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Sample records for 75-year-old man developed

  1. A 75-year old man complaining of flank pain and obstructive urinary symptoms: a case report.

    PubMed

    Mohseni, Mohammad-Ghasem; Hamidi, Morteza; Salavati, Alborz; Rangzan, Nazir; Kowsari, Farid

    2011-01-01

    Benign renal cystic adenoma with out malignant features is a very rare entity. A 75 year old male with obstructive Lower tract symptoms and vague flank pain was admitted and planned for nephrectomy of non functional kidney -due to long term nephrolithiasis- intra operative finding was a cystic hydronephrotic kidney filled by thick mucous secretions which turned out to be a cyst adenoma of kidney with no malignant features. PMID:21960085

  2. Limbic and nigral Lewy bodies and Alzheimer's disease pathology mimicking progressive supranuclear palsy in a 75-year-old man with preserved cardiac uptake of MIBG.

    PubMed

    Kasahata, Naoki; Uchihara, Toshiki; Orimo, Satoshi; Nakamura, Ayako; Makita, Yoshihisa

    2012-01-01

    A 75-year-old man developed l-dopa non-responsive parkinsonism, supranuclear ophthalmoplegia, neck dorsiflexion, and dementia. Atrophy of the midbrain tegmentum on MRI and normal myocardial uptake of MIBG led to the clinical diagnosis of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Autopsy revealed depigmentation of the substantia nigra and locus ceruleus. Alzheimer's disease pathology was advanced with PSP-like neurofibrillary tangles distribution, and Lewy bodies were abundant in limbic lobe, while scarce in lower brainstem nuclei. Tuft-shaped astrocytes were not apparent. Although decreased myocardial uptake of MIBG is a rule in patients harboring Lewy bodies, its normal uptake may be related to their absence in lower brainstem nuclei. PMID:22886008

  3. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis and dural arteriovenous fistula in a 75-year-old man primarily presenting with repeated transient visual obscurations.

    PubMed

    Sato, Takeo; Matsuno, Hiromasa; Omoto, Shusaku; Sakuta, Kenichi; Terasawa, Yuka; Iguchi, Yasuyuki

    2016-04-28

    A 75-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of repeated transient visual obscurations of greying vision. The transient visual obscurations were caused by rotating his neck or the Valsalva manoeuver, and they recovered in about 30 seconds. A few weeks later, pulsatile tinnitus of the right ear and a dull headache developed. Both ocular fundi showed papilledema, and there was significant intracranial hypertension on cerebrospinal fluid examination. He was diagnosed as having right sigmoid sinus thrombosis and a dural arteriovenous fistula with a rapid arteriovenous shunt from the right ascending pharyngeal artery and the right occipital artery to the right transverse sinus. Anticoagulant therapy was started, and coil embolization was performed. The transient visual obscurations, headache, and tinnitus improved dramatically after the procedure. We hypothesized that the transient visual obscurations were triggered by rotating the neck or performing the Valsalva manoeuver as they both increase the pressure of cerebrospinal fluid, inducing transient optic nerve ischemia and visual obscurations under mild intracranial hypertension. Transient visual obscurations are an important initial symptom of intracranial hypertension. PMID:27010097

  4. [Prevalence and trend of gastrointestinal malignant tumors in the elderly over 75 years old in China].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying; Wu, Chunxiao

    2016-05-25

    Gastrointestinal malignant tumors are the most common malignant neoplasms among the elderly people over 75 years old in China. There are 122.1 thousand new gastric cases and 78.2 thousand new colorectal cancer cases diagnosed each year in China, which accounts for 42.73% and 18.08% respectively of the cases with same age in the world. The gastric cancer accounts for 25.13% and colorectal cancer accounts for 28.86%of all the malignancies in the elderly. The gastric cancer death accounts for 36.38% and colorectal cancer death accounts for 44.68% in those people over 75 years old in China. It was estimated that the risk of developing gastrointestinal malignant tumors of these elderly people was about 5-6 times and the risk of death of gastrointestinal malignant tumors was about 7-8 times of the general population. Compared with the general population and the people of 55-74 years old, the incidence of gastric cancer in the elderly decreased more slowly and the incidence of colorectal cancer increased more quickly over the past 40 years, which brought significant double burden. The survival rate of gastrointestinal malignant tumors in these elderly was lower than that of the general population. We summarized the incidence, mortality, survival and trend of gastrointestinal malignant tumors in the Chinese elderly, in order to provide data for predicting the age distribution and disease burden in the future, to improve the awareness for cancer prevention and control among these elderly, and to call attention to epidemiology, preclinical and clinical medicine for the elderly, especially in the field of study on the influence between comorbidity and cancer treatment, with the aim of improving survival and quality of life among the elderly. PMID:27215509

  5. A 75-year-old woman with acquired haemophilia disguised by warfarin treatment.

    PubMed

    Lawless, Sarah; Benson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Acquired haemophilia is a rare coagulation disorder more commonly seen in elderly patients. Diagnosis and effective treatment can be delayed if patients are on warfarin treatment, as the bleeding symptoms may be erroneously attributed to this agent. We present a case report of a 75-year-old woman whose unexplained, severe and persistent bleeding was treated with surgical decompression and plasma transfusions, an appropriate management based on the assumption that warfarin was the cause of the bleeding. It was only when the patient's international normalised ratio returned to normal that a persistent abnormal activated partial thromboplastin time was noted. This delayed the correct diagnosis and treatment. Awareness of acquired haemophilia as a possible cause of sudden bleeding should be encouraged, and the wider dissemination of any relevant experience of similar cases would also be welcome. PMID:26443092

  6. Concentrations of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and troponin T in plasma of 75-year-old apparently healthy persons.

    PubMed

    Huber, Klaus Roland; Mostafaie, Nazanin; Bauer, Kurt; Worofka, Brigitte; Kittl, Eva; Hofmann, Jörg; Hejtman, Milos; Redei, Karoly; Jungwirth, Susanne; Fischer, Peter; Tragl, Karl-Heinz

    2004-01-01

    Clinical chemical reference values for older persons are sparse and mostly intermixed with those for younger persons. We had a unique opportunity to obtain blood samples from volunteers who were 75 years old and living in two districts of Vienna, Austria. Consequently, we utilized stored plasma samples to obtain reference intervals for 120 apparently healthy 75-year-old participants for pro-brain natriuretic peptide (proBNP), as well as for troponin T. The N-terminal (NT)-proBNP protein assay is currently used as a diagnostic and prognostic aid in patients with heart failure and as a prognostic marker in acute coronary syndromes. Specifically, the concentration of NT-proBNP in serum or plasma aids in the prognosis of ventricular systolic dysfunction and helps to differentiate between cardiac and non-cardiac causes. The median NT-proBNP plasma value for men and women in our cohort was calculated as 98 pg/ml, comparing favorably with reported values, in that a NT-proBNP concentration less than 100 pg/ml excludes acutely decompensated heart failure. Our calculated 97.5 percentile was slightly higher (359 pg/ml) than the 97.5 percentile in a group of 50-65-year-old persons (198 and 222 pg/ml for men and women, respectively) revealing the influence of age on this parameter. Because of its high tissue-specificity, cardiac troponin T is a cardiospecific, highly sensitive marker for myocardial damage. However, the troponin T concentrations in the plasma specimens from this cohort were all below the detection limit of 0.01 ng/ml, preventing any further data handling. PMID:15576307

  7. Use of a novel herbal medicine in a 75-year-old woman with multi-metastatic pancreatic cancer: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    LI, YANCHU; LI, XIANYONG; TIP, PAIROTETORSAK; ZHANG, LINGYAN

    2015-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer is one of the most aggressive types of malignant tumors and is associated with an extremely poor prognosis. Despite numerous research efforts over the last few years, little progress has been made in the understanding and treatment of the disease. Gemcitabine-based regimens are considered as the first-line treatment for pancreatic cancer, but the effects of chemotherapy on the disease are limited. Natural products extracted from herbs represent a valuable resource for novel bioactive anticancer agents and could benefit multi-metastasis pancreatic adenocarcinoma patients with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group status of 3. Biological intra-control cancer treatment (BICT) is a novel systemic therapy involving palliative care and herbal extract combinations [including ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Mey.), Herba Agrimonia (Agrimonia pilosa Ledeb.), White Flower Patrinia Herb (Thlaspi arvense Linn.) and arginine], which has been approved by the State Food and Drug Association. The treatment is intended to regulate and inhibit blood vessel generation and tumor growth by inhibiting epidermal growth factor receptor and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor expression, and to manage symptoms to improve the quality of the treatment. The present study discusses the case of a 75-year-old female diagnosed with pancreatic cancer with multiple metastases in the liver and lymph nodes. The patient was administered BICT and achieved survival for 11 months without side-effects of a severity greater than grade 1 according to the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events. The study also describes a possible approach to providing palliative care and treating late-stage, metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinomas in elderly patients. PMID:26171011

  8. A Case of Malignant Eccrine Poroma Developing on the Suprapubic Area

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joon; Kwon, Hyuk; Park, Young Lip; Lee, Sung Yul; Lee, Jong Suk; Whang, Kyu Uang

    2008-01-01

    Malignant eccrine poroma is a rare skin appendageal tumor arising from the intraepidermal ductal portion of the eccrine sweat gland. It may develop either spontaneously or from a long-standing eccrine poroma. It usually affects the aged and is located most commonly on lower extremities. We report a case of malignant eccrine poroma occurring on the suprapubic area of a 75-year-old Korean man. He underwent wide excision and flap coverage. PMID:27303157

  9. Manned remote work station development article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The two prime objectives of the Manned Remote Work Station (MRWS) Development Article Study are to first, evaluate the MRWS flight article roles and associated design concepts for fundamental requirements and embody key technology developments into a simulation program; and to provide detail manufacturing drawings and schedules for a simulator development test article. An approach is outlined which establishes flight article requirements based on past studies of Solar Power Satellite, orbital construction support equipments, construction bases and near term shuttle operations. Simulation objectives are established for those technology issues that can best be addressed on a simulator. Concepts for full-scale and sub-scale simulators are then studied to establish an overall approach to studying MRWS requirements. Emphasis then shifts to design and specification of a full-scale development test article.

  10. Manned remote work station development article, executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The mission requirements for the manned remote work station (MRWS) flight article and the manned remote work station open cherry picker development test article is defined. Considerations are given for the near, mid, and far term use of the MRWS with emphasis on its ultimate application: constructing the Solar Power Satellite.

  11. Manned remote work station development article

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Flight article and associated design concepts are evaluated to meet fundamental requirements of a universal crew cabin to be used as a construction cherrypicker, a space crane turret, a railed work station, or a free flyer. Key technology developments are embodied into a simulation program. A schedule and simulation test plan matrix is given for the open cabin cherry picker.

  12. Manned observations technology development, FY 1992 report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Israel, Steven

    1992-01-01

    This project evaluated the suitability of the NASA/JSC developed electronic still camera (ESC) digital image data for Earth observations from the Space Shuttle, as a first step to aid planning for Space Station Freedom. Specifically, image resolution achieved from the Space Shuttle using the current ESC system, which is configured with a Loral 15 mm x 15 mm (1024 x 1024 pixel array) CCD chip on the focal plane of a Nikon F4 camera, was compared to that of current handheld 70 mm Hasselblad 500 EL/M film cameras.

  13. NASA Manned Launch Vehicle Lightning Protection Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCollum, Matthew B.; Jones, Steven R.; Mack, Jonathan D.

    2009-01-01

    Historically, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) relied heavily on lightning avoidance to protect launch vehicles and crew from lightning effects. As NASA transitions from the Space Shuttle to the new Constellation family of launch vehicles and spacecraft, NASA engineers are imposing design and construction standards on the spacecraft and launch vehicles to withstand both the direct and indirect effects of lightning. A review of current Space Shuttle lightning constraints and protection methodology will be presented, as well as a historical review of Space Shuttle lightning requirements and design. The Space Shuttle lightning requirements document, NSTS 07636, Lightning Protection, Test and Analysis Requirements, (originally published as document number JSC 07636, Lightning Protection Criteria Document) was developed in response to the Apollo 12 lightning event and other experiences with NASA and the Department of Defense launch vehicles. This document defined the lightning environment, vehicle protection requirements, and design guidelines for meeting the requirements. The criteria developed in JSC 07636 were a precursor to the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) lightning standards. These SAE standards, along with Radio Technical Commission for Aeronautics (RTCA) DO-160, Environmental Conditions and Test Procedures for Airborne Equipment, are the basis for the current Constellation lightning design requirements. The development and derivation of these requirements will be presented. As budget and schedule constraints hampered lightning protection design and verification efforts, the Space Shuttle elements waived the design requirements and relied on lightning avoidance in the form of launch commit criteria (LCC) constraints and a catenary wire system for lightning protection at the launch pads. A better understanding of the lightning environment has highlighted the vulnerability of the protection schemes and associated risk to the vehicle

  14. Environmental control system development for manned spacecraft 1960-1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popma, D. C.

    1974-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the development of environmental revitalization techniques from their beginnings in caisson and submarine habitats, up to the present time. The use of CO2 adsorbents, such as LiOH and their application to the first U.S. manned spaceflight is described, together with the beginnings of the regenerable CO2 sorber technology using molecular sieves and its ultimate application to Skylab. The concepts and hardware systems used for atmospheric revitalization on all major U.S. ground-based manned tests is detailed, including CO2 reduction and O2 generation processes. Current research and development efforts are also outlined. The paper concludes with a detailed description of the recently completed SSP, the most advanced and complete ECS that has been fabricated to date.

  15. Dual-fuel engine developments at MAN B&W

    SciTech Connect

    Albrecht, A.

    1995-10-01

    MAN B&W in Augsburg, Germany has further developed its dual-fuel line of engines with the 32/40 DG engine family. These engines, with prechamber injection, augment the company`s spark-ignited gas and dual-fuel engines based on its four-stroke diesel engines. MAN B&W`s power range is between 400 and 16200 kW. Based on the well-proven 32/ 40 engine, the 32/40 DG dual-fuel engine was developed mainly for stationary applications in cogeneration plants and power stations, covering an output range from 2.4 to 7.2 MW. The engine line (bore 320 x stroke 400 mm) has a cylinder output of 400 kW at 750 r/min and a bmep of 19.9 bar with a maximum efficiency of 44.4%. The development focused on meeting TA Luft limits for NO{sub x} emissions of less than 500 mg/m{sup 3} NO{sub x}. This level was targeted without catalytic exhaust after treatment (SCR) and retaining high efficiency and high mean effective pressure similar to that of the diesel engine. To meet the development goals, a combustion system is used with two injection systems, one for the pilot injection into a prechamber and another for the main injection volume under diesel fuel operation.

  16. Development of techniques to enhance man/machine communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Targ, R.; Cole, P.; Puthoff, H.

    1974-01-01

    A four-state random stimulus generator, considered to function as an ESP teaching machine was used to investigate an approach to facilitating interactions between man and machines. A subject tries to guess in which of four states the machine is. The machine offers the user feedback and reinforcement as to the correctness of his choice. Using this machine, 148 volunteer subjects were screened under various protocols. Several whose learning slope and/or mean score departed significantly from chance expectation were identified. Direct physiological evidence of perception of remote stimuli not presented to any known sense of the percipient using electroencephalographic (EEG) output when a light was flashed in a distant room was also studied.

  17. Historical developments and perspectives in inorganic fiber toxicity in man

    SciTech Connect

    Selikoff, I.J. )

    1990-08-01

    The first patient known to have died from asbestosis (1900) began work in 1885, approximately 5 years after the industrial use of asbestos began in Britain. Mineral particles were found in his lungs. No special comment was made of their fibrous nature then nor when the first case was reported in 1924. The various neoplasms attributed to asbestos in the next decades posed an additional question: what influence did the fibrous shape of the particles have on carcinogenic potential The cogency of the problem was amplified by the identification in humans of asbestoslike neoplasms with a fiber other than asbestos (erionite) and by the production of such neoplasms in experimental animals with a variety of man-made inorganic fibers, often used as substitutes for asbestos. The lessons learned about asbestos may help guide us in evaluating current fiber problems.

  18. Man's best friend: How humans can develop Dirofilaria immitis infections

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Devin; Amaraneni, Akshay; Singh, Sukhpreet; Roach, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, is a nematode parasite that infects dogs by way of mosquito bite. Rarely, humans play accidental hosts to this parasite and are not a suitable environment for the nematode to live. As the parasite dies in the pulmonary vessels it embolizes the vessels causing infarction and eventual nodule formation in the lungs. In the right clinical context, a nodule can be considered malignant prompting invasive tissue sampling. We describe a case of a 48-year-old man who was found to have multiple asymptomatic scattered pulmonary nodules during imaging workup for an insulinoma. Fine needle biopsy of the largest nodule revealed a necrotic granuloma, lab testing and culture ruled out fungal and bacterial causes. Clinically, this picture was consistent with D. immitis infection. PMID:27077028

  19. Historical developments and perspectives in inorganic fiber toxicity in man.

    PubMed Central

    Selikoff, I J

    1990-01-01

    The first patient known to have died from asbestosis (1900) began work in 1885, approximately 5 years after the industrial use of asbestos began in Britain. Mineral particles were found in his lungs. No special comment was made of their fibrous nature then nor when the first case was reported in 1924. The various neoplasms attributed to asbestos in the next decades posed an additional question: What influence did the fibrous shape of the particles have on carcinogenic potential? The cogency of the problem was amplified by the identification in humans of asbestos-like neoplasms with a fiber other than asbestos (erionite) and by the production of such neoplasms in experimental animals with a variety of man-made inorganic fibers, often used as substitutes for asbestos. The lessons learned about asbestos may help guide us in evaluating current fiber problems. PMID:2272322

  20. Man's best friend: How humans can develop Dirofilaria immitis infections.

    PubMed

    Malik, Devin; Amaraneni, Akshay; Singh, Sukhpreet; Roach, Richard

    2016-01-01

    Canine heartworm, Dirofilaria immitis, is a nematode parasite that infects dogs by way of mosquito bite. Rarely, humans play accidental hosts to this parasite and are not a suitable environment for the nematode to live. As the parasite dies in the pulmonary vessels it embolizes the vessels causing infarction and eventual nodule formation in the lungs. In the right clinical context, a nodule can be considered malignant prompting invasive tissue sampling. We describe a case of a 48-year-old man who was found to have multiple asymptomatic scattered pulmonary nodules during imaging workup for an insulinoma. Fine needle biopsy of the largest nodule revealed a necrotic granuloma, lab testing and culture ruled out fungal and bacterial causes. Clinically, this picture was consistent with D. immitis infection. PMID:27077028

  1. Manned thermal-vacuum test operations: Its development from experimental to routine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gauthier, P. R.; Sherwin, H. G.; Lusk, M. M.

    1972-01-01

    Manned operations were a significant part of Gemini and Apollo thermal-vacuum test programs. The development of test techniques and equipment at the Space Environment Simulation Laboratory is discussed relative to these programs.

  2. Development of Gerontological Nursing Theory. Applying the Man-Living-Health Theory of Nursing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heine, Christine

    1991-01-01

    Describes Rosemary Rizzo Parse's Man-Living-Health theory that was used to describe how gerontological nursing knowledge could be developed through a nursing conceptual model that includes a defined practice and research methodology. (Author/JOW)

  3. Manned remote work station development article. Volume 3: Development test plan. Appendix A: Manufacturing requirements/schedule

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The tests and procedures for the manned remote work station (MRWS) open cherry picker (OCP) development test article (DTA) are described to validate systems requirements and performance specifications. A development test program is outlined to evaluate key design issues and man/machine interfaces when the MRWS OCP is used in a shuttle support role of satellite servicing and in orbit construction of large structures.

  4. Is the Child "Father of the Man"? Evaluating the Stability of Genetic Influences across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ronald, Angelica

    2011-01-01

    This selective review considers findings in genetic research that have shed light on how genes operate across development. We will address the question of whether the child is "father of the Man" from a genetic perspective. In other words, do the same genetic influences affect the same traits across development? Using a "taster menu" approach and…

  5. The Development of Environmental Education Materials for Investigating Fire-Environment-Man Relationships: Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanselman, David L.; Reider, David A.

    This publication details the development and use of environmental education materials based on the United States Forest Service "Process Approach." This publication focuses on materials that teach the ecology and management of natural and man-made forest and brush fires. The main body of the contents develop and document a rationale for…

  6. Development of Man-rGO for Targeted Eradication of Macrophage Ablation.

    PubMed

    Oh, Byeongtaek; Lee, Chi H

    2015-09-01

    This study was aimed to develop and evaluate a smart nanosystem that targeted photothermal ablation of inflammatory macrophages in atherosclerotic plaque. Mannosylated-reduced graphene oxide (Man-rGO) was synthesized using three step procedures: (1) preparation of ox-GOs, (2) microwave-assisted synthesis of PEI-rGOs, and (3) mannosylation of PEI-rGO using reductive amination reaction (Man-rGOs). The ζ-potential of Man-rGO that signifies electrophoretic mobility of the charged surface was examined using Zetasizer Nano ZS. The effects of Man-rGO on the cell viability was evaluated using LDH assay and AlamarBlue assay. The targeting efficacy of Man-rGO was assessed using the cellular uptake rate by M2-polarized (i.e., which is induced by IL-4) macrophage. The effects of NOMela loaded in Man-rGO on the enhancement of phagocytosis were evaluated by examining the phagocytic clearance rate of zymosan-FITC particles. The microwave-assisted reduction of GOs was adapted for a facile synthesis of polyethylenimine-reduced GO (PEI-rGO). The mannose functionalization (Man-rGO) of PEI-rGO produced a greater number of amide linkages formed by reductive amination reaction between PEI-rGO and mannose. The ζ-potential of PEI-rGO was +30.6 ± 3.3 mV, whereas that of Man-rGO was down to +13.1 ± 3.8 mV upon interaction with mannose mainly due to the conjugation of mannose on the PEI-rGO surface. Near-infrared (NIR) irradiation increased the temperature of Man-rGO solution to around 45 °C, suggesting that Man-rGO is more potent than ox-GO or rGO in photothermal ablation activity triggered by NIR laser irradiation (808 nm). All testing formulations at the concentrations up to 10 μg/mL exerted less than 10% of membrane disintegration. For AlamarBlue study, more than 90% of cell viability were maintained at the concentrations (up to 10 μg/mL) of all tested formulations. The fluorescent microscopy images of cells after 1 h incubation demonstrated that Man-rGO were mainly accumulated at

  7. Man-made rotary nanomotors: a review of recent developments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Liang, Z. X.; Zhu, F. Q.; Fan, D. L.

    2016-05-01

    The development of rotary nanomotors is an essential step towards intelligent nanomachines and nanorobots. In this article, we review the concept, design, working mechanisms, and applications of state-of-the-art rotary nanomotors made from synthetic nanoentities. The rotary nanomotors are categorized according to the energy sources employed to drive the rotary motion, including biochemical, optical, magnetic, and electric fields. The unique advantages and limitations for each type of rotary nanomachines are discussed. The advances of rotary nanomotors is pivotal for realizing dream nanomachines for myriad applications including microfluidics, biodiagnosis, nano-surgery, and biosubstance delivery.

  8. Man-made rotary nanomotors: a review of recent developments.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kwanoh; Guo, Jianhe; Liang, Z X; Zhu, F Q; Fan, D L

    2016-05-19

    The development of rotary nanomotors is an essential step towards intelligent nanomachines and nanorobots. In this article, we review the concept, design, working mechanisms, and applications of state-of-the-art rotary nanomotors made from synthetic nanoentities. The rotary nanomotors are categorized according to the energy sources employed to drive the rotary motion, including biochemical, optical, magnetic, and electric fields. The unique advantages and limitations for each type of rotary nanomachines are discussed. The advances of rotary nanomotors is pivotal for realizing dream nanomachines for myriad applications including microfluidics, biodiagnosis, nano-surgery, and biosubstance delivery. PMID:27152885

  9. Solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis system development. [to generate oxygen for manned space station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Solid polymer electrolyte technology used in a water electrolysis system (WES) to generate oxygen and hydrogen for manned space station applications was investigated. A four-man rated, low pressure breadboard water electrolysis system with the necessary instrumentation and controls was fabricated and tested. A six man rated, high pressure, high temperature, advanced preprototype WES was developed. This configuration included the design and development of an advanced water electrolysis module, capable of operation at 400 psig and 200 F, and a dynamic phase separator/pump in place of a passive phase separator design. Evaluation of this system demonstrated the goal of safe, unattended automated operation at high pressure and high temperature with an accumulated gas generation time of over 1000 hours.

  10. Development of an iodine generator for reclaimed water purification in manned spacecraft applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wynveen, R. A.; Powell, J. D.; Schubert, F. H.

    1973-01-01

    A successful 30-day test is described of a prototype Iodine Generating and Dispensing System (IGDS). The IGDS was sized to iodinate the drinking water nominally consumed by six men, 4.5 to 13.6 kg (10 to 30 lb) water per man-day with a + or - 10 to 20% variation with iodine (I2) levels of 0.5 to 20 parts per million (ppm). The I2 treats reclaimed water to prevent or eliminate microorganism contamination. Treatment is maintained with a residual of I2 within the manned spacecraft water supply. A simplified version of the chlorogen water disinfection concept, developed by life systems for on-site generation of chlorine (Cl2), was used as a basis for IGDS development. Potable water contaminated with abundant E. Coliform Group organisms was treated by electrolytically generated I2 at levels of 5 to 10 ppm. In all instances, the E. coli were eliminated.

  11. Development of a three-man preprototype CO2 collection subsystem for spacecraft application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.; Quattrone, P. D.; Marshall, R. D.

    1977-01-01

    Future long-duration manned space missions will require regenerable carbon dioxide (CO2) collection concepts such as the Electrochemical Depolarized CO2 Concentrator (EDC). A three-man-capacity preprototype CO2 Collection Subsystem (CS-3) is being developed for eventual flight demonstration as part of the Air Revitalization System (ARS) of the Regenerative Life Support Evaluation (RLSE) experiment. The CS-3 employs an EDC to concentrate CO2 from the low partial-pressure levels required of spacecraft atmospheres to high partial-pressure levels needed for oxygen (O2) recovery through CO2 reduction processes. The CS-3 is sized to remove a nominal 3.0 kg/day (6.6 lb/day) of the CO2 to maintain the CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) of the cabin atmosphere at 400 Pa (3 mm Hg) or less. This paper presents the preprototype design, configuration, operation, and projected performance characteristics.

  12. Development of standard test methods for unmanned and manned industrial vehicles used near humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bostelman, Roger; Norcross, Richard; Falco, Joe; Marvel, Jeremy

    2013-05-01

    The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has been researching human-robot-vehicle collaborative environments for automated guided vehicles (AGVs) and manned forklifts. Safety of AGVs and manned vehicles with automated functions (e.g., forklifts that slow/stop automatically in hazardous situations) are the focus of the American National Standards Institute/Industrial Truck Safety Development Foundation (ANSI/ITSDF) B56.5 safety standard. Recently, the NIST Mobile Autonomous Vehicle Obstacle Detection/Avoidance (MAVODA) Project began researching test methods to detect humans or other obstacles entering the vehicle's path. This causes potential safety hazards in manufacturing facilities where both line-of-sight and non-line-of-sight conditions are prevalent. The test methods described in this paper address both of these conditions. These methods will provide the B56.5 committee with the measurement science basis for sensing systems - both non-contact and contact - that may be used in manufacturing facilities.

  13. Man-machine interface issues in space telerobotics: A JPL research and development program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Technology issues related to the use of robots as man-extension or telerobot systems in space are discussed and exemplified. General considerations are presentd on control and information problems in space teleoperation and on the characteristics of Earth orbital teleoperation. The JPL R and D work in the area of man-machine interface devices and techniques for sensing and computer-based control is briefly summarized. The thrust of this R and D effort is to render space teleoperation efficient and safe through the use of devices and techniques which will permit integrated and task-level (intelligent) two-way control communication between human operator and telerobot machine in Earth orbit. Specific control and information display devices and techniques are discussed and exemplified with development results obtained at JPL in recent years.

  14. Rocket man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becklake, John

    2008-06-01

    In the 1950s and 1960s, Wernher von Braun was famous as the man who led the West's journey into space. Some also remember him as the German engineer who developed the V-2 missile that bombarded Antwerp and London at the end of the Second World War. However, many still celebrate Von Braun, who died in 1977, as the man who put the astronauts on the Moon. While this is not strictly true, there is no doubt that Von Braun was one of the most influential engineers, lobbyists and personalities in the Moon-landing project.

  15. Bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Pommepuy, I; Farny, M; Billey, T; Olivier, P; Lassoued, S

    1998-01-01

    A 75-year old man with rheumatoid arthritis developed bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP), which responded to treatment with prednisolone (1 mg/kg/d) and cyclophosphamide (100 mg/d). PMID:9523389

  16. A Status Report on the Parachute Development for NASA's Next Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sinclair, Robert

    2008-01-01

    NASA has determined that the parachute portion of the Landing System for the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV) will be Government Furnished Equipment (GFE). The Earth Landing System has been designated CEV Parachute Assembly System (CPAS). Thus a program team was developed consisting of NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) and Jacobs Engineering through their Engineering and Science Contract Group (ESCG). Following a rigorous competitive phase, Airborne Systems North America was selected to provide the parachute design, testing and manufacturing role to support this team. The development program has begun with some early flight testing of a Generation 1 parachute system. Future testing will continue to refine the design and complete a qualification phase prior to manned flight of the spacecraft. The program team will also support early spacecraft system testing, including a Pad Abort Flight Test in the Fall of 2008

  17. Development of a multi-target TaqMan assay to detect eastern equine encephalitis virus variants in mosquitoes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Philip M; Prince, Nicholanna; Andreadis, Theodore G

    2012-10-01

    Disease outbreaks caused by eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV; Togaviridae, Alphavirus) may be prevented by implementing effective surveillance and intervention strategies directed against the mosquito vector. Methods for EEEV detection in mosquitoes include a real-time reverse transcriptase PCR technique (TaqMan assay), but we report its failure to detect variants isolated in Connecticut in 2011, due to a single base-pair mismatch in the probe-binding site. To improve the molecular detection of EEEV, we developed a multi-target TaqMan assay by adding a second primer/probe set to provide redundant targets for EEEV detection. The multi-target TaqMan assay had similar performance characteristics to the conventional assay, but also detected newly-evolving strains of EEEV. The approach described here increases the reliability of the TaqMan assay by creating back-up targets for virus detection without sacrificing sensitivity or specificity. PMID:22835151

  18. Tectonically Undulating Terrestrial Geospheres and Concordant Development of Two Distinct Somatic Types of Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochemasov, G. G.

    The human organisms in microgravity conditions loss Ca or become less dense. But variously dense men also develop on Earth due to varying tectonics. As any celestial body, Earth is not a billiard-ball but is complexly warped by a number of standing waves imprinted in the geoid shape. The fundamental wave (long 2π R, R- planet radius) makes tectonic dichotomy (an opposition of the eastern and western oceanic hemispheres), the first overtone (π R) makes sectoring: on the continental eastern hemisphere, for example, around the Pamirs-Hindukush converge 4 sectors. They are 2 opposed differently uplifted (African ++, Asian +) separated by 2 opposed differently subsided (Eurasian -, Indoceanic - -). In rotating Earth the alternating uplifts (++, +) and subsidences (- -, -) require materials of different densities: less dense for uplifts and denser for subsidences. This requirement concerns all geospheres including anthroposphere. The long development of Homo sapiens adapting to graviconditions of uplifting and subsiding blocks produced two distinct somatic types of man: long and narrow (slim) leptosomes and short and broad eirisomes. As shows F. Weidenreich [1], this fundamental division appeared very early in the human history and is observed in all great human races and even in apes. A block uplifting (an increase of the planetary radius) requires diminishing density. This is achieved by distributing the man's weight by the longer stature. Thus appears long and slim leptosome. On the contrary, a block subsidence (diminishing radius) requires increasing density: man is shorter and broader (eirisome). A long existence on intensively moving (up or down) blocks makes these somatic types characteristic of races. Thus, many African tribes developing on intensively moving up continent (more than one kilometer in a few mln. y. ) are leptosomatic; on the contrary, Indians of subsiding western hemisphere are typically eirisomatic with high Rohrer's index; Polynesians of

  19. Comments on the feasibility of developing gas core nuclear reactors. [for manned interplanetary spacecraft propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rom, F. E.

    1969-01-01

    Recent developments in the fields of gas core hydrodynamics, heat transfer, and neutronics indicate that gas core nuclear rockets may be feasible from the point of view of basic principles. Based on performance predictions using these results, mission analyses indicate that gas core nuclear rockets may have the potential for reducing the initial weight in orbit of manned interplanetary vehicles by a factor of 5 when compared to the best chemical rocket systems. In addition, there is a potential for reducing total trip times from 450 to 500 days for chemical systems to 250 to 300 days for gas core systems. The possibility of demonstrating the feasibility of gas core nuclear rocket engines by means of a logical series of experiments of increasing difficulty that ends with ground tests of full scale gas core reactors is considered.

  20. Development of a six-man, self-contained carbon dioxide collection subsystem for spacecraft application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, F. H.; Quattrone, P. D.

    1974-01-01

    Life Systems, working with NASA, has developed an electrochemical, six-man, self-contained carbon dioxide concentrator subsystem (CX-6) designed to normally remove 13.2 lb/day of CO2 while maintaining the CO2 partial pressure (pCO2) of the cabin atmosphere at 3 mm Hg or less. The CX-6 was subjected to extensive parametric and endurance testing. The effects of operating conditions on CO2 removal and electrical efficiencies were determined, including effects of hydrogen (H2) flow rate, process airflow rate, pCO2, operating temperature and current density. A total of 209 days of operation was accumulated. The subsystem was designed with self-contained electronic control and monitoring instrumentation. The CX-6 was redesigned and repackaged into the CO2 collection subsystem for the air revitalization group of the space station prototype.

  1. Development of a man-portable control unit for a teleoperated land vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    McGovern, D.E.; Spires, S.V.

    1988-05-01

    A man-portable conrtrol unit has been designed and fabricated to support teleoperation of a land vehicle. The basic contol unit is configured to include the capabilities of mobile platform control, platform location and status display, sensor contol and output display, and weapons contol, if so desired. When the platform is being driven to a new location, the operator is able to control the platform through basic steering, braking and speed commands, obstacle recognition and avoidance, maneuvering in constricted space, and navigation with visual cues and simple dead-reckoning inputs from the vehicle. While the platform is on station, the human operator is able to perform the functions of surveillance, target recognition, target tracking, and weapons or designator control. A fully software-driven system has been configured to meet these requirements. All controls and vehicle signals are processed by an on-board microprocessor allowing the system to be easily reconfigured. Video information is provided through a set of three CCTV monitors. Graphics and alphanumeric data are provided on a flat panel dislay. Push buttons, keypad, trackball, throttle lever, and a steering yoke accept operator input. A video cueing system is included to allow automatic processing of the platform video for motion detection surveillance operations. The man-portable control unit was developed for application to the Teleoperated Mobile All-Purpose Platform (TMAP) project supported by the US Army Missile Command (MICOM). The control unit has been integrated with the MICOM vehicle system and with a vehicle system at Sandia National Labs. 2 refs., 7 figs.

  2. Manned remote work station development article. Volume 1, book 1: Flight article requirements. Appendix A: Mission requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The requirements for several configurations of flight articles are presented. These requirements provide the basis to design manned remote work station development test articles and establish tests and simulation objectives for the resolution of development issues. Mission system and subsystem requirements for four MRWS configurations included: open cherry picker; closed cherry picker; crane turret; and free flyer.

  3. Supporting the joint warfighter by development, training, and fielding of man-portable UGVs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebert, Kenneth A.; Stratton, Benjamin V.

    2005-05-01

    The Robotic Systems Pool (RSP), sponsored by the Joint Robotics Program (JRP), is an inventory of small robotic systems, payloads, and components intended to expedite the development and integration of technology into effective, supportable, fielded robotic assets. The RSP loans systems to multiple users including the military, first-responders, research organizations, and academia. These users provide feedback in their specific domain, accelerating research and development improvements of robotic systems, which in turn allow the joint warfighter to benefit from such changes more quickly than from traditional acquisition cycles. Over the past year, RSP assets have been used extensively for pre-deployment operator and field training of joint Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) teams, and for the training of Navy Reservist repair technicians. These Reservists are part of the Robotic Systems Combat Support Platoon (RSCSP), attached to Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego. The RSCSP maintains and repairs RSP assets and provides deployable technical support for users of robotic systems. Currently, a small team from the RSCSP is deployed at Camp Victory repairing and maintaining man-portable unmanned ground vehicles (UGVs) used by joint EOD teams in Operation Iraqi Freedom. The focus of this paper is to elaborate on the RSP and RSCSP and their role as invaluable resources for spiral development in the robotics community by gaining first-hand technical feedback from the warfighter and other users.

  4. Development of the new MAN B and W 32/40 dual fuel engine

    SciTech Connect

    Schiffgens, H.J.; Brandt, D.; Dier, L.; Glauber, R.

    1996-12-31

    Based on the tried and proven 32/40 diesel engine MAN B and W Diesel AG has developed a dual fuel gas engine covering a rate from 2.4 to 7.2 MW for stationary application in cogeneration and power stations. This paper reports the salient points of the 32/40 DG development project from the concept phase through to prototype testing. To reach the targets a dual fuel prechamber combustion system was developed using an externally arranged, cylinder individual gas admission for the main combustion chamber and a pilot fuel injection to the prechamber. Due to the high thermal and mechanical load sustaining capability of the strong-built heavy fuel diesel engine, bmep (19.9 bar) and efficiency (42.6%) in excess of the targets were achieved with a more than satisfactory life of components. Moreover, the NO{sub x} limit of 500 mg/m{sup 3} as specified in the German TA Luft was successfully met.

  5. Development of a thermoelectric one-man cooler for use by NASA astronauts

    SciTech Connect

    Heenan, P.; Mathiprakasam, B.; DeMott, D.

    1994-08-10

    This paper presents the development of a one-man thermoelectric (TE) cooling unit designed for use by NASA astronauts while they are wearing a protective suit during the launch and reentry phases of space shuttle missions. The unit was designed to provide a low-cooling level of 340 Btu/hour in a 75{degree}F environment and a high-cooling level of 480 Btu/hour in a 95{degree}F environment. The unit has an envelope 8 inches wide by 11 inches high by 4.5 inches deep. The TE unit was designed to optimize space and power consumption while providing adequate cooling. The operation of the TE cooling unit requires {similar_to}1.2 amps of 28 VDC power in the low power mode and {similar_to}3.0 amps of 28 VDC power in the high power mode. Two of these units have flown on several shuttle missions this year and are scheduled for continued use on future missions. The response to the TE unit`s performance has been very positive from the shuttle crew. Additional units are being fabricated to keep the shuttle crew members cooled while final development is under way. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  6. Evaluation of a ground based manned demonstration as a milestone in CELSS development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The requirements for a ground based manned controlled ecological life support system demonstration are summarized for the following: nutrition and food processing, food production, waste processing, systems engineering and modeling, and ecology-systems safety.

  7. Development Of A Laser Intravascular Fiber Optic Probe For The Treatment Of Superficial Telangiectasia Of The Lower Extremity In Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldman, Leon; Taylor, W. A.

    1984-10-01

    Because of the difficulty of laser treatment of superficial telangiectasia in man, a mini vascular fiberoptics probe has been developed for these vessels. Controls have included sclerotherapy, intravascular-galvanic current probes and direct impacts from 0.2 mm argon fiberoptics probes.

  8. Development of a TaqMan Array Card for Pneumococcal Serotyping on Isolates and Nasopharyngeal Samples.

    PubMed

    Pholwat, Suporn; Sakai, Fuminori; Turner, Paul; Vidal, Jorge E; Houpt, Eric R

    2016-07-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is both a commensal and a major pathogen that causes invasive disease in people of all ages. The introduction of serotype-specific pneumococcal vaccines has reduced the burden of disease but has also led to replacement with new strains; thus, serotyping remains important for vaccine-related disease surveillance. Conventional serotyping methods are laborious and expensive. We developed an easy-to-perform genotypic TaqMan array card (TAC) to identify S. pneumoniae strains, including lytA-based sequences, and 53 sequence-specific PCRs to identify 74 serotypes/serogroups covering all current vaccine types as well as prevalent nonvaccine types. The TAC method was evaluated on 146 clinical S. pneumoniae isolates and 13 nonpneumococcal species that naturally inhabit the upper respiratory tract and yielded 97% (142/146) sensitivity and 100% (13/13) specificity versus results of standard Quellung serotyping. The calculated limit of detection was 20 to 200 fg (∼8 to 84 genome equivalents) per reaction. On 23 blinded nasopharyngeal specimens that were pneumococcus culture positive, the TAC pan-pneumococcus lytA assay was positive in 21 (91% sensitivity versus culture). On TAC lytA-positive specimens, a serotype result was obtained on 86%, and the result was 95% accurate versus the subsequent culture's Quellung result. TAC also detected mixed serotypes in two specimens where Quellung detected only the predominant serotype. This TAC method yields fast and comprehensive serotyping compared to the standard method and may be useful on direct specimens. PMID:27170020

  9. Development of a TaqMan Array Card for Pneumococcal Serotyping on Isolates and Nasopharyngeal Samples

    PubMed Central

    Pholwat, Suporn; Sakai, Fuminori; Turner, Paul; Vidal, Jorge E.

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is both a commensal and a major pathogen that causes invasive disease in people of all ages. The introduction of serotype-specific pneumococcal vaccines has reduced the burden of disease but has also led to replacement with new strains; thus, serotyping remains important for vaccine-related disease surveillance. Conventional serotyping methods are laborious and expensive. We developed an easy-to-perform genotypic TaqMan array card (TAC) to identify S. pneumoniae strains, including lytA-based sequences, and 53 sequence-specific PCRs to identify 74 serotypes/serogroups covering all current vaccine types as well as prevalent nonvaccine types. The TAC method was evaluated on 146 clinical S. pneumoniae isolates and 13 nonpneumococcal species that naturally inhabit the upper respiratory tract and yielded 97% (142/146) sensitivity and 100% (13/13) specificity versus results of standard Quellung serotyping. The calculated limit of detection was 20 to 200 fg (∼8 to 84 genome equivalents) per reaction. On 23 blinded nasopharyngeal specimens that were pneumococcus culture positive, the TAC pan-pneumococcus lytA assay was positive in 21 (91% sensitivity versus culture). On TAC lytA-positive specimens, a serotype result was obtained on 86%, and the result was 95% accurate versus the subsequent culture's Quellung result. TAC also detected mixed serotypes in two specimens where Quellung detected only the predominant serotype. This TAC method yields fast and comprehensive serotyping compared to the standard method and may be useful on direct specimens. PMID:27170020

  10. Normal and Abnormal Development of the Intrapericardial Arterial Trunks in Man and Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Robert H.; Chaudhry, Bill; Mohun, Timothy J.; Bamforth, Simon D.; Hoyland, Darren; Phillips, Helen M.; Webb, Sandra; Moorman, Antoon F.J.; Brown, Nigel A.; Henderson, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The definitive cardiac outflow channels have three components: the intrapericardial arterial trunks; the arterial roots with valves; and the ventricular outflow tracts. We studied the normal and abnormal development of the most distal of these, the arterial trunks, comparing findings in mouse and man. Methods and Results Using lineage tracing and three-dimensional visualization by episcopic reconstruction and scanning electron microscopy, we studied embryonic day 9.5 to 12.5 mouse hearts, clarifying the development of the outflow tracts distal to the primordia of the arterial valves. We characterize a transient aortopulmonary foramen, located between the leading edge of a protrusion from the dorsal wall of the aortic sac and the distal margins of the two outflow cushions. The foramen is closed by fusion of the protrusion, with its cap of neural crest cells, with the neural crest cell-filled cushions; the resulting structure then functioning transiently as an aortopulmonary septum. Only subsequent to this closure is it possible to recognize, more proximally, the previously described aortopulmonary septal complex. The adjacent walls of the intrapericardial trunks are derived from the protrusion and distal parts of the outflow cushions, while the lateral walls are formed from intrapericardial extensions of pharyngeal mesenchyme derived from the second heart field. Conclusions We provide, for the first time, objective evidence of the mechanisms of closure of an aortopulmonary foramen that exists distally between the lumens of the developing intrapericardial arterial trunks. Our findings provide insights into the formation of aortopulmonary windows and the variants of common arterial trunk. PMID:22499773

  11. The Nature of Man and Its Implications.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pedrini, D. T.; Gregory, Lura N.

    The many problems presented by the nature of man and in studying man are the focus of this paper which attempts to place these problems in perspective in terms of the past and future. The enigma facing man, that man must study man, is related in an introduction. Freud's, Adler's, and Jung's developments in the study of the nature of man are…

  12. Development of bullous pemphigoid after change of dialysis membrane.

    PubMed

    Sodemoto, Kinuyo; Yamahana, Junya; Echigo, Takeshi; Nishijima, Chihiro; Shimada, Yuka; Inaoki, Makoto

    2014-04-01

    A 75-year-old Japanese man presented with pruritic blisters and macules on his trunk and extremities. He had been on hemodialysis for 4 years because of chronic renal failure, and in recent months, a polymethylmethacrylate membrane had been used for dialysis. After a change in dialysis membrane to a cellulose triacetate membrane, pruritic tense blisters developed on the extremities in combination with marked blood eosinophilia. Physical examination showed erythematous macules and tense blisters on the trunk and extremities. A biopsy specimen of an erythematous macule showed subepidermal vesicles and eosinophils that attached to the dermal-epidermal junction. Serum level of eosinophilic cationic protein was elevated. From clinical, histological, and immunological findings, a diagnosis of bullous pemphigoid was made. New blisters continued to erupt during the period in which the patient used the cellulose triacetate membrane dialyzer, and even after the use of clobetasol propionate. It resolved only after the patient came back to the use of a synthetic membrane dialyzer. We discontinued the use of clobetasol propionate, and neither bullous eruptions nor blood eosinophilia recurred. These observations suggest that cellulose membrane may be involved in the development of bullous pemphigoid through activation of eosinophils in the blood and the skin lesion, as in the present case. PMID:24165026

  13. Development of a methodology to assess man-made risks in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borst, D.; Jung, D.; Murshed, S. M.; Werner, U.

    2006-09-01

    Risk is a concept used to describe future potential outcomes of certain actions or events. Within the project "CEDIM - Risk Map Germany - Man-made Hazards" it is intended to develop methods for assessing and mapping the risk due to different human-induced hazards. This is a task that has not been successfully performed for Germany so far. Concepts of catastrophe modelling are employed including the spatial modelling of hazard, the compilation of different kinds of exposed elements, the estimation of their vulnerability and the direct loss potential in terms of human life and health. The paper is divided in two sections: First, an analytic framework for assessing the broad spectrum of human-induced risks is introduced. This approach is then applied for three important types of human-induced hazards that are representative for a whole class of hazards: Accidents due to nuclear power plants (NPP) or air traffic, and terrorism. For the analysis of accidents, risk is measured with respect to getting injured or dying when living in certain buffer zones around hazard locations. NPP hazard expert knowledge is used and supplemented with observations on aging effects leading to a proprietary index value for the risk. Air traffic risk is modelled as an area related phenomenon based on available accident statistics leading to an expected value of risk. Terrorism risk is assessed by the attraction certain elements (like embassies in the case of conventional threats) display in the eye of potential aggressors. For non-conventional targets like football games, a detailed approach measuring their susceptibility to different kinds of attacks within predefined scenarios was developed; this also allows a ranking of attack modes.

  14. Cybernation and Man--A Course Development Project; Report Number 2. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionne, Edward A.; Parkman, Ralph

    Transportation, Agriculture, and Art are used as examples to establish how technology, especially computer-based technology, is involved in the life of man. Cities grow in population very rapidly; motor vehicles grow in number even more rapidly; both citcumstances raise problems--traffic congestion, economic loss, air pollution, urban…

  15. Theory-Based Design and Development of a Socially Connected, Gamified Mobile App for Men About Breastfeeding (Milk Man)

    PubMed Central

    White, Becky K; Martin, Annegret; White, James A; Burns, Sharyn K; Maycock, Bruce R; Giglia, Roslyn C

    2016-01-01

    Background Despite evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding, <15% of Australian babies are exclusively breastfed to the recommended 6 months. The support of the father is one of the most important factors in breastfeeding success, and targeting breastfeeding interventions to the father has been a successful strategy in previous research. Mobile technology offers unique opportunities to engage and reach populations to enhance health literacy and healthy behavior. Objective The objective of our study was to use previous research, formative evaluation, and behavior change theory to develop the first evidence-based breastfeeding app targeted at men. We designed the app to provide men with social support and information aiming to increase the support men can offer their breastfeeding partners. Methods We used social cognitive theory to design and develop the Milk Man app through stages of formative research, testing, and iteration. We held focus groups with new and expectant fathers (n=18), as well as health professionals (n=16), and used qualitative data to inform the design and development of the app. We tested a prototype with fathers (n=4) via a think-aloud study and the completion of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (MARS). Results Fathers and health professionals provided input through the focus groups that informed the app development. The think-aloud walkthroughs identified 6 areas of functionality and usability to be addressed, including the addition of a tutorial, increased size of text and icons, and greater personalization. Testers rated the app highly, and the average MARS score for the app was 4.3 out of 5. Conclusions To our knowledge, Milk Man is the first breastfeeding app targeted specifically at men. The development of Milk Man followed a best practice approach, including the involvement of a multidisciplinary team and grounding in behavior change theory. It tested well with end users during development. Milk Man is currently being trialed as part

  16. Treatment of Metastatic Colorectal Cancer Patients ≥75 Years Old in Clinical Practice: A Multicenter Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grande, Roberta; Natoli, Clara; Ciancola, Fabrizio; Gemma, Donatello; Pellegrino, Arianna; Pavese, Ida; Garufi, Carlo; Di Lauro, Luigi; Corsi, Domenico; Signorelli, Diego; Sperduti, Isabella; Cortese, Giada; Risi, Emanuela; Morano, Federica; Sergi, Domenico; Signorelli, Carlo; Ruggeri, Enzo Maria; Zampa, Germano; Russano, Marco; Gamucci, Teresa

    2016-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer patients have a median age of incidence >65years although they are largely under-represented in phase-III trials. This large population contains patients unfit for treatment, those suitable for monotherapy or for doublets and the impact of chemotherapy outside clinical trial is unclear. The aim of the study was to retrospectively analyse Overall Survival(OS) of elderly metastatic colorectal cancer(mCRC) patients treated with chemotherapy in daily practice. Methods Kaplan-Meir method was used for OS, the log-rank or Tarone-Ware test for differences between subgroups, Cox’s proportional hazard model to assess the impact of known prognostic factors and treatment. Results 751 patients with mCRC observed between January 2000 and January 2013 were collected. Median age was 79 year(75–93); Male/Female 61/39%, ECOG-PS 0-1/2 85/15%; colon/rectum 74/26%; multiple metastatic sites 34%, only liver metastasis in 41% of patients. KRAS status was studied in 35% of patients: 44% of them showed gene mutation. 20.5% of patients did not received any kind of treatment including surgery. Comorbidities observed: cardiovascular 34%, diabetes 14%, hypertension 50%. Primary tumor was resected in 80.6%; surgery of liver metastasis was done in 19% of patients (2.3% of patients >80years). 78% of patients underwent chemotherapy. Median follow up was 12 months(range 1–124). Median OS was 17 months (CI 95%15–19);median OS in no-treated patients was 5 months (4–6); mOS of patients with at least one treatment was 20 months (18–22). In KRAS mutated group median OS was 19months (15–23) while in KRAS wild type patients median OS was 25 months (20–30). At multivariate analysis sex(Female), age(<80y), performance status(0–1), chemotherapy, Surgery of metastasis, Surgery of primary tumor and Site of metastasis(liver) were prognostic factors for OS. Conclusion The results of our study show that in clinical practice treatment has a positive impact on OS of elderly patients, confirmed at multivariate analysis, included patients with age >80 years old or with a poor performance status (respectively p<0.0001 and p<0.0001). KRAS analysis deserve further evaluation. PMID:27442239

  17. A 75-year-old female with ulceration of breast skin.

    PubMed

    Coulson, Alan S; Harris-Hicks, Janet E

    2014-12-01

    An elderly female presented to a North Carolina wound care center (Sandhills Center for Wound Healing and Hyperbaric Medicine, Hamlet, NC) with ulcerative lesions of both breasts. After a thorough investigation, an Internet search yielded a list of possible causes, of which candidiasis exacerbated by friction seemed the most likely diagnosis. However, a biopsy diagnosed bullous pemphigoid. This reinforces the point that a biopsy of an unusual lesion is a valuable diagnostic tool to investigate suspected malignancy, wounds in unusual locations or with unusual appearance, and wounds not responding to treatment. PMID:25785775

  18. [Feasibility and importance of self-monitoring in patients over 75 years old].

    PubMed

    Bortolotto, L A; Henry, O; Hanon, O; Sikias, P; Girerd, X

    1999-08-01

    The feasibility of self-measurement (SM) of the blood pressure (BP) is well demonstrated in hypertensive patients (pts) but, in elderly pts physical and intellectual limitations can restrict the use of SM. The aim was to evaluate the feasibility of SM as a function of autonomic psychomotricity in pts aged more than 75 years and to estimate the reproducibility of SM in comparison with office's measurements (OM). We initially proposed the use of SM devices of BP to 53 pts aged > 75 years. One-third of pts refused to participate in the study. In 32 pts we did a mini-mental-state score (MMS) and an evaluation of autonomic functions (IADL). Two patients with a MMS < 20 were excluded. The OM of BP was done in sitting position with a mercury sphygmomanometer (4 measures) and the SM by a Omron device during 5 consecutive days (3 measures morning and night). Eighteen (60%) pts did more or equal to 15 measures (good measurer) and 12 less than 15 (bad measurer). The pts of the group "good measurer" were significantly younger, were all hypertensive treated patients and had a higher MMS and a lower IADL than those of the group "bad measurer". Considering the differences (OM-SM), 55% of patients showed values superior to 10 mmHg for systolic blood pressure, and 64% of subjects had values superior to 5 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. We conclude that the SM is acceptable by patients older than 75 years and that feasibility is optimal in those patients where the autonomic and cognitive functions are preserved and when the patient is hypertensive. Also, as the concordance between OM and SM of patients older than 75 years is below 50%, diagnostic and therapeutic decisions based on OM is hazardous in these patients. PMID:10486683

  19. [Features of elderly patients over 75 years old with gastric cancer and surgical strategy].

    PubMed

    Chen, Lin; Cui, Jianxin

    2016-05-25

    The new cases and mortality of gastric cancer in the population aged over 75 years account for 21% and 30% of the cases in the whole population respectively. These elderly patients with gastric cancer are characteristic of nonspecific clinical manifestations, high proportion of upper gastric carcinoma, larger tumor size, advanced TNM stage, concomitant diseases, poor body function and high risk of complications. Specialists should pay more attention to the diagnosis and treatment of these patients. Comprehensive and systemic assessment should be performed, and concomitant diseases should be treated. Accurate preoperative staging should be accessed by EUS and CT. Individualized treatment according to the principle of precise surgery and enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) should be performed as follows. For early gastric cancer with low risk of lymph node metastasis, endoscopic submucosal dissection(ESD) is recommended for expanded indications. For resectable advanced gastric cancer, "downsizing" surgery obtaining ≥4 cm incisal margin is recommended, which must be based on accurate preoperative stage. And gasless laproscopy is applicable for these patients. For unresectable advanced gastric cancer, conversion therapy is not the priority unless patients with high response rate. Palliative chemotherapy, immunotherapy and best supportive care should be applied in turn. ERAS techniques application in elderly patients with gastric cancer requires careful selection. PMID:27215511

  20. Development status of solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis for manned spacecraft life support systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuttall, L. J.; Titterington, W. A.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the design and system verification test results are presented for a six-man-rated oxygen generation system. The system configuration incorporates components and instrumentation for computer-controlled operation with automatic start-up/shutdown sequencing, fault detection and isolation, and with self-contained sensors and controls for automatic safe emergency shutdown. All fluid and electrical components, sensors, and electronic controls are designed to be easily maintainable under zero-gravity conditions. On-board component spares are utilized in the system concept to sustain long-term operation (six months minimum) in a manned spacecraft application. The system is centered on a 27-cell solid polymer electrolyte water electrolysis module which, combined with the associated system components and controls, forms a total system envelope 40 in. high, 40 in. wide, and 30 in. deep.

  1. Technology development, demonstration, and orbital support requirements for manned lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Llewellyn, Charles P.; Brender, Karen D.

    1990-01-01

    An overview of the critical technology needs and the Space Station Freedom (SSF) focused support requirements for the Office of Exploration's (OEXP) manned lunar and Mars missions is presented. Major emphasis is directed at the technology needs associated with the low earth orbit (LEO) transportation node assembly and vehicle processing functions required by the lunar and Mars mission flight elements. The key technology areas identified as crucial to support the LEO node function include in-space assembly and construction, in-space vehicle processing and refurbishment, space storable cryogenics, and autonomous rendezvous and docking.

  2. Technology needs development and orbital support requirements for manned lunar and Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brender, Karen D.; Llewellyn, Charles P.

    1990-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the critical technology needs and the Space Station Freedom focused support requirements for the Office of Exploration's manned lunar and Mars missions. The emphasis is on e directed at the technology needs associated with the low earth orbit (LEO) transportation node assembly and vehicle processing functions required by the lunar Mars mission flight elements. The key technology areas identified as crucial to support the LEO node function include in-space assembly and construction, in-space vehicle processing and refurbishment, space storable cryogenics, and autonomous rendezvous and docking.

  3. Development and testing of a wet oxidation waste processing system. [for waste treatment aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitzmann, A. L.

    1977-01-01

    The wet oxidation process is considered as a potential treatment method for wastes aboard manned spacecraft for these reasons: (1) Fecal and urine wastes are processed to sterile water and CO2 gas. However, the water requires post-treatment to remove salts and odor; (2) the residual ash is negligible in quantity, sterile and easily collected; and (3) the product CO2 gas can be processed through a reduction step to aid in material balance if needed. Reaction of waste materials with oxygen at elevated temperature and pressure also produces some nitrous oxide, as well as trace amounts of a few other gases.

  4. Development of an improved membrane for a vapor diffusion water recovery process. [onboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rich, T. R.; Mix, T. W.

    1974-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from urine on manned space missions of extended duration was the objective of work aimed at the improvement of membrane performance for the vapor diffusion process (VDR). Kynar, Teflon, PVC, and polysulfone candidate membranes were evaluated from chemical, thermal, mechanical, and fabricating standpoints to determine their suitability for operation in the VDR pervaporation module. Pervaporation rates and other performance characteristics were determined in a breadboard pervaporator test rig. Kynar and Teflon membranes were demonstrated to be chemically stable at pervaporation temperatures in urine pretreated with chromic acid bactericide. The separation of the pervaporator and condenser modules, the use of a recirculating sweep gas to conduct pervaporate to the condenser, and the selection of a hollow fiber membrane configuration for pervaporator module design is recommended as a result of the investigation.

  5. Water vapor diffusion membrane development. [for water recovery purposes onboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tan, M. K.

    1974-01-01

    The phase separator component used as a membrane in the vapor diffusion process (VRD) for the recovery of potable water from urine on manned space missions of extended duration was investigated, with particular emphasis on cation-selective membranes because of their noted mechanical strength, superior resistance to acids, oxidants, and germicides, and their potential resistance to organic foulants. Two of the membranes were tested for 700 hours continuously, and were selected on the basis of criteria deemed important to an effective water reclamation system onboard spacecraft. The samples of urine were successfully processed by removing 93 percent of their water content in 70 hours using the selected membranes. Pretreatment with an acid-oxidant formulation improved product quality. Cation exchange membranes were shown to possess superior mechanical strength and chemical resistance, as compared to cellulosic membranes.

  6. Manned Mars Mission on-orbit operations metric development. [astronaut and robot performance in spacecraft orbital assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorin, Barney F.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes the effort made to develop a scoring system, or metric, for comparing astronaut Extra Vehicular Activity with various robotic options for the on-orbit assembly of a very large spacecraft, such as would be needed for a Manned Mars Mission. All trade studies comparing competing approaches to a specific task involve the use of some consistent and unbiased method for assigning a score, or rating factor, to each concept under consideration. The relative scores generated by the selected rating system provide the tool for deciding which of the approaches is the most desirable.

  7. Development of a circulating miRNA assay to monitor tumor burden: From mouse to man

    PubMed Central

    Greystoke, Alastair; Ayub, Mahmood; Rothwell, Dominic G.; Morris, Dan; Burt, Deborah; Hodgkinson, Cassandra L.; Morrow, Christopher J.; Smith, Nigel; Aung, Kyaw; Valle, Juan; Carter, Louise; Blackhall, Fiona; Dive, Caroline; Brady, Ged

    2016-01-01

    Circulating miRNA stability suggests potential utility of miRNA based biomarkers to monitor tumor burden and/or progression, particularly in cancer types where serial biopsy is impractical. Assessment of miRNA specificity and sensitivity is challenging within the clinical setting. To address this, circulating miRNAs were examined in mice bearing human SCLC tumor xenografts and SCLC patient derived circulating tumor cell explant models (CDX). We identified 49 miRNAs using human TaqMan Low Density Arrays readily detectable in 10 μl tail vein plasma from mice carrying H526 SCLC xenografts that were low or undetectable in non-tumor bearing controls. Circulating miR-95 measured serially in mice bearing CDX was detected with tumor volumes as low as 10 mm3 and faithfully reported subsequent tumor growth. Having established assay sensitivity in mouse models, we identified 26 miRNAs that were elevated in a stage dependent manner in a pilot study of plasma from SCLC patients (n = 16) compared to healthy controls (n = 11) that were also elevated in the mouse models. We selected a smaller panel of 10 previously reported miRNAs (miRs 95, 141, 200a, 200b, 200c, 210, 335#, 375, 429) that were consistently elevated in SCLC, some of which are reported to be elevated in other cancer types. Using a multiplex qPCR assay, elevated levels of miRNAs across the panel were also observed in a further 66 patients with non-small cell lung, colorectal or pancreatic cancers. The utility of this circulating miRNA panel as an early warning of tumor progression across several tumor types merits further evaluation in larger studies. PMID:26654130

  8. Manned remote work station development article. Volume 2: Simulation requirements. Appendix A: Open cherry picker development test articles specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A manned remote work station (MRWS) mission scenario, broken down into the three time phases was selected as the basis for analysis of the MRWS flight article requirements and concepts. The mission roles for the three time phases, supporting tradeoff and evaluation studies, was used to identify key issues requiring simulation. The MRWS is discussed in terms of its capability to perform such operations as support of Spacelab experiments, servicing and repair of satellites, and construction. Future considerations for the use of the MRWS are also given.

  9. Development and application of virtual reality for man/systems integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Marcus

    1991-01-01

    While the graphical presentation of computer models signified a quantum leap over presentations limited to text and numbers, it still has the problem of presenting an interface barrier between the human user and the computer model. The user must learn a command language in order to orient themselves in the model. For example, to move left from the current viewpoint of the model, they might be required to type 'LEFT' at a keyboard. This command is fairly intuitive, but if the viewpoint moves far enough that there are no visual cues overlapping with the first view, the user does not know if the viewpoint has moved inches, feet, or miles to the left, or perhaps remained in the same position, but rotated to the left. Until the user becomes quite familiar with the interface language of the computer model presentation, they will be proned to lossing their bearings frequently. Even a highly skilled user will occasionally get lost in the model. A new approach to presenting type type of information is to directly interpret the user's body motions as the input language for determining what view to present. When the user's head turns 45 degrees to the left, the viewpoint should be rotated 45 degrees to the left. Since the head moves through several intermediate angles between the original view and the final one, several intermediate views should be presented, providing the user with a sense of continuity between the original view and the final one. Since the primary way a human physically interacts with their environment should monitor the movements of the user's hands and alter objects in the virtual model in a way consistent with the way an actual object would move when manipulated using the same hand movements. Since this approach to the man-computer interface closely models the same type of interface that humans have with the physical world, this type of interface is often called virtual reality, and the model is referred to as a virtual world. The task of this summer

  10. Development of a real-time TaqMan assay to detect mendocina sublineage Pseudomonas species in contaminated metalworking fluids.

    PubMed

    Saha, Ratul; Donofrio, Robert S; Bagley, Susan T

    2010-08-01

    A TaqMan quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay was developed for the detection and enumeration of three Pseudomonas species belonging to the mendocina sublineage (P. oleovorans, P. pseudoalcaligenes, and P. oleovorans subsp. lubricantis) found in contaminated metalworking fluids (MWFs). These microbes are the primary colonizers and serve as indicator organisms of biodegradation of used MWFs. Molecular techniques such as qPCR are preferred for the detection of these microbes since they grow poorly on typical growth media such as R2A agar and Pseudomonas isolation agar (PIA). Traditional culturing techniques not only underestimate the actual distribution of these bacteria but are also time-consuming. The primer-probe pair developed from gyrase B (gyrB) sequences of the targeted bacteria was highly sensitive and specific for the three species. qPCR was performed with both whole cell and genomic DNA to confirm the specificity and sensitivity of the assay. The sensitivity of the assay was 10(1) colony forming units (CFU)/ml for whole cell and 13.7 fg with genomic DNA. The primer-probe pair was successful in determining concentrations from used MWF samples, indicating levels between 2.9 x 10(3) and 3.9 x 10(6) CFU/ml. In contrast, the total count of Pseudomonas sp. recovered on PIA was in the range of <1.0 x 10(1) to 1.4 x 10(5) CFU/ml for the same samples. Based on these results from the qPCR assay, the designed TaqMan primer-probe pair can be efficiently used for rapid (within 2 h) determination of the distribution of these species of Pseudomonas in contaminated MWFs. PMID:20458609

  11. Development Index, A Proposed Pattern for Organizing and Facilitating the Flow of Information Needed By Man in Furthering His Own Development, With Particular Reference to the Development of Buildings and Communities and Other Forms of Environmental Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor.

    The organization of knowledge related to the development of the environment and the building industry is provided in this index which provides a framework or classification system for a broad range of information. Man's development in terms of environmental structuring and control is discussed as development goals, development cycle, and…

  12. Development of sinkholes resulting from man's activities in the Eastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Newton, John G.

    1987-01-01

    Alternatives that allow avoiding or minimizing sinkhole hazards are most numerous when a problem or potential problem is recognized during site evaluation. The number of alternatives declines after the beginning of site development. Where sinkhole development is predictable, zoning of land use can minimize hazards.

  13. Recombinant endo-mannanase (ManB-1601) production using agro-industrial residues: Development of economical medium and application in oil extraction from copra.

    PubMed

    Kaira, Gaurav Singh; Panwar, Deepesh; Kapoor, Mukesh

    2016-06-01

    Expression of pRSETA manb-1601 construct in Hi-Control Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) cells improved recombinant endo-mannanase (ManB-1601) production by 2.73-fold (1821±100U/ml). A low-cost, agro-industrial residue supplemented industrial medium for enhanced and economical production of ManB-1601 was developed in two mutual phases. Phase-I revealed the potential of various pre- (induction time: 5h, induction mode: lactose 0.5mM) and post-induction [peptone supplementation: 0.94%(w/v), glycerol 0.123%(v/v)] parameters for enhanced production of ManB-1601 and resulted in 4.61-fold (8406±400U/ml) and 2.53-fold (3.30g/l) higher ManB-1601 and biomass production, respectively. Under phase-II, economization of phase-I medium was carried out by reducing/replacing costly ingredients with solubilized-defatted flax seed meal (S-DFSM), which resulted in 3.25-fold (5926U/ml) higher ManB-1601 production. Industrial potential of ManB-1601 was shown in oil extraction from copra as enzyme treatment led to cracks, peeling, fracturing and smoothening of copra, which facilitated higher (18.75%) oil yield. PMID:26970925

  14. Reference Question Analysis and Search Strategy Development by Man and Machine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahoda, Gerald

    1974-01-01

    Question analysis and search strategy development were broken down into nine steps for answering reference questions. These steps were examined for possible mechanization of the answering process. Such automation was not proved feasible. (LS)

  15. Challenges of developing an electro-optical system for measuring man's operational envelope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woolford, B.

    1985-01-01

    In designing work stations and restraint systems, and in planning tasks to be performed in space, a knowledge of the capabilities of the operator is essential. Answers to such questions as whether a specific control or work surface can be reached from a given restraint and how much force can be applied are of particular interest. A computer-aided design system has been developed for designing and evaluating work stations, etc., and the Anthropometric Measurement Laboratory (AML) has been charged with obtaining the data to be used in design and modeling. Traditional methods of measuring reach and force are very labor intensive and require bulky equipment. The AML has developed a series of electro-optical devices for collecting reach data easily, in computer readable form, with portable systems. The systems developed, their use, and data collected with them are described.

  16. Development of 20 TaqMan assays differentiating the endangered shortnose and Lost River suckers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoy, Marshal S.; Ostberg, Carl O.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate species identification is vital to conservation and management of species at risk. Species identification is challenging when taxa express similar phenotypic characters and form hybrids, for example the endangered shortnose sucker (Chasmistes brevirostris) and Lost River sucker (Deltistes luxatus). Here, we developed 20 Taqman assays that differentiate these species (19 nuclear DNA and one mitochondrial DNA). Assays were evaluated in 160 young-of-the-year identified to species using meristic counts. Alleles were not fixed between species, but species were highly differentiated (F ST = 0.753, P < 0.001). The assays developed herein will be a valuable tool for resource managers.

  17. Man-computer Inactive Data Access System (McIDAS). [design, development, fabrication, and testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A technical description is given of the effort to design, develop, fabricate, and test the two dimensional data processing system, McIDAS. The system has three basic sections: an access and data archive section, a control section, and a display section. Areas reported include hardware, system software, and applications software.

  18. "Putting My Man Face on": A Grounded Theory of College Men's Gender Identity Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Keith E.; Jones, Susan R.

    2009-01-01

    The theory that emerged from this constructivist grounded theory study of 10 college men's experiences depicts their gender identity as developed through constant interaction with society's expectations of them as men. In order to try to meet these perceived expectations, participants described putting on a performance that was like wearing a mask…

  19. Simulation and Control Lab Development for Power and Energy Management for NASA Manned Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McNelis, Anne M.; Beach, Raymond F.; Soeder, James F.; McNelis, Nancy B.; May, Ryan; Dever, Timothy P.; Trase, Larry

    2014-01-01

    The development of distributed hierarchical and agent-based control systems will allow for reliable autonomous energy management and power distribution for on-orbit missions. Power is one of the most critical systems on board a space vehicle, requiring quick response time when a fault or emergency is identified. As NASAs missions with human presence extend beyond low earth orbit autonomous control of vehicle power systems will be necessary and will need to reliably function for long periods of time. In the design of autonomous electrical power control systems there is a need to dynamically simulate and verify the EPS controller functionality prior to use on-orbit. This paper presents the work at NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio where the development of a controls laboratory is being completed that will be utilized to demonstrate advanced prototype EPS controllers for space, aeronautical and terrestrial applications. The control laboratory hardware, software and application of an autonomous controller for demonstration with the ISS electrical power system is the subject of this paper.

  20. Comparison of Simplexa Flu A/B & RSV PCR with Cytospin-Immunofluorescence and Laboratory-Developed TaqMan PCR in Predominantly Adult Hospitalized Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, David

    2014-01-01

    To compare Simplexa Flu A/B & RSV PCR with cytospin-immunofluorescence and laboratory-developed TaqMan PCR methods, 445 nasopharyngeal samples were tested. Of these, 199 were positive (46 for respiratory syncytial virus [RSV], 120 for influenza A, and 33 for influenza B) and 246 were negative. The direct fluorescent-antibody assay (DFA) detected 132 (66.3%) positive samples, Simplexa direct detected 162 (81.4%), Simplexa using extracts detected 177 (88.9%), and lab-developed TaqMan PCR reference methods detected 199 (100%). The specificities were 99.6%, 100%, 100%, and 100%, respectively. The two Simplexa methods were more sensitive than the DFA (P = 0.0001) but less sensitive than the TaqMan reverse transcriptase PCR (P = 0.0001). PMID:24850350

  1. Child is father of the man: child abuse and development of future psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Lecic-Tosevski, D; Draganic-Gajic, S; Pejovic-Milovancevic, M; Popovic-Deusic, S; Christodoulou, N; Botbol, M

    2014-01-01

    Available epidemiological data indicate that the abuse of children within families is a very common phenomenon, and is still on the rise. Among others, abuse includes direct physical and emotional violence to the child, as well as the indirect emotional trauma of witnessing interparental violence. These early trauma experienced within the context of the family can influence the development of the child's personality as well as predispose towards the development of mental disorders in adulthood. There are some important factors influencing the occurrence of abuse, or the conditions predisposing it: certain parental personality traits appear to be instrumental, and the presence of individual psychopathology of parents is also connected with different forms of family dysfunction as a system, representing a variable which is interpolated in the quality of parenthood as the most important factor that determines long-term consequences on children and possible future psychopathology. The complex but tangible effects of parents' personality traits on the psychological development of children may contribute to the transgenerational transmission of abuse and violence. The phenomenon of domestic violence and abuse can be described from the perspective of the psychological and systemic theoretical postulates. According to systemic theory and practice, dysfunctional communication in the family is a significant predictor for domestic violence. Characteristics of dysfunctional communication include low levels of verbal expressiveness and emotional responsiveness, low tolerance to criticism and its interpretation as a threat or intimidation, and consequently increased anxiety and subsequent escalation of an argument into violence. Overall it seems that there may be a complex connection between parental personality and family interaction patterns, leading to dysfunctional communication which further amplifies the detrimental characteristics of family dynamics, and eventually

  2. Development and validation of methods for man-made machine interface evaluation. [for shuttles and shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malone, T. B.; Micocci, A.

    1975-01-01

    The alternate methods of conducting a man-machine interface evaluation are classified as static and dynamic, and are evaluated. A dynamic evaluation tool is presented to provide for a determination of the effectiveness of the man-machine interface in terms of the sequence of operations (task and task sequences) and in terms of the physical characteristics of the interface. This dynamic checklist approach is recommended for shuttle and shuttle payload man-machine interface evaluations based on reduced preparation time, reduced data, and increased sensitivity of critical problems.

  3. The Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle (ARV) A Development Step From ATV Toward Manned Transportation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottacini, Massimiliano; Berthe, Philippe; Vo, Xavier; Pietsch, Klaus

    2011-05-01

    The Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV) programme has been undertaken by Europe with the objective to contribute to the preparation of a future European crew transportation system, while providing a valuable logistic support to the ISS through an operational cargo return system. This development would allow: - the early acquisition of critical technologies; - the design, development and testing of elements suitable for the follow up human rated transportation system. These vehicles should also serve future LEO infrastructures and exploration missions. With the aim to satisfy the above objectives a team composed by major European industries and led by EADS Astrium Space Transportation is currently conducting the phase A of the programme under contract with the European Space Agency (ESA). Two vehicle versions are being investigated: a Cargo version, transporting cargo only to/from the ISS, and a Crew version, which will allow the transfer of both crew and cargo to/from the ISS. The ARV Cargo version, in its present configuration, is composed of three modules. The Versatile Service Module (VSM) provides to the system the propulsion/GNC for orbital manoeuvres and attitude control and the orbital power generation. Its propulsion system and GNC shall be robust enough to allow its use for different launch stacks and different LEO missions in the future. The Un-pressurised Cargo Module (UCM) provides the accommodation for about 3000 kg of unpressurised cargo and is to be sufficiently flexible to ensure the transportation of: - orbital infrastructure components (ORU’s); - scientific / technological experiments; - propellant for re-fuelling, re-boost (and de-orbiting) of the ISS. The Re-entry Module (RM) provides a pressurized volume to accommodate active/passive cargo (2000 kg upload/1500 kg download). It is conceived as an expendable conical capsule with spherical heat-shield, interfacing with the new docking standard of the ISS, i.e. it carries the IBDM docking system, on

  4. The Advanced Re-Entry Vehicle (ARV) a Development Step from ATV Toward Manned Transportation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottacini, M.; Berthe, P.; Vo, X.; Pietsch, K.

    2011-08-01

    The Advanced Re-entry Vehicle (ARV) programme has been undertaken by Europe with the objective to contribute to the preparation of a future European crew transportation system, while providing a valuable logistic support to the ISS through an operational cargo return system. This development would allow: - the early acquisition of critical technologies; - the design, development and testing of elements suitable for the follow up human rated transportation system. These vehicles should also serve future LEO infrastructures and exploration missions. With the aim to satisfy the above objectives a team composed by major European industries and led by EADS Astrium Space Transportation is currently conducting the phase A of the programme under contract with the European Space Agency (ESA). Two vehicle versions are being investigated: a Cargo version, transporting cargo only to/from the ISS, and a Crew version, which will allow the transfer of both crew and cargo to/from the ISS. The ARV Cargo version, in its present configuration, is composed of three modules. The Versatile Service Module (VSM) provides to the system the propulsion/GNC for orbital manoeuvres and attitude control and the orbital power generation. Its propulsion system and GNC shall be robust enough to allow its use for different launch stacks and different LEO missions in the future. The Un-pressurised Cargo Module (UCM) provides the accommodation for about 3000 kg of un-pressurised cargo and is to be sufficiently flexible to ensure the transportation of: - orbital infrastructure components (ORU's); - scientific / technological experiments; - propellant for re-fuelling, re-boost (and deorbiting) of the ISS. The Re-entry Module (RM) provides a pressurized volume to accommodate active/passive cargo (2000 kg upload/1500 kg download). It is conceived as an expendable conical capsule with spherical heat- hield, interfacing with the new docking standard of the ISS, i.e. it carries the IBDM docking system, on a

  5. Remeasuring man.

    PubMed

    Weisberg, Michael

    2014-05-01

    Samuel George Morton (1799-1851) was the most highly regarded American scientist of the early and middle 19th century. Thanks largely to Stephen Jay Gould's book The Mismeasure of Man, Morton's cranial capacity measurements of different races is now held up as a prime example of and cautionary tale against scientific racism. A team of anthropologists recently reevaluated Morton's work and argued that it was Gould, not Morton, who was biased in his analysis. This article is a reexamination of the Morton and Gould controversy. It argues that most of Gould's arguments against Morton are sound. Although Gould made some errors and overstated his case in a number of places, he provided prima facia evidence, as yet unrefuted, that Morton did indeed mismeasure his skulls in ways that conformed to 19th century racial biases. Gould's critique of Morton ought to remain as an illustration of implicit bias in science. PMID:24761929

  6. Development of TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the detection and quantitation of porcine kobuvirus.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangdong; Wang, Yufei; Chen, Jianfei; Zhang, Xin; Shi, Hongyan; Shi, Da; Gao, Jing; Feng, Li

    2016-08-01

    Porcine kobuvirus (PKV) is a newly emerging virus that has been detected in diarrheic pigs. Presently, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and RT-loop-mediated amplification are the only methods that can be used to detect PKV. To develop a TaqMan real-time RT-PCR for the rapid detection and quantitation of PKV nucleic acid in fecal samples, a pair of primers and a probe were designed to amplify the conserved 3D region of the PKV genome. After optimization, the TaqMan real-time RT-PCR was highly specific and ∼1000 times more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR, and the detection limit was as low as 30 DNA copies. Among the 148 intestinal samples from piglets with diarrhea, 136 and 118 were positive based on the TaqMan and conventional RT-PCR methods, respectively, indicating that the TaqMan RT-PCR was more sensitive than conventional RT-PCR, and the total concordance of the two methods was approximately 87.84%. Thus, the TaqMan real-time RT-PCR should be a useful tool for the early detection and quantitation of PKV. PMID:26912233

  7. The development in beef cattle manure of Petriedllidium boydii (Shear) Malloch, a potential pathogen for man and cattle.

    PubMed

    Bell, R G

    1976-04-01

    Petriellidium boydii (Allescheria boydii) dominated the mycoflora of manure samples form three beef cattle feedlots after incubation at room temperature for 4 months. The possible dangers associated with this pathogenic fungus, which causes mycotic abortion in livestock, pulmonary allescheriasis in man, and mycetomas in both man and animals, are discussed. This fungus could create a health hazard in feedlots where in situ manure decompostion is encouraged. PMID:944082

  8. Development and application of the Manned Maneuvering Unit, work restraint system, stowage container and return line tether

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergonz, F. H.; Okelly, J. K.; Whitsett, C. W.; Petynia, W. W.

    1981-01-01

    The Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU), a self-contained zero-gravity backpack designed for astronaut extravehicular activity, is discussed with reference to the system requirements and characteristics, and potential near-term and future uses. Attention is given to the MMU man-machine interfaces, propulsion capability, attitude control, crew restraint hardware, donning, doffing, activation, and deactivation. Specific applications discussed include: spacecraft inspection and servicing, assembly of large space systems, payload deployment/retrieval, and crew rescue.

  9. [An elderly man with known heart failure admitted with cardiogenic shock].

    PubMed

    Hovland, Anders; Fagerheim, Anne Kristine; Hardersen, Randolf; Nielsen, Erik Waage

    2010-07-01

    A 75-year-old man with post-MI heart failure and an ejection fraction of 15 % was treated with an ACE-inhibitor, spironolactone and a beta-blocker. He had reduced his intake of food and water due to an intercurrent illness the days before admission. He was admitted to our coronary care unit due to bradycardia and hypotension. On arrival his blood pressure was 60/40 mm Hg, and he was in a cardiogenic shock. The electrocardiogram showed broad QRS-complexes and large T waves. Serum-potassium was 9.1 mmol/L and he had acute renal failure with oliguria, probably caused by reduced cardiac output due to hypovolemia combined with taking an ACE inhibitor and spironolactone. Haemodialysis was started and during dialysis QRS complexes became more narrow and heart rate and blood pressure normalized. The patient was discharged 10 days later with normal potassium and creatinine levels. Patients treated with ACE-inhibitors and spironolactone should be monitored closely. During intercurrent illness dehydration may occur and this can lead to renal failure and hyperkalemia which can be life-threatening. The condition should be recognized and addressed promptly, and if indicated haemodialysis should be performed. PMID:20596117

  10. Reference Man anatomical model

    SciTech Connect

    Cristy, M.

    1994-10-01

    The 70-kg Standard Man or Reference Man has been used in physiological models since at least the 1920s to represent adult males. It came into use in radiation protection in the late 1940s and was developed extensively during the 1950s and used by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in its Publication 2 in 1959. The current Reference Man for Purposes of Radiation Protection is a monumental book published in 1975 by the ICRP as ICRP Publication 23. It has a wealth of information useful for radiation dosimetry, including anatomical and physiological data, gross and elemental composition of the body and organs and tissues of the body. The anatomical data includes specified reference values for an adult male and an adult female. Other reference values are primarily for the adult male. The anatomical data include much data on fetuses and children, although reference values are not established. There is an ICRP task group currently working on revising selected parts of the Reference Man document.

  11. Development of PCR and TaqMan PCR Assays to Detect Pseudomonas coronafaciens, a Causal Agent of Halo Blight of Oats

    PubMed Central

    An, Ji-Hye; Noh, Young-Hee; Kim, Yong-Eon; Lee, Hyok-In; Cha, Jae-Soon

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas coronafaciens causes halo blight on oats and is a plant quarantine bacterium in many countries, including the Republic of Korea. Using of the certificated seed is important for control of the disease. Since effective detection method of P. coronafaciens is not available yet, PCR and TaqMan PCR assays for specific detection of P. coronafaciens were developed in this study. PCR primers were designed from the draft genome sequence of P. coronafaciens LMG 5060 which was obtained by the next-generation sequencing in this study. The PCR primer set Pc-12-F/Pc-12-R specifically amplified 498 bp from the 13 strains of P. coronafaciens isolated in the seven different countries (Canada, Japan, United Kingdom, Zimbabwe, Kenya, Germany, and New Zealand) and the nested primer set Pc-12-ne-F/Pc-12-ne-R specifically amplified 298 bp from those strains. The target-size PCR product was not amplified from the non-target bacteria with the PCR and nested primer sets. TaqMan PCR with Pc-12-ne-F/Pc-12-ne-R and a TaqMan probe, Pc-taqman, which were designed inside of the nested PCR amplicon, generated Ct values which in a dose-dependent manner to the amount of the target DNA and the Ct values of all the P. coronafaciens strains were above the threshold Ct value for positive detection. The TaqMan PCR generated positive Ct values from the seed extracts of the artificially inoculated oat seeds above 10 cfu/ml inoculation level. PCR and TaqMan PCR assays developed in this study will be useful tools to detect and identify the plant quarantine pathogen, P. coronafaciens. PMID:25774107

  12. Manned remote work station development article. Volume 1, book 2, appendix B: Trade and design definition studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    System trades, evaluations, and selection were organized under the appropriate manned remote work station roles and subsystems. Those trades/evaluations that have an impact on simulator fidelity were given emphasis in terms of identifying alternate concepts, making a selection, and defining the system approach. Those trades that do not impact simulator fidelity have the issues delineated and future study requirements identified.

  13. Man's future in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freitag, R. F.

    1975-01-01

    Studies evaluating potential operational and commercial uses of space are being conducted, taking into account astronomy, astrophysics, manned bases and laboratories in earth orbit, space colonization, terrestrial communications, space processing and manufacturing, interstellar probes, planetary exploration, and the use of space for terrestrial energy supply. The present status in the exploration of the solar system is examined, giving attention to Jupiter, Venus, Mars, and Mercury. A brief outline of the development of human colonies on Mars is presented.

  14. Development of TaqMan-Based Quantitative PCR for Sensitive and Selective Detection of Toxigenic Clostridium difficile in Human Stools

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Hiroyuki; Sakai, Takafumi; Gawad, Agata; Makino, Hiroshi; Akiyama, Takuya; Ishikawa, Eiji; Oishi, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile is the main cause of nosocomial diarrhea, but is also found in asymptomatic subjects that are potentially involved in transmission of C. difficile infection. A sensitive and accurate detection method of C. difficile, especially toxigenic strains is indispensable for the epidemiological investigation. Methods TaqMan-based quantitative-PCR (qPCR) method for targeting 16S rRNA, tcdB, and tcdA genes of C. difficile was developed. The detection limit and accuracy of qPCR were evaluated by analyzing stool samples spiked with known amounts of C. difficile. A total of 235 stool specimens collected from 82 elderly nursing home residents were examined by qPCR, and the validity was evaluated by comparing the detection result with that by C. difficile selective culture (CDSC). Results The analysis of C. difficile-spiked stools confirmed that qPCR quantified whole C. difficile (TcdA+TcdB+, TcdA−TcdB+, and TcdA−TcdB− types), TcdB-producing strains (TcdA+TcdB+ and TcdA−TcdB+ types), and TcdA-producing strains (TcdA+TcdB+ type), respectively, with a lower detection limit of 103 cells/g of stool. Of the 235 specimens examined, 12 specimens (5.1%) were C. difficile-positive by qPCR: TcdA+TcdB+ strain in six specimens and TcdA−TcdB− strain in the other six. CDSC detected C. difficile in 9 of the 12 specimens, and toxigenic types of the isolates from the 9 specimens were consistent with those identified by qPCR, supporting the validity of our qPCR method. Moreover, the qPCR examination revealed that the carriage rate of whole C. difficile and that of toxigenic strains in the 82 subjects over a 6-month period ranged from 2.4 to 6.8% and 1.2 to 3.8%, respectively. An average qPCR count of C. difficile detected was 104.5 cells/g of stool, suggesting that C. difficile constituted a very small fraction of intestinal microbiota. Conclusion Our qPCR method should be an effective tool for both clinical diagnosis and epidemiological investigation of

  15. Development of Chinese reference man deformable surface phantom and its application to the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Yu, D; Wang, M; Liu, Q

    2015-09-01

    A reference man is a theoretical individual that represents the average anatomical structure and physiological and metabolic features of a specific group of people and has been widely used in radiation safety research. With the help of an advantage in deformation, the present work proposed a Chinese reference man adult-male polygon-mesh surface phantom based on the Visible Chinese Human segment image dataset by surface rendering and deforming. To investigate the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry in humans, a series of human phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th body mass index and body circumference percentile physiques for Chinese adult males were further constructed by deforming the Chinese reference man surface phantom. All the surface phantoms were then voxelized to perform electromagnetic field simulation in a frequency range of 20 MHz to 3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method and evaluate the whole-body average and organ average specific absorption rate and the ratios of absorbed energy in skin, fat and muscle to the whole body. The results indicate thinner physique leads to higher WBSAR and the volume of subcutaneous fat, the penetration depth of the electromagnetic field in tissues and standing-wave occurrence may be the influence factors of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry. PMID:26301501

  16. Development of Chinese reference man deformable surface phantom and its application to the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, D.; Wang, M.; Liu, Q.

    2015-09-01

    A reference man is a theoretical individual that represents the average anatomical structure and physiological and metabolic features of a specific group of people and has been widely used in radiation safety research. With the help of an advantage in deformation, the present work proposed a Chinese reference man adult-male polygon-mesh surface phantom based on the Visible Chinese Human segment image dataset by surface rendering and deforming. To investigate the influence of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry in humans, a series of human phantoms with 10th, 50th and 90th body mass index and body circumference percentile physiques for Chinese adult males were further constructed by deforming the Chinese reference man surface phantom. All the surface phantoms were then voxelized to perform electromagnetic field simulation in a frequency range of 20 MHz to 3 GHz using the finite-difference time-domain method and evaluate the whole-body average and organ average specific absorption rate and the ratios of absorbed energy in skin, fat and muscle to the whole body. The results indicate thinner physique leads to higher WBSAR and the volume of subcutaneous fat, the penetration depth of the electromagnetic field in tissues and standing-wave occurrence may be the influence factors of physique on electromagnetic dosimetry.

  17. Man, space flight and medicine.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, C. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of experience obtained from space flight to evaluate man's physiological capability to function in space. Results of the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs are presented, with emphasis on the latter. The space medicine requirements which were necessary for assuring man's safe journey into and return from space have resulted in hardware and techniques of great value to terrestrial medicine. The need to monitor the physiologic function of crewmen led to the development of miniaturized, nonirritating, and highly reliable sensors.

  18. Development of αGlcN(1↔1)αMan-Based Lipid A Mimetics as a Novel Class of Potent Toll-like Receptor 4 Agonists

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The endotoxic portion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a glycophospholipid Lipid A, initiates the activation of the Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4)–myeloid differentiation factor 2 (MD-2) complex, which results in pro-inflammatory immune signaling. To unveil the structural requirements for TLR4·MD-2-specific ligands, we have developed conformationally restricted Lipid A mimetics wherein the flexible βGlcN(1→6)GlcN backbone of Lipid A is exchanged for a rigid trehalose-like αGlcN(1↔1)αMan scaffold resembling the molecular shape of TLR4·MD-2-bound E. coli Lipid A disclosed in the X-ray structure. A convergent synthetic route toward orthogonally protected αGlcN(1↔1)αMan disaccharide has been elaborated. The α,α-(1↔1) linkage was attained by the glycosylation of 2-N-carbamate-protected α-GlcN-lactol with N-phenyl-trifluoroacetimidate of 2-O-methylated mannose. Regioselective acylation with (R)-3-acyloxyacyl fatty acids and successive phosphorylation followed by global deprotection afforded bis- and monophosphorylated hexaacylated Lipid A mimetics. αGlcN(1↔1)αMan-based Lipid A mimetics (α,α-GM-LAM) induced potent activation of NF-κB signaling in hTLR4/hMD-2/CD14-transfected HEK293 cells and robust LPS-like cytokines expression in macrophages and dendritic cells. Thus, restricting the conformational flexibility of Lipid A by fixing the molecular shape of its carbohydrate backbone in the “agonistic” conformation attained by a rigid αGlcN(1↔1)αMan scaffold represents an efficient approach toward powerful and adjustable TLR4 activation. PMID:25252784

  19. Bupropion-induced hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Kate, Natasha; Grover, Sandeep; Kumar, Santhosh; Modi, Manish

    2013-01-01

    Although hyponatremia has been reported with the use of various antidepressants, the association of hyponatremia with bupropion has been limited to two case reports. In this case report, we present the case of a 75-year-old man who developed hyponatremia with the use of bupropion, which improved with stoppage of bupropion. PMID:23764348

  20. Manned Mars mission cost estimate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamaker, Joseph; Smith, Keith

    1986-01-01

    The potential costs of several options of a manned Mars mission are examined. A cost estimating methodology based primarily on existing Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) parametric cost models is summarized. These models include the MSFC Space Station Cost Model and the MSFC Launch Vehicle Cost Model as well as other modes and techniques. The ground rules and assumptions of the cost estimating methodology are discussed and cost estimates presented for six potential mission options which were studied. The estimated manned Mars mission costs are compared to the cost of the somewhat analogous Apollo Program cost after normalizing the Apollo cost to the environment and ground rules of the manned Mars missions. It is concluded that a manned Mars mission, as currently defined, could be accomplished for under $30 billion in 1985 dollars excluding launch vehicle development and mission operations.

  1. Roles and needs of man in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Von Puttkamer, J.

    1983-01-01

    Human capabilities and requirements on space missions are discussed. Utilitarian and humanistic motivations for manned missions are considered, and a general program of development from easy space access and return, to a permanent LEO presence, to the limited self-sufficiency of man in space, is proposed. Man's potential as scientific observer, operator, and engineer/technician is illustrated with examples from the Apollo and Skylab missions. It is shown that future increases in man's space presence will require significant improvements in habitation technology, crew comfort and safety, operational effectiveness and reliability, and man/machine interactions: man-tended systems must be standardized and adapted to (mainly EVA) human servicing; permanently manned systems must be designed to attain levels of comfort, privacy, and overall habitability more like those expected on the ground.

  2. Development a diagnostic pan-dermatophyte TaqMan probe real-time PCR assay based on beta tubulin gene.

    PubMed

    Mirhendi, Hossein; Motamedi, Marjan; Makimura, Koichi; Satoh, Kazuo

    2016-08-01

    Early differentiation of dermatophytosis from other cutaneous mycoses is essential to avoid inaccurate therapy. DNA-based techniques including real-time PCR have increasingly been considered for detection of fungal elements in clinical specimens. In this study, after partial sequence analysis of beta tubulin (BT2) gene in 13 common and rare pathogenic dermatophyte species, a pan-dermatophyte primer and probe set was designed in a TaqMan probe-based PCR format. The sensitivity and specificity of the system was tested with 22 reference strains of dermatophytes, 234 positive clinical specimens, 32 DNA samples extracted from normal nails, several fungi other than dermatophytes and human DNAs. Analytical detection limit of the designed PCR on serially diluted DNAs of prepared recombinant plasmid indicated that only five molecules per sample are the minimum number for reliable detection by the assay. A total of 226 out of 234 (96.5%) DNAs extracted from clinical samples, but none of the 32 nail samples, from healthy volunteers were positive in PCR. The real-time PCR targeted beta tubulin gene established in this study could be a sensitive diagnostic tool which is significantly faster than the conventional culture method and should be useful in the clinical settings, in large-scale epidemiological studies and in clinical trials of antifungal therapy. PMID:27071371

  3. Development of SYBR Green and TaqMan quantitative real-time PCR assays for hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infecting Penaeus monodon in India.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Reena; Paria, Anutosh; Mankame, Smruti; Makesh, M; Chaudhari, Aparna; Rajendran, K V

    2015-12-01

    Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) infects Penaeus monodon and causes mortality in the larval stages. Further, it has been implicated in the growth retardation in cultured P. monodon. Though different geographical isolates of HPV show large sequence variations, a sensitive PCR assay specific to Indian isolate has not yet been reported. Here, we developed a sensitive SYBR Green-based and TaqMan real-time PCR for the detection and quantification of the virus. A 441-bp PCR amplicon was cloned in pTZ57 R/T vector and the plasmid copy number was estimated. A 10-fold serial dilution of the plasmid DNA from 1 × 10(9) copies to 1 copy was prepared and used as the standard. The primers were tested initially using the standard on a conventional PCR format to determine the linearity of detection. The standards were further tested on real-time PCR format using SYBR Green and TaqMan chemistry and standard curves were generated based on the Ct values from three well replicates for each dilution. The assays were found to be sensitive, specific and reproducible with a wide dynamic range (1 × 10(9) to 10 copies) with coefficient of regression (R(2)) > 0.99, calculated average slope -3.196 for SYBR Green assay whereas, for TaqMan assay it was >0.99 and -3.367, respectively. The intra- and inter-assay variance of the Ct values ranged from 0.26% to 0.94% and 0.12% to 0.81%, respectively, for SYBR Green assay, and the inter-assay variance of the Ct values for TaqMan assay ranged from 0.07% to 1.93%. The specificity of the assays was proved by testing other DNA viruses of shrimp such as WSSV, IHHNV and MBV. Standardized assays were further tested to detect and quantify HPV in the post-larvae of P. monodon. The result was further compared with conventional PCR to test the reproducibility of the test. The assay was also used to screen Litopeneaus vannamei, Macrobrachium rosenbergii and Scylla serrata for HPV. PMID:26188128

  4. Mars manned transportation vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Davis, M.E.; Faymon, K.A.

    1987-07-01

    A viable power system technology for a surface transportation vehicle to explore the planet Mars is presented. A number of power traction systems were investigated, and it was found that a regenerative hydrogen-oxygen fuel cell appears to be attractive for a manned Mars rover application. Mission requirements were obtained from the Manned Mars Mission Working Group. Power systems weights, power, and reactants requirements were determined as a function of vehicle weights for vehicles weighing from 6,000 to 16,000 lb (2,722 to 7,257 kg), (Earth weight). The vehicle performance requirements were: velocity, 10 km/hr; range, 100 km; slope climbing capability, 30 deg uphill for 50 km; mission duration, 5 days; and crew, 5. Power requirements for the operation of scientific equipment and support system capabilities were also specified and included in this study. The concept developed here would also be applicable to a Lunar based vehicle for Lunar exploration. The reduced gravity on the Lunar surface, (over that on the Martian surface), would result in an increased range or capability over that of the Mars vehicle since many of the power and energy requirements for the vehicle are gravity dependent.

  5. Development of an on-site rapid real-time polymerase chain reaction system and the characterization of suitable DNA polymerases for TaqMan probe technology.

    PubMed

    Furutani, Shunsuke; Naruishi, Nahoko; Hagihara, Yoshihisa; Nagai, Hidenori

    2016-08-01

    On-site quantitative analyses of microorganisms (including viruses) by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) system are significantly influencing medical and biological research. We have developed a remarkably rapid and portable real-time PCR system that is based on microfluidic approaches. Real-time PCR using TaqMan probes consists of a complex reaction. Therefore, in a rapid real-time PCR, the optimum DNA polymerase must be estimated by using actual real-time PCR conditions. In this study, we compared the performance of three DNA polymerases in actual PCR conditions using our rapid real-time PCR system. Although KAPA2G Fast HS DNA Polymerase has the highest enzymatic activity among them, SpeedSTAR HS DNA Polymerase exhibited better performance to rapidly increase the fluorescence signal in an actual real-time PCR using TaqMan probes. Furthermore, we achieved rapid detection of Escherichia coli in 7 min by using SpeedSTAR HS DNA Polymerase with the same sensitivity as that of a conventional thermal cycler. PMID:27271319

  6. Teleoperator systems for manned space missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interian, A.

    1972-01-01

    The development of remote mechanical systems to augment man's capabilities in our manned space effort is considered. A teleoperator system extends man's innate intelligence and sensory capabilities to distant hostile and hazardous environments through a manipulator-equipped spacecraft and an RF link. Examined are space teleoperator system applications in the space station/space shuttle program, which is where the most immediate need exists and the potential return is greatest.

  7. The Sea and Modern Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Frank L.

    This publication is designed for use as part of a curriculum series developed by the Regional Marine Science Project. As an informative text for a three-week unit in marine science for grade six, it considers man's role in using coastal resources and how he affects the marine environments. An ecological approach to nature is emphasized, stressing…

  8. An Analysis of the Impact of the Federal Budgetary Cycle Upon the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center Research and Development Budget Formulation Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Ronald Keith

    1966-01-01

    The subsequent dissertation represents an analysis of the impact of the Federal Budgetary Cycle upon the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Manned Spacecraft Center (MSC) Research and Development (R&D) budget formulation process. The author's objectives may therefore be seen as the following: (1) to analyze the Federal Budgetary Cycle; (2) to analyze MSC R&D estimates and growth trends in relation to their implications on the Federal Cycle; (3) to identify relevant problems; and, (4) to-recommend solutions which display promise and feasibility. Any research involving the Federal Budgetary Cycle can well be characterized as of almost infinite scope and enormous complexity. For such reasons one must meticulously delineate all operational parameters and there-afore maintain their integrity. To do otherwise is to invite intellectual dilution and hazard a paltry effort.

  9. Development and validation of TaqMan quantitative PCR for detection of frog virus 3-like virus in eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina).

    PubMed

    Allender, Matthew C; Bunick, David; Mitchell, Mark A

    2013-03-01

    Ranavirus has caused disease epidemics and mass mortality events globally in free-ranging fish, amphibian, and reptile populations. Viral isolation and conventional PCR are the most common methods for diagnosis. In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay was developed using a TaqMan probe-based assay targeting a highly conserved region of the major capsid protein of frog virus 3-like virus (FV3-like) (Family Iridoviridae, genera Ranavirus). Standard curves were generated from a viral DNA segment cloned within a plasmid. The assay detected viral DNA 1000 times lower than conventional PCR. Thirty-one clinical samples (whole blood and oral swabs) from box turtles were tested using these assays and the prevalence of the virus determined. Quantitative PCR allows for a superior, rapid, sensitive, and quantitative method for detecting FV3-like virus in box turtles, and this assay will be useful for early detection and disease monitoring. PMID:23274753

  10. Development and Comparison of TaqMan-Based Real-Time PCR Assays for Detection and Differentiation of Ralstonia solanacearum strains.

    PubMed

    Stulberg, Michael J; Rascoe, John; Li, Wenbin; Yan, Zonghe; Nakhla, Mark K; Huang, Qi

    2016-10-01

    Bacterial wilt caused by Ralstonia solanacearum is destructive to many plant species worldwide. The race 3 biovar 2 (r3b2) strains of R. solanacearum infect potatoes in temperate climates and are listed as select agents by the U.S. government. TaqMan-based real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) is commonly used in federal and state diagnostic laboratories over conventional PCR due to its speed and sensitivity. We developed the Rs16S primers and probe set and compared it with a widely used set (RS) for detecting R. solanacearum species complex strains. We also developed the RsSA3 primers and probe set and compared it with the previously published B2 and RsSA2 sets for specific detection of r3b2 strains. Both comparisons were done under standardized qPCR master mix and cycling conditions. The Rs16S and RS assays detected all 90 R. solanacearum species complex strains and none of the five outgroups, but the former was more sensitive than the latter. For r3b2 strain detection, the RsSA2 and RsSA3 sets specifically detected the 34 r3b2 strains and none of the 56 R. solanacearum non-r3b2 strains or out-group strains. The B2 set, however, detected five non-r3b2 R. solanacearum strains and was less sensitive than the other two sets under the same testing conditions. We conclude that the Rs16S, RsSA2, and RsSA3 sets are best suited under the standardized conditions for the detection of R. solanacearum species complex and r3b2 strains by TaqMan-based qPCR assays. PMID:27402488

  11. Man and His Physical Environment: Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mank, Evans R.

    Building upon Course I, this teaching guide for the first of four units of Course II introduces the secondary student to geographic concepts and generalizations of the physical world to which man has related over time. All units of the second course emphasize the process of development whereby man, coping with given conditions in his physical…

  12. Development and management of systemic lupus erythematosus in an HIV-infected man with hepatitis C and B co-infection following interferon therapy: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Introduction The association of human immunodeficiency virus and immune dysfunction leading to development of autoimmune markers is well described, but human immunodeficiency virus infection is relatively protective for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. In contrast, development of systemic lupus erythematosus with hepatitis C and with interferon therapy is well described in a number of case reports. We here describe the first case of systemic lupus erythematosus developing in a man infected with human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C and hepatitis B co-infection where the onset seems to have been temporally related to interferon therapy. Case presentation We report the occurrence of systemic lupus erythematosus complicating interferon-α therapy for hepatitis C in a 47-year-old asplenic male with haemophilia co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitis B. He presented with a truncal rash, abdominal pains and headache and later developed grade IV lupus nephritis requiring haemodialysis, mycophenolate mofetil and steroid therapy. We were able to successfully withdraw dialysis and mycophenolate while maintaining stable renal function. Conclusion Interferon-α is critical in antiviral immunity against hepatitis C but also acts as a pathogenic mediator for systemic lupus erythematosus, a condition associated with activation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells that are depleted in human immunodeficiency virus infection. The occurrence of auto-antibodies and lupus-like features in the coinfections with hepatitis C require careful assessment. Immunosuppressant therapy for lupus risks exacerbating underlying infections in patients with concurrent human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B and C. PMID:19830165

  13. Man Made Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubos, Rene

    1971-01-01

    In a speech presented before the American Association of School Administrators, Atlantic City, 1971, the author discusses fundamental needs of man and contends that the danger to man is not so much in the destruction of life as in the spoiling of its quality; quality can be gained through diversity. (BY)

  14. Microorganisms and Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noble, W. C.

    1983-01-01

    Provides information to update Institute of Biology's Studies in Biology No. 111, "Microorganisms and Man," by W. C. Noble and Jay Naidoo (Edward Arnold, 1979). Topics include: (1) food poisoning; (2) airborn infections in man; (3) infection in animals and plants; and (4) biodegradation and biosynthesis. (JN)

  15. The Green Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson-Newlin, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The Jolly Green Giant. Robin Hood. The Bamberg Cathedral. Tales of King Arthur. Ecology. What do they have in common? What legends and ancient myths are shrouded in the tales of the Green Man? Most often perceived as an ancient Celtic symbol as the god of spring and summer, the Green Man disappears and returns year after year, century after…

  16. Mission analyses for manned flight experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orth, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The investigations to develop a high altitude aircraft program plan are reported along with an analysis of manned comet and asteroid missions, the development of shuttle sortie mission objectives, and an analysis of major management issues facing the shuttle sortie.

  17. Comparison of Simplexa HSV 1 & 2 PCR with culture, immunofluorescence, and laboratory-developed TaqMan PCR for detection of herpes simplex virus in swab specimens.

    PubMed

    Gitman, Melissa R; Ferguson, David; Landry, Marie L

    2013-11-01

    The Simplexa HSV 1 & 2 direct PCR assay was compared with conventional cell culture, cytospin-enhanced direct fluorescent antibody (DFA), and a laboratory-developed real-time TaqMan PCR (LDT HSV PCR) using extracted nucleic acid for the detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in dermal, genital, mouth, ocular, and other swab samples. One hundred seventy-one swabs were tested prospectively, and 58 were positive for HSV (34 HSV-1 and 24 HSV-2). Cytospin-DFA detected 50 (86.2%), conventional cell culture 51 (87.9%), Simplexa direct 55 (94.8%), and LDT HSV PCR 57 (98.3%) of 58 true positives. Simplexa direct detected more positives than DFA and culture, but the differences were not significant (P = 0.0736 and P = 0.3711, respectively, by the McNemar test). Samples that were positive by all methods (n = 48) were strong positives (LDT cycle threshold [CT] value, 14.4 to 26.1). One strongly positive sample was falsely negative by LDT HSV PCR due to a failure of TaqMan probe binding. Three samples falsely negative by Simplexa direct had high CT values by LDT HSV PCR (LDT CT, 35.8 to 38.2). Omission of the DNA extraction step by Simplexa direct led to a drop in sensitivity compared to the sensitivity of LDT HSV PCR using extracted samples (94.8% versus 98.3%, respectively), but the difference was not significant (P = 0.6171). Simplexa HSV 1 & 2 direct PCR was the most expensive but required the least training of the assays used, had the lowest hands-on time and fastest assay time (75 min, versus 3 h by LDT HSV PCR), and provided the HSV type. PMID:24006008

  18. Development of a TaqMan Array Card for Acute-Febrile-Illness Outbreak Investigation and Surveillance of Emerging Pathogens, Including Ebola Virus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Ochieng, Caroline; Wiersma, Steve; Ströher, Ute; Towner, Jonathan S; Whitmer, Shannon; Nichol, Stuart T; Moore, Christopher C; Kersh, Gilbert J; Kato, Cecilia; Sexton, Christopher; Petersen, Jeannine; Massung, Robert; Hercik, Christine; Crump, John A; Kibiki, Gibson; Maro, Athanasia; Mujaga, Buliga; Gratz, Jean; Jacob, Shevin T; Banura, Patrick; Scheld, W Michael; Juma, Bonventure; Onyango, Clayton O; Montgomery, Joel M; Houpt, Eric; Fields, Barry

    2016-01-01

    Acute febrile illness (AFI) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet an etiologic agent is often not identified. Convalescent-phase serology is impractical, blood culture is slow, and many pathogens are fastidious or impossible to cultivate. We developed a real-time PCR-based TaqMan array card (TAC) that can test six to eight samples within 2.5 h from sample to results and can simultaneously detect 26 AFI-associated organisms, including 15 viruses (chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [CCHF] virus, dengue, Ebola virus, Bundibugyo virus, Sudan virus, hantaviruses [Hantaan and Seoul], hepatitis E, Marburg, Nipah virus, o'nyong-nyong virus, Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus), 8 bacteria (Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Rickettsia spp., Salmonella enterica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and Yersinia pestis), and 3 protozoa (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma brucei). Two extrinsic controls (phocine herpesvirus 1 and bacteriophage MS2) were included to ensure extraction and amplification efficiency. Analytical validation was performed on spiked specimens for linearity, intra-assay precision, interassay precision, limit of detection, and specificity. The performance of the card on clinical specimens was evaluated with 1,050 blood samples by comparison to the individual real-time PCR assays, and the TAC exhibited an overall 88% (278/315; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84% to 92%) sensitivity and a 99% (5,261/5,326, 98% to 99%) specificity. This TaqMan array card can be used in field settings as a rapid screen for outbreak investigation or for the surveillance of pathogens, including Ebola virus. PMID:26491176

  19. Development of a TaqMan Array Card for Acute-Febrile-Illness Outbreak Investigation and Surveillance of Emerging Pathogens, Including Ebola Virus

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Ochieng, Caroline; Wiersma, Steve; Ströher, Ute; Towner, Jonathan S.; Whitmer, Shannon; Nichol, Stuart T.; Moore, Christopher C.; Kersh, Gilbert J.; Kato, Cecilia; Sexton, Christopher; Petersen, Jeannine; Massung, Robert; Hercik, Christine; Crump, John A.; Kibiki, Gibson; Maro, Athanasia; Mujaga, Buliga; Gratz, Jean; Jacob, Shevin T.; Banura, Patrick; Scheld, W. Michael; Juma, Bonventure; Onyango, Clayton O.; Montgomery, Joel M.

    2015-01-01

    Acute febrile illness (AFI) is associated with substantial morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet an etiologic agent is often not identified. Convalescent-phase serology is impractical, blood culture is slow, and many pathogens are fastidious or impossible to cultivate. We developed a real-time PCR-based TaqMan array card (TAC) that can test six to eight samples within 2.5 h from sample to results and can simultaneously detect 26 AFI-associated organisms, including 15 viruses (chikungunya, Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever [CCHF] virus, dengue, Ebola virus, Bundibugyo virus, Sudan virus, hantaviruses [Hantaan and Seoul], hepatitis E, Marburg, Nipah virus, o'nyong-nyong virus, Rift Valley fever virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus), 8 bacteria (Bartonella spp., Brucella spp., Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira spp., Rickettsia spp., Salmonella enterica and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, and Yersinia pestis), and 3 protozoa (Leishmania spp., Plasmodium spp., and Trypanosoma brucei). Two extrinsic controls (phocine herpesvirus 1 and bacteriophage MS2) were included to ensure extraction and amplification efficiency. Analytical validation was performed on spiked specimens for linearity, intra-assay precision, interassay precision, limit of detection, and specificity. The performance of the card on clinical specimens was evaluated with 1,050 blood samples by comparison to the individual real-time PCR assays, and the TAC exhibited an overall 88% (278/315; 95% confidence interval [CI], 84% to 92%) sensitivity and a 99% (5,261/5,326, 98% to 99%) specificity. This TaqMan array card can be used in field settings as a rapid screen for outbreak investigation or for the surveillance of pathogens, including Ebola virus. PMID:26491176

  20. Running for Normalcy, Identity Development, and the Disability Blues: An Autoethnography that Explores One Man's Quest to Understand His Identity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Cort E.

    2010-01-01

    Identity development is a difficult process for many people with disabilities. Individuals who have disabilities often struggle to come to terms with their identities. As a person with cerebral palsy, I spent most of my life struggling with my identity. I tried to reject my disability in order to fit in with the able-bodied world. However, my…

  1. Validation of a TaqMan diagnostic assay for the systematic development of Phytophthora genus and species specific markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Phytophthora contains many species that are not native to the USA and have the potential to cause significant damage to agriculture and native ecosystems. A genus and species-specific diagnostic assay was developed based on mitochondrial gene order differences that allowed for the systemat...

  2. Development of a method for the cytological identification of man-biting sibling species within the Simulium damnosum complex.

    PubMed

    Procunier, W S; Post, R J

    1986-03-01

    A method is described for the preparation of adult Malpighian tubule polytene chromosomes from members of the Simulium damnosum complex. This method was used to show that the banding pattern is conserved between adult and larval tissues, and consequently it has been possible to demonstrate that within the S. sanctipauli subcomplex both S. soubrense 'B' and S. sanctipauli bite humans. The degree tubule development is correlated with the gonotrophic cycle and appears to be dependent on food source. This suggests that there is a physiological stage which is optimum for obtaining maximum polyteny for cytotaxonomy. PMID:3704475

  3. The Development of Instrumentation and Methods for Measurement of Air-Sea Interaction and Coastal Processes from Manned and Unmanned Aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reineman, Benjamin D.

    I present the development of instrumentation and methods for the measurement of coastal processes, ocean surface phenomena, and air-sea interaction in two parts. In the first, I discuss the development of a portable scanning lidar (light detection and ranging) system for manned aircraft and demonstrate its functionality for oceanographic and coastal measurements. Measurements of the Southern California coastline and nearshore surface wave fields from seventeen research flights between August 2007 and December 2008 are analyzed and discussed. The October 2007 landslide on Mt. Soledad in La Jolla, California was documented by two of the flights. The topography, lagoon, reef, and surrounding wave field of Lady Elliot Island in Australia's Great Barrier Reef were measured with the airborne scanning lidar system on eight research flights in April 2008. Applications of the system, including coastal topographic surveys, wave measurements, ship wake studies, and coral reef research, are presented and discussed. In the second part, I detail the development of instrumentation packages for small (18 -- 28 kg) unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) to measure momentum fluxes and latent, sensible, and radiative heat fluxes in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), and the surface topography. Fast-response turbulence, hygrometer, and temperature probes permit turbulent momentum and heat flux measurements, and short- and long-wave radiometers allow the determination of net radiation, surface temperature, and albedo. Careful design and testing of an accurate turbulence probe, as demonstrated in this thesis, are essential for the ability to measure momentum and scalar fluxes. The low altitude required for accurate flux measurements (typically assumed to be 30 m) is below the typical safety limit of manned research aircraft; however, it is now within the capability of small UAV platforms. Flight tests of two instrumented BAE Manta UAVs over land were conducted in January 2011 at Mc

  4. The role of PTPN22 risk variant in the development of autoimmunity: Finding common ground between mouse and man

    PubMed Central

    Rawlings, David J.; Dai, Xuezhi; Buckner, Jane H.

    2015-01-01

    The PTPN22 1858T variant was among the first single nucleotide polymorphisms (snp) to be associated with multiple autoimmune diseases. As a coding variant within the tyrosinephosphatase, Lyp, known to participate in antigen receptor signaling, the impact of this variant on the immune response and role in the development of autoimmunity has been a focus of study. These studies have utilized a series of approaches including transfected cell lines, animal models and primary human lymphocytes and have identified multiple alterations in cell signaling and function linked to the PTPN22 variant. Conflicting findings have led to questions of how best to study the role of this variant in human autoimmunity. In this review, we discuss these differences, factors that may account for them, and show how an integrated approach can lead to a more complete understanding of the mechanisms that promote autoimmunity in the context of the PTPN22 1858T risk variant. PMID:25795788

  5. Light in man's environment.

    PubMed

    Marshall, J

    2016-02-01

    Light in the form of solar radiation influenced early civilisations and resulted in the independent development of a number of sun-worshipping dieties. These were of particular importance as hunter gatherers transformed into settled agricultural societies. All artificial light sources were synonymous with fire, and early civilisations began to expand their visual day by burning brands, oil, and candles. Fire-based light sources extended for thousands of years and were still present in the era of gas lighting. Light meant fire risk. The advent of incandescent bulbs and the era of electric lighting really only expanded in the early part of the twentieth century. Fluorescent lighting became available in the 1940s, and today the drive for low energy has resulted in a plethora of novel light sources-in particular, light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Evolution governed the development of the eye in relation to roughly 12 h of light gradually changing to 12 h of darkness. Today almost daylight levels can be achieved abruptly at the flick of a switch. Many studies have demonstrated the spectral dependence of eye health, with the retinal hazard zone associated with wavelengths in the blue, peaking at 441 nm- many of today's low-energy sources peak in this region. Given the increased longevity and artificial light sources emitting at biologically unfriendly wavelengths, attention has to be directed towards light in man's environment as a risk factor in age-related ocular diseases. PMID:26742864

  6. Development of a TaqMan Probe-Based Insulated Isothermal Polymerase Chain Reaction (iiPCR) Assay for Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race 4.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ying-Hong; Lin, Yi-Jia; Chang, Tsai-De; Hong, Li-Ling; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Chang, Pi-Fang Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a novel and inexpensive detection method based on a TaqMan probe-based insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) method for the rapid detection of Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) race 4, which is currently among the most serious fungal vascular diseases worldwide. By using the portable POCKIT™ device with the novel primer set iiFoc-1/iiFoc-2, the Foc race 4 iiPCR assay (including DNA amplification and signal monitoring) could be completed within one hour. The developed Foc race 4 iiPCR assay is thus a user-friendly and efficient platform designed specifically for the detection of Foc race 4. The detection limit of this optimized Foc iiPCR system was estimated to be 1 copy of the target standard DNA as well as 1 fg of the Foc genomic DNA. This approach can serve as a rapid detection method for in planta detection of Foc race 4 in field-infected banana. It was concluded that this molecular detection procedure based on iiPCR has good potential for use as an efficient detection method. PMID:27448242

  7. Development of a TaqMan Probe-Based Insulated Isothermal Polymerase Chain Reaction (iiPCR) Assay for Detection of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense Race 4

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Yi-Jia; Chang, Tsai-De; Hong, Li-Ling; Chen, Tzu-Yu; Chang, Pi-Fang Linda

    2016-01-01

    This study developed a novel and inexpensive detection method based on a TaqMan probe-based insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) method for the rapid detection of Panama disease caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense (Foc) race 4, which is currently among the most serious fungal vascular diseases worldwide. By using the portable POCKIT™ device with the novel primer set iiFoc-1/iiFoc-2, the Foc race 4 iiPCR assay (including DNA amplification and signal monitoring) could be completed within one hour. The developed Foc race 4 iiPCR assay is thus a user-friendly and efficient platform designed specifically for the detection of Foc race 4. The detection limit of this optimized Foc iiPCR system was estimated to be 1 copy of the target standard DNA as well as 1 fg of the Foc genomic DNA. This approach can serve as a rapid detection method for in planta detection of Foc race 4 in field-infected banana. It was concluded that this molecular detection procedure based on iiPCR has good potential for use as an efficient detection method. PMID:27448242

  8. Manned systems technology discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bretoi, Remus

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on manned systems technology discipline for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics covered include: crew-systems interfaces and interactions; crew training; on-board systems maintenance and support; habitability and environment; and computational human factors.

  9. Environment-man relationships in historical times: the balance between urban development and natural forces at Leptis Magna (Libya)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, Stefano; Pantosti, Daniela; de Martini, Paolo Marco; Smedile, Alessandra; Munzi, Massimiliano; Cirelli, Enrico; Pentiricci, Massimo; Musso, Luisa

    2010-05-01

    Since ancient times, socio-economic strategies of some civilizations have led to undertake severe environmental modifications, so drastic as to require natural risk management. Societies responded to extreme natural disasters according to their socio-economic state: in some cases a society was resilient to perturbations and in others a society was so vulnerable to perturbations that it was unable to cope. Historical natural disasters left permanent marks on the cultural development of entire regions. These are recognized not only in the study of civilizations, urbanization, migrations etc., but also in the geology and geomorphology of an area. The sensitivity or vulnerability of landscapes and ecosystems to human activities were critical issues even during the Roman Empire. We analyze the relationships between human modification of the environment and natural events in the Roman city of Leptis Magna (UNESCO world heritage site), western Libya, located at the outlet of a major dry-land stream that served as a natural harbor. This magnificent town reached its maximum expansion during the Empire of Septimius Severus (193-211 A.D.) and started to decline during the late IV century. Historical and archaeological sources suggest that the harbor basin was abandoned due to its complete infill, possibly related to: i) violent flooding following the collapse of the local dam along the Wadi Lebda because of the large 365 A.D. earthquake (Crete, Greece); ii) lack of dam maintenance due to the decline of the settlement induced by severe damage after the 365 A.D. earthquake, or other local seismic sources; iii) immediate deposition caused by the tsunami wave of the 365 A.D. earthquake; iv) bad orientation and geometry of the harbor with respect to the local marine currents that were bringing debris inside. We present geological data, supported by geomorphological analysis and radiocarbon dating, with the aim to: 1) verify the hypotheses concerning the harbor abandonment; 2

  10. Manned maneuvering unit latching mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allton, C. S.

    1980-01-01

    The astronaut/Manned Maneuvering Unit interface, which presented a challenging set of requirements for a latching mechanism, is described. A spring loaded cam segment with variable ratio pulley release actuator was developed to meet the requirements. To preclude jamming of the mechanism, special precautions were taken such as spring loaded bearing points and careful selection of materials to resist cold welding. The mechanism successfully passed a number of tests which partially simulated orbital conditions.

  11. Development of a new real-time TaqMan PCR assay for quantitative analyses of Candida albicans resistance genes expression.

    PubMed

    Kofla, Grzegorz; Ruhnke, Markus

    2007-01-01

    Candida albicans is an important opportunistic pathogen that can cause serious fungal diseases in immunocompromised patients including cancer patients, transplant patients, and patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy in general, those with human immunodeficiency virus infections and undergoing major surgery. Its emergence spectrum varies from mucosal to systemic infections and the first line treatment is still based on fluconazole, a triazole derivate with a potent antifungal activity against most of C. albicans strains. Nevertheless the emergence of fluconazole-resistant C. albicans strains can lead to treatment failures and thus become a clinical problem in the management of such infections. For that reason we consider it important to study mechanisms inducing azole resistance and the possibilities to influence this process. In this work we give a short report on a real-time PCR (TaqMan) assay, which can be used for quantitative analyses of gene expression levels of MDR1, CDR1 and ERG11, genes supposed to contribute to development of the resistance mechanisms. We show some results achieved with that assay in fluconazole susceptible and resistant strains that confirm results seen earlier in experiments using Northern blot hybridisation and prove that the comparative DeltaCt method is valid for our system. PMID:16945439

  12. Development of 23 individual TaqMan® real-time PCR assays for identifying common foodborne pathogens using a single set of amplification conditions.

    PubMed

    Cremonesi, Paola; Pisani, Laura Francesca; Lecchi, Cristina; Ceciliani, Fabrizio; Martino, Pieranna; Bonastre, Armand Sanchez; Karus, Avo; Balzaretti, Claudia; Castiglioni, Bianca

    2014-10-01

    Most of the acute intestinal diseases are caused by foodborne pathogens with infants and elderly people being at major risk. The aim of this study was to develop a procedure to simultaneously detect 20 foodborne pathogens in complex alimentary matrices such as milk, cheese and meat. The list of targets include, among the others, Listeria spp., Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., Escherichia coli spp., Campylobacter spp., Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus aureus. The accuracy of detection was determined by using ATCC strains as positive and negative controls. The achieved sensitivity of each of assays was 1 pg of genomic DNA, which was equivalent to ∼1 cfu. The working ranges of the TaqMan(®) Real-time PCR assays, when used quantitatively on cheese and meat samples inoculated with serial dilution of Listeria spp., Listeria monocytogenes, S. aureus, Salmonella enterica, Shigella boydii, E. coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter coli, Yersinia enterocolitica, Enterobacter sakazakii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 10(8) cfu/g to 10(4) cfu/g. No matrix interferences were observed. PMID:24929880

  13. Man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewis, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on man-systems distributed system for Space Station Freedom are presented. Topics addressed include: description of man-systems (definition, requirements, scope, subsystems, and topologies); implementation (approach, tools); man-systems interfaces (system to element and system to system); prime/supporting development relationship; selected accomplishments; and technical challenges.

  14. Man-systems integration and the man-machine interface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Joseph P.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on man-systems integration and the man-machine interface are presented. Man-systems integration applies the systems' approach to the integration of the user and the machine to form an effective, symbiotic Man-Machine System (MMS). A MMS is a combination of one or more human beings and one or more physical components that are integrated through the common purpose of achieving some objective. The human operator interacts with the system through the Man-Machine Interface (MMI).

  15. Window Design for Manned Spaceflight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamoure, Richard; Kitchingman, Ian; Novo, Francisco; Sinnema, Gerben

    2012-07-01

    The Window Design for Manned Spacecraft (WDM) project being undertaken by Magna Parva Ltd, under contract with the European Space Agency, aims to develop and improve the current structural integrity verification program for manned spacecraft pressurised windows. A critical review of the existing requirements and current state-of-the-art in spacecraft window design, materials and verification practice is conducted. Possible areas for improvement are identified. An experimental test programme is designed to perform and assess mechanical characterisation methods at material level. Tests are intended to increase familiarity with material testing methods and investigate the effects of sample size, surface finish and load type on material characterisation. Novel methods and their applicability are investigated. Results of characterisation testing will be employed in the design and verification of a breadboard window.

  16. Manned Mars Mission program concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamilton, E. C.; Johnson, P.; Pearson, J.; Tucker, W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the SRS Manned Mars Mission and Program Analysis study designed to support a manned expedition to Mars contemplated by NASA for the purposes of initiating human exploration and eventual habitation of this planet. The capabilities of the interactive software package being presently developed by the SRS for the mission/program analysis are described, and it is shown that the interactive package can be used to investigate the impact of various mission concepts on the sensitivity of mass required in LEO, schedules, relative costs, and risk. The results, to date, indicate the need for an earth-to-orbit transportation system much larger than the present STS, reliable long-life support systems, and either advanced propulsion or aerobraking technology.

  17. Construction of manned lunar surface sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuzawa, Yoshinori; Horie, Michihiko; Nakamura, Tetsuya; Amagata, Raita; Honda, Tetsuya

    1991-07-01

    A review is conducted on manned lunar surface sites to be constructed in around 2010 to conduct various experiments and observations on the lunar surface in a short time prior to developing permanent lunar bases. Methods of construction and operation of manned lunar surface sites are established, taking requirements from the mission parts and shipping mean constraints. Review results of mission requirements and operation profiles are presented. Experiment subjects, structures and outlines of subsystems, weight balance, electric power balance and functional block diagram of the manned lunar surface sites are presented. Conceptual drawings of air-lock and roving vehicle, operation profiles and conceptual drawing of lunar surface sites are shown.

  18. Prevalence of equine gammaherpesviruses on breeding farms in Turkey and development of a TaqMan MGB real-time PCR to detect equine herpesvirus 5 (EHV-5).

    PubMed

    Akkutay, A Zeynep; Osterrieder, Nikolaus; Damiani, Armando; Tischer, B Karsten; Borchers, Kerstin; Alkan, Feray

    2014-11-01

    Equine herpesvirus type 2 (EHV-2) and EHV-5 are members of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae. The viruses are detected in horses with upper respiratory tract disease and are associated with low performance in racehorses. The aim of the current study was to use nested PCR to investigate the epidemiology of EHV-2 and EHV-5 in Arabian horse populations from breeding farms located in three different cities (Eskişehir, Malatya, and Bursa) in Turkey, using a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) with a TaqMan® minor-groove-binder (MGB) probe to detect EHV-5. Screening of blood and ocular and nasal swab samples by nested PCR showed the prevalence of EHV-2 and EHV-5 to be 59 % and 62 %, respectively, with a coinfection rate of 45 %. Thirty-seven isolates from blood samples were identified as EHV-2 using nested PCR. To develop the EHV-5 qPCR, a pair of primers and an MGB probe were designed based on a highly conserved genomic region encoding glycoprotein B (gB). The detection limit of the qPCR was 10 molecules per reaction, and it specifically detected EHV-5 and no other herpesviruses infecting horses (EHV-1, EHV-2, or EHV-4). When applied to field samples, the assay proved to be more sensitive than a well-established nested PCR. Therefore, the qPCR developed in this study provides a rapid, reliable, and sensitive diagnostic assay for the detection of EHV-5, and it complements other diagnostic procedures for equine respiratory disease. PMID:25008897

  19. Development of a rapid, sensitive TaqMan real-time RT-PCR assay for the detection of Rose rosette virus using multiple gene targets.

    PubMed

    Babu, Binoy; Jeyaprakash, Ayyamperumal; Jones, Debra; Schubert, Timothy S; Baker, Carlye; Washburn, Brian K; Miller, Steven H; Poduch, Kristina; Knox, Gary W; Ochoa-Corona, Francisco M; Paret, Mathews L

    2016-09-01

    Rose rosette virus (RRV), belonging to the genus Emaravirus, is a highly destructive pathogen that causes rose rosette disease. The disease is a major concern for the rose industry in the U.S. due to the lack of highly sensitive methods for early detection of RRV. This is critical, as early identification of the infected plants and eradication is necessary in minimizing the risks associated with the spread of the disease. A highly reliable, specific and sensitive detection assay is thus required to test and confirm the presence of RRV in suspected plant samples. In this study a TaqMan real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was developed for the detection of RRV from infected roses, utilizing multiple gene targets. Four pairs of primers and probes; two of them (RRV_2-1 and RRV_2-2) based on the consensus sequences of the glycoprotein gene (RNA2) and the other two (RRV_3-2 and RRV_3-5) based on the nucleocapsid gene (RNA3) were designed. The specificity of the primers and probes was evaluated against other representative viruses infecting roses, belonging to the genera Alfamovirus, Cucumovirus, Ilarvirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, and Tospovirus and one Emaravirus (Wheat mosaic virus). Dilution assays using the in vitro transcripts (spiked with total RNA from healthy plants, and non-spiked) showed that all the primers and probes are highly sensitive in consistently detecting RRV with a detection limit of 1 fg. Testing of the infected plants over a period of time (three times in monthly intervals) indicated high reproducibility, with the primer/probe RRV_3-5 showing 100% positive detection, while RRV_2-1, RRV_2-2 and RRV_3-2 showed 90% positive detection. The developed real-time RT-PCR assay is reliable, highly sensitive, and can be easily used in diagnostic laboratories for testing and confirmation of RRV. PMID:27210549

  20. Symbolism in prehistoric man.

    PubMed

    Facchini, F

    2000-12-01

    The aptitude for symbolization, characteristic of man, is revealed not only in artistic representations and funerary practices. It is exhibited by every manifestation of human activity or representation of natural phenomena that assumes or refers to a meaning. We can recognize functional symbolism (tool-making, habitative or food technology), social symbolism, (language and social communication) and spiritual symbolism (funerary practices and artistic expressions). On the basis of these concepts, research into symbolism in prehistoric man allows us to recognize forms of symbolism already in the manifestations of the most ancient humans, starting with Homo habilis (or rudolfensis). Toolmaking, social organization and organization of the territory are oriented toward survival and the life of the family group. They attest to symbolic behaviors and constitute symbolic systems by means of which man expresses himself, lives and transmits his symbolic world. The diverse forms of symbolism are discussed with reference to the different phases of prehistoric humanity. PMID:11216422

  1. Development of an in-House TaqMan Real-Time PCR-Based Method to Detect Residual Host Cell DNA in HBV Vaccine.

    PubMed

    Paryan, Mahdi; Khodayar, Mana; Kia, Vahid; Mohammadi-Yeganeh, Samira; Kaghazian, Hooman

    2016-06-01

    Biological therapeutic products such as recombinant hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine, produced by microbial fermentation in complex media, should be evaluated for host cell DNA contamination in purification steps. Eliminating these contaminations increases the efficacy of the vaccine and decreases its side effects. The objective of the present study is to trace the residual host cell DNA (HCD) in recombinant HBV vaccine by developing a TaqMan Real-Time PCR method which is more sensitive, specific, and reproducible than traditional methods such as Picogreen analysis and Threshold DNA assay. Primers and a probe were designed for the most highly conserved regions of Pichia pastoris genome. To determine the specificity of the assay, in addition to performing a BLAST for the primers and the probe in NCBI nucleotide database, 20 different human genomes and 8 bacterial and viral genomes were used. Moreover, serial dilutions of plasmids, from 10(2) to 10(7) copies/μL (from 0.00064 to 6.4 pg/μL), were prepared to find the sensitivity and the limit of detection (LOD) of the assay. Using 28 different genome samples, the specificity of the assay was determined to be 100 %. In addition, the sensitivity and LOD of the method was 0.39 × 10(-5) pg/μL. Moreover, the reproducibility of the assay based on intra- and inter-assay was 1.03 and 1.06 %, respectively. Considering the suitable specificity and sensitivity, ease of use, relatively low cost, and rapidity of the assay, it can be a reproducible and sensitive method to examine recombinant vaccines for P. pastoris residual DNA. PMID:26861732

  2. Eskimo Medicine Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Otto

    "Eskimo Medicine Man" is a record of primitive Alaskan life in the 1930's. It records the experiences in Alaska's remote areas of Dr. Otto George, the last "traveling physician" for the Department of Interior's Indian Service, when in all the territory (an area one-fifth that of the contiguous United States) there were fewer than sixty thousand…

  3. Man as a Species.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solem, Alan; And Others

    Written in 1964, the document represents experimental material of the Anthropology Curriculum Study Project. The objectives of the project were to discuss the evolution of man as distinguished from the evolution of other species and as related to culture, and to emphasize human diversity. Three brief essays are presented. The first, "The Species…

  4. Ethology and Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Biology and Human Affairs, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Reviews four texts and compilations of papers in an effort to assess the relevance of animal behavior studies to anthropology and sociology. Concludes that where a basic element of behavior occurs widely throughout the animal kingdom, especially in the higher mammals and primates, we may expect to find a manifestation in man." Limitations of the…

  5. [Maggots and man].

    PubMed

    Mawas, Edouard

    2004-01-01

    In 1942 a grievously wounded soldier was forsaken in the "No Mans's Land" for five days. However he totally recovered as his wound had been overrun of maggots. Thus H. Fruchaud decided to apply using of maggots for all infected wounds. PMID:15211995

  6. Myth and Modern Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patai, Raphael

    Various theories about the purpose of myth are described briefly, and then the place of myth in modern life is explored. Modern man is found to still create his own myths, and his life is still influenced by mythical prototypes and images. Myths, mythical beliefs, and mythical thinking are discovered in socialist, Communist, and totalitarian…

  7. Man--Society--Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxis, Linda A., Ed.

    The 32nd annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Louisville in 1970. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "Industrial Arts--The Blender Between Social Form and Technical Function," (2) "Technology and Society: Present and Future Challenges," (3) "A Student-Oriented Industrial Arts," (4) "Man:…

  8. Landing A Man Downtown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, W. G., II

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the urban transport problems in comparison with those involved in a journey to the Moon. Indicates that the problem of enabling man to travel through the inner space of conurbations may prove to be more difficult than the transport problem of space travel. (CC)

  9. Why Man Explores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    This NASA Educational Publication was prepared from a transcript of a panel discussion held on July 2, 1976, in conjunction with the Viking Missions to Mars. The members of the Why Man Explores panel were selected as authorities in classical disciplines relating to exploration.

  10. Antarctic Planetary Testbed (APT): A facility in the Antarctic for research, planning and simulation of manned planetary missions and to provide a testbed for technological development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, Mashid; Bottelli, Alejandro Horacio; Brave, Fernando Luis; Siddiqui, Muhammad Ali

    1988-01-01

    The notion of using Antarctica as a planetary analog is not new. Ever since the manned space program gained serious respect in the 1950's, futurists have envisioned manned exploration and ultimate colonization of the moon and other extraterrestrial bodies. In recent years, much attention has been focused on a permanently manned U.S. space station, a manned Lunar outpost and a manned mission to Mars and its vicinity. When such lofty goals are set, it is only prudent to research, plan and rehearse as many aspects of such a mission as possible. The concept of the Antarctic Planetary Testbed (APT) project is intended to be a facility that will provide a location to train and observe potential mission crews under conditions of isolation and severity, attempting to simulate an extraterrestrial environment. Antarctica has been considered as an analog by NASA for Lunar missions and has also been considered by many experts to be an excellent Mars analog. Antarctica contains areas where the environment and terrain are more similar to regions on the Moon and Mars than any other place on Earth. These features offer opportunities for simulations to determine performance capabilities of people and machines in harsh, isolated environments. The initial APT facility, conceived to be operational by the year 1991, will be constructed during the summer months by a crew of approximately twelve. Between six and eight of these people will remain through the winter. As in space, structures and equipment systems will be modular to facilitate efficient transport to the site, assembly, and evolutionary expansion. State of the art waste recovery/recycling systems are also emphasized due to their importance in space.

  11. Manned maneuvering unit technology survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, G. V. O. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The preliminary design of the manned maneuvering unit (MMU) for the shuttle is investigated, and the current state of the art in certain technology areas that may find application on the operational EVA shuttle MMU is examined. Three broad areas of technology, namely: (1) mechanical energy storage - i.e., the practicality of utilizing the energy storage capability of either a reaction wheel or a control moment gyro, (2) numerical and alphanumerical displays, and (3) recent electronics developments such as microprocessors and integrated injection logic, were covered.

  12. Manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Terrapin Technologies proposes a Manned Mars Mission design study. The purpose of the Manned Mars Mission is to transport ten people and a habitat with all required support systems and supplies from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the surface of Mars and, after an expedition of three months to return the personnel safely to LEO. The proposed hardware design is based on systems and components of demonstrated high capability and reliability. The mission design builds on past mission experience but incorporates innovative design approaches to achieve mission priorities. These priorities, in decreasing order of importance, are safety, reliability, minimum personnel transfer time, minimum weight, and minimum cost. The design demonstrates the feasibility and flexibility of a waverider transfer module. Information is given on how the plan meets the mission requirements.

  13. Man-Amplifying Exoskeleton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosheim, Mark E.

    1990-03-01

    This paper describes a design for a man-amplifying exoskeleton, an electrically powered, articulated frame worn by an operator. The design features modular construction and employ anthropomorphic pitch-yaw joints for arms and legs. These singularity-free designs offer a significant advancement over simple pivot-type joints used in older designs. Twenty-six degrees-of-freedom excluding the hands gives the Man-Amplifier its unique dexterity. A five hundred-pound load capacity is engineered for a diverse range of tasks. Potential applications in emergency rescue work, restoring functionality to the handicapped, and military applications ranging from material handling to an elite fighting core are discussed. A bibliography concludes this paper.

  14. Man in space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    West, J. B.

    1986-01-01

    The Challenger disaster focused attention on the hazards as well as the possibilities of man in space. The physiological effects of prolonged weightlessness include important changes in vestibular, bone, muscle, cardiovascular, blood, renal, and pulmonary function. Much has been learned from US and Soviet experiments, but large areas of ignorance remain. Exceptional opportunities for physiological research are provided by Spacelab, a pressurized laboratory planned as a payload of the Space Shuttle.

  15. Man in space.

    PubMed

    West, J B

    1986-12-01

    The Challenger disaster focused attention on the hazards as well as the possibilities of man in space. The physiological effects of prolonged weightlessness include important changes in vestibular, bone, muscle, cardiovascular, blood, renal, and pulmonary function. Much has been learned from US and Soviet experiments, but large areas of ignorance remain. Exceptional opportunities for physiological research are provided by Spacelab, a pressurized laboratory planned as a payload of the Space Shuttle. PMID:11539062

  16. Typhoon Man-Yi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Typhoon Man-Yi was pummeling the Japanese island of Okinawa with winds between 230 and 295 kilometers per hour (125-160 knots, 144-184 miles per hour) and heavy rain on the morning of July 13, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image. The immense storm covered hundreds of kilometers with spiraling bands of thunderstorms, though it had lost the distinctive cloud-free eye it exhibited the day before. Typhoons are common in Japan, but powerful typhoons usually strike the island nation later in the year. The Japan Meteorological Agency said that Man-Yi is the fourth typhoon of the 2007 season and may be the most powerful ever observed in the northwest Pacific in July, reported Kyodo News. The Joint Typhoon Warning Center expected the typhoon to strike Kyushu, a southern Japanese island, on July 14, and then curve northeast along the eastern shore of Japan. By the time the storm reaches Tokyo on July 15, it should be degraded to a tropical storm. As of July 13, Typhoon Man-Yi had injured eight and flooded twenty houses in Okinawa, and forced airlines to cancel hundreds of flights, said Kyodo News. The storm was expected to bring heavy rain to Japan's Pacific coast. NASA image created by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the MODIS Rapid Response team.

  17. Development of a Quantitative TaqMan{trademark}-PCR Assay and Feasibility of Atmosphoric Collection for Coccidioides Immits for Ecological Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J I; Wilson, W J; DeSantis, T Z; Gouveia, F J; Anderson, G L; Shinn, J H; Pletcher, R; Johnson, S M; Pappagianis, D

    2002-02-01

    identified as a select (biological) agent in the federal Anti-Terrorist and Effective Death Penalty Act. Successful demonstration of these tools in this study will place this multidisciplinary team in a credible position to proceed with additional research designed to determine the climatic signals and ecological triggers that would be associated with the presence of this microorganism environmentally and that would correlate with subsequent outbreaks of Valley Fever clinically. Results from such future research would then provide the information needed for environmental intervention of the disease occurrence, well before clinical cases appear. The technology and modeling developed for such a study also could be used for determining the ecology of other environmentally linked, medically important infectious diseases that occur naturally or that might be introduced deliberately into environmental media indoors or outside. The following approach was taken to achieve the technological objectives of this study. First, the protocols for the TaqMan{trademark}-PCR assay were enhanced to achieve the superior specificity and sensitivity required for quantifying, from a DNA signature, those C. immitis spores that are present in calibration samples (consisting of known quantities of pure culture inoculated onto air-filter concentrate, and then removed, and the DNA extracted) and those that are present within the calibration range on air filters obtained from the field and handled similarly. Second, the feasibility of using advanced nuclepore air-filter media to collect the spores from ambient air in C immitis endemic areas in the Central Valley of California was evaluated. These membranes permit the physics of high-volume air sampling to be used to filter larger amounts of air than previously possible for detecting airborne microorganisms. Thus, the higher volume of air flow improves the likelihood of capturing on the filter any C. immitis spores resuspended from nearby soil, where

  18. The role of the real-time simulation facility, SIMFAC, in the design, development and performance verification of the Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (SRMS) with man-in-the-loop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccllough, J. R.; Sharpe, A.; Doetsch, K. H.

    1980-01-01

    The SIMFAC has played a vital role in the design, development, and performance verification of the shuttle remote manipulator system (SRMS) to be installed in the space shuttle orbiter. The facility provides for realistic man-in-the-loop operation of the SRMS by an operator in the operator complex, a flightlike crew station patterned after the orbiter aft flight deck with all necessary man machine interface elements, including SRMS displays and controls and simulated out-of-the-window and CCTV scenes. The characteristics of the manipulator system, including arm and joint servo dynamics and control algorithms, are simulated by a comprehensive mathematical model within the simulation subsystem of the facility. Major studies carried out using SIMFAC include: SRMS parameter sensitivity evaluations; the development, evaluation, and verification of operating procedures; and malfunction simulation and analysis of malfunction performance. Among the most important and comprehensive man-in-the-loop simulations carried out to date on SIMFAC are those which support SRMS performance verification and certification when the SRMS is part of the integrated orbiter-manipulator system.

  19. Man and his spaceships

    PubMed Central

    Siefert, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    The resiliency and adaptive ability of microbial life in real time on Earth relies heavily upon horizontal gene transfer. Based on that knowledge, how likely is earth based microbial life to colonize extraterrestrial targets such as Mars? To address this question, we consider manned and unmanned space exploration, the resident microbiota that is likely to inhabit those vehicles, the adaptive potential of that microbiota in an extraterrestrial setting especially with regards to mobile genetic elements, and the likelihood that Mars like environments could initiate and sustain colonization. PMID:23481263

  20. [Man and animal from the ethical view

    PubMed

    Teutsch, Gotthard M.

    1997-01-01

    This review over the books, articles in Journals and newspapers in 1996 and 1997 reports about the development in the field of man-animal- and man-nature-relations. The review considers the following themes: development, trends and perspectives, philosophy, theology, eco-ethics, legal questions, animal experimentation, freedom of research, teaching and conscience, farm animals, hunting and fishing, zoo and circus, bio-technology, violence, killing, vegetarism and dignity of creatures. The review includes a bibliography with about 300 quatoations. PMID:11178503

  1. Development and optimization of a sensitive TaqMan® real-time PCR with synthetic homologous extrinsic control for quantitation of Human cytomegalovirus viral load.

    PubMed

    Slavov, Svetoslav Nanev; Otaguiri, Katia Kaori; de Figueiredo, Glauciane Garcia; Yamamoto, Aparecida Yulie; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa Marcia; Kashima, Simone; Covas, Dimas Tadeu

    2016-09-01

    Human cytomegalovirus (Human herpesvirus 5, HCMV) causes frequent asymptomatic infections in the general population. However, in immunosuppressed patients or congenitally infected infants, HCMV is related to high morbidity and mortality. In such cases, a rapid viral detection is crucial for monitoring the clinical outcome and the antiviral treatment. In this study, we optimized a sensitive biplex TaqMan® real-time PCR for the simultaneous detection and differentiation of a partial HCMV UL97 sequence and homologous extrinsic control (HEC) in the same tube. HEC was represented by a plasmid containing a modified HCMV sequence retaining the original primer binding sites, while the probe sequence was substituted by a phylogenetically divergent one (chloroplast CF0 subunit plant gene). It was estimated that the optimal HEC concentration, which did not influence the HCMV amplification is 1,000 copies/reaction. The optimized TaqMan® PCR demonstrated high analytical sensitivity (6.97 copies/reaction, CI = 95%) and specificity (100%). Moreover, the reaction showed adequate precision (repeatability, CV = 0.03; reproducibility, CV = 0.0027) and robustness (no carry-over or cross-contamination). The diagnostic sensitivity (100%) and specificity (97.8%) were adequate for the clinical application of the molecular platform. The optimized TaqMan® real-time PCR is suitable for HCMV detection and quantitation in predisposed patients and monitoring of the applied antiviral therapy. J. Med. Virol. 88:1604-1612, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26890091

  2. Man/computer communication in a space environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodges, B. C.; Montoya, G.

    1973-01-01

    The present work reports on a study of the technology required to advance the state of the art in man/machine communications. The study involved the development and demonstration of both hardware and software to effectively implement man/computer interactive channels of communication. While tactile and visual man/computer communications equipment are standard methods of interaction with machines, man's speech is a natural media for inquiry and control. As part of this study, a word recognition unit was developed capable of recognizing a minimum of one hundred different words or sentences in any one of the currently used conversational languages. The study has proven that efficiency in communication between man and computer can be achieved when the vocabulary to be used is structured in a manner compatible with the rigid communication requirements of the machine while at the same time responsive to the informational needs of the man.

  3. The Computerized Anatomical Man (CAM) model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, M. P.; Yucker, W. R.

    1973-01-01

    A computerized anatomical man (CAM) model, representing the most detailed and anatomically correct geometrical model of the human body yet prepared, has been developed for use in analyzing radiation dose distribution in man. This model of a 50-percentile standing USAF man comprises some 1100 unique geometric surfaces and some 2450 solid regions. Internal body geometry such as organs, voids, bones, and bone marrow are explicitly modeled. A computer program called CAMERA has also been developed for performing analyses with the model. Such analyses include tracing rays through the CAM geometry, placing results on magnetic tape in various forms, collapsing areal density data from ray tracing information to areal density distributions, preparing cross section views, etc. Numerous computer drawn cross sections through the CAM model are presented.

  4. Chinese Manned Space Utility Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Y.

    Since 1992 China has been carrying out a conspicuous manned space mission A utility project has been defined and created during the same period The Utility Project of the Chinese Manned Space Mission involves wide science areas such as earth observation life science micro-gravity fluid physics and material science astronomy space environment etc In the earth observation area it is focused on the changes of global environments and relevant exploration technologies A Middle Revolution Image Spectrometer and a Multi-model Micro-wave Remote Sensor have been developed The detectors for cirrostratus distribution solar constant earth emission budget earth-atmosphere ultra-violet spectrum and flux have been manufactured and tested All of above equipment was engaged in orbital experiments on-board the Shenzhou series spacecrafts Space life science biotechnologies and micro-gravity science were much concerned with the project A series of experiments has been made both in ground laboratories and spacecraft capsules The environmental effect in different biological bodies in space protein crystallization electrical cell-fusion animal cells cultural research on separation by using free-low electrophoresis a liquid drop Marangoni migration experiment under micro-gravity as well as a set of crystal growth and metal processing was successfully operated in space The Gamma-ray burst and high-energy emission from solar flares have been explored A set of particle detectors and a mass spectrometer measured

  5. Development and Validation of TaqMan Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays for the Quantitative and Differential Detection of Wild-Type Infectious Laryngotracheitis Viruses from a Glycoprotein G-Deficient Candidate Vaccine Strain.

    PubMed

    Shil, Niraj K; Legione, Alistair R; Markham, Philip F; Noormohammadi, Amir H; Devlin, Joanne M

    2015-03-01

    Infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT) is a significant upper respiratory tract disease of chickens with a worldwide distribution. Differentiating between wild-type and vaccine strains of ILT virus (ILTV) would be useful for enhancing disease control, and in the early stages of a disease outbreak molecular diagnostic tools for the detection and differentiation of the circulating virus could be applied. This study developed TaqMan real-time PCR (qPCR) assays to detect and differentiate the glycoprotein G (gG)-deficient (ΔgG) ILTV candidate vaccine strain of ILTV from ILTV strains that contain the gG gene. The gG+ve and gG-ve ILTV TaqMan assays were used in individual and multiplex format to detect, differentiate, and quantitate ILTV DNA in laboratory and clinical samples. The assays were highly sensitive and highly specific, with a detection limit of 10 viral template copies for each assay. Low interassay coefficients of variation were recorded (0.021-0.042 and 0.013-0.039) for gG+ve and gG-ve TaqMan assays, respectively. The multiplex assay was successfully used to examine the replication kinetics of wild-type and ΔgG strains of ILTV in cultured leghorn male hepatoma cells and embryonated hen eggs under coinfection conditions. The results showed that the TaqMan qPCR assay, along with the ΔgG ILTV vaccine, has the potential to be used in a "Differentiating Infected from Vaccinated Animals" strategy for the control and eradication of ILT. PMID:26292527

  6. Development of a Real-Time, TaqMan Reverse Transcription-PCR Assay for Detection and Differentiation of Lyssavirus Genotypes 1, 5, and 6

    PubMed Central

    Wakeley, P. R.; Johnson, N.; McElhinney, L. M.; Marston, D.; Sawyer, J.; Fooks, A. R.

    2005-01-01

    Several reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) methods have been reported for the detection of rabies and rabies-related viruses. These methods invariably involve multiple transfers of nucleic acids between different tubes, with the risk of contamination leading to the production of false-positive results. Here we describe a single, closed-tube, nonnested RT-PCR with TaqMan technology that distinguishes between classical rabies virus (genotype 1) and European bat lyssaviruses 1 and 2 (genotypes 5 and 6) in real time. The TaqMan assay is rapid, sensitive, and specific and allows for the genotyping of unknown isolates concomitant with the RT-PCR. The assay can be applied quantitatively and the use of an internal control enables the quality of the isolated template to be assessed. Despite sequence heterogeneity in the N gene between the different genotypes, a universal forward and reverse primer set has been designed, allowing for the simplification of previously described assays. We propose that within a geographically constrained area, this assay will be a useful tool for the detection and differentiation of members of the Lyssavirus genus. PMID:15956398

  7. An interview study of persons who attribute health problems to dental filling materials--part two in a triangulation study on 65 and 75 years old Swedes.

    PubMed

    Ståhlnacke, Katri; Söderfeldt, Björn

    2013-01-01

    Dental materials are perceived as a health problem by some people, although scientists do not agree about possible causes of such problems. The aim of this paper was to gain a deeper knowledge and understanding of experiences from living with health problems attributed to dental materials. Addressed topics were the type of problem, both as to general and oral health, perceived causes of the problems,their experienced effect on life, and reception by health professionals. Persons, who in a previous large questionnaire study had answered that they had experienced troubles from dental materials and also agreed to answer follow-up questions, were contacted with a request to take part in an interview study. Eleven individual interviews were held.The interviews were transcribed verbatim and the material was analysed according to the Qualitative Content Analysis method. Meaning units were extracted and condensed into a number of codes, which were combined into subcategories, categories, and themes. Four themes were identified: 1) Long-term oral, mental, and somatic difficulties of varying character, caused by dental amalgam. 2) Problems treated mainly by replacement of dental material in fillings. 3) Powerful effects on life, mostly negative. 4) The reception by health professionals was generally good, but with elements of encounters where they felt treated with nonchalance and lack of respect. In conclusion, people who attributed their health difficulties to dental materials had a complex range of problems and the perception was that amalgam/mercury was the cause of the troubles. The reception from health professionals was perceived as generally good, although with occasional negative experiences. PMID:24341165

  8. Prevalence of disability in a composite ≥75 year-old population in Spain: A screening survey based on the International Classification of Functioning

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The prevalence and predictors of functional status and disability of elderly people have been studied in several European countries including Spain. However, there has been no population-based study incorporating the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework as the basis for assessing disability. The present study reports prevalence rates for mild, moderate, and severe/extreme disability by the domains of activities and participation of the ICF. Methods Nine populations surveyed in previous prevalence studies contributed probabilistic and geographically defined samples in June 2005. The study sample was composed of 503 subjects aged ≥75 years. We implemented a two-phase screening design using the MMSE and the World Health Organization-Disability Assessment Schedule 2nd edition (WHO-DAS II, 12 items) as cognitive and disability screening tools, respectively. Participants scoring within the positive range of the disability screening were administered the full WHO-DAS II (36 items; score range: 0-100) assessing the following areas: Understanding and communication, Getting along with people, Life activities, Getting around, Participation in society, and Self-care. Each disability area assessed by WHO-DAS II (36 items) was reported according to the ICF severity ranges (No problem, 0-4; Mild disability, 5-24; Moderate disability, 25-49; Severe/Extreme disability, 50-100). Results The age-adjusted disability prevalence figures were: 39.17 ± 2.18%, 15.31 ± 1.61%, and 10.14 ± 1.35% for mild, moderate, and severe/extreme disability, respectively. Severe and extreme disability prevalence in mobility and life activities was three times higher than the average, and highest among women. Sex variations were minimal, although life activities for women of 85 years and over had more severe/extreme disability as compared to men (OR = 5.15 95% CI 3.19-8.32). Conclusions Disability is highly prevalent among the Spanish elderly. Sex- and age-specific variations of disability are associated with particular disability domains. PMID:21429194

  9. Use of IPsec by Manned Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pajevski, Michael J.

    2009-01-01

    NASA's Constellation Program is developing its next generation manned space systems for missions to the International Space Station (ISS) and the Moon. The Program is embarking on a path towards standards based Internet Protocol (IP) networking for space systems communication. The IP based communications will be paired with industry standard security mechanisms such as Internet Protocol Security (IPsec) to ensure the integrity of information exchanges and prevent unauthorized release of sensitive information in-transit. IPsec has been tested in simulations on the ground and on at least one Earth orbiting satellite, but the technology is still unproven in manned space mission situations and significant obstacles remain.

  10. The Centauri project: Manned interstellar travel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciesla, Thomas M.

    1990-01-01

    The development of antimatter engines for spacecraft propulsion will allow man to expand to the nearest stellar neighbors such as the Alpha Centuri system. Compared to chemically powered rockets like the Apollo mission class which would take 50,000 years to reach the Centauri system, antimatter propulsion would reduce one way trip time to 30 years or less. The challenges encountered by manned interstellar travel are formidable. The spacecraft must be a combination of sublight speed transportation system and a traveling microplanet serving an expanding population. As the population expands from the initial 100 people to approximately 300, the terraformed asteroid, enclosed by a man-made shell will allow for expansion over its surface in the fashion of a small terrestrial town. All aspects of human life - birth; death; physical, emotional, and educational needs; and government and law must be met by the structure, systems, and institutions on-board.

  11. Alternatives for Man and Environment, Revised Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Junior Coll., FL.

    A one-year general education course entitled "Man and Environment" has been developed at Miami-Dade Junior College, Florida. Basic framework for the course was built on the premise that an interdisciplinary, module-structured course represents one of the better approaches to planning environmental education curriculum. Material for the course may…

  12. "On Making Man Modern"--A Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera, William M.

    A. Inkeles' cross-cultural work is reviewed. Inkeles studied young factory workers in six developing countries (Argentina, Chile, India, Israel, Nigeria, and East Pakistan) to determine their "modernity" characteristics versus their "traditional" or rural orientations. The use of the "modern man" thesis in this study, that is, that the factory can…

  13. ONLINE MENDELIAN INHERITANCE IN MAN (OMIM)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Welcome to OMIM(TM), Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man. This database is a catalog of human genes and genetic disorders authored and edited by Dr. Victor McKusick and his colleagues at Johns Hopkins and elsewhere, and developed for the World Wide Web by NCBI, the National Cent...

  14. Rich Man, Poor Man: Developmental Differences in Attributions and Perceptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigelman, Carol K.

    2012-01-01

    In an examination guided by cognitive developmental and attribution theory of how explanations of wealth and poverty and perceptions of rich and poor people change with age and are interrelated, 6-, 10-, and 14-year-olds (N = 88) were asked for their causal attributions and trait judgments concerning a rich man and a poor man. First graders, like…

  15. Thermal protection systems manned spacecraft flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    Since the first U.S. manned entry, Mercury (May 5, 1961), seventy-five manned entries have been made resulting in significant progress in the understanding and development of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for manned rated spacecraft. The TPS materials and systems installed on these spacecraft are compared. The first three vehicles (Mercury, Gemini, Apollo) used ablative (single-use) systems while the Space Shuttle Orbiter TPS is a multimission system. A TPS figure of merit, unit weight lb/sq ft, illustrates the advances in TPS material performance from Mercury (10.2 lb/sq ft) to the Space Shuttle (1.7 lb/sq ft). Significant advances have been made in the design, fabrication, and certification of TPS on manned entry vehicles (Mercury through Shuttle Orbiter). Shuttle experience has identified some key design and operational issues. State-of-the-art ceramic insulation materials developed in the 1970's for the Space Shuttle Orbiter have been used in the initial designs of aerobrakes. This TPS material experience has identified the need to develop a technology base from which a new class of higher temperature materials will emerge for advanced space transportation vehicles.

  16. User Requirements in Man-Machine Interactive Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dave, Ashok

    The basic objective of the development of man-machine interactive systems is to design a system that will most effectively take into account the limitations and talents of both man and machine, recognizing that the human factors are, in certain aspects, diametrically opposed to those of the computer. This document briefly investigates those…

  17. Man: A Course of Study. Occasional Paper No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruner, Jerome S.

    Written in 1965, the author describes the initial stages in the development of the elementary level curriculum, Man: A Course of Study. The structure and form of the course and three pedagogical techniques are discussed. The course is organized around the humanizing forces of tool-making, language, social organization, the management of man's…

  18. Spacecraft Power Systems Engineering: Solutions for NASA's Manned Space Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, John H.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of spacecraft power systems is presented, with a focus on applications in the manned space program. The topics include: 1) History; 2) State-of-the-art; 3) Development directions; 4) Focus on applications in the manned space program led from JSC; 5) Power Systems Engineering Trade Space; 6) Power Generation and Energy Storage; 7) Power Distribution and Control; and 8) Actuation

  19. Stellar map of neolithic man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pskovskiy, Y. P.

    1978-01-01

    Observations made by ancient man are of great interest to present day astronomers. Drawings made by neolithic man in caves show a surprising sense of perspective. The discoveries in the Fern Grotto in California are of special interest. Photographs of cave drawings are included.

  20. Man Machine Systems in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sall, Malkit S.

    This review of the research literature on the interaction between humans and computers discusses how man machine systems can be utilized effectively in the learning-teaching process, especially in secondary education. Beginning with a definition of man machine systems and comments on the poor quality of much of the computer-based learning material…

  1. Thrombokinetics in man

    PubMed Central

    Harker, Laurence A.; Finch, Clement A.

    1969-01-01

    Platelet production, distribution, and destruction have been quantitated in normal man and in selected patients with platelet disorders. In most instances, total production as calculated from the megakaryocyte mass agreed with production estimated from platelet turnover. In patients with megaloblastosis, a discrepancy between these two measurements indicated the presence of ineffective thrombopoiesis. Thrombopoiesis was regulated by (a) alterations in megakaryocyte number, and (b) changes in megakaryocyte volume (produced by changes in endomitosis). The volume-endomitosis changes were closely related to the peripheral platelet count and were a useful indicator of thrombopoietic stimulus. Thrombocytopenic disorders have been classified on the basis of the disturbed physiology into disorders of (a) production (hypoproliferative or ineffective), (b) distribution (splenic pooling), or (c) destruction (immune or consumptive). Less than a twofold increase in platelet production in the presence of significant thrombocytopenia was taken to represent impaired proliferation. Thrombocytosis was classified as reactive or autonomous. Reactive thrombocytosis was consistently associated with a mean megakaryocyte volume and endomitosis less than normal but appropriate for the elevated circulating platelet count. In contrast, the average megakaryocyte volume and nuclear number were always greater than normal in thrombocythemia findings indicating autonomy. Images PMID:5814231

  2. Development of novel real-time TaqMan(®) PCR assays for the species and sex identification of otter (Lutra lutra) and their application to noninvasive genetic monitoring.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, David; Turner, Peter D; O'Meara, Denise B; Chadwick, Elizabeth A; Coffey, Lee; O'Reilly, Catherine

    2013-09-01

    Developing strategies to maintain biodiversity requires baseline information on the current status of each individual species. The development of genetic techniques and their application to noninvasively collected samples have the potential to yield information on the structure of elusive animal populations and so are important tools in conservation management. Using DNA isolated from faecal samples can be challenging owing to low quantity and quality. This study, however, presents the development of novel real-time polymerase chain reaction assays using fluorescently labelled TaqMan(®) MGB probes enabling species and sex identification of Eurasian otter (Lutra lutra) spraints (faeces). These assays can also be used in determining an optimum microsatellite panel and can be employed as cost-saving screening tools for downstream genetic testing including microsatellite genotyping and haplotype analysis. The techniques are shown to work efficiently with L. lutra DNA isolated from tissue, hair, spraint, blood and anal jelly samples. PMID:23870402

  3. Manned spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, William E.; Nored, Donald L.

    1987-01-01

    A brief history of the development of electrical power systems from the earliest manned space flights illustrates a natural trend toward a growth of electrical power requirements and operational lifetimes with each succeeding space program. A review of the design philosophy and development experience associated with the Space Shuttle Orbiter electrical power system is presented, beginning with the state of technology at the conclusion of the Apollo Program. A discussion of prototype, verification, and qualification hardware is included, and several design improvements following the first Orbiter flight are described. The problems encountered, the scientific and engineering approaches used to meet the technological challenges, and the results obtained are stressed. Major technology barriers and their solutions are discussed, and a brief Orbiter flight experience summary of early Space Shuttle missions is included. A description of projected Space Station power requirements and candidate system concepts which could satisfy these anticipated needs is presented. Significant challenges different from Space Shuttle, innovative concepts and ideas, and station growth considerations are discussed. The Phase B Advanced Development hardware program is summarized and a status of Phase B preliminary tradeoff studies is presented.

  4. Manned flight and planetary scientific exploration.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muller, Christian; Moreau, Didier

    2014-05-01

    Human explorers had a fundamental role in the success of the APOLLO moon programme, they were at the same time the indispensable pilots, scientific operators and on the last missions lead scientists. Since, man did not either return to the moon or land on Mars but manned operation centres on the earth are now conducting extensive telescience on both celestial bodies. Manned flights to moon, Mars and asteroids are however still on the agenda and even if the main drive of these projects is outside science, it is to the planetary scientists to both prepare the data bases necessary for these flights and to ensure that the scientific advantage of conducting research in real time and in situ is exploited to the maximum. The current manned flight programme in Europe concentrates on the use of the International Space Station, the scientific activities can be roughly divided between the pressurized payloads and the external payloads. Technology developments occur also in parallel and prepare new exploration techniques. The current planning leads to exploitation up to 2020 but the space agencies study further extensions, the date of 2028 having already been considered. The relation of these programmes to future manned planetary exploration will be described both from the science and development point of view. The complementary role of astronauts and ground operation centres will be described on the basis of the current experience of operation centres managing the International Space Station. Finally, the NASA ORION project of exploration in the solar system will be described with emphasis on its current European participations. The science opportunities presented by independent ventures as Inspiration Mars or Mars One will be presented.

  5. Asphalt and risk of cancer in man.

    PubMed

    Chiazze, L; Watkins, D K; Amsel, J

    1991-08-01

    Epidemiological publications regarding the carcinogenic potential of asphalt (bitumen) are reviewed. In 1984 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) stated that there is "inadequate evidence that bitumens alone are carcinogenic to humans." They did, however, conclude that animal data provided sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of certain extracts of steam refined and air refined bitumens. In the absence of data on man, IARC considered it reasonable to regard chemicals with sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals as if they presented a carcinogenic risk to man. Epidemiological data for man accumulated since the IARC report do not fulfil the criteria for showing a causal association between exposure to asphalt and development of cancer. The studies cited all suffer from a lack of data on exposure or potential confounders, which are necessary to establish whether or not such an association may or may not exist. In view of the evidence (or lack thereof) regarding asphalt today, an appropriate public health attitude suggests at least that action be taken to protect those working with asphalt by monitoring the workplace, taking whatever steps are possible to minimise exposures and to inform workers of potential hazards. At the same time, a need exists for well designed analytical epidemiological studies to determine whether a risk of cancer in man exists from exposure to asphalt. PMID:1878310

  6. Space station support of manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1986-01-01

    The assembly of a manned Mars interplanetary spacecraft in low Earth orbit can be best accomplished with the support of the space station. Station payload requirements for microgravity environments of .001 g and pointing stability requirements of less than 1 arc second could mean that the spacecraft may have to be assembled at a station-keeping position about 100 meters or more away from the station. In addition to the assembly of large modules and connective structures, the manned Mars mission assembly tasks may include the connection of power, fluid, and data lines and the handling and activation of components for chemical or nuclear power and propulsion systems. These assembly tasks will require the use of advanced automation and robotics in addition to Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle and Extravehicular Activity (EVA) crew support. Advanced development programs for the space station, including on-orbit demonstrations, could also be used to support manned Mars mission technology objectives. Follow-on studies should be conducted to identify space station activities which could be enhanced or expanded in scope (without significant cost and schedule impact) to help resolve key technical and scientific questions relating to manned Mars missions.

  7. Asphalt and risk of cancer in man.

    PubMed Central

    Chiazze, L; Watkins, D K; Amsel, J

    1991-01-01

    Epidemiological publications regarding the carcinogenic potential of asphalt (bitumen) are reviewed. In 1984 the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) stated that there is "inadequate evidence that bitumens alone are carcinogenic to humans." They did, however, conclude that animal data provided sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of certain extracts of steam refined and air refined bitumens. In the absence of data on man, IARC considered it reasonable to regard chemicals with sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in animals as if they presented a carcinogenic risk to man. Epidemiological data for man accumulated since the IARC report do not fulfil the criteria for showing a causal association between exposure to asphalt and development of cancer. The studies cited all suffer from a lack of data on exposure or potential confounders, which are necessary to establish whether or not such an association may or may not exist. In view of the evidence (or lack thereof) regarding asphalt today, an appropriate public health attitude suggests at least that action be taken to protect those working with asphalt by monitoring the workplace, taking whatever steps are possible to minimise exposures and to inform workers of potential hazards. At the same time, a need exists for well designed analytical epidemiological studies to determine whether a risk of cancer in man exists from exposure to asphalt. PMID:1878310

  8. Poor man`s parallelism in environmental management

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, V.M.; Rogers, L.L.

    1995-02-01

    Poor man`s parallelism is a term to describe the harnessing of commonly available computational approaches containing a high degree of implicit or explicit parallelism with distributed computer resources to produce a large gain in processing time. The distinguishing features of poor man`s techniques are their accessibility and relatively low cost. In some circumstances, the clever exploitation of existing hardware and software may achieve as much improvement in the timely completion of tasks as do high-end, state-of-the-art parallel technologies. The ANN-GA approach to the optimization of environmental remediation strategies is an example of poor man`s parallelism: it integrates two well-known computational technologies, artificial neural networks (ANNs) and the genetic algorithm (GA), with a simple scheme for exploiting a network of Unix workstations to solve a nonlinear combinatorial optimization problem. Although this work has been motivated by the need to tame a computational tiger rather than to experiment with different flavors of parallelism, the approach has reached a level of maturity where it is instructive to examine how parallelism is embodied in its various components. It also stands as a demonstration of how even resource-lean organizations can take advantage of parallelism to solve problems.

  9. The man and the universe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodziejska, Magdalena

    2016-04-01

    The universe has always aroused people's curiosity. It fascinates and at the same time scares in its vastness. Encourages us to reflect of the meaning of human life. This begs the questions: whether there is a life beyond Earth? Whether is it possible that the man is alone in such a large space? These questions still remain unanswered, and topics concerning "the cosmos" constantly evoke many emotions. It is especially fascinating for the youngest students. Quite often, preschoolers can flawlessly name the planets according to their order of appearance in relation to the sun. They are happy to take the fun inspired by journeys into space. Teaching through action is extremely important for the development of the child-man* (Piaget, 2006). The thinking originates primarily from the action. Therefore, students should undertake independent research activities, perform experiments and conduct observations and thus raise questions about the world, looking for meanings and solutions. Adults (a teacher, a person with a passion) are to be the support in the search for knowledge, its processing and cleaning. Its role is to ensure a proper development of environment that is conducive to research activity. The answer to these requirements was to create in the oldest technical school in Poland (Railway Technical College, now Technical College No. 7) the astronomical observatory, which can be used by pupils of Warsaw's kindergartens and schools. There are organized activities for children and youth in this school, as well as trainings for teachers. Younger students during such an interdisciplinary courses are, among others, the opportunity to get acquainted with the construction of the telescope, they can build their own rockets and organize their racing or create your own star constellations. Older students as a result of observations and experiments may confirm or refute the hypothesis that the universe is within each of us. The classes are enriched using applications on

  10. Facing Up to Man's Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKean, Kevin; Brownlee, Shannon

    1983-01-01

    Discusses evidence suggesting that man only recently diverged from the apes. The evidence, still disputed by some scientists, has caused many others to revise their thinking as to when and how the human line originated. (JN)

  11. Why a Hanging Man Dances.

    PubMed

    Padam, Gurpreet Kaur

    2015-01-01

    "Do you know why a hanging man dances?" asked Mr B. He was once an intensely independent man, now 80 years old and afflicted with end-stage lung disease. He appeared tired, repositioning himself with great effort to sitting at the edge of the bed, tightly holding onto the bed sheets as if clenching to a life that was slowly escaping him. "No. I don't want anything that will make me live longer." PMID:26176577

  12. A Study for Mars Manned Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Scimemi, Sam

    2012-01-01

    Over the last five decades there have been numerous studies devoted to developing, launching and conducting a manned mission to Mars by both Russian and U.S. organizations. These studies have proposed various crew sizes, mission length, propulsion systems, habitation modules, and scientific goals. As a first step towards establishing an international partnership approach to a Mars mission, the most recent Russian concepts are explored and then compared to NASA's latest Mars reference mission.

  13. Possible Scenarios for Mars Manned Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorney, Daniel J.; Schumacher, Daniel M.

    2012-01-01

    Over the last five decades there have been numerous studies devoted to developing, launching and conducting a manned mission to Mars by both Russian and U.S. organizations. These studies have proposed various crew sizes, mission length, propulsion systems, habitation modules, and scientific goals. As a first step towards establishing an international partnership approach to a Mars mission, the most recent Russian concepts are explored and then compared to NASA's current Mars reference mission.

  14. The Manned Spacecraft Center and medical technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnston, R. S.; Pool, S. L.

    1974-01-01

    A number of medically oriented research and hardware development programs in support of manned space flights have been sponsored by NASA. Blood pressure measuring systems for use in spacecraft are considered. In some cases, complete new bioinstrumentation systems were necessary to accomplish a specific physiological study. Plans for medical research during the Skylab program are discussed along with general questions regarding space-borne health service systems and details concerning the Health Services Support Control Center.

  15. Movable Lander for Manned Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    In the second half of the workshop, participants split into three groups to develop a concensus on the following questions: (1) What are the current space drive resources and issues? (2) What are the future space drive technology needs and issues? and (3) Should we hold regular workshops on space mechanisms and space drives? The three groups considered these questions from the perspective of researchers working in (1) manned spacecraft; (2) unmanned spacecraft; and (3) planetary surface exploration vehicles.

  16. Development and validation of a TaqMan real-time PCR assay for the identification and quantification of roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) in food to detect food adulteration.

    PubMed

    Druml, Barbara; Mayer, Walter; Cichna-Markl, Margit; Hochegger, Rupert

    2015-07-01

    In order to protect the consumer from meat adulteration it is necessary to identify and quantify the meat content in foodstuffs. Game meat is particularly susceptible for fraudulent labeling since it is more valuable than meat from domestic animals. The paper presents a TaqMan real-time PCR assay for the quantitative determination of roe deer in meat products. The assay developed does not show cross-reactivity with 23 animal and 43 plant species tested and is therefore specific for roe deer. The amplification efficiency determined by analyzing serially diluted roe deer DNA extracts was found to be 93.9%. For quantifying the roe deer content in % (w/w), a reference system based on the myostatin gene was used. The quantification strategy was validated by determining the roe deer content in model meat mixtures and a model sausage. In addition, the real-time PCR assay was applied to the analysis of commercially available meat products. PMID:25704718

  17. Man-Computer Symbiosis Through Interactive Graphics: A Survey and Identification of Critical Research Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Patricia A.

    The purpose of this report was to determine the research areas that appear most critical to achieving man-computer symbiosis. An operational definition of man-computer symbiosis was developed by: (1) reviewing and summarizing what others have said about it, and (2) attempting to distinguish it from other types of man-computer relationships. From…

  18. Broad-range detection of arboviruses belonging to Simbu serogroup lineage 1 and specific detection of Akabane, Aino and Peaton viruses by newly developed multiple TaqMan assays.

    PubMed

    Shirafuji, Hiroaki; Yazaki, Ryu; Shuto, Yozo; Yanase, Tohru; Kato, Tomoko; Ishikura, Youji; Sakaguchi, Zenjiro; Suzuki, Moemi; Yamakawa, Makoto

    2015-12-01

    TaqMan assays were developed for the broad-range detection of arboviruses belonging to Simbu serogroup lineage 1 in the genus Orthobunyavirus and also for the specific detection of three viruses in the lineage, Akabane, Aino and Peaton viruses (AKAV, AINOV and PEAV, respectively). A primer and probe set was designed for the broad-range detection of Simbu serogroup lineage 1 (Pan-Simbu1 set) mainly targeting AKAV, AINOV, PEAV, Sathuperi and Shamonda viruses (SATV and SHAV), and the forward and reverse primers of the Pan-Simbu1 set were also used for the specific detection of AKAV with another probe (AKAV-specific set). In addition, two more primer and probe sets were designed for AINOV- and PEAV-specific detection, respectively (AINOV- and PEAV-specific sets). All of the four primer and probe sets successfully detected targeted viruses, and thus broad-range and specific detection of all the targeted viruses can be achieved by using two multiplex assays and a single assay in a dual (two-color) assay format when another primer and probe set for a bovine β-actin control is also used. The assays had an analytical sensitivity of 10 copies/tube for AKAV, at least 100 copies/tube for AINOV, 100 copies/tube for PEAV, one copy/tube for SATV and at least 10 copies/tube for SHAV, respectively. Diagnostic sensitivity of the assays was tested with field-collected bovine samples, and the results suggested that the sensitivity was higher than that of a conventional RT-PCR. These data indicate that the newly developed TaqMan assays will be useful tools for the diagnosis and screening of field-collected samples for infections of AKAV and several other arboviruses belonging to the Simbu serogroup lineage 1. PMID:26341063

  19. CluMan - Cluster management toolsuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šiket, Miroslav; Babik, Marián; Lopienski, Sebastian; Borba Manana, Filipe David

    2010-04-01

    LHC computing requirements are such that the number of CPU and storage nodes, and the complexity of the services to be managed are bringing new challenges. Operations like checking configuration consistency, executing actions on nodes, moving them between clusters etc. are very frequent. These scaling challenges are the basis for CluMan, a new cluster management tool being designed and developed at CERN. High-density displays such as heat maps, grids or color maps are more and more commonly used in various applications like data visualization or monitoring systems. They allow humans to see, interpret and understand complex and detailed information at a glance. We propose to present the ideas behind the CluMan project, and to show how high density displays are used to help service managers to understand, manage and control the state and behavior of their clusters.

  20. Manned versus unmanned - The implications to NASP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wierzbanowski, Theodore; Kasten, Terry D.

    1990-01-01

    The assessment of unmanned approaches to experimental aerospace vehicles in general and to the NASP program in particular is summarized. Technical requirements for NASP demonstration are presented and unmanned options for satisfying requirements are discussed. The X-30 sensitivities to technical requirements are described. A correlation of the NASP program to prior flight test programs, both manned and unmanned, is also presented. It is noted that subscale vehicles may reduce risk by as much as 18 percent for approximately $200 M. It is concluded that half-scale vehicles may reduce program risk by 60 percent, while reducing X-30 costs by 40 percent. Also, an unmanned X-30 will probably cost more than a manned X-30 due to costs associated with additional software development and ground support systems costs.

  1. The Black Man in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Framingham Public Schools, MA.

    GRADE OR AGES: Junior high school. SUBJECT MATTER: The black man in American society. ORGANIZATION AND PHYSICAL APPEARANCE: There are four major parts each with an overview. The four parts concern a) the African heritage of the black man, b) the American exploitation of the black man, c) the black man's contribution to American society, d) the…

  2. Man in His World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O., Ed.

    This publication utilizes a quick card file format in providing teacher developed and classroom tested environmental education lessons and units for students, K-12. Each 5x8 inch card provides the teacher with the following information: grade level, area of study, concept, purpose, activities, and evaluation. The goal of this format is to give the…

  3. Development of a One-Step Immunocapture Real-Time TaqMan RT-PCR Assay for the Broad Spectrum Detection of Pepino Mosaic Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A Real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was developed for efficient detection of genetically diverse PepMV isolates. The novel detection system was designed to use a duo-primer system targeting the conserved region in the triple gene block 2 (TGB2) gene with a single co...

  4. Complete larval development of Thor amboinensis (De Man, 1888) Decapoda: Thoridae) described from laboratory-reared material
    and identified by DNA barcoding.

    PubMed

    Bartilotti, Cátia; Salabert, Joana; Santos, Antonina Dos

    2016-01-01

    Of the 12 species of Thor described until present date, only three (25%) have their complete larval development known. Present work describes the complete larval development of Thor amboinensis, based on laboratory-reared material. The spent females were identified through the analysis of the partial sequences of the mitochondrial DNA barcode, also used for the reconstruction of the phylogenetic relationships within the recently resurrected and recognized family Thoridae Kingsley, 1879. Eight zoeal stages and one decapodid complete this species larval development. In the genus Thor, the number of zoeal stages varies greatly from two (T. dobkini) to eight (T. amboinensis and T. floridanus). The larvae of T. ambionensis and T. floridanus are readily distinguished from each other by the ornamentation of the ventral margin of the carapace and the pereiopods development. The first zoeal stage of T. amboinensis described by Yang & Okuno (2004) and the one described in present study are very similar. A brief discussion on the morphological characters and on the number of zoeal stages of the genus, as well as of the previous larval descriptions is made. The phylogenetic analysis suggest cryptic speciation for geographical separated populations of T. amboinensis, paraphyly of the genus Eualus, and the reassignment of E. cranchii to a different genus. PMID:27395843

  5. The future of manned spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Aaron

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the future of manned spaceflight in context of past accomplishments and possible future benefits of space exploration. Three technological advances mentioned are a device called the rotating wall vessel, also known as the 'bioreactor,' which allows the study of the growth of cells in three dimensions; the use of microgravity to produce high-quality electronic, magnetic, and superconducting thin films; and mining of helium-3 from the lunar surface for use in future fusion reactions with deuterium. The author then makes recommendations on how NASA should meet the challenges of manned spaceflight.

  6. History of manned space flight

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.

    1981-01-01

    This book is the history of all the great moments of failure, tension, drama, euphoria, and success that characterized the beginning of man's adventure in space. It covers the technology and scientific knowledge, the vision, the politics, and the dedication of all those involved in the space program. One chapter is devoted to the experiments and observations of the astronauts as they explored the moon. An integral part of the history of space exploration is the race between Russia and the US to establish man in space. This is included. The book vividly portrays the experiences of the astronauts from Mercury, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Apollo-Soyuz missions. (SC)

  7. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  8. Principles of Early Development of Karst Conduits Under Natural and Man-Made Conditions Revealed by Mathematical Analysis of Numerical Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreybrodt, Wolfgang

    1996-04-01

    Numerical models of the enlargement of primary fissures in limestone by calcite aggressive water show a complex behavior. If the lengths of the fractures are large and hydraulic heads are low, as is the case in nature, dissolution rates at the exit of the channel determine its development by causing a slow increase of water flow, which after a long gestation time by positive feedback accelerates dramatically within a short time span. Mathematical analysis of simplified approximations yields an analytical expression for the breakthrough time, when this happens, in excellent agreement with the results of a numerical model. This expression quantifies the geometrical, hydraulic, and chemical parameters determining such karst processes. If the lengths of the enlarging channels are small, but hydraulic heads are high, as is the case for artificial hydraulic structures such as dams, it is the widening at the entrance of the flow path which determines the enlargement of the conduit. Within the lifetime of the dam this can cause serious water losses. This can also be explained by mathematical analysis of simplified approximations which yield an analytical threshold condition from which the safety of a dam can be judged. Thus in both cases the dynamic processes of karstification are revealed to gain a deeper understanding of the early development of karst systems. As a further important result, one finds that minimum conditions, below which karstification cannot develop, do not exist.

  9. [Quinquina and man].

    PubMed

    Seigneuric, C; Camara, B; Delmont, J; Busato, F; Payen, J L; Armengaud, M; Marchou, B

    2008-10-01

    Many great discoveries have been made by chance but some have been the result of human perseverance and ingenuity. A sterling example of the second case is quinquina that was discovered in Peru and is now produced in Java. Quinquina has gone through centuries without losing its medical efficacy that efficacy allowed the exploration and colonization of Africa and played a key role in the ability to conduct overseas military campaigns. Because of its strategic importance, it was a coveted resource. It led to the discovery of homeopathy and dyes, allowed the development of organic chemistry, and has been used to make alcoholic bitters and soft drinks. PMID:19068974

  10. Postural control in man: the phylogenetic perspective.

    PubMed

    Gramsbergen, Albert

    2005-01-01

    Erect posture in man is a recent affordance from an evolutionary perspective. About eight million years ago, the stock from which modern humans derived split off from the ape family, and from around sixty-thousand years ago, modern man developed. Upright gait and manipulations while standing pose intricate cybernetic problems for postural control. The trunk, having an older evolutionary history than the extremities, is innervated by medially descending motor systems and extremity muscles by the more recent, laterally descending systems. Movements obviously require concerted actions from both systems. Research in rats has demonstrated the interdependencies between postural control and the development of fluent walking. Only 15 days after birth, adult-like fluent locomotion emerges and is critically dependent upon postural development. Vesttibular deprivation induces a retardation in postural development and, consequently, a retarded development of adult-like locomotion. The cerebellum obviously has an important role in mutual adjustments in postural control and extremity movements, or, in coupling the phylogenetic older and newer structures. In the human, the cerebellum develops partly after birth and therefore is vulnerable to adverse perinatal influences. Such vulnerability seems to justify focusing our scientific research efforts onto the development of this structure. PMID:16097476

  11. Manned Mars missions using propellant from space

    SciTech Connect

    Zuppero, A.C.; Olson, T.S. ); Redd, L.R. )

    1993-01-10

    .A recent discovery (8/14/92) of a near-earth object containing materials potentially useful for space activities could perhaps change the entire way humans access and operate in space. A near-Earth object ([number sign]4015, 1979 VA, comet Wilson-Harrington) contains water ice that could be used for space propulsion. In addition, this type of object may contain structural and lifesustaining materials (complex hydrocarbons, ammonia and/or bound nitrogen compounds) for space structures, manned planetary bases, or planetary surface terraforming. The retrieval and utilization of rocket propellant from near-Earth objects, for manned Mars missions in particular, has been investigated and the benefits of this scenario to over performing a Mars mission with terrestrial propellants have been documented. The results show water extracted from these objects and retrieved to Earth orbit for use in going to Mars may actually enable manned Mars exploration by reducing the number of Heavy Lift Launch Vehicle (HLLV) flights or eliminating the need for HLLV's altogether. The mission can perhaps be supported with existing launch vehicles and not required heavy lift capability. Also, the development of a nuclear thermal rocket for this alternate approach may be simplified substantially by reducing the operating temperature required.

  12. Gastrointestinal stromal tumor (gist) of the duodenum.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfar, Shahriyar; Sial, Khadim S; Quraishy, M S

    2007-06-01

    This is a report of a rare gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the duodenum in a 75 years old man who presented with recurrent episodes of intestinal obstruction and melena. The patient underwent successful Whipple's procedure. PMID:17623589

  13. [A man with atypical appendicitis].

    PubMed

    du Pré, Bastiaan C; Akkersdijk, Willem L

    2012-01-01

    A 43-year-old man presented with acute left-sided middle and lower abdominal pain. He was diagnosed with 'left-sided acute appendicitis with non-rotation of the colon'. This is a rare and usually asymptomatic congenital anomaly. PMID:22551755

  14. Man-Made Climatic Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landsberg, Helmut E.

    1970-01-01

    Reviews environmental studies which show that national climatic fluctuations vary over a wide range. Solar radiation, earth temperatures, precipitation, atmospheric gases and suspended particulates are discussed in relation to urban and extraurban effects. Local weather modifications and attempts at climate control by man seem to have substantial…

  15. Insects Affecting Man. MP-21.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, Fred A.; Spackman, Everett

    The insects discussed in this document are those which have a direct effect upon humans either through a permanent association, as with lice, or a temporary association in the case of flies, bees, wasps, and spiders. In each case, life cycles and identifying characteristics are presented with remarks about the specific effect incurred by man. (CS)

  16. Man and Machines: Three Criticisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Edward F.

    As machines have become a more common part of daily life through the passage of time, the idea that the line separating man and machine is slowly fading has become more popular as well. This paper examines three critics of change through their most famous works. One of the most popular views of Mary Shelley's "Frankenstein" is that it is a…

  17. 'Botanic Man:' Education or Entertainment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Richard

    1979-01-01

    The experience of Thames Television in presenting an educational series during prime time is described. "The Botanic Man," a series on ecology, is a rating success. Several difficulties encountered in collaboration efforts and follow-up activities, including courses and workbook publications, are identified. (JMF)

  18. Humanities II: Man and Revolution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanton School District, Wilmington, DE.

    "Man and Revolution," the second syllabus in a sequential program, provides 11th grade students with a humanities course that deals heavily in political theory. The rationale, objectives, guidelines, methods, and arrangement are the same as those described in SO 004 030. The introductory unit, followed by further units, helps students define and…

  19. Man...An Endangered Species?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of the Interior, Washington, DC.

    The general theme of this 1968 yearbook is that man is a threatened species, facing overpopulation and unbridled technology - both self induced. The presentation is broad, relating to many aspects of conservation and natural resources in the United States in a descriptive, non-technical style. The yearbook is divided into major topics: Land…

  20. SPEECH--MAN'S NATURAL COMMUNICATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DUDLEY, HOMER; AND OTHERS

    SESSION 63 OF THE 1967 INSTITUTE OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC ENGINEERS INTERNATIONAL CONVENTION BROUGHT TOGETHER SEVEN DISTINGUISHED MEN WORKING IN FIELDS RELEVANT TO LANGUAGE. THEIR TOPICS INCLUDED ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF SPEECH AND LANGUAGE, LANGUAGE AND CULTURE, MAN'S PHYSIOLOGICAL MECHANISMS FOR SPEECH, LINGUISTICS, AND TECHNOLOGY AND…

  1. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    SciTech Connect

    Hedrick, J.; Buchholtz, B.; Ward, P.; Freuh, J.; Jensen, E.

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium. Helium can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  2. Mars manned fusion spaceship

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedrick, James; Buchholtz, Brent; Ward, Paul; Freuh, Jim; Jensen, Eric

    1991-01-01

    Fusion Propulsion has an enormous potential for space exploration in the near future. In the twenty-first century, a usable and efficient fusion rocket will be developed and in use. Because of the great distance between other planets and Earth, efficient use of time, fuel, and payload is essential. A nuclear spaceship would provide greater fuel efficiency, less travel time, and a larger payload. Extended missions would give more time for research, experiments, and data acquisition. With the extended mission time, a need for an artificial environment exists. The topics of magnetic fusion propulsion, living modules, artificial gravity, mass distribution, space connection, and orbital transfer to Mars are discussed. The propulsion system is a magnetic fusion reactor based on a tandem mirror design. This allows a faster, shorter trip time and a large thrust to weight ratio. The fuel proposed is a mixture of deuterium and helium-3. Helium-3 can be obtained from lunar mining. There will be minimal external radiation from the reactor resulting in a safe, efficient propulsion system.

  3. Neutrophil kinetics in man.

    PubMed Central

    Dancey, J T; Deubelbeiss, K A; Harker, L A; Finch, C A

    1976-01-01

    A method has been developed for measuring neutrophil cellularity in normal human bone marrow, in which the neutrophil-erythroid ratio was determined from marrow sections and marrow normoblasts were estimated by the erythron iron turnover. Neutrophil maturational categories, defined by morphologic criteria, were supported by autoradiographs of marrow flashed-labeled with 3H-thymidine. Correction for multiple counting error was empirically derived by counting serial sections through cells of each maturational category. The normal neutrophil-erythroid ratio in 13 normal human subjects was 1.5 +/- 0.07. The mean number of normoblasts in the same subjects was estimated to be 5.07 +/- 0.84 X 10(9) cells/kg. Total marrow neutrophils (X 10(9) cells/kg) were 7.70 +/- 1.20, the postmitotic pool (metamyelocytes, bands, and segmented forms) was 5.59 +/- 0.90 and the mitotic pool (promyelocytes + myelocytes) was 2.11 +/- 0.36. Marrow neutrophil ("total") production has been determined from the number of neutrophils comprising the postmitotic marrow pool divided by their transit time Transit time was derived from the appearance in circulating neutrophils of injected 3H-thymidine. The postmitotic pool comprised 5.59 +/- 0.90 X 10(9) neutrophils/kg, and the transit time was 6.60 +/- 0.03 days. From these data marrow neutrophil production was calculated to be 0.85 X 10(9) cells/kg per day. Effective production, measured as the turnover of circulating neutrophils labeled with 3H-thymidine, was 0.87 +/- 0.13 X 10(9) cells/kg per day. This value correlated well with the calculation of marrow neutrophil production. A larger turnover of 1.62 +/- 0.46 X 10(9) cells/kg per day was obtained when diisopropylfluorophosphate-32P was used to label circulating neutrophils. Studies using isologous cells doubly labeled with 3H-thymidine and diisopropylfluorophosphate-32P demonstrated a lower recovery and shorter t1/2 of the 32P label. Images PMID:956397

  4. Power system technologies for the manned Mars mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bents, Dave; Patterson, Michael J.; Berkopec, F.; Myers, Ira; Presler, A.

    1986-01-01

    The high impulse of electric propulsion makes it an attractive option for manned interplanetary missions such as a manned mission to Mars. This option is, however, dependent on the availability of high energy sources for propulsive power in addition to that required for the manned interplanetary transit vehicle. Two power system technologies are presented: nuclear and solar. The ion thruster technology for the interplanetary transit vehicle is described for a typical mission. The power management and distribution system components required for such a mission must be further developed beyond today's technology status. High voltage-high current technology advancements must be achieved. These advancements are described. In addition, large amounts of waste heat must be rejected to the space environment by the thermal management system. Advanced concepts such as the liquid droplet radiator are discussed as possible candidates for the manned Mars mission. These thermal management technologies have great potential for significant weight reductions over the more conventional systems.

  5. Man-machine interfaces in health care

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, Steve; Williams, Roy E.

    1991-01-01

    The surgeon, like the pilot, is confronted with an ever increasing volume of voice, data, and image input. Simultaneously, the surgeon must control a rapidly growing number of devices to deliver care to the patient. The broad disciplines of man-machine interface design, systems integration, and teleoperation will play a role in the operating room of the future. The purpose of this communication is to report the incorporation of these design concepts into new surgical and laser delivery systems. A review of each general problem area and the systems under development to solve the problems are presented.

  6. Development of an In-House TaqMan Real Time RT-PCR Assay to Quantify Hepatitis C Virus RNA in Serum and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients With Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Khalvati Fahlyani, Bahman; Behzad-Behbahani, Abbas; Taghavi, Seiied Alireza; Farhadi, Ali; Salehi, Saeede; Adibzadeh, Setare; Aboualizadeh, Farzaneh; Alavi, Parniyan; Nikouyan, Negin; Okhovat, Mohammad Ali; Ranjbaran, Reza; Rafiei Dehbidi, Gholam Reza; Shakibzadeh, Arash

    2015-01-01

    Background: Viral load measurements are commonly used to monitor HCV infection in patients with chronic diseases or determining the number of HCV-genomes in serum samples of patients after sustained virological response. However, in some patients, HCV viral load in serum samples is too low to be detected by PCR, especially after treatment. Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a highly specific, sensitive, and reproducible in-house quantitative PCR using specific primers and probe cited in highly conservative region of HCV genome that allows simultaneous detection of HCV genotypes 1 - 4. Materials and Methods: In this study, three sets of primer pairs and a TaqMan probe for amplification and detection of selected region within 5’-non-coding (5’NCR) of four HCV genotypes were used. Using plasmid containing 5’NCR region of HCV, standard curve, threshold, and threshold cycle (CT) values were determined. Real-time and nested PCR were performed on HCV genotypes 1 - 4 extracted from plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) samples collected from patients with chronic HCV infection. Results: The lower limit detection of this in-house HCV real-time RT-PCR was determined as 100 RNA copies/mL. Inter- and intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV) of this in-house HCV real-time RT-PCR ranged from 0.9% to 1.8% and 1.76% to 3.94%, respectively. The viral load of the genotyped samples ranged from 2.0 × 106 ± 0.31 to 2.7 × 105 ± 0.46 copies/mL in serum samples and 5 × 102 ± 0.36 to 4.0 × 103 ± 0.51 copies/106 cells/mL of PBMCs. Conclusions: The quite sensitive in-house TaqMan real time RT-PCR assay was able to detect and quantify all four main HCV genotypes prevailing around all geographical regions of Iran. PMID:26425128

  7. RenderMan design principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Apodaca, Tony; Porter, Tom

    1989-01-01

    The two worlds of interactive graphics and realistic graphics have remained separate. Fast graphics hardware runs simple algorithms and generates simple looking images. Photorealistic image synthesis software runs slowly on large expensive computers. The time has come for these two branches of computer graphics to merge. The speed and expense of graphics hardware is no longer the barrier to the wide acceptance of photorealism. There is every reason to believe that high quality image synthesis will become a standard capability of every graphics machine, from superworkstation to personal computer. The significant barrier has been the lack of a common language, an agreed-upon set of terms and conditions, for 3-D modeling systems to talk to 3-D rendering systems for computing an accurate rendition of that scene. Pixar has introduced RenderMan to serve as that common language. RenderMan, specifically the extensibility it offers in shading calculations, is discussed.

  8. The Development of Man and His Culture: Old World Prehistory. Grade 5. Teacher Guide [And] Pupil Text [And] Pupil Guide [And] Teacher Background Material [And] A Sequential Curriculum in Anthropology. Test Form 5, Composite Form for Pre- and Post-Test. Revised, January 1968. Publications No. 25, 31, 23, 24 and 43.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potterfield, James E.; And Others

    This social studies unit includes a teaching guide, student text, study guide, teacher background material, and composite pretest/posttest covering archaeological methods, evolution, fossils and man, and development of culture during the prehistoric periods in the Old World. It is part of the Anthropology Curriculum Project and is designed for…

  9. A Man With Intractable Convulsion

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Yun; Cutrona, Anthony; Barreiro, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tetanus is a rare disease in the United States. Fewer than 40 cases are reported annually because of the high incidence of vaccination. Recognition of the clinical presentations is important because laboratory recovery of pathogen is only 30%, and toxin detection is rare because of consumption at motor neurons. We report a case of tetanus in an elderly man who had a reaction to tetanus vaccination as a child and was nonvaccinated through adult life. PMID:27330266

  10. Multiple man-machine interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, L.; Cook, C. W.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple man machine interfaces inherent in military pilot training, their social implications, and the issue of possible negative feedback were explored. Modern technology has produced machines which can see, hear, and touch with greater accuracy and precision than human beings. Consequently, the military pilot is more a systems manager, often doing battle against a target he never sees. It is concluded that unquantifiable human activity requires motivation that is not intrinsic in a machine.

  11. Searching for the ideal MAN tool

    SciTech Connect

    Herron, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    The quantity of online documentation and viewing tools is overwhelming, with the World Wide Web, vendor-supported and local-site documentation and tools, etc. Maintaining the information and tools is equally overwhelming. However, statistics show that MAN usage far exceeds usage of other online documentation tools. But as one knows, MAN has its own problems, and at the forefront are MAN`S many inconsistencies. MAN is the standard Unix (and POSIX) tool which provides good summary information for those already familiar with a command. Well-written manual pages provide a good overall documentation. However, when a particular manual becomes too long, it becomes a cumbersome method to use for reading documentation. The paper describes MAN`s problems and the National Energy Research Supercomputer Center requirements for MAN.

  12. Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bosset, M.

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff date of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step toward larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the space shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low-cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low Earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster - 1300 kg to a 300-km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The Human Factors section deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The Propulsion section contains the Abort System, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and Power Generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the Structures section. The Avionics section includes Navigation, Attitude Determination, Data Processing, Communication systems, and Sensors. The Mission Analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The Systems Integration Section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft, and addressed costing and reliability.

  13. Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosset, M.

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff date of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step toward larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the space shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low-cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low Earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster - 1300 kg to a 300-km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The Human Factors section deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The Propulsion section contains the Abort System, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and Power Generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the Structures section. The Avionics section includes Navigation, Attitude Determination, Data Processing, Communication systems, and Sensors. The Mission Analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The Systems Integration Section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft, and addressed costing and reliability.

  14. Taurus lightweight manned spacecraft Earth orbiting vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, Kevin A.; Vandersall, Eric J.; Plotkin, Jennifer; Travisano, Jeffrey J.; Loveless, Dennis; Kaczmarek, Michael; White, Anthony G.; Est, Andy; Bulla, Gregory; Henry, Chris

    1991-01-01

    The Taurus Lightweight Manned Spacecraft (LMS) was developed by students of the University of Maryland's Aerospace Engineering course in Space Vehicle Design. That course required students to design an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS) to augment or replace the Space Transportation System and meet the following design requirements: (1) launch on the Taurus Booster being developed by Orbital Sciences Corporation; (2) 99.9 percent assured crew survival rate; (3) technology cutoff data of 1 Jan. 1991; (4) compatibility with current space administration infrastructure; and (5) first flight by May 1995. The Taurus LMS design meets the above requirements and represents an initial step towards larger and more complex spacecraft. The Taurus LMS has a very limited application when compared to the Space Shuttle, but it demonstrates that the U.S. can have a safe, reliable, and low cost space system. The Taurus LMS is a short mission duration spacecraft designed to place one man into low earth orbit (LEO). The driving factor for this design was the low payload carrying capabilities of the Taurus Booster--1300 kg to a 300 km orbit. The Taurus LMS design is divided into six major design sections. The human factors system deals with the problems of life support and spacecraft cooling. The propulsion section contains the abort system, the Orbital Maneuvering System (OMS), the Reaction Control System (RCS), and power generation. The thermal protection systems and spacecraft structure are contained in the structures section. The avionics section includes navigation, attitude determination, data processing, communication systems, and sensors. The mission analysis section was responsible for ground processing and spacecraft astrodynamics. The systems integration section pulled the above sections together into one spacecraft and addressed costing and reliability.

  15. Distribution of man-machine controls in space teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of control between man and machine is dependent on the tasks, available technology, human performance characteristics and control goals. This dependency has very specific projections on systems designed for teleoperation in space. This paper gives a brief outline of the space-related issues and presents the results of advanced teleoperator research and development at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). The research and development work includes smart sensors, flexible computer controls and intelligent man-machine interface devices in the area of visual displays and kinesthetic man-machine coupling in remote control of manipulators. Some of the development results have been tested at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) using the simulated full-scale Shuttle Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The research and development work for advanced space teleoperation is far from complete and poses many interdisciplinary challenges.

  16. Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) for markers on chromosome 8q in a human chondrosarcoma cell line and in a tumor that developed in a man with Hereditary Multiple Exostoses (HME)

    SciTech Connect

    Raskind, W.H.; Conrad, E.U.; Robbins, J.R.

    1994-09-01

    HME is an autosomal dominant disorder in which multiple benign cartilage-capped lesions develop on otherwise histologically normal bones. The majority of chondrosarcomas are sporadic, but the presence of HME greatly increases the risk to develop this tumor. Sarcoma may also arise in sporadically-occurring exostoses. The study of inherited disorders that predispose to malignant diseases has led to discoveries regarding molecular changes involved in carcinogenesis in general. In an analogous manner, somatic mutations in HME genes may be responsible for sporadic exostoses and/or chondrosarcomas. HME is genetically heterogeneous; EXT genes have been assigned to 8q24, the pericentromeric region of 11 and 19p11-p13. We compared chondrosarcoma cell DNA to DNA from white blood cells for LOH at polymorphic loci in these 3 regions. LOH for 4 of 5 markers in 8q24 was detected in a chondrosarcoma that arose in a man with HME. Heterozygosity was retained for markers and chromosomes 11 and 19. We then evaluated cultured cells from 10 sporadic chondrosarcomas. LOH for multiple markers in 8q24 was detected in a cell line, Ch-1, established from an aggressive tumor, but not in 9 other tumors. Of the 9 tumors studied, only the Ch-1 line exhibited LOH for chromosome 11 markers. LOH for a 19p marker was not detected in any of 6 tumors examined, including Ch-1. The karyotype of Ch-1 contains many structurally rearranged chromosomes. The two chromosome 11s appear normal but both chromosome 8 homologues have been replaced by der(8)t(5;8)(q22;q21.2). LOH at 8q24 was also detected in the uncultured tumor. These results suggest that genes responsible for HME may have tumor suppressor functions whose loss may be related to the development of a subset of chondrosarcomas.

  17. [Knowledge of Man Returns: Some Considerations on Spirituality and Resilience].

    PubMed

    Kumakura, Nobuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade,"spirituality" and "resilience" have jointly become a topic in psychiatry. The aim of this paper is to discuss the future of psychiatry suggested by this topic. It may be related to what Jaspers, K. called "Knowledge of Man (die Erkenntnis des Menschen)". Knowledge of man in psychiatry can be learned only through clinical experince: e. g., clinical observations and case studies. Modern academic psychiatry seems to be suffering a loss of knowledge of man, which returns periodically in clinical practice. Hence, I will call the re-discovery of the topic in psychiatry as "Return of Man". Since WW II, there have been three eras in which psychiatrists showed deep concern regarding knowledge of man. Firstly, psychopathology and psychotherapy widely developed, when the destructive impulses of mankind were revealed in the nuclear weapons of WW II. Secondly, in the 1970's, the reforms of psychiatric services and legal systems took place somewhat successfully, when social reforms were concerns of the younger generations. Lastly, over the last decade, the topic again returned as spirituality and resilience, when scientists seemed to be powerless in the aftermath of the West Japan Earthquake. Regarding the definition of health made by the WHO in 1946, I further discuss that "Return of Man" in psychiatry is the necessary dynamism between negative and positive health, or between disease control and health promotion. There is an underlying dynamism between "Knowledge of Man" and natural sciences, which is constantly changing. So long as any theory can exist only as a part of dynamism, the Return of Man may re-surface whenever clinical theories do not fit with clinical realities. PMID:26642730

  18. Emblem for the third manned Skylab mission - Skylab 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This is the emblem for the third manned Skylab mission. It will be a mission of up to 56 days. The symbols in the patch refer to the three major areas of investigation proposed in the mission. The tree represents man's natural environment and relates directly to the Skylab mission objectives of advancing the study of Earth resources. The hydrogen atom, as the basic building block of the universe, represents man's exploration of the physical world, his application of knowledge, and his development of technology. Since the Sun is composed primarily of hydrogen, it is appropriate that the symbol refers to the solar physics mission objectives. The human silhouette represents mankind and the human capacity to direct technology with a wisdom tempered by regard for his natural environment. It also directly relates to the Skylab medical studies of man himself. The rainbow, adopted from the Biblical story of the flood, symbolizes the promise that is offered man. It embraces man and extends to t

  19. Editorial Research Reports on Modern Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickinson, William B., Jr., Ed.

    Nine reports published in this volume study the uneasy coexistence of modern man and the complex society he has wrought. Man's apparent disorganized behavior is attributed to his inability to adapt readily to the charged pace of technological change. To combat the advancement of machine over man, he must, therefore, insist that moral and…

  20. 46 CFR 151.45-3 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Manning. 151.45-3 Section 151.45-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-3 Manning. Except as provided for in this section, barges need not be manned unless in the...

  1. 46 CFR 151.45-3 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Manning. 151.45-3 Section 151.45-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-3 Manning. Except as provided for in this section, barges need not be manned unless in the...

  2. 46 CFR 151.45-3 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Manning. 151.45-3 Section 151.45-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-3 Manning. Except as provided for in this section, barges need not be manned unless in the...

  3. 46 CFR 151.45-3 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Manning. 151.45-3 Section 151.45-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-3 Manning. Except as provided for in this section, barges need not be manned unless in the...

  4. 46 CFR 151.45-3 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Manning. 151.45-3 Section 151.45-3 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Operations § 151.45-3 Manning. Except as provided for in this section, barges need not be manned unless in the...

  5. 77 FR 23806 - Manning Rail, Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-Manning Grain Company

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Manning Rail, Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--Manning Grain Company Manning Rail, Inc. (MRI), a noncarrier, has filed a verified notice of exemption \\1\\ under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from Manning...

  6. Technology and the Nature of Man: Biological Considerations. An Occasional Paper on Man/Society/Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherwood, Lauralee

    This seminar paper explores biological aspects of the man-technology relationship. From man's beginning and continuing into the future, technology is interwoven extensively in the biological fabric of man. Five facets of the biology-technology interaction are examined: (1) technological innovations enabling man to learn about his biological…

  7. Adaptive myelination from fish to man.

    PubMed

    Baraban, Marion; Mensch, Sigrid; Lyons, David A

    2016-06-15

    Myelinated axons with nodes of Ranvier are an evolutionary elaboration common to essentially all jawed vertebrates. Myelin made by Schwann cells in our peripheral nervous system and oligodendrocytes in our central nervous system has been long known to facilitate rapid energy efficient nerve impulse propagation. However, it is now also clear, particularly in the central nervous system, that myelin is not a simple static insulator but that it is dynamically regulated throughout development and life. New myelin sheaths can be made by newly differentiating oligodendrocytes, and mature myelin sheaths can be stimulated to grow again in the adult. Furthermore, numerous studies in models from fish to man indicate that neuronal activity can affect distinct stages of oligodendrocyte development and the process of myelination itself. This begs questions as to how these effects of activity are mediated at a cellular and molecular level and whether activity-driven adaptive myelination is a feature common to all myelinated axons, or indeed all oligodendrocytes, or is specific to cells or circuits with particular functions. Here we review the recent literature on this topic, elaborate on the key outstanding questions in the field, and look forward to future studies that incorporate investigations in systems from fish to man that will provide further insight into this fundamental aspect of nervous system plasticity. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution. PMID:26498877

  8. A soft panel based simulator for man machine research

    SciTech Connect

    Nagata, Katsumi; Uchiyama, Kenji; Unneberg, H.

    1996-11-01

    This paper describes the first research Man Machine simulator in the nuclear field in Japan. The simulator was developed during 1993-1995. Since late 1995 the simulator is used for both Man Machine research and research of operator training. The simulator is installed at TEPCO Nuclear Power R&D Center in Yokohama. Man Machine studies by the Japanese BWR group have been performed on training simulators in Japan since 1984. Training simulators have certain limitations, it is difficult to reconfigure panel instrumentation, therefore TEPCO decided during 1992 to develop a special purpose simulator. The developed simulator was a collaborative effort between TEPCO, TEC and EuroSim AB. The Man Machine simulator models an 1100 MWe nuclear power plant in TEPCO. The Man Machine interface consists of emulated soft panels (CRT based) of real plant panels. The soft panel displays can also produce non-replica images such as process diagrams, logic diagrams and core images such as process diagrams, logic diagrams and core images that are not accessible in the actual plant or a traditional full scope replica simulator. The panel hardware is fully flexible, thus allowing changes to CRT height, position and viewing arrangements.

  9. Design and Construction of Manned Lunar Base

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhijie

    2016-07-01

    Building manned lunar base is one of the core aims of human lunar exploration project, which is also an important way to carry out the exploitation and utilization of lunar in situ resources. The most important part of manned lunar base is the design and construction of living habitation and many factors should be considered including science objective and site selection. Through investigating and research, the scientific goals of manned lunar base should be status and characteristics ascertainment of lunar available in situ resources, then developing necessary scientific experiments and utilization of lunar in situ resources by using special environment conditions of lunar surface. The site selection strategy of manned lunar base should rely on scientific goals according to special lunar surface environment and engineering capacity constraints, meanwhile, consulting the landing sites of foreign unmanned and manned lunar exploration, and choosing different typical regions of lunar surface and analyzing the landform and physiognomy, reachability, thermal environment, sunlight condition, micro meteoroids protection and utilization of in situ resources, after these steps, a logical lunar living habitation site should be confirmed. This paper brings out and compares three kinds of configurations with fabricating processes of manned lunar base, including rigid module, flexible and construction module manned lunar base. 1.The rigid habitation module is usually made by metal materials. The design and fabrication may consult the experience of space station, hence with mature technique. Because this configuration cannot be folded or deployed, which not only afford limit working and living room for astronauts, but also needs repetitious cargo transit between earth and moon for lunar base extending. 2. The flexible module habitation can be folded in fairing while launching. When deploying on moon, the configuration can be inflatable or mechanically-deployed, which means under

  10. Radioactivity and Man Minicourse, Career Oriented Pre-Technical Physics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dallas Independent School District, TX.

    This instructional guide, intended for student use, develops the subject of radioactivity and man through a series of sequential activities. A technical development of the subject is pursued with examples stressing practical aspects of the concepts. Included in the minicourse are: (1) the rationale, (2) terminal behavioral objectives, (3) enabling…

  11. Effects of weightlessness in man.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berry, C. A.

    1973-01-01

    The program for the Apollo 16 flight was designed to include both safeguards against and investigations of the physiological problems arising from increase in the period of manned space flight. Precautions included the provision of a controlled diet with high potassium content, carefully controlled work loads and work-rest cycles, and an emergency cardiology consultation service, and investigations were made to enable preflight vs postflight comparisons of metabolic, cardiovascular, and central nervous system data. Results of these investigations indicate that adjustment to weightlessness can be satisfactorily assisted by appropriate countermeasures, including attention to diet.

  12. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-01-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hangar, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  13. Manned Mars mission accommodation: Sprint mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirillo, William M.; Kaszubowski, Martin J.; Ayers, J. Kirk; Llewellyn, Charles P.; Weidman, Deene J.; Meredith, Barry D.

    1988-04-01

    The results of a study conducted at the NASA-LaRC to assess the impacts on the Phase 2 Space Station of Accommodating a Manned Mission to Mars are documented. In addition, several candidate transportation node configurations are presented to accommodate the assembly and verification of the Mars Mission vehicles. This study includes an identification of a life science research program that would need to be completed, on-orbit, prior to mission departure and an assessment of the necessary orbital technology development and demonstration program needed to accomplish the mission. Also included is an analysis of the configuration mass properties and a preliminary analysis of the Space Station control system sizing that would be required to control the station. Results of the study indicate the Phase 2 Space Station can support a manned mission to Mars with the addition of a supporting infrastructure that includes a propellant depot, assembly hanger, and a heavy lift launch vehicle to support the large launch requirements.

  14. Radiation Shielding for Manned Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, James H., Jr.

    2003-01-01

    The arrival of the Expedition 1 Crew at the International Space Station represents the beginning of the continuous presence of man in space. Already we are deploying astronauts and cosmonauts for missions of approx. 6 months onboard the ISS. In the future we can anticipate that more people will be in space and they will be there for longer periods. Even with 6-months deployments to the ISS, the radiation exposure that crew members receive is approaching the exposure limits imposed by the governments of the space- faring nations. In the future we can expect radiation protection to be a dominant consideration for long manned missions. Recognizing this, NASA has expanded their research program on radiation health. This program has three components, bioastronautics, fundamental biology and radiation shielding materials. Bioastronautics is concerned with the investigating the effects of radiation on humans. Fundamental biology investigates the basic mechanisms of radiation damage to tissue. Radiation shielding materials research focuses on developing accurate computational tools to predict the radiation shielding effectiveness of materials. It also investigates new materials that can be used for spacecraft. The radiation shielding materials program will be described and examples of results from the ongoing research will be shown.

  15. Man-portable networked sensor system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryan, W. D.; Nguyen, Hoa G.; Gage, Douglas W.

    1998-08-01

    The Man-Portable Networked Sensor System (MPNSS), with its baseline sensor suite of a pan/tilt unit with video and FLIR cameras and laser rangefinder, functions in a distributed network of remote sensing packages and control stations designed to provide a rapidly deployable, extended-range surveillance capability for a wide variety of security operations and other tactical missions. While first developed as a man-portable prototype, these sensor packages can also be deployed on UGVs and UAVs, and a copy of this package been demonstrated flying on the Sikorsky Cypher VTOL UAV in counterdrug and MOUNT scenarios. The system makes maximum use of COTS components for sensing, processing, and communications, and of both established and emerging standard communications networking protocols and system integration techniques. This paper will discuss the technical issues involved in: (1) system integration using COTS components and emerging bus standards, (2) flexible networking for a scalable system, and (3) the human interface designed to maximize information presentation to the warfighter in battle situations.

  16. [The man on the portrait].

    PubMed

    Bergstrand, A

    1996-01-01

    Marie Curie was awarded the Nobel Prize in chemistry 1911. During the preceding year a rumour had circulated in Stockholm that she had had an affaire with one of her assistants. She received a letter, in which she was told that there had been strong opposition to her election not on scientific but moral grounds, and that she should not go to Stockholm, because nobody could forsee what reactions her appearance at the prize ceremony could evoke. Emil Kleen, a man of violent temper and radical opinions, reacted strongly to these rumours. He wrote a paper, with a violent attack on Gustaf Retzius, previous professor of Histology at Karolinska Institutet. Rightly or wrongly he suspected him to be the author of the infamous letter. Retzius is described as a dilletant in scientific matters, as a "sexual hyena" and a garroulus old man. This portrait of Retzius is of course most unfair, but the portrait of Emil Kleen by the famous swedish artist Bruno Liljefors is a masterpiece and one of the most valuable of the Swedish Medical Association. PMID:11624972

  17. Leukemia in Animals and Man

    PubMed Central

    Theilen, Gordon H.; Dungworth, Donald L.; Kawakami, Thomas G.

    1968-01-01

    General comparative aspects of leukemia were reviewed. Leukemia in adult cattle occurs frequently within certain multiple case herds. Cattle in these herds often have persistent lymphocytosis and increased numbers of atypical lymphocytes in blood. Attempts are being made to demonstrate the frequency in which this is a “pre-leukemic” or “perileukemic” condition. With the recognition of viral causative agent(s) in chickens, laboratory rodents and cats, there is increased interest in the leukemia of dogs, cattle and other animals, for the disease in these animals may serve as valuable models in the study and isolation of human leukemogenic agents. Epidemiologic and clinicopathologic aspects of animal leukemias share comparative similarities with themselves and with lymphoreticular neoplasms of man. Causative factor(s) probably act on the host, regardless of species, in a similar fashion. It is not likely, but neither improbable, that leukemia in domesticated animals and leukemia in man share common causal relationships. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2. PMID:18730090

  18. Design challenges for tomorrow's manned launch systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowell, Lawrence F.

    1993-02-01

    This paper attempts to capture some of the technical and national challenges facing the design of America's next manned launch system (MLS). There are three basic paths for pursuing tomorrow's MLS; each with variations. Some characteristics that will be sought regardless of the concept selected include low development (or front-end) and life-cycle costs, safety, operability, availability, and a host of other 'ilities'. In order to discriminate among the concepts, a robust design environment and a variety of new and improved analysis tools are needed that produce critical metrics in a timely, efficient manner from a large study space. This paper presents some of the challenges in development, integration, and application of optimization, costing, operations modeling, and several engineering disciplinary tools including geometry modeling, structures, aerodynamics/aeroheating, and trajectory/performance.

  19. Aerothermodynamics of manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Chul; Davies, Carol B.

    1989-01-01

    The aerothermodynamic problems associated with the aerobraking of the spacecraft proposed for the manned Mars mission are studied. The propulsive Delta V necessary at departure from earth and Mars and the velocities of the atmospheric entries into the two planets are deduced. It is shown that the propulsive Delta V can be reduced by increasing the entry velocities and that entry velocities up to about 15 km/sec are appropriate at both earth and Mars. L/D values of 0.8 and 2.0 are found to be necessary at earth and Mars, respectively. Density, pressure, and stagnation-point convective-heat-transfer rates are calculated for the typical aerobraking flights. Assuming the shock layer flow to be in equilibrium, the stagnation-point radiative-heat-transfer rates are calculated to be larger than the convective-heat-transfer rates. The possible impact of ablation, turbulence, and nonequilibrium are discussed.

  20. Manned maneuvering unit: User's guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lenda, J. A.

    1978-01-01

    The space shuttle will provide an opportunity to extend and enhance the crew's inherent capabilities in orbit by allowing them to operate effectively outside of their spacecraft by means of extravehicular activity. For this role, the shuttle crew will have a new, easier to don and operate space suit with integral life support system, and a self-contained propulsive backpack. The backpack, called the manned maneuvering unit, will allow the crew to operate beyond the confines of the Shuttle cargo bay and fly to any part of their own spacecraft or to nearby free-flying payloads or structure. This independent mobility will be used to support a wide variety of activities including free-space transfer of cargo and personnel, inspection and monitoring of orbital operations, and construction and assembly of large structures in orbit.

  1. Biomarkers of immunotoxicity in man.

    PubMed

    Descotes, J; Nicolas, B; Vial, T; Nicolas, J F

    1996-01-01

    Abstract The immunotoxic consequences of chemical exposures include direct immunotoxicity (namely immunosuppression and immunostimulation), hypersensitivity and autoimmunity, and because the mechanisms involved are markedly different, no single immune parameter is likely to ever predict or assess all three types of immunotoxicity. A fairly large number of immunological endpoints have been proposed for use as biomarkers of immunotoxicity in man. Unfortunately, they are often not sensitive enough and/or poorly standardized, so that their relevance for assessing immunotoxic effects in humans is debatable, and actually debated. Immune-mediated sentinel events detected in individuals with a defined history of chemical exposure, may prove helpful until methodological advances, notably with the introduction of technologies derived from molecular biology, provide reliable parameters to be used as biomarkers of immunotoxicity. PMID:23888916

  2. Fire extinguishers for manned spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopylov, S.; Smirnov, N. V.; Tanklevsky, L. T.

    2015-04-01

    Based on an analysis of fires in the oxygen-enriched atmosphere conditions in spacecraft and other sealed chambers of various purposes, the most dangerous groups of fires are identified. For this purpose, groups were compiled to analyze dependences that describe the increase of fire hazard to a critical value. A criterion for determining timely and effective fire extinguishing was offered. Fire experiments in oxygen-enriched atmosphere conditions were conducted, and an array of experimental data on the mass burning rate of materials and their extinguishing by water mist was obtained. Relationships colligating an array of experimental data were offered. Experimental and analytical studies were taken as a basis for hand fire extinguisher implementation for manned spacecraft.

  3. Conceptual design of a manned orbital transfer vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Richard; Duquette, Miles; Fredrick, Rebecca; Schumacher, Daniel; Somers, Schaeffer; Stafira, Stanley; Williams, James; Zelinka, Mark

    1988-01-01

    With the advent of the manned space station, man now requires a spacecraft based on the space station with the ability to deploy, recover, and repair satellites quickly and economically. Such a craft would prolong and enhance the life and performance of many satellites. A basic design was developed for an orbital tansfer vehicle (OTV). The basic design criteria are discussed. The design of the OTV and systems were researched in the following areas: avionics, crew systems, electrical power systems, environmental control/life support systems, navigation and orbital maneuvers, propulsion systems, reaction control systems (RCS), servicing systems, and structures. The basic concepts in each of the areas are summarized.

  4. Human performance issues arising from manned space station missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Douglas, William K.

    1986-01-01

    Ten former NASA astronauts were interviewed using a set of 51 questions developed to encourage the contacts to discuss any thoughts, opinions, conclusions, or suggestions which might have evolved since they left the astronaut program. Strict confidentiality was maintained. At least one astronaut from each of the NASA manned space flight programs, excluding the Space Transportation System (Shuttle), was interviewed. The report records the answers to the questions asked, spontaneous comments, and the investigator's own personal evaluations of the material obtained. No statistical analysis of the material was attempted. The professional opinions of these ten experienced astronauts will be of value to persons concerned with the design and operation of manned spacecraft and manned space stations.

  5. A Reminder of Methylene Blue's Effectiveness in Treating Vasoplegic Syndrome after On-Pump Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Lisa; Tadros, Hany B.; Munfakh, Nabil A.

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory response induced by cardiopulmonary bypass decreases vascular tone, which in turn can lead to vasoplegic syndrome. Indeed the hypotension consequent to on-pump cardiac surgery often necessitates vasopressor and intravenous fluid support. Methylene blue counteracts vasoplegic syndrome by inhibiting the formation of nitric oxide. We report the use of methylene blue in a 75-year-old man who developed vasoplegic syndrome after cardiac surgery. After the administration of methylene blue, his hypotension improved to the extent that he could be weaned from vasopressors. The use of methylene blue should be considered in patients who develop hypotension refractory to standard treatment after cardiac surgery. PMID:26504450

  6. TRAINING RESEARCH UTILIZING MAN-COMPUTER INTERACTIONS, PROMISE AND REALITY.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MCCLELLAND, WILLIAM A.

    THE PAPER WAS PRESENTED AS PART OF THE AVIONICS PANEL PROGRAM ON NATURAL AND ARTIFICIAL LOGIC PROCESSORS, SPONSORED BY THE ADVISORY GROUP FOR AERONAUTICAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT, NATO. SEVERAL CONCEPTUAL PROPOSITIONS IN REGARD TO MAN AND THE COMPUTER ARE OFFERED. THE NATURE OF TRAINING RESEARCH IS EXAMINED. THERE IS ALSO A BRIEF CATEGORIZATION…

  7. Man's Impact on the Environment: The Estuary as an Ecosystem.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard County School Board, Cocoa, FL.

    This environmental education guide focuses on man's impact on the estuary. The program contained in the guide is developed around the following nine questions: (1) What is a definition of the ecosystem being investigated?; (2) What are some of the biotic and abiotic features of the ecosystem and how do these features interrelate?; (3) Where are…

  8. Marine Habitats. Man and the Gulf of Mexico Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Bobby N.; And Others

    "Man and the Gulf of Mexico (MGM)" is a marine science curriculum developed to meet the marine science needs of tenth through twelfth grade students in Mississippi and Alabama schools. This MGM unit, which focuses on marine habitats, contains an introduction (with unit objectives and brief introductory comments) followed by five sections, each…

  9. Sensors, controls, and man-machine interface for advanced teleoperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bejczy, A. K.

    1980-01-01

    Some advances are reviewed which have been made in teleoperator (i.e., mechanical activities performed by mechanical devices at a remote site under remote control) technology through introduction of sensors, computers, automation, and new man-machine interface devices and techniques for remote manipulator control. The state of the art is summarized and some basic problems and challenging developments are examined.

  10. Marine and Estuarine Ecology. Man and the Gulf of Mexico.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Irby, Bobby N.; And Others

    "Man and the Gulf of Mexico (MGM)" is a marine science curriculum developed to meet the marine science needs of tenth through twelfth grade students in Mississippi and Alabama schools. This MGM unit, which focuses on marine and estuarine ecology, is divided into six sections. The first section contains unit objectives, discussions of the estuarine…

  11. Intelligent man/machine interfaces on the space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daughtrey, Rodney S.

    1987-01-01

    Some important topics in the development of good, intelligent, usable man/machine interfaces for the Space Station are discussed. These computer interfaces should adhere strictly to three concepts or doctrines: generality, simplicity, and elegance. The motivation for natural language interfaces and their use and value on the Space Station, both now and in the future, are discussed.

  12. Rover technology for manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, Gail

    1986-01-01

    A set of roving vehicle design requirements were postulated, corresponding to an idealized Mars transport vehicle operational scenario which could serve as a reference for a manned Mars mission. The ability of conventional vehicles to satisfy these requirements were examined. The study indicated that no conventional vehicle could satisfy all of the requirements, as the vehicles are presently configured. Consequently, the requirements have to either be relaxed and/or an alternative, less conventional vehicle design will have to be developed. A possible unconventional vehicle design which has received considerable attention for DARPA and the Army is the walker vehicle. The design issues associated with this vehicle are presented, along with a comparison of the performance capabilities of this technology vs. conventional vehicle technology.

  13. Human impact: man's role in environmental change

    SciTech Connect

    Goudie, A.

    1982-01-01

    Drawing upon worldwide examples, the author traces mankind's interaction with nature and examines human interference with environmental systems at various stages of social development. Succeeding chapters take up man's specific impact on vegetation, animals, the soil, the waters, landforms, climate, and the atmosphere. With the aid of maps, diagrams, and graphs, the book analyzes the causes and consequences of environmental changes associated with such large-scale events as agricultural expansion, domestication, deforestation, and urbanization, including the spread of salination, extinction, erosion, and pollution. Interrelations, often dynamic and unpredictable, between these phenomena make it difficult to isolate the causes of changes and to determine the resiliency of natural systems to change. 505 references, 82 figures, 97 tables.

  14. Earth orbital operations supporting manned interplanetary missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherwood, Brent; Buddington, Patricia A.; Whittaker, William L.

    The orbital operations required to accumulate, assemble, test, verify, maintain, and launch complex manned space systems on interplanetary missions from earth orbit are as vital as the flight hardware itself. Vast numbers of orbital crew are neither necessary nor desirable for accomplishing the required tasks. A suite of robotic techniques under human supervisory control, relying on sensors, software and manipulators either currently emergent or already applied in terrestrial settings, can make the job tractable. The mission vehicle becomes largely self-assembling, using its own rigid aerobrake as a work platform. The Space Station, having been used as a laboratory testbed and to house an assembly crew of four, is not dominated by the process. A feasible development schedule, if begun soon, could emplace orbital support technologies for exploration missions in time for a 2004 first interplanetary launch.

  15. Immunodeficiency following neonatal thymectomy in man.

    PubMed Central

    Brearley, S; Gentle, T A; Baynham, M I; Roberts, K D; Abrams, L D; Thompson, R A

    1987-01-01

    Patients undergoing cardiac bypass operations normally have a thymectomy to facilitate cannulation of the great vessels. Laboratory indices of immune function were measured in 18 children aged 9 months to 3 years who had had a thymectomy when aged 3 months or less, and in two groups of controls individually matched for age and age at operation. Total lymphocyte numbers were similar in all three groups but thymectomized children had significantly lower numbers of T cells and T cell sub-sets than controls and showed diminished responses to phytohaemagglutinin and concanavalin A. Children who have had a thymectomy early in life represent an important group in the study of the development of the immune system in man. Although the clinical consequences of early thymectomy are unclear, evidence of impairment of parameters of immunity have been found in later infancy and routine thymectomy in paediatric cardiac surgery should be avoided. PMID:3427824

  16. Calysto: Risk Management for Commercial Manned Spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dillaman, Gary

    2012-01-01

    The Calysto: Risk Management for Commercial Manned Spaceflight study analyzes risk management in large enterprises and how to effectively communicate risks across organizations. The Calysto Risk Management tool developed by NASA's Kennedy Space Center's SharePoint team is used and referenced throughout the study. Calysto is a web-base tool built on Microsoft's SharePoint platform. The risk management process at NASA is examined and incorporated in the study. Using risk management standards from industry and specific organizations at the Kennedy Space Center, three methods of communicating and elevating risk are examined. Each method describes details of the effectiveness and plausibility of using the method in the Calysto Risk Management Tool. At the end of the study suggestions are made for future renditions of Calysto.

  17. A middle man approach to knowledge acquisition in expert systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Janice A.; Lin, Min-Jin; Mayer, Richard J.; Sterle, Mark E.

    1990-01-01

    The Weed Control Advisor (WCA) is a robust expert system that has been successfully implemented on an IBM AT class microcomputer in CLIPS. The goal of the WCA was to demonstrate the feasibility of providing an economical, efficient, user friendly system through which Texas rice producers could obtain expert level knowledge regarding herbicide application for weed control. During the development phase of the WCA, an improved knowledge acquisition method which we call the Middle Man Approach (MMA) was applied to facilitate the communication process between the domain experts and the knowledge engineer. The MMA served to circumvent the problems associated with the more traditional forms of knowledge acquisition by placing the Middle Man, a semi-expert in the problem domain with some computer expertise, at the site of system development. The middle man was able to contribute to system development in two major ways. First, the Middle Man had experience working in rice production and could assume many of the responsibilities normally performed by the domain experts such as explaining the background of the problem domain and determining the important relations. Second, the Middle Man was familiar with computers and worked closely with the system developers to update the rules after the domain experts reviewed the prototype, contribute to the help menus and explanation portions of the expert system, conduct the testing that is required to insure that the expert system gives the expected results answer questions in a timely way, help the knowledge engineer structure the domain knowledge into a useable form, and provide insight into the end user's profile which helped in the development of the simple user friendly interface. The final results were not only that both time expended and costs were greatly reduced by using the MMA, but the quality of the system was improved. This papa will introduce the WCA system and then discuss traditional knowledge acquisition along with

  18. Man's Inhumanity to Man: A Case in Point: The Nazi Holocaust. A Resource for Connecticut Teachers, Grades 7-12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Connecticut State Dept. of Education, Hartford.

    This teacher resource contains readings, discussion questions, and learning activities on the Holocaust for use with junior and senior high school students. The materials can be used in social studies and literature classes. The developers believe that it is the obligation of educators to make youth aware of the widespread existence of man's…

  19. A modular approach for assessing the effect of radiation environments on man in operational systems. The radiobiological vulnerability of man during task performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewing, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    A modular approach for assessing the affects of radiation environments on man in operational systems has been developed. The feasibility of the model has been proved and the practicality has been assessed. It has been applied to one operational system to date and information obtained has been submitted to systems analysts and mission planners for the assessment of man's vulnerability and impact on systems survivability. In addition, the model has been developed so that the radiobiological data can be input to a sophisticated man-machine interface model to properly relate the radiobiological stress with other mission stresses including the effects of a degraded system.

  20. Positive Influence of 177Lu PSMA-617 Therapy on Bone Marrow Depression Caused by Metastatic Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Schlenkhoff, Carl Diedrich; Gaertner, Florian; Essler, Markus; Schmidt, Matthias; Ahmadzadehfar, Hojjat

    2016-06-01

    A 75-year-old man with castrate-resistant prostate cancer and increasing prostate-specific antigen (PSA) level developed severe bone marrow depression during Ra radionuclide therapy. Because of this, he was treated with Lu-PSMA in compassionate use for this not-yet-approved therapy. At the beginning of Lu-PSMA therapy, repeated blood transfusions (BT) were necessary. Six months after the last BT, after 3 cycles of Lu-PSMA, his blood count stabilized. He required no further BTs and his PSA level remained lowered. PMID:26909716

  1. Complete Penile Necrosis in a Patient With Heparin-induced Thrombocytopenia: A Case Report*

    PubMed Central

    Blais, Anne-Sophie; Deschênes Rompré, Marie-Pier; Lacombe, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Penile necrosis is a rare condition that has been mostly described in association with diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal disease. We report an unusual case of acute penile necrosis because of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. A 75-year-old man presented with acute renal failure and experienced cardiac complications during the hospitalization. The patient was treated twice with intravenous heparin. He developed symptoms of penile necrosis 4 days after the reintroduction of heparin. At that moment, the platelet count dropped by 61%, and the analysis of heparin-pf4 antibodies was positive for heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. The patient underwent a total penectomy and a perineal urethrostomy. PMID:26954936

  2. [Fulminant ischemic gastropathy: the final stage of a difficult-to-diagnose disease].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Perálvarez, Manuel Luís; Jurado-García, Juan; Benítez-Cantero, José M; Vignote-Alguacil, Marisa; González-Galilea, Angel; Pleguezuelo-Navarro, María; González-Menchen, Alberto; Gómez-Morá, Alejandro; De Dios Vega, Juan Francisco

    2010-12-01

    Ischemic gastropathy is highly infrequent in daily medical practice. In the last few years, the number of reported cases has increased. Although the guiding symptom is usually abdominal pain, the clinical spectrum of the disease is highly variable. Early diagnosis and treatment are essential to change the natural history of the disease. We present the case of a 75-year-old man with chronic abdominal pain who developed a fulminant form of necrotizing gastric ischemia and died within less than 24h. PMID:21051112

  3. Pancreatitis-Induced Extrahepatic Portal Vein Stenosis Treated by Percutaneous Transhepatic Stent Placement: a Case Report

    SciTech Connect

    Maleux, G. Vaninbroukx, J.; Verslype, C.; Vanbeckevoort, D.; Hootegem, P. van; Nevens, F.

    2003-08-15

    One month after onset of an acute biliary pancreatitis, a 75-year-old man developed refractory ascites. Duplex ultrasound and CT scan revealed a focal stenosis of the extrahepatic portal vein as confirmed by transhepatic direct portography. In the same session, this stenosis, responsible for symptomatic prehepaticportal hypertension, was successfully dilated and stented and afterwards a residual pressure gradient of 1 mmHg over the stented segment was measured. One week after the stenting procedure the patient was free of ascites and control physical and biochemical examination one year later is completely normal.

  4. Learning Processes in Man, Machine and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malita, Mircea

    1977-01-01

    Deciphering the learning mechanism which exists in man remains to be solved. This article examines the learning process with respect to association and cybernetics. It is recommended that research should focus on the transdisciplinary processes of learning which could become the next key concept in the science of man. (Author/MA)

  5. Resources and Man, A Study and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, National Research Council, Washington, DC. Div. of Earth Sciences.

    Presented are the results of two years of inquiry by the Committee on Resources and Man established by the National Academy of Sciences. Chapters 1 and 2 pose the problem: since resources are finite, as population increases the ratio of resources to man must eventually fall to an unacceptable level. Chapter 3 considers the possibility of evading…

  6. Man's Size in Terms of Fundamental Constants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, William H.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews calculations that derive an order of magnitude expression for the size of man in terms of fundamental constants, assuming that man satifies these three properties: he is made of complicated molecules; he requires an atmosphere which is not hydrogen and helium; he is as large as possible. (CS)

  7. 33 CFR 143.407 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be...

  8. On the Naturalist Nature of Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graber, Richard R.

    1969-01-01

    Suggests that man, endowed with intellect, has a moral obligation to revere and to conserve all forms of life. In addition, human resources are to be applied toward ecological investigation and education. A warning is sounded against man's continual plundering of the earth's resources. (LC)

  9. Man Is the Measure...the Measurer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stone, Mark H.

    1998-01-01

    The science of metrology has moved from man as the measure to man as the measurer. This transformation is documented with examples from the history of metrology. Outcome measures, which rest on the same history of measurement, are units constructed and maintained for their utility, constancy, and generality. (Author/SLD)

  10. Teaching Ideas About Man and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phoenix Union High School District, AZ.

    This is a collection of papers which resulted from an assignment given in a seminar dealing with the topic Man and His Environment at Phoenix Union High School, Arizona. The interdisciplinary seminar focused on the relationships between man and his physical environment. Its purpose was to introduce the participants to the spectrum of environmental…

  11. 33 CFR 143.407 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be crewed in accordance with their certificate...

  12. 33 CFR 143.407 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be crewed in accordance with their certificate...

  13. 33 CFR 143.407 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be crewed in accordance with their certificate...

  14. 33 CFR 143.407 - Manning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manning. 143.407 Section 143.407 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Standby Vessels § 143.407 Manning. Standby vessels must be crewed in accordance with their certificate...

  15. Marihuana in Man: Three Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollister, Leo E.

    1971-01-01

    Reviews three years of research on the effects of marihuana in man. Previously known clinical mental and physical effects have been confirmed. Causes and mechanisms of these effects generally remain undetermined in man and animals. Social implications and long term effects require additional study, although usage appears detrimental. (JM)

  16. Human Behaviour and the Origin of Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raleigh, M. J.; Washburn, S. L.

    1973-01-01

    The study of origin and evolution of man gives new perspective for understanding his behavior. Physical behaviors such as walking and throwing are results of biological evolution which has not kept pace with sociocultural evolution. Irrational decisions by man in social, cultural, and political fields are results of this brain activity. (PS)

  17. Alternative Frameworks for the Study of Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markova, Ivana

    1979-01-01

    Two frameworks for the study of man are discussed. The Cartesian model views man as a physical object. A dialectic framework, with the emphasis on the self, grew out of nineteenth century romanticism and reflects the theories of Hegel. Both models have had an effect on social psychology and the study of interpersonal communication. (BH)

  18. THE MAN MADE WORLD, TEACHER'S MANUAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission on Engineering Education, Washington, DC.

    THIS TEACHER'S MANUAL FOR THE ENGINEERING CONCEPTS CURRICULUM PROJECT'S HIGH SCHOOL COURSE, "THE MAN MADE WORLD," IS THE THIRD DRAFT OF THE EXPERIMENTAL VERSION. THE MATERIAL WRITTEN BY ENGINEERS, SCIENTISTS, AND EDUCATORS, EMPHASIZES ENGINEERING--MAN'S APPLICATION OF SCIENTIFIC PRINCIPLES TO THE CONTROL AND UTILIZATION OF HIS ENVIRONMENT.…

  19. Human capabilities in space. [man machine interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicogossian, A. E.

    1984-01-01

    Man's ability to live and perform useful work in space was demonstrated throughout the history of manned space flight. Current planning envisions a multi-functional space station. Man's unique abilities to respond to the unforeseen and to operate at a level of complexity exceeding any reasonable amount of previous planning distinguish him from present day machines. His limitations, however, include his inherent inability to survive without protection, his limited strength, and his propensity to make mistakes when performing repetitive and monotonous tasks. By contrast, an automated system does routine and delicate tasks, exerts force smoothly and precisely, stores, and recalls large amounts of data, and performs deductive reasoning while maintaining a relative insensitivity to the environment. The establishment of a permanent presence of man in space demands that man and machines be appropriately combined in spaceborne systems. To achieve this optimal combination, research is needed in such diverse fields as artificial intelligence, robotics, behavioral psychology, economics, and human factors engineering.

  20. The ancestry and affiliations of Kennewick Man.

    PubMed

    Rasmussen, Morten; Sikora, Martin; Albrechtsen, Anders; Korneliussen, Thorfinn Sand; Moreno-Mayar, J Víctor; Poznik, G David; Zollikofer, Christoph P E; Ponce de León, Marcia S; Allentoft, Morten E; Moltke, Ida; Jónsson, Hákon; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malhi, Ripan S; Orlando, Ludovic; Bustamante, Carlos D; Stafford, Thomas W; Meltzer, David J; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2015-07-23

    Kennewick Man, referred to as the Ancient One by Native Americans, is a male human skeleton discovered in Washington state (USA) in 1996 and initially radiocarbon dated to 8,340-9,200 calibrated years before present (BP). His population affinities have been the subject of scientific debate and legal controversy. Based on an initial study of cranial morphology it was asserted that Kennewick Man was neither Native American nor closely related to the claimant Plateau tribes of the Pacific Northwest, who claimed ancestral relationship and requested repatriation under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). The morphological analysis was important to judicial decisions that Kennewick Man was not Native American and that therefore NAGPRA did not apply. Instead of repatriation, additional studies of the remains were permitted. Subsequent craniometric analysis affirmed Kennewick Man to be more closely related to circumpacific groups such as the Ainu and Polynesians than he is to modern Native Americans. In order to resolve Kennewick Man's ancestry and affiliations, we have sequenced his genome to ∼1× coverage and compared it to worldwide genomic data including for the Ainu and Polynesians. We find that Kennewick Man is closer to modern Native Americans than to any other population worldwide. Among the Native American groups for whom genome-wide data are available for comparison, several seem to be descended from a population closely related to that of Kennewick Man, including the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville), one of the five tribes claiming Kennewick Man. We revisit the cranial analyses and find that, as opposed to genome-wide comparisons, it is not possible on that basis to affiliate Kennewick Man to specific contemporary groups. We therefore conclude based on genetic comparisons that Kennewick Man shows continuity with Native North Americans over at least the last eight millennia. PMID:26087396

  1. Manned spaceflight in the nineties: The European perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finke, W.

    1985-01-01

    The inaugural speech for the international space travel symposium which took place in Bad Godesberg, West Germany on 2 Oct. 1985 explains why Europe must take an active part in all aspects of manned space travel for the nineties, including the development of the space station itself and the development of its own reusable space transport and supporting ground equipment to proceed on an equal share basis with the US and Japan while maintaining close international cooperation.

  2. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael (Editor); Shaw, Tianna

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood/urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions. SUMMARY The NASA Exploration Laboratory Analysis project seeks to develop capability to diagnose anticipated space exploration medical conditions on future manned missions. To achieve

  3. The Ancestry and Affiliations of Kennewick Man

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Morten; Poznik, G. David; Zollikofer, Christoph P. E.; de León, Marcia Ponce; Allentoft, Morten E.; Moltke, Ida; Jónsson, Hákon; Valdiosera, Cristina; Malhi, Ripan S.; Orlando, Ludovic; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Stafford, Thomas W.; Meltzer, David J.; Nielsen, Rasmus; Willerslev, Eske

    2016-01-01

    Kennewick Man, referred to as the Ancient One by Native Americans, is a male human skeleton discovered in Washington state (USA) in 1996 and initially radiocarbon-dated to 8340–9200 calibrated years BP1. His population affinities have been the subject of scientific debate and legal controversy. Based on initial study of cranial morphology it was asserted that Kennewick Man was neither Native American nor closely related to the Claimant Plateau tribes of the Pacific Northwest, who claimed ancestral relationship and requested repatriation under the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). The morphological analysis was important to judicial decisions that Kennewick Man was not Native American and that therefore NAGPRA did not apply. Instead of repatriation, additional studies of the remains were permitted2. Subsequent craniometric analysis affirmed Kennewick Man to be more closely related to circumpacific groups such as the Ainu and Polynesians than he is to modern Native Americans2. In order to resolve Kennewick Man’s ancestry and affiliations, we have sequenced his genome to ~1× coverage and compared it to worldwide genomic data including the Ainu and Polynesians. We find that Kennewick Man is closer to modern Native Americans than to any other population worldwide. Among the Native American groups for whom genome wide data is available for comparison, several appear to be descended from a population closely related to that of Kennewick Man, including the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation (Colville), one of the five tribes claiming Kennewick Man. We revisit the cranial analyses and find that, as opposed to genomic-wide comparisons, it is not possible on that basis to affiliate Kennewick Man to specific contemporary groups. We therefore conclude based on genetic comparisons that Kennewick Man shows continuity with Native North Americans over at least the last eight millennia. PMID:26087396

  4. Stem cell defects after cytoreductive therapy in man.

    PubMed

    Schreml, W; Lohrmann, H P; Anger, B

    1985-01-01

    The study of stem cell defects in man after cytoreductive therapy appears to be of particular importance since hematotoxicity represents the major limiting side effect in many instances. On the other hand, such studies are met by difficult methodological problems. In particular, bone marrow sampling in man cannot be done on a quantitative basis. Furthermore, ethical considerations restrict the sampling of serial bone marrow specimens. We have studied the reaction of hematopoiesis including stem cells in man with the available methods, in particular CFU-GM (CFU-C), CFU-E, and BFU-E in bone marrow (BM) and peripheral blood (PB) during the course of various cytostatic regimens given for adjuvant and palliative chemotherapy of human cancer. Major findings of these studies were The acute reaction of BM stem cells and differentiated BM precursor pools corresponds to the mechanisms known to be effective in animal experiments. The PB CFU-GM may be of particular importance in man in demonstrating long-term derangements. In an attempt at quantification of human BM data, an index was developed from BM spicule morphometry and from standardized BM aspirate cellularity. Stem cell defects in BM and PB were observed that did not show up in the PB counts, in particular after nitrosoureas. Indication of prolonged derangements in stem cells up to five years after chemotherapy were observed after adjuvant therapy for breast cancer. From these data, it appears advisable to study stem cell data in man for newly developed chemotherapeutic regimens in order to minimize early and late side effects on hematopoiesis. PMID:2985415

  5. MAN or FA from n-butane

    SciTech Connect

    Di Cio, A.; Verde, L.

    1985-08-01

    Unsaturated polyester resins were first produced mostly from fumaric acid (FA) rather than from maleic anhydride (MAN). This is perfectly understandable if we consider that, using fumaric acid as raw material, polycondensates with a more homogeneous (less branched) structure are obtained, thus producing resins characterized by a more uniform and reproducible chemical and mechanical properties. Presently, for economical reasons, fumaric acid is used marginally as a MAN substitute in the production of polyester resins. These resins account for a major share (50%) of the overall MAN consumption in the U.S. and in Western Europe.

  6. Space nuclear reactor shields for manned and unmanned applications

    SciTech Connect

    McKissock, B.I.; Bloomfield, H.S.

    1994-09-01

    Missions which use nuclear reactor power systems require radiation shielding of payload and/or crew areas to predetermined dose rates. Since shielding can become a significant fraction of the total mass of the system, it is of interest to show the effect of various parameters on shield thickness and mass for manned and unmanned applications. Algorithms were developed to give the thicknesses needed if reactor thermal power, separation distances, and dose rates are given as input. The thickness algorithms were combined with models for four different shield geometries to allow tradeoff studies of shield volume and mass for a variety of manned and unmanned missions. Shield design tradeoffs presented in this study include the effects of: Higher allowable dose rates; radiation hardened electronics; shorter crew exposure times; shield geometry; distance of the payload and/or crew from the reactor; and changes in the size of the shielded area. Specific NASA missions that were considered in this study include unmanned outer planetary exploration, manned advanced/evolutionary space station, and advanced manned lunar base.

  7. Not normally manned compression platforms for the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kumaran, K.S.

    1994-12-31

    Gas turbine driven gas compressors have been widely used on manned offshore facilities. Similarly unmanned gas turbine driven compressor stations have been in operation onshore with major gas transmission companies in Europe, North America and elsewhere. This paper summarizes a recent joint industry study to investigate the technical and economic feasibility of Not Normally Manned (NNM) Offshore Compression Facilities in terms of reliability, availability and maintainability. Classification of not normally manned (or unmanned) offshore facilities in the UK North Sea is in accordance with HSE Operations Notice 8. ON8 specifies criteria for offshore visits, visit hours and number of personnel on board for the operation of NNM platforms. This paper describes a typical Southern North Sea gas platform being considered for NNM compressor application. The conclusions from the study was that NNM compression is technically feasible with the facilities being able to provide an availability in excess of 98%. Life cycle costs were of the order of 70% of manned facilities thus significantly improving field development economics.

  8. Space nuclear reactor shields for manned and unmanned applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissock, Barbara I.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1990-01-01

    Missions which use nuclear reactor power systems require radiation shielding of payload and/or crew areas to predetermined dose rates. Since shielding can become a significant fraction of the total mass of the system, it is of interest to show the effect of various parameters on shield thickness and mass for manned and unmanned applications. Algorithms were developed to give the thicknesses needed if reactor thermal power, separation distances, and dose rates are given as input. The thickness algorithms were combined with models for four different shield geometries to allow tradeoff studies of shield volume and mass for a variety of manned and unmanned missions. Shield design tradeoffs presented in this study include the effects of: higher allowable dose rates; radiation hardened electronics; shorter crew exposure times; shield geometry; distance of the payload and/or crew from the reactor; and changes in the size of the shielded area. Specific NASA missions that were considered in this study include unmanned outer planetary exploration, manned advanced/evolutionary Space Station, and advanced manned lunar base.

  9. Space nuclear reactor shields for manned and unmanned applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckissock, Barbara I.; Bloomfield, Harvey S.

    1989-01-01

    Missions which use nuclear reactor power systems require radiation shielding of payload and/or crew areas to predetermined dose rates. Since shielding can become a significant fraction of the total mass of the system, it is of interest to show the effect of various parameters on shield thickness and mass for manned and unmanned applications. Algorithms were developed to give the thicknesses needed if reactor thermal power, separation distances, and dose rates are given as input. The thickness algorithms were combined with models for four different shield geometries to allow tradeoff studies of shield volume and mass for a variety of manned and unmanned missions. Shield design tradeoffs presented in this study include the effects of: higher allowable dose rates; radiation hardened electronics; shorter crew exposure times; shield geometry; distance of the payload and/or crew from the reactor; and changes in the size of the shielded area. Specific NASA missions that were considered in this study include unmanned outer planetary exploration, manned advanced/evolutionary space station, and advanced manned lunar base.

  10. NASA Laboratory Analysis for Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krihak, Michael K.; Shaw, Tianna E.

    2014-01-01

    The Exploration Laboratory Analysis (ELA) project supports the Exploration Medical Capability Element under the NASA Human Research Program. ELA instrumentation is identified as an essential capability for future exploration missions to diagnose and treat evidence-based medical conditions. However, mission architecture limits the medical equipment, consumables, and procedures that will be available to treat medical conditions during human exploration missions. Allocated resources such as mass, power, volume, and crew time must be used efficiently to optimize the delivery of in-flight medical care. Although commercial instruments can provide the blood and urine based measurements required for exploration missions, these commercial-off-the-shelf devices are prohibitive for deployment in the space environment. The objective of the ELA project is to close the technology gap of current minimally invasive laboratory capabilities and analytical measurements in a manner that the mission architecture constraints impose on exploration missions. Besides micro gravity and radiation tolerances, other principal issues that generally fail to meet NASA requirements include excessive mass, volume, power and consumables, and nominal reagent shelf-life. Though manned exploration missions will not occur for nearly a decade, NASA has already taken strides towards meeting the development of ELA medical diagnostics by developing mission requirements and concepts of operations that are coupled with strategic investments and partnerships towards meeting these challenges. This paper focuses on the remote environment, its challenges, biomedical diagnostics requirements and candidate technologies that may lead to successful blood-urine chemistry and biomolecular measurements in future space exploration missions.

  11. Wisconsin's study of manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    The design group focused on three topics: (1) Extravehicular Activities, (2) Sample Return Missions, and (3) Structural and Construction Considerations of a Manned Mars Habitat. Extravehicular Activities permit a Mars based astronaut to exit the habitat and perform mission activities in the harsh Mars environment. Today's spacesuit gloves are bulky, hard to manipulate and fatiguing. A mechanical assistance mechanism has been developed for the glove that will reduce user fatigue and increase the duration of EVA's. Oxygen supply systems are also being developed for the EVA astronaut. A scuba type system of tanked breathing air proves to be the most efficient system for short duration EVA's. A system that extracts the oxygen from atmospheric carbon dioxide can provide oxygen for long duration FVA's. Sample Return Missions require that samples be taken from several sites. Transportation considerations are addressed and two transportation schemes are proposed. The first scheme involves a lighter than air balloon. This system provides excellent range. The second design is a rover that uses tracks rather than wheels. Track rovers perform well in soft, sandy conditions. Engineering aspects of a habitat and domed greenhouse were investigated and plans for the habitat have been made. A configuration has been established and construction details have been made.

  12. Synergistic Man: Outcome Model for Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousseve, Ronald J.

    1973-01-01

    Drawing on the insights of Ruth Benedict and Abraham Maslow in their search for an ethical gauge by which to rate personal-social health, this article proposes synergistic man'' as the desired outcome model for counselors. (Author)

  13. Many Manly Men Avoid Needed Health Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158551.html Many Manly Men Avoid Needed Health Care Gender stereotypes can have dangerous consequences, research suggests ... traditional masculine ideals were less likely to seek health care, more likely to downplay symptoms, and had worse ...

  14. QX MAN: Q and X file manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krein, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    QX MAN is a grid and solution file manipulation program written primarily for the PARC code and the GRIDGEN family of grid generation codes. QX MAN combines many of the features frequently encountered in grid generation, grid refinement, the setting-up of initial conditions, and post processing. QX MAN allows the user to manipulate single block and multi-block grids (and their accompanying solution files) by splitting, concatenating, rotating, translating, re-scaling, and stripping or adding points. In addition, QX MAN can be used to generate an initial solution file for the PARC code. The code was written to provide several formats for input and output in order for it to be useful in a broad spectrum of applications.

  15. Laser Pyro System Standardization and Man Rating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Christopher W.

    2004-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews an X-38 laser pyro system standardization system designed for a new manned rated program. The plans to approve this laser initiation system and preliminary ideas for this system are also provided.

  16. JFK's 'Landing a man on the moon' speech

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Excerpt from John F. Kennedy's special message to Congress on May 25, 1961. 'First, I believe that this nation should commit itself to achieving the goal, before this decade is out, of landing a man on the moon and returning him safely to the earth. No single space project in this period will be more impressive to mankind, or more important for the long-range exploration of space; and none will be so difficult or expensive to accomplish. We propose to accelerate the development of the appropriate lunar space craft. We propose to develop alternate liquid and solid fuel boosters, much larger than any now being developed, until certain which is superior. We propose additional funds for other engine development and for unmanned explorations - explorations which are particularly important for one purpose which this nation will never overlook: the survival of the man who first makes this daring flight. But in a very real sense, it will not be one man going to the moon - if we make this judgment affirmatively, it will be an entire nation. For all of us must work to put him there.'

  17. Manned in Situ Confirmation of Lunar Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerené, S. P. B.; Hummeling, R. W. J.; Ockels, W. J.

    A study is performed to investigate the feasibility of a manned expedition to the Moon using the European Ariane-5 launcher. The primary objective of this lunar mission is to confirm the presence of water at the South-Pole craters. It is believed that these permanently shadowed craters contain water in the form of ice. Secondary objective is to perform lunar surface science and making a first step towards a lunar outpost. Early results show that a minimum of two Ariane-5 launches is required. In this `two Ariane' scenario the first launch will bring a Lunar Landing Vehicle (LLV) into low lunar orbit. The second will launch two astronauts in a Crew Transfer Vehicle into a rendez- vous trajectory with the LLV. Arrived at the Moon, the astronauts will enter the LLV, undock from the CTV and land at the designated site located near the rim of the South-Pole Shackleton crater. The transfer strategy for both spacecraft will be the so-called direct transfer, taking about four days. At arrival the LLV will start mapping the landing site at a ground resolution of one meter. As a consequence of the polar orbit, the CTV has to arrive fourteen days later and surface operations can take about twelve days, accumulating in a total mission-duration of 36 days. 32 days for the CTV and 22 days for the LLV. In case a `two Ariane' flight does not posses sufficient capabilities also a `three Ariane' scenario is developed, in which the LLV is split-up into two stages and launched separately. These two will dock at the Moon forming a descent stage and an ascent stage. The third launch will be a CTV. During surface operations, astronauts will set up a solar power unit, install the sample retrieval system and carry out surface science. Samples of the crater floor will be retrieved by means of a probe or robot guided along a cable suspended over the crater rim. Also, this paper shows the way in which European astronauts can be brought to the Moon for other future missions, like the

  18. Scedosporium apiospermum brain abscesses in an immunocompetent man with silicosis.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Heather L; Kennedy, Karina J

    2013-03-01

    We report a case of Scedosporium apiosporum brain abscesses in an immunocompetent 69-year-old man with a history of silicosis. Delayed diagnosis and institution of antifungal therapy was associated with neurological impairment, with subsequent complications resulting in death, highlighting the need for early diagnostic aspiration of brain abscesses non-responsive to antibiotics. We propose that, in the absence of identifiable immunosuppression, silicosis may have been a contributing factor to the development of central nervous system infection. PMID:24432222

  19. AAFE man-made noise experiment project. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Management and operational considerations involved in the project to measure man-made electromagnetic noise at earth orbital altitudes are discussed. The subjects considered are: (1) launch and orbit of the Scout D vehicles, (2) experiment management, (3) receiver scanning considerations, (4) data handling, and (5) threshold measurements. The storage requirements for a high resolution, complete data storage library are defined. Mathematical models of signal detection probability are developed.

  20. An advanced neutron spectrometer for future manned exploration missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christl, Mark

    An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer (ANS) is being developed to support future manned exploration missions. This new instrument uses a refined gate and capture technique that significantly improves the identification of neutrons in mixed radiation fields found in spacecraft, habitats and on planetary surfaces. The new instrument is a composite scintillator comprised of PVT loaded with lithium-6 glass scintillators. We will describe the detection concept and show preliminary results from laboratory tests and exposures at particle accelerators.

  1. Scedosporium apiospermum brain abscesses in an immunocompetent man with silicosis

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Heather L.; Kennedy, Karina J.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of Scedosporium apiosporum brain abscesses in an immunocompetent 69-year-old man with a history of silicosis. Delayed diagnosis and institution of antifungal therapy was associated with neurological impairment, with subsequent complications resulting in death, highlighting the need for early diagnostic aspiration of brain abscesses non-responsive to antibiotics. We propose that, in the absence of identifiable immunosuppression, silicosis may have been a contributing factor to the development of central nervous system infection. PMID:24432222

  2. An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer for Future Manned Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christl, Mark; Apple, Jeffrey A.; Cox, Mark D.; Dietz, Kurtis L.; Dobson, Christopher C.; Gibson, Brian F.; Howard, David E.; Jackson, Amanda C.; Kayatin, Mathew J.; Kuznetsov, Evgeny N.; Norwood, Joseph K.; Merril, Garrick W.; Watts, John W.; Sabra, Mohammad S.; Smith, Dennis A.; Rodriquez-Otero, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    An Advanced Neutron Spectrometer (ANS) is being developed to support future manned exploration missions. This new instrument uses a refined gate and capture technique that significantly improves the identification of neutrons in mixed radiation fields found in spacecraft, habitats and on planetary surfaces. The new instrument is a composite scintillator comprised of PVT loaded with litium-6 glass scintillators. We will describe the detection concept and show preliminary results from laboratory tests and exposures at particle accelerators

  3. Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Lloyd J., Jr.

    1960-01-01

    Analytical and experimental investigations have been made to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices discussed are crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact. It appears feasible to readily evaluate landing-gear systems for internal or external application in hard-surface or water landings by using computational procedures and free-body landing techniques with dynamic models. The systems investigated have shown very interesting energy-dissipation characteristics over a considerable range of landing parameters. Acceptable gear can be developed along lines similar to those presented if stroke requirements and human-tolerance limits are considered.

  4. When does "economic man" dominate social behavior?

    PubMed

    Camerer, Colin F; Fehr, Ernst

    2006-01-01

    The canonical model in economics considers people to be rational and self-regarding. However, much evidence challenges this view, raising the question of when "Economic Man" dominates the outcome of social interactions, and when bounded rationality or other-regarding preferences dominate. Here we show that strategic incentives are the key to answering this question. A minority of self-regarding individuals can trigger a "noncooperative" aggregate outcome if their behavior generates incentives for the majority of other-regarding individuals to mimic the minority's behavior. Likewise, a minority of other-regarding individuals can generate a "cooperative" aggregate outcome if their behavior generates incentives for a majority of self-regarding people to behave cooperatively. Similarly, in strategic games, aggregate outcomes can be either far from or close to Nash equilibrium if players with high degrees of strategic thinking mimic or erase the effects of others who do very little strategic thinking. Recently developed theories of other-regarding preferences and bounded rationality explain these findings and provide better predictions of actual aggregate behavior than does traditional economic theory. PMID:16400140

  5. Coming Soon: The Bionic Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodard, Colin

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the latest advancement in the development of prosthetic arms. Bionic researchers are making significant advances in creating more agile prosthetics that users can control via their own nervous system. The bionic arm, which is still under development, can not only execute complex, thought-controlled movements, but also can…

  6. Alexander Lowen: An Energetic Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Good, Glenn E.; Rabinowitz, Fredric E.

    1992-01-01

    Presents interview with Alexander Lowen, prominent psychotherapist, who discusses his personal and professional development, as well as the evolution of bioenergetic analysis. Includes a list of suggested readings by Lowen. (Author/NB)

  7. Specific phobia is a frequent non-motor feature in stiff man syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Henningsen, P; Meinck, H

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate systematically the rate and type of phobia in stiff man syndrome and its variants, and to compare patients with stiff man syndrome with and without phobia for sociodemographic and neurological characteristics. Methods: 43 consecutive patients with stiff man syndrome referred to a university department of neurology were assessed using the anxiety disorders interview schedule, revised (ADIS-R), a structured diagnostic interview for anxiety disorders, in addition to a full clinical neurological and psychiatric assessment. Results: 19 patients (44.2%) developed task specific phobia—that is, fear and avoidance of situations difficult to master owing to the motor symptoms of stiff man syndrome (such as crossing streets). Three further patients (7%) had subthreshold phobia—that is, phobic anxiety without avoidance. There were no significant differences between patients with and without phobia in terms of age, illness duration, type of stiff man syndrome, antibody status, or frequency of falls. Patients with phobia were more likely to present with exaggerated startle responses and to have an initial misdiagnosis of psychogenic movement disorder. Conclusions: Specific phobia is a frequent non-motor symptom of stiff man syndrome. Early recognition is an important aid to correct diagnosis. The aetiology of phobia in stiff man syndrome is unknown. There is no evidence of a direct pathogenic role of autoantibodies directed against glutamic acid decarboxylase in the development of phobia. PMID:12640064

  8. Testosterone and aggressive behavior in man.

    PubMed

    Batrinos, Menelaos L

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant's testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  9. Testosterone and Aggressive Behavior in Man

    PubMed Central

    Batrinos, Menelaos L.

    2012-01-01

    Atavistic residues of aggressive behavior prevailing in animal life, determined by testosterone, remain attenuated in man and suppressed through familial and social inhibitions. However, it still manifests itself in various intensities and forms from; thoughts, anger, verbal aggressiveness, competition, dominance behavior, to physical violence. Testosterone plays a significant role in the arousal of these behavioral manifestations in the brain centers involved in aggression and on the development of the muscular system that enables their realization. There is evidence that testosterone levels are higher in individuals with aggressive behavior, such as prisoners who have committed violent crimes. Several field studies have also shown that testosterone levels increase during the aggressive phases of sports games. In more sensitive laboratory paradigms, it has been observed that participant’s testosterone rises in the winners of; competitions, dominance trials or in confrontations with factitious opponents. Aggressive behavior arises in the brain through interplay between subcortical structures in the amygdala and the hypothalamus in which emotions are born and the prefrontal cognitive centers where emotions are perceived and controlled. The action of testosterone on the brain begins in the embryonic stage. Earlier in development at the DNA level, the number of CAG repeats in the androgen receptor gene seems to play a role in the expression of aggressive behavior. Neuroimaging techniques in adult males have shown that testosterone activates the amygdala enhancing its emotional activity and its resistance to prefrontal restraining control. This effect is opposed by the action of cortisol which facilitates prefrontal area cognitive control on impulsive tendencies aroused in the subcortical structures. The degree of impulsivity is regulated by serotonin inhibiting receptors, and with the intervention of this neurotransmitter the major agents of the neuroendocrine

  10. Wash water reclamation technology for advanced manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Putnam, D. F.

    1977-01-01

    The results of an analytical study and assessment of state-of-the-art wash water reclamation technology for advanced manned spacecraft is presented. All non-phase-change unit operations, unit processes, and subsystems currently under development by NASA are considered. Included among these are: filtration, ultrafiltration, carbon adsorption, ion exchange, chemical pretreatment, reverse osmosis, hyperfiltration, and certain urea removal techniques. Performance data are given together with the projected weights and sizes of key components and subsystems. In the final assessment, a simple multifiltration approach consisting of surface-type cartridge filters, carbon adsorption and ion exchange resins receives the highest rating for six-man orbital missions of up to 10 years in duration.

  11. Science-and-Technology-oriented-Society and Man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukui, Ken'ichi

    This is a special lecture at the 30th anniversary of JICST. To develop science-and-te chnology-oriented society it is important to evaluate and select infinite information resources on science and technology, and to reorganize and apply them. This also relates to humanity. For the future, we have to establish scientific ethics that can exceed the expedience of science and technology. To be concrete, we have to create new industrial value that recovers and reclaims natural resources which men had wasted so far, and we have to establish a new technology to distribute maldistributed industrial benefits equally. And then, the selfcontrol of the human aiming at the harmony of nature and man will secure human liberty, and it will be done by the good function of man's brain.

  12. The manned transportation system study - Defining human pathways into space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lance, Nick; Geyer, Mark S.; Gaunce, Michael T.; Anson, H. W.; Bienhoff, D. G.; Carey, D. A.; Emmett, B. R.; Mccandless, B.; Wetzel, E. D.

    1992-01-01

    Substantiating data developed by a NASA-industry team (NIT) for subsequent NASA decisions on the 'right' set of manned transportation elements needed for human access to space are discussed. Attention is given to the framework for detailed definition of these manned transportation elements. Identifying and defining architecture evaluation criteria, i.e., attributes, specified the amount and type of data needed for each concept under consideration. Several architectures, each beginning with today's transportation systems, were defined using representative systems to explore future options and address specific questions currently being debated. The present solutions emphasize affordability, safety, routineness, and reliability. Key issues associated with current business practices were challenged and the impact associated with these practices quantified.

  13. Advanced water iodinating system. [for potable water aboard manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davenport, R. J.; Schubert, F. H.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1975-01-01

    Potable water stores aboard manned spacecraft must remain sterile. Suitable sterilization techniques are needed to prevent microbial growth. The development of an advanced water iodinating system for possible application to the shuttle orbiter and other advanced spacecraft, is considered. The AWIS provides a means of automatically dispensing iodine and controlling iodination levels in potable water stores. In a recirculation mode test, simulating application of the AWIS to a water management system of a long term six man capacity space mission, noniodinated feed water flowing at 32.2 cu cm min was iodinated to 5 + or - ppm concentrations after it was mixed with previously iodinated water recirculating through a potable water storage tank. Also, the AWIS was used to successfully demonstrate its capability to maintain potable water at a desired I2 concentration level while circulating through the water storage tank, but without the addition of noniodinated water.

  14. Emblem for the second manned Skylab mission, Skylab 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    This is the emblem for the second manned Skylab mission. It will be a mission of up to 56 days. The patch symbolizes the main objectives of the flight. The central figure, adapted from one by Leonardo da Vinci, illustrates the proportions of the human form and suggests the many studies of man himself to be conducted in the zero-gravity environment of space. This drawing is superimposed on two hemispheres representing the two additional main areas of research - studies of the Sun and the development of techniques for survey of the Earth's resources. The left hemisphere show the Sun as it will be seen in the red light radiated by hydrogen atoms in the solar atmosphere. The right hemisphere is intended to suggest the studies of Earth resources to be conducted on Skylab. Although the patch denotes this mission as Skylab II, it is actually consided to be the Skylab III mission.

  15. [Philosophy of the mutual biotic system of man-environment].

    PubMed

    Mertz, D P

    2009-06-01

    With regard to environmental changes, outstanding importance is meanwhile to be attached to the cultural side of human evolution. The evolution both of mankind and of its environment are mutually dependent as processes of change and together they form a complete biotic system. First disorders of balance concerning the close relationship network between mankind and environment eventually developed following man's change from the biosphere to the "noosphere" created by him. In the course of the "neolithic revolution" mankind, while becoming more and more settled, began to become increasingly estranged from its ecological surroundings. Environmental problems caused by man led to climatic changes already about 8,000 years ago. So far they have caused an extraordinary climatic stability following the Ice Age. "Environmental art" i. e. an improved evolution - is required to escape an imminent "collapse" caused by pollution. Nowadays mankind is on the way to being the almost exclusive carrier of future evolution of this planet. PMID:19544720

  16. Man-made mineral fibers and the respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Costa, Roser; Orriols, Ramon

    2012-12-01

    Man-made mineral fibers are produced using inorganic materials and are widely used as thermal and acoustic insulation. These basically include continuous fiberglass filaments, glass wool (fiberglass insulation), stone wool, slag wool and refractory ceramic fibers. Likewise, in the last two decades nanoscale fibers have also been developed, among these being carbon nanotubes with their high electrical conductivity, mechanical resistance and thermal stability. Both man-made mineral fibers and carbon nanotubes have properties that make them inhalable and potentially harmful, which have led to studies to assess their pathogenicity. The aim of this review is to analyze the knowledge that currently exists about the ability of these fibers to produce respiratory diseases. PMID:22763045

  17. Computer simulation of on-orbit manned maneuvering unit operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stuart, G. M.; Garcia, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Simulation of spacecraft on-orbit operations is discussed in reference to Martin Marietta's Space Operations Simulation laboratory's use of computer software models to drive a six-degree-of-freedom moving base carriage and two target gimbal systems. In particular, key simulation issues and related computer software models associated with providing real-time, man-in-the-loop simulations of the Manned Maneuvering Unit (MMU) are addressed with special attention given to how effectively these models and motion systems simulate the MMU's actual on-orbit operations. The weightless effects of the space environment require the development of entirely new devices for locomotion. Since the access to space is very limited, it is necessary to design, build, and test these new devices within the physical constraints of earth using simulators. The simulation method that is discussed here is the technique of using computer software models to drive a Moving Base Carriage (MBC) that is capable of providing simultaneous six-degree-of-freedom motions. This method, utilized at Martin Marietta's Space Operations Simulation (SOS) laboratory, provides the ability to simulate the operation of manned spacecraft, provides the pilot with proper three-dimensional visual cues, and allows training of on-orbit operations. The purpose here is to discuss significant MMU simulation issues, the related models that were developed in response to these issues and how effectively these models simulate the MMU's actual on-orbiter operations.

  18. Man And Woman at Yale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lever, Janet; Swartz, Pepper

    1971-01-01

    The authors conclude that the college system inhibits the natural development of relationships because of its goldfish bowl" effect. Yale men may find it doubly hard to be open, yet the people at Yale are generally bright and sensitive and may very well create a uniquely close and natural community. (Author)

  19. Diagnostic ultrasound exposure in man.

    PubMed

    Gramiak, R

    1975-09-01

    In his review of the AAPM statement on ultrasound, the author feels that allowing "some" research or demonstration on normal persons in the face of cautionary statements on as yet unknown side effects is an inconsistent position. The use of videotapes and the development of simulators hacked by data banks are offered in place of tissue phantoms. PMID:1153790

  20. Man and Environment. Revised Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Junior Coll., FL.

    An adisciplinary, general education course for students of community colleges is outlined in this document. The one-year course was developed during two workshops, attended by representatives from community colleges throughout the country. The course is structured in modules to allow for flexibility in the sequencing of course content, and to…

  1. Nuclear power: key to man's extraterrestrial civilization

    SciTech Connect

    Angelo, J.A. Jr.; Buden, D.

    1982-01-01

    The start of the Third Millennium will be highlighted by the establishment of man's extraterrestrial civilization with three technical cornerstones leading to the off-planet expansion of the human resource base. These are (1) the availability of compact energy sources for power and propulsion, (2) the creation of permanent manned habitats in space, and (3) the ability to process materials anywhere in the Solar System. In the 1990s and beyond, nuclear reactors could represent the prime source of both space power and propulsion. The manned and unmanned space missions of tomorrow will demand first kilowatt and then megawatt levels of power. Various nuclear power plant technologies will be discussed, with emphasis on derivatives from the nuclear rocket technology.

  2. A manned Mars artificial gravity vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schultz, David N.; Rupp, Charles C.; Hajos, Gregory A.; Butler, John M., Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Data are presented on an artificial-gravity vehicle that is being designed for a manned Mars mission, using a 'split-mission' concept, in which an unmanned cargo vehicle is sent earlier and stored in a Mars orbit for a rendezvous with a manned vehicle about 1.5 years later. Special attention is given to the vehicle trajectory and configuration, the tether design, and the vehicle weight and launch requirements. It is shown that an artificial-G vehicle for a manned Mars missions is feasible technically and programmatically. Using an artificial-G vehicle instead of a zero-G vehicle for the piloted portion of a split mission provides physiological and human-factor-related benefits, does not eliminate requirements for zero-G countermeasures research (since zero-G is an abort mode), and could possibly reduce some life science activities. Diagrams are included.

  3. Orocline-driven transtensional basins: Insights from the Lower Permian Manning Basin (eastern Australia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Llyam; Rosenbaum, Gideon; Allen, Charlotte M.; Shaanan, Uri

    2016-03-01

    The New England Orogen in eastern Australia exhibits an oroclinal structure, but its geometry and geodynamic evolution are controversial. Here we present new data from the southernmost part of the oroclinal structure, the Manning Orocline, which supposedly developed in the Early Permian, contemporaneously and/or shortly after the deposition of the Lower Permian Manning Basin. New U-Pb detrital zircon data provide a maximum depositional age of ~288 Ma. Structural evidence from rocks of the Manning Basin indicates that both bedding and preoroclinal fold axial planes are approximately oriented parallel to the trace of the Manning Orocline. Brittle deformation was dominated by sinistral strike-slip faulting, particularly along a major fault zone (Peel-Manning Fault System), which is marked by the occurrence of a serpentinitic mélange, and separates tectonostratigraphic units of the New England Orogen. Our revised geological map shows that the Manning Basin is bounded by faults and serpentinites, thus indicating that basin formation was intimately linked to deformation along the Peel-Manning Fault System. The Manning Basin is thus interpreted to be a transtensional pull-apart basin associated with the Peel-Manning Fault System. Age constraints and structural relationships indicate that basin formation likely occurred during the incipient stage of oroclinal bending, with block rotations and fragmentation of the transtensional pull-apart system occurring subsequently. The intimate link between oroclinal bending and basin formation in the New England oroclines indicates that back-arc extension, accompanied by transtensional deformation, could have played an important role in the early stage of orocline development.

  4. Radiation protection for manned space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, T. M.

    1983-01-01

    The Earth's natural radiation environment poses a hazard to manned space activities directly through biological effects and indirectly through effects on materials and electronics. The following standard practices are indicated that address: (1) environment models for all radiation species including uncertainties and temporal variations; (2) upper bound and nominal quality factors for biological radiation effects that include dose, dose rate, critical organ, and linear energy transfer variations; (3) particle transport and shielding methodology including system and man modeling and uncertainty analysis; (4) mission planning that includes active dosimetry, minimizes exposure during extravehicular activities, subjects every mission to a radiation review, and specifies operational procedures for forecasting, recognizing, and dealing with large solar flaes.

  5. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 Software Validation and Verification.

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, David

    2014-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy Strategic Petroleum Reserve stores crude oil in caverns solution-mined in salt domes along the Gulf Coast of Louisiana and Texas. The CaveMan software program has been used since the late 1990s as one tool to analyze pressure mea- surements monitored at each cavern. The purpose of this monitoring is to catch potential cavern integrity issues as soon as possible. The CaveMan software was written in Microsoft Visual Basic, and embedded in a Microsoft Excel workbook; this method of running the CaveMan software is no longer sustainable. As such, a new version called CaveMan Enter- prise has been developed. CaveMan Enterprise version 1.0 does not have any changes to the CaveMan numerical models. CaveMan Enterprise represents, instead, a change from desktop-managed work- books to an enterprise framework, moving data management into coordinated databases and porting the numerical modeling codes into the Python programming language. This document provides a report of the code validation and verification testing.

  6. Radiation shield analysis for a manned Mars rover

    SciTech Connect

    Morley, N.J.; ElGenk, M.S. )

    1991-01-01

    Radiation shielding for unmanned space missions has been extensively studied; however, designs of man-rated shields are minimal. Engle et al.'s analysis of a man-rated, multilayered shield composed of two and three cycles (a cycle consists of a tungsten and a lithium hydride layer) is the basis for the work reported in this paper. The authors present the results of a recent study of shield designs for a manned Mars rover powered by a 500-kW(thermal) nuclear reactor. A train-type rover vehicle was developed, which consists of four cars and is powered by an SP-100-type nuclear reactor heat source. The maximum permissible dose rate (MPD) from all sources is given by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements as 500 mSv/yr (50 rem/yr) A 3-yr Mars mission (2-yr round trip and 1-yr stay) will deliver a 1-Sv natural radiation dose without a solar particle event, 450 mSv/yr in flight, and an additional 100 mSv on the planet surface. An anomalously large solar particle event could increase the natural radiation dose for unshielded astronauts on the Martian surface to 200 mSv. This limits the MPD to crew members from the nuclear reactor to 300 mSv.

  7. MARTI: man-machine animation real-time interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Christian M.; Dlay, Satnam S.

    1997-05-01

    The research introduces MARTI (man-machine animation real-time interface) for the realization of natural human-machine interfacing. The system uses simple vocal sound-tracks of human speakers to provide lip synchronization of computer graphical facial models. We present novel research in a number of engineering disciplines, which include speech recognition, facial modeling, and computer animation. This interdisciplinary research utilizes the latest, hybrid connectionist/hidden Markov model, speech recognition system to provide very accurate phone recognition and timing for speaker independent continuous speech, and expands on knowledge from the animation industry in the development of accurate facial models and automated animation. The research has many real-world applications which include the provision of a highly accurate and 'natural' man-machine interface to assist user interactions with computer systems and communication with one other using human idiosyncrasies; a complete special effects and animation toolbox providing automatic lip synchronization without the normal constraints of head-sets, joysticks, and skilled animators; compression of video data to well below standard telecommunication channel bandwidth for video communications and multi-media systems; assisting speech training and aids for the handicapped; and facilitating player interaction for 'video gaming' and 'virtual worlds.' MARTI has introduced a new level of realism to man-machine interfacing and special effect animation which has been previously unseen.

  8. An Assessment of Environmental Health Needs for Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macatangay, Ariel V.

    2013-01-01

    Environmental health fundamentally addresses the physical, chemical, and biological risks external to the human body that can impact the health of a person by assessing and controlling these risks in order to generate and maintain a health-supportive environment. Environmental monitoring coupled with other measures including active and passive controls and the implementation of environmental standards (SMACs, SWEGs, microbial and acoustics limits) are used to ensure environmental health in manned spacecraft. NASA scientists and engineers consider environmental monitoring a vital component to an environmental health management strategy for maintaining a healthy crew and achieving mission success. Environmental monitoring data confirms the health of ECLS systems, in addition to contributing to the management of the health of human systems. Crew health risks associated with the environment were reviewed by agency experts with the goal of determining risk-based environmental monitoring needs for future NASA manned missions. Once determined, gaps in knowledge and technology, required to address those risks, were identified for various types of Exploration missions. This agency-wide assessment of environmental health needs will help guide the activities/hardware development efforts to close those gaps and advance the knowledge required to meet NASA manned space exploration objectives. Details of this assessment and findings are presented in this paper.

  9. Scaling basic toxicokinetic parameters from rat to man.

    PubMed Central

    Bachmann, K; Pardoe, D; White, D

    1996-01-01

    Scaling of the quantified dispositional parameters of xenobiotics from animals to man is of interest from the standpoint of toxicology (e.g., poisoning and risk assessment). Scaling is also important from the standpoint of therapeutics because it represents a strategy for predicting first-use-in-human doses in clinical trials of investigational new drugs. Current strategies for scaling either doses of xenobiotics or the dispositional parameters of xenobiotics from animals to man rely on models that take account principally of species differences in weight or body surface area. Interspecies scaling of dispositional parameters such as clearance or volume of distribution commonly involves the comparison of estimates of these parameters for a given xenobiotic among numerous species on the basis of weight with the resultant mathematical relationship used to predict the values of those parameters for that xenobiotic in a species weighing, on average, about 70 kg (i.e., a man). Our approach has been to ascertain whether a useful mathematical model could be developed for predicting the dispositional parameters of a xenobiotic, its half-life and volume of distribution, in humans based exclusively on estimates of those parameters in rats. Based on a data set of about 100 different xenobiotics, we found that values for half-life and volume of distribution of a xenobiotic in humans can be predicted from the estimates of those parameters in rats. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:8732950

  10. Proceedings of the 1986 IEEE international conference on systems, man and cybernetics

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on man-machine systems. Topics considered at the conference included neural model-based cognitive theory and engineering, user interfaces, adaptive and learning systems, human interaction with robotics, decision making, the testing and evaluation of expert systems, software development, international conflict resolution, intelligent interfaces, automation in man-machine system design aiding, knowledge acquisition in expert systems, advanced architectures for artificial intelligence, pattern recognition, knowledge bases, and machine vision.

  11. Influence of a detailed model of man on proton depth/dose calculation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kase, P. G.

    1972-01-01

    The development of a detailed radiation shielding model of man is discussed. This model will be used to plan for manned space missions in which sensitive human tissues may be subjected to excessive radiation. The model has two configurations: standing and seated. More than 2500 individual elements were used to depict the external conformation, skeleton, and principal organs. The model is briefly described and several examples of its application to mission planning are given.

  12. Manned Mars mission crew factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santy, Patricia A.

    1986-01-01

    Crew factors include a wide range of concerns relating to the human system and its role in a Mars mission. There are two important areas which will play a large part in determining the crew for a Mars mission. The first relates to the goals and priorities determined for such a vast endeavor. The second is the design of the vehicle for the journey. The human system cannot be separated from the other systems in that vehicle. In fact it will be the human system which drives the development of many of the technical breakthroughs necessary to make a Mars mission successful. As much as possible, the engineering systems must adapt to the needs of the human system and its individual components.

  13. [Hyperprolactinemia in a man's world].

    PubMed

    Burri, E; Nüesch, R; Zulewski, H

    2008-12-01

    A 60-years old patient was admitted for mamillary pain for several weeks, without galactorrhea. Erectile dysfunction had been present for several years but diminished libido had developed only recently. Ultrasonography of the mamillary gland was not definite for gynecomastia but repeated serum prolactin concentrations were elevated 5-fold the upper limit of normal. Furthermore serum level of testosterone was decreased and levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulation hormone were within normal range. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the pituitary gland could not identify a tumoral mass. In review of the laboratory features and the absence of a tumoral mass on MRI, idiopathic hyperprolactinemia was diagnosed and therapy with a dopamine-agonist was started. PMID:19048508

  14. The uses of Man-Made diamond in wafering applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fallon, D. B.

    1982-01-01

    The continuing, rapid growth of the semiconductor industry requires the involvement of several specialized industries in the development of special products geared toward the unique requirements of this new industry. A specialized manufactured diamond to meet various material removal needs was discussed. The area of silicon wafer slicing has presented yet anothr challenge and it is met most effectively. The history, operation, and performance of Man-Made diamond and particularly as applied to silicon wafer slicing is discussed. Product development is underway to come up with a diamond specifically for sawing silicon wafers on an electroplated blade.

  15. Task 8.6 -- Advanced man machine interface (MMI)

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    The Solar/DOE ATS engine program seeks to improve the utilization of turbomachinery resources through the development of an Advanced Man Machine Interface (MMI). The program goals include timely and succinct feedback to the operations personnel to enhance their decision making process. As part of the Solar ATS Phase 2 technology development program, enabling technologies, including graphics environments, communications technology, and operating systems were explored to determine their viability to support the overall MMI requirements. This report discusses the research and prototyping effort, as well as the conclusions reached.

  16. Environment for Man, The Next Fifty Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, William R., Jr.

    This volume is the first of three publications emanating from the American Institute of Planners' nationwide campaign to encourage study and public education on "the future environment of a democracy." Experts in many areas scrutinize the psychological, physiological, and social needs of modern man in an attempt to discover the kind of environment…

  17. Physiknobelei Kann man die Lichtausbreitung sehen?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlichting, H.-Joachim

    2003-07-01

    Des Menschen Sinne sind trügerisch. Das wussten schon die Philosophen der Antike, denen physikalische Zusammenhänge noch fremd waren. Doch auch in der heutigen aufgeklärten Zeit ereignen sich noch Dinge, bei denen man seinen Augen nicht traut.

  18. Teaching Rousseau: Natural Man and Present Existence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Daryl H.

    1989-01-01

    Offers an interpretation of Jean-Jacques Rousseau's "Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality" and provides examples of classroom exercises designed to make Rousseau's ideas and writings accessible to undergraduates. Stresses Rousseau's philosophy on natural man, language, ethics, and society. Includes interpretive references to…

  19. Nomadism as a Man-Environment System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapoport, Amos

    1978-01-01

    Concepts derived from general man-environment system (MES) models are applied to the specific problem of nomadic sedentarization. The analysis focuses on the manner in which residential mobility may function as a central element in nomadic cultures. (Author/MA)

  20. Man's Response to the Physical Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kates, R.W., Ed.; Wohlwill, J.F., Ed.

    1966-01-01

    Architects, psychologists, geographers, and biologists discuss the impact of the physical environment on man, and his adaptation to it. Article titles are as follows--(1) Galloping Technology, A New Social Disease, (2) Stimulus and Symbol: The View from the Bridge, (3) The Physical Environment: A Problem for a Psychology of Stimulation, (4)…

  1. Chemistry in "The Ascent of Man."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hostettler, John D.; Brooks, Kenneth

    1980-01-01

    Describes "The Ascent of Man," a course emphasizing science and human values. Detailed are some chemical topics covered in the course, and how these topics are used in other traditional chemistry courses. Topics discussed include alchemy, the chemical revolution, steam engines, the Manhattan project, and several bioethical problems. (CS)

  2. The Man-in-the-Middle Defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ross

    The man-in-the-middle defence is all about rehabilitating Charlie. For 20 years we’ve worried about this guy in the middle, Charlie, who’s forever intercalating himself into the communications between Alice and Bob, and people have been very judgemental about poor Charlie, saying that Charlie is a wicked person. Well, we’re not entirely convinced.

  3. Manned Mars mission and planetary quarantine considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Joseph C.

    1986-01-01

    A short review of the history of planetary quarantine, the issues, and changes in official advisory groups' pronouncements are presented. Then a discussion of the current situation and some ideas on how best to address them are outlined. Both manned and unmanned or automatic missions are discussed and their advantages and impediments outlined.

  4. Aerobrakes For A Manned Mars Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menees, G. P.

    1990-01-01

    Paper presents results of study of aerobraking in manned mission to Mars. Describes geometry and aerodynamic characteristics of aerobraked vehicle. Discusses computer program, WTRAJ, used to simulate trajectories near planets. Analyzes aerocapture processes for both Mars and Earth. Examines mass efficiency, or saving in propellant mass, afforded by aerobraking.

  5. Man and Environment, Study Guide, Volume One.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miami-Dade Junior Coll., FL.

    Subject information, course instructions, and resource materials for a television course, "Man and Environment," are compiled in this student study guide. The interdisciplinary, modular course emphasizes the importance of such concerns as destruction of the environment and the declining quality of life while educating the public about the…

  6. Man's Search: English, Mythology. 5112.22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gundersheimer, Lenore C.

    A course which is an exploration of man's eternal search to understand himself and his world through the study of the mythology of the world is presented. Performance objectives include: (1) Students will recognize the content of the myths studied; (2) Students will identify the specific characteristics of the civilization studied; (3) Students…

  7. Nipple leiomyoma in man: a case report.

    PubMed

    Marrazzo, A; Taormina, P; Noto, A; Cardinale, G; Casa, L; Lo Gerfo, D

    2004-04-01

    We describe a rare case of a man, 38 year old, with a nipple leiomyoma, and report the presentation as a small nodule of the areola spreading the nipple, the symptoms, the clinical signs, the treatment that includes a complete excision; free margins should be histologically established to prevent recurrence. PMID:15283404

  8. Man and His Environment. Octagon Lectures 1969.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appleyard, R. T., Ed.

    Utilizing the theme "Man and His Environment," the Octagon Lectures of 1969 were presented at the University of Western Australia, Nedlands, Western Australia. Problems arising from the imbalance between the ancient forces of nature and the new forces of human culture were dealt with by the lecturers. They revealed that the most important…

  9. The World of Man: A Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Richard O.

    This one semester, ecology-oriented, eleventh or twelfth grade elective course exposes students to the problems of environmental degradation and makes them aware of man's attempts to remedy crisis situations. The curriculum guide is divided into three major topics, each comprised of several subtopics which include content, objectives, and…

  10. Design of Man-Computer Dialogues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, James

    An attempt is made to provide a comprehensive guide to design of the dialogues between man and computer that take place at computer terminals. Particular topics include problems with conventional alphanumeric dialogues, dialogues with sound and graphics, pyschological characteristics of computer terminal users, problems of designing dialogues for…

  11. University for Man Annual Report for 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kansas State Univ., Manhattan. University for Man.

    The 1981 report describes current activities, publications and films, sources of financial support, and organizational overview of the University for Man (UFM), founded in 1967 in Manhattan, Kansas, on the concept of citizens learning from each other and involving themselves to affect their community. The organization is divided into three program…

  12. Odd-Man-Out and Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diascro, Matthew N.; Brody, Nathan

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between odd-man-out reaction time tasks and intelligence was examined in 2 experiments involving 79 college students. The two experiments indicate that tasks that assess the ability to perceive relationships among stimuli rapidly are good measures of general intelligence. (SLD)

  13. Asher Brown Durand: "An Old Man's Reminiscences."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, Ted

    1988-01-01

    Uses Durand's "An Old Man's Reminiscences" to introduce students in grades 4-6 to the effective use of nostalgia and memories in artwork. Presents lesson objectives, instructional strategies, evaluation criteria, and background information about the artist and the painting. (GEA)

  14. The Tree Man: Robert Mazibuko's Story.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Joanne, Ed.

    This book for beginning readers highlights Robert Mazibuko, the "Tree Man," who spent his life teaching people how to enrich the soil and plant vegetables and trees. Born in South Africa in 1904, he lived on a farm, learning to work with livestock, raise crops, and share with the community. In college, his professor of agriculture provided a…

  15. Impotency in Pinter's No Man's Land

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Robert M.

    1977-01-01

    Contends that Pinter's play, No Man's Land, is about impotency as well as stasis and old age. Focuses on the allusions to sex which function both literally and figuratively and includes metaphorical ramifications of the mentally, emotionally, and spiritually barren. (MH)

  16. A Mediagraphy Relating to the Black Man.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, James E., Comp.

    Media dealing with the Black man--his history, art, problems, and aspirations--are listed under 10 headings: (1) disc recordings, (2) filmstrips and multimedia kits, (3) microfilms, (4) motion pictures, (5) pictures, posters and charts, (6) reprints, (7) slides, (8) tape recordings, (9) telecourses (kinescopes and videotapes), and (10)…

  17. [A man with a crooked smile].

    PubMed

    Bechan, M A H Afzal; van Dortmont, Laura M C; Claes, J Franka H M

    2013-01-01

    A 51-year-old man had a paresis of the right side of the lower lip after carotic endarterectomy. The diagnosis was 'pressure neuropathy of the right ramus marginalis mandibulae' caused by the operation. This neuropathy is self limiting. PMID:24152368

  18. Genetic Engineering: The Modification of Man

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinsheimer, Robert L.

    1970-01-01

    Describes somatic and genetic manipulations of individual genotypes, using diabetes control as an example of the first mode that is potentially realizable be derepression or viral transduction of genes. Advocates the use of genetic engineering of the second mode to remove man from his biological limitations, but offers maxims to ensure the…

  19. Forests and Man. Environmental Education Curriculum. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topeka Public Schools, KS.

    This environmental education module focuses on forests and man, and contains a series of papers which deal with topics related to forest ecology and conservation. The module is designed around the four following ideas: (1) the kinds of plants and animals and the roles they have in the forest environment; (2) using concepts of food webs and energy…

  20. Pharmacokinetics of mitragynine in man

    PubMed Central

    Trakulsrichai, Satariya; Sathirakul, Korbtham; Auparakkitanon, Saranya; Krongvorakul, Jatupon; Sueajai, Jetjamnong; Noumjad, Nantida; Sukasem, Chonlaphat; Wananukul, Winai

    2015-01-01

    Background Kratom, known botanically as Mitragyna speciosa (Korth.), is an indigenous tree in Southeast Asia. Kratom is currently easily available worldwide via special shops and the Internet to use as a drug of abuse, opioid alternative, or pain killer. So far, the pharmacokinetics of this plant has been studied only in animals, and there is no such study in humans. The major abundant active alkaloid in Kratom, mitragynine, is one of the promising new chemical substances to be developed as a new drug. The aim of this study was to examine the pharmacokinetics of mitragynine and assess the linearity in pharmacokinetics in chronic users. Methods Since Kratom is illegal in Thailand, studies in healthy subjects would be unethical. We therefore conducted a prospective study by enrolling ten chronic, regular, healthy users. We adjusted the steady state in each subject by giving a known amount of Kratom tea for 7 days before commencement of the experiment. We admitted and gave different oral doses to subjects to confirm linearity in pharmacokinetics. The mitragynine blood concentrations at 17 times points and the urine concentrations during the 24-hour period were collected and measured by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Results Ten male subjects completed the study without adverse reactions. The median duration of abuse was 1.75 years. We analyzed one subject separately due to the abnormal behavior of blood concentration. From data of nine subjects, the pharmacokinetic parameters established were time to reach the maximum plasma concentration (0.83±0.35 hour), terminal half-life (23.24±16.07 hours), and the apparent volume of distribution (38.04±24.32 L/kg). The urine excretion of unchanged form was 0.14%. The pharmacokinetics were observed to be oral two-compartment model. Conclusion This was the first pharmacokinetic study in humans, which demonstrated linearity and was consistent with the oral two-compartment model with a terminal half

  1. Concepts for manned lunar habitats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hypes, W. D.; Butterfield, A. J.; King, C. B.; Qualls, G. D.; Davis, W. T.; Gould, M. J.; Nealy, J. E.; Simonsen, L. C.

    1991-01-01

    The design philosophy that will guide the design of early lunar habitats will be based on a compromise between the desired capabilities of the base and the economics of its development and implantation. Preferred design will be simple, make use of existing technologies, require the least amount of lunar surface preparation, and minimize crew activity. Three concepts for an initial habitat supporting a crew of four for 28 to 30 days are proposed. Two of these are based on using Space Station Freedom structural elements modified for use in a lunar-gravity environment. A third concept is proposed that is based on an earlier technology based on expandable modules. The expandable modules offer significant advantages in launch mass and packaged volume reductions. It appears feasible to design a transport spacecraft lander that, once landed, can serve as a habitat and a stand-off for supporting a regolith environmental shield. A permanent lunar base habitat supporting a crew of twelve for an indefinite period can be evolved by using multiple initial habitats. There appears to be no compelling need for an entirely different structure of larger volume and increased complexity of implantation.

  2. CELSS for advanced manned mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, R. L.; Oleson, M. W.; Slavin, T. J.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the major concepts of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) includes an identification of environmental factors, such as gravity levels, light levels, and growth volume, that influence the type of CELSS system that can be developed. Various plant growth systems are described together with their possible space applications. Life support functions performed by plants include food production, atmosphere regeneration, and water purification. Selected relationships between biological and physical-chemical life support techniques are considered as a part of these functions. Consumers in a CELSS may be humans, animals, or microorganisms, but nutritional, water, and atmosphere requirements of humans are emphasized in this report, as they are the primary requirement drivers for a CELSS design. The human role in waste generation is discussed as it affects plant nutrient availability. The role of waste management systems in recovering nutrients for plant growth and requirements for CELSS are defined for air, water, and food. Both physical and a biological nutrient recovery/waste disposal systems are examined. The separate subsystems of a CELSS are identified and discussed. Nutrient recovery, plant irradiation, automation, and facilities equipment and applications are reviewed with special attention to direct solar irradiation using fiber optics. These subsystems, along with other environmental control systems, such as thermal, humidity, and ventilation, are essential to plant growth in the space environment.

  3. How was the Turin Shroud Man crucified?

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, M; Fanti, G; D'Arienzo, M; Porzionato, A; Macchi, V; De Caro, R

    2014-12-01

    As the literature is not exhaustive with reference to the way the Turin Shroud (TS) Man was crucified, and it is not easy to draw significant information from only a "photograph" of a man on a linen sheet, this study tries to add some detail on this issue based on both image processing of high resolution photos of the TS and on experimental tests on arms and legs of human cadavers. With regard to the TS Man hands, a first hypothesis states that the left hand of the TS Man was nailed twice at two different anatomical sites: the midcarpal joint medially to the pisiform between the lunate/pyramidal and capitate/uncinate bones (Destot's space) and the radiocarpal joint between the radio, lunate and scaphoid; also the right hand would have been nailed twice. A second hypothesis, preferred by the authors, states that the hands were nailed only once in the Destot's space with partial lesion of the ulnar nerve and flexion of the metacarpophalangeal joint of the thumbs. With regard to the TS Man feet, the imprint of the sole of the right foot leads to the conclusion that TS Man suffered a dislocation at the ankle just before the nailing. The entrance hole of the nail on the right foot is a few inches from the ankle, and excludes a double nailing. The nail has been driven between the tarsal bones. The TS Man suffered the following tortures during crucifixion: a very serious and widespread causalgia due to total paralysis of the upper right limb (paradoxical causalgia); a nailing of the left wrist with damage to the ulnar nerve; a similar nailing of the right wrist; and a nailing to both feet using one only nail that injured the plantaris medialis nerves. The respiratory limitation was probably not sufficient to cause death by asphyxiation. Also considering the hypovolemia produced by scourging and the many other tortures detectable on the TS, the principal cause of death can be attributed to a myocardial infarction. PMID:25457335

  4. Natural and Man-Made Hazards in the Cayman Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novelo-Casanova, D. A.; Suarez, G.

    2010-12-01

    Located in the western Caribbean Sea to the northwest of Jamaica, the Cayman Islands are a British overseas territory comprised of three islands: Grand Cayman, Cayman Brac, and Little Cayman. These three islands occupy around 250 km2 of land area. In this work, historical and recent data were collected and classified to identify and rank the natural and man-made hazards that may potentially affect the Cayman Islands and determine the level of exposure of Grand Cayman to these events. With this purpose, we used the vulnerability assessment methodology developed by the North Caroline Department of Environment and Natural Resources. The different degrees of physical vulnerability for each hazard were graphically interpreted with the aid of maps using a relative scoring system. Spatial maps were generated showing the areas of different levels of exposure to multi-hazards. The more important natural hazard to which the Cayman Islands are exposed is clearly hurricanes. To a lesser degree, the islands may be occasionally exposed to earthquakes and tsunamis. Explosions or leaks of the Airport Texaco Fuel Depot and the fuel pipeline at Grand Cayman are the most significant man-made hazards. Our results indicate that there are four areas in Grand Cayman with various levels of exposure to natural and man-made hazards: The North Sound, Little Sound and Eastern West Bay (Area 1) show a very high level of exposure; The Central Mangroves, Central Bodden Town, Central George Town and the West Bay (Area 2) have high level of exposure; The Northwestern West Bay, Western Georgetown-Bodden Town, and East End-North Side (Area 3) are under moderate levels of exposure. The remainder of the island shows low exposure (Area 4). It is important to underline that this study presents a first evaluation of the main natural and man-made hazards that may affect the Cayman Islands. The maps generated will be useful tools for emergency managers and policy developers and will increase the overall

  5. Results of the Second U.S. Manned Suborbital Space Flight, July 21, 1961

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1961-01-01

    This document presents the results of the second United States manned suborbital space flight. The data and flight description presented form a continuation of the information provided at an open conference held under the auspices of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, in cooperation with the National Institutes of Health and the National Academy of Sciences, at the U.S. Department of State Auditorium on June 6, 1961. The papers presented herein generally parallel the presentations of the first report and were prepared by the personnel of the NASA Manned Spacecraft Center in collaboration with personnel from other government agencies, participating industry, and universities. The second successful manned suborbital space flight on July 21, 1961, in which Astronaut Virgil I. Grissom was the pilot was another step in the progressive research, development, and training program leading to the study of man's capabilities in a space environment during manned orbital flight. Data and operational experiences gained from this flight were in agreement with and supplemented the knowledge obtained from the first suborbital flight of May 5, 1961, piloted by Astronaut Alan B. Shepard, Jr. The two recent manned suborbital flights, coupled with the unmanned research and development flights, have provided valuable engineering nd scientific data on which the program can progress. The successful active participation of the pilots, in much the same way as in the development and testing of high performance aircraft, has. greatly increased our confidence in giving man a significant role in future space flight activities. It is the purpose of this report to continue the practice of providing data to the scientific community interested in activities of this nature. Brief descriptions are presented of the Project Mercury spacecraft and flight plan. Papers are provided which parallel the presentations of data published for the first suborbital space flight. Additional

  6. [Successful preclinical thoracotomy in a 17-year-old man].

    PubMed

    Puchwein, P; Prenner, G; Fell, B; Sereinigg, M; Gumpert, R

    2014-09-01

    We report the case of a 17-year-old man who sustained multiple stab wounds after a knife attack. After arrival of the emergency medical team the patient suffered a cardiac arrest caused by cardiac tamponade. After emergency thoracotomy and open heart massage the patient developed ROSC and could be discharged 13 days later without neurological deficits. Prehospital thoracotomy is rarely performed in Austria but is the only realistic chance for survival in cases of hematopericardium and tamponade. Better training of emergency physicians in Austria concerning surgical resuscitation could increase survival rates especially after penetrating thoracic trauma. PMID:23884562

  7. Mathematical model of one-man air revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    A mathematical model was developed for simulating the steady state performance in electrochemical CO2 concentrators which utilize (NMe4)2 CO3 (aq.) electrolyte. This electrolyte, which accommodates a wide range of air relative humidity, is most suitable for one-man air revitalization systems. The model is based on the solution of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations derived from mass transport and rate equations for the processes which take place in the cell. The boundary conditions are obtained by solving the mass and energy transport equations. A shooting method is used to solve the differential equations.

  8. An automated water iodinating subsystem for manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houck, O. K.; Wynveen, R. A.

    1974-01-01

    Controlling microbial growth by injecting iodine (l2) into water supplies is a widely acceptable technique, but requires a specialized injection method for space flight. An electrochemical l2 injection method and l2 level monitor are discussed in this paper, which also describe iodination practices previously used in the manned space program and major l2 biocidal characteristics. The development and design of the injector and monitor are described, and results of subsequent experiments are presented. Also presented are expected vehicle penalties for utilizing the l2 injector in certain space missions, especially the Space Shuttle, and possible injector failure modes and their criticality.

  9. Real time digital propulsion system simulation for manned flight simulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mihaloew, J. R.; Hart, C. E.

    1978-01-01

    A real time digital simulation of a STOL propulsion system was developed which generates significant dynamics and internal variables needed to evaluate system performance and aircraft interactions using manned flight simulators. The simulation ran at a real-to-execution time ratio of 8.8. The model was used in a piloted NASA flight simulator program to evaluate the simulation technique and the propulsion system digital control. The simulation is described and results shown. Limited results of the flight simulation program are also presented.

  10. Need for artificial gravity on a manned Mars mission?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharp, Joseph C.

    1986-01-01

    Drawing upon the extensive Soviet and Skylab medical observations, the need for artificial gravity (g) on a manned Mars mission is discussed. Little hard data derived from well done experiments exist. This dearth of information is primarily due to two factors. Inability to collect tissues from astronauts for ethical or operational reasons. Second, there was not opportunities to fly animals in space to systematically evaluate the extent of the problem, and to develop and then to prove the effectiveness of countermeasures. The Skylab and space station will provide the opportunity to study these questions and validate suggested solutions.

  11. Orbital construction support equipment - Manned remote work station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nassiff, S. H.

    1978-01-01

    The Manned Remote Work Station (MRWS) is a versatile piece of orbital construction support equipment which can support in-space construction in various modes of operation. Proposed near-term Space Shuttle mission support and future large orbiting systems support, along with the various construction modes of MRWS operation, are discussed. Preliminary flight subsystems requirements and configuration design are presented. Integration of the MRWS development test article with the JSC Mockup and Integration Facility, including ground-test objectives and techniques for zero-g simulations, is also presented.

  12. Communications and manned space flight - The vital link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, D. E. B.

    1987-11-01

    A development history and interdependence evaluation is presented for the NASA Manned Space Flight Network (MSFN) and the NASA Communications Network (NASCOM), over the period from the beginning of NASA space activities to the 1969 lunar landing. This period witnessed the expansion of tracking and communications network ground stations through the Mercury and Gemini programs until NASCOM was instituted, followed by the Deep Space Network and the NASA Unified S-band system for the Apollo program. Attention is given to MSFN network data-flow and NASCOM network architecture.

  13. Manning's roughness coefficient for Illinois streams

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soong, David T.; Prater, Crystal D.; Halfar, Teresa M.; Wobig, Loren A.

    2012-01-01

    Manning's roughness coefficients for 43 natural and constructed streams in Illinois are reported and displayed on a U.S. Geological Survey Web site. At a majority of the sites, discharge and stage were measured, and corresponding Manning's coefficients—the n-values—were determined at more than one river discharge. The n-values discussed in this report are computed from data representing the stream reach studied and, therefore, are reachwise values. Presentation of the resulting n-values takes a visual-comparison approach similar to the previously published Barnes report (1967), in which photographs of channel conditions, description of the site, and the resulting n-values are organized for each site. The Web site where the data can be accessed and are displayed is at URL http://il.water.usgs.gov/proj/nvalues/.

  14. Terrapin technologies manned Mars mission proposal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Amato, Michael; Bryant, Heather; Coleman, Rodney; Compy, Chris; Crouse, Patrick; Crunkleton, Joe; Hurtado, Edgar; Iverson, Eirik; Kamosa, Mike; Kraft, Lauri (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    A Manned Mars Mission (M3) design study is proposed. The purpose of M3 is to transport 10 personnel and a habitat with all required support systems and supplies from low Earth orbit (LEO) to the surface of Mars and, after an eight-man surface expedition of 3 months, to return the personnel safely to LEO. The proposed hardware design is based on systems and components of demonstrated high capability and reliability. The mission design builds on past mission experience, but incorporates innovative design approaches to achieve mission priorities. Those priorities, in decreasing order of importance, are safety, reliability, minimum personnel transfer time, minimum weight, and minimum cost. The design demonstrates the feasibility and flexibility of a Waverider transfer module.

  15. One man electrochemical air revitalization system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huddleston, J. C.; Aylward, J. R.

    1975-01-01

    An integrated water vapor electrolysis (WVE) hydrogen depolarized CO2 concentrator (HDC) system sized for one man support over a wide range of inlet air conditions was designed, fabricated, and tested. Data obtained during 110 days of testing verified that this system can provide the necessary oxygen, CO2 removal, and partial humidity control to support one man (without exceeding a cabin partial pressure of 3.0 mmHg for CO2 and while maintaining a 20% oxygen level), when operated at a WVE current of 50 amperes and an HDC current of 18 amperes. An evaluation to determine the physical properties of tetramethylammonium bicarbonate (TMAC) and hydroxide was made. This provides the necessary electrolyte information for designing an HDC cell using TMAC.

  16. Man-machine collaboration using facial expressions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Ying; Katahera, S.; Cai, D.

    2002-09-01

    For realizing the flexible man-machine collaboration, understanding of facial expressions and gestures is not negligible. In our method, we proposed a hierarchical recognition approach, for the understanding of human emotions. According to this method, the facial AFs (action features) were firstly extracted and recognized by using histograms of optical flow. Then, based on the facial AFs, facial expressions were classified into two calsses, one of which presents the positive emotions, and the other of which does the negative ones. Accordingly, the facial expressions belonged to the positive class, or the ones belonged to the negative class, were classified into more complex emotions, which were revealed by the corresponding facial expressions. Finally, the system architecture how to coordinate in recognizing facil action features and facial expressions for man-machine collaboration was proposed.

  17. Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1960-01-01

    Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles. The film shows experimental investigations to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices include crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030945. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  18. MOOSE: Manned On-Orbit Servicing Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Budinoff, J. (Editor); Leontsinis, N. (Editor); Lane, J. (Editor); Singh, R. (Editor); Angelone, K.; Boswell, C.; Chamberlain, I.; Concha, M.; Corrodo, M.; Custodio, O.

    1993-01-01

    The ability to service satellites has thus far been limited to low earth orbit platforms within reach of the Space Shuttle. Other orbits, such as geosynchronous orbits containing high-value spacecraft have not been attainable by a servicing vehicle. The useful life of a satellite can be extended by replacing spent propellant and damaged orbital replacement units, forestalling the need for eventual replacement. This growing need for satellite on-orbits servicing can be met by the Manned On-Orbit Servicing Equipment (MOOSE). Missions requiring orbit transfer capability, precision manipulation and maneuvering, and man-in-the-loop control can be accomplished using MOOSE. MOOSE is a flexible, reusable, single operator, aerobraking spacecraft designed to refuel, repair, and service orbiting spacecraft. MOOSE will be deployed from Space Station Freedom, (SSF), where it will be stored, resupplied, and refurbished.

  19. Neural networks in support of manned space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Werbos, Paul J.

    1989-01-01

    Many lobbyists in Washington have argued that artificial intelligence (AI) is an alternative to manned space activity. In actuality, this is the opposite of the truth, especially as regards artificial neural networks (ANNs), that form of AI which has the greatest hope of mimicking human abilities in learning, ability to interface with sensors and actuators, flexibility and balanced judgement. ANNs and their relation to expert systems (the more traditional form of AI), and the limitations of both technologies are briefly reviewed. A Few highlights of recent work on ANNs, including an NSF-sponsored workshop on ANNs for control applications are given. Current thinking on ANNs for use in certain key areas (the National Aerospace Plane, teleoperation, the control of large structures, fault diagnostics, and docking) which may be crucial to the long term future of man in space is discussed.

  20. Ant-Man and the quantum realm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michalakis, Spiros

    2015-11-01

    I was in Los Angeles airport, stuffing French fries into my mouth and waiting for a flight to Charlotte, North Carolina, when my phone buzzed. The e-mail was from the Science and Entertainment Exchange, a non-profit organization working to elevate the level of science in the movies, and it told me to report to Atlanta to consult on a new superhero movie: Ant-Man.

  1. L1 libration point manned space habitat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luttges, Marvin; Johnson, Steve; Banks, Gary; Johnson, Richard; Meyer, Christian; Pepin, Scott; Macelroy, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Second generation stations or Manned Space Habitats (MSHs) are discussed for an Earth-Moon libration point and in lunar orbit. The conceptual design of such a station is outlined. Systems and subsystems described reflect anticipation of moderate technology growth. The evolution of the L1 environments is discussed, several selected subsystems are outlined, and how the L1 MSH will complete some of its activities is described.

  2. Sleep monitoring - The second manned Skylab mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, J. D., Jr.; Shumate, W. H.; Booher, C. R.; Salamy, J. G.

    1976-01-01

    Sleep patterns were monitored in one subject aboard each of the manned Skylab missions. In all three subjects stage 3 sleep increased during the flight and consistently decreased postflight. Stage REM was elevated, and REM latency decreased in the late postflight period. The number of awakenings remained the same or decreased during flight. No changes were observed which could be expected to adversely affect performance capability.

  3. First multiphoton tomography of brain in man

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Karsten; Kantelhardt, Sven R.; Kalasauskas, Darius; Kim, Ella; Giese, Alf

    2016-03-01

    We report on the first two-photon in vivo brain tissue imaging study in man. High resolution in vivo histology by multiphoton tomography (MPT) including two-photon FLIM was performed in the operation theatre during neurosurgery to evaluate the feasibility to detect label-free tumor borders with subcellular resolution. This feasibility study demonstrates, that MPT has the potential to identify tumor borders on a cellular level in nearly real-time.

  4. The Man-in-the-Middle Defence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ross; Bond, Mike

    Eliminating middlemen from security protocols helps less than one would think. EMV electronic payments, for example, can be made fairer by adding an electronic attorney - a middleman which mediates access to a customer’s card. We compare middlemen in crypto protocols and APIs with those in the real world, and show that a man-in-the-middle defence is helpful in many circumstances. We suggest that the middleman has been unfairly demonised.

  5. Aerobraking systems for manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldred, Charles H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a synopsis of aerobraking uses, benefits, performance requirements, design issues, and technology requirements for manned Mars missions. Aerobraking can provide significant advantages in several key mission functions: Mars orbit capture, Mars entry from orbit, and earth orbit capture or direct entry. The resulting range of aerobraking performance requirements are described. Study results show that none of the aerobrake unique concerns are show stoppers but are issues having reasonable design solutions and operational impacts.

  6. Manned Mars missions: A working group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duke, Michael B. (Editor); Keaton, Paul W. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    The discussions of the Working Group (based in large part on working papers, which will shortly be published separately) are summarized. These papers cover a broad range of subjects which need to be addressed in the formulation of such a formidable enterprise as a manned Mars program. Science objective and operations; Mars surface infrastructure and activities; mission and system concepts and configurations; life sciences; impacts on the space infrastructure; and costs, schedules, and organizations are addressed.

  7. Man-machine interface requirements - advanced technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Remington, R. W.; Wiener, E. L.

    1984-01-01

    Research issues and areas are identified where increased understanding of the human operator and the interaction between the operator and the avionics could lead to improvements in the performance of current and proposed helicopters. Both current and advanced helicopter systems and avionics are considered. Areas critical to man-machine interface requirements include: (1) artificial intelligence; (2) visual displays; (3) voice technology; (4) cockpit integration; and (5) pilot work loads and performance.

  8. Bobby Fong: Man on a Mission

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fong, Colin

    2014-01-01

    Bobby Fong, was president of Ursinus College until his death in September 2014 and is the only person to have served twice as chair of the AAC&U Board of Directors. In this article, his son Collin presents remarks made at the memorial service for his father. Collin describes his father as a man with a mission, and that mission was to make the…

  9. Kimberlites of the Man craton, West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skinner, E. M. W.; Apter, D. B.; Morelli, C.; Smithson, N. K.

    2004-09-01

    The Man craton in West Africa is an Archaean craton formerly joined to the Guyana craton (South America) that was rifted apart in the Mesozoic. Kimberlites of the Man craton include three Jurassic-aged clusters in Guinea, two Jurassic-aged clusters in Sierra Leone, and in Liberia two clusters of unknown age and one Neoproterozoic cluster recently dated at ˜800 Ma. All of the kimberlites irrespective of age occur as small pipes and prolific dykes. Some of the Banankoro cluster pipes in Guinea, the Koidu pipes in Sierra Leone and small pipes in the Weasua cluster in Liberia contain hypabyssal-facies kimberlite and remnants of the so-called transitional-facies and diatreme-facies kimberlite. Most of the Man craton kimberlites are mineralogically classified as phlogopite kimberlites, although potassium contents are relatively low. They are chemically similar to mica-poor Group 1A Southern African examples. The Jurassic kimberlites are considered to represent one province of kimberlites that track from older bodies in Guinea (Droujba 153 Ma) to progressively younger kimberlites in Sierra Leone (Koidu, 146 Ma and Tongo, 140 Ma). The scarcity of diatreme-facies kimberlites relative to hypabyssal-facies kimberlites and the presence of the so-called transitional-facies indicate that the pipes have been eroded down to the interface between the root and diatreme zones. From this observation, it is concluded that extensive erosion (1-2 km) has occurred since the Jurassic. In addition to erosion, the presence of abundant early crystallizing phlogopite is considered to have had an effect on the relatively small sizes of the Man craton kimberlites.

  10. Manned testing in a simulated space environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fender, Donna L.

    1992-11-01

    A view of the facility and operational requirements involved in performing a manned thermal vacuum test is presented. The requirements fall into two major categories. The first category deals with placing the suited crewmen in a hazardous environment and assuring their safety. The second category deals with the constraints and special requirements involved with a suited crewman operating flight hardware in a 1-G environment. Design areas that deal with man rating a chamber, including fire suppression, emergency repress, emergency power, backups, reliable instrumentation and data systems, communications, television monitoring, biomedical monitoring, material compatibilities, and equipment supporting the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) are discussed. The operational issues that are peculiar to manned testing such as test rules, test procedures, test protocol, emergency drills, availability of hyperbaric facilities, test team training and certification engineering concerns for a safe mechanical and instrumentation buildup, hazard analysis, and Failure Modes and Effects Analysis are discussed. The constraints and special requirements involved with a suited crewman operating flight hardware in a 1-G environment are addressed.

  11. Hyphal tip extension in Aspergillus nidulans requires the manA gene, which encodes phosphomannose isomerase.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D J; Payton, M A

    1994-01-01

    A strain of Aspergillus nidulans carrying a temperature-sensitive mutation in the manA gene produces cell walls depleted of D-mannose and forms hyphal tip balloons at the restrictive temperature (B.P. Valentine and B.W. Bainbridge, J. Gen. Microbiol. 109:155-168, 1978). We have isolated and characterized the manA gene and physically located it between 3.5 and 5.5 kb centromere distal of the riboB locus on chromosome VIII. The manA gene contains four introns and encodes a 50.6-kDa protein which has significant sequence identity to type I phosphomannose isomerase proteins from other eukaryotes. We have constructed by integrative transformation a null mutation in the manA gene which can only be maintained in a heterokaryotic strain with wild-type manA+ nuclei. Thus, a manA null mutation is lethal in A. nidulans. The phenotype of the mutation was analyzed in germinating conidia. Such conidia are able to commence germination but swell abnormally, sometimes producing a misshapen germ tube, before growth ceases. The reason for the lethality is probably the lack of synthesis of mannose-containing cell wall polymers that must be required for normal cell wall development in growing hyphae. Images PMID:8065336

  12. Willem Einthoven--the man. The string galvanometer electrocardiograph.

    PubMed

    Ershler, I

    1988-02-01

    Despite the universal use of the electrocardiogram for cardiac evaluation, surprisingly few physicians are aware of the individual, Willem Einthoven, who in 1901 reported and in 1924 received the Nobel Prize for the development of the string galvanometer electrocardiograph. Following the development of this comparatively simple device, there has been a succession of increasingly, electrically exotic, electrocardiographs, none of which surpass the original Einthoven instrument in recording accuracy. The resolution of mechanical problems in the laboratory, incident to development of the Einthoven instrument, is of interest in view of the primitive laboratory equipment available during the period the device was developed. Einthoven's preference for funds for additional laboratory assistants and equipment, in lieu of a new laboratory building as a monument to his name and his subsequent disposal of half of the Nobel Prize money, reveal the basic character of this great man, rightfully called the Father of Electrocardiography. PMID:3277566

  13. Developing Dementia Prevention Trials: Baseline Report of the Home-Based Assessment Study

    PubMed Central

    Sano, Mary; Egelko, Susan; Donohue, Michael; Ferris, Steven; Kaye, Jeffrey; Hayes, Tamara L.; Mundt, James C.; Sun, C.K.; Paparello, Silvia; Aisen, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes the baseline experience of the multi-center, Home Based Assessment (HBA) study, designed to develop methods for dementia prevention trials using novel technologies for test administration and data collection. Non-demented individuals ≥ 75 years old were recruited and evaluated in-person using established clinical trial outcomes of cognition and function, and randomized to one of 3 assessment methodologies: 1) mail-in questionnaire/live telephone interviews (MIP); 2) automated telephone with interactive voice recognition (IVR); and 3) internet-based computer Kiosk (KIO). Brief versions of cognitive and non-cognitive outcomes, were adapted to each methodology and administered at baseline and repeatedly over a 4-year period. “Efficiency” measures assessed the time from screening to baseline, and staff time required for each methodology. 713 individuals signed consent and were screened; 640 met eligibility and were randomized to one of 3 assessment arms and 581 completed baseline. Drop out, time from screening to baseline and total staff time were highest among those assigned to KIO. However efficiency measures were driven by non-recurring start-up activities suggesting that differences may be mitigated over a long trial. Performance among HBA instruments collected via different technologies will be compared to established outcomes over this 4 year study. PMID:23151596

  14. 32 CFR 707.2 - Man overboard lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Man overboard lights. 707.2 Section 707.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY NAVIGATION SPECIAL RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.2 Man overboard lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of indicating man overboard,...

  15. 32 CFR 707.2 - Man overboard lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Man overboard lights. 707.2 Section 707.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY NAVIGATION SPECIAL RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.2 Man overboard lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of indicating man overboard,...

  16. The Ideal Man and Woman According to University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Lawrence; Laverghetta, Antonio V.; Peterson, Scott A.

    2009-01-01

    The present study determined if the ideal man has changed over the years and who and what the ideal woman is. We asked students at Cameron University to rate the importance of character traits that define the ideal man and woman. Subjects also provided examples of famous people exemplifying the ideal, good, average, and inferior man and woman. We…

  17. 33 CFR 146.120 - Manning of survival craft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Manning of survival craft. 146.120 Section 146.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.120 Manning of survival craft. The owner, the owner's agent, or...

  18. 33 CFR 146.120 - Manning of survival craft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Manning of survival craft. 146.120 Section 146.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.120 Manning of survival craft. The owner, the owner's agent, or...

  19. 33 CFR 146.120 - Manning of survival craft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Manning of survival craft. 146.120 Section 146.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.120 Manning of survival craft. The owner, the owner's agent, or...

  20. 33 CFR 146.120 - Manning of survival craft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Manning of survival craft. 146.120 Section 146.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.120 Manning of survival craft. The owner, the owner's agent, or...

  1. 33 CFR 146.120 - Manning of survival craft.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Manning of survival craft. 146.120 Section 146.120 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS Manned OCS Facilities § 146.120 Manning of survival craft. The owner, the owner's agent, or...

  2. 32 CFR 707.2 - Man overboard lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Man overboard lights. 707.2 Section 707.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY NAVIGATION SPECIAL RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.2 Man overboard lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of indicating man overboard,...

  3. 32 CFR 707.2 - Man overboard lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Man overboard lights. 707.2 Section 707.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY NAVIGATION SPECIAL RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.2 Man overboard lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of indicating man overboard,...

  4. 32 CFR 707.2 - Man overboard lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Man overboard lights. 707.2 Section 707.2 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY NAVIGATION SPECIAL RULES WITH RESPECT TO ADDITIONAL STATION AND SIGNAL LIGHTS § 707.2 Man overboard lights. Naval vessels may display, as a means of indicating man overboard,...

  5. Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Testing of Manned Spacecraft: Historical Precedent

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemke, Paul R.; Tuma, Margaret L.; Askins, Bruce R.

    2008-01-01

    For the first time in nearly 30 years, NASA is developing a new manned space flight launch system. The Ares I will carry crew and cargo to not only the International Space Station, but onward for the future exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Ares I control system and structural designs use complex computer models for their development. An Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test (IVGVT) will validate the efficacy of these computer models. The IVGVT will reduce the technical risk of unexpected conditions that could place the vehicle or crew in jeopardy. The Ares Project Office's Flight and Integrated Test Office commissioned a study to determine how historical programs, such as Saturn and Space Shuttle, validated the structural dynamics of an integrated flight vehicle. The study methodology was to examine the historical record and seek out members of the engineering community who recall the development of historic manned launch vehicles. These records and interviews provided insight into the best practices and lessons learned from these historic development programs. The information that was gathered allowed the creation of timelines of the historic development programs. The timelines trace the programs from the development of test articles through test preparation, test operations, and test data reduction efforts. These timelines also demonstrate how the historical tests fit within their overall vehicle development programs. Finally, the study was able to quantify approximate staffing levels during historic development programs. Using this study, the Flight and Integrated Test Office was able to evaluate the Ares I Integrated Vehicle Ground Vibration Test schedule and workforce budgets in light of the historical precedents to determine if the test had schedule or cost risks associated with it.

  6. Inflammatory pain in experimental burns in man.

    PubMed

    Pedersen, J L

    2000-06-01

    Human experimental pain models are important tools in pain research. The primary aims of pain research in normal man is 1) to provide insight in pain mechanisms, 2) to provide a rational basis for clinical trials of pain relieving interventions, and 3) to confirm the anti-nociceptive effects demonstrated in animal models. Most often clinical pain is due to tissue damage leading to acute inflammation and hyperalgesia, but only few human pain models have examined pain responses in injured tissues. Therefore, models with controlled and reversible tissue trauma are needed. The human burn model is an example of such a model, and several groups have performed studies of analgesics and pain mechanisms based on the model. The thesis aims to provide a critical review of the human burn model as a tool in pain research, and to give suggestions for development of the model and future research. The pain and inflammatory responses to superficial thermal burns in skin have been studied in healthy volunteers. Burns have the potential for releasing most of the inflammatory and chemical mediators that produce sensitisation and excitation of nociceptors, and the intense nociceptive input during injury produces sensitisation of central neurones in the nociceptive pathway. Pain and hyperalgesia have been evaluated in the model by thermal, various mechanical, and electrical stimuli. The different methods of pain assessments are discussed to clarify the underlying neural mechanisms, the questions that can be addressed by the measurements, and the discrepancies in results between studies. Inflammation has been evaluated in the model by skin erythema intensity, area of flare, and blister formation. The major determinant of skin erythema intensity is the amount of blood in the most superficial part of the dermis, and burn-induced erythema may be primarily due to congestion of capillary loops and postcapillary venules. The area of flare may be used to evaluate the efferent function of heat

  7. Three-Man Solid Electrolyte Carbon Dioxide Electrolysis Breadboard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Isenberg, Arnold O.

    1989-01-01

    The development of the Three-Man (2.2 lb CO2/man-day) Solid Electrolyte CO2 Electrolysis Breadboard consisted of a Phase 1 and 2 effort. The Phase 1 effort constituted fabrication of three electrolysis cell types and performing parametric testing, off-design testing, and cell life testing. The Phase 2 consisted of the preliminary design, incorporation of palladium (Pd) tubes for hydrogen separation from the electrolyzer cathode feed gases, design support testing, final design, fabrication, and performance testing of the breadboard system. The results of performance tests demonstrated that CO2 electrolysis in an oxygen reclamation system for long duration space-based habitats is feasible. Closure of the oxygen system loop, therefore, can be achieved by CO2 electrolysis. In a two step process the metabolic CO2 and H2O vapor are electrolyzed into O2, H2, and CO. The CO can subsequently be disproportionated into carbon and CO2 in a carbon deposition reactor and the CO2 in turn be recycled and electrolyzed for total O2 recovery. The development effort demonstrated electrolyzer system can be designed and built to operate safely and reliably and the incorporation of Pd tubes for hydrogen diffusion can be integrated safely with predictable performance.

  8. Race, language, and mental evolution in Darwin's descent of man.

    PubMed

    Alter, Stephen G

    2007-01-01

    Charles Darwin was notoriously ambiguous in his remarks about the relationship between human evolution and biological race. He stressed the original unity of the races, yet he also helped to popularize the notion of a racial hierarchy filling the gaps between the highest anthropoids and civilized Europeans. A focus on Darwin's explanation of how humans initially evolved, however, shows that he mainly stressed not hierarchy but a version of humanity's original mental unity. In his book The Descent of Man, Darwin emphasized a substantial degree of mental development (including the incipient use of language) in the early, monogenetic phase of human evolution. This development, he argued, necessarily came before primeval man's numerical increase, geographic dispersion, and racial diversification, because only thus could one explain how that group was able to spread at the expense of rival ape-like populations. This scenario stood opposed to a new evolutionary polygenism formulated in the wake of Darwin's Origin of Species by his ostensible supporters Alfred Russel Wallace and Ernst Haeckel. Darwin judged this outlook inadequate to the task of explaining humanity's emergence. PMID:17623873

  9. Simulation Helps Improve Atmosphere Revitalization Systems for Manned Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, James C.; Coker, RObert

    2014-01-01

    Life support systems for manned spacecraft must provide breathable air and drinkable water for the astronauts. Through the Atmosphere Revitalization Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project, engineers at NASA are developing atmosphere control devices for the safety of the onboard crew. The atmosphere in a manned spacecraft needs to be regularly revitalized in order to ensure the safety of the astronauts and the success of the space mission. For missions lasting a few months, this means air is continuously dehumidified, water collected for re-use, and carbon dioxide (CO2) ejected. One component of the onboard atmosphere control system is a water-saving device that Jim Knox, aerospace engineer at NASA, is optimizing through the Atmosphere Revitalization Recovery and Environmental Monitoring (ARREM) project. He is leading a team at the Marshall Space Flight Center (Huntsville, Alabama) that is aiming to make the assembly more cost-effective and efficient by reducing its power usage and maximizing the water saved; their goal is to save 80-90% of the water in the air. They hope to offer flight system developers at NASA an integrated approach to atmosphere revitalization and water collection that will ultimately increase the time and distance space missions can travel.

  10. Delta Advanced Reusable Transport (DART): An alternative manned spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewerenz, T.; Kosha, M.; Magazu, H.

    1991-01-01

    Although the current U.S. Space Transportation System (STS) has proven successful in many applications, the truth remains that the space shuttle is not as reliable or economical as was once hoped. In fact, the Augustine Commission on the future of the U.S. Space Program has recommended that the space shuttle only be used on missions directly requiring human capabilities on-orbit and that the shuttle program should eventually be phased out. This poses a great dilemma since the shuttle provides the only current or planned U.S. means for human access to space at the same time that NASA is building toward a permanent manned presence. As a possible solution to this dilemma, it is proposed that the U.S. begin development of an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS). This spacecraft would not only provide follow-on capability for maintaining human space flight, but would also provide redundancy and enhanced capability in the near future. Design requirements for the AMS studied include: (1) capability of launching on one of the current or planned U.S. expendable launch vehicles (baseline McDonnell Douglas Delta II model 7920 expendable booster); (2) application to a wide variety of missions including autonomous operations, space station support, and access to orbits and inclinations beyond those of the space shuttle; (3) low enough costing to fly regularly in augmentation of space shuttle capabilities; (4) production surge capabilities to replace the shuttle if events require it; (5) intact abort capability in all flight regimes since the planned launch vehicles are not man-rated; (6) technology cut-off date of 1990; and (7) initial operational capability in 1995. In addition, the design of the AMS would take advantage of scientific advances made in the 20 years since the space shuttle was first conceived. These advances are in such technologies as composite materials, propulsion systems, avionics, and hypersonics.

  11. Delta Advanced Reusable Transport (DART): An alternative manned spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewerenz, T.; Kosha, M.; Magazu, H.

    Although the current U.S. Space Transportation System (STS) has proven successful in many applications, the truth remains that the space shuttle is not as reliable or economical as was once hoped. In fact, the Augustine Commission on the future of the U.S. Space Program has recommended that the space shuttle only be used on missions directly requiring human capabilities on-orbit and that the shuttle program should eventually be phased out. This poses a great dilemma since the shuttle provides the only current or planned U.S. means for human access to space at the same time that NASA is building toward a permanent manned presence. As a possible solution to this dilemma, it is proposed that the U.S. begin development of an Alternative Manned Spacecraft (AMS). This spacecraft would not only provide follow-on capability for maintaining human space flight, but would also provide redundancy and enhanced capability in the near future. Design requirements for the AMS studied include: (1) capability of launching on one of the current or planned U.S. expendable launch vehicles (baseline McDonnell Douglas Delta II model 7920 expendable booster); (2) application to a wide variety of missions including autonomous operations, space station support, and access to orbits and inclinations beyond those of the space shuttle; (3) low enough costing to fly regularly in augmentation of space shuttle capabilities; (4) production surge capabilities to replace the shuttle if events require it; (5) intact abort capability in all flight regimes since the planned launch vehicles are not man-rated; (6) technology cut-off date of 1990; and (7) initial operational capability in 1995. In addition, the design of the AMS would take advantage of scientific advances made in the 20 years since the space shuttle was first conceived. These advances are in such technologies as composite materials, propulsion systems, avionics, and hypersonics.

  12. Manned Orbital Transfer Vehicle (MOTV). Volume 6: Five year program plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyland, R. E.; Sherman, S. W.; Morfin, H. W.

    1979-01-01

    The five year program plan for the manned orbit transfer vehicle (MOTV) is presented. The planning, schedules, cost estimates, and supporting data (objectives, constraints, assumptions, etc.) associated with the development of the MOTV are discussed. The plan, in addition to the above material, identifies the supporting research and technology required to resolve issues critical to MOTV development.

  13. Manned Mars mission health maintenance facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Degioanni, Joseph C.

    1986-01-01

    The Health Maintenance Facility (HMF) requirements which enable/enhance manned Mars missions (MMMs) are addressed. It does not attempt to resolve any issues that may affect the feasibility of any given element in the HMF. Reference is made to current work being conducted in the design of the space station HMF. The HMF requirements are discussed within the context of two distinctly different scenarios: HMF as part of the Mars surface infrastructure, and HMF as part of the nine months translation from low Earth orbit to Mars orbit. Requirements for an HMF are provided, and a concept of HMF is shown.

  14. Assessment of man's thermal comfort in practice

    PubMed Central

    Fanger, P. O.

    1973-01-01

    Fanger, P. O. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 313-324. Assessment of man's thermal comfort in practice. A review is given of existing knowledge regarding the conditions for thermal comfort. Both physiological and environmental comfort conditions are discussed. Comfort criteria are shown diagrammatically, and their application is illustrated by numerous practical examples. Furthermore, the effect on the comfort conditions of age, adaptation, sex, seasonal and circadian rhythm, and unilateral heating or cooling of the body is discussed. The term `climate monotony' is considered. A method is recommended for the evaluation of the quality of thermal environments in practice. Images PMID:4584998

  15. Pantex Falling Man - Independent Review Panel Report.

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolini, Louis; Brannon, Nathan; Olson, Jared; Price, Bernard; Wardle, Robert; Steinzig, Mike; Winfield, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Consolidated Nuclear Security (CNS) Pantex took the initiative to organize a Review Panel of subject matter experts to independently assess the adequacy of the Pantex Tripping Man Analysis methodology. The purpose of this report is to capture the details of the assessment including the scope, approach, results, and detailed Appendices. Along with the assessment of the analysis methodology, the panel evaluated the adequacy with which the methodology was applied as well as congruence with Department of Energy (DOE) standards 3009 and 3016. The approach included the review of relevant documentation, interactive discussion with Pantex staff, and the iterative process of evaluating critical lines of inquiry.

  16. Analysis of evoked lumbosacral potentials in man.

    PubMed Central

    Delbeke, J; McComas, A J; Kopec, S J

    1978-01-01

    Surface electrodes have been used to record potentials evoked in the lumbosacral region of 15 healthy volunteers after tibial nerve stimulation. By monitoring the M waves and H reflexes in the triceps surae muslces and by comparing the responses recorded over the roots with those over the lower cord, it was possible to identify the neural substrates responsible for several of the components in the responses. The findings are compared with those of previous studies in man and in other mammalian preparations. PMID:650237

  17. Analysis of evoked lumbosacral potentials in man.

    PubMed

    Delbeke, J; McComas, A J; Kopec, S J

    1978-04-01

    Surface electrodes have been used to record potentials evoked in the lumbosacral region of 15 healthy volunteers after tibial nerve stimulation. By monitoring the M waves and H reflexes in the triceps surae muslces and by comparing the responses recorded over the roots with those over the lower cord, it was possible to identify the neural substrates responsible for several of the components in the responses. The findings are compared with those of previous studies in man and in other mammalian preparations. PMID:650237

  18. Nuclear propulsion tradeoffs for manned Mars missions

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, L.A.; Malloy, J.D. )

    1991-01-05

    A conjunction class split/sprint manned Mars exploration mission was studied to evaluate tradeoffs in performance characteristics of nuclear thermal rockets. A Particle Bed Reactor-based nuclear thermal rocket was found to offer a 38% to 52% total mass savings compared with a NERVA-based nuclear thermal rocket for this mission. This advantage is primarily due to the higher thrust-to-weight ratio of the Particle Bed Reactor nuclear rocket. The mission is enabled by nuclear thermal rockets. It cannot be performed practically using chemical propulsion.

  19. Manned Mars mission radiation environment and radiobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtwey, D. S.

    1986-01-01

    Potential radiation hazards to crew members on manned Mars missions are discussed. It deals briefly with radiation sources and environments likely to be encountered during various phases of such missions, providing quantitative estimates of these environments. Also provided are quantitative data and discussions on the implications of such radiation on the human body. Various sorts of protective measures are suggested. Recent re-evaluation of allowable dose limits by the National Council of Radiation Protection is discussed, and potential implications from such activity are assessed.

  20. Responses evoked from man by acoustic stimulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galambos, R.; Hecox, K.; Picton, T.

    1974-01-01

    Clicks and other acoustic stimuli evoke time-locked responses from the brain of man. The properties of the waves recordable within the interval from 1 to 10 msec after the stimuli strike the eardrum are discussed along with factors influencing the waves in the 100 to 500 msec epoch. So-called brainstem responses from a normal young adult are considered. No waves were observed for clicks to weak to be heard. With increasing stimulus strength the waves become larger in amplitude and their latency shortens.

  1. Man-caused seismicity of Kuzbass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emanov, Alexandr; Emanov, Alexey; Leskova, Ekaterina; Fateyev, Alexandr

    2010-05-01

    A natural seismicity of Kuznetsk Basin is confined in the main to mountain frame of Kuznetsk hollow. In this paper materials of experimental work with local station networks within sediment basin are presented. Two types of seismicity display within Kuznetsk hollow have been understood: first, man-caused seismic processes, confined to mine working and concentrated on depths up to one and a half of km; secondly, seismic activations on depths of 2-56 km, not coordinated in plan with coal mines. Every of studied seismic activations consists of large quantity of earthquakes of small powers (Ms=1-3). From one to first tens of earthquakes were recorded in a day. The earthquakes near mine working shift in space along with mine working, and seismic process become stronger at the instant a coal-plough machine is operated, and slacken at the instant the preventive works are executed. The seismic processes near three lavas in Kuznetsk Basin have been studied in detail. Uplift is the most typical focal mechanism. Activated zone near mine working reach in diameter 1-1,5 km. Seismic activations not linked with mine working testify that the subsoil of Kuznetsk hollow remain in stress state in whole. The most probable causes of man-caused action on hollow are processes, coupled with change of physical state of rocks at loss of methane from large volume or change by mine working of rock watering in large volume. In this case condensed rocks, lost gas and water, can press out upwards, realizing the reverse fault mechanism of earthquakes. A combination of stress state of hollow with man-caused action at deep mining may account for incipient activations in Kuznetsk Basin. Today earthquakes happen mainly under mine workings, though damages of workings themselves do not happen, but intensive shaking on surface calls for intent study of so dangerous phenomena. In 2009 replicates of the experiment on research of seismic activations in area of before investigated lavas have been conducted

  2. Geohazards: Natural and man-made

    SciTech Connect

    McCall, G.J.H.; Laming, D.J.C.; Scott, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This book of conference presentations from a meeting of the Geological Society of London in 1989 includes 20 papers grouped in 5 sections. Sections include the following: volcanos; earthquakes; landslides; quiet hazards such as sea-level changes and loss of soils or biodiversity; discussion of the question of what can be done to reduce such disasters. Interaction of man's activities to initiate disasters, to increase the scope of disasters and/or to mitigate them is included in a number of papers. In the fourth section a final paper provides a summary of the food-soil, energy-climate, waste-garbage, and water-contamination interactions.

  3. Centromere organization in man and mouse

    SciTech Connect

    Jeppesen, P.; Mitchell, A.; Kipling, D.; Nicol, L.

    1993-12-31

    The kinetochore, located at the primary constriction or centromere in mammalian metaphase chromosomes, is the site of attachment of spindle microtubules to the mitotic chromosome, and is thus essential for correct chromosome movement and segregation at anaphase. Errors in organization of the kinetochore and/or centromere may therefore lead to non-disjunction and aneuploidy. The centromeres of most, if not all, mammalian chromosomes contain repetitive DNA sequences, which are observed at the cytogenetic level as heterochromatin. We have combined immunofluorescence with primed in situ hybridization (PRINS) techniques to study the organization of repetitive DNA families in relation to chromosomal proteins located at centromeres in both man and mouse species.

  4. Nuclear propulsion tradeoffs for manned Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Malloy W Nuclear Technologies, John D.

    1991-01-01

    A conjunction class split/sprint manned Mars exploration mission was studied to evaluate tradeoffs in performance characteristics of nuclear thermal rockets. A Particle Bed Reactor-based nuclear thermal rocket was found to offer a 38% to 52% total mass savings compared with a NERVA-based nuclear thermal rocket for this mission. This advantage is primarily due to the higher thrust-to-weight ratio of the Particle Bed Reactor nuclear rocket. The mission is enabled by nuclear thermal rockets. It cannot be performed practically using chemical propulsion.

  5. Nuclear propulsion tradeoffs for manned Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, Lewis A.; Malloy, John D.

    A conjunction class split/sprint manned Mars exploration mission was studied to evaluate tradeoffs in performance characteristics of nuclear thermal rockets. A Particle Bed Reactor-based nuclear thermal rocket was found to offer a 38 to 52 percent total mass savings compared with a NERVA-based nuclear thermal rocket for this mission. This advantage is primarily due to the higher thrust-to-weight ratio of the Particle Bed Reactor nuclear rocket. The mission is enabled by nuclear thermal rockets. It cannot be performed practically using chemical propulsion.

  6. What computers mean for man and society.

    PubMed

    Simon, H A

    1977-03-18

    From an economic standpoint, the modern computer is simply the most recent of a long line of new technologies that increase productivity and cause a gradual shift from manufacturing to service employment. The empirical evidence provides no support for the claim sometimes made that the computer "mechanizes" and "dehumanizes" work. Perhaps the greatest significance of the computer lies in its impact on Man's view of himself. No longer accepting the geocentric view of the universe, he now begins to learn that mind, too, is a phenomenon of nature, explainable in terms of simple mechanisms. Thus the computer aids him to obey, for the first time, the ancient injunction, "Know thyself." PMID:17789730

  7. Landing Energy Dissipation for Manned Reentry Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fisher, Loyd. L.

    1960-01-01

    The film shows experimental investigations to determine the landing-energy-dissipation characteristics for several types of landing gear for manned reentry vehicles. The landing vehicles are considered in two categories: those having essentially vertical-descent paths, the parachute-supported vehicles, and those having essentially horizontal paths, the lifting vehicles. The energy-dissipation devices include crushable materials such as foamed plastics and honeycomb for internal application in couch-support systems, yielding metal elements as part of the structure of capsules or as alternates for oleos in landing-gear struts, inflatable bags, braking rockets, and shaped surfaces for water impact.

  8. Can man be protected against rabies?

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, K. F.

    1954-01-01

    The literature dealing with the protection of man against rabies over the past 70 years in many parts of the world is reviewed, and the salient problems of our present state of knowledge analysed. The author discusses the measures currently in use for eliminating canine rabies by quarantine, regulation of the dog population, and—in particular—mass vaccination of dogs, with a detailed survey of the questions of immunological research which this method raises. Measures for suppressing the disease in other vectors are also described. It is concluded that, given effective education of the public and the widespread use of canine mass vaccination, human rabies is a preventable disease. PMID:13182607

  9. Evaluation of advanced propulsion options for the next manned transportation system: Propulsion evolution study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spears, L. T.; Kramer, R. D.

    1990-01-01

    The objectives were to examine launch vehicle applications and propulsion requirements for potential future manned space transportation systems and to support planning toward the evolution of Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME) and Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) engines beyond their current or initial launch vehicle applications. As a basis for examinations of potential future manned launch vehicle applications, we used three classes of manned space transportation concepts currently under study: Space Transportation System Evolution, Personal Launch System (PLS), and Advanced Manned Launch System (AMLS). Tasks included studies of launch vehicle applications and requirements for hydrogen-oxygen rocket engines; the development of suggestions for STME engine evolution beyond the mid-1990's; the development of suggestions for STME evolution beyond the Advanced Launch System (ALS) application; the study of booster propulsion options, including LOX-Hydrocarbon options; the analysis of the prospects and requirements for utilization of a single engine configuration over the full range of vehicle applications, including manned vehicles plus ALS and Shuttle C; and a brief review of on-going and planned LOX-Hydrogen propulsion technology activities.

  10. Man-made lakes, ecological studies and conservation needs in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Araoye, P A

    2002-01-01

    The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in Nigeria and other developing countries is usually associated with great risks. Whenever we establish a dam, it appears we dam the inherent consequences to the detriment of man and his environment. Debts were incurred by the countries concerned, man and animals were displaced, arable lands destroyed including degradation of forest and wild life resources. The creation of dams have also ignored the prevention of man and his life stock from the inherent spread of water borne diseases. The purpose for which a dam is created is threatened if man is indiscriminately exposed to the risk of water borne diseases. The poor and uneconomic management of the fish resources is also another major issue of concern. In order to tap the full potentials of reservoir projects and to promote conservation, it is important to have a round table talk involving all stake holders during the planning stage of such projects. Therefore apart from the engineering works, there is also need for collaboration with all experts from related fields especially the biologists, sociologists and economists for bio-socio-economic reasons during the planning and implementation stages of dam projects in Nigeria and other developing countries. PMID:12947571

  11. Ukrainian network of Optical Stations for man-made space objects observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sybiryakova, Yevgeniya

    2016-07-01

    The Ukrainian Network of Optical Stations (UNOS) for man-made objects research was founded in 2012 as an association of professional astronomers. The main goals of network are: positional and photometric observations of man-made space objects, calculation of orbital elements, research of shape and period of rotation. The network consists of 8 stations: Kiev, Nikolaev, Odesa, Uzhgorod, Lviv, Yevpatoriya, Alchevsk. UNOS has 12 telescopes for observation of man-made space objects. The new original methods of positional observation were developed for optical observation of geosynchronous and low earth orbit satellites. The observational campaigns of LEO satellites held in the network every year. The numerical model of space object motion, developed in UNOS, is using for orbit calculation. The results of orbital elements calculation are represented on the UNOS web-site http://umos.mao.kiev.ua/eng/. The photometric observation of selected objects is also carried out in network.

  12. [Gastrointestinal flora and health in man and animal].

    PubMed

    Huis in 't Veld, J H

    1991-03-01

    A balanced and stable gastro-intestinal microflora is of vital importance for the optimum function of the gastro-intestinal tract and consequently for the health of man and animals. The gastro-intestinal microflora is a very complex ecosystem, the current knowledge of which is still very limited. It is obvious that the intestinal flora has a protective function (prevention of infection). In addition it has a positive effect on nutrition (digestion, effects on physiology, production of vitamins). Changes in diet, stress, the use of antibiotics and excessive hygiene all bring about changes in the micro-biological ecosystem and consequently changes in health conditions. Knowledge about the microbial ecology of the intestine is also of importance in the prevention of zoonoses. Recently, increasing attention is being paid to the development of methods to influence the composition of the gastro-intestinal microflora in man and animals by probiotics (dried cells or fermented food). These concepts will be dealt with in the present paper and, in addition some of the possible uses will be discussed. PMID:1901673

  13. The SysMan monitoring service and its management environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debski, Andrzej; Janas, Ekkehard

    1996-06-01

    Management of modern information systems is becoming more and more complex. There is a growing need for powerful, flexible and affordable management tools to assist system managers in maintaining such systems. It is at the same time evident that effective management should integrate network management, system management and application management in a uniform way. Object oriented OSI management architecture with its four basic modelling concepts (information, organization, communication and functional models) together with widely accepted distribution platforms such as ANSA/CORBA, constitutes a reliable and modern framework for the implementation of a management toolset. This paper focuses on the presentation of concepts and implementation results of an object oriented management toolset developed and implemented within the framework of the ESPRIT project 7026 SysMan. An overview is given of the implemented SysMan management services including the System Management Service, Monitoring Service, Network Management Service, Knowledge Service, Domain and Policy Service, and the User Interface. Special attention is paid to the Monitoring Service which incorporates the architectural key entity responsible for event management. Its architecture and building components, especially filters, are emphasized and presented in detail.

  14. Optimization of perigee burns for manned interplanetary missions

    SciTech Connect

    Madsen, W.W.; Olson, T.S.; Siahpush, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    In choosing an engine concept for the rocket vehicle to be used for the initial manned exploration of Mars, the two main factors in the decision should be what can be feasibly built and flight qualified within approximately the next 20 years, and what level of engine performance is required to safely perform these missions. In order to reduce the overall cost in developing this next generation space transportation system, it would be desirable to have a single engine design that could be used for a broad class of missions (for example, cargo and piloted lunar and Mars missions, orbit transfers around the Earth, and robotic missions to the planets). The engine thrust that is needed for manned Mars missions is addressed in this paper. We find that these missions are best served by a thrust level around 75,000 lbf to 100,000 lbf, and a thrust-to-engine weight ratio of about three. This thrust level might best be obtained by clustering five 15,000 lbf or 20,000 lbf engines. It may be better to throttle the engines back from full power between perigee burns, rather than shutting down. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  15. Automation, robotics, and inflight training for manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holt, Alan C.

    1986-01-01

    The automation, robotics, and inflight training requirements of manned Mars missions will be supported by similar capabilities developed for the space station program. Evolutionary space station onboard training facilities will allow the crewmembers to minimize the amount of training received on the ground by providing extensive onboard access to system and experiment malfunction procedures, maintenance procedures, repair procedures, and associated video sequences. Considerable on-the-job training will also be conducted for space station management, mobile remote manipulator operations, proximity operations with the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (and later the Orbit Transfer Vehicle), and telerobotics and mobile robots. A similar approach could be used for manned Mars mission training with significant additions such as high fidelity image generation and simulation systems such as holographic projection systems for Mars landing, ascent, and rendezvous training. In addition, a substantial increase in the use of automation and robotics for hazardous and tedious tasks would be expected for Mars mission. Mobile robots may be used to assist in the assembly, test and checkout of the Mars spacecraft, in the handling of nuclear components and hazardous chemical propellent transfer operations, in major spacecraft repair tasks which might be needed (repair of a micrometeroid penetration, for example), in the construction of a Mars base, and for routine maintenance of the base when unmanned.

  16. Selection of a Brine Processor Technology for NASA Manned Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Donald L.; Gleich, Andrew F.

    2016-01-01

    The current ISS Water Recovery System (WRS) reclaims water from crew urine, humidity condensate, and Sabatier product water. Urine is initially processed by the Urine Processor Assembly (UPA) which recovers 75% of the urine as distillate. The remainder of the water is present in the waste brine which is currently disposed of as trash on ISS. For future missions this additional water must be reclaimed due to the significant resupply penalty for missions beyond Low Earth Orbit (LEO). NASA has pursued various technology development programs for a brine processor in the past several years. This effort has culminated in a technology down-select to identify the optimum technology for future manned missions. The technology selection is based on various criteria, including mass, power, reliability, maintainability, and safety. Beginning in 2016 the selected technology will be transitioned to a flight hardware program for demonstration on ISS. This paper summarizes the technology selection process, the competing technologies, and the rationale for the technology selected for future manned missions.

  17. A man in the loop trajectory optimization program (MILTOP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinfields, J.

    1974-01-01

    An interactive trajectory optimization program is developed for use in initial fixing of launch configurations. The program is called MILTOP for Man-In-the-Loop-Trajectory Optimization-Program. The program is designed to facilitate quick look studies using man-machine decision combinations to reduce the time required to solve a given problem. MILTOP integrates the equations of motion of a point-mass in 3-Dimensions with drag as the only aerodynamic force present. Any point in time at which an integration step terminates, may be used as a decision-break-point, with complete user control over all variables and routines at this point. Automatic phases are provided for different modes of control: vertical rise, pitch-over, gravity turn, chi-freeze and control turn. Stage parameters are initialized from a separate routine so the user may fly as many stages as his problem demands. The MILTOP system uses both interactively on storage scope consoles, or in batch mode with numerical output on the live printer.

  18. Solar particle event predictions for manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, Gary

    1986-01-01

    Manned space missions to Mars require consideration of the effects of high radiation doses produced by solar particle events (SPE). Without some provision for protection, the radiation doses from such events can exceed standards for maximum exposure and may be life threatening. Several alternative ways of providing protection require a capability for predicting SPE in time to take some protective actions. The SPE may occur at any time during the eleven year solar cycle so that two year missions cannot be scheduled to insure avoiding them although they are less likely to occur at solar minimum. The present forecasts are sufficiently accurate to use for setting alert modes but are not accurate enough to make yes/no decisions that have major mission operational impacts. Forecasts made for one to two year periods can only be done as probabilistic forecasts where there is a chance of SPE occurring. These are current capabilities but are not likely to change significantly by the year 2000 with the exception of some improvement in the one to ten day forecasts. The effects of SPE are concentrated in solar longitudes near where their parent solar flares occur, which will require a manned Mars mission to carry its own small solar telescope to monitor the development of potentially dangerous solar activity. The preferred telescope complement includes a solar X-ray imager, a hydrogen-alpha scanner, and a solar magnetograph.

  19. Toxicological safeguards in the manned Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Martin E.

    1986-01-01

    Safeguards against toxic chemical exposures during manned Mars missions (MMMs) will be important for the maintenance of crew health and the accomplishment of mission objectives. Potential sources include offgassing, thermodegradation or combustion of materials, metabolic products of crew members, and escape of chemical from containment. Spacecraft maximum allowable concentration (SMAC) limits will have to be established for potential contaminants during the MMMs. The following factors will be used in establishing these limits: duration of mission, simultaneous exposure to other contaminants, deconditioning of crew members after long periods of reduced gravity, and simultaneous exposure to ionizing radiation. Atmospheric contaminant levels in all compartments of the transit spacecraft and Manned Mars Station (MMS) will be monitored at frequent intervals with a real time analyzer. This analyzer will be highly automated, requiring minimal crew time and expertise. The atmospheric analyzer will find other usages during the MMMs such as analyzing Martian atmospheres and soils, exhaled breath and body fluids of crew members, and reaction products in chemical processing facilities.

  20. Proposal for a remotely manned space station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minsky, Marvin

    1990-01-01

    The United States is in trouble in space. The costs of the proposed Space Station Freedom have grown beyond reach, and the present design is obsolete. The trouble has come from imagining that there are only two alternatives: manned vs. unmanned. Both choices have led us into designs that do not appear to be practical. On one side, the United States simply does not possess the robotic technology needed to operate or assemble a sophisticated unmanned space station. On the other side, the manned designs that are now under way seem far too costly and dangerous, with all of its thousands of extravehicular activity (EVA) hours. More would be accomplished at far less cost by proceeding in a different way. The design of a space station made of modular, Erector Set-like parts is proposed which is to be assembled using earth-based remotely-controlled binary-tree telerobots. Earth-based workers could be trained to build the station in space using simulators. A small preassembled spacecraft would be launched with a few telerobots, and then, telerobots could be ferried into orbit along with stocks of additional parts. Trained terrestrial workers would remotely assemble a larger station, and materials for additional power and life support systems could be launched. Finally, human scientists and explorers could be sent to the space station. Other aspects of such a space station program are discussed.

  1. GridMan: A grid manipulation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eiseman, Peter R.; Wang, Zhu

    1992-01-01

    GridMan is an interactive grid manipulation system. It operates on grids to produce new grids which conform to user demands. The input grids are not constrained to come from any particular source. They may be generated by algebraic methods, elliptic methods, hyperbolic methods, parabolic methods, or some combination of methods. The methods are included in the various available structured grid generation codes. These codes perform the basic assembly function for the various elements of the initial grid. For block structured grids, the assembly can be quite complex due to a large number of clock corners, edges, and faces for which various connections and orientations must be properly identified. The grid generation codes are distinguished among themselves by their balance between interactive and automatic actions and by their modest variations in control. The basic form of GridMan provides a much more substantial level of grid control and will take its input from any of the structured grid generation codes. The communication link to the outside codes is a data file which contains the grid or section of grid.

  2. [Anaesthetic management of Stiff Man syndrome].

    PubMed

    Marín, T; Hernando, D; Kinast, N; Churruca, I; Sabate, S

    2015-04-01

    Stiff Man syndrome or stiff-person syndrome is a rare autoimmune disorder. It is characterized by increased axial muscular tone and limb musculature, and painful spasms triggered by stimulus. The case is presented of a 44-year-old man with stiff-person syndrome undergoing an injection of botulinum toxin in the urethral sphincter under sedation. Before induction, all the surgical team were ready in order to minimise the anaesthetic time. The patient was monitored by continuous ECG, SpO2 and non-invasive blood pressure. He was induced with fractional dose of propofol 150 mg, fentanyl 50 μg and midazolam 1mg. Despite careful titration, the patient had an O2 saturation level of 90%,which was resolved by manual ventilation. There was no muscle rigidity or spasm during the operation. Post-operative recovery was uneventful and the patient was discharged 2 days later. A review of other cases is presented. The anaesthetic concern in patients with stiff-person syndrome is the interaction between the anaesthetic agents, the preoperative medication, and the GABA system. For a safe anaesthetic management, total intravenous anaesthesia is recommended instead of inhalation anaesthetics, as well as the close monitoring of the respiratory function and the application of the electrical nerve stimulator when neuromuscular blockers are used. PMID:25060949

  3. [Genodermatosis in man and animal. Comparative overview].

    PubMed

    Küster, W; Happle, R

    1983-11-01

    Fourteen monogenic cutaneous disorders of man are compared to similar gene defects in animals. The traits are classified into two groups. In the first group, an identity (homology) of the underlying gene defects is likely. This group includes oculo-cutaneous albinism, Chédiak-Higashi syndrome, aplasia cutis congenita, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (type I), hypohidrotic ectodermal dysplasia of the Christ-Siemens-Touraine type, X-linked dominant chondrodysplasia punctata, ichthyosis congenita gravis, Menkes syndrome, erythropoetic porphyria, porphyria cutanea tarda, and acrodermatitis enteropathica. In the second group, the traits are similar but the question of their homology cannot be settled. It includes alopecia congenita, hidrotic ectodermal dysplasia of the Clouston type, and hereditary lymphedema. The existence of identical mutations in man and animals provides evidence for the close relationship between the various mammalian species. Homologous traits affecting the skin are of practical importance since the use of these animal models may help to answer those questions which cannot be answered by performing research in human patients. PMID:6358130

  4. Proprietary Manned Space Flight Proposals, 1973 to 2013, plus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Philip

    2016-03-01

    In 1973 a concept for a manned space flight experiment was submitted to NASA as an unsolicited proprietary proposal,*. In 1998*, 2004*, and 2013* proposals successively more details were provided. An abbreviation of the 1998 proposal was published. By 2013 the five technical variables of 1998 had increased to over ten. Some technical and management details of the proposals will be presented and updated. The first flight of two could use some hardware now being developed. The experiment seems superior to any mission publicly advocated by NASA, so this talk's purpose is to encourage NASA to delay landing humans on Mars until the first spacecraft can be developed and activated. *Complete proposals are in the Philip C. Fisher papers, Niels Bohr Library and Archives, American Institute of Physics (available one year after author's death). Work after 1982 supported by successive forms of Ruffner Associates.

  5. Man-machine interface builders at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.D.

    1991-12-31

    Argonne National Laboratory is constructing a 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source for use as a synchrotron radiation source in basic and applied research. The controls and computing environment for this accelerator complex includes graphical operator interfaces to the machine based on Motif, X11, and PHIGS/PEX. Construction and operation of the control system for this accelerator relies upon interactive interface builder and diagram/editor type tools, as well as a run-time environment for the constructed displays which communicate with the physical machine via network connections. This paper discusses our experience with several commercial CUI builders, the inadequacies found in these, motivation for the development of an application- specific builder, and design and implementation strategies employed in the development of our own Man-Machine Interface builder. 5 refs.

  6. Man-machine interface builders at the Advanced Photon Source

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.D.

    1991-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory is constructing a 7-GeV Advanced Photon Source for use as a synchrotron radiation source in basic and applied research. The controls and computing environment for this accelerator complex includes graphical operator interfaces to the machine based on Motif, X11, and PHIGS/PEX. Construction and operation of the control system for this accelerator relies upon interactive interface builder and diagram/editor type tools, as well as a run-time environment for the constructed displays which communicate with the physical machine via network connections. This paper discusses our experience with several commercial CUI builders, the inadequacies found in these, motivation for the development of an application- specific builder, and design and implementation strategies employed in the development of our own Man-Machine Interface builder. 5 refs.

  7. Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility - Design and operating characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shiner, Robert J.; Sullivan, Barry T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the full-mission flight simulation facility at the NASA Ames Research Center. The Man-Vehicle Systems Research Facility (MVSRF) supports aeronautical human factors research and consists of two full-mission flight simulators and an air-traffic-control simulator. The facility is used for a broad range of human factors research in both conventional and advanced aviation systems. The objectives of the research are to improve the understanding of the causes and effects of human errors in aviation operations, and to limit their occurrence. The facility is used to: (1) develop fundamental analytical expressions of the functional performance characteristics of aircraft flight crews; (2) formulate principles and design criteria for aviation environments; (3) evaluate the integration of subsystems in contemporary flight and air traffic control scenarios; and (4) develop training and simulation technologies.

  8. "A Man's Gotta Do What a Man's Gotta Do!" Masculinity and Manhood in Social Studies Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, William L.

    2004-01-01

    Men in the United States are products of society's assumptions about what it means to "be a man." Throughout American history, these assumptions have supported aggression, conflict, and war. Seeing American troops in Iraq conjures comparisons not only to past military ventures but also to the changing face of the masculine warrior. One might see…

  9. The Implementation of Madrasah-Based Management (MBM) at Man 1 and Man 2 Serang City, Banten, Indonesia--A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhajir

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to reveal how the real condition of management of Madrasah Aliyah Negeri (MAN) or Islamic Senior High School in Serang is, how the understanding of Madrasah-Based Management (MBM) for the people of MAN 2 and MAN 1 Serang is, and how the implementation of MBM in MAN 2 and MAN 1 Serang. This study has a substantial meaning, both…

  10. Departure phase aborts for manned Mars missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dissel, Adam F.

    NASA goals are set on resumption of human activity on the Moon and extending manned missions to Mars. Abort options are key elements of any system designed to safeguard human lives and stated requirements stipulate the provision of an abort capability throughout the mission. The present investigation will focus on the formulation and analysis of possible abort modes during the Earth departure phase of manned Mars interplanetary transfers. Though of short duration, the departure phase encompasses a mission timeline where failures have frequently become manifest in historical manned spacecraft necessitating the inclusion of a departure phase abort capability. Investigated abort modes included aborts to atmospheric entry, and to Earth or Moon orbit. Considered interplanetary trajectory types included conjunction, opposition, and free-return trajectory classes. All abort modes were analyzed for aborts initiated at multiple points along each of these possible departure trajectories across all launch opportunities of the fifteen-year Earth-Mars inertial period. The consistently low departure velocities of the conjunction trajectories facilitated the greatest abort capability. An analysis of Mars transportation architectures was performed to determine the amount of available delta V inherent in each candidate architecture for executing departure aborts. Results indicate that a delta V of at least 4 km/s is required to achieve a continuous departure phase entry abort capability with abort flights less than three weeks duration for all transfer opportunity years. Less demanding transfer years have a corresponding increase in capability. The Earth orbit abort mode does not become widely achievable until more than 6 km/s delta V is provided; a capacity not manifest in any considered architecture. Optimization of the Moon abort mode resulted in slight departure date shifts to achieve improved lunar alignments. The Moon abort mode is only widely achievable for conjunction

  11. Sleep monitoring: the second manned Skylab mission.

    PubMed

    Frost, J D; Shumate, W H; Salamy, J G; Booher, C R

    1976-04-01

    The first objective measurements of man's ability to obtain adequate sleep during prolonged space flight were made during the three manned Skylab missions. EEG, EOG, and head-motion signals were acquired during sleep by use of an elastic recording cap containing sponge electrodes and an attached miniature preamplifier/accelerometer unit. A control-panel assembly, mounted in the sleep compartment, tested electrodes, preserved analog signals, and automatically analyzed data in real time (providing a telementered indication of sleep stage). One subject was studied during each manned mission and, while there was considerable variation among individuals, several characteristics were common to all three: stage 3 sleep increased during the flight and decreased in the postflight period; stage 4 was consistently decreased postflight, although this stage was variable during the flight; stage REM (rapid eye movement) was elevated, and REM latency decreased in the late postflight period (after day 3 postrecovery); and the number of awakenings during sleep either showed no change or decreased during the flight. In only the 28-d mission (Skylab 2) was there a significant decrease in total sleep time; in that case it was a result of voluntarily reduced rest time and was not due to difficulty in sleeping nor frequent awakening. The subject on the 84-d mission (Skylab 4) experienced more difficulty in the first half of the flight, showing a decreased total sleep time and increased sleep latency, but this resolved itself with time. Sleep latency presented no problem in the other flights. While many of the findings are statistically significant, in no case would they be expected to produce a noticeable decrement of performance capability. These findings suggest that men are able to obtain adequate sleep in regularly scheduled 8-h rest periods during extended space flights. It seems likely, based upon these results, that the problems encountered in earlier space flights did not arise

  12. Robotic vehicle mobility and task performance: A flexible control modality for manned systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eldredge, Frederick

    1994-01-01

    In the early 1980's, a number of concepts were developed for applying robotics to ground systems. The majority of these early application concepts envisioned robotics technology embedded in dedicated unmanned systems; i.e., unmanned systems with no provision for direct manned control of the platform. Although these concepts offered advantages peculiar to platforms designed from the outset exclusively for unmanned operation--i.e., no crew compartment--their findings would require costs and support for a new class of unmanned systems. The current era of reduced budgets and increasing focus on rapid force projection has created new opportunities to examine the value of an alternative concept: the use of existing manned platforms with an ability to quickly shift from normal manned operation to unmanned should a particularly harzardous situation arise. The author of this paper addresses the evolution of robotic vehicle concepts and technology testbeds from exclusively unmanned systems to a variety of 'optionally manned' systems which have been designed with minimum intrusion actuator and control equipment to minimize degradation of vehicle performance in manned modes of operation.

  13. Weight and cost forecasting for advanced manned space vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Raymond

    1989-01-01

    A mass and cost estimating computerized methology for predicting advanced manned space vehicle weights and costs was developed. The user friendly methology designated MERCER (Mass Estimating Relationship/Cost Estimating Relationship) organizes the predictive process according to major vehicle subsystem levels. Design, development, test, evaluation, and flight hardware cost forecasting is treated by the study. This methodology consists of a complete set of mass estimating relationships (MERs) which serve as the control components for the model and cost estimating relationships (CERs) which use MER output as input. To develop this model, numerous MER and CER studies were surveyed and modified where required. Additionally, relationships were regressed from raw data to accommodate the methology. The models and formulations which estimated the cost of historical vehicles to within 20 percent of the actual cost were selected. The result of the research, along with components of the MERCER Program, are reported. On the basis of the analysis, the following conclusions were established: (1) The cost of a spacecraft is best estimated by summing the cost of individual subsystems; (2) No one cost equation can be used for forecasting the cost of all spacecraft; (3) Spacecraft cost is highly correlated with its mass; (4) No study surveyed contained sufficient formulations to autonomously forecast the cost and weight of the entire advanced manned vehicle spacecraft program; (5) No user friendly program was found that linked MERs with CERs to produce spacecraft cost; and (6) The group accumulation weight estimation method (summing the estimated weights of the various subsystems) proved to be a useful method for finding total weight and cost of a spacecraft.

  14. Design and finite element analysis of oval man way

    SciTech Connect

    Hari, Y.; Gryder, B.

    1996-12-01

    This paper presents the design of an oval man way in the side wall of a cylindrical pressure vessel. ASME Code Section 8 is used to obtain the design parameters of the oval man way, man way cover and bolts. The code calculations require some assumptions which may not be valid. A typical design example is taken. STAAD III finite element code with plate elements is used to model the oval man way, man way cover and bolts. The stresses calculated using ASME Code Section 8 and other analytical formulas for plate and shells are compared with the stresses obtained by Finite Element Modeling. This paper gives the designer of oval man way the ability to perform a finite element analysis and compare it with the analytical calculations and assumptions made. This gives added confidence to the designer as to the validity of his calculations and assumptions.

  15. Trauma on the Isle of Man.

    PubMed Central

    Hackney, R G; Varley, G; Stevens, D; Green, A

    1993-01-01

    The Isle of Man Tourist Trophy motorcycle races remain one of the most popular venues for motorcycle races. This is despite the reduced status of the event. The reason for the loss of world championship and formula one status is the nature of the road racing circuit itself. The twisting narrow roads are only closed to the public at certain times during the practice and race weeks. Motorcycling visitors to the event attempt to emulate their heroes on machines capable of high speeds. Casualties from both visitors and racers are dealt with efficiently by an expanded medical service. This includes the use of an aeromedical evacuation helicopter. Casualties from the visitors exceeded those from the racers themselves during the period reported. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 3 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:8457818

  16. Valproate causes metabolic disturbance in normal man.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, D M; Dick, D J; Wilson, L; Sherratt, H S; Alberti, K G

    1986-01-01

    Valproate is an important anticonvulsant which is rarely associated with fatal hepatotoxicity. Previous experiments have shown that valproate inhibits several metabolic processes in isolated rat hepatocytes and when administered to starved rats causes a fall in the blood concentrations of glucose and ketone bodies. Since these changes may be related to the hepatotoxicity, the effect of valproate administration on intermediary metabolism in man was studied. One gram of valproate given orally to fasted normal humans caused a 78% fall in the concentration of 3-hydroxybutyrate and a 60% fall in total ketones. Also the concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, alanine and glycerol increased after valproate administration. Similar changes were observed after intravenous administration of 400 mg of valproate. Valproate clearly has a significant effect on intermediary metabolism in the liver and this is probably related to the mechanism of the hepatotoxicity. PMID:3084712

  17. Hydrocortisone and ACTH levels in manned spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Campbell, B. O.

    1974-01-01

    The plasma hydrocortisone, plasma ACTH, and urinary hydrocortisone values were recorded for each man of the crews of Apollo flights eight through fifteen, 30, 14, and 5 days before flight, immediately after spaceflight recovery, and on future days until the return of most variables to preflight values. The plasma and urinary preflight hydrocortisone values were significantly higher than the postflight values. This result is discussed in terms of three possible explanations: (1) the adrenal-cortical function is suppressed during spaceflight; (2) the activity in flight may amount to stressful exercise, which tests have shown can cause a decrease in plasma adrenocortical hormones; and (3) the in-flight work-rest cycles may be such as to affect the circadian periodicity of the pituitary-adrenal function.

  18. The pilot's role in manned space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    North, W. J.

    1982-01-01

    The present investigation regarding the pilot's role in manned space flight takes into account space missions conducted with the Mercury capsule, Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, and the Shuttle. It is concluded that advancements in digital systems and automation technology have made many of the space pilot's tasks easier. However, these advancements have also made the space pilot's training more complicated. He must be familiar with the interrelated failure effects in highly complex vehicle systems. The nominal performance of the Shuttle fly-by-wire entry control system depends, for instance, on nominal electrical power from three fuel cells, nominal performance of three hydraulic auxiliary power units, five computers, other equipment, and microwave landing systems. The pilot must monitor and manage failures in these systems, and, in addition, must be prepared to intervene if an abort situation creates off-nominal conditions.

  19. The effects of noise on man

    SciTech Connect

    Kryter, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    As a reference source of research concerning effects of noise on people, this book reports and analyzes procedures used in regulation and control of noise. Quantitative relations are formed between physical measures of environmental noise and the reactions of people and communities to noise. The author reviews scientific and engineering research published from 1970 to the present. The Effects of Noise on Man, Second Edition discusses: adverse effects of noise and noise-induced hearing loss on speech communications; damage to hearing from ''everyday'' noise; damage to hearing from industrial noise and gunfire; work performance in noise; effects of noise on non-auditory systems of the body and sleep; aircraft and street traffic noise and its effects on health, annoyance, and house depreciation; physical measurements used for the assessment and control of environmental noise; federal standards and guidelines for community noise and proposed modification based on recent research findings.

  20. The Proteus syndrome: the Elephant Man diagnosed.

    PubMed Central

    Tibbles, J A; Cohen, M M

    1986-01-01

    Sir Frederick Treves first showed Joseph Merrick, the famous Elephant Man, to the Pathological Society of London in 1884. A diagnosis of neurofibromatosis was suggested in 1909 and was widely accepted. There is no evidence, however, of café au lait spots or histological proof of neurofibromas. It is also clear that Joseph Merrick's manifestations were much more bizarre than those commonly seen in neurofibromatosis. Evidence indicates that Merrick suffered from the Proteus syndrome and had the following features compatible with this diagnosis: macrocephaly; hyperostosis of the skull; hypertrophy of long bones; and thickened skin and subcutaneous tissues, particularly of the hands and feet, including plantar hyperplasia, lipomas, and other unspecified subcutaneous masses. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 FIG 4 PMID:3092979

  1. Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.

    PubMed

    Caponi, Sandra

    2013-01-01

    Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine. PMID:23970171

  2. Boscovich: scientist and man of letters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proverbio, E.

    Ruggiero Giuseppe Boscovich (1711-1781) is known as one of the most important scientists of the second half of XVIII century, but he was active also as a man of letters, especially through an abundant production of poems in Latin verse. We try to interpret these two, apparently antinomic, aspects of his character in the framework of the culture of his epoch, in which science and literary productions were not considered as two separate or opposite fields, but only two different aspects of human knowledge. In particular we review the field of his poetic production in which this fundamental unity of knowledge is most evident, namely his poems with didactic-scientific subjects, which are examples of high-level popularization of the latest progresses in science (in particular astronomy and Newtonian physics) by means of elegant Latin verse.

  3. Values and the quantum conception of man

    SciTech Connect

    Stapp, H.P.

    1995-06-01

    Classical mechanics is based upon a mechanical picture of nature that is fundamentally incorrect. It has been replaced at the basic level by a radically different theory: quantum mechanics. This change entails an enormous shift in one`s basic conception of nature, one that can profoundly alter the scientific image of man himself. Self-image is the foundation of values, and the replacement of the mechanistic self-image derived from classical mechanics by one concordant with quantum mechanics may provide the foundation of a moral order better suited to today`s times, a self-image that endows human life with meaning, responsibility, and a deeper linkage to nature as a whole.

  4. Vestibular ataxia and its measurement in man

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fregly, A. R.

    1974-01-01

    Methods involved in and results obtained with a new comprehensive ataxia test battery are described, and definitions of spontaneous and induced vestibular ataxia in man are given in terms of these findings. In addition, the topic of alcohol-induced ataxia in relation to labyrinth function is investigated. Items in the test battery comprise a sharpened Romberg test, in which the subject stands on the floor with eyes closed and arms folded against his chest, feet heel-to-toe, for 60 seconds; an eyes-open walking test; an eyes-open standing test; an eyes-closed standing test; an eyes-closed on-leg standing test; an eyes-closed walk a line test; an eyes-closed heel-to-toe walking test; and supplementary ataxia tests such as the classical Romberg test.

  5. Space radiation concerns for manned exploration.

    PubMed

    Stanford, M; Jones, J A

    1999-07-01

    Spaceflight exposes astronaut crews to natural ionizing radiation. To date, exposures in manned spaceflight have been well below the career limits recommended to NASA by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). This will not be the case for long-duration exploratory class missions. Additionally. International Space Station (ISS) crews will receive higher doses than earlier flight crews. Uncertainties in our understanding of long-term bioeffects, as well as updated analyses of the Hiroshima. Nagasaki and Chernobyl tumorigenesis data, have prompted the NCRP to recommend further reductions by 30-50% for career dose limit guidelines. Intelligent spacecraft design and material selection can provide a shielding strategy capable of maintaining crew exposures within recommended guidelines. Current studies on newer radioprotectant compounds may find combinations of agents which further diminish the risk of radiation-induced bioeffects to the crew. PMID:11542526

  6. Man's role in space exploration and exploitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loftus, Joseph P.

    1987-01-01

    The crew workloads on the Space Shuttle are described. The Space Shuttle is designed to minimize the activity of the crew in maintaining and operating the Shuttle in order for the crew to be involved in productive activities. The changing role of the crew due to the use of more automated systems on spacecraft is examined. The Shuttle flight system is dependent on embedded software, and the crew is to manage and support these systems. The primary functions of the Space Station are as a laboratory and for construction and assembly of systems, requiring EVA. Examples of EVA are presented. The correlation between manned and unmanned systems and the future direction of space research are discussed.

  7. Trauma on the Isle of Man.

    PubMed

    Hackney, R G; Varley, G; Stevens, D; Green, A

    1993-03-01

    The Isle of Man Tourist Trophy motorcycle races remain one of the most popular venues for motorcycle races. This is despite the reduced status of the event. The reason for the loss of world championship and formula one status is the nature of the road racing circuit itself. The twisting narrow roads are only closed to the public at certain times during the practice and race weeks. Motorcycling visitors to the event attempt to emulate their heroes on machines capable of high speeds. Casualties from both visitors and racers are dealt with efficiently by an expanded medical service. This includes the use of an aeromedical evacuation helicopter. Casualties from the visitors exceeded those from the racers themselves during the period reported. PMID:8457818

  8. Evidence of Extrapancreatic Glucagon Secretion in Man.

    PubMed

    Lund, Asger; Bagger, Jonatan I; Wewer Albrechtsen, Nicolai J; Christensen, Mikkel; Grøndahl, Magnus; Hartmann, Bolette; Mathiesen, Elisabeth R; Hansen, Carsten P; Storkholm, Jan H; van Hall, Gerrit; Rehfeld, Jens F; Hornburg, Daniel; Meissner, Felix; Mann, Matthias; Larsen, Steen; Holst, Jens J; Vilsbøll, Tina; Knop, Filip K

    2016-03-01

    Glucagon is believed to be a pancreas-specific hormone, and hyperglucagonemia has been shown to contribute significantly to the hyperglycemic state of patients with diabetes. This hyperglucagonemia has been thought to arise from α-cell insensitivity to suppressive effects of glucose and insulin combined with reduced insulin secretion. We hypothesized that postabsorptive hyperglucagonemia represents a gut-dependent phenomenon and subjected 10 totally pancreatectomized patients and 10 healthy control subjects to a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test and a corresponding isoglycemic intravenous glucose infusion. We applied novel analytical methods of plasma glucagon (sandwich ELISA and mass spectrometry-based proteomics) and show that 29-amino acid glucagon circulates in patients without a pancreas and that glucose stimulation of the gastrointestinal tract elicits significant hyperglucagonemia in these patients. These findings emphasize the existence of extrapancreatic glucagon (perhaps originating from the gut) in man and suggest that it may play a role in diabetes secondary to total pancreatectomy. PMID:26672094

  9. Maintenance of white adipose tissue in man.

    PubMed

    Hyvönen, Mervi T; Spalding, Kirsty L

    2014-11-01

    Obesity is increasing in an epidemic manner in most countries and constitutes a public health problem by enhancing the risk for diseases such as diabetes, fatty liver disease and atherosclerosis. Together these diseases form a cluster referred to as the metabolic syndrome. Despite the negative health consequences associated with excess adipose tissue, very little is known about the origin and maintenance of white adipose tissue in man. In this review we discuss what is known about the turnover of adult human adipocytes and their precursors, as well as adipose tissue heterogeneity, plasticity and developmental origins. The focus of this review is human tissue, however in many cases human data are missing and are inferred from animal studies. As such, reference to animal studies are made where human data is not available. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation. PMID:25240584

  10. Space radiation concerns for manned exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stanford, Michael; Jones, Jeffrey A.

    1999-09-01

    Spaceflight exposes astronaut crews to natural ionizing radiation. To date, exposures in manned spaceflight have been well below the career limits recommended to NASA by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP). This will not be the case for long-duration exploratory class missions. Additionally, International Space Station (ISS) crews will receive higher doses than earlier flight crews. Uncertainties in our understanding of long-term bioeffects, as well as updated analyses of the Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Chernobyl tumorigenesis data, have prompted the NCRP to recommend further reductions by 30-50% for career dose limit guidelines. Intelligent spacecraft design and material selection can provide a shielding strategy capable of maintaining crew exposures within recommended guidelines. Current studies on newer radioprotectant compounds may find combinations of agents which further diminish the risk of radiation-induced bioeffects to the crew.

  11. [CURRENT IDEAS ON OBLIGATE AND FACULTATIVE RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN MAN AND THE DIROFILARIASIS PATHOGEN DIROFILARIA (N.) REPENS].

    PubMed

    Supryaga, V G; Rakova, V M; Morozov, E N

    2016-01-01

    The ability of D. repens to complete its ontogenesis in man points to their obligate, rather than facultative rela- tionships. The fact that microfilariae are rarely found in human blood or are absent there may be associated with the removal of developing dirofilariae from humans in earlier than they achieve sexual maturity. Facultative ecological relationships to mosquitoes may be one of the reasons for limitation of human invasion cases. However, in long-standing microfilaremia in man (an obligate host), D.repens may take part in the epidemiological chain of dirofilariasis as a source of invasion. PMID:27405206

  12. Manned orbital systems concept study. Book 4: Programmatics for extended-duration missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The cost estimates, schedule data, and funding distributions generated in the Manned Orbital Systems Concepts (MOSC) study are presented. The overall objectives were to examine the requirements for, and to describe, a cost-effective concept for an orbital facility capable of supporting manned operations in earth orbit beyond the 7-to-30-day mission duration provided by the Shuttle/Spacelab system. The cost, schedule, and other programmatic data were developed to provide information useful for their long-range planning activities. The major portion of the data documented and discussed consists of project- and system-level schedule and funding information and also project-, system-, and subsystem-level cost summaries.

  13. Earth to Mars - Scenarios for early manned missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snoddy, William C.

    1988-01-01

    Trajectories and mission types for a manned mission to Mars are reviewed, focusing on what can be undertaken relative to available technologies. The objectives of a manned mission are outlined and several mission scenarios are described. Space Station involvement, an interplanetary manned Mars space vehicle, and the role of artificial gravity are discussed. Possible launch vehicles, surface systems options, and space vehicle configurations are examined.

  14. Water-propellant resistojets for man-tended platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louviere, Allen J.; Jones, Robert E.; Morren, W. Earl; Sovey, James S.

    1987-01-01

    The selection of a propulsion system for a man-tended platform has been influenced by the planned use of resistojets for drag make-up on the manned Space Station. For that application a resistojet has been designed that is capable of operation with a wide variety of propellants, including water. The reasons for the selection of water as the propellant and the performance of water as a propellant are discussed. The man-tended platform and its mission requirements are described.

  15. Water-propellant resistojets for man-tended platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Louviere, Allen J.; Jones, Robert E.; Morren, W. Earl; Sovey, James S.

    1987-01-01

    The selection of a propulsion system for a man-tended platform has been influenced by the planned use of resistojets for drag make-up on the manned space station. For that application a resistojet has been designed that is capable of operation with a wide variety of propellants, including water. The reasons for the selection of water as the propellant and the performance of water as a propellant are discussed. The man-tended platform and its mission requirements are described.

  16. Beautiful Surfaces. Style and Substance in Florentius Schuyl's Illustrations for Descartes' Treatise on Man.

    PubMed

    Chan, Eleanor

    2016-01-01

    The assumption that the Cartesian bête-machine is the invention of René Descartes (1596-1650) is rarely contested. Close examination of Descartes' texts proves that this is a concept founded not on the basis of his own writings, but a subsequent critical interpretation, which developed and began to dominate his work after his death. Descartes' Treatise on Man, published posthumously in two rival editions, Florentius Schuyl's Latin translation De Homine (1662), and Claude Clerselier's Traité de l'homme, has proved particularly problematic. The surviving manuscript copies of the Treatise on Man left no illustrations, leaving both editors the daunting task of producing a set of images to accompany and clarify the fragmented text. In this intriguing case, the images can be seen to have spoken louder than the text which they illustrated. This paper assesses Schuyl's choice to represent Descartes' Man in a highly stylized manner, without superimposing Clerselier's intentions onto De Homine. PMID:27356337

  17. Man-made Boards Technology Trends based on TRIZ Evolution Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huiling; Fan, Delin

    China is one of the world's largest manufacturers and consumers of man-made board applications. A systematic and efficient method of foreseeing future technology trends and their evolutionary potentials is a key task that can help companies guide their planning and allocate their resources. Application of the law of evolution with a S-shaped curve could contribute essentially to the accuracy of the long-term forecast. This research seeks to determine the current stage and the position on the S-curve of man-made board technology in China on the TRIZ evolution theo ryand introduce a methodology which combines patent analysis and technology life cycle forecasting to find a niche space of man-made technology development in China.

  18. Design and research on a variable ballast system for deep-sea manned submersibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Zhong-Liang

    2008-12-01

    Variable ballast systems are necessary for manned submersibles to adjust their buoyancy. In this paper, the design of a variable ballast system for a manned submersible is described. The variable ballast system uses a super high pressure hydraulic seawater system. A super high pressure seawater pump and a deep-sea brushless DC motor are used to pump seawater into or from the variable ballast tank, increasing or decreasing the weight of the manned submersible. A magnetostrictive linear displacement transducer can detect the seawater level in the variable ballast tank. Some seawater valves are used to control pumping direction and control on-off states. The design and testing procedure for the valves is described. Finally, the future development of variable ballast systems and seawater hydraulic systems is projected.

  19. MAN1B1 Deficiency: An Unexpected CDG-II

    PubMed Central

    Millón, María B.; Race, Valérie; Sturiale, Luisa; Garozzo, Domenico; Mills, Philippa; Clayton, Peter; Asteggiano, Carla G.; Quelhas, Dulce; Cansu, Ali; Martins, Esmeralda; Nassogne, Marie-Cécile; Gonçalves-Rocha, Miguel; Topaloglu, Haluk; Jaeken, Jaak; Foulquier, François; Matthijs, Gert

    2013-01-01

    Congenital disorders of glycosylation (CDG) are a group of rare metabolic diseases, due to impaired protein and lipid glycosylation. In the present study, exome sequencing was used to identify MAN1B1 as the culprit gene in an unsolved CDG-II patient. Subsequently, 6 additional cases with MAN1B1-CDG were found. All individuals presented slight facial dysmorphism, psychomotor retardation and truncal obesity. Generally, MAN1B1 is believed to be an ER resident alpha-1,2-mannosidase acting as a key factor in glycoprotein quality control by targeting misfolded proteins for ER-associated degradation (ERAD). However, recent studies indicated a Golgi localization of the endogenous MAN1B1, suggesting a more complex role for MAN1B1 in quality control. We were able to confirm that MAN1B1 is indeed localized to the Golgi complex instead of the ER. Furthermore, we observed an altered Golgi morphology in all patients' cells, with marked dilatation and fragmentation. We hypothesize that part of the phenotype is associated to this Golgi disruption. In conclusion, we linked mutations in MAN1B1 to a Golgi glycosylation disorder. Additionally, our results support the recent findings on MAN1B1 localization. However, more work is needed to pinpoint the exact function of MAN1B1 in glycoprotein quality control, and to understand the pathophysiology of its deficiency. PMID:24348268

  20. 2. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, March ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Historic American Buildings Survey W. N. Manning, Photographer, March 23, 1934. FRONT VIEW. - SOUTHWEST - Summerfield College, Music Building, Main & College Streets, Summerfield, Dallas County, AL