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Sample records for 747-100 747-100b 747-100b

  1. 75 FR 27424 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Model 747-100, 747- 100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747-300, 747SR, and 747SP Series Airplanes AGENCY... airplanes. That AD currently requires repetitive inspections to detect cracking in certain fuselage skin lap... could result in rapid depressurization of the airplane. DATES: This AD becomes effective June 21,...

  2. 75 FR 3147 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100B SUD, -200B, -300, -400, and -400D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Model 747-100B SUD, -200B, -300, -400, and -400D Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation... existing airworthiness directive (AD), which applies to certain Model 747-100B SUD, -200B, -300, -400, and..., -200B, -300, -400, and -400D series airplanes. That NPRM was published in the Federal Register on...

  3. 75 FR 3150 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... Series Airplanes Equipped With General Electric CF6-45 or -50 Series Engines, or Equipped With Pratt & Whitney JT9D-3 or -7 (Excluding -70) Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA...) at each strut location, and repair if necessary. This new AD adds a one-time inspection for...

  4. 75 FR 38007 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ..., and 747SP Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... SUD, 747-200B, 747-200C, 747-200F, 747-300, 747-400, 747-400F, 747SR, and 747SP series airplanes. This...). This AD results from reports of duct assemblies in the ECS with burned Boeing Material...

  5. 75 FR 18446 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ..., and 747SP Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of..., and 747SP series airplanes. This proposed AD would require reworking or replacing certain duct... assemblies in the ECS with burned Boeing Material Specification (BMS) 8-39 polyurethane foam insulation....

  6. 75 FR 70868 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... connection will overheat with electrical current passing through it. An overheated connector can degrade the... electrical terminal at the left and right flightdeck window 1, and corrective actions if necessary. This... equipped with different electrical connections, which would terminate the repetitive inspections for...

  7. 76 FR 19278 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... could also result in crew communication difficulties or incapacitation of the crew. DATES: We must... substantive verbal contact we receive about this proposed AD. Discussion On July 18, 2007, we issued AD 2007... could also result in crew communication difficulties or incapacitation of the crew. Actions...

  8. 76 FR 30253 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-25

    ... reference to a ``sub-section number'' in paragraph (g) of the regulatory section is incorrect. This document... published, the reference to ``sub-section number is `28-60-06' '' in paragraph (g) of the regulatory section is incorrect. The correct sub-section number is 20-60-06. No other part of the preamble or...

  9. 75 FR 9760 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... cracks in the wing and horizontal stabilizer side-of-body joints and the fuselage skin circumferential... from Boeing analysis indicating that the wing and horizontal stabilizer side-of-body joints, and the..., FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office, 1601 Lind Avenue, SW., Renton, Washington...

  10. 75 FR 20792 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... webs, and related investigative and corrective actions if necessary. This proposed AD results from reports of cracks in overwing intercostal webs. We are proposing this AD to detect and correct such... develop in the adjacent frame structure and skin, resulting in a rapid loss of cabin pressure. DATES:...

  11. 75 FR 39818 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... detailed inspections of certain overwing intercostal webs, and related investigative and corrective actions if necessary. This AD results from reports of cracks in overwing intercostal webs. We are issuing... an intercostal is severed, cracks could develop in the adjacent frame structure and skin,...

  12. 76 FR 34625 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... leading edge area of the wing. This proposed AD was prompted by a design review following a ground fire incident and reports of flammable fluid leaks from the wing leading edge area onto the engine exhaust area... proposed AD. Discussion We have received a report of fuel leaking from the wing leading edge area at...

  13. 75 FR 52907 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Airlines (JAL) reports that certain structures prevented the accomplishment of the inspection specified in....e., the stress value can vary) from stringer to stringer or frame to frame. Therefore, JAL requests... stringer or frame bay stress were used along the entire joint, the work instructions would become too...

  14. 75 FR 37997 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... airplanes. This AD requires replacing the power control relays for the main tank fuel boost pumps and jettison pumps, and the center tank scavenge pump, as applicable, with new relays having a ground fault interrupt (GFI) feature. This AD also requires revising the maintenance program to incorporate...

  15. 75 FR 60661 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... right override/jettison pumps of the center wing tanks. The original NPRM would also have required... revision to the maintenance program to incorporate airworthiness limitation No. 28-AWL-22. The original... event that the pump low pressure light on the flight engineer's panel does not illuminate when the...

  16. 75 FR 78591 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... the left and right override/jettison pumps of the center wing tanks. This AD also requires replacing... maintenance program to incorporate airworthiness limitation No. 28-AWL-22. This AD also requires a revision to the airplane flight manual to advise the flightcrew what to do in the event that the pump low...

  17. 75 FR 61337 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... Li, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office, 1601... required by this AD to the Boeing Commercial Airplanes ODA rather than a Designated Engineering... Li, Aerospace Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office,...

  18. 75 FR 3658 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... low-pressure flex-hoses of the crew oxygen system installed under the oxygen mask stowage boxes in the.... This proposed AD results from reports of low-pressure flex-hoses of the crew oxygen system that burned... the crew oxygen system to melt or burn, causing oxygen system leakage and smoke or fire. DATES:...

  19. 75 FR 47208 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    .... This AD requires inspecting to verify the part number of the low-pressure flex-hoses of the crew oxygen system installed under the oxygen mask stowage boxes in the flight deck, and replacing the flex-hose with...-pressure flex- hoses of the crew oxygen system that burned through due to inadvertent electrical...

  20. 75 FR 61985 - Airworthiness Directives; Boeing Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747-200F, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Final... certain equipment on the flight deck door. This AD was prompted by reports that the current design of...

  1. 75 FR 39185 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... forward engine mount and adjacent support structure, and visual inspections of the internal angle and... checks of the hanger fittings and strut forward bulkhead of the forward engine mount and adjacent support structure, and visual inspections of the internal angle and external bulkhead chord and detailed...

  2. 76 FR 13067 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... engine mount and adjacent support structure, and visual inspections of the internal angle and external... forward engine mount and adjacent support structure, and visual inspections of the internal angle and... Include an Option To Support the Engine Boeing requested that we revise paragraph (k) of the NPRM...

  3. 76 FR 38074 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-200B, 747-200C, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... stretched- upper-deck configuration, as identified in Boeing Alert Service Bulletin 747-53A2303, dated June... is measured from the time of the stretched- upper-deck modification. (i) If no cracking is...

  4. 75 FR 38404 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100B, 747-200B, 747-200F, 747-300, 747-400...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... with Rolls-Royce RB211-524 Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... sides of the strut front spar chord for cracks and fractures at each strut location, and corrective... separation of the strut and engine from the airplane. DATES: This AD is effective July 19, 2010. The...

  5. 78 FR 72561 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-03

    ...-241-AD; Amendment 39-17685; AD 2013-24-11] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company... new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD... airworthiness directive (AD): 2013-24-11 The Boeing Company: Amendment 39-17685; Docket No. FAA-...

  6. 78 FR 38550 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ...-226-AD; Amendment 39-17493; AD 2013-13-05] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all The Boeing Company Model 747SP series airplanes, and certain The Boeing Company Model 747-100B SUD and 747-300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by...

  7. 75 FR 10669 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-200B, 747-300, and 747SR Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Model 747-100, 747- 200B, 747-300, and 747SR Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Model 747-100, 747-200B, 747-300, and 747SR series airplanes. This AD requires installation of a... airworthiness directive (AD) that would apply to certain Boeing Model 747-100, 747-200B, 747-300, and...

  8. Aircraft cabin ozone measurements on B747-100 and B747-SP aircraft: Correlations with atmospheric ozone and ozone encounter statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P. J.; Holdeman, J. D.; Gauntner, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric (outside) ozone concentration and ozone levels in the cabin of the B747-100 and B747-SP airliners were made by NASA to evaluate the aircraft cabin ozone contamination problem. Instrumentation on these aircraft measured ozone from an outside probe and at one point in the cabin. Average ozone in the cabin of the B747-100 was 39 percent of the outside. Ozone in the cabin of the B747-SP measured 82 percent of the outside, before corrective measures. Procedures to reduce the ozone in this aircraft included changes in the cabin air circulation system, use of the high-temperature 15th stage compressor bleed, and charcoal filters in the inlet cabin air ducting, which as separate actions reduced the ozone to 58, 19 and 5 percent, respectively. The potential for the NASA instrumented B747 aircraft to encounter high levels of cabin ozone was derived from atmospheric oxone measurements on these aircraft. Encounter frequencies for two B747-100's were comparable even though the route structures were different. The B747-SP encountered high ozone than did the B747-100's.

  9. Low Earth Orbit Raider (LER) winged air launch vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feaux, Karl; Jordan, William; Killough, Graham; Miller, Robert; Plunk, Vonn

    1989-01-01

    The need to launch small payloads into low earth orbit has increased dramatically during the past several years. The Low Earth orbit Raider (LER) is an answer to this need. The LER is an air-launched, winged vehicle designed to carry a 1500 pound payload into a 250 nautical mile orbit. The LER is launched from the back of a 747-100B at 35,000 feet and a Mach number of 0.8. Three staged solid propellant motors offer safe ground and flight handling, reliable operation, and decreased fabrication cost. The wing provides lift for 747 separation and during the first stage burn. Also, aerodynamic controls are provided to simplify first stage maneuvers. The air-launch concept offers many advantages to the consumer compared to conventional methods. Launching at 35,000 feet lowers atmospheric drag and other loads on the vehicle considerably. Since the 747 is a mobile launch pad, flexibility in orbit selection and launch time is unparalleled. Even polar orbits are accessible with a decreased payload. Most importantly, the LER launch service can come to the customer, satellites and experiments need not be transported to ground based launch facilities. The LER is designed to offer increased consumer freedom at a lower cost over existing launch systems. Simplistic design emphasizing reliability at low cost allows for the light payloads of the LER.

  10. 75 FR 38394 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, -200B, and -200F Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... ] trim out all three fastener rows of the overlapping skin common to the lap joint.'' Boeing states that... ``remove'' means to trim out all three fastener rows of the overlapping skin common to the lap...

  11. 75 FR 8554 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, -200B, and -200F Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... AD results from reports of fatigue cracking on modified airplanes. We are proposing this AD to detect and correct fatigue cracking in the longitudinal lap joints of the fuselage lower lobe, which could... reports of incidents involving fatigue cracking and corrosion of transport category airplanes that...

  12. 75 FR 35356 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-200B, and 747-200F Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... correct fatigue cracking and corrosion in the fuselage upper lobe skin lap joints, which could lead to... corrosion, and related investigative and corrective actions. We issued that AD to detect and correct fatigue... airplanes. That AD requires inspections to detect fatigue cracking and corrosion of the skin panel...

  13. 75 FR 61977 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-200B, and 747-200F Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    .... The existing ADs currently require inspections to detect fatigue-related skin cracks and corrosion of... skin at the upper lobe skin lap joints for cracks and evidence of corrosion, and related investigative... cracking on modified airplanes. We are issuing this AD to detect and correct fatigue cracking and...

  14. Mated aerodynamic characteristics investigation for the 0.04 scale model TE 1065 (Boeing 747-100) of the 747 CAM and the 0.0405 scale model (43-0) of the space shuttle orbiter in the NASA Langley V/STOL transition research wind tunnel (CA8), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Aerodynamic force data are presented in tables and graphs for the NASA Langley V/STOL Transition Research Wind Tunnel tests on a 0.04 scale model of the 747 with a 0.0405 scale Orbiter space shuttle. The investigation included the effects of flap setting, stabilizer angle, elevator angle, ground proximity, and Orbiter tailcone fairing. Data were obtained in the pitch plane only. The test was run at M = 0.15, with a dynamic pressure of 35 psf. Six static pressures were measured on each side of the 747 CAM nose to determine the effects of the Orbiter on the 747 airspeed and altitude indicators.

  15. A study of subsonic transport aircraft configurations using hydrogen (H2) and methane (CH4) as fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, D. B.; Avery, B. D.; Bodin, L. A.; Baldasare, P.; Washburn, G. F.

    1974-01-01

    The acceptability of alternate fuels for future commercial transport aircraft are discussed. Using both liquid hydrogen and methane, several aircraft configurations are developed and energy consumption, aircraft weights, range and payload are determined and compared to a conventional Boeing 747-100 aircraft. The results show that liquid hydrogen can be used to reduce aircraft energy consumption and that methane offers no advantage over JP or hydrogen fuel.

  16. Simultaneous cabin and ambient ozone measurements on two Boeing 747 airplanes. Volume 3: October 1978 - July 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Jasperson, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of ozone concentrations at cruise altitudes both outside and in the cabin of a Boeing 747SP and Boeing 747-100 airliners in routine commercial service are presented. Plotted and tabulated data are identified by route and are arranged chronologically for each airplane. These data were taken at 5- or 10-min intervals by automated instruments used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). All GASP cabin ozone data obtained from October 1978 to early July 1979 are presented.

  17. Simultaneous cabin and ambient ozone measurements on two Boeing 747 airplanes, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P. J.; Holdeman, J. D.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of zone concentrations both outside and in the cabin of an airline operated Boeing 747SP and Boeing 747-100 airliner are presented. Plotted data and the corresponding tables of observations taken at altitude between the departure and destination airports of each flight are arranged chronologically for the two aircraft. Data were taken at five or ten minute intervals by automated instrumentation used in the NACA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program.

  18. A tow concept for the space shuttle orbiter approach and landing test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, T. F., Jr.; Pride, J. D., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The tow concept provides the means for evaluating the orbiter aerodynamic performance and handling qualities in the same configuration as expected in actual space shuttle flight operation. A Boeing 747-100 aircraft has engine-out capability to tow the orbiter to an altitude that permits a safe orbiter approach and landing. The tow concept also provides a means for conducting a comprehensive ground test program before proceeding into the actual ALT flight operations. The implementation of the tow concept requires only a minor structural modification in the nose section of the orbiter vehicle; requires minor modifications in the 747 cargo bay; and makes use of those orbiter onboard systems installed in the ALT orbiter vehicle. The 747 wake turbulence does not constitute a problem for the orbiter during take-off or climb to altitude. The impact that the tow concept would have on the cost and schedule of the space shuttle program was not evaluated in this study.

  19. Robust Gain-Scheduled Fault Tolerant Control for a Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Gregory, Irene

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an application of robust gain-scheduled control concepts using a linear parameter-varying (LPV) control synthesis method to design fault tolerant controllers for a civil transport aircraft. To apply the robust LPV control synthesis method, the nonlinear dynamics must be represented by an LPV model, which is developed using the function substitution method over the entire flight envelope. The developed LPV model associated with the aerodynamic coefficient uncertainties represents nonlinear dynamics including those outside the equilibrium manifold. Passive and active fault tolerant controllers (FTC) are designed for the longitudinal dynamics of the Boeing 747-100/200 aircraft in the presence of elevator failure. Both FTC laws are evaluated in the full nonlinear aircraft simulation in the presence of the elevator fault and the results are compared to show pros and cons of each control law.

  20. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XII: A Survey of Sleep Quantity and Quality in On-Board Crew Rest Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Dinges, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Many aircraft operated on long-haul commercial airline flights are equipped with on-board crew rest facilities, or bunks, to allow crewmembers to rest during the flight. The primary objectives of this study were to gather data on how the bunks were used, the quantity and quality of sleep obtained by flight crewmembers in the facilities, and the factors that affected their sleep. A retrospective survey comprising 54 questions of varied format addressed demographics, home sleep habits, and bunk sleep habits. Crewmembers from three airlines with long-haul fleets carrying augmented crews consisting of B747-100/200, B747-400, and MD-11 aircraft equipped with bunks returned a total of 1404 completed surveys (a 37% response rate). Crewmembers from the three carriers were comparable demographically, although one carrier had older, more experienced flight crewmembers. Each group, on average, rated themselves as "good" or "very good" sleepers at home, and all groups obtained about the same average amount of sleep each night. Most were able to sleep in the bunks, and about two thirds indicated that these rest opportunities benefited their subsequent flight deck alertness and performance. Comfort, environment, and physiology (e.g., being ready for sleep) were identified as factors that most promoted sleep. Factors cited as interfering with sleep included random noise, thoughts, heat, and the need to use the bathroom. These factors, in turn, suggest potential improvements to bunk facilities and their use. Ratings of the three aircraft types suggested differences among facilities. Bunks in the MD-11 were rated significantly better than either of the B747 types, and the B747-400 bunks received better ratings than did the older, B747-100/200 facilities.

  1. One of NASA's Two Modified Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier (SCA) Aircraft in Flight over NASA Dryden Flig

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    One of NASA's Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft flies over the Dryden Flight Research Center main building at Edwards Air Force Base, Edwards, California, in May 1999. NASA uses two modified Boeing 747 jetliners, originally manufactured for commercial use, as Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA). One is a 747-100 model, while the other is designated a 747-100SR (short range). The two aircraft are identical in appearance and in their performance as Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. The 747 series of aircraft are four-engine intercontinental-range swept-wing 'jumbo jets' that entered commercial service in 1969. The SCAs are used to ferry space shuttle orbiters from landing sites back to the launch complex at the Kennedy Space Center, and also to and from other locations too distant for the orbiters to be delivered by ground transportation. The orbiters are placed atop the SCAs by Mate-Demate Devices, large gantry-like structures which hoist the orbiters off the ground for post-flight servicing, and then mate them with the SCAs for ferry flights. Features which distinguish the two SCAs from standard 747 jetliners are: o Three struts, with associated interior structural strengthening, protruding from the top of the fuselage (two aft, one forward) on which the orbiter is attached o Two additional vertical stabilizers, one on each end of the standard horizontal stabilizer, to enhance directional stability o Removal of all interior furnishings and equipment aft of the forward No. 1 doors o Instrumentation used by SCA flight crews and engineers to monitor orbiter electrical loads during the ferry flights and also during pre- and post-ferry flight operations. The two SCAs are under the operational control of NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Tex. NASA 905 NASA 905 was the first SCA. It was obtained from American Airlines in 1974. Shortly after it was accepted by NASA it was flown in a series of wake vortex research flights at the Dryden Flight Research Center in a study to

  2. The effect of soluble complement receptor type 1 on hyperacute xenograft rejection.

    PubMed

    Pruitt, S K; Baldwin, W M; Marsh, H C; Lin, S S; Yeh, C G; Bollinger, R R

    1991-11-01

    In the guinea pig-to-rat model of hyperacute xenograft (Xg) rejection, the effect of complement inhibition using systemically administered soluble complement receptor type 1 (sCR1) on discordant cardiac Xg survival was investigated. In PBS-treated control Xg recipients (n = 13), hyperacute rejection was rapid, with a mean Xg survival of 17 +/- 4 min. Therapy with sCR1 prolonged survival of cardiac Xgs in a dose-dependent manner. A 3 mg/kg bolus of sCR1 (n = 4) prolonged Xg survival to 64 +/- 29 min (not significant). Increasing the sCR1 dose to 5.9 mg/kg (n = 4) significantly delayed Xg rejection to 71 +/- 17 min (P-0.026, log-rank test vs. control). In 10 recipients treated with 15 mg/kg sCR1, mean Xg survival was further prolonged to 189 +/- 36 min (P-0.0004) with no adverse effects. While 2 of 8 recipients receiving 60 mg/kg sCR1 died with functioning Xgs at 30 and 300 min due to anastomotic bleeding, Xg survival averaged over 12 hr (747 +/- 100 min, P-0.0004) in the remaining 6 recipients. sCR1 administration significantly inhibited serum complement activity in a parallel dose-dependent fashion, with the 60 mg/kg dose reducing complement activity by 95 +/- 1 and 96 +/- 1% five and 30 min following Xg reperfusion, respectively. Immunofluorescence microscopy revealed rat IgM bound to all cardiac Xgs in control as well as sCR1-treated recipients. In addition, serial histologic examination of cardiac Xgs harvested within 21 min of graft reperfusion revealed occlusive platelet aggregates within the coronary vessels as well as interstitial hemorrhage and myocardial necrosis in Xgs from control recipients, all of which were only minimally present in Xgs from recipients treated with sCR1. These studies show that complement inhibition with sCR1 significantly delays hyperacute cardiac Xg rejection in this discordant model and may be an important component in a therapeutic protocol for xenotransplantation.

  3. Flight Crew Sleep in Long-Haul Aircraft Bunk Facilities: Survey Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Miller, Donna L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Dinges, David F.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Modem long-haul aircraft can fly up to 16 continuous hours and provide a 24-hour, global capability. Extra (augmented) flight crew are available on long flights to allow planned rest periods, on a rotating basis, away from the flight deck in onboard crew rest facilities (2 bunks). A NASA/FAA study is under-way to examine the quantity and quality of sleep obtained in long-haul aircraft bunks and the factors that promote or interfere with that sleep. The first phase of the study involved a retrospective survey, followed by a second phase field study to collect standard polysomnographic data during inflight bunk sleep periods. A summary of the Phase I survey results are reported here. A multi-part 54-question retrospective survey was completed by 1,404 flight crew (37% return rate) at three different major US air carriers flying B747-100, 200, 400, and MD- 11 long-haul aircraft. The questions examined demographics, quantity and quality of sleep at home and in onboard bunks, factors that promote or interfere with sleep, and effects on subsequent performance and alertness. Flight crew reported a mean bunk sleep latency of 39.4 mins (SD=28.3 mins) (n=1,276) and a mean total sleep time of 2.2 hrs (SD=1.3 hrs) (n=603). (Different flight lengths could affect overall time available for sleep.) Crew rated 25 factors for their interference or promotion of bunk sleep. Figure I portrays the average ratings for each factor across all three carriers. A principal components analysis of the 25 factors revealed three areas that promoted bunk sleep: physiological (e.g., readiness for sleep), physical environment (e.g., bunk size, privacy), and personal comfort (e.g., blankets, pillows). Five areas were identified that interfered with sleep: environmental disturbance (e.g., background noise, turbulence), luminosity (e.g., lighting), personal disturbances (e.g., bathroom trips, random thoughts), environmental discomfort (e.g., low humidity, cold), and interpersonal disturbances (e