Science.gov

Sample records for 75-kev proton injector

  1. 30-kV proton injector for PIGMI

    SciTech Connect

    Hamm, R.W.; Mueller, D.W.; Sturgess, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    A 30-kV proton injector designed for matching a 31-mA proton beam into the radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ) section of the PIGMI accelerator has been constructed and tested. This injector uses a small efficient duoplasmatron ion source and a single-gap extraction system for creating a convergent ion beam, and a three-element unipotential einzel lens for focusing the ion beam into the RFQ. A description of this prototype injector is presented, along with the experimental data obtained during the testing of this system.

  2. Challenges and Plans for the Proton Injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garoby, R.

    The flexibility of the LHC injectors combined with multiple longitudinal beam gymnastics have significantly contributed to the excellent performance of the LHC during its first run, delivering beam with twice the ultimate brightness with 50 ns bunch spacing. To meet the requirements of the High Luminosity LHC, 25 ns bunch spacing is required, the intensity per bunch at injection has to double and brightness shall almost triple. Extensive hardware modifications or additions are therefore necessary in all accelerators of the injector complex, as well as new beam gymnastics.

  3. COMPACT PROTON INJECTOR AND FIRST ACCELERATOR SYSTEM TEST FOR COMPACT PROTON DIELECTRIC WALL CANCER THERAPY ACCELERATOR

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y; Guethlein, G; Caporaso, G; Sampayan, S; Blackfield, D; Cook, E; Falabella, S; Harris, J; Hawkins, S; Nelson, S; Poole, B; Richardson, R; Watson, J; Weir, J; Pearson, D

    2009-04-23

    A compact proton accelerator for cancer treatment is being developed by using the high-gradient dielectric insulator wall (DWA) technology [1-4]. We are testing all the essential DWA components, including a compact proton source, on the First Article System Test (FAST). The configuration and progress on the injector and FAST will be presented.

  4. Comments on Injector Proton Beam Study in Run 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, S. Y.

    2014-09-15

    During the entire period of injector proton study in run 2014, it seems that the beam transverse emittance out of Booster is larger than that in run 2013. The emittance measured at the BtA transfer line and also the transmission from Booster late to AGS late are presented for this argument. In addition to this problem, it seems that the multiturn Booster injection, which defines the transverse emittance, needs more attention. Moreover, for high intensity operations, the space charge effect may be already relevant in RHIC polarized proton runs. With the RHIC proton intensity improvement in the next several years, higher Booster input intensity is needed, therefore, the space charge effect at the Booster injection and early ramp may become a new limiting factor.

  5. On application of superconducting resonators for reconstruction of proton injector for nuclotron complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, K. A.; Polozov, S. M.; Samoshin, A. V.; Toporkov, S. E.; Kulevoy, T. V.; Kropachev, G. N.; Butenko, A. V.; Monchinskiy, V. A.; Sidorin, A. O.; Trubnikov, G. V.

    2016-12-01

    The possibility of replacing LU-20 drift tube linac, the injector for Nuclotron accelerator complex, with a superconducting proton accelerator with an output energy of up to 50 MeV consisting of a sequence of independently phased cavities and solenoids is considered. The results of choosing the general layout of the accelerator and the beam dynamics simulation are presented.

  6. Spin Tracking of Polarized Protons in the Main Injector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Xiao, M.; Lorenzon, W.; Aldred, C.

    2016-07-01

    The Main Injector (MI) at Fermilab currently produces high-intensity beams of protons at energies of 120 GeV for a variety of physics experiments. Acceleration of polarized protons in the MI would provide opportunities for a rich spin physics program at Fermilab. To achieve polarized proton beams in the Fermilab accelerator complex, shown in Fig.1.1, detailed spin tracking simulations with realistic parameters based on the existing facility are required. This report presents studies at the MI using a single 4-twist Si-berian snake to determine the depolarizing spin resonances for the relevant synchrotrons. Results will be presented first for a perfect MI lattice, followed by a lattice that includes the real MI imperfections, such as the measured magnet field errors and quadrupole misalignments. The tolerances of each of these factors in maintaining polariza-tion in the Main Injector will be discussed.

  7. A Tandetron as proton injector for the eye tumor therapy in Berlin

    SciTech Connect

    Roehrich, J.; Damerow, T.; Hahn, W.; Mueller, U.; Denker, A.; Reinholz, U.

    2012-02-15

    The therapy of eye tumors with fast protons is an excellent tool giving very high local control rates. At the Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin (HZB) almost 1800 patients were treated since 1998. A 2 MV Tandetron was installed as injector for the k = 132 HZB cyclotron. Using the standard 358 duoplasmatron ion source with direct extraction of negative hydrogen ions an extremely stable proton beam can be delivered, both on the short-term and the long-term scale. The hair-needle filaments made from thoriated tungsten wires have safe operation times of more than 1000 h.

  8. Design study for a 500 MeV proton synchrotron with CSNS linac as an injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Liang-Sheng; Ji, Hong-Fei; Wang, Sheng

    2016-09-01

    Using the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) linac as the injector, a 500 MeV proton synchrotron is proposed for multidisciplinary applications, such as biology, material science and proton therapy. The synchrotron will deliver proton beam with energy from 80 MeV to 500 MeV. A compact lattice design has been worked out, and all the important beam dynamics issues have been investigated. The 80 MeV H- beam is stripped and injected into the synchrotron by using multi-turn injection. In order to continuously extraction the proton with small beam loss, an achromatic structure is proposed and a slow extraction method with RF knock-out is adopted and optimized.

  9. High intensity proton injector for facility of antiproton and ion research

    SciTech Connect

    Berezov, R. Brodhage, R.; Fils, J.; Hollinger, R.; Ivanova, V.; Chauvin, N.; Delferriere, O.; Tuske, O.; Ullmann, C.

    2016-02-15

    The high current ion source with the low energy beam transport (LEBT) will serve as injector into the proton LINAC to provide primary proton beam for the production of antiprotons. The pulsed ion source developed and built in CEA/Saclay operates with a frequency of 2.45 GHz based on ECR plasma production with two coils with 87.5 mT magnetic field necessary for the electron cyclotron resonance. The compact LEBT consists of two solenoids with a maximum magnetic field of 500 mT including two integrated magnetic steerers to adjust the horizontal and vertical beam positions. The total length of the compact LEBT is 2.3 m and was made as short as possible to reduced emittance growth along the beam line. To measure ion beam intensity behind the pentode extraction system, between solenoids and at the end of the beam line, two current transformers and a Faraday cup are installed. To get information about the beam quality and position, the diagnostic chamber with different equipment will be installed between the two solenoids. This article reports the current status of the proton injector for the facility of antiproton and ion research.

  10. High intensity proton injector for facility of antiproton and ion research.

    PubMed

    Berezov, R; Brodhage, R; Chauvin, N; Delferriere, O; Fils, J; Hollinger, R; Ivanova, V; Tuske, O; Ullmann, C

    2016-02-01

    The high current ion source with the low energy beam transport (LEBT) will serve as injector into the proton LINAC to provide primary proton beam for the production of antiprotons. The pulsed ion source developed and built in CEA/Saclay operates with a frequency of 2.45 GHz based on ECR plasma production with two coils with 87.5 mT magnetic field necessary for the electron cyclotron resonance. The compact LEBT consists of two solenoids with a maximum magnetic field of 500 mT including two integrated magnetic steerers to adjust the horizontal and vertical beam positions. The total length of the compact LEBT is 2.3 m and was made as short as possible to reduced emittance growth along the beam line. To measure ion beam intensity behind the pentode extraction system, between solenoids and at the end of the beam line, two current transformers and a Faraday cup are installed. To get information about the beam quality and position, the diagnostic chamber with different equipment will be installed between the two solenoids. This article reports the current status of the proton injector for the facility of antiproton and ion research.

  11. Beam dynamic design of a high intensity injector for proton linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Wei-Ping; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Jia, Fang-Jian; He, Yuan; Wang, Zhi; Lu, Yuan-Rong

    2016-08-01

    A compact room-temperature injector is designed to accelerate 100 mA proton beam from 45 keV to 4.06 MeV for the proposed high intensity proton linac at State Key Lab of Nuclear Physics and Technology in Peking university. The main feature is that the Radio Frequency Quadruple (RFQ) and the Drift Tube linac (DTL) sections are merged in one piece at the total length of 276 cm. The beam is matched in transverse directions with an compact internal doublet instead of an external matching section in between. The design has reached a high average accelerating gradient up to 1.55 MV/m with transmission efficiency of 95.9% at the consideration of high duty factor operation. The operation frequency is chose to be 200 MHz due to the already available RF power source. The injector combines a 150 cm long 4-vanes RFQ internal section from 45 keV to 618 keV with a 126 cm long H-type DTL section to 4.06 MeV. In general the design satisfy the challenges of the project requirements. And the details are presented in this paper.

  12. Development of a 130-mA, 75-kV high voltage column for high-intensity dc proton injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, J.; Arvin, A.; Hansborough, L.; Hodgkins, D.; Meyer, E.; Schneider, J.D.; Stevens, R.R. Jr.; Zaugg, T.

    1997-12-01

    A reliable high-voltage (HV) column has been developed for dc proton injectors with applications to high-intensity cw linacs. The HV column is coupled with a microwave-driven plasma generator to produce a 75-keV, 110-mA dc proton beam. Typical proton fraction from this source is 85--90%, requiring the HV column and accelerating electrodes to operate with a 130-mA hydrogen-ion beam current. A glow-discharge, which was caused by the ion source axial magnetic field, was initially observed in the HV column. This problem was solved by scaling the electron production processes, the magnetic field, and the HV column pressure into a favorable regime. A subsequent 168 hour reliability run on the 75-keV injector showed that the ion source (plasma generator and HV column) has >98% beam availability.

  13. The Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, C.S.

    1992-11-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is a new 150 GeV proton synchrotron, designed to replace the Main Ring and improve the high energy physics potential of Fermilab. The status of the Fermilab accelerator complex upgrade will be discussed.

  14. Study on transient beam loading compensation for China ADS proton linac injector II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zheng; He, Yuan; Wang, Xian-Wu; Chang, Wei; Zhang, Rui-Feng; Zhu, Zheng-Long; Zhang, Sheng-Hu; Chen, Qi; Powers, Tom

    2016-05-01

    Significant transient beam loading effects were observed during beam commissioning tests of prototype II of the injector for the accelerator driven sub-critical (ADS) system, which took place at the Institute of Modern Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, between October and December 2014. During these tests experiments were performed with continuous wave (CW) operation of the cavities with pulsed beam current, and the system was configured to make use of a prototype digital low level radio frequency (LLRF) controller. The system was originally operated in pulsed mode with a simple proportional plus integral and deviation (PID) feedback control algorithm, which was not able to maintain the desired gradient regulation during pulsed 10 mA beam operations. A unique simple transient beam loading compensation method which made use of a combination of proportional and integral (PI) feedback and feedforward control algorithm was implemented in order to significantly reduce the beam induced transient effect in the cavity gradients. The superconducting cavity field variation was reduced to less than 1.7% after turning on this control algorithm. The design and experimental results of this system are presented in this paper. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91426303, 11525523)

  15. A new medium energy beam transport line for the proton injector of AGS-RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura, M.; Briscoe, B.; Fite, J.; LoDestro, V.; Raparia, D.; Ritter, J.; Hayashizaki, N.

    2010-09-12

    In Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a 750 keV medium energy beam transport line between the 201 MHz 750 keV proton RFQ and the 200 MeV Alvarez DTL is being modified to get a better transmission of the beam. Within a tight space, high field gradient quadrupoles (65 Tm) and newly designed steering magnets (6.5 mm in length) will be installed considering the cross-talk effects. Also a new half wave length 200 MHz buncher is being prepared. The beam commissioning will be done in this year. To enhance the performance of the proton linacs, the MEBT is being modified. New quadrupole magnets, steering magnets and a half wave length buncher as shown in Figure 7 will be installed and be commissioned soon.

  16. A high brightness proton injector for the Tandetron accelerator at Jožef Stefan Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelicon, Primož; Podaru, Nicolae C.; Vavpetič, Primož; Jeromel, Luka; Ogrinc Potocnik, Nina; Ondračka, Simon; Gottdang, Andreas; Mous, Dirk J. M.

    2014-08-01

    Jožef Stefan Institute recently commissioned a high brightness H- ion beam injection system for its existing tandem accelerator facility. Custom developed by High Voltage Engineering Europa, the multicusp ion source has been tuned to deliver at the entrance of the Tandetron™ accelerator H- ion beams with a measured brightness of 17.1 A m-2 rad-2 eV-1 at 170 μA, equivalent to an energy normalized beam emittance of 0.767 π mm mrad MeV1/2. Upgrading the accelerator facility with the new injection system provides two main advantages. First, the high brightness of the new ion source enables the reduction of object slit aperture and the reduction of acceptance angle at the nuclear microprobe, resulting in a reduced beam size at selected beam intensity, which significantly improves the probe resolution for micro-PIXE applications. Secondly, the upgrade strongly enhances the accelerator up-time since H and He beams are produced by independent ion sources, introducing a constant availability of 3He beam for fusion-related research with NRA. The ion beam particle losses and ion beam emittance growth imply that the aforementioned beam brightness is reduced by transport through the ion optical system. To obtain quantitative information on the available brightness at the high-energy side of the accelerator, the proton beam brightness is determined in the nuclear microprobe beamline. Based on the experience obtained during the first months of operation for micro-PIXE applications, further necessary steps are indicated to obtain optimal coupling of the new ion source with the accelerator to increase the normalized high-energy proton beam brightness at the JSI microprobe, currently at 14 A m-2 rad-2 eV-1, with the output current at 18% of its available maximum.

  17. Designing high energy accelerators under DOE's New Culture'' for environment and safety: An example, the Fermilab 150 GeV Main Injector proton synchrotron

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, W.B.

    1991-05-01

    Fermilab has initiated a design for a new Main Injector (150 GeV proton synchrotron) to take the place of the current Main Ring accelerator. New Culture'' environmental and safety questions are having to be addressed. The paper will detail the necessary steps that have to be taken in order to obtain the permits which control the start of construction. Obviously these depend on site-specific circumstances, however some steps are universally applicable. In the example, floodplains and wetlands are affected and therefore the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) compliance is a significant issue. The important feature is to reduce the relevant regulations to a concise set of easily understandable requirements. The effort required and the associated time line will be presented so that other new accelerator proposals can benefit from the experience gained from this example.

  18. THE PROJECT-X INJECTOR EXPERIMENT: A NOVEL HIGH PERFORMANCE FRONT-END FOR A FUTURE HIGH POWER PROTON FACILITY AT FERMILAB

    SciTech Connect

    Nagaitsev, S.; et al,

    2013-09-25

    A multi-MW proton facility, Project X, has been proposed and is currently under development at Fermilab. We are carrying out a program of research and development aimed at integrated systems testing of critical components comprising the front end of Project X. This program, known as the Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE), is being undertaken as a key component of the larger Project X R&D program. The successful completion of this program will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing a primary technical risk element within Project X. PXIE is currently under construction at Fermilab and will be completed over the period FY12-17. PXIE will include an H* ion source, a CW 2.1-MeV RFQ and two superconductive RF (SRF) cryomodules providing up to 25 MeV energy gain at an average beam current of 1 mA (upgradable to 2 mA). Successful systems testing will also demonstrate the viability of novel front end technologies that are expected find applications beyond Project X.

  19. Fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lambeth, Malcolm David Dick

    2001-02-27

    A fuel injector comprises first and second housing parts, the first housing part being located within a bore or recess formed in the second housing part, the housing parts defining therebetween an inlet chamber, a delivery chamber axially spaced from the inlet chamber, and a filtration flow path interconnecting the inlet and delivery chambers to remove particulate contaminants from the flow of fuel therebetween.

  20. Scramjet injector

    SciTech Connect

    Bulman, M.J.

    1993-06-22

    A fuel injector mounted flush to the wall of a combustor through which air flows at a predetermined air pressure in a direction defined as the air flow direction, the fuel injector is described comprising: a generally elongated body including a surface substantially flush with the wall, the surface having a proximate end and a distal end aligned with the air flow direction such that the air flow direction extends from the proximate end to the distal end; at least one fuel inlet port connected to the generally elongated body; a single elongated exit slot having a longitudinal axis parallel to the air flow direction, the elongated exit slot having an exit slot cross section perpendicular to the longitudinal axis, the exit slot cross section having a width parallel to the surface and a depth perpendicular to the surface, the width and depth increasing in the air flow direction; and at least one throat in the generally elongated body communicating the fuel inlet port with the single elongated exit slot, wherein the single elongated exit slot and the throat are configured to create and maintain a substantially streamlined supersonic fuel jet plume shape having a local exit pressure substantially equal to the predetermined air pressure.

  1. The Fermilab Main Injector: current status and future

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.

    1996-09-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is a 8-150 GeV proton synchrotron being built as a high intensity injector to the Tevatron. The design incorporates many novel features to achieve {ital p{anti p}} luminosity in the Tevatron exceeding 8 x 10{sup 31} cm{sup -2}sec{sup -1}. An overview of the Main Injector project, current status and future prospects will be discussed.

  2. Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, B.; Barker, W.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Briegel, C.; Capista, D.; Deuerling, G.; Dysert, R.; Forster, R.; Foulkes, S.; Haynes, W.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Marchionni, A.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Piccoli, L.; Prieto, P.; Rapisarda, S.; Saewert, A.; Van Bogaert, J.; Votava, M.; Webber, R.; Wendt, M.; Wilcer, N.; Wolbers, S.

    2006-11-01

    An upgrade of the Beam Position Monitor (BPM) signal processing and data acquisition system for the Fermilab Main Injector is described. The Main Injector is a fast cycling synchrotron that accelerates protons or antiprotons from 8 to 150 GeV, Each Main Injector cycle can have a totally different magnet ramp, RF frequency configuration, beam bunch structure, and injection/extraction pattern from the previous cycle. The new BPM system provides the capabilities and flexibility required by the dynamic and complex machine operations. The system offers measurement capability in the 2.5 MHz and 53 MHz channels to detect the range of bunch structures for protons and antiprotons in both wideband (turn-by-turn) and narrowband (closed-orbit) modes. The new BPM read-out system is based on the digital receiver concept and is highly configurable, allowing the signal processing of nearly all Main Injector beam conditions, including the detection of individual batches. An overview of the BPM system in the Main Injector operating environment, some technology details and first beam measurements are presented.

  3. Proposed Fermilab upgrade main injector project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate a Fermilab Main Injector'' (FMI), a 150 GeV proton injector accelerator, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The purpose and need for this action are given of this Environmental Assessment (EA). A description of the proposed FMI and construction activities are also given. The proposed FMI would be housed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of approximately 2.1 miles (3.4 kilometers), and the construction would affect approximately 135 acres of the 6,800 acre Fermilab site. The purpose of the proposed FMI is to construct and bring into operation a new 150 GeV proton injector accelerator. This addition to Fermilab's Tevatron would enable scientists to penetrate ever more deeply into the subatomic world through the detection of the super massive particles that can be created when a proton and antiproton collide head-on. The conversion of energy into matter in these collisions makes it possible to create particles that existed only an instant after the beginning of time. The proposed FMI would significantly extend the scientific reach of the Tevatron, the world's first superconducting accelerator and highest energy proton-antiproton collider.

  4. Redirecting by Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.; Lee, Diana D.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We describe the Object Infrastructure Framework, a system that seeks to simplify the creation of distributed applications by injecting behavior on the communication paths between components. We touch on some of the ilities and services that can be achieved with injector technology, and then focus on the uses of redirecting injectors, injectors that take requests directed at a particular server and generate requests directed at others. We close by noting that OIF is an Aspect-Oriented Programming system, and comparing OIF to related work.

  5. Injector element characterization methodology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, George B., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Characterization of liquid rocket engine injector elements is an important part of the development process for rocket engine combustion devices. Modern nonintrusive instrumentation for flow velocity and spray droplet size measurement, and automated, computer-controlled test facilities allow rapid, low-cost evaluation of injector element performance and behavior. Application of these methods in rocket engine development, paralleling their use in gas turbine engine development, will reduce rocket engine development cost and risk. The Alternate Turbopump (ATP) Hot Gas Systems (HGS) preburner injector elements were characterized using such methods, and the methodology and some of the results obtained will be shown.

  6. Fuel flexible fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Tuthill, Richard S; Davis, Dustin W; Dai, Zhongtao

    2015-02-03

    A disclosed fuel injector provides mixing of fuel with airflow by surrounding a swirled fuel flow with first and second swirled airflows that ensures mixing prior to or upon entering the combustion chamber. Fuel tubes produce a central fuel flow along with a central airflow through a plurality of openings to generate the high velocity fuel/air mixture along the axis of the fuel injector in addition to the swirled fuel/air mixture.

  7. Pulverized coal fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Rini, Michael J.; Towle, David P.

    1992-01-01

    A pulverized coal fuel injector contains an acceleration section to improve the uniformity of a coal-air mixture to be burned. An integral splitter is provided which divides the coal-air mixture into a number separate streams or jets, and a center body directs the streams at a controlled angle into the primary zone of a burner. The injector provides for flame shaping and the control of NO/NO.sub.2 formation.

  8. Fuel injector system

    DOEpatents

    Hsu, Bertrand D.; Leonard, Gary L.

    1988-01-01

    A fuel injection system particularly adapted for injecting coal slurry fuels at high pressures includes an accumulator-type fuel injector which utilizes high-pressure pilot fuel as a purging fluid to prevent hard particles in the fuel from impeding the opening and closing movement of a needle valve, and as a hydraulic medium to hold the needle valve in its closed position. A fluid passage in the injector delivers an appropriately small amount of the ignition-aiding pilot fuel to an appropriate region of a chamber in the injector's nozzle so that at the beginning of each injection interval the first stratum of fuel to be discharged consists essentially of pilot fuel and thereafter mostly slurry fuel is injected.

  9. Injector Mixing Efficiency Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moser, Marlow D.

    1998-01-01

    Various optical diagnostic techniques such as laser induce fluorescence, Raman spectroscopy, laser Doppler velocimetry, and laser light scattering have been employed to study the flowfield downstream of a single injector element in a optically accessible rocket chamber at Penn State for a number o years. These techniques have been used with both liquid and gaseous oxygen at pressures up to 1000 psia which is the limit of the facility. The purpose of the test programs at Penn State were to develop the techniques and to study the flow field from various injector designs. To extend these studies to higher pressure and ultimately to multiple injectors require the capabilities of the Marshall Space Flight Center. These studies will extend the data base available for the various injector designs to higher pressure as well as to determine the interaction between multiple injectors. During this effort the Princeton Instruments ICCD camera was set up and checked out. The functionality of the system has been thoroughly checked and the shutter compensation time was found to be not working. The controller was returned to the manufacturer for warranty repair. The sensitivity has been measured and found to be approximately 60 counts per photon at maximum gain which agrees with the test data supplied by the manufacturer. The actual value depends on wavelength. The Princeton Instruments camera was been installed in a explosion proof tube for use with the rocket combustor. A 35 mm camera was also made ready for taking still photos inside the combustor. A fiber optic was used to transmit the laser light from an argon-ion laser to the rocket combustor for the light scattering images. This images were obtained for a LOX-hydrogen swirl coax injector. Several still photos were also obtained with the 35 mm camera for these firings.

  10. The FNAL injector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.Y.; Bollinger, D.S.; Duel, K.L.; Lackey, J.R.; Pellico, W.A.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    The present FNAL H{sup -} injector has been operational since the 1970s and consists of two magnetron H{sup -} sources and two 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton Accelerators. In the upgrade, both slit-type magnetron sources will be replaced with circular aperture sources, and the Cockcroft-Waltons with a 200 MHz RFQ (radio frequency quadrupole). Operational experience at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) has shown that the upgraded source and RFQ will be more reliable, improve beam quality and require less manpower than the present system. The present FNAL (Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) injector has been operational since 1978 and has been a reliable source of H{sup -} beams for the Fermilab program. At present there are two Cockcroft-Walton injectors, each with a magnetron H{sup -} source with a slit aperture. With these two sources in operation, the injector has a reliability of better than 97%. However, issues with maintenance, equipment obsolescence, increased beam quality demands and retirement of critical personnel, have made it more difficult for the continued reliable running of the H{sup -} injector. The recent past has also seen an increase in both downtime and source output issues. With these problems coming to the forefront, a new 750 keV injector is being built to replace the present system. The new system will be similar to the one at BNL (Brookhaven National Laboratory) that has a similar magnetron source with a round aperture and a 200MHz RFQ. This combination has been shown to operate extremely reliably.

  11. Epinephrine auto-injector pandemic.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Ronna L; Manivannan, Veena; Hartz, Martha F; Sadosty, Annie T

    2012-09-01

    Epinephrine is crucial in the treatment of anaphylaxis. As anaphylaxis frequently occurs in nonmedical settings, use of an epinephrine auto-injector is vital for prompt management. This article provides an overview of the increasing number of epinephrine auto-injector prescriptions and the underlying causes and contributing factors to these rising prescriptions. It also reviews the current indications for prescription of an epinephrine auto-injector, proper use of epinephrine auto-injectors, and the management of unintentional epinephrine injections.

  12. Downhole steam injector

    DOEpatents

    Donaldson, A. Burl; Hoke, Donald E.

    1983-01-01

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  13. Simulations of space charge in the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, E.; Amundson, J.; Spentzouris, P.; Qiang, J.; Ryne, R.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2011-03-01

    The Fermilab Project X plan for future high intensity operation relies on the Main Injector as the engine for delivering protons in the 60-120 GeV energy range. Project X plans call for increasing the number of protons per Main Injector bunch from the current value of 1.0 x 10{sup 11} to 3.0 x 10{sup 11}. Space charge effects at the injection energy of 8 GeV have the potential to seriously disrupt operations. We report on ongoing simulation efforts with Synergia, MARYLIE/Impact, and IMPACT, which provide comprehensive capabilities for parallel, multi-physics modeling of beam dynamics in the Main Injector including 3D space-charge effects.

  14. Simulations of transition crossing in the main injector

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; MacLachlan, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The design goal for the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) is to accelerate a minimum of 6{times}10{sup 10} protons per bunch through the transition. We present here the results from simulation studies of the transition crossing in the FMI using the particle tracking code ESME.

  15. PXIE: Project X Injector Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Ostroumov, P.N.; Holmes, S.D.; Kephart, R.D.; Kerby, J.S.; Lebedev, V.A.; Mishra, C.S.; Nagaitsev, S.; Shemyakin, A.V.; Solyak, N.; Stanek, R.P.; Li, D.; /LBL, Berkeley

    2012-05-01

    A multi-MW proton facility, Project X, has been proposed and is currently under development at Fermilab. We are planning a program of research and development aimed at integrated systems testing of critical components comprising the front end of the Project X. This program is being undertaken as a key component of the larger Project X R&D program. The successful completion of this program will validate the concept for the Project X front end, thereby minimizing a primary technical risk element within Project X. Integrated systems testing, known as the Project X Injector Experiment (PXIE), will be accomplished with a new test facility under construction at Fermilab and will be completed over the period FY12-16. PXIE will include an H{sup -} ion source, a CW 2.1-MeV RFQ and two superconductive RF (SRF) cryomodules providing up to 25 MeV energy gain at an average beam current of 1 mA (upgradable to 2 mA). Successful systems testing will also demonstrate the viability of novel front end technologies that are expected find applications beyond Project X.

  16. MEIC Proton Beam Formation with a Low Energy Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Yuhong

    2015-09-01

    The MEIC proton and ion beams are generated, accumulated, accelerated and cooled in a new green-field ion injector complex designed specifically to support its high luminosity goal. This injector consists of sources, a linac and a small booster ring. In this paper we explore feasibility of a short ion linac that injects low-energy protons and ions into the booster ring.

  17. RHIC injector complex online model status and plans

    SciTech Connect

    Schoefer,V.; Ahrens, L.; Brown, K.; Morris, J.; Nemesure, S.

    2009-05-04

    An online modeling system is being developed for the RHIC injector complex, which consists of the Booster, the AGS and the transfer lines connecting the Booster to the AGS and the AGS to RHIC. Historically the injectors have been operated using static values from design specifications or offline model runs, but tighter beam optics constraints required by polarized proton operations (e.g, accelerating with near-integer tunes) have necessitated a more dynamic system. An online model server for the AGS has been implemented using MAD-X [1] as the model engine, with plans to extend the system to the Booster and the injector transfer lines and to add the option of calculating optics using the Polymorphic Tracking Code (PTC [2]) as the model engine.

  18. SLC injector modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Hanerfeld, H; Herrmannsfeldt, W.B.; James, M.B.; Miller, R.H.

    1985-03-01

    The injector for the Stanford Linear Collider is being studied using the fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell program MASK. The program takes account of cylindrically symmetrical rf fields from the external source, as well as fields produced by the beam and dc magnetic fields. It calculates the radial and longitudinal motion of electrons and plots their positions in various planes in phase space. Bunching parameters can be optimized and insights into the bunching process and emittance growth have been gained. The results of the simulations are compared to the experimental results.

  19. Injectors and Annotations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Filman, Robert E.

    2004-01-01

    In a previous paper, we presented the Object Infrastructure Framework. The goal of that system is to simplify the creation of distributed applications. The primary claim of that work is that non-functional 'ilities' could be achieved by controlling and manipulating the communications between components, thereby simplifying the development of distributed systems. A secondary element of that paper is to argue for extending the conventional distributed objects model in two important ways: 1) The ability to insert injectors (filters, wrappers) into the communication path between components; 2) The ability to annotate communications with additional information, and to propagate these annotations through an application. Here we express the descriptions of that paper.

  20. Deuterium pellet injector gun design

    SciTech Connect

    Lunsford, R.V.; Wysor, R.B.; Bryan, W.E.; Shipley, W.D.; Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.; Fisher, P.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Deuterium Pellet Injector (DPI), an eight-pellet pneumatic injector, is being designed and fabricated for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR). It will accelerate eight pellets, 4 by 4 mm maximum, to greater than 1500 m/s. It utilizes a unique pellet-forming mechanism, a cooled pellet storage wheel, and improved propellant gas scavenging.

  1. Proposed Fermilab upgrade main injector project. Environmental Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to construct and operate a ``Fermilab Main Injector`` (FMI), a 150 GeV proton injector accelerator, at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Batavia, Illinois. The purpose and need for this action are given of this Environmental Assessment (EA). A description of the proposed FMI and construction activities are also given. The proposed FMI would be housed in an underground tunnel with a circumference of approximately 2.1 miles (3.4 kilometers), and the construction would affect approximately 135 acres of the 6,800 acre Fermilab site. The purpose of the proposed FMI is to construct and bring into operation a new 150 GeV proton injector accelerator. This addition to Fermilab`s Tevatron would enable scientists to penetrate ever more deeply into the subatomic world through the detection of the super massive particles that can be created when a proton and antiproton collide head-on. The conversion of energy into matter in these collisions makes it possible to create particles that existed only an instant after the beginning of time. The proposed FMI would significantly extend the scientific reach of the Tevatron, the world`s first superconducting accelerator and highest energy proton-antiproton collider.

  2. Installation and first operation of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility injector at the Rokkasho site

    SciTech Connect

    Gobin, Raphael Bogard, Daniel; Bolzon, Benoit; Bourdelle, Gilles; Chauvin, Nicolas; Chel, Stéphane; Girardot, Patrick; Gomes, Adelino; Guiho, Patrice; Harrault, Francis; Loiseau, Denis; Lussignol, Yves; Misiara, Nicolas; Roger, Arnaud; Senée, Franck; Valette, Matthieu; Okumura, Yoshikazu [IFMIF and others

    2016-02-15

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) linear IFMIF prototype accelerator injector dedicated to high intensity deuteron beam production has been designed, built, and tested at CEA/Saclay between 2008 and 2012. After the completion of the acceptance tests at Saclay, the injector has been fully sent to Japan. The re-assembly of the injector has been performed between March and May 2014. Then after the check-out phase, the production of the first proton beam occurred in November 2014. Hydrogen and deuteron beam commissioning is now in progress after having proceeded with the final tests on the entire injector equipment including high power diagnostics. This article reports the different phases of the injector installation pointing out the safety and security needs, as well as the first beam production results in Japan and chopper tests. Detailed operation and commissioning results (with H{sup +} and D{sup +} 100 keV beams) are reported in a second article.

  3. Installation and first operation of the International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility injector at the Rokkasho site.

    PubMed

    Gobin, Raphael; Bogard, Daniel; Bolzon, Benoit; Bourdelle, Gilles; Chauvin, Nicolas; Chel, Stéphane; Girardot, Patrick; Gomes, Adelino; Guiho, Patrice; Harrault, Francis; Loiseau, Denis; Lussignol, Yves; Misiara, Nicolas; Roger, Arnaud; Senée, Franck; Valette, Matthieu; Cara, Philippe; Duglué, Daniel; Gex, Dominique; Okumura, Yoshikazu; Ayala, Juan Marcos; Knaster, Juan; Marqueta, Alvaro; Kasugai, Atsushi; O'Hira, Shigeru; Shinto, Katsuhiro; Takahashi, Hiroki

    2016-02-01

    The International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility (IFMIF) linear IFMIF prototype accelerator injector dedicated to high intensity deuteron beam production has been designed, built, and tested at CEA/Saclay between 2008 and 2012. After the completion of the acceptance tests at Saclay, the injector has been fully sent to Japan. The re-assembly of the injector has been performed between March and May 2014. Then after the check-out phase, the production of the first proton beam occurred in November 2014. Hydrogen and deuteron beam commissioning is now in progress after having proceeded with the final tests on the entire injector equipment including high power diagnostics. This article reports the different phases of the injector installation pointing out the safety and security needs, as well as the first beam production results in Japan and chopper tests. Detailed operation and commissioning results (with H(+) and D(+) 100 keV beams) are reported in a second article.

  4. Injector having multiple fuel pegs

    DOEpatents

    Hadley, Mark Allan; Felling, David Kenton

    2013-04-30

    A fuel injector is provided, including a fuel injector body, a plurality of fuel vanes, and a plurality of fuel pegs. The injector body includes a manifold and an inlet. The manifold is configured for receiving fuel, and the inlet is configured for receiving air. The fuel vanes are located within the injector body and are positioned in a direction that is generally parallel with a longitudinal axis of the injector body to orient the air flowing from the inlet. The plurality of fuel pegs are fluidly connected to the manifold and are arranged within the plurality of fuel vanes. The plurality of fuel pegs are each spaced at a distance that is about equal between each of the plurality of fuel pegs.

  5. Commissioning the LCLS Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Akre, R.; Dowell, D.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, Ph.; Iverson, R.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Schmerge, J.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.; /SLAC

    2007-11-28

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE x-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC. The injector section, from drive laser and RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in fall 2006. Initial system commissioning with an electron beam was completed in August 2007, with the goal of a 1.2-micron emittance in a 1-nC bunch clearly demonstrated. The second phase of commissioning, including second bunch compressor and full linac, is planned for 2008, with FEL commissioning in 2009. We report experimental results and experience gained in the first phase of commissioning, including the photo-cathode drive laser, RF gun, photocathode, S-band and X-band RF systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics.

  6. Injectors for Multipoint Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor); Ryon, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An injector for a multipoint combustor system includes an inner air swirler which defines an interior flow passage and a plurality of swirler inlet ports in an upstream portion thereof. The inlet ports are configured and adapted to impart swirl on flow in the interior flow passage. An outer air cap is mounted outboard of the inner swirler. A fuel passage is defined between the inner air swirler and the outer air cap, and includes a discharge outlet between downstream portions of the inner air swirler and the outer air cap for issuing fuel for combustion. The outer air cap defines an outer air circuit configured for substantially unswirled injection of compressor discharge air outboard of the interior flow passage.

  7. CFD simulation of coaxial injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landrum, D. Brian

    1993-01-01

    The development of improved performance models for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) is an important, ongoing program at NASA MSFC. These models allow prediction of overall system performance, as well as analysis of run-time anomalies which might adversely affect engine performance or safety. Due to the complexity of the flow fields associated with the SSME, NASA has increasingly turned to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques as modeling tools. An important component of the SSME system is the fuel preburner, which consists of a cylindrical chamber with a plate containing 264 coaxial injector elements at one end. A fuel rich mixture of gaseous hydrogen and liquid oxygen is injected and combusted in the chamber. This process preheats the hydrogen fuel before it enters the main combustion chamber, powers the hydrogen turbo-pump, and provides a heat dump for nozzle cooling. Issues of interest include the temperature and pressure fields at the turbine inlet and the thermal compatibility between the preburner chamber and injector plate. Performance anomalies can occur due to incomplete combustion, blocked injector ports, etc. The performance model should include the capability to simulate the effects of these anomalies. The current approach to the numerical simulation of the SSME fuel preburner flow field is to use a global model based on the MSFC sponsored FNDS code. This code does not have the capabilities of modeling several aspects of the problem such as detailed modeling of the coaxial injectors. Therefore, an effort has been initiated to develop a detailed simulation of the preburner coaxial injectors and provide gas phase boundary conditions just downstream of the injector face as input to the FDNS code. This simulation should include three-dimensional geometric effects such as proximity of injectors to baffles and chamber walls and interaction between injectors. This report describes an investigation into the numerical simulation of GH2/LOX coaxial

  8. Siberian snakes for the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Anferov, V.A.; Baiod, R.; Courant, E.D.

    1993-04-01

    Appropriate Siberian snakes were designed to maintain the proton beam polarization during acceleration in the Fermilab Main Injector from 8 to 150 GeV. Various snake designs were investigated to find one fitting into the 14 m straight section spaces with the required spin rotation axis and the minimum orbit excursion. The authors studied both cold and warm discrete magnet snakes as well as warm snakes with helical magnets. For the warm discrete magnet snake, obtaining small orbit excursions required a nearly longitudinal snake axis, while axes near {+-}45{degrees} are needed when using two snakes in a ring. The authors found acceptable snakes either by using superconducting magnets or by using warm magnets with a helical dipole field.

  9. Installation Status of the Electron Beam Profiler for the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Thurman-Keup, R.; Alvarez, M.; Fitzgerald, J.; Lundberg, C.; Prieto, P.; Roberts, M.; Zagel, J.; Blokland, W.

    2015-11-06

    The planned neutrino program at Fermilab requires large proton beam intensities in excess of 2 MW. Measuring the transverse profiles of these high intensity beams is challenging and often depends on non-invasive techniques. One such technique involves measuring the deflection of a probe beam of electrons with a trajectory perpendicular to the proton beam. A device such as this is already in use at the Spallation Neutron Source at ORNL and the installation of a similar device is underway in the Main Injector at Fermilab. The present installation status of the electron beam profiler for the Main Injector will be discussed together with some simulations and test stand results.

  10. LER-LHC injector workshop summary and super-ferric fast cycling injector in the SPS tunnel

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrosio, Giorgio; Hays, Steven; Huang, Yuenian; Johnstone, John; Kashikhin, Vadim; MacLachlan, James; Mokhov, Nikolai; Piekarz, Henryk; Sen, Tanaji; Shiltsev, Vladimir; de Rijk, Gijsbert; /CERN

    2007-03-01

    A Workshop on Low Energy Ring (LER) in the LHC tunnel as main injector was convened at CERN on October 11-12, 2006. We present the outline of the LER based on the presentations, and respond to the raised questions and discussions including the post-workshop studies. We also outline the possibility of using the LER accelerator technologies for the fast cycling injector accelerator in the SPS tunnel (SF-SPS). A primary goal for the LER (Low Energy Ring) injector accelerator is to inject 1.5 TeV proton beams into the LHC, instead of the current injection scheme with 0.45 TeV beams from the SPS. At this new energy, the field harmonics [1] of the LHC magnets are sufficiently satisfactory to prevent the luminosity losses expected to appear when applying the transfer of the 0.45 TeV SPS beams. In addition, a feasibility study of batch slip stacking in the LER has been undertaken with a goal of increasing in this way the LHC luminosity by up to a factor of 4. A combined luminosity increase may, therefore, be in the range of an order of magnitude. In the long term, the LER injector accelerator would greatly facilitate the implementation of a machine, which doubles the LHC energy (DLHC).

  11. A new biolistic intradermal injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brouillette, M.; Doré, M.; Hébert, C.; Spooner, M.-F.; Marchand, S.; Côté, J.; Gobeil, F.; Rivest, M.; Lafrance, M.; Talbot, B. G.; Moutquin, J.-M.

    2016-01-01

    We present a novel intradermal needle-free drug delivery device which exploits the unsteady high-speed flow produced by a miniature shock tube to entrain drug or vaccine particles onto a skin target. A first clinical study of pain and physiological response of human subjects study is presented, comparing the new injector to intramuscular needle injection. This clinical study, performed according to established pain assessment protocols, demonstrated that every single subject felt noticeably less pain with the needle-free injector than with the needle injection. Regarding local tolerance and skin reaction, bleeding was observed on all volunteers after needle injection, but on none of the subjects following powder injection. An assessment of the pharmacodynamics, via blood pressure, of pure captopril powder using the new device on spontaneously hypertensive rats was also performed. It was found that every animal tested with the needle-free injector exhibited the expected pharmacodynamic response following captopril injection. Finally, the new injector was used to study the delivery of an inactivated influenza vaccine in mice. The needle-free device induced serum antibody response to the influenza vaccine that was comparable to that of subcutaneous needle injection, but without requiring the use of an adjuvant. Although no effort was made to optimize the formulation or the injection parameters in the present study, the novel injector demonstrates great promise for the rapid, safe and painless intradermal delivery of systemic drugs and vaccines.

  12. Shear coaxial injector instability mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaltz, T.; Glogowski, M.; Micci, M. M.

    1993-01-01

    Although stable operating regimes for cryogenic coaxial injectors have been empirically determined, there is no knowledge of the spray characteristics corresponding to stable operation, or the physical processes which produce the atomization patterns that result in stable or unstable operation. The current engineering method for determining the stable operating regime of a cryogenic coaxial injector is the 'hydrogen temperature ramping' method, however there is no definitive knowledge of whether the hydrogen temperature influences the chamber stability by decreasing the injected gas velocity, by affecting a recirculation region at the base of the LOX Post, or by changing the pressure drop across the injector, allowing chamber pressure oscillations to couple to the fuel feed system. Results for the injector response from a linearized lumped-element model are presented as a function of temperature and frequency. LDV measurements in the recess region at the base of the LOX post show reverse flow indicative of a recirculation region. Finally, Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer (PDPA) measurements of droplet size and velocity distributions are discussed for a coaxial injector element similar to the SSME preburner element operating with water and air at atmospheric pressure and liquid and gaseous nitrogen at 20 bars.

  13. Shear coaxial injector instability mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puissant, C.; Kaltz, T.; Glogowski, M.; Micci, M.

    1994-01-01

    There is no definitive knowledge of which of several concurrent processes ultimately results in unstable combustion within liquid rocket chambers employing shear coaxial injectors. Possible explanations are a detrimental change in the atomization characteristics due to a decrease in the gas-to-liquid velocity ratio, a change in the gas side injector pressure drop allowing acoustic coupling to the propellant feed system or the disappearance of a stabilizing recirculation region at the base of the LOX post. The aim of this research effort is to investigate these proposed mechanisms under conditions comparable to actual engine operation. Spray characterization was accomplished with flash photography and planar laser imaging to examine the overall spray morphology and liquid jet breakup processes and with a PDPA to quantify the spatial distribution of droplet size and mean axial velocity. A simplified stability model based on the Rayleigh criterion was constructed for the flow dynamics occurring within the chamber and injector to evaluate the potential coupling between the chamber and injector acoustic modes and was supported by high frequency measurements of chamber and injector pressure oscillations. To examine recirculation within the LOX post recess, velocity measurements were performed in the recess region by means of LDV. Present experiments were performed under noncombusting conditions using LOX/GH2 stimulants at pressures up to 4 MPa.

  14. Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, S. C.; Arbit, H. A.

    1988-01-01

    One of the key components of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) is a large liquid rocket, booster engine. To keep the overall vehicle size and cost down, this engine will probably use liquid oxygen (LOX) and a heavy hydrocarbon, such as RP-1, as propellants and operate at relatively high chamber pressures to increase overall performance. A technology program (Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Technology) is being studied. The main objective of this effort is to develop a logic plan and supporting experimental data base to reduce the risk of developing a large scale (approximately 750,000 lb thrust), high performance main injector system. The overall approach and program plan, from initial analyses to large scale, two dimensional combustor design and test, and the current status of the program are discussed. Progress includes performance and stability analyses, cold flow tests of injector model, design and fabrication of subscale injectors and calorimeter combustors for performance, heat transfer, and dynamic stability tests, and preparation of hot fire test plans. Related, current, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 injector technology efforts are also briefly discussed.

  15. F-18 production with the TOP linac injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianfarani, Cesidio; Cisbani, Evaristo; Orlandi, Gianluca; Frullani, Salvatore; Picardi, Luigi; Ronsivalle, Concetta

    2006-06-01

    ENEA and ISS (Italian National Institute of Health), are collaborating to develop a dedicated proton medical accelerator, TOP (Oncological Therapy with Protons) linac, consisting of a sequence of three pulsed linear accelerators. The 7 MeV injector can be used in three operating modes: Protontherapy and Radiobiology Mode—injecting low current proton beam into the TOP linac accelerating sections; Radioisotope Mode—generating an intense proton beam (8-10 mA, 50-100 μs, 30-100 Hz) to produce the positron-emitting radionuclide F18 for PET analyses. In the high current mode, at the exit of the injector the beam is guided through a magnetic quadrupoles channel to a target composed by a thin chamber (0.5 mm thick and 1 in. diameter) containing water enriched with O18. Production yield as well as total activity similar to these achieved with higher energy cyclotrons have been obtained. Environmental doses measured give indications on the shielding required for operation under current radioprotection regulations. Improvements are foreseen to optimize the production yield, the useful beam current and to better characterize gamma and neutron dose rates in the different operational modes.

  16. Diesel Injector Fouling Bench Test Methodology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-06-01

    was installed. 3. A diverter valve was installed on the injector effluent line. In order to differentiate fuel quality, the fuel injector pump...additive concentrates on the removal of indirect (pintle, chip, ana poppet nozzle) injector deposits, Olsen, et al. (11) developed a modification of the...fuel were investigated in a 1982 General Motors 4.3-L V-6 diesel car with CAV poppet -type injectors.(.3) Frequent severe fuel filter plugging was

  17. Downhole steam injector. [Patent application

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, A.B.; Hoke, E.

    1981-06-03

    An improved downhole steam injector has an angled water orifice to swirl the water through the device for improved heat transfer before it is converted to steam. The injector also has a sloped diameter reduction in the steam chamber to throw water that collects along the side of the chamber during slant drilling into the flame for conversion to steam. In addition, the output of the flame chamber is beveled to reduce hot spots and increase efficiency, and the fuel-oxidant inputs are arranged to minimize coking.

  18. Fermilab Main Injector Collimation Systems: Design, Commissioning and Operation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Bruce; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Drozhdin, A.I.; Johnson, David E.; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Mokhov, Nikolai V.; Morris, Denton K.; Rakhno, Igor; Seiya, Kiyomi; Sidorov, Vladimir; /Fermilab

    2009-05-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector is moving toward providing 400 kW of 120 GeV proton beams using slip stacking injection of eleven Booster batches. Loss of 5% of the beam at or near injection energy results in 1.5 kW of beam loss. A collimation system has been implemented to localize this loss with the design emphasis on beam not captured in the accelerating RF buckets. More than 95% of these losses are captured in the collimation region. We will report on the construction, commissioning and operation of this collimation system. Commissioning studies and loss measurement tools will be discussed. Residual radiation monitoring of the Main Injector machine components will be used to demonstrate the effectiveness of these efforts.

  19. Fermilab main injector: High intensity operation and beam loss control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Bruce C.; Adamson, Philip; Capista, David; Chou, Weiren; Kourbanis, Ioanis; Morris, Denton K.; Seiya, Kiyomi; Wu, Guan Hong; Yang, Ming-Jen

    2013-07-01

    From 2005 through 2012, the Fermilab Main Injector provided intense beams of 120 GeV protons to produce neutrino beams and antiprotons. Hardware improvements in conjunction with improved diagnostics allowed the system to reach sustained operation at 400 kW beam power. Transmission was very high except for beam lost at or near the 8 GeV injection energy where 95% beam transmission results in about 1.5 kW of beam loss. By minimizing and localizing loss, residual radiation levels fell while beam power was doubled. Lost beam was directed to either the collimation system or to the beam abort. Critical apertures were increased while improved instrumentation allowed optimal use of available apertures. We will summarize the improvements required to achieve high intensity, the impact of various loss control tools and the status and trends in residual radiation in the Main Injector.

  20. 21 CFR 870.1660 - Indicator injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Indicator injector. 870.1660 Section 870.1660 Food... DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1660 Indicator injector. (a) Identification. An indicator injector is an electrically or gas-powered device designed to inject accurately...

  1. 21 CFR 870.1660 - Indicator injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Indicator injector. 870.1660 Section 870.1660 Food... DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1660 Indicator injector. (a) Identification. An indicator injector is an electrically or gas-powered device designed to inject accurately...

  2. 21 CFR 870.1660 - Indicator injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Indicator injector. 870.1660 Section 870.1660 Food... DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1660 Indicator injector. (a) Identification. An indicator injector is an electrically or gas-powered device designed to inject accurately...

  3. 21 CFR 870.1660 - Indicator injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Indicator injector. 870.1660 Section 870.1660 Food... DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1660 Indicator injector. (a) Identification. An indicator injector is an electrically or gas-powered device designed to inject accurately...

  4. 21 CFR 870.1660 - Indicator injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Indicator injector. 870.1660 Section 870.1660 Food... DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1660 Indicator injector. (a) Identification. An indicator injector is an electrically or gas-powered device designed to inject accurately...

  5. Robotic Welding Of Injector Manifold

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Shelley, D. Mark

    1992-01-01

    Brief report presents history, up through October 1990, of continuing efforts to convert from manual to robotic gas/tungsten arc welding in fabrication of main injector inlet manifold of main engine of Space Shuttle. Includes photographs of welding machinery, welds, and weld preparations. Of interest to engineers considering establishment of robotic-welding facilities.

  6. Tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Wilgen, J.B.; Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G.

    1992-06-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

  7. Tritium pellet injector for TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Cole, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Wilgen, J.B. ); Schmidt, G.L.; Barnes, G.W.; Persing, R.G. . Plasma Physics Lab.)

    1992-01-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) phase. The existing TFTR deuterium pellet injector (DPI) has been modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed to provide pellets ranging from 3.3 to 4.5 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller. The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed, and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellet. Results of the limited testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI is being installed on TFTR to support the D-D run period in 1992. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and secondary tritium containment systems and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

  8. Fuel injector testing device and method

    SciTech Connect

    Liebermann, L.N.

    1988-12-06

    This patent describes a device for determining the fuel flow condition of a fuel injector while the injector is in its operating position in an engine, which comprises: a measuring chamber; means to provide a liquid connection between the measuring chamber and the fuel inlet of the fuel injector: means to move liquid simultaneously through the measuring chamber and the fuel injector through the connection for a predetermined period of time under substantially constant pressure; and means associated with the measuring chamber to measure the quantity of the liquid passing through the fuel injector in the period of time, the quantity, relative to the quantity of like liquid passed in equal time by a reference fuel injector, being indicative of the fuel flow condition of the fuel injector.

  9. Direct Fuel Injector Temporal Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    type direct fuel injector. The manufacturing specification is listed in Table 1. An electromagnetic field is created in the air gap between the...signal stops. However, the current cannot increase or decrease instantaneously like a switch due to the inductance of the coil. Instead, a certain...voltage is limited, this unwanted delay due to the inductance becomes the main obstacle for fast switching. A Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM) servo

  10. Accurate simulation of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector with VORPAL

    SciTech Connect

    Lebrun, Paul L.G.; Spentzouris, Panagiotis; Cary, John R.; Stoltz, Peter; Veitzer, Seth A.; /Tech-X, Boulder

    2010-05-01

    Precision simulations of the electron cloud at the Fermilab Main Injector have been studied using the plasma simulation code VORPAL. Fully 3D and self consistent solutions that includes E.M. field maps generated by the cloud and the proton bunches have been obtained, as well detailed distributions of the electron's 6D phase space. We plan to include such maps in the ongoing simulation of the space charge effects in the Main Injector. Simulations of the response of beam position monitors, retarding field analyzers and microwave transmission experiments are ongoing.

  11. Heavy hydrocarbon main injector technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbit, H. A.; Tuegel, L. M.; Dodd, F. E.

    1991-01-01

    The Heavy Hydrocarbon Main Injector Program was an analytical, design, and test program to demonstrate an injection concept applicable to an Isolated Combustion Compartment of a full-scale, high pressure, LOX/RP-1 engine. Several injector patterns were tested in a 3.4-in. combustor. Based on these results, features of the most promising injector design were incorporated into a 5.7-in. injector which was then hot-fire tested. In turn, a preliminary design of a 5-compartment 2D combustor was based on this pattern. Also the additional subscale injector testing and analysis was performed with an emphasis on improving analytical techniques and acoustic cavity design methodology. Several of the existing 3.5-in. diameter injectors were hot-fire tested with and without acoustic cavities for spontaneous and dynamic stability characteristics.

  12. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Rutkowski, H.L.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.; Riepe, K.B.

    1985-01-01

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LBL). The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10/sup -7/ torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column.

  13. Diesel injector fouling bench test methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavinoha, Leon L.; Yost, Douglas M.; Lestz, Sidney J.

    1992-06-01

    Compared to conventional compression ignition (CI) engine operation with the fuel being delivered at approximately 149 C (300 F), adiabatic engine operation potentially may deliver the fuel at temperatures as high as 260 C (500 F). Hypergolic CI engine combustion systems now in theoretical design stages will deliver fuel at temperatures approaching 427 to 538 C (800 to 1000 F). The ability of a fuel to resist formation of deposits on internal injector system surfaces is a form of thermal oxidative stability for which test methodology will be required. The injector Fouling Bench Test (IFBT) methodology evaluated in this report will assist in defining fuel contribution to injector fouling and control of fuel thermal stability in procurement specifications. The major observations from this project are discussed. Forty-hour cyclic IFB tests employing both Bosch APE 113 and Detroit Diesel (DD) N70 injectors are viable procedures for evaluating fuel effects on injector fouling. Cyclic operation appears to be superior to steady-state operation for both type injectors. Eighty-hour cyclic tests are more discriminating than 40-hour cyclic tests using the Bosch APE 113 injectors. JFTOT tests of fuels provide directional information on thermal stability-related deposits and filter plugging but show limited good correlation with IFBT DD N70 ratings, and none with IFBT Bosch APE 113 injector ratings. Deposition on injector pintles was more realistically rated by optical microscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) than conventional visual and bench rating methods. High-sulfur fuel readily caused sticking of Detroit Diesel injectors. Injector sticking is an important mode of injector fouling.

  14. Coaxial Propellant Injectors With Faceplate Annulus Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Mark D.; Miyata, Shinjiro; Farhangi, Shahram

    2010-01-01

    An improved design concept for coaxial propellant injectors for a rocket engine (or perhaps for a non-rocket combustion chamber) offers advantages of greater robustness, less complexity, fewer parts, lower cost, and less bulk, relative to prior injectors of equivalent functionality. This design concept is particularly well suited to small, tight-tolerance injectors, for which prior designs are not suitable because the practical implementation of those designs entails very high costs and difficulty in adhering to the tolerances.

  15. Self-Adjusting Liquid Injectors for Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu; Myers, William

    2010-01-01

    A class of self-adjusting injectors for spraying liquid oxidizers and/or fuels into combustion chambers has been proposed. The proposed injectors were originally intended for use in rocket-engine combustion chambers, but could also be used to improve control over flows of liquid propellants in other combustion chambers. The basic idea of the proposed injectors is to use simple mechanisms, inside the injectors themselves, to adjust inlet areas so as to keep injection pressure drops at or near optimum values through out wide throttling ranges. These mechanisms would be actuated by the very pressure drops that they are intended to regulate.

  16. Implications of tritium in neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J; Stewart, L D

    1980-01-01

    Neutral injectors for heating plasmas of D-T burning fusion reactors are subject to tritium contamination. This paper discusses relevant questions and problem areas pertinent to tritium environment, including calculations of tritium contaminations in different neutral injectors, gas handling and pumping systems, and implications on beam line components.

  17. Apparatus for testing high pressure injector elements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, William Neill (Inventor); Scott, Ewell M. (Inventor); Forbes, John C. (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An apparatus for testing and evaluating the spray pattern of high pressure fuel injector elements for use in supplying fuel to combustion engines is presented. Prior art fuel injector elements were normally tested by use of low pressure apparatuses which did not provide a purge to prevent mist from obscuring the injector element or to prevent frosting of the view windows; could utilize only one fluid during each test; and had their viewing ports positioned one hundred eighty (180 deg) apart, thus preventing optimum use of laser diagnostics. The high pressure fluid injector test apparatus includes an upper hub, an upper weldment or housing, a first clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the upper hub to the upper weldment, a standoff assembly within the upper weldment, a pair of window housings having view glasses within the upper weldment, an injector block assembly and purge plate within the upper weldment for holding an injector element to be tested and evaluated, a lower weldment or housing, a second clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower weldment to the upper weldment, a lower hub, a third clamp and stud/nut assembly for securing the lower hub to the lower weldment, mechanisms for introducing fluid under high pressure for testing an injector element, and mechanisms for purging the apparatus to prevent frosting of view glasses within the window housings and to permit unobstructed viewing of the injector element.

  18. Characteristics of response factors of coaxial gaseous rocket injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Daniel, B. R.; Zinn, B. T.

    1975-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation undertaken to determine the frequency dependence of the response factors of various gaseous propellant rocket injectors subject to axial instabilities are presented. The injector response factors were determined, using the modified impedance-tube technique, under cold-flow conditions simulating those observed in unstable rocket motors. The tested injectors included a gaseous-fuel injector element, a gaseous-oxidizer injector element and a coaxial injector with both fuel and oxidizer elements. Emphasis was given to the determination of the dependence of the injector response factor upon the open-area ratio of the injector, the length of the injector orifice, and the pressure drop across the injector orifices. The measured data are shown to be in reasonable agreement with the corresponding injector response factor data predicted by the Feiler and Heidmann model.

  19. Particle injector for fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Ruch, Jeffrey F.

    1997-01-01

    A particle injector device provides injection of particles into a liquid eam. The device includes a funnel portion comprising a conical member having side walls tapering from a top opening (which receives the particles) down to a relatively smaller exit opening. A funnel inlet receives a portion of the liquid stream and the latter is directed onto the side walls of the conical member so as to create a cushion of liquid against which the particles impact. A main section of the device includes an inlet port in communication with the exit opening of the funnel portion. A main liquid inlet receives the main portion of the liquid stream at high pressure and low velocity and a throat region located downstream of the main liquid inlet accelerates liquid received by this inlet from the low velocity to a higher velocity so as to create a low pressure area at the exit opening of the funnel portion. An outlet opening of the main section enables the particles and liquid stream to exit from the injector device.

  20. The design and manufacture of the Fermilab Main Injector Dipole Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.C.; Chester, N.S.; Harding, D.J.; Martin, P.S.

    1992-03-01

    Fermilab's new Main Injector Ring (MIR) will replace the currently operating Main Ring to provide 150 GeV Proton and Antiproton beams for Tevetron injection, and rapid cycling, high intensity, 120 GeV Proton beams for Antiproton production. To produce and maintain the required high beam quality, high intensity, and high repetition rate, conventional dipole magnets with laminated iron core and water cooled copper conductor were chosen as the bending magnet. A new magnet design having low inductance, large copper cross section, and field uniformity sufficient for high intensity injection and efficient slow resonant extraction, is required to obtain the needed geometric aperture, dynamic aperture, and operational reliability. The current Main Injector Ring lattice design requires the use of 344 of these magnets. 216 of these magnets are to be 6 m long, and 128 are to be 4 m long.

  1. The design and manufacture of the Fermilab Main Injector Dipole Magnet

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B.C.; Chester, N.S.; Harding, D.J.; Martin, P.S.

    1992-03-01

    Fermilab`s new Main Injector Ring (MIR) will replace the currently operating Main Ring to provide 150 GeV Proton and Antiproton beams for Tevetron injection, and rapid cycling, high intensity, 120 GeV Proton beams for Antiproton production. To produce and maintain the required high beam quality, high intensity, and high repetition rate, conventional dipole magnets with laminated iron core and water cooled copper conductor were chosen as the bending magnet. A new magnet design having low inductance, large copper cross section, and field uniformity sufficient for high intensity injection and efficient slow resonant extraction, is required to obtain the needed geometric aperture, dynamic aperture, and operational reliability. The current Main Injector Ring lattice design requires the use of 344 of these magnets. 216 of these magnets are to be 6 m long, and 128 are to be 4 m long.

  2. Microscale ethanol vapor ejector and injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gardner, William G.; Wang, Ivan; Brikner, Natalya A.; Jaworski, Justin W.; Protz, Jonathan M.

    2010-04-01

    Two non-rotating pumping components, a jet ejector and injector, were designed and tested. Two jet ejectors were designed and tested to induce a suction draft using a supersonic micronozzle. Three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzles were microfabricated to produce throat diameters of 187 μm and 733 μm with design expansion ratios near 2.5:1. The motive nozzles achieved design mass flow efficiencies above 95% compared to isentropic calculations. Ethanol vapor was used to motivate and entrain ambient air. Experimental data indicate that the ejector can produce a sufficient suction draft to satisfy both microengine mass flow and power off-take requirements to enable its substitution for high speed microscale pumping turbomachinery. An ethanol vapor driven injector component was designed and tested to pressurize feed liquid ethanol. The injector was supplied with 2.70 atmosphere ethanol vapor and pumped liquid ethanol up to a total pressure of 3.02 atmospheres. Dynamic pressure at the exit of the injector was computed by measuring the displacement of a cantilevered beam placed over the outlet stream. The injector employed a three-dimensional axisymmetric nozzle with a throat diameter of 733 μm and a three-dimensional converging axisymmetric nozzle. The experimental data indicate that the injector can pump feed liquid into a pressurized boiler, enabling small scale liquid pumping without any moving parts. Microscale injectors could enable microscale engines and rockets to satisfy pumping and feedheating requirements without high speed microscale turbomachinery.

  3. 21 CFR 870.1670 - Syringe actuator for an injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Syringe actuator for an injector. 870.1670 Section... actuator for an injector. (a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an electrical device that controls the timing of an injection by an angiographic or indicator injector and synchronizes...

  4. 21 CFR 870.1670 - Syringe actuator for an injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Syringe actuator for an injector. 870.1670 Section... actuator for an injector. (a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an electrical device that controls the timing of an injection by an angiographic or indicator injector and synchronizes...

  5. 21 CFR 870.1670 - Syringe actuator for an injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Syringe actuator for an injector. 870.1670 Section... actuator for an injector. (a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an electrical device that controls the timing of an injection by an angiographic or indicator injector and synchronizes...

  6. 21 CFR 870.1670 - Syringe actuator for an injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Syringe actuator for an injector. 870.1670 Section... actuator for an injector. (a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an electrical device that controls the timing of an injection by an angiographic or indicator injector and synchronizes...

  7. 21 CFR 870.1670 - Syringe actuator for an injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Syringe actuator for an injector. 870.1670 Section... actuator for an injector. (a) Identification. A syringe actuator for an injector is an electrical device that controls the timing of an injection by an angiographic or indicator injector and synchronizes...

  8. Pellet injector development and experiments at ORNL

    SciTech Connect

    Baylor, L.R.; Argo, B.E.; Barber, G.C.; Combs, S.K.; Cole, M.J.; Dyer, G.R.; Fehling, D.T.; Fisher, P.W.; Foster, C.A.; Foust, C.R.; Gouge, M.J.; Jernigan, T.C.; Langley, R.A.; Milora, S.L.; Qualls, A.L.; Schechter, D.E.; Sparks, D.O.; Tsai, C.C.; Wilgen, J.B.; Whealton, J.H.

    1993-11-01

    The development of pellet injectors for plasma fueling of magnetic confinement fusion experiments has been under way at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for the past 15 years. Recently, ORNL provided a tritium-compatible four-shot pneumatic injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) based on the in situ condensation technique that features three single-stage gas guns and an advanced two-stage light gas gun driver. In another application, ORNL supplied the Tore Supra tokamak with a centrifuge pellet injector in 1989 for pellet fueling experiments that has achieved record numbers of injected pellets into a discharge. Work is progressing on an upgrade to that injector to extend the number of pellets to 400 and improve pellet repeatability. In a new application, the ORNL three barrel repeating pneumatic injector has been returned from JET and is being readied for installation on the DIII-D device for fueling and enhanced plasma performance experiments. In addition to these experimental applications, ORNL is developing advanced injector technologies, including high-velocity pellet injectors, tritium pellet injectors, and long-pulse feed systems. The two-stage light gas gun and electron-beam-driven rocket are the acceleration techniques under investigation for achieving high velocity. A tritium proof-of-principle (TPOP) experiment has demonstrated the feasibility of tritium pellet production and acceleration. A new tritium-compatible, extruder-based, repeating pneumatic injector is being fabricated to replace the pipe gun in the TPOP experiment and will explore issues related to the extrudability of tritium and acceleration of large tritium pellets. The tritium pellet formation experiments and development of long-pulse pellet feed systems are especially relevant to the International Tokamak Engineering Reactor (ITER).

  9. Internal baffling for fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian

    2014-08-05

    A fuel injector includes a fuel delivery tube; a plurality of pre-mixing tubes, each pre-mixing tube comprising at least one fuel injection hole; an upstream tube support plate that supports upstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; a downstream tube support plate that supports downstream ends of the plurality of pre-mixing tubes; an outer wall connecting the upstream tube support plate and the downstream tube support plate and defining a plenum therewith; and a baffle provided in the plenum. The baffle includes a radial portion. A fuel delivered in the upstream direction by the fuel delivery tube is directed radially outwardly in the plenum between the radial portion of the baffle and the downstream tube support plate, then in the downstream direction around an outer edge portion of the radial portion, and then radially inwardly between the radial portion and the upstream tube support plate.

  10. Nozzle insert for mixed mode fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.

    2006-11-21

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. The homogeneous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by a nozzle insert that is attached to an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The nozzle insert is a one piece metallic component with a large diameter segment separated from a small diameter segment by an annular engagement surface. One of the needle valve members is guided on an outer surface of the nozzle insert, and the nozzle insert has an interference fit attachment to the injector body.

  11. Mixed Mode Fuel Injector And Injection System

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris Lee; Tian, Ye; Wang, Lifeng; Shafer, Scott F.

    2005-12-27

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set that are controlled respectively by first and second three way needle control valves. Each fuel injector includes first and second concentric needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position for a homogenous charge injection event, while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. The fuel injector has the ability to operate in a homogenous charge mode with a homogenous charge spray pattern, a conventional mode with a conventional spray pattern or a mixed mode.

  12. Next linear collider test accelerator injector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Yeremian, A.D.; Miller, R.H.

    1995-12-31

    The Next Linear Collider Test Accelerator (NLCTA) is being constructed at SLAC to demonstrate multibunch beam loading compensation, suppression of higher order deflecting modes and measure transverse components of the accelerating fields in X-band accelerating structures. Currently a simple injector which provides the average current necessary for the beam loading compensations studies is under construction. An injector upgrade is planned to produce bunch trains similar to that of the NLC with microbunch intensity, separation and energy spread, identical to that of NLC. We discuss the design of the NLCTA injector upgrade.

  13. Injector for a laser linear collider

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhailichenko, A. A.

    1999-07-01

    The injector for 2×1 km long laser driven linac considered. Basically injector is a race track with long straight sections. These sections squeezed together for a compact size (a Kayak-Paddle like ring). In straight section the short period wigglers and RF cavities installed in series one by one for keeping the energy along the straight section practically constant. This injector is able to provide the invariant emittances of the order 5 10-8 cm rad and 2 10-9 cm rad for horizontal and vertical directions correspondingly. Bunch population required below 107 reduces the IBS effects.

  14. Method for Determining Optimum Injector Inlet Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu P. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A method for determining the optimum inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector includes obtaining a throttleable level phase value, volume flow rate, chamber pressure, liquid propellant density, inlet injector pressure, desired target spray angle and desired target optimum delta pressure value between an inlet and a chamber for a plurality of engine stages. The method calculates the tangential inlet area for each throttleable stage. The method also uses correlation between the tangential inlet areas and delta pressure values to calculate the spring displacement and variable inlet geometry of a liquid rocket engine swirl injector.

  15. Gas Turbine Engine Staged Fuel Injection Using Adjacent Bluff Body and Swirler Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snyder, Timothy S. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A fuel injection array for a gas turbine engine includes a plurality of bluff body injectors and a plurality of swirler injectors. A control operates the plurality of bluff body injectors and swirler injectors such that bluff body injectors are utilized without all of the swirler injectors at least at low power operation. The swirler injectors are utilized at higher power operation.

  16. Space transportation booster engine thrust chamber technology, large scale injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    The objective of the Large Scale Injector (LSI) program was to deliver a 21 inch diameter, 600,000 lbf thrust class injector to NASA/MSFC for hot fire testing. The hot fire test program would demonstrate the feasibility and integrity of the full scale injector, including combustion stability, chamber wall compatibility (thermal management), and injector performance. The 21 inch diameter injector was delivered in September of 1991.

  17. PIP-II Injector Test: Challenges and Status

    SciTech Connect

    Derwent, P. F.; Carneiro, J. P.; Edelen, J.; Lebedev, V.; Prost, L.; Saini, A.; Shemyakin, A.; Steimel, J.

    2016-10-04

    The Proton Improvement Plan II (PIP-II) at Fermilab is a program of upgrades to the injection complex. At its core is the design and construction of a CW-compatible, pulsed H- superconducting RF linac. To validate the concept of the front-end of such machine, a test accelerator known as PIP-II Injector Test is under construction. It includes a 10mA DC, 30 keV H- ion source, a 2 m-long Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 2.1 MeV CW RFQ, followed by a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) that feeds the first of 2 cryomodules increasing the beam energy to about 25 MeV, and a High Energy Beam Transport section (HEBT) that takes the beam to a dump. The ion source, LEBT, RFQ, and initial version of the MEBT have been built, installed, and commissioned. This report presents the overall status of the Injector Test warm front end, including results of the beam commissioning through the installed components, and progress with SRF cryomodules and other systems.

  18. Liquid atomization by coaxial rocket injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, S. V.; Brena De La Rosa, A.; Isakovic, A.; Bachalo, W. D.

    1991-01-01

    The atomization characteristics of a scaled-down version of a coaxial rocket injector was investigated using a phase Doppler particle analyzer (PDPA). The injector was operated in the conventional mode with liquid being injected through its inner orifice and gas being injected through its outer annulus. The shearing action occurring at the liquid-gas interface causes the liquid jet to atomize. In this study, two different liquid-air systems, namely a water-air system and a liquid nitrogen-gaseous nitrogen system, were chosen for detailed investigation. This paper discusses the performance characteristics of the coaxial injector under different flow and geometric conditions. Specifically, the effects of injection gas pressure and the injector cavity size on variables such as the mean particle diameter, Sauter mean diameter, number density, volume flux, and velocity have been presented.

  19. Diesel injector carbonization by three alternative fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrum, J.W.; Patel, V.C.; McClendon, R.W.

    1996-05-01

    Three alternative diesel fuels were screened by analysis of fuel injector tip deposits. The test engines were operated on the Peterson (torque) test cycle; the average carbon deposit volume on an injector tip was measured by a computer vision method. Relative coke deposit quantity was obtained by area analysis of injector tip images. Repetitive image areas varied less than 1%. Coke deposit areas for repetitive fuel tests also varied less than 1%. Injector coking tendencies of tested fuels decreased in the following order: peanut oil, no. 2 diesel, tricaprylin, and tributyrin/no. 2 diesel blend. The observed dependence of the relative coke quantity on fuel type was consistent with the results from a photographic technique used previously for fuel screening. 10 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Injector linac for the MESA facility

    SciTech Connect

    Heine, R.

    2013-11-07

    In this paper we present several possible configurations of an injector linac for the upcoming Mainz Energy-recovering Superconducting Accelerator (MESA) [1] and discuss their suitability for the project.

  1. Numerical simulation of an accelerator injector

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, J.K.; Caporaso, G.J.; Cole, A.G.

    1985-05-09

    Accelerator injector designs have been evaluated using two computer codes. The first code self consistently follows relativistic particles in two dimensions. Fields are obtained in the Darwin model which includes inductive effects. This code is used to study cathode emission and acceleration to full injector voltage. The second code transports a fixed segment of a beam along the remainder of the beam line. Using these two codes the effects of electrode configuration on emittance, beam quality and beam transport have been studied.

  2. A Versatile Ion Injector at KACST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Ghazaly, M. O. A.; Behery, S. A.; Almuqhim, A. A.; Papash, A. I.; Welsch, C. P.

    2011-10-01

    A versatile ion-beam injector is presently being constructed at the National Centre for Mathematics and Physics (NCMP) at the King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia. This versatile injector will provide an electrostatic storage ring with high-quality ion beams of energies up to 30 keV per charge q. It will also allow for crossed-beams experiments in single-pass setups. The injector has been designed to include beams from two different ion sources, switched by a 90° deflection setup, and to allow for matching of the beam parameters to the Twiss parameters of the ring. The injector is equipped with two crossed beam-lines (inlets), with duplicated beam extraction and acceleration systems. As part of the initial setup, a simple electric discharge ion source has been developed for commissioning of the whole injector. In this paper, we report on the ion optics layout and the design parameters of the injector.

  3. Mixing Enhancement in a Lobed Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, L. L.; Majamaki, A. J.; Lam, I. T.; Delabroy, O.; Karagozian, A. R.; Marble, F. E.; Smith, O. I.

    1997-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the non-reactive mixing processes associated with a lobed fuel injector in a coflowing air stream is presented. The lobed fuel injector is a device which generates streamwise vorticity, producing high strain rates which can enhance the mixing of reactants while delaying ignition in a controlled manner. The lobed injectors examined in the present study consist of two corrugated plates between which a fuel surrogate, CO2, is injected into coflowing air. Acetone is seeded in the CO2 supply as a fuel marker. Comparison of two alternative lobed injector geometries is made with a straight fuel injector to determine net differences in mixing and strain fields due to streamwise vorticity generation. Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of the seeded acetone yields two-dimensional images of the scalar concentration field at various downstream locations, from which local mixing and scalar dissipation rates are computed. It is found that the lobed injector geometry can enhance molecular mixing and create a highly strained flowfield, and that the strain rates generated by scalar energy dissipation can potentially delay ignition in a reacting flowfield.

  4. A Versatile Ion Injector at KACST

    SciTech Connect

    El Ghazaly, M. O. A.; Behery, S. A.; Almuqhim, A. A.; Papash, A. I.; Welsch, C. P.

    2011-10-27

    A versatile ion-beam injector is presently being constructed at the National Centre for Mathematics and Physics (NCMP) at the King Abdul-Aziz City for Science and Technology (KACST), Saudi Arabia. This versatile injector will provide an electrostatic storage ring with high-quality ion beams of energies up to 30 keV per charge q. It will also allow for crossed-beams experiments in single-pass setups. The injector has been designed to include beams from two different ion sources, switched by a 90 deg. deflection setup, and to allow for matching of the beam parameters to the Twiss parameters of the ring. The injector is equipped with two crossed beam-lines (inlets), with duplicated beam extraction and acceleration systems. As part of the initial setup, a simple electric discharge ion source has been developed for commissioning of the whole injector. In this paper, we report on the ion optics layout and the design parameters of the injector.

  5. Dispersion ring reduces injector orifice-to-orifice flow variation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garber, R. L.; Jaqua, V. W.

    1972-01-01

    Technique substantially reduces machine complexity, improves injector performance and is useful for products mixed or homogenized by injector process. Method is applicable to pharmaceutical, food, dairy and petrochemical industries.

  6. Unit fuel injector and system therefor

    SciTech Connect

    Roosa, V.D.

    1986-02-04

    This patent describes a unit fuel injector for an internal combustion engine having a cylinder, an associated cylinder head and a cam shaft driven by the engine. The injector unit consists of: an injection nozzle received in a bore in the cylinder head, the nozzle including an injection valve and a discharge tip at one end to inject pressurized fuel into the cylinder; an injector housing having a pair of generally parallel, laterally offset, overlapping, contiguous bores, the housing being adapted to be mounted to the engine and the housing receiving the injection nozzle in one of the bores; a fuel injection pump mounted in the housing and including a pump plunger actuable by the cam shaft; a fuel inlet in the housing including a fuel inlet passage in the housing in communication with the pump chamber to supply fuel under low pressure to the pump chamber.

  7. Sample injector for high pressure liquid chromatography

    DOEpatents

    Paul, Phillip H.; Arnold, Don W.; Neyer, David W.

    2001-01-01

    Apparatus and method for driving a sample, having a well-defined volume, under pressure into a chromatography column. A conventional high pressure sampling valve is replaced by a sample injector composed of a pair of injector components connected in series to a common junction. The injector components are containers of porous dielectric material constructed so as to provide for electroosmotic flow of a sample into the junction. At an appropriate time, a pressure pulse from a high pressure source, that can be an electrokinetic pump, connected to the common junction, drives a portion of the sample, whose size is determined by the dead volume of the common junction, into the chromatographic column for subsequent separation and analysis. The apparatus can be fabricated on a substrate for microanalytical applications.

  8. Status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning

    SciTech Connect

    Thuillier, T. Angot, J.; Jacob, J.; Lamy, T.; Sole, P. [LPSC, Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS Barué, C.; Bertrand, P.; Canet, C.; Ferdinand, R.; Flambard, J.-L.; Jardin, P.; Lemagnen, F.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B. [GANIL, CNRS Biarrotte, J. L. [IPN Orsay, Université Paris Sud, CNRS Denis, J.-F.; Roger, A.; Touzery, R.; Tuske, O.; Uriot, D. [Irfu, CEA Saclay, DSM and others

    2016-02-15

    The SPIRAL2 injector, installed in its tunnel, is currently under commissioning at GANIL, Caen, France. The injector is composed of two low energy beam transport lines: one is dedicated to the light ion beam production, the other to the heavy ions. The first light ion beam, created by a 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, has been successfully produced in December 2014. The first beam of the PHOENIX V2 18 GHz heavy ion source was analyzed on 10 July 2015. A status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning is given. An upgrade of the heavy ion source, named PHOENIX V3 aimed to replace the V2, is presented. The new version features a doubled plasma chamber volume and the high charge state beam intensity is expected to increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 up to the mass ∼50. A status of its assembly is proposed.

  9. Status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning.

    PubMed

    Thuillier, T; Angot, J; Barué, C; Bertrand, P; Biarrotte, J L; Canet, C; Denis, J-F; Ferdinand, R; Flambard, J-L; Jacob, J; Jardin, P; Lamy, T; Lemagnen, F; Maunoury, L; Osmond, B; Peaucelle, C; Roger, A; Sole, P; Touzery, R; Tuske, O; Uriot, D

    2016-02-01

    The SPIRAL2 injector, installed in its tunnel, is currently under commissioning at GANIL, Caen, France. The injector is composed of two low energy beam transport lines: one is dedicated to the light ion beam production, the other to the heavy ions. The first light ion beam, created by a 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, has been successfully produced in December 2014. The first beam of the PHOENIX V2 18 GHz heavy ion source was analyzed on 10 July 2015. A status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning is given. An upgrade of the heavy ion source, named PHOENIX V3 aimed to replace the V2, is presented. The new version features a doubled plasma chamber volume and the high charge state beam intensity is expected to increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 up to the mass ∼50. A status of its assembly is proposed.

  10. Status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuillier, T.; Angot, J.; Barué, C.; Bertrand, P.; Biarrotte, J. L.; Canet, C.; Denis, J.-F.; Ferdinand, R.; Flambard, J.-L.; Jacob, J.; Jardin, P.; Lamy, T.; Lemagnen, F.; Maunoury, L.; Osmond, B.; Peaucelle, C.; Roger, A.; Sole, P.; Touzery, R.; Tuske, O.; Uriot, D.

    2016-02-01

    The SPIRAL2 injector, installed in its tunnel, is currently under commissioning at GANIL, Caen, France. The injector is composed of two low energy beam transport lines: one is dedicated to the light ion beam production, the other to the heavy ions. The first light ion beam, created by a 2.45 GHz electron cyclotron resonance ion source, has been successfully produced in December 2014. The first beam of the PHOENIX V2 18 GHz heavy ion source was analyzed on 10 July 2015. A status of the SPIRAL2 injector commissioning is given. An upgrade of the heavy ion source, named PHOENIX V3 aimed to replace the V2, is presented. The new version features a doubled plasma chamber volume and the high charge state beam intensity is expected to increase by a factor of 1.5 to 2 up to the mass ˜50. A status of its assembly is proposed.

  11. In-circuit fault injector user's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Padilla, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    A fault injector system, called an in-circuit injector, was designed and developed to facilitate fault injection experiments performed at NASA-Langley's Avionics Integration Research Lab (AIRLAB). The in-circuit fault injector (ICFI) allows fault injections to be performed on electronic systems without special test features, e.g., sockets. The system supports stuck-at-zero, stuck-at-one, and transient fault models. The ICFI system is interfaced to a VAX-11/750 minicomputer. An interface program has been developed in the VAX. The computer code required to access the interface program is presented. Also presented is the connection procedure to be followed to connect the ICFI system to a circuit under test and the ICFI front panel controls which allow manual control of fault injections.

  12. Independent Stage Control of a Cascade Injector (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    AFRL-PR-WP-TP-2006-264 INDEPENDENT STAGE CONTROL OF A CASCADE INJECTOR (POSTPRINT) H.L. Meicenheimer, E.J. Gutmark, M.R. Gruber, D.R...SUBTITLE INDEPENDENT STAGE CONTROL OF A CASCADE INJECTOR (POSTPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 2308 5e. TASK NUMBER AI...whether the number of active stages in the cascade injector could be used to control penetration and mixing characteristics. The injector was tested at

  13. X-Ray Radiography Measurements of Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Modeling and Simulation, 6th Liquid Propulsion , and 5th Space - craft Propulsion Joint Subcommittee Meeting, Huntsville, Alabama, December 2011, http...Conference, Pittsburgh, PA, 5-8 May 2013. 14. ABSTRACT Shear coaxial injectors are a common injector type for liquid-rocket- propulsion ...Argonne National Laboratory Argonne, IL 60439 USA Abstract Shear coaxial injectors are a common injector type for liquid-rocket- propulsion

  14. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, Ramkrishna G.

    1986-01-01

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine, and which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  15. Air blast type coal slurry fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Phatak, R.G.

    1984-08-31

    A device to atomize and inject a coal slurry in the combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine is disclosed which eliminates the use of a conventional fuel injection pump/nozzle. The injector involves the use of compressed air to atomize and inject the coal slurry and like fuels. In one embodiment, the breaking and atomization of the fuel is achieved with the help of perforated discs and compressed air. In another embodiment, a cone shaped aspirator is used to achieve the breaking and atomization of the fuel. The compressed air protects critical bearing areas of the injector.

  16. Subpicosecond, ultra-bright electron injector

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, B.E.; Milder, M.L.; Kinross-Wright, J.

    1995-07-01

    We have designed and are building a subpicosecond electron injector. The injector is based on a 7.5 MeV photoinjector, used previously at Los Alamos in the APEX experiment. The nominal design includes magnetically compressing a 20 ps long, 3 nC bunch to a FWHM bunch length of 2/3 ps (peak current in excess of 3 kA) using a four dipole chicane buncher. The geometrial averaged transverse normalized transverse emittance after compression is about 15 ir mm mrad.

  17. Beam-based calibrations of the BPM offset at C-ADS Injector II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei-Long; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Feng, Chi; Dou, Wei-Ping; Tao, Yue; Jia, Huan; Wang, Wang-Sheng; Liu, Shu-Hui; He, Yuan

    2016-07-01

    Beam-based BPM offset calibration was carried out for Injector II at the C-ADS demonstration facility at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP), Chinese Academy of Science (CAS). By using the steering coils integrated in the quadrupoles, the beam orbit can be effectively adjusted and BPM positions recorded at the Medium Energy Beam Transport of the Injector II Linac. The studies were done with a 2 mA, 2.1 MeV proton beam in pulsed mode. During the studies, the “null comparison method” was applied for the calibration. This method is less sensitive to errors compared with the traditional transmission matrix method. In addition, the quadrupole magnet’s center can also be calibrated with this method. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91426303, 11525523)

  18. Simulations of the electron cloud buildups and suppressions in Tevatron and main injector

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaolong; Ostiguy, Jean-Francois; Chou, Weiren; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    To assess the effects of the electron cloud on Main Injector intensity upgrades, simulations of the cloud buildup were carried out using POSINST and compared with ECLOUD. Results indicate that even assuming an optimistic 1.3 maximum secondary electron yield, the electron cloud remains a serious concern for the planned future operational mode with 500 bunches, 3e11 proton per bunch. Electron cloud buildup can be mitigated in various ways. We consider a plausible scenario involving solenoids in straight section and a single clearing strip electrode (like SNEG in Tevatron) held at a potential of 500V. Simulations with parameters corresponding to Tevatron and Main Injector operating conditions at locations where special electron cloud detectors have been installed have been carried out and are in satisfactory agreement with preliminary measurements.

  19. 21 CFR 872.4465 - Gas-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gas-powered jet injector. 872.4465 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4465 Gas-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A gas-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The syringe...

  20. 21 CFR 872.4465 - Gas-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gas-powered jet injector. 872.4465 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4465 Gas-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A gas-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The syringe...

  1. 21 CFR 872.4465 - Gas-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Gas-powered jet injector. 872.4465 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4465 Gas-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A gas-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The syringe...

  2. 21 CFR 872.4465 - Gas-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Gas-powered jet injector. 872.4465 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4465 Gas-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A gas-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The syringe...

  3. 21 CFR 872.4465 - Gas-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Gas-powered jet injector. 872.4465 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Surgical Devices § 872.4465 Gas-powered jet injector. (a) Identification. A gas-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The syringe...

  4. 21 CFR 880.5430 - Nonelectrically powered fluid injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nonelectrically powered fluid injector. 880.5430... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5430 Nonelectrically powered fluid injector. (a) Identification. A nonelectrically powered fluid injector is a nonelectrically powered device used by a health care provider to give...

  5. 21 CFR 880.5430 - Nonelectrically powered fluid injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nonelectrically powered fluid injector. 880.5430... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5430 Nonelectrically powered fluid injector. (a) Identification. A nonelectrically powered fluid injector is a nonelectrically powered device used by a health care provider to give...

  6. 21 CFR 880.5430 - Nonelectrically powered fluid injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nonelectrically powered fluid injector. 880.5430... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5430 Nonelectrically powered fluid injector. (a) Identification. A nonelectrically powered fluid injector is a nonelectrically powered device used by a health care provider to give...

  7. 21 CFR 880.5430 - Nonelectrically powered fluid injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nonelectrically powered fluid injector. 880.5430... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5430 Nonelectrically powered fluid injector. (a) Identification. A nonelectrically powered fluid injector is a nonelectrically powered device used by a health care provider to give...

  8. 21 CFR 880.5430 - Nonelectrically powered fluid injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nonelectrically powered fluid injector. 880.5430... Therapeutic Devices § 880.5430 Nonelectrically powered fluid injector. (a) Identification. A nonelectrically powered fluid injector is a nonelectrically powered device used by a health care provider to give...

  9. 49 CFR 230.57 - Injectors and feedwater pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Injectors and feedwater pumps. 230.57 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.57 Injectors and feedwater pumps. (a)...

  10. 49 CFR 230.57 - Injectors and feedwater pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Injectors and feedwater pumps. 230.57 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.57 Injectors and feedwater pumps. (a)...

  11. 49 CFR 230.57 - Injectors and feedwater pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Injectors and feedwater pumps. 230.57 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.57 Injectors and feedwater pumps. (a)...

  12. 49 CFR 230.57 - Injectors and feedwater pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Injectors and feedwater pumps. 230.57 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.57 Injectors and feedwater pumps. (a)...

  13. 49 CFR 230.57 - Injectors and feedwater pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Injectors and feedwater pumps. 230.57 Section 230... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Boilers and Appurtenances Injectors, Feedwater Pumps, and Flue Plugs § 230.57 Injectors and feedwater pumps. (a)...

  14. Space charge measurements with a high intensity bunch at the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Seiya, K.; Chase, B.; Dey, J.; Joireman, P.; Kourbanis, I.; Yagodnitsyna, A.; /Novosibirsk State U.

    2011-03-01

    For Project X, the Fermilab Main Injector will be required to operate with 3 times higher bunch intensity. The plan to study the space charge effects at the injection energy with intense bunches will be discussed. A multi-MW proton facility has been established as a critical need for the U.S. HEP program by HEPAP and P5. Utilization of the Main Injector (MI) as a high intensity proton source capable of delivering in excess of 2 MW beam power will require a factor of three increase in bunch intensity compared to current operations. Instabilities associated with beam loading, space charge, and electron cloud effects are common issues for high intensity proton machines. The MI intensities for current operations and Project X are listed in Table 1. The MI provides proton beams for Fermilab's Tevatron Proton-Antiproton Collider and MINOS neutrino experiments. The proposed 2MW proton facility, Project X, utilizes both the Recycler (RR) and the MI. The RR will be reconfigured as a proton accumulator and injector to realize the factor 3 bunch intensity increase in the MI. Since the energy in the RR and the MI at injection will be 6-8 GeV, which is relatively low, space charge effects will be significant and need to be studied. Studies based on the formation of high intensity bunches in the MI will guide the design and fabrication of the RF cavities and space-charge mitigation devices required for 2 MW operation of the MI. It is possible to create the higher bunch intensities required in the MI using a coalescing technique that has been successfully developed at Fermilab. This paper will discuss a 5 bunch coalescing scheme at 8 GeV which will produce 2.5 x 10{sup 11} protons in one bunch. Bunch stretching will be added to the coalescing process. The required RF parameters were optimized with longitudinal simulations. The beam studies, that have a goal of 85% coalescing efficiency, were started in June 2010.

  15. AGS UPGRADE TO 1-MW WITH A SUPER CONDUCTING LINAC INJECTOR.

    SciTech Connect

    RUGGIERO,A.GALESSI,J.RAPARIA,D.ROSER,T.WENG,W.

    2003-05-12

    It has been proposed to upgrade the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) accelerator complex at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to provide an average proton beam power of 1 MW at the energy of 28 GeV. The facility is to be primarily used as a proton driver for the production of intense neutrino beams [l]. This paper reports on the feasibility study of a proton Super-Conducting Linac (SCL) as a new injector to the AGS. The Linac beam energy is 1.3 GeV. The beam intensity is adjusted to provide the required average beam power of 1 MW at 28 GeV. The repetition rate of the SCL-AGS facility is 2.5 beam pulses per second.

  16. Injector-Wall Interactions in Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Injectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-05

    management. However, most studies of injectors utilize single, isolated elements. The ability of walls to affect the expansion and stability of single-phase...management. However, most studies of injectors utilize single, isolated elements. The ability of walls to affect the expansion and stability of...location of the film produced on the wall’s surface, the spreading of the spray and the stability of the spray. The attachment point affects the heat

  17. Mechanical fuel injector for internal combustion engines

    SciTech Connect

    Beaty, K.D.

    1993-08-31

    An apparatus is described for injecting fuel into an internal combustion engine having an air inlet containing an adjustable air throttle valve, comprising: a hollow injector body having a cylindrical bore therein; a compression head closing one end of the bore; a pump head closing an opposite end of the bore; a plunger piston reciprocally moveable within the cylinder bore defining a variable volume fuel pumping chamber formed by the injector body, the compression head, and a first end of the piston, and a variable volume compression chamber formed by the injector body, the pump head and a second end of the piston; fuel supply means connected to the pumping chamber; fuel passage means interconnecting the pumping chamber, the compression chamber and the fuel supply means; air supply means connected to the fuel passage means; fuel/air discharge means connected to the compression chamber; an injection nozzle located in the engine and connected to the fuel/air discharge means for injecting a mixture of fuel and air into the engine for combustion therein; and actuator means operably interconnecting the piston and the engine for reciprocating the piston within the cylinder bore of the injector body.

  18. Injector tip for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Shyu, Tsu Pin; Ye, Wen

    2003-05-20

    This invention relates to a the tip structure of a fuel injector as used in a internal combustion engine. Internal combustion engines using Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) technology require a tip structure that directs fuel spray in a downward direction. This requirement necessitates a tip design that is capable of withstanding mechanical stresses associated with the design.

  19. High current injector for heavy ion fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, S.; Eylon, S.; Chupp, W. W.

    1993-05-01

    A 2 MV, 800 mA, K(+) injector for heavy ion fusion studies is under construction. This new injector is a one-beam version of the proposed 4-beam ILSE injector. A new 36-module MARX is being built to achieve a 5 micro-s flat top. The high voltage generator is stiff (less than 5k Omega) to minimize effects of beam-induced transients. A large (approximately 7 in. diameter) curved hot alumina-silicate source emits a 1 micro-s long beam pulse through a gridless extraction electrode, and the ions are accelerated to 1 MV in a diode configuration. Acceleration to 2 MV takes place in a set of electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) units, arranged to simultaneously focus and accelerate the ion beam. Heavy shields and other protection devices have been built in to minimize risks of high voltage breakdown. Beam aberration effects through the ESQ have been studied extensively with theory, simulations, and scaled experiments. The design, simulations, experiments, and engineering of the ESQ injector will be presented.

  20. Development of Nonuniformities in Swirling, Rocket Injectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    24th LASS -Americas, San Antonio, Texas in May 2012. 14. ABSTRACT A high-performing, stable rocket engine requires injectors which produce...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std. 239.18 ! LASS Americas, 24’h Annual Conference on Liquid Atomi=ation and Spray Systems, San Antonio, TX

  1. Update to the NLC Injector System Design

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, Scott D.

    2002-08-21

    The Next Linear Collider (NLC) Injector System is designed to produce low emittance 8 GeV electron and positron beams at 120 hertz for injection into the NLC main linacs. Each beam consists of a 265 ns train of bunches (190 bunches spaced by 1.4 ns or 95 bunches spaced by 2.8 ns); each bunch has a population of up to 1.6 x 10{sup 10} particles for 2.8 ns (or 0.8 x 10{sup 10} particles for 1.4 ns). Horizontal and vertical emittances are specified to be {gamma}{var_epsilon}{sub x} = 3 x 10{sup -6} m-rad and {gamma}{var_epsilon}{sub y} = 2 x 10{sup -8} m-rad; bunch length at injection is variable from 90-140 {micro}m. Electron polarization of greater than 80% is required. Electron and positron beams are generated in separate accelerator complexes each of which contains the source, damping ring systems, linacs, bunch length compressors, and collimation regions. Investigation into the feasibility of polarized positrons for the NLC has begun; operations at 180 Hz and the centralization of the injector complex have been studied. The need for affordable, low technical risk, reliable injector subsystems is a major consideration in the design effort. This paper presents an overview of the NLC injector systems with an emphasis on changes in the design since 1999 [1] and discusses the planned R&D.

  2. Molten metal injector system and method

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Thomas N.; Kinosz, Michael J.; Bigler, Nicolas; Arnaud, Guy

    2003-04-01

    Disclosed is a molten metal injector system including a holder furnace, a casting mold supported above the holder furnace, and a molten metal injector supported from a bottom side of the mold. The holder furnace contains a supply of molten metal having a metal oxide film surface. The bottom side of the mold faces the holder furnace. The mold defines a mold cavity for receiving the molten metal from the holder furnace. The injector projects into the holder furnace and is in fluid communication with the mold cavity. The injector includes a piston positioned within a piston cavity defined by a cylinder for pumping the molten metal upward from the holder furnace and injecting the molten metal into the mold cavity under pressure. The piston and cylinder are at least partially submerged in the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. The cylinder further includes a molten metal intake for receiving the molten metal into the piston cavity. The molten metal intake is located below the metal oxide film surface of the molten metal when the holder furnace contains the molten metal. A method of injecting molten metal into a mold cavity of a casting mold is also disclosed.

  3. Injector-concentrator electrodes for microchannel electrophoresis

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2003-05-06

    An input port geometry, with injector-concentrator electrodes, for planar microchannel array for electrophoresis. This input port geometry enables efficient extraction and injection of the DNA sample from a single input port. The geometry, which utilizes injector-concentrator electrodes, allows simultaneous concentration, in different channels, of the sample into a longitudinally narrow strip just before releasing it for a run with enhanced injection spatial resolution, and time resolution. Optional multiple electrodes, at a different bias than the concentrator electrodes, may be used to discriminate against sample impurity ions. Electrode passivation can be utilized to prevent electrolysis. An additional electrode in or on the input hole can better define the initial loading. The injector-concentrator electrodes are positioned so that they cross the drift channel in a narrow strip at the bond plane between the top and bottom plates of the instrument and are located close to the inlet hole. The optional sample purification electrodes are located at a greater distance from the input hole than the injector-concentrate electrodes.

  4. Triaxial Swirl Injector Element for Liquid-Fueled Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muss, Jeff

    2010-01-01

    A triaxial injector is a single bi-propellant injection element located at the center of the injector body. The injector element consists of three nested, hydraulic swirl injectors. A small portion of the total fuel is injected through the central hydraulic injector, all of the oxidizer is injected through the middle concentric hydraulic swirl injector, and the balance of the fuel is injected through an outer concentric injection system. The configuration has been shown to provide good flame stabilization and the desired fuel-rich wall boundary condition. The injector design is well suited for preburner applications. Preburner injectors operate at extreme oxygen-to-fuel mass ratios, either very rich or very lean. The goal of a preburner is to create a uniform drive gas for the turbomachinery, while carefully controlling the temperature so as not to stress or damage turbine blades. The triaxial injector concept permits the lean propellant to be sandwiched between two layers of the rich propellant, while the hydraulic atomization characteristics of the swirl injectors promote interpropellant mixing and, ultimately, good combustion efficiency. This innovation is suited to a wide range of liquid oxidizer and liquid fuels, including hydrogen, methane, and kerosene. Prototype testing with the triaxial swirl injector demonstrated excellent injector and combustion chamber thermal compatibility and good combustion performance, both at levels far superior to a pintle injector. Initial testing with the prototype injector demonstrated over 96-percent combustion efficiency. The design showed excellent high -frequency combustion stability characteristics with oxygen and kerosene propellants. Unlike the more conventional pintle injector, there is not a large bluff body that must be cooled. The absence of a protruding center body enhances the thermal durability of the triaxial swirl injector. The hydraulic atomization characteristics of the innovation allow the design to be

  5. Swirl Coaxial Injector Testing with LOX/RP-J

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Sandra Elam; Casiano, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Testing was conducted at NASA fs Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in the fall of 2012 to evaluate the operation and performance of liquid oxygen (LOX) and kerosene (RP ]1) in an existing swirl coaxial injector. While selected Russian engines use variations of swirl coaxial injectors, component level performance data has not been readily available, and all previously documented component testing at MSFC with LOX/RP ]1 had been performed using a variety of impinging injector designs. Impinging injectors have been adequate for specific LOX/RP ]1 engine applications, yet swirl coaxial injectors offer easier fabrication efforts, providing cost and schedule savings for hardware development. Swirl coaxial elements also offer more flexibility for design changes. Furthermore, testing with LOX and liquid methane propellants at MSFC showed that a swirl coaxial injector offered improved performance compared to an impinging injector. So, technical interest was generated to see if similar performance gains could be achieved with LOX/RP ]1 using a swirl coaxial injector. Results would allow such injectors to be considered for future engine concepts that require LOX/RP ]1 propellants. Existing injector and chamber hardware was used in the test assemblies. The injector had been tested in previous programs at MSFC using LOX/methane and LOX/hydrogen propellants. Minor modifications were made to the injector to accommodate the required LOX/RP ]1 flows. Mainstage tests were performed over a range of chamber pressures and mixture ratios. Additional testing included detonated gbombs h for stability data. Test results suggested characteristic velocity, C*, efficiencies for the injector were 95 ]97%. The injector also appeared dynamically stable with quick recovery from the pressure perturbations generated in the bomb tests.

  6. Polarized Proton Acceleration in AGS and RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Roser, Thomas

    2008-02-06

    As the first hadron accelerator and collider consisting of two independent superconducting rings RHIC has operated with a wide range of beam energies and particle species including polarized proton beams. The acceleration of polarized beams in both the injector and the collider rings is complicated by numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Partial and full Siberian snakes have made it possible to overcome the depolarization and beam polarizations of up to 65% have been reached at 100 GeV in RHIC.

  7. POLARIZED PROTON ACCELERATION IN AGS AND RHIC.

    SciTech Connect

    ROSER,T.

    2007-09-10

    As the first hadron accelerator and collider consisting of two independent superconducting rings RHIC has operated with a wide range of beam energies and particle species including polarized proton beams. The acceleration of polarized beams in both the injector and the collider rings is complicated by numerous depolarizing spin resonances. Partial and full Siberian snakes have made it possible to overcome the depolarization and beam polarizations of up to 65% have been reached at 100 GeV in RHIC.

  8. Reuse Recycler: High Intensity Proton Stacking at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, P.

    2016-07-17

    After a successful career as an antiproton storage and cooling ring, Recycler has been converted to a high intensity proton stacker for the Main Injector. We discuss the commissioning and operation of the Recycler in this new role, and the progress towards the 700 kW design goal.

  9. POLARIZED PROTON ACCELERATION AT THE BROOKHAVEN AGS - AN UPDATE.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG,H.; AHRENS,L.; ALESSI,J.; BAI,M.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; BROWN,K.A.; GLENN,W.; LUCCIO,A.U.; MACKAY,W.W.; MONTAG,C.; PTITSYN,V.; ROSER,T.; TSOUPAS,N.; ZELENSKI,A.; ZENO,K.; CADMAN,B.; SPINKA,H.; UNDERWOOD,D.; RANJBAR,V.

    2002-06-02

    The RHIC spin design goal assumes 2 x 10{sup 11} proton/bunch with 70% polarization. As the injector to RHIC, polarized protons have been accelerated at the AGS for years to increase the polarization transmission efficiency. Several novel techniques have been applied in the AGS to overcome the intrinsic and imperfection resonances. The present level of accelerator performance is discussed. Progress on understanding the beam polarization behavior is presented. The outlook and future plan are also discussed.

  10. Multi-batch slip stacking in the Main Injector at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Seiya, K.; Berenc, T.; Chase, B.; Dey, J.; Joireman, P.; Kourbanis, I.; Reid, J.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    The Main Injector (MI) at Fermilab is planning to use multi-batch slip stacking scheme in order to increase the proton intensity at the NuMI target by about a factor of 1.5.[1] [2] By using multi-batch slip stacking, a total of 11 Booster batches are merged into 6, 5 double ones and one single. We have successfully demonstrated the multibatch slip stacking in MI and accelerated a record intensity of 4.6E13 particle per cycle to 120 GeV. The technical issues and beam loss mechanisms for multibatch slip stacking scheme are discussed.

  11. The Fermilab Main Injector Dipole construction techniques and prototype magnet measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bleadon, M.E.; Brown, B.C.; Chester, N.S.; Desavouret, E.; Garvey, J.D.; Glass, H.D.; Harding, D.J.; Harfoush, F.A.; Holmes, S.D.; Humbert, J.C. )

    1992-01-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector Project will provide 120-150 GeV Proton and Antiproton Beams for Fermilab Fixed Target Physics and Colliding Beams Physics use. A dipole magnet has been designed and prototypes constructed for the principal bending magnets of this new accelerator. In this paper the design considerations and fabrication techniques are described. Measurement results on prototypes are reported, emphasizing the field uniformity achieved in both body field and end field at excitation levels from injection at 0.1 T to full field of 1.7 T.

  12. The Fermilab main injector dipole construction techniques and prototype magnet measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Bleadon, M.; Brown, B.; Chester, N.; Desavouret, E.; Garvey, J.; Glass, H.; Harding, D.; Harfoush, F.; Holmes, S.; Humbert, J.; Kerby, J.; Knauf, A.; Kobliska, G.; Lipski, A.; Martin, P.; Mazur, P.; Orris, D.; Ostiguy, J.; Peggs, S.; Pachnik, J.; Pewitt, E.; Satti, J.; Schmidt, E.; Sim, J.; Snowdon, S.; Walbridge, D.

    1991-09-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector Project will provide 120--150 GeV Proton and Antiproton Beams for Fermilab Fixed Target Physics and Colliding Beams Physics use. A dipole magnet has been designed and prototypes constructed for the principal bending magnets of this new accelerator. The design considerations and fabrication techniques are described. Measurement results on prototypes are reported, emphasizing the field uniformity achieved in both body field and end field at excitation levels from injection at 0.1 T to full field of 1.7 T. 6 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. Beam manipulation and compression using broadband rf systems in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler

    SciTech Connect

    G William Foster et al.

    2004-07-09

    A novel method for beam manipulation, compression, and stacking using a broad band RF system in circular accelerators is described. The method uses a series of linear voltage ramps in combination with moving barrier pulses to azimuthally compress, expand, or cog the beam. Beam manipulations can be accomplished rapidly and, in principle, without emittance growth. The general principle of the method is discussed using beam dynamics simulations. Beam experiments in the Fermilab Recycler Ring convincingly validate the concept. Preliminary experiments in the Fermilab Main Injector to investigate its potential for merging two ''booster batches'' to produce high intensity proton beams for neutrino and antiproton production are described.

  14. Flash X-Ray Injector Study

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, A C

    2004-03-26

    The study described in this report1 models the FXR injector from the cathode to the exit of the injector. The calculations are compared to actual experimental measurements, table 1. In these measurements the anode voltage was varied by changing the Marks-Bank charging voltage. The anode-cathode spacing was varied by adjusting the location of the cathode in hopes of finding an island of minimum emittance (none found). The bucking coil current was set for zero field on the cathode. In these measurements, a pepper-pot mask was inserted into FXR at beam bug 135 and viewed downstream via a wiggle probe diagnostic at cell gap J21, figure 1. The observed expansion of the beamlets passing through the mask of known geometric layout and hole size allow a calculation of the phase space beam properties.

  15. Compact and stable multibeam fiber injector

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, L. F., LLNL

    1998-07-01

    A compact and stable 20-beam injector was built for launching laser light into fibers for Fabry Perot velocity measurements of shock-driven surfaces. The fiber injector uses commercial mounts on mini-rails. Dielectric-coated beamsplitters provide accurate amplitude division. Minimal adjustments for stable operation are permitted by the use of a real-time video-viewer. The video system includes a non-linear camera for CW alignment and a linearized camera with a frame grabber for pulsed measurement and analysis. All 20-injection points are displayed on a single monitor. Optical requirements are given for image relay and magnification. Stimulated Brillouin scattering limitations on high-power are quantified.

  16. Tune control in the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    G. Wu et al.

    1999-04-16

    We describe methods used to measure and control tunes in the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI). Emphasis is given to software implementation of the operator interface, to the front-end embedded computer system, and handling of hysteresis of main dipole and quadrupole magnets. Techniques are developed to permit control of tune of the Main Injector through several acceleration cycles: from 8.9 GeV/c to 120 GeV/c, from 8.9 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c, and from 150 GeV/c to 8.9 GeV/c. Systems which automate the complex interactions between tune measurement and the variety of ramping options are described. Some results of tune measurements and their comparison with the design model are presented.

  17. Vorticity generation by contoured wall injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Waitz, I.A.; Marble, F.E.; Zukoski, E.E. California Institute of Technology, Pasadena )

    1992-07-01

    A class of contoured wall fuel injectors was designed to enable shock-enhancement of hypervelocity mixing for supersonic combustion ramjet applications. Previous studies of these geometries left unresolved questions concerning the relative importance of various axial vorticity sources in mixing the injectant with the freestream. The present study is a numerical simulation of two generic fuel injectors which is aimed at elucidating the relative roles of axial vorticity sources including: baroclinic torque through shock-impingement, cross-stream shear, turning of boundary layer vorticity, shock curvature, and diffusive flux. Both the magnitude of the circulation, and the location of vorticity with respect to the mixing interface were considered. Baroclinic torque and cross-stream shear were found to be most important in convectively mixing the injectant with the freestream, with the former providing for deposition of vorticity directly on the fuel/air interface. 19 refs.

  18. Vorticity generation by contoured wall injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A.; Marble, Frank E.; Zukoski, Edward E.

    1992-01-01

    A class of contoured wall fuel injectors was designed to enable shock-enhancement of hypervelocity mixing for supersonic combustion ramjet applications. Previous studies of these geometries left unresolved questions concerning the relative importance of various axial vorticity sources in mixing the injectant with the freestream. The present study is a numerical simulation of two generic fuel injectors which is aimed at elucidating the relative roles of axial vorticity sources including: baroclinic torque through shock-impingement, cross-stream shear, turning of boundary layer vorticity, shock curvature, and diffusive flux. Both the magnitude of the circulation, and the location of vorticity with respect to the mixing interface were considered. Baroclinic torque and cross-stream shear were found to be most important in convectively mixing the injectant with the freestream, with the former providing for deposition of vorticity directly on the fuel/air interface.

  19. Supercritical Mixing in a Shear Coaxial Injector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-27

    bottom, a circular hole acts as an outlet to the injected fluid, discharging into the outer chamber. The shear co-axial injector consists of inner...as to enable such an investigation. A line contour of 80% inner fluid is shown in black , indicating the intact core flow. The drop in the inner fluid...core( black line). D. Acoustic Excitation Two cases are chosen to examine the impact of acoustic excitation on the mixing of the coaxial jets. The

  20. Diesel injector additives for a clean exhaust

    SciTech Connect

    Herbstman, S.; Virk, K.S.

    1988-08-01

    Increased public awareness of clean air is causing closer examination of potential health problems associated with diesel exhaust particulates. Recently, the EPA published standards mandating a sixfold reduction in diesel exhaust particulates for heavy duty engines from 0.60 gm/bhp-hr in 1988-1990 to 0.10 gm/bhp-hr in 1994. NOx exhaust concentrations were also reduced. For some time now, we have been interested in ways to reduce black smoke from diesel engines since it is one of the prime contributors to exhaust particulates. One of its causes is dirty or clogged fuel injectors due to deposit buildup. During operation with dirty injectors, the spray pattern of fuel into the combustion chamber is distorted, usually resulting in a fuel-rich environment. Incomplete burning of the rich fuel mixture results in an excess of carbonaceous material which is discharged in the exhaust as black smoke. We are engaged in evaluating additives with detergency and antioxidant properties to reduce deposit buildup in the injectors. Long chain alkylamines, and other types of surfactant molecules have been reported as active in preventing deposit buildup. However, little practical information was available concerning structure-activity relationships for use in developing a commercially acceptable additive package. We decided to investigate additives which are active either as gasoline carburetor detergents or as lubricant dispersants; both categories appear to have the necessary surfactant behavior and oil solubility to satisfy our needs for a diesel injector keep clean agent. Our approach to the problem was to develop an additive package for future use in Texaco fuels to reduce black smoke.

  1. Visualisation of diesel injector with neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, E.; Grünzweig, C.; Jollet, S.; Kaiser, M.; Hansen, H.; Dinkelacker, F.

    2015-12-01

    The injection process of diesel engines influences the pollutant emissions. The spray formation is significantly influenced by the internal flow of the injector. One of the key parameters here is the generation of cavitation caused by the geometry and the needle lift. In modern diesel engines the injection pressure is established up to 3000 bar. The details of the flow and phase change processes inside the injector are of increasing importance for such injectors. With these experimental measurements the validation of multiphase and cavitation models is possible for the high pressure range. Here, for instance, cavitation effects can occur. Cavitation effects in the injection port area destabilize the emergent fuel jet and improve the jet break-up. The design of the injection system in direct-injection diesel engines is an important challenge, as the jet breakup, the atomization and the mixture formation in the combustion chamber are closely linked. These factors have a direct impact on emissions, fuel consumption and performance of an engine. The shape of the spray at the outlet is determined by the internal flow of the nozzle. Here, geometrical parameters, the injection pressure, the injection duration and the cavitation phenomena play a major role. In this work, the flow dependency in the nozzles are analysed with the Neutron-Imaging. The great advantage of this method is the penetrability of the steel structure while a high contrast to the fuel is given due to the interaction of the neutrons with the hydrogen amount. Compared to other methods (optical with glass structures) we can apply real components under highest pressure conditions. During the steady state phase of the injection various cavitation phenomena are visible in the injector, being influenced by the nozzle geometry and the fuel pressure. Different characteristics of cavitation in the sac and spray hole can be detected, and the spray formation in the primary breakup zone is influenced.

  2. Radiation shielding of the main injector

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; Martin, P.S.

    1995-05-01

    The radiation shielding in the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) complex has been carried out by adopting a number of prescribed stringent guidelines established by a previous safety analysis. Determination of the required amount of radiation shielding at various locations of the FMI has been done using Monte Carlo computations. A three dimensional ray tracing code as well as a code based upon empirical observations have been employed in certain cases.

  3. Development of Nonuniformities in Swirling, Rocket Injectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    annular liquid. The prior studies have shown that this type of injector exhibits a rich and complex behavior [3]. Several geometries and/or...frequency was higher than 100 Hz compared to the spectral power of dominant frequencies below this value. There is a general cascade of energy from low...these spray show a general cascade of energy from the low frequencies and very little spectral energy above a few hundred (200-400) Hz. When dominant

  4. Innovative coal-fueled diesel engine injector

    SciTech Connect

    Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this research investigation was to develop an electronic coal water slurry injection system in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of CWS at various engine load and speed conditions without external ignition sources. The combination of the new injection system and the TICS is designed to reduce injector nozzle spray orifice wear by lowering the peak injection pressure requirements. (VC)

  5. Wakefield Computations for the Injector (Part I)

    SciTech Connect

    Limborg-Deprey, C.

    2010-12-13

    In this document, we report on basic wakefield computations used to establish the impedance budget for the LCLS injector. Systematic comparisons between analytic formulae and results from ABCI are done. Finally, a comparison between 2D and 3D wakefield calculations are given for a cross. The three parts of the document are presented as follows: (1) ABCI computations for a few structures (Flange, Bellows...); (2) Comparison analytic with ABCI runs; and (3) Comparison Cross and Cavity using MAFIA.

  6. Design status of heavy ion injector program

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, E.O.; Meyer, E.A.; Riepe, K.B.; Rutkowski, H.L.; Shurter, R.P.; Van Haaften, F.W.

    1985-10-01

    Design and development of a sixteen beam, heavy ion injector is in progress at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to demonstrate the injector technology for the High Temperature Experiment (HTE) proposed by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The injector design provides for individual ion sources mounted to a support plate defining the sixteen beam array. The beamlets are electrostatically accelerated through a series of electrodes inside an evacuated (10 X torr) high voltage (HV) accelerating column. The column consists of two 28-inch diameter insulator modules made of 85 percent Al2O3 ceramic rings brazed to niobium feedthrough rings to which the electrodes are mechanically attached. Field shaping is used to minimize electron avalanche induced flashover along the inside surface of the ceramic rings. The column is self-supporting and is cantilevered from one end of the containment vessel. A brazed assembly was chosen to provide the required bond strength and high vacuum capability. The HV pulsed power supply is a 2MV Marx generator cantilevered from the opposite end of the containment vessel. The stainless steel pressure vessel (PV) contains a 65 psig mixture of SF6(30%) and nitrogen (70%) to provide the electrical insulation.

  7. Driving of combustor oscillations by gaseous propellant injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Daniel, B. R.; Zinn, B. T.

    1979-01-01

    Measurements of reactive admittances that describe the capabilities of the combustion processes associated with coaxial gaseous fuel injectors to amplify combustor oscillations are presented. These admittances are needed in (1) stability analyses of rocket motors and gas turbine combustors; (2) for the evaluation of 'driving' capabilities of injectors; and (3) for checking the applicability of a theoretical model. The modified standing-wave technique was used to determine the admittances of the combustion processes in coaxial injectors utilizing air-acetylene mixtures. The measurements indicated that (1) coaxial injectors can sustain combustion instabilities over wide frequency ranges; (2) the maximum driving capability of an injector decreases with an increased equivalence ratio; (3) the frequency at which maximum driving is observed decreases with the increased equivalence ratio; and (4) the characteristic combustion time of an injector design decreases with increased frequency.

  8. Recent Flash X-Ray Injector Modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Houck, T; Blackfield, D; Burke, J; Chen, Y; Javedani, J; Paul, A C

    2004-11-10

    The injector of the Flash X-Ray (FXR) accelerator has a significantly larger than expected beam emittance. A computer modeling effort involving three different injector design codes was undertaken to characterize the FXR injector and determine the cause of the large emittance. There were some variations between the codes, but in general the simulations were consistent and pointed towards a much smaller normalized, rms emittance (36 cm-mr) than what was measured (193 cm-mr) at the exit of the injector using a pepperpot technique. The simulations also indicated that the present diode design was robust with respect to perturbations to the nominal design. Easily detected mechanical alignment/position errors and magnet errors did not lead to appreciable increase in the simulated emittance. The physics of electron emission was not modeled by any of the codes and could be the source of increased emittance. The nominal simulation assumed uniform Child-Langmuir Law emission from the velvet cathode and no shroud emission. Simulations that looked at extreme non-uniform cathode and shroud emission scenarios resulted in doubling of the emittance. An alternative approach was to question the pepperpot measurement. Simulations of the measurement showed that the pepperpot aperture foil could double the emittance with respect to the non-disturbed beam. This leads to a diplomatic explanation of the discrepancy between predicted and measured emittance where the fault is shared. The measured value is too high due to the effect of the diagnostic on the beam and the simulations are too low because of unaccounted cathode and/or shroud emission physics. Fortunately there is a relatively simple experiment that can resolve the emittance discrepancy. If the large measured emittance value is correct, the beam envelope is emittance dominated at modest values of focusing field and beam radius. Measurements of the beam envelope on an imaging foil at the exit of the injector would lead to an

  9. Independent Stage Control of a Cascade Injector (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    AFRL-PR-WP-TP-2006-250 INDEPENDENT STAGE CONTROL OF A CASCADE INJECTOR (POSTPRINT) Heidi L. Meicenheimer, Ephraim J. Gutmark, Campbell D...house 5b. GRANT NUMBER 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE INDEPENDENT STAGE CONTROL OF A CASCADE INJECTOR (POSTPRINT) 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62203F 5d...investigation was to determine whether the number of active stages in the cascade injector could be used to control penetration and mixing characteristics

  10. Improvement Plans of Fermilab's Proton Accelerator Complex

    SciTech Connect

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    The flagship of Fermilab's long term research program is the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), located Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, which will study neutrino oscillations with a baseline of 1300 km. The neutrinos will be produced in the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), a proposed new beam line from Fermilab's Main Injector. The physics goals of the DUNE require a proton beam with a power of some 2.4 MW at 120 GeV, which is roughly four times the current maximum power. Here I discuss current performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex, our plans for construction of the SRF proton linac as key part of the Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II), outline the main challenges toward multi-MW beam power operation of the Fermilab accelerator complex and the staged plan to achieve the required performance over the next 15 years.

  11. Static and transient behavior of the flow positioned injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yulin; Chen, Qizhi; Lu, Zhenglin

    1991-06-01

    The flow positioned injector can ensure invariant injecting speed and gives high combustion performance for variable thrust liquid propellant rocket engines. Static and dynamic mathematical models of the injector are developed, and basic design rules to ensure invariant injection pressure drop are deduced from the static model. In practical situations, the effect of the flow-coefficient variation on the injecting speed must be compensated by a special structure design. Based on the dynamic model, transient response of the injector is analyzed via a digital simulation method. The results show that the injector can maintain almost constant injecting speed during transient process if it has an adequate dynamic resistant coefficient.

  12. 2-MV electrostatic quadrupole injector for heavy-ion fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Bieniosek, F.M.; Celata, C.M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J.W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.A.

    2004-11-10

    High current and low emittance are principal requirements for heavy-ion injection into a linac driver for inertial fusion energy. An electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) injector is capable of providing these high charge density and low emittance beams. We have modified the existing 2-MV Injector to reduce beam emittance and to double the pulse length. We characterize the beam delivered by the modified injector to the High Current Transport Experiment (HCX) and the effects of finite rise time of the extraction voltage pulse in the diode on the beam head. We demonstrate techniques for mitigating aberrations and reducing beam emittance growth in the injector.

  13. Application of advanced diagnostics to airblast injector flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, John B.; Kennedy, Jan B.; Russell, Sid

    1987-01-01

    This effort is concerned with the application of both conventional laser velocimetry and phase Doppler anemometry to the flow produced by an airblast nozzle. The emphasis is placed on the acquisition of data using actual engine injector/swirler components at (noncombusting) conditions simulating those encountered in the engine. The objective of the effort was to test the applicability of the instrumentation to real injector flows, to develop information on the behavior of injectors at high flow, and to provide data useful in the development of physical models of injector flows.

  14. Influence of variable thrust parameters on swirl injector fluid mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenny, Robert J.

    Current swirl injector design methodologies do not consider elevated chamber pressure and less than design mass flow rate operation found in variable thrust liquid rocket engines. The objective of this work is to study the effects of elevated chamber pressure and off-design mass flow rate operation on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a high pressure chamber, water flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of elevated chamber pressure and reduced mass flow rate. The optically-accessible swirl injector allowed for determination of the film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section. High speed video and digital stills showed significant increases in the film thickness profile at high chamber pressure and low mass flow rate operation. At prescribed combinations of chamber pressure and mass flow rate, a jump was noted in the film thickness profile. This jump was assumed related to a vortex breakdown phenomenon. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber pressure at low mass flow rate operation as opposed to near-design mass flow rate operation. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber pressure worked to decrease the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. A new set of fundamental relations linking swirl injector design parameters to injector geometry and flow conditions were derived. Impacts of the research findings to the swirl injector design process were assessed.

  15. Gas velocity and temperature near a liquid rocket injector face

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boylan, D. M.; Ohara, J.

    1973-01-01

    The gas flow near the injector of a liquid propellant rocket was investigated by rapidly inserting butt-welded platinum-platinum rhodium thermocouples through the injector into the chamber. The transient responses of the thermocouples were analyzed to determine average gas temperatures and velocities. A method of fitting exponential curves to repeated measurements of the transient temperature at several positions near the injector face produced consistent results. Preliminary tests yielded gas flow directions and gas compositions at the injector face. Average gas temperatures were found to be between 3100 (1700) and 3500 F (1950 C) and the average gas velocities between 550 (170) and 840 feet/second (260 m/sec).

  16. Analog signal pre-processing for the Fermilab Main Injector BPM upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Saewert, A.L.; Rapisarda, S.M.; Wendt, M.; /Fermilab

    2006-05-01

    An analog signal pre-processing scheme was developed, in the framework of the Fermilab Main Injector Beam Position Monitor (BPM) Upgrade, to interface BPM pickup signals to the new digital receiver based read-out system. A key component is the 8-channel electronics module, which uses separate frequency selective gain stages to acquire 53 MHz bunched proton, and 2.5 MHz anti-proton signals. Related hardware includes a filter and combiner box to sum pickup electrode signals in the tunnel. A controller module allows local/remote control of gain settings and activation of gain stages, and supplies test signals. Theory of operation, system overview, and some design details are presented, as well as first beam measurements of the prototype hardware.

  17. Tuner control system of Spoke012 SRF cavity for C-ADS injector I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Na; Sun, Yi; Wang, Guang-Wei; Mi, Zheng-Hui; Lin, Hai-Ying; Wang, Qun-Yao; Liu, Rong; Ma, Xin-Peng

    2016-09-01

    A new tuner control system for spoke superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities has been developed and applied to cryomodule I of the C-ADS injector I at the Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences. We have successfully implemented the tuner controller based on Programmable Logic Controller (PLC) for the first time and achieved a cavity tuning phase error of ±0.7° (about ±4 Hz peak to peak) in the presence of electromechanical coupled resonance. This paper presents preliminary experimental results based on the PLC tuner controller under proton beam commissioning. Supported by Proton linac accelerator I of China Accelerator Driven sub-critical System (Y12C32W129)

  18. Berkeley Proton Linear Accelerator

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Alvarez, L. W.; Bradner, H.; Franck, J.; Gordon, H.; Gow, J. D.; Marshall, L. C.; Oppenheimer, F. F.; Panofsky, W. K. H.; Richman, C.; Woodyard, J. R.

    1953-10-13

    A linear accelerator, which increases the energy of protons from a 4 Mev Van de Graaff injector, to a final energy of 31.5 Mev, has been constructed. The accelerator consists of a cavity 40 feet long and 39 inches in diameter, excited at resonance in a longitudinal electric mode with a radio-frequency power of about 2.2 x 10{sup 6} watts peak at 202.5 mc. Acceleration is made possible by the introduction of 46 axial "drift tubes" into the cavity, which is designed such that the particles traverse the distance between the centers of successive tubes in one cycle of the r.f. power. The protons are longitudinally stable as in the synchrotron, and are stabilized transversely by the action of converging fields produced by focusing grids. The electrical cavity is constructed like an inverted airplane fuselage and is supported in a vacuum tank. Power is supplied by 9 high powered oscillators fed from a pulse generator of the artificial transmission line type.

  19. Conceptual Design Report: Fermilab Upgrade: Main Injector - Technical Components and Civil Construction, January 1990 (Rev. 2)

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1990-01-10

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of a new 150 GeV accelerator, designated the Main Injector, which will be required to support the upgrade of the Fermilab Accelerator Complex. The construction of this accelerator will simultaneously result in significant enhancements to both the Fermilab collider and fixed target programs. The Main Injector (MI) is to be located south of the Antiproton Source and tangent to the Tevatron ring at the FO straight section as shown in Figure 1-1. The MI will perform all duties currently required of the existing Main Ring. Thus, operation of the Main Ring will cease following commissioning of the MI, with a concurrent reduction in background rates as seen in the colliding beam detectors. The performance of the MI, as measured in terms of protons per second delivered to the antiproton production target or total protons delivered to the Tevatron, is expected to exceed that of the Main Ring by a factor of two to three. In addition the MI will provide high duty factor 120 GeV beam to the experimental areas during collider operation, a capability which does not presently exist in the Main Ring.

  20. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... for e-updates Please leave this field empty Proton Therapy SHARE Home > Treatment and Care > Treatments Listen ... a nucleus, which holds two types of particles—protons and neutrons. The nucleus is surrounded by electrons. ...

  1. Enantioselective Protonation

    PubMed Central

    Mohr, Justin T.; Hong, Allen Y.; Stoltz, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Enantioselective protonation is a common process in biosynthetic sequences. The decarboxylase and esterase enzymes that effect this valuable transformation are able to control both the steric environment around the proton acceptor (typically an enolate) and the proton donor (typically a thiol). Recently, several chemical methods to achieve enantioselective protonation have been developed by exploiting various means of enantiocontrol in different mechanisms. These laboratory transformations have proven useful for the preparation of a number of valuable organic compounds. PMID:20428461

  2. CFD Simulation of Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Richard; Cheng, Gary; Chen, Yen-Sen; Garcia, Roberto (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Detailed design issues associated with liquid rocket engine injectors and combustion chamber operation require CFD methodology which simulates highly three-dimensional, turbulent, vaporizing, and combusting flows. The primary utility of such simulations involves predicting multi-dimensional effects caused by specific injector configurations. SECA, Inc. and Engineering Sciences, Inc. have been developing appropriate computational methodology for NASA/MSFC for the past decade. CFD tools and computers have improved dramatically during this time period; however, the physical submodels used in these analyses must still remain relatively simple in order to produce useful results. Simulations of clustered coaxial and impinger injector elements for hydrogen and hydrocarbon fuels, which account for real fluid properties, is the immediate goal of this research. The spray combustion codes are based on the FDNS CFD code' and are structured to represent homogeneous and heterogeneous spray combustion. The homogeneous spray model treats the flow as a continuum of multi-phase, multicomponent fluids which move without thermal or velocity lags between the phases. Two heterogeneous models were developed: (1) a volume-of-fluid (VOF) model which represents the liquid core of coaxial or impinger jets and their atomization and vaporization, and (2) a Blob model which represents the injected streams as a cloud of droplets the size of the injector orifice which subsequently exhibit particle interaction, vaporization, and combustion. All of these spray models are computationally intensive, but this is unavoidable to accurately account for the complex physics and combustion which is to be predicted, Work is currently in progress to parallelize these codes to improve their computational efficiency. These spray combustion codes were used to simulate the three test cases which are the subject of the 2nd International Workshop on-Rocket Combustion Modeling. Such test cases are considered by

  3. Main Chamber and Preburner Injector Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santoro, Robert J.; Merkle, Charles L.

    1999-01-01

    This document reports the experimental and analytical research carried out at the Penn State Propulsion Engineering Research Center in support of NASA's plan to develop advanced technologies for future single stage to orbit (SSTO) propulsion systems. The focus of the work is on understanding specific technical issues related to bi-propellant and tri-propellant thrusters. The experiments concentrate on both cold flow demonstrations and hot-fire uni-element tests to demonstrate concepts that can be incorporated into hardware design and development. The analysis is CFD-based and is intended to support the design and interpretation of the experiments and to extrapolate findings to full-scale designs. The research is divided into five main categories that impact various SSTO development scenarios. The first category focuses on RP-1/gaseous hydrogen (GH2)/gaseous oxygen (GO2) tri-propellant combustion with specific emphasis on understanding the benefits of hydrogen addition to RP-1/oxygen combustion and in developing innovative injector technology. The second category investigates liquid oxygen (LOX)/GH2 combustion at main chamber near stoichiometric conditions to improve understanding of existing LOX/GH2 rocket systems. The third and fourth categories investigate the technical issues related with oxidizer-rich and fuel-rich propulsive concepts, issues that are necessary for developing the full-flow engine cycle. Here, injector technology issues for both LOX/GH2 and LOX/RP-1 propellants are examined. The last category, also related to the full-flow engine cycle, examines injector technology needs for GO2/GH2 propellant combustion at near-stoichiometric conditions for main chamber application.

  4. High-brightness injectors for hadron colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Wangler, T.P.

    1990-01-01

    The counterrotating beams in collider rings consist of trains of beam bunches with N{sub B} particles per bunch, spaced a distance S{sub B} apart. When the bunches collide, the interaction rate is determined by the luminosity, which is defined as the interaction rate per unit cross section. For head-on collisions between cylindrical Gaussian beams moving at speed {beta}c, the luminosity is given by L = N{sub B}{sup 2}{beta}c/4{pi}{sigma}{sup 2}S{sub B}, where {sigma} is the rms beam size projected onto a transverse plane (the two transverse planes are assumed identical) at the interaction point. This beam size depends on the rms emittance of the beam and the focusing strength, which is a measure of the 2-D phase-space area in each transverse plane, and is defined in terms of the second moments of the beam distribution. Our convention is to use the rms normalized emittance, without factors of 4 or 6 that are sometimes used. The quantity {tilde {beta}} is the Courant-Synder betatron amplitude function at the interaction point, a characteristic of the focusing lattice and {gamma} is the relativistic Lorentz factor. Achieving high luminosity at a given energy, and at practical values of {tilde {beta}} and S{sub B}, requires a large value for the ratio N{sub B}{sup 2}/{var epsilon}{sub n}, which implies high intensity and small emittance. Thus, specification of the luminosity sets the requirements for beam intensity and emittance, and establishes the requirements on the performance of the injector to the collider ring. In general, for fixed N{sub B}, the luminosity can be increased if {var epsilon}{sub n} can be reduced. The minimum emittance of the collider is limited by the performance of the injector; consequently the design of the injector is of great importance for the ultimate performance of the collider.

  5. Charge injectors of ALICE Silicon Drift Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashevsky, A.; Batigne, G.; Beole, S.; Coli, S.; Crescio, E.; Deremigis, P.; Giraudo, G.; Mazza, G.; Prino, F.; Riccati, L.; Rivetti, A.; Toscano, L.; Tosello, F.; Vacchi, A.; Wheadon, R.; Zampa, G.

    2007-03-01

    Large area, 7.25×8.76 cm2, Silicon Drift Detector (SDD) has been developed for the ALICE experiment at CERN [A. Vacchi, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 306 (1991) 187; A. Rashevsky, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 461 (2001) 133-138; A. Rashevsky, et al., Nucl. Instr. and Meth. A 485 (2002) 54; P. Burger, C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, A. Roncastri, A. Vacchi, INFN/TC-02/07; C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, INFN/TC-02/08; C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, D. Nouais, INFN/TC-00/04. C. Piemonte, A. Rashevsky, A. Vacchi, ALICE-INT-2002-15, 2002; Inner Tracking System, CERN/LHCC, June 1999]. SDDs form two out of six cylindrical layers of the ALICE inner tracking system. The 260 high-quality SDDs needed to equip these two layers have been selected. One of the detector design elements devoted to allow controlled operating conditions is the on-board arrays of point-like charge injectors [D. Nouais, et al., CERN-ALICE-PUB-99-31; V. Bonvicini, et al., Il Nuovo Cimento 112AN (1-2) (1999) 137-146]. In the case of an SDD they are essential to trace, with the required frequency and precision, the changes in drift velocity induced by temperature variations. In order to ensure operating stability during the 10 years of the ALICE experiment the bias scheme of the charge injectors exploits the electrical properties not only of a detector itself, but also those of the cables mounted onto it, thus constituting a module. Computer simulations of the equivalent circuit revealed a significant improvement of the injection efficiency. Subsequent experimental tests of the first assembled modules confirmed the predicted performances. We report the layout of the charge injectors integrated in the ALICE SDD, as well as test results.

  6. Fuel-injector/air-swirl characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcvey, J. B.; Kennedy, J. B.; Russell, S.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental data on the characteristics of the spray produced by a gas-turbine engine airblast fuel injector are reported. The data acquired include the mass-flux distribution measured by use of a high-resolution spray patternator; the gas-phase velocity field measured by use of a two-component laser Doppler velocimeter, and the liquid droplet size and velocity distributions measured by use of a single-component phase-Doppler anemometer. The data are intended for use in assessments of two-phase flow computational methods as applied to combustor design procedures.

  7. Transition crossing in the main injector

    SciTech Connect

    Wei, J.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes the study of various longitudinal problems pertaining to the transition-energy crossing in the proposed Fermi Lab Main Injector. The theory indicates that the beam loss and bunch-area growth are mainly caused by the chromatic non-linear effect, which is enhanced by the space-charge force near transition. Computer simulation using the program TIBETAN shows that a {gamma}{sub T} jump'' of about 1.5 unit within 1 ms is adequate to achieve a clean'' crossing in the currently proposed h{equals}588 scenario. 19 refs., 4 figs.

  8. An induction linac injector for scaled experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Faltens, A.; Pike, C.; Brodzik, D.; Johnson, R.M.; Vanecek, D. ); Hewett, D.W. )

    1991-04-01

    An injector is being developed at LBL that would serve as the front end of a scaled induction linac accelerator technology experiment for heavy ion fusion. The ion mass being used is in the range 10--18. It is a multi-beam device intended to accelerate up to 2 MeV with 500 mA in each beam. The first half of the accelerating column has been built and experiments with one carbon beam are underway at the 1 MeV level. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  9. Kaon physics at Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, Y.

    1992-03-01

    For high precision and high sensitivity studies of the physics of kaon physics of kaon decays, the important characteristics of the new Main Injector at Fermilab are its high energy (relative to other factories'') and its high intensity. Experiments of this kind are becoming increasingly important in the study of CP violation and for searches for new interactions. An extracted beam of 120 GeV will produce a source of high energy kaons (10--50 GeV) that will not be surpassed in intensity by any facility new under consideration world-wide.

  10. Kaon physics at Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, Y.

    1992-03-01

    For high precision and high sensitivity studies of the physics of kaon physics of kaon decays, the important characteristics of the new Main Injector at Fermilab are its high energy (relative to other ``factories``) and its high intensity. Experiments of this kind are becoming increasingly important in the study of CP violation and for searches for new interactions. An extracted beam of 120 GeV will produce a source of high energy kaons (10--50 GeV) that will not be surpassed in intensity by any facility new under consideration world-wide.

  11. Status of Proton Polarization in Rhic and AGS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mackay, W. W.; Bai, M.; Huang, H.; Ahrens, L.; Alekseev, I. G.; Bravar, A.; Brown, K.; Bunce, G.; Calaga, R.; Courant, E. D.; Drees, A.; Fischer, W.; Gardner, C.; Glenn, J. W.; Gupta, R.; Igo, G.; Iriso, U.; Jinnouchi, O.; Kurita, K.; Luccio, A. U.; Luo, Y.; Makdisi, Y.; Marr, G.; Montag, C.; Nass, A.; Okada, H.; Okamura, M.; Pilat, F.; Ptitsyn, V.; Roser, T.; Saito, N.; Satogata, T.; Spinka, H.; Stephenson, E. J.; Svirida, D. N.; Takano, J.; Tepikian, S.; Tomas, R.; Tsoupas, N.; Underwood, D.; Whitten, C.; Wood, J.; Zeijts, J. Van; Zelenski, A.; Zeno, K.; Zhang, S. Y.

    2005-08-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) has collided protons with both transverse and longitudinal polarization at a centre-of-mass energy of 200 GeV. Future running will extend this to 500 GeV. This paper describes the methods used to accelerate and manipulate polarized proton beams in RHIC and its injectors. Special techniques include the use of a partial Siberian snake and an AC dipole in the AGS. In RHIC we use superconducting helical Siberian snakes for acceleration, and eight superconducting helical rotators for independent control of polarization directions at two interaction regions. The present status and future plans for the polarized proton program will be reviewed.

  12. Component of astronauts survival equipment backpack - medical injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    The automatic medical injectors were carried on the Mercury-Atlas 9 flight. The injectors provide the astronaut with injection tubes of Tigan, for preventing motion sickness and Demerol, for relieving pain. The tubes encased in the block are stowed in the astronauts survival kit. The single injection tubes are placed in a pocket of the astronauts space suit.

  13. Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is developing the Space Launch System (SLS) for crewed exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit. Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is designing rocket engines for the SLS Advanced Booster (AB) concepts being developed to replace the Shuttle-derived solid rocket boosters. One AB concept uses large, Rocket-Propellant (RP)-fueled engines that pose significant design challenges. The injectors for these engines require high performance and stable operation while still meeting aggressive cost reduction goals for access to space. Historically, combustion stability problems have been a critical issue for such injector designs. Traditional, empirical injector design tools and methodologies, however, lack the ability to reliably predict complex injector dynamics that often lead to combustion stability. Reliance on these tools alone would likely result in an unaffordable test-fail-fix cycle for injector development. Recently at MSFC, a massively parallel computational fluid dynamics (CFD) program was successfully applied in the SLS AB injector design process. High-fidelity reacting flow simulations were conducted for both single-element and seven-element representations of the full-scale injector. Data from the CFD simulations was then used to significantly augment and improve the empirical design tools, resulting in a high-performance, stable injector design.

  14. Transverse Injection into Subsonic Crossflow with Various Injector Orifice Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Lancert E.; Zaman, Khairul B.

    2010-01-01

    Computational and experimental results are presented for a case study of single injectors employed in 90 deg transverse injection into a non-reacting subsonic flow. Different injector orifice shapes are used (including circular, square, diamond-shaped, and wide rectangular slot), all with constant cross-sectional area, to observe the effects of this variation on injector penetration and mixing. Whereas the circle, square, and diamond injector produce similar jet plumes, the wide rectangular slot produces a plume with less vertical penetration than the others. There is also some evidence that the diamond injector produces slightly faster penetration with less mixing of the injected fluid. In addition, a variety of rectangular injectors were analyzed, with varying length/width ratios. Both experimental and computational data show improved plume penetration with increased streamwise orifice length. 3-D Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) results are obtained for the various injector geometries using NCC (National Combustion Code) with the kappa-epsilon turbulence model in multi-species modes on an unstructured grid. Grid sensitivity results are also presented which indicate consistent qualitative trends in the injector performance comparisons with increasing grid refinement.

  15. NOx Emissions from a Lobed Fuel Injector/Burner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, L. L.; Karagozian, A. R.; Smith, O. I.

    1996-01-01

    The present experimental study examines the performance of a novel fuel injector/burner configuration with respect to reduction in nitrogen oxide NOx emissions. The lobed injector/burner is a device in which very rapid initial mixing of reactants can occur through strong streamwise vorticity generation, producing high fluid mechanical strain rates which can delay ignition and thus prevent the formation of stoichiometric diffusion flames. Further downstream of the rapid mixing region. this flowfield produces a reduced effective strain rate, thus allowing ignition to occur in a premixed mode, where it is possible for combustion to take place under locally lean conditions. potentially reducing NOx emissions from the burner. The present experiments compare NO/NO2/NOx emissions from a lobed fuel injector configuration with emissions from a straight fuel injector to determine the net effect of streamwise vorticity generation. Preliminary results show that the lobed injector geometry can produce lean premixed flame structures. while for comparable flow conditions, a straight fuel injector geometry produces much longer. sooting diffusion flames or slightly rich pre-mixed flames. NO measurements show that emissions from a lobed fuel injector/burner can be made significantly lower than from a straight fuel injector under comparable flow conditions.

  16. Micro injector sample delivery system for charged molecules

    DOEpatents

    Davidson, James C.; Balch, Joseph W.

    1999-11-09

    A micro injector sample delivery system for charged molecules. The injector is used for collecting and delivering controlled amounts of charged molecule samples for subsequent analysis. The injector delivery system can be scaled to large numbers (>96) for sample delivery to massively parallel high throughput analysis systems. The essence of the injector system is an electric field controllable loading tip including a section of porous material. By applying the appropriate polarity bias potential to the injector tip, charged molecules will migrate into porous material, and by reversing the polarity bias potential the molecules are ejected or forced away from the tip. The invention has application for uptake of charged biological molecules (e.g. proteins, nucleic acids, polymers, etc.) for delivery to analytical systems, and can be used in automated sample delivery systems.

  17. Injector design guidelines for gas/liquid propellant systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falk, A. Y.; Burick, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Injector design guidelines are provided for gas/liquid propellant systems. Information was obtained from a 30-month applied research program encompassing an analytical, design, and experimental effort to relate injector design parameters to simultaneous attainment of high performance and component (injector/thrust chamber) compatibility for gas/liquid space storable propellants. The gas/liquid propellant combination studied was FLOX (82.6% F2)/ ambient temperature gaseous methane. Design criteria that provide for simultaneous attainment of high performance and chamber compatibility are presented for both injector types. Parametric data are presented that are applicable for the design of circular coaxial and like-doublet injectors that operate with design parameters similar to those employed. However, caution should be exercised when applying these data to propellant combinations whose elements operate in ranges considerably different from those employed in this study.

  18. Target Injector and Sabot Remover for IFE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Hiroki; Kameyama, Nobukazu

    2012-10-01

    Target injectors for IFE are required to inject targets to the reactor center at a velocity of over 100 m/s with accuracy of several millimeters. A target injector system with a magnetic sabot remover is developed to demonstrate injection of polystyrene targets. A typical target used in this study is 4.0 mm in diameter and 0.8 mg in weight. It is inserted in to an aluminum sabot that is 9.2 mm in outer diameter and 40 mm in length. They are accelerated together by a pneumatic gun. Before injection into the reactor, the sabot is removed for laser irradiation. The sabot remover is composed of Neodymium magnets array that generates Lorentz force as a result of interaction between the magnets' field and induced current on the sabot. The Neodymium magnets are 14 mm at inner diameter and 316 mT on its surface. The magnetic array is designed and optimized its magnets number for complete target extraction. The theoretically and experimentally confirmed deceleration rate of the sabot is 60.2 m/s/s per one meter. The targets are shot into the vacuum chamber after extraction from the sabot at accelerated velocity of 30 m/s. The experimentally obtained injection accuracy is 5.3 mm in horizontal direction and 4.8 mm in vertical direction.

  19. Supersonic gas injector for plasma fueling

    SciTech Connect

    Soukhanovskii, V A; Kugel, H W; Kaita, R; Roquemore, A L; Bell, M; Blanchard, W; Bush, C; Gernhardt, R; Gettelfinger, G; Gray, T; Majeski, R; Menard, J; Provost, T; Sichta, P; Raman, R

    2005-09-30

    A supersonic gas injector (SGI) has been developed for fueling and diagnostic applications on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). It is comprised of a graphite converging-diverging Laval nozzle and a commercial piezoelectric gas valve mounted on a movable probe at a low field side midplane port location. Also mounted on the probe is a diagnostic package: a Langmuir probe, two thermocouples and five pickup coils for measuring toroidal, radial, vertical magnetic field components and magnetic fluctuations at the location of the SGI tip. The SGI flow rate is up to 4 x 10{sup 21} particles/s, comparable to conventional NSTX gas injectors. The nozzle operates in a pulsed regime at room temperature and a reservoir gas pressure up to 0.33 MPa. The deuterium jet Mach number of about 4, and the divergence half-angle of 5{sup o}-25{sup o} have been measured in laboratory experiments simulating NSTX environment. In initial NSTX experiments reliable operation of the SGI and all mounted diagnostics at distances 1-20 cm from the plasma separatrix has been demonstrated. The SGI has been used for fueling of ohmic and 2-4 MW NBI heated L- and H-mode plasmas. Fueling efficiency in the range 0.1-0.3 has been obtained from the plasma electron inventory analysis.

  20. Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited)

    SciTech Connect

    Antoni, V.; Agostinetti, P.; Aprile, D.; Chitarin, G.; Fonnesu, N.; Marconato, N.; Pilan, N.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G. Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2014-02-15

    Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R and D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented.

  1. Physics design of the injector source for ITER neutral beam injector (invited).

    PubMed

    Antoni, V; Agostinetti, P; Aprile, D; Cavenago, M; Chitarin, G; Fonnesu, N; Marconato, N; Pilan, N; Sartori, E; Serianni, G; Veltri, P

    2014-02-01

    Two Neutral Beam Injectors (NBI) are foreseen to provide a substantial fraction of the heating power necessary to ignite thermonuclear fusion reactions in ITER. The development of the NBI system at unprecedented parameters (40 A of negative ion current accelerated up to 1 MV) requires the realization of a full scale prototype, to be tested and optimized at the Test Facility under construction in Padova (Italy). The beam source is the key component of the system and the design of the multi-grid accelerator is the goal of a multi-national collaborative effort. In particular, beam steering is a challenging aspect, being a tradeoff between requirements of the optics and real grids with finite thickness and thermo-mechanical constraints due to the cooling needs and the presence of permanent magnets. In the paper, a review of the accelerator physics and an overview of the whole R&D physics program aimed to the development of the injector source are presented.

  2. Electronic controlled fuel supply system for high pressure injector

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, L.L.; Perr, J.P.; Smith, E.D.

    1991-08-27

    This patent describes an electronically controlled fuel supply system for supplying fuel and timing fluid to a plurality of fuel injectors in an internal combustion engine, wherein each of the injectors includes a hydraulic link formed by the timing fluid which cooperates with a serially arranged plunger assembly to pressurize the fuel to be injected wherein the hydraulic link may have a variable effective length in response to variations in pressure of the timing fluid supplied to the the injector, the fuel supply system. It includes pump means fluidically connected to a fuel reservoir for pumping fuel from the reservoir to fuel channel means for supplying fuel to the injections and to timing means for supplying timing fluid to the injectors at a sufficient flow rate and pressure to operate the system; valve means fluidically interposed between the pump means and the fuel channel means and the timing fluid channel means for regulating the fuel supply to the fuel channel means and to the timing fluid channel means; electronically controlled fuel pressure regulating means fluidically connected to the pump means and to the injectors for regulating the pressure of the fuel to be supplied through the fuel channel means to the injectors for controlling the quantity of fuel to be injected by the injector.

  3. Injector for scattering measurements on fully solvated biospecies.

    PubMed

    Weierstall, U; Spence, J C H; Doak, R B

    2012-03-01

    We describe a liquid jet injector system developed to deliver fully solvated microscopic target species into a probe beam under either vacuum or ambient conditions. The injector was designed specifically for x-ray scattering studies of biological nanospecies using x-ray free electron lasers and third generation synchrotrons, but is of interest to any application in which microscopic samples must be delivered in a fully solvated state and with microscopic precision. By utilizing a gas dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN) to generate a sample-containing liquid jet of diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 μm, the injector avoids the clogging problems associated in this size range with conventional Rayleigh jets. A differential pumping system incorporated into the injector shields the experimental chamber from the gas load of the GDVN, making the injector compatible with high vacuum systems. The injector houses a fiber-optically coupled pump laser to illuminate the jet for pump-probe experiments and a hermetically sealed microscope to observe the liquid jet for diagnostics and alignment during operation. This injector system has now been used during several experimental runs at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Recent refinements in GDVN design are also presented.

  4. Injector for scattering measurements on fully solvated biospecies

    SciTech Connect

    Weierstall, U.; Spence, J. C. H.; Doak, R. B.

    2012-03-15

    We describe a liquid jet injector system developed to deliver fully solvated microscopic target species into a probe beam under either vacuum or ambient conditions. The injector was designed specifically for x-ray scattering studies of biological nanospecies using x-ray free electron lasers and third generation synchrotrons, but is of interest to any application in which microscopic samples must be delivered in a fully solvated state and with microscopic precision. By utilizing a gas dynamic virtual nozzle (GDVN) to generate a sample-containing liquid jet of diameter ranging from 300 nm to 20 {mu}m, the injector avoids the clogging problems associated in this size range with conventional Rayleigh jets. A differential pumping system incorporated into the injector shields the experimental chamber from the gas load of the GDVN, making the injector compatible with high vacuum systems. The injector houses a fiber-optically coupled pump laser to illuminate the jet for pump-probe experiments and a hermetically sealed microscope to observe the liquid jet for diagnostics and alignment during operation. This injector system has now been used during several experimental runs at the Linac Coherent Light Source. Recent refinements in GDVN design are also presented.

  5. Coaxial injector spray characterization using water/air as simulants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, Michelle M.; Klem, Mark D.

    1991-01-01

    Quantitative information about the atomization of injector sprays is required to improve the accuracy of computational models that predict the performance and stability of liquid propellant rocket engines. An experimental program is being conducted at NASA-Lewis to measure the drop size and velocity distributions in shear coaxial injector sprays. A phase/Doppler interferometer is used to obtain drop size data in water air shear coaxial injector sprays. Droplet sizes and axial component of droplet velocities are measured at different radii for various combinations of water flow rate, air flow rate, injector liquid jet diameter, injector annular gap, and liquid post recess. Sauter mean diameters measured in the spray center 51 mm downstream of the liquid post tip range from 28 to 68 microns, and mean axial drop velocities at the same location range from 37 to 120 m/s. The shear coaxial injector sprays show a high degree of symmetry; the mean drop size and velocity profiles vary with liquid flow rate, post recess, and distance from the injector face. The drop size data can be used to estimate liquid oxygen/hydrogen spray drop sizes by correcting property differences between water-air and liquid oxygen/hydrogen.

  6. Single element injector cold flow testing for STME swirl coaxial injector element design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J.; Schneider, J. A.

    1993-01-01

    An oxidizer-swirled coaxial element injector is being investigated for application in the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME). Single element cold flow experiments were conducted to provide characterization of the STME injector element for future analysis, design, and optimization. All tests were conducted to quiescent, ambient backpressure conditions. Spray angle, circumferential spray uniformity, dropsize, and dropsize distribution were measured in water-only and water/nitrogen flows. Rupe mixing efficiency was measured using water/sucrose solution flows with a large grid patternator for simple comparative evaluation of mixing. Factorial designs of experiment were used for statistical evaluation of injector geometrical design features and propellant flow conditions on mixing and atomization. Increasing the free swirl angle of the liquid oxidizer had the greatest influence on increasing the mixing efficiency. The addition of gas assistance had the most significant effect on reducing oxidizer droplet size parameters and increasing droplet size distribution. Increasing the oxidizer injection velocity had the greatest influence for reducing oxidizer droplet size parameters and increasing size distribution for non-gas assisted flows. Single element and multi-element subscale hot fire testing are recommended to verify optimized designs before committing to the STME design.

  7. String cavitation formation inside fuel injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, B. A.; Gavaises, M.; Mitroglou, N.; Hargrave, G. K.; Garner, C. P.; McDavid, R. M.

    2015-12-01

    The formation of vortex or ‘string’ cavitation has been visualised at pressures up to 2000 bar in an automotive-sized optical diesel fuel injector nozzle. The multi-hole nozzle geometry studied allowed observation of the hole-to-hole vortex interaction and, in particular, that of a bridging vortex in the sac region between the holes. Above a threshold Reynolds number, their formation and appearance during a 2 ms injection event was repeatable and independent of upstream pressure and cavitation number. In addition, two different hole layouts and threedimensional flow simulations have been employed to describe how, the relative positions of adjacent holes influenced the formation and hole-to-hole interaction of the observed string cavitation vortices, with good agreement between the experimental and simulation results being achieved.

  8. Commissioning Results of the LCLS Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D.H.; Akre, R.; Ding, Y.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, S.; Hays, G.; Hering, Ph.; Huang, Z.; Iverson, R.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Schmerge, J.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; White, W.; Wu, J.; Frohlich, L.; Limberg, T.; Prat, E.; /DESY

    2007-11-16

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE xray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC. The injector section, from drive-laser and RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in fall 2006. Initial system commissioning with an electron beam has recently been completed. The second phase of construction, including second bunch compressor and full linac, is planned for 2008. In this paper, we report experimental results and experience gained during the first phase of machine commissioning. This includes the cathode, drive laser, RF photocathode gun, linac booster section, S-band and X-band RF systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics.

  9. Initial Commissioning Experience With the LCLS Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Akre, R.; Castro, J.; Ding, Y.; Dowell, D.H.; Emma, P.; Frisch, J.; Gilevich, A.; Hays, G.; Hering, P.; Huang, Z.; Iverson, R.; Krejcik, P.; Limborg-Deprey, C.; Loos, H.; Miahnahri, A.; Rivetta, C.; Saleski, M.; Schmerge, J.F.; Schultz, D.; Turner, J.; Welch, J.; /SLAC /DESY

    2007-11-02

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a SASE xray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) project presently under construction at SLAC [1]. The injector section, from drive-laser and RF photocathode gun through first bunch compressor chicane, was installed in fall 2006. Initial system commissioning with an electron beam is taking place during the spring and summer of 2007. The second phase of construction, including second bunch compressor and full linac, will begin later, in the fall of 2007. We report here on experience gained during the first phase of machine commissioning, including RF photocathode gun, linac booster section, S-band and X-band RF systems, first bunch compressor, and the various beam diagnostics.

  10. 3 GeV Injector Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Wiedemann, H.; /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-12-16

    This Design Handbook is intended to be the main reference book for the specifications of the 3 GeV SPEAR booster synchrotron project. It is intended to be a consistent description of the project including design criteria, key technical specifications as well as current design approaches. Since a project is not complete till it's complete changes and modifications of early conceptual designs must be expected during the duration of the construction. Therefore, this Design Handbook is issued as a loose leaf binder so that individual sections can be replaced as needed. Each page will be dated to ease identification with respect to latest revisions. At the end of the project this Design Handbook will have become the 'as built' reference book of the injector for operations and maintenance personnel.

  11. Attempts to prevent injector coking with sunflower oil by engine modifications and fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    van der Walt, A.N.; Hugo, F.J.C.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of injector tip temperature on coking propencity when sunflower oil is used as a fuel for direct injection engines, was tested. Partial retraction of the injector, the addition of a heat shield to the injector and cooling the injector with water was tried. Also, injector temperature was increased by reducing heat transferred to the cylinder head and preheating the sunflower oil. None of these measures could prevent coking of the injector tip. Coating the injector tip with Teflon and increasing the back leakage rate was also tried without success. Only a few of many additives tested, showed some promise of being able to prevent coking. 5 figures, 1 table.

  12. A Neutral Beam Injector Upgrade for NSTX

    SciTech Connect

    T. Stevenson; B McCormack; G.D. Loesser; M. Kalish; S. Ramakrishnan; L. Grisham; J. Edwards; M. Cropper; G. Rossi; A. von Halle; M. Williams

    2002-01-18

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) capability with a Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) capable of 80 kiloelectronvolt (keV), 5 Megawatt (MW), 5 second operation. This 5.95 million dollar upgrade reused a previous generation injector and equipment for technical, cost, and schedule reasons to obtain these specifications while retaining a legacy capability of 120 keV neutral particle beam delivery for shorter pulse lengths for possible future NSTX experiments. Concerns with NBI injection included power deposition in the plasma, aiming angles from the fixed NBI fan array, density profiles and beam shine through, orbit losses of beam particles, and protection of the vacuum vessel wall against beam impingement. The upgrade made use of the beamline and cryo panels from the Neutral Beam Test Stand facility, existing power supplies and controls, beamline components and equipment not contaminated by tritium during DT [deuterium-tritium] experiments, and a liquid Helium refrigerator plant to power and cryogenically pump a beamline and three ion sources. All of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ion sources had been contaminated with tritium, so a refurbishment effort was undertaken on selected TFTR sources to rid the three sources destined for the NSTX NBI of as much tritium as possible. An interconnecting duct was fabricated using some spare and some new components to attach the beamline to the NSTX vacuum vessel. Internal vacuum vessel armor using carbon tiles was added to protect the stainless steel vacuum vessel from beam impingement in the absence of plasma and interlock failure. To date, the NBI has operated to 80 keV and 5 MW and has injected requested power levels into NSTX plasmas with good initial results, including high beta and strong heating characteristics at full rated plasma current.

  13. Performance and Modeling of the JLAB IR FEL Upgrade Injector

    SciTech Connect

    C. Hernandez-Garcia; K. Beard; S. Benson; G. Biallas; D. Bullard; D. Douglas; H. F. Dylla; R.Evans; A. Grippo; J. Gubeli; K. Jordan; G. Neil; Michelle D. Shinn; T. Siggins; R. Walker; B. Yunn; S.Zhang

    2004-09-01

    The JLab IR Upgrade Injector has delivered up to 9.1 mA of CW electron beam current at 9 MeV. The injector is driven by a 350 kV DC Photocathode Gun. Injector behavior and beam-based measurements are in good agreement with PARMELA simulations. The injected beam envelopes were established by measuring beam spot sizes and comparing them with those predicted by a transpart matrix based model. The emittances were measured by fitting an initial trial beam matrix to the measured data. The injected bunch length was established by measuring the energy spread downstream of the Linac while operating at either side of crest.

  14. Designing Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors for Performance, Stability, and Cost

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westra, Douglas G.; West, Jeffrey S.; Richardson, Brian R.; Tucker, Paul K.

    2014-01-01

    NASA is using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to lower the cost and increase the performance and stability of fuel injector designs for next-generation liquid rocket engines (LREs). The Loci-STREAM CFD code is used to simulate the complex combustion processes inside the LRE. These analyses enable efficient evaluation of the performance and stability characteristics of injector design concepts, while decreasing reliance on the costly test-fail-fix cycle of traditional design approaches. These injector simulations were recently employed as a key part of the design process for an Advanced Booster concept for NASA's heavy-lift Space Launch System (SLS).

  15. Progress in the injector for FEL at CIAE

    SciTech Connect

    Tianlu Yang; Wenzhen Zhou; Shinian Fu

    1995-12-31

    An intense current RF-linac for the far-infrared FEL is now under construction at CIAE. The normalized brightness of 3.4 x 10{sup 9} A/(m-rad) was obtained from the injector of the linac. An acceleration section with 9 cells will be connected with the injector to provide an electron beam for the 200 {mu}m FEL oscillator. In this paper, the late results from the injector beam test will be reported. The physical design and research progress in the acceleration section, beam transport, undulator as well as optical cavity will be introduced respectively.

  16. Multi-phase simulations of coaxial injector combustion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liang, P. Y.; Ungewitter, R. J.

    1992-01-01

    A multiphase computational fluid dynamics code (ARICC-3D) is presented and results of two simulations are discussed. The numerical framework of the CFD code is reviewed as well as some of the two-phase physical submodels. The simulations performed include a single coaxial element injector and a multielement injector using LOX/Hydrogen reactants. The single element injector simulation verified the interaction among the code's submodels. The multielement injector simulation transient results include the chamber response to a transverse pressure wave with and without a chamber baffle. The results of these simulations demonstrate the current capabilities and their limitations to model complex two-phase combustion phenomena. Possible ways to exceed these limitations are suggested.

  17. Method and apparatus for a substantially coaxial injector element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Horn, Mark D. (Inventor); Miyata, Shinjiro (Inventor); Farhangi, Shahram (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    A system to provide a two piece robust fluid injector. According to various embodiments, the fluid injector is a fuel injector for a combustion engine. The injector includes two coaxially formed annuluses. One annulus is formed in a face plate and the second annulus or hole is defined by a tube extending through the face plate. The tube extends through the face plate in a portion of a through bore which also is used to define the second annulus. The second annulus is formed using a throughbore through which the tube extends. This allows the second annulus to always be formed inherently and precisely substantially coaxial with the first annulus. Moreover, the second annulus can be formed with a much greater tolerance than if other independent components needed to be added.

  18. Development of a plasma injector for supersonic drag reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macnab, Angus; Hashim, Akel; Graham, Robert; Ziemba, Timothy; Miller, Kenneth

    2013-10-01

    Eagle Harbor Technologies, Inc. is developing and optimizing a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma injector, designed to reduce viscous skin friction of supersonic aircraft. The broad goals are to 1. Computationally investigate and verify the dominant physical mechanisms for MHD plasma drag reduction; 2. Develop a proof of concept plasma injector demo, which performs within the power limitations of an onboard flight-relevant system; and 3. Use insights gained through computational investigations to optimize the performance of our MHD plasma injector for maximum efficiency. This investigation focuses on flight-relevant Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers at low supersonic (1 injector.

  19. Injector for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kehne, D.; Godlove, T.; Haldemann, P.; Bernal, S.; Guharay, S.; Kishek, R.; Li, Y.; O'Shea, P.; Reiser, M.; Yun, V.; Zou, Y.; Haber, I.

    2001-05-01

    The electron beam injector constructed by FM technologies for the University of Maryland Electron Ring (UMER) program is described. The program will use an electron beam to model space-charge-dominated ion beams in a recirculating linac for heavy ion inertial fusion, as well as for high-current muon colliders. The injector consists of a 10 keV, 100 mA electron gun with 50-100 nsec pulse width and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. The e-gun system includes a 6-mask, rotatable aperture plate, a Rogowski current monitor, an ion pump, and a gate valve. The injector beamline consists of a solenoid, a five-quadrupole matching section, two diagnostic chambers, and a fast current monitor. An independent diagnostic chamber also built for UMER will be used to measure horizontal and vertical emittance, current, energy, energy spread, and the evolution of the beam envelope and profile along the injector beamline.

  20. 21 CFR 872.4475 - Spring-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... A spring-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The syringe is powered by a spring mechanism which provides the pressure to force the anesthetic out of...

  1. 21 CFR 872.4475 - Spring-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... A spring-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The syringe is powered by a spring mechanism which provides the pressure to force the anesthetic out of...

  2. 21 CFR 872.4475 - Spring-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... A spring-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The syringe is powered by a spring mechanism which provides the pressure to force the anesthetic out of...

  3. 21 CFR 872.4475 - Spring-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... A spring-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The syringe is powered by a spring mechanism which provides the pressure to force the anesthetic out of...

  4. 21 CFR 872.4475 - Spring-powered jet injector.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... A spring-powered jet injector is a syringe device intended to administer a local anesthetic. The syringe is powered by a spring mechanism which provides the pressure to force the anesthetic out of...

  5. Microwave heated resin injector for advanced composite production.

    PubMed

    Stanculovic, Sebastijan; Feher, Lambert

    2008-01-01

    A novel microwave (MW) injector at 2.45 GHz for resin infiltration has been developed at the Institute for Pulsed Power and Microwave Technology (IHM), Research Center Karlsruhe (FZK), Germany. Resin injection is an essential step in the production of carbon fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) for aerospace applications. A compact, low-cost and automated MW injector provides an efficient and safe energy transfer from the MW source to the resin and supports an appropriate electromagnetic field structure for homogeneous infiltration. The system provides temperature monitoring and an automatized MW power switching, which ensures a fast response of the MW system to rapid changes in the temperature for high flow rates of the resin. In low power measurements with a vector network analyzer, the geometry of the injector cavity has been adjusted to provide an efficient system. The MW injector has been tested for specific resin systems infiltrations.

  6. Proton Transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The transport of protons across membranes is an essential process for both bioenergetics of modern cells and the origins of cellular life. All living systems make use of proton gradients across cell walls to convert environmental energy into a high-energy chemical compound, adenosine triphosphate (ATP), synthesized from adenosine diphosphate. ATP, in turn, is used as a source of energy to drive many cellular reactions. The ubiquity of this process in biology suggests that even the earliest cellular systems were relying on proton gradient for harvesting environmental energy needed to support their survival and growth. In contemporary cells, proton transfer is assisted by large, complex proteins embedded in membranes. The issue addressed in this Study was: how the same process can be accomplished with the aid of similar but much simpler molecules that could have existed in the protobiological milieu? The model system used in the study contained a bilayer membrane made of phospholipid, dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC) which is a good model of the biological membranes forming cellular boundaries. Both sides of the bilayer were surrounded by water which simulated the environment inside and outside the cell. Embedded in the membrane was a fragment of the Influenza-A M$_2$ protein and enough sodium counterions to maintain system neutrality. This protein has been shown to exhibit remarkably high rates of proton transport and, therefore, is an excellent model to study the formation of proton gradients across membranes. The Influenza M$_2$ protein is 97 amino acids in length, but a fragment 25 amino acids long. which contains a transmembrane domain of 19 amino acids flanked by three amino acids on each side. is sufficient to transport protons. Four identical protein fragments, each folded into a helix, aggregate to form small channels spanning the membrane. Protons are conducted through a narrow pore in the middle of the channel in response to applied voltage. This

  7. The Schladitz Fuel Injector: An Initial Performance Evaluation without Burning.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-03-01

    flows was obtained from soot-coated slides exposed to the spray by a simple rotating slit device. Reduction in mean droplet replica size and an...Particle Impaction Sites . ... 26 8. Pressure Drop Characteristics of Injector #1 ....... . 32 9. Performance Characteristics of Injector #1 . ....... ... 33...coatings were tried, albeit unsuccess- fully in that replica profiles became very inconsistent, except for the smallest particle ranges. Impact sites

  8. Spark-integrated propellant injector head with flashback barrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mungas, Gregory Stuart (Inventor); Fisher, David James (Inventor); Mungas, Christopher (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    High performance propellants flow through specialized mechanical hardware that allows for effective and safe thermal decomposition and/or combustion of the propellants. By integrating a sintered metal component between a propellant feed source and the combustion chamber, an effective and reliable fuel injector head may be implemented. Additionally the fuel injector head design integrates a spark ignition mechanism that withstands extremely hot running conditions without noticeable spark mechanism degradation.

  9. Fuel injector utilizing non-thermal plasma activation

    DOEpatents

    Coates, Don M.; Rosocha, Louis A.

    2009-12-01

    A non-thermal plasma assisted combustion fuel injector that uses an inner and outer electrode to create an electric field from a high voltage power supply. A dielectric material is operatively disposed between the two electrodes to prevent arcing and to promote the formation of a non-thermal plasma. A fuel injector, which converts a liquid fuel into a dispersed mist, vapor, or aerosolized fuel, injects into the non-thermal plasma generating energetic electrons and other highly reactive chemical species.

  10. Optimum design of space storable gas/liquid coaxial injectors.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burick, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the results of a program of single-element, cold-flow/hot-fire experiments performed for the purpose of establishing design criteria for a high-performance gas/liquid (FLOX/CH4) coaxial injector. The approach and the techniques employed resulted in the direct design of an injector that met or exceeded the performance and chamber compatibility goals of the program without any need for the traditional 'cut-and-try' development methods.

  11. Longitudinal Beam Diagnostics for the ILC Injectors and Bunch Compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Piot, Philippe; Bracke, Adam; Demir, Veysel; Maxwell, Timothy; Rihaoui, Marwan; Jing, Chunguang; Power, John

    2010-12-01

    We present a diagnostics suite and analyze techniques for setting up the longitudinal beam dynamics in ILC e⁻ injectors and e⁺ and e⁻ bunch compressors. Techniques to measure the first order moments and recover the first order longitudinal transfer map of the injector's intricate bunching scheme are presented. Coherent transition radiation diagnostics needed to measure and monitor the bunch length downstream of the ~5 GeV bunch compressor are investigated using a vector diffraction model.

  12. Effect of injector configuration in rocket nozzle film cooling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A. Lakshya; Pisharady, J. C.; Shine, S. R.

    2016-04-01

    Experimental and numerical investigations are carried out to analyze the effect of coolant injector configuration on overall film cooling performance in a divergent section of a rocket nozzle. Two different injector orientations are investigated: (1) shaped slots with a divergence angle of 15° (semi-divergent injector) (2) fully divergent slot (fully divergent injector). A 2-dimensional, axis-symmetric, multispecies computational model using finite volume formulation has been developed and validated against the experimental data. The experiments provided a consistent set of measurements for cooling effectiveness for different blowing ratios ranging from 3.7 to 6. Results show that the semi divergent configuration leads to higher effectiveness compared to fully divergent slot at all blowing ratios. The spatially averaged effectiveness results show that the difference between the two configurations is significant at higher blowing ratios. The increase in effectiveness was around 2 % at BR = 3.7 whereas it was around 12 % in the case of BR = 6. Numerical results show the presence of secondary flow recirculation zones near the jet exit for both the injectors. An additional recirculation zone present in the case of fully divergent injector caused an increase in mixing of the coolant and mainstream, and a reduction in film cooling performance.

  13. Liquid Methane/Oxygen Injector Study for Mars Ascent Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trinh, Huu Phuoc

    1999-01-01

    As a part of the advancing technology of the cryogenic propulsion system for the Mars exploration mission, this effort aims at evaluating propellant injection concepts for liquid methane/liquid oxygen (LOX) rocket engines. Split-triplet and unlike impinging injectors were selected for this study. A total of four injector configurations were tested under combustion conditions in a modular combustor test article (MCTA), equipped with optically accessible windows, at MSFC. A series of forty hot-fire tests, which covered a wide range of engine operating conditions with the chamber pressure ranging from 320 to 510 and the mixture ratio from 1.5 to 3.5, were conducted. The test matrix also included a variation in the combustion chamber length for the purpose of investigating its effects on the combustion performance and stability. Initial assessments of the test results showed that the injectors provided stable combustion and there were no injector face overheating problems under all operating conditions. The Raman scattering signal measurement method was successfully demonstrated for the hydrocarbon/oxygen reactive flow field. The near-injector face flow field was visually observed through the use of an infrared camera. Chamber wall temperature, high frequency chamber pressure, and average throat section heat flux were also recorded throughout the test series. Assessments of the injector performance are underway.

  14. Engine Hydraulic Stability. [injector model for analyzing combustion instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kesselring, R. C.; Sprouse, K. M.

    1977-01-01

    An analytical injector model was developed specifically to analyze combustion instability coupling between the injector hydraulics and the combustion process. This digital computer dynamic injector model will, for any imposed chamber of inlet pressure profile with a frequency ranging from 100 to 3000 Hz (minimum) accurately predict/calculate the instantaneous injector flowrates. The injector system is described in terms of which flow segments enter and leave each pressure node. For each flow segment, a resistance, line lengths, and areas are required as inputs (the line lengths and areas are used in determining inertance). For each pressure node, volume and acoustic velocity are required as inputs (volume and acoustic velocity determine capacitance). The geometric criteria for determining inertances of flow segments and capacitance of pressure nodes was set. Also, a technique was developed for analytically determining time averaged steady-state pressure drops and flowrates for every flow segment in an injector when such data is not known. These pressure drops and flowrates are then used in determining the linearized flow resistance for each line segment of flow.

  15. Main Chamber Injectors for Advanced Hydrocarbon Booster Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Long, Matthew R.; Bazarov, Vladimir G.; Anderson, William E.

    2003-01-01

    Achieving the highest possible specific impulse has long been a key driver for space launch systems. Recently, more importance has been placed on the need for increased reliability and streamlined launch operations. These general factors along with more specific mission requirements have provided a new focus that is centered on the oxidizer rich staged combustion (ORSC) cycle. Despite a history of use in Russia that extends back to the 1960's, a proven design methodology for ORSC cycle engines does not exist in the West. This lack of design expertise extends to the main chamber injector, a critical subcomponent that largely determines the engine performance and main chamber life. The goals of the effort described here are to establish an empirical knowledge base to provide a fundamental understanding of main chamber injectors and for verification of an injector design methodology for the ORSC cycle. The design of a baseline injector element, derived from information on Russian engines in the open literature, is presented. The baseline injector comprises a gaseous oxidizer core flow and an annular swirling fuel flow. Sets of equations describing the steady-state and the dynamic characteristics of the injector are presented; these equations, which form the basis of the design analysis methodology, will be verified in tests later this year. On-going cold flow studies, using nitrogen and water as simulants, are described which indicate highly atomized and symmetric sprays.

  16. Space storable propellant performance program coaxial injector characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burick, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    An experimental program was conducted to characterize the circular coaxial injector concept for application with the space-storable gas/liquid propellant combination FLOX(82.6% F2)/CH4(g) at high pressure. The primary goal of the program was to obtain high characteristic velocity efficiency in conjunction with acceptable injector/chamber compatibility. A series of subscale (single element) cold flow and hot fire experiments was employed to establish design criteria for a 3000-lbf (sea level) engine operating at 500 psia. The subscale experiments characterized both high performance core elements and peripheral elements with enhanced injector/chamber compatibility. The full-scale injector which evolved from the study demonstrated a performance level of 99 percent of the theoretical shifting characteristic exhaust velocity with low chamber heat flux levels. A 44-second-duration firing demonstrated the durability of the injector. Parametric data are presented that are applicable for the design of circular, coaxial injectors that operate with injection dynamics (fuel and oxidizer velocity, etc.) similar to those employed in the work reported.

  17. Piezoelectric driven non-toxic injector for automated cell manipulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, H B; Su, Hao; Chen, H Y; Mills, J K

    2011-01-01

    Stimulated by state-of-the-art robotic and computer technology, Intra Cytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI) automation aims to scale and seamlessly transfer the human hand movements into more precise and fast movements of the micro manipulator. Piezo-drill cell injection, a novel technique using piezo-driven pipettes with a very small mercury column, has significantly improves the survival rates of ICSI process. It is found that complications are due, in large part, to toxicity of mercury and the damage to the cell membrane because of the lateral tip oscillations of injector pipette. In this paper, a new design of piezo-driven cell injector is proposed for automated suspended cell injection. This new piezo-driven cell injector design centralizes the piezo oscillation power on the injector pipette which eliminates the vibration effect on other parts of the micromanipulator. Detrimental lateral tip oscillations of the injector pipette are attenuated to a desirable level even without the help of mercury column. This mercury-free injector can sublime the piezoelectric driven injection technique to completely non-toxic level with great research and commercial application in gene injection, in-vitro fertilization, ICSI and drug development.

  18. Progress in Multi-Batch Slip Stacking in the Fermilab Main Injector and Future Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Seiya, K.; Chase, B.; Dey, J.; Joireman, P.; Kourbanis, I.; Reid, J.; /Fermilab

    2008-04-01

    The multi-batch slip stacking has been used for operations since January, 2008 and effectively increased proton intensity to the NuMI target by 50% in a Main Injector (MI) cycle. The MI accepts 11 batches at injection energy from the Booster, and sends two batches to antiproton production and nine to the NuMI beam line. The total beam power in a cycle was increased to 340 kW on average. We have been doing beam studies in order to increase the beam power to 400 kW and to control the beam loss. We will also discuss 12 batch slip stacking scheme which is going to be used for future neutrino experiments.

  19. 700 kW Main Injector Operations for NOvA at FNAL

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, Philip

    2015-06-01

    Following a successful career as an antiproton storage and cooling ring, the Fermilab Recycler was repurposed as a proton stacker as part of the NOvA project, in order to increase the maximum NuMI beam power from 400 kW to 700 kW. Using the Recycler to prepare beam for acceleration in the Main Injector, we have been able to increase the beam power delivered to NuMI to a sustained weekly average in excess of 400 kW and a best hourly average of 482.8 kW. I discuss the commissioning progress to date, and describe the remaining steps along the way to achieving the 700 kW design goal.

  20. Collimation system design for beam loss localization with slipstacking injection in the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Drozhdin, A.I.; Brown, B.C.; Johnson, D.E.; Koba, K.; Kourbanis, I.; Mokhov, N.V.; Rakhno, I.L.; Sidorov, V.I.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Results of modeling with the 3-D STRUCT and MARS15 codes of beam loss localization and related radiation effects are presented for the slipstacking injection to the Fermilab Main Injector. Simulations of proton beam loss are done using multi-turn tracking with realistic accelerator apertures, nonlinear fields in the accelerator magnets and time function of the RF manipulations to explain the results of beam loss measurements. The collimation system consists of one primary and four secondary collimators. It intercepts a beam power of 1.6 kW at a scraping rate of 5% of 5.5E+13 ppp, with a beam loss rate in the ring outside the collimation region of 1 W/m or less. Based on thorough energy deposition and radiation modeling, a corresponding collimator design was developed that satisfies all the radiation and engineering constraints.

  1. Recent Progress of Neutral Beam Injector and Beam Emission Diagnosis in LHD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsunori, Ikeda; Kenichi, Nagaoka; Yasuhiko, Takeiri; Masaki, Osakabe; Katsuyoshi, Tsumori; Osamu, Kaneko

    2009-08-01

    Large size hydrogen neutral beam injectors (NBI) used a negative ion source (NNBI) as well as a proton source (PNBI) were developed for the large helical device (LHD). The injected power from NNBI and PNBI have reached 16 MW and 6.8 MW, respectively. These injected powers have outstripped the nominal beam powers. A diagnostic system of beam-emitted hydrogen visible spectrum has been installed along the beam injection axis to estimate the energy fraction on PNBI. The full energy beam component is about half which is equivalent to 70% of injected beam power. The attenuation of high energy neutral beam is also observed on NNBI. The peak density distribution is effective to increase beam deposition power.

  2. Beam commissioning for a superconducting proton linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Jun; He, Yuan; Jia, Huan; Dou, Wei-ping; Chen, Wei-long; Zhang, X. L.; Liu, Shu-hui; Feng, Chi; Tao, Yue; Wang, Wang-sheng; Wu, Jian-qiang; Zhang, Sheng-hu; Zhao, Hong-Wei

    2016-12-01

    To develop the next generation of safe and cleaner nuclear energy, the accelerator-driven subcritical (ADS) system emerges as one of the most attractive technologies. It will be able to transmute the long-lived transuranic radionuclides produced in the reactors of today's nuclear power plants into shorter-lived ones, and also it will provide positive energy output at the same time. The prototype of the Chinese ADS (C-ADS) proton accelerator comprises two injectors and a 1.5 GeV, 10 mA continuous wave (CW) superconducting main linac. The injector scheme II at the C-ADS demo facility inside the Institute of Modern Physics is a 10 MeV CW superconducting linac with a designed beam current of 10 mA, which includes an ECR ion source, a low-energy beam transport line, a 162.5 MHz radio frequency quadrupole accelerator, a medium-energy beam transport line, and a superconducting half wave resonator accelerator section. This demo facility has been successfully operating with an 11 mA, 2.7 MeV CW beam and a 3.9 mA, 4.3 MeV CW beam at different times and conditions since June 2014. The beam power has reached 28 kW, which is the highest record for the same type of linear accelerators. In this paper, the parameters of the test injector II and the progress of the beam commissioning are reported.

  3. Comparison of JP-8 Sprays from a Hydraulically Actuated Electronically Controlled Unit Injector and a Common Rail Injector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    were performed with a constant injector command for fuel injection pressures of 1080 bar and 1200 bar at 2 different oil temperatures consisting of 45...As shown in Figure 9, as the temperature is increased, the injected fuel mass also increases. For the 1200 bar and 1080 bar fuel pressure the...of 90°C but varying dwell time of the solenoid injector command for fuel pressures of 1080 bar and 1200 bar. Results of the 100 shot average

  4. Design and construction of a compact microwave proton source for a proton linac.

    PubMed

    Hong, I S; Park, B S; Jang, J H; Kwon, H J; Cho, Y S; Hwang, Y S

    2010-02-01

    A 100 MeV, 20 mA proton linear accelerator is being developed by the Proton Engineering Frontier Project at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. 20 MeV acceleration system using radio frequency quadrupole and drift tube linac was already developed and has been tested. To operate this acceleration system with a long time, more reliable proton source is needed. A compact microwave proton source was proposed and has been designed and constructed as a prototype ion source for the 100 MeV proton linear accelerator. The design of microwave power injection system is based on the microwave proton injector at LANL and CEA. The wave power from a 2.45 GHz, 2 kW magnetron source is introduced into a compact plasma chamber with 7 cm diameter and 5 cm length through a standard tapered, double-ridged waveguide (WRD250) and a quartz window. The microwave power supply is installed on high voltage platform. Axial magnetic fields up to 1 kG can be provided with a water-cooled solenoid coil. A single-hole three electrode extraction system is designed for an extraction current up to 30 mA at a 50 kV extraction voltage. The design and initial operations of the proton source are presented.

  5. Design and construction of a compact microwave proton source for a proton linac

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, I. S.; Park, B. S.; Jang, J. H.; Kwon, H. J.; Cho, Y. S.; Hwang, Y. S.

    2010-02-15

    A 100 MeV, 20 mA proton linear accelerator is being developed by the Proton Engineering Frontier Project at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute. 20 MeV acceleration system using radio frequency quadrupole and drift tube linac was already developed and has been tested. To operate this acceleration system with a long time, more reliable proton source is needed. A compact microwave proton source was proposed and has been designed and constructed as a prototype ion source for the 100 MeV proton linear accelerator. The design of microwave power injection system is based on the microwave proton injector at LANL and CEA. The wave power from a 2.45 GHz, 2 kW magnetron source is introduced into a compact plasma chamber with 7 cm diameter and 5 cm length through a standard tapered, double-ridged waveguide (WRD250) and a quartz window. The microwave power supply is installed on high voltage platform. Axial magnetic fields up to 1 kG can be provided with a water-cooled solenoid coil. A single-hole three electrode extraction system is designed for an extraction current up to 30 mA at a 50 kV extraction voltage. The design and initial operations of the proton source are presented.

  6. Beam tests of beampipe coatings for electron cloud mitigation in Fermilab Main Injector

    DOE PAGES

    Backfish, Michael; Eldred, Jeffrey; Tan, Cheng Yang; ...

    2015-10-26

    Electron cloud beam instabilities are an important consideration in virtually all high-energy particle accelerators and could pose a formidable challenge to forthcoming high-intensity accelerator upgrades. Dedicated tests have shown beampipe coatings dramatically reduce the density of electron cloud in particle accelerators. In this work, we evaluate the performance of titanium nitride, amorphous carbon, and diamond-like carbon as beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector. Altogether our tests represent 2700 ampere-hours of proton operation spanning five years. Three electron cloud detectors, retarding field analyzers, are installed in a straight section and allow a direct comparisonmore » between the electron flux in the coated and uncoated stainless steel beampipe. We characterize the electron flux as a function of intensity up to a maximum of 50 trillion protons per cycle. Each beampipe material conditions in response to electron bombardment from the electron cloud and we track the changes in these materials as a function of time and the number of absorbed electrons. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. We measure the energy spectrum of electrons incident on the stainless steel, titanium nitride and amorphous carbon beampipes. We find the electron cloud signal is highly sensitive to stray magnetic fields and bunch-length over the Main Injector ramp cycle. In conclusion, we conduct a complete survey of the stray magnetic fields at the test station and compare the electron cloud signal to that in a field-free region.« less

  7. Beam tests of beampipe coatings for electron cloud mitigation in Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Backfish, Michael; Eldred, Jeffrey; Tan, Cheng Yang; Zwaska, Robert

    2015-10-26

    Electron cloud beam instabilities are an important consideration in virtually all high-energy particle accelerators and could pose a formidable challenge to forthcoming high-intensity accelerator upgrades. Dedicated tests have shown beampipe coatings dramatically reduce the density of electron cloud in particle accelerators. In this work, we evaluate the performance of titanium nitride, amorphous carbon, and diamond-like carbon as beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector. Altogether our tests represent 2700 ampere-hours of proton operation spanning five years. Three electron cloud detectors, retarding field analyzers, are installed in a straight section and allow a direct comparison between the electron flux in the coated and uncoated stainless steel beampipe. We characterize the electron flux as a function of intensity up to a maximum of 50 trillion protons per cycle. Each beampipe material conditions in response to electron bombardment from the electron cloud and we track the changes in these materials as a function of time and the number of absorbed electrons. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. We measure the energy spectrum of electrons incident on the stainless steel, titanium nitride and amorphous carbon beampipes. We find the electron cloud signal is highly sensitive to stray magnetic fields and bunch-length over the Main Injector ramp cycle. In conclusion, we conduct a complete survey of the stray magnetic fields at the test station and compare the electron cloud signal to that in a field-free region.

  8. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... effects of the treatment. top of page What equipment is used? Proton beam therapy uses special machines, ... tumor cells. top of page Who operates the equipment? With backgrounds in mechanical, electrical, software, hardware and ...

  9. Subscale Injector Testing to Support Ares Engines Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Elam, Sandy

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X and RS-68B rocket engines are being developed for NASA's Ares I and Ares V launch vehicles. In support of the development of these engines, hot-fire testing on subscale coaxial injectors has been performed at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate performance data relative to injector type, liquid oxygen (LOX) post tip design features, element density and various operating conditions. Shear coaxial injectors with element densities of 1.1, 1.6, and 2.3 elements/in2 and a swirl coaxial injector with element density of 1.6 elements/in2 were evaluated at conditions relevant to the Ares applications. Chamber pressures with oxygen/hydrogen propellants ranged from 815-1630 psig with mixture ratios ranging from 4.7-6.9. Fuel manifold inlet temperatures were varied from 90 to 270 R. Shear coaxial LOX post tip thicknesses ranged from 0.006 in. to 0.0175 in. Modular, water cooled, calorimeter chamber assemblies were used to provide heating rate data and evaluate the effects of characteristic length (L*). Performance was evaluated relative to the resulting characteristic velocity (C*) efficiency. Testing with both the 2.3 and 1.1 elements/in2 shear coaxial injectors demonstrated no improvement in performance of the "thin" tip configuration versus the "thick" tip configuration. The loss in chamber pressure and associated performance loss seen in previous testing at low fuel temperatures could not be reliably repeated, indicating that this loss is not the result of a fluidic process in the injector elements. Further, no performance loss could be demonstrated once a faceplate seal specifically designed for operation with low temperature hydrogen was implemented in the 1.1 elements/sq in shear coaxial injector. Results for the 1.6 elements/sq in swirl injector at cold fuel temperatures showed performance higher than both the 1.6 elements/in2 shear coaxial injector and the 2.3 elements/in2 shear coaxial injector.

  10. Computational simulation of liquid fuel rocket injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landrum, D. Brian

    1994-01-01

    A major component of any liquid propellant rocket is the propellant injection system. Issues of interest include the degree of liquid vaporization and its impact on the combustion process, the pressure and temperature fields in the combustion chamber, and the cooling of the injector face and chamber walls. The Finite Difference Navier-Stokes (FDNS) code is a primary computational tool used in the MSFC Computational Fluid Dynamics Branch. The branch has dedicated a significant amount of resources to development of this code for prediction of both liquid and solid fuel rocket performance. The FDNS code is currently being upgraded to include the capability to model liquid/gas multi-phase flows for fuel injection simulation. An important aspect of this effort is benchmarking the code capabilities to predict existing experimental injection data. The objective of this MSFC/ASEE Summer Faculty Fellowship term was to evaluate the capabilities of the modified FDNS code to predict flow fields with liquid injection. Comparisons were made between code predictions and existing experimental data. A significant portion of the effort included a search for appropriate validation data. Also, code simulation deficiencies were identified.

  11. Development of a repetitive compact torus injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onchi, Takumi; McColl, David; Dreval, Mykola; Rohollahi, Akbar; Xiao, Chijin; Hirose, Akira; Zushi, Hideki

    2013-10-01

    A system for Repetitive Compact Torus Injection (RCTI) has been developed at the University of Saskatchewan. CTI is a promising fuelling technology to directly fuel the core region of tokamak reactors. In addition to fuelling, CTI has also the potential for (a) optimization of density profile and thus bootstrap current and (b) momentum injection. For steady-state reactor operation, RCTI is necessary. The approach to RCTI is to charge a storage capacitor bank with a large capacitance and quickly charge the CT capacitor bank through a stack of integrated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs). When the CT bank is fully charged, the IGBT stack will be turned off to isolate banks, and CT formation/acceleration sequence will start. After formation of each CT, the fast bank will be replenished and a new CT will be formed and accelerated. Circuits for the formation and the acceleration in University of Saskatchewan CT Injector (USCTI) have been modified. Three CT shots at 10 Hz or eight shots at 1.7 Hz have been achieved. This work has been sponsored by the CRC and NSERC, Canada.

  12. Micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Sáiz, Jorge; Koenka, Israel Joel; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Müller, Beat; Chwalek, Thomas; Hauser, Peter C

    2015-08-01

    A novel micro-injector for capillary electrophoresis for the handling of samples with volumes down to as little as 300 nL was designed and built in our laboratory for analyses in which the available volume is a limitation. The sample is placed into a small cavity located directly in front of the separation capillary, and the injection is then carried out automatically by controlled pressurization of the chamber with compressed air. The system also allows automated flushing of the injection chamber as well as of the capillary. In a trial with a capillary electrophoresis system with contactless conductivity detector, employing a capillary of 25 μm diameter, the results showed good stability of migration times and peak areas. To illustrate the technique, the fast separation of five inorganic cations (Na(+) , K(+) , NH4 (+) , Ca(2+) , and Mg(2+) ) was set up. This could be achieved in less than 3 min, with good limits of detection (10 μM) and linear ranges (between about 10 and 1000 μM). The system was demonstrated for the determination of the inorganic cations in porewater samples of a lake sediment core.

  13. An Injector Test Facility for the LCLS

    SciTech Connect

    Colby, E.,; /SLAC

    2007-03-14

    SLAC is in the privileged position of being the site for the world's first 4th generation light source as well as having a premier accelerator research staff and facilities. Operation of the world's first x-ray free electron laser (FEL) facility will require innovations in electron injectors to provide electron beams of unprecedented quality. Upgrades to provide ever shorter wavelength x-ray beams of increasing intensity will require significant advances in the state-of-the-art. The BESAC 20-Year Facilities Roadmap identifies the electron gun as ''the critical enabling technology to advance linac-based light sources'' and recognizes that the sources for next-generation light sources are ''the highest-leveraged technology'', and that ''BES should strongly support and coordinate research and development in this unique and critical technology''.[1] This white paper presents an R&D plan and a description of a facility for developing the knowledge and technology required to successfully achieve these upgrades, and to coordinate efforts on short-pulse source development for linac-based light sources.

  14. Electrothermal plasma gun as a pellet injector

    SciTech Connect

    Kincaid, R.W.; Bourham, M.A.

    1994-11-01

    The NCSU electrothermal plasma gun SIRENS has been used to accelerate plastic (Lexan polycarbonate) pellets, to determine the feasibility of the use of electrothermal guns as pellet injectors. The use of an electrothermal gun to inject frozen hydrogenic pellets requires a mechanism to provide protective shells (sabots) for shielding the pellet from ablation during acceleration into and through the barrel of the gun. The gun has been modified to accommodate acceleration of the plastic pellets using special acceleration barrels equipped with diagnostics for velocity and position of the pellet, and targets to absorb the pellet`s energy on impact. The length of the acceleration path could be varied between 15 and 45 cm. The discharge energy of the electrothermal gun ranged from 2 to 6 kJ. The pellet velocities have been measured via a set of break wires. Pellet masses were varied between 0.5 and 1.0 grams. Preliminary results on 0.5 and 1.0 g pellets show that the exit velocity reaches 0.9 km/s at 6 kJ input energy to the source. Higher velocities of 1.5 and 2.7 km/s have been achieved using 0.5 and 1.0 gm pellets in 30 cm long barrel, without cleaning the barrel between the shots.

  15. Injector for liquid fueled rocket engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornelius, Charles S. (Inventor); Myers, W. Neill (Inventor); Shadoan, Michael David (Inventor); Sparks, David L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An injector for liquid fueled rocket engines wherein a generally flat core having a frustoconical dome attached to one side of the core to serve as a manifold for a first liquid, with the core having a generally circular configuration having an axis. The other side of the core has a plurality of concentric annular first slots and a plurality of annular concentric second slots alternating with the first slots, the second slots having a greater depth than said first slots. A bore extends through the core for inletting a second liquid into said core, the bore intersecting the second slots to feed the second liquid into the second slots. The core also has a plurality of first passageways leading from the manifold to the first annular slots for feeding the first liquid into said first slots. A faceplate brazed to said other side of the core is provided with apertures extending from the first and second slots through said face plate, these apertures being positioned to direct fuel and liquid oxygen into contact with each other in the combustion chamber. The first liquid may be liquid oxygen and the second liquid may be kerosene or liquid hydrogen.

  16. Beam collimation and energy spectrum compression of laser-accelerated proton beams using solenoid field and RF cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teng, J.; Gu, Y. Q.; Zhu, B.; Hong, W.; Zhao, Z. Q.; Zhou, W. M.; Cao, L. F.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a new method of laser produced proton beam collimation and spectrum compression using a combination of a solenoid field and a RF cavity. The solenoid collects laser-driven protons efficiently within an angle that is smaller than 12 degrees because it is mounted few millimeters from the target, and collimates protons with energies around 2.3 MeV. The collimated proton beam then passes through a RF cavity to allow compression of the spectrum. Particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations demonstrate the proton beam transport in the solenoid and RF electric fields. Excellent energy compression and collection efficiency of protons are presented. This method for proton beam optimization is suitable for high repetition-rate laser acceleration proton beams, which could be used as an injector for a conventional proton accelerator.

  17. Inherent stability of central element coaxial liquid-liquid injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoddard, Frank J.

    1993-01-01

    Most TRW liquid bi-propellant rocket engines built over the past thirty-plus years have employed a central element coaxial pintle injector and have operated with liquid/liquid propellant injection. This injector is a patented design exclusive to TRW and has unique features that make the rocket engine combustion characteristics different from those of other types of injector engine designs. Its many benefits include excellent combustion performance, efficient deep throttling, adaptability to low cost manufacturing, and high reliability. Approximately 200 pintle injector engines of various sizes and operating on a variety of propellants have been flown without a single inflight failure. An especially important feature of the pintle injector engine is its apparent inherent combustion stability. In over thirty years of development, testing, and production, TRW has never experienced combustion instability in any of its pintle injector engine designs. This has been true of engines operating over a range of thrust from 5 to 250,000 lbs. on earth-storable hypergolic propellants and a large number of smaller engines operating on a variety of propellants (21 combinations) in long duration-firing, pulsing (down to 2 msec), and deep throttling (as much as 19:1) modes. Operating chamber pressures have ranged from 10 to 3,500 psia. This record is particularly impressive given that typical TRW design practice does not consider combustion instability as an issue and no pintle engine has ever employed stability-enhancing features, such as baffles or acoustically resonant chambers. In spite of this, TRW engines have operated stably in regimes not possible with other types of injectors. Various physical explanations and combustion process models for this favorable stability characteristic have been postulated. However, a definitive study that unequivocally establishes the important stabilizing mechanisms still remains to be conducted.

  18. Design, fabrication and delivery of a high pressure LOX-methane injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valler, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    An injector for 3000 psia chamber pressure using liquid oxygen and gaseous methane propellants is presented. The injector is intended to be evaluated during a series of pressure-fed test firings using a water-cooled calorimeter chamber and a milled-slot regenerative chamber. Combustion efficiency, combustion stability, ignition and injector face heat transfer assessments were made for candidate injector body and pattern design approaches. This evaluation resulted in baselining an oxidizer post type manifold with a 60 element platelet coaxial swirler injector pattern. An axial acoustic resonator cavity was created at the injector/chamber interface.

  19. Cross section measurements in the main injector particle production (FNAL-E907) experiment at 58 GeV energy

    SciTech Connect

    Gunaydin, Yusuf Oguzhan

    2009-12-01

    Cross-sections are presented for 58 GeV π, K, and p on a wide range of nuclear targets. These cross-sections are essential for determining the neutrino flux in measurements of neutrino cross-sections and oscillations. The E907 Main Injector Particle Production (MIPP) experiment at Fermilab is a fixed target experiment for measuring hadronic particle production using primary 120 GeV/c protons and secondary π, K, and p beams. The particle identification is made by dE/dx in a time projection chamber, and by time-of-flight, differential Cherenkov and ring imaging Cherenkov detectors, which together cover a wide range of momentum from 0.1 GeV/c up to 120 GeV/c. MIPP targets span the periodic table, from hydrogen to uranium, including beryllium and carbon. The MIPP has collected ~ 0.26 x 106 events of 58 GeV/c secondary particles produced by protons from the main injector striking a carbon target.

  20. Fundamental rocket injector/spray programs at the Phillips Laboratory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talley, D. G.

    1993-01-01

    The performance and stability of liquid rocket engines is determined to a large degree by atomization, mixing, and combustion processes. Control over these processes is exerted through the design of the injector. Injectors in liquid rocket engines are called upon to perform many functions. They must first of all mix the propellants to provide suitable performance in the shortest possible length. For main injectors, this is driven by the tradeoff between the combustion chamber performance, stability, efficiency, and its weight and cost. In gas generators and preburners, however, it is also driven by the possibility of damage to downstream components, for example piping and turbine blades. This can occur if unburned fuel and oxidant later react to create hot spots. Weight and cost considerations require that the injector design be simple and lightweight. For reusable engines, the injectors must also be durable and easily maintained. Suitable atomization and mixing must be produced with as small a pressure drop as possible, so that the size and weight of pressure vessels and turbomachinery can be minimized. However, the pressure drop must not be so small as to promote feed system coupled instabilities. Another important function of the injectors is to ensure that the injector face plate and the chamber and nozzle walls are not damaged. Typically this requires reducing the heat transfer to an acceptable level and also keeping unburned oxygen from chemically attacking the walls, particularly in reusable engines. Therefore the mixing distribution is often tailored to be fuel-rich near the walls. Wall heat transfer can become catastrophically damaging in the presence of acoustic instabilities, so the injector must prevent these from occurring at all costs. In addition to acoustic stability (but coupled with it), injectors must also be kinetically stable. That is, the flame itself must maintain ignition in the combustion chamber. This is not typically a problem with main

  1. Achromatic beam transport of High Current Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Sarvesh; Mandal, A.

    2016-02-01

    The high current injector (HCI) provides intense ion beams of high charge state using a high temperature superconducting ECR ion source. The ion beam is accelerated upto a final energy of 1.8 MeV/u due to an electrostatic potential, a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) and a drift tube linac (DTL). The ion beam has to be transported to superconducting LINAC which is around 50 m away from DTL. This section is termed as high energy beam transport section (HEBT) and is used to match the beam both in transverse and longitudinal phase space to the entrance of LINAC. The HEBT section is made up of four 90 deg. achromatic bends and interconnecting magnetic quadrupole triplets. Two RF bunchers have been used for longitudinal phase matching to the LINAC. The ion optical design of HEBT section has been simulated using different beam dynamics codes like TRACEWIN, GICOSY and TRACE 3D. The field computation code OPERA 3D has been utilized for hardware design of all the magnets. All the dipole and quadrupole magnets have been field mapped and their test results such as edge angles measurements, homogeneity and harmonic analysis etc. are reported. The whole design of HEBT section has been performed such that the most of the beam optical components share same hardware design and there is ample space for beam diagnostics as per geometry of the building. Many combination of achromatic bends have been simulated to transport the beam in HEBT section but finally the four 90 deg. achromatic bend configuration is found to be the best satisfying all the geometrical constraints with simplified beam tuning process in real time.

  2. Investigation of ramp injectors for supersonic mixing enhancement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haimovitch, Y.; Gartenberg, E.; Roberts, A. S., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    A comparative study of wall mounted swept ramp injectors fitted with injector nozzles of different shape has been conducted in a constant area duct to explore mixing enhancement techniques for scramjet combustors. Six different injector nozzle inserts, all having equal exit and throat areas, were tested to explore the interaction between the preconditioned fuel jet and the vortical flowfield produced by the ramp: circular nozzle (baseline), nozzle with three downstream facing steps, nozzle with four vortex generators, elliptical nozzle, tapered-slot nozzle, and trapezoidal nozzle. The main flow was air at Mach 2, and the fuel was simulated by air injected at Mach 1.63 or by helium injected at Mach 1.7. Pressure and temperature surveys, combined with Mie and Rayleigh scattering visualization, were used to investigate the flow field. The experiments were compared with three dimensional Navier-Stokes computations. The results indicate that the mixing process is dominated by the streamwise vorticity generated by the ramp, the injectors' inner geometry having a minor effect. It was also found that the injectant/air mixing in the far-field is nearly independent of the injector geometry, molecular weight of the injectant, and the initial convective Mach number.

  3. Deuteron injector for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility project

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, H. T.; Chen, J. E.; Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Yuan, Z. X.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, M.; Song, Z. Z.; Yu, J. X.; Guo, Z. Y.

    2012-02-15

    The deuteron injector developed for the PKUNIFTY (Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility) has been installed and commissioned at Peking University (PKU). The injector system must transfer 50 keV 50 mA of D{sup +} ion beam to the entrance of the 2 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with 10% duty factor (1 ms, 100 Hz). A compact 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (PMECR) ion source and a 1.36 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT) line using two solenoids was developed as the deuteron injector. A {phi}5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was used to simulate the entrance of RFQ electrodes. The beam parameters are measured after this core with an emittance measurement unit (EMU) and a bending magnet for ion fraction analysis at the end of injector. During the commissioning, 77 mA of total deuteron beam was extracted from PMECR and 56 mA of pure D{sup +} beam that passed through the {phi}5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was obtained at the position of RFQ entrance with the measured normalized rms emittance 0.12-0.16{pi} mm mrad. Ion species analysis results show that the deuteron fraction is as high as 99.5%. All of the parameters satisfy PKUNIFTY's requirements. In this paper, we will describe the deuteron injector design and report the commissioning results as well as the initial operation.

  4. Deuteron injector for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility project.

    PubMed

    Ren, H T; Peng, S X; Lu, P N; Zhou, Q F; Yuan, Z X; Zhao, J; Zhang, M; Song, Z Z; Yu, J X; Guo, Z Y; Chen, J E

    2012-02-01

    The deuteron injector developed for the PKUNIFTY (Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility) has been installed and commissioned at Peking University (PKU). The injector system must transfer 50 keV 50 mA of D(+) ion beam to the entrance of the 2 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with 10% duty factor (1 ms, 100 Hz). A compact 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (PMECR) ion source and a 1.36 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT) line using two solenoids was developed as the deuteron injector. A φ5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was used to simulate the entrance of RFQ electrodes. The beam parameters are measured after this core with an emittance measurement unit (EMU) and a bending magnet for ion fraction analysis at the end of injector. During the commissioning, 77 mA of total deuteron beam was extracted from PMECR and 56 mA of pure D(+) beam that passed through the φ5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was obtained at the position of RFQ entrance with the measured normalized rms emittance 0.12-0.16π mm mrad. Ion species analysis results show that the deuteron fraction is as high as 99.5%. All of the parameters satisfy PKUNIFTY's requirements. In this paper, we will describe the deuteron injector design and report the commissioning results as well as the initial operation.

  5. Deuteron injector for Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility projecta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, H. T.; Peng, S. X.; Lu, P. N.; Zhou, Q. F.; Yuan, Z. X.; Zhao, J.; Zhang, M.; Song, Z. Z.; Yu, J. X.; Guo, Z. Y.; Chen, J. E.

    2012-02-01

    The deuteron injector developed for the PKUNIFTY (Peking University Neutron Imaging Facility) has been installed and commissioned at Peking University (PKU). The injector system must transfer 50 keV 50 mA of D+ ion beam to the entrance of the 2 MeV radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) with 10% duty factor (1 ms, 100 Hz). A compact 2.45 GHz permanent magnet electron cyclotron resonance (PMECR) ion source and a 1.36 m long low energy beam transport (LEBT) line using two solenoids was developed as the deuteron injector. A ϕ5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was used to simulate the entrance of RFQ electrodes. The beam parameters are measured after this core with an emittance measurement unit (EMU) and a bending magnet for ion fraction analysis at the end of injector. During the commissioning, 77 mA of total deuteron beam was extracted from PMECR and 56 mA of pure D+ beam that passed through the ϕ5 mm four-quadrant diaphragm was obtained at the position of RFQ entrance with the measured normalized rms emittance 0.12-0.16π mm mrad. Ion species analysis results show that the deuteron fraction is as high as 99.5%. All of the parameters satisfy PKUNIFTY's requirements. In this paper, we will describe the deuteron injector design and report the commissioning results as well as the initial operation.

  6. A fuel pellet injector for the Microwave Tokamak Experiment (MTX)

    SciTech Connect

    Hibbs, S.M.; Allen, S.L.; Petersen, D.E.; Sewall, N.R.

    1990-09-01

    Unlike other fueling systems for magnetically confined fusion plasmas, a pellet injector can deliver many fuel gas particles to the core of the plasma, enhancing plasma confinement. We installed a new pellet injector on the MTX (formerly Alcator-O) to provide a plasma with a high core density for experiments both with and without ultrahigh-power microwave heating. Its four-barrel pellet generator is the first to be designed and built at LLNL. Based on pipe-gun'' technology originated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), it incorporates our structural and thermal engineering innovations and a unique control system. The pellet transport, differential vacuum-pumping stages, and fast-opening propellant valves are reused parts of the Impurity Study EXperiment (ISX) pellet injector built by ORNL. We tailored designs of all other systems and components to the MTX. Our injector launches pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium into the MTX, either singly or in timed bursts of up to four pellets at velocities of up to 1000 m/s. Pellet diameters range from 1.02 to 2.08 mm. A diagnostic stage measures pellet velocities and allows us to photograph the pellets in flight. We are striving to improve the injector's performance, but its operations is already very consistent and reliable.

  7. Fermilab's Proton Accelerator Complex : World Record Performance and Upgrade Plans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiltsev, Vladimir

    2017-01-01

    The flagship of Fermilab's long term research program is the Deep Underground Neutrino Experiment (DUNE), located Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in Lead, South Dakota, which will study neutrino oscillations with a baseline of 1300 km. The neutrinos will be produced in the Long Baseline Neutrino Facility (LBNF), a proposed new beam line from Fermilab's Main Injector. The physics goals of the DUNE require a proton beam with a power of some 2.4 MW at 120 GeV, which is roughly four times the current maximum power. Here I discuss current performance of the Fermilab proton accelerator complex, our plans for construction of the SRF proton linac as key part of the Proton Improvement Plan-II (PIP-II), outline the main challenges toward multi-MW beam power operation of the Fermilab accelerator complex and the staged plan to achieve the required performance over the next 15 years.

  8. Performance of the 6 MeV injector for the Moscow racetrack microtron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimov, A. S.; Chepurnov, A. S.; Chubarov, O. V.; Gribov, I. V.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Piskarev, I. M.; Rzhanov, A. G.; Sotnikov, M. A.; Surma, I. V.; Shumakov, A. V.; Shvedunov, V. I.; Tiunov, A. V.; Ushkanov, V. A.

    1993-03-01

    The 6 MeV injector for the Moscow racetrack microtron is described. The work presents the accelerator description, the rf power supply system and results of the computer simulation. The method of injector tuning and experimental results are discussed.

  9. Measurements of admittances and characteristic combustion times of reactive gaseous propellant coaxial injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janardan, B. A.; Daniel, B. R.; Zinn, B. T.

    1979-01-01

    The results of an experimental investigation that was concerned with the quantitative determination of the capabilities of combustion processes associated with coaxial injectors to amplify and sustain combustor oscillations was described. The driving provided by the combustion process was determined by employing the modified standing-wave method utilizing coaxial injectors and air-acetylene mixtures. Analyses of the measured data indicate that the investigated injectors are capable of initiating and amplifying combustion instabilities under favorable conditions of injector-combustion coupling and over certain frequency ranges. These frequency ranges and the frequency at which an injector's driving capacity is maximum are observed to depend upon the equivalence ratio, the pressure drop across the injector orifices and the number of injector elements. The characteristic combustion times of coaxial injectors were determined from steady state temperature measurements.

  10. Influence of injector geometry on particle trajectories: Analysis of particle dynamics in the injector and plasma jet

    SciTech Connect

    Vardelle, M.; Vardelle, A.; Dussoubs, B.; Fauchais, P.; Roemer, T.S.; Neiser, R.A.; Smith, M.F.

    1998-11-01

    The conditions of particle injection into the side of plasma jets play an important role in determining the microstructure and properties of sprayed deposits. However, few investigations have been carried out on this topic. The current work presents the results of an experimental and computational study of the influence of injector geometry and gas mass flow rate on particle dynamics at injector exit and in the plasma jet. Two injector geometries were tested: a straight tube and a curved tube with various radii of curvature. Zirconia powders with different particle size range and morphology were used. A possible size segregation effect in the injector was analyzed from the space distribution of particles collected on a stick tape. The spray patterns in the plasma jet was monitored from the thermal radiation emitted by particles. An analysis of the particle behavior in the injector and mixing of the carrier-gas flow with the plasma jet was carried out using a 3-D computational fluids dynamics code.

  11. Jefferson Lab injector development for next generation parity violation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grames, J.; Hansknect, J.; Poelker, M.; Suleiman, R.

    2011-11-01

    To meet the challenging requirements of next generation parity violation experiments at Jefferson Lab, the Center for Injectors and Sources is working on improving the parity-quality of the electron beam. These improvements include new electron photogun design and fast helicity reversal of the Pockels Cell. We proposed and designed a new scheme for slow helicity reversal using a Wien Filter and two Solenoids. This slow reversal complements the insertable half-wave plate reversal of the laser-light polarization by reversing the electron beam polarization at the injector while maintaining a constant accelerator configuration. For position feedback, fast air-core magnets located in the injector were commissioned and a new scheme for charge feedback is planned.

  12. Tritium pellet injector design for tokamak fusion test reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, P.W.; Baylor, L.R.; Bryan, W.E.; Combs, S.K.; Easterly, C.E.; Lunsford, R.V.; Milora, S.L.; Schuresko, D.D.; White, J.A.; Williamson, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    A tritium pellet injector (TPI) system has been designed for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) Q approx. 1 phase of operation. The injector gun utilizes a radial design with eight independent barrels and a common extruder to minimize tritium inventory. The injection line contains guide tubes with intermediate vacuum pumping stations and fast valves to minimize propellant leakage to the torus. The vacuum system is designed for tritium compatibility. The entire injector system is contained in a glove box for secondary containment protection against tritium release. Failure modes and effects have been analyzed, and structural analysis has been performed for most intense predicted earthquake conditions. Details of the design and operation of this system are presented in this paper.

  13. Parametric Design of Injectors for LDI-3 Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Mongia, Hukam; Lee, Phil

    2015-01-01

    Application of a partially calibrated National Combustion Code (NCC) for providing guidance in the design of the 3rd generation of the Lean-Direct Injection (LDI) multi-element combustion configuration (LDI-3) is summarized. NCC was used to perform non-reacting and two-phase reacting flow computations on several LDI-3 injector configurations in a single-element and a five-element injector array. All computations were performed with a consistent approach for mesh-generation, turbulence, spray simulations, ignition and chemical kinetics-modeling. Both qualitative and quantitative assessment of the computed flowfield characteristics of the several design options led to selection of an optimal injector LDI- 3 design that met all the requirements including effective area, aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing criteria. Computed LDI-3 emissions (namely, NOx, CO and UHC) will be compared with the prior generation LDI- 2 combustor experimental data at relevant engine cycle conditions.

  14. Shielded fluid stream injector for particle bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Notestein, J.E.

    1991-12-31

    A shielded fluid-stream injector assembly is provided for particle bed reactors. The assembly includes a perforated pipe injector disposed across the particle bed region of the reactor and an inverted V-shaped shield placed over the pipe, overlapping it to prevent descending particles from coming into direct contact with the pipe. The pipe and shield are fixedly secured at one end to the reactor wall and slidably secured at the other end to compensate for thermal expansion. An axially extending housing aligned with the pipe and outside the reactor and an inline reamer are provided for removing deposits from the inside of the pipe. The assembly enables fluid streams to be injected and distributed uniformly into the particle bed with minimized clogging of injector ports. The same design may also be used for extraction of fluid streams from particle bed reactors.

  15. ELECTRON INJECTORS FOR NEXT GENERATION X-RAY SOURCES.

    SciTech Connect

    BLUEM,H.; BEN-ZVI,I.; SRINIVASAN-RAO,T.; ET AL.

    2004-08-02

    Next generation x-ray sources require very high-brightness electron beams that are typically at or beyond the present state-of-the-art, and thus place stringent and demanding requirements upon the electron injector parameters. No one electron source concept is suitable for all the diverse applications envisaged, which have operating characteristics ranging from high-average-current, quasi-CW, to high-peak-current, single-pulse electron beams. Advanced Energy Systems, in collaboration with various partners, is developing several electron injector concepts for these x-ray source applications. The performance and design characteristics of five specific RF injectors, spanning ''L'' to ''X''-band, normal-conducting to superconducting, and low repetition rate to CW, which are presently in various stages of design, construction or testing, is described. We also discuss the status and schedule of each with respect to testing.

  16. Shielded fluid stream injector for particle bed reactor

    DOEpatents

    Notestein, John E.

    1993-01-01

    A shielded fluid-stream injector assembly is provided for particle bed reactors. The assembly includes a perforated pipe injector disposed across the particle bed region of the reactor and an inverted V-shaped shield placed over the pipe, overlapping it to prevent descending particles from coming into direct contact with the pipe. The pipe and shield are fixedly secured at one end to the reactor wall and slidably secured at the other end to compensate for thermal expansion. An axially extending housing aligned with the pipe and outside the reactor and an in-line reamer are provided for removing deposits from the inside of the pipe. The assembly enables fluid streams to be injected and distributed uniformly into the particle bed with minimized clogging of injector ports. The same design may also be used for extraction of fluid streams from particle bed reactors.

  17. Fuel injector for use in a gas turbine engine

    SciTech Connect

    Wiebe, David J.

    2012-10-09

    A fuel injector in a combustor apparatus of a gas turbine engine. An outer wall of the injector defines an interior volume in which an intermediate wall is disposed. A first gap is formed between the outer wall and the intermediate wall. The intermediate wall defines an internal volume in which an inner wall is disposed. A second gap is formed between the intermediate wall and the inner wall. The second gap receives cooling fluid that cools the injector. The cooling fluid provides convective cooling to the intermediate wall as it flows within the second gap. The cooling fluid also flows through apertures in the intermediate wall into the first gap where it provides impingement cooling to the outer wall and provides convective cooling to the outer wall. The inner wall defines a passageway that delivers fuel into a liner downstream from a main combustion zone.

  18. Final design of the beam source for the MITICA injector

    SciTech Connect

    Marcuzzi, D. Agostinetti, P.; Dalla Palma, M.; De Muri, M.; Chitarin, G.; Gambetta, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pavei, M.; Pilan, N.; Rizzolo, A.; Serianni, G.; Toigo, V.; Trevisan, L.; Visentin, M.; Zaccaria, P.; Zaupa, M.; Boilson, D.; Graceffa, J.; Hemsworth, R. S.; and others

    2016-02-15

    The megavolt ITER injector and concept advancement experiment is the prototype and the test bed of the ITER heating and current drive neutral beam injectors, currently in the final design phase, in view of the installation in Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated facility in Padova, Italy. The beam source is the key component of the system, as its goal is the generation of the 1 MeV accelerated beam of deuterium or hydrogen negative ions. This paper presents the highlights of the latest developments for the finalization of the MITICA beam source design, together with a description of the most recent analyses and R&D activities carried out in support of the design.

  19. Heavy-Ion Injector for the High Current Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bieniosek, F. M.; Henestroza, E.; Kwan, J. W.; Prost, L.; Seidl, P.

    2001-10-01

    We report on progress in development of the Heavy-Ion Injector at LBNL, which is being prepared for use as an injector for the High Current Experiment (HCX). It is composed of a 10-cm-diameter surface ionization source, an extraction diode, and an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) accelerator, with a typical operating current of 0.6 A of potassium ions at 1.8 MeV, and a beam pulse length of 4.5 microsecs. We have improved the Injector equipment and diagnostics, and have characterized the source emission and radial beam profiles at the diode and ESQ regions. We find improved agreement with EGUN predictions, and improved compatibility with the downstream matching section. Plans are to attach the matching section and the initial ESQ transport section of HCX. Results will be presented and compared with EGUN and WARP simulations.

  20. Final design of the beam source for the MITICA injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcuzzi, D.; Agostinetti, P.; Dalla Palma, M.; De Muri, M.; Chitarin, G.; Gambetta, G.; Marconato, N.; Pasqualotto, R.; Pavei, M.; Pilan, N.; Rizzolo, A.; Serianni, G.; Toigo, V.; Trevisan, L.; Visentin, M.; Zaccaria, P.; Zaupa, M.; Boilson, D.; Graceffa, J.; Hemsworth, R. S.; Choi, C. H.; Marti, M.; Roux, K.; Singh, M. J.; Masiello, A.; Froeschle, M.; Heinemann, B.; Nocentini, R.; Riedl, R.; Tobari, H.; de Esch, H. P. L.; Muvvala, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    The megavolt ITER injector and concept advancement experiment is the prototype and the test bed of the ITER heating and current drive neutral beam injectors, currently in the final design phase, in view of the installation in Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated facility in Padova, Italy. The beam source is the key component of the system, as its goal is the generation of the 1 MeV accelerated beam of deuterium or hydrogen negative ions. This paper presents the highlights of the latest developments for the finalization of the MITICA beam source design, together with a description of the most recent analyses and R&D activities carried out in support of the design.

  1. Final design of the beam source for the MITICA injector.

    PubMed

    Marcuzzi, D; Agostinetti, P; Dalla Palma, M; De Muri, M; Chitarin, G; Gambetta, G; Marconato, N; Pasqualotto, R; Pavei, M; Pilan, N; Rizzolo, A; Serianni, G; Toigo, V; Trevisan, L; Visentin, M; Zaccaria, P; Zaupa, M; Boilson, D; Graceffa, J; Hemsworth, R S; Choi, C H; Marti, M; Roux, K; Singh, M J; Masiello, A; Froeschle, M; Heinemann, B; Nocentini, R; Riedl, R; Tobari, H; de Esch, H P L; Muvvala, V N

    2016-02-01

    The megavolt ITER injector and concept advancement experiment is the prototype and the test bed of the ITER heating and current drive neutral beam injectors, currently in the final design phase, in view of the installation in Padova Research on Injector Megavolt Accelerated facility in Padova, Italy. The beam source is the key component of the system, as its goal is the generation of the 1 MeV accelerated beam of deuterium or hydrogen negative ions. This paper presents the highlights of the latest developments for the finalization of the MITICA beam source design, together with a description of the most recent analyses and R&D activities carried out in support of the design.

  2. DARHT-II Injector Transients and the Ferrite Damper

    SciTech Connect

    Waldron, Will; Reginato, Lou; Chow, Ken; Houck, Tim; Henestroza, Enrique; Yu, Simon; Kang, Michael; Briggs, Richard

    2006-08-04

    This report summarizes the transient response of the DARHT-II Injector and the design of the ferrite damper. Initial commissioning of the injector revealed a rise time excited 7.8 MHz oscillation on the diode voltage and stalk current leading to a 7.8 MHz modulation of the beam current, position, and energy. Commissioning also revealed that the use of the crowbar to decrease the voltage fall time excited a spectrum of radio frequency modes which caused concern that there might be significant transient RF electric field stresses imposed on the high voltage column insulators. Based on the experience of damping the induction cell RF modes with ferrite, the concept of a ferrite damper was developed to address the crowbar-excited oscillations as well as the rise-time-excited 7.8 MHz oscillations. After the Project decided to discontinue the use of the crowbar, further development of the concept focused exclusively on damping the oscillations excited by the rise time. The design was completed and the ferrite damper was installed in the DARHT-II Injector in February 2006. The organization of this report is as follows. The suite of injector diagnostics are described in Section 2. The data and modeling of the injector transients excited on the rise-time and also by the crowbar are discussed in Section 3; the objective is a concise summary of the present state of understanding. The design of the ferrite damper, and the small scale circuit simulations used to evaluate the ferrite material options and select the key design parameters like the cross sectional area and the optimum gap width, are presented in Section 4. The details of the mechanical design and the installation of the ferrite damper are covered in Section 5. A brief summary of the performance of the ferrite damper following its installation in the injector is presented in Section 6.

  3. Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single Element Coaxial Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

    2006-01-01

    To support the mission for the NASA Vision for Space Exploration, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines, as well as for small thrusters with few elements in the injector. In this program, single element and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and ambient temperature gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges. Injectors were tested with shear coaxial and swirl coaxial elements, including recessed, flush and scarfed oxidizer post configurations, and concentric and non-concentric fuel annuli. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three of the single element injectors - recessed-post shear coaxial with concentric fuel, flush-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel, and scarfed-post swirl coaxial with concentric fuel. Detailed geometry and test results will be published elsewhere to provide well-defined data sets for injector development and model validatation.

  4. New injectors and the social context of injection initiation

    PubMed Central

    Harocopos, Alex; Goldsamt, Lloyd A.; Kobrak, Paul; Jost, John J.; Clatts, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Background Preventing the onset of injecting drug use is an important public health objective yet there is little understanding of the process that leads to injection initiation. This paper draws extensively on narrative data to describe how injection initiation is influenced by social environment. We examine how watching other people inject can habitualise non-injectors to administering drugs with a needle and consider the process by which the stigma of injecting is replaced with curiosity. Method In-depth interviews (n=54) were conducted as part of a two-year longitudinal study examining the behaviours of new injecting drug users. Results Among our sample, injection initiation was the result of a dynamic process during which administering drugs with a needle became acceptable or even appealing. Most often, this occurred as a result of spending time with current injectors in a social context and the majority of this study’s participants were given their first shot by a friend or sexual partner. Initiates could be tenacious in their efforts to acquire an injection trainer and findings suggest that once injecting had been introduced to a drug-using network, it was likely to spread throughout the group. Conclusion Injection initiation should be viewed as a communicable process. New injectors are unlikely to have experienced the negative effects of injecting and may facilitate the initiation of their drug-using friends. Prevention messages should therefore aim to find innovative ways of targeting beginning injectors and present a realistic appraisal of the long-term consequences of injecting. Interventionists should also work with current injectors to develop strategies to refuse requests from non-injectors for their help to initiate. PMID:18790623

  5. Penetration of the LCLS Injector Shield Wall at Sector 20

    SciTech Connect

    Dowell, D

    2010-12-10

    Penetrations through the LCLS injector shield wall are needed for the alignment of the accelerator, a diagnostic laser beam and utilities, and are shown in figure 1. The 1-inch diameter LCLS injector beam tube is blocked by the PPS stopper when the injector side of the wall is occupied. The two 3-inch diameter penetrations above and to the left of the beam tube are used by Precision Alignment and will be open only during installation of the injector beamline. Additional 3-inch diameter penetrations are for laser beams which will be used for electron beam diagnostics. These will not be plugged when the injector occupied. Other penetrations for the RF waveguide and other utilities are approximately 13-inch from the floor and as such are far from the line-of-sight of any radiation sources. The waveguide and utility penetrations pass only through the thicker wall as shown in the figure. The principal issue is with the two laser penetrations, since these will be open when the linac is operating and people are in the LCLS injector area. A principal concern is radiation streaming through the penetrations due to direct line-of sight of the PEP-2 lines. To answer this, fans of rays were traced through the 3-inch diameter laser penetrations as shown in Figures 2 and 3. Figure 2 gives the top view of the shield walls, the main linac and PEP-2 lines, and the ray-fans. The fans appear to originate between the walls since their angular envelope is defined by the greatest angle possible when rays are just on the 3-inch diameter at the inner most and outermost wall surfaces. The crossovers of all possible rays lie half way between these two surfaces. As the end-on view of Figure 3 clearly shows, there is no direct line-of-sight through the laser penetrations of the PEP-2 or linac beamlines.

  6. Subscale Injector Testing to Support J-2X Engine Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Elam, Sandy; Weber, Jim; Miller, Ken

    2008-01-01

    The J-2X engine being pursued for the Ares I will be a derivative of the J-2 engine developed by Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR). As part of the engine development, a subscale injector was fabricated by PWR and hot-fire tested at NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) to evaluate performance data. This subscale injector had a reduced injector diameter and fewer elements than the full scale design, but the element density (#elements / injector area), and element geometries nearly identical to the full scale design. Three different materials were used for the LOX posts in order to test for durability. The subscale injector included 46 standard elements and 6 baffle elements, corresponding to the ratio of baffled elements to core elements in the full scale design. The baffle elements were included to demonstrate thermal compatibility of the baffles and to more closely represent the full scale performance. Fifteen hot-fire tests were conducted totaling over 200 seconds of mainstage time on the injector. Chamber pressures with oxygen/hydrogen propellants ranged from 870-1380 psig with mixture ratios ranging from 4.8-6.1. Fuel manifold inlet temperatures were varied from 190 to 300 R. Modular, water cooled, calorimeter chamber assemblies were used to provide heating rate data and evaluate the effects of characteristic length (L*). Performance was evaluated relative to the resulting characteristic velocity (C*) efficiency. Performance met the value required in order to proceed with this design for the full scale hardware. Hardware inspections show no evidence of cracking at the tip of the LOX post for any of the materials tested. Minor erosion of the baffle element tips was observed in the early testing. A design change was quickly implemented and tested, and this change resolved the issue. Development of the J-2X is continuing with this element density and design.

  7. The Berkeley 2 MV heavy ion fusion injector

    SciTech Connect

    Rutkowski, H.L.; Faltens, A.; Vanecek, D.; Pike, C.; Brodzik, D.; Johnson, R.M.; Meyer, E.A.; Humphries, S. Jr.

    1989-03-01

    This paper is an update on the development of the 500 mA per beam sixteen beam injector being built at LBL. An inductively graded Marx bank provides the acceleration potential on the electrostatic column. A carbon arc source provides the pulsed current for the injector. We report recent results on extracted beam parameters, column performance, the generator performance, and system design changes. The carbon ion beam is diagnosed with Faraday cups and with a double slit emittance measurement system. Controls for the final machine are also discussed. 7 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Small gas-turbine combustor study: Fuel injector evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    As part of a continuing effort at the Lewis Research Center to improve performance, emissions, and reliability of turbine machinery, an investigation of fuel injection technique and effect of fuel type on small gas turbine combustors was undertaken. Performance and pollutant emission levels are documented over a range of simulated flight conditions for a reverse flow combustor configuration using simplex pressure-atomizing, spill-flow return, and splash cone airblast injectors. A parametric evaluation of the effect of increased combustor loading with each of the fuel injector types was obtained. Jet A and an experimental referee broad specification fuel were used to determine the effect of fuel type.

  9. Proposed FNAL 750 KeV Linac Injector Upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Tan, C.Y.; Bollinger, D.S.; Schmidt, C.W.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    The present FNAL linac H{sup -} injector has been operational since 1978 and consists of a magnetron H{sup -} source and a 750 keV Cockcroft-Walton Accelerator. The proposed upgrade to this injector is to replace the present magnetron source having a rectangular aperture with a circular aperture, and to replace the Cockcroft-Walton with a 200 MHz RFQ. Operational experience at other laboratories has shown that the upgraded source and RFQ will be more reliable and require less manpower than the present system.

  10. Injector spray characterization of methanol in reciprocating engines

    SciTech Connect

    Dodge, L.; Naegeli, D.

    1994-06-01

    This report covers a study that addressed cold-starting problems in alcohol-fueled, spark-ignition engines by using fine-spray port-fuel injectors to inject fuel directly into the cylinder. This task included development and characterization of some very fine-spray, port-fuel injectors for a methanol-fueled spark-ignition engine. After determining the spray characteristics, a computational study was performed to estimate the evaporation rate of the methanol fuel spray under cold-starting and steady-state conditions.

  11. Dual mode fuel injector with one piece needle valve member

    DOEpatents

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Hinrichsen, Michael H.; Buckman, Colby

    2005-01-18

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively by inner and outer needle value members. The homogenous charged nozzle outlet set is defined by an outer needle value member that is moveably positioned in an injector body, which defines the conventional nozzle outlet set. The inner needle valve member is positioned in the outer needle valve member. The outer needle valve member is a piece component that includes at least one external guide surface, an external value surface and an internal valve seat.

  12. A Compact Multi-Beamlets High Current Injector for HIFDrivers

    SciTech Connect

    Kwan, J.W.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Grote, D.P.; Westenskow, G.A.

    2005-09-06

    Using curved electrodes in the injector, an array of converging beamlets can produce a beam with the envelope radius, convergence, and ellipticity matched to an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) channel. Experimental results were in good quantitative agreement with simulation and have demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. The size of a driver-scale injector system using this approach will be several times smaller than the one designed using traditional single large-aperture beams, so the success of this experiment has significant economical and technical impacts on the architecture of heavy ion fusion (HIF) drivers.

  13. The Effect of Resistance on Rocket Injector Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability, where unsteady heat release couples with acoustic modes, has long been an area of concern in liquid rocket engines. Accurate modeling of the acoustic normal modes of the combustion chamber is important to understanding and preventing combustion instability. This study evaluates the effect of injector resistance on the mode shapes and complex eigen-frequencies of an injector/combustion chamber system by defining a high Mach-flow form of the convective wave equation (see Eq. 1) in COMSOL Multiphysics' Coefficient Form PDE Mathematics Module.

  14. FFAG ACCELERATOR AS A NEW INJECTOR FOR THE BNL-AGS.

    SciTech Connect

    RUGGIERO, A.G.

    2004-10-13

    It has been proposed recently to upgrade the Alternating-Gradient Synchrotron (AGS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) to an average proton beam power of one MWatt at the top energy of 28 GeV. This is to be accomplished primarily by raising the AGS repetition rate from the present {approx} 1/3 to 2.5 pulses per second, and by a relatively modest increase of beam intensity from the present 0.7 to about 1.0 x 10{sup 14} protons per cycle. The present injector, the 1.5 GeV Booster, has a circumference a quarter of that of the AGS, and four successive beam pulses are required for a complete fill of the AGS. The filling time at injection is thus at least 0.5 seconds, and it ought to be eliminated if one desires to shorten the AGS cycle period. Moreover, holding the beam for such a long period of time during injection causes its quality to deteriorate and beam losses. This report is the summary of the results of a feasibility study of a 1.5 GeV Fixed-Field Alternating-Gradient (FFAG) Accelerator as a new possible injection to the AGS.

  15. The main injector chromaticity correction sextupole magnets: Measurements and operating schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhat, C.M.; Bogacz, A.; Brown, B.C.; Harding, D.J.; Fang, S.J.; Martin, P.S.; Glass, H.D.; Sim, J.

    1995-05-01

    The Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) is a high intensity proton synchrotron which will be used to accelerate protons and antiprotons from 8.9 GeV/c to 150 GeV/c. The natural chromaticities of the machine for the horizontal and the vertical Planes are {minus}33.6 and {minus}33.9 respectively. The {Delta}p/p of the beam at injection is about 0.002. The chromaticity requirements of the FMI, are primarily decided by the {Delta}p/p = 0.002 of the beam at injection. This limits the final chromaticity of the FMI to be {plus_minus}5 units. To correct the chromaticity in the FMI two families of sextupole magnets will be installed in the lattice, one for each plane. A sextupole magnet suitable for the FMI needs has been designed and a number of them are being built. New chromaticity compensation schemes have been worked out in the light of recently proposed faster acceleration ramps. On an R/D sextupole magnet the low current measurements have been carried out to determine the electrical properties. Also, using a Morgan coil, measurements have been performed to determine the higher ordered multipole components up to 18-poles. An overview of these result are presented here.

  16. Proton Therapy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Liver Breast Esophagus Rectum Skull base sarcomas Pediatric brain tumors Head and neck - see the Head and Neck Cancer page Eye ... Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy (IMRT) Brain Tumor Treatment Brain Tumors Prostate Cancer Lung Cancer ... related to Proton Therapy Videos related ...

  17. Proton Radiobiology

    PubMed Central

    Tommasino, Francesco; Durante, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In addition to the physical advantages (Bragg peak), the use of charged particles in cancer therapy can be associated with distinct biological effects compared to X-rays. While heavy ions (densely ionizing radiation) are known to have an energy- and charge-dependent increased Relative Biological Effectiveness (RBE), protons should not be very different from sparsely ionizing photons. A slightly increased biological effectiveness is taken into account in proton treatment planning by assuming a fixed RBE of 1.1 for the whole radiation field. However, data emerging from recent studies suggest that, for several end points of clinical relevance, the biological response is differentially modulated by protons compared to photons. In parallel, research in the field of medical physics highlighted how variations in RBE that are currently neglected might actually result in deposition of significant doses in healthy organs. This seems to be relevant in particular for normal tissues in the entrance region and for organs at risk close behind the tumor. All these aspects will be considered and discussed in this review, highlighting how a re-discussion of the role of a variable RBE in proton therapy might be well-timed. PMID:25686476

  18. Casting Apparatus Including A Gas Driven Molten Metal Injector And Method

    DOEpatents

    Meyer, Thomas N.

    2004-06-01

    The casting apparatus (50) includes a holding vessel (10) for containing a supply of molten metal (12) and a casting mold (52) located above the holding vessel (10) and having a casting cavity (54). A molten metal injector (14) extends into the holding vessel (10) and is at least partially immersed in the molten metal (12) in the holding vessel (10). The molten metal injector (14) is in fluid communication with the casting cavity (54). The molten metal injector (14) has an injector body (16) defining an inlet opening (24) for receiving molten metal into the injector body (16). A gas pressurization source (38) is in fluid communication with the injector body (16) for cyclically pressurizing the injector body (16) and inducing molten metal to flow from the injector body (16) to the casting cavity (54). An inlet valve (42) is located in the inlet opening (24) in the injector body (16) for filling molten metal into the injector body (16). The inlet valve (42) is configured to prevent outflow of molten metal from the injector body (16) during pressurization and permit inflow of molten metal into the injector body (16) after pressurization. The inlet valve (42) has an inlet valve actuator (44) located above the surface of the supply of molten metal (12) and is operatively connected to the inlet valve (42) for operating the inlet valve (42) between open and closed positions.

  19. Review of Combustion Stability Characteristics of Swirl Coaxial Element Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J. R.; Casiano, M. J.

    2013-01-01

    Liquid propellant rocket engine injectors using coaxial elements where the center liquid is swirled have become more common in the United States over the past several decades, although primarily for technology or advanced development programs. Currently, only one flight engine operates with this element type in the United States (the RL10 engine), while the element type is very common in Russian (and ex-Soviet) liquid propellant rocket engines. In the United States, the understanding of combustion stability characteristics of swirl coaxial element injectors is still very limited, despite the influx of experimental and theoretical information from Russia. The empirical and theoretical understanding is much less advanced than for the other prevalent liquid propellant rocket injector element types, the shear coaxial and like-on-like paired doublet. This paper compiles, compares and explores the combustion stability characteristics of swirl coaxial element injectors tested in the United States, dating back to J-2 and RL-10 development, and extending to very recent programs at the NASA MSFC using liquid oxygen and liquid methane and kerosene propellants. Included in this study are several other relatively recent design and test programs, including the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME), COBRA, J-2X, and the Common Extensible Cryogenic Engine (CECE). A presentation of the basic data characteristics is included, followed by an evaluation by several analysis techniques, including those included in Rocket Combustor Interactive Design and Analysis Computer Program (ROCCID), and methodologies described by Hewitt and Bazarov.

  20. LOX/hydrogen coaxial injector atomization test program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, M.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative information about the atomization of injector sprays is needed to improve the accuracy of computational models that predict the performance and stability margin of liquid propellant rocket engines. To obtain this data, a facility for the study of spray atomization is being established at NASA-Lewis to determine the drop size and velocity distributions occurring in vaporizing liquid sprays at supercritical pressures. Hardware configuration and test conditions are selected to make the cold flow simulant testing correspond as closely as possible to conditions in liquid oxygen (LOX)/gaseous H2 rocket engines. Drop size correlations from the literature, developed for liquid/gas coaxial injector geometries, are used to make drop size predictions for LOX/H2 coaxial injectors. The mean drop size predictions for a single element coaxial injector range from 0.1 to 2000 microns, emphasizing the need for additional studies of the atomization process in LOX/H2 engines. Selection of cold flow simulants, measurement techniques, and hardware for LOX/H2 atomization simulations are discussed.

  1. Radiation shielding for the Main Injector collimation system

    SciTech Connect

    Rakhno, Igor; /Fermilab

    2008-05-01

    The results of Monte Carlo radiation shielding studies performed with the MARS15 code for the Main Injector collimation system at Fermilab are presented and discussed. MAD-to-MARS Beam Line Builder is used to generate realistic extended curvilinear geometry models.

  2. Single-element coaxial injector for rocket fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, L. L.

    1969-01-01

    Improved injector for oxygen difluoride and diborane has better mixing characteristics and is able to project fuel onto the wall of the combustion chamber for better cooling. It produces an essentially conical, diverging, continuous sheet of propellant mixture formed by similarly shaped and continuously impinging sheets of fuel and oxidant.

  3. The Effect of Resistance on Rocket Injector Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morgan, C. J.

    2015-01-01

    Combustion instability, where unsteady heat release couples with acoustic modes, has long been an area of concern in liquid rocket engines. Accurate modeling of the acoustic normal modes of the combustion chamber is important to understanding and preventing combustion instability. The injector resistance can have a significant influence on the chamber normal mode shape, and hence on the system stability.

  4. Space shuttle orbital maneuvering engine platelet injector program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A platelet face injector for the Orbit Maneuvering Engine (OME) on the space shuttle was evaluated as a means of obtaining additional design margin and lower cost. The program was conducted in three phases. The first phase evaluated single injection elements, or unielements; it involved visual flow studies, mixing experiments using propellant simulants, and hot firings to assess combustion efficiency, chamber wall compatibility, and injector face temperatures. In the second phase, subscale units producing 600 lbf thrust were used to further evaluate the orifice patterns chosen on the basis of unielement testing. In addition to combustion efficiency, chamber and injector heat transfer, the subscale testing provided a preliminary indication of injector stability. Full scale testing of the selected patterns at 6,000 lbf thrust was performed in the third phase. Performance, heat transfer, and combustion stability were evaluated over the anticipated range of OMS operating conditions. The effects on combustion stability of acoustic cavity configuration, including cavity depth, open area, inlet contour, and other parameters, were investigated.

  5. Solid state lift for micrometering in a fuel injector

    DOEpatents

    Milam, David M.; Carroll, Thomas S.; Lee, Chien-Chang; Miller, Charles R.

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injector performs main fuel injection by raising fuel pressure in a nozzle chamber to lift a check valve member to a fully open position, and performs preinjection or microinjection by operating a solid state motor to lift the check valve member a much smaller distance.

  6. Construction of a thermodesorption injector for gas chromatography.

    PubMed

    Schröder, Wolfgang

    2011-02-01

    A detailed description for the do-it-yourself construction of a high-performance thermodesorption GC injector (HPTI) is presented. The injector consists of a heated desorption chamber, a cooled loop for focusing the desorbed volatiles as well as a heating control for sample injection into the separation column. The gas flow is controlled by valve switching during the steps of the operation. Two versions of the injector function either for the injection of highly volatile compounds or for compounds with extremely low volatility, e.g. lubricants. The sophisticated gas flow management allows injection of highly concentrated samples without memory effects in a sample gas split mode, while traces may be injected with virtually 1:1 sample transfer. A wide range of adsorbents appropriate for the compounds can be chosen due to homemade adsorbent tubes and the achievability of high desorption temperature. Solutions may be injected from a carrier material after solvent evaporation. The HPTI fulfills all multipurpose GC injector requirements and with the support of downloadable instruction files can be built by anyone working with conventional GC devices.

  7. Antiproton Accumulator in the Main Injector era (2)

    SciTech Connect

    Visnjic, V.

    1992-12-01

    By adding a single quadrupole per sextant in the Antiproton Accumulator it is possible to obtain a lattice well suited for higher bandwidth stochastic cooling systems such as those anticipated for the Main Injector era. The lattice proposed here has excellent properties concerning both the lattice functions and the stochastic cooling parameters.

  8. A Compact High-Brightness Heavy-Ion Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G A; Grote, D P; Halaxa, E; Kwan, J W; Bieniosek, F

    2005-05-11

    To provide a compact high-brightness heavy-ion beam source for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF) accelerators, we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. In an 80-kV 20-microsecond experiment, the RF plasma source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar{sup +} in a single beamlet. An extraction current density of 100 mA/cm{sup 2} was achieved, and the thermal temperature of the ions was below 1 eV. We have tested at full voltage gradient the first 4 gaps of an injector design. Einzel lens were used to focus the beamlets while reducing the beamlet to beamlet space charge interaction. We were able to reach greater than 100 kV/cm in the first four gaps. We also performed experiments on a converging 119 multi-beamlet source. Although the source has the same optics as a full 1.6 MV injector system, these test were carried out at 400 kV due to the test stand HV limit. We have measured the beam's emittance after the beamlets are merged and passed through an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ). Our goal is to confirm the emittance growth and to demonstrate the technical feasibility of building a driver-scale HIF injector.

  9. 21 CFR 870.1650 - Angiographic injector and syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Section 870.1650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a syringe and a high-pressure injector which are used to inject contrast material into the heart, great vessels, and coronary arteries to study the heart and vessels by x-ray photography....

  10. 21 CFR 870.1650 - Angiographic injector and syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Section 870.1650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a syringe and a high-pressure injector which are used to inject contrast material into the heart, great vessels, and coronary arteries to study the heart and vessels by x-ray photography....

  11. 21 CFR 870.1650 - Angiographic injector and syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 870.1650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a syringe and a high-pressure injector which are used to inject contrast material into the heart, great vessels, and coronary arteries to study the heart and vessels by x-ray photography....

  12. 21 CFR 870.1650 - Angiographic injector and syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Section 870.1650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a syringe and a high-pressure injector which are used to inject contrast material into the heart, great vessels, and coronary arteries to study the heart and vessels by x-ray photography....

  13. 21 CFR 870.1650 - Angiographic injector and syringe.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Section 870.1650 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... a syringe and a high-pressure injector which are used to inject contrast material into the heart, great vessels, and coronary arteries to study the heart and vessels by x-ray photography....

  14. LOX/Hydrogen Coaxial Injector Atomization Test Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaller, M.

    1990-01-01

    Quantitative information about the atomization of injector sprays is needed to improve the accuracy of computational models that predict the performance and stability margin of liquid propellant rocket engines. To obtain this data, a facility for the study of spray atomization is being established at NASA-Lewis to determine the drop size and velocity distributions occurring in vaporizing liquid sprays at supercritical pressures. Hardware configuration and test conditions are selected to make the cold flow simulant testing correspond as closely as possible to conditions in liquid oxygen (LOX)/gaseous H2 rocket engines. Drop size correlations from the literature, developed for liquid/gas coaxial injector geometries, are used to make drop size predictions for LOX/H2 coaxial injectors. The mean drop size predictions for a single element coaxial injector range from 0.1 to 2000 microns, emphasizing the need for additional studies of the atomization process in LOX/H2 engines. Selection of cold flow simulants, measured techniques, and hardware for LOX/H2 atomization simulations are discussed.

  15. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines

    SciTech Connect

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,'' describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  16. X-ray Radiography Measurements of Shear Coaxial Rocket Injectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-07

    These injectors rely on the shear between an outer lower-density, high-velocity annulus and a higher-density, low-velocity inner jet to atomize and...velocities and the distance between radial points – Large uncertainty given the small distances, high velocities, and limited number of points

  17. ALS LOX/H2 subscale coaxial injector testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dexter, Carol E.

    1991-01-01

    Tests of a 40K subscale LOX/H2 coaxial LOX swirl injector conducted without injector or chamber degradation are reported. Chamber pressures ranged from 1572 to 2355 psia with overall mixture ratios from 5.04 to 6.39. The highest characteristic velocities were measured when the mixture ratio across the injector face was uniform. Scarfing of the outer row LOX posts had the largest effect on chamber heating rates. As a result of the tests, the LSI design was modified to arrange the outer row LOX posts in a circular pattern, eliminate O/F biasing and fuel film cooling, and modify the interpropellant plate to allow for larger pressure differentials during the start and cutoff transients. Testing of a 100 K LOX/H2 coaxial LOX swirl injector involved chamber pressure ranging from 700 to 2500 psia with overall mixture ratios from 3.2 to 8.8. Stable combustion was observed to a fuel temperature of 90R and characteristic velocity efficiencies were good.

  18. Proton maser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ensley, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    New calculations are reported which confirm the ability of an a priori random, initial-phase proton beam to drive a simple, single-stage microwave cavity maser or transit-time oscillator (TTO) to saturation conversion efficiencies of about 11 percent. The required initial TE(011) mode field can be provided from beam ramp-up bandwidth of excitation to a low level from an external source. A saturation field of 45 tesla and output power of 0.2 TW are calculated using an electron insulation field of 10 tesla and a 3 MeV, 400 Ka/sq cm beam. Results are compared to those for an electron beam of the same energy and geometry, and it is shown that proton beams potentially can provide a three order of magnitude increase in overall microwave power production density over that obtainable from electron beam TTOs.

  19. Design considerations for single-stage and two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Milora, S.L.

    1988-09-01

    Performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors is compared with several models for one-dimensional, compressible fluid flow. Agreement is quite good for models that reflect actual breech chamber geometry and incorporate nonideal effects such as gas friction. Several methods of improving the performance of single-stage pneumatic pellet injectors in the near term are outlined. The design and performance of two-stage pneumatic pellet injectors are discussed, and initial data from the two-stage pneumatic pellet injector test facility at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are presented. Finally, a concept for a repeating two-stage pneumatic pellet injector is described. 27 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Mixing characteristics of injector elements in liquid rocket engines - A computational study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohr, Jonathan C.; Trinh, Huu P.

    1992-07-01

    A computational study has been performed to better understand the mixing characteristics of liquid rocket injector elements. Variations in injector geometry as well as differences in injector element inlet flow conditions are among the areas examined in the study. Most results involve the nonreactive mixing of gaseous fuel with gaseous oxidizer but preliminary results are included that involve the spray combustion of oxidizer droplets. The purpose of the study is to numerically predict flowfield behavior in individual injector elements to a high degree of accuracy and in doing so to determine how various injector element properties affect the flow.

  1. Commissioning of the 123 MeV injector for 12 GeV CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yan; Hofler, Alicia S.; Kazimi, Reza

    2015-09-01

    The upgrade of CEBAF to 12GeV included modifications to the injector portion of the accelerator. These changes included the doubling of the injection energy and relocation of the final transport elements to accommodate changes in the CEBAF recirculation arcs. This paper will describe the design changes and the modelling of the new 12GeV CEBAF injector. Stray magnetic fields have been a known issue for the 6 GeV CEBAF injector, the results of modelling the new 12GeV injector and the resulting changes implemented to mitigate this issue are described in this paper. The results of beam commissioning of the injector are also presented.

  2. Optimization of a GO2/GH2 Impinging Injector Element

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, P. Kevin; Shyy, Wei; Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar

    2001-01-01

    An injector optimization methodology, method i, is used to investigate optimal design points for a gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen (GO2/GH2) impinging injector element. The unlike impinging element, a fuel-oxidizer- fuel (F-O-F) triplet, is optimized in terms of design variables such as fuel pressure drop, (Delta)P(sub f), oxidizer pressure drop, (Delta)P(sub o), combustor length, L(sub comb), and impingement half-angle, alpha, for a given mixture ratio and chamber pressure. Dependent variables such as energy release efficiency, ERE, wall heat flux, Q(sub w), injector heat flux, Q(sub inj), relative combustor weight, W(sub rel), and relative injector cost, C(sub rel), are calculated and then correlated with the design variables. An empirical design methodology is used to generate these responses for 163 combinations of input variables. Method i is then used to generate response surfaces for each dependent variable. Desirability functions based on dependent variable constraints are created and used to facilitate development of composite response surfaces representing some, or all, of the five dependent variables in terms of the input variables. Three examples illustrating the utility and flexibility of method i are discussed in detail. First, joint response surfaces are constructed by sequentially adding dependent variables. Optimum designs are identified after addition of each variable and the effect each variable has on the design is shown. This stepwise demonstration also highlights the importance of including variables such as weight and cost early in the design process. Secondly, using the composite response surface which includes all five dependent variables, unequal weights are assigned to emphasize certain variables relative to others. Here, method i is used to enable objective trade studies on design issues such as component life and thrust to weight ratio. Finally, specific variable weights are further increased to illustrate the high marginal cost of

  3. Tritium pellet injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.

    1992-01-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the CY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

  4. Tritium pellet injector for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Gouge, M.J.; Baylor, L.R.; Combs, S.K.; Fisher, P.W.; Foust, C.R.; Milora, S.L.

    1992-11-01

    The tritium pellet injector (TPI) for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) will provide a tritium pellet fueling capability with pellet speeds in the 1- to 3-km/s range for the TFTR deuterium-tritium (D-T) plasma phase. An existing deuterium pellet injector (DPI) was modified at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide a four-shot, tritium-compatible, pipe-gun configuration with three upgraded single-stage pneumatic guns and a two-stage light gas gun driver. The TPI was designed for frozen pellets ranging in size from 3 to 4 mm in diameter in arbitrarily programmable firing sequences at tritium pellet speeds up to approximately 1.5 km/s for the three single-stage drivers and 2.5 to 3 km/s for the two-stage driver. Injector operation is controlled by a programmable logic controller (PLC). The new pipe-gun injector assembly was installed in the modified DPI guard vacuum box, and modifications were also made to the internals of the DPI vacuum injection line, including a new pellet diagnostics package. Assembly of these modified parts with existing DPI components was then completed and the TPI was tested at ORNL with deuterium pellets. Results of the testing program at ORNL are described. The TPI has been installed and operated on TFTR in support of the CY-92 deuterium plasma run period. In 1993, the tritium pellet injector will be retrofitted with a D-T fuel manifold and tritium gloveboxes and integrated into TFTR tritium processing systems to provide full tritium pellet capability.

  5. Computation of Transverse Injection Into Supersonic Crossflow With Various Injector Orifice Geometries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foster, Lancert; Engblom, William A.

    2003-01-01

    Computational results are presented for the performance and flow behavior of various injector geometries employed in transverse injection into a non-reacting Mach 1.2 flow. 3-D Reynolds-Averaged Navier Stokes (RANS) results are obtained for the various injector geometries using the Wind code with the Mentor s Shear Stress Transport turbulence model in both single and multi-species modes. Computed results for the injector mixing, penetration, and induced wall forces are presented. In the case of rectangular injectors, those longer in the direction of the freestream flow are predicted to generate the most mixing and penetration of the injector flow into the primary stream. These injectors are also predicted to provide the largest discharge coefficients and induced wall forces. Minor performance differences are indicated among diamond, circle, and square orifices. Grid sensitivity study results are presented which indicate consistent qualitative trends in the injector performance comparisons with increasing grid fineness.

  6. Physics design of rod type proton Radio Frequency Quadrupole linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, C.; Dechoudhury, S.; Pandey, H. K.; Naik, V.; Chakrabarti, A.

    2017-02-01

    A Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) linac delivering 800 keV, 5 mA protons has been designed. It is envisaged as first injector of the proton driver that will be used for production of proton-rich radioactive beams in the proposed ANURIB facility. The option of rod-type structure at frequency of 80 MHz has been chosen owing to ease of mechanical fabrications and to avoid detrimental nearby dipole modes present in vane type structure. Optimization of parameters has been carried out for a viable length and power of RFQ in order to avoid any infrastructural complexity. Conventional method of keeping focusing factor and vane voltage constant along the length of RFQ has been adopted. Results of detailed beam dynamics and RF structure design, space charge induced effects and corroborative particle tracking with realistic 3D fields of modulated vane has been presented.

  7. Particle Simulations of a Linear Dielectric Wall Proton Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Poole, B R; Blackfield, D T; Nelson, S D

    2007-06-12

    The dielectric wall accelerator (DWA) is a compact induction accelerator structure that incorporates the accelerating mechanism, pulse forming structure, and switch structure into an integrated module. The DWA consists of stacked stripline Blumlein assemblies, which can provide accelerating gradients in excess of 100 MeV/meter. Blumleins are switched sequentially according to a prescribed acceleration schedule to maintain synchronism with the proton bunch as it accelerates. A finite difference time domain code (FDTD) is used to determine the applied acceleration field to the proton bunch. Particle simulations are used to model the injector as well as the accelerator stack to determine the proton bunch energy distribution, both longitudinal and transverse dynamic focusing, and emittance growth associated with various DWA configurations.

  8. A Design Tool for Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, Richard C.; Cheng, Gary; Trinh, Huu Phuoc; Tucker, P. Kevin; Hutt, John

    1999-01-01

    A practical design tool for the analysis of flowfields near the injector face has been developed and used to analyze the Fastrac engine. The objective was to produce a computational design tool which was detailed enough to predict the interactive effects of injector element impingement angles and points and the momenta of the individual orifice flows. To obtain a model which could be used to simulate a significant number of individual orifices, a homogeneous computational fluid dynamics model was developed. To describe liquid and vapor sub- and super-critical flows, the model included thermal and caloric equations of state which were valid over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. A homogeneous model was constructed such that the local state of the flow was determined directly, i.e. the quality of the flow was calculated. Such a model does not identify drops or their distribution, but it does allow the flow along the injector face and into the acoustic cavity to be predicted. It also allows the film coolant flow to be accurately described. The initial evaluation of the injector code was made by simulating cold flow from an unlike injector element and from a like-on-like overlapping fan (LOL) injector element. The predicted mass flux distributions of these injector elements compared well to cold flow test results. These are the same cold flow tests which serve as the data base for the JANNAF performance prediction codes. The flux distributions 1 inch downstream of the injector face are very similar; the differences were somewhat larger at further distances from the faceplate. Since the cold flow testing did not achieve good mass balances when integrations across the entire fan were made, the CFD simulation appears to be reasonable alternative to future cold flow testing. To simulate the Fastrac, an RP-1/LOX combustion model must be chosen. This submodel must be relatively simple to accomplish three-dimensional, multiphase flow simulations. Single RP-1

  9. Proton scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, Gregory H

    2009-01-01

    This note presents analytic estimates of the performance of proton beams in remote surveillance for nuclear materials. The analysis partitions the analysis into the eight steps used by a companion note: (1) Air scattering, (2) Neutron production in the ship and cargo, (3) Target detection probability, (4) Signal produced by target, (5) Attenuation of signal by ship and cargo, (6) Attenuation of signal by air, (7) Geometric dilution, and (8) Detector Efficiency. The above analyses indicate that the dominant air scattering and loss mechanisms for particle remote sensing are calculable with reliable and accepted tools. They make it clear that the conversion of proton beams into neutron sources rapidly goes to completion in all but thinnest targets, which means that proton interrogation is for all purposes executed by neutrons. Diffusion models and limiting approximations to them are simple and credible - apart from uncertainty over the cross sections to be used in them - and uncertainty over the structure of the vessels investigated. Multiplication is essentially unknown, in part because it depends on the details of the target and its shielding, which are unlikely to be known in advance. Attenuation of neutron fluxes on the way out are more complicated due to geometry, the spectrum of fission neutrons, and the details of their slowing down during egress. The attenuation by air is large but less uncertain. Detectors and technology are better known. The overall convolution of these effects lead to large but arguably tolerable levels of attenuation of input beams and output signals. That is particularly the case for small, mobile sensors, which can more than compensate for size with proximity to operate reliably while remaining below flux limits. Overall, the estimates used here appear to be of adequate accuracy for decisions. That assessment is strengthened by their agreement with companion calculations.

  10. Digital holographic diagnostics of near-injector region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaiho

    Study of primary breakup of liquid jets is important because it is motivated by the application to gas turbine fuel injectors, diesel fuel injectors, industrial cleaning and washing machine, medical spray, and inkjet printers, among others. When it comes to good injectors, a liquid jet has to be disintegrated into a fine spray near injector region during primary breakup. However the dense spray region near the injectors is optically obscure for Phase Doppler Interferometer like Phase Doppler Particle Analyzers (PDPA). Holography can provide three dimensional image of the dense spray and eliminate the problem of the small depth of focus associated with shadowgraphs. Traditional film-based holographic technique has long been used for three dimensional measurements in particle fields, but it is time consuming, expensive, chemically hazardous. With the development of the CCD sensor, holograms were recorded and reconstructed digitally. Digital microscopic holography (DMH) is similar to digital inline holography (DIH) except that no lens is used to collimate the object beam. The laser beams are expanded with an objective lens and a spatial filter. This eliminates two lenses from the typical optical path used for in-line holography, which results in a much cleaner hologram recording. The DMH was used for drop size and velocity measurements of the breakup of aerated liquid jets because it is unaffected by the non-spherical droplets that are encountered very close to the injector exit, which would cause problems for techniques such as Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer, otherwise. Large field of view was obtained by patching several high resolution holograms. Droplet velocities in three dimensions were measured by tracking their displacements in the streamwise and cross-stream direction and by tracking the change in the plane of focus in the spanwise direction. The uncertainty in spanwise droplet location and velocity measurements using single view DMH was large at least 33

  11. An Approach to Improved Credibility of CFD Simulations for Rocket Injector Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Paul K.; Menon, Suresh; Merkle, Charles L.; Oefelein, Joseph C.; Yang, Vigor

    2007-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has the potential to improve the historical rocket injector design process by simulating the sensitivity of performance and injector-driven thermal environments to. the details of the injector geometry and key operational parameters. Methodical verification and validation efforts on a range of coaxial injector elements have shown the current production CFD capability must be improved in order to quantitatively impact the injector design process.. This paper documents the status of an effort to understand and compare the predictive capabilities and resource requirements of a range of CFD methodologies on a set of model problem injectors. Preliminary results from a steady Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS), an unsteady Reynolds-Average Navier Stokes (URANS) and three different Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques used to model a single element coaxial injector using gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants are presented. Initial observations are made comparing instantaneous results, corresponding time-averaged and steady-state solutions in the near -injector flow field. Significant differences in the flow fields exist, as expected, and are discussed. An important preliminary result is the identification of a fundamental mixing mechanism, accounted for by URANS and LES, but missing in the steady BANS methodology. Since propellant mixing is the core injector function, this mixing process may prove to have a profound effect on the ability to more correctly simulate injector performance and resulting thermal environments. Issues important to unifying the basis for future comparison such as solution initialization, required run time and grid resolution are addressed.

  12. STE thrust chamber technology: Main injector technology program and nozzle Advanced Development Program (ADP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of the STME Main Injector Program was to enhance the technology base for the large-scale main injector-combustor system of oxygen-hydrogen booster engines in the areas of combustion efficiency, chamber heating rates, and combustion stability. The initial task of the Main Injector Program, focused on analysis and theoretical predictions using existing models, was complemented by the design, fabrication, and test at MSFC of a subscale calorimetric, 40,000-pound thrust class, axisymmetric thrust chamber operating at approximately 2,250 psi and a 7:1 expansion ratio. Test results were used to further define combustion stability bounds, combustion efficiency, and heating rates using a large injector scale similar to the Pratt & Whitney (P&W) STME main injector design configuration including the tangential entry swirl coaxial injection elements. The subscale combustion data was used to verify and refine analytical modeling simulation and extend the database range to guide the design of the large-scale system main injector. The subscale injector design incorporated fuel and oxidizer flow area control features which could be varied; this allowed testing of several design points so that the STME conditions could be bracketed. The subscale injector design also incorporated high-reliability and low-cost fabrication techniques such as a one-piece electrical discharged machined (EDMed) interpropellant plate. Both subscale and large-scale injectors incorporated outer row injector elements with scarfed tip features to allow evaluation of reduced heating rates to the combustion chamber.

  13. Epinephrine auto-injector use and demographics in a Veterans Administration population.

    PubMed

    Amirzadeh, Ali; Verma, Prashant; Lee, Sabrina; Klaustermeyer, William

    2010-01-01

    The epinephrine auto-injector has been widely used over a long period of time. Certain aspects of this therapy and demographic data, however, have not been well studied. This study investigates patient use and understanding of epinephrine auto-injector use. As part of an ongoing quality assurance program, we evaluated 66 patients who had been given an epinephrine auto-injector and followed in the Allergy and Immunology Clinics at the West Los Angeles Veterans Medical Center. Data analyzed included patient demographics, medical indications for epinephrine auto-injector prescriptions, and the patient's understanding and use of the device. The mean age of our patients was 50 years. There were 44 men (66.7%) and 22 women (33%). Twenty-three patients were prescribed epinephrine auto-injector for adverse food reactions. Ninety-two percent (92%) of the patients knew how to use their epinephrine auto-injector properly, however, only 58% carried their device with them consistently. Of the patients, 91% understood why the auto-injector was prescribed. Of the total patients prescribed epinephrine auto-injector, 79% refilled their medication before the 1 year expiration date. Only 12% of the patients studied had required the use of their auto-injector. Most patients knew how and when to administer their epinephrine auto-injector. Despite detailed instructions in a specialty clinic only a slight majority carried it consistently. These data clearly indicate that further patient education or other measures are needed to improve compliance and effective use.

  14. Magnetized Target Fusion Propulsion: Plasma Injectors for MTF Guns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griffin, Steven T.

    2003-01-01

    To achieve increased payload size and decreased trip time for interplanetary travel, a low mass, high specific impulse, high thrust propulsion system is required. This suggests the need for research into fusion as a source of power and high temperature plasma. The plasma would be deflected by magnetic fields to provide thrust. Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) research consists of several related investigations into these topics. These include the orientation and timing of the plasma guns and the convergence and interface development of the "pusher" plasma. Computer simulations of the gun as it relates to plasma initiation and repeatability are under investigation. One of the items under development is the plasma injector. This is a surface breakdown driven plasma generator designed to function at very low pressures. The performance, operating conditions and limitations of these injectors need to be determined.

  15. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1996-02-13

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

  16. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    1996-01-01

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

  17. Characterization of coaxial rocket injector sprays under high pressure environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankar, S. V.; Wang, G.; Brena De La Rosa, A.; Rudoff, R. C.; Isakovic, A.; Bachalo, W. D.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of elevated environment pressures on the atomization characteristics of a single element, scaled-down, shear-coaxial rocket injector has been investigated. In this study, the shear coaxial injector was operated with water and air as simulants for conventionally used liquid oxygen and hydrogen gas, respectively. The experiments were conducted in a specially designed high pressure rig. A two-component PDPA/DSA system was used to study the spray characteristics at different chamber pressures ranging from atmospheric to 100 psig. The study showed an overall increase in the droplet sizes at higher chamber pressures. This phenomenon is attributed to a decrease in the secondary atomization effects at higher chamber pressures which, in turn, is directly related to a decrease in the shear experienced by the droplets as they move axially through the pressure chamber.

  18. Electron Cloud Measurements in Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Jeffrey Scott; Backfish, M.; Tan, C. Y.; Zwaska, R.

    2015-06-01

    This conference paper presents a series of electron cloud measurements in the Fermilab Main Injector and Recycler. A new instability was observed in the Recycler in July 2014 that generates a fast transverse excitation in the first high intensity batch to be injected. Microwave measurements of electron cloud in the Recycler show a corresponding depen- dence on the batch injection pattern. These electron cloud measurements are compared to those made with a retard- ing field analyzer (RFA) installed in a field-free region of the Recycler in November. RFAs are also used in the Main Injector to evaluate the performance of beampipe coatings for the mitigation of electron cloud. Contamination from an unexpected vacuum leak revealed a potential vulnerability in the amorphous carbon beampipe coating. The diamond-like carbon coating, in contrast, reduced the electron cloud signal to 1% of that measured in uncoated stainless steel beampipe.

  19. Flow in a model of the SSME main injector bowl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thompson, B. E.; Senaldi, J.; Vafidis, C.; Whitelaw, J. H.; Mcdonald, H.

    1989-01-01

    Mean-flow and turbulence quantities obtained in a 32-percent acrylic model of the SSME main injector bowl are presented. Flow visualization obtained with laser sheets and conventional photography shows the basic patterns and identifies regions of recirculating flow. Measurements of mean-flow and turbulence normal stresses are obtained with laser velocimetry to confirm these results and to quantify flow characteristics in the inlet ducts, entrance region, racetrack, LOX-post bundle, and exit nozzle. Measured velocity distributions show the upstream effect of the injector bowl in the transfer ducts, the plenum effect of the racetrack and LOX-post bundle, and the nonuniform distribution of flow into the main exit nozzle.

  20. A hot-spare injector for the APS linac.

    SciTech Connect

    Lewellen, J. W.

    1999-04-13

    Last year a second-generation SSRL-type thermionic cathode rf gun was installed in the Advanced Photon Source (APS) linac. This gun (referred to as ''gun2'') has been successfully commissioned and now serves as the main injector for the APS linac, essentially replacing the Koontz-type DC gun. To help ensure injector availability, particularly with the advent of top-up mode operation at the APS, a second thermionic-cathode rf gun will be installed in the APS linac to act as a hot-spare beam source. The hot-spare installation includes several unique design features, including a deep-orbit Panofsky-style alpha magnet. Details of the hot-spare beamline design and projected performance are presented, along with some plans for future performance upgrades.

  1. Drug injectors and the cleaning of needles and syringes.

    PubMed

    Hughes, R A

    2000-03-01

    When people share needles and syringes they risk transmitting human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other infections including hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV). Cleaning needles and syringes can help to reduce, although not eliminate, these risks. This article begins by engaging with some of the literature on the cleaning of needles and syringes. Drawing on qualitative research conducted with drug injectors in England, the article then goes on to explore drug injectors' perceptions and experiences of cleaning needles and syringes inside and outside prison. The article concludes by highlighting the implications for future research and policy making. Ultimately there should be a stronger policy response to reduce the risks associated with sharing needles and syringes inside prison, which should include the piloting of prison needle and syringe exchange schemes.

  2. Space shuttle orbital maneuvering engine platelet injector program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    A platelet-face injector for the fully reusable orbit maneuvering system OMS on the space shuttle was evaluated as a means of obtaining additional design margin and low cost. Performance, heat transfer, and combustion stability were evaluated over the anticipated range of OMS operating conditions. The effects of acoustic cavity configuration on combustion stability, including cavity depth, open area, inlet contour, and other parameters, were investigated using sea level bomb tests. Prototype injector and chamber behavior was evaluated for a variety of conditions; these tests examined the effects of film cooling, helium saturated propellants, chamber length, inlet conditions, and operating point, on performance, heat transfer and engine transient behavior. Helium bubble ingestion into both propellant circuits was investigated, as was chugging at low pressure operation, and hot and cold engine restart with and without a purge.

  3. Mixed mode fuel injector with individually moveable needle valve members

    DOEpatents

    Stewart, Chris; Chockley, Scott A.; Ibrahim, Daniel R.; Lawrence, Keith; Tomaseki, Jay; Azam, Junru H.; Tian, Steven Ye; Shafer, Scott F.

    2004-08-03

    A fuel injector includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by first and second needle valve members. One of the needle valve members moves to an open position while the other needle valve member remains stationary for a homogeneous charge injection event. The former needle valve member stays stationary while the other needle valve member moves to an open position for a conventional injection event. One of the needle valve members is at least partially positioned in the other needle valve member. Thus, the injector can perform homogeneous charge injection events, conventional injection events, or even a mixed mode having both types of injection events in a single engine cycle.

  4. Compact High-Current Heavy-Ion Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G A; Grote, D P; Kwan, J W; Bieniosek, F

    2006-04-13

    To provide a compact high-brightness heavy-ion beam source for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. An array of converging beamlets was use to produce a beam with the envelope radius, convergence, and ellipticity matched to an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) channel. Experimental results were in good quantitative agreement with simulation and have demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. The size of a driver-scale injector system using this approach will be several times smaller than one designed using traditional single large-aperture beams. The success of this experiment has possible significant economical and technical impacts on the architecture of HIF drivers.

  5. Compact High-Current Heavy-Ion Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G.A.; Grote, D.P.; Kwan, J.W.; Bieniosek, F.

    2005-10-05

    To provide a compact high-brightness heavy-ion beam source for Heavy Ion Fusion (HIF), we have been experimenting with merging multi-beamlets in an injector which uses an RF plasma source. An array of converging beamlets was used to produce a beam with the envelope radius, convergence, and ellipticity matched to an electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) channel. Experimental results were in good quantitative agreement with simulation and have demonstrated the feasibility of this concept. The size of a driver-scale injector system using this approach will be several times smaller than one designed using traditional single large-aperture beams. The success of this experiment has possible significant economical and technical impacts on the architecture of HIF drivers.

  6. Fuel Injector Design Optimization for an Annular Scramjet Geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steffen, Christopher J., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    A four-parameter, three-level, central composite experiment design has been used to optimize the configuration of an annular scramjet injector geometry using computational fluid dynamics. The computational fluid dynamic solutions played the role of computer experiments, and response surface methodology was used to capture the simulation results for mixing efficiency and total pressure recovery within the scramjet flowpath. An optimization procedure, based upon the response surface results of mixing efficiency, was used to compare the optimal design configuration against the target efficiency value of 92.5%. The results of three different optimization procedures are presented and all point to the need to look outside the current design space for different injector geometries that can meet or exceed the stated mixing efficiency target.

  7. Transmission of electrons inside the cryogenic pumps of ITER injector

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, P. Sartori, E.

    2016-02-15

    Large cryogenic pumps are installed in the vessel of large neutral beam injectors (NBIs) used to heat the plasma in nuclear fusion experiments. The operation of such pumps can be compromised by the presence of stray secondary electrons that are generated along the beam path. In this paper, we present a numerical model to analyze the propagation of the electrons inside the pump. The aim of the study is to quantify the power load on the active pump elements, via evaluation of the transmission probabilities across the domain of the pump. These are obtained starting from large datasets of particle trajectories, obtained by numerical means. The transmission probability of the electrons across the domain is calculated for the NBI of the ITER and for its prototype Megavolt ITer Injector and Concept Advancement (MITICA) and the results are discussed.

  8. Fabrication of small-orifice fuel injectors for diesel engines.

    SciTech Connect

    Woodford, J. B.; Fenske, G. R.

    2005-04-08

    Diesel fuel injector nozzles with spray hole diameters of 50-75 {micro}m have been fabricated via electroless nickel plating of conventionally made nozzles. Thick layers of nickel are deposited onto the orifice interior surfaces, reducing the diameter from {approx}200 {micro}m to the target diameter. The nickel plate is hard, smooth, and adherent, and covers the orifice interior surfaces uniformly.

  9. Study of Cavitation/Vaporization in Liquid Rocket Thruster Injectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-07-29

    performing the simulation on 381x100 grids, but it requires exceptionally long time to get the converged solution (approximately 30 days) so it is not...the United States9-13 have amplified on the initial body of work. Bazarov’s initial theory shows some opportunity for injector resonance at...that was placed on the axis of the exit nozzle. 7. Repeat the process for all frames for the total duration of the captured video. 8. Plot

  10. Innovative coal-fueled diesel engine injector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this research investigation was to develop an electronic coal water slurry injection system in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of CWS at various engine load and speed conditions without external ignition sources. The combination of the new injection system and the TICS is designed to reduce injector nozzle spray orifice wear by lowering the peak injection pressure requirements. (VC)

  11. Scaling of Gas-Centered Swirl-Coaxial Injectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-14

    the liquid was a film while the outer, “ hollow ” cone contains larger droplets (likely 0.25 mm or larger) created from ligaments which form after part... CFD , but these models remain impractically time-consuming and are unvalidated at the conditions considered here. Instead, a geometric parameter...ratios. Such behavior is predicted from models of the injector. INTRODUCTION There has been much recent interest in moving from cryogenic

  12. Simulation of slow extraction in the Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Mishra, C.S.; Harfoush, F.A.; Johnstone, J.

    1993-08-01

    Recent modifications to the tracking code TEAPOT have allowed us to simulate both ramp and slow extraction in the Fermilab Main Injector at 120 GeV/c. This calculation includes all the magnetic field and alignment errors. Preliminary results from this calculation are presented here and compared with other calculations. Further studies to optimize the strength and ramp of the extraction elements are in progress.

  13. A transitionless lattice for the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, K.Y.; Trbojevic, D. ); Lee, S.Y. . Dept. of Physics)

    1991-05-01

    Medium energy (1 to 30 GeV) accelerators are often confronted with transition crossing during acceleration. A lattice without transition is presented, which is a design for the Fermilab Main Injector. The main properties of this lattice are that the {gamma}{sub t} is an imaginary number, the maxima of the dispersion function are small, and two long-straight section with zero dispersion. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  14. What Have we Learned from the LCLS Injector?

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Feng; Brachmann, Axel; /SLAC

    2012-03-19

    The LCLS injector reliably delivered a high quality electron beam since it started operations three years ago. Some initial commissioning results were described in Ref. [1]. This note is to summarize what we have understood from the LCLS injector including drive laser, cathode, RF gun, injector beam line elements, beam modeling and operations. What we have learned during the LCLS injector commissioning and operation has lead to modified specifications for the UV drive laser system. A flat temporal profile originally required in the LCLS design is not necessary to achieve a low emittance electron beam for the LCLS operations. According to our recent studies, a laser pulse with 3 ps Gaussian temporal profile (FWHM) can achieve a similar emittance compared to a flat temporal profile laser. The sensitivity of the emittance to the laser pulse length at 250 pC of bunch charge was studied, as shown in Figure 1. Only slight variations were observed for both projected and time-sliced emittances with laser pulses from 2.2 ps to 4.5 ps FWHM. Space charge forces certainly become weak but RF emittance which is proportional to the bunch length square increases due to the longer laser pulse. Thus, the projected emittance optimum may be a trade-off between space charge forces and RF emittance, while the time-sliced emittance determined by space charge forces may be slightly improved with a longer laser pulse length. Simulations and theory also show that spatial Gaussian-cut laser profile produces a better emittance compared to uniform profiles due to increased linearity of the space charge forces. Preliminary experimental data show that the emittance with a Gaussian-cut is almost as good as the one with uniform although not better than. In addition, the laser transmission through the iris for spatial Gaussian-cut is about twice the one for spatial uniform. More experimental studies with the new Coherent laser system are needed to make a more solid conclusion.

  15. [Proton therapy and particle accelerators].

    PubMed

    Fukumoto, Sadayoshi

    2012-01-01

    Since the high energy accelerator plan was changed from a 40 GeV direct machine to a 12GeV cascade one, a 500 MeV rapid cycling booster synchrotron was installed between the injector linac and the 12 GeV main ring at KEK, National Lab. for High Energy Physics. The booster beams were used not only for injection to the main ring but also for medical use. Their energy was reduced to 250 MeV by a graphite block for clinical trial of cancer therapy. In 1970's, pi(-) or heavy ions were supposed to be promising. Although advantage of protons with Bragg Peak was pointed out earlier, they seemed effective only for eye melanoma at that time. In early 1980's, it was shown that they were effective for deep-seated tumor by Tsukuba University with KEK beams. The first dedicated facility was built at Loma Linda University Medical Center. Its synchrotron was made by Fermi National Accelerator Lab. Since a non-resonant accelerating rf cavity was installed, operation of the synchrotron became much easier. Later, innovation of the cyclotron was achieved. Its weight was reduced from 1,000 ton to 200 ton. Some of the cyclotrons are equipped with superconducting coils.

  16. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Veltri, P. Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.; Cavenago, M.

    2015-04-08

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ∼ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic ”steerer” to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  17. A Design Tool for Liquid Rocket Engine Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farmer, R.; Cheng, G.; Trinh, H.; Tucker, K.

    2000-01-01

    A practical design tool which emphasizes the analysis of flowfields near the injector face of liquid rocket engines has been developed and used to simulate preliminary configurations of NASA's Fastrac and vortex engines. This computational design tool is sufficiently detailed to predict the interactive effects of injector element impingement angles and points and the momenta of the individual orifice flows and the combusting flow which results. In order to simulate a significant number of individual orifices, a homogeneous computational fluid dynamics model was developed. To describe sub- and supercritical liquid and vapor flows, the model utilized thermal and caloric equations of state which were valid over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. The model was constructed such that the local quality of the flow was determined directly. Since both the Fastrac and vortex engines utilize RP-1/LOX propellants, a simplified hydrocarbon combustion model was devised in order to accomplish three-dimensional, multiphase flow simulations. Such a model does not identify drops or their distribution, but it does allow the recirculating flow along the injector face and into the acoustic cavity and the film coolant flow to be accurately predicted.

  18. Bonding and Integration Technologies for Silicon Carbide Based Injector Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halbig, Michael C.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    2008-01-01

    Advanced ceramic bonding and integration technologies play a critical role in the fabrication and application of silicon carbide based components for a number of aerospace and ground based applications. One such application is a lean direct injector for a turbine engine to achieve low NOx emissions. Ceramic to ceramic diffusion bonding and ceramic to metal brazing technologies are being developed for this injector application. For the diffusion bonding, titanium interlayers (PVD and foils) were used to aid in the joining of silicon carbide (SiC) substrates. The influence of such variables as surface finish, interlayer thickness (10, 20, and 50 microns), processing time and temperature, and cooling rates were investigated. Microprobe analysis was used to identify the phases in the bonded region. For bonds that were not fully reacted an intermediate phase, Ti5Si3Cx, formed that is thermally incompatible in its thermal expansion and caused thermal stresses and cracking during the processing cool-down. Thinner titanium interlayers and/or longer processing times resulted in stable and compatible phases that did not contribute to microcracking and resulted in an optimized microstructure. Tensile tests on the joined materials resulted in strengths of 13-28 MPa depending on the SiC substrate material. Non-destructive evaluation using ultrasonic immersion showed well formed bonds. For the joining technology of brazing Kovar fuel tubes to silicon carbide, preliminary development of the joining approach has begun. Various technical issues and requirements for the injector application are addressed.

  19. Hot electron injector Gunn diode for advanced driver assistance systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Förster, A.; Lepsa, M. I.; Freundt, D.; Stock, J.; Montanari, S.

    2007-06-01

    This paper reviews the main aspects of the design, fabrication and characterization of GaAs Gunn diodes intended to be used in advanced driver assistance systems. The corresponding Gunn diode based oscillators operate at the microwave frequency of 77 GHz and deliver an output power up to 19.2 dBm (83.2 mW). To fulfill the high demands of the automotive industry, temperature stability and a high grade of frequency purity, the Gunn diode structure includes a hot electron injector. This is based on the heteroepitaxy of a graded gap AlxGa1-xAs layer and an adjacent thin highly doped GaAs layer. The hot electron injector properties are investigated using dc and rf electrical measurements, including the temperature influence as well. Specific production related data of the cavity oscillators using our Gunn diodes are presented. New alternatives, such as the resonant tunneling emitter as a hot electron injector and the Gunn diode based MMIC as oscillator, are introduced.

  20. Electrostatic steering and beamlet aiming in large neutral beam injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltri, P.; Cavenago, M.; Chitarin, G.; Marcuzzi, D.; Sartori, E.; Serianni, G.; Sonato, P.

    2015-04-01

    Neutral beam injection is the main method for plasma heating in magnetic confinement fusion devices. In high energy injector (E>100 keV/amu), neutrals are obtained with reasonable efficiency by conversion of negative ions (H- or D-) via electron detachment reactions. In the case of ITER injectors, which shall operate at 1 MeV, a total ion current of ˜ 40 A is required to satisfy the heating power demand. Gridded electrodes are therefore used in the accelerator, so that 1280 negative ion beamlets are accelerated together. A carefully designed aiming system is required to control the beamlet trajectories, and to deliver their power on a focal point located several meters away from the beam source. In nowadays injectors, the aiming is typically obtained by aperture offset technique or by grid shaping. This paper discuss an alternative concept of beamlets aiming, based on an electrostatic "steerer" to be placed at the end of the accelerator. A feasibility study of this component is also presented, and its main advantages and drawbacks with respect to other methods are discussed.

  1. Effect of fuel injector type on performance and emissions of reverse-flow combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1981-01-01

    The combustion process in a reverse-flow combustor suitable for a small gas turbine engine was investigated to evaluate the effect of fuel injector type on performance and emissions. Fuel injector configurations using pressure-atomizing, spill-flow, air blast, and air-assist techniques were compared and evaluated on the basis of performance obtained in a full-scale experimental combustor operated at inlet conditions corresponding to takeoff, cruise, low power, and idle and typical of a 16:1-pressure-ratio turbine engine. Major differences in combustor performance and emissions characteristics were experienced with each injector type even though the aerodynamic configuration was common to most combustor models. Performance characteristics obtained with the various fuel injector types could not have been predicted from bench-test injector spray characteristics. The effect of the number of operating fuel injectors on performance and emissions is also presented.

  2. Shielding and radiation protection at the SSRL 3 GeV injector

    SciTech Connect

    Ipe, N.E.; Liu, J.C.

    1991-12-01

    The Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) Injector is comprised of a linear accelerator (linac) capable of energies {le} 150 MeV, a 3 GeV booster synchrotron, and a beam line to transport the electrons into the storage ring SPEAR. The injector is shielded so that under normal operating conditions, the annual dose equivalent at the shield surface does not exceed 10 mSv. This paper describes the shielding and radiation protection at the injector.

  3. Design, fabrication, test, and delivery of a high-pressure oxygen/RP-1 injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoenman, L.; Gross, R. S.

    1981-01-01

    A summary of the design analyses for a liquid rocket injector using oxygen and RP-1 propellants at high chamber pressures of 20,682 kPa (3000 psia) is presented. This analytical investigation includes combustion efficiency versus injector element type, combustion stability, and combustor cooling requirements. The design and fabrication of a subscale injector/acoustic resonantor assembly capable of providing a nominal thrust of 222K N (50,000 lbF) is presented.

  4. Investigation of the burning configuration of a coaxial injector in a combustion chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohara, J.

    1978-01-01

    An analytical investigation was made into the stability of the burning configuration of a single coaxial injector surrounded by similar injectors. The stability criteria was based on an average pressure difference along the boundaries of the adjacent stream tubes as calculated using Spaulding's numerical method. The results indicate qualitatively that there is a tendency for the injectors to have different burning configurations. It is believed that the configuration achieved is random, however once the burning configuration is established, it is believed to persist.

  5. A systematic experimental and computational investigation of a class of contoured wall fuel injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waitz, Ian A.; Marble, Frank E.; Zukoski, Edward E.

    1992-01-01

    The performance of contoured wall fuel injectors for scramjet engine applications is considered. These fuel injectors were aimed at augmenting mixing through axial vorticity production arising from interaction of the fuel/air interface with an oblique shock. The effects of incoming boundary layer height, injector spacing, and injectant to freestream pressure and velocity ratios are examined. Results from 3D flow field surveys and Navier-Stokes simulations are presented.

  6. Spray Structure in Near-Injector Region of Aerated Jet in Subsonic Crossflow (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    diameter by introducing gas bubbles into the liquid stream inside the injector. Aerated injection is similar to the flash atomization because it...produces gas bubbles inside the injector for promoting atomization. However, unlike flash atomizers, aerated injection can easily control the amount of... bubbles and their sizes without the complications of dissolving gas or heating the liquid to its boiling point. The aerated liquid injector allows a

  7. The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions by Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, Chol-Bum Kweon...Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions Matthew Kurman, Luis Bravo, and Chol-Bum Kweon Vehicle Technology...March 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Effect of Fuel Injector Nozzle Configuration on JP-8 Sprays at Diesel Engine Conditions 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  8. Proton radiography to improve proton therapy treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takatsu, J.; van der Graaf, E. R.; Van Goethem, M.-J.; van Beuzekom, M.; Klaver, T.; Visser, J.; Brandenburg, S.; Biegun, A. K.

    2016-01-01

    The quality of cancer treatment with protons critically depends on an accurate prediction of the proton stopping powers for the tissues traversed by the protons. Today, treatment planning in proton radiotherapy is based on stopping power calculations from densities of X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) images. This causes systematic uncertainties in the calculated proton range in a patient of typically 3-4%, but can become even 10% in bone regions [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]. This may lead to no dose in parts of the tumor and too high dose in healthy tissues [1]. A direct measurement of proton stopping powers with high-energy protons will allow reducing these uncertainties and will improve the quality of the treatment. Several studies have shown that a sufficiently accurate radiograph can be obtained by tracking individual protons traversing a phantom (patient) [4,6,10]. Our studies benefit from the gas-filled time projection chambers based on GridPix technology [2], developed at Nikhef, capable of tracking a single proton. A BaF2 crystal measuring the residual energy of protons was used. Proton radiographs of phantom consisting of different tissue-like materials were measured with a 30×30 mm2 150 MeV proton beam. Measurements were simulated with the Geant4 toolkit.First experimental and simulated energy radiographs are in very good agreement [3]. In this paper we focus on simulation studies of the proton scattering angle as it affects the position resolution of the proton energy loss radiograph. By selecting protons with a small scattering angle, the image quality can be improved significantly.

  9. Method and apparatus for duct sealing using a clog-resistant insertable injector

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Duo; Modera, Mark P.

    2010-12-14

    A method for forming a duct access region through one side of a previously installed air duct, wherein the air duct has an air flow with an air flow direction by inserting an aerosol injector into a previously installed air duct through the access region. The aerosol injector includes a liquid tube having a liquid tube orifice for ejecting a liquid to be atomized; and a propellant cap. The method is accomplished by aligning the aerosol injector with the direction of air flow in the duct; activating an air flow within the duct; and spraying a sealant through the aerosol injector to seal the duct in the direction of the air flow.

  10. Drag and distribution measurements of single-element fuel injectors for supersonic combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Povinelli, L. A.

    1974-01-01

    The drag caused by several vortex generating fuel injectors for scramjet combustors was measured in a Mach 2 to 3.5 airstream. Injector drag was found to be strongly dependent on injector thickness ratio. The distribution of helium injected into the stream was measured both in the near field and the far field of the injectors for a variety of pressure ratios. The far field results differed appreciably from measurements in the near field. Injection pressure ratio was found to profoundly influence the penetration. One of the aerowing configurations tested yielded low drag consistent with desirable penetration and spreading characteristics.

  11. Synchrotron based proton drivers

    SciTech Connect

    Weiren Chou

    2002-09-19

    Proton drivers are the proton sources that produce intense short proton bunches. They have a wide range of applications. This paper discusses the proton drivers based on high-intensity proton synchrotrons. It gives a review of the high-intensity proton sources over the world and a brief report on recent developments in this field in the U.S. high-energy physics (HEP) community. The Fermilab Proton Driver is used as a case study for a number of challenging technical design issues.

  12. Proton Therapy - Accelerating Protons to Save Lives

    SciTech Connect

    Keppel, Cynthia

    2011-10-25

    In 1946, physicist Robert Wilson first suggested that protons could be used as a form of radiation therapy in the treatment of cancer because of the sharp drop-off that occurs on the distal edge of the radiation dose. Research soon confirmed that high-energy protons were particularly suitable for treating tumors near critical structures, such as the heart and spinal column. The precision with which protons can be delivered means that more radiation can be deposited into the tumor while the surrounding healthy tissue receives substantially less or, in some cases, no radiation. Since these times, particle accelerators have continuously been used in cancer therapy and today new facilities specifically designed for proton therapy are being built in many countries. Proton therapy has been hailed as a revolutionary cancer treatment, with higher cure rates and fewer side effects than traditional X-ray photon radiation therapy. Proton therapy is the modality of choice for treating certain small tumors of the eye, head or neck. Because it exposes less of the tissue surrounding a tumor to the dosage, proton therapy lowers the risk of secondary cancers later in life - especially important for young children. To date, over 80,000 patients worldwide have been treated with protons. Currently, there are nine proton radiation therapy facilities operating in the United States, one at the Hampton University Proton Therapy Institute. An overview of the treatment technology and this new center will be presented.

  13. Smart drug delivery injector microsystem based on pyrotechnical actuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puig-Vidal, Manel; Lopez, Jaime; Miribel, Pere; Samitier-Marti, Josep; Rossi, Carole; Berthold, Axel

    2003-04-01

    A smart drug delivery injector microsystem is presented based on small pyrotechnics to impulse drugs to be injected to a human being. The proposal refers to a feasibility demonstration of the technology for pharmaceutical chips. These chips would be around some cm2 in section and will be able to inject a drug into de subject skin responding to an electrical signal. The product derived from this activity will be useful for astronaut's health, being able to administrate emergency doses of products (for instance cardio-tonic or hypoallegic drugs) enough to survive an emergency situation (as it can be a heart attack during EVA). The system can also be used for easy administration of drugs needed for physiological research. The usefulness of the device in terrestrial applications has no doubt, allowing remote administration of drugs to patients whose biomedical parameters are remotely monitored. The concept proposed here is new in combining the idea of pharmaceutical chip with the ultrasonic droplet technology and the use of pyrotechnics to provide energy to the drug to be injected. The proposed Drug Injector Microsystem is based on 2 main blocks:- Micropyrotechnic system: defines the ignition part based on pyrotechnic.- Microfluidic system: defines the drug injection part. This part is also divided in different critical parts: Expansion chamber, membrane or piston, drug reservoir and a needle. Different sensors are placed on the expansion chamber of microfluidic system and on the micropyrotechnic system. A complete electronic module is implemented with a PC interface to define flexible and user friendly experiences showing the smart drug delivery injector microsystem principle.

  14. Novel design for transparent high-pressure fuel injector nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falgout, Z.; Linne, M.

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines are closely tied to the formation of the combustible air-fuel mixture. Direct-injection engines have become more common due to their increased practical flexibility and efficiency, and sprays dominate mixture formation in these engines. Spray formation, or rather the transition from a cylindrical liquid jet to a field of isolated droplets, is not completely understood. However, it is known that nozzle orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on the formation of fuel injector sprays, even if the exact details of this effect remain unknown. A number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles (OTN) to allow observation of the nozzle orifice flow. Our goal in this work is to design various OTN concepts that mimic the flow inside commercial injector nozzles, at realistic fuel pressures, and yet still allow access to the very near nozzle region of the spray so that interior flow structure can be correlated with primary breakup dynamics. This goal has not been achieved until now because interior structures can be very complex, and the most appropriate optical materials are brittle and easily fractured by realistic fuel pressures. An OTN design that achieves realistic injection pressures and grants visual access to the interior flow and spray formation will be explained in detail. The design uses an acrylic nozzle, which is ideal for imaging the interior flow. This nozzle is supported from the outside with sapphire clamps, which reduces tensile stresses in the nozzle and increases the nozzle's injection pressure capacity. An ensemble of nozzles were mechanically tested to prove this design concept.

  15. Novel design for transparent high-pressure fuel injector nozzles.

    PubMed

    Falgout, Z; Linne, M

    2016-08-01

    The efficiency and emissions of internal combustion (IC) engines are closely tied to the formation of the combustible air-fuel mixture. Direct-injection engines have become more common due to their increased practical flexibility and efficiency, and sprays dominate mixture formation in these engines. Spray formation, or rather the transition from a cylindrical liquid jet to a field of isolated droplets, is not completely understood. However, it is known that nozzle orifice flow and cavitation have an important effect on the formation of fuel injector sprays, even if the exact details of this effect remain unknown. A number of studies in recent years have used injectors with optically transparent nozzles (OTN) to allow observation of the nozzle orifice flow. Our goal in this work is to design various OTN concepts that mimic the flow inside commercial injector nozzles, at realistic fuel pressures, and yet still allow access to the very near nozzle region of the spray so that interior flow structure can be correlated with primary breakup dynamics. This goal has not been achieved until now because interior structures can be very complex, and the most appropriate optical materials are brittle and easily fractured by realistic fuel pressures. An OTN design that achieves realistic injection pressures and grants visual access to the interior flow and spray formation will be explained in detail. The design uses an acrylic nozzle, which is ideal for imaging the interior flow. This nozzle is supported from the outside with sapphire clamps, which reduces tensile stresses in the nozzle and increases the nozzle's injection pressure capacity. An ensemble of nozzles were mechanically tested to prove this design concept.

  16. Operational aspects of the Main Injector large aperture quadrupole (WQB)

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, W.; Bartelson, L.; Brown, B.; Capista, D.; Crisp, J.; DiMarco, J.; Fitzgerald, J.; Glass, H.; Harding, D.; Johnson, D.; Kashikhin, V.; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    A two-year Large Aperture Quadrupole (WQB) Project was completed in the summer of 2006 at Fermilab. [1] Nine WQBs were designed, fabricated and bench-tested by the Technical Division. Seven of them were installed in the Main Injector and the other two for spares. They perform well. The aperture increase meets the design goal and the perturbation to the lattice is minimal. The machine acceptance in the injection and extraction regions is increased from 40{pi} to 60{pi} mm-mrad. This paper gives a brief report of the operation and performance of these magnets. Details can be found in Ref [2].

  17. Gas-Centered Swirl Coaxial Liquid Injector Evaluations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, A. K.; Strakey, P. A.; Talley, D. G.

    2005-01-01

    Development of Liquid Rocket Engines is expensive. Extensive testing at large scales usually required. In order to verify engine lifetime, large number of tests required. Limited Resources available for development. Sub-scale cold-flow and hot-fire testing is extremely cost effective. Could be a necessary (but not sufficient) condition for long engine lifetime. Reduces overall costs and risk of large scale testing. Goal: Determine knowledge that can be gained from sub-scale cold-flow and hot-fire evaluations of LRE injectors. Determine relationships between cold-flow and hot-fire data.

  18. Control System for the NSTX Lithium Pellet Injector

    SciTech Connect

    P. Sichta; J. Dong; R. Gernhardt; G. Gettelfinger; H. Kugel

    2003-10-27

    The Lithium Pellet Injector (LPI) is being developed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The LPI will inject ''pellets'' of various composition into the plasma in order to study wall conditioning, edge impurity transport, liquid limiter simulations, and other areas of research. The control system for the NSTX LPI has incorporated widely used advanced technologies, such as LabVIEW and PCI bus I/O boards, to create a low-cost control system which is fully integrated into the NSTX computing environment. This paper will present the hardware and software design of the computer control system for the LPI.

  19. Air-cooled trim dipoles for the Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, D. J.; Chester, N. S.; Garvey, J. D.; Krafczyk, G. E.; Makarov, A. I.; Terechkine, I.; Yarba, V. A.

    1997-05-01

    New horizontal and vertical trim dipoles have been designed for the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI) and are being assembled in the Fermilab Technical Division. Magnets are 42.6 cm in length (30.5 cm steel length) and have similar cross-section dimensions. The horizontal (vertical) magnet gap is 50.8 mm (127 mm) and the target integrated strength is 0.072 T*m (0.029 T*m). The major design effort lay in making air cooling possible for these magnets. This report presents the magnets` thermal and magnetic properties and discusses the limitation on excitation current.

  20. On-Body Injector: An Administration Device for Pegfilgrastim.

    PubMed

    Mahler, Linda J; DiBlasi, Regina; Perez, Anielka; Gaspard, Jeannie; McCauley, Dayna

    2017-02-01

    Many chemotherapy regimens used today require the support of a granulocyte-colony-stimulating factor for the prevention of life-threatening neutropenia. In March 2015, a delivery method was introduced for Neulasta® (pegfilgrastim) through an on-body injector (Onpro®), which may eliminate the need for patients to return for injection after chemotherapy, increase workflow, and allow more patients to be seen. The purpose of this study was to monitor the implementation of the Onpro delivery system in an outpatient facility.

  1. Microwave generation by spin Hall nanooscillators with nanopatterned spin injector

    SciTech Connect

    Zholud, A. Urazhdin, S.

    2014-09-15

    We experimentally study spin Hall nano-oscillators based on Pt/ferromagnet bilayers with nanopatterned Pt spin injection layer. We demonstrate that both the spectral characteristics and the electrical current requirements can be simultaneously improved by reducing the spin injection area. Moreover, devices with nanopatterned Pt spin injector exhibit microwave generation over a wide temperature range that extends to room temperature. Studies of devices with additional Pt spacers under the device electrodes show that the oscillation characteristics are affected not only by the spin injection geometry but also by the effects of Pt/ferromagnet interface on the dynamical properties of the ferromagnet.

  2. Dual mode fuel injection system and fuel injector for same

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, Keith E.; Tian, Ye

    2005-09-20

    A fuel injection system has the ability to produce two different spray patterns depending on the positioning of a needle control valve member. Positioning of the needle control valve member determines which of the two needle control chambers are placed in a low pressure condition. First and second needle valve members have closing hydraulic surfaces exposed to fluid pressure in the two needle control chambers. The injector preferably includes a homogenous charge nozzle outlet set and a conventional nozzle outlet set controlled respectively, by the first and second needle valve members.

  3. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2011-03-22

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  4. Mixing Enhancement of Liquid Rocket Engine Injector Flow

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-07-13

    diameter ratio was 100 for the inner jet and 67 for the outer jet (taking as reference one half of the hydraulic diameter, R3 – R2). The coaxial...The length to inside diameter ratio was 65 for the inner jet and 105 for the outer jet (taking as reference one half of the hydraulic diameter...injector, are affected by the acoustic field in a completely different manner. It seems to induce a periodic “ pulsation ” of the inner jet. The behavior with

  5. Fuel Injector Nozzle For An Internal Combustion Engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr.; Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2006-04-25

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  6. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2008-11-04

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  7. Fuel injector nozzle for an internal combustion engine

    DOEpatents

    Cavanagh, Mark S.; Urven, Jr., Roger L.; Lawrence, Keith E.

    2007-11-06

    A direct injection fuel injector includes a nozzle tip having a plurality of passages allowing fluid communication between an inner nozzle tip surface portion and an outer nozzle tip surface portion and directly into a combustion chamber of an internal combustion engine. A first group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in a first common plane. A second group of the passages have inner surface apertures located substantially in at least a second common plane substantially parallel to the first common plane. The second group has more passages than the first group.

  8. Ratio of Pion Kaon Production in Proton Carbon Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedev, Andrey V.

    2007-05-01

    The ratio of pion-kaon production by 120 GeV/c protons incident on carbon target is presented. The data was recorded with the Main Injector Particle Production experiment at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. Production ratios of K++, K--, K-/K+, and π-+ are measured in 24 bins in longitudinal momentum from 20 to 90 GeV/c and transverse momentum up to 2 GeV/c. The measurement is compared to existing data sets, particle production Monte Carlo results from FLUKA-06, parametrization of proton-beryllium data at 400/450 GeV/c, and ratios measured by the MINOS experiment on the NuMI target.

  9. Space shuttle maneuvering engine reusable thrust chamber program. Task 11: High epsilon injector test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pauckert, R. P.

    1974-01-01

    A subscale injector test program conducted with a ten-inch diameter like-doublet injector to determine performance and heat flux profiles vs chamber pressure and propellant mixture ratio, and to determine stability characteristics with various acoustic cavity configurations is described. Results are presented.

  10. Phenomenological and mathematical modeling of a high pressure steam driven jet injector. Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Anand, G.

    1993-12-31

    An injector is a particular type of jet pump which uses condensable vapor to entrain a liquid and discharge against a pressure higher than either motive or suction pressures. The injector has no moving parts and requires no external power supply nor any complex control system. Thus, the injector is particularly suited for emergency core cooling operations. A detailed survey has indicated that various injector designs are available for operating pressures below 250 psig. However, the design of these injectors from the viewpoint of a basic understanding of heat and mass transfer processes has not been well developed. A critical review of the models showed serious discrepancies between the analytical models and the experimental observations. The discrepancies evolved from the neglect of non-equilibrium aspects of the flow. The origin of the non-equilibrium aspects can be traced to the extremely small time scales governing the flow in the injector. Thus, time scales of the order of 10{sup {minus}2} seconds are involved in the injector, accompanied by mass, momentum, and heat transfer rates of orders of magnitude higher than that observed in conventional two-phase flows. The present study focuses on the phenomenological and mathematical modeling of the processes in the injector from the viewpoint of its non-equilibrium nature.

  11. Cyanide Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-01

    held high- throughput ultrasonic monodisperse aerosol inhalers for detoxification of massive CN poisoning. IV. CONCLUSIONS Significant effect of...Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Gerry R...Antidotes for Mass Casualties: Comparison of Intramuscular Injector by Autoinjector, Intraosseous Injection, and Inhalational Delivery 5a. CONTRACT

  12. Conceptual Design Report: Fermilab Main Injector - Technical Components and Civil Construction, April 1992 (Rev. 3.1)

    SciTech Connect

    1992-04-01

    This report contains a description of the design and cost estimate of a new 150 GeV accelerator, designated the Fermilab Main Injector (FMI). The construction of this accelerator will simultaneously result in significant enhancements to both the Fermilab collider and fixed target programs. The FMI is to be located south of the Antiproton Source and tangent to the Tevatron ring at the FO straight section as shown in Figure 1-1. The FMI will perform all duties currently required of the existing Main Ring. Thus, operation of the Main Ring will cease following commissioning of the FMI, with a concurrent reduction in background rates as seen in the colliding beam detectors. The performance of the FMI, as measured in terms of protons per second delivered to the antiproton production target or total protons delivered to the Tevatron, is expected to exceed that of the Main Ring by a factor of two-tothree. In addition the FMI will provide high duty factor 120 GeV beam to the experimental areas during collider operation, a capability which does not presently exist in the Main Ring.

  13. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-08-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.

  14. First operational experience with the positive-ion injector of ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Bollinger, L.M.; Pardo, R.C.; Shepard, K.W.; Bogaty, J.M.; Clifft, B.E.; Munson, F.H.; Zinkann, G.

    1992-01-01

    The recently completed positive-ion injector for the heavy-ion accelerator ATLAS was designed as a replacement for the tandem injector of the present tandem-linac system and, unlike the tandem, the positive-ion injector is required to provide ions from the full range of the periodic table. The concept for the new injector, which consists of an ECR ion source on a voltage platform coupled to a very-low-velocity superconducting linac, introduces technical problems and uncertainties that are well beyond those encountered previously for superconducting linacs. The solution to these problems and their relationship to performance are outlined, and initial experience in the acceleration of heavy-ion beams through the entire ATLAS system is discussed. The unusually good longitudinal beam quality of ATLAS with its new injector is emphasized.

  15. Experimental Evaluation of a Subscale Gaseous Hydrogen/gaseous Oxygen Coaxial Rocket Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Farhangi, Shahram; Sutton, Robert

    2002-01-01

    The next generation reusable launch vehicle may utilize a Full-Flow Stage Combustion (FFSC) rocket engine cycle. One of the key technologies required is the development of an injector that uses gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen as propellants. Gas-gas propellant injection provides an engine with increased stability margin over a range of throttle set points. This paper summarizes an injector design and testing effort that evaluated a coaxial rocket injector for use with gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. A total of 19 hot-fire tests were conducted up to a chamber pressure of 1030 psia, over a range of 3.3 to 6.7 for injector element mixture ratio. Post-test condition of the hardware was also used to assess injector face cooling. Results show that high combustion performance levels could be achieved with gas-gas propellants and there were no problems with excessive face heating for the conditions tested.

  16. Effect of broad properties fuel on injector performance in a reverse flow combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raddlebaugh, S. M.; Norgren, C. T.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of fuel type on the performance of various fuel injectors was investigated in a reverse flow combustor. Combustor performance and emissions are documented for simplex pressure atomizing, spill flow, and airblast fuel injectors using a broad properties fuel and compared with performance using Jet A fuel. Test conditions simulated a range of flight conditions including sea level take off, low and high altitude cruise, as well as a parametric evaluation of the effect of increased combustor loading. The baseline simplex injector produced higher emission levels with corresponding lower combustion efficiency with the broad properties fuel. There was little or not loss in performance by the two advanced concept injectors with the broad properties fuel. The airblast injector proved to be especially insensitive to fuel type.

  17. Experimental Evaluation of a Subscale Gaseous Hydrogen/Gaseous Oxygen Coaxial Rocket Injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Timothy D.; Klem, Mark D.; Breisacher, Kevin J.; Farhangi, Shahram; Sutton, Robert

    2002-11-01

    The next generation reusable launch vehicle may utilize a Full-Flow Stage Combustion (FFSC) rocket engine cycle. One of the key technologies required is the development of an injector that uses gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen as propellants. Gas-gas propellant injection provides an engine with increased stability margin over a range of throttle set points. This paper summarizes an injector design and testing effort that evaluated a coaxial rocket injector for use with gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. A total of 19 hot-fire tests were conducted up to a chamber pressure of 1030 psia, over a range of 3.3 to 6.7 for injector element mixture ratio. Post-test condition of the hardware was also used to assess injector face cooling. Results show that high combustion performance levels could be achieved with gas-gas propellants and there were no problems with excessive face heating for the conditions tested.

  18. Analysis of High Speed Liquid Jets Emitted from Needle Free Jet Injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Portaro, Rocco; Gunter, Amy-Lee; Ng, Hoi Dick

    2012-11-01

    The replacement of the traditional hypodermic needle by needle free liquid jet injectors has been of great interest to the scientific community over recent years. This study utilizes a specially designed needle free injector in order to describe the behavior of high speed liquid jets. High speed photography is used to depict the injection process, as the jet emitted from the injector penetrates biological tissue. The penetration depth of the jet will be studied by varying parameter such as the jet diameter, geometry and power. This analysis will then be used in improving the performance of liquid free injectors by maintaining more consistent injection depths and minimizing the power required to penetrate human tissue. This in turn leads to painless injections with less risk of contamination and aids in making needle free liquid jet injectors a viable alternative to hypodermic needles. This work is supported by Fonds de recherche du Quebec - Nature et technologies.

  19. Characterization of typical platelet injector flow configurations. [liquid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hickox, C. E.

    1975-01-01

    A study to investigate the hydraulic atomization characteristics of several novel injector designs for use in liquid propellant rocket engines is presented. The injectors were manufactured from a series of thin stainless steel platelets through which orifices were very accurately formed by a photoetching process. These individual platelets were stacked together and the orifices aligned so as to produce flow passages of prescribed geometry. After alignment, the platelets were bonded into a single, 'platelet injector', unit by a diffusion bonding process. Because of the complex nature of the flow associated with platelet injectors, it was necessary to use experimental techniques, exclusively, throughout the study. Large scale models of the injectors were constructed from aluminum plates and the appropriate fluids were modeled using a glycerol-water solution. Stop-action photographs of test configurations, using spark-shadowgraph or stroboscopic back-lighting, are shown.

  20. Scramjet fuel injector design parameters and considerations: Development of a two-dimensional tangential fuel injector with constant pressure at the flame

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agnone, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    The factors affecting a tangential fuel injector design for scramjet operation are reviewed and their effect on the efficiency of the supersonic combustion process is evaluated using both experimental data and theoretical predictions. A description of the physical problem of supersonic combustion and method of analysis is followed by a presentation and evaluation of some standard and exotic types of fuel injectors. Engineering fuel injector design criteria and hydrogen ignition schemes are presented along with a cursory review of available experimental data. A two-dimensional tangential fuel injector design is developed using analyses as a guide in evaluating the effects on the combustion process of various initial and boundary conditions including splitter plate thickness, injector wall temperature, pressure gradients, etc. The fuel injector wall geometry is shaped so as to maintain approximately constant pressure at the flame as required by a cycle analysis. A viscous characteristics program which accounts for lateral as well as axial pressure variations due to the mixing and combustion process is used in determining the wall geometry.

  1. Electron injector for Iranian Infrared Free Electron Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajabi, A.; Jazini, J.; Fathi, M.; Khosravi, N.; Shokri, B.

    2016-12-01

    The quality of the electron beam for applications like free electron lasers (FELs) has a direct impact on the quality of the laser radiation. The electron injector considered for Iranian Infrared Free Electron Laser (IRIFEL) includes a thermionic RF electron gun plus a bunch compressor as the electron preinjector and a 50 MeV constant gradient traveling wave linac as the main accelerator of the electron injector. In the present work, a thermionic RF gun is designed and matched with an optimized linac to produce a high quality mono-energetic electron beam. The results show that the preinjector is capable of delivering an electron bunch with 1 ps bunch length and 3 mm-mrad emittance to the linac entrance which is desirable for IRIFEL operation. The results also show that by geometrical manipulation and optimization of the linac structure, the pattern of the RF fields in the linac will be more symmetric, which is important in order to produce high stable mono-energetic bunches.

  2. Unsteady, viscous, cavitating simulation of injector internal flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunnell, Robert Allen

    Unsteady 2-D viscous cavitating flows are numerically modeled by solution of the two phase Navier-Stokes Equations formulated with a pseudo-density model. Results are obtained for high L/D slots with chamfered orifices of various dimensions and compared to recent experiments. The model is used to study the effects of orifice size, pressure drop, and the site density (a free variable arising in the pseudo-density formulation relating to the number of nucleation sites in the flow field) on the length and periodicity of the cavitation region. A three dimensional, unsteady, viscous, two-phase Navier- Stokes solver has been developed for simulation of single or two phase flow within the complex geometries of liquid rocket engine and diesel injectors. The solver has been developed to run in parallel over a network of computers to decrease the amount of computation time required for simulations. The solver makes use of a pseudo-density model derived from the Rayleigh-Plesset relation for bubble dynamics. The model accounts for both pressure and inertial effects in the flow field. Simulations of manifold cross-flow over sharp edged orifice and diesel injector internal flows have been made and compared with available experimental results.

  3. Development of Compact Toroid Injector for C-2 FRCs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Tadafumi; Sekiguchi, Junichi; Asai, Tomohiko; Gota, Hiroshi; Garate, Eusebio; Allfrey, Ian; Valentine, Travis; Smith, Brett; Morehouse, Mark; TAE Team

    2014-10-01

    Collaborative research project with Tri Alpha Energy has been started and we have developed a new compact toroid (CT) injector for the C-2 device, mainly for fueling field-reversed configurations (FRCs). The CT is formed by a magnetized coaxial plasma-gun (MCPG), which consists of coaxial cylinder electrodes; a spheromak-like plasma is generated by discharge and pushed out from the gun by Lorentz force. The inner diameter of outer electrode is 83.1 mm and the outer diameter of inner electrode is 54.0 mm. The surface of the inner electrode is coated with tungsten in order to reduce impurities coming out from the electrode. The bias coil is mounted inside of the inner electrode. We have recently conducted test experiments and achieved a supersonic CT translation speed of up to ~100 km/s. Other typical plasma parameters are as follows: electron density ~ 5 × 1021 m-3, electron temperature ~ 40 eV, and the number of particles ~0.5-1.0 × 1019. The CT injector is now planned to be installed on C-2 and the first CT injection experiment will be conducted in the near future. The detailed MCPG design as well as the test experimental results will be presented.

  4. CFD-Based Design Optimization for Single Element Rocket Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaidyanathan, Rajkumar; Tucker, Kevin; Papila, Nilay; Shyy, Wei

    2003-01-01

    To develop future Reusable Launch Vehicle concepts, we have conducted design optimization for a single element rocket injector, with overall goals of improving reliability and performance while reducing cost. Computational solutions based on the Navier-Stokes equations, finite rate chemistry, and the k-E turbulence closure are generated with design of experiment techniques, and the response surface method is employed as the optimization tool. The design considerations are guided by four design objectives motivated by the consideration in both performance and life, namely, the maximum temperature on the oxidizer post tip, the maximum temperature on the injector face, the adiabatic wall temperature, and the length of the combustion zone. Four design variables are selected, namely, H2 flow angle, H2 and O2 flow areas with fixed flow rates, and O2 post tip thickness. In addition to establishing optimum designs by varying emphasis on the individual objectives, better insight into the interplay between design variables and their impact on the design objectives is gained. The investigation indicates that improvement in performance or life comes at the cost of the other. Best compromise is obtained when improvements in both performance and life are given equal importance.

  5. Evaluation of hydro-mechanical pulsation for rocket injector research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Matthew B.

    The Propulsion Research Center at the University of Alabama in Huntsville has designed and built a hydro-mechanical pulsator to simulate the pressure fluctuations created by high frequency combustion instability. The pressure response characteristics were evaluated in an atmospheric test rig using filtered de-ionized water as the working fluid. The outlet of the pulsator was connected to a swirl injector post to provide downstream flow resistance. Previous low pressure and mass flow experimental data revealed a complex relationship between the control parameters and the pulsation response. For each test, the average mass flow rates of the waste water, water lost through the seals, and injector mass flow rates are measured. A dynamic pressure transducer at the pulsator exit measures and records the pressure waveform. Pulsation magnitude, reliability, repeatability, pulsation effects, and detailed variable control are examined. The data shows the pulsator is capable of generating 30% pulsation at 1575 Hz input. The repeatability of the pulsator is questionable because the standard deviations exceeded 40% of the average. The detailed data obtained during this research provides is sufficient to develop a pulsator tuning procedure for future applications.

  6. Motorized injector-assisted intrascleral intraocular lens fixation.

    PubMed

    Hung, Jia-Horung; Wang, Shih-Hao; Teng, Yu-Ti; Hsu, Sheng-Min

    2017-03-01

    For eyes with deficient capsular support, intraocular lens (IOL) implantation has long been a technical challenge. Recently, intrascleral fixation of the haptics of a three-piece posterior chamber IOL has become a popular option. In this procedure, externalization of the leading haptic during IOL injection is a stressful step. We present a modified technique to improve the ease and safety of this step. Our modified technique involves IOL injection with a motorized injector with several important modifications described here. With these modifications, a surgeon can easily maintain the correct orientation of the IOL in a well-controlled manner during IOL injection. The records of 13 patients who underwent this technique were retrospectively evaluated. Corrected-distance visual acuity improved significantly after surgery (p<0.05). No postoperative retinal detachment, endophthalmitis, IOL decentration, or vitreous hemorrhage was noted during the follow-up period. In conclusion, the motorized injector-assisted intrascleral IOL fixation technique is a safe and effective alternative to the conventional procedure. This technique makes the process of leading haptic externalization easier and more controllable.

  7. NSLS-II injector commissioning and initial operation

    SciTech Connect

    Bacha, B.; Blum, E.; Bassi, B.; Bengtsson, J.; Blednykh, A.; Buda, S.; Cheng, W.; Choi, J.; Cuppolo, J.; D Alsace, R.; Davidsaver, M.; DeLong, J.; Doom, L.; Durfee, d.; fliller, R.; Fulkerson, M.; Ganetis, G.; Gao, F.; Gardner, C.; Guo, W.; Heese, R.; Hidaka, Y.; Hu, Y.; Johanson, M.; Kosciuk, B.; Kowalski, S.; Dramer, S.; Krinsky, S.; Li, Y.; Louie, W.; Maggipinto, M.; Marino, P.; Mead, J.; Oliva, G.; Padrazo, D.; Pedersen, K.; Podobedov, B.; Rainer, R.; Rose, J.; Santana, M.; Seletskiy, S.; Shaftan, T.; Singh, O.; Singh, P.; Smalyuk, V.; Smith, R.; Summers, T.; Tagger, J.; Tian, Y.; Wahl, W.; Wang, G.; Weiner, G.; Willeke, F.; Yang, L.; Yang, X.; Zeitler, E.; Zitvogel, E.; Zuhoski, P.

    2015-05-03

    The injector for the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II) storage ring consists of a 3 GeV booster synchrotron and a 200 MeV S-band linac. The linac was designed to produce either a single bunch with a charge of 0.5 nC of electrons or a train of bunches up to 300 ns long containing a total charge of 15 nC. The booster was designed to accelerate up to 15 nC each cycle in a train of bunches up to 300 ns long. Linac commissioning was completed in April 2012. Booster commissioning was started in November 2013 and completed in March 2014. All of the significant design goals were satisfied including beam emittance, energy spread, and transport efficiency. While the maximum booster charge accelerated was only 10 nC, this has proven to be more than sufficient for storage ring commissioning and operation. The injector has operated reliably during storage ring operation since then. Results will be presented showing measurements of linac and booster operating parameters achieved during commissioning and initial operation. Operating experience and reliability during the first year of NSLS-II operation will be discussed.

  8. Positron Injector Accelerator and RF System for the ILC

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, J.W.; Adolphsen, C.; Bharadwaj, V.; Bowden, G.; Jongewaard, E.; Li, Z.; Miller, R.; Sheppard, J.C.; /SLAC

    2007-03-28

    Due to the extremely high energy deposition from positrons, electrons, photons and neutrons behind the positron target, and because a solenoid is required to focus the large emittance positron beam, the 1.3 GHz preaccelerator has to use normal conducting structures up to energy of 400 MeV. There are many challenges in the design of the normal-conducting portion of the ILC positron injector system such as obtaining high positron yield with required emittance, achieving adequate cooling with the high RF and particle loss heating, and sustaining high accelerator gradients during millisecond-long pulses in a strong magnetic field. Considering issues of feasibility, reliability and cost savings for the ILC, the proposed design for the positron injector contains both standing-wave (SW) and traveling-wave (TW) L-band accelerator structures. A short version of the new type of the SW section is under fabrication and testing. An updated status report is given. This paper also covers acceleration vs. deceleration for pre-accelerator sections, SW vs. TW structures, as well as longitudinal matching from target to linac and linac to damping ring.

  9. Influence of Reduced Mass Flow Rate and Chamber Backpressure on Swirl Injector Fluid Mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kenny, R Jeremy; Hulka, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Industry interest in variable-thrust liquid rocket engines places a demand on engine injector technology to operate over a wide range of liquid mass flow rates and chamber backpressures. One injection technology of current interest for variable thrust applications is an injector design with swirled fluids. Current swirl injector design methodologies do not take into account how swirl injector design parameters respond to elevated chamber backpressures at less than design mass flow rates. The current work was created to improve state-of-the-art swirl injector design methods in this area. The specific objective was to study the effects of elevated chamber backpressure and off-design mass flow rates on swirl injector fluid mechanics. Using a backpressure chamber with optical access, water was flowed through a swirl injector at various combinations of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates. The film thickness profile down the swirl injector nozzle section was measured through a transparent nozzle section of the injector. High speed video showed measurable increases in the film thickness profile with application of chamber backpressure and mass flow rates less than design. At prescribed combinations of chamber backpressure and injected mass flow rate, a discrete change in the film thickness profile was observed. Measured injector discharge coefficient values showed different trends with increasing chamber backpressure at low mass flow rates as opposed to near-design mass flow rates. Downstream spray angles showed classic changes in morphology as the mass flow rate was decreased below the design value. Increasing chamber backpressure decreased the spray angle at any injection mass flow rate. Experimental measurements and discussion of these results are reported in this paper.

  10. Administration of the adrenaline auto-injector at the nursery/kindergarten/school in Western Japan

    PubMed Central

    Fujitaka, Michiko; Ogata, Mika; Zaitsu, Masafumi; Motomura, Chikako; Kuzume, Kazuyo; Toku, Yuchiro; Ikeda, Masanori; Odajima, Hiroshi

    2017-01-01

    Background In view of the increasing prevalence of food allergies, there has been an associated increase in frequency of situations requiring an emergency response for anaphylaxis at the home, childcare facilities and educational institutions. Objective To clarify the situation of adrenaline auto-injector administration in nursery/kindergarten/school, we carried out a questionnaire survey on pediatric physicians in Western Japan. Methods In 2015, self-reported questionnaires were mailed to 421 physicians who are members of the West Japan Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy and Shikoku Research Society Pediatric Clinical Allergy. Results The response rate was 44% (185 physicians) where 160 physicians had a prescription registration for the adrenaline auto-injector. In the past year, 1,330 patients were prescribed the adrenaline auto-injector where 83 patients (6% of the prescribed patients) actually administered the adrenaline auto-injector, of which 14 patients (17% of the administered patients) self-administered the adrenaline auto-injector. “Guardians” at the nursery/kindergarten and elementary school were found to have administered the adrenaline auto-injector the most. Among 117 adrenaline auto-injector prescription-registered physicians, 79% had experienced nonadministration of adrenaline auto-injector at nursery/kindergarten/school when anaphylaxis has occurred. The most frequent reason cited for not administering the adrenaline auto-injector was “hesitation about the timing of administration.” Conclusion If the adrenaline auto-injector was administered after the guardian arrived at the nursery/kindergarten/school, it may lead to delayed treatment of anaphylaxis in which symptoms develop in minutes. Education and cooperation among physicians and nursery/kindergarten/school staff will reduce the number of children suffering unfortunate outcomes due to anaphylaxis. PMID:28154804

  11. Using CFD as Rocket Injector Design Tool: Recent Progress at Marshall Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Kevin; West, Jeff; Williams, Robert; Lin, Jeff; Rocker, Marvin; Canabal, Francisco; Robles, Bryan; Garcia, Robert; Chenoweth, James

    2003-01-01

    The choice of tools used for injector design is in a transitional phase between exclusive reliance on the empirically based correlations and extensive use of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The Next Generation Launch Technology (NGLT) Program goals emphasizing lower costs and increased reliability have produced a need to enable CFD as an injector design tool in a shorter time frame. This is the primary objective of the Staged Combustor Injector Technology Task currently under way at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). The documentation of this effort begins with a very brief status of current injector design tools. MSFC's vision for use of CFD as a tool for combustion devices design is stated and discussed with emphasis on the injector. The concept of the Simulation Readiness Level (SRL), comprised of solution fidelity, robustness and accuracy, is introduced and discussed. This quantitative measurement is used to establish the gap between the current state of demonstrated capability and that necessary for regular use in the design process. MSFC's view of the validation process is presented and issues associated with obtaining the necessary data are noted and discussed. Three current experimental efforts aimed at generating validation data are presented. The importance of uncertainty analysis to understand the data quality is also demonstrated. First, a brief status of current injector design tools is provided as context for the current effort. Next, the MSFC vision for using CFD as an injector design tool is stated. A generic CFD-based injector design methodology is also outlined and briefly discussed. Three areas where MSFC is using injector CFD analyses for program support will be discussed. These include the Integrated Powerhead Development (IPD) engine which uses hydrogen and oxygen propellants in a full flow staged combustion (FFSC) cycle and the TR-107 and the RS84 engine both of which use RP-1 and oxygen in an ORSC cycle. Finally, an attempt is made to

  12. Elastic proton-proton scattering at RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Yip, K.

    2011-09-03

    Here we describe elastic proton+proton (p+p) scattering measurements at RHIC in p+p collisions with a special optics run of {beta}* {approx} 21 m at STAR, at the center-of-mass energy {radical}s = 200 GeV during the last week of the RHIC 2009 run. We present preliminary results of single and double spin asymmetries.

  13. Proton pump inhibitors

    MedlinePlus

    Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) are medicines that work by reducing the amount of stomach acid made by ... Proton pump inhibitors are used to: Relieve symptoms of acid reflux, or gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). This ...

  14. What's In a Proton?

    ScienceCinema

    Brookhaven Lab

    2016-07-12

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains that fundamental particles like protons are themselves made up of still smaller particles called quarks. He discusses how new particles are produced when quarks are liberated from protons...a process that can be observed

  15. What's In a Proton?

    SciTech Connect

    Brookhaven Lab

    2009-07-08

    Physicist Peter Steinberg explains that fundamental particles like protons are themselves made up of still smaller particles called quarks. He discusses how new particles are produced when quarks are liberated from protons...a process that can be observed

  16. Proton: the particle.

    PubMed

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10(80). Protons were created at 10(-6) -1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10(10) years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10(34) years; that is, the age of the universe is 10(-24)th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W(+), W(-), Z(0), and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  17. Proton: The Particle

    SciTech Connect

    Suit, Herman

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review briefly the nature of protons: creation at the Big Bang, abundance, physical characteristics, internal components, and life span. Several particle discoveries by proton as the experimental tool are considered. Protons play important roles in science, medicine, and industry. This article was prompted by my experience in the curative treatment of cancer patients by protons and my interest in the nature of protons as particles. The latter has been stimulated by many discussions with particle physicists and reading related books and journals. Protons in our universe number ≈10{sup 80}. Protons were created at 10{sup −6} –1 second after the Big Bang at ≈1.37 × 10{sup 10} years beforethe present. Proton life span has been experimentally determined to be ≥10{sup 34} years; that is, the age of the universe is 10{sup −24}th of the minimum life span of a proton. The abundance of the elements is hydrogen, ≈74%; helium, ≈24%; and heavier atoms, ≈2%. Accordingly, protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the universe because ≈87% are protons. They are in each atom in our universe and thus involved in virtually every activity of matter in the visible universe, including life on our planet. Protons were discovered in 1919. In 1968, they were determined to be composed of even smaller particles, principally quarks and gluons. Protons have been the experimental tool in the discoveries of quarks (charm, bottom, and top), bosons (W{sup +}, W{sup −}, Z{sup 0}, and Higgs), antiprotons, and antineutrons. Industrial applications of protons are numerous and important. Additionally, protons are well appreciated in medicine for their role in radiation oncology and in magnetic resonance imaging. Protons are the dominant baryonic subatomic particle in the visible universe, comprising ≈87% of the particle mass. They are present in each atom of our universe and thus a participant in every activity involving matter.

  18. NASA Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of UTRC Low Emissions Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Anderson, Robert C.; Iannetti, Anthony C.; Smith, Lance L.; Dai, Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    Computational and experimental analyses of a PICS-Pilot-In-Can-Swirler technology injector, developed by United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) are presented. NASA has defined technology targets for near term (called "N+1", circa 2015), midterm ("N+2", circa 2020) and far term ("N+3", circa 2030) that specify realistic emissions and fuel efficiency goals for commercial aircraft. This injector has potential for application in an engine to meet the Pratt & Whitney N+3 supersonic cycle goals, or the subsonic N+2 engine cycle goals. Experimental methods were employed to investigate supersonic cruise points as well as select points of the subsonic cycle engine; cruise, approach, and idle with a slightly elevated inlet pressure. Experiments at NASA employed gas analysis and a suite of laser-based measurement techniques to characterize the combustor flow downstream from the PICS dump plane. Optical diagnostics employed for this work included Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence of fuel for injector spray pattern and Spontaneous Raman Spectroscopy for relative species concentration of fuel and CO2. The work reported here used unheated (liquid) Jet-A fuel for all fuel circuits and cycle conditions. The initial tests performed by UTRC used vaporized Jet-A to simulate the expected supersonic cruise condition, which anticipated using fuel as a heat sink. Using the National Combustion Code a PICS-based combustor was modeled with liquid fuel at the supersonic cruise condition. All CFD models used a cubic non-linear k-epsilon turbulence wall functions model, and a semi-detailed Jet-A kinetic mechanism based on a surrogate fuel mixture. Two initial spray droplet size distribution and spray cone conditions were used: (1) an initial condition (Lefebvre) with an assumed Rosin-Rammler distribution, and 7 degree Solid Spray Cone; and (2) the Boundary Layer Stripping (BLS) primary atomization model giving the spray size distribution and directional properties. Contour and line plots

  19. NASA Numerical and Experimental Evaluation of UTRC Low Emissions Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hicks, Yolanda R.; Tedder, Sarah A.; Anderson, Robert C.; Iannetti, Anthony C.; Smith, Lance L.; Dai, Zhongtao

    2014-01-01

    Computational and experimental analyses of a PICS-Pilot-In-Can-Swirler technology injector, developed by United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) are presented. NASA has defined technology targets for near term (called "N+1", circa 2015), midterm ("N+2", circa 2020) and far term ("N+3", circa 2030) that specify realistic emissions and fuel efficiency goals for commercial aircraft. This injector has potential for application in an engine to meet the Pratt & Whitney N+3 supersonic cycle goals, or the subsonic N+2 engine cycle goals. Experimental methods were employed to investigate supersonic cruise points as well as select points of the subsonic cycle engine; cruise, approach, and idle with a slightly elevated inlet pressure. Experiments at NASA employed gas analysis and a suite of laser-based measurement techniques to characterize the combustor flow downstream from the PICS dump plane. Optical diagnostics employed for this work included Planar Laser-Induced Fluorescence of fuel for injector spray pattern and Spontaneous Raman Spectroscopy for relative species concentration of fuel and CO2. The work reported here used unheated (liquid) Jet-A fuel for all fuel circuits and cycle conditions. The initial tests performed by UTRC used vaporized Jet-A to simulate the expected supersonic cruise condition, which anticipated using fuel as a heat sink. Using the National Combustion Code a PICS-based combustor was modeled with liquid fuel at the supersonic cruise condition. All CFD models used a cubic non-linear k-epsilon turbulence wall functions model, and a semi-detailed Jet-A kinetic mechanism based on a surrogate fuel mixture. Two initial spray droplet size distribution and spray cone conditions were used: 1) an initial condition (Lefebvre) with an assumed Rosin-Rammler distribution, and 7 degree Solid Spray Cone; and 2) the Boundary Layer Stripping (BLS) primary atomization model giving the spray size distribution and directional properties. Contour and line plots are

  20. CFD Based Design of a Filming Injector for N+3 Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ajmani, Kumud; Mongia, Hukam; Lee, Phil

    2016-01-01

    An effort was undertaken to perform CFD analysis of fluid flow in Lean-Direct Injection (LDI) combustors with axial swirl-venturi elements for next-generation LDI-3 combustor design. The National Combustion Code (NCC) was used to perform non-reacting and two-phase reacting flow computations for a newly-designed pre-filming type fuel injector LDI-3 injector, in a single-injector and a five-injector array configuration. All computations were performed with a consistent approach of mesh-optimization, spray-modeling, ignition and kinetics-modeling. Computational predictions of the aerodynamics of the single-injector were used to arrive at an optimized main-injector design that meets effective area and fuel-air mixing criteria. Emissions (EINOx) characteristics were predicted for a medium-power engine cycle condition, and will be compared with data when it is made available from experimental measurements. The use of a PDF-like turbulence-chemistry interaction model with NCC's Time-Filtered Navier-Stokes (TFNS) solver is shown to produce a significant impact on the CFD results, when compared with a laminar-chemistry TFNS approach for the five-injector computations.

  1. Local gene expression and immune responses of vaginal DNA vaccination using a needle-free injector.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Takanori; Takashima, Yuuki; Tamura, Toshiaki; Tsuchiya, Miki; Shibata, Yasunori; Udagawa, Haruhide; Okada, Hiroaki

    2010-08-30

    The vaginal mucosa is the most common site of initiation of virus infections that are transmitted through heterosexual intercourse, including HIV and papillomavirus. Thus, in order to prevent or treat these infections, strong vaginal immunity is required as the first line of defense. In this study, to establish a less invasive, safe, convenient and effective immunization method, we examined the local (skin and vagina) gene transfection efficiency of a non-needle jet injector for daily insulin injection. In the skin experiment, the needle-free injector resulted in a marked increase in marker gene expression, compared to the conventional needle-syringe injection. In addition, intradermal DNA vaccination using the needle-free injector dramatically induced IFN-gamma and antibody systemic responses in mice. Furthermore, we investigated the applicability of the needle-free injector as a vaginal vaccination tool in rabbits. Vaginal gene expression using the needle-free injector was significantly greater than that using needle-syringe injection. Moreover, intravaginal vaccination by the needle-free injector promoted vaginal IgA secretion and IFN-gamma mRNA expression in the blood lymphocytes, to a degree significantly higher than that by needle-syringe injection. In conclusion, local vaginal DNA vaccination using a needle-free jet injector is a promising approach for the prevention and treatment of mucosal infectious diseases.

  2. Advancing the State-of-the-Practice for Liquid Rocket Engine Injector Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, P. K.; Kenny, R. J.; Richardson, B. R.; Anderso, W. E.; Austin, B. J.; Schumaker, S. A.; Muss, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Current shortcomings in both the overall injector design process and its underlying combustion stability assessment methodology are rooted in the use of empirically based or low fidelity representations of complex physical phenomena and geometry details that have first order effects on performance, thermal environments and combustion stability. The result is a design and analysis capability that is often inadequate to reliably arrive at a suitable injector design in an efficient manner. Specifically, combustion instability has been particularly difficult to predict and mitigate. Large hydrocarbon-fueled booster engines have been especially problematic in this regard. Where combustion instability has been a problem, costly and time-consuming redesign efforts have often been an unfortunate consequence. This paper presents an overview of a recently completed effort at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center to advance the state-of-the-practice for liquid rocket engine injector design. Multiple perturbations of a gas-centered swirl coaxial (GCSC) element that burned gaseous oxygen and RP-1 were designed, assessed for combustion stability, and tested. Three designs, one stable, one marginally unstable and one unstable, were used to demonstrate both an enhanced overall injector design process and an improved combustion stability assessment process. High-fidelity results from state-of-the-art computational fluid dynamics CFD simulations were used to substantially augment and improve the injector design methodology. The CFD results were used to inform and guide the overall injector design process. They were also used to upgrade selected empirical or low-dimensional quantities in the ROCket Combustor Interactive Design (ROCCID) stability assessment tool. Hot fire single element injector testing was used to verify both the overall injector designs and the stability assessments. Testing was conducted at the Air Force Research Laboratory and at Purdue University. Companion papers

  3. Proton beam studies with a 1.25 MeV, cw radio frequency quadrupole linac

    SciTech Connect

    Bolme, G.O.; Hardek, T.W.; Hansborough, L.D.

    1998-12-31

    A high-current, cw linear accelerator has been proposed as a spallation neutron source driver for tritium production. Key features of this accelerator are high current (100 mA), low emittance-growth beam propagation, cw operation, high efficiency, and minimal maintenance downtime. A 268 MHz, cw radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) LINAC section and klystrode based rf system were obtained from the Chalk River Laboratories and were previously installed at LANL to support systems development and advanced studies in support of cw, proton accelerators. A variation of the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) proton injector, modified to operate at 50 keV, was mated to the RFQ and was operated to support advance developments for the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) program. High current, proton beam studies were completed which focused on the details of injector-RFQ integration, development of beam diagnostics, development of operations procedures, and personnel and equipment safety systems integration. This development led to acceleration of up to 100 mA proton beam.

  4. Cap assembly for a bundled tube fuel injector

    SciTech Connect

    LeBegue, Jeffrey Scott; Melton, Patrick Benedict; Westmoreland, III, James Harold; Flanagan, James Scott

    2016-04-26

    A cap assembly for a bundled tube fuel injector includes an impingement plate and an aft plate that is disposed downstream from the impingement plate. The aft plate includes a forward side that is axially separated from an aft side. A tube passage extends through the impingement plate and the aft plate. A tube sleeve extends through the impingement plate within the tube passage towards the aft plate. The tube sleeve includes a flange at a forward end and an aft end that is axially separated from the forward end. A retention plate is positioned upstream from the impingement plate. A spring is disposed between the retention plate and the flange. The spring provides a force so as to maintain contact between at least a portion of the aft end of the tube sleeve and the forward side of the aft plate.

  5. Current and Future High Power Operation of Fermilab Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Kourbanis, I.; Adamson, P.; Brown, B.; Capista, D.; Chou, W.; Morris, D.; Seyia, K.; Wu, G.; Yang, M.J.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    Fermilab's Main Injector on acceleration cycles to 120 GeV has been running a mixed mode operation delivering beam to both the antiproton source for pbar production and to the NuMI[1] target for neutrino production since 2005. On January 2008 the slip stacking process used to increase the beam to the pbar target was expanded to include the beam to the NuMI target increasing the MI beam power at 120 GeV to 400KW. The current high power MI operation will be described along with the plans to increase the power to 700KW for NOvA and to 2.1 MW for project X.

  6. Controllable injector for local flux entry into superconducting films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmo, D.; Colauto, F.; de Andrade, A. M. H.; Oliveira, A. A. M.; Ortiz, W. A.; Johansen, T. H.

    2016-09-01

    A superconducting flux injector (SFI) has been designed to allow for controlled injections of magnetic flux into a superconducting film from a predefined location along the edge. The SFI is activated by an external current pulse, here chosen to be 200 ms long, and it is demonstrated on films of Nb that the amount of injected flux is controlled by the pulse height. Examples of injections at two different temperatures where the flux enters by stimulated flux-flow and by triggered thermomagnetic avalanches are presented. The boundary between the two types of injection is determined and discussed. The SFI opens up for active use of phenomena which up to now have been considered hazardous for a safe operation of superconducting devices.

  7. The injector microtron for the TEUFEL infrared laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botman, J. I. M.; Webers, G. A.; Delhez, J. L.; Timmermans, C. J.; Theeuwen, M. E. H. J.; Kleeven, W. J. G. M.; Hagedoorn, H. L.; Ernst, G. J.; Verschuur, J. W. J.; Witteman, W. J.

    1992-07-01

    Progress is reported on a 25 MeV injector racetrack microtron for a 10 μm radiation free electron laser (TEUFEL project). The accelerator exhibits transverse focusing in 180° inhomogeneous two-sector dipole magnets which are slightly rotated with respect to each other in the bending plane. This provides closed orbits, isochronism and a large transverse acceptance. Details on this unconventional microtron focusing system will be given. An analytical treatment, based on conformal mapping, of the field near pole boundaries and at the hill-valley boundaries in the microtron dipole is compared with Poisson calculated results and with field measurements. The design of a model accelerating cavity is presented together with field measurements based on the perturbation ball method.

  8. Frequency tuning with RFQ temperature in China ADS Injector II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Huang, Jian-Long; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Zhang, Bin; He, Yuan; Zhang, Zhou-Li; Shi, Ai-Min

    2016-03-01

    A 162.5 MHz four-vane radio frequency quadruple (RFQ) accelerator has been developed at the Institute of Modern Physics (IMP) for Injector II of the China ADS linac. The RFQ will operate in continuous wave mode at 100 kW. For the designed 10 mA beam, the additional RF power dissipation will induce a very large reflection of power. A water-temperature controlling system will be used to reduce the power reflection by tuning the frequency of the RFQ. The tuning capability of the water temperature is studied under different configurations of cooling water. Simulations and experiment are compared in this paper. The experimental results agree well with simulation using ANSYS. This can be used as a reference to tune the RFQ in beam commissioning. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (91026001)

  9. Low loss injector for liquid propellant rocket engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonpragenau, G. L. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    A low pressure loss injector element is disclosed for the main combustion chamber of a rocket engine which includes a lox post terminating in a cylindrical barrel. Received within the barrel is a lox plug which is threaded in the lox post and includes an interchangeable lox metering sieve which meters the lox into an annular lox passage. A second annular gas passage is coaxial with the annular lox passage. A cylindrical sleeve surrounds the annular gas passage and includes an interchangeable gas metering seive having metering orifices through which a hot gas passes into the annular passage. The jets which emerge from the annular lox passage and annular gas passage intersect in a recessed area away from the combustion area. Thus, mixing and combustion stability are enhanced.

  10. One dimensional simulations of transients in heavy ion injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Barnard, J.J.; Caporaso, G.J.; Yu, S.S.; Eylon, E.

    1993-05-11

    A fast-running time-dependent one-dimensional particle code has been developed to simulate transients in both electrostatic quadrupole and electrostatic column heavy-ion injectors. Two-dimensional effects are incorporated through the use of an approximation to the transverse part of the Laplacian operator. Longitudinal electric fields are solved on a mesh. An external circuit is coupled to the column, and the effect of the beam on the circuit is modeled. Transients such as initial current spikes, space-charge de-bunching, and beam loading of the circuit, are simulated. Future directions for the code include introduction of envelope and centroid equations to provide beam radius and displacement information and the modeling of secondary electron currents arising from beam-spill.

  11. RF Design Optimization for New Injector Cryounit at CEBAF

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Haipeng; Cheng, Guangfeng; Hannon, Fay E.; Hofler, Alicia S.; Kazimi, Reza; Preble, Joe; Rimmer, Robert A.

    2013-06-01

    A new injector superconducting RF (SRF) cryounit with one new 2-cell, B=0.6 cavity plus one refurbished 7-cell, B=0.97, C100 style cavity has been re-designed and optimized for the engineering compatibility of existing module for CEBAF operation. The optimization of 2-cell cavity shape for longitudinal beam dynamic of acceleration from 200keV to 533keV and the minimization of transverse kick due to the waveguide couplers to less than 1 mrad have been considered. Operating at 1497MHz, two cavities has been designed into a same footprint of CEBAF original quarter cryomodule to deliver an injection beam energy of 5MeV in less than 0.27{degree} rms bunch length and a maximum energy spread of 5keV.

  12. Progress of beam diagnosis system for EAST neutral beam injector

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Y. J. Hu, C. D.; Yu, L.; Liang, L. Z.; Zhang, W. T.; Chen, Y.; Li, X.

    2016-02-15

    Neutral beam injection has been recognized as one of the most effective means for plasma heating. According to the research plan of the EAST physics experiment, two sets of neutral beam injector (NBI) were built and operational in 2014. The paper presents the development of beam diagnosis system for EAST NBI and the latest experiment results obtained on the test-stand and EAST-NBI-1 and 2. The results show that the optimal divergence angle is (0.62°, 1.57°) and the full energy particle is up to 77%. They indicate that EAST NBI work properly and all targets reach or almost reach the design targets. All these lay a solid foundation for the achievement of high quality plasma heating for EAST.

  13. 3D simulations of an electrostatic quadrupole injector

    SciTech Connect

    Grote, D.P. |; Friedman, A.; Yu, S.

    1993-02-01

    Analysis of the dynamics of a space charge dominated beam in a lattice of electrostatic focusing structures requires a full three-dimensional conic that includes self-consistent space charge fields and the fields from the complex conductor shapes. The existing WARP3d code, a particle simulation code which has been developed for heavy-ion fusion (HIF) applications contains machinery for handling particles in three-dimensional fields. A successive overrelaxation field solver with subgrid-scale placement of boundaries for rounded surface and four-fold symmetry has been added to the code. The electrostatic quadrupole (ESQ) injector for the ILSE accelerator facility being planned at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory is shown as an application. The issue of concern is possible emittance degradation because the focusing voltages are a significant fraction of the particles` energy and because there are significant nonlinear fields arising from the shapes of the quadrupole structures.

  14. Controllable injector for local flux entry into superconducting films

    SciTech Connect

    Carmo, D.; Colauto, F.; de Andrade, A. M. H.; Oliveira, A. A. M.; Ortiz, W. A.; Johansen, T. H.

    2016-07-21

    A superconducting flux injector (SFI) has been designed to allow for controlled injections of magnetic flux into a superconducting film from a predefined location along the edge. The SFI is activated by an external current pulse, here chosen to be 200 ms long, and it is demonstrated on films of Nb that the amount of injected flux is controlled by the pulse height. Examples of injections at two different temperatures where the flux enters by stimulated flux-flow and by triggered thermomagnetic avalanches are presented. The boundary between the two types of injection is determined and discussed. The SFI opens up for active use of phenomena which up to now have been considered hazardous for a safe operation of superconducting devices.

  15. Environmental assessment -- Proposed neutrino beams at the Main Injector project

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) proposes to build a beamline on the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) site to accommodate an experimental research program in neutrino physics. The proposed action, called Neutrino Beams at the Main Injector (NuMI), is to design, construct, operate and decommission a facility for producing and studying a high flux beam of neutrinos in the energy range of 1 to 40 GeV (1 GeV is one billion or 10{sup 9} electron volts). The proposed facility would initially be dedicated to two experiments, COSMOS (Cosmologically Significant Mass Oscillations) and MINOS (Main Injector Neutrino Oscillation Search). The neutrino beam would pass underground from Fermilab to northern Minnesota. A tunnel would not be built in this intervening region because the neutrinos easily pass through the earth, not interacting, similar to the way that light passes through a pane of glass. The beam is pointed towards the MINOS detector in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Thus, the proposed project also includes construction, operation and decommissioning of the facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota that houses this MINOS detector. This environmental assessment (EA) has been prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in accordance with the DOE`s National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) Implementing Procedures (10 CFR 1021). This EA documents DOE`s evaluation of potential environmental impacts associated with the proposed construction and operation of NuMI at Fermilab and its far detector facility located in the Soudan Underground Laboratory in Minnesota. Any future use of the facilities on the Fermilab site would require the administrative approval of the Director of Fermilab and would undergo a separate NEPA review. Fermilab is a Federal high-energy physics research laboratory in Batavia, Illinois operated on behalf of the DOE by Universities Research Association, Inc.

  16. Experimental Results from Initial Operation of Plasma Injector 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Stephen

    2010-11-01

    General Fusion has begun operation of its first full-scale plasma injector, designed to accelerate high density spheromak plasmas into the compression chamber of a proposed MTF reactor. The geometry of Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is that of a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with a conical converging accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, while pulsed power is applied in the same configuration as the RACE device. PI-1 is 5 meters in length and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration/compression stage is 4 m long and tapers to a final outer diameter of 40 cm. PI-1 is now operating at 1 MJ of total capacitor power, which will be doubled again before it reaches its design parameters. Diagnostics include 3 interferometer chords, 21 magnetic probes (2 axis poloidal/toroidal), 13 fast photodiode chords, as well as one Thomson scattering chord, a visible light survey spectrometer, and a Langmuir triple probe. Electrode voltage and current are also monitored. So far spheromaks of poloidal flux exceeding 100 mWb have been formed in the expansion region, and spheromaks of 40-50 mWb have been formed and accelerated out the end of the accelerator into a flux conserving target chamber. Expansion region densities are typically ˜5 x10^14cm-3, while conditions in the target chamber have reached ne˜10^16cm-3, and lifetimes of 300 μs.

  17. Tritium proof-of-principle pellet injector: Phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, P. W.; Gouge, M. J.

    1995-03-01

    As part of the International Thermonuclear Engineering Reactor (ITER) plasma fueling development program, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has fabricated a pellet injection system to test the mechanical and thermal properties of extruded tritium. This repeating, single-stage, pneumatic injector, called the Tritium-Proof-of-Principle Phase-2 (TPOP-2) Pellet Injector, has a piston-driven mechanical extruder and is designed to extrude hydrogenic pellets sized for the ITER device. The TPOP-II program has the following development goals: evaluate the feasibility of extruding tritium and DT mixtures for use in future pellet injection systems; determine the mechanical and thermal properties of tritium and DT extrusions; integrate, test and evaluate the extruder in a repeating, single-stage light gas gun sized for the ITER application (pellet diameter approximately 7-8 mm); evaluate options for recycling propellant and extruder exhaust gas; evaluate operability and reliability of ITER prototypical fueling systems in an environment of significant tritium inventory requiring secondary and room containment systems. In initial tests with deuterium feed at ORNL, up to thirteen pellets have been extruded at rates up to 1 Hz and accelerated to speeds of order 1.0-1.1 km/s using hydrogen propellant gas at a supply pressure of 65 bar. The pellets are typically 7.4 mm in diameter and up to 11 mm in length and are the largest cryogenic pellets produced by the fusion program to date. These pellets represent about a 11% density perturbation to ITER. Hydrogenic pellets will be used in ITER to sustain the fusion power in the plasma core and may be crucial in reducing first wall tritium inventories by a process called isotopic fueling where tritium-rich pellets fuel the burning plasma core and deuterium gas fuels the edge.

  18. Vortex flow and cavitation in diesel injector nozzles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andriotis, A.; Gavaises, M.; Arcoumanis, C.

    Flow visualization as well as three-dimensional cavitating flow simulations have been employed for characterizing the formation of cavitation inside transparent replicas of fuel injector valves used in low-speed two-stroke diesel engines. The designs tested have incorporated five-hole nozzles with cylindrical as well as tapered holes operating at different fixed needle lift positions. High-speed images have revealed the formation of an unsteady vapour structure upstream of the injection holes inside the nozzle volume, which is referred to as . Computation of the flow distribution and combination with three-dimensional reconstruction of the location of the strings inside the nozzle volume has revealed that strings are found at the core of recirculation zones; they originate either from pre-existing cavitation sites forming at sharp corners inside the nozzle where the pressure falls below the vapour pressure of the flowing liquid, or even from suction of outside air downstream of the hole exit. Processing of the acquired images has allowed estimation of the mean location and probability of appearance of the cavitating strings in the three-dimensional space as a function of needle lift, cavitation and Reynolds number. The frequency of appearance of the strings has been correlated with the Strouhal number of the vortices developing inside the sac volume; the latter has been found to be a function of needle lift and hole shape. The presence of strings has significantly affected the flow conditions at the nozzle exit, influencing the injected spray. The cavitation structures formed inside the injection holes are significantly altered by the presence of cavitation strings and are jointly responsible for up to 10% variation in the instantaneous fuel injection quantity. Extrapolation using model predictions for real-size injectors operating at realistic injection pressures indicates that cavitation strings are expected to appear within the time scales of typical injection

  19. Thermal effects in high power cavities for photoneutralization of D- beams in future neutral beam injectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorucci, Donatella; Feng, Jiatai; Pichot, Mikhaël; Chaibi, Walid

    2015-04-01

    Photoneutralization may represent a key issue in the neutral beam injectors for future fusion reactors. In fact, photodetachment based neutralization combined with an energy recovery system increase the injector overall efficiency up to 60%. This is the SIPHORE injector concept in which photoneutralization is realized in a refolded cavity [1]. However, about 1 W of the several megaWatts intracavity power is absorbed by the mirrors coatings and gives rise to important thermoelastic distortions. This is expected to change the optical behavior of the mirrors and reduce the enhancement factor of the cavity. In this paper, we estimate these effects and we propose a thermal system to compensate it.

  20. A new Main Injector radio frequency system for 2.3 MW Project X operations

    SciTech Connect

    Dey, J.; Kourbanis, I.; /Fermilab

    2011-03-01

    For Project X Fermilab Main Injector will be required to provide up to 2.3 MW to a neutrino production target at energies between 60 and 120 GeV. To accomplish the above power levels 3 times the current beam intensity will need to be accelerated. In addition the injection energy of Main Injector will need to be as low as 6 GeV. The current 30 year old Main Injector radio frequency system will not be able to provide the required power and a new system will be required. The specifications of the new system will be described.

  1. Realizing novel accelerator concepts in an X-band photo-injector

    SciTech Connect

    Marsh, R

    2010-04-13

    In this project we propose to investigate the use of novel accelerator structure cell geometry to enhance the performance of X-band photo-injectors. Making novel accelerator concepts possible involves fabrication and testing of components to ensure that the performance predicted by simulation is robustly achievable. This work is important because photo-injectors are increasingly used to provide high brightness electron beams for light sources, pushing their performance to the limits, but also requiring them to be user-facility stable. Careful investigation in both computer simulation and design, and low power testing of piece parts will enable the successful fabrication of an advanced X-band photo-injector.

  2. Reverse-flow combustor for small gas turbines with pressure-atomizing fuel injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norgren, C. T.; Mularz, E. J.; Riddlebaugh, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    A reverse flow combustor suitable for a small gas turbine (2 to 3 kg/s mass flow) was used to evalute the effect of pressure atomizing fuel injectors on combustor performance. In these tests an experimental combustor was designed to operate with 18 simplex pressure atomizing fuel injectors at sea level takeoff conditions. To improve performance at low power conditions, fuel was redistributed so that only every other injector was operational. Combustor performance, emissions, and liner temperature were compared over a range of pressure and inlet air temperatures corresponding to simulated idle, cruise, and takeoff conditions typical of a 16 to 1 pressure ratio turbine engine.

  3. Integrated titer plate-injector head for microdrop array preparation, storage and transfer

    DOEpatents

    Swierkowski, Stefan P.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated titer plate-injector head for preparing and storing two-dimensional (2-D) arrays of microdrops and for ejecting part or all of the microdrops and inserting same precisely into 2-D arrays of deposition sites with micrometer precision. The titer plate-injector head includes integrated precision formed nozzles with appropriate hydrophobic surface features and evaporative constraints. A reusable pressure head with a pressure equalizing feature is added to the titer plate to perform simultaneous precision sample ejection. The titer plate-injector head may be utilized in various applications including capillary electrophoresis, chemical flow injection analysis, microsample array preparation, etc.

  4. Study of proton radioactivities

    SciTech Connect

    Davids, C.N.; Back, B.B.; Henderson, D.J.

    1995-08-01

    About a dozen nuclei are currently known to accomplish their radioactive decay by emitting a proton. These nuclei are situated far from the valley of stability, and mark the very limits of existence for proton-rich nuclei: the proton drip line. A new 39-ms proton radioactivity was observed following the bombardment of a {sup 96}Ru target by a beam of 420-MeV {sup 78}Kr. Using the double-sided Si strip detector implantation system at the FMA, a proton group having an energy of 1.05 MeV was observed, correlated with the implantation of ions having mass 167. The subsequent daughter decay was identified as {sup 166}Os by its characteristic alpha decay, and therefore the proton emitter is assigned to the {sup 167}Ir nucleus. Further analysis showed that a second weak proton group from the same nucleus is present, indicating an isomeric state. Two other proton emitters were discovered recently at the FMA: {sup 171}Au and {sup 185}Bi, which is the heaviest known proton radioactivity. The measured decay energies and half-lives will enable the angular momentum of the emitted protons to be determined, thus providing spectroscopic information on nuclei that are beyond the proton drip line. In addition, the decay energy yields the mass of the nucleus, providing a sensitive test of mass models in this extremely proton-rich region of the chart of the nuclides. Additional searches for proton emitters will be conducted in the future, in order to extend our knowledge of the location of the proton drip line.

  5. Runaway stars as cosmic ray injectors inside molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Valle, M. V.; Romero, G. E.; Santos-Lima, R.

    2015-03-01

    Giant molecular clouds (GMCs) are a new population of gamma-ray sources, being the target of cosmic rays (CRs) - locally accelerated or not. These clouds host very young stellar clusters where massive star formation takes place. Eventually, some of the stars are ejected from the clusters, becoming runaway stars. These stars move supersonically through the cloud and develop bowshocks where particles can be accelerated up to relativistic energies. As a result, the bowshocks present non-thermal emission, and inject relativistic protons in the cloud. These protons diffuse in the GMC interacting with the matter. We present a model for the non-thermal radiation generated by protons and secondary pairs accelerated in the bowshocks of massive runaway stars within young GMCs. We solve the transport equation for primary protons and secondary pairs as the stars move through the cloud. We present non-thermal emissivity maps in radio and in gamma-rays as a function of time. We obtain X-ray luminosities of the order of ˜1032 erg s-1 and gamma-ray luminosities ˜1034 erg s-1. We conclude that, under some assumptions, relativistic protons from massive runaway stars interacting with matter in GMCs give rise to extended non-thermal sources.

  6. Investigation of gaseous propellant combustion and associated injector/chamber design guidelines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calhoon, D. F.; Ito, J. I.; Kors, D. L.

    1973-01-01

    Injector design criteria are provided for gaseous hydrogen-gaseous oxygen propellants. Design equations and procedures are presented which will allow an injector-chamber designer to a priori estimate of the performance, compatibility and stability characteristics of prototype injectors. The effects of chamber length, element geometry, thrust per element, mixture ratio, impingement angle, and element spacing were evaluated for four element concepts and their derivatives. The data from this series of tests were reduced to a single valued mixing function that describes the mixing potential of the various elements. Performance, heat transfer and stability data were generated for various mixture ratios, propellant temperatures, chamber pressures, contraction ratios, and chamber lengths. Applications of the models resulted in the design of procedures, whereby the performance and chamber heat flux can be calculated directly, and the injector stability estimated in conjunction with existing models.

  7. Performance and stability of a booster class LOX/hydrogen swirl coaxial-element injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hulka, J.; Schneider, J. A.; Dexter, C. E.

    1991-01-01

    Initial tests were conducted with an axisymmetric subscale version of the Advanced Launch System (ALS) prototype injector, with a pattern of pressure-atomizing LOX-swirled injector elements flowing about 50 percent more propellant per element than the Space Shuttle Main Engine injector element. The swirl coax combustion was statistically stable and quiet with and without combustion stability aids. Artificial perturbations to assess dynamic stability generated overpressures from 2 to 15 percent of chamber pressure, and all combustion oscillations were damped within 3 millisec. Chug-free throttle was demonstrated to 65 percent of the nominal operating chamber pressure. Combustion performance in an ablative-lined chamber was calculated with both specific impulse and characteristic exhaust velocity, and averaged about 97 percent. Combustion performance of the injector element depended upon the momentum angle of the injected propellants rather than the shearing rate of the fuel on the oxidizer.

  8. PROCEEDING OF WORKSHOP ON PHOTO-INJECTOR FOR ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC.

    SciTech Connect

    WANG,X.J.

    2001-01-22

    Workshop on Photo-injectors for Energy Recovery Linac was held at National Synchrotron Light Source (NSLS) of Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) on January 22 and 23, 2001. Fifty people attended the workshop; they came from three countries, representing universities, industries and national laboratories. This is the first workshop ever held on photo-injectors for CW operation, and for the first time, both DC and RF photo-injectors were discussed at the workshop. Workshop covered almost all major issues of photo-injectors, photocathode, laser system, vacuum, DC, 433 MHz/B-factory cavities based RF gun, 1.3 GHz RF gun and beam instrumentation. High quantum efficiency and long live time photocathode is the issue discussed during the workshop. Four working group leaders have done great jobs summarizing the workshop discussion, and identifying the major issues for future R and D.

  9. LES of cavitating flow inside a Diesel injector including dynamic needle movement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Örley, F.; Hickel, S.; Schmidt, S. J.; Adams, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    We perform large-eddy simulations (LES) of the turbulent, cavitating flow inside a 9-hole solenoid common-rail injector including jet injection into gas during a full injection cycle. The liquid fuel, vapor, and gas phases are modelled by a homogeneous mixture approach. The cavitation model is based on a thermodynamic equilibrium assumption. The geometry of the injector is represented on a Cartesian grid by a conservative cut-element immersed boundary method. The strategy allows for the simulation of complex, moving geometries with sub-cell resolution. We evaluate the effects of needle movement on the cavitation characteristics in the needle seat and tip region during opening and closing of the injector. Moreover, we study the effect of cavitation inside the injector nozzles on primary jet break-up.

  10. Delivery of polymeric particles into skin using needle-free liquid jet injectors.

    PubMed

    Michinaka, Yasunari; Mitragotri, Samir

    2011-08-10

    Needle-free liquid jet injectors have been developed for the delivery of several drugs including insulin and growth hormone. Here, we assess the ability of liquid jet injectors to deliver polymeric nanoparticles into skin. As a first step, polystyrene particles of several sizes and two shapes were injected into skin using a jet injector. The dispersion area of particles, measured in the cross section of the skin, was found to inversely relate to the particle size and directly proportional to the injection volume. Environmental scanning electron microscopy studies confirmed that particles indeed penetrate into the skin and are generally located around the injection site. Next, poly lactide co-glycolide (PLGA) particles, containing a model solute, coumarin-6, were synthesized and delivered into the skin using the jet injector. PLGA particles were effectively delivered into the skin and released coumarin-6 into the skin.

  11. Actuation fluid adapter for hydraulically-actuated electronically-controlled fuel injector and engine using same

    DOEpatents

    Keyster, Eric S.; Merchant, Jack A.

    2002-01-01

    A fuel injector adapter consists of a block defining a pressure communication passage therethrough and an actuation fluid passage. The actuation fluid passage includes three separate branches that open through an outer surface of the block at three separate locations.

  12. Status of Electron-Cloud Build-Up Simulations for the Main Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Furman, M. A.; Kourbanis, I.; Zwaska, R. M.

    2009-05-04

    We provide a brief status report on measurements and simulations of the electron cloud in the Fermilab Main Injector. Areas of agreement and disagreement are spelled out, along with their possible significance.

  13. Optical Fuel Injector Patternation Measurements in Advanced Liquid-Fueled, High Pressure, Gas Turbine Combustors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Locke, R. J.; Hicks, Y. R.; Anderson, R. C.; Zaller, M. M.

    1998-01-01

    Planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and planar Mie scattering are used to examine the fuel distribution pattern (patternation) for advanced fuel injector concepts in kerosene burning, high pressure gas turbine combustors. Three fuel injector concepts for aerospace applications were investigated under a broad range of operating conditions. Fuel PLIF patternation results are contrasted with those obtained by planar Mie scattering. For one injector, further comparison is also made with data obtained through phase Doppler measurements. Differences in spray patterns for diverse conditions and fuel injector configurations are readily discernible. An examination of the data has shown that a direct determination of the fuel spray angle at realistic conditions is also possible. The results obtained in this study demonstrate the applicability and usefulness of these nonintrusive optical techniques for investigating fuel spray patternation under actual combustor conditions.

  14. An experimental investigation of gaseous propellant rocket injectors using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foust, Michael Jerome

    The gaseous oxygen/gaseous hydrogen combusting flowfields of both shear and swirl coaxial injectors were studied in an optically-accessible uni-element rocket chamber. A Raman spectroscopy system was developed and applied for making spatially and temporally resolved measurements of the major combustion species in order to define the mixing and combustion characteristics of these injectors. Quantitative average species mole fraction and temperature distributions were obtained in the reacting flowfields at various axial locations downstream from both the shear and swirl coaxial elements. In addition to the Raman spectroscopy studies, the rate of heat transfer to the shear coaxial injector post from the flame was experimentally determined by obtaining temperature measurements within the injector post wall using thermocouples. The studies were conducted at three nominal chamber pressure conditions corresponding to 1.28 MPa, 2.12 MPa and 6.9 MPa. For the lowest chamber pressure condition being studied, the experimental measurements obtained downstream of a shear coaxial injector were in reasonable agreement with results from a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code that was developed by Professor Merkle's group at The Pennsylvania State University; although the model does not capture the same level of unsteadiness in the flowfield as observed in the present studies. The results of both the experimental and numerical studies show that the shear coaxial element has slow mixing characteristics for the present operating conditions. In the studies conducted in the near-injector flowfield region of the shear coaxial element, the experimental results indicate that the stabilized position of the oxygen/hydrogen diffusion flame on the injector post is controlled by the relative momentum between the propellants at injection. In comparison to the flowfield characteristics of the shear coaxial injector, a swirl coaxial element displays higher mixing and combustion characteristics

  15. Proper Orthogonal Decomposition Analysis of Shear-Coaxial Injector Flows With and Without Transverse Acoustic Forcing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-10-13

    ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RZSA 10 E. Saturn Blvd. Edwards AFB CA 93524-7680 AFRL-RZ-ED-TP-2011-402 9...nitrogen jets to pressure perturbations due to transverse acoustic forcing at a pressure antinode ( PAN ). The role of injector exit geometry on the flow...cryogenic coaxial nitrogen jets to pressure perturbations due to transverse acoustic forcing at a pressure antinode ( PAN ). The role of injector exit

  16. Small gas turbine combustor study: Fuel injector performance in a transpiration-cooled liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddlebaugh, S. M.; Norgren, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of fuel injection technique on the performance of an advanced reverse flow combustor liner constructed of Lamilloy (a multilaminate transpiration type material) was determined. Performance and emission levels are documented over a range of simulated flight conditions using simplex pressure atomizing, spill return, and splash cone airblast injectors. A parametric evaluation of the effect of increased combustor loading with each of the fuel injector types is obtained.

  17. Orbital transfer vehicle engine technology: Baffled injector design, fabrication, and verification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, J. A.

    1991-01-01

    New technologies for space-based, reusable, throttleable, cryogenic orbit transfer propulsion are being evaluated. Supporting tasks for the design of a dual expander cycle engine thrust chamber design are documented. The purpose of the studies was to research the materials used in the thrust chamber design, the supporting fabrication methods necessary to complete the design, and the modification of the injector element for optimum injector/chamber compatibility.

  18. The design and performance of a twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector for Alcator C-Mod

    SciTech Connect

    Urbahn, John A.

    1994-05-01

    A twenty barrel hydrogen pellet injector has been designed, built and tested both in the laboratory and on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak at MIT. The injector functions by firing pellets of frozen hydrogen or deuterium deep into the plasma discharge for the purpose of fueling the plasma, modifying the density profile and increasing the global energy confinement time. The design goals of the injector are: (1) Operational flexibility, (2) High reliability, (3) Remote operation with minimal maintenance. These requirements have lead to a single stage, pipe gun design with twenty barrels. Pellets are formed by in- situ condensation of the fuel gas, thus avoiding moving parts at cryogenic temperatures. The injector is the first to dispense with the need for cryogenic fluids and instead uses a closed cycle refrigerator to cool the thermal system components. The twenty barrels of the injector produce pellets of four different size groups and allow for a high degree of flexibility in fueling experiments. Operation of the injector is under PLC control allowing for remote operation, interlocked safety features and automated pellet manufacturing. The injector has been extrusively tested and shown to produce pellets reliably with velocities up to 1400 m/sec. During the period from September to November of 1993, the injector was successfully used to fire pellets into over fifty plasma discharges. Experimental results include data on the pellet penetration into the plasma using an advanced pellet tracking diagnostic with improved time and spatial response. Data from the tracker indicates pellet penetrations were between 30 and 86 percent of the plasma minor radius.

  19. Dynamic cavitation inside a high performance diesel injector - an experimental and CFD investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Daniel; Soteriou, Celia; Winterbourn, Mark; Daveau, Christian

    2015-12-01

    A combination of simulation and special experimental techniques has been used to investigate the transient flow and cavitation phenomena of a control device inside a high performance diesel injector. Dynamic cavitation behaviour was captured on a large scale transparent model, which was then used to develop and validate an advanced turbulence CFD model with Large Eddy Simulation. These techniques are used within Delphi to gain insight and optimise injector performance at real-size.

  20. Conceptual Design of an Ultra-Dense Phase Injector and Feed System

    SciTech Connect

    Ken Sprouse; Fred Widman; Alan Darby

    2006-03-30

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) has developed an innovative gasifier concept that uses rocket engine technology to significantly improve gasifier performance, life, and cost compared to current state-of-the-art systems. One key feature of the PWR concept is the use of an ultra-dense phase feed system to provide dry coal to the multi-element injector. This report describes the design of an ultra-dense phase multi-element injector and feed system for use on PWR gasifiers operating at pressures to 1,000 psia. For the design of this injector and feed system, the pulverized coal's Bingham fluid yield stress is approximately 11 Pascals (Pa) with a coefficient of rigidity of 10 centipoise (cp). These values are typical of earlier experimental testing conducted with dried pulverized coal below 18 wt% moisture -- see, e.g., Sprouse and Schuman (1983, 1986). Each individual injector element is designed for a coal flow rate between 3 and 4 tons/hr (0.76 to 1.0 kg/sec) at full flow conditions. Hence, a small 400 to 500 tons/day (4.2 to 5.25 kg/sec) gasifier will require a 6-element injector, a 1,500 tons/day (15.7 kg/sec) gasifier will require an 18-element injector and a 3,000 tons/day (31.5 kg/sec) gasifier will require a 36-element injector. These injectors and feed systems are capable of 'turn-down' below 50% of full-flow operation.

  1. Concentric-flow electrokinetic injector enables serial crystallography of ribosome and photosystem II.

    PubMed

    Sierra, Raymond G; Gati, Cornelius; Laksmono, Hartawan; Dao, E Han; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin; Kern, Jan; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Brewster, Aaron S; Young, Iris D; Michels-Clark, Tara; Aquila, Andrew; Liang, Mengning; Hunter, Mark S; Koglin, Jason E; Boutet, Sébastien; Junco, Elia A; Hayes, Brandon; Bogan, Michael J; Hampton, Christina Y; Puglisi, Elisabetta V; Sauter, Nicholas K; Stan, Claudiu A; Zouni, Athina; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K; Soltis, S Michael; Puglisi, Joseph D; DeMirci, Hasan

    2016-01-01

    We describe a concentric-flow electrokinetic injector for efficiently delivering microcrystals for serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography analysis that enables studies of challenging biological systems in their unadulterated mother liquor. We used the injector to analyze microcrystals of Geobacillus stearothermophilus thermolysin (2.2-Å structure), Thermosynechococcus elongatus photosystem II (<3-Å diffraction) and Thermus thermophilus small ribosomal subunit bound to the antibiotic paromomycin at ambient temperature (3.4-Å structure).

  2. Concentric-flow electrokinetic injector enables serial crystallography of ribosome and photosystem II

    SciTech Connect

    Sierra, Raymond G.; Gati, Cornelius; Laksmono, Hartawan; Dao, E. Han; Gul, Sheraz; Fuller, Franklin; Kern, Jan; Chatterjee, Ruchira; Ibrahim, Mohamed; Brewster, Aaron S.; Young, Iris D.; Michels-Clark, Tara; Aquila, Andrew; Liang, Mengning; Hunter, Mark S.; Koglin, Jason E.; Boutet, Sébastien; Junco, Elia A.; Hayes, Brandon; Bogan, Michael J.; Hampton, Christina Y.; Puglisi, Elisabetta V.; Sauter, Nicholas K.; Stan, Claudiu A.; Zouni, Athina; Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.; Soltis, S. Michael; Puglisi, Joseph D.; DeMirci, Hasan

    2015-11-30

    We describe a concentric-flow electrokinetic injector for efficiently delivering microcrystals for serial femtosecond X-ray crystallography analysis that enables studies of challenging biological systems in their unadulterated mother liquor. We used the injector to analyze microcrystals of Geobacillus stearothermophilus thermolysin (2.2-Å structure), Thermosynechococcus elongatus photosystem II (<3-Å diffraction) and Thermus thermophilus small ribosomal subunit bound to the antibiotic paromomycin at ambient temperature (3.4-Å structure).

  3. Detecting Injector Deactivation Failure Modes in Diesel Engines Using Time and Order Domain Approaches

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    Society 2012 2 In 2010, TARDEC conducted diesel engine dynamometer testing on a seven liter diesel engine. As part of the dynamometer test...on an engine dynamometer test stand while seeding one injector fault electronically. The data in Figure 5 illustrates a representative plot over...positioned accelerometer is capable of detecting injector misfire events at this operating condition on the dynamometer test stand. Annual

  4. Effect of Cup Length on Film Profiles in Gas-Centered Swirl-Coaxial Injectors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    cup. If the liquid film is not completely broken up within the cup then a secondary, hollow , outer cone will form. This cone contains many droplets...is difficult to measure and costly three-dimensional CFD simulations would be needed to accurately model it. Its effect on atomization/design...This difficulty was recognized early in the US development of GCSC injectors and models specific to GCSC injectors were sought. 2 Further

  5. Temperature and Species Measurements of Combustion Produced by a 9-Point Lean Direct Injector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tedder, Sarah A.; Hicks, Yolanda R.; Locke, Randy J.

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents measurements of temperature and relative species concentrations in the combustion flowfield of a 9-point swirl venturi lean direct injector fueled with JP-8. The temperature and relative species concentrations of the flame produced by the injector were measured using spontaneous Raman scattering (SRS). Results of measurements taken at four flame conditions are presented. The species concentrations reported are measured relative to nitrogen and include oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water.

  6. Combustion Instability Mechanisms in a Pressure-coupled Gas-gas Coaxial Rocket Injector

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-01

    Coaxial Rocket Injector 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER In-House 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Harvazinski, M. , Huang, C...Combustion Instability Mechanisms in a Pressure-coupled Gas-gas Coaxial Rocket Injector Matthew E. Harvazinski∗, Air Force Research Laboratory...downstream and the vortex partially decayed before impingement, the timing of this event was not well correlated with the acoustic mode.11 For the third

  7. Small gas turbine combustor study - Fuel injector performance in a transpiration-cooled liner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Riddlebaugh, S. M.; Norgren, C. T.

    1985-01-01

    The effect of fuel injection technique on the performance of an advanced reverse flow combustor liner constructed of Lamilloy (a multilaminate transpiration type material) was determined. Performance and emission levels are documented over a range of simulated flight conditions using simplex pressure atomizing, spill return, and splash cone airblast injectors. A parametric evaluation of the effect of increased combustor loading with each of the fuel injector types is obtained.

  8. Design study of a DPIS injector for a heavy ion FFAG

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura,M.; Raparia, D.; Ishibashi, K.; Yonemura, Y.; Kanesue, T.

    2008-09-29

    A new heavy ion injector linac is proposed for providing heavy ion beams to a fixed field alternating gradient (FFAG) accelerator in Kyushu University. A combination of the new intense laser source based injector and the FFAG will be able to accelerate high current ion beams with 100 Hz of a repetition rate. The planned average current reaches 7 {micro}A with carbon 6+ beam.

  9. A hospital-based proton linac for neutron therapy and radioisotope production

    SciTech Connect

    Lennox, A.J.

    1988-10-01

    Fermilab's Alvarez proton linac has been used routinely for neutron therapy since 1976. The Neutron Therapy Facility (NTF) operates in a mode parasitic to the laboratory's high energy physics program, which uses the linac as an injector for a synchrotron. Parasitic operation is possible because the linac delivers /approximately/1.2 /times/ 10/sup 13/ protons per pulse at a 15 Hz rate, while the high energy physics program requires beam at a rate not greater than 0.5 Hz. Protons not needed for physics experiments strike a beryllium target to produce neutrons for neutron therapy. Encouraging clinical results from NTF have led to a study of the issues involved in providing hospitals with a neutron beam of the type available at Fermilab. This paper describes the issues addressed by that study. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. Mixing Characteristics of Coaxial Injectors at High Gas to Liquid Momentum Ratios

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strakey, P. A.; Talley, D. G.; Hutt, J. J.

    1999-01-01

    A study of the spray of a swirl coaxial gas-liquid injector operating at high gas to liquid momentum ratios is reported. Mixing and droplet size characteristics of the swirl injector are also compared to a shear coaxial injector, currently being used in the Space Shuttle Main Engine fuel preburner. The injectors were tested at elevated chamber pressures using water as a LOX simulant and nitrogen and helium as gaseous hydrogen simulants. The elevated chamber pressure allowed for matching of several of the preburner injector conditions including; gas to liquid momentum ratio, density ratio and Mach number. Diagnostic techniques used to characterize the spray included; strobe back-light imaging, laser sheet spray imaging, mechanical patternation, and a phase Doppler interferometry. Results thus far indicate that the radial spreading of the swirl coaxial spray is much less than was reported in previous studies of swirl injectors operating at atmospheric back-pressure. The swirl coaxial spray does, however, exhibit a smaller overall droplet size which may be interpreted as an increase in local mixing.

  11. Effects of compression and expansion ramp fuel injector configuration on scramjet combustion and heat transfer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stouffer, Scott D.; Baker, N. R.; Capriotti, D. P.; Northam, G. B.

    1993-01-01

    A scramjet combustor with four wall-ramp injectors containing Mach-1.7 fuel jets in the base of the ramps was investigated experimentally. During the test program, two swept ramp injector designs were evaluated. One swept-ramp model had 10-deg compression-ramps and the other had 10-deg expansion cavities between flush wall ramps. The scramjet combustor model was instrumented with pressure taps and heat-flux gages. The pressure measurements indicated that both injector configurations were effective in promoting mixing and combustion. Autoignition occurred for the compression-ramp injectors, and the fuel began to burn immediately downstream of the injectors. In tests of the expansion ramps, a pilot was required to ignite the fuel, and the fuel did not burn for a distance of at least two gaps downstream of the injectors. Once initiated, combustion was rapid in this configuration. Heat transfer measurements showed that the heat flux differed greatly both across the width of the combustor and along the length of the combustor.

  12. Conceptual design report: Neutrino physics after the Main Injector upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, R.; Beverly, L.; Browning, F.; Childress, S.; Freeman, W.; Jacobsen, V.; Koizumi, G.; Krider, J.; Kula, L.; Malensek, A.; Pordes, Stephen H.; /Fermilab /Ohio State U.

    1991-01-01

    The Main Injector will provide an unprecedented opportunity for challenging the Standard Model. The increased fluxes available from this essential upgrade make possible neutrino experiments of great power both at the Tevatron and at intermediate energies. With a factor of six increase in flux, experiments at higher energies probe with great sensitivity the electroweak sector, test QCD, and search for rare processes which could point the way to new physics. Such experiments can make simultaneous measurements of the Standard Model {rho} parameter and sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} to 0.25% and 0.6%, respectively. Measurements of the radiative corrections in electroweak physics will reveal physics at the TeV mass scale. {rho} probes the Higgs sector, and deviations from its expected value would be unambiguous signals of new phenomena and possibly our first clear window into physics beyond the Standard Model. Another way to quantify these corrections is through measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} in different processes; comparisons among an ensemble of precise electroweak measurements can then distinguish among alternatives and pin down the sources of new phenomena. Four processes likely to be important in the coming decade are the direct boson mass measurements, Z polarization asymmetries, atomic parity violation, and neutrino-nucleon scattering. Each of these processes has a different dependence on the various sources of new physics: such phenomena as multiple Z's, supersymmetry, or technicolor are just three of many possibilities. Neutral current measurements of sin{sup 2} {theta}{sub W} and {rho} have already provided constraints on m{sub t}; improved measurements will extend their reach and help us interpret the information from the colliders. QCD tests, especially those involving the structure function xF{sub 3}, can check two fundamental predictions of the theory: the dependence of the strong-coupling constant {alpha}{sub S}(Q{sup 2}) on Q{sup 2}, and the value

  13. REAL TIME FLAME MONITORING OF GASIFIER BURNER AND INJECTORS

    SciTech Connect

    James Servaites; Serguei Zelepouga; David Rue

    2003-10-01

    This report is submitted to the United States Department of Energy in partial fulfillment of the contractual requirements for Phase I of the project titled, ''Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier Burner and Injectors'', under co-operative agreement number DE-FS26-02NT41585. The project is composed of three one-year budget periods. The work in each year is divided into separate Tasks to facilitate project management, orderly completion of all project objectives, budget control, and critical path application of personnel and equipment. This Topical Report presents results of the Task 1 and 2 work. The 2 D optical sensor was developed to monitor selected UV and visible wavelengths to collect accurate flame characterization information regarding mixing, flame shape, and flame rich/lean characteristic. Flame richness, for example, was determined using OH and CH intensity peaks in the 300 to 500 nanometer range of the UV and visible spectrum. The laboratory burner was operated over a wide range of air to fuel ratio conditions from fuel rich to fuel lean. The sooty oxygen enriched air flames were established to test the sensor ability to characterize flame structures with substantial presence of hot solid particles emitting strong ''black body radiation''. The knowledge gained in these experiments will be very important when the sensor is used for gasifier flame analyses. It is expected that the sensor when installed on the Global Energy gasifier will be exposed to complex radiation patterns. The measured energy will be a combination of spectra emitted by the combusting gases, hot solid particulates, and hot walls of the gasifier chamber. The ability to separate flame emissions from the ''black body emissions'' will allow the sensor to accurately determine flame location relative to the gasifier walls and the injectors, as well as to analyze the flame's structure and condition. Ultimately, this information should enable the gasification processes to be monitored and

  14. Cooperative Testing of Rocket Injectors That Use Gaseous Oxygen and Hydrogen

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    Gaseous oxygen and hydrogen propellants used in a special engine energy cycle called Full-Flow Staged Combustion are believed to significantly increase the lifetime of a rocket engine's pumps. The cycle can also reduce the operating temperatures of the engine. Improving the lifetime of the hardware reduces its overall maintenance and operations costs, and is critical to reducing costs for the joint NASA/industry Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV). The work in this project will demonstrate the performance and lifetime of one-element and many-element combustors with gaseous O2/H2 injectors. This work supporting the RLV program is a cooperative venture of the NASA Lewis Research Center, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Rocketdyne, and the Pennsylvania State University. Information about gas-gas rocket injector performance with O2/H2 is very limited. Because of this paucity of data, new testing is needed to improve the knowledge base for testing and designing new injectors for the RLV and to improve computer models that predict the combusting gas flows of new injector designs. Therefore, detailed observations and measurements of the combusting flow from many-element injectors in a rocket engine are being sought. These observations and measurements will be done with three different tools: schlieren photography, ultraviolet imaging, and Raman spectroscopy. The schlieren system will take photos of the density differences in combusting flow, the ultraviolet movies will determine the location of the hydroxyl (OH) radical in the combustion flow, and the Raman spectroscopic measurements will provide the combustion temperature and amount of water (H2O), hydrogen (H2), and oxygen (O2) in the combustor. Marshall is providing overall program management, design and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses, as well as funding for the work at Penn State. An existing, windowed combustor and several injectors will be provided by Rocketdyne--two injectors for the initial screening

  15. Prospects of direct search for dark photon and dark Higgs in SeaQuest/E1067 experiment at the Fermilab main injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Ming Xiong

    2017-03-01

    In this review, we present the current status and prospects of the dark sector physics search program of the SeaQuest/E1067 fixed target dimuon experiment at Fermilab Main Injector. There has been tremendous excitement and progress in searching for new physics in the dark sector in recent years. Dark sector refers to a collection of currently unknown particles that do not directly couple with the Standard Model (SM) strong and electroweak (EW) interactions but assumed to carry gravitational force, thus could be candidates of the missing Dark Matter (DM). Such particles may interact with the SM particles through “portal” interactions. Two of the simple possibilities are being investigated in our initial search: (1) dark photon and (2) dark Higgs. They could be within immediate reach of current or near future experimental search. We show there is a unique opportunity today at Fermilab to directly search for these particles in a highly motivated but uncharted parameter space in high-energy proton-nucleus collisions in the beam-dump mode using the 120 GeV proton beam from the Main Injector. Our current search window covers the mass range 0.2-10 GeV/c2, and in the near future, by adding an electromagnetic calorimeter (EMCal) to the spectrometer, we can further explore the lower mass region down to about ˜1 MeV/c2 through the di-electron channel. If dark photons (and/or dark Higgs) were observed, they would revolutionize our understanding of the fundamental structures and interactions of our universe.

  16. Efficient GO2/GH2 Injector Design: A NASA, Industry and University Cooperative Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, P. K.; Klem, M. D.; Fisher, S. C.; Santoro, R. J.

    1997-01-01

    Developing new propulsion components in the face of shrinking budgets presents a significant challenge. The technical, schedule and funding issues common to any design/development program are complicated by the ramifications of the continuing decrease in funding for the aerospace industry. As a result, new working arrangements are evolving in the rocket industry. This paper documents a successful NASA, industry, and university cooperative effort to design efficient high performance GO2/GH2 rocket injector elements in the current budget environment. The NASA Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Program initially consisted of three vehicle/engine concepts targeted at achieving single stage to orbit. One of the Rocketdyne propulsion concepts, the RS 2100 engine, used a full-flow staged-combustion cycle. Therefore, the RS 2100 main injector would combust GO2/GH 2 propellants. Early in the design phase, but after budget levels and contractual arrangements had been set the limitations of the current gas/gas injector database were identified. Most of the relevant information was at least twenty years old. Designing high performance injectors to meet the RS 2100 requirements would require the database to be updated and significantly enhanced. However, there was no funding available to address the need for more data. NASA proposed a teaming arrangement to acquire the updated information without additional funds from the RLV Program. A determination of the types and amounts of data needed was made along with test facilities with capabilities to meet the data requirements, budget constraints, and schedule. After several iterations a program was finalized and a team established to satisfy the program goals. The Gas/Gas Injector Technology (GGIT) Program had the overall goal of increasing the ability of the rocket engine community to design efficient high-performance, durable gas/gas injectors relevant to RLV requirements. First, the program would provide Rocketdyne with data on

  17. Performance evaluation and parametric analysis on cantilevered ramp injector in supersonic flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Li, Shi-bin; Yan, Li; Wang, Zhen-guo

    2013-03-01

    The cantilevered ramp injector is one of the most promising candidates for the mixing enhancement between the fuel and the supersonic air, and its parametric analysis has drawn an increasing attention of researchers. The flow field characteristics and the drag force of the cantilevered ramp injector in the supersonic flow with the freestream Mach number 2.0 have been investigated numerically, and the predicted injectant mole fraction and static pressure profiles have been compared with the available experimental data in the open literature. At the same time, the grid independency analysis has been performed by using the coarse, the moderate and the refined grid scales, and the influence of the turbulence model on the flow field of the cantilevered ramp injector has been carried on as well. Further, the effects of the swept angle, the ramp angle and the length of the step on the performance of the cantilevered ramp injector have been discussed subsequently. The obtained results show that the grid scale has only a slight impact on the flow field of the cantilevered ramp injector except in the region near the fuel injector, and the predicted results show reasonable agreement with the experimental data. Additionally, the turbulence model makes a slight difference to the numerical results, and the results obtained by the RNG k-ɛ and SST k-ω turbulence models are almost the same. The swept angle and the ramp angle have the same impact on the performance of the cantilevered ramp injector, and the kidney-shaped plume is formed with shorter distance with the increase of the swept and ramp angles. At the same time, the shape of the injectant mole fraction contour at X/H=6 goes through a transition from a peach-shaped plume to a kidney-shaped plume, and the cantilevered ramp injector with larger swept and ramp angles has the higher mixing efficiency and the larger drag force. The length of the step has only a slight impact on the drag force performance of the cantilevered

  18. Formation and Acceleration Physics on Plasma Injector 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Stephen

    2012-10-01

    Plasma Injector 1 (PI-1) is a two stage coaxial Marshal gun with conical accelerator electrodes, similar in shape to the MARAUDER device, with power input of the same topology as the RACE device. The goal of PI-1 research is to produce a self-confined compact toroid with high-flux (200 mWb), high-density (3x10^16 cm-3) and moderate initial temperature (100 eV) to be used as the target plasma in a MTF reactor. PI-1 is 5 meters long and 1.9 m in diameter at the expansion region where a high aspect ratio (4.4) spheromak is formed with a minimum lambda of 9 m-1. The acceleration stage is 4 m long and tapers to an outer diameter of 40 cm. The capacitor banks store 0.5 MJ for formation and 1.13 MJ for acceleration. Power is delivered via 62 independently controlled switch modules. Several geometries for formation bias field, inner electrodes and target chamber have been tested, and trends in accelerator efficiency and target lifetime have been observed. Thomson scattering and ion Doppler spectroscopy show significant heating (>100 eV) as the CT is compressed in the conical accelerator. B-dot probes show magnetic field structure consistent with Grad-Shafranov models and MHD simulations, and CT axial length depends strongly on the lambda profile.

  19. An Arched Micro-Injector (ARCMI) for Innocuous Subretinal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chengguo; Lee, Sung Ho; Kim, Kibom; Jung, Hyungil

    2014-01-01

    Several critical ocular diseases that can lead to blindness are due to retinal disorders. Subretinal drug delivery has been developed recently for the treatment of retinal disorders such as hemorrhage because of the specific ocular structure, namely, the blood retinal barrier (BRB). In the present study, we developed an Arched Micro-injector (ARCMI) for subretinal drug delivery with minimal retinal tissue damage. ARCMIs were fabricated using three major techniques: reverse drawing lithography, controlled air flow, and electroplating. In order to achieve minimal retinal tissue damage, ARCMIs were fabricated with specific features such as a 0.15 mm−1 curvature, 45° tip bevel, 5 mm length, inner diameter of 40 µm, and an outer diameter of 100 µm. These specific features were optimized via in-vitro experiments in artificial ocular hemispherical structures and subretinal injection of indocyanine green in porcine eye ex-vivo. We confirmed that the ARCMI was capable of delivering ocular drugs by subretinal injection without unusual subretinal tissue damage, including hemorrhage. PMID:25111562

  20. More-Accurate Model of Flows in Rocket Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hosangadi, Ashvin; Chenoweth, James; Brinckman, Kevin; Dash, Sanford

    2011-01-01

    An improved computational model for simulating flows in liquid-propellant injectors in rocket engines has been developed. Models like this one are needed for predicting fluxes of heat in, and performances of, the engines. An important part of predicting performance is predicting fluctuations of temperature, fluctuations of concentrations of chemical species, and effects of turbulence on diffusion of heat and chemical species. Customarily, diffusion effects are represented by parameters known in the art as the Prandtl and Schmidt numbers. Prior formulations include ad hoc assumptions of constant values of these parameters, but these assumptions and, hence, the formulations, are inaccurate for complex flows. In the improved model, these parameters are neither constant nor specified in advance: instead, they are variables obtained as part of the solution. Consequently, this model represents the effects of turbulence on diffusion of heat and chemical species more accurately than prior formulations do, and may enable more-accurate prediction of mixing and flows of heat in rocket-engine combustion chambers. The model has been implemented within CRUNCH CFD, a proprietary computational fluid dynamics (CFD) computer program, and has been tested within that program. The model could also be implemented within other CFD programs.

  1. Location of Maximum Credible Beam Losses in LCLS Injector

    SciTech Connect

    Mao, Stan

    2010-12-13

    The memo describes the maximum credible beam the LCLS injector can produce and lose at various locations along the beamline. The estimation procedure is based upon three previous reports [1, 2, 3]. While specific numbers have been updated to accurately reflect the present design parameters, the conclusions are very similar to those given in Ref 1. The source of the maximum credible beam results from the explosive electron emission from the photocathode if the drive laser intensity exceeds the threshold for plasma production. In this event, the gun's RF field can extract a large number of electrons from this plasma which are accelerated out of the gun and into the beamline. This electron emission persists until it has depleted the gun of all its energy. Hence the number of electrons emitted per pulse is limited by the amount of stored RF energy in the gun. It needs to be emphasized that this type of emission is highly undesirable, as it causes permanent damage to the cathode.

  2. RF PLASMA SOURCE FOR A HEAVY ION FUSION INJECTOR

    SciTech Connect

    Westenskow, G A; Grote, D P; Halaxi, E; Kwan, J W; Waldron, W L

    2004-06-25

    We are developing high-current ion sources for Heavy Ion Fusion applications. Our proposed RF plasma source starts with an array of high current density mini-beamlets (of a few mA each at {approx}100 mA/cm{sup 2}) that are kept separated from each other within a set of acceleration grids. After they have gained sufficient kinetic energy (>1.2 MeV), the mini-beamlets are allowed to merge together to form a high current beam (about 0.5 A) with low emittance. Simulations have been done to maximize the beam brightness within the physical constraints of the source. We have performed a series of experiments on an RF plasma source. A 80-kV 20-{micro}s source has produced up to 5 mA of Ar{sup +} in a single beamlet and we measured the emittance of a beamlet, its energy spread, and the fraction of ions in higher charge states. We have also tested a 50-kV 61-hole multi-beamlet array. Two upcoming experiments are being prepared: the first experiment will test full-gradient extraction and transport of 61 beamlets though the first four electrodes, and the second experiment will converge 119 beamlets into an ESQ channel at one-quarter scaled voltage of a 1.6 MV HIF injector.

  3. Ethnic dimensions of habitus among homeless heroin injectors

    PubMed Central

    Bourgois, Philippe; Schonberg, Jeff

    2009-01-01

    Ten years of participant-observation fieldwork and photography among a multi-ethnic social network of homeless heroin injectors and crack smokers in California reveal hierarchical interpersonal relations between African Americans, whites and Latinos despite the fact that they all share a physical addiction to heroin and live in indigent poverty in the same encampments. Focusing on tensions between blacks and whites, we develop the concept of ‘ethnicized habitus’ to understand how divisions drawn on the basis of skin color are enforced through everyday interaction to produce ‘intimate apartheid’ in the context of physical proximity and shared destitution. Specifically, we examine how two components of ethnic habitus are generated. One is a simple technique of the body, a preference for intravenous versus intramuscular or subcutaneous heroin injection. The second revolves around income-generation strategies and is more obviously related to external power constraints. Both these components fit into a larger constellation of ethnic distinction rooted in historically entrenched political, economic and ideological forces. An understanding of the generative forces of the ethnic dimensions of habitus allows us to recognize how macro-power relations produce intimate desires and ways of being that become inscribed on individual bodies and routinized in behavior. These distinctions are, for the most part, interpreted as natural attributes of genetics and culture by many people in the United States, justifying a racialized moral hierarchy. PMID:19777125

  4. Physics at an upgraded proton driver at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Geer

    2004-07-28

    The accelerator-based particle physics program in the US is entering a period of transition. This is particularly true at Fermilab which for more than two decades has been the home of the Tevatron Proton-Antiproton Collider, the World's highest energy hadron collider. In a few years time the energy frontier will move to the LHC at CERN. Hence, if an accelerator-based program is to survive at Fermilab, it must evolve. Fermilab is fortunate in that, in addition to hosting the Tevatron Collider, the laboratory also hosts the US accelerator-based neutrino program. The recent discovery that neutrino flavors oscillate has opened a new exciting world for us to explore, and has created an opportunity for the Fermilab accelerator complex to continue to address the cutting-edge questions of particle physics beyond the Tevatron Collider era. The presently foreseen neutrino oscillation experiments at Fermilab (MiniBooNE [1] and MINOS [2]) will enable the laboratory to begin contributing to the Global oscillation physics program in the near future, and will help us better understand the basic parameters describing the oscillations. However, this is only a first step. To be able to pin down all of the oscillation parameters, and hopefully make new discoveries along the way, we will need high statistics experiments, which will require a very intense neutrino beam, and one or more very massive detectors. In particular we will require new MW-scale primary proton beams and perhaps ultimately a Neutrino Factory [3]. Plans to upgrade the Fermilab Proton Driver are presently being developed [4]. The upgrade project would replace the Fermilab Booster with a new 8 GeV accelerator with 0.5-2 MW beam power, a factor of 15-60 more than the current Booster. It would also make the modifications needed to the Fermilab Main Injector (MI) to upgrade it to simultaneously provide 120 GeV beams of 2 MW. This would enable a factor of 5-10 increase in neutrino beam intensities at the MI, while also

  5. High intensity electron cyclotron resonance proton source for low energy high intensity proton accelerator.

    PubMed

    Roychowdhury, P; Chakravarthy, D P

    2009-12-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton source at 50 keV, 50 mA has been designed, developed, and commissioned for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA). Plasma characterization of this source has been performed. ECR plasma was generated with 400-1100 W of microwave power at 2.45 GHz, with hydrogen as working gas. Microwave was fed in the plasma chamber through quartz window. Plasma density and temperature was studied under various operating conditions, such as microwave power and gas pressure. Langmuir probe was used for plasma characterization using current voltage variation. The typical hydrogen plasma density and electron temperature measured were 7x10(11) cm(-3) and 6 eV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 42 mA was extracted, with three-electrode extraction geometry, at 40 keV of beam energy. The extracted ion current was studied as a function of microwave power and gas pressure. Depending on source pressure and discharge power, more than 30% total gas efficiency was achieved. The optimization of the source is under progress to meet the requirement of long time operation. The source will be used as an injector for continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole, a part of 20 MeV LEHIPA. The required rms normalized emittance of this source is less than 0.2 pi mm mrad. The simulated value of normalized emittance is well within this limit and will be measured shortly. This paper presents the study of plasma parameters, first beam results, and the status of ECR proton source.

  6. High intensity electron cyclotron resonance proton source for low energy high intensity proton accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Roychowdhury, P.; Chakravarthy, D. P.

    2009-12-15

    Electron cyclotron resonance (ECR) proton source at 50 keV, 50 mA has been designed, developed, and commissioned for the low energy high intensity proton accelerator (LEHIPA). Plasma characterization of this source has been performed. ECR plasma was generated with 400-1100 W of microwave power at 2.45 GHz, with hydrogen as working gas. Microwave was fed in the plasma chamber through quartz window. Plasma density and temperature was studied under various operating conditions, such as microwave power and gas pressure. Langmuir probe was used for plasma characterization using current voltage variation. The typical hydrogen plasma density and electron temperature measured were 7x10{sup 11} cm{sup -3} and 6 eV, respectively. The total ion beam current of 42 mA was extracted, with three-electrode extraction geometry, at 40 keV of beam energy. The extracted ion current was studied as a function of microwave power and gas pressure. Depending on source pressure and discharge power, more than 30% total gas efficiency was achieved. The optimization of the source is under progress to meet the requirement of long time operation. The source will be used as an injector for continuous wave radio frequency quadrupole, a part of 20 MeV LEHIPA. The required rms normalized emittance of this source is less than 0.2 {pi} mm mrad. The simulated value of normalized emittance is well within this limit and will be measured shortly. This paper presents the study of plasma parameters, first beam results, and the status of ECR proton source.

  7. Validation of High-Fidelity CFD Simulations for Rocket Injector Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, P. Kevin; Menon, Suresh; Merkle, Charles L.; Oefelein, Joseph C.; Yang, Vigor

    2008-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has the potential to improve the historical rocket injector design process by evaluating the sensitivity of performance and injector-driven thermal environments to the details of the injector geometry and key operational parameters. Methodical verification and validation efforts on a range of coaxial injector elements have shown the current production CFD capability must be improved in order to quantitatively impact the injector design process. This paper documents the status of a focused effort to compare and understand the predictive capabilities and computational requirements of a range of CFD methodologies on a set of single element injector model problems. The steady Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (RANS), unsteady Reynolds-Average Navier-Stokes (URANS) and three different approaches using the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) technique were used to simulate the initial model problem, a single element coaxial injector using gaseous oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants. While one high-fidelity LES result matches the experimental combustion chamber wall heat flux very well, there is no monotonic convergence to the data with increasing computational tool fidelity. Systematic evaluation of key flow field regions such as the flame zone, the head end recirculation zone and the downstream near wall zone has shed significant, though as of yet incomplete, light on the complex, underlying causes for the performance level of each technique. 1 Aerospace Engineer and Combustion CFD Team Leader, MS ER42, NASA MSFC, AL 35812, Senior Member, AIAA. 2 Professor and Director, Computational Combustion Laboratory, School of Aerospace Engineering, 270 Ferst Dr., Atlanta, GA 30332, Associate Fellow, AIAA. 3 Reilly Professor of Engineering, School of Mechanical Engineering, 585 Purdue Mall, West Lafayette, IN 47907, Fellow, AIAA. 4 Principal Member of Technical Staff, Combustion Research Facility, 7011 East Avenue, MS9051, Livermore, CA 94550, Associate

  8. Investigation of the effect of pilot burner on lean blow out performance of a staged injector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jinhu; Zhang, Kaiyu; Liu, Cunxi; Ruan, Changlong; Liu, Fuqiang; Xu, Gang

    2014-12-01

    The staged injector has exhibited great potential to achieve low emissions and is becoming the preferable choice of many civil airplanes. Moreover, it is promising to employ this injector design in military engine, which requires most of the combustion air enters the combustor through injector to reduce smoke emission. However, lean staged injector is prone to combustion instability and extinction in low load operation, so techniques for broadening its stable operation ranges are crucial for its application in real engine. In this work, the LBO performance of a staged injector is assessed and analyzed on a single sector test section. The experiment was done in atmospheric environment with optical access. Kerosene-PLIF technique was used to visualize the spray distribution and common camera was used to record the flame patterns. Emphasis is put on the influence of pilot burner on LBO performance. The fuel to air ratios at LBO of six injectors with different pilot swirler vane angle were evaluated and the obtained LBO data was converted into data at idle condition. Results show that the increase of pilot swirler vane angle could promote the air assisted atomization, which in turn improves the LBO performance slightly. Flame patterns typical in the process of LBO are analyzed and attempts are made to find out the main factors which govern the extinction process with the assistance of spray distribution and numerical flow field results. It can be learned that the flame patterns are mainly influenced by structure of the flow field just behind the pilot burner when the fuel mass flow rate is high; with the reduction of fuel, atomization quality become more and more important and is the main contributing factor of LBO. In the end of the paper, conclusions are drawn and suggestions are made for the optimization of the present staged injector.

  9. Electron-proton spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winckler, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    An electron-proton spectrometer was designed to measure the geomagnetically trapped radiation in a geostationary orbit at 6.6 earth radii in the outer radiation belt. This instrument is to be flown on the Applications Technology Satellite-F (ATS-F). The electron-proton spectrometer consists of two permanent magnet surface barrier detector arrays and associated electronics capable of selecting and detecting electrons in three energy ranges: (1) 30-50 keV, (2) 150-200 keV, and (3) 500 keV and protons in three energy ranges. The electron-proton spectrometer has the capability of measuring the fluxes of electrons and protons in various directions with respect to the magnetic field lines running through the satellite. One magnet detector array system is implemented to scan between EME north and south through west, sampling the directional flux in 15 steps. The other magnet-detector array system is fixed looking toward EME east.

  10. Surface Protonics Promotes Catalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, R.; Okada, S.; Inagaki, R.; Oshima, K.; Ogo, S.; Sekine, Y.

    2016-12-01

    Catalytic steam reforming of methane for hydrogen production proceeds even at 473 K over 1 wt% Pd/CeO2 catalyst in an electric field, thanks to the surface protonics. Kinetic analyses demonstrated the synergetic effect between catalytic reaction and electric field, revealing strengthened water pressure dependence of the reaction rate when applying an electric field, with one-third the apparent activation energy at the lower reaction temperature range. Operando–IR measurements revealed that proton conduction via adsorbed water on the catalyst surface occurred during electric field application. Methane was activated by proton collision at the Pd–CeO2 interface, based on the inverse kinetic isotope effect. Proton conduction on the catalyst surface plays an important role in methane activation at low temperature. This report is the first describing promotion of the catalytic reaction by surface protonics.

  11. Surface Protonics Promotes Catalysis

    PubMed Central

    Manabe, R.; Okada, S.; Inagaki, R.; Oshima, K.; Ogo, S.; Sekine, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic steam reforming of methane for hydrogen production proceeds even at 473 K over 1 wt% Pd/CeO2 catalyst in an electric field, thanks to the surface protonics. Kinetic analyses demonstrated the synergetic effect between catalytic reaction and electric field, revealing strengthened water pressure dependence of the reaction rate when applying an electric field, with one-third the apparent activation energy at the lower reaction temperature range. Operando–IR measurements revealed that proton conduction via adsorbed water on the catalyst surface occurred during electric field application. Methane was activated by proton collision at the Pd–CeO2 interface, based on the inverse kinetic isotope effect. Proton conduction on the catalyst surface plays an important role in methane activation at low temperature. This report is the first describing promotion of the catalytic reaction by surface protonics. PMID:27905505

  12. Proton-proton colliding beam facility ISABELLE

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H

    1980-01-01

    This paper attempts to present the status of the ISABELLE construction project, which has the objective of building a 400 + 400 GeV proton colliding beam facility. The major technical features of the superconducting accelerators with their projected performance are described. Progress made so far, difficulties encountered, and the program until completion in 1986 is briefly reviewed.

  13. ACCELERATION OF POLARIZED PROTONS IN THE AGS WITH TWO HELICAL PARTIAL SNAKES.

    SciTech Connect

    HUANG,H.; AHRENS,L.; BAI,M.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The RHIC spin program requires 2 x 10{sup 11} proton/bunch with 70% polarization. As the injector to RHIC, AGS is the bottleneck for preserving polarization: there is no space for a full snake to overcome numerous depolarizing resonances. An ac dipole and a partial snake have been used to preserve beam polarization in the past few years. Two helical snakes have been built and installed in the AGS. With careful setup of optics at injection and along the ramp, this combination can eliminate all depolarizing resonances encountered during acceleration. This paper presents the setup and preliminary results.

  14. Production of high current proton beams using complex H-rich molecules at GSI

    SciTech Connect

    Adonin, A. Barth, W.; Heymach, F.; Hollinger, R.; Vormann, H.; Yakushev, A.

    2016-02-15

    In this contribution, the concept of production of intense proton beams using molecular heavy ion beams from an ion source is described, as well as the indisputable advantages of this technique for operation of the GSI linear accelerator. The results of experimental investigations, including mass-spectra analysis and beam emittance measurements, with different ion beams (CH{sub 3}{sup +},C{sub 2}H{sub 4}{sup +},C{sub 3}H{sub 7}{sup +}) using various gaseous and liquid substances (methane, ethane, propane, isobutane, and iodoethane) at the ion source are summarized. Further steps to improve the ion source and injector performance with molecular beams are depicted.

  15. Real Time Flame Monitoring of Gasifier and Injectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zelepouga, Serguei; Saveliev, Alexei

    2011-12-31

    This project is a multistage effort with the final goal to develop a practical and reliable nonintrusive gasifier injector monitor to assess burner wear and need for replacement. The project team included the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), Gas Technology Institute (GTI), North Carolina State University, and ConocoPhillips. This report presents the results of the sensor development and testing initially at GTI combustion laboratory with natural gas flames, then at the Canada Energy Technology Center (CANMET), Canada in the atmospheric coal combustor as well as in the pilot scale pressurized entrained flow gasifier, and finally the sensor capabilities were demonstrated at the Pratt and Whitney Rocketdyne (PWR) Gasifier and the Wabash River Repowering plant located in West Terre Haute, IN. The initial tests demonstrated that GTI gasifier sensor technology was capable of detecting shape and rich/lean properties of natural gas air/oxygen enriched air flames. The following testing at the Vertical Combustor Research Facility (VCRF) was a logical transition step from the atmospheric natural gas flames to pressurized coal gasification environment. The results of testing with atmospheric coal flames showed that light emitted by excited OH* and CH* radicals in coal/air flames can be detected and quantified. The maximum emission intensities of OH*, CH*, and black body (char combustion) occur at different axial positions along the flame length. Therefore, the excitation rates of CH* and OH* are distinct at different stages of coal combustion and can be utilized to identify and characterize processes which occur during coal combustion such as devolatilization, char heating and burning. To accomplish the goals set for Tasks 4 and 5, GTI utilized the CANMET Pressurized Entrained Flow Gasifier (PEFG). The testing parameters of the PEFG were selected to simulate optimum gasifier operation as well as gasifier conditions normally resulting from improper operation or

  16. Effects of Passive Fuel-Air Mixing Control on Burner Emissions Via Lobed Fuel Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, M. G.; Smith, O. I.; Karagozian, A. R.

    1999-01-01

    The present experimental study examines the effects of differing levels of passive fuel-air premixing on flame structures and their associated NO(x) and CO emissions. Four alternative fuel injector geometries were explored, three of which have lobed shapes. These lobed injectors mix fuel and air and strain species inter-faces to differing extents due to streamwise vorticity generation, thus creating different local or core equivalence ratios within flow regions upstream of flame ignition and stabilization. Prior experimental studies of two of these lobed injector flowfields focused on non-reactive mixing characteristics and emissions measurements for the case where air speeds were matched above and below the fuel injector, effectively generating stronger streamwise vorticity than spanwise vorticity. The present studies examine the effects of airstream mismatch (and hence additional spanwise vorticity generation), effects of confinement of the crossflow to reduce the local equivalence ratio, and the effects of altering the geometry and position of the flameholders. NO(x) and CO emissions as well as planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging (PLIF) of seeded acetone are used to characterize injector performance and reactive flow evolution.

  17. Flow Distribution Around the SSME Main Injector Assembly Using Porosity Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wang, Ten-See

    1995-01-01

    Hot gas turbulent flow distribution around the main injector assembly of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Liquid Oxidizer (LOX) flow distribution through the LOX posts have a great effect on the combustion phenomena inside the main combustion chamber. In order to design a CFD model to be an effective engineering analysis tool with good computational turn-around time (especially for 3-D flow problems) and still maintain good accuracy in describing the flow features, the concept of porosity was employed to describe the effects of blockage and drag force due to the presence of the LOX posts in the turbulent flow field around the main injector assembly of the SSME. 2-D numerical studies were conducted to identify the drag coefficients of the flows both through tube banks and around the shielded posts over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Empirical, analytical expressions of the drag coefficient as a function of local flow Reynolds number were then deduced. The porosity model was applied to the turbulent flow around the main injector assembly of the SSME, and analyses were performed. The 3-D CFD analysis was divided into three parts, LOX dome, hot gas injector assembly, and hydrogen cavity. The numerical results indicate that the mixture ratio at the downstream of injector face was close to stoichiometric around baffle elements.

  18. Flow Distribution Around the SSME Main Injector Assembly Using Porosity Formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Gary C.; Chen, Yen-Sen; Wang, Ten-See

    1995-01-01

    Hot gas turbulent flow distribution around the main injector assembly of the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Liquid Oxidizer (LOX) flow distribution through the LOX posts have a great effect on the combustion phenomena inside the main combustion chamber. In order to design a CFD model to be an effective engineering analysis tool with good computational turn- around time (especially for 3-D flow problems) and still maintain good accuracy in describing the flow features, the concept of porosity was employed to describe the effects of blockage and drag force due to the presence of the LOX posts in the turbulent flow field around the main injector assembly of the SSME. 2-D numerical studies were conducted to identify the drag coefficients of the flows both through tube banks and around the shielded posts over a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Empirical, analytical expressions of the drag coefficient as a function of local flow Reynolds number were then deduced. The porosity model was applied to the turbulent flow around the main injector assembly of the SSME, and analyses were performed. The 3-D CFD analysis was divided into three parts, LOX dome, hot gas injector assembly, and hydrogen cavity. The numerical results indicate that the mixture ratio at the downstream of injector face was close to stoichiometric around baffle elements.

  19. Coaxial Injectors for Liquid Oxygen/Methane (LOX/CH4) Technology Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elam, Sandra; Osborne, Robin; Protz, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Since late 2005, NASA s Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has been developing and demonstrating technology for liquid oxygen and methane (LOX/CH4) engine designs. Efforts were undertaken to help advance technology that might benefit NASA s Exploration Technology Development Program. The propellant combination has gained interest as a potential option for the ascent stage main propulsion system on the Altair lunar lander vehicle. The propellants are also attractive for eventual Mars missions in future development activities. MSFC s efforts focus on evaluating the performance potential of both liquid and gaseous methane for specific injector designs. Previous JANNAF papers reported the performance observed for LOX and methane with an impinging injector. More recent efforts have focused on testing coaxial injector designs. Hot-fire testing performed at MSFC with thrust levels close to 5000 lbf demonstrated high performance with coaxial injectors of different element densities and various fuel film cooling levels. Test data provided results on performance, chamber wall compatibility, and heat flux profiles for different injectors. A variety of igniters were also demonstrated, including a torch igniter and a microwave (or plasma) igniter.

  20. Local Heat Flux Measurements with Single and Small Multi-element Coaxial Element-Injectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Gregg; Protz, Christopher; Bullard, Brad; Hulka, James

    2006-01-01

    To support NASA's Vision for Space Exploration mission, the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center conducted a program in 2005 to improve the capability to predict local thermal compatibility and heat transfer in liquid propellant rocket engine combustion devices. The ultimate objective was to predict and hence reduce the local peak heat flux due to injector design, resulting in a significant improvement in overall engine reliability and durability. Such analyses are applicable to combustion devices in booster, upper stage, and in-space engines with regeneratively cooled chamber walls, as well as in small thrust chambers with few elements in the injector. In this program, single and three-element injectors were hot-fire tested with liquid oxygen and gaseous hydrogen propellants at The Pennsylvania State University Cryogenic Combustor Laboratory from May to August 2005. Local heat fluxes were measured in a 1-inch internal diameter heat sink combustion chamber using Medtherm coaxial thermocouples and Gardon heat flux gauges, Injector configurations were tested with both shear coaxial elements and swirl coaxial elements. Both a straight and a scarfed single element swirl injector were tested. This paper includes general descriptions of the experimental hardware, instrumentation, and results of the hot-fire testing for three coaxial shear and swirl elements. Detailed geometry and test results the for shear coax elements has already been published. Detailed test result for the remaining 6 swirl coax element for the will be published in a future JANNAF presentation to provide well-defined data sets for development and model validation.