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Sample records for 747-300 747-400 747sr

  1. 75 FR 10669 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-200B, 747-300, and 747SR Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-09

    ... Model 747-100, 747- 200B, 747-300, and 747SR Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... Model 747-100, 747-200B, 747-300, and 747SR series airplanes. This AD requires installation of a... airworthiness directive (AD) that would apply to certain Boeing Model 747-100, 747-200B, 747-300, and...

  2. 75 FR 27966 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-400 and 747-400D Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-19

    ... certain Model 747-400 and 747-400D series airplanes. This proposed AD would ] require installing aluminum... November 4, 2009. The service bulletin describes procedures for installing aluminum gutter reinforcing... drip shield aluminum gutter, in accordance with Work Package 1 of the Accomplishment Instructions...

  3. 75 FR 38404 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100B, 747-200B, 747-200F, 747-300, 747-400...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... with Rolls-Royce RB211-524 Series Engines AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... sides of the strut front spar chord for cracks and fractures at each strut location, and corrective... separation of the strut and engine from the airplane. DATES: This AD is effective July 19, 2010. The...

  4. 75 FR 38007 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ..., and 747SP Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule... SUD, 747-200B, 747-200C, 747-200F, 747-300, 747-400, 747-400F, 747SR, and 747SP series airplanes. This...). This AD results from reports of duct assemblies in the ECS with burned Boeing Material...

  5. Flight test of ARINC 741 configuration low gain SATCOM system on Boeing 747-400 aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Timothy A.; Stapleton, Brian P.

    1990-01-01

    The Boeing company conducted a flight test of a SATCOM system similar to the ARINC 741 configuration on a production model 747-400. A flight plan was specifically designed to test the system over a wide variety of satellite elevations and aircraft attitudes as well as over land and sea. Interface bit errors, signal quality and aircraft position and navigational inputs were all recorded as a function of time. Special aircraft maneuvers were performed to demonstrate the potential for shadowing by aircraft structures. Both a compass rose test and the flight test indicated that shadowing from the tail is insignificant for the 747-400. However, satellite elevation angles below the aircraft horizon during banking maneuvers were shown to have a significant deleterious effect on SATCOM communications.

  6. Piloted Simulation Tests of Propulsion Control as Backup to Loss of Primary Flight Controls for a B747-400 Jet Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bull, John; Mah, Robert; Hardy, Gordon; Sullivan, Barry; Jones, Jerry; Williams, Diane; Soukup, Paul; Winters, Jose

    1997-01-01

    Partial failures of aircraft primary flight control systems and structural damages to aircraft during flight have led to catastrophic accidents with subsequent loss of lives (e.g. DC-10, B-747, C-5, B-52, and others). Following the DC-10 accident at Sioux City, Iowa in 1989, the National Transportation Safety Board recommended 'Encourage research and development of backup flight control systems for newly certified wide-body airplanes that utilize an alternate source of motive power separate from that source used for the conventional control system.' This report describes the concept of a propulsion controlled aircraft (PCA), discusses pilot controls, displays, and procedures; and presents the results of a PCA piloted simulation test and evaluation of the B747-400 airplane conducted at NASA Ames Research Center in December, 1996. The purpose of the test was to develop and evaluate propulsion control throughout the full flight envelope of the B747-400 including worst case scenarios of engine failures and out of trim moments. Pilot ratings of PCA performance ranged from adequate to satisfactory. PCA performed well in unusual attitude recoveries at 35,000 ft altitude, performed well in fully coupled ILS approaches, performed well in single engine failures, and performed well at aft cg. PCA performance was primarily limited by out-of-trim moments.

  7. 77 FR 40481 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ..., 747-200B, 747- 200C, 747-200F, 747-400F, 747SR, and 747SP series airplanes, without a stretched upper deck or stretched upper deck modification. That AD currently requires repetitive inspections for...

  8. 75 FR 6821 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-400, 747-400D, and 747-400F Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-11

    .... This proposed AD would require installing a hot short protector (HSP) for the fuel quantity indicating... AD to prevent an electrical hot short from a source outside the FQIS to the densitometer wiring from... found that an electrical hot short from a source outside the fuel quantity indicating system (FQIS)...

  9. 76 FR 27244 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-400, 747-400D, and 747-400F Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... AD requires modifying certain thrust reverser control system wiring to the flap control unit (FCU... transmitted to the FCU from the thrust reverser control system during takeoff. We are issuing this AD to... control system wiring to the flap control unit (FCU). Comments We gave the public the opportunity...

  10. 75 FR 47245 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-400, 747-400D, and 747-400F Series...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... certain thrust reverser control system wiring to the flap control unit (FCU). This proposed AD results... FCU from the thrust reverser control system during takeoff. We are proposing this AD to prevent... to the flap control unit (FCU) from the thrust reverser control system. The report indicated that...

  11. 75 FR 38397 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-400, 747-400D, and 747-400F Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ... pumps. This AD also requires a revision to the maintenance program to incorporate Airworthiness... new pump control and time delay relays, doing related investigative and corrective actions if necessary, and changing the wiring for the center and main fuel tank override/jettison fuel pumps; and,...

  12. 77 FR 46343 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM...-400D, 747-400F, 747SR, and 747SP series airplanes; and certain Model 757-200, -200PF, and -300 series airplanes. The existing AD currently requires replacing the control switches of the forward, aft, and...

  13. 75 FR 27424 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-100, 747-100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... Model 747-100, 747- 100B, 747-100B SUD, 747-200B, 747-300, 747SR, and 747SP Series Airplanes AGENCY... airplanes. That AD currently requires repetitive inspections to detect cracking in certain fuselage skin lap... could result in rapid depressurization of the airplane. DATES: This AD becomes effective June 21,...

  14. 75 FR 27662 - Special Conditions: Boeing 747-468, Installation of a Medical Lift

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... Boeing Model 747-468 airplane is FAA approved under Type Certificate A20WE as a large transport-category..., and equivalent safety findings, which are part of the Model 747-300 certification basis, are also part of the certification basis for the Model 747-400. The special conditions include those enclosed...

  15. 75 FR 1533 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-200F, 747-200C, 747-400, 747-400D, and 747...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... certain fuselage internal structure (i.e., Sections 42 and 46 fuselage frames, upper deck floor beams... (i.e., Section 41 fuselage frames where they connect to upper deck floor beams, and Section 41 fuselage frames between stringers (S-8 and S-12)), and related investigative/corrective actions...

  16. 75 FR 906 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-400, -400D, and -400F Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... airplane models. Costs of Compliance This revision imposes no additional economic burden. The current costs... estimate the cost of this AD to the U.S. ] operators to be $2,288,640, or $3,840 per product. FAA's... estimated costs to comply with this AD and placed it in the AD docket. See the ADDRESSES section for...

  17. 76 FR 47427 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-400 and -400F Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-05

    .... This AD requires a general visual inspection for cracks and holes of the main equipment center (MEC... February 10, 2011 (76 FR 7513). The NPRM proposed a general visual inspection for cracks and holes of the... general visual inspection of the MEC drip shield to detect cracking and holes, do all applicable...

  18. 76 FR 41673 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-400 and -400D Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    .... This AD requires a general visual inspection to determine the routing of the wire bundles in the number... December 1, 2010 (75 FR 74663). That NPRM proposed to require a general visual inspection to determine the... general visual inspection to determine the routing of the wire bundles in the number two and number...

  19. 76 FR 7513 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-400 and -400F Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... the products listed above. This proposed AD would require a general visual inspection for cracks and... performing a general visual inspection of the MEC drip shield for cracks and holes, performing repairs if... Alert Service Bulletin 747-25A3588, dated July 19, 2010: Do a general visual inspection of the MEC...

  20. 75 FR 74663 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747-400 and -400D Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-01

    ...-driven hydraulic pump wire bundle, which could lead to arcing from the exposed wire to the fuel feed tube...-driven pump wire bundle was incorrectly routed and touching the fuel feed tube, which caused chafing of... feed tube and the alternating current motor-driven hydraulic pump wire bundle could lead to arcing...

  1. Pilot noise exposure during a Boeing 747-400 round trip: Judgement of noise and analysis in respect to hearing impairment of pilots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooman, Hans Juergen

    1992-01-01

    Noise level measurements are made on Boeing 747 aircraft to determine the potential hazards to airline pilots. Measuring results have shown that most pilots work under conditions that where noise constitutes a health hazard. Long and short term effects of noise exposure in pilots is examined as well as the legal ramifications of this potential hazard.

  2. 77 FR 47267 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-08

    ... Model 747-200B series airplanes having a stretched upper deck. The existing AD currently requires...-300, 747-400, and 747-400D series airplanes; and Model 747-200B series airplanes having a stretched..., and 747-400D series airplanes; and Model 747-200B series airplanes having a stretched upper...

  3. 78 FR 76047 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ..., and 747SR series airplanes. This AD was prompted by reports of cracks of both lower chords and web on certain outboard struts. This AD requires repetitive inspections for cracking of the lower spar chords and web, web lower spar chord modification, which includes inspections for cracking of the lower...

  4. 76 FR 36390 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 747SP Series Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... power control modules (PCM). This proposed AD was prompted by a report of a rudder hard-over event on a... rudder PCM manifold, which could result in a hard-over of the rudder surface leading to an increase in... of a Model 747-400 series airplane of a lower rudder hard-over event caused by a lower rudder...

  5. 77 FR 7521 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... report of a rudder hard-over event on a Model 747-400 series airplane, caused by a rudder power control... condition could result in a hard-over of the rudder surface leading to an increase in pilot workload and a... surface hard-over. Boeing pointed out that the secondary retention device incorporated in Boeing...

  6. 76 FR 62603 - Special Conditions: The Boeing Company, Model 747-8; Upper Deck Occupancy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-11

    ... passenger airplane. The Model 747-8 is a derivative of the 747-400. The Model 747-8 is a four-engine jet... engines, and the capacity to carry 605 passengers. The Model 747-8 design offers seating capacity on...

  7. 76 FR 38550 - Special Conditions: Boeing, Model 747-8 Series Airplanes; Door 1 Extendable Length Escape Slide

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-01

    ... a derivative of the 747-400. The Model 747-8 is a four-engine jet transport airplane that will have a maximum takeoff weight of 975,000 pounds, new General Electric GEnx -2B67 engines, and the... extension packed at the toe end of the escape slide. During normal operation, the extension portion...

  8. 77 FR 69739 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...-212-AD; Amendment 39-17238; AD 2012-22-02] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company... new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain The Boeing Company Model 747-400, -400D, and -400F series...): 2012-22-02 The Boeing Company: Amendment 39-17238; Docket No. FAA- 2012-0498; Directorate...

  9. 75 FR 38009 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model 737-200, -300, -400, -500, -600, -700, -800...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Model 737-200, -300, -400, -500, -600, -700, -800, and -900 Series Airplanes; Model 747-400 Series Airplanes; Model 757-200 and 757-300 Series Airplanes; Model 767-200, 767-300, and 767-400ER...

  10. 78 FR 38550 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ...-226-AD; Amendment 39-17493; AD 2013-13-05] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company... new airworthiness directive (AD) for all The Boeing Company Model 747SP series airplanes, and certain The Boeing Company Model 747-100B SUD and 747-300 series airplanes. This AD was prompted by...

  11. 78 FR 22802 - Airworthiness Directives; the Boeing Company Airplanes

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... proposed AD would require replacing certain relays and relay sockets, and doing wiring changes. For certain airplanes, this proposed AD would also require installing new relay panels, and removing and installing.... (1) For Model 747-200B, 747-200F, 747-300, and 747SP series airplanes: Replace relays and...

  12. Directed Energy Weapon System for Ballistic Missile Defense

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-15

    from rods of chemically laced glass, to energetic chemical reactions , to the wiggling of free elections. Beams can either be continuous or short...state lasers and a megawatt-class Chemical Oxygen Iodine Laser (COIL) housed onboard a modified Boeing 747-400 freighter aircraft to destroy missiles...commanded and controlled by a dedicated network of mission control centers. This enduring concept provides for around-the- clock threat assessment and

  13. Advanced aerospace hydraulic systems and components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1991-07-01

    The present volume discusses the development of a viable hydraulic circuit breaker, the electromodulated control of supply pressure in hydraulic systems, the flight control actuation system for the B-2 advanced technology bomber, and the B747-400 upper rudder control system with triple tandem valve. Also discussed are a total-flexibility cartridge-valve porting via innovative sealing technology, the A320 pilots' autothrust survey, an all-digital electrohydrostatic servoactuator, and a concurrent design/analysis tool for aircraft hydraulic systems. (For individual items see A93-21841 to A93-21844)

  14. Modeling of fracture of protective concrete structures under impact loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, P. A.; Batuev, S. P.; Radchenko, A. V.; Plevkov, V. S.

    2015-10-01

    This paper presents results of numerical simulation of interaction between a Boeing 747-400 aircraft and the protective shell of a nuclear power plant. The shell is presented as a complex multilayered cellular structure consisting of layers of concrete and fiber concrete bonded with steel trusses. Numerical simulation was performed three-dimensionally using the original algorithm and software taking into account algorithms for building grids of complex geometric objects and parallel computations. Dynamics of the stress-strain state and fracture of the structure were studied. Destruction is described using a two-stage model that allows taking into account anisotropy of elastic and strength properties of concrete and fiber concrete. It is shown that wave processes initiate destruction of the cellular shell structure; cells start to destruct in an unloading wave originating after the compression wave arrival at free cell surfaces.

  15. Numerical simulation of deformation and fracture of space protective shell structures from concrete and fiber concrete under pulse loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radchenko, P. A.; Batuev, S. P.; Radchenko, A. V.; Plevkov, V. S.

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents results of numerical simulation of interaction between aircraft Boeing 747-400 and protective shell of nuclear power plant. The shell is presented as complex multilayered cellular structure comprising layers of concrete and fiber concrete bonded with steel trusses. Numerical simulation was held three-dimensionally using the author's algorithm and software taking into account algorithms for building grids of complex geometric objects and parallel computations. The dynamics of stress-strain state and fracture of structure were studied. Destruction is described using two-stage model that allows taking into account anisotropy of elastic and strength properties of concrete and fiber concrete. It is shown that wave processes initiate destruction of shell cellular structure—cells start to destruct in unloading wave, originating after output of compression wave to the free surfaces of cells.

  16. Modeling of fracture of protective concrete structures under impact loads

    SciTech Connect

    Radchenko, P. A. Batuev, S. P.; Radchenko, A. V.; Plevkov, V. S.

    2015-10-27

    This paper presents results of numerical simulation of interaction between a Boeing 747-400 aircraft and the protective shell of a nuclear power plant. The shell is presented as a complex multilayered cellular structure consisting of layers of concrete and fiber concrete bonded with steel trusses. Numerical simulation was performed three-dimensionally using the original algorithm and software taking into account algorithms for building grids of complex geometric objects and parallel computations. Dynamics of the stress-strain state and fracture of the structure were studied. Destruction is described using a two-stage model that allows taking into account anisotropy of elastic and strength properties of concrete and fiber concrete. It is shown that wave processes initiate destruction of the cellular shell structure; cells start to destruct in an unloading wave originating after the compression wave arrival at free cell surfaces.

  17. Ecological assessment of the environmental impacts of the kerosene burning in jet turbines and its improvement assessment.

    PubMed

    Geldermann, J; Gabriel, R; Rentz, O

    1999-01-01

    The burning of kerosene in jet turbines is investigated for two reference flights with a Boeing 747-400 and an Airbus A320-200, representing the typical Lufthansa planes for long and middle distance. The ecological evaluation is performed by Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Formation of condensation trails, which is a specific environmental impact caused by air traffic, has to be considered in addition to established LCA impact categories. Based on the ecological assessment, an improvement assessment is performed. Environmental performance of diesel fuel during the combustion in car engines is analysed based on available publications. The relevant parameters for the environmental impact of the combustion of diesel (aromatics content, reduction of sulphur content, the reduction of the density and raising of the cetane number) are discussed with regard to improvements of the exhaust qualities of kerosene. A reduction of the aromatics content promises to improve the emission of soot which should be further investigated.

  18. Control Reallocation Strategies for Damage Adaptation in Transport Class Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gundy-Burlet, Karen; Krishnakumar, K.; Limes, Greg; Bryant, Don

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines the feasibility, potential benefits and implementation issues associated with retrofitting a neural-adaptive flight control system (NFCS) to existing transport aircraft, including both cable/hydraulic and fly-by-wire configurations. NFCS uses a neural network based direct adaptive control approach for applying alternate sources of control authority in the presence of damage or failures in order to achieve desired flight control performance. Neural networks are used to provide consistent handling qualities across flight conditions, adapt to changes in aircraft dynamics and to make the controller easy to apply when implemented on different aircraft. Full-motion piloted simulation studies were performed on two different transport models: the Boeing 747-400 and the Boeing C-17. Subjects included NASA, Air Force and commercial airline pilots. Results demonstrate the potential for improving handing qualities and significantly increased survivability rates under various simulated failure conditions.

  19. A Flight Deck Perspective of Self-Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandra; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    I will be participating on a Free Flight Human Factors Panel at the Ninth International Symposium on Aviation Psychology in Columbus, Ohio. My representation is related to the work that our group has conducted on flight deck issues associate with free flight. Our group completed a full-mission simulation study investigating procedural issues associated with airborne self-separation. Ten crews flew eight scenarios each in the B747-400 simulator at Ames. Each scenario had a representation of different conflict geometries with intruder aircraft. New alerting logic was created and integrated into the simulator to enable self-separation. In addition, new display features were created to help provide for enhanced information to the flight crew about relevant aircraft, The participants were asked to coordinate maneuvers for self-separation with the intruder aircraft. Data analyses for the many of the crew procedures have been completed.

  20. Crew Factors in Flight Operations XII: A Survey of Sleep Quantity and Quality in On-Board Crew Rest Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosekind, Mark R.; Gregory, Kevin B.; Co, Elizabeth L.; Miller, Donna L.; Dinges, David F.

    2000-01-01

    Many aircraft operated on long-haul commercial airline flights are equipped with on-board crew rest facilities, or bunks, to allow crewmembers to rest during the flight. The primary objectives of this study were to gather data on how the bunks were used, the quantity and quality of sleep obtained by flight crewmembers in the facilities, and the factors that affected their sleep. A retrospective survey comprising 54 questions of varied format addressed demographics, home sleep habits, and bunk sleep habits. Crewmembers from three airlines with long-haul fleets carrying augmented crews consisting of B747-100/200, B747-400, and MD-11 aircraft equipped with bunks returned a total of 1404 completed surveys (a 37% response rate). Crewmembers from the three carriers were comparable demographically, although one carrier had older, more experienced flight crewmembers. Each group, on average, rated themselves as "good" or "very good" sleepers at home, and all groups obtained about the same average amount of sleep each night. Most were able to sleep in the bunks, and about two thirds indicated that these rest opportunities benefited their subsequent flight deck alertness and performance. Comfort, environment, and physiology (e.g., being ready for sleep) were identified as factors that most promoted sleep. Factors cited as interfering with sleep included random noise, thoughts, heat, and the need to use the bathroom. These factors, in turn, suggest potential improvements to bunk facilities and their use. Ratings of the three aircraft types suggested differences among facilities. Bunks in the MD-11 were rated significantly better than either of the B747 types, and the B747-400 bunks received better ratings than did the older, B747-100/200 facilities.

  1. Aircraft disinsection: exposure assessment and evaluation of a new pre-embarkation method.

    PubMed

    Berger-Preiss, Edith; Koch, Wolfgang; Gerling, Susanne; Kock, Heiko; Klasen, Jutta; Hoffmann, Godehard; Appel, Klaus E

    2006-01-01

    A new "pre-embarkation" method for aircraft disinsection was investigated using two different 2% d-phenothrin containing aerosols. Five experiments in aircrafts of the type Airbus 310 (4x) and Boeing 747-400 (1x) were performed. In the absence of passengers and crew the d-phenothrin aerosol was sprayed under the seat rows and in a second step at the height of approximately 1.60 m by moving from one end of the cabin to the other. Concentration levels of d-phenothrin were determined at different time periods after application of the aerosol spray. In a B 747-400 with the air conditioning system operating the concentrations ranged between 853 and 1753 microg/m3 during and till 5 min after the beginning of spraying at different locations in the cabin. Within 5-20min after the end of the spraying concentrations of 36-205 microg/m3 and 20-40 min thereafter only ca. 1 microg d-phenothrin/m3 were detectable (average values in relation to each period of measurement). On cabin interior surfaces the median values for mainly horizontal areas ranged from 100 to 1160 ng d-phenothrin/cm2. d-Phenothrin concentrations in the air were sufficient to kill flying insects like house flies and mosquitoes within 20 min. Horizontal surfaces were 100% effective against insects up to 24 h after spraying. Doses inhaled by sprayers determined by personal measurements were calculated to be 30-235 microg d-phenothrin per 100 g spray applied (30% in the respirable fraction for Arrow Aircraft Disinsectant; 10% for Aircraft Disinsectant Denka). If passengers will board, e.g., 20 min after the end of the disinsection operation, inhalation exposure is estimated to be practically negligible. Also possible dermal exposure from residues in seats and headrests is very low for passengers during the flight. Therefore any health effects for passengers and crew members are very unlikely.

  2. Line Pilots' Attitudes about and Experience with Flight Deck Automation: Results of an International Survey and Proposed Guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudisill, Marianne

    1995-01-01

    A survey of line pilots' attitudes about flight deck automation was conducted by the Royal Air Force Institute of Aviation Medicine (RAF IAM, Farnborough, UK) under the sponsorship of the United Kingdom s Civil Aviation Authority and in cooperation with IATA (the International Air Transport Association). Survey freehand comments given by pilots operating 13 types of commercial transports across five manufacturers (Airbus, Boeing, British Aerospace, Lockheed, and McDonnell-Douglas) and 57 air carriers/organizations were analyzed by NASA. These data provide a "lessons learned" knowledge base which may be used for the definition of guidelines for flight deck automation and its associated crew interface within the High Speed Research Program. The aircraft chosen for analysis represented a progression of levels of automation sophistication and complexity, from "Basic" types (e.g., B727, DC9), through "Transition" types (e.g., A300, Concorde), to two levels of glass cockpits (e.g., Glass 1: e.g., A310; Glass 2: e.g., B747-400). This paper reports the results of analyses of comments from pilots flying commercial transport types having the highest level of automation sophistication (B757/B767, B747-400, and A320). Comments were decomposed into five categories relating to: (1) general observations with regard to flight deck automation; comments concerning the (2) design and (3) crew understanding of automation and the crew interface; (4) crew operations with automation; and (5) personal factors affecting crew/automation interaction. The goal of these analyses is to contribute to the definition of guidelines which may be used during design of future aircraft flight decks.

  3. Free Flight and Self-Separation from the Flight Deck Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandra; McGann, Alison; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; Cashion, Patricia; Shafto, Michael G. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The concept of "free flight", while still being developed, is intended to emphasize more, flexibility for operators in the National Airspace System (NAS) by providing more separation responsibility to pilots, New technologies, procedures, and concepts have been suggested by the aviation community to enable this task; however, much work needs to be accomplished to help define and evaluate the concept feasibility. The purpose of this simulation was to begin examining some of the communication and procedural issues associated with self-separation in the enroute environment. A simulation demonstration was conducted in the Boeing 747-400 simulator at NASA Ames Research Center. Commercial pilots (from a U.S. domestic carrier) current on the B747-400 aircraft were the participants. Ten flight crews (10 captains, 10 first officers) flew in the Denver enroute airspace environment. A new alerting logic designed to allow for airborne self-separation was created for this demonstration. This logic assumes automatic dependent surveillance broadcast (ADS-B) capability and represented aircraft up to 120 nautical miles on the display. The new flight deck display features were designed and incorporated on the existing navigational display in the simulator to allow for increased traffic and maneuvering information to the flight crew. New tools were also provided to allow the crews to assess conflicts and potential maneuvers before implementing them. Each of the flight crews flew eight different scenarios in the Denver enroute airspace. The scenarios included eight to ten other aircraft, and each scenario was created with the intent of having one of the other aircraft become an operational conflict for our simulator aircraft. Different types of conflict geometries were represented across the eight scenarios. Also, some scenarios allowed for more time to detect a potential clearance, while others allowed for less time for'detection. Additionally, the crews were asked to a ply the

  4. The Integrated Mode Management Interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1996-01-01

    Mode management is the processes of understanding the character and consequences of autoflight modes, planning and selecting the engagement, disengagement and transitions between modes, and anticipating automatic mode transitions made by the autoflight system itself. The state of the art is represented by the latest designs produced by each of the major airframe manufacturers, the Boeing 747-400, the Boeing 777, the McDonnell Douglas MD-11, and the Airbus A320/A340 family of airplanes. In these airplanes autoflight modes are selected by manipulating switches on the control panel. The state of the autoflight system is displayed on the flight mode annunciators. The integrated mode management interface (IMMI) is a graphical interface to autoflight mode management systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The interface consists of a vertical mode manager and a lateral mode manager. Autoflight modes are depicted by icons on a graphical display. Mode selection is accomplished by touching (or mousing) the appropriate icon. The IMMI provides flight crews with an integrated interface to autoflight systems for aircraft equipped with flight management computer systems (FMCS). The current version is modeled on the Boeing glass-cockpit airplanes (747-400, 757/767). It runs on the SGI Indigo workstation. A working prototype of this graphics-based crew interface to the autoflight mode management tasks of glass cockpit airplanes has been installed in the Advanced Concepts Flight Simulator of the CSSRF of NASA Ames Research Center. This IMMI replaces the devices in FMCS equipped airplanes currently known as mode control panel (Boeing), flight guidance control panel (McDonnell Douglas), and flight control unit (Airbus). It also augments the functions of the flight mode annunciators. All glass cockpit airplanes are sufficiently similar that the IMMI could be tailored to the mode management system of any modern cockpit. The IMMI does not replace the

  5. Re-Examination of Mixed Media Communication: The Impact of Voice, Data Link, and Mixed Air Traffic Control Environments on the Flight Deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunbar, Melisa; McGann, Alison; Mackintosh, Margaret-Anne; Lozito, Sandra; Ashford, Rose (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A simulation in the B747-400 was conducted at NASA Ames Research Center that compared how crews handled voice and data link air traffic control (ATC) messages in a single medium versus a mixed voice and data link ATC environment The interval between ATC messages was also varied to examine the influence of time pressure in voice, data link, and mixed ATC environments. For messages sent via voice, transaction times were lengthened in the mixed media environment for closely spaced messages. The type of environment did not affect data link times. However, messages times were lengthened in both single and mixed-modality environments under time pressure. Closely spaced messages also increased the number of requests for clarification for voice messages in the mixed environment and review menu use for data link messages. Results indicated that when time pressure is introduced, the mix of voice and data link does not necessarily capitalize on the advantages of both media. These findings emphasize the need to develop procedures for managing communication in mixed voice and data link environments.

  6. The Cognitive Consequences of Patterns of Information Flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hutchins, Edwin

    1999-01-01

    The flight deck of a modern commercial airliner is a complex system consisting of two or more crew and a suite of technological devices. The flight deck of the state-of-the-art Boeing 747-400 is shown. When everything goes right, all modern flight decks are easy to use. When things go sour, however, automated flight decks provide opportunities for new kinds of problems. A recent article in Aviation Week cited industry concern over the problem of verifying the safety of complex systems on automated, digital aircraft, stating that the industry must "guard against the kind of incident in which people and the automation seem to mismanage a minor occurrence or non-routine situation into larger trouble." The design of automated flight deck systems that flight crews find easy to use safely is a challenge in part because this design activity requires a theoretical perspective which can simultaneously cover the interactions of people with each other and with technology. In this paper, some concepts that can be used to understand the flight deck as a system that is composed of two or more pilots and a complex suite of automated devices is introduced.

  7. Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

  8. Flight-Deck Strategies and Outcomes When Flying Schedule-Matching Descents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneshige, John T.; Sharma, Shivanjli; Martin Lynne; Lozito, Sandra; Dulchinos, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies at NASA Ames Research Center have investigated the development and use of ground-based (air traffic controller) tools to manage and schedule air traffic in future terminal airspace. An exploratory study was undertaken to investigate the impacts that such tools (and concepts) could have on the flight-deck. Ten Boeing 747-400 crews flew eight optimized profile descents in the Los Angeles terminal airspace, while receiving scripted current day and futuristic speed clearances, to ascertain their ability to fly schedulematching descents without prior training. Although the study was exploratory in nature, four variables were manipulated: route constraints, winds, speed changes, and clearance phraseology. Despite flying the same scenarios with the same events and timing, there were significant differences in the time it took crews to fly the approaches. This variation is the product of a number of factors but highlights potential difficulties for scheduling tools that would have to accommodate this amount of natural variation in descent times. The focus of this paper is the examination of the crews' aircraft management strategies and outcomes. This includes potentially problematic human-automation interaction issues that may negatively impact arrival times, speed and altitude constraint compliance, and energy management efficiency.

  9. Demonstration of a Probabilistic Technique for the Determination of Economic Viability of Very Large Transport Configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavris, Dimitri N.

    1998-01-01

    Over the past few years, modem aircraft design has experienced a paradigm shift from designing for performance to designing for affordability. This report contains a probabilistic approach that will allow traditional deterministic design methods to be extended to account for disciplinary, economic, and technological uncertainty. The probabilistic approach was facilitated by the Fast Probability Integration (FPI) technique; a technique which allows the designer to gather valuable information about the vehicle's behavior in the design space. This technique is efficient for assessing multi-attribute, multi-constraint problems in a more realistic fashion. For implementation purposes, this technique is applied to illustrate how both economic and technological uncertainty associated with a Very Large Transport aircraft concept may be assessed. The assessment is evaluated with the FPI technique to determine the cumulative probability distributions of the design space, as bound by economic objectives and performance constraints. These distributions were compared to established targets for a comparable large capacity aircraft, similar in size to the Boeing 747-400. The conventional baseline configuration design space was determined to be unfeasible and marginally viable, motivating the infusion of advanced technologies, including reductions in drag, specific fuel consumption, wing weight, and Research, Development, Testing, and Evaluation costs. The resulting system design space was qualitatively assessed with technology metric "k" factors. The infusion of technologies shifted the VLT design into regions of feasibility and greater viability. The study also demonstrated a method and relationship by which the impact of new technologies may be assessed in a more system focused approach.

  10. Teaching Cockpit Automation in the Classroom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casner, Stephen M.

    2003-01-01

    This study explores the idea of teaching fundamental cockpit automation concepts and skills to aspiring professional pilots in a classroom setting, without the use of sophisticated aircraft or equipment simulators. Pilot participants from a local professional pilot academy completed eighteen hours of classroom instruction that placed a strong emphasis on understanding the underlying principles of cockpit automation systems and their use in a multi-crew cockpit. The instructional materials consisted solely of a single textbook. Pilots received no hands-on instruction or practice during their training. At the conclusion of the classroom instruction, pilots completed a written examination testing their mastery of what had been taught during the classroom meetings. Following the written exam, each pilot was given a check flight in a full-mission Level D simulator of a Boeing 747-400 aircraft. Pilots were given the opportunity to fly one practice leg, and were then tested on all concepts and skills covered in the class during a second leg. The results of the written exam and simulator checks strongly suggest that instruction delivered in a traditional classroom setting can lead to high levels of preparation without the need for expensive airplane or equipment simulators.

  11. Magnetic field exposure of commercial airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Hood; Nicholas; Butler; Lackland; Hoel; Mohr

    2000-10-01

    PURPOSE: Airline pilots are exposed to magnetic fields generated by the aircraft's electrical and electronic systems. The purpose of this study was to directly measure the flight deck magnetic fields to which commercial airline pilots are exposed when flying on different aircraft types over a 75-hour flight-duty month.METHODS: Magentic field measurements were taken using personal dosimeters capable of measuring magnetic fields in the 40-800 Hz frequency range. Dosimeters were carried by either the Captain or the First Officer on Boeing 737/200, Boeing 747/400, Boeing 767/300ER, and Airbus 320 aircraft. The data were analyzed by aircraft type, with statistics based on block hours. Block hours begin when the aircraft departs the gate prior to take off and end when the aircraft returns to the gate after landing.RESULTS: Approximately 1008 block hours were recorded at a sampling rate of 3 seconds. Total block time exposure to the pilots ranged from a harmonic geometric mean of 6.7 milliGauss (mG) for the Boeing 767/300ER to 12.7 mG for the Boeing 737/200.CONCLUSIONS: Measured flight deck magnetic field levels were substantially above the 0.8 to 1 mG level typically found in the home or office and suggest the need for further study to evaluate potential health effects of long-term exposure.

  12. Advanced Configurations for Very Large Subsonic Transport Airplanes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McMasters, John H.; Paisley, David J.; Hubert, Richard J.; Kroo, Ilan; Bofah, Kwasi K.; Sullivan, John P.; Drela, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Recent aerospace industry interest in developing a subsonic commercial transport airplane with 50 percent greater passenger capacity than the largest existing aircraft in this category (the Boeing 747-400 with approximately 400-450 seats) has generated a range of proposals based largely on the configuration paradigm established nearly 50 years ago with the Boeing B-47 bomber. While this basic configuration paradigm has come to dominate subsonic commercial airplane development since the advent of the Boeing 707/Douglas DC-8 in the mid-1950's, its extrapolation to the size required to carry more than 600-700 passengers raises several questions. To explore these and a number of related issues, a team of Boeing, university, and NASA engineers was formed under the auspices of the NASA Advanced Concepts Program. The results of a Research Analysis focused on a large, unconventional transport airplane configuration for which Boeing has applied for a patent are the subject of this report. It should be noted here that this study has been conducted independently of the Boeing New Large Airplane (NLA) program, and with the exception of some generic analysis tools which may be common to this effort and the NLA (as will be described later), no explicit Boeing NLA data other than that published in the open literature has been used in the conduct of the study reported here.

  13. Free Flight Simulation: An Initial Examination of Air-Ground Integration Issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lozito, Sandra; McGann, Alison; Cashion, Patricia; Dunbar, Melisa; Mackintosh, Margaret; Dulchinos, Victoria; Jordan, Kevin; Remington, Roger (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The concept of "free flight" is intended to emphasize more flexibility for operators in the National Airspace System (RTCA, 1995). This may include the potential for aircraft self-separation. The purpose of this simulation was to begin examining some of the communication and procedural issues associated with self-separation in an integrated air-ground environment. Participants were 10 commercial U.S. flight crews who flew the B747-400 simulator and 10 Denver ARTCC controllers who monitored traffic in an ATC simulation. A prototypic airborne alerting logic and flight deck display features were designed to allow for increased traffic and maneuvering information. Eight different scenarios representing different conflict types were developed. The effects of traffic density (high and low) and different traffic convergence angles (obtuse, acute, and right) were assessed. Conflict detection times were found to be lower for the flight crews in low density compared to high density scenarios. For the controllers, an interaction between density and convergence angle was revealed. Analyses on the controller detection times found longer detection times in the obtuse high density compared to obtuse low density, as well as the shortest detection times in the high density acute angle condition. Maneuvering and communication events are summarized, and a discussion of future research issues is provided.

  14. An Evaluation of Aircraft Emissions Inventory Methodology by Comparisons with Reported Airline Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, D. L.; Sutkus, D. J.; DuBois, D. P.; Baughcum, S. L.

    1999-01-01

    This report provides results of work done to evaluate the calculation methodology used in generating aircraft emissions inventories. Results from the inventory calculation methodology are compared to actual fuel consumption data. Results are also presented that show the sensitivity of calculated emissions to aircraft payload factors. Comparisons of departures made, ground track miles flown and total fuel consumed by selected air carriers were made between U.S. Dept. of Transportation (DOT) Form 41 data reported for 1992 and results of simplified aircraft emissions inventory calculations. These comparisons provide an indication of the magnitude of error that may be present in aircraft emissions inventories. To determine some of the factors responsible for the errors quantified in the DOT Form 41 analysis, a comparative study of in-flight fuel flow data for a specific operator's 747-400 fleet was conducted. Fuel consumption differences between the studied aircraft and the inventory calculation results may be attributable to several factors. Among these are longer flight times, greater actual aircraft weight and performance deterioration effects for the in-service aircraft. Results of a parametric study on the variation in fuel use and NOx emissions as a function of aircraft payload for different aircraft types are also presented.

  15. The Langley-Newcomb brouhaha over the flying machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, W. E.; Carter, M. S.

    One century after the Wright brothers proved it was possible to build a piloted heavier-than-air “flying machine,” several airlines will soon, perhaps as early as October 2005, begin to operate the largest passenger aircraft ever built, the Airbus A380. The A380 is nearly half again as large, in terms of passenger floor space, as the Boeing 747-400. It can be configured to hold as many as 840 passengers, and it has a takeoff weight of 550,000 kg, a maximum range of 15,000 km, and a cruising speed of Mach 0.85.The remarkable advances in aeronautics realized during the past century make it difficult to understand how anyone, let alone Simon Newcomb, one of the most prominent U.S. scientists at the turn of the twentieth century, could have opposed efforts by Samuel Pierpont Langley to build a piloted winged aircraft for the military. Newcomb argued that Langley was doomed to failure because the technology required to build such an aircraft was not then available, and he bemoaned the “waste” of scarce government funds toward the effort.

  16. Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

  17. Air Launch: Examining Performance Potential of Various Configurations and Growth Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan D.

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a high-level analysis of various air launch vehicle configurations, objectively determining maximum launch vehicle payload while considering carrier aircraft capabilities and given dimensional constraints. With the renewed interest in aerial launch of low-earth orbit payloads, referenced by programs such as Stratolaunch and Spaceship2, there exists a need to qualify the boundaries of the trade space, identify performance envelopes, and understand advantages and limiting factors of designing for maximum payload capability. Using the NASA/DARPA Horizontal Launch Study (HLS) Point Design 2 (PD-2) as a pointof- departure configuration, two independent design actions were undertaken. Both designs utilized a Boeing 747-400F as the carrier aircraft, LOX/RP-1 first stage and LOX/LH2 second stage. Each design was sized to meet dimensional and mass constraints while optimizing propellant loads and stage delta V splits. All concepts, when fully loaded, exceeded the allowable Gross Takeoff Weight (GTOW) of the aircraft platform. This excess mass was evaluated as propellant/fuel offload available for a potential in-flight propellant loading scenario. Results indicate many advantages such as payload delivery of approximately 47,000 lbm and significant mission flexibility including variable launch site inclination and launch window. However, in-flight cryogenic fluid transfer and carrier aircraft platform integration are substantial technical hurdles to the realization of such a system configuration.

  18. Air Launch: Examining Performance Potential of Various Configurations and Growth Options

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waters, Eric D.; Creech, Dennis M.; Philips, Alan

    2013-01-01

    The Advanced Concepts Office at NASA's George C. Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a high-level analysis of various air launch vehicle configurations, objectively determining maximum launch vehicle payload while considering carrier aircraft capabilities and given dimensional constraints. With the renewed interest in aerial launch of low-earth orbit payloads, referenced by programs such as Stratolaunch and Spaceship2, there existed a need to qualify the boundaries of the trade space, identify performance envelopes, and understand advantages and limiting factors of designing for maximum payload capability. Using the NASA/DARPA Horizontal Launch Study (HLS) Point Design 2 (PD-2) as a point-of-departure configuration, two independent design actions were undertaken. Both configurations utilized a Boeing 747-400F as the carrier aircraft, LOX/RP-1 first stage and LOX/LH2 second stage. Each design was sized to meet dimensional and mass constraints while optimizing propellant loads and stage delta V (?V) splits. All concepts, when fully loaded, exceeded the allowable Gross Takeoff Weight (GTOW) of the aircraft platform. This excess mass was evaluated as propellant/fuel offload available for a potential in-flight refueling scenario. Results indicate many advantages such as large, relative payload delivery of approximately 47,000 lbm and significant mission flexibility, such as variable launch site inclination and launch window; however, in-flight cryogenic fluid transfer and carrier aircraft platform integration are substantial technical hurdles to the realization of such a system configuration.

  19. A Task-Analytic Approach to the Determination of Training Requirements for the Precision Descent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Nancy; Rosekind, Mark (Technical Monitor)

    1996-01-01

    A task-analytic approach was used to evaluate the results from an experiment comparing two training methods for the "Precision Descent," a cockpit procedure designed to complement a new, computer-based air traffic control advisory system by allowing air traffic controllers to assign precise descent trajectories to aircraft. A task model was developed for the procedure using a methodology that represents four different categories of task-related knowledge: (1) ability to determine current flight goals; (2) ability to assess the current flight situation relative to those goals; (3) operational knowledge about flight-related tasks; and (4) knowledge about task selection. This model showed what knowledge experienced pilots already possessed, and how that knowledge was supplemented by training material provided in the two training conditions. All flight crews were given a "Precision Descent Chart" that explained the procedure's clearances and compliance requirements. This information enabled pilots to establish appropriate flight goals for the descent, and to monitor their compliance with those goals. In addition to this chart, half of the crews received a "Precision Descent Bulletin" containing technique recommendations for performing procedure-related tasks. The Bulletin's recommendations supported pilots in task selection and helped clarify the procedure's compliance requirements. Eight type-rated flight crews flew eight Precision Descents in a Boeing 747-400 simulator, with four crews in each of the two training conditions. Both conditions (Chart and Chart-with-Bulletin) relied exclusively on the use of those documents to introduce the procedure. No performance feedback was provided during the experiment. Preliminary result show better procedure compliance and higher acceptability ratings from flight crews in the Chart-with-Bulletin condition. These crews performed flight-related tasks less efficiently, however, using the simpler but less efficient methods suggested

  20. Flying Schedule-Matching Descents to Explore Flight Crews' Perceptions of Their Load and Task Feasibility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Lynne Hazel; Sharma, Shivanjli; Lozito, Sharon; Kaneshige, John; Hayashi, Miwa; Dulchinos, Victoria

    2012-01-01

    Multiple studies have investigated the development and use of ground-based (controller) tools to manage and schedule traffic in future terminal airspace. No studies have investigated the impacts that such tools (and concepts) could have on the flight-deck. To begin to redress the balance, an exploratory study investigated the procedures and actions of ten Boeing-747-400 crews as they flew eight continuous descent approaches in the Los Angeles terminal airspace, with the descents being controlled using speed alone. Although the study was exploratory in nature, four variables were manipulated: speed changes, route constraints, clearance phraseology, and winds. Despite flying the same scenarios with the same events and timing, there was at least a 50 second difference in the time it took crews to fly the approaches. This variation is the product of a number of factors but highlights potential difficulties for scheduling tools that would have to accommodate this amount of natural variation in descent times. The primary focus of this paper is the potential impact of ground scheduling tools on the flight crews performance and procedures. Crews reported "moderate to low" workload, on average; however, short periods of intense and high workload were observed. The non-flying pilot often reported a higher level of workload than the flying-pilot, which may be due to their increased interaction with the Flight Management Computer, when using the aircraft automation to assist with managing the descent clearances. It is concluded that ground-side tools and automation may have a larger impact on the current-day flight-deck than was assumed and that studies investigating this impact should continue in parallel with controller support tool development.

  1. Controlled breaks as a fatigue countermeasure on the flight deck

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neri, David F.; Oyung, Raymond L.; Colletti, Laura M.; Mallis, Melissa M.; Tam, Patricia Y.; Dinges, David F.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A major challenge for flight crews is the need to maintain vigilance during long, highly automated nighttime flights. No system currently exists to assist in managing alertness, and countermeasure options are limited. Surveys reveal many pilots use breaks as an in-flight countermeasure, but there have been no controlled studies of their effectiveness. HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesized that brief, regular breaks could improve alertness and performance during an overnight flight. METHOD: A 6-h, uneventful, nighttime flight in a Boeing 747-400 flight simulator was flown by fourteen two-man crews. The 14 subjects in the treatment group received 5 short breaks spaced hourly during cruise; the 14 subjects in the control group received 1 break in the middle of cruise. Continuous EEG/EOG, subjective sleepiness, and psychomotor vigilance performance data were collected. RESULTS: During the latter part of the night, the treatment group showed significant reductions for 15 min post-break in slow eye movements, theta-band activity, and unintended sleep episodes compared with the control group. The treatment group reported significantly greater subjective alertness for up to 25 min post-break, with strongest effects near the time of the circadian trough. There was no evidence of objective vigilance performance improvement at 15-25 min post-break, with expected performance deterioration occurring due to elevated sleep drive and circadian time. CONCLUSIONS: The physiological and subjective data indicate the breaks reduced nighttime sleepiness for at least 15 min post-break and may have masked sleepiness for up to 25 min, suggesting the potential usefulness of short-duration breaks as an in-flight fatigue countermeasure.

  2. The 1989-1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano, Alaska: impacts on aircraft operations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    The December 1989-June 1990 eruption of Redoubt Volcano affected commercial and military air operations in the vicinity of Anchorage, Alaska. These effects were due to the direct impact of volcanic ash on jet aircraft, as well as to the rerouting and cancellations of flight operations owing to eruptive activity. Between December and February, five commercial jetliners were damaged from ash encounters. The most serious incident took place on December 15, 1989 when a Boeing 747-400 aircraft temporarily lost power of all four engines after encountering an ash cloud as the airplane descended for a landing in Anchorage. While there were no injuries to passengers, the damage to engines, avionics, and aircraft structure from this encounter is estimated at $80 million. Four additional encounters between jet aircraft and Redoubt ash clouds occurred in the Anchorage area on December 15 and 16, 1989 and February 21, 1990; none resulted in engine failure. Two additional encounters took place on December 17, 1989 when jet airliners encountered the Redoubt cloud over west Texas. At the time of these encounters, the cloud was up to 55 hours old and had traveled in excess of 2,900 nautical miles (5,300 km). Following the December 15 encounters, Anchorage International Airport remained open, however, most airline companies canceled operations for up to several days. As communications between Federal agencies and airlines improved, and as a better understanding of the nature and behavior of ash-rich eruption clouds was achieved, most airlines resumed normal service by early January 1990. The resulting loss of revenue at Anchorage International Airport during several months following the eruption is estimated to total $2.6 million. The impact on general aviation and military operations consisted mostly of cancellation and rerouting of flights. ?? 1994.

  3. Experimental Evaluation of an Integrated Datalink and Automation-Based Strategic Trajectory Concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Eric

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents research on the interoperability of trajectory-based automation concepts and technologies with modern Flight Management Systems and datalink communication available on many of today s commercial aircraft. A tight integration of trajectory-based ground automation systems with the aircraft Flight Management System through datalink will enable mid-term and far-term benefits from trajectory-based automation methods. A two-way datalink connection between the trajectory-based automation resident in the Center/TRACON Automation System and the Future Air Navigation System-1 integrated FMS/datalink in NASA Ames B747-400 Level D simulator has been established and extensive simulation of the use of datalink messages to generate strategic trajectories completed. A strategic trajectory is defined as an aircraft deviation needed to solve a conflict or honor a route request and then merge the aircraft back to its nominal preferred trajectory using a single continuous trajectory clearance. Engineers on the ground side of the datalink generated lateral and vertical trajectory clearances and transmitted them to the Flight Management System of the 747; the airborne automation then flew the new trajectory without human intervention, requiring the flight crew only to review and to accept the trajectory. This simulation established the protocols needed for a significant majority of the trajectory change types required to solve a traffic conflict or deviate around weather. This demonstration provides a basis for understanding the requirements for integration of trajectory-based automation with current Flight Management Systems and datalink to support future National Airspace System operations.

  4. Integration of Multiple Non-Normal Checklist Procedures into a Single Checklist Procedure for Transport Aircraft: A Preliminary Investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foernsler, Lynda J.

    1996-01-01

    Checklists are used by the flight crew to properly configure an aircraft for safe flight and to ensure a high level of safety throughout the duration of the flight. In addition, the checklist provides a sequential framework to meet cockpit operational requirements, and it fosters cross-checking of the flight deck configuration among crew members. This study examined the feasibility of integrating multiple checklists for non-normal procedures into a single procedure for a typical transport aircraft. For the purposes of this report, a typical transport aircraft is one that represents a midpoint between early generation aircraft (B-727/737-200 and DC-10) and modern glass cockpit aircraft (B747-400/777 and MD-11). In this report, potential conflicts among non-normal checklist items during multiple failure situations for a transport aircraft are identified and analyzed. The non-normal checklist procedure that would take precedence for each of the identified multiple failure flight conditions is also identified. The rationale behind this research is that potential conflicts among checklist items might exist when integrating multiple checklists for non-normal procedures into a single checklist. As a rule, multiple failures occurring in today's highly automated and redundant system transport aircraft are extremely improbable. In addition, as shown in this analysis, conflicts among checklist items in a multiple failure flight condition are exceedingly unlikely. The possibility of a multiple failure flight condition occurring with a conflict among checklist items is so remote that integration of the non-normal checklists into a single checklist appears to be a plausible option.

  5. Exposure to cosmic radiation of British Airways flying crew on ultralonghaul routes.

    PubMed Central

    Bagshaw, M; Irvine, D; Davies, D M

    1996-01-01

    British Airways has carried out radiation monitoring in Concorde for more than 20 years and has used a heuristic model based on data quoted by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to model radiation exposure in all longhaul fleets. From these data it has been calculated that no flight deck crew would exceed the control level of 6 mSv/y currently under consideration by regulatory authorities, which is three tenths of the occupational dose limit of 20 mSv/y recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). The model suggested that less than 4% of cabin crew based in Tokyo flying only between London and Japan could reach or exceed the 6 mSv/y level, based on a predicted effective dose rate of 7 microSv/h. To validate this calculation a sampling measurement programme was carried out on nine round trips flown by a Boeing 747-400 between London and Tokyo. The radiation field was measured with dosimeters used for routine personal monitoring (thermoluminescence dosimeters (TLDs) and polyallydiglycol carbonate neutron dosimeters). The limitations of the methodology are acknowledged, but the results indicate that the effective dose rate was 6 microSv/h which is consistent with the predicted effective dose rate of 7 microSv/h. This result, which is in accordance with other reported studies indicates that it is unlikely that any of the cabin crew based in Tokyo exceeded the 6 mSv/y level. In accordance with "as low as reasonably achievable" principles British Airways will continue to monitor flying crew routes and hours flown to ensure compliance. PMID:8704876

  6. Transmission of pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza on passenger aircraft: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Thornley, Craig N; Mills, Clair; Roberts, Sally; Perera, Shanika; Peters, Julia; Kelso, Anne; Barr, Ian; Wilson, Nick

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To assess the risk of transmission of pandemic A/H1N1 2009 influenza (pandemic A/H1N1) from an infected high school group to other passengers on an airline flight and the effectiveness of screening and follow-up of exposed passengers. Design Retrospective cohort investigation using a questionnaire administered to passengers and laboratory investigation of those with symptoms. Setting Auckland, New Zealand, with national and international follow-up of passengers. Participants Passengers seated in the rear section of a Boeing 747-400 long haul flight that arrived on 25 April 2009, including a group of 24 students and teachers and 97 (out of 102) other passengers in the same section of the plane who agreed to be interviewed. Main outcome measures Laboratory confirmed pandemic A/H1N1 infection in susceptible passengers within 3.2 days of arrival; sensitivity and specificity of influenza symptoms for confirmed infection; and completeness and timeliness of contact tracing. Results Nine members of the school group were laboratory confirmed cases of pandemic A/H1N1 infection and had symptoms during the flight. Two other passengers developed confirmed pandemic A/H1N1 infection, 12 and 48 hours after the flight. They reported no other potential sources of infection. Their seating was within two rows of infected passengers, implying a risk of infection of about 3.5% for the 57 passengers in those rows. All but one of the confirmed pandemic A/H1N1 infected travellers reported cough, but more complex definitions of influenza cases had relatively low sensitivity. Rigorous follow-up by public health workers located 93% of passengers, but only 52% were contacted within 72 hours of arrival. Conclusions A low but measurable risk of transmission of pandemic A/H1N1 exists during modern commercial air travel. This risk is concentrated close to infected passengers with symptoms. Follow-up and screening of exposed passengers is slow and difficult once they have left the

  7. Remote sensing of nitric oxide emissions from planes, trains and automobiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popp, Peter John

    Remote sensing has been proven as an effective method for measuring in-use mobile source emissions. This document describes the development of a remote sensor for mobile source nitric oxide, based on an instrument previously developed at the University of Denver for measuring carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions. The new remote sensor makes use of a high-speed ultraviolet spectrometer to quantify nitric oxide by absorption spectroscopy at 226 nm in the ultraviolet region. The high-speed spectrometer is coupled to an existing FEAT remote sensor, for the simultaneous measurement of CO, CO2 and hydrocarbons by non-dispersive infrared absorption spectroscopy. The utility of the instrument was demonstrated in the measurement of nitric oxide emissions from automobiles, commercial aircraft, and railroad locomotives. The remote sensor was used to measure nitric oxide emissions from motor vehicles in Chicago in 1997 and 1998, as part of a five-year study to characterize motor vehicle emissions and deterioration in that city. Emissions data were collected for over 19,000 vehicles in 1997 and almost 23,000 vehicles in 1998. All of these records contained valid measurements for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, in addition to nitric oxide. In September of 1997, a study was conducted with the cooperation of British Airways and the British Airports Authority to demonstrate the capability of the remote sensor in measuring nitric oxide emissions from in-use commercial aircraft. In two days of sampling at London Heathrow Airport, a total of 122 measurements were made of 90 different aircraft, ranging in size from Gulfstream executive jets to Boeing 747-400s. The measured nitric oxide emission indices were not inconsistent with commercial aircraft emission indices published by the International Civil Aviation Organization. The utility of the remote sensor in measuring nitric oxide emissions from railroad locomotives was demonstrated in January of 1999, in a study conducted with

  8. Does the circadian clock drift when pilots fly multiple transpacific flights with 1- to 2-day layovers?

    PubMed

    Gander, Philippa; Mulrine, Hannah M; van den Berg, Margo J; Wu, Lora; Smith, Alexander; Signal, Leigh; Mangie, Jim

    2016-01-01

    On trips with multiple transmeridian flights, pilots experience successive non-24 h day/night cycles with circadian and sleep disruption. One study across a 9-day sequence of transpacific flights (no in-flight sleep, 1-day layovers between flights) reported an average period in the core body temperature rhythm of 24.6 h (circadian drift). Consequently, pilots were sometimes flying through the circadian performance nadir and had to readapt to home base time at the end of the trip. The present study examined circadian drift in trip patterns with longer flights and in-flight sleep. Thirty-nine B747-400 pilots (19 captains, 20 first officers, mean age = 55.5 years) were monitored on 9- to 13-day trips with multiple return flights between East Coast USA and Japan (in 4-pilot crews) and between Japan and Hawaii (in 3-pilot crews), with 1-day layovers between each flight. Measures included total in-flight sleep (actigraphy, log books) and top of descent (TOD) measures of sleepiness (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale), fatigue (Samn-Perelli Crew Status Check) and psychomotor vigilance task (PVT) performance. Circadian rhythms of individual pilots were not monitored. To detect circadian drift, mixed-model analysis of variance examined whether for a given flight, total in-flight sleep and TOD measures varied according to when the flight occurred in the trip sequence. In addition, sleep propensity curves for pre-trip and post-trip days were examined (Chi-square periodogram analyses). Limited data suggest that total in-flight sleep of relief crew at landing may have decreased across successive East Coast USA-Japan (flights 1, 3, 5 or 7; median arrival 03:45 Eastern Daylight Time (EDT)). However, PVT response speed at TOD was faster on East Coast USA-Japan flights later in the trip. On these flights, circadian drift would result in flights later in the trip landing closer to the evening wake maintenance zone, when sleep is difficult and PVT response speeds are fastest. On Japan