pathophysiology between Japanese and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Møller, Jonas B; Pedersen, Maria; Tanaka, Haruhiko; Ohsugi, Mitsuru; Overgaard, Rune V; Lynge, Jan; Almind, Katrine; Vasconcelos, Nina-Maria; Poulsen, Pernille; Keller, Charlotte; Ueki, Kohjiro; Ingwersen, Steen H; Pedersen, Bente K; Kadowaki, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This cross-sectional clinical study compared the pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes in Japanese and Caucasians and investigated the role of demographic, genetic, and lifestyle-related risk factors for insulin resistance and β-cell response. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 120 Japanese and 150 Caucasians were enrolled to obtain comparable distributions of high/low BMI values across glucose tolerance states (normal glucose tolerance, impaired glucose tolerance, and type 2 diabetes), which were assessed by oral glucose tolerance tests. BMI in the two cohorts was distributed around the two regional cutoff values for obesity. RESULTS Insulin sensitivity was higher in Japanese compared with Caucasians, as indicated by the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance and Matsuda indices, whereas β-cell response was higher in Caucasians, as measured by homeostatic model assessment of β-cell function, the insulinogenic indices, and insulin secretion ratios. Disposition indices were similar for Japanese and Caucasians at all glucose tolerance states, indicating similar β-cell response relative to the degree of insulin resistance. The main determinants for differences in metabolic indices were measures of body composition, such as BMI and distribution of adipose tissue. Differences in β-cell response between Japanese and Caucasians were not statistically significant following adjustment by differences in BMI. CONCLUSIONS Our study showed similar disposition indices in Japanese and Caucasians and that the major part of the differences in insulin sensitivity and β-cell response between Japanese and Caucasians can be explained by differences in body composition.

  18. Atrial fibrillation among African Americans, Hispanics and Caucasians: clinical features and outcomes from the AFFIRM trial.

    PubMed Central

    Bush, David; Martin, Lisa W.; Leman, Robert; Chandler, Mary; Haywood, L. Julian

    2006-01-01

    The Atrial Fibrillation Follow-Up Investigation of Rhythm Management (AFFIRM) study concluded that rate control with anticoagulation was equivalent overall to rhythm control with cardioversion for long-term survival and that anticoagulation reduced the risk of stroke. We compared baseline and follow-up data for three ethnic groups: Caucasians (n=3,599), African Americans (n=265) and Hispanics (n=132). Caucasians were older and more likely male, African Americans were more likely female and hypertensive, and Hispanics had higher prevalence of cardiomyopathy. Survival was better for rate control than rhythm control in Caucasians, equivalent in African Americans and better for rhythm control in Hispanics. Outcomes may be influenced by differential baseline characteristics, but low numbers of African Americans and Hispanics warrant caution in data interpretation. BACKGROUND: The AFFIRM study compared a rate-control strategy to a rhythm-control strategy for the treatment of atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients at high risk for stroke or death. It concluded that the rhythm-control strategy offered no survival advantage, and it also confirmed the value of anticoagulation to prevent complications of AF. Data have not previously been available for specific racial ethnic populations. METHODS: We compared baseline and follow-up data for the patients randomized to rate-control versus rhythm-control in three population groups-Caucasian, African-American and Hispanic. RESULTS: Among 4,060 total patients, 3,599 were Caucasian, 265 were African-American and 132 were Hispanic. At baseline, Caucasians were older and had a higher percentage of males, normal ejection fractions, AF as their only cardiac diagnosis, a prior antiarrhythmic drug failure and less congestive heart failure. African Americans were more likely to be female, had more hypertension and qualified for the study with a first episode of AF, compared to Caucasians. Hispanics had more cardiomyopathy at baseline than

  19. Turning the Tables: The Woman Therapist and the Man Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gornick, Lisa K.

    There is little attention in the literature to the dyad of the woman therapist and the man patient; as a result, the woman therapist is faced with a poverty of theoretical accounts upon which she can draw in her clinical work. Although analytically-oriented work must focus on individual histories rather than cultural internalizations, analysis of…

  20. [Choice of contraception for the diabetic woman].

    PubMed

    Athea, N; Kuttenn, F

    1983-01-01

    The absolute need to limit and program pregnancies in diabetic women demands choice of an adequate contraceptive method. Combined oral contraceptives (OCs) do not seem appropriate because of their diabetogenic effects and the added vascular risks they present to already fragile women. The diabetogenic effects of combined OCs are believed to result from a reduced number and affinity of insulin receptors, augmented secretion of STH, vitamin B6 deficiency, or hepatic effects. Some progestagens have been shown to stimulate deleterious effects of estrogens on OCs. The estrogen component of OCs is associated with elevation of triglyceride levels and stimulation of very low density lipoprotein synthesis. To these vascular risks are added an augmented blood pressure which reaches hypertensive levels in 50% of cases. The effects of synthetic estrogens on coagulation factors and vessel walls have been well deomonstrated. Macrodosed progestagen pills taken in 20-day cycles appear to be an interesting alternative, but those with the most constant antigonadotropic activity are derived from nortestosterone and all have to some degree an anabolizing androgenic effect which may result in weight gain. Derivatives of 17-hydroxyprogesterone appear to be without secondary metabolic effects. Cyproterone acetate should be evaluated as a possible OC for diabetic women. Continuous-dose progestagen micropills are highly recommended for diabetic women because of their excellent metabolic tolerance. The action of this type of pills is essentially peripheral. The pill may cause menstrual irregularity, spotting, or amenorrhea, and an increased rate of ectopic pregnancy. The Pearl index is between .8-2/1009 IUDs are a possibility for diabetic women, but because of their increased vulnerability to infection, such women should be carefully screened for prior adnexial or uterine infection, the device should be inserted in completely aseptic conditions, the woman's hygiene should be impeccable, the

  1. Say “Adios” to the American Dream? The Interplay Between Ethnic and National Identity Among Latino and Caucasian Americans

    PubMed Central

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1–3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

  2. Say "adios" to the American dream? The interplay between ethnic and national identity among Latino and Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Devos, Thierry; Gavin, Kelly; Quintana, Francisco J

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, implicit and explicit measures were used to examine the interconnections between ethnic and national identities among Latino Americans and Caucasian Americans. Consistently, Latino Americans as a group were conceived of as being less American than Caucasian Americans (Studies 1-3). This effect was exhibited by both Caucasian and Latino participants. Overall, Caucasian participants displayed a stronger national identification than Latino participants (Studies 2 and 3). In addition, ethnic American associations accounted for the strength of national identification for Caucasian participants, but not for Latino participants (Study 2). Finally, ethnic differences in national identification among individuals who exclude Latino Americans from the national identity emerged when persistent ethnic disparities were primed, but not when increasing equalities were stressed (Study 3). In sum, ethnic American associations account for the merging versus dissociation between ethnic and national identifications and reflect a long-standing ethnic hierarchy in American society. PMID:20099963

  3. Comparison of anterior segment morphology following prophylactic laser peripheral iridotomy in Caucasian and Chinese eyes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Roland Y; Kasuga, Toshimitsu; Cui, Qi N; Huang, Guofu; He, Mingguang; Lin, Shan C

    2014-01-01

    Background To compare anterior segment biometric parameters between Caucasians and Chinese before and after laser peripheral iridotomy (LPI). Design Prospective clinical cohort study Participants Caucasian and Chinese primary angle closure suspects. Methods Anterior segment optical coherence tomography images captured before and after LPI were analyzed to measure anterior segment biometric parameters. Paired Student’s t-tests were used for within-ethnic group comparisons. Univariate and linear mixed-effects regression models were used for between-ethnic group comparisons. Main Outcome Measures angle opening distance (AOD500, AOD750); angle recess area (ARA750); iris thickness (IT750, IT2000, ITM); iris curvature (ICURV); anterior chamber area (ACA); anterior chamber volume (ACV); and anterior chamber width (ACW). Results Caucasians had significantly greater preoperative ARA750, ACW, and ICURV and lower preoperative IT2000 compared to Chinese (P<0.05). Ethnic differences in preoperative AOD500, AOD750, IT750, ITCM, ACA, and ACV were insignificant (P>0.05). Significant postoperative increases in AOD500, AOD750, ARA750, ACA, ACV, and ACW along with significant postoperative decrease in ICURV were observed within both ethnic groups (P<0.05). However, the amount of LPI-induced changes in AOD500, AOD750, ARA750, ACA, ACV, ACW, and ICURV did not differ between the two ethnic groups (P>0.05). Conclusion Both Caucasian and Chinese demonstrated opening of anterior chamber angle width (AOD500, AOD750, ARA750), expansion of anterior chamber dimensions (ACA, ACV, ACW), and flattening of iris convexity (ICURV) after LPI. Although certain aspects of anterior segment anatomy differed between Caucasians and Chinese preoperatively, they did not translate into significant ethnic differences in the amount of LPI-induced changes in the anterior segment biometric parameters. PMID:24119221

  4. Differences in subclinical cardiovascular disease between African American and Caucasian women with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Rhew, Elisa Y; Manzi, Susan M; Dyer, Alan R; Kao, Amy H; Danchenko, Natalya; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; McPherson, David D; Pearce, William; Edmundowicz, Daniel; Kondos, George T; Ramsey-Goldman, Rosalind

    2009-02-01

    Racial differences exist in disease rates and mortality in both cardiovascular disease (CVD) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The objective of this cross-sectional study was to compare the frequency and risk factors for subclinical CVD in African American (AA) and Caucasian women with SLE and no prior CVD events. Traditional CVD risk factors and SLE-related factors were assessed in 309 SLE women. Subclinical CVD was assessed by carotid ultrasound to measure intimamedial thickness (IMT) and plaque, and electron beam computed tomography (EBCT) was used to measure coronary artery calcium (CAC). AA women had less education and higher levels of body mass index, blood pressure, lipoprotein(a), C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR). However, AA women had lower albumin, more and longer duration of corticosteroid use, higher SLE disease activity and damage, and more dsDNA antibodies compared with Caucasian women after adjustment for age and study site. More AA women had carotid plaque (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.65) and higher carotid IMT (0.620 vs 0.605 mm, P = 0.07) but similar CAC compared with Caucasians. A multivariate analysis revealed that the following risk factor variables were significantly different between the racial groups and associated with plaque: blood pressure, current corticosteroid use, SLE disease activity, and SLE damage. All factors contributed to the result, but no individual risk factor fully accounted for the association between race and plaque. In conclusion, the presence of carotid plaque was higher in AA compared with Caucasian women with SLE, in contrast to studies of non-SLE subjects, in which AA have similar or less plaque than Caucasians. A combination of SLE-related and traditional CVD risk factors explained the racial difference in plaque burden. PMID:19138649

  5. Kidney transplantation outcomes in African-, Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans with lupus.

    PubMed

    Contreras, G; Mattiazzi, A; Schultz, D R; Guerra, G; Ladino, M; Ortega, L M; Garcia-Estrada, M; Ramadugu, P; Gupta, C; Kupin, W L; Roth, D

    2012-01-01

    African-American recipients of kidney transplants with lupus have high allograft failure risk. We studied their risk adjusting for: (1) socio-demographic factors: donor age, gender and race-ethnicity; recipient age, gender, education and insurance; donor-recipient race-ethnicity match; (2) immunologic factors: donor type, panel reactive antibodies, HLA mismatch, ABO blood type compatibility, pre-transplant dialysis, cytomegalovirus risk and delayed graft function (DGF); (3) rejection and recurrent lupus nephritis (RLN). Two thousand four hundred and six African-, 1132 Hispanic-, and 2878 Caucasian-Americans were followed for 12 years after transplantation. African- versus Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans received more kidneys from deceased donors (71.6%, 57.3% and 55.1%) with higher two HLA loci mismatches for HLA-A (50%, 39.6% and 32.4%), HLA-B (52%, 42.8% and 35.6%) and HLA-DR (30%, 24.5% and 21.1%). They developed more DGF (19.5%, 13.6% and 13.4%). More African- versus Hispanic- and Caucasian-Americans developed rejection (41.7%, 27.6% and 35.9%) and RLN (3.2, 1.8 and 1.8%). 852 African-, 265 Hispanic-, and 747 Caucasian-Americans had allograft failure (p < 0.0001). After adjusting for transplant era, socio-demographic-immunologic differences, rejection and RLN, the increased hazard ratio for allograft failure of African- compared with Caucasian-Americans became non-significant (1.26 [95% confidence interval 0.78-2.04]). African-Americans with lupus have high prevalence of risk factors for allograft failure that can explain poor outcomes.

  6. Autonomic Recovery Is Delayed in Chinese Compared with Caucasian following Treadmill Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Yan, Huimin; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Bunsawat, Kanokwan; Baynard, Tracy; Hu, Min; Li, Shichang; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Caucasian populations have a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) when compared with their Chinese counterparts and CVD is associated with autonomic function. It is unknown whether autonomic function during exercise recovery differs between Caucasians and Chinese. The present study investigated autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise in healthy Caucasians and Chinese. Sixty-two participants (30 Caucasian and 32 Chinese, 50% male) performed an acute bout of treadmill exercise at 70% of heart rate reserve. Heart rate variability (HRV) and baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) were obtained during 5-min epochs at pre-exercise, 30-min, and 60-min post-exercise. HRV was assessed using frequency [natural logarithm of high (LnHF) and low frequency (LnLF) powers, normalized high (nHF) and low frequency (nLF) powers, and LF/HF ratio] and time domains [Root mean square of successive differences (RMSSD), natural logarithm of RMSSD (LnRMSSD) and R–R interval (RRI)]. Spontaneous BRS included both up-up and down-down sequences. At pre-exercise, no group differences were observed for any HR, HRV and BRS parameters. During exercise recovery, significant race-by-time interactions were observed for LnHF, nHF, nLF, LF/HF, LnRMSSD, RRI, HR, and BRS (up-up). The declines in LnHF, nHF, RMSSD, RRI and BRS (up-up) and the increases in LF/HF, nLF and HR were blunted in Chinese when compared to Caucasians from pre-exercise to 30-min to 60-min post-exercise. Chinese exhibited delayed autonomic recovery following an acute bout of treadmill exercise. This delayed autonomic recovery may result from greater sympathetic dominance and extended vagal withdrawal in Chinese. Trial Registration: Chinese Clinical Trial Register ChiCTR-IPR-15006684 PMID:26784109

  7. HLA disease association and protection in HIV infection among African Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Cruse, J M; Brackin, M N; Lewis, R E; Meeks, W; Nolan, R; Brackin, B

    1991-01-01

    In a previous investigation, we demonstrated an increased progression of overt AIDS in the African American population compared to the Caucasian population as reflected by the significantly lower absolute number of CD4+ lymphocytes detected in the African American population in an earlier study. The present study elucidates some of the possible genetic factors which may contribute to disease association or protection against HIV infection. The HLA phenotypes expressed as A, B, C, DR and DQw antigens were revealed by the Amos-modified typing procedure. NIH scoring was utilized to designate positive cells taking up trypan blue. A test of proportion equivalent to the chi 2 approximation was used to compare the disease population (n = 62; 38 African Americans, 24 Caucasians) to race-matched normal heterosexual local controls (323 African Americans, 412 Caucasians). Significant p values were corrected for the number of HLA antigens tested. HLA markers associated with possible protection from infection for African Americans were Cw4 and DRw6, whereas Caucasians expressed none. Disease association markers present in the African American population were A31, B35, Cw6, Cw7, DR5, DR6, DRw11, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7, whereas in the Caucasian population A28, Aw66, Aw48, Bw65, Bw70, Cw7, DRw10, DRw12, DQw6 and DQw7 were demonstrated. The highest phenotypic frequency for a disease association marker in the study was for HLA-DR5 (62.9%) in the HIV-infected African American population without Kaposi's sarcoma compared to a frequency of 28.9% for the regional control group (p = 0.0012). We conclude that genetic factors do have a role in HIV infection since only 50-60% of those exposed to the AIDS virus will become infected. PMID:1910527

  8. Collagenous gastritis in a young Japanese woman.

    PubMed

    Kajino, Yuri; Kushima, Ryoji; Koyama, Shigeki; Fujiyama, Yoshihide; Okabe, Hidetoshi

    2003-03-01

    Collagenous gastritis, a counterpart of collagenous colitis, is a rare disorder with less than 20 cases reported in the literature. A case of collagenous gastritis in a Japanese woman in her early 20s who had been receiving treatment for atopic dermatitis and bronchial asthma is reported. The patient complained of repeated epigastric pain, and endoscopy revealed multifocal atrophic areas and scars in the gastric body. Biopsy specimens showed a thickened eosinophilic band-like structure with entrapped capillaries approximately 30-70 micro m thick beneath the surface epithelium. It was regarded as a collagen band because it was positive on Azan staining but negative on amyloid staining. This finding was accompanied by marked infiltration of mononuclear cells and eosinophils in the lamina propria; however, no evidence of lymphocytic gastritis was found. Helicobacter pylori infection was not detected and inflammatory cell infiltration was minimal in the mucosa without the collagen band. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the band was positive for type III and type VI collagen. The size of the collagen band did not change for 2 years. These findings suggest that subepithelial collagen deposition was due to an abnormal local immune response based on generalized allergic disorder. PMID:12608899

  9. Woman to Woman: Coming Together for Positive Change--Using Empowerment and Popular Education to Prevent HIV in Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Romero, Lisa; Wallerstein, Nina; Lucero, Julie; Fredine, Heidi Grace; Keefe, Joanna; O'Connell, JoAnne

    2006-01-01

    HIV risk is the product of social, cultural, economic, and interpersonal forces that create sex-role definitions and expectations that can lead to gender inequalities in health. Woman to Woman: Coming Together for Positive Change is an HIV/AIDS prevention intervention that takes into account that choices and actions may be constrained by poverty,…

  10. Acculturation and expressed emotion in Caucasian, Latino, and black relatives of patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Koneru, Vamsi K; de Mamani, Amy G Weisman

    2007-11-01

    High expressed emotion (high EE) in family members (high levels of criticism, emotional overinvolvement, and/or hostility) has been found to be predictive of a poorer course of illness for patients with schizophrenia in many different cultures. Acculturation has also been found to relate to symptom severity and clinical course in a number of disorders (e.g., substance abuse, schizophrenia). There is reason to believe that acculturation may interact with EE, however, this relationship has yet to be examined systematically. The present study evaluated the relationship between acculturation and EE in a sample of 57 Caucasian, Latino, and black caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Drawing from earlier research, it was hypothesized that more acculturated Caucasian and Latino relatives and less acculturated black relatives would be designated as high EE. Hypotheses were partially supported as results demonstrated that greater acculturation was associated with high EE for Latinos and low EE for blacks. PMID:18000456

  11. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian women: is beauty in the eyes of the observer?

    PubMed

    Davis, Dawnavan S; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups.

  12. Attractiveness in African American and Caucasian Women: Is Beauty in the Eyes of the Observer?

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Dawnavan S.; Sbrocco, Tracy; Odoms-Young, Angela; Smith, Dionne M.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional body image studies have been constrained by focusing on body thinness as the sole component of attractiveness. Evidence suggests that African American women may hold a multifactorial view of attractiveness that extends beyond size to include factors such as dress attire and race. The current study employed a culturally sensitive silhouette Model Rating Task (MRT) to examine the effects of attire, body size, and race on attractiveness. Unexpectedly, minimal differences on attractiveness ratings emerged by attire, body size, or model race between African American and Caucasian women. Overall, participants preferred the dressed, underweight, and African American models. Factors such as exposure to diverse groups and changes in African American culture may explain the present findings. Future studies to delineate the components of attractiveness for African American and Caucasian women using the MRT are needed to broaden our understanding and conceptualization of attractiveness across racial groups. PMID:19962117

  13. Disordered eating in African American and Caucasian women: the role of ethnic identity.

    PubMed

    Shuttlesworth, Mary E; Zotter, Deanne

    2011-01-01

    The influential roles of culture and ethnic identity are frequently cited in developing disordered eating and body dissatisfaction, constituting both protective and risk factors. For African American women, strongly identifying with African American cultural beauty ideals may protect against disordered eating to lose weight, but may actually increase risk in development of disordered eating directed at weight gain, such as binge eating. This study compares African American and Caucasian women on disordered eating measures, positing that African American women show greater risk for binge eating due to the impact of ethnic identity on body dissatisfaction. Findings indicate low levels of ethnic identity represent a risk factor for African American women, increasing the likelihood of showing greater binge eating and bulimic pathology. In Caucasian women, high levels of ethnic identity constitute a risk factor, leading to higher levels of both binge eating and global eating pathology. Implications for prevention and treatment are discussed. PMID:22073427

  14. Brief daily exposures to Asian females reverses perceptual narrowing for Asian faces in Caucasian infants

    PubMed Central

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins in infancy. The present study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants’ visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate between novel and familiarized Asian faces at the beginning of testing were given brief daily experience with Asian female faces in the experimental condition and Caucasian female faces in the control condition. At the end of three weeks, only infants who received daily experience with Asian females showed above-chance recognition of novel Asian female and male faces. Further, infants in the experimental condition showed greater efficiency in learning novel Asian females compared to infants in the control condition. Thus, visual experience with a novel stimulus category can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing in infancy via improved stimulus recognition and encoding. PMID:22625845

  15. Physical activities and sedentary pursuits in African American and Caucasian girls.

    PubMed

    Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R; Felton, Gwen M; Saunders, Ruth; Ward, Dianne S; Dishman, Rod K; Trost, Stewart G

    2004-12-01

    The purposes of this study were to describe and compare the specific physical activity choices and sedentary pursuits of African American and Caucasian American girls. Participants were 1,124 African American and 1,068 Caucasian American eighth-grade students from 31 middle schools. The 3-Day Physical Activity Recall (3DPAR) was used to measure participation in physical activities and sedentary pursuits. The most frequently reported physical activities were walking, basketball, jogging or running, bicycling, and social dancing. Differences between groups were found in 11 physical activities and 3 sedentary pursuits. Participation rates were higher in African American girls (p < or = .001) for social dancing, basketball, watching television, and church attendance but lower in calisthenics, ballet and other dance, jogging or running, rollerblading, soccer, softball or baseball, using an exercise machine, swimming, and homework. Cultural differences of groups should be considered when planning interventions to promote physical activity.

  16. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Anna E; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A; Gonzalez, Raul S; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  17. Lipoprotein Profiles in Class III Obese Caucasian and African American Women with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Anna E.; Kasim, Nader; Tamboli, Robyn A.; Gonzalez, Raul S.; Antoun, Joseph; Eckert, Emily A.; Marks-Shulman, Pamela A.; Dunn, Julia; Wattacheril, Julia; Wallen, Taylor; Abumrad, Naji N.; Flynn, Charles Robb

    2015-01-01

    Triglyceride content in the liver is regulated by the uptake, production and elimination of lipoproteins, and derangements in these processes contribute to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Previous studies show a direct relationship between intrahepatic fat and production of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) containing particles, VLDL and LDL, but little consensus exists regarding changes in lipoprotein production in the development of simple steatosis (SS) versus nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Further, ethnic variations in lipoproteins among SS and NASH are unknown as is how such variations might contribute to the differential prevalence of disease among Caucasians versus African Americans. In this study, we assessed plasma lipoprotein profiles by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy in 70 non-diabetic class III obese females recruited from the surgical weight loss clinic. Of these, 51 females were stratified by biopsy-staged NAFLD severity (histologically normal, SS, or NASH). NASH females displayed increased circulating triglycerides and increased VLDL particle number and size relative to those with histologically normal livers, while total and large LDL concentration decreased in SS versus NASH and correlated with increased insulin resistance (via HOMA2-IR). When Caucasian women were examined alone (n = 41), VLDL and triglycerides increased between normal and SS, while total LDL and apoB100 decreased between SS and NASH along with increased insulin resistance. Compared to Caucasians with SS, African American women with SS displayed reduced triglycerides, VLDL, and small LDL and a more favorable small to large HDL ratio despite having increased BMI and HOMA2-IR. These findings suggest that ApoB100 and lipoprotein subclass particle number and size can delineate steatosis from NASH in obese Caucasian females, but should be interpreted with caution in other ethnicities as African Americans with SS display relatively improved lipoprotein profiles

  18. SORL1 is genetically associated with late-onset Alzheimer's disease in Japanese, Koreans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Miyashita, Akinori; Koike, Asako; Jun, Gyungah; Wang, Li-San; Takahashi, Satoshi; Matsubara, Etsuro; Kawarabayashi, Takeshi; Shoji, Mikio; Tomita, Naoki; Arai, Hiroyuki; Asada, Takashi; Harigaya, Yasuo; Ikeda, Masaki; Amari, Masakuni; Hanyu, Haruo; Higuchi, Susumu; Ikeuchi, Takeshi; Nishizawa, Masatoyo; Suga, Masaichi; Kawase, Yasuhiro; Akatsu, Hiroyasu; Kosaka, Kenji; Yamamoto, Takayuki; Imagawa, Masaki; Hamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Yamada, Masahito; Morihara, Takashi; Moriaha, Takashi; Takeda, Masatoshi; Takao, Takeo; Nakata, Kenji; Fujisawa, Yoshikatsu; Sasaki, Ken; Watanabe, Ken; Nakashima, Kenji; Urakami, Katsuya; Ooya, Terumi; Takahashi, Mitsuo; Yuzuriha, Takefumi; Serikawa, Kayoko; Yoshimoto, Seishi; Nakagawa, Ryuji; Kim, Jong-Won; Ki, Chang-Seok; Won, Hong-Hee; Na, Duk L; Seo, Sang Won; Mook-Jung, Inhee; St George-Hyslop, Peter; Mayeux, Richard; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Yoshida, Makiko; Nishida, Nao; Tokunaga, Katsushi; Yamamoto, Ken; Tsuji, Shoji; Kanazawa, Ichiro; Ihara, Yasuo; Schellenberg, Gerard D; Farrer, Lindsay A; Kuwano, Ryozo

    2013-01-01

    To discover susceptibility genes of late-onset Alzheimer's disease (LOAD), we conducted a 3-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) using three populations: Japanese from the Japanese Genetic Consortium for Alzheimer Disease (JGSCAD), Koreans, and Caucasians from the Alzheimer Disease Genetic Consortium (ADGC). In Stage 1, we evaluated data for 5,877,918 genotyped and imputed SNPs in Japanese cases (n = 1,008) and controls (n = 1,016). Genome-wide significance was observed with 12 SNPs in the APOE region. Seven SNPs from other distinct regions with p-values <2×10(-5) were genotyped in a second Japanese sample (885 cases, 985 controls), and evidence of association was confirmed for one SORL1 SNP (rs3781834, P = 7.33×10(-7) in the combined sample). Subsequent analysis combining results for several SORL1 SNPs in the Japanese, Korean (339 cases, 1,129 controls) and Caucasians (11,840 AD cases, 10,931 controls) revealed genome wide significance with rs11218343 (P = 1.77×10(-9)) and rs3781834 (P = 1.04×10(-8)). SNPs in previously established AD loci in Caucasians showed strong evidence of association in Japanese including rs3851179 near PICALM (P = 1.71×10(-5)) and rs744373 near BIN1 (P = 1.39×10(-4)). The associated allele for each of these SNPs was the same as in Caucasians. These data demonstrate for the first time genome-wide significance of LOAD with SORL1 and confirm the role of other known loci for LOAD in Japanese. Our study highlights the importance of examining associations in multiple ethnic populations.

  19. Risk factors for breast cancer in postmenopausal Caucasian and Chinese-Canadian women

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Striking differences exist between countries in the incidence of breast cancer. The causes of these differences are unknown, but because incidence rates change in migrants, they are thought to be due to lifestyle rather than genetic differences. The goal of this cross-sectional study was to examine breast cancer risk factors in populations with different risks for breast cancer. Methods We compared breast cancer risk factors among three groups of postmenopausal Canadian women at substantially different risk of developing breast cancer - Caucasians (N = 413), Chinese women born in the West or who migrated to the West before age 21 (N = 216), and recent Chinese migrants (N = 421). Information on risk factors and dietary acculturation were collected by telephone interviews using questionnaires, and anthropometric measurements were taken at a home visit. Results Compared to Caucasians, recent Chinese migrants weighed on average 14 kg less, were 6 cm shorter, had menarche a year later, were more often parous, less often had a family history of breast cancer or a benign breast biopsy, a higher Chinese dietary score, and a lower Western dietary score. For most of these variables, Western born Chinese and early Chinese migrants had values intermediate between those of Caucasians and recent Chinese migrants. We estimated five-year absolute risks for breast cancer using the Gail Model and found that risk estimates in Caucasians would be reduced by only 11% if they had the risk factor profile of recent Chinese migrants for the risk factors in the Gail Model. Conclusions Our results suggest that in addition to the risk factors in the Gail Model, there likely are other factors that also contribute to the large difference in breast cancer risk between Canada and China. PMID:20053286

  20. Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in African-American and Caucasian College-Aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Andrea K.; Ford, M. Allison; Jones, Tamekia L.; Nahar, Vinayak K.; Hallam, Jeffrey S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Research regarding risk factors and prevalence of low bone mineral density (BMD) among African-American and Caucasian college-aged women are limited. The objective of this cross-sectional study was to determine if selected predictors of BMD in African-American and Caucasian college-aged women differ by race. Methods: A total of 101 local African-American (n=50) and Caucasian (n=51) females, ages 18 to 30 years, were in this study. All data were collected in the Bone Density and Body Composition Laboratory. BMD was measured using DXA technology. Race, family history of osteoporosis, BMI, current physical activity, osteoporosis knowledge, length of time on oral contraceptives, age at menarche and calcium intake were included in the multiple regression analyses with spinal and femoral BMD as dependent variables. Results: Overall, 38.6% had low spinal BMD and 7.9% had low femoral BMD. BMI (β=0.073, R2 = .148, P = .001, 95% CI [0.030, 0.116]) and current physical activity (β=0.071, R2 = .148, P = .017, 95% CI [0.013, 0.129]) were the only variables that were statistically significant in predicting spinal BMD. BMI (β=0.056, R2 = .13, P = .010, 95% CI [0.014, 0.098]) and current physical activ-ity (β=0.078, R2 = .13, P = .007, 95% CI [0.022, 0.134]) were also the only varia-bles that were statistically significant in predicting femoral BMD. Race was not a significant predictor of spinal or femoral BMD. Conclusion: It is imperative for both African-American and Caucasian women to engage in osteoporosis-preventive behaviors. PMID:26000242

  1. Lymphedema: What Every Woman with Breast Cancer Should Know

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles » My ACS » Lymphedema: What Every Woman With Breast Cancer Should Know Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Women who have been treated for breast cancer may be at risk for lymphedema in the ...

  2. 1. GENERAL VIEW, (the one with the woman at the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GENERAL VIEW, (the one with the woman at the front door). Photocopy of December 1957 photo on file at Philadelphia Historical Commission - James Keen House, 946 South Front Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. [Primary retroperitoneal cyst in a 21-year-old woman].

    PubMed

    Thunedborg, L P; Rudnicki, P M

    1990-08-20

    A case of primary retroperitoneal cyst in a woman aged 21 years is presented. The cyst, which contained 6.5 litres, was treated by total excision. The diagnosis, treatment and classification are briefly described.

  4. Pregnancy and delivery in a woman with hemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Rust, L A; Goodnight, S H; Freeman, R K; Johnson, C S

    1975-10-01

    Hemophilia B (Factor IX deficiency, Christmas disease) may cause excessive bleeding in women. The obstetric and hematologic management of the pregnancy and delivery of a woman with a Factor IX level of 4% is presented and discussed.

  5. The moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behaviors.

    PubMed

    Greening, Leilani; Stoppelbein, Laura; Luebbe, Aaron

    2010-04-01

    Given that parenting practices have been linked to suicidal behavior in adolescence, examining the moderating effect of parenting styles on suicidal behavior early in development could offer potential insight into possible buffers as well as directions for suicide prevention and intervention later in adolescence. Hence, the moderating effects of parenting styles, including authoritarian, permissive, and features of authoritative parenting, on depressed and aggressive children's suicidal behavior, including ideation and attempts, were evaluated with young children (N = 172; 72% male, 28% female) ranging from 6 to 12 years of age. African American (69%) and Caucasian (31%) children admitted for acute psychiatric inpatient care completed standardized measures of suicidal behavior, depressive symptoms, and proactive and reaction aggression. Their parents also completed standardized measures of parental distress and parenting style. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that, while statistically controlling for age and gender, children who endorsed more depressive symptoms or reactive aggression reported more current and past suicidal behavior than children who endorsed fewer depressive or aggressive symptoms. The significant positive relationship observed between depressive symptoms and childhood suicidal behavior, however, was attenuated by parental use of authoritarian parenting practices for African-American and older children but not for younger and Caucasian children. The ethnic/racial difference observed for the buffering effect of authoritarian parenting practices offers potential theoretical and clinical implications for conceptualizing the moderating effects of parenting styles on African-American and Caucasian children's suicidal behavior.

  6. Dosing Algorithms to Predict Warfarin Maintenance Dose in Caucasians and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Schelleman, Hedi; Chen, Jinbo; Chen, Zhen; Christie, Jason; Newcomb, Craig W.; Brensinger, Colleen M.; Price, Maureen; Whitehead, Alexander S.; Kealey, Carmel; Thorn, Caroline F.; Samaha, Frederick F.; Kimmel, Stephen E

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study was to determine whether clinical, environmental, and genetic factors can be used to develop dosing algorithms for Caucasians and African Americans that perform better than giving empirical 5 mg/day. Methods From April 2002 through December 2005, 259 warfarin initiators were prospectively followed until they reached maintenance dose. Results The Caucasian algorithm included 11 variables (R2=0.43). This model (51% within 1 mg) performed better compared with 5 mg/day (29% within 5±1 mg). The African American algorithm included 10 variables (R2=0.28). This model predicted 37% of doses within 1 mg of the observed dose; a small improvement compared with 5 mg/day (34%). These results were similar to the results we obtained from testing other (published) algorithms. Conclusions The dosing algorithms in Caucasians explained <45% of the variability and the algorithms in African Americans performed only marginally better than giving 5 mg empirically. PMID:18596683

  7. Locus of control and peer relationships among Caucasian, Hispanic, Asian, and African American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hannah Soo; Chang, Kyle Edward; Chen, Chuansheng; Greenberger, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Past research has shown that locus of control plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors, such as academic achievement and positive social behaviors. However, little is known about whether locus of control plays the same role in minority adolescents' peer relationships. The current study examined ethnic differences in the associations between locus of control and peer relationships in early adolescence using samples from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study (ECLS-K: 5,612 Caucasian, 1,562 Hispanic, 507 Asian, and 908 African-American adolescents) and the National Education Longitudinal Study (NELS: 8,484 Caucasian, 1,604 Hispanic, and 860 Asian, and 1,228 African American adolescents). Gender was approximately evenly split in both samples. The results from the two datasets were highly consistent. Significant interactions between ethnicity and locus of control indicated that having a more internal locus of control was particularly important for Caucasian students' peer relationships (ECLS-K) and social status (NELS), but less so for Asian, Hispanic, and African American students. Our findings suggest that the role of locus of control in peer relationship is contingent upon culture. PMID:24352586

  8. Looking at faces from different angles: Europeans fixate different features in Asian and Caucasian faces.

    PubMed

    Brielmann, Aenne A; Bülthoff, Isabelle; Armann, Regine

    2014-07-01

    Race categorization of faces is a fast and automatic process and is known to affect further face processing profoundly and at earliest stages. Whether processing of own- and other-race faces might rely on different facial cues, as indicated by diverging viewing behavior, is much under debate. We therefore aimed to investigate two open questions in our study: (1) Do observers consider information from distinct facial features informative for race categorization or do they prefer to gain global face information by fixating the geometrical center of the face? (2) Does the fixation pattern, or, if facial features are considered relevant, do these features differ between own- and other-race faces? We used eye tracking to test where European observers look when viewing Asian and Caucasian faces in a race categorization task. Importantly, in order to disentangle centrally located fixations from those towards individual facial features, we presented faces in frontal, half-profile and profile views. We found that observers showed no general bias towards looking at the geometrical center of faces, but rather directed their first fixations towards distinct facial features, regardless of face race. However, participants looked at the eyes more often in Caucasian faces than in Asian faces, and there were significantly more fixations to the nose for Asian compared to Caucasian faces. Thus, observers rely on information from distinct facial features rather than facial information gained by centrally fixating the face. To what extent specific features are looked at is determined by the face's race. PMID:24796509

  9. Effects of sulfur dioxide exposure on African-American and Caucasian asthmatics

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, S.K.; Koenig, J.Q.; Morgan, M.S.; Checkoway, H.; Hanley, Q.S.; Rebolledo, V. )

    1994-07-01

    There is concern that air pollution may be causing increases in asthma morbidity and mortality, especially among African-Americans. It is possible that there may be ethnic differences in susceptibility. To evaluate this speculation, a comparative pilot study of respiratory function in 10 African American and 12 Caucasian methacholine positive asthmatic males was conducted. Subjects were exposed to pure air or 1 ppm SO[sub 2] while breathing inside a polycarbonate head dome, for 10 min of rest and 10 min of exercise. Baseline and postexposure pulmonary function measurements were recorded, and nasal lavage fluid samples were collected and processed for epithelial and white blood counts. Although significant increases were seen in total respiratory resistance following SO[sub 2] exposure in both groups (P = 0.04), no ethnic-based difference in response was seen. No significant differences were found in pulmonary or nasal measurements after exposure to SO[sub 2] between African-American and Caucasian subjects. No significant changes in epithelial or white blood cell count were found either when data were analyzed from the entire group or separately from the two subject groups. Even though there were no significant group changes, some individuals were particularly responsive to SO[sub 2]. Three Caucasian and 5 African-American subjects showed greater than 20% increases in respiratory resistance. 26 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Cultural perceptions in cancer care among African-American and Caucasian patients.

    PubMed Central

    Matsuyama, Robin K.; Grange, Christina; Lyckholm, Laurie J.; Utsey, Shawn O.; Smith, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    PURPOSE: This exploratory study examined perceptions and beliefs of African Americans and Caucasians related to cancer care. Understanding belief systems and cultures optimizes cancer treatment and care delivery to ethnic minority individuals. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Focus groups were conducted with 39 African-American and Caucasian cancer patients. Data analysis included whole group analysis with a team of five researchers. RESULTS: Regardless of ethnicity, cancer patients share many of the same emotions and experiences, and want complete information and quality care. Differences were also apparent. African-American participants were more likely to report increased religious behaviors, believe that healthcare providers demonstrate care with simple actions and provision of practical assistance, and use church and community information sources. Caucasian participants were more likely to report spiritual but not overtly religious changes, and depend on healthcare providers for information. CONCLUSION: Understanding how culture colors perceptions, communication and information requirements is critical to providing effective care to ethnically diverse cancer patients. Findings have implications for professionals understanding ways patients seek information, the role of spirituality and religion in care, and ways healthcare providers demonstrate care. PMID:17987914

  11. Repeat expansions in the C9ORF72 gene contribute to Alzheimer's disease in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Kohli, Martin A; John-Williams, Krista; Rajbhandary, Ruchita; Naj, Adam; Whitehead, Patrice; Hamilton, Kara; Carney, Regina M; Wright, Clinton; Crocco, Elizabeth; Gwirtzman, Harry E; Lang, Rosalyn; Beecham, Gary; Martin, Eden R; Gilbert, John; Benatar, Michael; Small, Gary W; Mash, Deborah; Byrd, Goldie; Haines, Jonathan L; Pericak-Vance, Margaret A; Züchner, Stephan

    2013-05-01

    Recently, a hexanucleotide repeat expansion in the C9ORF72 gene has been identified to account for a significant portion of Caucasian families affected by frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Given the clinical overlap of FTD with Alzheimer's disease (AD), we hypothesized that C9ORF72 expansions might contribute to AD. In Caucasians, we found C9ORF72 expansions in the pathogenic range of FTD/ALS (>30 repeats) at a proportion of 0.76% in AD cases versus 0 in control subjects (p = 3.3E-03; 1182 cases, 1039 controls). In contrast, no large expansions were detected in individuals of African American ethnicity (291 cases, 620 controls). However, in the range of normal variation of C9ORF72 expansions (0-23 repeat copies), we detected significant differences in distribution and mean repeat counts between Caucasians and African Americans. Clinical and pathological re-evaluation of identified C9ORF72 expansion carriers revealed 9 clinical and/or autopsy confirmed AD and 2 FTD final diagnoses. Thus, our results support the notion that large C9ORF72 expansions lead to a phenotypic spectrum of neurodegenerative disease including AD.

  12. Clinicopathological pattern of pulmonary thromboembolism in Chinese autopsy patients: comparison with Caucasian series.

    PubMed

    Chau, K Y; Yuen, S T; Wong, M P

    1997-08-01

    The clinicopathological data of adult Chinese patients identified to have 'significant pulmonary thromboembolism (PTE)' at autopsy in Queen Mary Hospital (QMH) Hong Kong, from 1990 to 1994 inclusive, were analysed retrospectively. The prevalence of PTE was documented and data were compared with published series of Caucasian patients. The parameters studied included sex-age distribution, associated diseases, symptomatology, site of venous thrombosis, duration of admission and intervals between surgery and death. The rate of PTE was 4.7% (4.5% in males and 5.2% in females). The mean age of PTE patients was significantly higher than that of non-PTE patients (p < 0.001). Two clinicopathological features worthy of note are: (1) as in Caucasian patients, most Chinese patients with 'significant PTE' do not present with leg symptoms although many of them are found to have deep vein thrombosis (DVT) at postmortem; and (2) DVT in these patients is found in the calf veins rather than in the more proximal deep veins. The recently identified racial differences in hemostasis that may contribute to the differences between Chinese and Caucasian people are discussed.

  13. CLU rs2279590 polymorphism contributes to Alzheimer's disease susceptibility in Caucasian and Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuyan; Zhang, Donghui; Jiang, Yongshuai; Wu, Lina; Shang, Hong; Liu, Jiafeng; Feng, Rennan; Liao, Mingzhi; Zhang, Liangcai; Liu, Yong; Liu, Guiyou; Li, Keshen

    2015-03-01

    It is reported that CLU rs2279590 polymorphism is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in European ancestry. Recent studies investigated rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian population (Chinese, Japanese and Korean). Four studies showed negative association and two studies showed weak association between rs2279590 and AD. We believe that the weak association or no association may be caused by the relatively small sample size in Asian population. Here, we reinvestigated the association in Asian population. Meanwhile, to investigate the genetic heterogeneity of the rs2279590 polymorphism in Asian and Caucasian populations, we searched the PubMed and AlzGene databases and selected 11 independent studies (6 studies in Asian population and 5 studies in Caucasian population) including 20,655 individuals (8,605 cases and 12,050 controls) for meta-analysis. Our results showed significant association between rs2279590 polymorphism and AD in Asian population with P = 2.00E-04 and P = 2.00E-04 using additive and recessive models, respectively. We observed no significant heterogeneity between Asian and Caucasian populations. We believe that our results may be helpful to understand the mechanisms of CLU in AD pathogenesis and will be useful for future genetic studies in AD.

  14. Woman-Centered Maternity Nursing Education and Practice

    PubMed Central

    Giarratano, Gloria

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this Heideggerian phenomenological study was to uncover the meanings of the clinical experiences of registered nurses working in maternity settings after they studied maternity nursing from a woman-centered, feminist perspective in a generic baccalaureate nursing program. Purposeful sampling was conducted to locate and recruit nurses who had graduated from this nursing program between the December 1996 and December 1998 semesters and were currently working in a maternal-newborn clinical setting. Each participant had taken the required woman-centered, maternity-nursing course during her/his undergraduate education. Data collection included an individual, open-ended interview that focused on the nurses' descriptions of their everyday practices as maternity nurses. Nineteen maternal-newborn nurses between the ages of 23 and 43 years who had been in practice from six months to three years were interviewed. The constitutive patterns identified from the interviews were: “Otherness,” “Being and Becoming Woman-Centered,” and “Tensions in Practicing Woman-Centered Care.” Findings revealed that the nurses had a raised awareness of oppressive maternity care practices and applied ideology of woman-centeredness as a framework for providing more humanistic care. Creating woman-centered maternity care meant negotiating tensions and barriers in medically focused maternity settings and looking for opportunities for advocacy and woman-empowerment. The barriers the nurses faced in implementing woman-centered care exposed limitations to childbearing choices and nursing practices that remain problematic in maternity care. PMID:17273327

  15. Pharmacokinetics of the antiepileptic drug levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers following intravenous administration.

    PubMed

    Toublanc, Nathalie; Okagaki, Takuya; Boyce, Malcolm; Chan, Robert; Mugitani, Ayumi; Watanabe, Shikiko; Yamamoto, Katsumi; Yoshida, Katsumi; Andreas, Jens-Otto

    2015-12-01

    The intravenous (iv) formulation of levetiracetam has been available in clinical practice worldwide for several years, but not in Japan. Two open-label studies were conducted: Study A evaluated the bioequivalence of iv and oral tablet formulations in healthy Japanese volunteers; and Study B subsequently compared the pharmacokinetics of iv levetiracetam in healthy Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Study A had a randomised, two-way crossover design; a single 1,500 mg levetiracetam dose was administered as a 15-min iv infusion and as 3 × 500 mg oral tablets to Japanese volunteers. In Study B, 1,500 mg levetiracetam was administered as single and repeated 15-min iv infusions to Japanese and Caucasian volunteers. Overall, 26/27 volunteers completed Study A and 32/32 (16 Japanese; 16 Caucasian) completed Study B. In Study A, the point estimate and 90 % confidence interval (CI) for the geometric least squares mean (LSM) ratio (iv vs oral) were fully included within the acceptance range for bioequivalence (0.85-1.25) for the area under plasma concentration-time curve from 0 to last quantifiable observation (AUClast 0.97 [0.95, 0.99]), but not for the maximum plasma concentration (C max 1.64 [1.47, 1.83]). In Study B, after a single iv infusion, the point estimates (90 % CI) for the geometric LSM ratio (Japanese vs Caucasian) for body weight-normalised C max and AUClast were 1.21 (1.07, 1.36) and 0.97 (0.90, 1.04), respectively. Corresponding values after repeated iv infusions were C max,ss 1.01 (0.91, 1.12) and AUCτ,ss 0.89 (0.83, 0.96). Levetiracetam was well tolerated in both studies. Study A did not demonstrate the bioequivalence of single doses of levetiracetam 1,500 mg administered as an iv infusion and as oral tablets in healthy Japanese adults. Study B, however, showed that pharmacokinetic profiles were generally similar between Japanese and Caucasian adults after single and repeated iv infusions of levetiracetam 1,500 mg.

  16. Molecular identification of rare FY*Null and FY*X alleles in Caucasian thalassemic family from Sardinia.

    PubMed

    Manfroi, Silvia; Scarcello, Antonio; Pagliaro, Pasqualepaolo

    2015-10-01

    Molecular genetic studies on Duffy blood group antigens have identified mutations underlying rare FY*Null and FY*X alleles. FY*Null has a high frequency in Blacks, especially from sub-Saharan Africa, while its frequency is not defined in Caucasians. FY*X allele, associated with Fy(a-b+w) phenotype, has a frequency of 2-3.5% in Caucasian people while it is absent in Blacks. During the project of extensive blood group genotyping in patients affected by hemoglobinopathies, we identified FY*X/FY*Null and FY*A/FY*Null genotypes in a Caucasian thalassemic family from Sardinia. We speculate on the frequency of FY*X and FY*Null alleles in Caucasian and Black people; further, we focused on the association of FY*X allele with weak Fyb antigen expression on red blood cells and its identification performing high sensitivity serological typing methods or genotyping.

  17. Devic's disease before Devic: Bilateral optic neuritis and simultaneous myelitis in a young woman (1874).

    PubMed

    Jarius, S; Wildemann, B

    2015-11-15

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO, Devic's disease) is an often severely disabling disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) which mainly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. NMO was long considered a clinical subform of multiple sclerosis (MS). In 2004, however, Lennon and colleagues described a novel autoantibody in NMO which targets aquaporin-4, the most abundant water channel in the CNS, and which was later shown to be directly pathogenic. This has led to the recognition of NMO as a distinct disease entity in its own right. While the history of 'classical' MS has been extensively studied, only little is known about the early history of NMO. The term neuromyelitis optica was coined in 1894 by Eugène Devic (1858-1930) and Fernand Gault (1873-1936), who were the first to provide a systematic description of that disorder. Here we re-present a very early description of a case of NMO by a Polish physician, Adolf Wurst, which appeared in 1876 in Przegląd Lekarski, one of the oldest Polish medical journals. This report predates Devic and Gault's seminal work on NMO by more than two decades. The patient, a 30-year-old woman, subacutely developed simultaneous bilateral optic neuritis with papilloedema and bilateral blindness and transverse myelitis with severe paraparesis, anaesthesia, and bladder and bowel dysfunction. At last follow-up, one year after onset, she had recovered except for a residual spastic gait and some visual deficit on the right side. Of note, this is the first known case of NMO in a Caucasian patient ever reported outside Western Europe. PMID:26303625

  18. Long-Term Exposure to American and European Movies and Television Series Facilitates Caucasian Face Perception in Young Chinese Watchers.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yamin; Zhou, Lu

    2016-10-01

    Most young Chinese people now learn about Caucasian individuals via media, especially American and European movies and television series (AEMT). The current study aimed to explore whether long-term exposure to AEMT facilitates Caucasian face perception in young Chinese watchers. Before the experiment, we created Chinese, Caucasian, and generic average faces (generic average face was created from both Chinese and Caucasian faces) and tested participants' ability to identify them. In the experiment, we asked AEMT watchers and Chinese movie and television series (CMT) watchers to complete a facial norm detection task. This task was developed recently to detect norms used in facial perception. The results indicated that AEMT watchers coded Caucasian faces relative to a Caucasian face norm better than they did to a generic face norm, whereas no such difference was found among CMT watchers. All watchers coded Chinese faces by referencing a Chinese norm better than they did relative to a generic norm. The results suggested that long-term exposure to AEMT has the same effect as daily other-race face contact in shaping facial perception.

  19. Comparing the Experiential and Psychosocial Dimensions of Chronic Pain in African Americans and Caucasians: Findings from a National Community Sample

    PubMed Central

    Ruehlman, Linda S.; Karoly, Paul; Newton, Craig

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To ascertain whether non-Hispanic African American and Caucasian chronic pain sufferers differ or converge in their self-reports of pain experience and pain adjustment. Research Design A telephone survey of U.S. English-speaking adults selected via random-digit dialing procedures and constrained to locate persons with chronic pain within selected gender by age groupings. Subjects A national sample of 2,407 participants contained a total of 214 non-Hispanic African Americans. A sample of 214 non-Hispanic Caucasians was randomly selected from the larger set of 1,935 Caucasian participants to serve as a comparison group for the present study. Measures Participants provided responses to interviewer questions that assessed pain experience (severity, interference, and emotional burden) and psychosocial outcomes (coping, attitudes and beliefs, catastrophizing, social support and hindrance, pain’s interference with daily life activities, treatment status, and medication taking). Results Although African American and Caucasian adults with chronic pain did not differ significantly in pain severity, interference, emotional burden, or current treatment status, multivariate analyses revealed differences in several domains of psychosocial functioning. Compared to Caucasians, African Americans reported greater pain-related interference with daily living, deficiencies in coping, and counterproductive attitudes and beliefs. African Americans also reported greater impatience and insensitivity from the most important person in their lives. Conclusions Psychosocial dimensions of chronic pain differed between community-residing African American and Caucasian adults surveyed as part of a national sample. PMID:15669950

  20. What women want: understanding obesity and preferences for primary care weight reduction interventions among African-American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol E.; Singh, Anisha; Xu, Meng; Thacker, Holly; Mascha, Edward

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To explore attitudes and perceptions of obesity, and identify preferences for weight-management interventions by African-American and Caucasian women who were followed in general internal medicine clinics. PROCEDURE: Surveys exploring these issues were mailed to African-American (n=240) and Caucasian (n=240) women with a BMI of > or =30. MAIN FINDINGS: Caucasian women felt past weight-loss efforts were helped by weight-loss programs significantly more than African-American women (P<0.001); African-American women were more likely to feel that their cultural background contributed to their weight gain than did Caucasian women (P=0.001). African-American women expressed a higher need for one-on-one counseling with their physician (P<0.001) as well as group meetings with the dietician, physician and other women (P=0.004) than did Caucasian women. African-American women also felt it was more important for weight-loss programs to have information on food common to their culture than did Caucasian women (P<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Differences in cultural background and preferences about weight loss interventions have important policy implications for how the U.S. healthcare system provides care to an ever-increasing multicultural population with a national epidemic such as obesity. PMID:16895288

  1. Differences in diazepam pharmacokinetics in Chinese and white Caucasians--relation to body lipid stores.

    PubMed

    Kumana, C R; Lauder, I J; Chan, M; Ko, W; Lin, H J

    1987-01-01

    We have compared diazepam pharmacokinetics in 16 Chinese and 18 white Caucasian healthy male volunteers, resident in Hong Kong and have correlated them with physical attributes. Serum concentrations of diazepam and desmethyldiazepam were measured in venous blood by an enzyme-linked immunoassay (0-3 h samples) and HPLC (3-72 h samples). Pharmacokinetic parameters were derived assuming a two compartment model, distribution phase less than 6 h, and 100% oral systemic availability. Compared with the Chinese the white Caucasians were older, heavier, taller, and fatter, as judged by skin fold thickness (SFT) and total body weight to 'Ideal' body weight (TBW/IBW) ratio; respective mean differences being 16%, 27%, 4%, 26%, and 15% (p less than 0.05). Mean diazepam apparent volume of distribution (V) and V/IBW were larger in the white Caucasians (52% & 39% respectively, p = 0.002). SFT and TBW/IBW ratio yielded the best correlations with V, V/TBW and V/IBW (0.50-0.75, p less than 0.05). Obesity indices contributed most to the overall regressions (R2 up to 0.52), and for V there was a further small effect (2%, partial F test) due to ethnic group, possibly reflecting stature. Mean peak diazepam concentration (Cmax) was similar in both ethnic groups. Time to Cmax (tmax) was more often prolonged in the Chinese (chi 2 test, p = 0.01). Body fat and stature may thus account for these inter-ethnic differences in the apparent volume of distribution of diazepam, a highly lipid-soluble drug.

  2. Health Information Seeking Among Rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics: It Is Built, Did They Come?

    PubMed

    Powe, Barbara D

    2015-09-01

    This cross-sectional study examines health information-seeking behaviors and access to and use of technology among rural African Americans, Caucasians, and Hispanics. There was a low level of health information seeking across the sample. Few used smartphones or tablets and did not endorse receiving health information from their health care provider by e-mail. Printed materials remained a source of health information as did friends and family. Information should be shared using multiple platforms including more passive methods such as television and radio. More research is needed to ensure the health literacy, numeracy, and ability to navigate the online environment. PMID:26333608

  3. Comparison of whole saliva flow rates and mucin concentrations in healthy Caucasian young and aged adults.

    PubMed

    Navazesh, M; Mulligan, R A; Kipnis, V; Denny, P A; Denny, P C

    1992-06-01

    Unstimulated and chewing-stimulated whole saliva samples were obtained from 42 healthy Caucasians; 21 were between 18 and 35 years of age, and 21 between 65 and 83 years of age. The unstimulated salivary flow rate was significantly lower in the aged group, but the stimulated flow rate was significantly higher in the aged than in the young group. Both groups showed significantly increased flow during salivary stimulation. MG1 and MG2 concentrations in unstimulated and stimulated saliva samples were significantly lower in the aged group. There were no significant correlations between salivary flow rates and MG1 and MG2 concentrations.

  4. Birth Environments: A Woman's Choice in the 21st Century.

    PubMed

    Adams, Ellise D

    2016-01-01

    A woman has many important decisions to make once discovering a pregnancy. One of those decisions with significant implications is where the birth will take place. The primary consideration for the majority of pregnant women when making a decision about birth environment is safety. However, other factors such as attitudes of family and friends, religious reasons, and confidence in the body's ability to give birth play a factor in the choice of birth environment. It is recommended that birth attendants use the process of shared decision making to assist pregnant women in making choices related to the birth environment. This process empowers the pregnant woman and provides a woman-centered and evidence-based approach to choices related to obstetrical care.

  5. Ancient and modern women in the "Woman's World".

    PubMed

    Hurst, Isobel

    2009-01-01

    Under the editorship of Oscar Wilde, the "Woman's World" exemplified the popular dissemination of Hellenism through periodical culture. Addressing topics such as marriage, politics, and education in relation to the lives of women in the ancient world, the magazine offered an unfamiliar version of the reception of ancient Greece and Rome in late-Victorian aestheticism, one that was accessible to a wide readership because it was often based on images rather than texts. The classical scholar Jane Ellen Harrison addressed herself to this audience of women readers, discussing the similarities between modern collegiate life and the "woman's world" that enabled Sappho to flourish in ancient Greece. The "Woman's World" thus questions gender stereotypes by juxtaposing ancient and modern women, implicitly endorsing varied models of womanhood.

  6. 'Chaos, restitution and quest': one woman's journey through menopause.

    PubMed

    Nosek, Marcianna; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Gudmundsdottir, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Menopause, a natural stage in a woman's reproductive life, is not an illness; yet some women experience severe enough symptoms to cause a breakdown in the body similar to illness or other major health disruptions. As part of a larger narrative analysis investigation of distress during menopause, this case study presents one woman's transformational journey through menopause, analysed through Frank's health and illness narratives - chaos, restitution and quest. The narratives were retranscribed using Labov's elements of a true story and Gee's poetic restructuring. This report of one woman's experience of distress during the menopause transition describes a poetic chaos narrative of incessant night sweats resulting in a loss of physicality and a deep-rooted belief in self-healing; a restitution narrative of restored health that mandated the surrender to a new healing discourse, experienced simultaneously as a victory and a defeat; and a quest narrative of seeking meaning, insight and new-found values and identities. PMID:22471763

  7. Sofia Ionescu, the first woman neurosurgeon in the world.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, Alexandru-Vlad; Moisa, Horatiu Alexandru; Mohan, Dumitru

    2013-11-01

    The authors present the activity of Mrs. Sofia Ionescu, the one female surgeon who was nominated as the first woman neurosurgeon in the world. Sofia Ionescu worked in the field of neurosurgery for 47 years, performing all the known neurosurgical procedures of the time. She made herself known through her incredible surgical skill and her enormous work power. Due to her incredible modesty and workload, she never participated at international congresses or manifestations. The nomination as first woman neurosurgery took place in Marrakech, Morocco, during the 2005 WFNS Congress. Although some claim that Diana Beck was the first woman neurosurgeon in the world, our theory suggests otherwise. The first documented surgical intervention performed by Diana Beck dates to 1952. Sofia Ionescu operated for the first time on a human brain as early as 1944. Furthermore, Diana Beck's actions surfaced in the year 1947, long after the war had ended and Sofia Ionescu had become a neurosurgeon.

  8. Sofia Ionescu, the first woman neurosurgeon in the world.

    PubMed

    Ciurea, Alexandru-Vlad; Moisa, Horatiu Alexandru; Mohan, Dumitru

    2013-11-01

    The authors present the activity of Mrs. Sofia Ionescu, the one female surgeon who was nominated as the first woman neurosurgeon in the world. Sofia Ionescu worked in the field of neurosurgery for 47 years, performing all the known neurosurgical procedures of the time. She made herself known through her incredible surgical skill and her enormous work power. Due to her incredible modesty and workload, she never participated at international congresses or manifestations. The nomination as first woman neurosurgery took place in Marrakech, Morocco, during the 2005 WFNS Congress. Although some claim that Diana Beck was the first woman neurosurgeon in the world, our theory suggests otherwise. The first documented surgical intervention performed by Diana Beck dates to 1952. Sofia Ionescu operated for the first time on a human brain as early as 1944. Furthermore, Diana Beck's actions surfaced in the year 1947, long after the war had ended and Sofia Ionescu had become a neurosurgeon. PMID:23528794

  9. The "Education" of the Indian Woman against the Backdrop of the Education of the European Woman in the Nineteenth-Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peacock, Sunita

    2009-01-01

    The essay discusses the role and education of the women of India, with special reference to the women of Bengal during the nineteenth-century and a comparison is made between the education of the Indian woman and the education of the European woman during this era. The education of the Indian woman is also referenced against the backdrop of the…

  10. Simplified pregnant woman models for the fetus exposure assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jala, Marjorie; Conil, Emmanuelle; Varsier, Nadège; Wiart, Joe; Hadjem, Abdelhamid; Moulines, Éric; Lévy-Leduc, Céline

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, we introduce a study that we carried out in order to validate the use of a simplified pregnant woman model for the assessment of the fetus exposure to radio frequency waves. This simplified model, based on the use of a homogeneous tissue to replace most of the inner organs of the virtual mother, would allow us to deal with many issues that are raised because of the lack of pregnant woman models for numerical dosimetry. Using specific absorption rate comparisons, we show that this model could be used to estimate the fetus exposure to plane waves.

  11. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory. PMID:24574201

  12. Cephalometric comparisons between Chinese and Caucasian patients with obstructive sleep apnea.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Lowe, A A; Zeng, X; Fu, M; Fleetham, J A

    2000-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare two groups of adult men from different ethnic backgrounds and with obstructive sleep apnea; they were selected by matching age, gender, skeletal pattern, body mass index, and respiratory disturbance index. Pretreatment cephalometric radiographs and overnight polysomnograms of 30 Chinese and 43 Caucasian patients with Class II, Division 1 malocclusions were analyzed to investigate if there were craniofacial and upper airway structural differences between the two ethnic groups. The Chinese group, when compared with the group of Caucasian patients, revealed more severe underlying craniofacial skeletal discrepancies with significantly smaller maxilla and mandibles, more severe mandibular retrognathism, proclined lower incisors, increased total and upper facial heights, and steeper and shorter anterior cranial bases. However, no significant differences were found between the two groups in posterior facial height, ratio of upper to lower anterior facial height, and the position of hyoid bone, maxilla, and upper incisors. With regard to soft tissue and upper airway measurements, there were no significant ethnic differences in tongue and soft palate size, vertical length of oropharynx, and anteroposterior dimensions of the upper airway at most of the levels except for a larger super-posterior airway space, a larger nasopharynx and oropharynx cross-sectional area, and a smaller tongue height in the Chinese group. We conclude that there are a number of craniofacial and upper airway structures that differ between the two ethnic groups that may be relevant to the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea in various ethnic groups.

  13. Facultative skin pigmentation in caucasians: an objective biological indicator of lifetime exposure to ultraviolet radiation?

    PubMed

    Lock-Andersen, J; Knudstorp, N D; Wulf, H C

    1998-05-01

    To investigate age and gender trends in facultative and constitutive skin pigmentation we measured skin pigmentation non-invasively and objectively by skin reflectance spectroscopy in 653 caucasians (336 females and 317 males; mean age 38 years, range 0-85) who were not using artificial tanning devices. In all subjects, measurements were performed in the late winter and pre-spring period at five sites exposed to ultraviolet (UV) radiation: the forehead, the upper chest, the upper back and the lateral and medial aspects of the upper arm, and in UV-unexposed buttock skin. Constitutive pigmentation at the buttocks was highest in the first years of life and then decreased substantially during the first two decades of life (P < 0.01). After the age of 25 years, buttock pigmentation remained at a constant level (P = 0.20). There was no gender difference in constitutive pigmentation. Facultative skin pigmentation increased with age for all the measured sites with the highest levels found at the lateral aspect of the upper arm. Based on observations in this study we propose the idea of a 'sun exposure index' (SEI) for individuals, based on objective measurements of skin pigmentation. The SEI is calculated as the increase in facultative pigmentation above the constitutive level and is expressed as a percentage of the constitutive level. The SEI appeared to be related to cumulative lifetime UV exposure and may be used in epidemiological research as an objective estimate of UV exposure at different body sites in caucasians.

  14. Topical adenosine increases the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with androgenetic alopecia.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Tokuro; Ideta, Ritsuro; Ehama, Ritsuko; Yamanishi, Haruyo; Iino, Masato; Nakazawa, Yosuke; Kobayashi, Takashi; Ohyama, Manabu; Kishimoto, Jiro

    2016-05-01

    Adenosine is an effective treatment for androgenetic alopecia (AGA) in Japanese men and women. Adenosine exerts its effects by significantly increasing the proportion of thick hair. In this study, we assessed the clinical outcome of adenosine treatment for 6 months in 38 Caucasian men. The change in proportion of thick hair (≥60 μm) compared with baseline in the adenosine group was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (P < 0.0001). The change in vellus hair proportion (<40 μm) was significantly lower in the adenosine group than that in the placebo group (P = 0.0154). The change in hair density compared with baseline of the adenosine group was also significantly higher compared with that of the placebo group (P = 0.0470). No adverse effects due to treatment were noted during this study by dermatological evaluation. Adenosine is effective in increasing the proportion of thick hair in Caucasian men with AGA as well as in Japanese men and women.

  15. Anterior Segment Dimensions in Asian and Caucasian Eyes Measured by Optical Coherence Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Bing; Tang, Maolong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Xinbo; Chu, Renyuan; Huang, David

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE To compare Asian and Caucasian anterior segment dimensions measured by optical coherence tomography (OCT). PATIENTS AND METHODS Anterior segment OCT images were obtained in normal subjects. Four line scans were acquired at the 90°, 45°, 0°, and 135° meridians of each eye. Computer calipers acquired anterior segment dimensions of corneal diameter, anterior chamber width, corneal vault, and anterior chamber depth on OCT images. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to assess correlations. RESULTS Corneal diameter was 0.5 mm narrower (P < .01), anterior chamber width was 0.46 mm narrower (P < .01), and corneal vault was 0.22 mm lower (P < .01) in Asian eyes. All anterior segment dimensions decreased with age. CONCLUSION Asian eyes had smaller anterior segments compared to Caucasian eyes. Regardless of race, anterior segment dimensions were smaller in older subjects. Age-related changes may affect the tolerability of long-term implants such as phakic intraocular lenses. PMID:22320411

  16. Is alcohol-related flushing a protective factor for alcoholism in Caucasians?

    PubMed

    Slutske, W S; Heath, A C; Madden, P A; Bucholz, K K; Dinwiddie, S H; Dunne, M P; Statham, D S; Whitfield, J B; Martin, N G

    1995-06-01

    Although alcohol-related flushing seems to be a genetically influenced protective factor for alcoholism in some Asian groups, little is known about whether this is true for Caucasians. The evidence for alcohol-related flushing as a protective factor for the development of alcoholism was examined in a sample of 5831 Australian twins (2041 men, 3790 women) who were administered a structured psychiatric interview. Twin correlations for self-reported adverse alcohol reactions (e.g., "flushing or blushing" and "feeling very sleepy" after drinking 1 or 2 drinks) were modest, suggesting minimal contribution of genetic factors, but when corrected for reliability of measurement, were consistent with moderate heritabilities. In accord with studies examining Asian samples, we found that individuals who experienced adverse reactions after drinking small amounts of alcohol drank less often and slightly less per drinking occasion than those who did not experience adverse reactions. However, those who experienced adverse reactions were more likely to have symptoms of alcoholism and to report a parental history of alcohol problems. We conclude that self-reported alcohol-related flushing is not a protective factor for alcoholism in Caucasians and may be a risk factor. PMID:7573778

  17. Effects of the ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity.

    PubMed

    Burgos, M A; Sanmiguel-Rojas, E; Martín-Alcántara, A; Hidalgo-Martínez, M

    2014-03-01

    We analyse the effects of the air ambient temperature on the airflow across a Caucasian nasal cavity under different ambient temperatures using CFD simulations. A three-dimensional nasal model was constructed from high-resolution computed tomography images for a nasal cavity from a Caucasian male adult. An exhaustive parametric study was performed to analyse the laminar-compressible flow driven by two different pressure drops between the nostrils and the nasopharynx, which induced calm breathing flow rates ࣈ 5.7 L/min and ࣈ 11.3 L/min. The inlet air temperature covered the range - 10(o) C ⩽ To ⩽50(o) C. We observed that, keeping constant the wall temperature of the nasal cavity at 37(o) C, the ambient temperature affects mainly the airflow velocity into the valve region. Surprisingly, we found an excellent linear relationship between the ambient temperature and the air average temperature reached at different cross sections, independently of the pressure drop applied. Finally, we have also observed that the spatial evolution of the mean temperature data along the nasal cavity can be collapsed for all ambient temperatures analysed with the introduction of suitable dimensionless variables, and this evolution can be modelled with the help of hyperbolic functions, which are based on the heat exchanger theory.

  18. Small cell neuroendocrine tumor of the breast in a 40 year-old woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Small cell neuroendocrine cancer of the breast is a rare tumor with less than 30 cases reported in the literature. The morphological and immunohistochemical patterns of this tumor are similar to small cell neuroendocrine cancer of the lung. For this reason, it is often difficult to distinguish a primary small cell neuroendocrine cancer of the breast from a metastatic lesion from other sites. Case presentation We report and characterize with immunohistochemical techniques a case of primary small cell neuroendocrine cancer of the breast occurring in a 40-year-old Caucasian woman. A palpable and mobile 3.0 cm tumor was located in the upper-outer quadrant of her right breast. Lumpectomy and subsequent radical mastectomy with axillary lymph node resection were performed. Microscopically, the tumor consisted predominantly of a diffuse proliferation of small oat cells. The tumor cells were positive for neuroendocrine markers chromogranin A and synaptophysin. One of 16 lymph nodes was metastatic. A correct treatment needs to be chosen. Conclusions It has recently been demonstrated that early small cell neuroendocrine cancer of the breast shows a good prognosis with adjuvant treatments with high disease free survival. Our patient is alive and well without disease eight years after treatment. We performed an adjuvant therapy with the classic scheme doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide, followed by carboplatin and etoposide. A more extensive review is required to define a standard treatment protocol for this rare neoplasm. PMID:20591162

  19. Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare pulmonary infection complicated by cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis in a woman with anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Walsh, T L; Baca, V; Stalling, S S; Natalie, A A; Veldkamp, P J

    2014-06-01

    A 53-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of anorexia nervosa developed a bilateral lower extremity rash comprised of palpable red to violaceous, sub-centimeter papular lesions that increased in quantity rapidly. She also noted a 2-month history of non-productive cough. Imaging modalities revealed a thin-walled cavitary lesion in the right lung apex and scattered nodular opacities. Acid fast bacilli (AFB) were found in sputum and subsequently identified by culture as Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI). Punch biopsies of her skin lesions yielded a histological diagnosis of small-to-medium vessel vasculitis. Stains and cultures for organisms were negative. Her skin lesions resolved quickly after the initiation of antimicrobial therapy for MAI. Hypersensitivity vasculitis associated with an atypical mycobacterial infection is unusual. The postulated underlying mechanism is the deposit of immune complexes and not the bacillus itself. While cutaneous leukocytoclastic vasculitis (CLV) due to MAI is certainly a rare entity, it should be entertained in patients with vasculitic skin lesions and a concomitant pulmonary disease. PMID:24363210

  20. Upward flow of magmatic fluids from the Old Woman granodiorite, Old Woman Mountains southeastern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Jean; Hoisch, Thomas D.

    1994-05-01

    Isotopic compositions, mineral equilibrium, and field relations at the contact between the midcrustal Cretaceous Old Woman granodiorite and Paleozoic carbonates indicate that water-rich, silica-saturated magmatic fluids were transported upward, away from the pluton, across an impermeable 30- to 40-m thick marble which caps the granodiorite, to higher structural levels along a complex network of hydrologically induced fractures. Within the fractures, fluids reacted to form symmetrical radiating splays of wollastonite with minor amounts of diopside, vesuvianite, and quartz. In many cases, pegmatites are found in the center of these calc-silicate skarns. Cross-cutting pegmatites and wollastonite veins in the aureole indicate that during late stages of crystallization of the granodiorite there were multiple episodes of fluid expulsion. Above the marble layer at higher structural levels, magmatic fluids flowed both laterally and vertically, interacting with lithologies in a more pervasive manner. Values of delta O-18 for calcite in the vein skarns average 11.8% and pegmatite whole rock silicate delta O-18 values average 9.4%. Thus oxygen isotopic compositions are consistent with a magmatic origin for the skarn-forming fluids. Away from the vein skarns, values of delta O-18 for the capping marble range from 18.7 to 22.1% (avg. = 21%) and values of delta C-13 range from -3.8 to -3.0% (avg. = -3.4%). The high delta O-18 values provide evidence that the marble largely retained its premetamorphic isotopic composition, indicating that fluids from the granodiorite did not flow pervasively across the unit. Lithologies at higher structural levels show evidence of more pervasive interaction with magmatic fluids: forsterite-bearing calc-silicates have delta O-18 values down to 11.8% and coarse-grained vesuvianite- and wollastonite-bearing skarns have delta O-18 values of approximately 13%.

  1. Silent Partners: Actor and Audience in Geese Theatre's "Journey Woman"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bottoms, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    This essay considers the performance context and aesthetics of "Journey Woman", a play devised to initiate a week-long rehabilitative groupwork programme for female prisoners. Although Geese Theatre UK are one of the country's longest-established companies specialising in drama work within the criminal justice sector, this 2006 piece is their…

  2. Pioneer Black Woman Superintendent: Velma Dolphin Ashley, 1944-1956.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revere, Amie B.

    1989-01-01

    This article profiles Velma Dolphin Ashley, a Black woman educator who served as superintendent of schools in Boley (Oklahoma) from 1944 to 1956. During her superintendency, Ashley was responsible for instructional activities in a correctional institution for delinquent Black youth, as well as for administering the all-Black school district. (AF)

  3. Regrinding the Lens of Gender: Problematizing "Writing as a Woman."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graves, Heather Brodie

    1993-01-01

    Argues that codifying the characteristics of "writing like a woman" (or like a man) can result in a limited--and limiting--conception of gender and its effect on writing. Uses the writing of Kenneth Burke as an example of "l'ecriture feminine" and the prose of Julia Kristeva as an example of writing like a man. (SR)

  4. Medical Pluralism in the Life of a Mexican Immigrant Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belliard, Juan Carlos; Ramirez-Johnson, Johnny

    2005-01-01

    This case study reflects on the variety of approaches to health care in a pluralistic immigrant urban enclave in Southern California. In-depth interviews were conducted with a Mexican immigrant woman to explore and understand her health worldview and the strategies she uses in deciding among the diverse health care options available to protect and…

  5. Exploring Woman University Physics Students "Doing Gender" and "Doing Physics"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielsson, Anna T.

    2012-01-01

    This article explores what it can mean to be a woman physics student. A case study approach is used to explore how five women who are studying physics at a Swedish university simultaneously negotiate their doing of physics and their doing of gender. By conceptualising both gender and learning as aspects of identity formation, the analysis of the…

  6. Recurrent septic shock in a 34-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Shah, Shenil; Mertz, Thomas; Craig, Timothy

    2012-01-01

    A 34-year-old woman presented to the Emergency Room (ER) with an acute presentation of septic shock that required fluid and pressor support in the Intensive Care Unit. History revealed this was her third episode of such a presentation with asymptomatic periods in between. She responded well to medical interventions but reported persistent joint pain. Immunologic workup revealed her diagnosis.

  7. [A woman with a painful ankle after a sprain].

    PubMed

    Sieverink, W J M; Duijff, J W

    2016-01-01

    A 70-year-old woman presented with symptoms resembling an Achilles tendon rupture. Careful examination revealed a large avulsion fracture of the calcaneal tuberosity. Successful screw osteosynthesis of this tongue-type fracture was performed. Such careful examination is paramount to prevent one from missing this fracture. PMID:27650025

  8. [A woman with a sclerotic plaque and a bulla].

    PubMed

    Holthuis, M F; Teune, T M; van Meurs, T

    2016-01-01

    A 63-year-old woman had a sclerotic plaque with a bulla under her left breast. Histopathological examination of a biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of bullous morphea. Bullae are rarely seen in morphea. The patient was successfully treated with mometasone ointment 0.1%. To our knowledge, the pathogenesis of bullous morphea is still under debate. PMID:27650022

  9. A Mexicana Woman's Education in 1980s Chicago

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, Angelica

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the educational experiences of a Mexican woman in Chicago's Little Village community in the 1980s. The author was born in Mexico and raised in Little Village which has been home to Mexican immigrant communities for decades. Little Village is also home to the largest Mexican-American population in the…

  10. Household Hints for the Working Woman: With or Without Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Associates, Framingham, MA.

    The purpose of the report is the presentation of ideas and information to help the working woman save time, effort, and money. Chapter one offers suggestions for child care arrangements such as babysitters, transportation needs, and the possibilities for home employment. Chapter two includes shopping and specific management tips for both clothing…

  11. The New Woman in "The Sun Also Rises"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Xiaoping

    2010-01-01

    Hemingway is a famous American writer and a spokesman of the Lost Generation. His life attitude of the characters in the novels influenced the whole world. His first masterpiece "The Sun Also Rises" contributes a lot to the rise of feminism and make the world began to be familiar with a term: The New Woman through the portrayal of Brett.…

  12. A Collaborative Approach to Aiding a Woman Returning to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chickering, Joanne Nelson; Obstfeld, Lisa

    1982-01-01

    Addresses the issue of serving the needs of nontraditional learners using a case study of a reentry woman. Used a collaborative approach to help the student improve her assertive skills and develop some test taking strategies. Also used role playing, flooding, and mnemonic strategies. (JAC)

  13. Isobel's Images--One Woman's Experience of Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Isobel; Bull, Stephanie; Beavis, Mary

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the aims and purpose of long term art therapy. This is done by focusing on the experience of a woman with learning disabilities whom we have called Isobel White (pseudonym). In this paper we set out a theoretical context and then consider key aspects of the therapy process. We have included excerpts from reflective discussions…

  14. Granulomatous mastitis, erythema nodosum, and oligoarthritis in a pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Olfatbakhsh, Asiie; Beheshtian, Toktam; Djavid, Gholamreza Esmaeeli

    2008-01-01

    Granulomatous mastitis (GM) is an uncommon chronic inflammation of the breast and erythema nodosum (EN), is a rare extramammary manifestation of this entity. We describe a case of GM with EN and arthritis in a young pregnant woman. Review of literature showed rare similar cases.

  15. [A woman with a pigmentation of the hard palate].

    PubMed

    van der Meij, Erik H; Nieken, Judith; de Visscher, Jan G A M

    2013-01-01

    A bluish flat pigmented lesion of the hard palate of a 51-year-old woman was excised to exclude malignancy, in particular oral malignant melanoma. On histopathological examination, depositions of black pigment were seen accompanied by several foreign body giant cells. Probably due to a childhood trauma, a pencil point had penetrated the hard palate. PMID:24330792

  16. The Homemaker's Job Hunting Guide; A Woman's Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clayton, Kathi; Fincke, Andrea

    Written to aid a woman entering the job market for the first time or re-entering after a period of nonemployment, this guide supplies basic information about preparing for a job or a career. First, the preliminary step of self-assessment and assessing abilities and training is described, and a personal inventory form is suggested. Next, the…

  17. Flora White (1860-1948): New Woman, Stark Choice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morice, Linda C.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the life of education reformer Flora White, who both represented and deviated from the stereotypical new woman portrayed in popular literature of the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. White's decision to reject marriage and children in favor of a career resulted in greater financial insecurity and an unmet desire…

  18. "Woman Speaks": Representations of Working Women in Postwar America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalas, Andrea; Berenstein, Rhona J.

    1996-01-01

    Looks at the ways in which the relationship between women and work was characterized during the late 1940s in "Woman Speaks," a combination newsreel/television show in Chicago. Expands upon the work of other historians and critics who have examined the representations of gender in early television marketing ploys and variety/situation comedy…

  19. Songs of a Medicine Woman. Native Language and Culture Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pratt, Alice; Bennett, Ruth, Ed.

    Traditional and contemporary Hupa songs as sung by a Hupa medicine woman in her 70's are collected in this booklet. Songs are presented in Hupa and English on facing pages that are illustrated with pen and ink drawings. The four songs are "Flower Dance Song" and "Kick Dance Song" (both for traditional religious ceremonial dances) and "The Bear…

  20. Woman Suffrage and the 19th Amendment. Teaching with Documents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC.

    Beginning in the mid-19th century, several generations of woman suffrage supporters lectured, wrote, marched, lobbied, and practiced civil disobedience to achieve what many people considered a radical change in the U.S. Constitution. Militant suffragists used tactics such as parades, silent vigils, and hunger strikes. In 1870 the 15th amendment to…

  1. Focus Your Future: A Woman's Guide to Retirement Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    This guidebook addresses retirement planning for midlife women. Section 1 presents the woman an opportunity to assess herself today in terms of the roles she plays in various aspects of her life and in her relationships with others. It asks her to consider some of her plans, dreams, and things she would like to do in an ideal retirement situation.…

  2. A woman with unilateral visual loss and bilateral disk edema.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Molly E; Vaphiades, Michael

    2008-01-01

    A 38-year-old woman presented with bilateral optic neuropathy, leg weakness, and urinary symptoms. Despite her spinal MR being normal, her serum was positive for NMO-IgG. This indicated that she likely had Devic disease. PMID:18191660

  3. Pandemic (H1N1) 2009 Encephalitis in Woman, Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Aristine; Kuo, Kuei-Hong

    2011-01-01

    We report an unusual case of pandemic (H1N1) 2009–related encephalitis in an immunocompetent woman. Although rare cases of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 associated with encephalitis have been reported previously, in this patient, direct viral invasion of the central nervous system was shown by simultaneous detection of viral RNA and pleocytosis. PMID:22000373

  4. [A woman with an abnormality of the palate].

    PubMed

    Rohof, D; van den Hoogen, F J A

    2013-01-01

    A 75-year-old woman was seen at the ENT department because of a bleeding tumor on the hard palate. The abnormality mimicked both clinically and histopathologically a malignant salivary gland tumor, but after excision it was diagnosed as necrotizing sialometaplasia. Clinicians should be aware of this rare and easily misdiagnosed benign disease, in order to avoid unnecessary treatment.

  5. 'With woman' philosophy: examining the evidence, answering the questions.

    PubMed

    Carolan, Mary; Hodnett, Ellen

    2007-06-01

    'With woman', 'woman centred' and 'in partnership with women' are new terms associated with midwifery care in Australia, and the underlying philosophy has emerged both as an antidote to the medicalisation of pregnancy and in a bid to reacquaint women with their natural capacity to give birth successfully and without intervention. A reorientation of midwifery services in the 1990s, a shift towards midwifery-led care (MLC) and the subsequent introduction of direct entry midwifery programs all contributed to this new direction. Central concepts are a focus on the childbearing woman and a valuing of women's experiences. While this philosophical re-alignment has been applauded by many midwives in terms of maternal empowerment and improved autonomy for midwives, there are nonetheless some concerns that, with its emphasis on normality, midwifery-led care is in danger of becoming an exclusionary model. Particular concerns include meeting the needs of a growing cohort of women, those with 'high risk' pregnancies, and the educational adequacy of direct entry midwifery programs. To date, there has been no thorough evaluation of this emerging midwifery philosophy in Australia. In order to open the debate, this paper aims to initiate a discussion of 'with woman' midwifery care as it applies to Australian practice.

  6. Two hospitals join forces to sponsor "A Woman's Comfort Day".

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Two Baton Rouge, La., hospitals--usually strong competitors--decided to join forces and collaborate on a special event for the women of the community. "A Woman's Comfort Day," now in its third year, was the successful result. If they're feeling good about themselves, can the Super Bowl be far behind?

  7. Prospective study of risk factors for hepatitis C virus acquisition by Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian American patients.

    PubMed

    Ho, E Y; Ha, N B; Ahmed, A; Ayoub, W; Daugherty, T; Garcia, G; Cooper, A; Keeffe, E B; Nguyen, M H

    2012-02-01

    Commonly known risk factors for infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) include blood transfusion, injection drug use, intranasal cocaine use, and body tattoos. We hypothesized that Asian Americans infected with HCV may not identify with these established risk factors present in Caucasians and Hispanics, and our aim was to conduct a survey of risk factors in HCV-infected patients in these ethnic groups. In this prospective study, 494 patients infected with HCV completed a detailed risk assessment questionnaire at a liver centre in Northern California from 2001 to 2008. Among subjects participating in this study, 55% identified themselves as Caucasian, 20% as Hispanic, and 25% as Asian. Asian Americans were older, less likely to smoke or consume alcohol, and have a family history of cancer compared with Caucasians and Hispanics. The laboratory profiles were similar, and genotype 1 was the most common infection in all groups (74-75%). The great majority of Caucasians (94%) and Hispanics (86%) identified with commonly known risk factors, which was in contrast to 67% of Asians (P < 0.0001). The most common risk factors in Asians were blood transfusions (50%) and acupuncture (50%). Furthermore, 74% of Caucasians and 66% of Hispanics identified more than one major risk factor, while only 20% of Asians reported having more than one risk factor (P < 0.0001). Survey for established risk factors for acquisition of HCV may be more appropriate for risk assessment of Caucasians and Hispanics, but not for Asian Americans. These findings may guide the development of HCV screening in our increasingly diverse population. PMID:22239506

  8. Western Cultural Identification Explains Variations in the Objectification Model for Eating Pathology Across Australian Caucasians and Asian Women

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Charmain S.; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Utpala, Ranjani; Yeung, Victoria Wai Lan; De Paoli, Tara; Loughan, Stephen; Krug, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess differences in trait objectifying measures and eating pathology between Australian Caucasians and Asian women living in Australia and in Hong Kong with high and low levels of western cultural identification (WCI) and to see if exposure to objectifying images had an effect on state-objectification. A further aim was to assess using path analyses whether an extended version of the objectification model, including thin-ideal internalization, differed depending on the level of WCI. Method: A total of 424 participants comprising 162 Australian Caucasians and 262 Asians (n = 183 currently residing in Australia and n = 79 living in Hong Kong) took part in the study. Of the overall Asian sample, 133 individuals were classified as high-WCI and 129 participants as low-WCI. Participants were randomly allocated into one of two conditions, presenting either objectifying images of attractive and thin Asian and Caucasian female models (objectification group, n = 204), or showing neutral images of objects (e.g., chairs, tables; control group, n = 220). Subsequently, participants were asked to complete a series of questionnaires assessing objectification processes and eating pathology. Results: Findings revealed that the Caucasian group presented with significantly higher internalization and body surveillance scores than either of the two Asian groups and also revealed higher scores on trait-self-objectification than the low-WCI Asian sample. As regards to the effects of objectifying images on state self-objectification, we found that ratings were higher after exposure to women than to control objects for all groups. Finally, multi-group analyses revealed that our revised objectification model functioned equally across the Caucasian and the high-WCI Asian group, but differed between the Caucasian and the low-WCI Asian group. Conclusion: Our findings outline that individuals with varying levels of WCI might respond differently to self-objectification processes

  9. Asian women have attenuated sympathetic activation but enhanced renal-adrenal responses during pregnancy compared to Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Best, Stuart A; Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Parker, Rosemary S; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-03-01

    Asians have a lower prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than Caucasians. Since sympathetic overactivity and dysregulation of the renal-adrenal system (e.g. low aldosterone levels) have been found in preeclamptic women, we hypothesized that Asians have lower muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and greater aldosterone concentrations during normal pregnancy than Caucasians. In a prospective study, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and MSNA were measured during supine and upright tilt (30 deg and 60 deg for 5 min each) in 9 Asians (32 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM)) and 12 Caucasians (29 ± 1 years) during pre-, early (≤8 weeks of gestation) and late (32-36 weeks) pregnancy, and post-partum (6-10 weeks after delivery). Supine MSNA increased with pregnancy in both groups (P < 0.001); it was significantly lower in Asians than Caucasians (14 ± 3 vs. 23 ± 3 bursts min(-1) and 16 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 3 bursts min(-1) in early and late pregnancy, respectively; P = 0.023). BP decreased during early pregnancy (P < 0.001), but was restored during late pregnancy. HR increased during pregnancy (P < 0.001) with no racial difference (P = 0.758). MSNA increased during tilting and it was markedly lower in Asians than Caucasians in late pregnancy (31 ± 6 vs. 49 ± 3 bursts min(-1) at 60 deg tilt; P = 0.003). Upright BP was lower in Asians, even in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.006), and this racial difference persisted during pregnancy. Direct renin and aldosterone increased during pregnancy (both P < 0.001); these hormones were greater in Asians (P = 0.086 and P = 0.014). Thus, Asians have less sympathetic activation but more upregulated renal-adrenal responses than Caucasians during pregnancy. These results may explain, at least in part, why Asian women are at low risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. PMID:25545472

  10. Exercise intensity and oxygen uptake kinetics in African-American and Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Nicola; Tolentino-Silva, Fatima; Nasca, Melita M.; Silva, Marco A.; Gladden, L. Bruce; Cabrera, Marco E.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of exercise intensity on the on- and off-transient kinetics of oxygen uptake (VO2) was investigated in African American (AA) and Caucasian (C) women. African American (n=7) and Caucasian (n=6) women of similar age, body mass index and weight, performed an incremental test and bouts of square-wave exercise at moderate, heavy and very heavy intensities on a cycle ergometer. Gas exchange threshold (LTGE) was lower in AA (13.6±2.3mL·kg−1min−1) than C (18.6±5.6mL·kg−1min−1). The dynamic exercise and recovery VO2 responses were characterized by mathematical models. There were no significant differences in 1) peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) between AA (28.5±5mL kg−1min−1) and C (31.1±6.6mL kg−1min−1) and 2) VO2 kinetics at any exercise intensity. At moderate exercise, the on- and off- VO2 kinetics was described by a mono-exponential function with similar time constants τ1,on (39.4±12.5s;38.8±15s) and τ1,off (52.7±10.1s;40.7±4.4s) for AA and C, respectively. At heavy and very heavy exercise, the VO2 kinetics was described by a double-exponential function. The parameter values for heavy and very heavy exercise in the AA group were respectively: τ1,on (47.0±10.8;44.3±10s), τ2,on (289±63;219±90s), τ1,off (45.9±6.2;50.7±10s), τ2,off (259±120;243±93s) while in the C group were respectively: τ1,on (41±12;43.2±15s); τ2,on(277±81;215±36s), τ1,off (40.2±3.4;42.3±7.2s), τ2,off (215±133;228±64s). The on- and off-transients were symmetrical with respect to model order and dependent on exercise intensity regardless of race. Despite similar VO2 kinetics, LTGE and gain of the VO2 on-kinetics at moderate intensity were lower in AA than C. However, generalization to the African American and Caucasian populations is constrained by the small subject numbers. PMID:21717119

  11. Parasitic infections of two invasive fish species, the Caucasian dwarf goby and the Amur sleeper, in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Antal, László; Székely, Csaba; Molnár, Kálmán

    2015-12-01

    In recent years and decades, two new fish species, the Caucasian dwarf goby (Knipowitschia caucasica) and the Amur sleeper (Perccottus glenii) have become members of the Hungarian fish fauna. In a 14-month study on the parasite fauna of these species, the authors detected 11 parasite species in the Caucasian dwarf goby and 17 species in the Amur sleeper. All parasites found in dwarf goby belong to species commonly occurring also in native Hungarian fishes, but three species (Goussia obstinata, Gyrodactylus perccotti and Nippotaenia mogurndae) collected from the Amur sleeper are introduced species new for the Hungarian fauna.

  12. Evaluation of independence assumptions for PCR-based and protein-based genetic markers in New Jersey Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Budowle, B; Jankowski, L B; Corey, H W; Swec, N T; Freck-Tootell, S; Pino, J A; Schwartz, R; Kelley, C A; Tarver, M L

    1997-03-01

    Allele frequencies for six PCR-based loci and three protein-based (i.e., enzyme systems) loci were determined in a Caucasian sample population from New Jersey. The loci are LDLR, GYPA, HBGG, D7S8, Gc, HLA-DQA1, PGM1, ESD, and EAP. All loci meet Hardy-Weinberg expectations. In addition, there is little evidence for association of alleles among the nine loci. The allelic frequency data generally are similar to another Caucasian population database. PMID:9068180

  13. Of Caucasians, Asians, and Giraffes: The Influence of Categorization and Target Valence on Social Projection.

    PubMed

    Machunsky, Maya; Walther, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Past research has indicated that social projection is moderated by categorization, with more projection onto ingroups than onto outgroups. However, a few studies have reported elevated levels of projection even onto outgroups. In line with recent evidence, we hypothesized that positive target valence is the key feature of conditions that elicit projection onto outgroups. The present research extends previous findings by testing whether the effect of valence occurs independent of categorization, with increased levels of projection onto positive ingroup and non-ingroup targets alike. We designed two experiments in which target valence was manipulated by means of evaluative conditioning. Category membership was varied by using faces of Caucasians, Asians, and giraffes. The results supported our valence hypothesis. Counter-intuitively, we also found higher levels of projection onto giraffes than onto humans. These findings suggest that current cognition-based models of projection are not sufficient to account for the whole range of projection phenomena.

  14. Main Stages of Geodynamic Evolution of the Caucasian Segment of the Alpine-Mediterranean Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamkrelidze, Irakli; Shengelia, David; Maisadze, Ferando; Tsutsunava, Tamara; Chichinadze, Giorgi

    2013-04-01

    Within the oceanic area of Tethys, with a typical oceanic crust, in geological past relatively small continental or subcontinental plates (terranes) were situated. The Greater Caucasian, Black Sea - Central Transcaucasian, Baiburt - Sevanian and Iran - Afghanian accretionary terranes, which in geological past represented island arcs or microcontinents, are identified in the Caucasian segment of the Alpine-Mediterranean belt. They are separated by ophiolite sutures (relics of small or large oceanic basins) of different age. During the Late Precambrian, Paleozoic and Early Mesozoic these terranes underwent horizontal displacement in different directions and ultimately they joined the Eurasian continent. New LA-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon dating along with available geologic, petrologic and geochemical investigations, allow to trace with confidence the main stages of regional metamorphism, granite formation and, consequently, pre-Alpine continental crust making within the Caucasus. At the pre-Grenville stage (1200 Ma and more) between the Baltica and Gondvana ancient continents, on the oceanic crust of Prototethys accumulation mainly of terrigenous sediments and of basic volcanites took place. At the Grenville stage (1000-800 Ma) subcontinental or primitive continental crust (gneiss-migmatite complex and synmetamorphic grenitoids of sodium series) were formed in suprasubduction conditions by both sides of Proto-Paleotethys and along the northern peripheries of comparatively small oceanic basins of the Arkhiz and Southern Slope of the Greater Caucasus. At the Baikalian stage (650-550 Ma) plagiogneissic complex has been cut by Precambrian gabbroids and intruded by large bodies of quartz-diorites. The next, Late Baikalian stage (540-500 Ma) is determined by the intrusion of Cambrian basites and Late Baikalian granitoids and by manifestation of intensive suprasubduction regional metamorphism. Late Baikalian tectogenesis is accompanied by contraction of the small oceanic basin of

  15. Intravascular large B-cell lymphoma with hemophagocytic syndrome (Asian variant) in a Caucasian patient.

    PubMed

    Fung, Kar-Ming; Chakrabarty, Jennifer H; Kern, William F; Magharyous, Hany; Gehrs, Bradley C; Li, Shibo

    2012-01-01

    Intravascular lymphoma is an aggressive and extremely rare extranodal lymphoma with neoplastic lymphoid cells confined exclusively within intravascular spaces. The histopathologic findings are subtle due to the rarity of the neoplastic cells in blood vessels. Clinical presentations are non-specific and focal space-occupying lesions or lymphoadenopathy are always lacking. It is a diagnostic challenge. Secondary hemophagocytic syndrome is uncommon and is typically associated with infection, malignancy, and suppressed immune states. Intravascular lymphoma has a strong association with hemophagocytic syndrome in Asian patients, the so-called "Asian variant", but not in Western patients. We report a case of intravascular B-cell lymphoma in a Caucasian patient associated with secondary hemophagocytic syndrome. The patient was diagnosed by core liver biopsy and successfully treated. This case demonstrates the importance of high index of suspicion and astute histopathologic examination in recognition of this unusual clinical and pathologic combination.

  16. Barriers and motivators for strength training among women of color and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    O'Dougherty, Maureen; Dallman, Amber; Turcotte, Lucie; Patterson, Joan; Napolitano, Melissa A; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined factors associated with adherence to a strength training (ST) intervention in a randomized controlled intervention trial testing whether twice-weekly strength training over 2 years could prevent age-associated increases in body fat in 80 overweight to mildly obese women, aged 25-44 years. Two sets of focus groups (FGs) were conducted with 25 women of color and 24 Caucasian participants, representing 60% of intervention participants. Fifty-five percent of FG participants had low adherence (defined as < or = 80% adherence to twice-weekly gym-based strength training). Demographic data indicated that marital status and childcare responsibilities affected adherence. Participants' perceptions of experiences in the ST intervention did not correspond to adherence levels or vary by race/ethnicity. Major impediments to adherence included competing obligations and related scheduling difficulties; life transitions; and declining or insufficient social motivators.

  17. The effects of racial stressors and hostility on cardiovascular reactivity in African American and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Fang, C Y; Myers, H F

    2001-01-01

    This study examined the effects of race-related stressors and hostility on cardiovascular reactivity in 31 African American and 31 Caucasian men. Participants viewed 3 film excerpts that depicted neutral, anger-provoking (but race-neutral), and racist situations. Participants exhibited significantly greater diastolic blood pressure reactivity to anger-provoking and racist stimuli compared with neutral stimuli. In addition, high hostility was associated with higher recovery systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after exposure to the films. Although the results failed to confirm previous reports of greater reactivity to racism in African Americans, the findings suggest that diastolic blood pressure levels may remain elevated after exposure to racist stimuli. These results indicate that even indirect exposure to interpersonal conflict elicits significant reactivity, which can persist after exposure to the stressor, especially among high-hostile men.

  18. Of Caucasians, Asians, and Giraffes: The Influence of Categorization and Target Valence on Social Projection.

    PubMed

    Machunsky, Maya; Walther, Eva

    2015-09-01

    Past research has indicated that social projection is moderated by categorization, with more projection onto ingroups than onto outgroups. However, a few studies have reported elevated levels of projection even onto outgroups. In line with recent evidence, we hypothesized that positive target valence is the key feature of conditions that elicit projection onto outgroups. The present research extends previous findings by testing whether the effect of valence occurs independent of categorization, with increased levels of projection onto positive ingroup and non-ingroup targets alike. We designed two experiments in which target valence was manipulated by means of evaluative conditioning. Category membership was varied by using faces of Caucasians, Asians, and giraffes. The results supported our valence hypothesis. Counter-intuitively, we also found higher levels of projection onto giraffes than onto humans. These findings suggest that current cognition-based models of projection are not sufficient to account for the whole range of projection phenomena. PMID:26160332

  19. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Feng; Xiong Donghai; Wang Wei; Shen Hui; Xiao Peng; Yang Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng Hongwen . E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

    2006-10-06

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

  20. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2006-10-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values=0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value=0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  1. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  2. Type 2 diabetes in South Asians: similarities and differences with white Caucasian and other populations

    PubMed Central

    Gujral, Unjali P; Pradeepa, R; Weber, Mary Beth; Narayan, KM Venkat; Mohan, V

    2013-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. While all ethnic groups are affected, the prevalence of T2DM in South Asians, both in their home countries and abroad, is extremely high and is continuing to rise rapidly. Innate biological susceptibilities coupled with rapid changes in physical activity, diet, and other lifestyle behaviors are contributing factors propelling the increased burden of disease in this population. The large scope of this problem calls for investigations into the cause of increased susceptibility and preventative efforts at both the individual and population level that are aggressive, culturally sensitive, and start early. In this review, we outline the biological and environmental factors that place South Asians at elevated risk for T2DM, compared with Caucasian and other ethnic groups. PMID:23317344

  3. Physical activity attitudes, preferences, and practices in African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian girls.

    PubMed

    Grieser, Mira; Vu, Maihan B; Bedimo-Rung, Ariane L; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Moody, Jamie; Young, Deborah Rohm; Moe, Stacey G

    2006-02-01

    Physical activity levels in girls decline dramatically during adolescence, most profoundly among minorities. To explore ethnic and racial variation in attitudes toward physical activity, semistructured interviews (n = 80) and physical activity checklists (n = 130) are conducted with African American, Hispanic, and Caucasian middle school girls in six locations across the United States. Girls from all groups have similar perceptions of the benefits of physical activity, with staying in shape as the most important. Girls have similar negative perceptions of physical activity, including getting hurt, sweating, aggressive players, and embarrassment. Chores, running or jogging, exercises, and dance are common activities for girls regardless of ethnicity. Basketball, swimming, running, and dance are commonly cited favorite activities, although there are slight differences between ethnic groups. The results suggest that factors other than ethnicity contribute to girls' physical activity preferences and that distinct interventions may not be needed for each ethnic group.

  4. Food groups and colon cancer risk in African-Americans and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Satia-Abouta, Jessie; Galanko, Joseph A; Martin, Christopher F; Ammerman, Alice; Sandler, Robert S

    2004-05-01

    The disparities in colon cancer incidence between African-Americans and other U.S. ethnic groups are largely unexplained. This report examines associations of various food groups with colon cancer in African-Americans and Caucasians from a case-control study. Incident cases of histologically confirmed colon cancer, age 40-80 years, (n = 613) and matched controls (n = 996) were interviewed in-person to ascertain potential colon cancer risk factors. Diet over the year before diagnosis or interview date was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire adapted to include regional foods. Multivariate logistic regression models estimated energy-adjusted and non-energy adjusted odds ratios (OR). Controls generally reported higher consumption (daily amount and weekly frequency) of fruits, vegetables and dark green, deep yellow fruits/vegetables, whereas cases consumed more refined carbohydrates and fats, oils and snacks. Regardless of ethnic group or energy adjustment, high and frequent vegetable consumption (particularly dark green vegetables) was protective, consistent with 20-50% reductions in risk. In Caucasians, high refined carbohydrate and red meat consumption (amount and frequency) was associated with a statistically significant 2-fold increased risk in non-energy adjusted models. In African-Americans, frequent intake of dairy foods was associated with a doubling in risk (OR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.1-3.4) in non-energy-adjusted models, whereas frequent fruit consumption correlated with a non-significant 30% lower risk. These findings add to growing evidence that plant foods may protect against colon cancer; however, the effects of the other food groups varied by ethnic group and energy adjustment. These results may also explain some of the ethnic differences in colon cancer incidence.

  5. Comparison of Scheimpflug imaging parameters between steep and keratoconic corneas of Caucasian eyes

    PubMed Central

    Huseynova, Tukezban; Abdulaliyeva, Farah; Lanza, Michele

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To compare the keratometric and pachymetric parameters of healthy eyes with those affected by steep cornea and keratoconus (KC) using Scheimpflug camera. Setting Briz-L Eye Clinic, Baku, Azerbaijan. Design A cross-sectional study. Methods In this study, 49 KC (Amsler–Krumeich stage 1) eyes and 36 healthy eyes were enrolled. A complete ophthalmic evaluation and a Scheimpflug camera scan were performed in every eye included in the study. Tomographic parameters such as parameters from the front and back cornea, maximum keratometry reading (Kmax), corneal volume (CV), anterior chamber volume (ChV), anterior chamber depth (ACD), anterior chamber angle (AC angle), keratometric power deviation (KPD), maximum front elevation (Max FE), and maximum back elevation (Max BE), as well as pachymetric progression indices (PPI), Ambrosio relational thickness (ART), index of surface variance (ISV), index of vertical asymmetry (IVA), center keratoconus index (CKI), index of height asymmetry (IHA), index of height decentration (IHD), and radius minimum (RM) were collected and statistically compared between the two groups. Results PPI, ART, ISV, IVA, CKI, IHA, IHD, and RM parameter values were significantly different (P<0.05) between the KC and healthy eyes. There were no significant differences in K mean and Q values of the frontal corneal parameters, as well as in Kmax, AC angle, RM, back, and front astigmatism, between stage 1 keratoconic and normal Caucasian eyes with steep cornea. All other parameters such as K mean and Q values of the back corneal parameters, Max FE, Max BE, ACD, ChV, and CV showed significant differences between the groups (P<0.05 for all). Conclusion Scheimpflug imaging is able to detect corneal morphological differences between stage 1 KC eyes and healthy eyes with steep cornea, in Caucasians. PMID:27099469

  6. PADI4 genotype is not associated with rheumatoid arthritis in a large UK Caucasian population

    PubMed Central

    Burr, Marian L; Naseem, Haris; Hinks, Anne; Eyre, Steve; Gibbons, Laura J; Bowes, John; Wilson, Anthony G; Maxwell, James; Morgan, Ann W; Emery, Paul; Steer, Sophia; Hocking, Lynne; Reid, David M; Wordsworth, Paul; Harrison, Pille; Thomson, Wendy; Worthington, Jane; Barton, Anne

    2010-01-01

    Background Polymorphisms of the peptidylarginine deiminase type 4 (PADI4) gene confer susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in East Asian people. However, studies in European populations have produced conflicting results. This study explored the association of the PADI4 genotype with RA in a large UK Caucasian population. Methods The PADI4_94 (rs2240340) single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) was directly genotyped in a cohort of unrelated UK Caucasian patients with RA (n=3732) and population controls (n=3039). Imputed data from the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium (WTCCC) was used to investigate the association of PADI4_94 with RA in an independent group of RA cases (n=1859) and controls (n=10 599). A further 56 SNPs spanning the PADI4 gene were investigated for association with RA using data from the WTCCC study. Results The PADI4_94 genotype was not associated with RA in either the present cohort or the WTCCC cohort. Combined analysis of all the cases of RA (n=5591) and controls (n=13 638) gave an overall OR of 1.01 (95% CI 0.96 to 1.05, p=0.72). No association with anti-CCP antibodies and no interaction with either shared epitope or PTPN22 was detected. No evidence for association with RA was identified for any of the PADI4 SNPs investigated. Meta-analysis of previously published studies and our data confirmed no significant association between the PADI4_94 genotype and RA in people of European descent (OR 1.06, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.13, p=0.12). Conclusion In the largest study performed to date, the PADI4 genotype was not a significant risk factor for RA in people of European ancestry, in contrast to Asian populations. PMID:19470526

  7. 78 FR 8682 - Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Vermeer's Woman in Blue...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Object Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Vermeer's Woman in Blue Reading a... ``Vermeer's Woman in Blue Reading a Letter,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within...

  8. Nanoscience and Reminiscences of a Woman in Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dresselhaus, Mildred

    My entry into carbon science and nanoscience at an early stage in my career occurred in part because I was a woman in physics. In these reminiscences I will relate why working on carbon science started because I was a woman interested in working on a topic that interested me greatly, but was unpopular at the time; carbon science and thermoelectricity are two examples. I will elaborate on how our research system allows safe study of unpopular topics so that both the researcher and research sponsor are satisfied with outcomes. I also learned a lot from my family and acknowledge their contributions as well as those of sponsors who supported high-risk projects.

  9. Reading and Hearing The Womans Booke in Early Modern England

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    Summary This essay takes seriously Thomas Raynalde’s advice in The Womans Booke that women might read this work aloud. The evidence I use to sketch the scene of reading includes Raynalde’s advice to readers in his long prologue, and also the kind of reading practice that his own writing represents. But I also go outside the text, considering what we know about the experience of listening to a book, and emphasizing the link between this practice and rhetorical education. I also examine the evidence left behind by two male readers: William Ward, who marked his copy of the 1565 edition privately, and Edward Poeton of Petworth, who represented instead a semipublic or shared reading: the evaluation of The Womans Booke and other books of generation by a Midwife and her Deputy in a fictional dialogue “The Midwives Deputie” (ca. 1630s). PMID:26521668

  10. [A case study of anaphylaxis in a pregnant woman].

    PubMed

    Ferreres-García, Karla; de León-Luis, Juan; Seoane, Elena; García-Marqués, Enrique; Sanjuan, Cristina; Ortiz-Quintana, Luis

    2014-03-01

    We report a case of anaphylaxis in a 35+5 week of pregnancy patient who came to the Emergency Room with shortness of breath, hypotension and loss on fetal wellbeing. Due to her medical history and given the clinical picture at that time, an anaphylactic shock was suggested as the most probable diagnose. The administration of dexchlorpheniramine and methylprednisolone resulted in an immediate and positive reaction. Simultaneously, an improvement in the fetus cardiotocographic record was objectified. The patient was hospitalized for 48 hours, after which she was discharged. In case of suspicion of anaphylaxis in a pregnant woman, four aspects should be handled: the severity of the anaphylaxis chart, individual complications regarding a pregnant woman, unfavorable effects of the regularly used treatment during that specific gestation, and the need of fetal extraction based of gestational age.

  11. Metastatic Hip Tumor in a Middle-Aged Woman.

    PubMed

    Callan, Brad

    2016-05-01

    A 44-year-old woman was referred to physical therapy by a podiatrist for "iliotibial band syndrome." No imaging had been done, and she denied all constitutional symptoms, but reported having breast cancer 5 years earlier. Following an increase in pain, radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging were performed, and biopsy confirmed a metastatic breast cancer tumor. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(5):400. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.0407. PMID:27133943

  12. A 65-year-old woman diagnosed with PHACE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Burch, Ezra A; Garzon, Maria C; Parikh, Anuraag; Meyers, Philip M

    2013-01-01

    PHACE syndrome is characterized by the association between infantile hemangioma and varied but characteristic systemic manifestations, including cerebrovascular and cardiac abnormalities. The disorder has primarily been diagnosed in children, with little information available regarding long-term outcomes in affected individuals. We report the oldest known individual with PHACE syndrome in the medical literature, a 65-year-old woman who was diagnosed after a transient ischemic attack.

  13. An African woman with pulmonary cavities: TB or not TB?

    PubMed

    Delsing, C E; Ruesen, C; Boeree, M J; van Damme, P A; Kuipers, S; van Crevel, R

    2014-10-01

    Cavitary lung lesions in patients from developing countries are mostly caused by tuberculosis (TB). However, when TB cannot be confirmed, a primary lung abscess caused by anaerobic bacteria from the mouth should be considered, especially in patients with poor dentition. We present a case of a Sudanese woman with a cavitary lung lesion and severe gingivitis. Bulleidia extructa was isolated as a single pathogen from the pulmonary cavity. PMID:25387555

  14. Epithelioid Trophoblastic Tumor in a Postmenopausal Woman: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jung-Woo

    2016-01-01

    Epithelioid trophoblastic tumor (ETT) is a rare gestational trophoblastic neoplasm composed of intermediate trophoblasts. Most cases of ETT are reported in women of reproductive age following a prior gestation within 2 weeks to 30 years. ETT is extremely rare in postmenopausal women. It is commonly misdiagnosed as a poorly differentiated carcinoma or another type of gestational trophoblastic tumor. We report a case of ETT in a 56-year-old woman that developed 23 years after the patient's last pregnancy. PMID:27152314

  15. Cultural aspects in the care of the orthodox Jewish woman.

    PubMed

    Berkowitz, Bayla

    2008-01-01

    This article offers an overview and explanation of some of the main customs and laws in the Jewish religion surrounding the reproductive health care of the Torah-observant woman. By understanding the religious and spiritual needs and preferences of a patient, the midwife is better able to provide optimal, culturally-competent care. Some of the aspects discussed include procreation, menstruation, modesty, contraception, abortion, genetic testing, induction, the Sabbath, Kosher diet, circumcision, and naming of the child.

  16. Refeeding syndrome in a young woman with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stuy, M; Chen, G-F; Masonek, J M; Scharschmidt, B F

    2015-09-01

    A severely chronically protein and calorie restricted young woman with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency developed transient refeeding syndrome (RFS) and hyperammonemia after modest diet liberalization following initiation of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB). The patient required IV supportive care and supplementation with potassium, magnesium and calcium. She is now doing well on GPB and an appropriate maintenance diet. Susceptibility to RFS should be considered in chronically nutritionally restricted patients with metabolic disorders after liberalization of diet.

  17. Refeeding syndrome in a young woman with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency☆

    PubMed Central

    Stuy, M.; Chen, G.-F.; Masonek, J.M.; Scharschmidt, B.F.

    2015-01-01

    A severely chronically protein and calorie restricted young woman with argininosuccinate lyase deficiency developed transient refeeding syndrome (RFS) and hyperammonemia after modest diet liberalization following initiation of glycerol phenylbutyrate (GPB). The patient required IV supportive care and supplementation with potassium, magnesium and calcium. She is now doing well on GPB and an appropriate maintenance diet. Susceptibility to RFS should be considered in chronically nutritionally restricted patients with metabolic disorders after liberalization of diet. PMID:26937403

  18. The pregnant woman and the good Samaritan: can a woman have a duty to undergo a caesarean section?

    PubMed

    Scott, R

    2000-01-01

    Although a pregnant woman can now refuse any medical treatment needed by the fetus, the Court of Appeal has acknowledged that ethical dilemmas remain, adverting to the inappropriateness of legal compulsion of presumed moral duties in this context. This leaves the impression of an uncomfortable split between the ethics and the law. The notion of a pregnant woman refusing medical treatment needed by the fetus is troubling and it helps little simply to assert that she has a legal right to do so. At the same time, the idea that a pregnant woman fails in her moral duty unless she accepts any recommended treatment or surgery--however great the burden--is also not without difficulty. This article seeks to find a way between these two somewhat polarized positions by arguing that, instead of being a question primarily about whether legally to enforce moral obligations, the 'maternal-fetal conflict' begins with previously unrecognized difficulties in determining when a woman's prima facie moral rights invoked in the treatment context should 'give way' to the interests of the fetus. This difficulty is mirrored within the law. Thus, how can we tell when a pregnant woman has the moral or legal duty to submit to a caesarean section? Seen in this way, the conflict is a problem which lies at the interface between moral and legal rights and duties, showing that there are important conceptual links between the ethics and the law. Against this background, this article explores the limits of a pregnant woman's right to bodily integrity by focusing upon the idea of her moral duty to aid the fetus through her body. Here we find difficulties in determining the existence and extent of this somewhat extraordinary duty. Such a duty is contrasted with both negative and positive duties toward others in the course of 'general conduct.' Attention to the social context of pregnancy and the refusal of treatment within this is also instructive. Overall, the purpose is to foster understanding and

  19. A Comparative Analysis of Child Welfare Services through the Eyes of African American, Caucasian, and Latino Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayon, Cecilia; Lee, Cheryl D.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to find if differences exist among 88 African American, Caucasian, and Latino families who received child welfare services. Method: A secondary data analysis of cross-sectional survey data employing standardized measures was used for this study. Family preservation (FP) services were received by 49…

  20. The effect of acute administration of Vitamin D on micro vascular endothelial function in Caucasians and South Asian Indians

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold; Alshammari, Faris; Khowailed, Iman Akef; Rodrigues, Sophia; Potnis, Pooja; Akerkar, Siddhesh; Shah, Jinal; Chung, Guyeon; Save, Rakhi

    2013-01-01

    Background Vitamin D is a modulator of the immune system. There is some limited evidence that it also increases local blood flow in response to stress. Material/Methods In the present study, we examined 20 age matched subjects; 10 whom were from India and 10 Caucasians from the United States. Subjects were administered 4000 IU of Vitamin D3 for 3 weeks at breakfast. The function of the endothelial cells was evaluated in 2 ways; first, the response to 4 minutes of vascular occlusion was measured with a laser Doppler flow meter and second, the blood flow response to local heat at 42°C for 6 minutes. Results The results of the experiments showed that, as reported previously, the endothelial function in people from India was less than their Caucasian counterparts. The blood flow response to heat was reduced after 3 weeks administration of vitamin D in both groups and the response to vascular occlusion in the Caucasian group. But there was only a 20% reduction in the blood flow response to heat in the Caucasian group and a 50% reduction in the group from India. Conclusions Thus acute doses of vitamin D may increase vascular tone and reduce blood flow to tissue during stressors. Dosages administered for a longer duration may have beneficial effects on endothelial function but this was not examined here. PMID:23917403

  1. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients.

  2. Latino and Caucasian Students' Academic and Non-Academic Characteristics as Predictors of Educational Outcomes, High School and Beyond

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Jafeth Evelyn

    2010-01-01

    The pathway to a postsecondary education is challenging for many students, including students from the growing Latino population in the United States. This research project focused on Latino and Caucasian students' academic and non-academic characteristics as predictors of educational outcomes, high school and beyond. The introduction to the…

  3. A Meta-Analytic Review of Racial-Ethnic Matching for African American and Caucasian American Clients and Clinicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shin, Sung-Man; Chow, Clifton; Camacho-Gonsalves, Teresita; Levy, Rachel J.; Allen, I. Elaine; Leff, H. Stephen

    2005-01-01

    A meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of client-clinician matching on the basis of race-ethnicity on overall functioning, service retention, and total number of sessions attended for African American and Caucasian American adult populations in mental health services. The analysis included 10 published and unpublished studies…

  4. Walking Patterns in a Sample of African American, Native American, and Caucasian Women: The Cross-Cultural Activity Participation Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitt, Melicia C.; DuBose, Katrina D.; Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2004-01-01

    This analysis describes walking patterns among African American, Native American, and Caucasian women from South Carolina and New Mexico. Walking was assessed using pedometer and physical activity (PA) record data based on 4 consecutive days on either three (Study Phase 1) or two (Study Phase 2) occasions. Participants walked 5,429 [plus or minus]…

  5. Absence of bias in clinician ratings of everyday functioning among African American, Hispanic and Caucasian patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Sabbag, Samir; Prestia, Davide; Robertson, Belinda; Ruiz, Pedro; Durand, Dante; Strassnig, Martin; Harvey, Philip D

    2015-09-30

    A substantial research literature implicates potential racial/ethnic bias in the diagnosis of schizophrenia and in clinical ratings of psychosis. There is no similar information regarding bias effects on ratings of everyday functioning. Our aims were to determine if Caucasian raters vary in their ratings of the everyday functioning of schizophrenia patients of different ethnicities, to find out which factors determine accurate self-report of everyday functioning in different ethnic groups, and to know if depression has similar effects on the way people of different ethnicities self-report their current functionality. We analyzed data on 295 patients with schizophrenia who provided their self-report of their everyday functioning and also had a Caucasian clinician rating their functionality. Three racial/ethnic groups (African American (AA), Hispanic and Caucasian) were studied and analyzed on the basis of neurocognition, functional capacity, depression and real-world functional outcomes. No differences based on racial/ethnic status in clinician assessments of patients' functionality were found. Differences between racial groups were found in personal and maternal levels of education. Severity of depression was significantly correlated with accuracy of self-assessment of functioning in Caucasians, but not in AAs. Higher scores on neurocognition and functional capacity scales correlated with reduced overestimation of functioning in AAs, but not in Hispanics. This data might indicate that measurement of everyday functionality is less subject to rater bias than measurement of symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:26160197

  6. Use of oral anticoagulants in African-American and Caucasian patients with atrial fibrillation: is there a treatment disparity?

    PubMed

    Akinboboye, Olakunle

    2015-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a very common cardiac arrhythmia, and its prevalence is increasing along with aging in the developed world. This review discusses racial differences in the epidemiology and treatment of AF between African-American and Caucasian patients. Additionally, the effect of race on warfarin and novel oral anticoagulant use is discussed, as well as the role that physicians and patients play in achieving optimal treatment outcomes. Despite having a lower prevalence of AF compared with Caucasians, African-Americans suffer disproportionately from stroke and its sequelae. The possible reasons for this paradox include poorer access to health care, lower health literacy, and a higher prevalence of other stroke-risk factors among African-Americans. Consequently, it is important for providers to evaluate the effects of race, health literacy, access to health care, and cultural barriers on the use of anticoagulation in the management of AF. Warfarin-dose requirements vary across racial groups, with African-American patients requiring a higher dose than Caucasians to maintain a therapeutic international normalized ratio; the novel oral anticoagulants (dabigatran, rivaroxaban, and apixaban) seem to differ in this regard, although data are currently limited. Minority racial groups are not proportionally represented in either real-world studies or clinical trials, but as more information becomes available and other social issues are addressed, the treatment disparities between African-American and Caucasian patients should decrease. PMID:26056467

  7. Study of the International Epidemiology of Androgenetic Alopecia in Young Caucasian Men Using Photographs From the Internet

    PubMed Central

    Avital, Yaniv Shalom; Morvay, Marta; Gaaland, Magdolna; Kemény, Lajos

    2015-01-01

    Background: The epidemiological evaluation of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is based mainly on direct observation and questionnaires. The international epidemiology and environmental risk factors of AGA in young Caucasian men remain unknown. Aim: To use photographs and data from the Internet to evaluate severe AGA and generate greater understanding of the international epidemiology of the disorder in young Caucasian men. Materials and Methods: A population-based cross-sectional study design was used. The sample included 26,340 Caucasian men aged 30 to 40 years who had uploaded profiles to two dating websites. Their photographs were evaluated for AGA and graded as follows: severe AGA (Norwood type VI-VII), non-severe AGA, and unknown. Epidemiological data were collected from the sites. Logistic regression was used to analyze the effect of risk factors on the prevalence of severe AGA. Results The overall success rate for identifying severe AGA by indirect evaluation of Internet photographs was 94%. The prevalence of severe AGA was 15.33% overall and varied significantly by geographical region. The risk of having severe AGA was increased by 1.092 for every year of age between 30 and 40 years. Severe AGA was more prevalent in subjects with higher body mass index. Conclusions: Photographs from the Internet can be used to evaluate severe AGA in epidemiological studies. The prevalence of severe AGA in young Caucasian men increases with age and varies by geographical region. Body mass index is an environmental risk factor for severe AGA. PMID:26288425

  8. Understanding Nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian College Students: An Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nehl, Eric J.; Blanchard, Chris M.; Peng, Chao-Ying J.; Rhodes, Ryan E.; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B.; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking…

  9. Gender Advertisements in Magazines Aimed at African Americans: A Comparison to Their Occurrence in Magazines Aimed at Caucasians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLaughlin, Tara L.; Goulet, Nicole

    1999-01-01

    Analyzed more than 200 magazines to compare advertisements in magazines aimed at African Americans with advertisements in magazines aimed at Caucasians. Discusses results in terms of the demand characteristics implicit in gender advertisements and in terms of cultural differences in gender role expectations. (Author/SLD)

  10. Cultural Diversity and Saccade Similarities: Culture Does Not Explain Saccade Latency Differences between Chinese and Caucasian Participants

    PubMed Central

    Knox, Paul C.; Wolohan, Felicity D. A.

    2014-01-01

    A central claim of cultural neuroscience is that the culture to which an individual belongs plays a key role in shaping basic cognitive processes and behaviours, including eye movement behaviour. We previously reported a robust difference in saccade behaviour between Chinese and Caucasian participants; Chinese participants are much more likely to execute low latency express saccades, in circumstances in which these are normally discouraged. To assess the extent to which this is the product of culture we compared a group of 70 Chinese overseas students (whose primary cultural exposure was that of mainland China), a group of 45 participants whose parents were Chinese but who themselves were brought up in the UK (whose primary cultural exposure was western European) and a group of 70 Caucasian participants. Results from the Schwartz Value Survey confirmed that the UK-Chinese group were culturally similar to the Caucasian group. However, their patterns of saccade latency were identical to the mainland Chinese group, and different to the Caucasian group. We conclude that at least for the relatively simple reflexive saccade behaviour we have investigated, culture cannot explain the observed differences in behaviour. PMID:24709988

  11. Cranial Capacity: New Caucasian Data and Comments on Rushton's Claimed Mongoloid-Caucasoid Brain-Size Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, T. Edward; Jensen, Arthur R.

    1993-01-01

    Data are presented on body weight and cranial capacity for 211 young adult male Caucasians (postsecondary students). The data do not support Rushton's claim for a greater weight-adjusted cranial capacity of Mongoloid males. Speed and efficiency of cortical information processing may be more important for intelligence than brain size. (SLD)

  12. Biopsychosocial Correlates of Binge Eating Disorder in Caucasian and African American Women with Obesity in Primary Care Settings.

    PubMed

    Udo, Tomoko; White, Marney A; Lydecker, Janet L; Barnes, Rachel D; Genao, Inginia; Garcia, Rina; Masheb, Robin M; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-05-01

    This study examined racial differences in eating-disorder psychopathology, eating/weight-related histories, and biopsychosocial correlates in women (n = 53 Caucasian and n = 56 African American) with comorbid binge eating disorder (BED) and obesity seeking treatment in primary care settings. Caucasians reported significantly earlier onset of binge eating, dieting, and overweight, and greater number of times dieting than African American. The rate of metabolic syndrome did not differ by race. Caucasians had significantly elevated triglycerides whereas African Americans showed poorer glycaemic control (higher glycated haemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]), and significantly higher diastolic blood pressure. There were no significant racial differences in features of eating disorders, depressive symptoms, or mental and physical health functioning. The clinical presentation of eating-disorder psychopathology and associated psychosocial functioning differed little by race among obese women with BED seeking treatment in primary care settings. Clinicians should assess for and institute appropriate interventions for comorbid BED and obesity in both African American and Caucasian patients. PMID:26640009

  13. Profile Analysis of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition, with African American and Caucasian Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Brittany A.; McIntosh, David E.; Rothlisberg, Barbara A.; Ward, Kimberly E.; Bradley, Madeline Hunt

    2011-01-01

    This study used profile analysis to investigate the interpretability of the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, Second Edition (KABC-II), in terms of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory among ethnically diverse preschool children. Forty-nine African American and 49 Caucasian preschool children from a Midwestern city were included in the…

  14. Mental Illness Stigma as a Mediator of Differences in Caucasian and South Asian College Students' Attitudes toward Psychological Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loya, Fred; Reddy, Radhika; Hinshaw, Stephen P.

    2010-01-01

    Previous research has established that Asian Americans use mental health services less frequently and hold poorer attitudes toward psychological counseling than Caucasians. The authors directly tested whether stigmatizing beliefs regarding mental illness might explain such differential attitudes toward counseling in a South Asian and Caucasian…

  15. Longitudinal Study of Perceived Negative Impact in African American and Caucasian Mothers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Themba; Lord, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the stability of mothers' perceptions of the negative impact of having a child with ASD in a sample of African American and Caucasian families as their children transitioned to early adolescence. Participants were mothers and children participating in an ongoing longitudinal study of children referred…

  16. A will to youth: the woman's anti-aging elixir.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Michelle Hannah

    2012-10-01

    The logic and cultural myths that buttress the cosmeceutical industry construct the older woman as a victim of old age, part of an "at-risk" population who must monitor, treat and prevent any markers of old age. A content and discourse analysis of 124 advertisements from the US More magazine between 1998 and 2008, revealed three major themes working together to produce this civic duty: (1) the inclusion of scientific and medical authorities in order to define the cosmeceutical as a 'drug' curing a disease, (2) descriptions of the similarities (and differences) between the abilities of cosmeceuticals and cosmetic surgery to restore one's youth, and (3) the logic equating youth with beauty, femininity and power and older age with the absence of these qualities. Together these intersecting logics produce the "will to youth"-the imperative of the aging woman to promote her youthful appearance by any and all available means. Further, by using images and references to fantasies and traditional fairytales, cosmeceutical advertisements both promise and normalize expectations of eternal youth of the aging woman.

  17. Decidualization of intranodal endometriosis in a postmenopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Soo; Yoon, Gun; Kim, Byoung-Gie; Song, Sang Yong

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe an unusual case of decidualized endometriosis detected in pelvic lymph nodes. The presence of intranodal ectopic decidua in pregnant women has been described. A few cases of decidualization of endometriotic foci in the pelvic or para-aortic lymph nodes have also been associated with pregnancy. However, decidualized intranodal endometriosis occurring in a postmenopausal woman has not been described. A 52-year-old woman presented with a very large adnexal mass. Menopause occurred at the age of 47, and she had been treated with hormone replacement therapy. She received a total abdominal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic and para-aortic lymphadenectomy for clear cell carcinoma of the right ovary. Histological examination revealed the presence of ectopic decidua in several pelvic lymph nodes. The deciduas consisted of sheets of loosely cohesive, large, uniform, round cells with abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm. Typical of decidualization of intranodal endometriosis, a few irregularly shaped, inactive endometrial glands lined by single layers of columnar to cuboidal epithelium were present within the decidua. An immunohistochemical study revealed that the decidual cells were positive for CD10, vimentin, estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor, which indicated that progestin-induced decidualization had occurred in the intranodal endometriotic stroma. To the best of our knowledge, this case represents the first report of decidualized intranodal endometriosis occurring in association with hormone replacement therapy in a postmenopausal woman. Misdiagnosis of this condition as a metastatic tumor can be avoided by an awareness of these benign inclusions, supported by immunohistochemical staining results.

  18. A will to youth: the woman's anti-aging elixir.

    PubMed

    Smirnova, Michelle Hannah

    2012-10-01

    The logic and cultural myths that buttress the cosmeceutical industry construct the older woman as a victim of old age, part of an "at-risk" population who must monitor, treat and prevent any markers of old age. A content and discourse analysis of 124 advertisements from the US More magazine between 1998 and 2008, revealed three major themes working together to produce this civic duty: (1) the inclusion of scientific and medical authorities in order to define the cosmeceutical as a 'drug' curing a disease, (2) descriptions of the similarities (and differences) between the abilities of cosmeceuticals and cosmetic surgery to restore one's youth, and (3) the logic equating youth with beauty, femininity and power and older age with the absence of these qualities. Together these intersecting logics produce the "will to youth"-the imperative of the aging woman to promote her youthful appearance by any and all available means. Further, by using images and references to fantasies and traditional fairytales, cosmeceutical advertisements both promise and normalize expectations of eternal youth of the aging woman. PMID:22742924

  19. [The abortion from bioethics: autonomy of woman and physician?].

    PubMed

    León Correa, Francisco Javier

    2010-01-01

    In this reflection on abortion, we will analyze from the bioethics viewpoint the concept of autonomy, in accordance with the liberal individual model and personal ambitions to be applied to the woman's and the doctor's decision making and the society in general. Now that the abortion liberalization is being proposed in Spain through a law that intends to substitute the decriminalization of certain assumptions that have been in effect since 1985, it is necessary to analyze in deep the ethical aspects beyond the legal and social approaches. Bioethics and Law must join together, since both have the same aim: the promotion of human life respect and its basic rights; safeguard -as long as possible-, the values within an interpersonal relationship that lead to fulfill a woman's life having an unwanted pregnancy, as well as that of the fetus and the doctor; and always trying to protect the rights of those who are the weakest: the woman and the fetus, without disregarding everyone's duties with them. PMID:20405975

  20. Daisy Maude Orleman Robinson: the first American woman dermatologist.

    PubMed

    Pariser, David M

    2015-01-01

    Born in 1868 and the first American woman to become a dermatologist, Daisy Maude Orleman (later Robinson) graduated from the National Medical College of Columbian University, now George Washington University, in 1890. After training in dermatology in Paris and Zurich and after marriage to Andrew Rose Robinson in 1904, she joined the faculty of the New York Polyclinic Medical School and the Northwestern Dispensary in New York, where she was an attending dermatologist starting in 1905. Her achievements included being the first woman dermatologist to present a case at a dermatologic meeting, to publish a scholarly paper in dermatology, to present a case at an international dermatology meeting, and to have a documented clinical practice in dermatology in the United States. A 1916 publication listed her as the best known woman dermatologist in the world. After service in the US Army Medical Corps during World War I, she had a distinguished career in the US Public Health Service, where she devoted her career to the eradication of venereal diseases and the development of sex education programs, particularly for young women.

  1. The Significance of Career Narrative in Examining a High-Achieving Woman's Career

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elley-Brown, Margaret J.

    2011-01-01

    In this qualitative study, the career journey of one New Zealand woman was analysed. Three key findings emerged: the power of narrative as a vehicle for this woman's story, her movement towards greater authenticity and spiritual fulfilment as a mature woman, and the ongoing struggle for concurrent fulfilment from communal and agentic perspectives.…

  2. Iconizing the Modern Woman: New Symbols in the Same Old Myth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deming, Caren J.

    Current television programs create an image of modern woman that is vastly different from the real modern woman as she is reflected in social statistics. Today's average woman can be described as follows: 30 years old, possibly single, employed outside the home, independent and self reliant, sophisticated in tastes and expectations, and concerned…

  3. Woman to Woman: Coming Together for Positive Change--using empowerment and popular education to prevent HIV in women.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lisa; Wallerstein, Nina; Lucero, Julie; Fredine, Heidi Grace; Keefe, Joanna; O'Connell, JoAnne

    2006-10-01

    HIV risk is the product of social, cultural, economic, and interpersonal forces that create sex-role definitions and expectations that can lead to gender inequalities in health. Woman to Woman: Coming Together for Positive Change is an HIV/AIDS prevention intervention that takes into account that choices and actions may be constrained by poverty, gender roles, and cultural norms. This project educates and empowers, promotes women's perspectives, reaches women "where they are," and encourages women to speak of their experience. The following study presents the evaluation of the effectiveness of an empowerment based participatory HIV prevention program over a 3-year period, implemented in both rural and urban settings in New Mexico, targeting over 300 women at-risk of HIV/AIDS. In addition, the practicalities of conducting participatory process and outcome evaluation with a small nonprofit with minimal budget will be discussed. PMID:17067251

  4. Sheep mitochondrial DNA variation in European, Caucasian, and Central Asian areas.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Miika; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Ozerov, Mikhail; Cinkulov, Mirjana; Gonzarenko, Galina; Kiselyova, Tatyana; Murawski, Maciej; Viinalass, Haldja; Kantanen, Juha

    2006-09-01

    Three distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages (haplotype Groups A, B, and C) have been found in the domestic sheep. Group B has been observed primarily in European domestic sheep. The European mouflon carries this haplotype group. This could suggest that European mouflon was independently domesticated in Europe, although archaeological evidence supports sheep domestication in the central part of the Fertile Crescent. To investigate this question, we sequenced a highly variable segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 406 unrelated animals from 48 breeds or local varieties. They originated from a wide area spanning northern Europe and the Balkans to the Altay Mountains in south Siberia. The sample included a representative cross-section of sheep breeds from areas close to the postulated Near Eastern domestication center and breeds from more distant northern areas. Four (A, B, C, and D) highly diverged sheep lineages were observed in Caucasus, 3 (A, B and C) in Central Asia, and 2 (A and B) in the eastern fringe of Europe, which included the area north and west of the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains. Only one example of Group D was detected. The other haplotype groups demonstrated signs of population expansion. Sequence variation within the lineages implied Group A to have expanded first. This group was the most frequent type only in Caucasian and Central Asian breeds. Expansion of Group C appeared most recently. The expansion of Group B involving Caucasian sheep took place at nearly the same time as the expansion of Group A. Group B expansion for the eastern European area started approximately 3,000 years after the earliest inferred expansion. An independent European domestication of sheep is unlikely. The distribution of Group A variation as well as other results are compatible with the Near East being the domestication site. Groups C and D may have been introgressed later into a domestic stock, but larger samples are needed to infer their geographical origin. The

  5. Sheep mitochondrial DNA variation in European, Caucasian, and Central Asian areas.

    PubMed

    Tapio, Miika; Marzanov, Nurbiy; Ozerov, Mikhail; Cinkulov, Mirjana; Gonzarenko, Galina; Kiselyova, Tatyana; Murawski, Maciej; Viinalass, Haldja; Kantanen, Juha

    2006-09-01

    Three distinct mitochondrial maternal lineages (haplotype Groups A, B, and C) have been found in the domestic sheep. Group B has been observed primarily in European domestic sheep. The European mouflon carries this haplotype group. This could suggest that European mouflon was independently domesticated in Europe, although archaeological evidence supports sheep domestication in the central part of the Fertile Crescent. To investigate this question, we sequenced a highly variable segment of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in 406 unrelated animals from 48 breeds or local varieties. They originated from a wide area spanning northern Europe and the Balkans to the Altay Mountains in south Siberia. The sample included a representative cross-section of sheep breeds from areas close to the postulated Near Eastern domestication center and breeds from more distant northern areas. Four (A, B, C, and D) highly diverged sheep lineages were observed in Caucasus, 3 (A, B and C) in Central Asia, and 2 (A and B) in the eastern fringe of Europe, which included the area north and west of the Black Sea and the Ural Mountains. Only one example of Group D was detected. The other haplotype groups demonstrated signs of population expansion. Sequence variation within the lineages implied Group A to have expanded first. This group was the most frequent type only in Caucasian and Central Asian breeds. Expansion of Group C appeared most recently. The expansion of Group B involving Caucasian sheep took place at nearly the same time as the expansion of Group A. Group B expansion for the eastern European area started approximately 3,000 years after the earliest inferred expansion. An independent European domestication of sheep is unlikely. The distribution of Group A variation as well as other results are compatible with the Near East being the domestication site. Groups C and D may have been introgressed later into a domestic stock, but larger samples are needed to infer their geographical origin. The

  6. Role of calpain-10 gene variants in familial type 2 diabetes in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Elbein, Steven C; Chu, Winston; Ren, Qianfang; Hemphill, Chris; Schay, John; Cox, Nancy J; Hanis, Craig L; Hasstedt, Sandra J

    2002-02-01

    The calpain-10 gene (CAPN10) has been implicated in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) susceptibility by both linkage and association in a Hispanic population from Starr County Texas. Common intronic variants seem to alter CAPN10 mRNA levels and were associated with insulin resistance but not diabetes in Pima Indians. The role of these variants in Caucasian populations is less clear. We found some evidence for linkage of T2DM to chromosome 2q approximately 20 cM proximal to the NIDDM1/CAPN10 locus. To test the hypothesis that CAPN10 is a diabetes susceptibility locus in Caucasian families at high risk for T2DM, we examined the influence of the three previously implicated CAPN10 variants on both diabetes risk and measures of insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis. We genotyped approximately 700 members of 63 families for 3 variants (SNP-43, SNP-19, and SNP-63). We tested each variant separately and as haplotype combinations for altered transmission from parents to affected children (transmission disequilibrium test), and we tested for an effect of each variant individually on measures of glucose and insulin during a glucose tolerance test in nondiabetic family members. Finally, we looked for an effect of each variant on measures of insulin sensitivity (S(I)) and insulin secretion estimated by frequently sampled iv glucose tolerance test and Minimal Model analysis. We could not confirm an increase in risk for T2DM susceptibility for any variant or for any haplotype combination, although we found marginal evidence for an increased risk of the 111/221 haplotype combination (P = 0.036) after ascertainment correction. However, both SNP-19 and SNP-63 increased fasting and/or postchallenge insulin levels, consistent with reduced insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, SNP-19 had modest effects on insulin sensitivity measured by homeostatic model, and on postchallenge glucose. The reduction in insulin sensitivity was confirmed by analysis of the subset of individuals who underwent iv

  7. Asian women have attenuated sympathetic activation but enhanced renal–adrenal responses during pregnancy compared to Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Yoshiyuki; Best, Stuart A; Jarvis, Sara S; Shibata, Shigeki; Parker, Rosemary S; Casey, Brian M; Levine, Benjamin D; Fu, Qi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Asians have a lower prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than Caucasians. Since sympathetic overactivity and dysregulation of the renal–adrenal system (e.g. low aldosterone levels) have been found in preeclamptic women, we hypothesized that Asians have lower muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and greater aldosterone concentrations during normal pregnancy than Caucasians. In a prospective study, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and MSNA were measured during supine and upright tilt (30 deg and 60 deg for 5 min each) in 9 Asians (32 ± 1 years (mean ± SEM)) and 12 Caucasians (29 ± 1 years) during pre-, early (≤8 weeks of gestation) and late (32–36 weeks) pregnancy, and post-partum (6–10 weeks after delivery). Supine MSNA increased with pregnancy in both groups (P < 0.001); it was significantly lower in Asians than Caucasians (14 ± 3 vs. 23 ± 3 bursts min−1 and 16 ± 5 vs. 30 ± 3 bursts min−1 in early and late pregnancy, respectively; P = 0.023). BP decreased during early pregnancy (P < 0.001), but was restored during late pregnancy. HR increased during pregnancy (P < 0.001) with no racial difference (P = 0.758). MSNA increased during tilting and it was markedly lower in Asians than Caucasians in late pregnancy (31 ± 6 vs. 49 ± 3 bursts min−1 at 60 deg tilt; P = 0.003). Upright BP was lower in Asians, even in pre-pregnancy (P = 0.006), and this racial difference persisted during pregnancy. Direct renin and aldosterone increased during pregnancy (both P < 0.001); these hormones were greater in Asians (P = 0.086 and P = 0.014). Thus, Asians have less sympathetic activation but more upregulated renal–adrenal responses than Caucasians during pregnancy. These results may explain, at least in part, why Asian women are at low risk of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy. Key points Asian women have a lower prevalence of hypertensive disorders of pregnancy than Caucasian

  8. Breast cancer survival disparity between African American and Caucasian women in Arkansas: A race-by-grade analysis

    PubMed Central

    Monzavi-Karbassi, Behjatolah; Siegel, Eric R.; Medarametla, Srikanth; Makhoul, Issam; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Despite progress in breast cancer treatment, disparity persists in survival time between African American (AA) and Caucasian women in the US. Tumor stage and tumor grade are the major prognostic factors that define tumor aggressiveness and contribute to racial disparity between AA and Caucasian women. Studying the interaction of race with tumor grade or stage may provide further insights into the role of intrinsic biological aggressiveness in disecting the AA-Caucasian survival disparity. Therefore, the current study was performed to evaluate the interaction of race with tumor grade and stage at diagnosis regarding survival in a cohort of patients treated at the Winthrop P. Rockefeller Cancer Institute of the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences (Little Rock, AR, USA). The cohort included 1,077 patients, 208 (19.3%) AA and 869 (80.7%) Caucasian, diagnosed with breast cancer between January 1997 and December 2005. Kaplan-Meier survival plots were generated and Cox regressions were performed to analyze the associations of race with breast cancer-specific survival time. Over a mean follow-up time of 1.5 years, AA women displayed increased mortality risk due to breast cancer-specific causes [hazard ratio (HR), 1.74; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.23–2.46]. The magnitude of racial disparity varied strongly with tumor grade (race-x-grade interaction; P<0.001). No significant interaction was observed between race and tumor stage or race and age at diagnosis. Among women diagnosed with grade I tumors, the race disparity in survival time after controlling for tumor stage and age was strong (HR, 9.07; 95% CI, 2.11–38.95), but no significant AA-Caucasian disparity was observed among women with higher-grade tumors. The data suggest that, when diagnosed with grade I breast cancer, AA may experience poorer survival outcomes compared with Caucasian patients, regardless of tumor stage or age. The findings potentially provide significant clinical and public health

  9. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    SciTech Connect

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-15

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  10. The CLU gene rs11136000 variant is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease in Caucasian and Asian populations.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guiyou; Wang, Haiyang; Liu, Jiafeng; Li, Jingbo; Li, Hali; Ma, Guoda; Jiang, Yongshuai; Chen, Zugen; Zhao, Bin; Li, Keshen

    2014-03-01

    Large-scale genomewide association studies have reported that the CLU rs11136000 polymorphism is significantly associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in people of Caucasian ancestry. Recently, this association was investigated in Asian populations (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean). However, these studies reported either a weak association or no association between the rs11136000 polymorphism and AD. We believe that this discrepancy may be caused by the relatively small sample size of the previous studies and the genetic heterogeneity of the rs11136000 polymorphism in AD among different populations. For this study, we searched the PubMed and AlzGene databases. We selected 18 independent studies (6 studies of Asian populations and 12 of populations of Caucasian ancestry) that evaluated the association between the rs11136000 polymorphism and AD using a case-control experimental design. We evaluated the genetic heterogeneity of the rs11136000 polymorphism in Caucasian and Asian populations. We then investigated the rs11136000 polymorphism by a meta-analysis in Asian populations using allele, dominant, and recessive models. We identified a significant association between rs11136000 and AD with the allele model (P = 2.00 × 10(-4)) and the dominant model (P = 5.00 × 10(-3)). Meanwhile, a similar genetic risk of the rs11136000 polymorphism in AD was observed in Asian and Caucasian populations. Further meta-analysis in pooled Asian and Caucasian populations indicated a more significant association with the allele (P = 8.30 × 10(-24)), dominant (P = 4.46 × 10(-17)), and recessive (P = 3.92 × 10(-12)) models. Collectively, our findings from this meta-analysis indicate that the effect of the CLU rs11136000 polymorphism on AD risk in Asian cohorts (Chinese, Japanese, and Korean) is consistent with the protective effect observed in Caucasian AD cohorts.

  11. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A.; Cook, Marc D.; Ranadive, Sushant M.; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D.; Kappus, Rebecca M.; Woods, Jeffrey A.; Wilund, Kenneth R.; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R.; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL. PMID:27074034

  12. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock Lizard Darevskia dahli [corrected].

    PubMed

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa.

  13. PTSD and postpartum mental health in a sample of Caucasian, Asian, and Pacific Islander women.

    PubMed

    Onoye, Jane M; Goebert, Deborah; Morland, Leslie; Matsu, Courtenay; Wright, Tricia

    2009-12-01

    To better understand the role of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in postpartum health, this study investigates the relationship of PTSD and associated perinatal behavioral risk factors in a sample of Caucasian, Asian, and Pacific Islander women. As part of a larger longitudinal study, 54 women (18-35 years of age) were interviewed at their postpartum clinic visit for PTSD, anxiety, depression, and alcohol and substance use. PTSD and subclinical PTSD during the postpartum period were associated with behavioral health risks, with PTSD at the onset of pregnancy being a predictor of postpartum PTSD by a factor of three. Women with PTSD and subclinical PTSD were more likely to also experience stress (73%), anxiety (64%), and depression (73%) during the postpartum period compared to those without PTSD. No significant differences were found by ethnicity for postpartum PTSD, depression, or anxiety. Regardless of ethnicity or PTSD status, one in four women in the sample had a probable mental health disorder or risk behavior of some type during the postpartum period. Given the rates of associated mental health risks with PTSD, these findings suggest further research examining the fluctuations of PTSD symptomatology throughout each pregnancy trimester to determine its role as a potential mediator during the perinatal period. Further research is also needed to elucidate the role of ethnic or cultural differences in trauma and PTSD and perinatal health.

  14. Clonal diversity and clone formation in the parthenogenetic Caucasian rock lizard Darevskia dahlia.

    PubMed

    Vergun, Andrey A; Martirosyan, Irena A; Semyenova, Seraphima K; Omelchenko, Andrey V; Petrosyan, Varos G; Lazebny, Oleg E; Tokarskaya, Olga N; Korchagin, Vitaly I; Ryskov, Alexey P

    2014-01-01

    The all-female Caucasian rock lizard species Darevskia dahli and other parthenogenetic species of this genus reproduce normally via true parthenogenesis. Previously, the genetic diversity of this species was analyzed using allozymes, mitochondrial DNA, and DNA fingerprint markers. In the present study, variation at three microsatellite loci was studied in 111 specimens of D. dahli from five populations from Armenia, and new information regarding clonal diversity and clone formation in D. dahli was obtained that suggests a multiple hybridization origin. All individuals but one were heterozygous at the loci studied. Based on specific allele combinations, 11 genotypes were identified among the individuals studied. Individuals with the same genotypes formed distinct clonal lineages: one major clone was represented by 72 individuals, an intermediate clone was represented by 21 individuals, and nine other clones were rare and represented by one or several individuals. A new approach based on the detection and comparison of genotype-specific markers formed by combinations of parental-specific markers was developed and used to identify at least three hybridization founder events that resulted in the initial formation of one major and two rare clones. All other clones, including the intermediate and seven rare clones, probably arose through postformation microsatellite mutations of the major clone. This approach can be used to identify hybridization founder events and to study clone formation in other unisexual taxa. PMID:24618670

  15. Determination of the coenzyme Q10 status in a large Caucasian study population.

    PubMed

    Onur, Simone; Niklowitz, Petra; Fischer, Alexandra; Jacobs, Gunnar; Lieb, Wolfgang; Laudes, Matthias; Menke, Thomas; Döring, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10 ) exists in a reduced (ubiquinol) and an oxidized (ubiquinone) form in all human tissues and functions, amongst others, in the respiratory chain, redox-cycles, and gene expression. As the status of CoQ10 is an important risk factor for several diseases, here we determined the CoQ10 status (ubiquinol, ubiquinone) in a large Caucasian study population (n = 1,911). The study population covers a wide age range (age: 18-83 years, 43.4% men), has information available on more than 10 measured clinical phenotypes, more than 30 diseases (presence vs. absence), about 30 biomarkers, and comprehensive genetic information including whole-genome SNP typing (>891,000 SNPs). The major aim of this long-term resource in CoQ10 research is the comprehensive analysis of the CoQ10 status with respect to integrated health parameters (i.e., fat metabolism, inflammation), disease-related biomarkers (i.e., liver enzymes, marker for heart failure), common diseases (i.e., neuropathy, myocardial infarction), and genetic risk in humans. Based on disease status, biomarkers, and genetic variants, our cohort is also useful to perform Mendelian randomisation approaches. In conclusion, the present study population is a promising resource to gain deeper insight into CoQ10 status in human health and disease.

  16. Differential Post-Exercise Blood Pressure Responses between Blacks and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Yan, Huimin; Behun, Michael A; Cook, Marc D; Ranadive, Sushant M; Lane-Cordova, Abbi D; Kappus, Rebecca M; Woods, Jeffrey A; Wilund, Kenneth R; Baynard, Tracy; Halliwill, John R; Fernhall, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Post-exercise hypotension (PEH) is widely observed in Caucasians (CA) and is associated with histamine receptors 1- and 2- (H1R and H2R) mediated post-exercise vasodilation. However, it appears that blacks (BL) may not exhibit PEH following aerobic exercise. Hence, this study sought to determine the extent to which BL develop PEH, and the contribution of histamine receptors to PEH (or lack thereof) in this population. Forty-nine (22 BL, 27 CA) young and healthy subjects completed the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to take either a combined H1R and H2R antagonist (fexofenadine and ranitidine) or a control placebo. Supine blood pressure (BP), cardiac output and peripheral vascular resistance measurements were obtained at baseline, as well as at 30 min, 60 min and 90 min after 45 min of treadmill exercise at 70% heart rate reserve. Exercise increased diastolic BP in young BL but not in CA. Post-exercise diastolic BP was also elevated in BL after exercise with histamine receptor blockade. Moreover, H1R and H2R blockade elicited differential responses in stroke volume between BL and CA at rest, and the difference remained following exercise. Our findings show differential BP responses following exercise in BL and CA, and a potential role of histamine receptors in mediating basal and post-exercise stroke volume in BL. The heightened BP and vascular responses to exercise stimulus is consistent with the greater CVD risk in BL. PMID:27074034

  17. Being a woman researcher in an Anatolian village

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    This essay represents the first editorial of the series "Recollections, Reflections, and Revelations: Ethnobiologists and their First Time in the Field". In this memoir, the author details the evolvement and intellectual progression of her research focusing on wild food plant consumption within a remote community in the high steppes of Central Anatolia during the early Nineties. The author conveys a human learning journey as a woman and an ethnobiologist, reflecting on the methodological bottlenecks and solutions during her first ethnographic experience in the field. PMID:23819702

  18. Pancreatitis in a woman taking an herbal supplement.

    PubMed

    Lesser, David; Hillesheim, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A healthy woman developed pancreatitis after starting a popular herbal supplement designed to boost female libido. Following cessation of the herbal supplement, her enzymes quickly normalized. The patient had no risk factors for pancreatitis and anatomic obstruction was later ruled out. The contents of the supplement and their history of side effects are reviewed. As several of the ingredients are estrogenic in nature, this may have contributed to the patient's reaction. Physicians should remember to take a careful history regarding the usage of supplements and alternative medicines. PMID:17269527

  19. An Infected Urachal Cyst in an Adult Woman

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Serdar; Bacanakgıl, Besim Haluk; Soyman, Zeynep; Kerımova, Roya; Battal Havare, Semiha; Kaya, Başak

    2015-01-01

    The urachus is an embryologic remnant which degenerates after the birth. Defective obliteration of the urachus leads to urachal abnormalities. An infected urachal cyst is one of the urachal abnormalities and this pathology is rare in adult women. We report a case of 33-year-old woman with pelvic pain and dysuria who was diagnosed with infected urachal cyst. Infected urachal cyst is a rare pathology in adult women and this pathology should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute abdomen. PMID:26167317

  20. Anti-NMDA Receptor Encephalitis in a Pregnant Woman

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Seung Ha; Jung, Yu Ri; Park, Soon Won; Jung, Dae Soo

    2015-01-01

    Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor encephalitis is one of the most common types of autoimmune synaptic encephalitis. Anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis commonly occurs in young women with ovarian teratoma. It has variable clinical manifestations and treatment responses. Sometimes it is misdiagnosed as a psychiatric disorder or viral encephalitis. To the best of our knowledge, anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis is a rare condition in pregnant women. We report a case of anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis in a pregnant woman who presented with abnormal behavior, epileptic seizure, and hypoventilation. PMID:26157673

  1. [Psychological study of the dysthymic disorder in the woman].

    PubMed

    García-Arroyo, José M; Domínguez-López, María L; Fernández-Arguelles, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we study two dysthymic women who we are treating with psychotherapy in order to reveal the inner components that maintain depressive symptoms. The same findings have been confirmed in other dysthymic patients. The result of the study consisted in discovering a sentimental separation from their love object, while the woman still lives with her partner and while the depressive symptoms are appearing insidiously. This development leads them to the deterioration in the “ideal of love” they sought, that supported their lives and served as an “anchor of their personality. This point of view places classic notion about mourning into doubt.

  2. [Small bowel intussusception and Vanek's tumor in an elderly woman].

    PubMed

    Maya, Antonio M; Gallo, Antonio; Castelli, Mariano; Paz, Leonardo; Espinosa, Juan C; Giunippero, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory fibroid polyps are non-frequent benign lesions, described by Vanek in 1949, originated in the sub mucosa of the gastrointestinal tract. They have an uncertain origin and they are formed of fibroblastic and mesenchymal proliferations with an important eosinophilic proportion. Depending on where are they localized, could present different type of symptoms. The inflammatory fibroid polyps are one of the rare benign conditions causing intestinal intussusception in adults. We present the case of a 82 years old woman, who presented an intestinal intussusception due to an inflammatory fibroid polyp localized in the small bowel.

  3. Aortic dissection accompanied by preeclampsia in a postpartum young woman

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Wan; Kim, Su-Mi; Yu, Gyu-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Aortic dissection is very rare in obstetrics, but it is a fatal disease. A 37-weeks primigravida woman with dyspnea and pitting edema presented to our emergency room. The patient was diagnosed with preeclampsia and underwent an emergency cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. The patient complained of severe dyspnea after the cesarean section, and the chest computed tomography scan was done. With the finding of aortic dissection, cardiopulmonary arrest occurred 5 hours after the cesarean section, and the patient died without reaction to cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. If a patient with preeclampsia complains of severe dyspnea or chest pain, aortic dissection needs to be suspected and a diagnosis should not be delayed.

  4. Blurred vision and high blood pressure in a young woman.

    PubMed Central

    Flanagan, D. E.; Cole, C.; Crick, M. D.; Kerr, D.

    1998-01-01

    A 41-year-old woman presented with a short history of blurred vision. She had a 6-year history of refractory hypertension which had been treated with a variety of drug regimens. She was found to have bilateral branch retinal vein occlusion. Retinal vein occlusion is a recognised complication of hypertension but simultaneous involvement of both eyes is extremely rare. Following this episode, blood pressure control has improved without change in drug therapy, suggesting that treatment compliance may partly explain the previous difficulties. Images Figure PMID:10211361

  5. [Rectal cancer in a pregnant woman, a case report].

    PubMed

    Højgaard, Helle Manfeld; Rahr, Hans

    2012-06-25

    A case of disseminated rectal cancer in a 32-year-old pregnant woman is described. Pain was her main complaint, but this had been ascribed to haemorrhoids and treated with topical agents. She was diagnosed with rectal cancer late in the third trimester when her midwife referred her for surgical assessment. Following caesarian section, diagnostic workup showed multiple liver metastases. Rectal cancer in pregnancy is rare, while haemorrhoids are common. We recommend keeping the differential diagnoses in mind and performing a digital rectal examination if pregnant women have anal symptoms.

  6. [Seizures caused by subarachnoid haemorrhage in a pregnant woman].

    PubMed

    Shim, Susy; Christiansen, Ulla Birgitte; Sørensen, Anne Nødgaard

    2016-07-25

    This case report describes a pregnant woman of gestational week 37 + 2 days who was admitted to the hospital with first-time seizures. The patient was stabilized, and an acute caesarian section was performed due to the possible aetiology of eclampsia and the advanced gestational age. Because of the atypical clinical history and normal maternal blood samples a computed tomography of the cerebrum was performed demonstrating a subarachnoid haemorrhage. A computed tomography-angiography revealed an aneurism at the anterior communicating artery. The aneurism was coiled the following day to reduce the risk of rebleeding. PMID:27460576

  7. Zygomatic arch fracture in a 40-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Ramponi, Denise; White, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    This case describes an injury to a 40-year-old woman, employed as a softball team coach, who presented to an emergency department (ED) after sustaining a line drive hit to the right side of the face with a softball during practice. Upon arrival to the ED, the patient complained of moderate pain, swelling, and bruising over the right side of her midface area. After evaluation in the ED, the patient received a diagnosis of a zygomatic arch fracture that was further managed by an occupational medicine nurse practitioner, a plastic surgeon, and an ear, nose, and throat (ENT) physician specialist.

  8. Palliation of Painful Perineal Metastasis Treated with Radiofrequency Thermal Ablation

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, L. Mylona, S.; Kalioras, V.; Pomoni, M.; Batakis, N.

    2005-04-15

    We report a case of painful perineal metastasis from urinary bladder carcinoma in a 73-years-old woman, treated with CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA). The pain was immediately relieved and follow-up at 1 and 6 months showed total necrosis of the mass. One year later, the patient has no pain and her quality of life is improved.

  9. An Ongoing Assessment of Osteoarthritis in African Americans and Caucasians in North Carolina: The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Joanne M.

    2015-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common type of arthritis and is frequently associated with significant disability. Its public health impact is increasing due to the aging of the population and the obesity epidemic. The Johnston County Osteoarthritis Project is an ongoing, population-based prospective cohort begun in 1990 to fill knowledge gaps about prevalence, incidence, and progression of OA, and its risk factors, in African American and Caucasian men and women in North Carolina. Critically important phenotypic differences were observed in patterns of multi-joint OA burden, with African Americans much less likely than Caucasians to have hand OA and much more likely to have multiple large joint involvement. Racial differences also exist in systemic bone and joint tissue biomarkers. Novel potentially modifiable risk factors identified in this cohort include selenium and blood lead levels. Selected key findings of this ongoing study will be discussed. PMID:26330661

  10. Assessment of family functioning in Caucasian and Hispanic Americans: reliability, validity, and factor structure of the Family Assessment Device.

    PubMed

    Aarons, Gregory A; McDonald, Elizabeth J; Connelly, Cynthia D; Newton, Rae R

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Family Assessment Device (FAD) among a national sample of Caucasian and Hispanic American families receiving public sector mental health services. A confirmatory factor analysis conducted to test model fit yielded equivocal findings. With few exceptions, indices of model fit, reliability, and validity were poorer for Hispanic Americans compared with Caucasian Americans. Contrary to our expectation, an exploratory factor analysis did not result in a better fitting model of family functioning. Without stronger evidence supporting a reformulation of the FAD, we recommend against such a course of action. Findings highlight the need for additional research on the role of culture in measurement of family functioning.

  11. Preoperative Emboli in a Pregnant Woman with Myxoma.

    PubMed

    Sabzi, Freidoun; Faraji, Reza

    2016-07-01

    The left atrium is the most common location of myxomas, which are benign tumors. Only a few cases of myxomas in pregnancies have been reported. Our thorough medical literature search showed only 17 reported cases in the course of pregnancy. Myxomas during pregnancy and in the preterm period constitute a serious phenomenon that can mimic an early sign of a life-threatening pathology like severe mitral stenosis. We describe a 33-year-old woman, who presented with acute dyspnea to a gynecology center and was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of pulmonary embolism. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a huge left atrial myxoma, and computed tomography scan illustrated paradoxical pulmonary embolism in the left upper lung lobe via a large patent foramen ovale. The tumor required urgent cardiac surgery. In this article, we review causes of dyspnea in pregnancy and the cardiovascular effects of myxomas in pregnancy. We also describe the pathophysiological effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on the mother, fetus, and the feto-placental system during open-heart surgery. We performed a successful surgical resection of a myxoma in a pregnant woman. Given the rarity of such cases, individual multidisciplinary assessment and management strategies are essential. PMID:27365558

  12. Preoperative Emboli in a Pregnant Woman with Myxoma

    PubMed Central

    Sabzi, Freidoun; Faraji, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The left atrium is the most common location of myxomas, which are benign tumors. Only a few cases of myxomas in pregnancies have been reported. Our thorough medical literature search showed only 17 reported cases in the course of pregnancy. Myxomas during pregnancy and in the preterm period constitute a serious phenomenon that can mimic an early sign of a life-threatening pathology like severe mitral stenosis. We describe a 33-year-old woman, who presented with acute dyspnea to a gynecology center and was referred to our hospital for further evaluation of pulmonary embolism. Transthoracic echocardiography showed a huge left atrial myxoma, and computed tomography scan illustrated paradoxical pulmonary embolism in the left upper lung lobe via a large patent foramen ovale. The tumor required urgent cardiac surgery. In this article, we review causes of dyspnea in pregnancy and the cardiovascular effects of myxomas in pregnancy. We also describe the pathophysiological effects of cardiopulmonary bypass on the mother, fetus, and the feto-placental system during open-heart surgery. We performed a successful surgical resection of a myxoma in a pregnant woman. Given the rarity of such cases, individual multidisciplinary assessment and management strategies are essential. PMID:27365558

  13. Paradoxical punishment as it relates to the battered woman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Long, G M; McNamara, J R

    1989-04-01

    The main goal of this article is to suggest some processes by which the behavioral interactions of an abusive couple can be developed and maintained. A summary of these processes as they have been adapted from the animal analog and human research follows. First, the pairing of abuse (punishment) with love and affection (reinforcement) could indicate that the battered woman responds to the reinforcement that follows an abusive incident. Second, the battered woman may seek to escape the fear of the tension-building phase but during the escape behavior she is punished (physical abuse), which fortifies and strengthens her initial fear. However, after the abusive incident, there is an absence of tension and fear (negative reinforcement) compounded by the positive reinforcement of the contrition phase. Thus, a cyclical pattern of behavior evolves and sustains itself. Possibly augmenting the vicious cycle is habituation or negative adaptation to the physical abuse, as well as the lack of opportunities to learn adaptive behavioral responses that may break the cycle of violence. Finally, the need for primary reinforcement (i.e., love and affection) may be so powerful that it somewhat mitigates the abuse endured to obtain it. PMID:2712818

  14. Woman abuse in South Africa: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Dangor, Z; Hoff, L A; Scott, R

    1998-04-01

    This study aims to address the problem of woman abuse in South Africa as a basis for program development for survivors of violence. It also presents documentation for the expansion of social, health, and legal services for abused women and children. Ethnographic interviews were conducted on 37 South African women from various community settings and institutions in the Johannesburg region. Two focus groups discussed issues from the interview data. Two aspects of woman abused in South Africa were revealed in this study, namely, the endemic culture of violence, and the existence of cheap labor of domestic workers. It was observed that women abuse and sexual assault are rampant because of the endemic culture of violence and by customs, culture, and tradition which tends to objectify women and make them feel like male property. Regarding child and elderly abuse, it appears that more cases are being reported in South Africa. This study confirms the need for national survey data and in-depth research with abused women themselves in order to acquire a clearer picture of the personal, familial, and societal costs of violence against women. Furthermore, acknowledgement of domestic violence and its overall burden on community stability and health is vital in implementing reforms in South Africa.

  15. Azithromycin in an older woman with diabetic gastroparesis.

    PubMed

    Sutera, Loredana; Dominguez, Ligia J; Belvedere, Mario; Putignano, Ernesto; Vernuccio, Laura; Ferlisi, Anna; Fazio, Giovanni; Costanza, Giuseppe; Barbagallo, Mario

    2008-01-01

    Diabetic neuropathy is a common chronic complication of diabetes and cause of significant morbidity and mortality, because it may involve the autonomous and peripheral nervous systems. Autonomic diabetic neuropathy is a challenging chronic complication of long-standing diabetes manifested with hypotension, syncope, gastroparesis, diarrhea, constipation, bladder dysfunction, sexual dysfunction, cardiac arrest, and/or sudden death. We present a case of diabetic gastroparesis in an older woman. The patient was an 83-year-old woman with a 40-year history of type 2 diabetes who was admitted with hypoglycemia, malnutrition, persistent vomiting, and obstinate constipation. After several unsuccessful attempts with different therapies, we administered intravenous azithromycin (500 mg/day). After 3 days of treatment, vomiting was resolved and the patient evacuated normal feces, with notable improvement in the general conditions and metabolic control. Because diabetic gastroparesis frequently is difficult to manage clinically and there are few beneficial therapeutic choices available at present, the macrolide antibiotic azithromycin, which has strong prokinetic properties, may be a useful option in the treatment of this complex condition. PMID:18223358

  16. Paradoxical punishment as it relates to the battered woman syndrome.

    PubMed

    Long, G M; McNamara, J R

    1989-04-01

    The main goal of this article is to suggest some processes by which the behavioral interactions of an abusive couple can be developed and maintained. A summary of these processes as they have been adapted from the animal analog and human research follows. First, the pairing of abuse (punishment) with love and affection (reinforcement) could indicate that the battered woman responds to the reinforcement that follows an abusive incident. Second, the battered woman may seek to escape the fear of the tension-building phase but during the escape behavior she is punished (physical abuse), which fortifies and strengthens her initial fear. However, after the abusive incident, there is an absence of tension and fear (negative reinforcement) compounded by the positive reinforcement of the contrition phase. Thus, a cyclical pattern of behavior evolves and sustains itself. Possibly augmenting the vicious cycle is habituation or negative adaptation to the physical abuse, as well as the lack of opportunities to learn adaptive behavioral responses that may break the cycle of violence. Finally, the need for primary reinforcement (i.e., love and affection) may be so powerful that it somewhat mitigates the abuse endured to obtain it.

  17. Prognostic role of high Bmi-1 expression in Asian and Caucasian patients with solid tumors: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Shao, Yingjie; Geng, Yiting; Gu, Wendong; Ning, Zhonghua; Jiang, Jingting; Pei, Honglei

    2014-10-01

    Recently, many studies have shown that the B-cell-specific moloney leukemia virus insertion site 1 (Bmi-1) exhibits altered expression in various cancers and may serve as prognostic biomarkers. We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the prognostic role of Bmi-1 expression in solid cancers. Studies were recruited by searching PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library. Thirty-nine articles including 40 studies were involved in this meta-analysis. Our results indicated that the Bmi-1 showed the opposite prognostic effect in Asian and Caucasian populations. High Bmi-1 expression as a negative predictor for overall survival (OS) in Asian patients (HR=1.96, 95% CI 1.62-2.36), but a positive predictor in Caucasian populations (HR=0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.93). Furthermore, we took a further subgroup analysis based on tumor type in these two populations, respectively. In Asian cases, high expression of Bmi-1 was associated with poor OS in oesophageal carcinoma (HR=1.93, 95% CI 1.52-2.46), gastric cancer (HR=1.50, 95% CI 1.22-1.85), lung cancer (HR=1.73, 95% CI 1.05-2.85), cervical cancer (HR=2.80, 95% CI 2.26-3.47) and colorectal cancer (HR=3.36, 95% CI 2.19-5.15), rather than in breast cancer and HCC. In Caucasian populations, high expression of Bmi-1 was associated with better OS in breast cancer (HR=0.70, 95% CI 0.51-0.97), but it showed no significance in oesophageal carcinoma. In conclusion, high Bmi-1 expression was significantly associated with poor survival in Asian patients with oesophageal carcinoma, gastric cancer, lung cancer, colorectal cancer and cervical carcinoma, whereas high level of Bmi-1 can predict better prognosis in Caucasian patients with breast cancer. PMID:25458792

  18. Multiple steno-obstructive vascular lesions and femoral superficial artery dissection in a young Caucasian male with antiphospholipid syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cianci, Rosario; Gigante, Antonietta; Barbano, Biagio; Zaccaria, Alvaro; Polidori, Lelio; Borghesi, Francesca; Gasperini, Ludovica; Di Donato, Domenico; Amoroso, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    A young Caucasian male was admitted for claudication intermittens, hyposphygmia on the right lower limb, high blood pressure and deterioration of renal function. Instrumental investigations documented right renal artery stenosis, multiple steno-obstructive manifestations of the splanchnic artery system, occlusion of the right external iliac artery and dissection of the left superficial femoral artery. The patient had not been previously diagnosed with antiphospholipid syndrome. Subsequently, the vascular lesions, because of his thrombophilic state, needed endovascular treatment and anticoagulant therapy. PMID:21686361

  19. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  20. Comparison of baseline characteristics and one-year outcomes between African-Americans and Caucasians undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention.

    PubMed

    Leborgne, Laurent; Cheneau, Edouard; Wolfram, Roswitha; Pinnow, Ellen E; Canos, Daniel A; Pichard, Augusto D; Suddath, William O; Satler, Lowell F; Lindsay, Joseph; Waksman, Ron

    2004-02-15

    The objectives of this study were to determine whether there are race-based differences in baseline characteristics and in short- or long-term outcomes after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). African-Americans have a higher incidence of coronary artery disease but are less likely to undergo coronary revascularization than Caucasians. Little is known about the profiles and outcomes of African-Americans who undergo PCI. Consecutive series of 1,268 African-Americans and 10,561 Caucasians with symptomatic coronary artery disease who underwent PCI between January 1994 and June 2001 were analyzed. Patients hospitalized for acute myocardial infarction were excluded. African-Americans were older, were more likely to be women, and had more co-morbid baseline conditions compared with Caucasians. Preprocedure lesion characteristics were similar with regard to vessel size, length, and complexity. The rate of clinical success did not differ between the groups. African-Americans experienced more in-hospital combined events of death and Q-wave myocardial infarction (p = 0.03). After propensity score adjustment, African-American race was not an independent predictor for in-hospital events. At 1 year, African-Americans had a slightly lower rate of target lesion revascularization and a 50% higher rate of death (9.8% vs. 6.4%, p <0.001), with a relative risk of 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.22 to 1.89). In multivariate analysis, African-American race remained a significant predictor of increased 1-year mortality (hazard ratio 1.35, 95% confidence interval 1.06 to 1.71, p = 0.01). African-Americans undergoing angioplasty have more co-morbid baseline conditions than Caucasians. Despite similar clinical success, 1-year outcomes are impaired in African-Americans.

  1. Valuation of environmental quality and eco-cultural attributes in Northwestern Idaho: Native Americans are more concerned than Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna

    2011-01-01

    Valuation of features of habitats and ecosystems usually encompasses the goods and services that ecosystems provide, but rarely also examine how people value ecological resources in terms of eco-cultural and sacred activities. The social, sacred, and cultural aspects of ecosystems are particularly important to Native Americans, but western science has rarely examined the importance of eco-cultural attributes quantitatively. In this paper I explore differences in ecosystem evaluations, and compare the perceptions and evaluations of places people go for consumptive and non-consumptive resource use with evaluations of the same qualities for religious and sacred places. Qualities of ecosystems included goods (abundant fish and crabs, butterflies and flowers, clean water), services (complexity of nature, lack of radionuclides that present a health risk), and eco-cultural attributes (appears unspoiled, scenic horizons, noise-free). Native Americans and Caucasians were interviewed at a Pow Wow at Post Falls, Idaho, which is in the region with the Department of Energy's Hanford Site, known for its storage of radioactive wastes and contamination. A higher percentage of Native American subjects engaged in consumptive and religious activities than did Caucasians. Native Americans engaged in higher rates of many activities than did Caucasians, including commune with nature, pray or meditate, fish or hunt, collect herbs, and conduct vision quests or other ceremonies. For nearly all attributes, there was no difference in the relative ratings given by Native Americans for characteristics of sites used for consumption/non-consumptive activities compared to religious/sacred places. However, Caucasians rated nearly all attributes lower for religious/sacred places than they did for places where they engaged in consumptive or non-consumptive activities. Native Americans were less concerned with distance from home for consumptive/non-consumptive activities, compared to religious

  2. African-American and Caucasian disparities in colorectal cancer mortality and survival by data source: An epidemiologic review

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Dominik D.; Waterbor, John; Hughes, Timothy; Funkhouser, Ellen; Grizzle, William; Manne, Upender

    2009-01-01

    Over the past four decades in the United States, there has been a divergent trend in mortality rates between African-Americans and Caucasians with colorectal cancer (CRC). Rates among Caucasians have been steadily declining, whereas rates among African-Americans have only started a gradual decline in recent years. We reviewed epidemiologic studies of CRC racial disparities between African-Americans and Caucasians, including studies from SEER and population-based cancer registries, Veterans Affairs (VA) databases, healthcare coverage databases, and university and other medical center data sources. Elevated overall and stage-specific risks of CRC mortality and shorter survival for African-Americans compared with Caucasians were reported across all data sources. The magnitude of racial disparities varied across study groups, with the strongest associations observed in university and non-VA hospital-based medical center studies, while an attenuated discrepancy was found in VA database studies. An advanced stage of disease at the time of diagnosis among African-Americans is a major contributing factor to the racial disparity in survival. Several studies, however, have shown that an increased risk of CRC death among African-Americans remains even after controlling for tumor stage at diagnosis, socioeconomic factors, and comorbidity. Despite advances in treatment, improvements in the standard of care, and increased screening options, racial differences persist in CRC mortality and survival. Therefore, continued research efforts are necessary to disentangle the clinical, social, biological, and environmental factors that constitute the racial disparity. In addition, results across data sources should be considered when evaluating racial differences in cancer outcomes. PMID:18048968

  3. Prenatal Stress and the Cortisol Awakening Response in African-American and Caucasian Women in the Third Trimester of Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Simon, Clarissa D; Adam, Emma K; Holl, Jane L; Wolfe, Kaitlin A; Grobman, William A; Borders, Ann E B

    2016-10-01

    Objectives Prior studies have shown significant racial disparities in psychosocial stressors for pregnant women. One physiological mechanism by which prenatal stress is expressed is via the stress-sensitive hormone cortisol, which itself differs by race. In this study, we examine differences in cortisol awakening response (CAR) for African-American and Caucasian pregnant women during late pregnancy, particularly whether racial disparities are evident after accounting for measures of psychosocial stress. Methods During their third trimester of pregnancy (32-40 weeks of gestation), we asked women to self-collect salivary samples at home over 2 days. We then measured salivary cortisol across the day for 30 pregnant women (18 Caucasian; 12 African-American) to examine the CAR by race and by multiple measures of self-reported psychosocial stress, including perceived discrimination. Results Although the women in our sample showed normative cortisol diurnal rhythms (high on waking, peak 30 min post-waking, lowest at bedtime), we found that African-American women had blunted (smaller) awakening responses compared to Caucasian women (p < 0.05). The CAR was significantly larger in Caucasian women compared to African-American women even after accounting for covariates in a multivariate equation. However, when we added measures of psychosocial stress to the multivariate equation, higher levels of stress were significantly associated with a smaller CAR (p < 0.05), and the association between maternal race and CAR was no longer significant. Conclusions Our results add to a growing body of evidence that racial differences in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis are associated with psychosocial stress during pregnancy.

  4. Association between the Angiogenin (ANG) K17I variant and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis risk in Caucasian: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lishou; Deng, Xinbo; Ding, Dan; Leng, Huilin; Zhu, Xuepeng; Wang, Zheng

    2015-12-01

    The study purpose is to perform a meta-analysis to help resolve the debate of whether the Angiogenin (ANG) K17I variant is associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) risk in Caucasian. Three literature databases were searched for eligible studies published up to January 8, 2015: PubMed, Embase and Web of Science using the following search terms: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis or ALS and Angiogenin or ANG. Five eligible articles were identified, which reported 6 case-control studies and a total of 2326 cases and 3799 controls. The overall results suggested low frequencies of the K17I variant in Caucasian patients (10/2326, 0.43 %) and controls (6/3799, 0.16 %). There is no difference in the variant frequencies between patients with FALS or SALS (p = 0.069). Analysis of pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) revealed that the ANG K17I variant increases the risk for ALS (AT vs. AA: OR 2.65, 95 % CI 1.05-6.66, p = 0.038) and familial ALS (FALS) (AT vs. AA: OR 11.81, 95 % CI 2.11-66.15, p = 0.005) but not for sporadic ALS (SALS) (AT vs. AA: OR 1.63, 95 % CI 0.55-4.82, p = 0.378). The ANG K17I variant is rare in Caucasian patients and controls and increases the risk for ALS and FALS but not for SALS in Caucasian populations. Further well-designed studies with larger samples are needed to validate these results.

  5. Physiological changes due to mild cooling in healthy lean males of white Caucasian and South Asian descent: A metabolomics study.

    PubMed

    Nahon, Kimberly J; Boon, Mariëtte R; Bakker, Leontine E H; Prehn, Cornelia; Adamski, Jerzy; Jazet, Ingrid M; van Dijk, Ko Willems; Rensen, Patrick C N; Mook-Kanamori, Dennis O

    2016-01-01

    During mild cold exposure, non-shivering thermogenesis increases to maintain core body temperature by increasing utilization of substrates, especially fatty acids (FA), ultimately affecting lipid-associated metabolites. We aimed to investigate whether mild cooling induces changes in other metabolites and whether this response differs between white Caucasians and South Asians, who have a disadvantageous metabolic phenotype. 12 lean male Dutch white Caucasians and 12 matched Dutch South Asians were exposed to mild cold. Before and after 100 min exposure, serum samples were collected for analysis of 163 metabolites and 27 derived parameters using high throughput metabolomics. The overall response to mild cooling between both ethnicities was not different, therefore the data were pooled. After Bonferroni correction, mild cooling significantly changed 44 of 190 (23%) metabolic parameters. Specifically, cooling increased 19 phosphatidylcholine (PC) species, only those containing very long chain FAs, and increased the total class of PC containing mono-unsaturated FAs (+12.5%). Furthermore, cooling increased 10 sphingomyelin species as well as the amino acids glutamine (+18.7%), glycine (+11.6%) and histidine (+10.6%), and decreased short-chain (C3 and C4) acylcarnitines (-17.1% and -19.4%, respectively). In conclusion, mild cooling elicits substantial effects on serum metabolites in healthy males, irrespective of white Caucasian or South Asian ethnicity. PMID:26384768

  6. Understanding nonsmoking in African American and Caucasian college students: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Nehl, Eric J; Blanchard, Chris M; Peng, Chao-Ying J; Rhodes, Ryan E; Kupperman, Janet; Sparling, Phillip B; Courneya, Kerry; Baker, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Few studies have considered whether psychological determinants of nonsmoking among college students vary by ethnicity. The authors tested the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to explain differences in nonsmoking intentions of 238 African American and 197 Caucasian college students who completed an in-class TPB questionnaire and a smoking assessment 1 week later. After removing 35 students who reported smoking at the baseline assessment, regressions were used to examine ethnic effects on TPB constructs when predicting nonsmoking intentions. Caucasians had statistically significant higher nonsmoking intentions than African Americans. Further, subjective norms for Caucasians and attitudes for African Americans had small but significant relations to intention, but perceived behavioral control (PBC) was a strongly significant predictor for both ethnic groups. However, the prediction of nonsmoking intentions was not statistically moderated by ethnicity for any of the TPB constructs. This study suggests that the TPB may aid in understanding collegiate nonsmoking intentions and help begin to explain differences in smoking on the basis of ethnicity. Last, because of strong associations shown in this study, PBC should be considered when developing ethnic-specific smoking interventions in college students.

  7. The Clinical Significance of CD4 Counts in Asian and Caucasian HIV-Infected Populations: Results from TAHOD and AHOD

    PubMed Central

    Achhra, Amit C.; Zhou, Jialun; Choi, Jun Yong; Hoy, Jennifer; Zhang, Fujie; Templeton, David J.; Merati, Tuti; Woolley, Ian; Petoumenos, Kathy; Amin, Janaki

    2012-01-01

    The significance of interethnic variation in CD4 counts between Asian and Caucasian populations is not known. Patients on combination antiretroviral therapy from Treat Asia and Australian HIV Observational Databases (TAHOD, predominantly Asian, n = 3356; and AHOD, predominantly Caucasian, n = 2312, respectively) were followed for 23 144 person-years for AIDS/death and all-cause mortality endpoints. We calculated incidence-rates and used adjusted Cox regression to test for the interaction between cohort (TAHOD/AHOD) and time-updated CD4 count category (lagged by 3 months) for each of the endpoints. There were 382 AIDS/death events in TAHOD (rate: 4.06, 95%CI: 3.68–4.50) and 305 in AHOD (rate: 2.39, 95%CI: 2.13–2.67), per 100 person-years. At any given CD4 count category, the incidence-rates of endpoints were found to be similar between TAHOD and AHOD (in the adjusted models, P > .05 for the interaction term between cohort type and latest CD4 counts). At any given CD4 count, risk of AIDS or death was not found to vary by ethnicity, suggesting that the CD4 count thresholds for predicting outcomes defined in Caucasian populations may be equally valid in Asian populations. PMID:21508296

  8. Lesion comparison of multiple sclerosis in hispanic and caucasian patients utilizing an imaging informatics-based eFolder system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Kevin; Fernandez, James; Amezcua, Lilyana; Lerner, Alex; Shiroishi, Mark; Liu, Brent

    2012-02-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in the central nervous system. Genetics have been considered as a leading factor in the prevalence and disease course of MS. We have presented an informatics-based eFolder system for integrating patients' clinical data with MR images and lesion quantification results. The completed eFolder system has been designed and developed in aiding to evaluate disease manifestation differences in Hispanic and Caucasian MS patients. MS lesion data, as shown in MRI, can be extracted by the 3-D automatic lesion detection tool in the eFolder, and data storing and mining tools in eFolder is able to extract and compare data from individual patients. The computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithm has been modified and enhanced to include spatial information as detection criteria. For this study, 36 Caucasian MS patients and 36 matched Hispanic patients have been selected. Most recent MR images of the patients are collected, and images are evaluated both by the CAD tool in the eFolder and radiologists. The results are compared between Caucasian and Hispanic patients and statistically evaluated to see if the two populations have significant difference in lesion presentations. The results can be used to evaluate differences in the two groups of patients and to evaluate the new CAD algorithm's performance with radiologists' contours. Significant findings can further evaluate effectiveness of MS eFolder in MS-related research.

  9. PKCα and ERβ Are Associated with Triple-Negative Breast Cancers in African American and Caucasian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Tonetti, Debra A.; Gao, Weihua; Escarzaga, Diana; Walters, Kelly; Szafran, April; Coon, John S.

    2012-01-01

    Although the incidence of breast cancer in the United States is higher in Caucasian women compared with African American women, African-American patients have more aggressive disease as characterized by a higher percentage of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs), high-grade tumors, and a higher mortality rate. PKCα is a biomarker associated with endocrine resistance and poor prognosis and ERβ is emerging as a protective biomarker. Immunohistochemical analysis of ERβ and PKCα expression was performed on 198 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary infiltrating ductal carcinomas from 105 African-American and 93 Caucasian patients. PKCα is positively correlated with TNBC in patients of both races and with high tumor grade in African-American patients. Patients with TNBC express less nuclear ERβ compared with all other subtypes. We find no difference in frequency or intensity of PKCα or ERβ expression between African-American and Caucasian patients. PKCα and ERβ are discussed as potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of patients with TNBC. PMID:22500240

  10. Population pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modeling of different formulations of ONO-5334, cathepsin K inhibitor, in Caucasian and Japanese postmenopausal females.

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Chihiro; Ohno, Tomoya; Umemura, Takeo; Honda, Naoki; Ohyama, Michiyo; Nagase, Shinichi; Small, Maria; Deacon, Steve; Ogawa, Mikio; Ieiri, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    ONO-5334, a selective inhibitor of cathepsin K, is a potential new treatment for osteoporosis. The objectives of this study were to (1) develop population pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) models for ONO-5334 using dose-ascending data from healthy postmenopausal females, (2) examine comparability of PK and/or PD profile between Caucasian and Japanese, and (3) compare PK-PD profile between immediate release tablet (IRT) and sustained release tablet (SRT). The population PK-PD models were developed for each formulation for post-dose levels of bone resorption markers (serum CTX and NTX). The data were provided from 4 phase 1 studies with total of 201 Caucasian and 94 Japanese subjects. Plasma concentrations of ONO-5334 and bone resorption markers were thoroughly evaluated in those studies. An indirect response model described relationships between bone resorption markers and plasma concentrations of ONO-5334. There was no significant difference in PK and pharmacodynamic potency (IC50 ) between Caucasian and Japanese. Based on the developed model, serum CTX and NTX after administration of ONO-5334 IRT or SRT were simulated, and the results showed that ONO-5334 SRT would provide comparable PD effect on bone resorption markers with lower dose relative to IRT.

  11. Individualism-collectivism, self-efficacy, and other factors associated with risk taking among gay Asian and Caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Mao, Limin; Van de Ven, Paul; McCormick, John

    2004-02-01

    A theoretical framework, which included perspectives of individualism-collectivism and self-efficacy, was used to investigate factors associated with sexual risk practice among gay Asian and Caucasian men. "Risk" was defined as unprotected anal intercourse with any casual partner or with a regular partner whose HIV status was not concordant with the participant's. Altogether, 201 Caucasian and 199 Asian gay men, largely recruited from gay social venues in inner Sydney, completed an anonymous questionnaire. Most participants were gay self-identified and gay community attached, and more than half of the Asian men had been living in Sydney for at least 3 years. Overall, the Asian men were more collectivist oriented and the Caucasian men more individualist oriented. Data analyses revealed that higher self-efficacy in avoiding casual risk encounters and smaller proportion of gay friends were associated with less risk. The inclusion of individualism-collectivism and social cognitive variables in the examination of sexual risk practices among gay men from different cultural backgrounds holds promise.

  12. Association of leukocyte telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes with endometrial cancer risk in Caucasian Americans.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuhui; Zhang, Liren; Zhao, Lina; Wu, Xifeng; Gu, Jian

    2015-11-01

    Telomeres are the protective structure at the ends of each chromosome and play an important role in maintaining genomic integrity. Interindividual variation of telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been associated with the risks of developing many human diseases including several cancers. The association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and endometrial cancer risk is still inconsistent. Using a case-control study of endometrial cancer patients (n = 139) and control subjects (n = 139) in a Caucasian population, we assessed the association of relative LTL with the risk of endometrial cancer. We calculated odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals using multivariate logistic regression. We also determined the joint effects of LTL with established risk factors of endometrial cancer. The normalized LTL was significantly longer in endometrial cancer cases (median, 0.93; range, 0.19-1.62) than in controls (median, 0.70; range, 0.03-2.14) (P < 0.001). When individuals were dichotomized into long and short groups based on the median LTL value in the controls, individuals with long LTL had a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer (adjusted OR, 3.84; 95%CI, 2.16-6.85; P < 0.001) compared to those with short LTL. When individuals were categorized into three groups or four groups according to tertile or quartile LTL value in the controls, there was a significant dose-response association between LTL and the risk of endometrial cancer (P < 0.001). Joint effects between LTL and smoking status, body mass index and a history of hypertension or diabetes in elevating endometrial cancer risk were observed. Long telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes is associated with a significantly increased risk of endometrial cancer.

  13. Reference Values for Cardiac and Aortic Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Healthy, Young Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Eikendal, Anouk L. M.; Bots, Michiel L.; Haaring, Cees; Saam, Tobias; van der Geest, Rob J.; Westenberg, Jos J. M.; den Ruijter, Hester M.; Hoefer, Imo E.; Leiner, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Reference values for morphological and functional parameters of the cardiovascular system in early life are relevant since they may help to identify young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. This study provides age and sex specific reference values for aortic wall characteristics, cardiac function parameters and aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV) in a population-based sample of healthy, young adults using magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Materials and Methods In 131 randomly selected healthy, young adults aged between 25 and 35 years (mean age 31.8 years, 63 men) of the general-population based Atherosclerosis-Monitoring-and-Biomarker-measurements-In-The-YOuNg (AMBITYON) study, descending thoracic aortic dimensions and wall thickness, thoracic aortic PWV and cardiac function parameters were measured using a 3.0T MR-system. Age and sex specific reference values were generated using dedicated software. Differences in reference values between two age groups (25–30 and 30–35 years) and both sexes were tested. Results Aortic diameters and areas were higher in the older age group (all p<0.007). Moreover, aortic dimensions, left ventricular mass, left and right ventricular volumes and cardiac output were lower in women than in men (all p<0.001). For mean and maximum aortic wall thickness, left and right ejection fraction and aortic PWV we did not observe a significant age or sex effect. Conclusion This study provides age and sex specific reference values for cardiovascular MR parameters in healthy, young Caucasian adults. These may aid in MR guided pre-clinical identification of young adults who fall outside the physiological range of arterial and cardiac ageing. PMID:27732640

  14. Genetic loci associated with nonobstructive coronary artery disease in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Weng, Liming; Taylor, Kent D; Chen, Yii-Der Ida; Sopko, George; Kelsey, Sheryl F; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Pepine, Carl J; Miller, Virginia M; Rotter, Jerome I; Gulati, Martha; Goodarzi, Mark O; Cooper-DeHoff, Rhonda M

    2016-01-01

    Nonobstructive coronary artery disease (CAD) in women is associated with adverse cardiovascular (CV) outcomes; however, information regarding genetic variants that predispose women to nonobstructive CAD is lacking. Women from the Women's Ischemia Syndrome Evaluation (WISE) Study and the St. James Women Take Heart (WTH) Study were genotyped with the Cardio-MetaboChip. WISE enrolled women with symptoms and signs of ischemia referred for coronary angiography; WTH enrolled asymptomatic, community-based women without heart disease. Analyses were conducted with a case (WISE)--control (WTH) design and multivariate logistic regression models to investigate genetic variation associated with likelihood of nonobstructive CAD. One genetic marker, single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs2301753 on chromosome 6 in RNF39, achieved chip-wide significance for nonobstructive CAD (P < 9.5 × 10(-7)). After adjusting for baseline characteristics, we found no variants achieved chip-wide significance. However, SNP rs2301753 on chromosome 6 in RNF39 was associated with reduced likelihood of nonobstructive CAD [odds ratio (OR) 0.42 and 95% confidence interval (CI) of 0.29 to 0.68], at a nominal level of P = 5.6 × 10(-6), while SNP rs12818945 in the ATP2B1 locus on chromosome 12 was associated with increased odds for nonobstructive CAD (OR 2.38 and 95% CI of 1.63 to 3.45) and nominal P = 5.8 × 10(-6). The functions of RNF39 and ATP2B1 raise the possibility that genes involved in cardio-dysfunction may contribute to nonobstructive CAD in Caucasian women and may provide insights into novel approaches for therapy and prevention. If replicated, incorporation of these genetic variants into diagnostic evaluation may identify women at high risk for nonobstructive CAD.

  15. A Microsatellite Polymorphism in IGF1 Gene Promoter and Timing of Natural Menopause in Caucasian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarek, Maria; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Kwaśniewski, Wojciech; Kotarski, Jan; Halerz-Nowakowska, Barbara; Goździka-Józefiak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genes involved in the IGF-1 aging pathways in the human ovary can be considered strong candidates for predictors of the natural menopause timing. This study evaluates the association between a cytosine-adenine (CA) microsatellite polymorphism in the IGF1 gene promoter P1 and age at natural menopause. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood, PCR was performed using primers designed to amplify the polymorphic (CA)n repeat of the human IGF1 gene, an allele dose effect for the most common (CA)19 repeats allele, Cox proportional hazard regression models and the Kaplan-Meier cumulative survivorship method with the log-rank test were used to determine statistical significance of studied associations in a sample of 257 Polish women aged 40-58 years. Results: Crude Cox proportional hazard regression analysis confirmed the association between the IGF1 gene polymorphism and the menopause timing (p=0.038). This relationship remained statistically significant after controlling for other menopause confounders in multivariate modelling. Out of the input variables, the (CA)n polymorphism in the IGF1 gene promoter, age at menarche and smoking status were independent covariates of the natural menopause timing (χ2 =12.845; df=3; p=0.034). The onset of menopause at a younger age was likely associated with the IGF1 genotype variant not carrying the (CA)19 repeats allele, menarche before the age of 12 and a current cigarette smoker status (HR=1.6). Conclusion: This study provides evidence that a common cytosine-adenine (CA) microsatellite repeat polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF1 gene is an independent predictive factor for age at natural menopause in Caucasian women also after adjusting for other menopause covariates. PMID:25552916

  16. Bone mineral density and leg muscle strength in young Caucasian, Hispanic, and Asian women.

    PubMed

    Liang, Michael T C; Bassin, Stanley; Dutto, Darren; Braun, William; Wong, Nathan; Pontello, Andria M; Cooper, Dan M; Arnaud, Sara B

    2007-01-01

    Differences in bone mineral density (BMD) of ethnically diverse populations are usually attributed to anthropometric characteristics, but may also be due to life style or diet. We studied healthy young sedentary women with Asian (ASN, n=40), Hispanic (HIS, n=39), or Caucasian (CAU, n=36) backgrounds. Body composition and regional BMD were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic) or PIXI (Lunar GE) for the heel and wrist). Leg strength was quantified with a leg press and dietary calcium was estimated with 3-d diet records. CAU were taller than HIS and ASN (p<0.01). ASN had lower body weights, fat mass, lean body mass, and leg strength than HIS or CAU (p<0.01). Differences in BMD among groups were not eliminated by adjusting for body weight and height at the arm, trochanter, femoral neck, and total hip where BMD values remained lower in the ASN than in HIS or CAU (p<0.01). Conversely, adjusted BMD at the wrist was 7.3% higher in ASN and 8.3% higher in HIS and at the heel, 7.3% higher in ASN and 7.0% higher in HIS than in CAU (p<0.05). Leg strength was a significant predictor of BMD in the hip in CAU (R=0.53, p=0.004), in the hip with dietary calcium in ASN (R=0.65, p=0.02), and in the heel with height in HIS (R=0.57, p=0.03). We conclude that significant factors underlying BMD in ethnically diverse young women vary as a function of ethnicity and include leg strength and dietary calcium as well as anthropometric characteristics.

  17. Genetic variation of the whole ICAM4 gene in Caucasians and African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Kshitij; Almarry, Noorah Salman; Flegel, Willy A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Landsteiner-Wiener (LW) is the human blood group system no. 16, which comprises 2 antithetical antigens, LWa and LWb and the high prevalence antigen LWab. LW is encoded by the Intracellular Adhesion Molecule 4 (ICAM4) gene. The ICAM4 protein is part of the Rhesus complex in the red cell membrane and is involved in cell-cell adhesion. Methods We developed a method to sequence the whole 1.9 kb ICAM4 gene from genomic DNA in 1 amplicon. We determined the nucleotide sequence of exons 1 to 3, the 2 introns and 402 bp 5′-UTR and 347 bp 3′-UTR in 97 Caucasian and 91 African American individuals. Results Seven variant ICAM4 alleles were found, distinct from the wild type ICAM4 allele (GenBank KF712272), known as LW*05 and encoding LWa. An effect of the LWa/LWb amino acid substitution on the protein structure was predicted by 2 of the 3 computational modeling programs used. Conclusions We describe a practical approach for sequencing and determining the ICAM4 alleles using genomic DNA. LW*05 is the ancestral allele, which had also been observed in a Neandertal sample. All 7 variant alleles are immediate derivatives of the prevalent LW*05 and caused by 1 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in each allele. Our data were consistent with the NHLBI GO Exome Sequencing Project (ESP) and the dbSNP databases, as all SNPs had been observed before. Our study has the advantage over the other databases in that it adds haplotype (allele) information for the ICAM4 gene, clinically relevant in the field of transfusion medicine. PMID:24673173

  18. Breast cancer and racial disparity between Caucasian and African American women, part 1 (BRCA-1).

    PubMed

    Tariq, Khurram; Latif, Naeem; Zaiden, Robert; Jasani, Nick; Rana, Fauzia

    2013-08-01

    Breast cancer is a commonly diagnosed malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related death among American women today. Despite the lower incidence of breast cancer among African American women, they are more likely to die from the disease each year than their white counterparts. We present a retrospective cohort study of the tumor registry data from electronic medical records of patients diagnosed with breast cancer at the University of Florida Health, Jacksonville from 2000 to 2005. A total of 907 patients were diagnosed with breast cancer; 445 patients with invasive breast cancer had complete medical records and were selected for this review. Much like previously published research, we found that African American patients presented with a more advanced stage and aggressive subtype of breast cancer than white patients, and were less likely to have health insurance. However, we have yet to determine if universal health care insurance can lead to improved health care access, better breast cancer awareness, and an enhanced attitude toward breast cancer screenings. Such factors would ultimately lead to an earlier diagnosis and better outcomes in both African American and white patients. We plan to investigate this critical issue in a follow-up study (BRCA-2; Breast Cancer and Racial Disparity Between Caucasian and African American Women, Part 2), which will begin a few years after the complete implementation of the universal health care law enacted by President Obama in 2010. The higher frequency of aggressive tumor subtypes in African American women warrants more attention. We suggest further research to determine whether decreasing the initial age for screening or increasing the frequency of mammograms in African American women would improve breast cancer outcomes. This study underscores the importance of identifying and preventing obstacles in routine breast cancer screening, as well as increasing breast cancer awareness.

  19. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Tomomi

    2012-09-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries. The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians. Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference, this alone cannot fully explain the lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries, nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States. Soy food consumption, more popular in Asian populations, is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen(PSA) is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status. Other biomarkers, such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA, may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone. Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West, and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genome-wide association studies. Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity. Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions, respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione S-transferase Pi(GSTP1); as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, aggressiveness, and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown. Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned. In this review, the differences in PSA screening practice, reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer, and genetic factors between the populations in East and West factors are

  20. Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to STAR mutations in a Caucasian patient

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Jasmeet; Casas, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Summary Lipoid congenital adrenal hyperplasia (lipoid CAH), the most severe form of CAH, is most commonly caused by mutations in steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (STAR), which is required for the movement of cholesterol from the outer to the inner mitochondrial membranes to synthesize pregnenolone. This study was performed to evaluate whether the salt-losing crisis and the adrenal inactivity experienced by a Scandinavian infant is due to a de novo STAR mutation. The study was conducted at the University of North Dakota, the Mercer University School of Medicine and the Memorial University Medical Center to identify the cause of this disease. The patient was admitted to a pediatric endocrinologist at the Sanford Health Center for salt-losing crisis and possible adrenal failure. Lipoid CAH is an autosomal recessive disease, we identified two de novo heterozygous mutations (STAR c.444C>A (STAR p.N148K) and STAR c.557C>T (STAR p.R193X)) in the STAR gene, causing lipoid CAH. New onset lipoid CAH can occur through de novo mutations and is not restricted to any specific region of the world. This Scandinavian family was of Norwegian descent and had lipoid CAH due to a mutation in S TAR exons 4 and 5. Overexpression of the STAR p.N148K mutant in nonsteroidogenic COS-1 cells supplemented with an electron transport system showed activity similar to the background level, which was ∼10% of that observed with wild-type (WT) STAR. Protein-folding analysis showed that the finger printing of the STAR p.N148K mutant is also different from the WT protein. Inherited STAR mutations may be more prevalent in some geographical areas but not necessarily restricted to those regions. Learning points STAR mutations cause lipoid CAH.This is a pure population from a caucasian family.Mutation ablated STAR activity.The mutation resulted in loosely folded conformation of STAR. PMID:27047663

  1. [Caucasian cryptic species of rodents as models for studying the problem of species and speciation].

    PubMed

    Baskevich, M I; Potapov, S G; Mironova, T A

    2015-01-01

    The problem of species and speciation is considered using as a model the cryptic species of rodents inhabiting the Caucasus, the mountain chain with prominent altitude environmental gradient and insular pattern of mountain habitats. These circumstances open additional possibilities for the choice of species conception (biological or phylogenetic), exploration of ancestry pathways (sympatric or allopatric speciation) of model cryptic species groups, and testing the 'refuge' hypothesis. As model species, sibling-species Sicista from the group 'caucasica' (a group of unstriped birch mice) and representatives of the vole subspecies Terricola (Microtus, Arvicolinae) were used. Based on the new data on karyology, nucleotide sequences of mitochondrial gene cytb, multivariate statistical analysis of odontologic traits, and biogeography of sibling-species Sicista from the group 'caucasica' and voles from subspecies Terricola (Microtus, Arvicolinae), their evolutionary history is reconstructed and applicable species concepts are examined. For the present sibling-species Sicista from the group 'caucasica' the allopatric dispersion is typical, which agrees with the hypothesis of speciation in refuges. The sympatry of Terricola sibling-species in the Caucasus is considered as being secondary, and their phenotypic likeness--as an adaptation to similar environmental conditions. Affirmed coexistence of sibling-species Microtus (Terricola) majori and Microtus (Terricola) daghestanicus in the Caucasus (without their hybridization) supports the biological conception of species. The existence of Sicista allospecies from the group of Caucasian unstriped birch mice is best conformed to the phylogenetic conception. However, the high level of chromosomal differences between sibling-species and, in particular, between extreme variants of common evolutionary line (Sicista kazbegica, Sicista kluchorica) does not contradict the biological conception of species. PMID:26353399

  2. Fibrosis Progression in African Americans and Caucasian Americans with Chronic Hepatitis C

    PubMed Central

    Terrault, N.A.; Im, K.; Boylan, R.; Bacchetti, P.; Kleiner, D.E.; Fontana, R.; Hoofnagle, J.H.; Belle, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Prior studies suggest the rate of liver fibrosis progression is slower in African-Americans (AA) than Caucasian-Americans (CA) with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Methods Using a multi-state Markov model, fibrosis progression was evaluated in a well-characterized cohort of 143 AA and 157 CA adults with untreated chronic HCV genotype 1 infection. In subjects with a history of injection drug use, duration of infection was imputed from a fitted risk model rather than assumed to be the reported first year of use. Results The distribution of Ishak fibrosis stages were 0 (8.7%), 1/2 (55.7%), 3/4 (29.3%) and 5/6 (6.3%), and was similar in AA and CA (p= 0.22). After adjusting for biopsy adequacy, AA had a 10% lower rate of fibrosis progression than did CA, but the difference was not statistically significant (hazard ratio = 0.90, 95% confidence intervals = 0.72, 1.12). The overall 20-year estimates of probabilities of progression from stage 0 to stages 1/2, 3/4 and 5/6 were 59.3%, 28.8% and 4.7%. The estimated median time from no fibrosis to cirrhosis was 79 years for the entire cohort, and 74 and 83 years for CA and AA, respectively. In 3-variable models including race and biopsy adequacy, the factors significantly associated with fibrosis progression were age when infected, steatosis, ALT level, and necroinflammatory score. Conclusions The rates of fibrosis progression were slow and did not appear to differ substantially between AA and CA. PMID:19081528

  3. Voices from the margin: a case study of a rural lesbian's experience with woman-to-woman sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to understand how a lesbian survivor coped with traumatic stress resulting from woman-to-woman sexual violence in a rural context. This research was grounded on the feminist paradigm, and the case study approach was used for data collection and analysis. The results indicate that the lesbian survivor encountered numerous obstacles to admitting the rape and seeking help. A number of these perceived challenges were associated with the rural sociocultural context (e.g., conservative culture, religious fundamentalism, low levels of anonymity, small gay/lesbian communities, and geographical isolation), myths of lesbian utopia, a heterosexist legal system, and a lack of lesbian-friendly helping resources. Despite being confronted with numerous challenges, the survivor demonstrated her resilience through the use of a variety of strategies to cope with the rape aftermath and detrimental social reactions. Positive social support from her gay and lesbian friends also facilitated her recovery. The findings highlight the importance of considering the intersection of trauma and cultural oppression in understanding lesbian survivors' experiences with same-sex sexual assault. PMID:21491312

  4. Voices from the margin: a case study of a rural lesbian's experience with woman-to-woman sexual violence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Wei

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this case study is to understand how a lesbian survivor coped with traumatic stress resulting from woman-to-woman sexual violence in a rural context. This research was grounded on the feminist paradigm, and the case study approach was used for data collection and analysis. The results indicate that the lesbian survivor encountered numerous obstacles to admitting the rape and seeking help. A number of these perceived challenges were associated with the rural sociocultural context (e.g., conservative culture, religious fundamentalism, low levels of anonymity, small gay/lesbian communities, and geographical isolation), myths of lesbian utopia, a heterosexist legal system, and a lack of lesbian-friendly helping resources. Despite being confronted with numerous challenges, the survivor demonstrated her resilience through the use of a variety of strategies to cope with the rape aftermath and detrimental social reactions. Positive social support from her gay and lesbian friends also facilitated her recovery. The findings highlight the importance of considering the intersection of trauma and cultural oppression in understanding lesbian survivors' experiences with same-sex sexual assault.

  5. A descriptive study of high school Latino and Caucasian students' values about math, perceived math achievement and STEM career choice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez Flecha, Samuel

    The purpose of this study was to examine high school students' math values, perceived math achievement, and STEM career choice. Participants (N=515) were rural high school students from the U.S. Northwest. Data was collected by administering the "To Do or Not to Do:" STEM pilot survey. Most participants (n=294) were Latinos, followed by Caucasians (n=142). Fifty-three percent of the students rated their math achievement as C or below. Of high math students, 57% were male. Females were 53% of low math students. Caucasians (61%) rated themselves as high in math in a greater proportion than Latinos (39%). Latinos (58%) rated themselves as low in math in a greater proportion than Caucasians (39%). Math Values play a significant role in students' perceived math achievement. Internal math values (r =.68, R2 =.46, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.70, R2 =.49, p =.001; females: r =.65, R2 =.43, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.66, R2 =.44, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.72, R2 =.51, p =.001). External math values (r =.53, R2 =.28, p =.001) influenced perceived math achievement regardless of gender (males: r =.54, R2 =.30, p =.001; females: r =.49, R2 =.24, p =.001), for Latinos (r =.47, R2 =.22, p =.001), and Caucasians (r =.58, R2 =.33, p =.001). Most high-math students indicated an awareness of being good at math at around 11 years old. Low-math students said that they realized that math was difficult for them at approximately 13 years of age. The influence of parents, teachers, and peers may vary at different academic stages. Approximately half of the participants said there was not a person who had significantly impacted their career choice; only a minority said their parents and teachers were influencing them to a STEM career. Parents and teachers are the most influential relationships in students' career choice. More exposure to STEM role models and in a variety of professions is needed. Possible strategies to impact students

  6. Urea metabolism in beef steers grazing bermudagrass, caucasian bluestem, or gamagrass pastures varying in plant morphology, protein content, and protein composition.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Our objective was to evaluate pastures of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon, BG), caucasian bluestem (Bothriochloa caucasica, CBS), and gamagrass (Tripsacum dactyloides, GG) from the perspectives of forage composition, selection during grazing, and N metabolism in beef steers. All pastures were ferti...

  7. Effect of Nutrition Education by Paraprofessionals on Dietary Intake, Maternal Weight Gain, and Infant Birth Weight in Pregnant Native American and Caucasian Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hermann, Janice; Williams, Glenna; Hunt, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Evaluation of nutrition instruction provided to 366 pregnant Native American and Caucasian teens by paraprofessionals determined that it effectively improved their dietary intake, maternal weight gain, and infant birth weight. Further modifications for Native Americans were suggested. (SK)

  8. Aortic dissection accompanied by preeclampsia in a postpartum young woman

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin-Wan; Kim, Su-Mi; Yu, Gyu-Bong

    2016-01-01

    Aortic dissection is very rare in obstetrics, but it is a fatal disease. A 37-weeks primigravida woman with dyspnea and pitting edema presented to our emergency room. The patient was diagnosed with preeclampsia and underwent an emergency cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. The patient complained of severe dyspnea after the cesarean section, and the chest computed tomography scan was done. With the finding of aortic dissection, cardiopulmonary arrest occurred 5 hours after the cesarean section, and the patient died without reaction to cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. If a patient with preeclampsia complains of severe dyspnea or chest pain, aortic dissection needs to be suspected and a diagnosis should not be delayed. PMID:27668205

  9. A case of sigmoid colon duplication in an adult woman.

    PubMed

    Al-Jaroof, Abdulla Hassan; Al-Zayer, Faisal; Meshikhes, Abdul-Wahed Nasir

    2014-01-01

    Colonic duplication is a rare congenital anomaly that is often diagnosed in childhood, but may go unrecognised until adulthood. It often presents with chronic abdominal pain and constipation, and the preoperative diagnosis may be difficult. We present a case of sigmoid duplication in a 33-year-old Indonesian woman who presented with right-sided colicky abdominal pain and vomiting. Clinical examination was unremarkable and radiological investigations raised the possibility of a giant colon diverticulum. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy that revealed a tubular sigmoid duplication. A sigmoid colectomy with end-to-end anastomosis was performed. She was discharged a week later and remained well at 1 year follow-up. Colon duplications rarely present in adult life and the accurate diagnosis is often made at laparotomy. PMID:25096653

  10. Uterine Clear Cell Carcinoma of Postmenopausal Woman: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chung, Soo-Ho; Park, Jung-Woo

    2016-08-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Clear cell carcinoma typically occurs in the ovaries, and very rarely occurs in the endometrium; it accounts for less than 3% of all endometrial cancers. It is presumed that clear cell carcinomas are of Müllerian duct origin, and an association with exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) or other nonsteroidal follicle stimulating hormones has been described. We report a case of a postmenopausal woman who presented with vaginal bleeding without a specific medical history. Under the impression of an endometrial mass, we performed a laparoscopic operation. Pathologic results showed clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Depth of invasion was 0.2 cm out of a 0.5 cm total thickness, and the rectal shelf mass was clear cell carcinoma. We report the case with a brief review of the relevant literature. PMID:27617248

  11. Generalized Hypertrichosis Induced by Topical Minoxidil in an Adult Woman.

    PubMed

    Chellini, Patrícia Rocha; Pirmez, Rodrigo; Raso, Paula; Sodré, Celso T

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrichosis is a common side effect of topical minoxidil and has been reported to occur mainly close to the areas of application. In this paper, we present a case of a 26-year-old woman who developed generalized hypertrichosis 8 weeks after treatment with 5% topical minoxidil solution for alopecia areata. Generalized hypertrichosis is a rare side effect and has been described mainly in children and adolescents. Even though minoxidil is commonly prescribed for alopecia areata, there is insufficient evidence to support its systematic use and the occurrence of adverse effects should prompt drug interruption. Nonetheless, topical minoxidil has been shown to be a safe medication for adult patients, and we believe that the present case was an isolated one, possibly resulting from the misuse of the drug. PMID:26903750

  12. Generalized Hypertrichosis Induced by Topical Minoxidil in an Adult Woman

    PubMed Central

    Chellini, Patrícia Rocha; Pirmez, Rodrigo; Raso, Paula; Sodré, Celso T

    2015-01-01

    Hypertrichosis is a common side effect of topical minoxidil and has been reported to occur mainly close to the areas of application. In this paper, we present a case of a 26-year-old woman who developed generalized hypertrichosis 8 weeks after treatment with 5% topical minoxidil solution for alopecia areata. Generalized hypertrichosis is a rare side effect and has been described mainly in children and adolescents. Even though minoxidil is commonly prescribed for alopecia areata, there is insufficient evidence to support its systematic use and the occurrence of adverse effects should prompt drug interruption. Nonetheless, topical minoxidil has been shown to be a safe medication for adult patients, and we believe that the present case was an isolated one, possibly resulting from the misuse of the drug. PMID:26903750

  13. Uterine Clear Cell Carcinoma of Postmenopausal Woman: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Clear cell carcinoma typically occurs in the ovaries, and very rarely occurs in the endometrium; it accounts for less than 3% of all endometrial cancers. It is presumed that clear cell carcinomas are of Müllerian duct origin, and an association with exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) or other nonsteroidal follicle stimulating hormones has been described. We report a case of a postmenopausal woman who presented with vaginal bleeding without a specific medical history. Under the impression of an endometrial mass, we performed a laparoscopic operation. Pathologic results showed clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Depth of invasion was 0.2 cm out of a 0.5 cm total thickness, and the rectal shelf mass was clear cell carcinoma. We report the case with a brief review of the relevant literature.

  14. Case report of unilateral eosinophilic fasciitis in a Vietnamese woman.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Rodney S; Brown, Alan N

    2009-02-01

    Symmetric skin thickening of the limbs with deep fascial inflammation is the hallmark of eosinophilic fasciitis. We describe a woman who presented with unilateral progressive skin thickening. Examination of a full-thickness skin biopsy revealed an inflammatory process and fascial changes consistent with eosinophilic fasciitis. In contrast to other scleroderma mimics, eosinophilic fasciitis generally responds rapidly to glucocorticoid therapy. It is possible that unilateral eosinophilic fasciitis is under-recognized and can easily be misdiagnosed as another scleroderma variant if a full-thickness biopsy is not reviewed by a dermatopathologist. Recognition of this subtype of eosinophilic fasciitis is important given the profound differences in prognosis of eosinophilic fasciitis and other scleroderma variants.

  15. Uterine Clear Cell Carcinoma of Postmenopausal Woman: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Soo-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Clear cell carcinoma typically occurs in the ovaries, and very rarely occurs in the endometrium; it accounts for less than 3% of all endometrial cancers. It is presumed that clear cell carcinomas are of Müllerian duct origin, and an association with exposure to diethylstilbestrol (DES) or other nonsteroidal follicle stimulating hormones has been described. We report a case of a postmenopausal woman who presented with vaginal bleeding without a specific medical history. Under the impression of an endometrial mass, we performed a laparoscopic operation. Pathologic results showed clear cell carcinoma of the endometrium. Depth of invasion was 0.2 cm out of a 0.5 cm total thickness, and the rectal shelf mass was clear cell carcinoma. We report the case with a brief review of the relevant literature. PMID:27617248

  16. Dorrit Hoffleit: A Century of being a Woman in Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffleit, Dorrit; Gay, P. L.

    2006-12-01

    From working as one of Harlan J. Smith's female calculators in 1928 to running Maria Mitchell Observatory in 1957 to being an emeritus research scientist at Yale University today, Dr. Dorrit Hoffleit has been a professional woman in astronomy for 78 years and an astronomy lover for a century. She has faced both accolades, starting with the Carolyn Wilby Prize in 1938 for her dissertation work, as well as discrimination, most notably being hired at the Aberdeen Proving Ground at a sub-professional rating during WWII. Through both good and bad, she kept her eye on the stars, and her focus on doing the best work she could. In this presentation, Dr. Hoffleit reflects on her experiences and her inspirations in an video-interview. Additionally, archival film provided by the AAVSO will be shown.

  17. Aortic dissection accompanied by preeclampsia in a postpartum young woman.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin-Wan; Kim, Su-Mi; Yu, Gyu-Bong; Kang, Yun-Dan

    2016-09-01

    Aortic dissection is very rare in obstetrics, but it is a fatal disease. A 37-weeks primigravida woman with dyspnea and pitting edema presented to our emergency room. The patient was diagnosed with preeclampsia and underwent an emergency cesarean section under spinal anesthesia. The patient complained of severe dyspnea after the cesarean section, and the chest computed tomography scan was done. With the finding of aortic dissection, cardiopulmonary arrest occurred 5 hours after the cesarean section, and the patient died without reaction to cardio-pulmonary resuscitation. If a patient with preeclampsia complains of severe dyspnea or chest pain, aortic dissection needs to be suspected and a diagnosis should not be delayed. PMID:27668205

  18. Primary retroperitoneal lymphocele in a pregnant woman: the first report.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Tetsuhiro; Miyauchi, Yuuki; Nishio, Shunji; Shimamoto, Kenji; Tanji, Nozomu; Yokoyama, Masayoshi

    2006-04-01

    In a 32-year-old pregnant woman, routine ultrasonography revealed right hydronephrosis and a huge retroperitoneal mass (20 x 7 cm) containing a fluid collection. Percutaneous drainage of the mass was performed and 2 L of clear, yellowish fluid was collected. Four months following the delivery, a recurrent retroperitoneal lymphocele was identified. Six months after the delivery, laparoscopic marsupialization was performed through a 10-mm umbilical camera port and two 5-mm ports on the right side of the abdomen. A posterior peritoneal window was established by creating a wide opening in the anterior wall of the lymphocele. Subsequent ultrasonography did not indicate a recurrence of the lymphocele or right hydronephrosis over a follow-up period of 8 months.

  19. An 80-year-old woman with left shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Sb

    2010-01-01

    This case history illustrates the real life experience and dilemma of an 80-year-old woman in pursuit of medical care for her left shoulder pain. Points for discussion range from clinical features of Pancoast tumor, importance of pain management, good principles of Family Medicine and Palliative care to ethical issues of conspiracy of silence, limited treatment plan and palliative versus curative radiotherapy treatment without a known biopsy report. This paper provides opportunity for analysis of a real complex clinical situation, application of medical knowledge to problem solving in clinical practice and relevant topics for discussions. (For anonymity sake, the names of patient, doctors, general and private hospitals are not mentioned. The aim of this paper is solely for continuous medical education without any intention to ridicule any party).

  20. A Woman with Recurrent Hemoptysis, a Rare Etiology.

    PubMed

    Jitruckthai, Pasakorn

    2015-06-01

    Bronchopulmonary endometriosis is a rare clinical entity of thoracic endometriosis syndrome (TES). The diagnosis is often delayed because of high index of clinical suspicion is needed. We submit a case of 32-year-old healthy woman presenting with recurrent non-massive hemoptysis with the onset of menses for six months. Computed tomography scans of the chest revealed ill-defined ground glass opacity in superior segment of right lower lobe. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed during the menstruation showed diffuse erythema along distal trachea through lobar bronchus. These findings disappeared when repeated at the end of menstrual cycle. Cytologic findings of bronchial wash suggested the evidence of old hemorrhage and the endometrial cells. After treatment with depot medroxyprogesterone acetate, hemoptysis did not occur for 12 months of follow-up. Based on clinical features and response to treatment, bronchopulmonay endometriosis was diagnosed.

  1. Adrenal gland teratoma in a 40-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Shrestha, M K; Lalchan, S

    2010-09-01

    Teratoma is a germ-cell tumor that commonly affects the gonads. Extragondal teratoma is a rare entity. Teratoma in the region of adrenal gland is a rare and uncommon retroperitoneal tumor; only few cases have been reported. This case report describes such a tumor in a 40-year-old-woman who presented with multiple vague complaints. Ultrasonography of the abdomen showed a mixed echogenic mass with areas of calcification in right suprarenal region and a lymph nodal mass in the right renal hilar region. Computed tomography showed a mass containing fat, calcification and soft tissue component in right supra-renal region indenting the superior pole of kidney. Intraoperatively a supra-renal tumor was found within in a pseudocapsule that covered most of the tumor with a part of duodenum fixed to the mass.

  2. Enlightenment via simulation: "crone-ology's" first woman.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    A little known 18th century midwife, Angélique Marguerite Le Boursier (1715-1794) may well be the true founder of modern surgical simulation. This fiercely independent medical practitioner stood equally amongst the many enlightened minds of this period and fought with every modern method to reduce infant/maternal mortality during childbirth. Her original textbook Abrégé utilized some of the first color anatomical illustrations, her method of teaching complex birthing techniques to peasant woman throughout France, and most notably her birthing simulator complete with fluids (wet ware) were all available for close scrutiny. The color illustrations in Abrégé remain profoundly effective but the only existent models of her simulator are even more remarkable. Le Boursier du Coudray sought to bring education to the woman and physicians in villages and towns throughout France in response to the population crisis and the high birth morbidity and mortality. Her teaching methods affected untold thousands of medical practitioners, from midwives to surgeons. Voltaire wrote about her and she became an icon of progressive France, but remained ostracized by much of the conventional medical practitioners. She continued to train midwives for 23 years before retiring at the age of nearly 70. Madame du Coudray began to write, illustrate and simulate in the mid 18th century and obtained unprecedented success in bringing to the public the humane practices of modern childbirth with relevant understanding of anatomy and physiology. She is the matron not only of modern simulation methods in healthcare but was the epitome of professional healthcare commitment, educating approximately 10,000 students regardless of social status for free. PMID:19961335

  3. Carbonic Anhydrase II Deficiency in a Saudi Woman

    PubMed Central

    Alhuzaim, Omar N; Almohareb, Ohoud M; Sherbeeni, Safiya M

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Carbonic anhydrase (CA) II deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutation in the CA II gene that leads to osteopetrosis, renal tubular acidosis (RTA), and cerebral calcification. Our aim is to present a patient with the classic triad of CA II deficiency syndrome to enhance the awareness about this rare syndrome. METHODS We describe the clinical and radiological findings of a Saudi woman patient with CA II deficiency syndrome. RESULTS A Saudi woman in her 20s presented to our hospital for evaluation of increased bone density. She was known to have delayed developmental milestone with growth retardation and poor scholastic performance. She had multiple fragile fractures started at the age of 15 involving the lower extremities. A physical examination revealed dysmorphic features and intellectual disability with intelligence quotient (IQ) of 36. The initial blood workup showed a picture of distal RTA with hypokalemia, and the radiological imaging confirmed the presence of osteopetrosis and multiple kidney stones. The combination of osteopetrosis with RTA raised the possibility of CA II deficiency. Therefore, computed tomography (CT) of the brain was done and showed intracranial calcification involving the basal ganglia. She was started on potassium chloride and sodium bicarbonate. In addition, she underwent right-sided percutaneous nephrolithotripsy. Her DNA analysis came to show a sequence variant c.232+1G>A, which was detected in both of the CA II genes (homozygous). CONCLUSION Early recognition of the disease is a key, as an early appropriate treatment institution is essential in order to prevent further complications. PMID:25674028

  4. Enlightenment via simulation: "crone-ology's" first woman.

    PubMed

    Moran, Michael E

    2010-01-01

    A little known 18th century midwife, Angélique Marguerite Le Boursier (1715-1794) may well be the true founder of modern surgical simulation. This fiercely independent medical practitioner stood equally amongst the many enlightened minds of this period and fought with every modern method to reduce infant/maternal mortality during childbirth. Her original textbook Abrégé utilized some of the first color anatomical illustrations, her method of teaching complex birthing techniques to peasant woman throughout France, and most notably her birthing simulator complete with fluids (wet ware) were all available for close scrutiny. The color illustrations in Abrégé remain profoundly effective but the only existent models of her simulator are even more remarkable. Le Boursier du Coudray sought to bring education to the woman and physicians in villages and towns throughout France in response to the population crisis and the high birth morbidity and mortality. Her teaching methods affected untold thousands of medical practitioners, from midwives to surgeons. Voltaire wrote about her and she became an icon of progressive France, but remained ostracized by much of the conventional medical practitioners. She continued to train midwives for 23 years before retiring at the age of nearly 70. Madame du Coudray began to write, illustrate and simulate in the mid 18th century and obtained unprecedented success in bringing to the public the humane practices of modern childbirth with relevant understanding of anatomy and physiology. She is the matron not only of modern simulation methods in healthcare but was the epitome of professional healthcare commitment, educating approximately 10,000 students regardless of social status for free.

  5. Symptoms of psychosis in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder: A comparison of African Americans and Caucasians in the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Greg; Kotov, Roman; Fu, Jinmiao; Bromet, Evelyn J; Fochtmann, Laura J; Medeiros, Helena; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported differences between African Americans and Caucasians in relative proportion of psychotic symptoms and disorders, but whether this reflects racial bias in the assessment of psychosis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of psychotic symptoms and potential bias in symptoms assessed via semi-structured interview using a cohort of 3,389 African American and 5,692 Caucasian participants who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. In this cohort, the diagnosis of schizophrenia was relatively more common, and the diagnosis of bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder-bipolar type was less relatively common, among African Americans than Caucasians. With regard to symptoms, relatively more African Americans than Caucasians endorsed hallucinations and delusions symptoms, and this pattern was striking among cases diagnosed with bipolar disorder and schizoaffective-bipolar disorder. In contrast, the relative endorsement of psychotic symptoms was more similar among cases diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder-depressed type. Differential item function analysis revealed that African Americans with mild psychosis over-endorsed "hallucinations in any modality" and under-endorsed "widespread delusions" relative to Caucasians. Other symptoms did not show evidence of racial bias. Thus, racial bias in assessment of psychotic symptoms does not appear to explain differences in the proportion of symptoms between Caucasians and African Americans. Rather, this may reflect ascertainment bias, perhaps indicative of a disparity in access to services, or differential exposure to risk factors for psychosis by race. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. A comparison study of the reference curves of bone mineral density at different skeletal sites in native Chinese, Japanese, and American Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Wu, X P; Liao, E Y; Huang, G; Dai, R C; Zhang, H

    2003-08-01

    To understand the differences among reference curves for bone mineral density (BMD) for Chinese, Japanese, and American Caucasian women, we measured the BMD at the anteroposterior (AP) lumbar spine (L1-L4), lateral lumbar spine (L2-L4), hip (including the femoral neck, trochanter, intertrochanter, Ward's triangle, and total hip), and ultradistal forearm by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in a total of 2728 healthy Chinese women, aged 5-96 years. Documented BMD data for Japanese women and device manufacturer's BMD new reference databases (including the NHANES III dataset) for American Caucasian women were also used in this study. The cubic regression model was found to fit best in analyzing the age-associated variations of BMD at various sites in Chinese women, i.e., the equations had the largest coefficient of determination (R2). At the AP/Lat spine, trochanter, intertrochanter, and Ward's triangle, BMD reference curves for Chinese women were lower than those for Japanese or Caucasian women, while at the femoral neck, total hip, and ultradistal forearm, the reference curves for Chinese women were higher than those for Japanese women, with overlaps and crossing of the curves for some age spans in comparing the Chinese and Caucasian women. There were significant differences in the peak BMD (PBMD) at various sites among the Chinese, Japanese, and Caucasian women (P = 0.000). The PBMDs for Chinese women at the lumbar spine and various sites of the hip were 5.7% +/- 2.1% (mean +/- SD, range, 2.7-7.9%) lower than those for Japanese women and 5.1% +/- 2.7% (range, 0.5-7.2%) lower than those for Caucasian women; however, the PBMDs for Chinese women were 26.2% higher than those for Japanese women and 10% higher than those for Caucasian women at the ultradistal forearm. After the PBMD, average T-scores of Chinese women for losses at the AP lumbar spine with increasing age were nearly identical to those for Japanese women, but both were greater than those for

  7. Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton rubrum in a woman and Tinea capitis in her 15-day-old baby: molecular evidence of vertical transmission.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, E T M; Borghi, E; Cerri, A; Sciota, R; Morace, G; Menni, S

    2012-03-01

    We report a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman who came under our observation with a 7-year history of a chronic erythematous scaly dermatitis, diagnosed as psoriasis, involving gluteal area and thighs, and treated with topical steroids without benefit. During pregnancy, a progressive worsening of her condition and an extension of cutaneous lesions were observed. Her newborn, a 15-day-old girl, presented a similar scaly and squamous lesion on her scalp. Mycological examination was positive for Trichophyton rubrum in both cases, and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis confirmed the isogenicity of the two isolates. We performed a diagnosis of T. rubrum tinea corporis and tinea capitis. The case we describe illustrates an unusual clinical presentation of tinea corporis with remarkable extension of cutaneous lesions due to the diagnostic delay and the continuous use of local steroids, together with a rare tinea capitis in the newborn. Our experience highlights the possibility of mother-child transmission and the importance of an early diagnosis.

  8. Reduced endothelial function in the skin in Southeast Asians compared to Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Sott; Alshammari, Faris; Lee, Haneul; Hamdan, Adel; Yim, Jong Eun; Shetye, Gauri; Neupane, Sushma; Somanaboina, Karunakar; Pathak, Kunal; Shenoy, Samruddha; Dave, Bhargav; Cho, Sungkwan; Chen, Wei-Ti; Nevgi, Bhakti; Moniz, Harold; Alshaharani, Mastour; Malthane, Swapnil; Desai, Rajavi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The reaction of vascular endothelial cells to occlusion and heat in Southeast Asian Indians (SAI) compared to Caucasians (C) has not been studied, although genetic differences are found in endothelial cells between the races. Material/Methods Ten C and Ten SAI (<35 years old) male and female subjects participated. There was no difference in the demographics of the subjects except that the SAI group had been in the United States for 6 months; C was natives to the US. Endothelial function was assessed by the response of the circulation (BF) to local heating and the response to vascular occlusion. The effects of local heat on circulation in the skin on the forearm was assessed by applying heat for 6 minutes at temperatures, 38, 40 and 42°C on 3 separate days. On different days, vascular occlusion was applied for 4 minutes to the same arm and skin blood flow was measured for 2 minutes after occlusion; skin temperature was either 31°C or 42°C. Results When occlusion was applied at a skin temperature of 31°C, the BF response to occlusion was significantly lower in the SAI cohort compared to C (peak BF C=617±88.2 flux, SAE=284±73 flux). The same effect was seen at skin temperatures of 42°C. The circulatory response to heat was also significantly less in SAI compared to C at each temperature examined (p<0.05)(for temperatures of 38, 40 and 42°C, peak blood flow for C was 374.7±81.2, 551.9±91.3 and 725.9±107 flux respectively and 248.5±86.2, 361.4±104.3 and 455.3±109.7 flux respectively for SAI. (p<0.05). Conclusions Thus there seems to be big differences in these 2 populations in endothelial response to these stressors. The difference may be due to genetic variations between the 2 groups of subjects. PMID:22207113

  9. Age and sex differences in tibia morphology in healthy adult Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Sherk, Vanessa D.; Bemben, Debra A.; Bemben, Michael G.; Anderson, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Variability in peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT) measurement sites limits direct comparisons of results between studies. Further, it is unclear what estimates of bone strength are most indicative of changes due to aging, disease, or interventions. The purpose of this study was to examine age group and sex differences in tibia morphology. Additional purposes of this study were to determine which tibia site or sites are most sensitive for detecting age and sex differences. Methods Self-identifying Caucasian men (n=55) and women (n=59) ages 20-59 years and separated by decades had their non-dominant tibias measured with pQCT (Stratec XCT 3000) at every 10% of the limb length from 5%-85% (distal to proximal). Volumetric BMD and BMC of the total, cortical and trabecular bone were determined, as well as periosteal (PeriC) and endosteal (EndoC) circumferences, and cortical thickness (CTh). Results There were significant (p<0.01) site effects for all BMC, vBMD, PeriC and EndoC measures. Large sex differences (men>women) in Tot.BMC (21-28%) were paralleled by differences in Cort.BMC (21-25%) (p<0.01). Site*sex interaction effects were significant (p<0.05) for BMC (peak sex difference: 5%, 15%, 25%, 85% sites) and circumference (peak sex difference: 65% site) variables. CTh and total vBMD were lowest (p<0.05) in 50-59 yr group, and EndoC was highest in the 50-59 yr group. Site*age interactions existed for Cort.vBMD, Tot.BMC (85% site), and EndoC (25%, 35%, 55%-85% sites). Correcting for bone free lean body mass (BFLBM) greatly reduced sex differences, eliminating sex*site interaction effects, but sex main effects remained significant. Correcting for BFLBM did not eliminate age effects. Conclusion The magnitude of age and sex differences in tibia variables varied by measurement site demonstrating the need for standardization of measurement sites. PMID:22449446

  10. BANK1 functional variants are associated with susceptibility to diffuse systemic sclerosis in Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, B; Gourh, P; Broen, J; Agarwal, S K; Simeon, C; Ortego-Centeno, N; Vonk, M C; Coenen, M; Riemekasten, G; Hunzelmann, N; Hesselstrand, R; Tan, F K; Reveille, J D; Assassi, S; Garcia-Hernandez, F J; Carreira, P; Camps, M; Fernandez-Nebro, A; de la Peña, P Garcia; Nearney, T; Hilda, D; Gónzalez-Gay, M A; Airo, P; Beretta, L; Scorza, R; Radstake, T R D J; Mayes, M D; Arnett, F C; Martin, J

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the possible association of the BANK1 gene with genetic susceptibility to systemic sclerosis (SSc) and its subphenotypes. Methods A large multicentre case–control association study including 2380 patients with SSc and 3270 healthy controls from six independent case–control sets of Caucasian ancestry (American, Spanish, Dutch, German, Swedish and Italian) was conducted. Three putative functional BANK1 polymorphisms (rs17266594 T/C, rs10516487 G/A, rs3733197 G/A) were selected as genetic markers and genotyped by Taqman 5´ allelic discrimination assay. Results A significant association of the rs10516487 G and rs17266594 T alleles with SSc susceptibility was observed (pooled OR=1.12, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.22; p=0.01 and pooled OR=1.14, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.25; p=0.003, respectively), whereas the rs3733197 genetic variant showed no statistically significant deviation. Stratification for cutaneous SSc phenotype showed that the BANK1 rs10516487 G, rs17266594 T and rs3733197 G alleles were strongly associated with susceptibility to diffuse SSc (dcSSc) (pooled OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.37, p=0.005; pooled OR=1.23, 95% CI 1.08 to 1.41, p=0.001; pooled OR=1.15, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.31, p=0.02, respectively). Similarly, stratification for specific SSc autoantibodies showed that the association of BANK1 rs10516487, rs17266594 and rs3733197 polymorphisms was restricted to the subgroup of patients carrying anti-topoisomerase I antibodies (pooled OR=1.20, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.41, p=0.03; pooled OR=1.24, 95% CI 1.05 to 1.46, p=0.01; pooled OR=1.26, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.47, p=0.004, respectively). Conclusion The results suggest that the BANK1 gene confers susceptibility to SSc in general, and specifically to the dcSSc and anti-topoisomerase I antibody subsets. PMID:19815934

  11. Network-based proteomic analysis for postmenopausal osteoporosis in Caucasian females.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan; Liu, Yao-Zhong; Zeng, Yong; Zhu, Wei; Zhao, Ying-Chun; Zhang, Ji-Gang; Zhu, Jia-Qiang; He, Hao; Shen, Hui; Tian, Qing; Deng, Fei-Yan; Papasian, Christopher J; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Menopause is one of the crucial physiological events during the life of a woman. Transition of menopause status is accompanied by increased risks of various health problems such as osteoporosis. Peripheral blood monocytes can differentiate into osteoclasts and produce cytokines important for osteoclast activity. With quantitative proteomics LC-nano-ESI-MS(E) (where MS(E) is elevated-energy MS), we performed protein expression profiling of peripheral blood monocytes in 42 postmenopausal women with discordant bone mineral density (BMD) levels. Traditional comparative analysis showed proteins encoded by four genes (LOC654188, PPIA, TAGLN2, YWHAB) and three genes (LMNB1, ANXA2P2, ANXA2) were significantly down- and upregulated, respectively, in extremely low- versus high-BMD subjects. To study functionally orchestrating groups of detected proteins in the form of networks, we performed weighted gene coexpression network analysis and gene set enrichment analysis. Weighted gene coexpression network analysis showed that the module including the annexin gene family was most significantly correlated with low BMD, and the lipid-binding related GO terms were enriched in this identified module. Gene set enrichment analysis revealed that two significantly enriched gene sets may be involved in postmenopausal BMD variation by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokines activities. To gain more insights into the proteomics data generated, we performed integrative analyses of the datasets available to us at the genome (DNA level), transcriptome (RNA level), and proteome levels jointly.

  12. Ethnicity and health care in cervical cancer survival: comparisons between a Filipino resident population, Filipino-Americans, and Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Redaniel, Maria Theresa; Laudico, Adriano; Mirasol-Lumague, Maria Rica; Gondos, Adam; Uy, Gemma Leonora; Toral, Jean Ann; Benavides, Doris; Brenner, Hermann

    2009-08-01

    Few studies have assessed and compared cervical cancer survival between developed and developing countries, or between ethnic groups within a country. Fewer still have addressed how much of the international or interracial survival differences can be attributed to ethnicity or health care. To determine the role of ethnicity and health care, 5-year survival of patients with cervical cancer was compared between patients in the Philippines and Filipino-Americans, who have the same ethnicity, and between Filipino-Americans and Caucasians, who have the same health care system. Cervical cancer databases from the Manila and Rizal Cancer Registries and Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results 13 were used. Age-adjusted 5-year survival estimates were computed and compared between the three patient groups. Using Cox proportional hazards modeling, potential determinants of survival differences were examined. Overall 5-year relative survival was similar in Filipino-Americans (68.8%) and Caucasians (66.6%), but was lower for Philippine residents (42.9%). Although late stage at diagnosis explained a large proportion of the survival differences between Philippine residents and Filipino-Americans, excess mortality prevailed after adjustment for stage, age, and morphology in multivariate analysis [relative risk (RR), 2.07; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.68-2.55]. Excess mortality decreased, but persisted, when treatments were included in the multivariate models (RR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.41-2.23). A moderate, marginally significant excess mortality was found among Caucasians compared with Filipino-Americans (adjusted RR, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01-1.47). The differences in cervical cancer survival between patients in the Philippines and in the United States highlight the importance of enhanced health care and access to diagnostic and treatment facilities in the Philippines.

  13. Monitoring landscape changes in Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi) habitat in Iran during the last two decades.

    PubMed

    Darvishi, Asef; Fakheran, Sima; Soffianian, Alireza

    2015-07-01

    Caucasian black grouse (Tetrao mlokosiewiczi) is on the 'red' list of species of high conservation concern as nearest threatened (NT) and also in level (I) of Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES). The black grouse distribution range in Iran is restricted to the Arasbaran region, Northwest of Iran, and the populations and range of this specialist bird species have been declining over the last decades. Management of forest and grassland structures is important for black grouse population survival. The main goals of this study were to monitor and quantify the landscape pattern changes in Caucasian black grouse habitat in the Arasbaran biosphere reserve in two periods of 14 years (1987-2001) and 10 years (2001-2011). For quantifying landscape pattern changes, various landscape metrics were derived by spatial analysis software FRAGSTATS 3.3, including NP (number of habitat patches), LPI (largest patch index) and TE (total edge). The results indicated that the proportion of forest decreased from 39.95 to 31.95% and the proportion of grassland decreased from 44.45 to 38.44% in the 24-year span. NP of forests increased in the first period and decreased in the second period of study. TE of dense forest at altitude above 1800 m decreased. Reduction of forest edge is an indicator of reduction in habitat availability for Caucasian black grouse which use the forest edge for living, lekking and hatching in upland. Our results provided quantitative data on habitat loss and fragmentation in the Arasbaran biosphere reserve and indicated negative impacts of the landscape structure changes on Black grouse habitat. PMID:26088757

  14. Association analyses of vitamin D-binding protein gene with compression strength index variation in Caucasian nuclear families

    PubMed Central

    Xu, X.-H.; Xiong, D.-H.; Liu, X.-G.; Guo, Y.; Chen, Y.; Zhao, J.; Recker, R. R.; Deng, H.-W.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This study was conducted to test whether there exists an association between vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) gene and compression strength index (CSI) phenotype. Candidate gene association analyses were conducted in total sample, male subgroup, and female subgroup, respectively. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with significant association results were found in males, suggesting the importance of DBP gene polymorphisms on the variation in CSI especially in Caucasian males. Introduction CSI of the femoral neck (FN) is a newly developed phenotype integrating information about bone size, body size, and bone mineral density. It is considered to have the potential to improve the performance of risk assessment for hip fractures because it is based on a combination of phenotypic traits influencing hip fractures rather than a single trait. CSI is under moderate genetic determination (with a heritability of ~44% found in this study), but the relevant genetic study is still rather scarce. Methods Based on the known physiological role of DBP in bone biology and the relatively high heritability of CSI, we tested 12 SNPs of the DBP gene for association with CSI variation in 405 Caucasian nuclear families comprising 1,873 subjects from the Midwestern US. Association analyses were performed in the total sample, male and female subgroups, respectively. Results Significant associations with CSI were found with two SNPs (rs222029, P=0.0019; rs222020, P=0.0042) for the male subgroup. Haplotype-based association tests corroborated the single-SNP results. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the DBP gene might be one of the genetic factors influencing CSI phenotype in Caucasians, especially in males. PMID:19543766

  15. The prognostic value of four interleukin-1 gene polymorphisms in caucasian women with breast cancer – a multicenter study

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 (IL-1) is known to play an important role in the carcinogenesis of breast cancer. Although IL-1 gene polymorphisms were reported to be associated with increased risk of breast cancer, their influence on survival of Caucasian breast cancer patients remains to be shown. Methods We studied the influence of four common gene polymorphisms (IL1A -889C/T, IL1B -511C/T, IL1B +3953E1/E2, and IL1RN long/2) of the IL-1 family on survival in 262 Caucasian patients with breast cancer by univariate and multivariate survival analysis. The combined effect of the four gene polymorphisms on overall survival was studied by haplotype analysis. Results In the present study 38 cases of cancer related death and a median time of follow-up (range) of 55.3 (0.4–175.8) months was observed. IL1RN 2/2 (homozygous mutant) gene polymorphism was associated with shortened disease free and overall survival in a univariate (p = 0.001 and p = 0.01, respectively) and multivariate analysis (p = 0.002, Odds Ratio [95% Confidence Interval] = 3.6 [1.6–8.0] and p = 0.05, Odds Ratio = 3.0 [1.1–9.3], respectively). Presence of the homozygous mutant genotype of the IL1A -889 and IL1B +3953 gene polymorphism was associated with overall survival in the univariate (p = 0.004 and p = 0.002, respectively), but not in the multivariate analysis. No association was observed between all possible haplotype combinations and overall survival. Conclusion Carriage of the mutant alleles of IL1RN was independently associated with shortened disease free and overall survival rates in Caucasian patients with breast cancer. PMID:19267917

  16. Comparison of Anthropometric Data Between Asian and Caucasian Patients With Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jae Hoon; Choi, Ji Ho; Suh, Jeffrey D.; Ryu, Seungho; Cho, Seok Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Obesity is considered to be one of the most important risk factors for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) but less is known about the role of ethnicity in OSA. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interethnic difference of obesity-related phenotypes in OSA and to reveal the role of ethnicity in OSA. Methods We searched MEDLINE, LILACS, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library using the key words “sleep apnea,” “body mass index,” “neck circumference,” “waist circumference,” “waist to hip ratio,” etc. Inclusion criteria were adults over 18 years of age, and studies that included polysomnography, obesity-related parameters, and a clear demarcation of ethnicity in the patient population. Included studies were reviewed by 2 independent reviewers. The following information was collected for controls and OSA: number, age, gender, country, ethnicity (Asian or Caucasian), study design, apnea-hypopnea index/respiratory disturbance index, body mass index (BMI), neck circumference (NC), waist circumference (WC), and/or waist to hip ratio (WHR). Results A total of 8,312 publications were retrieved with a subsequent 19 manuscripts that met the selection criteria. A total of 2,966 patients were included for analysis. The main findings were as follows: There was no difference in BMI, WC, and WHR between patients with OSA and controls after accounting for publication bias; Patients with OSA have greater NC than controls (standard mean difference, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.63 to 1.14); and There was no difference in NC between Asian and Caucasians patients (P=0.178). Conclusion OSA might not be related with BMI, WC, and WHR. Only NC demonstrated a strong association with OSA, and this finding was not different between Asians and Caucasians. PMID:26976019

  17. Clinical and Immunologic Manifestations of Mixed Connective Tissue Disease in a Miami Population Compared to a Midwestern US Caucasian Population

    PubMed Central

    Maldonado, Marcos E.; Perez, Magdalena; Pignac-Kobinger, Judith; Marx, Emily Triana; Tozman, Elaine M.; Greidinger, Eric L.; Hoffman, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    Objective A cross-sectional study of mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) was performed to determine if there were identifiable differences in the clinical expression of MCTD associated with race or ethnicity. Methods Miami, Florida, and Midwestern US (Missouri) Caucasian MCTD cohorts were studied. Clinical and laboratory features of the 2 MCTD cohorts were compared. A concurrently collected cohort of Sm-positive patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was studied as a control. Disease activity and severity and functional status were measured. CD4+CD25high-expressing T-regulatory cells were enumerated and serum soluble L selectin was measured as biomarkers of disease activity. Results The Miami and Missouri Caucasian MCTD groups, while differing from the SLE group, were largely similar; however, gastroesophageal reflux, sclerodactyly, and malar rash were significantly more frequent in the Missouri MCTD group and alopecia was more frequent in the Miami MCTD group. Significant clinical and laboratory differences were found between the Miami MCTD and Miami SLE groups despite similar disease duration, activity, severity and functional status. Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), hand swelling, synovitis, myositis, and sclerodactyly were all significantly more common in RNP-positive MCTD versus Sm-positive SLE subjects. Conclusion Ethnic differences were observed in the frequency of end-organ involvement in the Miami MCTD versus the Missouri Caucasian MCTD groups. Clinical and laboratory features of all MCTD groups were clearly different from the SLE group, despite similar disease activity, disease severity, and functional status. Disease activity measures appeared to behave similarly as valid measures of disease activity in SLE and MCTD. PMID:18260175

  18. 76 FR 78569 - Medical Benefits for Newborn Children of Certain Woman Veterans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-19

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO05 Medical Benefits for Newborn Children of Certain Woman Veterans... to provide certain health care services to a newborn child of a woman veteran who is receiving... days after the birth of the child if the veteran delivered the child in a VA facility or in...

  19. Myra Beltran and the Aesthetics of an Independent Filipina Woman Dancing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corpus, Rina Angela P.

    2008-01-01

    This essay narrates the biography and dance aesthetics of Myra Beltran, a pioneering, independent and contemporary woman dance artist in the Philippines. Featured here are the history, alternative aesthetics, philosophy, and influences of Myra Beltran's works. It comes from the point of view of an author who is also a woman, dancer, and writer…

  20. Lessons from a Black Woman Administrator: "I'm Still Here"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowdy, Joanne Kilgour; Hamilton, Awilda

    2012-01-01

    This case study presents the findings from a qualitative research project about a Black woman scholar, the first non-White female to serve as chair of a department and the associate dean of the college in its 100 year history. The study focuses on the experiences of a Black woman scholar as a chairperson and the learning she achieved during her…

  1. Complex Personhood as the Context for Intimate Partner Victimization: One American Indian Woman's Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Sharon; Lemire, Lynne; Wisman, Mindi

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative case study explores one American Indian (AI) woman's experience of intimate partner violence and the subsequent murder of her abusive partner. The lens of complex personhood (Gordon, 1997) has been applied as a method for understanding "Annie's" multiple identities of AI woman, victim of intimate partner violence, mother, and…

  2. Stress and Coping in Higher Education: A Case Study of a Haitian American Woman Administrator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfgang, Jeff Drayton; West-Olatunji, Cirecie A.; Overton, Jeanine; Shah, Bindi; Coral, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The authors applied Relational-Cultural Theory (RCT) to conduct a case study of an Afro-Caribbean woman administrator to explore her perceptions of stress and coping in higher education. While much has been written about the challenges facing Black faculty and students, this study focused on the experiences of a Black woman administrator in a…

  3. 76 FR 81004 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Woman in Blue, Against...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF STATE Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Woman in Blue, Against Blue Water..., 2003), I hereby determine that the object ``Woman in Blue, Against Blue Water'' by Edvard...

  4. Perceptual Differences between Married and Single College Men for Concepts of Ideal Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hipple, John L.

    1976-01-01

    Examines perceptions of married and unmarried college males for their concept of Ideal Woman. Uses a questionnaire designed to ascertain the degree to which men expected their Ideal Woman to be either home centered or out of home centered. (Editor/RK)

  5. Concepts Of Self And Ideal Woman Held By College Women: A Replication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Jacqueline H.; Skinner, Denise A.

    1975-01-01

    Married and single female college students were compared in their perceptions of self, ideal woman, and man's ideal woman. Perceptions of female sex-role held by college women in 1969 and 1973 were also compared. Differences were found between the 1969 and 1973 groups. (Author)

  6. Doubt, Struggle and Growth: A Profile of the Mature Woman in the Student Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Carey D.; Blank, Thomas O.

    This study was conducted to develop a profile of the mature woman who seeks a postsecondary education, to ascertain the personal and social reasons that influence an adult woman to return to school, and to describe the interpersonal adjustments that accompany this change in life-style. Data were collected via a 50-item fixed-response questionnaire…

  7. The Role of Hostile and Benevolent Sexism in Women's and Men's Perceptions of the Menstruating Woman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Gordon B.; Adams-Curtis, Leah E.; White, Kay B.; Holmgren, Katie M.

    2003-01-01

    Perceptions of menstruating women were studied in a sample of 244, predominantly European American, college freshmen. Both women and men rated the menstruating woman, as compared with the average woman, as higher on the Neuroticism factor from Lippa's (1991) measure of the Big Five personality factors. Men also rated her as lower on the Openness,…

  8. Ah Dai Comes to Hawaii: The Story of a Chinese Immigrant Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kam, Dai Sen; And Others

    The story presented in this booklet is concerned with the life of an eighty year old Chinese immigrant woman living in Hawaii. The narration provides a brief overview of the woman's birth, childhood, early adulthood in China, and immigration to Hawaii. Her life in Hawaii is described in terms of the work she did, her arranged marriage, her…

  9. Women in Literacy Speak. The Power of Woman-Positive Literacy Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lloyd, Betty-Ann, Ed.; And Others

    This book contains 15 chapters that were written by women from 12 Canadian adult literacy and basic education programs who participated in an exploratory research project designed to document the process and results of woman-positive literacy work. The following sections are included: "Exploring the Concept of Woman-Positive within…

  10. Adversaries and Allies: Rival National Suffrage Groups and the 1882 Nebraska Woman Suffrage Campaign

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heider, Carmen

    2005-01-01

    In September 1882, Nebraska was the setting for a significant moment in the history of the United States women's rights movement: the two rival suffrage organizations, the American Woman Suffrage Association (AWSA) and the National Woman Suffrage Association (NWSA), both held their annual conventions in Omaha. The alliance of the AWSA and the NWSA…

  11. An Online Bibliography of Resources for the Study of Woman Suffrage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparacino, Elizabeth Kenny

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this annotated bibliography is twofold. The first purpose is to address the question raised by Phyllis Holman Wiesbard, "Where are women on the 'net?" The second purpose is to explore how teachers can use the documents found on the world wide web to teach woman suffrage in their classrooms. Woman suffrage has proved to be a fruitful…

  12. The psychological effects of Hurricane Andrew on ethnic minority and Caucasian children and adolescents: a case study.

    PubMed

    Jones, R T; Frary, R; Cunningham, P; Weddle, J D; Kaiser, L

    2001-02-01

    The impact of Hurricane Andrew on 212 African American, Caucasian, and Hispanic elementary and middle school children was examined at 6 months postdisaster. Using self-report instruments, this case study examined the predictive utility of several hypothesized mediators of children's reactions to disaster. Results showed higher levels of intrusive symptomatology for girls and for elementary school children as compared with their middle school counterparts. No differences were found with reference to race. The lack of findings concerning race is addressed, as well as implications for future studies.

  13. [A 77-year-old woman with myoclonus and epilepsy].

    PubMed

    Yokochi, M; Takaoka, S; Kawano, H; Mori, H; Shirai, T; Imai, H; Mizuno, Y

    1993-12-01

    We present a 77-year-old woman with myoclonus and epilepsy. She was well until 35 years of age, when she noted an onset of trembling of the legs upon standing. Her symptom slowly progressed, and she felt a difficulty in standing when she was 39-year-old. She had a major motor seizure without an apparent focal onset when she was 46-year-old. She also developed tremor in her hands, and she felt difficulty in holding a glass filled with water. She was admitted to our service for the first time in 1965 when she was 51-year-old. She showed wide-based ataxic gait with truncal titubation. In finger to nose test, myoclonic jerks were induced in the upper extremities. Otherwise neurological examination was unremarkable. She was treated with primidone and phenobarbital, and was discharged for out patient follow up. Her symptoms slowly progressed, and gait and station became more difficult. Mentally she was sound. Three months prior to the present admission, she developed more difficulty in gait, and decrease in food intake. On the 14th of September in 1991, she was seen by a local physician who found an abnormal shadow in her chest X-ray, and she was admitted to our service for further work-up on September 18, 1991. On admission, the patient was a chronically ill and emaciated woman. Her blood pressure was 140/84 mmHg, heart rate 115/minutes and regular, and the body temperature 36.9 degrees C. The palpebral conjunctivae were anemic. No cervical adenopathy was noted. The lung fields were clear, and no heart murmur was audible. The abdomen was soft, and no organomegaly was present. On neurologic examination, she looked somnolent with disorientation to time and place. Her memory was poor, and she could not do well serial 7s. The disc was flat and the ocular movements appeared intact. Other cranial nerves were also unremarkable. She showed diffuse muscle wasting. She was unable to stand or walk. Maintaining the sitting position was also difficult. She was able to raise her arms

  14. Visceral adipose tissue is not increased in Pima Indians compared with equally obese Caucasians and is not related to insulin action or secretion.

    PubMed

    Gautier, J F; Milner, M R; Elam, E; Chen, K; Ravussin, E; Pratley, R E

    1999-01-01

    Pima Indians are insulin resistant and hyperinsulinaemic compared with Caucasians. We investigated whether abdominal fat distribution was different between Pimas and Caucasians and whether differences in the amount of visceral fat explained metabolic differences between the groups. Total body fat (absorptiometry) and abdominal fat distribution at L4-L5 (magnetic resonance imaging) were compared in 20 Pima Indians (10 men/10 women) and 20 age-, sex- and BMI-matched Caucasians. Insulin action was measured as glucose disposal during a two-step hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic glucose clamp and insulin secretion was assessed in response to oral and intravenous glucose tolerance tests. By design, percent body fat was similar in Pimas and Caucasians. Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue areas were also similar in the two groups (151+/-16 vs 139+/-15 cm2 and 489+/-61 vs 441+/-7 cm2 respectively). Plasma insulin concentrations were higher in Pimas than Caucasians in the fasting state (27+/-6 vs 11+/-2 mU/ml; p < 0.01) and after a 75-g oral glucose load (area under the curve 19975+/-2626 vs 9293+/-1847 mU x l(-1) x 180 min(-1); p < 0.005). Glucose disposal was lower in Pimas than Caucasians during both steps of the clamp and negatively correlated (after adjustment for percent body fat and sex) with visceral adipose tissue in Caucasians (partial r = -0.51, p = 0.03), but not in Pima Indians (r = -0.03, p = 0.92). Insulin secretion was not related to visceral fat independently of percent body fat in either group. We conclude that a relative increase in visceral fat does not explain insulin resistance and hyperinsulinaemia in Pima Indians. PMID:10027574

  15. The successful psychoanalytic therapy of a schizophrenic woman.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Michael

    2012-12-01

    The prevalent sociocultural belief about the psychoses and schizophrenia is that intensive psychoanalytic therapy is ineffective if not destructive and contraindicated, and that the treatment of choice is a combination of psychopharmacology and educational techniques designed to provide symptom relief and rehabilitation. The literature contains few detailed reports of successful intensive psychotherapy that might contradict these beliefs. The psychoanalytic psychotherapy of a woman I shall call Sara, who met DSM criteria for chronic paranoid schizophrenia, is presented in detail. Its success in bringing about a fundamental personality transformation from a seriously self-destructive state in which she was unable to care for herself to one in which she became a mature creative person is confirmed by a follow up two decades after termination. The therapy transpired over an 11-year period and was conducted for the most part four times per week. It was supported by numerous hospitalizations in the early years as well as pharmacotherapy which she was able to relinquish prior to termination. During treatment Sara separated both physically and psychologically from an undifferentiated destructive relationship with her mother, internalized the capacity to think and represent emotions, and integrated disparate elements of personality to form a cohesive self. She developed psychosexually and formed a mature gender identity. She achieved the capacity for intimacy and motherhood, and had a successful career.

  16. Perineal leiomyoma in a postmenopausal woman: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Sui, Yan-Xia; Sun, Chao; Lv, Shu-Lan; Batchu, Nasra; Zou, Jun-Kai; Du, Jiang; Song, Qing; Li, Qi-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Leiomyomas in the female reproductive system are commonly located in the uterus and typically regress following the menopause. Vulval leiomyomas are rare, and to the best of our knowledge, perineal leiomyomas in postmenopausal women have not been previously reported in the literature. The present case describes a 60-year-old Chinese woman who experienced perineal tenderness and lumbosacral radiating pain. The patient, who went through the menopause 12 years previously, had presented with a painful perineal mass for 1 year, which was subsequently diagnosed as a postmenopausal perineal leiomyoma. The mass was locally resected, and histopathological examination of the lesion resulted in a diagnosis of benign epithelioid leiomyoma. Immunohistochemical staining identified that the leiomyoma was positive for estrogen receptor and negative for progesterone receptor expression. The patient was followed up for 1 year and did not experience any pain or recurrence. The symptoms of local and lumbosacral radiating pain are extremely rare and may be induced by peripheral nerve stimulation. The etiology of postmenopausal perineal leiomyoma may be associated with infection, dietary, stress and environmental factors, and the role of estrogen cannot be overemphasized in cases of postmenopausal leiomyoma. PMID:27602136

  17. Respiratory Arrest in an Obese Pregnant Woman with Hyperemesis Gravidarum

    PubMed Central

    Iwashita, Ayumi; Baba, Yosuke; Usui, Rie; Ohkuchi, Akihide; Muto, Shigeaki; Matsubara, Shigeki

    2015-01-01

    A pregnant, non-Japanese-speaking Peruvian, and, thus, with communication difficulty, suffered hyperemesis gravidarum and had respiratory arrest, requiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation. The obese pregnant woman (prepregnancy weight: 107 kg) had vomited and lost 15 kg in bodyweight over appropriately 2 weeks prior to the arrest but had not complained due to communication difficulty, which, together with her obesity, prevented a Japanese obstetrician from noticing her severe condition. 1,000 mL of low potassium fluid plus thiamine was administered. She became unable to stand, suggesting lower-extremity-proximal-muscle weakness, and then respiratory arrest occurred. Hypopotassemia (2.3 mEq/L), pulseless electrical activity, and muscle weakness suggested the presence of severe potassium deficiency, which may have caused respiratory muscle paralysis, leading to the respiratory arrest. Hypercapnea was severer than expected for compensatory hypoventilation, indicating the presence of concomitant severe hypoventilation, which may also have contributed to respiratory arrest. She recovered with electrolyte and volume replacement. Respiratory arrest can occur with hyperemesis gravidarum, and obesity and communication difficulties can prevent the early detection of severe conditions. PMID:26693367

  18. A woman's build and the risk of breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cold, S; Hansen, S; Overvad, K; Rose, C

    1998-07-01

    A woman's build and the risk of breast cancer seem to be related. While relative overweight, as described by the body mass index, seems to be associated with increased breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women, overweight in premenopausal women seems slightly protective. Papers from a MEDLINE search are reviewed regarding the association between build and the development of breast cancer. Different aspects of build, such as height, weight, body mass index and body shape, are discussed. The more prominent associations found through this search are a positive association between height and breast cancer risk both in pre- and postmenopausal women. Regarding body mass index, the association is negative in premenopausal women and positive in postmenopausal women. Body shape described as masculine versus feminine seems to have no impact on breast cancer risk in premenopausal women, but seems to be positively associated with breast cancer in postmenopausal women. Possible biological mechanisms responsible for the associations with breast cancer risk are discussed, including endogenous oestrogens, androgens and glucose metabolic substances. Avoiding or reducing postmenopausal overweight may modify breast cancer risk indicators in a more favourable direction.

  19. Breast mass in a 69-year-old woman

    SciTech Connect

    Hermann, G.; Schwartz, I.S.; Slater, G.

    1986-02-21

    A 69-year-old woman was initially seen with constant abdominal pain in the epigastrium and right upper quadrant, with nausea and vomiting of three days' duration. On examination, moderate tenderness and guarding in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen were noted. A leukocytosis of 11,000/cu mm, with a mild shift to the left, was present. Findings from a sonogram and hepatobiliary scan were consistent with a diagnosis of acute cholecystitis for which intravenous (IV) antibiotic therapy was instituted. Results of radiological studies performed on the second hospital day showed a small-bowel obstruction. On surgical exploration, a gangrenous segment of the terminal ileum was resected and an end-to-end anastomosis was performed. The resected bowel demonstrated hemorrhagic infarction with evidence of focal organizing venous thrombosis in the mesentery. The patient was initially started on a regimen of IV heparin and then switched to oral coumarin. On the fourth day of coumarin therapy, massive swelling, tenderness, and erythema were noted to involve the entire right breast. Six months later, the patient was readmitted because of an acute pulmonary embolism. A residual 4x5-cm mass was present in the central portion of the right breast. The overlying skin was slightly retracted. Mammography showed an extensive masslike density behind the right nipple, with evidence of periareolar retraction. Coumarin-induced mammary necrosis was diagnosed.

  20. Blood Pressure Mobile Monitoring for Pregnant Woman Based Android System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supriyanti, Retno; Erfayanto, Uji; Ramadani, Yogi; Murdyantoro, Eko; Widodo, Haris B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, at least 18,000 women die every year in Indonesia due to pregnancy or childbirth. It means that every half hour a woman dies due to pregnancy or childbirth. As a result, every year 36,000 children became orphans. The high maternal mortality rate was put Indonesia on top in ASEAN. The main causes of maternal mortality are high-risk pregnancy. Mothers who have diseases like high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and already over 40 years old and infectious diseases such as rubella, hepatitis and HIV can be factors that lead to high-risk pregnancy. This paper will discuss the development of a blood pressure monitoring device that is suitable for pregnant women. It is based on convenience for pregnant women to get the equipment that is flexible with her presence. Results indicate that the equipment is in use daily support for pregnant women therefore, one of the causes of maternal mortality can be detected earlier.

  1. Rare Case of Retroperitoneal Lipomatosis in an Indian Woman

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Saurabh S; Shah, Vaibhav R; Choudhary, Vivek A

    2016-01-01

    Retroperitoneal lipomatosis is a rare but distinct clinicopathological entity characterized by non encapsulated lipoma development in the retroperitoneum. Presenting complaints in the early stages are vague, and patients with retroperitoneal lipomatosis are often misdiagnosed because considerable abnormality is not detected by abdomino-pelvic sonography. However, because of the progressive nature of this lesion, most patients eventually present with varying degrees of urinary outflow obstruction and end stage renal disease, or bladder malignancies in few cases. Here we report a case of a 35-year-old Indian woman presenting with complaints of diffuse lumps in the abdomen and constipation. Based on the findings of the imaging [sonography and computed tomography (CT) scan] studies, benign retroperitoneal lipomatosis was preopreratively diagnosed and a confirmatory exploratory laprotomy was performed. Furthermore, we discuss the imaging findings obtained using various radiological modalities such as plain radiographs, intravenous urography, barium enema, sonography, CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). We also discuss the etiopathogenesis, demographics, and various differential diagnoses of retroperitoneal lipomatosis. PMID:27200169

  2. The battered woman: is she a silent victim?

    PubMed

    Blair, K A

    1986-06-01

    Although hardly a recent phenomenon, the battered woman has still not been a clearly recognizable presence to primary caregivers. Unawareness of actual victims stems from an incomplete understanding of the reality of the "battered wife syndrome," lack of knowledge about the various forms of abuse and the silence of the victims themselves. The victim rarely reports abuse to the primary care provider without being asked. She does, however, present with common psychosomatic complaints, such as choking, gastrointestinal disorders or nervousness. Her injuries may range from bruises to fractures, and the explanation of these injuries is usually inappropriate. Characteristically, the victim of abuse has low self-esteem and anger that has been internalized. These lead to self-destructive behaviors such as alcohol or drug abuse. Many of the victim's behaviors are predictable and best understood in the contexts of learned helplessness, a cycle of violence or anticipatory fear. Recognizing that child abuse and spouse abuse often occur within the same family, the nurse practitioner can play a vital role in halting the cycle of family violence. Early recognition, knowledge of the forms of legal recourse in the community and intervention by the nurse practitioner will have an impact on the morbidity and mortality of this social problem.

  3. Herpes zoster segmental paresis in an immunocompromised breast cancer woman

    PubMed Central

    Rastegar, Shirvan; Mahdavi, Sadegh Baradaran; Mahmoudi, Farhad; Basiri, Keivan

    2015-01-01

    Herpes zoster is an infectious disease with neurological complications caused by reactivation of varicella zoster virus in dorsal root ganglia of spinal cord which is also known as “Shingles.” Suppression of immune system is the major predisposing factor for reactivation of latent virus. Disease is mainly characterized by rash, vesicles and pain along one or more dermatomes which are innervated from one or more spinal nerve roots. Complications may be present after a while despite of patient treatment. Motor involvement is included. Some previous studies showed segmental zoster paresis as a rare complication, a few weeks after first presentation, among immunocompetent individuals. We present post herpetic motor involvement of C5 and C6 in a 59-year-old woman who underwent chemotherapy and radiotherapy due to breast cancer, manifesting left upper limb weakness and paresis, 6 months after left partial mastectomy. Segmental paresis of zoster virus should be considered as a cause of motor impairment in an immunocompromised person suffering from shingles. PMID:26436084

  4. [Autochthonous strongyloidosis in an 81-year-old woman].

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Tom; Schau, Anja; Winkler, Christina

    2002-06-14

    Strongyloidosis is an parasitic disease, caused by an intestinal nematode endemic in tropic and subtropic regions. In Central Europe it occurs only sporadically. The infective larvae in the soil penetrate the human skin. Following circulation through the lungs the larvae settle in the small intestine and mature into adult worms. Chronic strongyloidosis recurring up to 15 years is possible through endogenous autoinfection. Clinical feature of the disease are gastrointestinal symptoms, hypereosinophilia and skin rashes. We describe the case of an 81-year-old woman who presented with scaly exanthema, fever and perianal fistulation. A microscopic examination of a stool sample demonstrated filariform larvae of Strongyloides stercoralis. An autochthonous mode of infection was assumed. After starting treatment with mebendazole eosinophilia and rash gradually disappeared. The laboratory finding of eosinophilia in patients with gastrointestinal symptoms or exanthema should prompt the differential diagnosis of a parasitosis. Stool examination is necessary to find rare autochthonous infections by intestinal nematodes. Pathogenesis, clinical manifestation and treatment of strongyloidosis are discussed along with the clinical picture.

  5. [Urinary incontinence in the woman--pathophysiology and diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Schär, G; Sarlos, D

    2003-05-01

    Since urinary incontinence is one of the most frequent female health problems and may severely affect a woman's life quality, knowledge about its pathophysiology, evaluation and therapy is very important. Even basic diagnostic tests can determine the type of incontinence (stress or urge urinary incontinence) thus permitting appropriate therapy to be initiated. The patients history, micturition diary, clinical evaluation, perineal ultrasound and urinalysis are important parts of these basic diagnostic tests. The positive stress cough test and the typical symptoms such as urine loss during physical activity point to the diagnosis of stress urinary incontinence. Frequency, nocturia and urgency with or without urine loss as well as more objective criteria such as micturition diaries and urinalysis indicate urge incontinence. Questions to help determine how quality of life is affected by the incontinence symptoms aid in deciding how urgent the treatment is. An urodynamic evaluation together with perineal ultrasound and cystoscopy is performed in patients with complex or recurrent urinary incontinence after surgery or with micturition disorders.

  6. Fulminant ulcerative colitis in a healthy pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Orabona, Rossana; Valcamonico, Adriana; Salemme, Marianna; Manenti, Stefania; Tiberio, Guido A M; Frusca, Tiziana

    2015-05-21

    This case report concerns a 25-year-old patient with 6-7 bloody stools/d, abdominal pain, tachycardia, and weight loss occurring during the third trimester of pregnancy. Severe ulcerative colitis complicated by toxic megacolon and gravidic sepsis was diagnosed by clinical evaluation, colonoscopy, and rectal biopsy that were performed safely without risk for the mother or baby. The patient underwent a cesarean section at 28+6 wk gestation. The baby was transferred to the neonatal intensive care unit of our hospital and survived without complications. Fulminant colitis was managed conservatively by combined colonoscopic decompression and medical treatment. Although current European guidelines describe toxic megacolon as an indication for emergency surgery for both pregnant and non-pregnant women, thanks to careful monitoring, endoscopic decompression, and intensive medical therapy with nutritional support, we prevented the woman from having to undergo emergency pancolectomy. Our report seems to suggest that conservative management may be a helpful tool in preventing pancolectomy if the patient's condition improves quickly. Otherwise, surgery is mandatory. PMID:26019473

  7. Severe and refractory hypertension in a young woman.

    PubMed

    Cuadra, René H; White, William B

    2016-06-01

    Refractory hypertension in a young person is an uncommon clinical problem, but one that may be referred to hypertension specialists. Factitious hypertension is fortunately quite rare but should be considered when evaluating patients who are refractory to numerous classes of antihypertensive therapies and have failed to achieve control despite input from multiple providers. A 19-year-old woman was referred to us after failing to achieve blood pressure control by a primary physician and two subspecialists in nephrology and hypertension; she also had numerous emergency department visits for symptomatic and severe hypertension. Exhaustive diagnostic testing for secondary causes and witnessed medication dosing in an outpatient setting was unrevealing. Subsequent inpatient admission demonstrated normalization of BPs with small doses of intravenous antihypertensive agents. During the hospitalization, she was observed "pocketing" her oral medications in the buccal folds and then discarding them in a trash container. Confrontation by psychiatrists and the hypertension specialists led to the admission that she had learned to start and stop beta-blockers and clonidine to induce severe, rebound hypertension. Factitious and induced hypertension is a rare cause of resistant or refractory hypertension. Nevertheless, hypertension specialists should suspect the diagnosis when there is a history of visits to multiple institutions and physicians, negative secondary workup, absence of overt target organ damage, history of psychiatric illness, and employment in the medical field. PMID:27160032

  8. [Ethical dilemmas in medicine. The interruption of pregnancy in woman].

    PubMed

    Gual-Castro, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Pregnancy interruption or abortion may be spontaneous or induced for medical, legal, demographic, and personal reasons. Different events that are present during the woman´s gravid period were described, paying attention to the differences in between fertilization and conception. These issues are very important because people or institutions mix these concepts and posit that pregnancy or conception starts at fertilization in opposition to the actual medical and scientific knowledge. In Mexico there are several millions of spontaneous and induced abortions without medical care, responsible for the high maternal-infant mortality rates. To avoid this undesirable situation, it has been proposed to follow the established WHO guidelines and adopt national health policies to re-orientate population goals on life quality, gender equity, universal public health services, and to promote the new holistic concepts of reproductive and sexual health such as: family planning, use of anti-fertility methods, adolescent reproductive health, sexually transmitted diseases, maternal and newborn health, peri- and post-menopausal women's health, and prevention, diagnosis, and opportune treatment of mammary, cervical-uterine, and ovarian cancers. Finally, it is recommended to revise our national health policies and existing laws on abortion de-penalization. PMID:27595258

  9. Cross-Sectional Predictors of Sexual Assault Perpetration in a Community Sample of Single African American and Caucasian Men

    PubMed Central

    Abbey, Antonia; Parkhill, Michele R.; BeShears, Renee; Clinton-Sherrod, A. Monique; Zawacki, Tina

    2015-01-01

    Computer-assisted self-interviews were completed with a random sample of 163 unmarried Caucasian and African American men in a large metropolitan area. Almost a quarter (24.5%) of these men acknowledged committing an act since the age of 14 that met standard legal definitions of attempted or completed rape; an additional 39% had committed another type of sexual assault involving forced sexual contact or verbal coercion. An expanded version of the Malamuth et al. [1991] confluence model was examined using path analysis. The number of sexual assaults perpetrated by participants was associated with the direct or indirect effects of childhood sexual abuse, adolescent delinquency, alcohol problems, sexual dominance, positive attitudes about casual sexual relationships, and pressure from peers to engage in sexual relationships. Additionally, empathy buffered the relationship between sexual dominance and perpetration. The pattern of results was highly similar for African American and Caucasian men. The implications of these findings for sexual assault measurement are discussed and suggestions are made for alternative treatment programs. PMID:26435555

  10. Anxiety Disorders in Caucasian and African American Children: A Comparison of Clinical Characteristics, Treatment Process Variables, and Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gordon-Hollingsworth, Arlene T.; Becker, Emily M.; Keeton, Courtney; Compton, Scott N.; Birmaher, Boris B.; Sakolsky, Dara J.; Piacentini, John; Albano, Anne M.; Kendall, Philip C.; Suveg, Cynthia M.; March, John S.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined racial differences in anxious youth using data from the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS) [1]. Specifically, the study aims addressed whether African American (n = 44) versus Caucasian (n = 359) children varied on (1) baseline clinical characteristics, (2) treatment process variables, and (3) treatment outcomes. Participants were ages 7–17 and met DSM-IV-TR criteria for generalized anxiety disorder, social phobia, and/or separation anxiety disorder. Baseline data, as well as outcome data at 12 and 24 weeks, were obtained by independent evaluators. Weekly treatment process variables were collected by therapists. Results indicated no racial differences on baseline clinical characteristics. However, African American participants attended fewer psychotherapy and pharmacotherapy sessions, and were rated by therapists as less involved and compliant, in addition to showing lower mastery of CBT. Once these and other demographic factors were accounted for, race was not a significant predictor of response, remission, or relapse. Implications of these findings suggest African American and Caucasian youth are more similar than different with respect to the manifestations of anxiety and differences in outcomes are likely due to treatment barriers to session attendance and therapist engagement. PMID:25293650

  11. Vascular Function, Cerebral Cortical Thickness, and Cognitive Performance in Middle-Aged Hispanic and Non-Hispanic Caucasian Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, Evan; Kaur, Sonya S.; Gonzales, Mitzi M.; Machin, Daniel R.; Kasischke, Kennon; Tanaka, Hirofumi; Haley, Andreana P.

    2015-01-01

    Hispanics are at increased risk of acquiring cardiovascular risk factors that contribute to cognitive dysfunction. To compare indices of vascular health to measures of cerebral gray matter integrity, 60 middle-aged Hispanic and non-Hispanic Caucasian participants were matched across age, gender, years of education, and mental status. Arterial stiffness was characterized via β-stiffness index and carotid-femoral pulse-wave velocity, and magnetic resonance imaging estimated cortical thickness in a priori regions of interest known to be susceptible to vascular risk factors. Measures of arterial stiffness were significantly higher in Hispanics than in non-Hispanic Caucasians. Hispanics exhibited thinner left inferior frontal gyrus (LIFG) cortical thickness (p=0.04) with concurrently lower language (p=0.02), memory (p=0.03), and attention-executive functioning (p=0.02). These results suggest that compromised vascular health may occur simultaneously with cortical thinning of the LIFG as an early neuropathological alteration in Hispanics. PMID:25720950

  12. The hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) gene is not associated with refractive error and ocular biometrics in a Caucasian population

    PubMed Central

    Schache, M.; Chen, C.Y.; Dirani, M.; Baird, P.N.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine if genetic variants in the hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET) gene are associated with refractive error and ocular biometric measures in a Caucasian cohort. Methods A case-control association study using 818 Caucasian adults (37.2% male, 62.8% female; average age: 51.21±17.17 years) was undertaken. All individuals were genotyped for 16 tag single nucleotide polymorphisms (tSNPs) across the MET gene region. Myopia was defined as –0.5 DS or worse in both eyes and divided into high myopia (≤–6.0 DS) and low/moderate myopia (–0.5 DS to –5.99 DS). Hypermetropia was defined as at least +1.0 DS in both eyes. Genotyping results were analyzed using PLINK, comparing cases (all myopia, high myopia, low/moderate myopia, and hypermetropia) to controls (emmetropia). Association tests were also performed using the quantitative traits of refraction, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature. Results No statistically significant genetic associations were detected for any of the 16 tSNPs with refractive error (myopia and hypermetropia) or ocular biometric measures. Conclusions These data indicate there is likely no genetic association of the MET gene with myopia, axial length, anterior chamber depth, and corneal curvature in this cohort. PMID:20011629

  13. Factors Associated with Underestimation of Weight Status among Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans—DiLH Survey

    PubMed Central

    Choi, JiWon; Bender, Melinda S.; Arai, Shoshana; Fukuoka, Yoshimi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe weight misperception and to examine the influence of sociodemographic factors on underestimation of weight status in Caucasian, Latino, Filipino, and Korean Americans. Design Data from 886 non-pregnant adults who participated in a cross-sectional survey administered in English, Spanish, and Korean, were analyzed. The actual weight status derived from the participants’ body mass index (BMI) categories and their perceived weight status were compared. A multiple logistic regression model was used to explore if underestimation of weight status was associated with ethnicity, gender, and education level. Results Caucasians, Latinos, Filipinos, and Koreans represented 19.4%, 26.8%, 27.4%, and 26.4% of the total sample of 886. Overall, 2 in 3 participants correctly perceived their weight status, but 42% of Latinos underestimated their weight status and 22% of Koreans overestimated their weight status. Latino ethnicity, male, and low education (≤ high school) were related to greater underestimation of weight status (p < 0.05). In contrast, Korean ethnicity was related to less underestimation of weight status (p < 0.05). Conclusions Misperception of weight status should be counted in any efforts to develop a weight management intervention for Latino and Korean Americans. PMID:26118149

  14. A systematic review of CD14 and toll-like receptors in relation to asthma in Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Klaassen, Ester Mm; Thönissen, Brenda Ejt; van Eys, Guillaume; Dompeling, Edward; Jöbsis, Quirijn

    2013-03-15

    The aetiology of childhood asthma is complex. An early dysfunction in the immunological development of the innate immune system in combination with environmental factors possibly triggers asthma. CD14 and toll-like receptors are important components of the innate immune system. The aim of this systematic review was to obtain a better insight into the relation between CD14 and toll-like receptors and childhood asthma in Caucasians. We searched PubMed and EMBASE for relevant articles. In total, 44 articles were included. The quality of the selected studies was independently assessed by the first two authors using the Newcastle-Ottawa quality assessment scale. Toll-like receptor 2, toll-like receptor 6, toll-like receptor 9, and toll-like receptor 10 appear to have some association with childhood asthma in Caucasians. The evidence for a relation of CD14 with childhood asthma is limited. In conclusion, there is no convincing evidence yet for a role of CD14 and toll-like receptors in relation to childhood asthma. Future studies should include haplotype analysis and take environmental factors into account to further clarify the role of CD14 and toll-like receptors on childhood asthma.

  15. Disclosure of Sexual Assault: Characteristics and Implications for Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms Among African American and Caucasian Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Jacques-Tiura, Angela J.; Tkatch, Rifky; Abbey, Antonia; Wegner, Rhiana

    2010-01-01

    Although the general trauma literature links disclosure of abuse to positive psychological and physical health outcomes, findings for sexual assault survivors are mixed. Supportive responses can reaffirm self-worth; however, negative responses can increase feelings of shame and isolation. This study examined the effects of disclosure in a community sample of Caucasian and African American sexual assault survivors who completed computer-assisted self-interviews. Among the 58.6% of survivors who had disclosed to someone (n = 136), 96% had disclosed to at least 1 informal and 24% at least 1 formal support provider. The experiences of African American and Caucasian survivors were similar in many ways. Participants received more positive than negative responses from others, although only negative responses were related to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and particularly so for African American participants. Regretting disclosure and disclosure to formal providers were also related to posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Suggestions are made for programs to decrease negative responses to disclosure. PMID:20373205

  16. Polymorphisms in the interleukin-10 gene promoter and the risk of alcoholism and alcoholic liver disease in Caucasian Spaniard men.

    PubMed

    Auguet, Teresa; Vidal, Francesc; Broch, Montserrat; Olona, Montserrat; Aguilar, Carmen; Morancho, Beatriz; López-Dupla, Miguel; Quer, Joan-Carles; Sirvent, Joan-Josep; Richart, Cristóbal

    2010-05-01

    Controversy surrounds the possible influence of the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene promoter on the risk for alcoholic liver disease. Our aim was to determine whether the SNP of the IL-10 gene promoter are associated with an increased risk for alcoholism and for alcoholic liver disease in male Spaniards. The -627 C>A SNP of the IL-10 gene promoter was assessed in a cohort of 344 Caucasian Spanish men, 168 alcoholics, and 176 nonalcoholics. The alcoholic group comprised 79 individuals without liver histopathologic abnormalities and 89 patients with chronic alcoholic liver disease. The nonalcoholic group was made of 62 healthy controls and 114 patients with chronic nonalcoholic liver disease. Genotyping was performed using PCR and automatic sequencing analysis methods on white cell DNA. Genotype and allele frequencies were compared by using the chi(2) test. Overall, no differences in either genotype and allele distribution was observed when comparing the four patient categories defined (P=0.62 and P=0.33, respectively). Subset analyses showed no differences in the genotype and allele distributions between all alcoholic and all nonalcoholic subjects (P=0.55 and P=0.29, respectively). This study failed to detect significant associations of the IL-10 -627C>A SNP and alcoholism or alcoholic liver disease in a cohort of Caucasian male Spaniards.

  17. GWAS of blood cell traits identifies novel associated loci and epistatic interactions in Caucasian and African-American children.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Glessner, Joseph T; Zhang, Haitao; Hou, Cuiping; Wei, Zhi; Bradfield, Jonathan P; Mentch, Frank D; Guo, Yiran; Kim, Cecilia; Xia, Qianghua; Chiavacci, Rosetta M; Thomas, Kelly A; Qiu, Haijun; Grant, Struan F A; Furth, Susan L; Hakonarson, Hakon; Sleiman, Patrick M A

    2013-04-01

    Hematological traits are important clinical indicators, the genetic determinants of which have not been fully investigated. Common measures of hematological traits include red blood cell (RBC) count, hemoglobin concentration (HGB), hematocrit (HCT), mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), MCH concentration (MCHC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), platelet count (PLT) and white blood cell (WBC) count. We carried out a genome-wide association study of the eight common hematological traits among 7943 African-American children and 6234 Caucasian children. In African Americans, we report five novel associations of HBE1 variants with HCT and MCHC, the alpha-globin gene cluster variants with RBC and MCHC, and a variant at the ARHGEF3 locus with PLT, as well as replication of four previously reported loci at genome-wide significance. In Caucasians, we report a novel association of variants at the COPZ1 locus with PLT as well as replication of four previously reported loci at genome-wide significance. Extended analysis of an association observed between MCH and the alpha-globin gene cluster variants demonstrated independent effects and epistatic interaction at the locus, impacting the risk of iron deficiency anemia in African Americans with specific genotype states. In summary, we extend the understanding of genetic variants underlying hematological traits based on analyses in African-American children.

  18. Molecular basis of congenital lp(a) deficiency: a frequent apo(a) 'null' mutation in caucasians.

    PubMed

    Ogorelkova, M; Gruber, A; Utermann, G

    1999-10-01

    High plasma concentrations of lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], a covalent low-density lipoprotein-apolipoprotein(a) [apo(a)] complex, are associated with coronary heart disease and stroke. Heritability of Lp(a) levels is high and the major locus determining Lp(a) concentrations is the apo(a) gene. We here demonstrate that a G-->A substitution at the +1 donor splice site of the apo(a) kringle (K) IV type 8 intron occurs with a high frequency ( approximately 6%) in Caucasians but not in Africans and is associated with congenital deficiency of Lp(a) in plasma. This mutation alone accounts for a quarter of all 'null' apo(a) alleles in Caucasians. RT-PCR analysis based on apo(a) illegitimate transcription in lympho- blastoid cells demonstrated that the donor splice site mutation results in an alternative splicing of the K IV type 8 intron and encodes a truncated form of apo(a). Expression of the alternatively spliced cDNA analogue in HepG2 cells showed that the truncated apo(a) form is secreted but is unable to form the covalent Lp(a) complex. Immunoprecipitated plasma apo(a) from homozygotes for the mutation was almost completely fragmented. Taken together, our data indicate that a failure in complex formation followed by fast degradation in plasma of the truncated free apo(a) is one mechanism which underlies the null Lp(a) type associated with the donor splice site mutation.

  19. Differential Item Functioning of the Boston Naming Test in Cognitively Normal African American and Caucasian Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pedraza, Otto; Graff-Radford, Neill R.; Smith, Glenn E.; Ivnik, Robert J.; Willis, Floyd B.; Petersen, Ronald C.; Lucas, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Scores on the Boston Naming Test (BNT) are frequently lower for African American when compared to Caucasian adults. Although demographically-based norms can mitigate the impact of this discrepancy on the likelihood of erroneous diagnostic impressions, a growing consensus suggests that group norms do not sufficiently address or advance our understanding of the underlying psychometric and sociocultural factors that lead to between-group score discrepancies. Using item response theory and methods to detect differential item functioning (DIF), the current investigation moves beyond comparisons of the summed total score to examine whether the conditional probability of responding correctly to individual BNT items differs between African American and Caucasian adults. Participants included 670 adults age 52 and older who took part in Mayo's Older Americans and Older African Americans Normative Studies. Under a 2-parameter logistic IRT framework and after correction for the false discovery rate, 12 items where shown to demonstrate DIF. Six of these 12 items (“dominoes,” “escalator,” “muzzle,” “latch,” “tripod,” and “palette”) were also identified in additional analyses using hierarchical logistic regression models and represent the strongest evidence for race/ethnicity-based DIF. These findings afford a finer characterization of the psychometric properties of the BNT and expand our understanding of between-group performance. PMID:19570311

  20. Effects of age, ethnicity and menopause on ambulatory blood pressure: Japanese-American and Caucasian school teachers in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Brown, D E; Sievert, L L; Aki, S L; Mills, P S; Etrata, M B; Paopao, R N; James, G D

    2001-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements of 120 female teachers of Japanese-American or Caucasian ethnicity working in public schools located in Hilo, Hawaii, were recorded. BP was measured at 15-min intervals during waking hours and 30-min intervals during sleep over a 24-hr period that included a full work day. These measurements were averaged during three daily settings: at work, at home while awake ("home"), and during sleep. ANCOVAs using ethnicity as a predictor variable of BP, with age and the body mass index (BMI) as covariates, show a significant interaction effect between age and ethnicity in some daily settings. Among Japanese-Americans partial correlations between age and systolic BP controlling for the BMI are significant in these settings, while among Caucasians none of the correlations are significant. Menopausal status is not significantly related to BP when age is controlled in analyses. There was no significant ethnic difference in number of symptoms reported, including frequency of "hot flushes/flashes," within the past two weeks. Those who reported hot flushes had significantly elevated BP in waking settings but not during sleep. The greater increase in BP with age in Japanese-Americans may be related to their elevated risk for development of hypertension. The lack of a significant relationship between menopausal status and BP may be due to the high rate of usage of hormonal replacement therapy in this sample, as well as an unusually high rate of hysterectomy. PMID:11400219

  1. Interactions Between Monoamine Oxidase A and Punitive Discipline in African American and Caucasian Men’s Antisocial Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Shaw, Daniel S.; Hyde, Luke W.; Forbes, Erika E.

    2016-01-01

    Although previous studies have shown that interactions between monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype and childhood maltreatment predict Caucasian boys’ antisocial behavior, the generalizability of this gene-environment interaction to more diverse populations and more common parenting behaviors, such as punitive discipline in early childhood, is not clearly understood. Among 189 low-income men (44% African American, 56% Caucasian) who underwent rigorous assessments of family behavior and social context longitudinally across 20 years, those men with the low activity MAOA allele who experienced more punitive discipline at ages 1.5, 2, and 5 years showed more antisocial behavior from ages 15 through 20 years. Effects of punitive discipline on antisocial behavior differed by caregiver and age at which it occurred, suggesting sensitive periods throughout early childhood in which low MAOA activity elevated boys’ vulnerability to harsh parenting and risk for antisocial behavior. This genetic vulnerability to punitive discipline—and not just extreme, maltreatment experiences—may generalize to other male populations at risk for antisocial behavior. PMID:27014508

  2. Cultural Proficiency: A Hispanic Woman with ADHD--A Case Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Roberta; Ramsay, J. Russell

    2010-01-01

    Background: Guidelines for assessment, diagnosis, and treatment of ADHD have been drawn from research focused primarily on Caucasian males generating, in part, the need to redress health disparities. Diagnostic criteria may therefore be limited, especially regarding gender differences and other associated cultural, familial, socio-environmental,…

  3. Pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics and safety of single, oral doses of GSK1278863, a novel HIF-prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, in healthy Japanese and Caucasian subjects.

    PubMed

    Hara, Katsutoshi; Takahashi, Naoki; Wakamatsu, Akira; Caltabiano, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD) and safety of GSK1278863, a novel prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor, following a single oral administration of GSK1278863 from 10 to 100 mg or placebo in Japanese (n = 19), and 10, 25 and 100 mg in Caucasians (n = 14). Dose-proportional increases were observed in AUCinf of GSK1278863 in both ethnic groups, with a 1.3-1.5-fold higher exposure seen in Japanese relative to Caucasians for all doses. This difference in exposure can be mainly explained by the observed differences in body weights between the two groups. Statistically significant increases in erythropoietin (EPO), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and reticulocyte counts were observed in Japanese subjects after the 50 and 100 mg dose as compared to placebo. In Caucasians, similar to Japanese, EPO and VEGF levels were observed to be increased in response to the 100 mg dose. Drug-related adverse events, including headache and abdominal pain were reported in 3 Japanese subjects, while headache was reported in 3 Caucasians. In conclusion, GSK1278863 was well tolerated, with dose-proportional increases in exposure observed in both groups. There was no evidence of ethnic differences between Japanese and Caucasian with regard to PK or PD.

  4. Early Definitive Fixation of an Open Periprosthetic Femur Fracture in the Polytraumatized Patient: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Aleem, Ilyas S; Bhandari, Mohit; Elizalde, Sebastian Rodriguez

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Periprosthetic fractures of the femur after total hip arthroplasty are increasing in frequency. In the polytraumatized patient with long-bone fracture, an ongoing debate exists regarding early definitive stabilization versus initial damage control orthopaedics, followed by delayed fixation. It remains to be seen whether this rationale applies to the polytraumatized patient with periprosthetic fracture. Case presentation: We present the case of a 73-years old Caucasian woman who sustained bilateral Gustillo-Anderson grade III open femur fractures; the fracture on the right was a Vancouver C open periprosthetic fracture after cemented total hip arthroplasty. After massive fluid resuscitation in the trauma bay she was taken to the intensive care unit in a hemodynamically unstable condition. She was subsequently operated and underwent early definitive fixation of both femurs with the rationale of potentially reducing pulmonary complications and promoting early mobilization. Conclusion: Early definitive stabilization versus delayed fixation in the polytraumatized patient with an open periprosthetic femur fracture is reviewed. Although several treatment algorithms based on fracture classification and implant stability exist, further study is required to delineate the preferred method and timeline of fixation for this growing cohort of patients. PMID:27299122

  5. A painful swollen arm in a young woman.

    PubMed

    Mulrow, C; Corey, G R

    1983-04-01

    Primary thrombosis of the deep veins of the upper arms accounts for less than 2% of total cases of deep venous thrombosis, and fewer than 10 reported cases of venous thromboembolism in association with oral contraceptive (OC) use have involved the upper extremity. This article describes the case of a 20-year old woman with recurrent arm swelling and pain who had been in good health until developing a small area of redness in her right arm and fever to 99.8 degrees Fahrenheit 6 weeks previously. The condition had been diagnosed as spider bite, for which no medication was given, and cellulitis with axillary lymphadenopathy, for which oral antibiotics were prescribed. Gradual improvement in pain and swelling occurred, but the arm did not return to normal size or consistency. Hospitalization and treatment with 9 days of intravenous Cefamandole provided some resolution. The patient had taken OCs for 2 1/2 years to regulate menses and was a cigarette smoker. She was discharged on oral Tetracycline but was referred for further evaluation because of persistent symptoms. The physical examination was normal except for an increased right upper extremity circumference, increased turgor of upper arm tissues, and some tenderness along the axillary vein and in the axilla itself. A venogram showed complete obstruction of the axillary and subclavian veins on the right with remarkable collateral circulation. The superior vena cava was patent. Treatment with intravenous Heparin followed by oral Warfarin produced no improvement in clinical condition. Primary upper extremity thrombosis is generally a disease of young men. In this case OCs may have served as a thrombogenic risk factor.

  6. Notorious anti-Jk3 in a pregnant woman.

    PubMed

    Jator, Eleanor K

    2014-01-01

    This is a case study of a 23-year-old pregnant Polynesian woman with anti-Jk3 identified in her plasma during her third visit to a hospital. This patient, with a history of mild anemia due to beta-thalassemia minor and two known transfusion of packed red cells came to an emergency room complaining of severe abdominal cramps. Her hemoglobin during her second hospital visit was 7.5 g/dL and her antibody screen was negative. Two units of crossmatch compatible packed cells were transfused with no adverse reaction and she was discharged. Four days post transfusion, she returned to the hospital complaining of back pain and fatigue and she was running a fever (101 degrees F). Her antibody screen was positive, direct antiglobulin testing was also positive and the eluate showed pan-agglutination with a red cell panel. Anti-Jk3 was identified in her plasma by the Red Cross and a delayed transfusion reaction was suspected. As a result, Kidd null crossmatch compatible units were obtained from relatives. The patient was successfully transfused and was discharged with a hemoglobin of 10.1 g/dL. The fetus appeared to be unaffected by the antibody. This case reiterates the hard-to-identify characteristics of Kidd antibodies and highlights the need for medical laboratory personnel to be informed on the prevalence of the Kidd null phenotype among various populations. Educating ethnic populations with rare phenotypes and organizing targeted blood drives may increase inventories of these rare blood phenotypes. PMID:25000650

  7. Management of the pregnant, insulin-dependent diabetic woman.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, L; Peterson, C M

    1980-01-01

    An intensive care program was offered to all insulin-dependent, pregnant diabetic women who presented to The New York Hospital Obstetrical Clinic in their eighth week or less of gestation. The patients were hospitalized for 1 wk to normalize their blood glucose and to teach the technique of self-monitored glucose determination, diet and exchange lists, and the method to titrate insulin according to the blood glucose determination. The mean blood glucose for the first 10 patients accepted to the program was 169 mg/dl at the start of the program with a mean hemoglobin A1c of 9.4% for the group (normal < 5.5%) and glucosuria up to 50 g/24 h. After discharge, mean glucose was 91 mg/dl, and urinary glucose excretion was 1.4 g/24 h. HbA1c fell into the normal range 5 wk after normoglycemia was achieved (3.4%) (nl < 5.5%). Normoglycemia was maintained as outpatients until 3 wk before delivery when the patients were readmitted for tests of fetal well-being. Mean weight gain for the mothers was 12.2 kg. Mean glucose at delivery was 87 mg/dl and HbA1c was 3%. Hormonal profiles (hCG, hPRL, estrogens, progesterone, hPL) normalized after normoglycemia was achieved and remained normal until delivery. Mean gestational age at time of delivery was 38.8 wk with a mean infant birth weight of 2988 g. No infant manifested hypoglycemia, hypocalcemia, erythremia, or respiratory disease. The use of self-monitored blood glucose allows for optimal care of the insulin-dependent, pregnant diabetic woman while she remains at home with her family. PMID:6996970

  8. 41 CFR 102-74.426 - May a woman breastfeed her child in a Federal building or on Federal property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false May a woman breastfeed... woman breastfeed her child in a Federal building or on Federal property? Yes. Public Law 108-199, Section 629, Division F, Title VI (January 23, 2004), provides that a woman may breastfeed her child...

  9. 41 CFR 102-74.426 - May a woman breastfeed her child in a Federal building or on Federal property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false May a woman breastfeed... woman breastfeed her child in a Federal building or on Federal property? Yes. Public Law 108-199, Section 629, Division F, Title VI (January 23, 2004), provides that a woman may breastfeed her child...

  10. 41 CFR 102-74.426 - May a woman breastfeed her child in a Federal building or on Federal property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false May a woman breastfeed... woman breastfeed her child in a Federal building or on Federal property? Yes. Public Law 108-199, Section 629, Division F, Title VI (January 23, 2004), provides that a woman may breastfeed her child...

  11. 41 CFR 102-74.426 - May a woman breastfeed her child in a Federal building or on Federal property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false May a woman breastfeed... woman breastfeed her child in a Federal building or on Federal property? Yes. Public Law 108-199, Section 629, Division F, Title VI (January 23, 2004), provides that a woman may breastfeed her child...

  12. 41 CFR 102-74.426 - May a woman breastfeed her child in a Federal building or on Federal property?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false May a woman breastfeed... woman breastfeed her child in a Federal building or on Federal property? Yes. Public Law 108-199, Section 629, Division F, Title VI (January 23, 2004), provides that a woman may breastfeed her child...

  13. Concepts of Self, Ideal Self, and Ideal Woman Held by College Men and Women: A Comparison Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voss, Jacqueline

    1980-01-01

    Married and single male and female college students of 1966, 1973, and 1976 are compared in their perceptions of female sex role--self, ideal woman, and man's ideal woman. Differences between perceptions of the ideal woman espoused by males and females were the most significant findings. (Author)

  14. The Male Madonna and the Feminine Uncle Sam: Visual Argument, Icons, and Ideographs in 1909 Anti-Woman Suffrage Postcards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palczewski, Catherine H.

    2005-01-01

    In 1909, at the height of the woman suffrage controversy and during the golden age of postcards, the Dunston-Weiler Lithograph Company of New York produced a twelve-card set of full-color lithographic cartoon postcards opposing woman suffrage. The postcard images reflect, and depart from, verbal arguments concerning woman suffrage prevalent during…

  15. Against the Odds: The Impact of Woman Abuse on Maternal Response to Disclosure of Child Sexual Abuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alaggia, Ramona; Turton, Jennifer V.

    2005-01-01

    Although the co-occurrence of woman abuse and child sexual abuse is high little research exists exploring the impact of woman abuse on maternal response to child sexual abuse (CSA). Findings from two qualitative studies indicate the form of woman abuse to have differential impact on maternal response. Mothers who were abused in non-physical ways,…

  16. A comparison of cardiovascular risk factors among Indo-Asian and caucasian patients admitted with acute myocardial infarction in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia and Birmingham, England.

    PubMed

    Dhanjal, T S; Lal, M; Haynes, R; Lip, G

    2001-12-01

    Indo-Asians in the UK are at an increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD); this may be a reflection of their cardiovascular risk factor profile as well as of a more sedentary lifestyle. We hypothesised that Indo-Asians in Malaysia and the UK may exhibit a similar cardiovascular risk factor and physical activity profile, which would be more adverse compared with caucasians. We studied 70 consecutive Indo-Asian patients admitted to hospitals in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (n=42; 35 males; mean age 60.6 years, SD 11.8); and Birmingham, England (n=28; 20 males; mean age 60.8 years, SD 12.9). Both groups of Indo-Asian patients were compared with 20 caucasian patients (13 males; mean age 62.7 years, SD 9.4) admitted with myocardial infarction from Birmingham. There was a higher prevalence of diabetes among Indo-Asians in both countries than among caucasians (p=0.0225). By contrast, caucasians had a higher prevalence of hypercholesterolaemia (p=0.0113), peripheral vascular disease (p=0.0008), regular alcohol consumption (p<0.0001) and family history of CAD (p=0.0041). There were no significant differences in mean age, body mass index or blood pressures. There was a significantly lower leisure activity score (p=0.001) and total physical activity score (p=0.003) among Indo-Asians in both countries than among caucasians. This survey has demonstrated differences in cardiovascular risk factors among Indo-Asian and caucasian patients. The high prevalence of diabetes, as well as the lower physical activity and sedentary lifestyles among Indo-Asians, in both Malaysia and the UK, may in part contribute to the high incidence of CAD in this ethnic group.

  17. CoQ10 and Endothelial Function in Asians from Korea compared to Asians born in the United States and US Born Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Petrofsky, Jerrold Scott; Laymon, Michael; Lee, Haneul; Yim, Jong; Harnandez, Erin; Dequine, Donny; Thorsen, Lindsay; Lovell, Kennith; Andrade, Joshua

    2013-01-01

    Background The vascular endothelium is the interface between the blood and vascular smooth muscle in arteries. It is easily damaged by oxidative stress. Recent studies show that Asians are more susceptible than Caucasians to impairment of endothelial function. This study examined endothelial function in US-born Caucasians, Asians from Korea, and US-born Asians (almost all Korean decent) and examined the effect of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) on endothelial function. Material/Methods Twenty Caucasians and 30 Asians participated (<35 years old, males and females). Endothelial function was assessed by the skin blood flow response to local heat using a thermode for 6 minutes at 44°C and by vascular occlusion for 4 minutes followed by release and measurement of skin blood flow for 2 minutes. In the US-born subjects, the experiments were repeated after 2-week administration of CoQ10 or a placebo. Results When applying 6 minutes of local heat at 44°C, the skin blood flows were significantly higher in Caucasians than both Asian groups Asians. Likewise after vascular occlusion, the blood flow response was greater in Caucasians compared to Asians. Asians born in Asia had the lowest response of the 3 groups of subjects. Administering CoQ10 for 2 weeks eliminated much of the difference between the groups, whereas there was no difference with a placebo. Conclusions These findings suggest that Asians either born in Asia or the US may have lower endothelial function than Caucasians. This may be explained, in part, by genetic variations causing increased oxidative stress from westernized diets in Asians. Co enzyme Q10 administration narrows the difference between the groups. PMID:23666274

  18. Symptoms of psychosis in schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, and bipolar disorder: A comparison of African Americans and Caucasians in the Genomic Psychiatry Cohort.

    PubMed

    Perlman, Greg; Kotov, Roman; Fu, Jinmiao; Bromet, Evelyn J; Fochtmann, Laura J; Medeiros, Helena; Pato, Michele T; Pato, Carlos N

    2016-06-01

    Several studies have reported differences between African Americans and Caucasians in relative proportion of psychotic symptoms and disorders, but whether this reflects racial bias in the assessment of psychosis is unclear. The purpose of this study was to examine the distribution of psychotic symptoms and potential bias in symptoms assessed via semi-structured interview using a cohort of 3,389 African American and 5,692 Caucasian participants who were diagnosed with schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or bipolar disorder. In this cohort, the diagnosis of schizophrenia was relatively more common, and the diagnosis of bipolar disorder and schizoaffective disorder-bipolar type was less relatively common, among African Americans than Caucasians. With regard to symptoms, relatively more African Americans than Caucasians endorsed hallucinations and delusions symptoms, and this pattern was striking among cases diagnosed with bipolar disorder and schizoaffective-bipolar disorder. In contrast, the relative endorsement of psychotic symptoms was more similar among cases diagnosed with schizophrenia and schizoaffective disorder-depressed type. Differential item function analysis revealed that African Americans with mild psychosis over-endorsed "hallucinations in any modality" and under-endorsed "widespread delusions" relative to Caucasians. Other symptoms did not show evidence of racial bias. Thus, racial bias in assessment of psychotic symptoms does not appear to explain differences in the proportion of symptoms between Caucasians and African Americans. Rather, this may reflect ascertainment bias, perhaps indicative of a disparity in access to services, or differential exposure to risk factors for psychosis by race. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26663585

  19. Prevalence of signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders and orofacial parafunction in 4-6-year-old African-American and Caucasian children.

    PubMed

    Widmalm, S E; Christiansen, R L; Gunn, S M; Hawley, L M

    1995-02-01

    Children, 4-6 years old, 153 Caucasian and 50 African-American, from a pre-school and kindergarten programme in a low income industrial area, who participated in a voluntary oral health examination, were questioned and examined for signs and symptoms of craniomandibular disorders (CMD) and of oral parafunctions. Most of the CMD signs and symptoms were mild. Eight per cent had recurrent (at least 1-2 times per week) TMJ pain, and 5% had recurrent neck pain, African-American children more often than Caucasian children (P < 0.05). Seventeen per cent had recurrent headache. Three per cent had recurrent earache. Pain or tiredness in the jaws during chewing was reported by 25% of the children, more often by African-American than by Caucasian children (P < 0.001) and more often by girls than by boys (P < 0.05). Pain at jaw opening occurred in 10% of the children, more often in the African-American than in the Caucasian group (P < 0.001). Thirteen per cent of the children had problems in opening the mouth. Deviation during opening was observed in 17% and reduced opening in 2%. Reduced lateral movements, locking or luxation were not observed in any child. Palpation pain was found in the lateral TMJ area in 16%, in the posterior TMJ area in 25%, in the temporalis and masseter areas in 10%, and pain for all regions was found more often in the African-American than in the Caucasian children (P < 0.01). Thirty-four per cent of the African-American, and 15% of the Caucasian children admitted to having ear noises (P < 0.01).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7722749

  20. Visual scanning and recognition of Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces: contributions from bottom-up facial physiognomic information and top-down knowledge of racial categories.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiandong; Xiao, Naiqi G; Quinn, Paul C; Hu, Chao S; Qian, Miao; Fu, Genyue; Lee, Kang

    2015-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that participants use different eye movement strategies when scanning own- and other-race faces. However, it is unclear (1) whether this effect is related to face recognition performance, and (2) to what extent this effect is influenced by top-down or bottom-up facial information. In the present study, Chinese participants performed a face recognition task with Chinese, Caucasian, and racially ambiguous faces. For the racially ambiguous faces, we led participants to believe that they were viewing either own-race Chinese faces or other-race Caucasian faces. Results showed that (1) Chinese participants scanned the nose of the true Chinese faces more than that of the true Caucasian faces, whereas they scanned the eyes of the Caucasian faces more than those of the Chinese faces; (2) they scanned the eyes, nose, and mouth equally for the ambiguous faces in the Chinese condition compared with those in the Caucasian condition; (3) when recognizing the true Chinese target faces, but not the true target Caucasian faces, the greater the fixation proportion on the nose, the faster the participants correctly recognized these faces. The same was true when racially ambiguous face stimuli were thought to be Chinese faces. These results provide the first evidence to show that (1) visual scanning patterns of faces are related to own-race face recognition response time, and (2) it is bottom-up facial physiognomic information that mainly contributes to face scanning. However, top-down knowledge of racial categories can influence the relationship between face scanning patterns and recognition response time. PMID:25497461

  1. Serum Vitamin D Is Significantly Inversely Associated with Disease Severity in Caucasian Adults with Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kerley, Conor P.; Hutchinson, Katrina; Bolger, Kenneth; McGowan, Aisling; Faul, John; Cormican, Liam

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To evaluate vitamin D (25(OH)D) levels in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) and possible relationships to OSAS severity, sleepiness, lung function, nocturnal heart rate (HR), and body composition. We also aimed to compare the 25(OH)D status of a subset of OSAS patients compared to controls matched for important determinants of both OSAS and vitamin D deficiency (VDD). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted at an urban, clinical sleep medicine outpatient center. We recruited newly diagnosed, Caucasian adults who had recently undergone nocturnal polysomnography. We compared body mass index (BMI), body composition (bioelectrical impedance analysis), neck circumference, sleepiness (Epworth Sleepiness Scale), lung function, and vitamin D status (serum 25-hydrpoxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) across OSAS severity categories and non-OSAS subjects. Next, using a case-control design, we compared measures of serum 25(OH)D from OSAS cases to non-OSAS controls who were matched for age, gender, skin pigmentation, sleepiness, season, and BMI. Results: 106 adults (77 male; median age = 54.5; median BMI = 34.3 kg/m2) resident in Dublin, Ireland (latitude 53°N) were recruited and categorized as non-OSAS or mild/moderate/severe OSAS. 98% of OSAS cases had insufficient 25(OH)D (< 75 nmol/L), including 72% with VDD (< 50 nmol/L). 25(OH)D levels decreased with OSAS severity (P = 0.003). 25(OH)D was inversely correlated with BMI, percent body fat, AHI, and nocturnal HR. Subsequent multivariate regression analysis revealed that 25(OH)D was independently associated with both AHI (P = 0.016) and nocturnal HR (P = 0.0419). Our separate case-control study revealed that 25(OH)D was significantly lower in OSAS cases than matched, non-OSAS subjects (P = 0.001). Conclusions: We observed widespread vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in a Caucasian, OSAS population. There were significant, independent, inverse relationships between 25(OH)D and AHI as well as

  2. Treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients using a novel 694-nm Q-switched ruby fractional laser

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Melasma is a common hypermelanosis of the face. The use of a classical Q-switched ruby laser (QSRL) to treat melasma is discussed controversially and is associated with frequent adverse effects, such as hyper- or hypopigmentation. Recently a fractional-mode (FRx) QSRL was developed to minimize the adverse effects of classical QSRL. The objective of this research was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a novel FRx-QSRL in the treatment of melasma in Caucasian patients. Methods We performed a retrospective study of 25 Caucasian melasma patients (Fitzpatrick skin types I to III). Patients received one to three FRx-QSRL treatments (Tattoostar FRx, Asclepion Laser Technologies, Jena, Germany) at pulse energies of 4 to 8 J/cm2. Three blinded investigators independently evaluated the melasma area and severity index (MASI) score before treatment and at the four- to six-week follow-ups. At additional three-month follow-ups, patients evaluated subjective improvement, pain and over-all satisfaction with the treatment according to a numeric analogue score (NAS). Side effects were documented. Results At four to six weeks post laser treatment for a mean of 1.4 sessions, we observed a significant (P = 0.0001) reduction of the MASI score from 6.54 to 1.98 (72.3%). Patients rated the pain of the intervention at a mean 2.46 points (0 = no pain; 10 = maximum pain), the improvement at a mean 5.55 points (0 = no improvement; 10 = maximum improvement) and the overall satisfaction at a mean 4.66 points (0 = not satisfied; 10 = maximum satisfaction). After three months, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH) and/or recurring melasma were observed in 7 (28%) and 11 (44%) patients, respectively. Conclusion The 694-nm FRx-QSRL is a safe and effective option for treating melasma in Caucasian patients. Over periods of >3 months, PIH and/or recurring melasma may develop at significant rates and may reduce patient satisfaction. Multiple treatment

  3. She stands alone: Pakistani woman film director, Shireen Pasha.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, A

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the activities of film director Shireen Pasha in promoting truth in the mass media in Pakistan. Pasha is described as one who finds it inexcusable in a state-subsidized system that national problems of poverty are not aired openly. Pasha has pursued the goal of exposing the real lives of Pakistanis on film in contrast to the publicly aired segments of "pretty girls in nice drawing rooms." Foreign channels available through satellite communications technology are viewed by Pasha as inappropriate with regard to people's needs and uncreative. Pakistan began with one channel, PTV, which recently refused to air her documentary on living conditions in Pakistan's rural areas "The Travelogue Pakistan." "The Walled City of Lahore" was her film about life in the old city. Both films poetically depicted the honor of humans and their struggle to stay alive. Some of her documentaries are made to show the value of indigenous skills, centuries old know-how, and traditions, regardless of the poverty. Pasha is described as fighting with PTV management over use of resources. Pasha desires to invest in training people to do documentaries or be more field-oriented rather than investing in equipment. Pasha joined PTV in 1975 and left in 1990. Pasha is recognized for her isolation as a woman in the business world, her commitment to exposing remote cultures and truth, and the odds she must confront in attaining her goals. Pasha is committed to doing extensive research, usually conducted during the summer months, in order to construct a credible story line that is produced usually during the winter months. One model of film story line is defined as one where women are portrayed as starting from an indigenous skill or knowledge and shifting to a greater position of power and control over their lives. Pasha believes that people who make films have the responsibility to evoke a reaction in people and to offer solutions. Two acclaimed films, which were supported by

  4. Births per U.S. woman? Depends on race, ethnicity.

    PubMed

    Haub, C

    1993-09-01

    A profile of mothers giving birth is presented for the US for 1990 based on race and ethnicity. Some of the complexities involved in compiling racial and ethnic data are described. The total fertility rate was 2.1 for all American women, 1.1 for Japanese Americans, and 3.2 for Hawaiians and Mexican Americans. The number of births per woman was derived from state birth registration data, which culls data from preadmission hospital forms filled out by the mother. The denominator of the birth rate comes from the number of women in the specified age group as determined by the Census. The problem arises from self-reports themselves. Consistency between recording systems has been improved since 1989 when births were counted based on mother's race and ethnicity. There have been greater percentages of interracial births for which race of both parents were known, and the trend was for 15% of the births for race of the father not to be reported in 1990. The data revealed that in 1990, Mexican Americans and Hawaiians had the highest birth rate of 3.2, which was comparable to developing countries in Latin America. The other Hispanic group was another high fertility group for a developed country. Low fertility was found among Japanese, Chinese, and Cuban Americans. The actual numbers revealed that non-Hispanic whites constitute 2.6 million out of 4.2 million children born in the US. 595,100 were Hispanics, 661,700 were non-Hispanic blacks, 142,000 were Asian or Pacific Islander, and less than 40,000 were American Indian. Teenage pregnancy was considerable among the ethnic populations: nearly 25% of African Americans, and about 20% of American Indians, Puerto Ricans, Hawaiians, and Mexican Americans having births to women under 20 years of age. The birthing patterns were different among minority groups. Hispanic women had early childbearing and continued childbearing throughout the reproductive years. Black and American Indian women tended to complete childbearing early. Asian

  5. One young woman's campaign: rock concerts and graffiti.

    PubMed

    Malewska, J

    1993-05-01

    Prevailing law and church dictum in 1989 Poland precluded talking about condoms and sex on the radio. Accordingly, a young woman who did a radio-theater drama with some friends about how to avoid HIV infection was thrown out of school. This youth, however, knew that her audience found the emission to be provocative and interesting, and that people were having unprotected sex at concerts in toilet stalls with unknown partners. The Ministry of Health nonetheless said funds were unavailable for condom distribution. Undeterred, the author, her younger brother, and 2 friends joined forces to make large banners with pictures of condoms, bought 500 condoms with their own money, and went to the largest rock festival in Warsaw. She described on stage what AIDS is and how to contract it while friends handed out condoms and leaflets. Their success how has them cooperating with 20 other groups and going to concerts to talk about AIDS and hand out condoms. They have also sprayed graffiti across Warsaw aimed at preventing HIV transmission and provide leaflets and condoms with money from France to ticket holders at area clubs; letters requesting cooperative action have been received. Despite the success of these activities, the Ministry of Health requires receipt of a project and budget proposal before they may consider funding. Graffiti, however, is illegal in Poland and the new Catholic government made is impossible to obtain cheap Polish condoms in shops. The activists continued to develop banners and graffiti, but failed to keep people from engaging in high risk sex with multiple partners. 3 of the author's attractive and healthy female friends therefore began going to concerts and night clubs where they feigned soliciting sexual relations and being HIV-seropositive. Unsuspecting takers without condoms were informed of the girls contrived HIV serostatus and told they must surely desire death if they are ready to have unprotected intercourse. The desire to use condoms has

  6. One young woman's campaign: rock concerts and graffiti.

    PubMed

    Malewska, J

    1993-05-01

    Prevailing law and church dictum in 1989 Poland precluded talking about condoms and sex on the radio. Accordingly, a young woman who did a radio-theater drama with some friends about how to avoid HIV infection was thrown out of school. This youth, however, knew that her audience found the emission to be provocative and interesting, and that people were having unprotected sex at concerts in toilet stalls with unknown partners. The Ministry of Health nonetheless said funds were unavailable for condom distribution. Undeterred, the author, her younger brother, and 2 friends joined forces to make large banners with pictures of condoms, bought 500 condoms with their own money, and went to the largest rock festival in Warsaw. She described on stage what AIDS is and how to contract it while friends handed out condoms and leaflets. Their success how has them cooperating with 20 other groups and going to concerts to talk about AIDS and hand out condoms. They have also sprayed graffiti across Warsaw aimed at preventing HIV transmission and provide leaflets and condoms with money from France to ticket holders at area clubs; letters requesting cooperative action have been received. Despite the success of these activities, the Ministry of Health requires receipt of a project and budget proposal before they may consider funding. Graffiti, however, is illegal in Poland and the new Catholic government made is impossible to obtain cheap Polish condoms in shops. The activists continued to develop banners and graffiti, but failed to keep people from engaging in high risk sex with multiple partners. 3 of the author's attractive and healthy female friends therefore began going to concerts and night clubs where they feigned soliciting sexual relations and being HIV-seropositive. Unsuspecting takers without condoms were informed of the girls contrived HIV serostatus and told they must surely desire death if they are ready to have unprotected intercourse. The desire to use condoms has

  7. Student Readers and the Civil War Letters of an Ohio Woman.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffmann, Leonore Noll

    1986-01-01

    Describes the creation of two anthologies of personal narratives by women. Explains how letters can stimulate students to become active readers using, as an example, letters written by a woman during the Civil War. (SRT)

  8. [Enteral oxygenation in complex treatment of anaerobic septic shock in postpartum woman].

    PubMed

    Belikov, V L; Zavoĭskikh, E V; Mazurok, V A; Pchel'nikov, A A; Saturnov, A V; Slivin, O A; Sulima, D L; Khantalina, G M

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of the clinical case demonstration is to attract the professionals' attention to the method of enteral oxygen therapy successfully used in the complex intensive therapy of septic shock in young postpartum woman.

  9. Electrocardiogram in a 39-Year-Old Woman After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting.

    PubMed

    Glancy, David L

    2016-08-15

    After coronary arterial bypass operation for angina pectoris without prior myocardial infarction, a 39-year-old woman has an electrocardiogram during right ventricular pacing that is highly specific for anterior myocardial infarction. PMID:27328957

  10. The Married Professional Woman: A Study in the Tolerance of Domestication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poloma, Margaret M.; Garland, T. Neal

    1971-01-01

    Data from recent study of dual profession couples on the woman's desire for an egalitarian family, her career orientation, and her perception of discrimination are used to support the "tolerance of domestication" thesis. (Author)

  11. [Woman's participation in the decision process of the pregnancy and puerperal cycle: nursing care integrative review].

    PubMed

    Busanello, Josefine; Lunardi Filho, Wilson Danilo; Kerber, Nalú Pereira da Costa; Lunardi, Valéria Lerch; dos Santos, Silvana Sidnei

    2011-12-01

    This is an integrative review that aims to identify the contribution of nursing care for woman's participation in the decision process of the pregnancy and puerperal cycle, as described in Brazilian scientific publications. The scientific productions were retrieved in May, 2010, from the Virtual Library of Health (Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde) database. From the eight articles reviewed, two themes stood out: Contributions of nursing care to the woman's participation in the decision process of the pregnancy and puerperal cycle; and Limitations of nursing care to the woman's participation in the decision process of the pregnancy and puerperal cycle. The following review supports the production of knowledge in nursing, by identifying a gap in what nurses know and do about this issue, as shown by the lack of nursing researches that concern, specifically, the participation of the woman in the decision process during the pregnancy and puerperal cycle and the possible contributions of nursing care to ensure women of this right.

  12. The Māori foot exhibits differences in plantar loading and midfoot morphology to the Caucasian foot.

    PubMed

    Gurney, J K; Kuch, C; Rosenbaum, D; Kersting, U G

    2012-05-01

    The question being addressed in the current study was whether the diabetic Māori foot was more or less prone to ulceration than the diabetic New Zealand Caucasian (NZC) foot. Harris mat and pedobarographic analyses were employed to assess static and dynamic foot morphology and plantar loading in 40 Māori and NZC diabetic and non-diabetic participants. Significantly higher peak pressures were exhibited by the diabetic Māori participants compared to their NZC peers at the central forefoot. Significantly higher static and dynamic arch index values and significantly higher sub-arch angle values were exhibited by the non-diabetic Māori participants compared to their NZC peers. The latter findings suggest that healthy Māori may have a predisposition towards having a flatter foot than healthy NZC, which may have footwear design implications.

  13. Population data on 6 short tandem repeat loci in a sample of Caucasian-Mestizos from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Yunis, J J; García, O; Uriarte, I; Yunis, E J

    2000-01-01

    Blood samples from 409-452 unrelated Colombian Caucasian-Mestizo individuals were amplified and typed for six short tandem repeat (STR) markers (HUMF13A01, HUMFES/FPS, HUMVWA, HUMCSF1PO, HUMTPOX, HUMTH01). The allele frequencies, genotype frequencies, heterozygosity, mean paternity exclusion chance, polymorphism information content, discrimination power, assumption of independence within and between loci and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium were determined. The results demonstrate that all markers conform to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. In addition, the results demonstrate the assumption of independence within and between the loci analysed. The mean exclusion chance (MEC) was 0.9851 for all six STR loci analysed and the discrimination power (DP) was 0.9999973. Therefore, this Colombian population database can be used in identity testing to estimate the frequency of a multiple PCR-based locus DNA profile in forensic cases as well as in paternity testing. PMID:10876992

  14. [Biological properties of the isolate of Trichinella spp. from a jackal in the North-Caucasian Region].

    PubMed

    Odoevskaia, I M; Kurnosova, O P; Klinkov, A V; Bocharova, M M

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of the isolate from Trichinella from ajackal in the North-Caucasian Region of the Russian Federation were studied. The jackal's muscle tissue showed two Trichinella species preserving their genetic isolation during 5 passages on mice. Oval capsules containing live larvae (on day 90 after infection) in the rat muscles corresponds to the conventional description of the species Trichinella spiralis in their morphometric and biological properties. The morphological data, biological properties, and poor adaptation of round capsule-enclosed parasites to rats indirectly show their affiliation to the other Trichinella species--T. native or T. britovi. There was a negative test for outbred albino rat muscle Trichinella resistance to freezing, which, might be associated with the poor adaptation of this Trichinella isolate to this species of rodents. PMID:19830913

  15. Hb Bibba or alpha 2 136(H19)Leu-->Pro beta 2 in a Caucasian family from Alabama.

    PubMed

    Prchal, J T; Adler, B; Wilson, J B; Baysal, E; Qin, W B; Molchanova, T P; Pobedimskaya, D D; Kazanetz, E G; Huisman, T H

    1995-01-01

    Several members of a large Caucasian family who presented with a congenital Heinz body hemolytic anemia were found to be carriers of the unstable Hb Bibba or alpha 2 136(H19)Leu-->Pro beta 2. Identification by protein analysis was hampered by the instability of the variant which complicated its isolation from shipped blood samples. Moreover, the detection of the CTG-->CCG mutation at codon 136 of the alpha 2 gene required the substitution of dGTP by dITP during the DNA sequencing process to prevent the occurrence of secondary structures and compressions in the sequencing gel. The first Hb Bibba heterozygote, characterized in 1968 (1), is believed to be a member of this family. The clinical expression of the disease is surprisingly variable.

  16. [Biological properties of the isolate of Trichinella spp. from a jackal in the North-Caucasian Region].

    PubMed

    Odoevskaia, I M; Kurnosova, O P; Klinkov, A V; Bocharova, M M

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of the isolate from Trichinella from ajackal in the North-Caucasian Region of the Russian Federation were studied. The jackal's muscle tissue showed two Trichinella species preserving their genetic isolation during 5 passages on mice. Oval capsules containing live larvae (on day 90 after infection) in the rat muscles corresponds to the conventional description of the species Trichinella spiralis in their morphometric and biological properties. The morphological data, biological properties, and poor adaptation of round capsule-enclosed parasites to rats indirectly show their affiliation to the other Trichinella species--T. native or T. britovi. There was a negative test for outbred albino rat muscle Trichinella resistance to freezing, which, might be associated with the poor adaptation of this Trichinella isolate to this species of rodents.

  17. Population data on 6 short tandem repeat loci in a sample of Caucasian-Mestizos from Colombia.

    PubMed

    Yunis, J J; García, O; Uriarte, I; Yunis, E J

    2000-01-01

    Blood samples from 409-452 unrelated Colombian Caucasian-Mestizo individuals were amplified and typed for six short tandem repeat (STR) markers (HUMF13A01, HUMFES/FPS, HUMVWA, HUMCSF1PO, HUMTPOX, HUMTH01). The allele frequencies, genotype frequencies, heterozygosity, mean paternity exclusion chance, polymorphism information content, discrimination power, assumption of independence within and between loci and Hardy Weinberg equilibrium were determined. The results demonstrate that all markers conform to Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium expectations. In addition, the results demonstrate the assumption of independence within and between the loci analysed. The mean exclusion chance (MEC) was 0.9851 for all six STR loci analysed and the discrimination power (DP) was 0.9999973. Therefore, this Colombian population database can be used in identity testing to estimate the frequency of a multiple PCR-based locus DNA profile in forensic cases as well as in paternity testing.

  18. Relief of breast engorgement for the Sabbath-observant Jewish woman.

    PubMed

    Chertok, I

    1999-01-01

    Relief of breast engorgement on the Sabbath is a challenge for the Sabbath-observant Jewish client. Many Sabbath laws limit the methods of care for the engorged breastfeeding woman. With a familiarity of the laws of the Sabbath, the health care provider can better address the needs of the engorged Sabbath-observant Jewish woman. In this article, interventions are proposed that mitigate or preclude violation of the Sabbath.

  19. The functional "KL-VS" variant of KLOTHO is not associated with type 2 diabetes in 5028 UK Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Freathy, Rachel M; Weedon, Michael N; Melzer, David; Shields, Beverley; Hitman, Graham A; Walker, Mark; McCarthy, Mark I; Hattersley, Andrew T; Frayling, Timothy M

    2006-01-01

    Background Klotho has an important role in insulin signalling and the development of ageing-like phenotypes in mice. The common functional "KL-VS" variant in the KLOTHO (KL) gene is associated with longevity in humans but its role in type 2 diabetes is not known. We performed a large case-control and family-based study to test the hypothesis that KL-VS is associated with type 2 diabetes in a UK Caucasian population. Methods We genotyped 1793 cases, 1619 controls and 1616 subjects from 509 families for the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) F352V (rs9536314) that defines the KL-VS variant. Allele and genotype frequencies were compared between cases and controls. Family-based analysis was used to test for over- or under-transmission of V352 to affected offspring. Results Despite good power to detect odds ratios of 1.2, there were no significant associations between alleles or genotypes and type 2 diabetes (V352 allele: odds ratio = 0.96 (0.84–1.09)). Additional analysis of quantitative trait data in 1177 healthy control subjects showed no association of the variant with fasting insulin, glucose, triglycerides, HDL- or LDL-cholesterol (all P > 0.05). However, the HDL-cholesterol levels observed across the genotype groups showed a similar, but non-significant, pattern to previously reported data. Conclusion This is the first large-scale study to examine the association between common functional variation in KL and type 2 diabetes risk. We have found no evidence that the functional KL-VS variant is a risk factor for type 2 diabetes in a large UK Caucasian case-control and family-based study. PMID:16753056

  20. Genetic association study of NF-κB genes in UK Caucasian adult and juvenile onset idiopathic inflammatory myopathy

    PubMed Central

    Chinoy, Hector; Li, Charles K.-C.; Platt, Hazel; Fertig, Noreen; Varsani, Hemlata; Gunawardena, Harsha; Betteridge, Zoe; Oddis, Chester V.; McHugh, Neil J.; Wedderburn, Lucy R.; Ollier, William E. R.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Treatment-resistant muscle wasting is an increasingly recognized problem in idiopathic inflammatory myopathy (IIM). TNF-α is thought to induce muscle catabolism via activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB). Several genes share homology with the NF-κB family of proteins. This study investigated the role of NF-κB-related genes in disease susceptibility in UK Caucasian IIM. Methods. Data from 362 IIM cases [274 adults, 49 (±14.0) years, 72% female; 88 juveniles, 6 (±3.6) years, 73% female) were compared with 307 randomly selected Caucasian controls. DNA was genotyped for 63 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from NF-κB-related genes. Data were stratified by IIM subgroup/serotype. Results. A significant allele association was observed in the overall IIM group vs controls for the IKBL-62T allele (rs2071592, odds ratio 1.5, 95% CI 1.21, 1.89, corrected P = 0.0086), which strengthened after stratification by anti-Jo-1 or -PM-Scl antibodies. Genotype analysis revealed an increase for the AT genotype in cases under a dominant model. No other SNP was associated in the overall IIM group. Strong pairwise linkage disequilibrium was noted between IKBL-62T, TNF-308A and HLA-B*08 (D′ = 1). Using multivariate regression, the IKBL-62T IIM association was lost after adjustment for TNF-308A or HLA-B*08. Conclusion. An association was noted between IKBL-62T and IIM, with increased risk noted in anti-Jo-1- and -PM-Scl antibody-positive patients. However, the IKBL-62T association is dependent on TNF-308A and HLA-B*08, due to strong shared linkage disequilibrium between these alleles. After adjustment of the 8.1 HLA haplotype, NF-κB genes therefore do not independently confer susceptibility in IIM. PMID:22210660

  1. Comparing bone microarchitecture by trabecular bone score (TBS) in Caucasian American women with and without osteoporotic fractures.

    PubMed

    Leib, E; Winzenrieth, R; Lamy, O; Hans, D

    2014-09-01

    Several cross-sectional studies have shown the ability of the TBS to discriminate between those with and without fractures in European populations. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of TBS to discriminate between those with and without fractures in a large female Caucasian population in the USA. This was a case-control study of 2,165 Caucasian American women aged 40 and older. Patients with illness or taking medications known to affect bone metabolism were excluded. Those in the fracture group (n = 289) had at least one low-energy fracture. BMD was measured at L1-L4, TBS calculated directly from the same DXA image. Descriptive statistics and inferential tests for difference were used. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were created to investigate possible association between independent variables and the status of fracture. Odds ratios per standard deviation decrease (OR) and areas under the ROC curve were calculated for discriminating parameters. Weak correlations were observed between TBS and BMD and between TBS and BMI (r = 0.33 and -0.17, respectively, p < 0.01). Mean age, weight, BMD and TBS were significantly different between control and fracture groups (all p ≤ 0.05), whereas no difference was noted for BMI or height. After adjusting for age, weight, BMD, smoking, and maternal and family history of fracture, TBS (but not BMD) remained a significant predictor of fracture: OR 1.28[1.13-1.46] even after adjustment. In a US female population, TBS again was able to discriminate between those with and those without fractures, even after adjusting for other clinical risk factors.

  2. Long-term dietary habits affect soy isoflavone metabolism and accumulation in prostatic fluid in caucasian men.

    PubMed

    Hedlund, Tammy E; Maroni, Paul D; Ferucci, Paul G; Dayton, Robert; Barnes, Stephen; Jones, Kenneth; Moore, Ray; Ogden, Lorraine G; Wähälä, Kristiina; Sackett, Holly M; Gray, Karen J

    2005-06-01

    The soy isoflavones daidzein and genistein are believed to reduce prostate cancer risk in soy consumers. However, daidzein can be metabolized by the intestinal flora to form a variety of compounds with different bioactivities. In the current study, we investigated the influence of long-term dietary habits on daidzein metabolism in healthy Caucasian men (19-65 y old). A secondary goal was to compare plasma and prostatic fluid concentrations of 5 isoflavonoids: genistein, daidzein, equol, dihydrodaidzein, and O-desmethylangolensin. Baseline plasma levels of isoflavonoids were quantitated in 45 men by HPLC-electrospray ionization-MS. Participants then consumed a soy beverage daily for 1 wk, and post-soy isoflavonoid levels were quantitated in plasma and prostatic fluid. Equol was the only metabolite that appeared to be influenced by routine dietary habits. Stratified analyses revealed that men who had consumed > or =30 mg soy isoflavones/d for at least 2 y had 5.3-times the probability of producing equol than men who had consumed < or =5 mg/d (P = 0.014). Additionally, those men who consumed animal meat regularly had 4.7-times the probability of producing equol than men who did not consume meat (P = 0.023). Equol production was not linked to age, BMI, or the consumption of yogurt, dairy, fruit, or American-style fast food. Daidzein and its metabolites (but not genistein) were typically present at higher levels in prostate fluid than plasma (median = 4-13 times that in plasma). In conclusion, our data suggest that the ability of Caucasian men to produce equol is favorably influenced by the long-term consumption of high amounts of soy and the consumption of meat. Last, the high concentrations of isoflavonoids in prostatic fluid increases the potential for these compounds to have direct effects in the prostate.

  3. Association between TLR3 rs3775291 and resistance to HIV among highly exposed Caucasian intravenous drug users

    PubMed Central

    Huik, Kristi; Avi, Radko; Pauskar, Merit; Kallas, Eveli; Jõgeda, Ene-Ly; Karki, Tõnis; Marsh, Kristina; Jarlais, Don Des; Uusküla, Anneli; Lutsar, Irja

    2014-01-01

    Background TLR3 recognizes dsRNA and triggers immune responses against RNA and DNA viruses. A polymorphism in TLR3, rs3775291 (Leu412Phe), has been associated with the increased susceptibility to enteroviral myocarditis, protection against tick-borne encephalitis virus and HIV-1 infection. We investigated Caucasian intravenous drug users (IDUs) and blood donors in order to evaluate the associations between TLR3 genotypes and susceptibility to HIV infection. Materials and methods A total of 345 Caucasian IDUs were recruited, 50% of them were HIV positive, 89% HCV and 77% HBV positive. Based on their history of needle sharing, 20 of the HIV negative IDUs were classified as highly exposed HIV seronegatives (HESNs), 68 as non-HESNs and 85 as unexposed. The control group consisting of 497 blood donors tested negative for all three viruses. TLR3 rs3775291 were determined by using TaqMan Allelic Discrimination Assay. Results The TLR3 rs3775291 T allele frequency was similar among the HIV negative and HIV positive IDUs and blood donors – 36%, 31% and 34%, respectively. The frequency of persons possessing at least one TLR3 rs3775291 T allele was significantly higher in HESNs compared with blood donors and HIV positive IDUs (80% vs. 55%; p = 0.037 and 80% vs. 53%; p = 0.031, respectively). In the univariate analysis, persons who possessed at least one T allele had reduced odds of being HIV seropositive (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.09–0.90). This association remained significant (OR = 0.25, 95% CI = 0.07–0.87) after the adjustment for other co-variates (HCV, HBV serostatus and duration of intravenous drug use). Conclusions The TLR3 rs3775291 T allele has a protective effect against HIV infection among HESNs IDUs. PMID:23962581

  4. Hair care practices and structural evaluation of scalp and hair shaft parameters in African American and Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Lewallen, Robin; Francis, Shani; Fisher, Brian; Richards, Jeanette; Li, Jim; Dawson, Tom; Swett, Katrina; McMichael, Amy

    2015-09-01

    How African American hair fragility relates to hair care practices and biologic differences between races is not well understood. To assess the differences between perceptions of hair health, hair care practices, and several biologic hair parameters between Caucasian and African American women. A questionnaire on perceptions of hair health and hair care practices was administered. Biological and structural parameters of hair shaft and scalp, including growth, density, diameter, cycle, breakage, and scalp blood flow were also assessed in this case-control study. Significant differences between the Caucasian and African American women were observed in the questionnaire and biologic study data. Regarding self-reported perceptions of hair health, there were differences in the following: hair shaft type (P < 0.001), hair breakage (P = 0.040), and desire to change hair (P = 0.001). Regarding self-reported hair care practices, there were differences in the following: location of haircutting (P = 0.002) and washing (P = 0.010), washing frequency (P < 0.001), chemical relaxer use (P < 0.001), hooded hair dryer use (P < 0.001), and hair shaft conditioner use (P = 0.005). The two groups had similar practices in regard to the use of hair color, frequency of hair color use, chemical curling agents, and handheld blow dryer use. Regarding biological and structural parameters, there were differences in the following: hair growth rate (P < 0.001), density (P = 0.0016), diameter (P = 0.01), number of broken hairs (P < 0.001), and blood flow (P = 0.03). There was no significant difference in hair cycle parameters.The differences in hair care practices and hair fiber morphology among African American women may contribute to clinically observed variation in hair fragility and growth.

  5. Association study of sorbitol dehydrogenase -888G>C polymorphism with type 2 diabetic retinopathy in Caucasian-Brazilians.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Fábio Netto; Crispim, Daisy; Canani, Luís Henrique; Gross, Jorge Luiz; dos Santos, Kátia Gonçalves

    2013-10-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a common chronic complication of diabetes and remains the leading cause of blindness in working-aged people. Hyperglycemia increases glucose flux through the polyol pathway, in which aldose reductase converts glucose into intracellular sorbitol, which is subsequently converted to fructose by sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH). The accelerated polyol pathway triggers a cascade of events leading to retinal vascular endothelial dysfunction and the eventual development of DR. Polymorphisms in the gene encoding aldose reductase have been consistently associated with DR. However, only two studies have analyzed the relationship between polymorphisms in the gene encoding SDH (SORD) and DR. In this case-control study, we investigated whether the -888G > C polymorphism (rs3759890) in the SORD gene is associated with the presence or severity of DR in 446 Caucasian-Brazilians with type 2 diabetes (241 subjects with and 205 subjects without DR). The -888G > C polymorphism was also examined in 105 healthy Caucasian blood donors, and the genotyping of this polymorphism was carried out by real-time PCR. The genotype and allele frequencies of the -888G > C polymorphism in patients with type 2 diabetes were similar to those of blood donors (G allele frequency = 0.16 in both groups of subjects). Similarly, the genotype and allele frequencies in patients with DR or the proliferative form of DR were similar to those of patients without this complication (P > 0.05 for all comparisons). Thus, our findings suggest that the -888G > C polymorphism in the SORD gene is not involved in the pathogenesis of DR in type 2 diabetes.

  6. Significant association between rare IPO11-HTR1A variants and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in Caucasians.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Lingjun; Saba, Laura; Lin, Xiandong; Tan, Yunlong; Wang, Kesheng; Krystal, John H; Tabakoff, Boris; Luo, Xingguang

    2015-10-01

    We comprehensively examined the rare variants in the IPO11-HTR1A region to explore their roles in neuropsychiatric disorders. Five hundred seventy-three to 1,181 rare SNPs in subjects of European descent and 1,234-2,529 SNPs in subjects of African descent (0 < minor allele frequency (MAF) < 0.05) were analyzed in a total of 49,268 subjects in 21 independent cohorts with 11 different neuropsychiatric disorders. Associations between rare variant constellations and diseases and associations between individual rare variants and diseases were tested. RNA expression changes of this region were also explored. We identified a rare variant constellation across the entire IPO11-HTR1A region that was associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Caucasians (T5: P = 7.9 × 10(-31) ; Fp: P = 1.3 × 10(-32) ), but not with any other disorder examined; association signals mainly came from IPO11 (T5: P = 3.6 × 10(-10) ; Fp: P = 3.2 × 1 0(-10) ) and the intergenic region between IPO11 and HTR1A (T5: P = 4.1 × 10(-30) ; Fp: P = 5.4 × 10(-32) ). One association between ADHD and an intergenic rare variant, i.e., rs10042956, exhibited region- and cohort-wide significance (P = 5.2 × 10(-6) ) and survived correction for false discovery rate (q = 0.006). Cis-eQTL analysis showed that, 29 among the 41 SNPs within or around IPO11 had replicable significant regulatory effects on IPO11 exon expression (1.5 × 10(-17) ≤P < 0.002) in human brain or peripheral blood mononuclear cell tissues. We concluded that IPO11-HTR1A was a significant risk gene region for ADHD in Caucasians.

  7. Longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis in neuromyelitis optica: a prospective study of 13 Caucasian patients and literature review.

    PubMed

    Bălaşa, Rodica; Maier, Smaranda; Bajko, Zoltan; Motataianu, Anca; Crişan, Alexandra; Bălaşa, Adrian

    2015-12-01

    Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is a homogenous disease that can be diagnosed by an association of clinical, neuroimaging and serological aspects. We analysed our 4 years NMO series with longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) during the disease course. We included consecutive adult Caucasian patients who were diagnosed with definite NMO, or cases of NMO-IgG seropositive LETM considered as limited forms of NMO. Patients included were negative for other diseases (autoimmune, infectious, etc.). We report the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS), brain and spine MRI, CSF, NMO-IgG, treatment, motor and visual outcome. Thirteen cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria, and the mean follow-up period was 3.74 ± 1.8 years. The initial motor deficit was severe with the mean value of motor functional parameter of 4.46 ± 1 and improved at discharge to 2.53 ± 1.4 (p < 0.001). With treatment, the outcome after LETM attack was good in 10 patients, with a significant improvement of the EDSS mainly upon motor deficit, while visual function had a very slight amelioration. The CSF analysis was normal in 8 cases; spinal MRI showed evidence of LETM in all patients while brain MRI was normal in 7. NMO-IgG is a biomarker for NMO that is of diagnostic value in cases of isolated LETM. LETM has a better outcome than ON in NMO Caucasians. Spinal MRI is essential for NMO diagnosis in the presence of LETM and the absence of multiple brain MRI lesions. Maintenance immunosuppressive therapy reduces the frequency of attacks. PMID:25944511

  8. Associations of body mass and body fat distribution with parity among African-American and Caucasian women: The CARDIA Study.

    PubMed

    Lewis, C E; Smith, D E; Caveny, J L; Perkins, L L; Burke, G L; Bild, D E

    1994-11-01

    Associations of parity with body fat and its distribution are poorly understood; therefore, we examined the relationships between parity and obesity in young adult women. Body mass index (BMI), skin-folds, and waist-hip ratio were compared in 1452 African-American and 1268 Caucasian nonpregnant women aged 18 to 30, adjusting for age (where no age-parity interactions were present), education, physical activity (assessed by questionnaire) and fitness (assessed by graded exercise test), dietary fat intake, alcohol and smoking. Adjusted mean BMI was significantly higher in African-American women aged 25-30 years with three or more children (28.5 kg/m2) than in those with two (27.0 kg/m2), one (26.2 kg/m2), or no children (26.3 kg/m2). Similar trends were found in Caucasians (BMI = 23.3, 23.4, 23.7, 25.0 kg/m2 for parity = 0, 1, 2, > or = 3, respectively), but the mean BMI was significantly higher in African Americans in each parity group. The association between BMI and parity was not present among women 18-24 years of age. Skinfolds were directly associated with parity in African Americans only. Waist-hip ratios were generally lower among nulliparous than parous women in both ethnic groups; race differences were present only among nulliparas. In conclusion, parity was associated with BMI in women aged 25 to 30 years but did not explain ethnicity-related differences in body mass.

  9. Acute thrombosis of the superior mesenteric artery in a 39-year-old woman with protein-S deficiency: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery is a condition with an unfavorable prognosis. Treatment of this condition is focused on early diagnosis, surgical or intravascular restoration of blood flow to the ischemic intestine, surgical resection of the necrotic bowel and supportive intensive care. In this report, we describe a case of a 39-year-old woman who developed a small bowel infarct because of an acute thrombotic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery, also involving the splenic artery. Case presentation A 39-year-old Caucasian woman presented with acute abdominal pain and signs of intestinal occlusion. The patient was given an abdominal computed tomography scan and ultrasonography in association with Doppler ultrasonography, highlighting a thrombosis of the celiac trunk, of the superior mesenteric artery, and of the splenic artery. She immediately underwent an explorative laparotomy, and revascularization was performed by thromboendarterectomy with a Fogarty catheter. In the following postoperative days, she was given a scheduled second and third look, evidencing necrotic jejunal and ileal handles. During all the surgical procedures, we performed intraoperative Doppler ultrasound of the superior mesenteric artery and celiac trunk to control the arterial flow without evidence of a new thrombosis. Conclusion Acute mesenteric ischemia is a rare abdominal emergency that is characterized by a high mortality rate. Generally, acute mesenteric ischemia is due to an impaired blood supply to the intestine caused by thromboembolic phenomena. These phenomena may be associated with a variety of congenital prothrombotic disorders. A prompt diagnosis is a prerequisite for successful treatment. The treatment of choice remains laparotomy and thromboendarterectomy, although some prefer an endovascular approach. A second-look laparotomy could be required to evaluate viable intestinal handles. Some authors support a laparoscopic second

  10. Gene Expression Profiling in Monocytes and SNP Association Suggest the Importance of the Gene for Osteoporosis in Both Chinese and Caucasians

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiang-Ding; Xiao, Peng; Lei, Shu-Feng; Liu, Yao-Zhong; Guo, Yan-Fang; Deng, Fei-Yan; Tan, Li-Jun; Zhu, Xue-Zhen; Chen, Fu-Rong; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2010-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized mainly by low bone mineral density (BMD). Many cytokines and chemokines have been related with bone metabolism. Monocytes in the immune system are important sources of cytokines and chemokines for bone metabolism. However, no study has investigated in vivo expression of a large number of various factors simultaneously in human monocytes underlying osteoporosis. This study explored the in vivo expression pattern of general cytokines, chemokines, and their receptor genes in human monocytes and validated the significant genes by qRT-PCR and genetic association analyses. Expression profilings were performed in monocyte samples from 26 Chinese and 20 Caucasian premenopausal women with discordant BMD. Genome-wide association analysis with BMD variation was conducted in 1000 unrelated Caucasians. We selected 168 cytokines, chemokines, osteoclast-related factors, and their receptor genes for analyses. Significantly, the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) gene was upregulated in the low versus the high BMD groups in both Chinese and Caucasians. We also revealed a significant association of the STAT1 gene with BMD variation in the 1000 Caucasians. Thus we conclude that the STAT1 gene is important in human circulating monocytes in the etiology of osteoporosis. © 2010 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:19594299

  11. Contributing Factors That Affect the Achievement of African-American Females Taught by Caucasian Teachers on the Arkansas Literacy Exam: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Felicia R.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative intrinsic case study was designed to assist Caucasian educators with the researched academic skills and behaviors to engage African-American females in the learning environment. The study provided strategies and recommendations to promote self-worth, self-motivation, self-efficacy, and morale in African-American females when they…

  12. A Comparison Between Caucasians and African Americans in Willingness to Participate in Cancer Clinical Trials: The Roles of Knowledge, Distrust, Information Sources, and Religiosity.

    PubMed

    Meng, Jingbo; McLaughlin, Margaret; Pariera, Katrina; Murphy, Sheila

    2016-06-01

    This study aims to (a) examine the roles of knowledge, distrust in medical professionals, information sources, and 2 dimensions of religiosity (i.e., religious activity and religious belief) in influencing willingness to participate (WTP) in cancer clinical trials and to (b) compare the results for Caucasians and African Americans in order to inform future recruitment. An online survey was fielded via a Knowledge Networks panel with a nationally representative sample including 478 Caucasians and 173 African Americans. The results showed that distrust in medical professionals was a strong barrier to WTP for both ethnic groups, whereas factual knowledge about trial procedures was not associated with WTP for either ethnic group. Seeking trial information from doctors was positively associated with WTP for Caucasians; seeking trial information from hospitals was positively associated with WTP for African Americans. More interestingly, levels of religious activity negatively predicted WTP for Caucasians but positively predicted WTP for African Americans. Self-reported religious belief was not associated with WTP for either ethnic group. In sum, although distrust is a common barrier to WTP, the influence of preferred information sources and religious activity on WTP varies as a function of ethnicity. PMID:27175604

  13. Racial Bias in Personality Assessment: Using the MMPI-2 to Predict Psychiatric Diagnoses of African American and Caucasian Chemical Dependency Inpatients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnot, Matthew J.; Quirk, Stuart W.; Hoerger, Michael; Brewer, Linda

    2009-01-01

    An assessment of predictive bias was conducted on numerous scales of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2 (MMPI-2; J. N. Butcher, W. G. Dahlstrom, J. R. Graham, A. Tellegen, & B. Kaemmer, 1989), including the Restructured Clinical (RC) scales, in the prediction of clinical diagnostic status for African American and Caucasian male…

  14. Barriers to Career Mobility/Advancement by African-American and Caucasian Female Administrators in Minnesota Organizations: A Perception or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coleman, Jo Evans

    The primary purpose of this research was to identify perceived barriers affecting African-American and Caucasian female administrators' career mobility/advancement in education, business/industry, and government in Minnesota. The study explored women's perceptions of the effects that race/gender discrimination and gender underrepresentation have…

  15. The Relating Level of Teacher Candidates Based on Scientific Information with Their Daily Lives: A Case of Ataturk and Caucasian Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurt, Murat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research is to determine and compare candidate teachers' level of relating scientific information with their daily lives. The teachers were studying in the 1st and 4th classes in Atatürk and Caucasian Universities, Education Faculty, Elementary School Science Teaching Department during the 2012-2013 academic year. The research…

  16. Lung cancer risk in relation to genetic polymorphisms of microsomal epoxide hydrolase among African-Americans and Caucasians in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    London, S J; Smart, J; Daly, A K

    2000-05-01

    Microsomal epoxide hydrolase participates in the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene, an important carcinogen in tobacco smoke. Two relatively common polymorphisms of the microsomal epoxide hydrolase gene that influence enzyme activity have been described. An association between genetic variation in microsomal epoxide hydrolase and lung cancer risk has been reported in one of two studies of Caucasians. We examined the relation between these two polymorphisms and lung cancer risk among 337 incident cases and 700 population controls of African-American and Caucasian ethnicity enrolled in a case-control study in Los Angeles County. African-Americans, homozygous for the exon 3 variant allele conferring reduced activity, were at decreased risk of lung cancer (odds ratio (OR)=0.08, 95% CI 0.01-0.62). When data from both the exon 3 and exon 4 polymorphisms were combined into indices of predicted microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity, a decreased risk was seen among African-American subjects with very low predicted activity OR=0.10 (95% CI 0.01-0.83). No comparable association was seen among Caucasians. Although the three published results for Caucasians are somewhat variable, the association among African-Americans in these data provides some support for the hypothesis that genetically reduced microsomal epoxide hydrolase activity may be protective against lung cancer.

  17. Visual Perception and Recall of School-Age Navajo, Hopi, Jicarilla Apache, and Caucasian Children of the Southwest including Results from a Pilot Study Among Eskimos and Athabascan School-Age Children of North Alaska. Monograph #5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bland, Laurel LeMieux

    The study determined if a significant difference was demonstrated between American Indians and Caucasians on visual perception and recall tasks associated with cognitive function. It was hypothesized that a significant difference existed between scores obtained by Indian children enrolled in reservation schools and that of Caucasian children…

  18. GENDER DIFFERENCES IN RESOURCE USE AND EVALUATUON OF ATTRIBUTES OF PLACES OF RESOURCE USE BY NATIVE AMERICANS AND CAUCASIANS FROM WESTERN IDAHO: RELEVANCE TO RISK EVALUATIONS

    PubMed Central

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael

    2014-01-01

    A substantial body of literature deals with exposure differences between men and women, and how men and women perceive environmental risk, but far less attention has been devoted to how men and women use the environment and how they evaluate the features of natural environments. The objective of this study was to examine gender differences in the perceptions of environmental quality and resource use for Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed at an Indian festival in northwestern Idaho. More individuals engaged in fishing than any other consumptive activity, and more people engaged in camping and hiking than other nonconsumptive activities. For both ethnic groups, significantly more men hunted than women, although a higher percentage of Native Americans of both genders hunted than did Caucasians. Although significantly more Caucasian men fished than women (63 vs. 41%), there were no marked differences in fishing for Native Americans. Significantly more Native American women gathered herbs (57%) compared to men (37%). There were no significant gender differences in nonconsumptive activities (camping, hiking, biking, bird watching, or picnicking). For those who engaged in consumptive and nonconsumptive activities, however, there were few gender differences in the frequency of these activities, except for fishing, hunting, and crabbing by Caucasians (men had higher rates) and collecting berries and herbs for Native Americans (women had higher rates). When asked to evaluate environmental characteristics or attributes on a scale of 1 (less important) to 5 (very important), unpolluted water, clean air, no visible smog, unpolluted groundwater, and appears unspoiled were rated the highest. There were few significant gender differences in these evaluations for Native Americans, but there were significant gender differences for Caucasians: Women rated most features higher than did men (except for natural tidal flow). These data indicate a need to evaluate not only

  19. Psychological meaning of a woman with a hysterectomy among Mexican physicians and women.

    PubMed

    Marván, Maria Luisa; Catillo-López, Rosa Lilia; Ehrenzweig, Yamilet; Palacios, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    The psychological meaning of women who have had a hysterectomy, and attitudes toward them, were explored in 121 Mexican gynecologists, 155 women who had undergone a hysterectomy, and 115 women who had not had a hysterectomy. The surveys were completed between January and May 2011. Both groups of women defined a woman who had had a hysterectomy using words with positive meanings (healthy, happy, reassured, and complete), as well as words with negative meanings (sad, incomplete, and irritable). However, the participants who had not had a hysterectomy defined a woman who had had a hysterectomy using more negative words and showed more negative attitudes toward such a woman with a hysterectomy than those women who had undergone a hysterectomy. Among participants who had undergone a hysterectomy, those who were premenopausal prior to the surgery and those who had undergone bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy defined a woman who had had a hysterectomy in a more negative manner and showed the most negative attitudes. The gynecologists did not use words with emotional content regarding women who had had a hysterectomy and showed more neutral attitudes toward such a woman than did both groups of women. These findings could be helpful in designing support programs for women facing a hysterectomy.

  20. Leptin-receptor polymorphisms relate to obesity through blunted leptin-mediated sympathetic nerve activation in a Caucasian male population.

    PubMed

    Masuo, Kazuko; Straznicky, Nora E; Lambert, Gavin W; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Sugimoto, Ken; Rakugi, Hiromi; Socratous, Florentia; Hastings, Jacqueline; Lambert, Elisabeth A; Ogihara, Toshio; Esler, Murray D

    2008-06-01

    Leptin plays a key role in the regulation of body weight through the sympathetic nervous system; however, the contributions of leptin-receptor polymorphisms to obesity and sympathetic nerve activity have not been fully clarified. In the present study, we examined the relationships between leptin-receptor polymorphisms, plasma leptin and whole-body norepinephrine (NE) spillover as an index of sympathetic nerve activity in a Caucasian male cohort. In 129 young healthy normotensive men with a wide range of body mass index (BMI) (19.4-39.5 kg/m(2)), we measured leptin-receptor polymorphisms (Gln223Arg, Lys656Asn, and Lys109Arg), plasma leptin levels, whole-body NE spillover, whole-body NE clearance, BMI and blood pressure (BP) levels in the supine position after overnight fasting. Overweight-obese (BMI>or=25 kg/m(2)) subjects had significantly greater BMI, BP levels, plasma leptin and whole-body NE spillover compared to lean (BMI<25 kg/m(2)) subjects, but the NE clearance was similar. Overweight-obese subjects had significantly higher frequencies of the Arg223 allele and the Arg223 homozygous allele of Gln223Arg and the Asn656 allele of Lys656Asn compared to lean subjects. Subjects carrying the Arg223 homozygous or the Asn656 allele had higher levels of plasma leptin, BMI, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip ratio, but significantly less whole-body NE spillover, especially when they were also overweight-obese. BP levels and whole-body NE clearance were similar between subjects with and without the Arg223 homozygous or Asn656 allele. No differences were found in the distributions of the Arg109 allele of Lys109Arg polymorphism between nonobese and overweight-obese subjects. In addition, BMI, BP, plasma leptin levels, whole-body NE spillover and whole-body NE clearance were similar between those with and without the Arg109 allele. Together, these findings demonstrate that leptin-receptor polymorphisms were related to the incidence of obesity in a Caucasian male