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Sample records for 747-100 747-100b 747-100b

  1. 75 FR 3147 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100B SUD, -200B, -300, -400, and -400D...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... 26, 2003, as of August 30, 2005 (70 FR 43020, July 26, 2005). ADDRESSES: For service information..., amendment 39-14197 (70 FR 43020, July 26, 2005). The existing AD applies to certain Model 747-100B SUD... 14, 2009 (74 FR 33928). That NPRM proposed to require repetitive inspections for cracking in...

  2. 75 FR 38404 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100B, 747-200B, 747-200F, 747-300, 747-400...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... 2010-01-10, Amendment 39-16168 (75 FR 3150, January 20, 2010), applicable to certain Model 747-100, 747... Executive Order 12866, (2) Is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR... upper link load path and consequent fracture of the diagonal brace, which could result in in-...

  3. 75 FR 38007 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... foam insulation, a material of which the fire retardant properties deteriorate with age. We are issuing... wrapped with BMS 8-39 polyurethane foam insulation, a material of which the fire retardant properties... on the duct assemblies of the ECS, which could propagate a small fire and lead to a larger fire...

  4. 76 FR 34625 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-14

    ... AD 2010-23-13 Amendment 39-16502 (75 FR 68688, November 9, 2009), for Model 757 airplanes, and are... Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska, and (4) Will... the products listed above. This proposed AD would require modification of the fluid drain path in...

  5. 75 FR 3150 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-20

    ... as of February 24, 2010. On January 29, 2007 (72 FR 1427, January 12, 2007), the Director of the... 39 to include an AD that supersedes AD 2007-01-15, amendment 39-14887 (72 FR 1427, January 12, 2007... on September 18, 2009 (74 FR 47897). That NPRM proposed to continue to require repetitive...

  6. 76 FR 19278 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ...-15-10, Amendment 39-15139 (72 FR 41438, July 30, 2007), for all Boeing Model 747 airplanes. A correction of that AD was published in the Federal Register on September 21, 2007 (72 FR 53923), which...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not...

  7. 75 FR 61337 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-05

    ... inspections to find cracking of the web, strap, inner chords, and inner chord angle of the forward edge frame... inner chord of the forward edge frame of the number 5 main entry door cutouts, between stringers 16 and... flight. DATES: This AD becomes effective November 9, 2010. The Director of the Federal Register...

  8. 75 FR 9760 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-04

    ... cracks in the wing and horizontal stabilizer side-of-body joints and the fuselage skin circumferential... from Boeing analysis indicating that the wing and horizontal stabilizer side-of-body joints, and the... FR 42807). That NPRM proposed to require one-time detailed and high frequency eddy...

  9. 75 FR 78591 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-16

    ... the left and right override/jettison pumps of the center wing tanks. This AD also requires replacing... uncommanded operation of the override/jettison pumps of the center wing tanks, and failure to manually shut... inside the center wing tank. This condition, in combination with flammable fuel vapors, could result in...

  10. 75 FR 60661 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... right override/jettison pumps of the center wing tanks. The original NPRM would also have required.../ jettison pumps of the center wing tanks, and failure to manually shut off the override/jettison pumps at the correct time, either of which could lead to an ignition source inside the center wing tank....

  11. 75 FR 3658 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-22

    ... through due to inadvertent electrical current from a short circuit in the audio select panel. We are proposing this AD to prevent inadvertent electrical current, which can cause the low-pressure flex-hoses of... inadvertent electrical current from a short circuit in the audio select panel on a Model 757 airplane....

  12. 75 FR 47208 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...-pressure flex- hoses of the crew oxygen system that burned through due to inadvertent electrical current... electrical current, which can cause the low-pressure flex-hoses of the crew oxygen system to melt or burn... that burned through due to inadvertent electrical current from a short circuit in the audio...

  13. 75 FR 70868 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... connection will overheat with electrical current passing through it. An overheated connector can degrade the... electrical terminal at the left and right flightdeck window 1, and corrective actions if necessary. This... equipped with different electrical connections, which would terminate the repetitive inspections for...

  14. 75 FR 20792 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-21

    ... Engineer, Airframe Branch, ANM-120S, FAA, Seattle Aircraft Certification Office (ACO), 1601 Lind Avenue, SW... that section, Congress charges the FAA with promoting safe flight of civil aircraft in air commerce by... rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and 3....

  15. 75 FR 18446 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-12

    ... installation, air distribution system Humidifier duct installation Heat exchanger installation, air... proposed AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes, Attention: Data & Services Management, P. O. Box 3707, MC... CONTACT: Sue McCormick, Aerospace Engineer, Cabin Safety and Environmental Systems Branch, ANM-150S,...

  16. 75 FR 52907 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ..., which can develop into fatigue cracks in the skin and cause sudden decompression of the airplane. DATES..., environmental, and energy aspects of this proposed AD. We will consider all comments received by the closing... airplanes. That original NPRM was published in the Federal Register on January 31, 2008 (73 FR 5768)....

  17. 75 FR 27424 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... joint that is modified. This AD results from a structural review of affected skin lap joints for... listed in the AD as of June 21, 2010. On July 13, 1994 (59 FR 30277, June 13, 1994), the Director of the... 39 to include an AD that supersedes AD 94-12-04, Amendment 39- 8932 (59 FR 30277, June 13, 1994)....

  18. 76 FR 13067 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ..., amendment 39-15210 (72 FR 53939, September 21, 2007). That AD applies to the specified products. The NPRM was published in the Federal Register on July 8, 2010 (75 FR 39185). That NPRM proposed to continue to... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), (3) Will not affect intrastate aviation in...

  19. 75 FR 39818 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-13

    ... was published in the Federal Register on April 21, 2010 (75 FR 20792). That NPRM proposed to require... ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and (3) Will... in a rapid loss of cabin pressure. DATES: This AD is effective August 17, 2010. The Director of...

  20. 75 FR 39185 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... holidays. For service information identified in this proposed AD, contact Boeing Commercial Airplanes... on the Internet at http://www.regulations.gov ; or in person at the Docket Management Facility... for the Docket Office (telephone 800-647-5527) is in the ADDRESSES section. Comments will be...

  1. 75 FR 37997 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... Federal Register on October 13, 2009 (74 FR 52431). That NPRM proposed to require replacing the power... requirements of AD 97-26-07, Amendment 39-10250 (62 FR 65352, December 12, 1997). JAL states that AD 97-26-07... 39-15512 (73 FR 25990, May 8, 2008), already requires incorporation of AWLs 28-AWL-24 through 28-...

  2. 76 FR 38074 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-200B, 747-200C, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-29

    ... for other airplanes. This proposed AD results from reports of multiple adjacent cracks on an airplane..., environmental, and energy aspects of this proposed AD. We will consider all comments received by the closing... post a report summarizing each substantive verbal contact we receive about this proposed AD....

  3. 77 FR 70362 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ..., Amendment 39-16157 (75 FR 1533, January 12, 2010)), AD 2010-01-01 requires accomplishing the main entry door... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747.... This AD was prompted by reports of cracks in the main entry door number 1 upper main sill outer...

  4. 78 FR 28767 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-16

    ...We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747- 200B, 747-200C, 747-200F, 747-300, 747-400, 747-400D, 747-400F, 747SR, and 747SP series airplanes. This proposed AD was prompted by a report of a disbonded doubler and a skin crack in section 41 of the fuselage, and multiple reports of cracked or missing fastener......

  5. 77 FR 47267 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... as of November 28, 2007 (72 FR 65655, November 23, 2007). ADDRESSES: For service information... AD 2007-23-18, Amendment 39-15266 (72 FR 65655, November 23, 2007). The SNPRM published in the Federal Register on February 2, 2012 (77 FR 5195). The SNPRM applied to all Boeing Model 747-100B SUD,...

  6. 75 FR 35356 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-200B, and 747-200F Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-22

    ... 3, 1990, we issued AD 90-15-06, Amendment 39-6653 (55 FR 28600, July 12, 1990), for certain Boeing...-8937 (59 FR 30285, June 13, 1994), for certain Boeing Model 747-100, 747-200B, and 747-200F series... and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3. Will not have a significant economic...

  7. Aircraft cabin ozone measurements on B747-100 and B747-SP aircraft: Correlations with atmospheric ozone and ozone encounter statistics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P. J.; Holdeman, J. D.; Gauntner, D. J.

    1978-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of atmospheric (outside) ozone concentration and ozone levels in the cabin of the B747-100 and B747-SP airliners were made by NASA to evaluate the aircraft cabin ozone contamination problem. Instrumentation on these aircraft measured ozone from an outside probe and at one point in the cabin. Average ozone in the cabin of the B747-100 was 39 percent of the outside. Ozone in the cabin of the B747-SP measured 82 percent of the outside, before corrective measures. Procedures to reduce the ozone in this aircraft included changes in the cabin air circulation system, use of the high-temperature 15th stage compressor bleed, and charcoal filters in the inlet cabin air ducting, which as separate actions reduced the ozone to 58, 19 and 5 percent, respectively. The potential for the NASA instrumented B747 aircraft to encounter high levels of cabin ozone was derived from atmospheric oxone measurements on these aircraft. Encounter frequencies for two B747-100's were comparable even though the route structures were different. The B747-SP encountered high ozone than did the B747-100's.

  8. Low Earth Orbit Raider (LER) winged air launch vehicle concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feaux, Karl; Jordan, William; Killough, Graham; Miller, Robert; Plunk, Vonn

    1989-01-01

    The need to launch small payloads into low earth orbit has increased dramatically during the past several years. The Low Earth orbit Raider (LER) is an answer to this need. The LER is an air-launched, winged vehicle designed to carry a 1500 pound payload into a 250 nautical mile orbit. The LER is launched from the back of a 747-100B at 35,000 feet and a Mach number of 0.8. Three staged solid propellant motors offer safe ground and flight handling, reliable operation, and decreased fabrication cost. The wing provides lift for 747 separation and during the first stage burn. Also, aerodynamic controls are provided to simplify first stage maneuvers. The air-launch concept offers many advantages to the consumer compared to conventional methods. Launching at 35,000 feet lowers atmospheric drag and other loads on the vehicle considerably. Since the 747 is a mobile launch pad, flexibility in orbit selection and launch time is unparalleled. Even polar orbits are accessible with a decreased payload. Most importantly, the LER launch service can come to the customer, satellites and experiments need not be transported to ground based launch facilities. The LER is designed to offer increased consumer freedom at a lower cost over existing launch systems. Simplistic design emphasizing reliability at low cost allows for the light payloads of the LER.

  9. 75 FR 8554 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, -200B, and -200F Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... August 4, 1994, we issued AD 94-17-01, Amendment 39-8996 (59 FR 41653, August 15, 1994), for certain... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... Amendment 39-8996 (59 FR 41653, August 15, 1994) and adding the following new AD: The Boeing Company:...

  10. 75 FR 38394 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, -200B, and -200F Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... could lead to the rapid decompression of the airplane and the inability of the structure to carry fail... and the inability of the structure to carry fail-safe loads. Compliance (f) You are responsible for...: Data & Services Management, P.O. Box 3707, MC 2H-65, Seattle, Washington 98124-2207; telephone 206-...

  11. 75 FR 10669 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-200B, 747-300, and 747SR Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ...) This AD results from a report of water contamination in the electrical and electronic units in the main... closeout panel and moisture curtains for the main equipment center. This AD results from a report of water contamination in the electrical and electronic units in the main equipment center. We are issuing this AD...

  12. 75 FR 61977 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-200B, and 747-200F Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ..., Amendment 39- 6653 (55 FR 28600, July 12, 1990), and AD 94-12-09, Amendment 39-8937 (59 FR 30285, June 13... NPRM was published in the Federal Register on June 22, 2010 (75 FR 35356). That NPRM proposed to... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and (3) Will not have a significant...

  13. Mated aerodynamic characteristics investigation for the 0.04 scale model TE 1065 (Boeing 747-100) of the 747 CAM and the 0.0405 scale model (43-0) of the space shuttle orbiter in the NASA Langley V/STOL transition research wind tunnel (CA8), volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Aerodynamic force data are presented in tables and graphs for the NASA Langley V/STOL Transition Research Wind Tunnel tests on a 0.04 scale model of the 747 with a 0.0405 scale Orbiter space shuttle. The investigation included the effects of flap setting, stabilizer angle, elevator angle, ground proximity, and Orbiter tailcone fairing. Data were obtained in the pitch plane only. The test was run at M = 0.15, with a dynamic pressure of 35 psf. Six static pressures were measured on each side of the 747 CAM nose to determine the effects of the Orbiter on the 747 airspeed and altitude indicators.

  14. 78 FR 4051 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ...-16059 (74 FR 55763, October 29, 2009). (c) Applicability This AD applies to The Boeing Company Model 747... Company Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are superseding an existing airworthiness directive (AD) for certain The Boeing Company Model 747-100,...

  15. 78 FR 60670 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ...We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain The Boeing Company Model 747-100, -100B, -100B SUD, -200B, -200C, - 200F, -300, -400, -400D, -400F, and 747SR series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of cracking at the aft upper corner of the main entry door (MED) 5 cutout. This AD requires inspecting for the presence of repairs and measuring the edge margin at certain......

  16. Simultaneous cabin and ambient ozone measurements on two Boeing 747 airplanes, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, P. J.; Holdeman, J. D.; Nastrom, G. D.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of zone concentrations both outside and in the cabin of an airline operated Boeing 747SP and Boeing 747-100 airliner are presented. Plotted data and the corresponding tables of observations taken at altitude between the departure and destination airports of each flight are arranged chronologically for the two aircraft. Data were taken at five or ten minute intervals by automated instrumentation used in the NACA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program.

  17. Simultaneous cabin and ambient ozone measurements on two Boeing 747 airplanes. Volume 3: October 1978 - July 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holdeman, J. D.; Jasperson, W. H.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of ozone concentrations at cruise altitudes both outside and in the cabin of a Boeing 747SP and Boeing 747-100 airliners in routine commercial service are presented. Plotted and tabulated data are identified by route and are arranged chronologically for each airplane. These data were taken at 5- or 10-min intervals by automated instruments used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP). All GASP cabin ozone data obtained from October 1978 to early July 1979 are presented.

  18. The NASA Dryden 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft crew poses in an engine inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The NASA Dryden 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft crew poses in an engine inlet; Standing L to R - aircraft mechanic John Goleno and SCA Team Leader Pete Seidl; Kneeling L to R - aircraft mechanics Todd Weston and Arvid Knutson, and avionics technician Jim Bedard NASA uses two modified Boeing 747 jetliners, originally manufactured for commercial use, as Space Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA). One is a 747-100 model, while the other is designated a 747-100SR (short range). The two aircraft are identical in appearance and in their performance as Shuttle Carrier Aircraft. The 747 series of aircraft are four-engine intercontinental-range swept-wing 'jumbo jets' that entered commercial service in 1969. The SCAs are used to ferry space shuttle orbiters from landing sites back to the launch complex at the Kennedy Space Center, and also to and from other locations too distant for the orbiters to be delivered by ground transportation. The orbiters are placed atop the SCAs by Mate-Demate Devices, large gantry-like structures which hoist the orbiters off the ground for post-flight servicing, and then mate them with the SCAs for ferry flights.

  19. A tow concept for the space shuttle orbiter approach and landing test

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, T. F., Jr.; Pride, J. D., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The tow concept provides the means for evaluating the orbiter aerodynamic performance and handling qualities in the same configuration as expected in actual space shuttle flight operation. A Boeing 747-100 aircraft has engine-out capability to tow the orbiter to an altitude that permits a safe orbiter approach and landing. The tow concept also provides a means for conducting a comprehensive ground test program before proceeding into the actual ALT flight operations. The implementation of the tow concept requires only a minor structural modification in the nose section of the orbiter vehicle; requires minor modifications in the 747 cargo bay; and makes use of those orbiter onboard systems installed in the ALT orbiter vehicle. The 747 wake turbulence does not constitute a problem for the orbiter during take-off or climb to altitude. The impact that the tow concept would have on the cost and schedule of the space shuttle program was not evaluated in this study.

  20. Robust Gain-Scheduled Fault Tolerant Control for a Transport Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jong-Yeob; Gregory, Irene

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an application of robust gain-scheduled control concepts using a linear parameter-varying (LPV) control synthesis method to design fault tolerant controllers for a civil transport aircraft. To apply the robust LPV control synthesis method, the nonlinear dynamics must be represented by an LPV model, which is developed using the function substitution method over the entire flight envelope. The developed LPV model associated with the aerodynamic coefficient uncertainties represents nonlinear dynamics including those outside the equilibrium manifold. Passive and active fault tolerant controllers (FTC) are designed for the longitudinal dynamics of the Boeing 747-100/200 aircraft in the presence of elevator failure. Both FTC laws are evaluated in the full nonlinear aircraft simulation in the presence of the elevator fault and the results are compared to show pros and cons of each control law.

  1. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XII: A Survey of Sleep Quantity and Quality in On-Board Crew Rest Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Dinges, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Many aircraft operated on long-haul commercial airline flights are equipped with on-board crew rest facilities, or bunks, to allow crewmembers to rest during the flight. The primary objectives of this study were to gather data on how the bunks were used, the quantity and quality of sleep obtained by flight crewmembers in the facilities, and the factors that affected their sleep. A retrospective survey comprising 54 questions of varied format addressed demographics, home sleep habits, and bunk sleep habits. Crewmembers from three airlines with long-haul fleets carrying augmented crews consisting of B747-100/200, B747-400, and MD-11 aircraft equipped with bunks returned a total of 1404 completed surveys (a 37% response rate). Crewmembers from the three carriers were comparable demographically, although one carrier had older, more experienced flight crewmembers. Each group, on average, rated themselves as "good" or "very good" sleepers at home, and all groups obtained about the same average amount of sleep each night. Most were able to sleep in the bunks, and about two thirds indicated that these rest opportunities benefited their subsequent flight deck alertness and performance. Comfort, environment, and physiology (e.g., being ready for sleep) were identified as factors that most promoted sleep. Factors cited as interfering with sleep included random noise, thoughts, heat, and the need to use the bathroom. These factors, in turn, suggest potential improvements to bunk facilities and their use. Ratings of the three aircraft types suggested differences among facilities. Bunks in the MD-11 were rated significantly better than either of the B747 types, and the B747-400 bunks received better ratings than did the older, B747-100/200 facilities.

  2. Measurements of certain environmental tobacco smoke components on long-range flights.

    PubMed

    Drake, J W; Johnson, D E

    1990-06-01

    In December 1987, 10 portable nicotine and respirable particle measuring instruments were employed on 4 Boeing 747 flights, placed in all passenger classes and zones, in randomly selected non-perimeter seats, to assess environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). Measurements integrated the nicotine particle concentrations over the duration of the 5-h Tokyo-Hong Kong-Tokyo flights and over each half of the 14-h New York City-Tokyo flights. Number of cigarettes smoked per minute in sample areas explained a significant proportion of variability in the observed nicotine and respirable particle levels. The all-daytime Tokyo-Hong Kong-Tokyo flights with a different seating configuration showed higher levels of ETS variables. The cause cannot be identified from the six flight segments studied. Levels of ETS observed in these 747-100 and -200 flights (with all air conditioning packs operating) were lower than those observed in narrow body 727/737 aircraft, on short flights, in prior related tests. The 747's five air conditioning zones are reasonably effective in keeping ETS within the respective zones, and discharging it with relatively little entry into non-smoking areas.

  3. Lockheed L-1011 in flight - Wing vortex study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, conducted extensive wake vortice tests beginning in the 1970's. These wake vortex problems first became a serious concern when large jetliners were first introduced. The aircraft's trailing vortices, created by any large-bodied aircraft, were powerful enough to cause problems for business jets and even other airliners. Dryden became interested in vortex research both for safety and as a matter of aerodynamics. A wingtip vortex seriously reduces efficency, causing drag, and therefore a consequent penalty in fuel consumption and performance. The majority of the tests were conducted using spoilers on a Boeing 747-100, which NASA had just acquired for the Space Shuttle Approach and Landing (ALT) tests. With the two spoilers on the outer panels of each wing extended, the vortices were greatly reduced and the chase aircraft could safely fly five kilometers behind the large aircraft, compared to 15 kilometers with no spoilers. Dryden's 747 wake vortex studies clearly indicated that the use of spoilers could reduce the severity of wake vortices. In July, 1977, the center began a brief series of tests on a Lockheed L-1011 Tristar to determine if the spoiler that worked so well on the 747 could be applied to other wide-body aircraft as well. The test showed that while spoilers on the Tristar could reduce wake vortices, they were not as effective in doing so as the spoilers on the 747. NASA is continuing wake vortex studies to this day. These projects can be expected to improve the operational safety of many future aircraft. This photo demonstrates the L-1011 with smoke generators operating, to visualize the vortex flows.

  4. Flight Crew Sleep in Long-Haul Aircraft Bunk Facilities: Survey Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Miller, Donna L.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Dinges, David F.; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    Modem long-haul aircraft can fly up to 16 continuous hours and provide a 24-hour, global capability. Extra (augmented) flight crew are available on long flights to allow planned rest periods, on a rotating basis, away from the flight deck in onboard crew rest facilities (2 bunks). A NASA/FAA study is under-way to examine the quantity and quality of sleep obtained in long-haul aircraft bunks and the factors that promote or interfere with that sleep. The first phase of the study involved a retrospective survey, followed by a second phase field study to collect standard polysomnographic data during inflight bunk sleep periods. A summary of the Phase I survey results are reported here. A multi-part 54-question retrospective survey was completed by 1,404 flight crew (37% return rate) at three different major US air carriers flying B747-100, 200, 400, and MD- 11 long-haul aircraft. The questions examined demographics, quantity and quality of sleep at home and in onboard bunks, factors that promote or interfere with sleep, and effects on subsequent performance and alertness. Flight crew reported a mean bunk sleep latency of 39.4 mins (SD=28.3 mins) (n=1,276) and a mean total sleep time of 2.2 hrs (SD=1.3 hrs) (n=603). (Different flight lengths could affect overall time available for sleep.) Crew rated 25 factors for their interference or promotion of bunk sleep. Figure I portrays the average ratings for each factor across all three carriers. A principal components analysis of the 25 factors revealed three areas that promoted bunk sleep: physiological (e.g., readiness for sleep), physical environment (e.g., bunk size, privacy), and personal comfort (e.g., blankets, pillows). Five areas were identified that interfered with sleep: environmental disturbance (e.g., background noise, turbulence), luminosity (e.g., lighting), personal disturbances (e.g., bathroom trips, random thoughts), environmental discomfort (e.g., low humidity, cold), and interpersonal disturbances (e