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Sample records for 75013 paris france

  1. City of Paris, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This highly detailed view of the City of Paris 49.0N, 0.0E) shows a varied land use pattern in great detail. Several airports are clearly seen such as the two major international airports of Orly and Le Bourget. Paris was founded in pre-Roman times on an island in the Seine River and continued as a Roman outpost. The easily defensible location was one of the keys to growth. Other factors include easy access by river and the productive hinterland.

  2. Late abortion meeting, Paris / France.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, A

    1989-01-01

    On January 27 and 28, 1989 a workshop and a meeting were organized in Paris by Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial (MFPF/France) and the IPPF Europe Region. The workshop was held on the first day. 24 staff and volunteers from Planned Parenthood Associations of 15 countries attended, reviewing abortion laws, the definition of therapeutic abortion, and the incidence and problems of second trimester abortion. Second trimester abortion is available in only a few European countries. Second trimester abortions are rare in France (about 2000 per annum), and in 1986 1717 French women travelled to England in order to seek an abortion. All late abortions are performed for serious reasons. Older women may mistake signs of pregnancy for the onset of the menopause; and women fearful of social or familial punishment, especially teenagers, may be reluctant to consult a doctor. The experiences of Denmark and Sweden, where the problem is partially solved, suggest some strategies: optimize accessibility of contraceptive services, particularly for women at higher risk of late abortion; diminish the taboo surrounding abortion, so that women are less frightened to seek help at an early stage of pregnancy; make abortion services available in all regions of the country; avert time-consuming enforced waiting periods or consent for minors; and stimulate public information campaigns on the importance of seeking help early. On January 28 a meeting involving about 200 participants took place at the Universite Paris Dauphine, Salle Raymond Aron. Speakers at the meeting discussed the issue of late abortion in Europe, the difficulties of obtaining late abortions, counseling, medical problems, the woman's point of view, and possible solutions. At the close of the meeting, the MFPF called on the French government to modify some of the articles in the Penal Code that restrict women's access to safe and legal abortion.

  3. Determinants of measles seroprevalence among pregnant women in Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Bodilis, H; Goffinet, F; Krivine, A; Andrieu, T; Anselem, O; Tsatsaris, V; Rozenberg, F; Launay, O

    2014-08-01

    Non-immune pregnant women are at risk of severe measles. As the measles vaccination is contraindicated during pregnancy, women should be vaccinated before conception or during the postpartum period. Nevertheless, measles serology is not recommended during pregnancy in France, and there are no data available concerning measles susceptibility and its associated risk factors among pregnant women. The socio-demographic determinants of measles seronegativity have been identified in a prospective cohort of 826 pregnant women in Paris, France. Measles seronegativity was 10.41% (95% CI 8.32-12.50). Women from higher socio-economic groups, born in France after 1980, were more frequently seronegative.

  4. HIV type 1 diversity in northern Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Simon, F; Loussert-Ajaka, I; Damond, F; Saragosti, S; Barin, F; Brun-Vézinet, F

    1996-10-10

    During a 6-month period, we studied the diversity of HIV-1 subtypes in 392 adult patients seen in Bichat-Claude Bernard Hospital, northern Paris, France. All the samples were serotyped and a subset was genotyped by means of HMA. Serotyping was performed with a new peptide subtype-specific EIA (SSEIA), based on in vitro competition for antibody binding between the representative V3 peptides of the different clades (A to E). HMA with plasmids from clades A to H gave unambiguous results on 105 of the 116 samples tested. The agreement between SSEIA and HMA was 36/41 for subtype B, 2/2 for subtype D, and 4/5 for subtype E. We found a discrepancy in the results between clade A and C: the patients with sera reacting to peptide C were confirmed by HMA as being infected by clade A strains. Three patients reactive with peptide A were infected by a subtype F. These results indicate that peptide cross-reactivity, even in the SSEIA format, hinders serotyping. In 11 samples, all from African patients, the subtype remained indeterminate because PCR or HMA failed. Caucasian patients (n = 223) were mainly infected by subtype B. HMA and/or SSEIA revealed non-subtype B infection in 14 Caucasians, who were infected by the sexual route overseas or in France. Patients originating from other countries (mainly in Africa) exhibited a broad strain diversity, with most of the different subtypes so far described being represented. This study confirms the frequency of subtype B strains in Caucasians living in France, but emphasizes the emergence of the different HIV-1 subtypes in Paris, together with the extent of strain trafficking. Discordances between serotype and genotype assays confirm that both tests require additional development.

  5. 32 CFR 750.13 - Claims: Single service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Claims: Single service responsibility. 750.13 Section 750.13 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY CLAIMS GENERAL..., Canada, Cyprus, Denmark, India, Japan, Luxembourg, Morocco, Nepal, Norway, Pakistan, Saudi...

  6. Vaccine knowledge in students in Paris, France, and surrounding regions

    PubMed Central

    Mellon, Guillaume; Rigal, Laurent; Partouche, Henri; Aoun, Olivier; Jaury, Philippe; Joannard, Nathalie; Guthmann, Jean Paul; Cochereau, Delphine; Caumes, Eric; Bricaire, Francois; Salmon-Céron, Dominique

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In France, young adults are legally freed from parental authority at the age of 18 years and are, thus, responsible for their own vaccine record. This young adult population is more frequently exposed to vaccine-preventable infectious diseases. OBJECTIVE: To determine the factors associated with students’ knowledge of the interval between two antitetanus boosters and their report of having up-to-date vaccinations. METHODS: In April 2009, a survey was conducted involving a random sample of students between 18 and 25 years of age eating lunch at university dining facilities in Paris and its suburbs (Ile de France). RESULTS: Among the 677 students approached, 583 agreed to participate. Only 207 (36%) of respondents knew the recommended dosing interval between two doses of tetanus vaccine booster (10 years). The majority of students (69%) reported having up-to-date vaccinations. Declaring having up-to-date vaccinations was significantly associated with having a general practitioner (OR 3.03 [95% CI 1.69 to 5.55]). Health care students were significantly more likely to know the decennial interval between two antitetanus boosters (OR 2 [95% CI 1.28 to 3.25]). Most of responding students (n=519 [89%]) believed that vaccines were very useful. CONCLUSIONS: An overall lack of knowledge of vaccines was observed among this student population. Health care providers, such as GPs and university medical practice staff, who interact with these young individuals have an essential role to promote better vaccination coverage in this population. PMID:25285109

  7. Science Education at the National Institute for Pedagogical Research, Paris, France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Host, Victor

    1979-01-01

    Discusses three major areas of research in science education which take place at the National Institute for Pedagogical Research (INRP), Paris, France. European cooperation, future prospects and a list of publications of the INRP are also presented. (HM)

  8. Managing Building Permits Files at the Archives de Paris, France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faivre d'Arcier, Louis

    2005-01-01

    Collecting bulky series of paper materials happens very often in an institution as large as the Archives de Paris. Questions arise of how to give access to those materials and how to produce finding aids well suited to their many diverse uses. The numerous specific application programs that are used by the offices of origin of the archives can…

  9. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources of the Paris Basin, France, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Le, Phoung A.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 222 million barrels of unconventional oil; 2,092 billion cubic feet of unconventional gas; 18 million barrels of conventional oil; and 47 billion cubic feet of conventional gas resources in the Paris Basin of France.

  10. Gas Geochemistry of the Dogger Geothermal Aquifer (Paris Basin, France)

    SciTech Connect

    Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C.; Marty, B.; Brach, M.; Wei, H.F.

    1987-01-20

    The low enthalpy program developed in the Paris Basin provides the opportunity for studying the gas geochemistry of the calcareous aquifer of the Dogger. Hydrocarbons and CO{sub 2} are mainly biogenic, He displays high concentrations. He, Ar and N{sub 2} have multiple origins (radioactive decay, atmospheric migration, biochemical processes). The distribution of the gases in the zones of the basin varies in relation to the general chemistry, sedimentology and hydrodynamics. The gas geothermometers do not apply to this environment but useful estimations of the redox potential of the fluid can be derived from CO{sub 2}/CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}/NH{sub 4}{sup +} ratios. H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S are involved in corrosion processes and scaling in the pipes. 12 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. The first college of medical illustration in Paris (France)--two years' experience.

    PubMed

    Barnaud, A

    1994-10-01

    In September 1992, the first College Programme of Medical Illustration in Paris began at the Ecole Supérieure des Arts et Industries Graphiques Estienne. There had previously been only one College of Medical Illustration in France-founded in 1969 in Strasbourg. Paris, at the centre of the French scientific and medical environment, had only a few medical artists, the situation was therefore propitious to the creation of the College. How could a freelance medical artist establish a medical illustration college in a National Arts School? This is the account of the School's first two years' experience, in which a number of the problems faced by both students and tutors are discussed.

  12. Paris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image of Paris was acquired on July 23, 2000 and covers an area of 23 by 20 km. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century BC. Paris is an alluring city boasting many monumental landmarks, such as the Cathedral of Notre Dame, the Louvre, and the Eiffel Tower. Its beautiful gardens, world-class cuisine, high fashion, sidewalk cafes, and intellectual endeavors are well known. The city's cultural life is centered on the Left Bank of the Seine, while business and commerce dominate the Right Bank. The image is located at 48.8 degrees north latitude and 2.3 degrees east longitude.

    In figure 1, the 4 enlarged areas zoom in to some of the major buildings. In the UPPER LEFT, the Eiffel Tower and its shadow are seen. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 m (1054 ft), compared to its actual height of 303 m (985 ft). In the UPPER RIGHT, the Arc de Triomphe is at the center of the Place de L'etoile, from which radiate 12 major boulevards. In the LOWER LEFT is the Tuileries Garden and the Louvre Museum art its eastern end. In the LOWER RIGHT is the Invalides, the burial place and monument of Napoleon Bonaparte.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  13. Theoretical value of Newtonian constant G confirmed by the International Bureau of Weights & Measures in Paris, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omerbashich, Mensur

    2015-01-01

    World oldest authority for scientific constants and the keeper of the original metre standard, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) in Paris, France has accomplished a historic confirmation of the Omerbashich's (first-ever) scientific prediction of value of the Newtonian gravitational constant G.

  14. New characterization aspects of carbonate accumulation horizons in Chalky Champagne (NE of the Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linoir, Damien; Thomachot-Schneider, Céline; Gommeaux, Maxime; Fronteau, Gilles; Barbin, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    The soil profiles of the Champagne area (NE of Paris Basin, France) occasionally show carbonate accumulation horizons (CAHs). From the top to the bottom, these soil profiles include a rendic leptosol horizon, a Quaternary cryoturbated paleosol (QCP), and a chalky substratum. The CAHs are located in the top part of the QCP. This study is aimed at highlighting the specific characteristics of CAHs compared to other soil profile horizons using geophysics, geochemistry, micromorphology, and mercury injection porosimetry. It is the first essential step for understanding the impact of CAHs on water transfers into the Champagne soil profiles. Our analyses show that Champagne CAHs are not systematically characterized by a typical induration unlike generally put forward in the regional literature. They are more porous and heterogeneous than their parent material (QCP). Carbonate accumulation horizons are also characterized by singular colorimetric parameters that are linked to their geochemical specific content, even if they bear a signature of the initial QCP before the pedogenic modification.

  15. Fossil echinoid (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) diversity of the Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) in the Paris Basin (France).

    PubMed

    Benetti, Sophie; Saucède, Thomas; David, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    This dataset inventories occurrence records of fossil echinoid specimens collected in the Calcaires à Spatangues Formation (CSF) that crops out in the southeast of the Paris Basin (France), and is dated from the Acanthodiscus radiatus chronozone (ca. 132 Ma, early Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous). Fossil richness and abundance of the CSF has attracted the attention of palaeontologists since the middle of the nineteenth century. This dataset compiles occurrence data (referenced by locality names and geographic coordinates with decimal numbers) of fossil echinoids both collated from the literature published over a century and a half, and completed by data from collection specimens. The dataset also gives information on taxonomy (from species to order and higher taxonomic levels), which has been checked for reliability and consistency. It compiles a total of 628 georeferenced occurrence data of 26 echinoid species represented by 22 genera, 14 families, and 9 orders. PMID:24003321

  16. Fossil echinoid (Echinoidea, Echinodermata) diversity of the Early Cretaceous (Hauterivian) in the Paris Basin (France)

    PubMed Central

    Benetti, Sophie; Saucède, Thomas; David, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This dataset inventories occurrence records of fossil echinoid specimens collected in the Calcaires à Spatangues Formation (CSF) that crops out in the southeast of the Paris Basin (France), and is dated from the Acanthodiscus radiatus chronozone (ca. 132 Ma, early Hauterivian, Early Cretaceous). Fossil richness and abundance of the CSF has attracted the attention of palaeontologists since the middle of the nineteenth century. This dataset compiles occurrence data (referenced by locality names and geographic coordinates with decimal numbers) of fossil echinoids both collated from the literature published over a century and a half, and completed by data from collection specimens. The dataset also gives information on taxonomy (from species to order and higher taxonomic levels), which has been checked for reliability and consistency. It compiles a total of 628 georeferenced occurrence data of 26 echinoid species represented by 22 genera, 14 families, and 9 orders. PMID:24003321

  17. Predictive Factors of Cytomegalovirus Seropositivity among Pregnant Women in Paris, France

    PubMed Central

    N’Diaye, Dieynaba S.; Yazdanpanah, Yazdan; Krivine, Anne; Andrieu, Thibaut; Rozenberg, Flore; Picone, Olivier; Tsatsaris, Vassilis; Goffinet, François; Launay, Odile

    2014-01-01

    Background Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most frequent cause of congenital infection. The objective of this study was to evaluate predictive factors for CMV seronegativity in a cohort of pregnant women in Paris, France. Methods Pregnant women enrolled in a prospective cohort during the 2009 A/H1N1 pandemic were tested for CMV IgG antibodies. Variables collected were age, geographic origin, lifestyle, work characteristics, socioeconomic status, gravidity, parity and number of children at home. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify independent predictive factors for CMV seropositivity. Results Among the 826 women enrolled, 389 (47.1%) were primiparous, and 552 (67.1%) had Metropolitan France as a geographic origin. Out of these, 355 (i.e. 57.0%, 95% confidence interval (CI): [53.6%–60.4%]) were CMV seropositive: 43.7% (95% CI:[39.5%–47.9%]) in those whose geographic origin was Metropolitan France and 84.1% in those with other origins (95% CI:[79.2%–88.3%]). Determinants associated with CMV seropositivity in a multivariate logistic regression model were: (i) geographic origin (p<0.001(compared with Metropolitan France, geographic origins of Africa adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 21.2, 95% CI:[9.7–46.5], French overseas departments and territories and other origin, aOR 7.5, 95% CI:[3.9–14.6], and Europe or Asia, aOR 2.2, 95% CI: [1.3–3.7]); and (ii) gravidity (p = 0.019), (compared with gravidity = 1, if gravidity≥3, aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: [1.1–2.2]; if gravidity = 2, aOR = 1.0, 95% CI: [0.7–1.4]). Work characteristics and socioeconomic status were not independently associated with CMV seropositivity. Conclusions In this cohort of pregnant women, a geographic origin of Metropolitan France and a low gravidity were predictive factors for CMV low seropositivity. Such women are therefore the likely target population for prevention of CMV infection during pregnancy in France. PMID:24587077

  18. [Review of the proceedings of the congress "Controversies and updates in vascular surgery" (Paris, France, January 22-24, 2015)].

    PubMed

    Kalmykov, E L

    2015-01-01

    The article is a brief review of the papers presented at the Congress "Controversies and Updates in Vascular Surgery - CACVS) held in Paris (France) on January 22-24, 2015. An emphasis is placed upon the problems of open and endovascular interventions for aortic aneurysms, lower-limb ischaemia, infection in vascular surgery, pathology of the venous system, choosing an approach for endovascular operations and a vascular access for haemodialysis.

  19. Fine-scale urbanization affects Odonata species diversity in ponds of a megacity (Paris, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanmougin, Martin; Leprieur, Fabien; Loïs, Grégoire; Clergeau, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Current developments in urban ecology include very few studies focused on pond ecosystems, though ponds are recognized as biodiversity hotspots. Using Odonata as an indicator model, we explored changes in species composition in ponds localized along an urban gradient of a megacity (Paris, France). We then assessed the relative importance of local- and landscape-scale variables in shaping Odonata α-diversity patterns using a model-averaging approach. Analyses were performed for adult (A) and adult plus exuviae (AE) census data. At 26 ponds, we recorded 657 adults and 815 exuviae belonging to 17 Odonata species. The results showed that the Odonata species assemblage composition was not determined by pond localization along the urban gradient. Similarly, pond characteristics were found to be similar among urban, suburban and periurban ponds. The analyses of AE census data revealed that fine-scale urbanization (i.e., increased density of buildings surrounding ponds) negatively affects Odonata α-diversity. In contrast, pond localization along the urban gradient weakly explained the α-diversity patterns. Several local-scale variables, such as the coverage of submerged macrophytes, were found to be significant drivers of Odonata α-diversity. Together, these results show that the degree of urbanization around ponds must be considered instead of pond localization along the urban gradient when assessing the potential impacts of urbanization on Odonata species diversity. This work also indicates the importance of exuviae sampling in understanding the response of Odonata to urbanization.

  20. Infestation by pyrethroids resistant bed bugs in the suburb of Paris, France

    PubMed Central

    Durand, R.; Cannet, A.; Berdjane, Z.; Bruel, C.; Haouchine, D.; Delaunay, P.; Izri, A.

    2012-01-01

    Bed bugs are hematophagous insects responsible for a re-emerging and challenging indoor pest in many countries. Bed bugs infestations may have health consequences including nuisance biting, cutaneous and systemic reactions. This resurgence can probably be attributed to factors such as increased international travel and development of resistance against insecticides. Resistance against pyrethroids has been reported several times from the USA and rarely in Europe. In France, very few data on bed bugs are available. The present study aimed to assess the infestation by bed bugs of a complex of two high-rise apartment buildings in the suburb of Paris and to evaluate their susceptibility to pyrethroid insecticides. We inspected for bed bugs 192 out of 198 apartments units (97%) and interviewed their residents. 76 (39.6%) apartments were infested. Among the 97 residents living in infested apartments, 53 (54.6%) reported bed bug bites. A total of 564 bed bugs were collected in the infested units. Bioassays showed that 54 out of 143 bed bugs were resistant to pyrethroids (37.8%; 95% confidence interval: 29.9-45.7%). DNA sequencing showed that all bed bugs tested (n = 124) had homozygous L925I kdr-like gene mutation. The level of pyrethroid resistance found indicates that this phenomenon was already established in the site and prompts the need to reevaluate the wide use of pyrethroids to control bed bugs. PMID:23193523

  1. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorobiphenyls in wastewaters and sewage sludges from the Paris area (France).

    PubMed

    Blanchard, M; Teil, M J; Ollivon, D; Legenti, L; Chevreuil, M

    2004-06-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were investigated during 1999-2000 in the sewerage system to the Seine Aval treatment plant which drains the Paris area (France). Contamination of sludges from storage chambers indicated a local origin typical of motor car traffic with PAH concentrations (Sigma16) ranging from 14 to 31 mg kg(-1) of dry weight, pyrene/fluoranthene ratios ranging between 1.12 and 1.48 and PCB concentrations (Sigma7) ranging from 0.07 to 0.65 mg kg(-1) of dry weight. In the same way, sludges from sand removal tanks displayed PAH values related to the importance of traffic whereas PCBs were rather characteristic of a diffuse origin. Among the five sewers entering the Seine Aval treatment plant, Clichy Argenteuil, which drains a large industrial area, was the most polluted one (PAHs as Sigma3, 10 kg year(-1); PCBs as Sigma7, 3.5 kg year(-1)). Seasonal variations were observed for PAHs with higher levels in winter in relation with the occurrence of combustion processes. Ninety-eight percent of the PAHs and 76% of the PCBs were extracted during the treatment plant processes, the primary clarifier of which retained 50% of the pollutants. Fluoranthene and PCB concentrations in the final dehydrated sludge (mean values) were 1.07 and 0.623 mg kg(-1) of dry weight, respectively. For PCBs, a significant correlation was found (r=0.668, P<0.001) between wastewater and dehydrated sludge concentrations. Yearly measured amounts of PAHs (Sigma3) were twice higher in sludges (76.3 kg) than in precipitations (37.7 kg) whereas those of PCBs (Sigma7) brought by total atmospheric fallout (17.6 kg) and sludges (21.1 kg) did not differ significantly.

  2. Atmospheric fate of phthalate esters in an urban area (Paris-France).

    PubMed

    Teil, M J; Blanchard, M; Chevreuil, M

    2006-02-01

    The atmospheric fate of six phthalate esters was investigated in the urban area of Paris (France). Total atmospheric levels (ng m-3) were as follows: DMP, 0.5; DEP, 10.7; DnBP, 22.2; BBP, 4.6; DEHP, 18.9; and DnOP, 0.5 ng m-3, showing a predominance of DnBP and next, DEHP. They are mainly present in the vapour phase, from 93.8% to 64.9%, particularly for the esters with alkyl chain length of less than six C. An inverse correlation was found between the vapour phase concentrations and the molecular weight and also a direct correlation between the vapour phase concentrations and the log [vapour pressure] of the compounds. Seasonal variations were displayed by principal component analysis (PCA), due to significant correlation between phthalate concentrations and air temperature. Rain water concentrations (ng L-1) were as follows: DMP, 116; DEP, 333; DnBP, 592; BBP, 81; DEHP, 423; and DnOP, 10. PCA analysis showed a seasonal variation of these concentrations correlated to the air temperature. The experimental water/air scavenging ratio was calculated and was in accordance with the theoretical one obtained from the vapour pressure and the Henry's law constant for each phthalate ester. The global trend was a decrease of the washout coefficient in relation with the rise of alkyl chain length. Yearly balances for rainwater and bulk deposition allowed the estimation of dry deposits that represented about half of total. Our findings highlight the major part played by particles in atmospheric deposition processes.

  3. Decrease of atmospheric deposition of heavy metals in an urban area from 1994 to 2002 (Paris, France).

    PubMed

    Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent; Garnaud, Stéphane; Varrault, Gilles; Thevenot, Daniel R

    2005-11-01

    Total atmospheric deposition, i.e. both wet and dry ones, was sampled during three different sampling periods between 1994 and 2002. The aim of this study is to determine the temporal variation of the atmospheric deposition fluxes of four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) in an urban area (Paris region, France). The global pattern shows a decrease of the fluxes for most of elements during this period. Indeed, the atmospheric deposition fluxes measured in 2001-2002 were lower than those measured during the 1994-1997 period by factors reaching 16, 2.5, 4 and 7.5 at Créteil and 7, 1, 6 and 4.5 at Chatou for Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, respectively. At the Paris site, the decreasing factors were 2.5 and 3 for Cd and Pb, respectively while Cu and Zn fluxes were nearly similar during the whole studied period.

  4. Overweight according to geographical origin and time spent in France: a cross sectional study in the Paris metropolitan area

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For the first time in France in a population-based survey, this study sought to investigate the potential impact of migration origin and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France on body mass index (BMI) and overweight in adults living in the Paris metropolitan area. Methods A representative, population-based, random sample of the adult, French speaking population of the Paris metropolitan area was interviewed in 2005. Self-reported BMI (BMI = weight/height2) and overweight (BMI ≥ 25) were our 2 outcomes of interest. Two variables were constructed to estimate individuals’ migration origin: parental nationality and the proportion of lifetime spent in mainland France, as declared by the participants. We performed multilevel regression models among different gender and age groups, adjusted for demographics and socioeconomic status. Results In women, a parental origin in the Middle East or North Africa (MENA) was associated with a higher risk of being overweight (especially before the age of 55) and a higher BMI (between 35 and 54 years of age), and so were women of Sub-Sahara African parental origin in the middle age category. Only in the youngest men (< 35 years of age) did we observe any association with parental nationality, with a higher BMI when having a MENA parentage. Regarding the association between the proportion of lifetime spent in France and overweight, we observed that, in women, a proportion of 50% to 99% appeared to be associated with overweight, especially after the age of 35. In men, having spent more than half of one’s lifetime in France was associated with a higher risk of overweight among oldest men. Conclusions Our results plea for potential cultural determinants of overweight in the migrant and migrants-born populations in the French context of the capital region. Taking into account the people’ family and personal migration histories may be an important issue in public health research and policies on overweight and

  5. Fate and spatial variations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the deposition within a heavily urbanized area: case of Paris (France).

    PubMed

    Muresan, B; Lorgeoux, C; Gasperi, J; Moilleron, R

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we present the first results on the geochemical cycle of PolyBrominated Diphenyl Ethers (or PBDE) in the Paris Region (France). In order to provide information about the distribution and mobility of eight PBDE congeners, we first determined the level of contamination of different environmental compartments: i.e. atmosphere, soils and waters. Atmospheric PBDE deposition was estimated from a site located in the centre of Paris. Surface soils (0-10 cm) were collected from multiple wooded, rural and urban locations through the Paris Region (12,000 km²). To complete our investigation, we measured PBDE concentrations/contents in the runoff from an urban catchment and settleable particles from the Seine River. Hence, gained results showed that in the superficial soils, the highest concentrations of highly brominated congeners were measured in the vicinity of the most urbanized areas whereas less brominated congeners were widespread in the whole Paris Region. This could be explained by the higher affinity of highly brominated congeners for the solid phase substrata coupled with the fact that the atmospheric deposition occurred mainly through particle deposition (close to 90% of the total atmospheric deposition). To the opposite, the less brominated congeners from the superficial soils were readily transferred to the dissolved phase of runoff and could reach more distant terrestrial and aquatic systems. Finally, a mass transfer was established at the scale of the Paris metropolitan city (105 km²). It showed that the cycle of PBDE in this particular urban area is highly dynamic with multiple sources and sinks, and rapid transfers between the ecosystem compartments.

  6. France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Every July, the world's best cyclists race more than 3500 km around France, and sometimes the surrounding countries, in the Tour de France. This image from the Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) shows the varied terrain which challenges the riders. The race started in western France at Futuroscope, and headed toward Brittany. In these mostly flat 'stages' (as each day's race is called) sprinting specialists usually dash for the finish out of the main pack of riders. The race then moved to the Pyrenees mountains, in southern France along the border with Spain. Climbers and the overall favorites shine in the mountains, often gaining 10 minutes or more on their rivals. Only a few days after the Pyrenees climbs the race was again in the mountains. First Mont Ventoux, an extinct volcano in Provence, and then the massive Alps, with altitudes as high as 2,645 meters, challenged the racers. Finally the race headed toward Paris and a July 23rd finish in Paris. Go Lance! To learn more about MODIS, visit the MODIS web. Image by Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land group, NASA GSFC

  7. Effects of the Pays de Bray'' fault on fluid paleocirculations in the Paris Basin Dogger reservoir, France

    SciTech Connect

    Bril, H. . Lab. d'Analyse Structurale et Hydrothermalisme); Velde, B.; Iqdari, A. . Dept. Geologie); Meunier, A. . Lab. Petrologie des Alterations Hydrothermales)

    1994-06-01

    Clay fractions and fluid inclusions were studied in the Aulnay sous Bois and Cerneaux (CER-1 and CER-P6) wells located 10 km, 1.3 and 0.6 km, respectively, from the Pays de Bray'' fault (Paris Basin, France). It was shown that a connection was probably established between the Dogger and Triassic reservoirs during the active period of the fault. Chemical and heat transfers have locally modified the diagenesis conditions in the Dogger formation, inducing an overmaturation of clay minerals. These effects, although attenuated, are still identifiable in the Aulnay and CER-1 wells. A maximum temperature of about 90 C was maintained in CER-P6 site even during the uplift stage of the basin.

  8. Development and Exploitation of Low Enthalpy Geothermal Systems, Example of "The Dogger" in the Paris Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Rojas, J.; Menjoz, A.; Martin, J.C.; Criaud, A.; Fouillac, C.

    1987-01-20

    A feature of French geothermal engineering is the development of industrial projects in normal gradient, non-convective areas. The economic feasibility of exploiting wells producing between 150 and 350 m{sup 3}/h at temperatures from 55° to 85° from depths of 1,500 to 2,000 meters, in sedimentary basins with normal gradient, for direct heat production has been proved by 50 plants providing heating for over 500,000 people during the last few years. This opens new possibilities for geothermal energy development the world over, in particular for areas where heat consumption is higher than 2,500 Tons oil equivalent (Toe)/year over several square kilometers. The recent and rapid development of geothermal projects in France, in particular in the Paris Basin has provided much more information on the characteristics of the Jurassic Dogger, which is the unit tapped by geothermal doublets (one production and one injection well). Detailed study of the Dogger reservoir in the Paris Basin is one of the main objectives of the IMRG research and development program drawn up in 1983. The preliminary results presented here are oriented towards (1) improved knowledge of the potential geothermal resources, and (2) analysis of optimum development conditions. 1 tab., 7 refs., 9 figs.

  9. A dense Black Carbon network in the region of Paris, France: Implementation, objectives, and first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Sarda-Esteve, Roland; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Gros, Valérie; Pernot, Pierre; Ghersi, Véronique; Ampe, Christophe; Songeur, Charlotte; Brugge, Benjamin; Debert, Christophe; Favez, Olivier; Le Priol, Tiphaine; Mocnik, Grisa

    2013-04-01

    Motivations. Road traffic and domestic wood burning emissions are two major contributors of particulate pollution in our cities. These two sources emit ultra-fine, soot containing, particles in the atmosphere, affecting health adversely, increasing morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular and respiratory conditions and casing lung cancer. A better characterization of soot containing aerosol sources in our major cities provides useful information for policy makers for assessment, implementation and monitoring of strategies to tackle air pollution issues affecting human health with additional benefits for climate change. Objectives. This study on local sources of primary Particulate Matter (PM) in the megacity of Paris is a follow-up of several programs (incl. EU-FP7-MEGAPOLI) that have shown that fine PM - in the Paris background atmosphere - is mostly secondary and imported. A network of 14 stations of Black Carbon has been implemented in the larger region of Paris to provide highly spatially resolved long term survey of local combustion aerosols. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that such densely BC network is operating over a large urban area, providing novel information on the spatial/temporal distribution of combustion aerosols within a post-industrialized megacity. Experimental. As part of the PRIMEQUAL "PREQUALIF" project, a dense Black Carbon network (of 14 stations) has been installed over the city of Paris beginning of 2012 in order to produce spatially resolved Equivalent Black Carbon (EBC) concentration maps with high time resolution through modeling and data assimilation. This network is composed of various real-time instruments (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer, MAAP by THERMO; Multi-wavelength Aethalometers by MAGEE Scientific) implemented in contrasted sites (rural background, urban background, traffic) complementing the regulated measurements (PM, NOx) in the local air quality network AIRPARIF (http

  10. Analysis of medieval limestone sculpture from southwestern France and the Paris Basin by NAA

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, L.; Harbottle, G.

    1994-12-31

    Compositional characterization of limestone from sources known to medieval craftsmen and from the monuments they built can be used in conjunction with stylistic and iconographic criteria to infer geographic origin of sculptures that have lost their histories. Limestone from 47 quarrying locations in France and from numerous medieval monuments have been subjected to neutron activation analysis (NAA) to form the nucleus of the Brookhaven Limestone Database. Even though the method and techniques of NAA are well established, this paper briefly summarizes the parameters and experimental conditions useful for determining those concentration variables for which limestone from different sources exhibits significant and reproducible differences.

  11. A molecular and isotopic study of the organic matter from the Paris Basin, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichtfouse, E.; Albrecht, P.; Behar, F.; Hayes, J. M.

    1994-01-01

    Thirteen Liassic sedimentary rocks of increasing depth and three petroleums from the Paris Basin were studied for 13C/12C isotopic compositions and biological markers, including steranes, sterenes, methylphenanthrenes, methylanthracenes, and triaromatic steroids. The isotopic compositions of n-alkanes from mature sedimentary rocks and petroleums fall in a narrow range (2%), except for the deepest Hettangian rock and the Trias petroleum, for which the short-chain n-alkanes are enriched and depleted in 13C, respectively. Most of the molecular parameters increase over the 2000-2500 m depth range, reflecting the transformation of the organic matter at the onset of petroleum generation. In this zone, carbonate content and carbon isotopic composition of carbonates, as well as molecular parameters, are distinct for the Toarcian and Hettangian source rocks and suggest a migration of organic matter from these two formations. Two novel molecular parameters were defined for this task: one using methyltriaromatic steroids from organic extracts; the other using 1-methylphenanthrene and 2-methylanthracene from kerogen pyrolysates. The anomalous high maturity of the Dogger petroleum relative to the maturity-depth trend of the source rocks is used to estimate the minimal vertical distance of migration of the organic matter from the source rock to the reservoir.

  12. A molecular and isotopic study of the organic matter from the Paris Basin, France.

    PubMed

    Lichtfouse, E; Albrecht, P; Behar, F; Hayes, J M

    1994-01-01

    Thirteen Liassic sedimentary rocks of increasing depth and three petroleums from the Paris Basin were studied for 13C/12C isotopic compositions and biological markers, including steranes, sterenes, methylphenanthrenes, methylanthracenes, and triaromatic steroids. The isotopic compositions of n-alkanes from mature sedimentary rocks and petroleums fall in a narrow range (2%), except for the deepest Hettangian rock and the Trias petroleum, for which the short-chain n-alkanes are enriched and depleted in 13C, respectively. Most of the molecular parameters increase over the 2000-2500 m depth range, reflecting the transformation of the organic matter at the onset of petroleum generation. In this zone, carbonate content and carbon isotopic composition of carbonates, as well as molecular parameters, are distinct for the Toarcian and Hettangian source rocks and suggest a migration of organic matter from these two formations. Two novel molecular parameters were defined for this task: one using methyltriaromatic steroids from organic extracts; the other using 1-methylphenanthrene and 2-methylanthracene from kerogen pyrolysates. The anomalous high maturity of the Dogger petroleum relative to the maturity-depth trend of the source rocks is used to estimate the minimal vertical distance of migration of the organic matter from the source rock to the reservoir.

  13. [Health of immigrant population of consultants at the Baudelaire outpatient clinic in Saint-Antoine hospital in Paris, France].

    PubMed

    Kaoutar, B; Mathieu-Zahzam, L; Lebas, J; Chauvin, P

    2012-05-01

    Social and health data on the immigrant population remain scarce in France, especially concerning those in irregular situation. The Baudelaire outpatient clinic in Saint- Antoine hospital in Paris (PASS, i.e. specific free medicosocial care for the poor, the uninsured or the undocumented patients) treats a majority of immigrants, a lot of them being in an irregular residence status. The objectives of this study were to describe the social and health status of the immigrant consultants, to compare regular and undocumented migrants and to describe their main reasons for migration. A cross-sectional, descriptive, survey among the immigrant consultants has been performed among this outpatient clinic in April and May 2009. In total, 536 patients were included. Their age mean was 45 years, 62% are male, 49% are in an irregular situation and they have been in France for 12 years in average (19 years for the regular immigrants and 5 years for the undocumented). More than 20% had no health insurance. A majority (55%) of patients were suffering from a chronic disease. The more frequent ones were hypertension (20%), type 2 diabetes (11.6%), chronic infectious diseases - HIV, HBV, HCV - (7%). Reasons for immigration were mostly economical (39%), family (19%) and political (17%). Health reasons were at the 4th rank and concerned 9% of the patients. The main chronic diseases observed among this population are similar to those of the general population of consultants in primary health care, except for the chronic infectious diseases, which are more frequent. Immigration for health reasons represents only a small proportion of all immigration reasons. For this population, free clinics like the one investigated here constitute unique, irreplaceable, access points in the French healthcare system.

  14. The Fate of Polyol-Made ZnO and CdS Nanoparticles in Seine River Water (Paris, France).

    PubMed

    da Rocha, Alice; Sivry, Yann; Gelabert, Alexandre; Beji, Zyed; Benedetti, Marc F; Menguy, Nicolas; Brayner, Roberta

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to characterize nanoparticles with different compositions and structures as well as seeing their evolutions over time in a natural environment such as Seine river water (Paris, France). Face centered cubic (fcc) and hexagonal (hcp) CdS as well as hexagonal (hcp) ZnO nanoparticles were synthesized by the Polyol method. CdS nanoparticles (i) cfc structure: are agglomerated, present 100 nm length with heterogeneous diameter and 10 m2 g(-1) specific surface area (S(g)) from Brunauer Emett and Teller (BET) measurements; (ii) hcp structure: 20 nm and S(g) = 67 m2 g(-1). ZnO hcp nanoparticles presents 50 nm length and 15 nm diameter and S(g) = 54 m2 g(-1). These results are in agreement with X-ray diffraction (XRD), and small angle X-ray scattering (SAXs). After 48 h interaction with Seine river water, cryo-TEM analysis showed that ZnO nanoparticles form spherical agglomerates with 300 nm diameter; CdS nanoparticles (fcc) are agglomerated presenting large diameters (> 500 nm); and CdS nanoparticles (hcp) are not agglomerated and present the same characteristics of the starting material. After 168h of contact with Seine river water, CdS (fcc) presents only 14% of dissolution, CdS (hcp) presents both 60% dissolution and 30% reprecipitation in a cadmium carbonate form and finally almost 90% of ZnO nanoparticles are dissolved.

  15. Stress inversion and basement-cover stress transmission across weak layers in the Paris basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunzburger, Yann; Magnenet, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    We investigate the source of non-purely gravitational horizontal stresses in the Paris basin, a nowadays tectonically quiet intracratonic basin, in its eastern border of which outstandingly dense stress measurements are available. Based on a synthesis of published data, the stress state in the basin is first shown to be very close to the one that may be extrapolated for the underlying basement, in terms of principal stress orientations and horizontal to vertical stress ratios. This is in favour of a mechanical coupling between the basement and its sedimentary cover, which may seem contradictory to the presence of several weak rock layers in the basin fill, e.g. an argillite layer that was shown to bear low deviatoric stresses, and salt layers that are implicated in a major décollement elsewhere. To unravel this apparent contradiction, a 3D-numerical modelling is performed, following a rigorous inverse problem approach, to determine the long-term elastic properties of both the basement and the basin rocks. The objective is to find the set of elastic constants that provides the best fit between the calculated stress state in the basin and the in situ data, by assuming that the stress state in the basement is known. This methodology provides a realistic set of mechanical parameters, in agreement with previous studies, which leads to the conclusion that the horizontal stresses in the basin constitute its mechanical response to the stresses that developed in the underlying basement during and since the last tectonic event (Alpine phase). The fact that horizontal stresses could be transmitted across the weak horizons, contrary to what may be expected at first glance, is explained both by the geometry of the basin and the fact that, over the long term, the stiffnesses of the various sedimentary rocks are only slightly different from each other.

  16. Three centuries of heavy metal pollution in Paris (France) recorded by urban speleothems.

    PubMed

    Pons-Branchu, Edwige; Ayrault, Sophie; Roy-Barman, Matthieu; Bordier, Louise; Borst, Wolfgang; Branchu, Philippe; Douville, Eric; Dumont, Emmanuel

    2015-06-15

    The first record of urban speleothems used to reconstruct the history of heavy metal pollution of shallow groundwaters is presented. Two speleothems grew during the last 300 years in an underground aqueduct in the north-eastern part of Paris. They display high Pb, Mn V, Cu, Cd and Al concentrations since 1900 due to the urbanization of the site which triggered anthropogenic contamination of the water feeding the speleothems. Surprisingly, these heavy metal concentrations are also high in the oldest part. This early pollution could come from the use of Parisian waste as fertilizers in the orchards and vineyards cultivated above the aqueduct before urbanization. Lead isotopes were measured in these carbonates as well as in lead artifacts from the 17th-18th centuries ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.180+/-0.003). The mean (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratio, for one of the speleothems is 1.181+/-0.003 unvarying with time. These lead signatures are close to those of coal and old lead from northern European mines, lower than the natural background signature. It confirms that the high metal concentrations found come from anthropogenic pollution. Conversely, the lead isotopic composition of the second speleothem presents two temporal trends: for the oldest levels, the mean value (1.183+/-0.003) is similar to the first speleothem. For the youngest part, a lower value (1.172+/-0.005) is recorded, evidencing the contribution of a new lead source at the beginning of the industrial revolution. Pb isotopes were also measured in recent samples from a nearby superficial site. The first sample is a recent (AD 1975+/-15 years) deposit ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.148+/-0.003), and the second, a thin subactual layer ((206)Pb/(207)Pb=1.181+/-0.002). These data are compatible with the adding of anthropogenic sources (leaded gasoline and industrial lead from Rio Tinto ore).

  17. Phthalates and alkylphenols in industrial and domestic effluents: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    PubMed

    Bergé, A; Gasperi, J; Rocher, V; Gras, L; Coursimault, A; Moilleron, R

    2014-08-01

    Phthalates and alkylphenols are toxics classified as endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs). They are of particular concern due to their ubiquity and generally higher levels found in the environment comparatively to other EDCs. Industrial and domestic discharges might affect the quality of receiving waters by discharging organic matter and contaminants through treated waters and combined sewer overflows. Historically, industrial discharges are often considered as the principal vector of pollution in urban areas. If this observation was true in the past for some contaminants, no current data are today available to compare the quality of industrial and domestic discharges as regards EDCs. In this context, a total of 45 domestic samples as well as 101 industrial samples were collected from different sites, including 14 residential and 33 industrial facilities. This study focuses more specifically on 4 phthalates and 2 alkylphenols, among the most commonly studied congeners. A particular attention was also given to routine wastewater quality parameters. For most substances, wastewaters from the different sites were heavily contaminated; they display concentrations up to 1200 μg/l for di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and between 10 and 100 μg/l for diethyl phthalate and nonylphenol. Overall, for the majority of compounds, the industrial contribution to the flux of contaminant reaching the wastewater treatment plants ranges between 1 and 3%. The data generated during this work constitutes one of the first studies conducted in Europe on industrial fluxes for a variety of sectors of activity. The study of the wastewater contribution was used to better predict the industrial and domestic contributions at the scale of a huge conurbation heavily urbanized but with a weak industrial cover, illustrated by Paris. Our results indicate that specific investigations on domestic discharges are necessary in order to reduce the release of phthalates and alkylphenols in the sewer systems

  18. Diagenesis and pore water evolution in the Keuper reservoir, Paris Basin (France)

    SciTech Connect

    Spotl, C.; Matter, A. . Geologisches Inst.); Brevart, O. . Centre Scientifique et Technique Jean Feger)

    1993-09-01

    Keuper (Upper Triassic) fluvial sandstones and nonmarine carbonate rocks form a major oil reservoir in the western Paris Basin at burial depths of [approximately] 2km. Early-diagenetic processes comprise red-bed-type diagenesis and extensive dolocrete formation both in fluvial channels and in fine-grained over-bank sediments. Locally significant paleokarst created vuggy dissolution porosity in the carbonate units and probably also caused leaching of detrital alkali feldspar grains. Oxygen, carbon, and strontium isotope analyses of various eogenetic cements indicate a nonmarine pore-water composition. Ferroan carbonates, authigenic albite and potassium feldspar, quartz, sulfates, sulfides, and clay minerals formed subsequent to major mechanical compaction. Their isotopic compositions record significant changes in the chemistry of the parent pore water. Cl-Br relationships of the present-day pore water reveal that fluids saturated with respect to halite flushed the reservoir during burial. Based on radiogenic dating of illite cements, influx of warm brines into the reservoir most likely occurred during the earliest Cretaceous. The authors suggest that uplift of the Vosges crustal block created a hydraulic head in the eastern part of the basin and established a gravity-driven fluid flow system, displacing interstitial brines from the Keuper evaporites from the eastern part towards the western part of the basin. A second gravity-driven fluid flow system was established during the Oligocene by major uplift, and freshwater flushed the Keuper reservoir, causing brine dilution. The present-day pore water in the study area is still saline and mass-balance calculations indicate that the ratio of basinal brines to Tertiary meteoric water is about 1:2.

  19. Seasonal variability and source apportionment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the Paris megacity (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudic, Alexia; Gros, Valérie; Sauvage, Stéphane; Locoge, Nadine; Sanchez, Olivier; Sarda-Estève, Roland; Kalogridis, Cerise; Petit, Jean-Eudes; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Baisnée, Dominique; Favez, Olivier; Albinet, Alexandre; Sciare, Jean; Bonsang, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Within the framework of air quality studies at the megacity scale, highly time-resolved volatile organic compound (C2-C8) measurements were performed in downtown Paris (urban background sites) from January to November 2010. This unique dataset included non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and aromatic/oxygenated species (OVOCs) measured by a GC-FID (gas chromatograph with a flame ionization detector) and a PTR-MS (proton transfer reaction - mass spectrometer), respectively. This study presents the seasonal variability of atmospheric VOCs being monitored in the French megacity and their various associated emission sources. Clear seasonal and diurnal patterns differed from one VOC to another as the result of their different origins and the influence of environmental parameters (solar radiation, temperature). Source apportionment (SA) was comprehensively conducted using a multivariate mathematical receptor modeling. The United States Environmental Protection Agency's positive matrix factorization tool (US EPA, PMF) was used to apportion and quantify ambient VOC concentrations into six different sources. The modeled source profiles were identified from near-field observations (measurements from three distinct emission sources: inside a highway tunnel, at a fireplace and from a domestic gas flue, hence with a specific focus on road traffic, wood-burning activities and natural gas emissions) and hydrocarbon profiles reported in the literature. The reconstructed VOC sources were cross validated using independent tracers such as inorganic gases (NO, NO2, CO), black carbon (BC) and meteorological data (temperature). The largest contributors to the predicted VOC concentrations were traffic-related activities (including motor vehicle exhaust, 15 % of the total mass on the annual average, and evaporative sources, 10 %), with the remaining emissions from natural gas and background (23 %), solvent use (20 %), wood-burning (18 %) and a biogenic source (15 %). An important finding of

  20. Polygamy, disrupted reproduction, and the state: Malian migrants in Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Sargent, Carolyn; Cordell, Dennis

    2003-05-01

    For Malian women, migration from West Africa to France has disrupted widely shared understandings of marriage and reproduction. In response to restrictive immigration policies, men and women routinely confront the challenges of polygamy, public disapproval of high fertility, and biomedical messages promoting contraception. Although many Malians continue to be strongly pronatalist, within a family, spouses may experience contradictory pressures and objectives regarding reproduction, particularly in polygamous marriages. Because women are more likely than men to interact with nurses and doctors in the context of maternity and child health care visits, they are systematically confronted by encouragement to contracept. French population policy is contradictory in this regard, as it has been strongly pronatalist throughout the 20th century, yet is equally strongly anti-natalist with regard to immigrant populations. Recent anti-immigrant policies such as the Pasqua law prohibiting polygamy have emerged as influences shaping men's and women's contested reproductive goals. Men tend to oppose contraception, citing Islamic doctrine while women increasingly justify contraceptive use in response to government policies and biomedical encouragement. In contrast, polygamy also may generate pregnancy rivalries as wives strategize to enhance their reproductive careers and thus to retain immigrant status.

  1. Isotopic mass independent signature of black crusts: a proxy for atmospheric aerosols formation in the Paris area (France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Genot, Isabelle; Martin, Erwan; Yang, David Au; De Rafelis, Marc; Cartigny, Pierre; Wing, Boswell; Le Gendre, Erwann; Bekki, Slimane

    2016-04-01

    In view of the negative forcing of the sulfate aerosols on climate, a more accurate understanding of the formation of these particles is crucial. Indeed, despite the knowledge of their effects, uncertainties remain regarding the formation of sulfate aerosols, particularly the oxidation processes of S-bearing gases. Since the discovery of oxygen and sulfur mass independent fractionation (O- and S-MIF) processes on Earth, the sulfate isotopic composition became essential to investigate the atmospheric composition evolution and its consequences on the climate and the biosphere. Large amount of S-bearing compounds (SO2 mainly) is released into the atmosphere by anthropogenic and natural sources. Their oxidation in the atmosphere generates sulfate aerosols, H2SO4, which precipitate on the earth surface mainly as acid rain. One consequence of this precipitation is the formation of black crust on buildings made of carbonate stones. Indeed the chemical alteration of CaCO3 by H2SO4 leads to gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) concretions on building walls. Associated to other particles, gypsum forms black-crusts. Therefore, black crusts acts as 'sulfate aerosol traps', meaning that their isotopic composition reveals the composition and thus the source and formation processes of sulfate aerosols in the atmosphere in a specific region. In this study we collected 37 black crusts on a 300km NW-SE profile centered on Paris (France). In our samples, sulfate represent 40wt.% and other particles 60wt.% of the black crusts. After sulfate extraction from each samples we measured their O- and S-isotopes composition. Variations of about 10‰ in δ18O and δ34S are observed and both O-MIF (Δ17O from 0 to 1.4‰) and S-MIF (Δ33S from 0 to -0.3‰) compositions have been measured. In regards to these compositions we can discuss the source and formation (oxidation pathways) of the sulfate aerosols in troposphere above the Paris region that covers urban, rural and coastal environments. Furthermore

  2. First assessment of triclosan, triclocarban and paraben mass loads at a very large regional scale: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    PubMed

    Gasperi, Johnny; Geara, Darine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bressy, Adèle; Zedek, Sifax; Rocher, Vincent; El Samrani, Antoine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Moilleron, Régis

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of parabens (5 congeners), triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) at the scale of the Parisian sewer network and to provide representative knowledge on these compounds in France for a large area. For this purpose and in collaboration with the Parisian public sanitation service (SIAAP) in charge of the collect and treatment of the Parisian wastewater, this study focused on seven main sewer trunks of the Paris conurbation, accounting for 1900,000 m(3) d(-1), i.e., about 8 million inhabitants. Concentrations lying in the 2000-20000 ng l(-1) ranges were found in wastewater, confirming the ubiquity of parabens, TCS and TCC in our environment and household products. Parabens (>97%) and to a lesser extent TCS (68% in median) were mainly associated to the dissolved fraction, as demonstrated by low KD and KOC values. For the first time, this study also evaluated the pollutant mass loads per population equivalent (PE) of parabens, TCS and TCC at the large and representative scale of the Parisian conurbation. Hence, the median mass loads varied from 176 to 3040 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for parabens and from 26 to 762 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for TCS and TCC. Based on these results and according to the assumptions done, the extrapolation of the mass loads at the national scale pointed out an annual mass loads between 51.8 and 100.7 ty(-1) for methyl paraben (MeP) and between 11.2 and 23.5 ty(-1) for TCS. Mass loads per equivalent habitant and national mass loads are both extremely relevant and innovative data. Contrary to other countries, such data are nowadays rather difficult to gain in France and neither enquiry nor database provides access to information on the use and production of these chemicals. Since cosmetic industries are voluntarily and fully engaged in the substitution of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in personal care product, this study could constitute a "time reference status" which could be used as a basis for

  3. First assessment of triclosan, triclocarban and paraben mass loads at a very large regional scale: case of Paris conurbation (France).

    PubMed

    Gasperi, Johnny; Geara, Darine; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bressy, Adèle; Zedek, Sifax; Rocher, Vincent; El Samrani, Antoine; Chebbo, Ghassan; Moilleron, Régis

    2014-09-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the occurrence of parabens (5 congeners), triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) at the scale of the Parisian sewer network and to provide representative knowledge on these compounds in France for a large area. For this purpose and in collaboration with the Parisian public sanitation service (SIAAP) in charge of the collect and treatment of the Parisian wastewater, this study focused on seven main sewer trunks of the Paris conurbation, accounting for 1900,000 m(3) d(-1), i.e., about 8 million inhabitants. Concentrations lying in the 2000-20000 ng l(-1) ranges were found in wastewater, confirming the ubiquity of parabens, TCS and TCC in our environment and household products. Parabens (>97%) and to a lesser extent TCS (68% in median) were mainly associated to the dissolved fraction, as demonstrated by low KD and KOC values. For the first time, this study also evaluated the pollutant mass loads per population equivalent (PE) of parabens, TCS and TCC at the large and representative scale of the Parisian conurbation. Hence, the median mass loads varied from 176 to 3040 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for parabens and from 26 to 762 μg PE(-1) d(-1) for TCS and TCC. Based on these results and according to the assumptions done, the extrapolation of the mass loads at the national scale pointed out an annual mass loads between 51.8 and 100.7 ty(-1) for methyl paraben (MeP) and between 11.2 and 23.5 ty(-1) for TCS. Mass loads per equivalent habitant and national mass loads are both extremely relevant and innovative data. Contrary to other countries, such data are nowadays rather difficult to gain in France and neither enquiry nor database provides access to information on the use and production of these chemicals. Since cosmetic industries are voluntarily and fully engaged in the substitution of parabens, triclosan and triclocarban in personal care product, this study could constitute a "time reference status" which could be used as a basis for

  4. Influence of the water quality improvement on fish population in the Seine River (Paris, France) over the 1990-2013 period.

    PubMed

    Azimi, Sam; Rocher, Vincent

    2016-01-15

    Over the past 20 years, rules concerning wastewater treatment and quality of water discharged into the environment have changed considerably. Huge investments have been made in Paris conurbation to improve waste water treatment processes in accordance with the European Water Framework Directive. The interdepartmental association for sewage disposal in Paris conurbation (SIAAP) carried out a monitoring of both fish assemblages and water quality in the Seine River around the Paris conurbation (France) since the early 90's. The main goal of this study was to estimate the influence of the water quality improvement on fish. On one hand, the study confirmed the improvement of the water quality (dissolved oxygen, ammonia nitrogen, organic matter) in the Seine River, mostly focused downstream of Paris conurbation. On the other hand, an increase of the number of species occurred from 1990 (14) to 2013 (21). Moreover, changes in the river Seine assemblages happened over that 23-year period with emergence of sensitive species (ruffe, scalpin and pike-perch). The improvement of the water quality was also reported with respect to the Index of Biotic Integrity (IBI). However, no variation of pollutant concentrations in roach, eel and chub muscles has been observed. An exceedance of the environmental quality standards have even been reported all over this period as regards mercury and organochlorine.

  5. Chlorine transfer out of a very low permeability clay sequence (Paris Basin, France): 35Cl and 37Cl evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavastre, Véronique; Jendrzejewski, Nathalie; Agrinier, Pierre; Javoy, Marc; Evrard, Marc

    2005-11-01

    The marine Callovo-Oxfordian clay formation is found at a depth around 410m in the eastern part of the Paris Basin (France). It is a very low permeability formation investigated by the French agency for nuclear waste management (ANDRA) to study the feasibility of a radioactive waste disposal. Examining hydrogeological and geochemical characteristics of the clay sequence may test confinement properties of this formation. This study uses chlorine isotopes to investigate long-term transport processes which may carry chemical elements out of the clay layer to the surrounding rocks. Detailed chlorine concentration and δ 37Cl depth profiles are examined using pore waters and aquifer waters sampled in the clay formation and its surrounding aquifers (the Dogger at the bottom and the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian/Tithonian unit at the top). They are discussed in terms of chlorine budget and hydrogeological processes. Clay pore waters and aquifer waters show strong chlorine concentration depletion (<3000 mg/L) relative to the original marine interstitial water (˜19000 mg/L). This probably results from an early dilution by meteoric water in limestones (as also indicated by oxygen and hydrogen isotopes). A steep Cl-concentration gradient from the Dogger at ˜500m in depth (˜2500 mg/L) to the Oxfordian/Kimmeridgian/Tithonian aquifer near the surface (≈ 10 mg/L) is associated to a 'v-shaped' profile of the δ 37Cl values. Modelling Cl transport shows that a hydrodynamic dispersion process explains Cl concentration and δ 37Cl profiles in Oxfordian Limestone. This process implies a mean upward flux of chloride in the 2.6 10 -8-8.2 10 -8 mole/m 2/yr range from the clay formation towards upper limestones where a westward advective flow disperses the chloride. The modelling and knowledge of underground water transfer suggest a maximum effective Cl-hydrodynamic vertical dispersion coefficient (= vertical Cl-transport coefficient) of ˜7.6 10 -10 m 2/s. Chlorine transfer through the

  6. Study Abroad: Paris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cholakian, Rouben

    1992-01-01

    Describes problems and attempted resolutions encountered in administering an effective study-abroad program in Paris, France, discussing program rationale, selection and preparation of students, academic life, and social life. (28 references) (CB)

  7. The AIRPARIF-AEROSOL project: A comprehensive source apportionment study of fine aerosols (PM2.5) in the region of Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sciare, Jean; Ghersi, Veronique; Bressi, Michael; Lameloise, Philippe; Bonnaire, Nicolas; Rosso, Amandine; Nicolas, Jose; Moukhtar, Sophie; Ferron, Anais; Baumier, Dominique

    2010-05-01

    With a population of about 12 millions inhabitants (20% of the French population), Greater Paris (France) is one of the most populated megacity in Europe and among the few located in developed countries. Due to its favorable geographical situation (far from other big European cities and influenced very often by clean oceanic air masses), it may be considered as a good candidate for investigating the build-up of urban air pollution from temperate industrialized countries. Particulate mass of fine aerosols with aerodynamic diameter below 2.5μm (PM2.5) is continuously monitored at several stations from great Paris for almost 8 years by the local air quality network (AIRPARIF), using a conventional on-line automatic system (R&P TEOM; see Patashnik and Rupprecht, 1991). During the period 2000-2006, levels of PM2.5 in the region of Paris have shown rather stable yearly mean values ranging 13 to 16?g/m3 whereas most of the other pollutants monitored by AIRPARIF have shown a net decrease during this period (http:\\www.airparif.asso.fr). Since the year 2007, this situation has becoming worse for particulate pollution with a net increase of the yearly mean concentration of PM2.5 (up to 21?g/m3), which increase is partly due to the use of a new PM2.5 measurement technique (R&P TEOM-FDMS instrument) enabling a proper determination of the semi-volatile fraction of fine aerosols. Although this new method greatly improves the determination of PM2.5, it has also brought PM2.5 levels in the region of Paris closer to the 25?g/m3 yearly mean targeted value recommended by Europe for 2010 (limit value for 2015). Efficient abatement policies aiming at reducing levels of PM2.5 in the region of Paris will have to be fed by preliminary PM2.5 source apportionment studies and exhaustive aerosol chemistry studies (chemical mass balance) allowing a better separation between regional to continental aerosol sources. The objective of the AIRPARIF-AEROSOL project aims to perform a spatially- and

  8. Tracing transfer processes of metal pollutants from soils to surface water using environmental magnetic techniques - results from Paris suburbia (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franke, Christine; Lamy, Isabelle; van Oort, Folkert; Thiesson, Julien; Barsalini, Luca

    2015-04-01

    Major river systems in Europe are potential sinks for environmental pollutions and therefore reflect the consequences of European industrialization and urbanization. Surface water pollution is a major concern for the health of the population and its related ecosystems as well as for the water quality. Within the variety of different typical pollutants in a river watershed, the metallic fraction embraces many toxic/dangerous contaminants. Each of these elements comprises different sources and follows specific processes throughout its pathways from its origin to and within the river system. But the detection, estimation and follow up of the different contaminants is highly complex. Physico-chemical techniques such as environmental and rock magnetics are powerful complementary tools to traditional methods because they comprise the possibility to trace the entire metal fraction and do offer the possibility to perform spatio-temporal analyze campaigns directly in the field and on a relative high number of samples from both the river and the adjacent areas (suspended particular matter, soils, dust, sediments, etc). In this study, we took advantages of the recent results on the Seine river (France) that have shown the high potential of environmental magnetic methods to estimate the metal fraction in suspended particular matter samples, and to allow the discrimination of its natural detrital, biogenic or anthropogenic origin (see parallel EGU abstract of Kayvantash et al. in this session). We focused on a suburban agricultural area west of Paris (Pierrelaye-Bessancourt) adjacent to the Seine river, which suffers from a high accumulation of heavy metal pollutants caused by long-term historical irrigation with urban waste waters. For the time being, these heavy metals seem to be geochemically fixed in the surface layer mainly by the soil organic matter. Future land use planning, however, arises questions on the fate of these pollutants and their potential remobilization by

  9. Mapping of a buried basement combining aeromagnetic, gravity and petrophysical data: The substratum of southwest Paris Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptiste, Julien; Martelet, Guillaume; Faure, Michel; Beccaletto, Laurent; Reninger, Pierre-Alexandre; Perrin, José; Chen, Yan

    2016-06-01

    Aeromagnetic and gravity data have proven to be among the most effective methods for mapping deeply buried basin/basement interfaces. However, the data interpretation generally suffers from ambiguities, due to the non-uniqueness of the gravity and magnetic signatures. Here, we tie the gravity and magnetic signatures with a petrophysical characterization of the lithologies outcropping around the French Paris Basin. Our methodology investigates the lithology and structure of its hidden Variscan substratum at the junction between the Armorican Massif and Massif Central. Our approach is based on the combination of potential field data, magnetic susceptibilities measured in the field, density values of sample rocks and information documented in boreholes, in order to propose a new interpretative geological map of the buried substratum of the Paris Basin. The petrophysical description is combined with geophysical patterns of the substratum, mapped through statistical unsupervised classification of suitably selected magnetic and gravity maps. The first step of interpretation consists in extending the outcropping major structures below the Meso-Cenozoic sedimentary cover of the Paris Basin. The litho-structural units, in between these major structures, are then interpreted separately. The second step consists in assigning lithologies within each unit, with respect to its magnetization and density (as derived from the petrophysical compilation), and mapping its extension under cover, integrating punctual borehole information. Overall, with a special emphasis on relating geophysical signatures and petrophysical characteristics of litho-structural units, this methodology permits a precise structural and lithological cartography of a segment of the buried Variscan substratum. In the southwestern part of the Paris Basin, this approach reveals: i) the limited eastward extension of Central Brittany, ii) the eastward extension of the major Cholet fault, iii) the emphasis on N150E

  10. Preliminary report on AED deployment on the entire Air France commercial fleet: a joint venture with Paris XII University Training Programme.

    PubMed

    Bertrand, C; Rodriguez Redington, P; Lecarpentier, E; Bellaiche, G; Michel, D; Teiger, E; Morris, W; Le Bourgeois, J P; Barthout, M

    2004-11-01

    The positive effect of early defibrillation on survival from cardiac arrest has been demonstrated. We describe the use of AEDs over 1 year following the training of flight attendants. Air France and the University of Paris XII together designed a 1 year training programme for 14000 flight attendants. The university emergency departments (SAMU) provided 250 instructors. AEDs training and certification was conducted for crew members between November 2001 and November 2002. By January 2003, all aircraft were fully equipped with AEDs. All cases of cardiac arrest that occurred during the study were reviewed comprehensively. Comments from the crew were collected. Twelve cardiac arrests were reported between November 2002 and November 2003 out of 4194 cases of emergency care delivered to passengers. Shock treatment was advised initially in 5/12 cases. The survival rate after in-flight cardiac arrest was 3/12. The survival rate at discharge from hospital following in flight shock was 2/5. No complications arose from the use of AEDs. Training by professionals gave the flight attendants confidence and allowed for the survival of two young passengers. Our study highlights the ability of flight attendants to give better onboard care for the future. The next step is to consolidate the network between in-flight care and the medical dispatch centre in Paris.

  11. Long-term hydrodynamic response induced by past climatic and geomorphologic forcing: The case of the Paris basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jost, A.; Violette, S.; Gonçalvès, J.; Ledoux, E.; Guyomard, Y.; Guillocheau, F.; Kageyama, M.; Ramstein, G.; Suc, J.-P.

    In the framework of safe underground storage of radioactive waste in low-permeability layers, it is essential to evaluate the mobility of deep groundwaters over timescales of several million years. On these timescales, the environmental evolution of a repository should depend upon a range of natural processes that are primarily driven by climate and geomorphologic variations. In this paper, the response of the Paris basin groundwater system to variations in its hydrodynamic boundary conditions induced by past climate and geodynamic changes over the last five million years is investigated. A three-dimensional transient modelling of the Paris basin aquifer/aquitard system was developed using the code NEWSAM (Ecole des Mines de Paris, ENSMP). The geometry and hydrodynamic parameters of the model originate from a basin model, NEWBAS (ENSMP), built to simulate the geological history of the basin. Geomorphologic evolution is deduced from digital elevation model analysis, which allows to estimate river-valley incision and alpine surrection. Climate forcing results from palaeoclimate modelling experiments using the LMDz atmospheric general circulation model (Institut Pierre Simon Laplace) with a refined spatial resolution, for the present, the Last Glacial Maximum (21 ka) and the Middle Pliocene Warmth (∼3 Ma). The water balance is computed by the distributed hydrological model MODSUR (ENSMP). Results about the simulated evolution of piezometric heads in the system in response to the altered boundary conditions are presented, in particular in the vicinity of ANDRA’s Bure potential repository site within the Callovo-Oxfordian argillaceous layer. For the present, the comparison of head patterns between steady state and time dependent simulation shows little differences for aquifer layers close to the surface but suggests a transient state of the current system in the main aquitards of the basin and in the deep aquifers, characterized by abnormally low fluid potentials

  12. X-ray absorption fine structure evidence for amorphous zinc sulfide as a major zinc species in suspended matter from the Seine River downstream of Paris, Ile-de-France, France.

    PubMed

    Priadi, Cindy; Le Pape, Pierre; Morin, Guillaume; Ayrault, Sophie; Maillot, Fabien; Juillot, Farid; Hochreutener, Rebecca; Llorens, Isabelle; Testemale, Denis; Proux, Olivier; Brown, Gordon E

    2012-04-01

    Zinc is one of the most widespread trace metals (TMs) in Earth surface environments and is the most concentrated TM in the downstream section of the Seine River (France) due to significant anthropogenic input from the Paris conurbation. In order to better identify the sources and cycling processes of Zn in this River basin, we investigated seasonal and spatial variations of Zn speciation in suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the oxic water column of the Seine River from upstream to downstream of Paris using synchrotron-based extend X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy at the Zn K-edge. First-neighbor contributions to the EXAFS were analyzed in SPM samples, dried and stored under a dry nitrogen atmosphere or under an ambient oxygenated atmosphere. We found a sulfur first coordination environment around Zn (in the form of amorphous zinc sulfide) in the raw SPM samples stored under dry nitrogen vs an oxygen first coordination environment around Zn in the samples stored in an oxygenated atmosphere. These findings are supported by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry observations. Linear combination fitting of the EXAFS data for SPM samples, using a large set of EXAFS spectra of Zn model compounds, indicates dramatic changes in the Zn speciation from upstream to downstream of Paris, with amorphous ZnS particles becoming dominant dowstream. In contrast, Zn species associated with calcite (either adsorbed or incorporated in the structure) are dominant upstream. Other Zn species representing about half of the Zn pool in the SPM consist of Zn-sorbed on iron oxyhydroxides (ferrihydrite and goethite) and, to a lesser extent, Zn-Al layered double hydroxides, Zn incorporated in dioctahedral layers of clay minerals and Zn sorbed to amorphous silica. Our results highlight the importance of preserving the oxidation state in TM speciation studies when sampling suspended matter, even in an oxic water column.

  13. The sulphur stable isotope compositions of urban sources and atmospheric particles (PM2.5 & PM10) from Paris (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widory, D.; Landry, J.; Helie, J.; Ravelomanantsoa, H.

    2013-12-01

    Sulphur (S) in atmospheric particles in the environment can be derived from a variety of primary sources and cycled through numerous secondary processes, complicating identification of its origin. Using the PM10 fraction of aerosols from Paris and its vicinity, we are investigating the suitability of sulphur stable isotope compositions (δ34S) as tracers of origins and processes affecting the atmospheric S budget. Characterization of S isotope compositions of emissions from the different potential sources (e.g. waste incinerators, coal-fired power plants, metal refining plants, road traffic and heating sources) shows these are clearly discriminated by specific coupled S-δ34S isotope signatures. While S concentrations vary from 0.7 to 11.5%, δ34S display a large range of values from -2.2 and 13.4‰. PM10 samples from Paris and its vicinity show that S is usually present at low levels, around 1 μg.m-3 in average, but that concentrations as high as 100 μg.m-3 can punctually be observed. By the time of the conference, we will have analysed and interpreted the corresponding δ34S in order to help elucidate the origin(s) of sulphur in the atmosphere of the city.

  14. Sedimentation and palaeogeography of the eastern part of the Paris Basin (France) at the Middle Upper Jurassic boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collin, Pierre-Yves; Courville, Philippe

    2006-10-01

    The Middle-Upper Jurassic boundary corresponds to a period of far-reaching changes in sedimentation patterns related to alterations in the palaeoclimate and in the global carbon cycle. Marl deposits were laid down in the east of the Paris Basin at this time and ANDRA has selected these lithological units as the site for an underground study laboratory. The build-up of these marls is the result, among other things, of the area long having been a shelf and of more rapid subsidence from the Early Callovian to the Early Oxfordian. Changes are detected between areas on either side of the Vittel Fault from the onset of the mid-Oxfordian onwards. To cite this article: P.-Y. Collin, P. Courville, C. R. Geoscience ••• (••••).

  15. Groundwater sustainability of the Fontainebleau Sands Aquifer (Paris Basin, France) : contribution of upward leakage from Eocene sulphate-rich aquifer, evidenced through geochemical and isotopic tracers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schneider, V.; Bergonzini, L.; Barbecot, F.; Gibert, E.; Travi, Y.; Dever, L.

    2003-04-01

    Located in the Paris Basin, the Fontainebleau Sands Aquifer (Oligocene formation, 50 to 70m thick) represents a major resource for drinking water supply. In the study area (in the Southern and Western parts of Paris), this layer is embedded by a low-permeability formation above (the Beauce formation, 10m thick : limestone, millstone and clays), and a permeable formation below (the Brie limestone, 5m thick). The Fontainebleau Sands Aquifer and Brie limestones are hydraulically connected and this continuous water body lies on a thick, impermeable layer made of green clays and marls of lower Oligocene-upper Eocene age. This later aquitard lies on the confined Eocene aquifer (65m thick), mainly made of limestones, gypsum, clays and sands. [1] On the opposite to the Fontainebleau Sands groundwater which globally responds to water drinking guidelines, the Eocene groundwater can reach high sulphate concentrations, in relation with the presence of gypsum, from place to place. Moreover, during the field campaign conducted in October 2002, an increase in electric conductivity (from 560 to 1410 µS.cm-1 at 25°C) with depth was observed in the same borehole. This increase shows the stratification of the aquifer, probably due to an upward leakage from the Eocene aquifer, consequence of an important water uptake in urban areas. Binomials of close boreholes, reaching either the Fontainebleau Sands Aquifer or the Eocene Aquifer, gave 28 water samples on which geochemical analysis, stable isotope composition of water (0-18 / H-2) and of dissolved sulphates (O-18 / S-34) were performed. Those geochemical tools will allow us to discriminate the different origins of the dissolved sulphates, as well as the contribution of Eocene groundwater to the recharge of the Fontainebleau Sands aquifer. ----------------- References [1] Mercier R., 1981. Inventaire des ressources aquiferes et vulnerabilite du departement des Yvelines. B.R.G.M., Service géologique régional Ile de France.

  16. Borehole magnetostratigraphy, absolute age dating, and correlation of sedimentary rocks, with examples from the Paris Basin, France

    SciTech Connect

    Bouisset, P.M. ); Augustin, A.M. )

    1993-04-01

    Total and CEA have conceived and developed two new logging tools which allow continuous, precise, and accurate in-situ magnetic measurements within weakly magnetized sedimentary rocks encountered in uncased industry drilled wells. The combination of these magnetic measurements permits for the first time continuous determination of natural remanent magnetization (NRM) polarities occurring in the logged section. The resulting well magnetostratigraphic sequence (WMS) which may be recognized from well to well (magnetostratigraphic correlations), may also be correlative to a geomagnetic polarity time scale (GPTS) of reference magnetostratigraphic scale (RMS), given adequate dating tie points and lack of noticeable remagnetizations. Application of this method to the Upper Jurrasic formation in four wells of the Paris basin has yielded promising results for both stratigraphic and near absolute age correlations as well as determination of facies diachronisms. The comparison of results obtained from magnetic measurements and from sequence stratigraphy analysis shows that third-order sequence boundaries may be correlative to geomagnetic reversals, but may also be diachronous in wells 80 km or less apart. The potential of borehole magnetic measurements as presented in this paper is still under investigation. However, these encouraging initial results show that this new investigating and dating method could be of great help in the analysis of subsurface stratigraphy by extending the concepts of magnetostratigraphy from the outcrops and laboratory directly into borehole logging. 81 refs., 18 figs.

  17. Ground penetrating radar application in a shallow marine Oxfordian limestone sequence located on the eastern flank of the Paris Basin, NE France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagallier, Guy; Laitinen, Ari I.; Malartre, Fabrice; Van Campenhout, Ignace P. A. M.; Veeken, Paul C. H.

    2000-02-01

    A Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) survey has been carried out in Upper Jurassic limestones located on the eastern flank of the Paris Basin (NE France). The potential of the investigation method is assessed for delineating geologically meaningful stratifications in the shallow subsurface. The fundamentals of the GPR technique are described. Penetration depth and vertical resolution depends on the soil conditions, the characteristics of input signal and the configuration of the transmitter-receiver assembly. In the studied carbonates the penetration level is rather good and the electromagnetic signal reaches up to 1000 nanoseconds maximum (i.e. approximately 55 m). Several depositional units are outlined on the GPR profiles. Six different lithological units are recognised with distinct GPR reflection characteristics. The profiles illustrate the internal 3D organisation of the carbonate platform and its geometry. They provide detailed insight into the nature of an Oxfordian reefal build-up. The high-resolution subsurface model is directly calibrated with geological field observations and it results in a predictive 3D depositional working model. The GPR method is a non-destructive remote sensing technique that is cost effective. The method is considered complementary to other conventional high-resolution reservoir characterisation studies. It represents a powerful investigation tool in earth science studies concerning the imaging of the structure of the shallow subsurface.

  18. CASMI TSCC launch event, Paris, France, July 2013: an assessment of the key barriers to the commercialization and clinical adoption of pluripotent stem cell therapies.

    PubMed

    French, Anna; Bure, Kim; Brindley, David A

    2014-02-01

    The high incidence of unmet medical needs in combination with the rising burden of chronic diseases, linked to an increasingly aging population, necessitates new approaches to therapeutic intervention. One potential class of health care innovation that may offer an alternative approach to addressing current shortfalls is stem cell therapies. The CASMI Translational Stem Cell Consortium (CTSCC) was formed to elucidate the key hurdles to the commercialization and clinical adoption of stem cell technologies, with a particular focus on pluripotent stem cell (PSC) technologies. As a global pre-competitive academic-industry consortium, the CTSCC unites thought leaders from a range of sectors and technical specialties in defining and discovering solutions to roadblocks that will impede the field. Targeted toward stakeholder requirements at the delivery end of the translational spectrum, the CTSCC aims to provide mechanisms for multidirectional dialogue and to produce academically rigorous and commercially practicable research outputs to accelerate industry progress. On the 30th and 31st of July, 2013, the CASMI Translational Stem Cell Consortium (CTSCC) held a launch event at the Saint James Club, Paris, France. PMID:24392658

  19. CASMI TSCC launch event, Paris, France, July 2013: an assessment of the key barriers to the commercialization and clinical adoption of pluripotent stem cell therapies.

    PubMed

    French, Anna; Bure, Kim; Brindley, David A

    2014-02-01

    The high incidence of unmet medical needs in combination with the rising burden of chronic diseases, linked to an increasingly aging population, necessitates new approaches to therapeutic intervention. One potential class of health care innovation that may offer an alternative approach to addressing current shortfalls is stem cell therapies. The CASMI Translational Stem Cell Consortium (CTSCC) was formed to elucidate the key hurdles to the commercialization and clinical adoption of stem cell technologies, with a particular focus on pluripotent stem cell (PSC) technologies. As a global pre-competitive academic-industry consortium, the CTSCC unites thought leaders from a range of sectors and technical specialties in defining and discovering solutions to roadblocks that will impede the field. Targeted toward stakeholder requirements at the delivery end of the translational spectrum, the CTSCC aims to provide mechanisms for multidirectional dialogue and to produce academically rigorous and commercially practicable research outputs to accelerate industry progress. On the 30th and 31st of July, 2013, the CASMI Translational Stem Cell Consortium (CTSCC) held a launch event at the Saint James Club, Paris, France.

  20. CASMI TSCC Launch Event, Paris, France, July 2013: An Assessment of the Key Barriers to the Commercialization and Clinical Adoption of Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapies*

    PubMed Central

    Bure, Kim; Brindley, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The high incidence of unmet medical needs in combination with the rising burden of chronic diseases, linked to an increasingly aging population, necessitates new approaches to therapeutic intervention. One potential class of health care innovation that may offer an alternative approach to addressing current shortfalls is stem cell therapies. The CASMI Translational Stem Cell Consortium (CTSCC) was formed to elucidate the key hurdles to the commercialization and clinical adoption of stem cell technologies, with a particular focus on pluripotent stem cell (PSC) technologies. As a global pre-competitive academic–industry consortium, the CTSCC unites thought leaders from a range of sectors and technical specialties in defining and discovering solutions to roadblocks that will impede the field. Targeted toward stakeholder requirements at the delivery end of the translational spectrum, the CTSCC aims to provide mechanisms for multidirectional dialogue and to produce academically rigorous and commercially practicable research outputs to accelerate industry progress. On the 30th and 31st of July, 2013, the CASMI Translational Stem Cell Consortium (CTSCC) held a launch event at the Saint James Club, Paris, France. PMID:24392658

  1. Impact of climate on the evolution of carbonate systems during the Middle and Late Jurassic : (Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigaud, Benjamin; Vincent, Benoît

    2013-04-01

    Reconstructions of the Middle and Late Jurassic Sea Surface Temperatures (SST) of western tethyan ocean display short-term changes (0.5 m.y. to 1 m.y.). Recent shallow-marine carbonate systems are potentially very sensitive to climatic variations, as shown during quaternary period (Deschamps et al., 2012). In contrast, in ancient sedimentary systems, the impact of palaeoclimatic variations on carbonate factories is not easy to identify because of interplay between different controlling factors such as eustasy, tectonic, the variety of carbonate producers, and sediment supply. The objective of this study is to propose a detailed facies and stratigraphic framework (at the resolution of a million years) for the Middle and Late Jurassic carbonates (about 30My) of the Paris Basin in order to compare the evolution of the carbonate systems with palaeoclimatic variations, recently well documented for the Jurassic of the western European domain (Dera et al., 2011). The microfacies study display 18 lithofacies that can be merged into seven facies associations along a carbonate ramp. Late Bajocian is marked by the appearance of carbonate facies with scleractinian corals forming lens-shaped bodies and dome-shaped bioherms buildups reaching 10 m thick and 10-20 m lateral extent. Associated to a sea-level fall, an increase of SST seems to favor the development of these corallian buildups. Protected lagoonal environments extend during the Bathonian and are characterized by mioliolid-rich micritic facies. A 2nd order sea-level rise, flooding the Middle Jurassic carbonate ramp system, is followed by a brief drop in SST, suggesting a link between the demise of shallow-marine carbonate factories and the cooling event at the Callovian/Oxfordian transition. The recovery of carbonate production and the location of the carbonate platform during the Oxfordian is controlled by three factors: (1) the geometry of the stratigraphic architecture of thick clay-rich prograding wedges, (2) a 2nd

  2. Strontium distribution and origins in a natural clayey formation (Callovian-Oxfordian, Paris Basin, France): A new sequential extraction procedure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerouge, C.; Gaucher, E. C.; Tournassat, C.; Negrel, P.; Crouzet, C.; Guerrot, C.; Gautier, A.; Michel, P.; Vinsot, A.; Buschaert, S.

    2010-05-01

    Strontium is a good monitor of geochemical processes in natural clayey formations. In the Callovian-Oxfordian formation of Bure in France, strontium is sorbed on clay minerals and carried by carbonates, detrital minerals and accessory celestite. In order to determine the strontium distribution among these different phases, four-step sequential extractions (1. cobalt hexamine trichloride, 2. acetic acid, 3. EDTA and 4. tri-acid) were performed on samples from different levels of the clayey formation. The leachates were also analyzed for strontium isotopes, in order to determine the strontium origins. This sequential procedure is well suited to determining strontium distribution in claystones, although it is less efficient in clay-rich limestones and in celestite-rich samples. The carbonates (38-47% of the total strontium) show 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.7070-0.7071) that have recorded the isotopic composition of the Callovian-Oxfordian seawater. Diagenetic carbonates (dolomite, ankerite and siderite) have almost not incorporated any strontium, which has been trapped by celestite during the late diagenesis. The major part of the celestite shows 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios (0.7069-0.7070) quite close to the primary carbonates. However, a second generation of celestite (0.7074) shows a slight 87Sr-enrichment and is isotopically in equilibrium with the exchangeable strontium (27-48% of the total strontium with a mean 87Sr/ 86Sr value of 0.70745) and the present-day porewater (0.7074). This very low 87Sr-enrichment could be explained by the partial destabilisation of detrital minerals (feldspars, micas, clays) which exhibit 87Sr/ 86Sr ratios consistent with their pristine Hercynian origin (0.7229-0.7350). Diffusion of strontium from the subjacent Dogger aquifers (0.7076-0.7082) could also be invoked to explain the slight 87Sr-enrichment.

  3. Undergraduate education in endodontology at two European dental schools. A comparison between the Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Malmö, Sweden and Faculty of Odontology, Paris 5 University (René Descartes), France.

    PubMed

    Petersson, Kerstin; Olsson, Helena; Söderström, Christina; Fouilloux, Isabelle; Jegat, Nadège; Lévy, Gérard

    2002-11-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the courses in endodontics and to assess the treatment quality in the student clinics in two dental schools, in Malmö, Sweden and Paris, France. A further aim was to improve the curriculum development in Paris 5 and Malmö by testing student exchange programmes. The comparison was based on the guidelines for undergraduate education set up by the European Society of Endodontology (ESE) [Int. Endod. J. 25 (1992) 169] and on the criteria formulated by Qualtrough and Dummer [Int. Endod. J. 30 (1997) 234]. The latter criteria covered the following aspects: educational methods, the timing of endodontic teaching, pre-clinical practical exercises, student assessment, recommended literature, clinical/practical procedures, the education of the staff and number of students per teacher. The quality guidelines for endodontic treatment set up by the ESE [Int. Endod. J. 27 (1994) 115] were used for the assessment of the quality of the treatment. The following aspects were covered: history, diagnosis and treatment planning, records, infection control, root-canal treatment, assessment of endodontic treatment. The undergraduate education in endodontics was fundamentally similar in Paris 5 and Malmö. The main differences observed were related to: Educational methods: In Malmö, problem-based learning and in Paris 5, traditional. Assessment of student performance. In Malmö, self-assessment and in Paris 5, credits for clinical/practical procedures. Clinical/practical procedures relating to infection control. Aseptic treatment regimens were more meticulously performed in Malmö than in Paris 5. Assessment (follow-up) of all endodontic treatments was a routine only in Malmö.

  4. Impacts of Climate Change and of Anthropisation on Water Resources: from the Risk Assessment to Adaptation, the Case of the Seine Basin (including Paris, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habets, F.; Viennot, P.; Thierion, C.; Vergnes, J. P.; Ait Kaci, A.; Caballero, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The Seine river, located in the temperate climate of northern France and flowing over a large sedimentary basins that hosts multilayer aquifers, is characterized by small temporal variations of its discharge. However, the presence of a megacity (Paris) and a wide area of intensive agriculture combined with climate change puts pressure on the water resources both in terms of quality and quantity. Previous research projects have estimated the impact of climate change on the water resource of the Seine basin, with the uncertainties associated to climate projections, hydrological models or downscaling methods. The water resource was projected to decrease by -14 % ± 10 % in 2050 and -28 +/-16% in 2100. This led to new studies that focus on the combined impact of climate change and adaptations. The tested adaptations are: a reduction of the groundwater abstractions, evolution of land use, development of small dams to « harvest water » or artificial recharge of aquifers. The communication of the results of these projects to stakeholders have led to the development on new indicators that better express the risk on the water resource management, especially for the groundwater. For instance maps of the evolution of piezometric head are difficult to interpret. To better express the risk evolution, a new indicator was defined: the evolution of the groundwater crisis duration, ie, the period when the charge of the aquifer is below the crisis piezometric level defined by the stakeholders. Such crisis piezometric levels are used to help defining the period when the groundwater abstraction should be reduced. Such maps are more efficient to communicate with water resources managers. This communication will focus on the results from the MEDDE Explore 2070 and ANR Oracle projects.

  5. France.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, France had a population of 55,493,000, with an annual growth rate of 0.4%. The infant mortality rate stood at 8.2/1000. Of the work force of 23.8 million, 8.3% were engaged in agriculture, 45.2% were in the industry and commerce sector, and 46.5% were engaged in services. The unemployment rate stood at 10.7%. The country's gross domestic product (GDP) was US$724 billion in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.0%, and per capita income averaged $13,046. France has substantial agricultural resources, a diversified modern industrial system, and a highly skilled labor force. Following the return of a socialist majority in government in 1981, several large manufacturing firms were nationalized along with much of the commercial banking sector. Initial socialist policies were stimulative, relying partly on income redistribution and partly on increased government spending. However, the resultant increase in import demand was not offset by an increased demand French exports. In 1983, an economic stabilization plan of reductions in the budget deficit, involving spending cuts, increased taxes, and tighter monetary and credit policies, was successfully implemented. Although current economic policies should promote stronger growth over the medium to long term, trade competitiveness remains weak and high unemployment is a major social problem. PMID:12177959

  6. France.

    PubMed

    1987-09-01

    In 1986, France had a population of 55,493,000, with an annual growth rate of 0.4%. The infant mortality rate stood at 8.2/1000. Of the work force of 23.8 million, 8.3% were engaged in agriculture, 45.2% were in the industry and commerce sector, and 46.5% were engaged in services. The unemployment rate stood at 10.7%. The country's gross domestic product (GDP) was US$724 billion in 1986, with an average annual growth rate of 2.0%, and per capita income averaged $13,046. France has substantial agricultural resources, a diversified modern industrial system, and a highly skilled labor force. Following the return of a socialist majority in government in 1981, several large manufacturing firms were nationalized along with much of the commercial banking sector. Initial socialist policies were stimulative, relying partly on income redistribution and partly on increased government spending. However, the resultant increase in import demand was not offset by an increased demand French exports. In 1983, an economic stabilization plan of reductions in the budget deficit, involving spending cuts, increased taxes, and tighter monetary and credit policies, was successfully implemented. Although current economic policies should promote stronger growth over the medium to long term, trade competitiveness remains weak and high unemployment is a major social problem.

  7. Implementing efficient and sustainable collaboration between National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups: Report on the 3rd International Technical Meeting, Paris, France, 8-9 December 2014.

    PubMed

    Perronne, Christian; Adjagba, Alex; Duclos, Philippe; Floret, Daniel; Houweling, Hans; Le Goaster, Corinne; Lévy-Brühl, Daniel; Meyer, François; Senouci, Kamel; Wichmann, Ole

    2016-03-01

    Many experts on vaccination are convinced that efforts should be made to encourage increased collaboration between National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups on immunization (NITAGs) worldwide. International meetings were held in Berlin, Germany, in 2010 and 2011, to discuss improvement of the methodologies for the development of evidence-based vaccination recommendations, recognizing the need for collaboration and/or sharing of resources in this effort. A third meeting was held in Paris, France, in December 2014, to consider the design of specific practical activities and an organizational structure to enable effective and sustained collaboration. The following conclusions were reached: (i) The proposed collaboration needs a core functional structure and the establishment or strengthening of an international network of NITAGs. (ii) Priority subjects for collaborative work are background information for recommendations, systematic reviews, mathematical models, health economic evaluations and establishment of common frameworks and methodologies for reviewing and grading the evidence. (iii) The programme of collaborative work should begin with participation of a limited number of NITAGs which already have a high level of expertise. The amount of joint work could be increased progressively through practical activities and pragmatic examples. Due to similar priorities and already existing structures, this should be organized at regional or subregional level. For example, in the European Union a project is funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) with the aim to set up a network for improving data, methodology and resource sharing and thereby supporting NITAGs. Such regional networking activities should be carried out in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). (iv) A global steering committee should be set up to promote international exchange between regional networks and to increase the involvement of less experienced

  8. Implementing efficient and sustainable collaboration between National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups: Report on the 3rd International Technical Meeting, Paris, France, 8-9 December 2014.

    PubMed

    Perronne, Christian; Adjagba, Alex; Duclos, Philippe; Floret, Daniel; Houweling, Hans; Le Goaster, Corinne; Lévy-Brühl, Daniel; Meyer, François; Senouci, Kamel; Wichmann, Ole

    2016-03-01

    Many experts on vaccination are convinced that efforts should be made to encourage increased collaboration between National Immunization Technical Advisory Groups on immunization (NITAGs) worldwide. International meetings were held in Berlin, Germany, in 2010 and 2011, to discuss improvement of the methodologies for the development of evidence-based vaccination recommendations, recognizing the need for collaboration and/or sharing of resources in this effort. A third meeting was held in Paris, France, in December 2014, to consider the design of specific practical activities and an organizational structure to enable effective and sustained collaboration. The following conclusions were reached: (i) The proposed collaboration needs a core functional structure and the establishment or strengthening of an international network of NITAGs. (ii) Priority subjects for collaborative work are background information for recommendations, systematic reviews, mathematical models, health economic evaluations and establishment of common frameworks and methodologies for reviewing and grading the evidence. (iii) The programme of collaborative work should begin with participation of a limited number of NITAGs which already have a high level of expertise. The amount of joint work could be increased progressively through practical activities and pragmatic examples. Due to similar priorities and already existing structures, this should be organized at regional or subregional level. For example, in the European Union a project is funded by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) with the aim to set up a network for improving data, methodology and resource sharing and thereby supporting NITAGs. Such regional networking activities should be carried out in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO). (iv) A global steering committee should be set up to promote international exchange between regional networks and to increase the involvement of less experienced

  9. Evaluating biological variation in non-transgenic crops: executive summary from the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute workshop, November 16-17, 2009, Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Doerrer, Nancy; Ladics, Gregory; McClain, Scott; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Poulsen, Lars K; Privalle, Laura; Stagg, Nicola

    2010-12-01

    The International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee hosted an international workshop November 16-17, 2009, in Paris, France, with over 60 participants from academia, government, and industry to review and discuss the potential utility of "-omics" technologies for assessing the variability in plant gene, protein, and metabolite expression. The goal of the workshop was to illustrate how a plant's constituent makeup and phenotypic processes can be surveyed analytically. Presentations on the "-omics" techniques (i.e., genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) highlighted the workshop, and summaries of these presentations are published separately in this supplemental issue. This paper summarizes key messages, as well as the consensus points reached, in a roundtable discussion on eight specific questions posed during the final session of the workshop. The workshop established some common, though not unique, challenges for all "-omics" techniques, and include (a) standardization of separation/extraction and analytical techniques; (b) difficulty in associating environmental impacts (e.g., planting, soil texture, location, climate, stress) with potential alterations in plants at genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels; (c) many independent analytical measurements, but few replicates/subjects--poorly defined accuracy and precision; and (d) bias--a lack of hypothesis-driven science. Information on natural plant variation is critical in establishing the utility of new technologies due to the variability in specific analytes that may result from genetic differences (crop genotype), different crop management practices (conventional high input, low input, organic), interaction between genotype and environment, and the use of different breeding methods. For example, variations of several classes of proteins were reported among different soybean, rice, or wheat varieties or varieties grown at different

  10. Evaluating biological variation in non-transgenic crops: executive summary from the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute workshop, November 16-17, 2009, Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Doerrer, Nancy; Ladics, Gregory; McClain, Scott; Herouet-Guicheney, Corinne; Poulsen, Lars K; Privalle, Laura; Stagg, Nicola

    2010-12-01

    The International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Sciences Institute Protein Allergenicity Technical Committee hosted an international workshop November 16-17, 2009, in Paris, France, with over 60 participants from academia, government, and industry to review and discuss the potential utility of "-omics" technologies for assessing the variability in plant gene, protein, and metabolite expression. The goal of the workshop was to illustrate how a plant's constituent makeup and phenotypic processes can be surveyed analytically. Presentations on the "-omics" techniques (i.e., genomics, proteomics, and metabolomics) highlighted the workshop, and summaries of these presentations are published separately in this supplemental issue. This paper summarizes key messages, as well as the consensus points reached, in a roundtable discussion on eight specific questions posed during the final session of the workshop. The workshop established some common, though not unique, challenges for all "-omics" techniques, and include (a) standardization of separation/extraction and analytical techniques; (b) difficulty in associating environmental impacts (e.g., planting, soil texture, location, climate, stress) with potential alterations in plants at genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic levels; (c) many independent analytical measurements, but few replicates/subjects--poorly defined accuracy and precision; and (d) bias--a lack of hypothesis-driven science. Information on natural plant variation is critical in establishing the utility of new technologies due to the variability in specific analytes that may result from genetic differences (crop genotype), different crop management practices (conventional high input, low input, organic), interaction between genotype and environment, and the use of different breeding methods. For example, variations of several classes of proteins were reported among different soybean, rice, or wheat varieties or varieties grown at different

  11. Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of the Resources of the Biosphere (Paris, France, September 4-13, 1968), Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This document contains twenty recommendations put forth at the Intergovernmental Conference of Experts on the Scientific Basis for Rational Use and Conservation of the Resources of the Biosphere under the direction of UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). The conference was held at the UNESCO House, Paris,…

  12. Towards an Authentic Development: The Role of Adult Education. Report on the International Council for Adult Education Conference (Paris, France, October 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Healy, Patrick, Ed.

    This report of the Paris conference of the International Council for Adult Education (ICAE) consists of edited versions of all the written reports of the various sessions of the conference, together with a general introduction and other supporting material. The eight chapters of the report contain 31 speeches, policy group working reports,…

  13. Population Growth and Demographic Structure. Proceedings of the United Nations Expert Group Meeting on Population Growth and Demographic Structure (Paris, France, November 16-20, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations, New York, NY. Dept. of Economic and Social Affairs.

    This volume contains the report and recommendations of the United Nations-sponsored meeting on population growth and demographic structure which was held in Paris, November 1992. Materials in the volume can serve as useful tools for future research on the relations between population, environment, and development and further the work of the United…

  14. Paris Noir.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Robert J.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a six-credit study abroad program open to undergraduate and graduate students through Syracuse University that explores historical, cultural, and intellectual connections between African Americans and Paris. (EV)

  15. Evidence for a significant contribution of wood burning aerosols to PM 2.5 during the winter season in Paris, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favez, Olivier; Cachier, Hélène; Sciare, Jean; Sarda-Estève, Roland; Martinon, Laurent

    Although particulate emissions from residential wood burning have become a subject of great scientific concern for a few years, data related to their impact on the air quality of large European urban centres are still missing. In the present study, we investigated the chemical and optical properties of fine (PM 2.5) carbonaceous aerosols in Paris during the 2005 winter season in order to track the presence of wood burning emissions in such a large city. The use of a seven wavelength Aethalometer allowed us to document shortwave light absorption by brown-carbon-containing organic aerosols of biomass burning origin. In particular, a well-marked diurnal pattern of the spectral dependence of light absorption, with maxima during the night, could be observed every day of the campaign and attributed to wood burning emissions. Relatively high absorption Ångstrom exponents and WSOC/OC ratios (respectively 1.25 and 0.35 on average for the period of study) also indicated the importance of biomass burning aerosols in the Paris atmosphere in winter. Finally, a rough estimate of the contribution of wood burning carbonaceous aerosols to PM 2.5 could be achieved. This contribution was found to be as high as 20 ± 10% on average at the Paris background site investigated here.

  16. Case Study on Teaching Materials for Spanish Language and Culture Classes for Migrant Children in France. (Part I, Lyon-Paris, France) The CDCC's Project No. 7: "The Education and Cultural Development of Migrants".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dabene, Louise

    As part of the Spanish government's attempt to provide cultural and linguistic education for the sizable Spanish population in France, it organized the design of instructional materials especially suited to the 64,614 children of Spanish migrant workers living in rural and urban France. The materials were intended for use by primary and lower…

  17. The origin and timing of multiphase cementation in carbonates: Impact of regional scale geodynamic events on the Middle Jurassic Limestones diagenesis (Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brigaud, Benjamin; Durlet, Christophe; Deconinck, Jean-François; Vincent, Benoît; Thierry, Jacques; Trouiller, Alain

    2009-12-01

    The Middle Jurassic carbonates of the eastern part of the Paris Basin display surprisingly low values of porosity and permeability ( Φ < 15‰ and K < 0.5 mD). The main objective of this study is to determine the causes and timing of the cementation that altered the petrophysical properties of these carbonates thereby destroying their potential as oil reservoirs; a fate that did not befall their equivalents in deeper, central parts of the Paris Basin. Using petrographic and geochemical analyses (stable O and C isotopes, Sr isotopes, major elements), we identify six calcitic spar stages, two dolomite stages, and several episodes of fracturing and stylolitization ordered in paragenetic sequence. Cement quantification shows the predominance of two blocky calcite cement stages (75% of total cementation). O and Sr isotopes from these calcite cements suggest that the parent fluids resulted either from a mixing of trapped Jurassic seawater and meteoric water, or from buffered meteoric waters. In the geological history of the Paris Basin, major meteoric water inputs were possible during the Early Cretaceous, when the Middle Jurassic carbonates cropped out at its northern and eastern borders. Lateral meteoric recharge may have occurred as a result of two separate uplift events (Late Cimmerian Unconformity and Late Aptian Unconformity) and the related exposures of carbonates to the north of the study area. This palaeohydrological circulation brought about a significant reduction of porosity (from 40% to 10%) through calcite cement precipitation. The Early Cretaceous events are of great importance in the diagenetic evolution of the sedimentary basins bordering the London-Brabant Massif across all of northwestern Europe. A subsequent dolomite and calcite cementation stage accounts for about 5% of the total cement volumes. This late cementation may have been caused by hydrothermal fluids ascending along permeable fractures during the Late Oligocene extension episode.

  18. HIV prevalence and sexual risk behaviors associated with awareness of HIV status among men who have sex with men in Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Velter, Annie; Barin, Francis; Bouyssou, Alice; Guinard, Jérôme; Léon, Lucie; Le Vu, Stéphane; Pillonel, Josiane; Spire, Bruno; Semaille, Caroline

    2013-05-01

    A cross-sectional survey, using self-sampled finger-prick blood on blotting paper and anonymous behavioral self-administrated questionnaires was conducted in Paris in 2009 among MSM attending gay venues. Paired biological results and questionnaires were available for 886 participants. HIV seroprevalence was 17.7 % (95 % CI: 15.3-20.4). Four groups were identified according to their knowledge of their HIV biological status. Among the 157 found to be seropositive, 31 (19.7 %) were unaware of their status and reported high levels of sexual risk behaviors and frequent HIV testing in the previous 12 months. Among the 729 MSM diagnosed HIV-negative, 183 were no longer sure whether they were still HIV-negative, or had never been tested despite the fact that they engaged in at-risk sexual behaviors. This study provides the first estimate of HIV seroprevalence among MSM in Paris and underlines the specific need for combined prevention of HIV infection in this MSM population.

  19. A modeling approach of the hydro-thermal and chemical processes for managing the deep geothermal resource of the Val de Marne (Paris Basin, France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamm, Virginie; Le Brun, Morgane; Lopez, Simon; Castillo, Christelle; Azaroual, Mohamed

    2010-05-01

    The exploitation of the geothermal resource of the Dogger formation in Paris Basin (between 1500 m and 2000 m depth) for district heating started in the early 1970's with 110 geothermal wells drilled between 1970 and 1985. Technically, exploitations are referred as "doublet operation" the pair of wells involved in the geothermal loop. The warm water is pumped from a production well to the district heating plant where fluid heat is extracted through a heat exchanger to a district heating network. Then, the cooled brine is re-injected in a second well. Inside the reservoir, the wells are open-hole and lie around 1 km apart to protect the producer from the cold front growing around the injector. The reinjection allows the stabilization of the reservoir pressure and protects the surface from brines containing high concentrations of dissolved chemical components (Cl-, SO42-, Fe2+, H2S, CO2) allowing salinities between 5 to 35 g/l. With the current geothermal revival of the Paris Basin, the exploitation of the resource of the Dogger aquifer is facing new challenges: • New doublets are implemented and their location must be optimized with regards to the interferences with the existing operations. • Most of the wells still operating are next to 30 years old. They would need to be restored or shut down for scaling and/or corrosion problems, implying the drilling of new ones. • Geochemical modeling highlighted that the scaling risk is increasing with time due to the thermodynamic disequilibrium induced by the temperature variation during the heat production. For instance, Iron sulfide (Mackinawite and Pyrite), carbonate and sulfate (Calcite, Siderite, Anhydrite), silica (Chalcedony) and some clay minerals have tendency to precipitate. Mackinawite, Calcite and Siderite are clearly identified in some well scales. • The resource has been cooled by the 30 years of reinjection. The temperature at the production well is expected to decrease in the coming years as well as

  20. Achievements, challenges and unmet needs for haemophilia patients with inhibitors: Report from a symposium in Paris, France on 20 November 2014.

    PubMed

    Dargaud, Y; Pavlova, A; Lacroix-Desmazes, S; Fischer, K; Soucie, M; Claeyssens, S; Scott, D W; d'Oiron, R; Lavigne-Lissalde, G; Kenet, G; Escuriola Ettingshausen, C; Borel-Derlon, A; Lambert, T; Pasta, G; Négrier, C

    2016-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, there have been many advances in haemophilia treatment that have allowed patients to take greater control of their disease. However, the development of factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors is the greatest complication of the disease and a challenge in the treatment of haemophilia making management of bleeding episodes difficult and surgical procedures very challenging. A meeting to discuss the unmet needs of haemophilia patients with inhibitors was held in Paris on 20 November 2014. Topics discussed were genetic and non-genetic risk factors for the development of inhibitors, immunological aspects of inhibitor development, FVIII products and inhibitor development, generation and functional properties of engineered antigen-specific T regulatory cells, suppression of immune responses to FVIII, prophylaxis in haemophilia patients with inhibitors, epitope mapping of FVIII inhibitors, current controversies in immune tolerance induction therapy, surgery in haemophilia patients with inhibitors and future perspectives for the treatment of haemophilia patients with inhibitors. A summary of the key points discussed is presented in this paper.

  1. Difficulties encountered at the beginning of professional life: results of a 2003 pilot survey among undergraduate students in Paris Rene Descartes University (France).

    PubMed

    Benbelaïd, R; Dot, D; Levy, G; Eid, N

    2006-11-01

    In addition to dental hospital clinical activity, dental students at Paris Rene Descartes University have the opportunity in their final year of study to practise clinically in a dental office, as associates. This paper outlines a pilot, experimental study designed to assess student reaction to this Vocational Clinical Activity (VCA) in order to identify relevant weaknesses of the undergraduate programme. Using questionnaires, data were collected for each of the following clinical or management skills: clinical difficulty, therapeutic decision-making, patient/practitioner relationship, time management, administrative matters and technical problems. Students were asked to rank each item in order of difficulty (1, high level to 6, low level). A high response rate was observed (90%) among the 50 undergraduate VCA students. The results pointed out three main difficulties encountered by undergraduate students during the VCA: time management (90% of the students), administrative matters (85% of the students) and clinical decision-making (80% of the students). These preliminary results need further investigation. However, they give us the incentive to carry on with this type of assessment and to extend it to young, qualified colleagues' perceptions and to other French Universities.

  2. Chronology of fracture sealing under a meteoric fluid environment: Microtectonic and isotopic evidence of major Cainozoic events in the eastern Paris Basin (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andre, Grégoire; Hibsch, Christian; Fourcade, Serge; Cathelineau, Michel; Buschaert, Stéphane

    2010-07-01

    A detailed reappraisal of the sequence of tectonic stages that has affected the eastern part of the Paris Basin from the late Jurassic to the end of Cainozoic is presented in order to improve knowledge of the relationships between tectonics and fluid/mass palaeo-transfers in that basin. This goal was performed in two steps: i) establishing a relative tectonic chronology on the basis of numerous observations and detailed analysis of geometrical relationships between striated planes, vertical and bedding stylolites, and tension gashes, and ii) discussing the geochemical signatures ( δ18O and δ13C) of calcite from fracture infillings well positioned within the relative tectonic chronology. The resulting tectonic sequence agrees with the main events described by previous papers, but the present work details the Pyrenean s.l. (Eocene-Oligocene) and Alpine (Miocene-Pliocene) convergence stages and explains the mechanisms of the Oligocene-Miocene transition between the two previous events. The different tectonic stages are as follows: i) late Jurassic to early Cretaceous extension starting with a WNW-ESE direction but changing to E-W; ii) the Pyrenean convergence (Eocene), changing from NNE-SSW to NE-SW and finally ENE-WSW compression; iii) Oligocene transition from Pyrenean to Alpine convergence, marked by a drastic evolution of main stress which swaps from a horizontal position to a vertical one and radial extension marked by a strong reactivation of bedding stylolitisation; iv) the Alpine convergence (late Miocene to present-day), changing from WNW-ESE to NNW-SSE direction of shortening. δ18O- and δ13C-values of calcite from tension gashes associated to each tectonic stage spread from 18‰ to 27‰ (SMOW) and from 0.8‰ to 3‰ (PDB), respectively. According to the maximum thermal history of this part of the basin ( TMAX = 40 °C or 60 °C according to the available published estimates), the calculated δ18O-values of fluids (- 7‰ to - 4‰) involved in mass

  3. Depression prevalence and primary care among vulnerable patients at a free outpatient clinic in Paris, France, in 2010: results of a cross-sectional survey

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Data on the prevalence of depression and on how a depressive episode prompts the sufferer to seek primary care are not scarce, but the available evidence on the prevalence of depression among immigrants and poor people who frequent general practice facilities is scarce. The Baudelaire Outpatient Clinic at the Saint-Antoine Hospital in Paris provides free medical and social assistance to the poor and/or uninsured. The goal of our study was to estimate the prevalence of depression among these outpatients, to characterize this depressed population, and to analyze its demand for primary care for depressive episodes. Methods From September to December 2010, we conducted a cross-sectional, observational survey among users of the Baudelaire Outpatient Clinic. French-speaking patients attending the clinic between September 15 and December 30, 2010 who agreed to answer a questionnaire administered face-to-face before their consultation were included in the study. The chi-squared test (or Fisher’s exact test for small samples) was used for the comparisons of proportions. Logistic regression models were estimated, along with the odds ratios (OR) and their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs), for the multivariate analysis of factors associated with depression and healthcare-seeking. Models were estimated separately for men and women, since sex was an interaction factor. The statistical analyses were performed using Stata v. 10 software (StataCorp LP, College Station, Texas, USA). Results Of the 250 patients included (mean age: 45 years), 52.0% were men and 52.4% were immigrants. Close to 40% of them reported having no supplemental health insurance. The estimated prevalence of depression in this population was 56.7%. Depression was more prevalent among the women, immigrants, and people from the poorer socioeconomic groups. Only half of these depressed patients, mostly women, reported having discussed their depression with a physician. French nationality and complete

  4. Original approach to the individual characteristics associated with forgone healthcare: a study in underprivileged areas, Paris region, France, 2001-2003.

    PubMed Central

    Chauvin, Pierre; Bazin, Fabienne; Parizot, Isabelle

    2005-01-01

    Background The social inequalities in health have endured or even worsened comparatively throughout different social groups since the 1990s. Our objective was to identify the individual characteristics (socio-economic status, living conditions, individuals’ social integration, health beliefs, expectations and representation, and psychological characteristics) statistically associated with the fact of stating (or not) that healthcare had been forgone because of cost. Methods In this cross-sectional, multi-centre study we randomly selected a study sample from five underprivileged areas in the Paris region. A multiple logistic regression model was used to calculate the odds ratios (OR) and 95% CI. The validity of the model was assessed by goodness-of-fit tests (Pearson and deviance) and by the study of 100 bootstrap samples. Results After making adjustments for numerous individual socio-economic and health characteristics, we observed a higher occurrence of reported forgone healthcare among people who have had financial worries during adulthood (ORyes/no = 5.47 [1.44–20.75]), a life-course experience of physical, sexual or psychological abuse (ORyes/no = 2.86 [1.40–5.84]); who have experienced childhood difficulties (OR1/never difficulties = 5.28 [1.81–15.39], OR2–4/never = 7.62 [2.69–21.57], OR>4/never = 8.57 [2.39–30.80]); who have expressed a low degree of sickness orientation ORlows/high = 2.62 [1.33–5.14]), a high worry/concern about health (ORhigh/low = 2.71 [1.33–5.50]) and a low self-esteem (ORmedium/high = 8.28 [1.44–47.64], ORlow/high = 16.44 [2.81–96.24]). Conclusion Aside from purely financial hurdles, other factors play a role in the non-use of healthcare services. Health policies mainly promoting equal financial access to healthcare have little chance of abating health inequalities. PMID:15975951

  5. Epidemiological survey of the orthopaedic status of severe haemophilia A and B patients in France. The French Study Group. secretariat.haemophiles@cch.ap-hop-paris.fr.

    PubMed

    Molho, P; Rolland, N; Lebrun, T; Dirat, G; Courpied, J P; Croughs, T; Duprat, I; Sultan, Y

    2000-01-01

    One hundred and 16 patients contributed to an analysis of the impact of the consequences of severe haemophilia A or B (factor levels < 2%) on orthopaedic status, resources consumed in relation to this status and resultant cost, and quality of life as perceived by the patient, using the MOS 36-Item-Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36). This French cross-sectional study involved outpatients regularly attending a haemophilia treatment centre. Data were collected retrospectively over a period of 1 year by the physician of the haemophilia treatment centre. Patients had a mean age of 23, and consisted of 50% students, 25% salaried workers, 17.2% with no professional activity and 7.8% physically impaired; 82.8% of them had type A haemophilia. Mean pain score was 2.5 per patient for the six main joints; 7.7 for the clinical score and 18.8 for the radiological score, with a mean number of bleeds of 16.3 per year per patient. During the year prior to inclusion, and because of their orthopaedic status, 22.4% of patients were hospitalized, 76.7% attended for an outpatient visit and 76.7% required at least one special investigation; 97.4% received replacement therapy, 41.4% required treatment for joint pain and 42.2% orthopaedic equipment. The less affected dimensions were the physical function (76.8 +/- 22. 2) and the social relations (76.1 +/- 23.1). Least good quality of life scores concerned the pain (60.2 +/- 25.2), perception of general health (59.3 +/- 23.1) and vitality (57.8 +/- 19.5) dimensions. The age was a discriminant criterion since quality of life was better in patients of the 18-23 age group for five dimensions. Mean annual treatment costs of a patient with severe haemophilia were determined as 425 762 French francs ($73 029). Loss of production was estimated at a mean of 4609 French francs ($791) per active patient over the course of the year. Results showed indirect evidence of the usefulness of early home treatment.

  6. Neurology outside Paris following Charcot.

    PubMed

    Moulin, Thierry; Clarac, François; Petit, Henri; Broussolle, Emmanuel

    2011-01-01

    The Middle Ages saw the development of numerous universities in the different provinces that later became the kingdom of France. In 1794, Napoleon I established 3 medical schools in Paris, Montpellier and Strasbourg, which were transformed into medical faculties in 1808. France had always been a highly centralized country, but during the 19th century, this trend started to change with the creation of medical faculties in Nancy (1872), Lille (1877), Lyon (1878), Bordeaux (1879), Toulouse (1891), Algiers (1910) and Marseille (1930). Following the creation of the 12 foundation courses, specialized chairs were progressively established in Paris, but for a long time this remained restricted to the French capital. However, with the emergence of medicine as an academic discipline in several towns outside Paris, came the development of neurology. This was greatly influenced by former students of Jean-Martin Charcot, local personalities, and the interactions between the two. Leading figures included Albert Pitres in Bordeaux, Léon Ingelrans in Lille, Eugène Devic and Jules Froment in Lyon, Lucien Cornil in Marseille, Joseph Grasset in Montpellier, and Marcel Riser in Toulouse. The interaction between French and Germanic medical communities also developed at this turbulent time under the influence of several great physicians such as Wilhelm Waldeyer, Adolf Kussmaul, and later Jean Alexandre Barré in Strasbourg, and Hippolyte Bernheim in Nancy. There are a number of other university towns outside Paris in which the development of neurology was probably influenced by the same interactions with psychiatry. It would be worth carrying out a thorough analysis of these towns in order to present an exhaustive overview of the development of neurology in France.

  7. Sociocultural Integration of Older American Residents of Paris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taietz, Philip

    1987-01-01

    Interviewed 104 older American residents of Paris, France. Found that 70 percent had medium to high levels of sociocultural integration and 92 percent had adequate proficiency in French language. Concluded that congruence of Paris environment and individual values had implications for sociocultural integration; declines in health, income, and loss…

  8. Paris as the First Day of Class.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ensz, Kathleen Y.

    1988-01-01

    Presents useful ideas for activities that get students involved, upon arrival abroad, in using their foreign language and in relating to their new cultural environment. A "linguistic scavenger hunt" in Paris, France, helps students gain the confidence they need to maximally benefit from their experience abroad. (Author/DJD)

  9. ASTER Paris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Eiffel Tower and its shadow can be seen next to the Seine in the left middle of this ASTER image of Paris. Based on the length of the shadow and the solar elevation angle of 59 degrees, we can calculate its height as 324 meters (1,054 feet), compared to its actual height of 303 meters (985 feet). Acquired on July 23, 2000, this image covers an area 23 kilometers (15 miles) wide and 20 kilometers (13 miles) long in three bands of the reflected visible and infrared wavelength region. Known as the City of Light, Paris has been extolled for centuries as one of the great cities of the world. Its location on the Seine River, at a strategic crossroads of land and river routes, has been the key to its expansion since the Parisii tribe first settled here in the 3rd century B.C.

    Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products. Dr. Anne Kahle at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, is the U.S. science team leader; Moshe Pniel of JPL is the project manager. ASTER is the only high-resolution imaging sensor on Terra. The primary goal of the ASTER mission is to obtain high-resolution image data in 14 channels over the entire land surface, as well as black and white stereo images. With revisit time of between 4 and 16 days, ASTER will provide the capability for repeat coverage of changing areas on Earth's surface. Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of International Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration

  10. Dental practice in Paris.

    PubMed

    Baron, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    This describes dental practice and the availability of dental patent remedies in Paris. Accounts of legal disputes, from original sources, illustrate the status and social history of some of the most wealthy dental practitioners in Paris during the Revolution.

  11. Pedo-sedimentary record of human-environment interaction in ditches and waterlogged depressions on tableland (roman and early medieval period) : micromorphological cases studies from Marne-la-Vallée area (Paris Basin, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammas, C.; Blanchard, J.; Broutin, P.; Berga, A.

    2012-04-01

    On lœss derived soils located on the Stampien plateau from the Paris Basin (France), archaeological anthroposols and ancient cultivated soils are only preserved in very few places. Recent archaeological excavations showed the presence of a pattern of roman ditches and waterlogged depressions (« mares ») under the actual cultivated horizon (Ap). This presence strongly suggests extensive past agricultural practices and water management. An original system of ditches was found Near Marne-la-Vallée (France). It is composed of two parts, one being large ditches characterized by flat bottom and sometimes water layered deposits, called « fossés collecteurs » by the archaeologists, and the orher being smaller ditches with colluvial deposits. Our objectives was to use archaeological and micromorphological studies in order to study i) the agricultural function of these ditches and depressions, ii) their evolution with time. Observations conducted on the infilling of a « fossé collecteur » at Bussy-Saint-Georges suggest that it was not part of a drainage system, but that it was a linear water controlled system, with a ramp in one part, and a basin or a tank in another, and that it was used for others anthropic activities. In the same area, a large waterlogged depression was studied, and micromorphological analysis helped to elucidate its pedo-sedimentary formation processes. At the bottom, massive silty clayey matrix retained water. Thin layers composed of silt and clay (indicating low energy flows and decantation), sometimes impregnated and hardened by iron, alternated with silty deposit (indicating higher ernergy water layered deposits). The thin, non porous and iron impregnated crusts helped to raise the depression level, as well as, most likely the water table during roman period, maintaining waterlogging conditions. At the beginning of the early medival period, a slightly peaty event was discriminated. Higher in the profile, in more redoxic conditions

  12. Demoiselles and Drafts from Italy and France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picard, M. Dane

    1988-01-01

    Recounts the adventures of a journey taken through France and Italy. Makes an analogy of this trip to that of the one Charles Dickens took in 1844. Describes silicified horizons of the southern Paris Basin, moraines, outcrops, and "Hoodoos." (RT)

  13. MIRIAM: the PACS project in Paris: overview and implementation.

    PubMed

    Primo, H; Picard, J E

    1997-08-01

    In this article the authors describe the Management Informatique de la Radiologie et de l'Imagerie Médicale (MIRIAM) major picture archiving and communication system (PACS) project in Paris, France. The Assistance Publique of Paris, France is a healthcare provider and took the initiative to start the largest PACS program in Europe to date. The MIRIAM project will start in 1997 and will be used in different, consecutive phases. A consortium of several companies is in charge of the implementation. Thirty-three hospitals with 54 imaging departments will be integrated in one system.

  14. Annoyance from light aircraft investigation carried out around four airports near Paris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    An opinion survey was carried out on residents living near four airports in the Paris, France area. An evaluation of their responses concerning noise pollution and possible expansion of airport activity is presented.

  15. The Rome Paris collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Signore, M.

    2007-03-01

    Since the first "Twinning CEE Project" between the Group of Francesco Mechiorri and our Laboratory at Observatoire de Paris and Ecole Normale Supérieure, and then through several European Networks and NASA Collaborations on the Cosmic Microwave Background, a long-term and fruitful cooperation has existed between Rome and Paris. This contribution will focus on the human story, the principal results and the possible prospects of this wonderful collaboration.

  16. The Computerization of the National Library in Paris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerin, Christian; Bernard, Annick

    1986-01-01

    Describes the organization and automation plan of the Bibliotheque Nationale (Paris, France) that was begun in 1981. Highlights include the method of moving toward computerization; technical choices; the choosing procedure (pre-qualification, bench-mark test); short term and pilot operations; and preparation for the implementation of the…

  17. Paris-Barcelona: Invisible Interactions in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasquez, Ana; Martinez, Isabel

    1992-01-01

    Studied whether school culture is represented in common aspects within schools in different countries for one deaf child in Barcelona (Spain), one refugee child in Paris (France), and some of their classmates. Identical characteristics of student interactions found in both schools, and the importance of these interactions are discussed. (SLD)

  18. Geosciences after Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogelj, Joeri; Knutti, Reto

    2016-03-01

    The adoption of the Paris Agreement is a historic milestone for the global response to the threat of climate change. Scientists are now being challenged to investigate a 1.5 °C world -- which will require an accelerated effort from the geoscience community.

  19. The combined effects of activity space and neighbourhood of residence on participation in preventive health-care activities: The case of cervical screening in the Paris metropolitan area (France).

    PubMed

    Vallée, Julie; Cadot, Emmanuelle; Grillo, Francesca; Parizot, Isabelle; Chauvin, Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Estimates from multilevel regression of 1768 women living in the Paris metropolitan area showed that women who reported concentrating their daily activities in their perceived neighbourhood of residence had a statistically greater likelihood of not having undergone cervical screening during the previous 2 years. Furthermore, the characteristics of the administrative neighbourhood of residence (such as the practitioner density or the proportion of residents with a recent preventive consultation) had a statistically greater impact in terms of delayed cervical screening on women who concentrated the vast majority of their daily activities within their perceived neighbourhood of residence than among those who did not. The residential environment might promote or damage, to a greater extent, the health behaviour of people whose daily activities are concentrated within their perceived neighbourhood, since we can assume that their exposure to their neighbourhood characteristics is stronger. It could thus be useful to study more often the combined effects of activity space and neighbourhood of residence on participation in preventive health-care activities.

  20. Isorenieratane record in black shales from the Paris Basin, France: Constraints on recycling of respired CO2 as a mechanism for negative carbon isotope shifts during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Breugel, Yvonne; Baas, Marianne; Schouten, Stefan; Mattioli, Emanuela; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.

    2006-12-01

    The prominent negative stable carbon isotope excursion in both carbonate and organic carbon recorded in organic-rich sediments deposited during the Toarcian oceanic anoxic event (OAE) has commonly been explained by recycling of 13C-depleted CO2 (the so-called Küspert model). More recently, the massive release of 13C-depleted methane or other forms of 13C-depleted carbon was also proposed to account for the observed negative δ13C excursions in organic carbon of terrigenous as well as of marine origin. The occurrence of diagenetic products of the carotenoid isorenieratene (isorenieratane and other aryl isoprenoids) in Toarcian black shales has been regarded as supporting evidence for the Küspert hypothesis as they point to strong stratification of the epicontinental seas. A section of a drill core straddling the Toarcian of the Paris Basin (Cirfontaine-en-Ornois) contained intact isorenieratane, providing evidence that photosynthetic green sulphur bacteria were present at the time of deposition, even prior to the OAE. However, the isorenieratane abundances are very low in the section where the negative δ13C excursion in organic carbon and phytane, a chemical fossil derived from chlorophyll, occurs. The abundance of the isorenieratene derivatives increases, once the δ13C records have shifted to more positive values. The δ13C of isorenieratane (generally circa -13.1 ± 0.5 ‰) indicates that the respired CO2 contribution at the chemocline was low and is thus not likely to be the main cause of the prominent up to 7‰ negative δ13C shift recorded in Toarcian organic carbon records.

  1. A new tool for coding and interpreting injuries in fatal airplane crashes: the crash injury pattern assessment tool application to the Air France Flight AF447 disaster (Rio de Janeiro-Paris), 1st of June 2009.

    PubMed

    Schuliar, Yves; Chapenoire, Stéphane; Miras, Alain; Contrand, Benjamin; Lagarde, Emmanuel

    2014-09-01

    For investigation of air disasters, crash reconstruction is obtained using data from flight recorders, physical evidence from the site, and injuries patterns of the victims. This article describes a new software, Crash Injury Pattern Assessment Tool (CIPAT), to code and analyze injuries. The coding system was derived from the Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS). Scores were created corresponding to the amount of energy required causing the trauma (ER), and the software was developed to compute summary variables related to the position (assigned seat) of victims. A dataset was built from the postmortem examination of 154/228 victims of the Air France disaster (June 2009), recovered from the Atlantic Ocean after a complex and difficult task at a depth of 12790 ft. The use of CIPAT allowed to precise cause and circumstances of deaths and confirmed major dynamics parameters of the crash event established by the French Civil Aviation Safety Investigation Authority.

  2. Petroleum statistics in France

    SciTech Connect

    De Saint Germain, H.; Lamiraux, C.

    1995-08-01

    33 oil companies, including Elf, Exxon, Agip, Conoco as well as Coparex, Enron, Hadson, Midland, Hunt, Canyon and Union Texas are present in oil and gas exploration and production in France. The production of oil and gas in France amounts to some 60,000 bopd of oil and 350 MMcfpd of marketed natural gas each year, which still accounts for 3.5% and 10% for French domestic needs, respectively. To date, 166 fields have been discovered, representing a total reserve of 3 billion bbl of crude oil and 13 trillion cf of raw gas. These fields are concentrated in two major onshore sedimentary basins of Mesozoic age, which are the Aquitaine basin and the Paris basin. The Aquitaine basin should be subdivided into two distinct domains: The Parentis basin where the largest field Parentis was discovered in 1954 with still production of about 3700 bopd of oil and where Les Arbouslers field, discovered at the end of 1991, is currently producing about 10,000 bopd of oil. The northern Pyrenees and their foreland, where the Lacq field, discovered in 1951, has produced about 7.7 tcf of gas since 1957, and is still producing 138 MMcfpd. In the Paris basin, the two large oil fields are Villeperclue discovered in 1982 by Triton and Total, and Chaunoy, discovered in 1983 by Essorep, which are still producing about 10,000 and 15,000 bopd, respectively. The last significantly sized discovery occurred in 1990 with Itteville by Elf Aquitaine which is currently producing 4,200 bopd. The poster shows statistical data related to the past 20 years of oil and gas exploration and production in France.

  3. Loss and damage post Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petherick, Anna

    2016-08-01

    The Paris Agreement gave the Warsaw International Mechanism for Loss and Damage a permanent and potentially prominent place in climate negotiations, but beyond that its impact remains wide open for interpretation.

  4. [History of the Journées Dermatologiques de Paris].

    PubMed

    Tilles, G

    2013-12-01

    Founded in 1801 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, Paris, under Jean-Louis Alibert, the French School of Dermatology was initially structured around the French Society of Dermatology (1889) and the organization of two world congresses (Paris 1889, 1900). After World War I, the creation of dermatological societies in the provinces infused French dermatology with new energy. In 1922, the first congress of the French-speaking dermatologists further contributed to the public profile of dermatologists in France. The "Journées de Mars" were initiated in 1961 at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, and in 1975 they went on to become the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris". Pr. Jean Civatte played a key role in their creation and in their organization for 30 years. After 1979, since actual patients could no longer be presented, the organizers of the congress had to change the content of the meeting from clinical presentations to post-graduate teaching and clinical research. From its origins in the form of meetings of French dermatologists in an intimate setting at the Hôpital Saint-Louis, the "Journées dermatologiques de Paris" grew within the ensuing decades into a major scientific event of the French-speaking dermatological community, bringing together more than 4000 participants in December each year.

  5. Messier, Copernicus, Flamsteed: The SAF Rare-Book Collection in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.

    2014-01-01

    The historic books belonging to the Société Astronomique de France, founded by Camille Flammarion in 1887, are located partly in Paris and partly at the Flammarion site in Juvisy, a Paris suburb. Their holdings include first editions of Copernicus's De Revolutionibus and of Flamsteed's star atlas, as well as Messier's own copy of his 1783 and 1784 papers with his handwritten comments and additions. I will describe the fruitless search for a Bevis atlas and the circumstances that led me to inspect these treasures. I thank David Valls-Gabaud and Philippe Morel of the Société Astronomique de France for their hospitality in Paris, Jean-Claude Pecker, and Owen Gingerich for his prior work on Messier's catalogue.

  6. Colloquium of Directors of Educational Research Organizations (2nd, Paris, November 7-9, 1973).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    This volume presents information on research practices used to stimulate discussion during the Second European Colloquium of Directors of Educational Research Organizations, November 7-9, 1973 in Paris, France. Most of the information is presented in the form of case studies that deal with the following questions: a) How were the problems defined…

  7. France`s nuclear dilemmas

    SciTech Connect

    Yost, D.S.

    1996-01-01

    Ignoring worldwide protests, France conducted the first of several scheduled nuclear tests in September. The controversy has overshadowed France`s more important nuclear challenges: maintaining a strong deterrent under a test ban, moving ahead with its proposals for {open_quotes}Europeanization{close_quotes} of that deterrent, and developing a consensus on how nuclear threats should be used in response to those who would brandish other weapons of mass destruction. 1 fig.

  8. Accidental blood exposures among medical residents in Paris, France.

    PubMed

    Mir, O; Adam, J; Veyrie, N; Chousterman, B; Gaillard, R; Gregory, T; Yordanov, Y; Berveiller, P; Loulergue, P

    2011-03-01

    Accidental blood exposure (ABE) exposes healthcare workers, including medical residents, to the risk of occupational infection. We aimed to determine the characteristics of ABEs in residents with an anonymous self-reporting electronic questionnaire. A total of 350 residents (33% from surgical disciplines) entered this survey. One hundred and eighty-five residents (52%) reported at least one ABE during their residency (median, 2; range, 1-25), 53% of which occurred in operating theatres. Sixty-nine per cent of residents followed the current procedures for local disinfection. ABEs were notified to the hospital administration by 62% of residents, but only 51% of residents were referred to the occupational medicine department. The most frequently reported concerns following ABEs were human immunodeficiency virus (52%) and hepatitis C virus infection (39%). In 74% of cases, the serological status of the index patient was investigated. Only 54% of residents were aware of their hepatitis B surface antibody titres. Medical residents behaved inappropriately in 33% of cases in this survey. Further educational programmes should include residents, and not only senior healthcare workers, in order to improve individual behaviours.

  9. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis in France in 2008].

    PubMed

    Che, D; Antoine, D

    2011-07-01

    A total of 5,758 tuberculosis cases were notified in France in 2008, giving a rate of nine cases per 100,000 inhabitants. The median age was 45 years and 59% of cases were male patients. Île-de-France (Paris and greater Paris area) and French Guiana had the highest notification rate in 2008 (17.9/10(5) and 22.6/10(5) respectively). The rate of tuberculosis was higher in individuals born abroad (43.2/10(5) vs. 5.0/10(5) for individuals born in France), especially those recently arrived in France. Pulmonary tuberculosis accounted for 72% of notified cases, 76% of which were potentially contagious (positive sputum smear, or culture). Compared to 2007, the number of notified tuberculosis cases increased by 3.3% in 2008. This increase was not accompanied by a rise of severe cases (meningitis and miliary TB); this seemed to be due partly to improvement in identification and notification of cases. However this trend could require specific monitoring in future years. A national tuberculosis control program was launched in France in 2007, aiming at reducing epidemiological disparities. Clinical and public health expertise needs to be maintained on all the territory to ensure that implemented measures can have the expected impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  10. PARIS II: DESIGNING GREENER SOLVENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS II (the program for assisting the replacement of industrial solvents, version II), developed at the USEPA, is a unique software tool that can be used for customizing the design of replacement solvents and for the formulation of new solvents. This program helps users avoid ...

  11. Medical street names in Paris.

    PubMed

    Sykes, A H

    2004-02-01

    In Paris, the blue enamel signs for streets named after a person also bear the dates of birth and death, and a word or two to designate the person's field of activity. In this paper an alphabetical listing is given of 166 Parisian streets that have been named after medically qualified men who achieved distinction in medicine or elsewhere.

  12. A City of Libraries: Paris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitten, Benjamin

    1983-01-01

    This overview of Parisian libraries includes descriptions of the Bibliotheque National, Bibliotheque Mazarine, Library of the Sorbonne, Bibliotheque Sainte Genevieve, Bibliotheque de l'Arsenal, Bibliotheque Historique de la Ville de Paris, Bibliotheque Forney, Library of the Opera, Bibliotheque Publique d'Information, and the forthcoming…

  13. Increased incidence of Campylobacter jejuni-associated Guillain-Barré syndromes in the Greater Paris area.

    PubMed

    Sivadon-Tardy, V; Porcher, R; Orlikowski, D; Ronco, E; Gault, E; Roussi, J; Durand, M-C; Sharshar, T; Annane, D; Raphael, J-C; Megraud, F; Gaillard, J-L

    2014-08-01

    The role of Campylobacter jejuni as the triggering agent of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has not been reassessed since the end of the 1990s in France. We report that the number of C. jejuni-related GBS cases increased continuously between 1996 and 2007 in the Paris region (mean annual increment: 7%, P = 0·007).

  14. Is there a remnant Variscan subducted slab in the mantle beneath the Paris basin? Implications for the late Variscan lithospheric delamination process and the Paris basin formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Averbuch, O.; Piromallo, C.

    2012-08-01

    The Paris basin (northern France) is a Late Paleozoic-Mesozoic intracratonic basin that settled upon the collapsed Variscan collisional belt. The lithospheric roots of the Variscan orogenic system, below the Paris basin, have been investigated using a European-scale P-wave velocity tomographic model. Tomography points out the existence of a significant high velocity anomaly in the upper mantle below the western part of the basin. At ~ 150-200 km depth, the anomaly extends with a NW-SE trend along the buried Northern France trace of the Northern Variscan Suture Zone i.e. the Bray segment of the Upper Carboniferous Lizard-Rhenohercynian (LRH) suture. Moreover, the high-velocity anomaly is spatially correlated with the prominent Paris Basin Magnetic Anomaly. Its downdip extent reaches depths greater than 200 km below the southern margin of the Paris basin. As suggested in previous tomographic studies below ancient suture zones, these data argue for such anomaly being the remnant of a Variscan subducted slab that escaped the extensive late orogenic delamination process affecting the lithospheric roots by Late Carboniferous-Early Permian times and that was preserved stable over 300 Ma at the base of the lithosphere. On a general geodynamical perspective, these results provide a new insight into the long-term evolution of subducted lithosphere into the mantle. In the case of the Western European Variscan orogenic belt, they suggest that the subduction of the LRH slab below the previously thickened Variscan crust, and its final detachment from the orogenic root, have played an important role in the collapse of the belt, inducing thermal erosion and extension of the overriding lithosphere. The spatial evolution of late orogenic extension across the belt and of subsequent thermal subsidence in the Paris basin is suggested to result from the heterogeneous delamination of the lithospheric roots along strike and from the resultant pattern of asthenospheric rise.

  15. POP: Publications by the Observatoire de Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocquet, C.; Henry, F.; Laurenceau, A.

    2015-04-01

    The paper presents "POP: Publications of the Observatoire de Paris," a project of the Observatoire de Paris, which was launched to keep record of its activity by indexing its publications. It also describes the aims and the challenges of the project and the features of Publesia, the software that was adopted for the project.

  16. Paris Commune Imagery in China's Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meiss, Guy T.

    The role of ideology in mass media practices is explored in an analysis of the relation between the Paris Commune of 1871 and the Shanghai Commune of 1967, two attempts to translate the philosophical concept of dictatorship of the proletariat into some political form. A review of the use of Paris Commune imagery by the Chinese to mobilize the…

  17. [Nurses with the Paris Fire Brigade].

    PubMed

    Le Boulleur, Thibaud; Damas, Cécile Rodrigues; Lefort, Hugues; Lamache, Christophe; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Domanski, Laurent

    2014-09-01

    The army nurses of the Paris Fire Brigade serve the population of Paris and three adjacent departments. They receive induction as well as continuous training and work within the mobile pre-hospital medical teams. In addition to their day-to-day support of firefighters, they train, teach and participate in clinical research and development.

  18. The English Face of Paris.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senior, Nancy

    1993-01-01

    Whereas in Quebec the use of English is seen as a threat to the French language, English words are often used in France, particularly in advertising. They imply certain values: British words suggest elite status; U.S. ones promise technological progress, freedom, and fun. The adaptation of English words is described. (18 references) (Author/LB)

  19. An Englishman abroad: Charles Blagden's visit to Paris in 1783.

    PubMed

    Fauque, Danielle M E

    2008-12-20

    Once the preliminaries of peace had been signed in January 1783, after the war of American independence, exchanges between British and French men of science resumed their normal course. On a visit to Paris in 1783, the francophile Charles Blagden (with the encouragement of Joseph Banks) made a number of contacts that fostered relations between the Royal Society and the Académie royale des sciences. In the course of this and several subsequent visits to France, Blagden became especially intimate with the chemist Claude-Louis Berthollet. His correspondence, now in the Royal Society, is a rich source for our understanding of some of the leading scientific debates of the day, in particular concerning the nature of water, which forms the main subject of this article.

  20. Social mix policies in Paris: discourses, policies and social effects.

    PubMed

    Bacqué, Marie-Hélène; Fijalkow, Yankel; Launay, Lydie; Vermeersch, Stéphanie

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1980s, the issue of social mix has become a public policy category in France. Enshrined in legislation, yet remaining controversial, it represents a major premise on which housing policies have been reconfigured. The concept of social mix is essentially based on who lives where, but it is also evoked in the context of urban renewal schemes for social housing estates, as well as in relation to new-build developments. A study of the bases of social mix policies conducted in Paris since 2001 in the context of the embourgeoisement of the capital shows the fundamental role of social housing stock. The City Council has become involved in policy decisions about both the location and the allocation of social housing. Particular attention has been paid to the middle classes in the name of the principle of ‘balancing the population’. In order to measure the effects of the policy, this article relies on an analysis of two City of Paris schemes that have the stated intent of creating social mix. One of these schemes consists of redeveloping a working-class neighbourhood, Goutte d'Or, while the other involves the new acquisition of social housing in various more affluent neighbourhoods in the capital. This comparative study of the population shows that, whether in a neighbourhood poised for gentrification or in a more affluent neighbourhood, this policy has major effects on forms of local social cohesion, setting in motion individual trajectories and reshaping social and/or ethnic identities. PMID:21542203

  1. [Alfred Lacroix (Macon, 1863 - Paris, 1948), Chemist, Mineralogist, Volcanologist].

    PubMed

    Chaigneau, M

    1998-01-01

    His grandfather and his father were chemists in Macon. It was then natural for him to adopt such profession. After his studies at the Superior School of Chemistry of Paris (Ecole superieure de pharmacie de Paris), he passed as a first class chemist on december the seventh 1887. His passion for mineralogy, displayed since his youngest years, leads him to frequent scientists specialized in the earth's science, amongst who is Ferdinand Fouque, from the College of France (College de France), whom he used to accompany in his travels through the world between 1888 - the year when he parted from his pharmacy - and 1902. This very year, the eight of may, the terrifying eruption of the montagne Pelee on the isle of la Martinique annihilated in few minutes the town and the port of Saint-Pierre, leaving only two survivors, He sejourned there a second time, in august 1902 after the second eruption. A. Lacroix explained, for the first time, phenomena he designated as nuees ardentes. His knowledge in volcanology and mineralogy made him an expert who has been solicitated to observe various volcanos through out the world. Amongst his principal writings are the treaty of mineralogy (5 vol.), the 2 volumes of his conclusions about his observations of the montagne Pelee and one about the Piton de la Fournaise, to which must be added more than 650 notes and communications. Great officer of the Legion d'Honneur, the chemist Alfred Lacroix, professor at the Museum of natural history since the first of april 1893, carried on the function of perpetual secretary of the Academy of Sciences during 34 years. PMID:11625479

  2. Space Science Lab at PARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelaz, Michael W.; Blake, M.; Clavier, D.; Whitworth, C.; Cline, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    Native American, Hispanic, African American, and other underrepresented high school students in rural Western North Carolina have unprecedented opportunity as researchers in the Space Science Lab to conduct visible and radio observations of the Sun. The program involves 90 students over a three year period. The students conduct their own research and also interact with scientists around the world. The primary goal is to reach students who otherwise would not have this opportunity and motivate them to develop the critical thinking skills necessary for objective scientific inquiry. Students develop skills in electronics, computer sciences, astronomy, physics and earth sciences. Equally important is the hope that the students will become interested in pursuing careers in research or other science-related areas. The program objectives are aligned with the North Carolina Standard Course of Study for grades 9-12 in the areas of Earth/Environmental Science, Physical Science and Physics. The first group of 27 students spent a week in the Space Science Lab located on the campus of the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) during the Summer 2006. Students constructed their own JOVE radio telescopes that they took home to continue their observations. They share their results during four follow-up sessions throughout the school year. The students also have Internet access to radio telescopes and solar monitoring equipment at PARI. We expect their enthusiasm for science will increase by experiencing research investigations that are fun and relevant to their understanding of the world around them. We gratefully acknowledge support from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund Student Science Enrichment Program.

  3. [From traditional to modern hospital--from Paris to Berlin].

    PubMed

    Murken, Axel Hinrich

    Discussions about the modernisation and reform of the Hôtel Dieu in Paris concerning the catastrophic fire of 1772 there were followed very closely in Prussia and other German countries, though for a long time this had only slight consequences for modernising developments in the hospitals of Berlin or other administrative capitals of Germany. In contrast to this, the Hôpital Lariboisière was praised as a model example in Germany soon after its completion in 1854 after the pre-revolutionary Parisian plans, was imitated in Berlin twenty years later. It must be added that in Prussia great importance was attached to stricter requirements for hygiene and ventilation than in Paris. This was clearly demonstrated barely in the construction of the pavilionhospital in Berlin-Friedrichshain (1868-1874) with an extremely decentralized layout. It was not until two generations later with the completion of the municipal hospital Westend in Charlottenburg (1904-1907), a suburb of Berlin, that a slightly modified "Lariboisière" in the Wilheminian brick Baroque style was built. Similarily the acceptance of high-rise construction was, compared with Paris, considerably delayed on the German hospital scene. Whereas in the USA and France plans had been made for high-rise hospitals from the 1920s on and realized by 1935, as with the Hôpital Beaujon in Paris (1932-1935), there were fundamental reservations about them in Germany. As a result, this conception of the structure, with an effective concentration of inpatient care in towers together with separate low-rise buildings for functions such as treatment and diagnosis, only gradually gained acceptance in Germany at the end of the 1960s. On the other hand, German architects such as Hermann Distel (1875-1946) or Ernst Kopp (1890-1962), had already, indeed before the Second World War, promoted the high-rise type for inpatient care on theoretical grounds. In addition, two hospitals providing medical care within in Berlin, Martin

  4. [From traditional to modern hospital--from Paris to Berlin].

    PubMed

    Murken, Axel Hinrich

    Discussions about the modernisation and reform of the Hôtel Dieu in Paris concerning the catastrophic fire of 1772 there were followed very closely in Prussia and other German countries, though for a long time this had only slight consequences for modernising developments in the hospitals of Berlin or other administrative capitals of Germany. In contrast to this, the Hôpital Lariboisière was praised as a model example in Germany soon after its completion in 1854 after the pre-revolutionary Parisian plans, was imitated in Berlin twenty years later. It must be added that in Prussia great importance was attached to stricter requirements for hygiene and ventilation than in Paris. This was clearly demonstrated barely in the construction of the pavilionhospital in Berlin-Friedrichshain (1868-1874) with an extremely decentralized layout. It was not until two generations later with the completion of the municipal hospital Westend in Charlottenburg (1904-1907), a suburb of Berlin, that a slightly modified "Lariboisière" in the Wilheminian brick Baroque style was built. Similarily the acceptance of high-rise construction was, compared with Paris, considerably delayed on the German hospital scene. Whereas in the USA and France plans had been made for high-rise hospitals from the 1920s on and realized by 1935, as with the Hôpital Beaujon in Paris (1932-1935), there were fundamental reservations about them in Germany. As a result, this conception of the structure, with an effective concentration of inpatient care in towers together with separate low-rise buildings for functions such as treatment and diagnosis, only gradually gained acceptance in Germany at the end of the 1960s. On the other hand, German architects such as Hermann Distel (1875-1946) or Ernst Kopp (1890-1962), had already, indeed before the Second World War, promoted the high-rise type for inpatient care on theoretical grounds. In addition, two hospitals providing medical care within in Berlin, Martin

  5. The Museum of Materia Medica of Paris.

    PubMed

    Delaveau, P; Paris, R R; Clair, G

    1986-09-01

    The Museum of Materia Medica of Paris is very rich with a collection of about 22,000 specimens. During the last few years, the efforts have been much more devoted to teaching by means of annotated displays and exhibits.

  6. Synthesis of Experimental and Model Results From The Esquif Project Over The Paris Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menut, L.; Esquif Team

    The ESQUIF research project follows mainly two goals: (i) To built a complete database of observations related to pollutants as all other parameters linked to the origin of this regional Paris area pollution, (ii) To improve our knowledge on regional atmospheric pollution events, focusing on the Paris area ("Ile de France", a zone of 150x150km, centered on the Paris city). The experimental part of the project (1998- 2000) is now over and the database freely available. The project now turns to improve and validate existing models dedicated to pollution analysis, scenarii and forecasting. From the whole set of studied topics, we will focus on some results: 1. The importance of the local "Paris area" emissions on the photochemical pollution, compared to long-range transport of polluted air mass, for which the source may be external to the studied area. A contrario the impact of parisian sources on the neigh- bouring areas and the potential extent of this influence (study of the parisian "plume"). 2. The sensitivity of photooxidant concentrations to the meteorology (local and synop- tic) and to emissions of primary pollutants by the way of modelling: it includes direct, adjoint and Monte-Carlo methodologies. 3. Some preliminary results on urban aerosols, estimated from numerous measure- ments during summer 2000. It includes the radiative impact of aerosols and cloudiness on photooxidant pollution. 4. A coupled approach, using chemistry-transport model and aircraft data, is presented for surface emissions optimization.

  7. Plasmic degradation of fibrinogen Paris I.

    PubMed

    Budzynski, A Z; Marder, V J

    1976-11-01

    Fibrin obtained from the plasma of a patient having abnormal fibrogen Paris I contains normal alpha, beta, and gamma polypeptide chains as well as an abnormal gamma-chain (gammaParis I) of approximately 51,000 daltons molecular weight. Plasmic digestion of Paris I fibrogen and noncrosslinked fibrin yields both normal and abnormal Fragment D molecules, the latter having a higher negative charge and molecular weight than that liberated from normal fibrinogen and noncorsslinked fibrin. After disulfide bond reduction, an abnormal polypeptide chain of approximately 40,500 +/- 2,000 daltons molecular weight was demonstrated in the Paris I digests by dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Comparison with the electrophoretic pattern for reduced digests of normal substrates indicates that it is a gamma-chain remnant in the normal Fragment D. Although the carbohydrate content in the gamma-Paris I-chain is slightly higher than that in the normal gamma-chain, as measured by periodic acid-Schiff reagent (PAS) staining intensity, it is concluded that extra carbohydrate does not account for the high molecular weight of the gamma-Paris I-chain since the 40,500 dalton chain does not stain with PAS. Plasma digestion of Paris I crosslinked fibrin yields a large amount of Fragment D in addition to Fragment D-D ("D-dimer") and E molecules, in contrast to a digest of normal crosslinked fibrin, from which only the latter two fragments are formed. This finding suggests that the defect in fibrinogen Paris I derives from an abnormality in the carboxy-terminal region of the gammaParis I-chain, so that in the presence of Factor XIII, these chains are not crosslinked and Fragment D-D molecules are not liberated upon subsequent plasmic degradation. The data provide support for the previous conclusion that a longer than normal polypeptide chain sequence at the carboxy-terminal portion of the gammaParis I-chains accounts for the increased size of these chains relative to the

  8. [Pierre Bayen (Chalons-sur-Marne 1725-Paris 1798), organizer of military pharmacy, chemist].

    PubMed

    Labrude, P

    1999-01-01

    Pierre Bayen was born in Chalons in 1725. Pupil in pharmacy in Reims and in Paris, he begun his military career during the "Expedition de Minorque". After the "Guerre de Sept-Ans", named major apothecary, he had to organize the military pharmacy. At the end of his life, he was named general inspector of the medical corps. Member of the College de pharmacie, he devoted a great deal of his time to chemical research and he was named as a member of the Institut national de France when it was created. Bayen is one of the founders of analytical chemistry and of mineralogy. His results on the toxicology of pewter plates were famous. He is one of the precursors of the discovery of oxygen and one of the creators of modern chemistry. Bayen died in Paris in 1798.

  9. [Pierre Bayen (Chalons-sur-Marne 1725-Paris 1798), organizer of military pharmacy, chemist].

    PubMed

    Labrude, P

    1999-01-01

    Pierre Bayen was born in Chalons in 1725. Pupil in pharmacy in Reims and in Paris, he begun his military career during the "Expedition de Minorque". After the "Guerre de Sept-Ans", named major apothecary, he had to organize the military pharmacy. At the end of his life, he was named general inspector of the medical corps. Member of the College de pharmacie, he devoted a great deal of his time to chemical research and he was named as a member of the Institut national de France when it was created. Bayen is one of the founders of analytical chemistry and of mineralogy. His results on the toxicology of pewter plates were famous. He is one of the precursors of the discovery of oxygen and one of the creators of modern chemistry. Bayen died in Paris in 1798. PMID:11625658

  10. [EPIDEMIOLOGY OF SUDDEN CARDIAC DEATH: DATA FROM THE PARIS SUDDEN DEATH EXPERTISE CENTER REGISTRY].

    PubMed

    Jouven, Xavier; Bougouin, Wulfran; Karam, Nicole; Marijon, Eloi

    2015-09-01

    Sudden cardiac death is an unexpected cardiac arrest without obvious extra-cardiac cause. Epidemiology of sudden cardiac death has been poorly documented in France, mainly because of challenging requirement in order to capture all cases in a specific area. The Parisian registry (Sudden Death Expertise Center, European Georges Pompidou Hospital, Paris) was initiated in May 2011 and analyzed data of all sudden death in Paris and suburbs (6.6 millions inhabitants). Over 3 years, the annual incidence estimated to 50-70 per 100,000. Those occurred mainly in men (69%), with a mean age of 65 year, and at home (75%). The event was witnessed in 80% of cases, but bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation was initiated in only half of cases. Initial cardiac rhythm was ventricular fibrillation in 25%. Survival to hospital discharge remains low (8%).

  11. Syphilis surveillance in France, 2000-2003.

    PubMed

    Couturier, E; Michel, A; Janier, M; Dupin, N; Semaille, C

    2004-12-01

    This article describes syphilis trends, characteristics of patients from 2000 to 2003 in France and trends of the benzylpenicillin benzathine 2.4 million UI sales from 2001 to 2003. The ongoing surveillance system for syphilis case reporting since 2001 has been set up in volunteer settings, mostly public settings where STI treatment is offered. Clinical case reporting is complemented by sexual behavioural data based on a self-administered questionnaire. From 2000 to 2003, 1089 syphilis cases were reported in France, increasing from 37 cases in 2000 to 428 in 2003. Overall, 96% of syphilis cases were in men with a mean age of 36.5 years and 70% of whom were born in France. The proportion of syphilis cases with HIV co-infection decreased over time from 60% in 2000 to 33% in 2003. The most affected area by the syphilis epidemic is the Ile-de-France region, mainly the city of Paris. The greatest proportion of syphilis cases diagnosed in men who have sex with men (MSM) were in the Ile-de-France region, where they made up 87% of cases, compared with 75% in other regions. Among the patients who completed the self-administered questionnaire on sexual behaviour, 83% reported having casual sex partners in the 3 months prior to their syphilis diagnosis. Trends in the sales of benzylpenicillin benzathine 2.4 million UI in private pharmacies are similar to those observed in the surveillance system, and increased between 2001 and 2003. In conclusion, syphilis transmission is still ongoing in France in 2003 and the role of unprotected oral sex in the transmission of syphilis should be emphasised. PMID:15677855

  12. Graduate Education in Government: In England, France, and the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernardakis, George

    This book reports findings of a study comparing how the leading institutions of higher education in England, France, and the United States conduct their graduate programs in political science. Institutions studied were: Cambridge University, Oxford University, and the University of London in England; the University of Paris 1 (Sorbonne), Institute…

  13. [The meetings of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris during troubled periods (1803-1946)].

    PubMed

    Storck, J

    1997-01-01

    With newly found archives and other already usable documents, it was possible to study the repercussions of several troubled periods in France on the meetings of the Société de Pharmacie de Paris (1803-1946). It seems that only three meetings were cancelled for 143 years. As a matter of fact, the number of attending members decreased widely in the troubled times. Allusions to contemporary events are not scarce in the minutes and have been reported.

  14. Polaris Instrument Development and PARI Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    At the Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) in Rosman, NC I spent 8 weeks as the NC Space Grant/J. Donald Cline Astronomy Scholar. I developed multiple projects and assisted as a mentor to PARI Space Science Lab and Duke TIP high school gifted student program which both took place during my stay. My main focus was the development of the Polaris imaging telescope. This telescope is used to take images of the pulsating variable star Polaris. These readings are used to make seeing estimates for the air column above PARI. The system stores and archives images and analyzes them for magnitude change and movement of the stellar image. In addition to the Polaris project I developed a solar panel voltage and charge monitoring system which involved me working with charge controllers and photovoltaic technology. I developed a charging scheme using Flexmax 60 charge controller. Data is recorded and transmitted via optical fiber for analysis and correlation with solar zenith angle.

  15. GHG monitoring over Paris megacity and Orléans forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Te, Y. V.; Jeseck, P.; Zanon, T.; Boursier, C.; Janssen, C.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lac, C.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Xueref-remy, I. C.

    2012-12-01

    In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants and greenhouse gases (GHGs) are increasing continuously. Their monitoring and control in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS[a], model IFS 125HR) of the QualAir platform located in downtown Paris at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is a scientific research instrument dedicated to the survey of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and urban air quality. Equipped with a sun-tracker, the remote sensing QualAir FTS relies on solar infrared absorption for monitoring trace gas concentrations and their variability in the Ile-de-France region[b]. Concentrations of atmospheric GHGs, especially CO2, CH4 and N2O, are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT[c]. Because Paris is the third largest European megacity, the QualAir FTS can provide new and complementary measurements as compared to existing ground-based FTS network stations (NDACC and TCCON) located in unpolluted environments, such as the TCCON-Orléans station[d] situated in the forest of Orléans (100 km south of Paris). In the effort to integrate QualAir FTS into the TCCON network, simultaneous FTS measurements of GHGs at Paris and Orléans have been performed. We will emphasize on comparisons of CO2 from these two sites. Our comparison will be completed by high-resolved direct CO2 modeling outputs from the Meso-NH model, and ground in situ measurements at different sites (Orléans/Trainou, Paris/Jussieu, Paris/Eiffel Tower). Parts of the data were acquired in the framework of the French CO2-MEGAPARIS project[e, f], whose main goal is to quantify CO2 emissions from the Paris area. The present data intercomparison will help to reduce uncertainties in carbon cycle models and to better characterize regional GHG fluxes

  16. Scientific Respiratory Symposium, Paris June 2010

    PubMed Central

    Dalglish, Gavin; Priestley, Graham

    2011-01-01

    At a 2010 Respiratory Symposium in Paris, chaired by Professors Bousquet and Roche of the University of Paris, recent trends in research, therapy and treatment guidelines for asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) were reviewed and discussed by a faculty of expert European and US respiratory physicians. This article reviews five key clinical presentations with particular emphasis given to the importance of small airways in the pathology and treatment of asthma and COPD. Further analysis of the economics of treatment in Europe and the US shows a wide variance in direct and indirect costs. PMID:21792320

  17. Fiches pratiques: Paris en vert; Analyse textuelle; C'est parti, mon kiki; Paris vu par (Practical Ideas: Paris in Green; Textual Analysis; It's Gone, My Kiki; Focusing on Paris).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caillet, Claudine; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Four activities for the French language classroom are described, including a discussion of greenery in Paris, a reading comprehension exercise, an activity focusing on language styles and familiar expressions, and a study of Paris as portrayed in films. (MSE)

  18. Drilling bits optimized for the Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Vennin, H.C. Pouyastruc )

    1989-07-31

    Paris basin wells have been successfully drilled using steel-body bits with stud-type cutters. These bits offer the possibility of optimizing the bit-face based on the strata to be drilled, as well as allowing replacement of worn cutters. This article discusses: bit manufacturing; bit repair; optimizing bits; hydraulics.

  19. Act Up-Paris: French Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nakayama, Thomas K.

    2012-01-01

    The francophone world has always been at the center of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. From the mythical (French Canadian) "patient zero," Gaetan Dugas, to Rock Hudson's flight to Paris for medical treatment and the blaming of Haiti for AIDS, as well as the close relationships between Belgian and French and their former African colonies, underscores the…

  20. Simulating gas and aerosol concentrations in the Paris area using different land surface models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvorostyanov, Dmitry; Menut, Laurent; Dupont, Jean-Charles; Morille, Yoann; Haeffelin, Martial

    2010-05-01

    Regional air quality forecasting depends on the performance of weather forecast models used to drive chemistry-transport models. The widely used Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model provides a few land surface schemes (LSMs) to compute heat and moisture fluxes over land surface. The LSMs differ in complexity and approaches used. We performed WRF simulations for 15 and 5 km resolution nested domains over the North of France and Paris, respectively, for summer 2008. We used the four LSMs provided with WRF: 6-layer Rapid Update Cycle (RUC), 5-layer thermal diffusion, 2-layer Pleim-Xiu scheme (together with the Pleim-Xiu surface layer and the ACM boundary layer models), and 4-layer Noah scheme. The SIRTA atmospheric observatory located in Paris area provides in situ data of measurements for a number of meteorological parameters, as well as vertical profiles measured by a lidar. The simulation results were compared to the SIRTA measurement data. In order to quantify possible impacts of the LSMs to simulated gas and aerosol concentrations in the Paris region, we use a chemistry-transport model CHIMERE forced by the corresponding WRF meteorological fields. Implications for the regional air quality forecasting will be discussed.

  1. Inversions of CO2 Emissions from the Paris Area Using Yearlong Measurement Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staufer, J.; Broquet, G.; Bréon, F. M.; Puygrenier, V.; Xueref-Remy, I.; Ramonet, M.; Perrussel, O.; Chevallier, F.; Dieudonné, E.; Lopez, M.; Schmidt, M.; Ciais, P.

    2014-12-01

    Estimates of fossil fuel CO2 emission from urban areas rely on inventories that are based upon energy-use consumption for different fuel types, various socio-economic activity data and emission factors. There is growing interest in improving those estimates by using an atmospheric inversion approach based on transport modeling and CO2 measurements. Bréon et al. (ACPD, 2014) have recently developed a Bayesian inversion framework to control the daily CO2 fluxes of the Paris urban area during a 2 months period. The inversion framework relies on the transport model CHIMERE with a 2 km spatial resolution and uses atmospheric CO2 concentrations measurements obtained from three monitoring stations at the edge of the Paris urban area, installed as part of the CO2-MEGAPARIS and ICOS-France projects. The method relies on the measured daytime CO2 gradients between up- and downwind stations to correct the prior 6-hour mean emissions of the Paris area, given by the AIRPARIF regional air quality monitoring agency. The system, however, relies on the spatial distribution of the AIRPARIF inventory and does not attempt at correcting it. Here, we apply the inversion framework to one year of atmospheric CO2 observations (August 2010 - July 2011). We show that the results for the monthly budgets exhibit a reasonable seasonal cycle. We check that the sensitivity to the prior estimates of the monthly budgets and to the meteorological forcing to CHIMERE is low, which demonstrates that the system is strongly controlled by observations.

  2. What Does It Mean to be Central? A Botanical Geography of Paris 1830-1848.

    PubMed

    Hoquet, Thierry

    2016-02-01

    This paper focuses on the geography of the botanical community in Paris, under the July Monarchy (1830-1848). At that time, the Muséum d'Histoire naturelle (MHN) was at its institutional acme and, under the impulse of François Guizot, its budget was increasing dramatically. However, closer attention to manuscript sources (correspondence, travel diaries) reveals that the botanists of the time favoured other private institutions, located both on the Right and Left Banks of the Seine. The MHN was prestigious for its collections and professors but it was relatively remote from the centre of Paris, and its plant samples were sometimes difficult to access. Several other first-class private herbaria granted liberal access to botanists: those of Jacques Gay, Phillip Barker Webb, and Benjamin Delessert. Thanks to their wealth, these plant amateurs had ownership of historical herbaria consisting of species types alongside rich botanical libraries. Botanists visiting Paris from foreign countries or other provinces of France also spent some time studying less general plant collections, like those of Count Jaubert, or specialized collections, like Montagne's or Léveillé's on cryptogams. Other botanists also enjoyed renown at the time, although they published little, if anything (like Maire). Living in crammed apartments, literally in the middle of their plant samples, these botanists were key nodes in botanical networks, although they had no relation with the prestigious MHN.

  3. Variability of air ion concentrations in urban Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dos Santos, V. N.; Herrmann, E.; Manninen, H. E.; Hussein, T.; Hakala, J.; Nieminen, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Merkel, M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Hämeri, K.

    2015-12-01

    Air ion concentrations influence new particle formation and consequently the global aerosol as potential cloud condensation nuclei. We aimed to evaluate air ion concentrations and characteristics of new particle formation events (NPF) in the megacity of Paris, France, within the MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric Pollution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project. We measured air ion number size distributions (0.8-42 nm) with an air ion spectrometer and fine particle number concentrations (> 6 nm) with a twin differential mobility particle sizer in an urban site of Paris between 26 June 2009 and 4 October 2010. Air ions were size classified as small (0.8-2 nm), intermediate (2-7 nm), and large (7-20 nm). The median concentrations of small and large ions were 670 and 680 cm-3, respectively, (sum of positive and negative polarities), whereas the median concentration of intermediate ions was only 20 cm-3, as these ions were mostly present during new particle formation bursts, i.e. when gas-to-particle conversion produced fresh aerosol particles from gas phase precursors. During peaks in traffic-related particle number, the concentrations of small and intermediate ions decreased, whereas the concentrations of large ions increased. Seasonal variations affected the ion population differently, with respect to their size and polarity. NPF was observed in 13 % of the days, being most frequent in spring and late summer (April, May, July, and August). The results also suggest that NPF was favoured on the weekends in comparison to workdays, likely due to the lower levels of condensation sinks in the mornings of weekends (CS weekdays 09:00: 18 × 10-3 s-1; CS weekend 09:00: 8 × 10-3 s-1). The median growth rates (GR) of ions during the NPF events varied between 3 and 7 nm h-1, increasing with the ion size and being higher on workdays than on weekends for intermediate and large ions. The median GR of

  4. French Ministry of Health's response to Paris attacks of 13 November 2015.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Jean-Marc; Brahic, Olivier; Carli, Pierre; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre; Riou, Bruno; Vallet, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    On Friday November 13th at 9:20 pm, three kamikaze bombs went off around the Stade de France a stadium in Saint-Denis just outside Paris, 4 different shootings took place and bombings in Paris and hundreds of people were held hostage in a theater.This multi-site terrorist attack was the first of this magnitude in France. Drawing the lessons of these attacks and those which occurred in other countries from a health perspective is essential to continuously adapt and improve the French response to possible future attacks. Several issues would need to be further explored: Management of uncertainties: When to trigger the plans: after the 1st attack, the 2nd? When do attacks end and when to release mobilized resources? Management of victims: How to ensure that all victims are secured or taken care of? How to provide assistance when attacks are ongoing? Management of teams: Proper follow-up of persons involved in the response: health professionals, police and firemen, emergency call centers but also civil servants within administration that contributed to the response. Communication: Reactivity of all is a key element to secure appropriate resource is mobilized for the response. All actors have to be able to communicate quickly in a secured way. PMID:27039082

  5. Family Factors Associated with Language Competence among Toddlers in French, North African, and African Families in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Honig, Alice Sterling; Park, Kyung-Ja

    Language adequacy was coded for 403 toddlers 24 months of age who had received medical and psychological examinations in a Bilan de Sante clinic in Paris, France. The children were from three cultures: native French middle class, immigrant North African Moslem, and immigrant Black African. Demographic, socioeconomic, medical, biological,…

  6. France's Monumental Science Museum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, David

    1983-01-01

    Amid controversy, a former Paris slaughterhouse is being converted into one of the world's largest science museums. The museum will be organized into four major sectors corresponding to different levels at which science and technology touch human lives: exploring, using/producing, living/inhabitating, and communications. The controversy related to…

  7. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  8. Sodomites and police in Paris, 1715.

    PubMed

    Merrick, Jeffrey

    2002-01-01

    The Archives of the Bastille in the Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal include hundreds of police reports, none of them currently available in English or even in print, about male same-sex relations in Paris during the first half of the eighteenth century. The documents translated here, interrogations of eight men arrested in 1715, provide information about networks and prostitution, age and class, surveillance and deception in the sodomitical subculture of the capital.

  9. On the Influence of a Simple Microphysics Parametrization on Radiation Fog Modelling: A Case Study During ParisFog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaojing; Musson-Genon, Luc; Dupont, Eric; Milliez, Maya; Carissimo, Bertrand

    2014-05-01

    A detailed numerical simulation of a radiation fog event with a single column model is presented, which takes into account recent developments in microphysical parametrizations. One-dimensional simulations are performed using the computational fluid dynamics model Code_Saturne and the results are compared to a very detailed in situ dataset collected during the ParisFog campaign, which took place near Paris, France, during the winter 2006-2007. Special attention is given to the detailed and complete diurnal simulations and to the role of microphysics in the fog life cycle. The comparison between the simulated and the observed visibility, in the single-column model case study, shows that the evolution of radiation fog is correctly simulated. Sensitivity simulations show that fog development and dissipation are sensitive to the droplet-size distribution through sedimentation/deposition processes but the aerosol number concentration in the coarse mode has a low impact on the time of fog formation.

  10. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Junfeng; Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Aggarwal, Anju; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES), on self-rated health (SRH) in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS) and in-person interviews (RECORD). All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle) and from real estate sales (Paris). Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI) was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons.

  11. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Junfeng; Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Aggarwal, Anju; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2016-12-01

    This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES), on self-rated health (SRH) in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS) and in-person interviews (RECORD). All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA). Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle) and from real estate sales (Paris). Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI) was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons. PMID:27413663

  12. Aerosol Plume during a Polluted Event Occuring Over Paris Area and its Potential Photochemical Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randriamiarisoa, H.; Chazette, P.; Sanak, J.; Hauglustaine, D.

    2002-12-01

    As in many big cities, there are several pollution events in Paris area. A thorough understanding of the processes leading on the formation of pollutants and their transport during pollution episodes is necessary. One of the pertinent factors, which contributions on atmospheric chemistry and radiative effect are not yet well known, is the aerosol. ESQUIF (Etude et Simulation de la QUalité de l?air en Ile de France) is the first program dedicated to study such issues over the Paris area. It was carried out from summer 1998 to winter 2000 (Menut et al., 2000). To characterize all the properties of the urban aerosol, many campaigns were coordinated using both ground and airborne measurements (Chazette et al., 2000). We are focusing on the 31st of July 2000 where a well-defined polluted plume has been observed. Aerosol number concentrations in different size classes were measured and show that urban aerosol in Paris area is mainly submicronic. The absorbent part of the aerosol, mainly associated to the black carbon component, has been observed to be associated to particles with diameter less than 0.1 æm. The single scattering albedo has been assessed to be close to 0.85 leading to a significant influence on the photochemical chemistry. Indeed, a significant decrease of the daily maximum ozone concentration has been calculated using the INCA model and will be presented. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Programme National de Chimie Atmosphérique, INSU supported this work. REFERENCES Chazette P., H. Randriamiarisoa, J. Sanak, C. Flamant, J. Pelon, M. Sicard, H. Cachier, F. Aulagnier, R. Sarda-Esteve, L. Gomes, S. Alfaro and A. Gaudichet (2001). ESQUIF 2000 : Aerosol survey over the Ile-de-France area, J. Aerosol Sci ., 32/suppl. 1, S439-S440. Menut, L., R. Vautard, C. Flamant, A. Abonnel, M. Beekmann, P. Chazette, P.H. Flamant, D. Gombert, D. Guédalia, D. Kley, M.P. Lefebvre, B. Lossec, D. Martin, G. Mégie, P. Perros, M. Sicard and G. Toupance (2000). Measurements and modelling

  13. Seismic imaging a carbonate reservoir: The Paris Basin Dogger

    SciTech Connect

    Mougenot, D.

    1995-08-01

    Within the Dogger project, seven partners joined forces (CGG, DHYCA, EAP, ESSO-REP, IFP, TOTAL, TRITON France) to develop an appropriate seismic acquisition, processing and interpretation methodology in order to improve the description of the main oil reservoir (30 m) lying at the top of the Dogger carbonates in the Paris Basin, at a depth of 1900 m. High-resolution 2D Vibroseismic is used to record high frequencies (up to 100 Hz) at the level of the target, and provides sufficiently adequate vertical resolution for the reflections at the top and at the base of the reservoir not to interfere. The upper frequency content of the 3D seismic (70 Hz) is more difficult to enhance. Yet the essential contribution made by the 3D is to evidence, via horizon attributes, sub-meridian lineaments corresponding to faults with throw of several meters which is too weak to be detected on vertical sections. The distribution of these faults, via which water tends to invade the reservoir, and the organization of the amplitudes at the top reservoir reflector, which seems to suggest lateral variations in porosity, are a valuable guide for setting up wells. Three-component seismic (2D-3c) and S-wave emissions did not produce any reflections beyond 30 Hz at the level of the target which is a poor reflector (PS & SS). Only borehole seismic (VSP, offset VSP), where high frequencies are much less attenuated than with surface seismic, provides detailed imaging of the reservoir in converted mode (up to 110 Hz in PP and in PS). The combination of a continuous spatial sampling, such as that obtained in 3D, and of a Vibroseis emission adapted to frequency attenuation, such as that used in 2D, can supply useful information about the thin and discontinuous Dogger reservoir which cannot he provided by mere correlation of the borehole data.

  14. How Gaz de France optimizes LNG regasification

    SciTech Connect

    Colonna, J.L.; Lecomte, B.; Caudron, S.

    1986-05-05

    A regasification optimization program was implemented at Montoir-de-Bretagne in 1984, and rapidly accepted by the operators. It has been an important tool for decision-making in the optimizing operation of this liquefied natural gas (LNG) storage and regasification terminal. The models used are regularly and easily updated on the basis of equipment behavior: aging or fouling. The Montoir-de-Bretagne LNG terminal is in the port area of Nates-Saint Nazaire on the Atlantic coast. It was commissioned in 1982 by Gaz de France. This terminal is used for receiving, storing, and regasifying the Algerian LNG received under a contract between Gaz de France and Sonatrach, as well as the LNG imported by Belgium and temporarily routed through France. It is designed to receive 25,000 to 200,000 cu m LNG carriers and has three 120,000 cm m LNG storage tanks. The daily sendout ranges between 6.7 million cu m and 36 million cu m. Monitor terminal supplies mainly Brittany and the Paris area. Two identifical berths allow the simultaneous reception of two LNG carriers. LNG is carried to the storage tanks in 32-in. lines at a rate of 12,000 cu m/hr. Each storage tank is equipped with three submerged 450 cu m/hr pumps with which the LNG is sent from the tanks to the secondary pumps at 8 bar. The nine high-pressure (HP) secondary pumps, with a capacity of either 450 cu m/hr or 180 cu m/hr, raise the LNG pressure to a level at least equal to pipeline pressure prior to revaporization.

  15. Climate Impacts of the Paris Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, Andrei; Paltsev, Sergey; Chen, Henry; Monier, Erwan

    2016-04-01

    The UN agreement signed during the recent COP21 meeting in Paris defines policies which supposed to be implemented by different countries to reduce their anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Those agreed policies, however, only cover the period up to 2030 and they do not specify actions after 2030. As a result, projections of the long-term climate impact of the Paris agreement produced by different research groups differ significantly because they make different assumptions about the policies after 2030. In this study we estimate possible impacts using the MIT Integrated Global System Model, which consists of the human activity model, Economic Projection and Policy Analysis (EPPA) model, and a climate model of intermediate complexity, the MIT Earth System Model (MESM). In addition to the "no climate policy" scenario, we consider a scenario that incorporates the emissions targets proposed by the international community to address the challenges of climate change based on the submissions to the COP21 process. For the post-2030 period we create several variations: a) no additional climate policy after 2030, but the proposed cuts are extended to 2100; b) reductions in emissions and emission intensities after 2030 at the same rate as in the 2020-2030 period; 3) in addition to the conditions in the previous no country increases its GHG emissions after 2050. Based on the emission scenarios, we simulate possible future climate changes. Our analysis shows that, for the climate parameters corresponding to the median strength of the climate system response to anthropogenic forcing, the Paris Agreement can reduce the global mean surface air temperature (SAT) in 2100 between 0.63 and 1.07oC relative to "no climate policy" case. At the same time, due to a large inertia of climate system, in 2050 the SAT reduced only by about 0.12oC under all three scenarios. Under all three variants of an extension of the Paris Agreement an increase in the SAT relative to an 1861

  16. Hurricanes Frances and Ivan

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-05-15

    article title:  Cloud Height Maps for Hurricanes Frances and Ivan     ... predict the intensity and amount of rainfall associated with hurricanes still requires improvement, especially on the 24 to 48 hour ...

  17. Plaster of Paris: the orthopaedic surgeon heritage.

    PubMed

    Hernigou, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Plastering is one of the most ancient of the building handicrafts. Plaster is the common name for calcium sulphate hemi hydrate made by heating the mineral gypsum, the common name for sulphate of lime. In the tenth century the Arabs used liquid plaster in orthopaedic treatment. At the beginning of the nineteenth century, patients with fractures of the lower extremities-and often of the upper extremities as well-were treated in bed with restriction of all activity for many weeks until the fractures united. It was the practice of surgeons to dress wounds and fractures at frequent intervals. The bandages, pads, and splints were removed, the fractures manipulated, and the dressings reapplied. The search for simpler, less cumbersome methods of treatment led to the development of occlusive dressings, stiffened at first with starch and later with plaster of Paris. The ambulatory treatment of fractures was the direct result of these innovations. Two military surgeons, Antonius Mathijsen of the Netherlands, and Nikolai Ivanovitch Pirogov of Russia, were responsible for the introduction of the new plaster bandage technique. At the beginning of the twentieth century the technique was improved by Jean-François Calot, a French surgeon, who invented the hand manufacture of plaster bandage as a roll. During the twentieth century, walking cast and ambulation for fresh fractures were developed with plaster and pin incorporated in plaster; the open fracture care concept was introduced with plaster of Paris by Trueta before the external fixation.

  18. PARIS II: Computer Aided Solvent Design for Pollution Prevention

    EPA Science Inventory

    This product is a summary of U.S. EPA researchers' work developing the solvent substitution software tool PARIS II (Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents, version 2.0). PARIS II finds less toxic solvents or solvent mixtures to replace more toxic solvents co...

  19. An Account of the Inaugural Tessier Skull Exhibition at the University of Paris Descartes.

    PubMed

    Dusseldorp, Joseph Richard; Firmin, Françoise

    2015-10-01

    Paul Tessier is widely regarded as the father of modern craniofacial surgery. Upon his passing in 2008, his private collection of human skulls was purchased by the French Association of Facial Surgeons to ensure the collection would remain in France. The first public exhibition of the skulls was held in the medical museum of the University of Paris Descartes in April 2014. From this collection of skulls and the imagination of Tessier an entirely new specialty was created. Modern craniofacial surgery, now is an integral part of any pediatric plastic surgery department. Cranial and facial osteotomies have also become commonplace in both traumatic and aesthetic surgery. The goals for craniofacial deformity are now a return to completely normal appearance and function, as Tessier always believed they should be.

  20. School Choice in London and Paris – A Comparison of Middle-class Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Michaela; Bridge, Gary; Wilson, Deborah

    2015-01-01

    Education is one major public service in which quasi-markets and other choice-based mechanisms are now established methods of delivery. The types of school people choose, and the extent to which their choices are realized, have a fundamental impact on the outcomes of any mechanism of school choice. In this article, we provide a comparative analysis of the school choice strategies of middle-class families in London and Paris. We draw on approximately 200 in-depth interviews carried out across the two cities. This enables us to investigate the extent to which middle-class school choice strategies transcend the institutional context provided by both the local (state and private) schools market and national education policy in England and France. We discuss these findings in the context of current school choice policy and consider their implications for future policy design. PMID:25750467

  1. Job accessibility, residential segregation and risk of long-term unemployment in the Paris region.

    PubMed

    Korsu, Emre; Wenglenski, Sandrine

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this paper explores, in the French context, the hypothesis that employment problems experienced by low-skilled jobseekers are partially caused by spatial urban factors. Many low-skilled workers live in poor neighbourhoods where they are exposed to a distressed social environment and/or weak job accessibility. For reasons discussed in this article, living in such neighbourhoods may increase the duration of unemployment for jobseekers. On the basis of an empirical study, this hypothesis is tested in the Paris-Ile-de-France metropolitan area and addresses the question: all other things being equal, are low-skilled workers living in high-poverty neighbourhoods and/or neighbourhoods with low job accessibility exposed to a greater risk of long-term unemployment? PMID:20845591

  2. An Account of the Inaugural Tessier Skull Exhibition at the University of Paris Descartes.

    PubMed

    Dusseldorp, Joseph Richard; Firmin, Françoise

    2015-10-01

    Paul Tessier is widely regarded as the father of modern craniofacial surgery. Upon his passing in 2008, his private collection of human skulls was purchased by the French Association of Facial Surgeons to ensure the collection would remain in France. The first public exhibition of the skulls was held in the medical museum of the University of Paris Descartes in April 2014. From this collection of skulls and the imagination of Tessier an entirely new specialty was created. Modern craniofacial surgery, now is an integral part of any pediatric plastic surgery department. Cranial and facial osteotomies have also become commonplace in both traumatic and aesthetic surgery. The goals for craniofacial deformity are now a return to completely normal appearance and function, as Tessier always believed they should be. PMID:26468782

  3. Who still eats three meals a day? Findings from a quantitative survey in the Paris area.

    PubMed

    Lhuissier, Anne; Tichit, Christine; Caillavet, France; Cardon, Philippe; Masullo, Ana; Martin-Fernandez, Judith; Parizot, Isabelle; Chauvin, Pierre

    2013-04-01

    In France, mealtimes constitute a strong cultural trait, especially the three-meal pattern. The aim of our study was to test whether this pattern is still prevailing and to what extent familial structure, gender, poverty and migration have an effect on meal frequency. This study is based on a cross-sectional analysis of data collected in 2010 in the SIRS cohort study among a representative sample of 3006 adults in the Paris metropolitan area. We developed simple logistic models and multinomial logistic models. Results confirmed that the three-meal pattern remains strongly rooted in food habits in the Paris area. For three meals a day, the presence of a partner was more significant than the presence of children in the household. However, the study highlighted that one out of four inhabitants declared eating two meals a day only. The results emphasized gender differences in eating two meals a day, as being less frequent but more distinctive for women than for men. For women indeed, it was mainly linked to economic and social vulnerability (women below the poverty line, foreigners, in single parent families). In this respect, the paper provides new insights into the social differentiation of meal patterns, and calls for further analysis.

  4. Evaluating BC and NOx emission inventories for the Paris region from MEGAPOLI aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, H.; Beekmann, M.; Colomb, A.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Dupont, J.-C.; Honoré, C.; Michoud, V.; Morille, Y.; Perrussel, O.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Sciare, J.; Wiedensohler, A.; Zhang, Q. J.

    2015-09-01

    High uncertainties affect black carbon (BC) emissions, and, despite its important impact on air pollution and climate, very few BC emissions evaluations are found in the literature. This paper presents a novel approach, based on airborne measurements across the Paris, France, plume, developed in order to evaluate BC and NOx emissions at the scale of a whole agglomeration. The methodology consists in integrating, for each transect, across the plume observed and simulated concentrations above background. This allows for several error sources (e.g., representativeness, chemistry, plume lateral dispersion) to be minimized in the model used. The procedure is applied with the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to three inventories - the EMEP inventory and the so-called TNO and TNO-MP inventories - over the month of July 2009. Various systematic uncertainty sources both in the model (e.g., boundary layer height, vertical mixing, deposition) and in observations (e.g., BC nature) are discussed and quantified, notably through sensitivity tests. Large uncertainty values are determined in our results, which limits the usefulness of the method to rather strongly erroneous emission inventories. A statistically significant (but moderate) overestimation is obtained for the TNO BC emissions and the EMEP and TNO-MP NOx emissions, as well as for the BC / NOx emission ratio in TNO-MP. The benefit of the airborne approach is discussed through a comparison with the BC / NOx ratio at a ground site in Paris, which additionally suggests a spatially heterogeneous error in BC emissions over the agglomeration.

  5. International Congress on Universal Availability of Publications (Paris, France, May 3-7, 1982). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    A general outline of the proceedings, a list of recommendations adopted, and four annexes comprise this report of the 1982 meeting of the International Congress on Universal Availability of Publications (UAP), including printed, audiovisual, and electronically-published materials. Suggestions and points of discussion are reported regarding…

  6. Evaluation of Educational Systems. Contributions to a Seminar (IIEP, Paris, France, May 29-June 2, 1972).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    This publication contains a report describing a May 1972 seminar sponsored by the International Institute for Educational Planning to discuss current approaches to educational evaluation. In addition, the following 11 papers presented at the conference are included in their entirety: "Possible Criteria for Evaluating Education Policies," by R.…

  7. International Conference on Higher Education Report. A Teachers' Perspective (Paris, France, March 19-21, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Education International, Brussels (Belgium).

    This report, based on a conference of international lecturers and academics and organized by Education International, notes that the number of college students has significantly increased over the last 2 decades while spending on almost every aspect of higher education has declined over the same time period. It warns that standards could plummet…

  8. Organization of Ministries of Education. Policy Forum on Education (Paris, France, June 20-21, 2001).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernes, Gudmund

    In June 2001, the International Institute for Educational Planning convened a policy forum on the organization, functioning, and effectiveness of national ministries of education. This book presents eight key papers from that forum. The forum discussed how differences in organizational structures and mechanisms affect adjustability and…

  9. International Conference on Adult Education (4th, Paris, France, March 19-29, 1985). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    This final report presents materials from a conference that addressed the evolution of adult education and the development of adult education as an essential prerequisite for lifelong education. Among other concerns were measures to improve international and regional cooperation to promote adult education. Part I is the General Report, which…

  10. Natural flow and vertical heterogeneities in a sedimentary geothermal reservoir (Paris Basin, France): Geochemical investigations

    SciTech Connect

    Criaud, Annie, Fouassier, Philippe; Fouillac, Christian; Brach, Michel

    1988-01-01

    Three geothermal wells tapping the Dogger aquifer were studied in detail for their variations in chemical composition with time or conditions of exploitation. Analytical improvements for the determination of Cl, SO{sub 4}, Ca, Mg, Na and K make it possible to detect variations respectively of 0.15, 0.8, 0.6, 1.8, 1.8 and 1.4 %. Despite the fact that the natural flow may be important in some parts of the basin aquifer, we conclude that this factor is not responsible for the small variations noticed in mineralization within the one year survey period. The results concerning reactive and nonreactive species are best explained if a vertical heterogeneity of the chemistry of the fluid is assumed. A number of calcareous sub-layers, already demonstrated by geological studies, contribute to varying degrees to the production of the hot water. The changes in pumping rates, which are fixed according to external requirements, play a major role in the hydrodynamic and chemical disequilibrium of the wells. The consequences for the geothermal exploitations are emphasized.

  11. Complete Genome Sequence of a New Member of the Marseilleviridae Recovered from the Brackish Submarine Spring in the Cassis Port-Miou Calanque, France.

    PubMed

    Doutre, Gabriel; Arfib, Bruno; Rochette, Pierre; Claverie, Jean-Michel; Bonin, Patricia; Abergel, Chantal

    2015-01-01

    Marseilleviridae is a rapidly expanding family of Acanthamoeba-infecting large DNA viruses distributed worldwide. We report here the complete 349-kbp genome sequence of Port-Miou virus, which is surprisingly close to that of Lausannevirus (isolated from the Seine River upstream from Paris, France), despite the strong dissimilarities of their sampling locations. PMID:26607881

  12. The 1986 terrorist bombing experience in Paris.

    PubMed Central

    Rignault, D P; Deligny, M C

    1989-01-01

    Between December 7, 1985 and September 17, 1986, eleven terrorist bomb explosions took place in Paris. Thirteen people died immediately, 255 others were injured. Forty were treated on-site and were not hospitalized, 205 were subjected to triage and stabilization and were then hospitalized. These latter 205 patients are analyzed in this study. None of them died during transportation, and seven eventually died in hospitals. Forty-seven per cent of all victims suffered from multiple injuries. All deaths except one occurred in the polytraumatized group. The policy of subjecting victims of terrorist bomb explosions to triage and stabilization before hospitalization is compared to the so-called "scoop and run" technique, more generally applied in mass casualty situations. Its limitations and advantages are discussed. PMID:2647053

  13. Localising the nitrogen imprint of the Paris food supply: the potential of organic farming and changes in human diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Silvestre, M.; Barles, S.; Chatzimpiros, P.

    2012-01-01

    The Seine watershed has long been the food-supplying hinterland of Paris, providing most of the animal and vegetal protein consumed in the city. Nowadays, the shift from manure-based to synthetic nitrogen fertilisation, has made possible a strong land specialisation of agriculture in the Seine watershed: it still provides most of the cereal consumed by the Paris agglomeration, but exports 80% of its huge cereal production. On the other hand the meat and milk supply originates mainly from regions in the North and West of France, specialised in animal farming and importing about 30% of their feed from South America. As it works today, this system is responsible for a severe nitrate contamination of surface and groundwater resources. Herein two scenarios of re-localising Paris's food supply are explored, based on organic farming and local provision of animal feed. We show that for the Seine watershed it is technically possible to design an agricultural system able to provide all the plant- and animal-based food required by the population, to deliver sub-root water meeting the drinking water standards and still to export a significant proportion of its production to areas less suitable for cereal cultivation. Decreasing the share of animal products in the human diet has a strong impact on the nitrogen imprint of urban food supply.

  14. Localising the nitrogen imprint of the Paris food supply: the potential of organic farming and changes in human diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billen, G.; Garnier, J.; Thieu, V.; Silvestre, M.; Barles, S.; Chatzimpiros, P.

    2011-11-01

    The Seine watershed has long been the food-supplying hinterland of Paris, providing most of the animal and vegetal protein consumed in the city. Nowadays, because of the land specialisation of agriculture made possible by the shift from manure-based to synthetic nitrogen fertilisation, the Seine watershed, although it exports 80% of its huge cereal production, still provides most of the cereal consumed by the Paris agglomeration. The meat and milk supply originate, however, mainly from regions in the North and West of France, specialised in animal farming and importing about 30% of their feed from South America. As it works today, this system is responsible for a severe nitrate contamination of surface groundwater resources. Herein two scenarios of re-localising Paris's food supply are explored, based on organic farming and local provision of animal feed. We show that for the Seine watershed it is technically possible to design an agricultural system able to provide all the plant- and animal-based food required by the population, to deliver sub-root water meeting the drinking water standards and still to export a significant proportion of its production to areas less suitable for cereal cultivation. Decreasing the share of animal products in the human diet has a strong impact on the nitrogen imprint of urban food supply.

  15. Monitoring Polaris and Seeing Conditions at PARI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crawford, April

    2016-01-01

    Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) was originally built by NASA to track and collect data from satellites. The location in the Pisgah National Forest was chosen due to the excellent ability of the surrounding mountains to block radio interference and light pollution. The PARI observatory has been monitoring Polaris for over 10 years and has amassed a large collection of images of the star and those surrounding it. While several telescopes have been used throughout the project, we are currently using a Omni XLT Series Celestron and an SBIG ST-8300M CCD camera with a 0.70 arcsecond/pixel ratio. The software is run on Windows, however, we will be making a switch to Linux and implementing a new program to control the camera. The new images, once converted to a usable format (ST10 to FITS), can be automatically fed into an in-house Java program to track the variability of the star and simultaneously determine the seeing conditions experienced on the campus. Since we have several years worth of data, the program will also be used to provide a history of variability and seeing conditions. We ultimately hope to be able to track the possible changes in variability of Polaris, as it's current location on the HR diagram is being studied. The data could also prove valuable for our on-site scientists and many visiting students to study on campus. We are also developing a relative scale for our seeing conditions, accompanied by FWHM measurements in arcseconds that will can be compared to those of surrounding observatories in mountainous areas.

  16. France declares energy independence

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, M.P.; Starr, R.

    1983-03-01

    France has adhered to its policy of pursuing nuclear energy, using the same pressurized light-water reactor technology developed in the US, and going beyond to develop an operating breeder reactor, the Phenix. Pride and pragmatism, of which France has a full share, and petroleum, of which she has none, are the combination which has made the French nuclear program successful. The major difference between the French and US nuclear programs is institutional and political. The author concludes from his comparison that the US approach of private development and regulation is not appropriate. (DCK)

  17. Ethics committees in France.

    PubMed

    Isambert, F A

    1989-08-01

    Leading biologists and physicians in France have been considering bioethical problems for several decades. In 1983 an important new forum for bioethical discussion in France was created, with the establishment of the Comité Consultatif National d'Ethique pour les Sciences de la Vie et de la Santé (C.C.N.E.). This committee has produced numerous important opinions and reports on such topics as research involving human subjects, fetal tissue research, and the new reproductive technologies. At the local level the discussion of bioethical questions is carried on by ethics committees, which are charged with the responsibility of reviewing research protocols.

  18. Theatrical anatomy: Duverney in Paris, 1670-1720.

    PubMed

    Guerrini, Anita

    2009-03-01

    During the reign of Louis XIV, anatomical demonstrations became a public attraction in Paris. At the Jardin du Roi, the star performer was Joseph-Guichard Duverney, who attracted hundreds to his anatomy lectures. Simultaneously, Duverney also instructed the Dauphin and his courtiers, lectured to medical students at the Hôtel-Dieu hospital (making off with corpses in the process) and dissected before the Paris Academy of Sciences. Duverney's dramatic, rhetorical and anatomical skills made him the best-known man of science in Louis XIV's Paris.

  19. France. [CME Country Reports].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council of Europe, Strasbourg (France). Documentation Center for Education in Europe.

    In France, the 1882 Compulsory Education Act includes both French and foreign children. Since then, the need to go further than this general principle of non-discrimination and to undertake specific action for immigrants, both adults and children, has been recognized. Since 1970, the Ministry of Education has been directly responsible for this…

  20. Urban Sociology in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amiot, Michel

    1986-01-01

    Divides the history of urban sociology in France into three periods: (1) functionalism, which lasted from 1910 until the 1960s, (2) neo-Marxist socioeconomics lasting from 1968 until 1979, and (3) anthropological approach which is still dominant. Reviews theoretical perspectives and research characteristic of each period. (JDH)

  1. Tidal Power in France

    SciTech Connect

    Frau, J.P. )

    1993-03-01

    This presentation discusses the tidal power resource of France and the successes of the La Rance Plant. The topics of the presentation include power generation, adaptation of output to grid requirements, plant installation, environmental factors, La Rance success, and a review of major world wide tidal energy projects in the UK, Canada, South Korea, India, and Argentina.

  2. Country Profiles. France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois-Pichat, Jean

    A profile of France is sketched in this paper. Emphasis is placed on the nature, scope, and accomplishments of population activities in the country. Topics and sub-topics include: (1) location and description of the country; (2) population--size, growth patterns, age structure, urban/rural distribution, ethnic and religious composition, education,…

  3. Chagas disease, France.

    PubMed

    Lescure, François-Xavier; Canestri, Ana; Melliez, Hugues; Jauréguiberry, Stéphane; Develoux, Michel; Dorent, Richard; Guiard-Schmid, Jean-Baptiste; Bonnard, Philippe; Ajana, Faïza; Rolla, Valeria; Carlier, Yves; Gay, Frederick; Elghouzzi, Marie-Hélène; Danis, Martin; Pialoux, Gilles

    2008-04-01

    Chagas disease (CD) is endemic to Latin America; its prevalence is highest in Bolivia. CD is sometimes seen in the United States and Canada among migrants from Latin America, whereas it is rare in Europe. We report 9 cases of imported CD in France from 2004 to 2006.

  4. Traveling in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Philyaw, Henry; And Others

    This minicourse guide for teachers of French is intended to help motivate and prepare students for travel in France. Activities are outlined in eleven related areas, including (1) planning for the trip, (2) currency, (3) going through customs, (4) tipping, (5) shopping, (6) guided tours, (7) touring on your own, (8) social life and entertainment,…

  5. [Stays in Paris of professors and students from the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela (Spain), 1900-1936].

    PubMed

    Beatriz Arias, Brasa; Landín Pérez, Mariana

    2011-10-01

    In the early twentieth century, if there were an European Capital of biomedical research, it was definitely Paris. It was in this city where microbiology was born in the 19th century due to the crucial influence of Louis Pasteur. In 1888 he founded the Pasteur Institute in Paris where the rabies vaccine, that Pasteur himself had discovered in 1885, was administrated. This institution was also a place to continue his research on infectious diseases and to disseminate its findings. It is a private non-profit state-approved foundation that has attracted along the years many scientists from France and abroad who have been traditionally called "pasteuriens". So it was a world reference centre which has produced important scientific discoveries at a rapid pace and where resources both material and human, were abundant. The Pasteur institute therefore became one of the favourite research facilities of teachers and students from Spanish universities during the first third of the twentieth century, thanks to new regulations that encouraged training abroad. Scholarship policy promoted by the Spanish Government by an organization called Junta para la Ampliación de Estudios e Investigaciones Científicas (Council for Higher Studies and Scientific Research from, 1907 to 1936) formed scientists abroad. The Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela sent some of its members to the French capital between 1905 and 1933. We found that the vast majority chose the Pasteur Institute to conduct the studies of biological chemistry and drug synthesis, but always dependent of the Faculty of Pharmacy of Paris. Our study focuses on teachers and students who went to Paris, the dates, the course of their scientific stay and how these studies influenced their later work, once they returned to the Faculty of Pharmacy of Santiago de Compostela.

  6. Future Heat Waves in Paris Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaulant, A.; Lemonsu, A.; Somot, S.; Masson, V.

    2010-12-01

    Cities are particularly vulnerable to heat waves, firstly because they concentrate the majority of the population and, secondly because the heat island that characterizes the urban climate exacerbates heat wave effects. This work is part of the interdisciplinary VURCA project (Vulnerability of cities to heat waves), which deals with the evolution of heat wave events in the context of global warming, urban vulnerability and adaptation strategies. The aim of this study is to analyse urban heat wave events in present climate (1950-2009) and their evolution in an enhanced greenhouse gazes future climate (2010-2100). We used daily observations of temperature from several stations covering Paris metropolitan area and climate projections following three different IPCC-SRES scenarios (B1, A1B, A2) and issued from several ENSEMBLES regional climate models. The heat wave definition is based on the indexes of the operational French warning system. A heat wave is detected within observed or simulated time-series by a heat wave peak, when the temperatures exceed the value of the 99.9th percentile. Its duration is determined by all adjacent days to this peak, for which the temperatures are not durably smaller than the 99.9th percentile value minus 2 °C. The 99.9th percentile threshold is inferred from quantile-quantile plots produced for each climate model in comparison with observations for the reference period 1950-2000. Heat waves have been extracted within observations and 12 climatic simulations. The number of heat wave events and cumulated HW days per year have been calculated, the maximum being seven heat waves cumulating more than 60 HW days in one year in the case of the A2 scenario and until 50 days in the case of the more moderate A1B scenario. From 2050, the occurrence of three or four HW events per year is becoming the norm all scenarios taken together. The evolution of heat wave features has been analysed, highlighting the large variability of the climatic

  7. Paris [ital N[bar N

    SciTech Connect

    Pignone, M.; Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Vinh Mau, R. Division de Physique Theorique, Institut de Physique Nucleaire, 91406 Orsay Cedex LPTPE, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 )

    1994-12-01

    The inner part of the Paris nucleon-antinucleon optical potential has been reanalyzed in view of new experimental constraints. These are mainly provided by accurate measurements of the analyzing power in charge-exchange scattering, [ital [bar p]p][r arrow][ital [bar n]n], together with elastic [ital [bar p]p][r arrow][ital [bar p]p] polarization data, allowing a better determination of the isospin dependence of the short-range forces. The fit is performed with a set of 3632 data. The good quality of the fit is illustrated over a large sample of observables for laboratory momenta from 180 to 910 MeV/[ital c]. Curves of the potentials and of the phase shifts are shown as well as the parameters of the potentials and effective range formula coefficients for the [ital S] and [ital P] waves. The spectrum of resonances and bound states predicted by our potential is also displayed. In particular, a bound state having the [ital AX](1565) quantum numbers is found with the right mass.

  8. Report from France

    PubMed Central

    Régnier, François; Rouzioux, Jean-Marc

    1983-01-01

    The authors consider four aspects of contemporary medical ethics in France: abortion and contraception; artificial insemination; suicide and euthanasia, and drug trials on healthy human volunteers, and then outline the various ethical codes which apply to French doctors. Many in France who accept technological progress are unwilling or unable to acknowledge the impact upon medical ethics of this progress. The conflict is epitomised by the new role being demanded from the doctor. Where formerly he was regarded as the guardian of traditional values today he is urged to adapt, to change, to take account of the technological innovations in medicine. `In such a situation,' the authors ask, `how is it possible to avoid a feeling of uneasiness?' PMID:6352945

  9. [Primary care in France].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain.

  10. [Primary care in France].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Sagrado, T

    2016-01-01

    The poor planning of health care professionals in Spain has led to an exodus of doctors leaving the country. France is one of the chosen countries for Spanish doctors to develop their professional career. The French health care system belongs to the Bismarck model. In this model, health care system is financed jointly by workers and employers through payroll deduction. The right to health care is linked to the job, and provision of services is done by sickness-funds controlled by the Government. Primary care in France is quite different from Spanish primary care. General practitioners are independent workers who have the right to set up a practice anywhere in France. This lack of regulation has generated a great problem of "medical desertification" with problems of health care access and inequalities in health. French doctors do not want to work in rural areas or outside cities because "they are not value for money". Medical salary is linked to professional activity. The role of doctors is to give punctual care. Team work team does not exist, and coordination between primary and secondary care is lacking. Access to diagnostic tests, hospitals and specialists is unlimited. Duplicity of services, adverse events and inefficiencies are the norm. Patients can freely choose their doctor, and they have a co-payment for visits and hospital care settings. Two years training is required to become a general practitioner. After that, continuing medical education is compulsory, but it is not regulated. Although the French medical Health System was named by the WHO in 2000 as the best health care system in the world, is it not that good. While primary care in Spain has room for improvement, there is a long way for France to be like Spain. PMID:26304179

  11. Pharmacy Education in France

    PubMed Central

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine

    2008-01-01

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a “diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie” This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice. PMID:19325952

  12. Pharmacy education in France.

    PubMed

    Bourdon, Olivier; Ekeland, Catherine; Brion, Françoise

    2008-12-15

    In France, to practice as a pharmacist, one needs a "diplome d'état de Docteur en Pharmacie" This degree is awarded after 6 or 9 years of pharmacy studies, depending on the option chosen by the student. The degree is offered only at universities and is recognized in France as well as throughout the European Union. Each university in France is divided into faculties called Unité de Formation et de Recherche (UFR). There are 24 faculties of pharmacy or UFRs de pharmacie. A national committee develops a pharmacy education program at the national level and each faculty adapts this program according to its specific features and means (eg, faculty, buildings). The number of students accepted in the second year is determined each year by a Government decree (numerus clausus). Successive placements, totalling 62 weeks, progressively familiarize the student with professional practice, and enable him/her to acquire the required competencies, such as drug monitoring and educating and counselling patients. Challenges facing community pharmacies in the next 10 years are patient education, home health care, and orthopaedics; in hospital pharmacies, empowering pharmacists to supervise and validate all prescriptions; and finally, research in pharmacy practice.

  13. Figures and Institutions of the neurological sciences in Paris from 1800 to 1950. Part IV: Psychiatry and psychology.

    PubMed

    Poirier, J; Clarac, F; Barbara, J-G; Broussolle, E

    2012-05-01

    We present a short historical review on the major institutions and figures who contributed to make Paris a renowned centre of physiology and neurology during the XIXth and the first half of the XXth century. We purposely chose to focus on the period 1800-1950, as 1800 corresponds to the actual beginning of neurosciences, and as 1950 marks their exponential rise. Our presentation is divided into four chapters, matching the main disciplines that have progressed and contributed most to the knowledge we have of the brain sciences: anatomy, physiology, neurology, and psychiatry-psychology. The present article is the fourth of the four parts of this review, which deals with the chapter on psychiatry and psychology. When the French Revolution occurred, only a few institutions were taking care of the mentally ill. In the Paris area, these included Maison Royale de Charenton, Les Petites Maisons, and one of the departments of larger hospitals such as Hôtel-Dieu, the Salpêtrière Hospital and Bicêtre Hospital. One of the founders of psychiatry in Paris at that time and thereafter was Philippe Pinel (1745-1826) who was the first to distinguish insane/alienated patients from misfits, beggars, and other vagabonds. During the first half of the XIXth century, his student Jean-Étienne Esquirol (1772-1840) also played a major role with his treatise on mental diseases and the 1838 law and the creation of asylums in all parts of France. Alienists were in general caregivers and learned by themselves. In contrast, at the academic level, the emerging disciplines psychiatry and neurology were very close to each other in the second half of the XIXth century, the best example being Jules Baillarger (1809-1890). The actual development of psychiatry and psychology and the foundation of psychoanalysis later in the XIXth century and in the first half of the XXth century owed much to several European doctors and scientists, particularly those from British institutions and from German

  14. Sub-Saharan African migrants living with HIV acquired after migration, France, ANRS PARCOURS study, 2012 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Desgrées-du-Loû, Annabel; Pannetier, Julie; Ravalihasy, Andrainolo; Gosselin, Anne; Supervie, Virginie; Panjo, Henri; Bajos, Nathalie; Lert, France; Lydié, Nathalie; Dray-Spira, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    We estimated the proportion of migrants from sub-Saharan Africa who acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) while living in France. Life-event and clinical information was collected in 2012 and 2013 from a random sample of HIV-infected outpatients born in sub-Saharan Africa and living in the Paris region. We assumed HIV infection in France if at least one of the following was fulfilled: (i) HIV diagnosis at least 11 years after arrival in France, (ii) at least one negative HIV test in France, (iii) sexual debut after arrival in France. Otherwise, time of HIV infection was based on statistical modelling of first CD4(+) T-cell count; infection in France was assumed if more than 50% (median scenario) or more than 95% (conservative scenario) of modelled infection times occurred after migration. We estimated that 49% of 898 HIV-infected adults born in sub-Saharan Africa (95% confidence interval (CI): 45-53) in the median and 35% (95% CI: 31-39) in the conservative scenario acquired HIV while living in France. This proportion was higher in men than women (44% (95% CI: 37-51) vs 30% (95% CI: 25-35); conservative scenario) and increased with length of stay in France. These high proportions highlight the need for improved HIV policies targeting migrants. PMID:26607135

  15. Structural investigations in the Massif-Central, France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scanvic, J. Y.

    1974-01-01

    This survey covered the French Massif-Central (where crystalline and volcanic rocks outcrop) and its surrounding sedimentaries, Bassin de Paris, Bassin d'Aquitaine and Rhodanian valley. One objective was the mapping of fracturing and the surveying of its relationship with known ore deposits. During this survey it was found that ERTS imagery outlines lithology in some sedimentary basins. On the other hand, in a basement area, under temperature climate conditions, lithology is rarely expressed. These observations can be related to the fact that band 5 gives excellent results above sedimentary basins in France and generally band 7 is the most useful in a basement area. Several examples show clearly the value of ERTS imagery for mapping linear features and circular structures. All the main fractures are identified with the exception of new ones found both in sedimentaries and basement areas. Other interesting findings concern sun elevation which, stereoscopic effect not being possible, simulates relief in a better way under certain conditions.

  16. The Rank-Ferenczi relationship, as seen from France.

    PubMed

    Lugrin, Yves

    2012-12-01

    Seen from France, where Rank's "American" work is not well known, the Rank-Ferenczi relationship does not allow to state that the two learned colleagues were the best friends. Rank met Ferenczi in 1908, but their most valuable and fruitful working relationship is limited to the 1922-1924 time period. Their working relationship must be read in light of the unique transference links of each to Freud, and in light of the tormented history of the analytic movement, especially after the First World War. The sensible reader will not forget that after the fast extinction of their short collaboration they continued their own works in their own ways, Otto Rank in Paris and in America and Sándor Ferenczi in Budapest. No more friends, nor enemies, but both, in a different style, brave and creative analysts.

  17. The Rank-Ferenczi relationship, as seen from France.

    PubMed

    Lugrin, Yves

    2012-12-01

    Seen from France, where Rank's "American" work is not well known, the Rank-Ferenczi relationship does not allow to state that the two learned colleagues were the best friends. Rank met Ferenczi in 1908, but their most valuable and fruitful working relationship is limited to the 1922-1924 time period. Their working relationship must be read in light of the unique transference links of each to Freud, and in light of the tormented history of the analytic movement, especially after the First World War. The sensible reader will not forget that after the fast extinction of their short collaboration they continued their own works in their own ways, Otto Rank in Paris and in America and Sándor Ferenczi in Budapest. No more friends, nor enemies, but both, in a different style, brave and creative analysts. PMID:23175027

  18. Highly time-resolved trace element concentrations in aerosols during the Megapoli Paris campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furger, Markus; Visser, Suzanne; Slowik, Jay G.; Crippa, Monica; Poulain, Laurent; Appel, Karen; Flechsig, Uwe; Prevot, Andre S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Trace elements contribute typically only a few percent to the total mass of air pollutants, however, they can affect the environment in significant ways, especially those that are toxic. Furthermore, they are advantageous with respect to a refinement of source apportionment when measured with high time resolution and appropriate size segregation. This approach is especially advantageous in an urban environment with numerous time-variant emission sources distributed across a relatively narrow space, as is typically the setting of a megacity. Two 1-month long field campaigns took place in the framework of the Megapoli project in Paris, France, in the summer of 2009 and in the winter of 2010. Rotating drum impactors (RDI) were operated at two sites in each campaign, one urban, the other one suburban. The RDI segregated the aerosols into three size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1 and PM1-0.1) and sampled with 2-hour time resolution. The samples were analyzed with synchrotron radiation induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) at the synchrotron facilities of Paul Scherrer Institute (SLS) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (HASYLAB), where a broad range of elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Sr, Zr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Pb) was analyzed for each size range. Time series of the analyzed elements for the different sites and campaigns were prepared to characterize the aerosol trace element composition and temporal behavior for the different weather situations and urban environments. They allow for the distinction of regional vs. local sources and transport, and provide a basis for source apportionment calculations. Local and regional contributions of traffic, including re-suspension, break wear and exhaust, wood burning, marine and other sources will be discussed. Indications of long-range transport from Polish coal emissions in the city center of Paris were also found.

  19. Medicolegal anthropology in France.

    PubMed

    Işcan, M Y; Quatrehomme, G

    1999-03-15

    Medicolegal anthropology has a very long history in France. Basic studies on human skeletal remains started as early as the 18th century. The 19th century produced many medical theses and research papers on age, sex, as well as stature estimation. The research proliferated in the first 60 years of the 20th century, much of which is still in use in France and abroad. The later half of the 20th century, however, was dormant in research on human skeletal biology at a time when forensic anthropology was becoming an active field worldwide. In the last decade, medicolegal anthropology took a different perspective, independent of its traditional roots. Research and practice have both been in the professional domain of forensic physicians unlike the situation in many other countries. Population based studies requiring large databases or skeletal collections have diminished considerably. Thus, most research has been on factors of individualization such as trauma, time since death, crime scene investigation, and facial reconstruction. It is suggested that there is a need for cooperation between the forensic physician and anthropologist to further research. This also encourages anthropologists to carry out research and practice that can fulfill the needs of the medicolegal system of the country. PMID:10356772

  20. Battle of France WWII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadhath, Arpitha Rao

    The purpose of this thesis is to build an interactive Geographical Information System (GIS) tool, relating to the series of events that occurred during the Battle of France World War II. The tool gives us an insight about the countries involved in the battle, their allies and their strategies. This tool was created to use it as a one stop source of information regarding all the important battles that took place, which lead to the fall of France. The tool brings together the maps of all the countries involved. Integrated with each map is the data relevant to that map. The data for each country includes the place of attack, the strategies used during the attack, and the kind of warfare. The tool also makes use of HTML files to give all the information, along with the images from the time of the war and a footage which explains everything about the particular battle. The tool was build using JAVA, along with the use of MOJO (Map Objects Java Objects) to develop Maps of each of the countries. MOJO is developed by ESRI (Environmental Science Research Institute) which makes it easier to add data to the maps. It also makes highlighting important information easier making use of pop-up windows, charts and infographics. HTML files were designed making use of the open-source template developed by Bootstrap. The tool is built in such a way that the interface is simple and easy for the user to use and understand.

  1. France: late abortion.

    PubMed

    Gaudry, D; Sadan, G

    1989-01-01

    In France, under the terms of a law passed by Parliament in 1975, a woman may have an abortion up to 12 weeks of pregnancy if she is a French resident and, in the event that she is a minor, she has parental consent. The woman must also have 2 medical consultations, a week apart. The woman is reimbursed by the state up to 70% of the cost of the abortion. After 12 weeks, abortion, except for therapeutic abortion, under the terms of Article 317 of the Criminal Code, is a crime, punishable by 6 months to 10 years in prison, a fine of between 1800 and 250,000 Francs, and loss of professional license. Moreover, Article 647 of the Health Code bans any advertising, incitement or propaganda for abortion or abortion-inducing products. Many French women go to Britain or Holland for abortions after 12 weeks, but they face the financial burden of traveling as well as the difficulties of getting help in a strange country and the stigma of having done something illegal. The Mouvement Francais pour le Planning Familial, which won the legalization of contraception in 1967, is now fighting for legal abortion as well as the distribution of information about sexuality, contraception, and abortion in the schools. 2 charges of incitement to abortion have been brought against the organization.

  2. HYDROCARBON MATERIALS OF LIKELY INTERSTELLAR ORIGIN FROM THE PARIS METEORITE

    SciTech Connect

    Merouane, S.; Djouadi, Z.; D'Hendecourt, L. Le Sergeant; Borg, J.; Zanda, B. E-mail: zahia.djouadi@ias.u-psud.fr

    2012-09-10

    We have examined some grains from the Paris meteorite through infrared and Raman micro-spectroscopy in order to investigate their carbonaceous and mineralogical components. In the mid- as well as far-infrared regions, the raw and global spectra of Paris resemble those of CM meteorites. However, we have obtained rather peculiar infrared spectra for some aromatic-rich micron-sized fragments of Paris displaying a very good match between its organic signatures both in the 3.4 {mu}m and 6 {mu}m regions, and the ones observed from the diffuse interstellar medium infrared sources toward the Galactic center, suggesting that this meteorite may have indeed preserved some organic matter of interstellar origin.

  3. Digitising the Patrimonial Collections of the Paris Observatory Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurenceau, A.

    2015-04-01

    In the past few years, there have been many emerging digital library projects, and digitising heritage collections has become a major issue for libraries. Digitisation supports the preservation of collections and facilitates accessibility to the public. Furthermore, the richness and variety of the Paris Observatory's patrimonial collections, which includes ancient books, periodicals, manuscripts, archives, and iconographic documents, makes it an invaluable source for research on the history of astronomy. This is why the Paris Observatory library has started work on a digitisation policy and has since launched several digitisation projects.

  4. Women in physics in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-12-01

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  5. Old Age Policy in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guillemard, Anne-Marie

    Old-age policy in France has evolved historically in three critical dimensions that also correspond generally to post-World War II developments in France: the right to retirement (pensions); improved living conditions (e.g., autonomy, housing); and continued participation in the labor force. The last focus is currently a controversial one, given…

  6. Women in physics in France

    SciTech Connect

    Pierron-Bohnes, Véronique

    2015-12-31

    We present six associations and entities working in France on issues of women in physics: the Women and Physics Commission, French Physical Society; Women in Nuclear (WiN) France; Women and Science Association; Mission for the Place of Women at CNRS; Parity, Diversity, and Women Network, CEA; and the Network of University Equality-Diversity Representatives.

  7. Theories of genetics and evolution and the development of medical entomology in France (1900-1939).

    PubMed

    Gachelin, G; Opinel, A

    2008-12-01

    The development of entomology and medical entomology in France is discussed in the context of the prevalence of Lamarckian ideas concerning heredity and evolution. Lamarckian ideas have greatly influenced research carried out at the Institut Pasteur by Emile Roubaud and more generally in Felix Mesnil's laboratory, as well as research in general entomology at the Museum national d'histoire naturelle. By contrast, it did not influence research and teaching at the Faculté de médecine of Paris or that of physicians more generally including those in overseas Instituts Pasteur, which clearly kept away from theoretical discussion concerning the origin of variations and adaptation in insects of medical interest.

  8. Frances Mary hodgkins.

    PubMed

    Laurie, A J

    2001-01-01

    SUMMARY Frances Hodgkins was one of a number of expatriate New Zealanders during the early twentieth century who lived in Britain or Europe, where it was easier to find supportive friendship circles for their lives as artists or as people attracted to their own sex. In this article, I explore the primacy of women in Hodgkins' life and read this as lesbian and argue that many of these relationships were sexual, from the evidence of her letters, which suggest that she moved in lesbian worlds of work and friendship. I also discuss the financial and emotional support given by her male homosexual as well as her lesbian friends who made her life as an artist possible.

  9. Groundwater management in France

    SciTech Connect

    Margat, J. )

    1987-01-01

    Groundwater, like other extensive natural and renewable resources, easily accessible and, at the same time, vulnerable, has to be managed so as to reconcile the unique resource with its many users, and its long-term preservation with short-term utilization requirements. Under the natural, legal, and economic conditions prevailing in France, where groundwater constitutes a large part of water production and resources, where there are tens of thousands of economic developers and users of a few hundred natural groundwater management units, such management concerns these users as well as the public and collective authorities that control the users activities for the common present and future good at all. Legislative, financial, and educational means are applied simultaneously to preserve and protect the quality and quantity of the groundwater and at times to encourage its use and stimulate its development.

  10. [Anisakids and human anisakiasis. 2. Investigation of the anisakids of commercial fish in the district of Paris].

    PubMed

    Huang, W Y

    1988-01-01

    1,173 fish belonging to 13 species were examined during 1986-1987, during a survey conducted among commercial marine fish in the Paris area (France). Anisakis simplex L3 were found in 10 different species, and most frequently in herring (Clupea harengus) 82.55% of 682 fish, red fish (Sebastes marinus) 86.11% of 36 fish, and hake (Merluccius merluccius) 88.57% of 35 fish, and in high number (average 8.8, 18.4 and 31 L3 per fish). Pseudoterranova decipiens L3 were recovered from 7 different species of fish but always in small amounts. Hysterothylacium spp. larvae were found in very high number out of 11 species of fish. They were inoculated to adult rats, but failed to develop. A 30 degree C temperature killed these larvae, avoiding any risk of human infestation. Few Contracaecum larvae were found in whiting (Merlangus merlangus). PMID:3190121

  11. From the "Phoenix of Legends" to the "Ultimate Monument" of the times: stadia, spectators, and urban development in postwar Paris.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the renovation and construction of the Parc des Princes and the Stade de France in post-Second World War Paris. The history of the two stadia testifies to a shift in the envisioned role of stadia in the Parisian basin between the late 1960s and the end of the twentieth century and stands as evidence for the emergence of new urban planning actors. Both stadia were also critiqued as symbols of broader problems with Parisian urbanization, notably as manifestations of anti-democratic planning processes. At the same time, the Parc and the Stade also reflected an emerging consensus over the role of spectator sport in society, accompanied by attempts to re-envision mass sporting spectatorship as a more democratic and familial practice. This article thus situates the two stadia within the history of Parisian urbanization and within broader global urbanizing processes.

  12. Family history of immigration from a tuberculosis endemic country and low family income are associated with a higher BCG vaccination coverage in Ile-de-France region, France.

    PubMed

    Guthmann, Jean-Paul; Chauvin, Pierre; Le Strat, Yann; Soler, Marion; Fonteneau, Laure; Lévy-Bruhl, Daniel

    2013-11-19

    After withdrawal of multipuncture BCG device from the French market in January 2006, vaccination coverage (VC) with the intradermal device has dropped and since remained sub-optimal in Ile-de-France, the only region of mainland France where BCG is recommended to all children. We conducted a cross-sectional study to identify socio-economic factors associated with BCG VC in children of Paris metropolitan area born after January 2006. Two-stage random sampling was used to include 425 children up to 5 years old from Paris and its suburbs. Information was collected through face-to-face interviews and vaccination status confirmed by a vaccination document. Poisson regression analyzed the association between VC and potential determinants. VC of children from families with the lowest incomes (first quartile of family income/consumption unit (CU) (<883 €) was close to 100% regardless of family origin. In families with higher incomes (≥ 883 €/CU), VC was significantly higher among children born to families from a tuberculosis highly endemic country (98.2%) compared with other children (76.2%) (p=0.004). Children of low socio-economic background as well as those with a family history of immigration, regardless of family income, are correctly identified as being at high risk of tuberculosis and properly vaccinated with BCG in this area.

  13. [Vauquelin: route from a thatched cottage to Institute of France].

    PubMed

    Lafont, O

    2014-07-01

    Nicolas Louis Vauquelin was born in a little thatched cottage in Saint-André-d'Hébertot, in Normandy, on May 16th 1763. He went to Rouen and then to Paris where he met Antoine de Fourcroy and became his co-worker and his friend. They published together sixty articles, and he published alone a hundred and twenty articles. He became a pharmacist in 1787. He occupied simultaneously or not many important University positions. He was Associate Professor at École polytechnique, Professor at École des mines, Professor at Collège de France, Director of School of Pharmacy, Professor at Museum d'histoire naturelle, Professor at Faculty of Medicine. He became Empire Knight, Member of Institute of France, Member and President of Academy of Medicine, Member and President of Society of Pharmacy. He discovered and isolated chrome and discovered beryllium. He was a very efficient professor and many of his students were well-known scientists. He died on November 14th 1829.

  14. The Cabaret in Paris Life "Fin-de-Siecle."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buzash, Michael D.

    College-level history courses can be improved by including instruction about social history, particularly the leisure time activities of the dominant cultural group. Paris of the late 19th century had the well-deserved reputation of being the pleasure capital of Europe. This reputation developed in spite of the disparity that existed between the…

  15. The Magic Factory: How MGM Made "An American in Paris."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knox, Donald

    This book covers the aesthetic and production aspects of the 1951 musical film, "An American in Paris," through interviews with many of the production specialists who helped make this motion picture. The film represents the genre of the color Hollywood musical. It was the winner of six Academy Awards, featured a major star and a developing star,…

  16. [Nepal earthquake: nursing missions in Paris and Kathmandu].

    PubMed

    Poux, Chrystel; Sergent, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    A violent earthquake hit Nepal on 25th April 2015, injuring and killing thousands. A nurse manager and a nurse, both working in anaesthesia and reservists in the French Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Organisation, describe their mission: one working in the crisis centre in Paris, the other on the ground, providing assistance to French victims.

  17. The letters of Alix Joffroy (1844-1908), a medical intern at Lariboisière's Hospital at the time of the Commune of Paris.

    PubMed

    Tiberghien, Denis

    2016-02-01

    Since opening in 1848, Lariboisière's Hospital was strongly associated with the history of Paris and especially with the terrible days of the siege of Paris and the fights of the Commune. On the day after the surrender, Alix Joffroy wrote his first letter to his mother. He described the events as he experienced them, expressing his feelings about the causes of this political and military disaster and his experience there as an intern. Some weeks after the defeat of France by the Prussians, humbled Parisians attacked governmental troops. From March to May 1871 an improvised insurrectionary movement, The Commune of Paris, had taken power in the capital During the Bloody Week from 21 to 28 May 1871; this movement was suppressed by the Versaillaise Army. In his second letter, Joffroy related with great realism the tooth and nail fighting at the barricades and then the savage repression by the Army of the Communards around Lariboisière's Hospital. Two letters preciously preserved by Alix Joffroy's descendants give this man's unique direct account of a tragic period of the 19th century.

  18. Lead isotopes decipher multiple origins within single PM10 samples in the atmosphere of Paris.

    PubMed

    Widory, David

    2006-03-01

    The atmospheric concentration of lead (Pb) in France has strongly decreased since its legal reduction in gasoline in 2000. Pb-isotope ratios are effective tracers of its origin. Pb in atmospheric particulate matter with a diameter <10 microm (PM10) in Paris is shown to have a dual origin: (1) an intrinsic fraction (leached by hydrofluoric acid) forms the cores of particles and (2) a labile fraction (complexation with hydrobromic acid) represents generally >90 % (mass) of the bulk Pb and aggregates on pre-existing particles in the atmosphere. Characterisation of the emissions from different pollution sources, however, indicates that Pb is entirely contained in the labile fraction. Our results show that, in air, the intrinsic fraction is consistently more radiogenic (the degree of enrichment being greater in summer), hinting at different origins. The labile fraction clearly identifies industrial activity as its main source, but the intrinsic fraction may result from either a different industrial-pollution source or, more likely, from a natural end-member (i.e. pre-industrial sediment).

  19. The "Casa" of Sevres, France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltuch, Margot

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the author's teaching experiences during the 1930s at "La Maison des Enfants," a Montessori school in Sevres, France. Provides photographs and descriptions of the school day, outdoor activities, gardening, cooking and eating, practical activities, and creative activities. (MDM)

  20. Origin of particulate matter and gaseous precursors in the Paris Megacity: Results from intensive campaigns, long term measurements and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekmann, Matthias; Petetin, Hervé; Zhang, Qijie; Prevot, André S. H.; Sciare, Jean; Gros, Valérie; Ghersi, Véronique; Rosso, Amandine; Crippa, Monica; Zotter, Peter; Freutel, Fredericke; Poulain, Laurent; Freney, Evelyne; Sellegri, Karine; Drewnick, Frank; Borbon, Agnès; Wiedensohler, Aflred; Pandis, Spyros N.; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-04-01

    Uncertainties on the origin of primary and secondary particulate matter and its gaseous precursors in megacities is still large and needs to be reduced. A detailed characterization of air quality in Paris (France), a megacity of more than 10 million inhabitants, during two one month intensive campaigns (MEGAPOLI) and from additional one year observations (PARTICULATE and FRANCIPOL), revealed that about 70% of the fine particulate matter (PM) at urban background is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions. While advection of sulfate is well documented for other megacities, there was a surprisingly high contribution from long-range transport for both nitrate and organic aerosol. The data set of urban local and advected PM concentrations in the Paris area were used for a thorough evaluation of the CHIMERE model and revealed error compensation for the local and advected components of organic matter and nitrate. During spring time, CHIMERE simulations overestimate the sensitivity of ammonium nitrate peaks to NH3, because (i) they underestimate the urban background NH3 levels, probably due to neglecting enhanced NH3 emissions for larger temperatures, and because they overestimate HNO3. However, from an ensemble of mobile Max-DOAS NO2 column and airborne NOy measurements around Paris, no clear sign on a NOx emission bias in the TNO-Airparif data set was made evident. The origin of organic PM was investigated by a comprehensive analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), radiocarbon and tracer measurements during two intensive campaigns. Primary fossil fuel combustion emissions contributed less than 20% in winter and 40% in summer to carbonaceous fine PM, unexpectedly little for a megacity. Cooking activities and, during winter, residential wood burning are the major primary organic PM sources. This analysis suggests that the major part of secondary organic aerosol is of modern origin, i.e. from biogenic precursors and from wood burning. Implementation

  1. Undocumented Youth Living Between the Lines: Urban Governance, Social Policy, and the Boundaries of Legality in New York City and Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruszczyk, Stephen P.

    This dissertation compares the transition to adulthood of undocumented youth in New York and Paris, along with analysis of the construction of illegality in each city. In both the United States and France, national restrictions against undocumented immigrants increasingly take the form of deportations and limiting access to social rights. New York City and Paris, however, mitigate the national restrictions in important but different ways. They construct "illegality" differently, leading to different young adult outcomes and lived experiences of "illegality." This project uses seven years of multi-site ethnographic data to trace the effects of these mitigated "illegalities" on two dozen (male) youth. We can begin to understand the variation in these undocumented young men's social lives within and between cities by centering on (1) governance structure, the labyrinth of obtaining rights associated with citizenship, (2) citizenship, the possibility of gaining a legal status, steered in particular by civil society actors, and (3) identity, here centered on youths' negotiation of social mobility with the fear of enforcement. Biographical narratives show the shifts in social memberships as youth transition to new countries, new restrictions at adulthood, and new, limiting work. In New York, most social prospects are flattened as future possibilities are whittled down to ones focusing on family and wages. Undocumented status propels New York informants into an accelerated transition to adulthood, as they take on adult responsibilities of work, paying bills, and developing families. In Paris, youth experience more divergent processes of transitioning to adulthood. Those who are more socially integrated use a civil society actor to garner a (temporary) legal status, which does not lead to work opportunities. Those who are less socially integrated face isolation as they wait to gain status and access to better jobs. Paris undocumented youth are thus characterized by a

  2. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions - case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, Konstantinos; Valari, Myrto; Engardt, Magnuz; Lacressonniere, Gwendoline; Vautard, Robert; Andersson, Camilla

    2016-02-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modelled at 4 and 1 km horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine-resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional-scale emission projections by comparing modelled pollutant concentrations between the fine- and coarse-scale simulations over the study areas. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g. the city of Stockholm) the bias related to coarse-scale projections may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modelling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily mean and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -5 and -10 %, while for Stockholm we estimate mixed trends of up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily mean and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM. Through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily mean ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not emission change

  3. Mid-21st century air quality at the urban scale under the influence of changed climate and emissions: case studies for Paris and Stockholm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markakis, K.; Valari, M.; Engardt, M.; Lacressonnière, G.; Vautard, R.; Andersson, C.

    2015-10-01

    Ozone, PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations over Paris, France and Stockholm, Sweden were modeled at 4 and 1 \\unit{km} horizontal resolutions respectively for the present and 2050 periods employing decade-long simulations. We account for large-scale global climate change (RCP-4.5) and fine resolution bottom-up emission projections developed by local experts and quantify their impact on future pollutant concentrations. Moreover, we identify biases related to the implementation of regional scale emission projections over the study areas by comparing modeled pollutant concentrations between the fine and coarse scale simulations. We show that over urban areas with major regional contribution (e.g., the city of Stockholm) the bias due to coarse emission inventory may be significant and lead to policy misclassification. Our results stress the need to better understand the mechanism of bias propagation across the modeling scales in order to design more successful local-scale strategies. We find that the impact of climate change is spatially homogeneous in both regions, implying strong regional influence. The climate benefit for ozone (daily average and maximum) is up to -5 % for Paris and -2 % for Stockholm city. The joined climate benefit on PM2.5 and PM10 in Paris is between -10 and -5 % while for Stockholm we observe mixed trends up to 3 % depending on season and size class. In Stockholm, emission mitigation leads to concentration reductions up to 15 % for daily average and maximum ozone and 20 % for PM and through a sensitivity analysis we show that this response is entirely due to changes in emissions at the regional scale. On the contrary, over the city of Paris (VOC-limited photochemical regime), local mitigation of NOx emissions increases future ozone concentrations due to ozone titration inhibition. This competing trend between the respective roles of emission and climate change, results in an increase in 2050 daily average ozone by 2.5 % in Paris. Climate and not

  4. 32 CFR 750.13 - Claims: Single service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., Grenada, Honduras, Hungary, Korea, Iraq, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands, the Netherlands... Endeavor, including the former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, as well as the...

  5. 32 CFR 750.13 - Claims: Single service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., Grenada, Honduras, Hungary, Korea, Iraq, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands, the Netherlands... Endeavor, including the former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, as well as the...

  6. 32 CFR 750.13 - Claims: Single service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., Grenada, Honduras, Hungary, Korea, Iraq, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands, the Netherlands... Endeavor, including the former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, as well as the...

  7. 32 CFR 750.13 - Claims: Single service responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., Grenada, Honduras, Hungary, Korea, Iraq, Kuwait, Latvia, Lithuania, the Marshall Islands, the Netherlands... Endeavor, including the former Yugoslavia, Hungary, Slovakia and the Czech Republic, as well as the...

  8. High resolution sequence stratigraphy of Scythian-early Anisian continental deposits of east of Paris basin: Applications to gas storage

    SciTech Connect

    Roselyne, F.; Guillocheau, F.; Wicquart, E.

    1995-08-01

    Continental facies of Scythian-early Anisian age (Buntsandstein) of East of the Paris Basin form the underground gas storage reservoir exploited by Gaz de France in the area of Nancy (east of France). An accurate sedimentological study and the application of Genetic Stratigraphy principles lead to the understanding of the deposition of fluvial, which form the reservoirs, and to the reconstruction of their geometries. The subsurface data are calibrated on outcrops. Three types of fluvial systems (braided, sinuous to straight and anastomosed) are defined. A special focus on anastomosed channels permits to differentiate a proximal and a distal facies. Study of laterally continuous outcrops induces recurrent cycles of thickness, velocity and time variations (few tens to hundred ka). These correspond to the highest frequence stratigraphic units, i.e. parasequences or genetic units. Maximum of channel and levee presentation occurs during base-level rise: base-level fall is characterised by amalgamation of sets, by-pass and erosion. This method is applied to subsurface data by an accurate calibration of well logs on cores. Thus the electric expression of genetic units corresponding to different environments is determined as well as the expression of base-level variations. The correlation of these units using stacking pattern method leads to a very fine subdivision of reservoir between timelines. Different orders of depositional sequences are pointed out, resulting in reservoir geometry characterization and permeability barrier distribution.

  9. Paris terrorist attack: early lessons from the intensivists.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    During the night of 13-14 November, the city of Paris was exposed, within a few hours, to three bomb explosions, four shooting scenes, and one 3-hour hostage-taking of several hundred people causing at least 130 deaths and more than 250 injured victims. Most unstable patients were transferred to the six trauma centers of the Paris area, all members of the TRAUMABASE Group. A rapid adaptation of the organization of trauma patients' admittance was required in all centers to face the particular needs of the situation. Everything went relatively well in all centers, with overall hospital mortality below 2 %. Nevertheless, most physicians nowadays agree that anticipation, teaching, and training are crucial to appropriately face such events. All of us have learned many additional issues from this experience. Following a meeting of the TRAUMABASE Group, the most relevant issues are detailed in the following. PMID:27056826

  10. The Paris meteorite, the least altered CM chondrite so far

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewins, Roger H.; Bourot-Denise, Michèle; Zanda, Brigitte; Leroux, Hugues; Barrat, Jean-Alix; Humayun, Munir; Göpel, Christa; Greenwood, Richard C.; Franchi, Ian A.; Pont, Sylvain; Lorand, Jean-Pierre; Cournède, Cécile; Gattacceca, Jérôme; Rochette, Pierre; Kuga, Maïa; Marrocchi, Yves; Marty, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The Paris chondrite provides an excellent opportunity to study CM chondrules and refractory inclusions in a more pristine state than currently possible from other CMs, and to investigate the earliest stages of aqueous alteration captured within a single CM bulk composition. It was found in the effects of a former colonial mining engineer and may have been an observed fall. The texture, mineralogy, petrography, magnetic properties and chemical and isotopic compositions are consistent with classification as a CM2 chondrite. There are ∼45 vol.% high-temperature components mainly Type I chondrules (with olivine mostly Fa0-2, mean Fa0.9) with granular textures because of low mesostasis abundances. Type II chondrules contain olivine Fa7 to Fa76. These are dominantly of Type IIA, but there are IIAB and IIB chondrules, II(A)B chondrules with minor highly ferroan olivine, and IIA(C) with augite as the only pyroxene. The refractory inclusions in Paris are amoeboid olivine aggregates (AOAs) and fine-grained spinel-rich Ca-Al-rich inclusions (CAIs). The CAI phases formed in the sequence hibonite, perovskite, grossite, spinel, gehlenite, anorthite, diopside/fassaite and forsterite. The most refractory phases are embedded in spinel, which also occurs as massive nodules. Refractory metal nuggets are found in many CAI and refractory platinum group element abundances (PGE) decrease following the observed condensation sequences of their host phases. Mn-Cr isotope measurements of mineral separates from Paris define a regression line with a slope of 53Mn/55Mn = (5.76 ± 0.76) × 106. If we interpret Cr isotopic systematics as dating Paris components, particularly the chondrules, the age is 4566.44 ± 0.66 Myr, which is close to the age of CAI and puts new constraints on the early evolution of the solar system. Eleven individual Paris samples define an O isotope mixing line that passes through CM2 and CO3 falls and indicates that Paris is a very fresh sample, with variation explained

  11. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    PubMed

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms.

  12. PARIS to Hektor, A Mission to the Jovian Trojan Asteroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gold, R. E.; Ensworth, C. B.; McNutt, R. L.; Ostdiek, P. H.; Prockter, L. M.

    2005-12-01

    PARIS (Planetary Access with Radioisotope Ion-drive System) spacecraft enable a new class of missions to the outer solar system. The high power-to-mass ratio of new radioisotope power systems enables New-Frontiers class missions that carry a significant a science payload to new destinations. The PARIS spacecraft take advantage of the high-efficiency of Stirling radioisotope generators (SRGs) or new thermoelectric converters to provide the power for an electric propulsion system. These low-thrust missions launched to a high C3 are especially effective for exploring objects in shallow gravity wells. The Jovian Trojan asteroids are very primitive bodies located near the Jovian L4 and L5 Lagrange points and are discussed as targets in the Solar System Decadal Survey. There are estimated to be more than 105 Jovian Trojans greater than 1 km in diameter. We consider a PARIS mission that can reach the asteroids in less than 5 years, orbit 624 Hektor, the largest of the Jovian Trojans, and go on to orbit at least one other nearby object. The candidate payload for this mission includes wide-field and narrow-field cameras, a UV-Vis-IR spectrograph, gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers, and plasma and energetic particle spectrometers. About 900 W of power are required. The launch mass would be slightly less than 1000 kg. The < 5 year trip time is dependent on having the next generation power sources with a specific power of > 8W/kg.

  13. The epileptic singers of belle époque Paris.

    PubMed

    Baxendale, Sallie; Marshall, Fiona

    2012-12-01

    In late 19th century Paris, people with epilepsy were treated alongside those with hysteria in the now famous Salpêtrière Hospital, where both conditions were deemed to have a neurological basis. When Jean Martin Charcot became chief physician at the Salpêtrière Hospital in 1862, he described himself 'in possession of a kind of museum of living pathology whose holdings were virtually inexhaustible'. He opened the doors of his 'living museum' and exhibited his prize specimens to all of Paris. By putting his patients on display, Charcot introduced a vogue for pathology that permeated well beyond the world of medical enquiry and into the public psyche and vernacular. Not only did Charcot's demonstrations provide the inspiration for high culture in the form of operas, plays and novels, they also provided the inspiration for the 'gommeuses epileptiques' (epileptic singers), who entertained the masses at the café concerts. This paper explores the foundations of our current medical approaches to mental illness and epilepsy, with a particular focus on the boundaries that emerged between hysteria and epilepsy in 19th century Paris. These clinical boundaries were both shaped by and reflected in the popular entertainments in the city.

  14. Geological rally in the heart of Paris: How to find fossils in freestone buildings in Paris?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalaine, Stéphanie

    2014-05-01

    As a teacher in earth sciences, my challenge was to practise geology in an urban area. At the end of the school year, I organized a geological rally next to the Natural History Museum in the heart of Paris. The rally provided the opportunity to apply geological notions mentioned in class, and or a day out to my 16 years-old pupils. Just before this original session, students worked on different sedimentary stones such as limestone, sandstone, gypsum, and "meulière". They studied the conditions for the deposit of sediments and they identified different fossils (i.e: Cerithes, Nummulites, Milioles) in order to build "paleobackgrounds". This rally was a mean to improve with entertainment their knowledge in geology, and to discover the stones of the Parisian basin and their use as building materials. The rally was organized as follows: the pupils were divided into 4 teams of 8 students. Each team got a paper with 23 riddles. Each riddle led to a geological spot in the route of the rally. To attest their passing at each geological point the pupils had to take a picture of the characteristic fossil or the typical mark of each spot. Each team had a different itinerary to avoid pupils to meet during the rally. In order to motivate pupils and to ensure their safety, one teacher went with each team. Each riddle led to a stage. This rally comprised 23 steps which were geological spots. In case of pupils did not solve the enigma of one stage; they could open an envelope in which a map indicated the 23 geological spots. This rally lasted 2 hours. The purpose of this game was to obtain the most points thanks to the resolution of riddles. Timing and the quality of the pictures were also criterions used to evaluate the participants. At the end of this rally, pupils must be able to identify sedimentary stones, the conditions and the age of deposit of this stones (paleobackgrounds), the location of their extractions (carries), the interest of this stones in construction industry

  15. Magnetic Study of Paris Meteorite: a Partially Differentiated Parent Body?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cournède, C.; Gattacceca, J.; Rochette, P.; Zanda, B.

    2011-12-01

    The Paris meteorite is a unique carbonaceous CM chondrite find with almost no traces of terrestrial weathering [1]. Contrary to others CM chondrites, that contain abundant magnetite formed during aqueous alteration on their parent body, Paris is characterized by the coexistence of magnetite and abundant metallic Fe-Ni. We conducted a magnetic study (magnetic properties and paleomagnetism) of several oriented samples of this meteorite, with masses ranging from several mg up to 17 g. Preliminary rock magnetism results confirm that Paris has a magnetic mineralogy that is notably different from that of other CM chondrites, with a dominant FeNi metal, and minor magnetite. This corroborate that Paris suffered less aqueous alteration than other CM chondrites. Anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility shows that Paris is also one of the most anisotropic CM chondrite, and that it has a homogeneous fabric at least at the centimeter-scale. The comparison of the remanent magnetization obtained for metal-rich and magnetite-rich samples may have provided constraints on the magnetic fields present before and after accretion respectively. Unfortunately, paleomagnetic data show that the meteorite has been exposed to strong artificial magnetic field (magnet), precluding the study of the possible soft natural magnetization carried by FeNi. However, a high-coercivity magnetization is still preserved in the meteorite. It is homogeneous in direction and intensity at the scale of the meteorite. We interpret it as a pre-terrestrial component acquired on the parent body in a field on 3 ± 1 μT (estimated with the method described in [2]). In view of its coercivity (up to 120 mT) we suppose that this magnetization is carried by fine-grained magnetite (although thermal and chemical demagnetization experiments are needed to confirm this hypothesis). In this case, because crystallization of magnetite likely occurred several Myr after the formation of the solar system [3], i.e. after the possible

  16. Beginning of viniculture in France

    PubMed Central

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen E.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500–475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425–400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport. PMID:23733937

  17. Beginning of Viniculture in France

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGovern, Patrick E.; Luley, Benjamin P.; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P.; Smith, Karen F.; Hall, Gretchen R.; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M.

    2013-01-01

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  18. Beginning of viniculture in France.

    PubMed

    McGovern, Patrick E; Luley, Benjamin P; Rovira, Nuria; Mirzoian, Armen; Callahan, Michael P; Smith, Karen E; Hall, Gretchen R; Davidson, Theodore; Henkin, Joshua M

    2013-06-18

    Chemical analyses of ancient organic compounds absorbed into the pottery fabrics of imported Etruscan amphoras (ca. 500-475 B.C.) and into a limestone pressing platform (ca. 425-400 B.C.) at the ancient coastal port site of Lattara in southern France provide the earliest biomolecular archaeological evidence for grape wine and viniculture from this country, which is crucial to the later history of wine in Europe and the rest of the world. The data support the hypothesis that export of wine by ship from Etruria in central Italy to southern Mediterranean France fueled an ever-growing market and interest in wine there, which, in turn, as evidenced by the winepress, led to transplantation of the Eurasian grapevine and the beginning of a Celtic industry in France. Herbal and pine resin additives to the Etruscan wine point to the medicinal role of wine in antiquity, as well as a means of preserving it during marine transport.

  19. Education and the Elderly in France. Report for the International Conference on Adult Education (4th, Paris, France, March 19-29, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fontaine, Anne; And Others

    These proceedings of a UNESCO conference include the following papers: "Foreword," by Anne Fontaine; "Education and the Elderly in the Second Medium-Term Plan of UNESCO (1984-1989)," by Mir Sarfaraz Husain; "Introduction," by Genevieve Vaucher; "Part I: Adult Education and Aging," by Genevieve Vaucher; "Part II: Educational Programmes for and by…

  20. France, Shaded Relief and Colored Height

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This image of France was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). For this broad view the resolution of the data was reduced to 6 arcseconds (about 185 meters north-south and 127 meters east-west), resampled to a Mercator projection, and the French border outlined. Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the country is readily apparent.

    The upper central part of this scene is dominated by the Paris Basin, which consists of a layered sequence of sedimentary rocks. Fertile soils over much of the area make good agricultural land. The Normandie coast to the upper left is characterized by high, chalk cliffs, while the Brittany coast (the peninsula to the left) is highly indented where deep valleys were drowned by the sea, and the Biscay coast to the southwest is marked by flat, sandy beaches.

    To the south, the Pyrenees form a natural border between France and Spain, and the south-central part of the country is dominated by the ancient Massif Central. Subject to volcanism that has only subsided in the last 10,000 years, these central mountains are separated from the Alps by the north-south trending Rhone River Basin.

    Two visualization methods were combined to produce the image: shading and color coding of topographic height. The shade image was derived by computing topographic slope in the northwest-southeast direction, so that northwest slopes appear bright and southeast slopes appear dark. Color coding is directly related to topographic height, with green at the lower elevations, rising through yellow and tan, to white at the highest elevations.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on Feb. 11, 2000. SRTM used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) that flew twice on the Space Shuttle Endeavour in 1994. SRTM was designed to

  1. Pyemotes ventricosus Dermatitis, Southeastern France

    PubMed Central

    Blanc-Amrane, Véronique; Bahadoran, Philippe; Caumes, Eric; Marty, Pierre; Lazar, Mariléna; Boissy, Christian; Desruelles, François; Izri, Arezki; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Counillon, Evelyne; Chosidow, Olivier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2008-01-01

    We investigated 42 patients who had unusual pruritic dermatitis associated with a specific clinical sign (comet sign) in 23 houses in southeastern France from May through September 2007. Pyemotes ventricosus, a parasite of the furniture beetle Anobium punctatum, was the cause of this condition. PMID:18976564

  2. Education in France: Number 41.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French Embassy, New York, NY. French Cultural Services.

    The history and modernization of the French nursery and elementary schools are the focal points of this review of educational trends in France. One major section discussed the "Ecole Maternelle", kindergarten, nursery schools, the "Jardin d'Enfants", and new math. Another section treats: (1) "Les Ecoles Primaires", (2) village schools, (3) the…

  3. Magnetostratigraphy of Mesozoic shallow-water carbonates: Preliminary results from the Middle Jurassic of the Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Aissaoui, D.M.; Kirschvink, J.L. )

    1991-03-01

    The use of sedimentary paleomagnetism has enhanced greatly our understanding of the timing of deposition and diagenesis of Cenozoic platform and reefal carbonates. Its application to similar but older deposits will have direct implications for economic exploration and development. The authors report here preliminary paleomagnetic results from the Middle Jurassic limestones of the Paris basin (France). The samples consist mainly of bioclastic and oolitic limestones deposited in ancient counterpart of the shallow-water environments of the Bahama platform. The Jurassic samples are stable to progressive, incremental demagnetization and exhibit magnetization patterns identical to Cenozoic rocks from the Bahama platform or Mururoa Atoll. The natural remanent magnetization of these limestones is weak and comprised between 7.7 x 10{sup {minus}9} to 1.8 x 10{sup {minus}8} AM{sup 2}/kg. Magnetic components of both normal and reversed polarity are observed. Paired isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and alternating field demagnetization experiments show that most of the remanence is lost between 20 and 45 mT, which is typical of single-domain biogenic magnetite or maghemite. The ratio of IRM at H{sub RG} to the saturation IRM ranges from 35 to 42% indicating a moderate to low interparticle interaction. This is confirmed by the anhysteretic remanent magnetization as compared with intact, freeze-dried cells of magnetotactic bacteria and chiton teeth. Magnetic minerals extracted from the Jurassic samples are examined to further confirm the occurrence of SD magnetite within the Middle Jurassic limestones of the Paris basin. The preliminary results suggest that the strata should be good for the paleomagnetic investigation of Mesozoic shallow-water carbonates.

  4. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Summary Report. Twelfth Session of the Assembly (Paris, France, November 3-19, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

    Summarized in this report are the discussions which took place during the twelfth session of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Assembly. Summaries are provided in 15 sections: opening comments; administrative arrangements; adoption of triennial commission report; ocean sciences; ocean services; training, education, and mutual…

  5. Influenza and influenza-like illness in general practice: drawing lessons for surveillance from a pilot study in Paris, France.

    PubMed Central

    Carrat, F; Tachet, A; Housset, B; Valleron, A J; Rouzioux, C

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are two types of inflenza surveillance techniques: qualitative laboratory-based surveillance and quantitative medical practice-based surveillance. The former is of great importance in isolating new strains of the virus, which helps in the decision-making process concerning the composition of the vaccine, and the latter provides estimates of morbidity, mortality or economic impact as a result of infection from the influenza virus. Rapid methods such as immunoflourescence (IF) or immunocapture assays (ICA) are now available for diagnosis of influenza infections. However, little is known about the use of these methods for influenza surveillance purposes. AIMS: To evaluate the feasibility of a rapid influenza diagnosis in ambulatory conditions, and to investigate the therapeutical outcomes of patients suffering from influenza-like illness (ILI) in relation to the virological diagnoses. METHOD: During the 1994-1995 influenza season, 130 patients presenting with ILI symptoms (< 36 hours) to 33 general practitioners (GPs) were included in a prospective study. Two nasal swabs and one throat swab per patient were collected and sent to the laboratory within 12 hours. Information concerning therapeutical outcomes was recorded during examination. Specimens were analysed using the immunofluorescence (IF) method and antigen immunocapture assay (ICA). RESULTS: Sixteen influenza A (12%) and 19 influenza B (15%) infections were diagnosed. The overall rate of influenza positive specimens was 17% in the pre-epidemic period and 31% during the epidemic (P = 0.1). The rates of usable specimens for IF assay, nasal ICA and throat ICA were 46%, 100% and 99% respectively. The combination of these three collections ensured a highly sensitive influenza virological diagnosis. There were no differences in therapeutical outcomes between the influenza positive and negative cases. The GPs prescribed antibiotics in 60% of the cases for a mean duration of 7 days (+/- 1.2). The mean duration of sick leave was 3.4 days (+/- 1.6). Twelve patients (four influenza positive, eight influenza negative) had been vaccinated at the beginning of the winter. The practitioner's intuition concerning 'which patient should be tested for influenza virus' did not prove useful in improving the aptness of virological diagnoses in the field of influenza surveillance. CONCLUSION: The only way to estimate the true impact of influenza is to carry out a systematic virological sampling based on a sensitive clinical definition and using sensitive laboratory methods. PMID:9196963

  6. Planning Out-of-School Education for Development. An IIEP Seminar (Paris, France, December 13-21, 1971).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). International Inst. for Educational Planning.

    The major portion of this publication consists of 13 papers presented at the seminar on out-of-school education. The papers include both general treatments of the subject and analyses of particular case studies. The papers are organized into four broad topical groups--possible approaches to the planning of out-of-school education, the Esfahan…

  7. Groundwater dolocretes from the Upper Triassic of the Paris Basin, France: a case study of an arid, continental diagenetic facies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spotl, S.; Wright, V.P.

    1992-01-01

    The majority of the dolomite consists of a finely crystalline groundmass of dolomicrospar and, less commonly, dolomicrite. Glaebules, irregular spar-filled cracks, spheroidal dolomite, silificiation and vuggy porosity are locally abundant in the massive dolomite. In contrast, biologically induced micromorphological features such as rhizocretions and alveolar-septal fabrics were observed in the thin, nodular dolomite beds. Petrographic observations argue in favour of primary (proto)dolomite precipitation, although early diagenetic replacement of calcite by (proto)dolomite cannot be ruled out. Strontium and carbon isotope data of early diagenetic dolocrete cements and oxygen isotope data of early diagenetic silica indicate an entirely non-marine, continental origin for the groundwaters. -from Authors

  8. Fate of phthalates and BPA in agricultural and non-agricultural soils of the Paris area (France).

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich Chau; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This study (i) investigated the concentration levels of nine phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) in sludge samples originating from a French wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), (ii) studied the distribution of target compounds according to soil depth and calculated their half-lives, and (iii) compared the contamination level of the agricultural soil with those of soils with other land uses. The sludge contamination levels varied from a few hundred nanograms per gram dry weight (dw) for diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBP) to a few micrograms per gram dw for diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP). After sludge application, an 8-fold increase for DEHP level and a 3-fold increase for BPA level occurred in the surface horizon of the soil. The mean distribution of phthalates according to the depth showed a positive gradient for the low molecular weight compounds and inversely, a negative gradient for the highest ones. The half-lives in the 0-20-cm soil horizon were 64 days for DEHP and 36 days for BPA. A predictive environmental concentration (PEC) of 0.3 μg g(-1) dw was estimated for DEHP, while the experimental value was 0.16 μg g(-1) dw, suggesting degradation processes in soil and/or formation of non-extractable residues. Comparisons of contamination levels for soils from different origins (urban, rural, agricultural, and forest) showed that the urban soil remained the most contaminated one, prior to the agricultural soil after treatment.

  9. Fate of phthalates and BPA in agricultural and non-agricultural soils of the Paris area (France).

    PubMed

    Tran, Bich Chau; Teil, Marie-Jeanne; Blanchard, Martine; Alliot, Fabrice; Chevreuil, Marc

    2015-07-01

    This study (i) investigated the concentration levels of nine phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA) in sludge samples originating from a French wastewater treatment plant (WWTP), (ii) studied the distribution of target compounds according to soil depth and calculated their half-lives, and (iii) compared the contamination level of the agricultural soil with those of soils with other land uses. The sludge contamination levels varied from a few hundred nanograms per gram dry weight (dw) for diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-iso-butyl phthalate (DiBP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), and butyl-benzyl phthalate (BBP) to a few micrograms per gram dw for diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), di-iso-nonyl phthalate (DiNP), and di-iso-decyl phthalate (DiDP). After sludge application, an 8-fold increase for DEHP level and a 3-fold increase for BPA level occurred in the surface horizon of the soil. The mean distribution of phthalates according to the depth showed a positive gradient for the low molecular weight compounds and inversely, a negative gradient for the highest ones. The half-lives in the 0-20-cm soil horizon were 64 days for DEHP and 36 days for BPA. A predictive environmental concentration (PEC) of 0.3 μg g(-1) dw was estimated for DEHP, while the experimental value was 0.16 μg g(-1) dw, suggesting degradation processes in soil and/or formation of non-extractable residues. Comparisons of contamination levels for soils from different origins (urban, rural, agricultural, and forest) showed that the urban soil remained the most contaminated one, prior to the agricultural soil after treatment. PMID:25794574

  10. Gamma-ray line astrophysics; Proceedings of the International Symposium, Paris, France, Dec. 10-13, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durouchoux, Philippe (Editor); Prantzos, Nikos (Editor)

    1991-01-01

    Various papers on gamma-ray line astrophysics are presented. The general topics considered include: the Galactic center, diffuse 511 keV and 1.8 MeV emission in the Galactic plane, novae, SN 1987A and supernovae, compact objects, solar gamma-ray lines, and instrumental topics.

  11. Seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus type 2 antibodies in an STD clinic in Paris.

    PubMed

    Janier, M; Lassau, F; Bloch, J; Spindler, E; Morel, P; Gérard, P; Aufrère, A

    1999-08-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the seroprevalence of herpes simplex virus (HSV)-2 and HSV-1 in a population of men and women attending the STD clinic of Hôpital St-Louis (Paris, France). Four hundred and eighty-seven patients (264 men and 223 women) were tested for HSV-2 and HSV-1 antibodies by specific enzyme immunoassay (EIA) (Smithkline-Beecham Biologicals). Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out for correlations with clinical, socio-epidemiological and behavioural data. HSV-2 seroprevalence was 55% (44.7% in men, 67.3% in women). HSV-1 seroprevalence was 93% (94.7% in men, 91% in women). The predictive factors of HSV-2 seropositivity being female (OR: 3.37), age (OR: 1.04), country of origin (Central Africa OR: 3.52, North Africa OR: 1.36), history of genital herpes (OR: 10.97), hepatitis B virus (HBV) markers (OR: 1.92) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) markers (OR: 3.96). The only protective factor was HSV-1 seropositivity (OR: 0.25). The predictive factors of HSV-1 seropositivity were only the country of origin (Central Africa OR: 2.95, North Africa OR: 1.83) and the absence of genital herpes (OR: 11.01). Only 23 (8.6%) HSV-2 seropositive patients had a history of genital herpes. This study underlines the very high HSV-2 seroprevalence of patients with STDs, only a few of whom have a history of genital herpes. Detection and counselling is urgently needed for these patients. PMID:10471101

  12. [Access to health care for destitute persons at Public Assistance Hospitals in Paris].

    PubMed

    Brücker, G; Nguyen, D T; Lebas, J

    1997-11-01

    All legal French residents are entitled to health care. The 1992 regulatory measures, which create a contractual agreement between the government and public medical institutions, aim at facilitating access to health care by resolving the financial obstacles to accessing health care. The Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (AP-HP) has set up a medical reception center in several hospitals since 1993. This system is integrated in the general structure of each hospital: in some cases, there is a single and centralized unit; in other cases, all departments of the hospital, including the emergency room, are involved in caring for destitute patients. Whatever the type of the structure may be, social workers are a key element to helping the patients recover their social rights. Thirty to seventy-percent of patients visiting these centers regain access to social and health care coverage. The epidemiological survey of the active file of patients revealed that 70% are male, more than 50% are non-French nationals, half of which do not have legal immigration status in France. Homeless people represent 40 to 80% of the population. The average age is around 35. The number of medical visits varies greatly from one hospital to another and range from 20 to 60 per month. The reasons for visiting the center and the identified medical disorders are strongly related to the patients' life conditions and vary significantly with the risk factors related to the social and economic situation. The frequency of some diseases (psychiatric disorders, tuberculosis, infections by the HIV and HCV) is higher in this population than in general population. Delayed visits to the medical center represents a severity factor. The hospitals' mission statement is not only to ensure that patients facing a precarious social and professional situation have equal access to health care, but also to help such patients recover their social rights, facilitate their integration in the society and fight against

  13. Volatility of organic aerosol and its components in the Megacity of Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciga, A.; Karnezi, E.; Kostenidou, E.; Hildebrandt, L.; Psichoudaki, M.; Engelhart, G. J.; Lee, B.-H.; Crippa, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Pandis, S. N.

    2015-08-01

    Using a mass transfer model and the volatility basis set, we estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The concentrations of the OA components as a function of temperature were measured combining data from a thermodenuder and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. The hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) had similar volatility distributions for the summer and winter campaigns with half of the material in the saturation concentration bin of 10 μg m-3 and another 35-40 % consisting of low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs and ELVOCs, respectively). The winter cooking OA (COA) was more than an order of magnitude less volatile than the summer COA. The low volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA) factor detected in the summer had the lowest volatility of all the derived factors and consisted almost exclusively of ELVOCs. The volatility for the semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) was significantly higher than that of the LV-OOA, containing both semi-volatile organic components (SVOCs) and LVOCs. The oxygenated OA (OOA) factor in winter consisted of SVOCs (45 %), LVOCs (25 %) and ELVOCs (30 %). The volatility of marine OA (MOA) was higher than that of the other factors containing around 60 % SVOCs. The biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor contained components with a wide range of volatilities with significant contributions from both SVOCs (50 %) and LVOCs (30 %). Finally, combining the O : C ratio and volatility distributions of the various factors, we incorporated our results into the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS). Our results show that the factors cover a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and average O : C of the OA components. Agreement between our findings and previous publications is encouraging for our understanding of the

  14. Ambient aerosol chlorine concentrations and artefacts during the MEGAPOLI Paris campaigns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furger, Markus; Visser, Suzanne; Slowik, Jay; Crippa, Monica; Poulain, Laurent; Sciare, Jean; Flechsig, Uwe; Prévôt, André; Baltensperger, Urs

    2015-04-01

    Trace elements, especially those that are toxic, can affect the environment in significant ways. Studying them is advantageous with respect to a refinement of source apportionment when measured with high time resolution and appropriate size segregation. This approach is especially useful in urban environments with numerous time-variant emission sources distributed across a relatively narrow space. Two field campaigns took place in the framework of the MEGAPOLI project in Paris, France: one in the summer of 2009 (1-31 July), the other in the winter of 2010 (11 Jan - 10 Feb). Rotating drum impactors (RDI) were operated at an urban and a suburban site in each campaign. The RDI segregated the aerosols into three size ranges (PM10-2.5, PM2.5-1.0 and PM1.0-0.3) and sampled with 2-hour time resolution. The samples were analyzed with synchrotron radiation-induced X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (SR-XRF) at the synchrotron facility of the Paul Scherrer Institute (SLS), where a broad range of elements (Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn) was analyzed for each size range. Time series of the analyzed elements for the different sites and campaigns were prepared to characterize the aerosol trace element composition and temporal behavior for different weather situations and urban environments. Quality assurance was performed partly by intercomparison with independent measurements. An exceptional behavior was observed for chlorine (Cl), where periods with zero RDI concentration alternated with periods of normal load. Zero concentrations were not observed in particle-into-liquid (PILS) measurements. This identifies the observed behavior as a RDI sampling artefact. Nevertheless, the non-zero periods of Cl concentrations are still a gain in information compared to conventional sampling techniques, mainly due to the high time resolution.

  15. FVCOM model estimate of the location of Air France 447

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Changsheng; Limeburner, Richard; Gao, Guoping; Xu, Qichun; Qi, Jianhua; Xue, Pengfei; Lai, Zhigang; Lin, Huichan; Beardsley, Robert; Owens, Breck; Carlson, Barry

    2012-06-01

    On June 1, 2009, Air France AF447 disappeared in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean en route from Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to Paris, France. On June 6-19, 2009, bodies and debris from the aircraft were recovered floating in the equatorial ocean. This paper describes efforts on using the global-local nested finite volume community ocean model (FVCOM) to model reversely the tracks of bodies and debris back to the time of the crash and to help searchers locate the cockpit voice and flight data recorders and learn why this tragic accident occurred. To validate the reliability and reality of FVCOM, eight surface drifters were deployed by the French Bureau d'Enquêtes et d'Analyses pour la sécurité de l'aviation civile (BEA) near the last known position in early June 2010 for a period of 3 weeks. These drifter data were used to optimize the spatial and temporal correlation scales of the adaptive sampling data assimilation method of FVCOM. Applying an optimized FVCOM system to assimilate all available drifter- and float-tracking-derived currents in May-June 2009 under three different wind conditions, we reproduced the June 2009 current fields in the area near the LKP and used these fields to reversely track bodies and debris from locations where they were found to the time when the crash occurred. Possible locations for the crashed plane were suggested based on our model results and were made available to the French investigators and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution REMUS autonomous underwater vehicle Operations Group who successfully located the aircraft debris field in April 2011 on the seafloor at a depth of 3,900 m.

  16. [FROM ULYSSES TO PARIS: JOURNEY TO THE MEDICALIZATION OF AGEING].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Belén; Pedace, Mariana; Matusevich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In the following study we will be introducing the Paris Syndrome, taking as a departure stand the Ulises Syndrome described by Mercer Rang back in 1972. This syndrome is analyzed within the current context of medicalization that old people within Western societies are currently undergoing. We decided to present this topic by looking at the medical trajectories of four paradigmatic patients with the intention of capturing how they themselves experience this process. Through these cases, we would also like to further understand current medical practices toward the elderly. PMID:26966756

  17. Photosymbiotic ascidians from Pari Island (Thousand Islands, Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Hirose, Euichi; Iskandar, Budhi Hascaryo; Wardiatno, Yusli

    2014-01-01

    Photosymbiotic ascidian fauna were surveyed in the subtidal zone off Pari Island in the Thousand Islands (Java Sea, Indonesia). Nine species were recorded: Didemnum molle, Trididemnum miniatum, Lissoclinum patella, L. punctatum, L. timorense, Diplosoma gumavirens, D. simile, D. simileguwa, and D. virens. All of these species have been previously recorded in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan. Diplosoma gumavirens and D. simileguwa were originally described from the Ryukyu Archipelago in 2009 and 2005, respectively, and all of the observed species are potentially widely distributed in Indo-West Pacific coral reefs. PMID:25061385

  18. Poverty, gender and incarceration in sixteenth-century Paris.

    PubMed

    Broomhall, Susan

    2004-01-01

    The experience of prison remains a relatively little-studied aspect of late-medieval and early-modern criminalization of the activities of the poor. This study examines how poverty and gender influenced incarceration practices, treatment and release in sixteenth-century Paris. A study of the archives of the ecclesiastical gaol at Saint-Germain-des-Prés from 1537 to 1579 suggests that both poverty and gender affected the crimes for which women and men were imprisoned, the length of time they remained in detention and the reasons for their release.

  19. [FROM ULYSSES TO PARIS: JOURNEY TO THE MEDICALIZATION OF AGEING].

    PubMed

    Moreno, Belén; Pedace, Mariana; Matusevich, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    In the following study we will be introducing the Paris Syndrome, taking as a departure stand the Ulises Syndrome described by Mercer Rang back in 1972. This syndrome is analyzed within the current context of medicalization that old people within Western societies are currently undergoing. We decided to present this topic by looking at the medical trajectories of four paradigmatic patients with the intention of capturing how they themselves experience this process. Through these cases, we would also like to further understand current medical practices toward the elderly.

  20. The New Microbiology: a conference at the Institut de France.

    PubMed

    Radoshevich, Lilliana; Bierne, Hélène; Ribet, David; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-08-01

    In May 2012, three European Academies held a conference on the present and future of microbiology. The conference, entitled "The New Microbiology", was a joint effort of the French Académie des sciences, of the German National Academy of Sciences Leopoldina and of the British Royal Society. The organizers - Pascale Cossart and Philippe Sansonetti from the "Académie des sciences", David Holden and Richard Moxon from the "Royal Society", and Jörg Hacker and Jürgen Hesseman from the "Leopoldina Nationale Akademie der Wissenschaften" - wanted to highlight the current renaissance in the field of microbiology mostly due to the advent of technological developments and allowing for single-cell analysis, rapid and inexpensive genome-wide comparisons, sophisticated microscopy and quantitative large-scale studies of RNA regulation and proteomics. The conference took place in the historical Palais de l'Institut de France in Paris with the strong support of Jean-François Bach, Secrétaire Perpétuel of the Académie des sciences.

  1. Geochemical and palynological records for the end-Triassic Mass-Extinction Event in the NE Paris Basin (Luxemburg)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhlmann, Natascha; van de Schootbrugge, Bas; Thein, Jean; Fiebig, Jens; Franz, Sven-Oliver; Hanzo, Micheline; Colbach, Robert; Faber, Alain

    2016-04-01

    The End-Triassic mass-extinction event is one of the "big five" mass extinctions in Earth's history. Large scale flood basalt volcanism associated with the break-up of Pangaea, which resulted in the opening of the central Atlantic Ocean, is considered as the leading cause. In addition, an asteroid impact in Rochechouart (France; 201 ± 2 Ma) may have had a local influence on ecosystems and sedimentary settings. The Luxembourg Embayment, in the NE Paris Basin, offers a rare chance to study both effects in a range of settings from deltaic to lagoonal. A multidisciplinary study (sedimentology, geochemistry, palynology) has been carried out on a number of outcrops and cores that span from the Norian to lower Hettangian. Combined geochemical and palynological records from the Boust core drilled in the NE Paris Basin, provide evidence for paleoenvironmental changes associated with the end-Triassic mass-extinction event. The Triassic-Jurassic stratigraphy of the Boust core is well constrained by palynomorphs showing the disappaerance of typical Triassic pollen taxa (e.g. Ricciisporites tuberculates) and the occurrence of the marker species Polypodiisporites polymicroforatus within the uppermost Rhaetian, prior to the Hettangian dominance of Classopollis pollen. The organic carbon stable isotope record (δ13Corg) spanning the Norian to Hettangian, shows a series of prominent negative excursions within the middle Rhaetian, followed by a trend towards more positive values (approx -24 per mille) within the uppermost Rhaetian Argiles de Levallois Member. The lowermost Hettangian is characterized by a major negative excursion, reaching - 30 per mille that occurs in organic-rich sediments. This so-called "main negative excursion" is well-known from other locations, for example from Mariental in Northern Germany and from St Audrie's Bay in England, and Stenlille in Denmark. Based on redox-sensitive trace element records (V, Cr, Ni, Co, Th, U) the lowermost Hettangian in most of

  2. Contribution of ozone to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes.

    PubMed

    Rancière, Fanny; Dassonville, Claire; Roda, Célina; Laurent, Anne-Marie; Le Moullec, Yvon; Momas, Isabelle

    2011-09-15

    Indoor aldehydes may result from ozone-initiated chemistry, mainly documented by experimental studies. As part of an environmental investigation included in the PARIS birth cohort, the aim of this study was to examine ozone contribution to airborne aldehyde formation in Paris homes. Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels, as well as styrene, nitrogen dioxide and nicotine concentrations, comfort parameters and carbon dioxide levels, were measured twice during the first year of life of the babies. Ambient ozone concentrations were collected from the closest background station of the regional air monitoring network. Traffic-related nitrogen oxide concentrations in front of the dwellings were estimated by an air pollution dispersion model. Home characteristics and families' way of life were described by questionnaires. Stepwise multiple linear regression models were used to link aldehyde levels with ambient ozone concentrations and a few aldehyde precursors involved in oxidation reactions, adjusting for other indoor aldehyde sources, comfort parameters and traffic-related nitrogen oxides. A 4 and 11% increase in formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels was pointed out when 8-hour ozone concentrations increased by 20 μg/m(3). The influence of potential precursors such as indoor styrene level and frequent use of air fresheners, containing unsaturated volatile organic compounds as terpenes, was also found. Thus, our results suggest that ambient ozone can significantly impact indoor air quality, especially with regard to formaldehyde and hexaldehyde levels.

  3. Vincenzo Neri and His Legacy in Paris and Bologna.

    PubMed

    Vanone, Federico; Lorusso, Lorenzo; Venturini, Simone

    2016-01-01

    Italian neurologist Vincenzo Neri was able to discover cinematography at the beginning of his career, when in 1908 he went to Paris to learn and improve his clinical background by following neurological cases at La Pitié with Joseph Babinski, who became his teacher and friend. While in Paris, Neri photographed and filmed several patients of famous neurologists, such as Babinski and Pierre Marie. His stills were published in several important French neurological journals and medical texts. He also collaborated with Georges Mendel, who helped Doyen film the first known surgical operation in the history of cinema. In 1910, when he came back to Bologna, he continued in his clinical activities and, for 50 years, slowly developed a huge archive of films, images, and prints of neurological, psychiatric, and orthopedic cases. This archive was extremely helpful to Neri, who especially needed to analyze neurological disorders and to differentiate them from functional conditions in order to understand clinical signs, rules, and mechanisms. PMID:26684423

  4. Gas loading apparatus for the Paris-Edinburgh press

    SciTech Connect

    Bocian, A.; Kamenev, K. V.; Bull, C. L.; Hamidov, H.; Loveday, J. S.; Nelmes, R. J.

    2010-09-15

    We describe the design and operation of an apparatus for loading gases into the sample volume of the Paris-Edinburgh press at room temperature and high pressure. The system can be used for studies of samples loaded as pure or mixed gases as well as for loading gases as pressure-transmitting media in neutron-scattering experiments. The apparatus consists of a high-pressure vessel and an anvil holder with a clamp mechanism. The vessel, designed to operate at gas pressures of up to 150 MPa, is used for applying the load onto the anvils located inside the clamp. This initial load is sufficient for sealing the pressurized gas inside the sample containing gasket. The clamp containing the anvils and the sample is then transferred into the Paris-Edinburgh press by which further load can be applied to the sample. The clamp has apertures for scattered neutron beams and remains in the press for the duration of the experiment. The performance of the gas loading system is illustrated with the results of neutron-diffraction experiments on compressed nitrogen.

  5. Science and policy characteristics of the Paris Agreement temperature goal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schleussner, Carl-Friedrich; Rogelj, Joeri; Schaeffer, Michiel; Lissner, Tabea; Licker, Rachel; Fischer, Erich M.; Knutti, Reto; Levermann, Anders; Frieler, Katja; Hare, William

    2016-09-01

    The Paris Agreement sets a long-term temperature goal of holding the global average temperature increase to well below 2 °C, and pursuing efforts to limit this to 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels. Here, we present an overview of science and policy aspects related to this goal and analyse the implications for mitigation pathways. We show examples of discernible differences in impacts between 1.5 °C and 2 °C warming. At the same time, most available low emission scenarios at least temporarily exceed the 1.5 °C limit before 2100. The legacy of temperature overshoots and the feasibility of limiting warming to 1.5 °C, or below, thus become central elements of a post-Paris science agenda. The near-term mitigation targets set by countries for the 2020-2030 period are insufficient to secure the achievement of the temperature goal. An increase in mitigation ambition for this period will determine the Agreement's effectiveness in achieving its temperature goal.

  6. The monuments of the UNESCO List under threat in the 21rst century: the Project "MONUNESCO-PARIS" (2012-2013)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menendez, B.; Brimblecombe, P.; Deque, M.; Grossi, C. M.; Ionescu, A.; Lefevre, R. A.

    2012-04-01

    The banks of the River Seine in Paris are inscribed on the UNESCO List of the World Cultural Heritage since 1991 because they are studded with a succession of masterpieces such as Notre- Dame Cathedral, Sainte Chapelle, Louvre, Place de la Concorde, Tour Eiffel, and with prestigious museums: Louvre, Orsay, Quai Branly, Petit Palais…Unfortunately, these banks are crossed by the Pompidou urban motorway, an important and continuous source of atmospheric pollution. The aim of the Project is to evaluate the evolution of the weathering of limestone, glass and stained glass in the centre of Paris in the 21rst century by crossing Climate and Pollution Models with Dose-Response Functions (DRF) for limestone, glass and stained glass and with Climatology of Salt Transitions for limestone. A Lutetian limestone (« Courville Stone ») has been used for the construction and the restoration of the most important monuments (Notre-Dame, Louvre…) and haussmannian buildings in Paris. It has a fine grain, a medium porosity (19%) and contains 90% of CaO. The modern glass of windows and large contemporaneous façades has a Si-Ca-Na composition, it is chemically inert, has a low thermal inertia, a flat surface, no open porosity and no surface roughness, therefore it is very durable. The glass of stained glass windows has a Si-Ca-K composition and it is low durable. Using different climate and pollution scenarios of the 21rst century, the project will evaluate different schemes of material degradations: (i) - Recession of limestone surface; (ii) - Soiling of limestone surface; (iii) - Soiling of modern glass; (iv) - Leaching of ancient stained glass windows; (v) - Deterioration of limestone by salts. The British Hadley Models, the French Météo- France Arpège-Aladin Models and the ENSEMBLES Approach will be crossed with DRF and Climatology of Salts Transitions. An in-the-field inventory (stock at risk) of the surface occupied on the façades by each kind of material (stone

  7. 76 FR 12399 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: “Paris: Life & Luxury”

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-07

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Paris: Life & Luxury'' SUMMARY..., I hereby determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Paris: Life & Luxury... objects are imported pursuant to loan agreements with the foreign owners or custodians. I also...

  8. 75 FR 28303 - Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on Reconsideration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ... Notice of determination was published in the Federal Register on April 23, 2010 (FR 75 21358). The... Employment and Training Administration Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, TN; Notice of Revised Determination on... reconsideration, I determine that workers of Setco Automotive, Inc., Paris, Tennessee meet the worker...

  9. 77 FR 75450 - Request for Information (RFI): Use of National Science Foundation Overseas Offices in Paris...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Request for Information (RFI): Use of National Science Foundation Overseas Offices in Paris, Tokyo... UNESCO, opened in Paris and in 2006 the NSF Beijing office was opened. The major functions of these...

  10. Images of Paris: Big C Culture for the Nonspeaker of French.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spangler, May; York, Holly U.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses a course offered in both French and English at Emory University in Atlanta, Georgia that is based on the study of representations of Paris from the Middle Ages to the present. It uses architecture as a point of departure and explores the myth of Paris as expressed through a profusion of images in literature, painting, and film.…

  11. [End of life in France].

    PubMed

    Vacheron, André

    2013-01-01

    Two major changes in end-of-life management have occured in recent decades: first, because of the increase in life expectancy and the resulting aging of the population, most deaths now involve old or very old people; second, more than two-thirds of deaths occur in a hospital or an institution. Our fellow citizens are afraid of suffering and death. They wish for a peaceful death, as rapid as possible and, in recent surveys, say they favour euthanasia. Yet euthanasia is illegal in France and in most other Western countries (with the exception of the Benelux nations). Palliative care ensures dignity in death, without anxiety of suffering, and is expanding rapidly in France. Léonetti's law of 22 April 2005 ensures the protection of the weakest, who should never be considered unworthy of life, yet is poorly known to the public and even to physicians. It now needs to be applied in practice. PMID:25518160

  12. "Franklin: Science, Politics and France"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClellan, James E., III

    2003-04-01

    This presentation traces Benjamin Franklin's career as a "civic scientist" in Old-Regime France. It outlines the initial - and not always positive - reception of Franklin's work on electricity by the community of French scientists in the 1750s. It sketches Franklin's subsequent elevation into the pantheon of French Enlightenment heros, and it details his work as a "civic scientist" while American envoy to France in the 1770s and 1780s, notably his service on the government-sponsored commissions that repudiated the scientific and medical claims of Franz Anton Mesmer. This presentation concludes by examining a few features of Franklin's career that are not completely congruent with our notion of what a "civic scientist" might be, a contrast that is intended to illuminate both Franklin and the concept of "civic scientist."

  13. High resolution sequence stratigraphy in the upper Jurassic carbonate platform of the Paris basin: Reservoir geometries in lagoonal, protected marine and ooids shoals environments

    SciTech Connect

    Pascal, H.; Villalobos, L. Guillocheau, F.

    1995-08-01

    Reservoir geometry reconstruction within carbonate platforms has been carried out in the Upper Jurassic of the Paris Basin based on high-resolution sequence stratigraphy correlations (cores and well-logs). 18 cored wells over 25 kM{sup 2} have been correlated (Saint-Clair-sur-Epte field, Gaz de France). During lower and middle Oxfordian the Paris Basin is a carbonate platform prograding southward. This progradational trend can be subdivided into three upper order sequences (parasequences sets, mean duration: one m.y.). The lower parasequence-set is a stacking of shallowing-upward parasequences made up of tidal ooids bars surrounded laterally and backward by more protected environments (large variety of coated grains). The middle parasequence-set is recorded in lagoonal environments with numerous channels and lobes of storm washover-fans. Metric-thick sequences have been correlated over the field. They are ernersive upward (subtidal lagoonal deposits cut by storm-induced channels and lobes, covered by small karsts). The upper parasequence-set is made-up of protected-marine deposits grading into lagoonal sediments. The metric thick shallowing-upward sequences are composed by sheet-shaped, strongly bioturbated, medium to coarse-grained bioclastic limestones. Correlation levels are the deepest facies (strongly monospecifically bioturbated wackstones). Shape and size of reservoirs will be quantified.

  14. LUTETIAN LIMESTONES IN THE PARIS REGION: PETROGRAPHIC AND COMPOSITIONAL EXAMINATION

    SciTech Connect

    BLANC,A.; HOLMES,L.L.; HARBOTTLE,G.

    1998-06-11

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific-stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists has investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemist whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries.

  15. Lutetian limestones in the Paris region: Petrographic and compositional examination

    SciTech Connect

    Blanc, A.; Holmes, L.L.; Harbottle, G.

    1998-12-31

    Stone for building and decorating monuments in the Paris Basin from antiquity to the present came from numerous quarries in the Lutetian limestone formations of the region. To identify specific stone sources used for masonry and sculptures in these monuments, a team of geologists and archaeologists have investigated 300 quarries and collected 2,300 limestone samples for study in a collaborative effort by geologists and chemists. Petrographic and paleontologic examinations of thin sections enable geologists to distinguish the Tertiary Lutetian limestones from similar stone in Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. The methods of the geologist have been supplemented by those of the chemistry whose compositional studies by neutron activation analysis can differentiate among the fine-grained upper Lutetian limestones extracted from specific ancient quarries.

  16. Planetary Science from Teaching Department of Paris Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arlot, J. E.; Roques, F.; Thuillot, W.

    2007-08-01

    The teaching department of Paris Observatory and the IMCCE (Institut de Mécanique Céleste et de Calcul des Ephemerides) provide several tools as for students at different levels as for general public concerning the Planetary Science. We provide: -cursus for general public, for teachers in high schools and for students before PhD; -cursus through Internet thanks to specific web sites and e-mails between students and teachers; -CD Rom for high schools, for teachers and for general public for the knowledge of the Solar system -web sites answering most of the questions of general public. For specific events, such as eclipses of the Sun or the Moon, the transit of Venus in front of the Sun, arrival of a space probe near a planet, we organize events or exhibits. Some of these tools are to be translated in several european languages.

  17. After some 350 years - zero declination again in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandea, Mioara; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis

    2016-09-01

    The main part of the geomagnetic field - produced by a dynamo process in the Earth's outer core - changes its direction and strength in time, over timescales from months to centuries, even millennia. Its temporal variations, known as secular variation and secular acceleration, are crucial ingredients for understanding the physics of the deep Earth. Very long series of measurements therefore play an important role. Here, we provide an updated series of geomagnetic declination in Paris, shortly after a very special occasion: its value has reached zero after some 350 years of westerly values. Indeed, during October and November 2013, the declination at the Chambon la Forêt geomagnetic observatory changed from westerly to easterly values, the agonic line then passing through this place. We take this occasion to emphasize the importance of long series of continuous measurements.

  18. Paris Valley Combination Thermal Drive Pilot Demonstration Test. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shipley, R.G. Jr.; Meldau, R.F.; White, P.D.

    1980-09-01

    A wet combustion pilot within the Paris Valley Field, Monterey County, California was initiated in January, 1975 in order to determine the technical and economic feasibility of this enhanced recovery process within a sandstone reservoir having a very viscous crude. Cyclic steaming was also performed and evaluated. Due to the low oil production rates, which were not capable of offsetting the high operating costs, the pilot was terminated during March, 1979. Eighteen producing wells, five air injectors, and one water disposal well were drilled. Primary oil production averaged less than 3 BOPD per well and initial water production ranged from 30 to 100 BWPD per well. Cumulative oil produced during the pilot was 120,623 STBO. Over 90% of the oil produced was due to response from cyclic steaming.

  19. Environmental concern and the political process in France: Patterns of the 1981 elections

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    The environment as a political cause emerged on the national scene in France in 1978, when the ''green'' party captured an impressive share of the initial parliamentary vote. In the presidential election of April, 1981, the environmental candidate ran moderately well, polling over one million votes and leading all other minority and special interest party candidates. In subsequent parliamentary elections (June, 1981), however, ''green'' candidates attracted only about half of their 1978 support, a decline attributable largely to the success of socialist candidates. Despite this setback, it is possible to identify persistent areas of strong environmental electoral support in Alsace, the Paris metropolitan area, the Rhone-Alpes region, and to a lesser extent lower Normandy and Brittany.

  20. How to catch all those mutations--the report of the third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010.

    PubMed

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R J; Al-Aama, Jumana Y; Auerbach, Arleen D; Axton, Myles; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Bernstein, Inge; Béroud, Christophe; Burn, John; Cunningham, Fiona; Cutting, Garry R; den Dunnen, Johan T; Greenblatt, Marc S; Kaput, Jim; Katz, Michael; Lindblom, Annika; Macrae, Finlay; Maglott, Donna; Möslein, Gabriela; Povey, Sue; Ramesar, Raj; Richards, Sue; Seminara, Daniela; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Tavtigian, Sean; Taylor, Graham; Vihinen, Mauno; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard G H

    2010-12-01

    The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting "Integration and Implementation" was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10-14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health. The HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current framework of HVP activities: Ethics; Nomenclature and Standards; Publication, Credit and Incentives; Data Collection from Clinics; Overall Data Integration and Access-Peripheral Systems/Software; Data Collection from Laboratories; Assessment of Pathogenicity; Country Specific Collection; Translation to Healthcare and Personalized Medicine; Data Transfer, Databasing, and Curation; Overall Data Integration and Access-Central Systems; and Funding Mechanisms and Sustainability. In addition, three societies that support the goals and the mission of HVP also held their own Workshops with the view to advance disease-specific variation data collection and utilization: the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, the Micronutrient Genomics Project, and the Neurogenetics Consortium.

  1. The in/visible women: Mariangela Ardinghelli and the circulation of knowledge between Paris and Naples in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Paola

    2013-06-01

    Mariangela Ardinghelli (1730-1825) is remembered as the Italian translator of two texts by the Newtonian physiologist Stephen Hales, Haemastaticks and Vegetable Staticks. This essay shows that her role in the Republic of Letters was by no means limited to such work. At a time of increasing interest in the natural history of the areas around Naples, she became a reliable cultural mediator for French travelers and naturalists. She also acted as an informal foreign correspondent for the Paris Academy of Sciences, connecting scientific communities in Naples and France. Unlike other learned women of the time, Ardinghelli was neither an aristocrat nor a member of the ascendant middle class. The essay discusses the strategies she devised to build her authority and her choice of anonymity at the apex of her popularity, when she translated scientific texts by contemporary celebrities such as the abbé Nollet and the comte de Buffon. It argues that, in spite of Ardinghelli's historical invisibility, for her contemporaries she never became an "invisible assistant": she constructed layers of selective visibility that allowed her authorship to be identified by specific audiences, while protecting herself from social isolation or derision. PMID:23961687

  2. Assessing the ammonium nitrate formation regime in the Paris megacity and its representation in the CHIMERE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petetin, Hervé; Sciare, Jean; Beekmann, Matthias; Sanchez, Olivier; Rosso, Amandine; Denier van der Gon, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    Ammonium nitrates significantly contribute to the fine particulate matter load, in particular in the Paris agglomeration where two measurement campaigns, PARTICULES and FRANCIPOL, have recently made available a large database on this compound and its gaseous precursors, nitric acid and ammonia. These new observations give the opportunity (for the first time in France) to assess the ammonium nitrate formation regime (in terms of limited species) as well as the ability of the CHIMERE chemistry-transport model to simulate each species and to reproduce in fine the observed regime. Quite satisfactory results are obtained on nitrates, mainly due to a significant contribution of imports from outside the agglomeration. However, significant biases affect both gaseous precursors. Various uncertainty sources are discussed, including those relative to ammonia trafic and agricultural emissions, thermodynamic equilibria or oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. Despite these errors, CHIMERE manages to simulate a HNO3-limited regime, in agreement with observations, at least at the daily scale. This study especially confirms that further work on the OH radical characterization in the CHIMERE model and agricultural ammonia emissions are required to improve the simulation of the ammonium nitrate formation regime.

  3. How to Catch All Those Mutations—The Report of the Third Human Variome Project Meeting, UNESCO Paris, May 2010

    PubMed Central

    Kohonen-Corish, Maija R.J.; Al-Aama, Jumana Y.; Auerbach, Arleen D.; Axton, Myles; Barash, Carol Isaacson; Bernstein, Inge; Béroud, Christophe; Burn, John; Cunningham, Fiona; Cutting, Garry R.; den Dunnen, Johan T.; Greenblatt, Marc S.; Kaput, Jim; Katz, Michael; Lindblom, Annika; Macrae, Finlay; Maglott, Donna; Möslein, Gabriela; Povey, Sue; Ramesar, Raj; Richards, Sue; Seminara, Daniela; Sobrido, María-Jesús; Tavtigian, Sean; Taylor, Graham; Vihinen, Mauno; Winship, Ingrid; Cotton, Richard G.H.

    2011-01-01

    The third Human Variome Project (HVP) Meeting “Integration and Implementation” was held under UNESCO Patronage in Paris, France, at the UNESCO Headquarters May 10–14, 2010. The major aims of the HVP are the collection, curation, and distribution of all human genetic variation affecting health. The HVP has drawn together disparate groups, by country, gene of interest, and expertise, who are working for the common good with the shared goal of pushing the boundaries of the human variome and collaborating to avoid unnecessary duplication. The meeting addressed the 12 key areas that form the current framework of HVP activities: Ethics; Nomenclature and Standards; Publication, Credit and Incentives; Data Collection from Clinics; Overall Data Integration and Access—Peripheral Systems/Software; Data Collection from Laboratories; Assessment of Pathogenicity; Country Specific Collection; Translation to Healthcare and Personalized Medicine; Data Transfer, Databasing, and Curation; Overall Data Integration and Access—Central Systems; and Funding Mechanisms and Sustainability. In addition, three societies that support the goals and the mission of HVP also held their own Workshops with the view to advance disease-specific variation data collection and utilization: the International Society for Gastrointestinal Hereditary Tumours, the Micronutrient Genomics Project, and the Neurogenetics Consortium. PMID:20960468

  4. Applying Multivariate Clustering Techniques to Health Data: The 4 Types of Healthcare Utilization in the Paris Metropolitan Area

    PubMed Central

    Lefèvre, Thomas; Rondet, Claire; Parizot, Isabelle; Chauvin, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background Cost containment policies and the need to satisfy patients’ health needs and care expectations provide major challenges to healthcare systems. Identification of homogeneous groups in terms of healthcare utilisation could lead to a better understanding of how to adjust healthcare provision to society and patient needs. Methods This study used data from the third wave of the SIRS cohort study, a representative, population-based, socio-epidemiological study set up in 2005 in the Paris metropolitan area, France. The data were analysed using a cross-sectional design. In 2010, 3000 individuals were interviewed in their homes. Non-conventional multivariate clustering techniques were used to determine homogeneous user groups in data. Multinomial models assessed a wide range of potential associations between user characteristics and their pattern of healthcare utilisation. Results We identified four distinct patterns of healthcare use. Patterns of consumption and the socio-demographic characteristics of users differed qualitatively and quantitatively between these four profiles. Extensive and intensive use by older, wealthier and unhealthier people contrasted with narrow and parsimonious use by younger, socially deprived people and immigrants. Rare, intermittent use by young healthy men contrasted with regular targeted use by healthy and wealthy women. Conclusion The use of an original technique of massive multivariate analysis allowed us to characterise different types of healthcare users, both in terms of resource utilisation and socio-demographic variables. This method would merit replication in different populations and healthcare systems. PMID:25506916

  5. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris).

    PubMed

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  6. Highlights from the 2016 WIN Symposium, 27–29 June 2016, Paris: personalised therapy beyond next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Richard; Davies, Will

    2016-01-01

    The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) consortium is an alliance of academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, representatives from technology companies and charitable/health payer organisations from across the globe. For the last six years, the consortium’s aims have been to foster communication and collaboration between members, encourage dialogue in an open forum, and deliver clinical trial results that improve the care and outcomes of patients with cancer using the latest advances in genomic-based medicine. The annual WIN Symposium, held over two days, is a chance for its members to come together and discuss ongoing research, recent announcements, and introduce new developments in personalised medicine. This year’s conference, held in Paris, France 27–29 June, consisted of six dedicated sessions, including two debates, and posters from members and participating organisations, all focusing on the latest therapeutic advances and updates in genomic analysis. Special highlights from this year included discussion of the MINDACT clinical trial, which uses a gene expression test to identify patients with breast cancer who can safely forego adjuvant chemotherapy, and the reflections on the SHIVA trial. Of particular interest to many speakers was the utilisation of liquid biopsy samples to produce near real time snapshots of tumour mutational profiles and vulnerability.

  7. The in/visible women: Mariangela Ardinghelli and the circulation of knowledge between Paris and Naples in the eighteenth century.

    PubMed

    Bertucci, Paola

    2013-06-01

    Mariangela Ardinghelli (1730-1825) is remembered as the Italian translator of two texts by the Newtonian physiologist Stephen Hales, Haemastaticks and Vegetable Staticks. This essay shows that her role in the Republic of Letters was by no means limited to such work. At a time of increasing interest in the natural history of the areas around Naples, she became a reliable cultural mediator for French travelers and naturalists. She also acted as an informal foreign correspondent for the Paris Academy of Sciences, connecting scientific communities in Naples and France. Unlike other learned women of the time, Ardinghelli was neither an aristocrat nor a member of the ascendant middle class. The essay discusses the strategies she devised to build her authority and her choice of anonymity at the apex of her popularity, when she translated scientific texts by contemporary celebrities such as the abbé Nollet and the comte de Buffon. It argues that, in spite of Ardinghelli's historical invisibility, for her contemporaries she never became an "invisible assistant": she constructed layers of selective visibility that allowed her authorship to be identified by specific audiences, while protecting herself from social isolation or derision.

  8. Highlights from the 2016 WIN Symposium, 27-29 June 2016, Paris: personalised therapy beyond next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Richard; Davies, Will

    2016-01-01

    The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) consortium is an alliance of academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, representatives from technology companies and charitable/health payer organisations from across the globe. For the last six years, the consortium's aims have been to foster communication and collaboration between members, encourage dialogue in an open forum, and deliver clinical trial results that improve the care and outcomes of patients with cancer using the latest advances in genomic-based medicine. The annual WIN Symposium, held over two days, is a chance for its members to come together and discuss ongoing research, recent announcements, and introduce new developments in personalised medicine. This year's conference, held in Paris, France 27-29 June, consisted of six dedicated sessions, including two debates, and posters from members and participating organisations, all focusing on the latest therapeutic advances and updates in genomic analysis. Special highlights from this year included discussion of the MINDACT clinical trial, which uses a gene expression test to identify patients with breast cancer who can safely forego adjuvant chemotherapy, and the reflections on the SHIVA trial. Of particular interest to many speakers was the utilisation of liquid biopsy samples to produce near real time snapshots of tumour mutational profiles and vulnerability.

  9. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris).

    PubMed

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d'Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form.

  10. The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection (MY) of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (MNHN, Paris)

    PubMed Central

    Bras, Gwenaël Le; Geoffroy, Jean-Jacques; Albenga, Laurent; Mauriès, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection dataset inventories the occurrence records of the collection of myriapods and onychophorans in the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris. The dataset currently consists of 202 lots of onychophorans, representing all of those present, and almost ten thousand (9 795) lots of myriapods, representing 33 to 40% of the MNHN Myriapoda collection. This collection, which is of key historic importance, represents the results of two centuries of myriapod and onychophoran studies. The sources of the collection are worldwide, with a high representation for metropolitan France for the myriapods. None of the occurrences are yet georeferenced. Access to the dataset via the data portals of the MNHN and the GBIF has been made possible through the e-ReColNat project (ANR-11-INBS-0004). The Myriapoda and Onychophora collection of MNHN is actively expanding, hence both the collection and dataset are in continuous growth. The dataset can be accessed through the portals of GBIF at http://www.gbif.org/dataset/3287044c-8c48-4ad6-81d4-4908071bc8db and the MNHN at http://science.mnhn.fr/institution/mnhn/collection/my/item/search/form. PMID:26448704

  11. Highlights from the 2016 WIN Symposium, 27-29 June 2016, Paris: personalised therapy beyond next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Schilsky, Richard; Davies, Will

    2016-01-01

    The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) consortium is an alliance of academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, representatives from technology companies and charitable/health payer organisations from across the globe. For the last six years, the consortium's aims have been to foster communication and collaboration between members, encourage dialogue in an open forum, and deliver clinical trial results that improve the care and outcomes of patients with cancer using the latest advances in genomic-based medicine. The annual WIN Symposium, held over two days, is a chance for its members to come together and discuss ongoing research, recent announcements, and introduce new developments in personalised medicine. This year's conference, held in Paris, France 27-29 June, consisted of six dedicated sessions, including two debates, and posters from members and participating organisations, all focusing on the latest therapeutic advances and updates in genomic analysis. Special highlights from this year included discussion of the MINDACT clinical trial, which uses a gene expression test to identify patients with breast cancer who can safely forego adjuvant chemotherapy, and the reflections on the SHIVA trial. Of particular interest to many speakers was the utilisation of liquid biopsy samples to produce near real time snapshots of tumour mutational profiles and vulnerability. PMID:27610195

  12. Highlights from the 2016 WIN Symposium, 27–29 June 2016, Paris: personalised therapy beyond next-generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Schilsky, Richard; Davies, Will

    2016-01-01

    The Worldwide Innovative Networking (WIN) consortium is an alliance of academic institutions, pharmaceutical partners, representatives from technology companies and charitable/health payer organisations from across the globe. For the last six years, the consortium’s aims have been to foster communication and collaboration between members, encourage dialogue in an open forum, and deliver clinical trial results that improve the care and outcomes of patients with cancer using the latest advances in genomic-based medicine. The annual WIN Symposium, held over two days, is a chance for its members to come together and discuss ongoing research, recent announcements, and introduce new developments in personalised medicine. This year’s conference, held in Paris, France 27–29 June, consisted of six dedicated sessions, including two debates, and posters from members and participating organisations, all focusing on the latest therapeutic advances and updates in genomic analysis. Special highlights from this year included discussion of the MINDACT clinical trial, which uses a gene expression test to identify patients with breast cancer who can safely forego adjuvant chemotherapy, and the reflections on the SHIVA trial. Of particular interest to many speakers was the utilisation of liquid biopsy samples to produce near real time snapshots of tumour mutational profiles and vulnerability. PMID:27610195

  13. Boron isotopes in the Seine River, France: a probe of anthropogenic contamination.

    PubMed

    Chetelat, Benjamin; Gaillardet, Jérôme

    2005-04-15

    Boron concentrations and isotopic compositions have been measured in the dissolved load of the Seine Basin rivers, France. Hydrology and chemistry of the Seine River and its tributaries are strongly influenced by human activities, as the anthropogenic pressure on the Seine catchment is one of the highest in Europe. The samples were collected between 1994 and 1996 during various stages of flow, complemented by a time-series of the Seine River in Paris for 1 yr. In particular, the decennial flood event of winter 1994 was sampled. Boron appears to be conservative in rivers and not influenced by adsorption onto suspended matter and/or consumption by microorganisms. Despite the complexity of the Seine River system, dissolved boron and its isotopes are found to be suitable tracers of contamination. The total dissolved boron of the Seine River at Paris is explained by the contribution from three distinct components: Urban effluents constitute 65% of the boron discharge measured in the Seine River whereas agriculture-affected waters contribute less than 10% with a more marked influence during high water discharges. Rainwater contribution is important (25% mean), reaching 30% of dissolved boron during high flood events.

  14. Application of microscopy in authentication and distinguishing of 11 Paris species in West Sichuan.

    PubMed

    Xue, Dan; Yin, Hongxiang; Li, Jie; Liu, Xianbo; Zhang, Hao; Peng, Cheng

    2009-10-01

    In the trade and raw drug market, the medicinal plants of genus Paris are available in the form of rhizomes without any vouchers, thus making it difficult to identify and distinguish the different species of Genus Paris. Recent studies have shown that the species of Paris possess different chemical constituents, pharmacological activities, and efficiencies in clinical application. To distinguish 11 species of Paris collected from the western Sichuan province of China and ensure their safety and efficacy, in the present work, the microscopic characteristics of rhizomes and the crude drug powder of the 11 species of Paris were compared using a light microscope according to the usual microscopic techniques. The results of the microscopic features were systematically described and illustrated. The differences among these species are great enough that the identity of most material can be easily determined. Also, semiquantitative and quantitative micrographic parameter tables were simultaneously presented. Further, the key authentication parameters based on these anatomic characteristics analyzed was drawn up and presented for the Paris species studied. The study indicated that light microscopy and related techniques could provide a method that is convenient, feasible, and can be unambiguously applied in the authentication of species of Paris. This information is required not only for the identification procedures that guarantee the utilization of the appropriate raw material, but also for the quality control standards demanded.

  15. Stanley Paris Award Lecture. Reflections on the history and future of orthopaedic physical therapy.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, C

    1998-09-01

    Carolyn Wadsworth, MS, PT, CHT, OCS, deliver the 1998 Paris Distinguished Service Award Lecture at the Combined Sections Meeting in Boston in February. Wadsworth is the fifth recipient of the Paris Award, which is the Orthopaedic Section's highest honor given to commemorate a member's exceptional and enduring service. The Paris Distinguished Service Award was established in 1990 and is named after Stanley V. Paris, PhD, PT, founder and first president of the Orthopaedic Section. Born in Dunedin, New Zealand, Paris immigrated to the U.S. in 1966. He developed physical therapy practices in Boston, Hamilton, Bermuda, and Atlanta; established the Institute of Graduate Health Sciences in Atlanta, GA; and is currently president of the University of St. Augustine, St. Augustine, FL. Paris is a strong advocate of assertive professional practice, clinical specialization, and strengthening leadership in physical therapy. He also champions wellness, exemplified by his personal achievements in sailing the Atlantic Ocean, swimming the English Channel, and completing the Ironman Triathlon. Carolyn Wadsworth, recipient of the 1998 Paris Award, has served as secretary and president of the Orthopaedic Section and is currently editor of the Orthopaedic Section's Home Study Course. She owns a private practice, teaches nationally, and has written two books, Examination and Mobilization of the Spine and Extremities (1988) and Orthopedic Review for Physical Therapists (1998). Major components of the speech she presented at the Orthopaedic Section Awards Ceremony are highlighted in this article.

  16. [Health and politics in France].

    PubMed

    Tabuteau, Didier

    2012-06-01

    Health is a dual notion. It is individual, singular and intimate. It is also collective, statistical and political. The modern problematic of health relies upon a balance of complex relations between individual and collective acceptances of the notion. You can try to outline the evolutions and the main concepts through a quadruple approach: health and politics, health and its professionals, health and society and in the end, health and the State. The relationships between health and politics in France are affected by the historical delay of France in public health, namely because of a structural weakness of the administrative organization of public health. Nevertheless France developed a dense and well organized care system and a universal social protection against the disease. The creation of the health professions in France was marked by a historical opposition between the doctors and the state which led to a failure of hygienist medicine and a fundamental misunderstanding on health insurance. Medical domination led to the organization of a system based on professional dichotomy and the delegation of the regulation skills to the health care professionals. The role of health issues in the French society was deeply renewed by the development of the medical and epidemiological knowledge. This resulted in a new political responsibility in the management of health risks but also in the confirmation of the patients' rights and the role of their associations in the health systems operations and the piloting of public policies. In this environment, the state has recently and progressively confirmed its dominating role in the health sector. A public hospital service was created In the 60's and 70's, then in the 80's there were recurrent interventions in order to control health spendings and eventually in the 90's health safety devices were set up. More recently, a process of health policies institutionalization confirmed this evolution. In the future, health issues should

  17. Carbonate Geochemistry and Organic Biomarkers Evolutions During the Early Toarcian in the Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermoso, M.; Le Callonnec, L.; Hautevelle, Y.; Minoletti, F.; Renard, M.

    2006-12-01

    Within the Early Toarcian Oceanic Anoxic event, isotopic perturbations (C, O, Sr, Os, Mo and S) are now well described. Their worldwide occurrences and synchronicity are still under debate and oppose locally controlled mechanisms to global events such as methane hydrates release. We present an integrated study for understanding palaeoceanographical records in the Paris Basin. In order to test the influence of the redox status of the environment, the sedimentological, mineralogical and geochemical (carbonate and organic biomarkers) evolutions of two Early Toarcian sites are studied: Bascharage (Luxemburg) and Sancerre (center of France. A sedimentary particles isolation technique was performed to quantify the contribution of primary calcite (calcareous nannoflora) and diagenetic calcareous particles. The respective isotopic signatures of these particles enable to validate the bulk record and discuss the link between photic-zone and interstitial fluids (water-mass stratification, intensity of DIC remineralization, interstitial fluid migrations). It is demonstrated that both biogenic calcareous particles and early diagenetic macrocrystals record the C-isotope negative shift with similar magnitudes. Molecular biomarkers of the organic matter studied by GC-MS enable to characterize the paleoredox conditions in the photic-zone and the bottom water. The Bascharage section is characterized by permanant anoxic conditions in the photic zone (as shown by the presence of gammacerane, 2,3,6- trimethylalkylbenzenes and isorenieratane typical of Chlorobiaceae and reducing conditions in the sediment: Pr/Ph<1, large amount of perylene, C 35hopanes>C 34hopanes. The Earliest Toarcian Sancerre deposits are dysoxic and transient euxinic conditions are observed from the second step of the C-isotope decrease in carbonates. This level is also highlighted by generalized reducing conditions (Mn- rich carbonate) due to oxides phase destabilization, beginning of Black Shales deposits and

  18. Access to employment among African migrant women living with HIV in France: opportunities and constraints.

    PubMed

    Gerbier-Aublanc, Marjorie; Gosselin, Anne

    2016-08-01

    HIV in France particularly affects sub-Saharan migrants as they accounted for 31% of the new diagnoses in 2013. The objective of this study is to investigate the access to and the experience of employment among migrant women living with HIV in France. We use a mixed-method approach. The quantitative data come from the ANRS Parcours study, a life-event survey conducted in 2012-2013 in 70 health centres which collected year-by-year detailed information on living conditions about 755 sub-Saharan women migrants in the greater Paris region (470 with HIV and 285 without HIV). The qualitative data have been collected independently in the same region through socio-ethnographic observations and interviews conducted in 8 HIV-positive migrant organisations and among 35 women-members from 2011 to 2013. Two main results are noteworthy. First, being HIV-positive unexpectedly gives sub-Saharan migrant women a quicker access to employment thanks to the social support they find in migrant organisations: in the third year in France in median (versus 5th year among HIV-negative group). This effect of being HIV-positive on the access to employment remains all things being equal in a discrete-time logistic regression (aOR [95% CI] HIV+: 1.4[1.1;1.8]). Second, their employment situation remains strongly shaped by the racial division of work existing in France and they develop individual strategies to negotiate this constraint: for example, temporary jobs and working as health mediators. The type of jobs they find, mainly in the care sector, force them to carefully hide their HIV status because they fear discrimination at work. Not only migrant women endure structural discrimination in a segmented labour market, but they also anticipate HIV-related discrimination related to caring activities. Thus, the design and implementation of programmes that address stigma should consider structural discrimination to improve PLWHA's working experiences. PMID:27098378

  19. [Dengue fever in mainland France].

    PubMed

    Paty, M-C

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most widespread distributed vector borne viral disease. It is transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. With the expansion of Aedes albopictus and increasing travel exchange, it is no longer limited to the tropical zone and transmission has been documented in temperate areas. In mainland France, where Aedes albopictus has been present and disseminating since 2004, 2 episodes of autochthonous transmission occurred in 2010 and in 2013. Control measures against dengue and chikungunya, which shares the same vector, are implemented every year since 2006, in the areas where the vector is present. They aim at preventing or limiting local transmission of these diseases. They are based on epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control measures. The diagnosis of dengue, and chikungunya should be considered in case of suggestive symptoms in patients returning from an area of virus circulation. It should also be considered for patients living or having stayed in areas of mainland France where Aedes albopictus is present, during its activity period from May 1 to November 30. The prevention and control system, including vector control measures and the notification of cases to the local health authority should be known, as the risk of autochthonous transmission increases every year. PMID:25080833

  20. [Dengue fever in mainland France].

    PubMed

    Paty, M-C

    2014-11-01

    Dengue fever is the most widespread distributed vector borne viral disease. It is transmitted through the bites of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus mosquitoes. With the expansion of Aedes albopictus and increasing travel exchange, it is no longer limited to the tropical zone and transmission has been documented in temperate areas. In mainland France, where Aedes albopictus has been present and disseminating since 2004, 2 episodes of autochthonous transmission occurred in 2010 and in 2013. Control measures against dengue and chikungunya, which shares the same vector, are implemented every year since 2006, in the areas where the vector is present. They aim at preventing or limiting local transmission of these diseases. They are based on epidemiological and entomological surveillance and vector control measures. The diagnosis of dengue, and chikungunya should be considered in case of suggestive symptoms in patients returning from an area of virus circulation. It should also be considered for patients living or having stayed in areas of mainland France where Aedes albopictus is present, during its activity period from May 1 to November 30. The prevention and control system, including vector control measures and the notification of cases to the local health authority should be known, as the risk of autochthonous transmission increases every year.

  1. Occupational exposure and 12-year spirometric changes among Paris area workers.

    PubMed Central

    Kauffmann, F; Drouet, D; Lellouch, J; Brille, D

    1982-01-01

    A follow-up study over 12 years was conducted among 556 men aged 30 to 54 in 1960 and working at that time in factories around Paris (France). Various occupational exposures were recorded at the time of the 1960 survey after a technical study of each workplace. The annual rate of decline of FEV1 during 12 years was estimated for each subject from the measurements in 1960 and 1972. This rate (the FEV1 slope) was related independently of FEV1 level (which reflects the loss since the beginning of adult life) and of smoking habits to occupational exposure to dust, gases, and heat. FEV1 slope was significantly related to inhalation of mineral dust (even in the absence of silica) as well as to grain dust, and the slope was steeper with increased intensity of exposure to dust. Analysis of job changes showed that among heavily exposed subjects, those who changed jobs had a less steep slope than those who did not. Our results support the hypothesis of a causal role of exposure to dust in the development of chronic airflow obstruction and of a benefit when exposure to dust ceases. Exposure to dust, gas, and heat usually occurred together so data on gas and heat were analysed after taking account of exposure to dust. The influence of heat on FEV1 decline showed a clear trend. Results suggest that exposure to gases associated with exposure to dust or heat or both had a deleterious effect. After adjusting for age, smoking, and FEV1 level (ASLA) the following average slopes were obtained: 44 ml/a (for exposure to none or to only a slight amount of dust, or to gases alone), 51 ml/a (heat), 53 ml/a (noticeable dust), 55 ml/a (noticeable dust and heat), 60 ml/a (noticeable dust, heat, and high concentration of gases). Independently of the occupational exposures, ASLA FEV1 slopes among manual workers were related to skill, being 44 ml/a for skilled and 51 ml/a for unskilled men. Independently of social class and occupational exposures recorded, there were differences in FEV1 slopes

  2. Volatility of organic aerosol and its components in the megacity of Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paciga, Andrea; Karnezi, Eleni; Kostenidou, Evangelia; Hildebrandt, Lea; Psichoudaki, Magda; Engelhart, Gabriella J.; Lee, Byong-Hyoek; Crippa, Monica; Prévôt, André S. H.; Baltensperger, Urs; Pandis, Spyros N.

    2016-02-01

    Using a mass transfer model and the volatility basis set, we estimate the volatility distribution for the organic aerosol (OA) components during summer and winter in Paris, France as part of the collaborative project MEGAPOLI. The concentrations of the OA components as a function of temperature were measured combining data from a thermodenuder and an aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) with Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) analysis. The hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) had similar volatility distributions for the summer and winter campaigns with half of the material in the saturation concentration bin of 10 µg m-3 and another 35-40 % consisting of low and extremely low volatility organic compounds (LVOCs with effective saturation concentrations C* of 10-3-0.1 µg m-3 and ELVOCs C* less or equal than 10-4 µg m-3, respectively). The winter cooking OA (COA) was more than an order of magnitude less volatile than the summer COA. The low-volatility oxygenated OA (LV-OOA) factor detected in the summer had the lowest volatility of all the derived factors and consisted almost exclusively of ELVOCs. The volatility for the semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA) was significantly higher than that of the LV-OOA, containing both semi-volatile organic components (SVOCs with C* in the 1-100 µg m-3 range) and LVOCs. The oxygenated OA (OOA) factor in winter consisted of SVOCs (45 %), LVOCs (25 %) and ELVOCs (30 %). The volatility of marine OA (MOA) was higher than that of the other factors containing around 60 % SVOCs. The biomass burning OA (BBOA) factor contained components with a wide range of volatilities with significant contributions from both SVOCs (50 %) and LVOCs (30 %). Finally, combining the bulk average O : C ratios and volatility distributions of the various factors, our results are placed into the two-dimensional volatility basis set (2D-VBS) framework. The OA factors cover a broad spectrum of volatilities with no direct link between the average volatility and

  3. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied.

  4. [The beginnings of the nursing profession : the complementary relationship between secular caregivers and hospital nuns in France in the 17th and 18th centuries].

    PubMed

    Diebolt, Evelyne

    2013-06-01

    The words used for designating the caregivers are ambiguous. Little by little, the word "nurse" becomes widely used, mainly in the feminine form due to the need of specialized staff. Health care structures are developing in the 17th and 18 centuries, the remains of which you can find in today hospitals (Salpêtrière hospital, Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Paris). The government of Louis XIV cares for the poor sick people, the vagabonds and the beggars. It opens new general hospitals as it will be the case later in all Europe. In the 17th century, the staff of the general hospital in Paris is entirely secular. The Paris general hospital is headed by the magistrates of Paris Parliament. The healthcare institutions employ both secular and religious staff for example the Hotel Dieu in Paris and the one in Marseilles. In the 17th century, there are 2000 secular caregivers in France. The order of the "Filles de la Charité" (grey sisters) is not submitted to the rule of enclosure. They renew their vows every year. For their founders Vincent de Paul and Louise de Marcillac, their monastery should be the cells of the sick, their cloister should be the rooms of the hospitals or the streets of the town. The secular or religious caregivers are excellent in the apothecary and they open a network of small dispensaries. It improves the health of the French population and allows fighting against the epidemics. This activity allowed some women to have a rewarding activity and a social status of which they were apparently satisfied. PMID:23923734

  5. Non Destructive IR Micro-Imaging of Whole Grains of the Paris Meteorite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dionnet, Z.; Aleon-Toppani, A.; Borondics, F.; Brunetto, R.; Djouadi, Z.; Troadec, D.

    2016-08-01

    Here, we report the results of high-resolution Fourier Transform IR spectral imaging experiments at micron scale using FPA (Focal Plan Array) and synchroton radiation of the Paris meteorite (carbonaceous chondrite,CM )with a new sample preparation.

  6. GREEN CATALYZED OXIDATION OF HYDROCARBONS IN ALTERNATIVE SOLVENT SYSTEMS GENERATED BY PARIS II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Green Catalyzed Oxidation of Hydrocarbons in Alternative Solvent Systems Generated by PARIS II

    Michael A. Gonzalez*, Thomas M. Becker, and Paul F. Harten; Sustainable Technology Division, Office of Research and Development; United States Environmental Protection Agency, 26...

  7. [The anatomy collections of the Paris V University: their role in medical teaching for two centuries].

    PubMed

    Saban, R; Lassau, J P; Delmas, V; Iba-Zizen, M T; Cabanis, E

    2001-11-01

    The Museum of anatomy of the University Paris V exhibits a collection of ancient and high quality dissections and waxworks, very well preserved, which were used for teaching anatomy and have been classified historic monument since 1992.

  8. Biological effects of particles from the paris subway system.

    PubMed

    Bachoual, Rafik; Boczkowski, Jorge; Goven, Delphine; Amara, Nadia; Tabet, Lyes; On, Dinhill; Leçon-Malas, Véronique; Aubier, Michel; Lanone, Sophie

    2007-10-01

    Particulate matter (PM) from atmospheric pollution can easily deposit in the lungs and induce recruitment of inflammatory cells, a source of inflammatory cytokines, oxidants, and matrix metalloproteases (MMPs), which are important players in lung structural homeostasis. In many large cities, the subway system is a potent source of PM emission, but little is known about the biological effects of PM from this source. We performed a comprehensive study to evaluate the biological effects of PM sampled at two sites (RER and Metro) in the Paris subway system. Murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and C57Bl/6 mice, respectively, were exposed to 0.01-10 microg/cm2 and 5-100 microg/mouse subway PM or reference materials [carbon black (CB), titanium dioxide (TiO2), or diesel exhaust particles (DEPs)]. We analyzed cell viability, production of cellular and lung proinflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-2), KC (the murin analog of interleukin-8), and granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)], and mRNA or protein expression of MMP-2, -9, and -12 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). Deferoxamine and polymixin B were used to evaluate the roles of iron and endotoxin, respectively. Noncytotoxic concentrations of subway PM (but not CB, TiO2, or DEPs) induced a time- and dose-dependent increase in TNFalpha and MIP-2 production by RAW 264.7 cells, in a manner involving, at least in part, PM iron content (34% inhibition of TNF production 8 h after stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with 10 microg/cm2 RER particles pretreated with deferoxamine). Similar increased cytokine production was transiently observed in vivo in mice and was accompanied by an increased neutrophil cellularity of bronchoalveolar lavage (84.83+/-0.98% of polymorphonuclear neutrophils for RER-treated mice after 24 h vs 7.33+/-0.99% for vehicle-treated animals). Subway PM induced an increased expression of MMP-12 and HO-1 both in vitro and in vivo. PM from the

  9. Experience of the Paris Research Consortium Climate-Environment-Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joussaume, Sylvie; Pacteau, Chantal; Vanderlinden, Jean Paul

    2016-04-01

    It is now widely recognized that the complexity of climate change issues translates itself into a need for interdisciplinary approaches to science. This allows to first achieve a more comprehensive vision of climate change and, second, to better inform the decision-making processes. However, it seems that willingness alone is rarely enough to implement interdisciplinarity. The purpose of this presentation is to mobilize reflexivity to revisit and analyze the experience of the Paris Consortium for Climate-Environment-Society. The French Consortium Climate-Environment-Society aims to develop, fund and coordinate interdisciplinary research into climate change and its impacts on society and environment. Launched in 2007, the consortium relies on the research expertise of 17 laboratories and federation in the Paris area working mainly in the fields of climatology, hydrology, ecology, health sciences, and the humanities and social sciences. As examples, economists and climatologists have studied greenhouse gas emission scenarios compatible with climate stabilization goals. Historical records have provided both knowledge about past climate change and vulnerability of societies. Some regions, as the Mediterranean and the Sahel, are particularly vulnerable and already have to cope with water availability, agricultural production and even health issues. A project showed that millet production in West Africa is expected to decline due to warming in a higher proportion than observed in recent decades. Climate change also raises many questions concerning health: combined effects of warming and air quality, impacts on the production of pollens and allergies, impacts on infectious diseases. All these issues lead to a need for approaches integrating different disciplines. Furthermore, climate change impacts many ecosystems which, in turn, affect its evolution. Our experience shows that interdisciplinarity supposes, in order to take shape, the conjunction between programming

  10. Vocational Training of Young Migrants in France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raimond, Jean-Marie

    This document reviews the literature on France's approximately 1.5 million young migrants. The introduction states that it is the second generation of migrants that were studied. In the second chapter, the statistical sources analyzed are explained and general descriptive statistics about foreigners in France are reported, including their numbers,…

  11. Apprenticeship in France: Between Tradition and Innovation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Zarca, Georgie

    1996-01-01

    A study was made of the state of apprenticeship in France, using data gathered through telephone interviews with apprentices. Of a targeted group of 6,000 young apprentices, 70% participated in the survey. The study found that, until recently, apprenticeships had generally been used in France to train students in manual trades. During the past 10…

  12. [An epidemic of typhoid fever among the German troops in Paris, Christmas 1941].

    PubMed

    Brumpt, Lucien; Petithory, Jean-Claude; Ardoin, Françoise

    2008-01-01

    In 1941, at Christmastime more than 600 German soldiers visited Paris and were infected with the bacillus of Eberth, the agent of typhoid fever. All of the infections occurred at the Brasserie La Brune situated in the center of Paris. It was, in fact, an act of Resistance. The proof of the infection was rapidly given by Lucien Brumpt using a home-made hemodiagnostic method. This quick hemodiagnostic technique is easy to perform, inexpensive and still could be used.

  13. Jean Martin Charcot (1825-93) and John Hughlings Jackson (1835-1911): neurology in France and England in the 19th century.

    PubMed

    Silvester, Alexander

    2009-11-01

    In 1862 Jean Martin Charcot was appointed Physician at the Salpêtrière Hospital in Paris, and simultaneously John Hughlings Jackson was appointed as assistant physician at the National Hospital for the Paralysed and Epileptic, Queen Square, London. Both men made significant contributions to the development of neurology, many of which remain important to contemporary neurologists. The achievements and the work of Charcot and Hughlings Jackson are considered in the light of their respective localities and medical education, and the structure of hospital institutions and political allegiances are compared in the late 19th century in France and Britain.

  14. Regulation of Biobanks in France.

    PubMed

    Rial-Sebbag, Emmanuelle; Pigeon, Anna

    2015-01-01

    The privacy of biobank research participants in France is protected by a combination of bioethics laws, research laws, and data protection laws. Although the law has attempted to facilitate research by creating an opt-out regime for research with pre-existing samples, other aspects of the law hinder research. The requirement for multiple consents throughout the process of biobank sample collection and use, the lack of acceptance of a broad consent for biobanking, and genetic exceptionalism in the law all complicate biobank research. With IRB approval, opt-out consent may be used for genetic research using human tissue collected for other purposes, but express consent is still required for research with the associated genetic data. Among the important issues remaining to be addressed are harmonizing and simplifying the various informed consent processes.

  15. Zinc and Its Isotopes in the Loire River Basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millot, R.; Desaulty, A. M.; Bourrain, X.

    2014-12-01

    The contribution of human activities such as industries, agriculture and domestic inputs, becomes more and more significant in the chemical composition of the dissolved load of rivers. Human factors act as a supplementary key process. Therefore the mass-balance for the budget of catchments and river basins include anthropogenic disturbances. The Loire River in central France is approximately 1010 km long and drains an area of 117,800 km2. In the upper basin, the bedrock is old plutonic rock overlain by much younger volcanic rocks. The intermediate basin includes three major tributaries flowing into the Loire River from the left bank: the Cher, the Indre and the Vienne rivers; the main stream flows westward and its valley stretches toward the Atlantic Ocean. Here, the Loire River drains the sedimentary series of the Paris Basin, mainly carbonate deposits. The lower Loire basin drains pre-Mesozoic basement of the Armorican Massif and its overlying Mesozoic to Cenozoic sedimentary deposits. The Loire River is one of the main European riverine inputs to the Atlantic ocean. Here we are reporting concentration and isotope data for Zn in river waters and suspended sediments from the Loire River Basin. In addition, we also report concentration and isotope data for the different industrial sources within the Loire Basin, as well as data for biota samples such as mussels and oysters from the Bay of Biscay and North Brittany. These organisms are known to be natural accumulators of metal pollutants. Zinc isotopic compositions are rather homogeneous in river waters with δ66Zn values ranging from 0.21 to 0.39‰. This range of variation is very different from anthropogenic signature (industrial and/or agriculture release) that displays δ66Zn values between 0.02 to 0.14‰. This result is in agreement with a geogenic origin and the low Zn concentrations in the Loire River Basin (from 0.8 to 6 µg/L).

  16. Lorenz Oken and Naturphilosophie in Jena, Paris and London.

    PubMed

    Breidbach, Olaf; Ghiselin, Michael T

    2002-01-01

    Although Lorenz Oken is a classic example of Naturphilosophie as applied to biology, his views have been imperfectly understood. He is best viewed as a follower of Schelling who consistently attempted to apply Schelling's ideas to biological data. His version of Naturphilosophic, however, was strongly influenced by older pseudoscience traditions, especially alchemy and numerology as they had been presented by Robert Fludd, whose works were current in Jena and available to him. According to those influences, parts of Oken's philosophical conception were communicable even in a non-idealistic scientific culture, for example in Paris, where Oken met Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Geoffroy however was embedded in a French intellectual tradition, and the correspondence between his views and those of Oken was only superficial. The English anatomist Richard Owen attempted to incorporate the views of Oken and Geoffroy within his own, idiosyncratic system. Although Darwin knew of Oken's ideas, it was Geoffroy who really affected his evolutionary biology, and any influence of Oken must have been attenuated to the point of triviality. PMID:12961766

  17. What would it take to achieve the Paris temperature targets?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanderson, Benjamin M.; O'Neill, Brian C.; Tebaldi, Claudia

    2016-07-01

    The 2015 Paris Agreement aims to limit warming to 2 or 1.5°C above preindustrial level, although combined Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) are likely insufficient to achieve these targets. We propose a set of idealized emission pathways consistent with the targets. If countries reduce emissions in line with their INDCs, the 2°C threshold could be avoided only if net zero greenhouse gas emissions (GHGEs) are achieved by 2085 and late century negative emissions are considerably in excess of those assumed in Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 2.6 (net -5 Gt CO2/yr, compared with -1.5 Gt CO2/yr in RCP2.6). More aggressive near-term reductions would allow 2°C to be avoided with less end-of-century carbon removal capacity. A 10% cut in GHGEs by 2030 (relative to 2015) could likely achieve 2°C with RCP2.6 level negative emissions. The 1.5°C target requires GHGEs to be reduced by almost a third by 2030 and net zero by 2050, while a 50 year overshoot of 1.5°C allows net zero GHGEs by 2060.

  18. Lorenz Oken and Naturphilosophie in Jena, Paris and London.

    PubMed

    Breidbach, Olaf; Ghiselin, Michael T

    2002-01-01

    Although Lorenz Oken is a classic example of Naturphilosophie as applied to biology, his views have been imperfectly understood. He is best viewed as a follower of Schelling who consistently attempted to apply Schelling's ideas to biological data. His version of Naturphilosophic, however, was strongly influenced by older pseudoscience traditions, especially alchemy and numerology as they had been presented by Robert Fludd, whose works were current in Jena and available to him. According to those influences, parts of Oken's philosophical conception were communicable even in a non-idealistic scientific culture, for example in Paris, where Oken met Etienne Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire. Geoffroy however was embedded in a French intellectual tradition, and the correspondence between his views and those of Oken was only superficial. The English anatomist Richard Owen attempted to incorporate the views of Oken and Geoffroy within his own, idiosyncratic system. Although Darwin knew of Oken's ideas, it was Geoffroy who really affected his evolutionary biology, and any influence of Oken must have been attenuated to the point of triviality.

  19. Size-dependent particle activation properties in fog during the ParisFog 2012/13 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, E.; Gysel, M.; Roberts, G. C.; Elias, T.; Hofer, J.; Hoyle, C. R.; Bukowiecki, N.; Dupont, J.-C.; Burnet, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2014-10-01

    Fog-induced visibility reduction is responsible for a variety of hazards in the transport sector. Therefore there is a large demand for an improved understanding of fog formation and thus improved forecasts. Improved fog forecasts require a better understanding of the numerous complex mechanisms during the fog life cycle. During winter 2012/13 a field campaign called ParisFog aiming at fog research took place at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research). SIRTA is located about 20 km southwest of the Paris city center, France, in a semi-urban environment. In situ activation properties of the prevailing fog were investigated by measuring (1) total and interstitial (non-activated) dry particle number size distributions behind two different inlet systems; (2) interstitial hydrated aerosol and fog droplet size distributions at ambient conditions; and (3) cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration at different supersaturations (SS) with a CCN counter. The aerosol particles were characterized regarding their hygroscopic properties, fog droplet activation behavior and contribution to light scattering for 17 developed fog events. Low particle hygroscopicity with an overall median of the hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of 0.14 was found, likely caused by substantial influence from local traffic and wood burning emissions. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution at ambient RH revealed that the critical wet diameter, above which the hydrated aerosols activate to fog droplets, is rather large (with a median value of 2.6μm) and is highly variable (ranging from 1 to 5μm) between the different fog events. Thus, the number of activated fog droplets was very small and the non-activated hydrated particles were found to contribute significantly to the observed light scattering and thus to the reduction in visibility. Combining all experimental data, the effective peak supersaturation, SSpeak, a measure of the peak supersaturation during the fog

  20. Size-dependent particle activation properties in fog during the ParisFog 2012/13 field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammer, E.; Gysel, M.; Roberts, G. C.; Elias, T.; Hofer, J.; Hoyle, C. R.; Bukowiecki, N.; Dupont, J.-C.; Burnet, F.; Baltensperger, U.; Weingartner, E.

    2014-04-01

    Fog causes a variety of hazards in road traffic, maritime navigation, as well as in air traffic and railway traffic. There is a great demand, e.g. from airports, for more reliable fog forecasts to prevent fog related accidents. Improved fog forecasts require a better understanding of the numerous complex mechanisms during the fog life cycle. During winter 2012/13 a field campaign called ParisFog aiming at fog research took place at SIRTA (Instrumented Site for Atmospheric Remote Sensing Research). SIRTA is located about 20 km southwest of the Paris city centre, France in a semi-urban environment. In situ activation properties of the prevailing fog were investigated by measuring: (1) total and interstitial (non-activated) dry particle number size distributions behind two different inlet systems; (2) interstitial hydrated aerosol and fog droplet size distributions at ambient conditions; (3) cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number concentration at different supersaturations (SS) with a CCN counter. The aerosol particles were characterized regarding their hygroscopic properties, fog droplet activation behavior and contribution to light scattering for 17 developed fog events. Low particle hygroscopicity with an overall median of hygroscopicity parameter, κ, of 0.14 was found, likely caused by substantial influence from local traffic and wood burning emissions. Measurements of the aerosol size distribution at ambient RH revealed that the critical wet diameter, above which the hydrated aerosols activate to fog droplets, is rather large with a median value of 2.4 μm and is highly variable (ranging from 1 to 5 μm) between the different fog events. Thus, the number of activated fog droplets was very small and the non-activated hydrated particles were found to contribute siginificantly to the observed light scattering and thus to the reduction in visibility. Combining all experimental data, the effective peak supersaturation, SSpeak, a measure of the peak supersaturation

  1. Multicenter Study of Prevalence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis in France

    PubMed Central

    Roux, Anne-Laure; Catherinot, Emilie; Ripoll, Fabienne; Soismier, Nathalie; Macheras, Edouard; Ravilly, Sophie; Bellis, Gil; Vibet, Marie-Anne; Le Roux, Evelyne; Lemonnier, Lydie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Vincent, Véronique; Fauroux, Brigitte; Rottman, Martin; Guillemot, Didier; Gaillard, Jean-Louis

    2009-01-01

    We performed a multicenter prevalence study of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) involving 1,582 patients (mean age, 18.9 years; male/female ratio, 1.06) with cystic fibrosis in France. The overall NTM prevalence (percentage of patients with at least one positive culture) was 6.6% (104/1,582 patients), with prevalences ranging from 3.7% (in the east of France) to 9.6% (in the greater Paris area). Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC; 50 patients) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC; 23 patients) species were the most common NTM, and the only ones associated with fulfillment of the American Thoracic Society bacteriological criteria for NTM lung disease. The “new” species, Mycobacterium bolletii and Mycobacterium massiliense, accounted for 40% of MABSC isolates. MABSC species were isolated at all ages, with a prevalence peak between 11 and 15 years of age (5.8%), while MAC species reached their highest prevalence value among patients over 25 years of age (2.2%). PMID:19846643

  2. Mistrust of numbers: the difficult development of psychiatric epidemiology in France, 1940-80.

    PubMed

    Henckes, Nicolas

    2014-08-01

    This article uses archival as well as published materials to trace the development of psychiatric epidemiology in France from 1945 to 1980. Although a research programme in this field was launched in the early 1960s at the National Institute of Medical Research (INH, later renamed INSERM), psychiatric epidemiology remained an embryonic field in France during the next two decades. French researchers in this field were hampered by limited resources, but their work was primarily characterized by a deep engagement with the epistemological challenges of psychiatric epidemiology. The history of French psychiatric epidemiology in the 1960s and 1970s can be seen as an attempt to create a specifically French way of doing psychiatric epidemiology research. In the first part of this article, the author relates this unique history to internal professional dynamics during the development of psychiatric research and, more broadly, to the biomedical institutional context in which epidemiological work was being done. The next part of this article examines the conditions under which the INH research team framed epidemiological research in psychiatry in the 1960s. The last part focuses on INH's flagship psychiatric epidemiology programme, developed in cooperation with pioneers of French community psychiatry in Paris's 13th arrondissement in the 1960s.

  3. Multicenter study of prevalence of nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients with cystic fibrosis in france.

    PubMed

    Roux, Anne-Laure; Catherinot, Emilie; Ripoll, Fabienne; Soismier, Nathalie; Macheras, Edouard; Ravilly, Sophie; Bellis, Gil; Vibet, Marie-Anne; Le Roux, Evelyne; Lemonnier, Lydie; Gutierrez, Cristina; Vincent, Véronique; Fauroux, Brigitte; Rottman, Martin; Guillemot, Didier; Gaillard, Jean-Louis

    2009-12-01

    We performed a multicenter prevalence study of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) involving 1,582 patients (mean age, 18.9 years; male/female ratio, 1.06) with cystic fibrosis in France. The overall NTM prevalence (percentage of patients with at least one positive culture) was 6.6% (104/1,582 patients), with prevalences ranging from 3.7% (in the east of France) to 9.6% (in the greater Paris area). Mycobacterium abscessus complex (MABSC; 50 patients) and Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC; 23 patients) species were the most common NTM, and the only ones associated with fulfillment of the American Thoracic Society bacteriological criteria for NTM lung disease. The "new" species, Mycobacterium bolletii and Mycobacterium massiliense, accounted for 40% of MABSC isolates. MABSC species were isolated at all ages, with a prevalence peak between 11 and 15 years of age (5.8%), while MAC species reached their highest prevalence value among patients over 25 years of age (2.2%). PMID:19846643

  4. The Normative Effects of Higher Education Policy in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Elise

    2012-01-01

    This student survey was a response to the French youth unrest in 2005 and 2006. It considers the degree to which French higher and secondary education institutions create social cohesion. Focusing on three distinct higher-education institutions: "L'institut d'etudes politiques de Paris" (Sciences Po), "Ecole Normale Superieure," Paris 8, and a…

  5. Paris basin petroleum systems revisited by two-dimensional modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Gaulier, J.M.; Burrus, J.; Poulet, M. ); Barlier, J. , Pau )

    1991-03-01

    The authors investigate the history of petroleum generation, expulsion, and migration along two E-W and N-W cross sections in the Paris basin. Source rocks, represented by Liassic marine shales (merely Hetangian-Sinemurian and Toarcian) reach the top of the oil window around 2,000 m and begin effective expulsion around 2,400 m. Reservoirs are essentially found in the subtle structures in the Dogger (carbonates) and Triassic (sandstones). These levels are normally separated from the source rocks by several hundred meters of impervious marls or shales. Regional faults are often viewed as major conduits that allow both expulsion and migration to the reservoirs. This petroleum system is seen by the use of two-dimensional modeling techniques: (1) The generation history is derived from an investigation of thermal history and kinetic modeling. They show that the present subsurface temperatures are influenced by regional convective discharge linked to the uplift of eastern and southeastern basin edges and that this cooling postdates the maturity. They also show that, in the eastern basin, the basement heat flow could have been increased since the Tertiary, at a time when Tertiary erosion had nearly frozen the maturity development. (2) The expulsion and migration are analyzed by coupling numerically the compaction history, the generation history, and the regional hydrodynamics. They show that expulsion efficiency is very much dependent on parameters not well constrained, but a sensitivity analysis confirms the prominent role of vertical faults as well as the influence of regional water flow on the distribution of accumulations.

  6. [Cannabis in France, new insights].

    PubMed

    Costentin, Jean

    2014-03-01

    France holds the record for cannabis use in Europe, especially among adolescents. This drug of abuse is thus mainly used during a very sensitive period of brain development, education, vehicle driving and development of life projects. In addition, synthetic derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are more noxious than cannabis itself are now appearing on the market. Traficking and cultivation for personnal use have intensified; products proposed for sale are richer in THC; and some methods of consumption (e-cigarettes, vaporizers, water pipes) increase the supply of THC to the lungs and thence to the body and brain. It is in this context that attempts are being made to legalize this drug of abuse. Other attempts are made to disguise it as a medication. Meanwhile, the list of its psychic as well as physical damages grows longer, with some very severe cases of major injuries. This evolution takes place in spite of numerous warnings expressed by the French Academy of Medicine. Subsequently, it is prompted to carefully and vigorously denounce these events. This will be the aim of this thematic session. PMID:26427294

  7. [Cannabis in France, new insights].

    PubMed

    Costentin, Jean

    2014-03-01

    France holds the record for cannabis use in Europe, especially among adolescents. This drug of abuse is thus mainly used during a very sensitive period of brain development, education, vehicle driving and development of life projects. In addition, synthetic derivatives of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which are more noxious than cannabis itself are now appearing on the market. Traficking and cultivation for personnal use have intensified; products proposed for sale are richer in THC; and some methods of consumption (e-cigarettes, vaporizers, water pipes) increase the supply of THC to the lungs and thence to the body and brain. It is in this context that attempts are being made to legalize this drug of abuse. Other attempts are made to disguise it as a medication. Meanwhile, the list of its psychic as well as physical damages grows longer, with some very severe cases of major injuries. This evolution takes place in spite of numerous warnings expressed by the French Academy of Medicine. Subsequently, it is prompted to carefully and vigorously denounce these events. This will be the aim of this thematic session.

  8. Spatial genetic structure and restricted gene flow in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) populations in France.

    PubMed

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Kengne, Pierre; Cannet, Arnaud; Brengues, Cécile; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Izri, Arezki; Marty, Pierre; Simard, Frederic; Fontenille, Didier; Delaunay, Pascal

    2015-08-01

    Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) are resurgent blood-sucking ectoparasites that are currently increasing at a rapid rate, particularly in industrialized countries, such as France. Despite the rapid spread of bed bugs, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the population structure and gene flow among C. lectularius populations in France. To fill this gap, a genetic study was conducted using 183 C. lectularius from 14 populations of bed bugs collected in a hotel and in individual apartments in the French Riviera and in the Saint Ouen suburb of Paris. The samples were genotyped using an isolated set of six polymorphic microsatellite loci, including five new loci which were newly isolated and chosen based on prior successful amplification, and one previously described loci (bb15b). The low genetic diversity observed in the samples (of one to five alleles) suggested that most of prospected populations were established by only a few individuals, possibly from a single mated female. The overall genetic differentiation was high and statistically significant (FST=0.556, p<0.0001). Pairwise analysis of the populations indicated significant genetic differentiation for 24 out of the 45 (53%) population pairs associated with FST, ranging from 0.0042 to 0.862. No obvious relationship between the level of genetic differentiation and the geographic distance was observed when considering all samples. Analysis with Structure software identified nine distinct genetic clusters within the dataset. These preliminary results help to elucidate the genetic structure and gene flow of C. lectularius populations in France; however, the available information should be expanded in further studies. PMID:26140960

  9. 75 FR 16839 - Sorbitol From France

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ..., 2009, the Commission established a schedule for the conduct of the review (74 FR 66992, December 17... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Sorbitol From France AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION:...

  10. Modelling algae growth and dissolved oxygen in the Seine River downstream the Paris urban area: contribution of high frequency measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilmin, Lauriane; Escoffier, Nicolas; Groleau, Alexis; Poulin, Michel; Flipo, Nicolas

    2014-05-01

    Dissolved oxygen is a key variable in the hydro-ecological functioning of river systems. The accurate representation of the different biogeochemical processes affecting algal blooms and dissolved oxygen in the water column in hydro-ecological models is crucial for the use of these models as reliable management tools. This study focuses on the water quality of the Seine River along a 225 km stretch, from Paris to the Seine estuary. The study area is highly urbanized and located downstream France's largest agricultural area, and therefore receives large amounts of nutrients. During the last decades, nutrient inputs have been significantly reduced, especially with the implementation of new sewage water treatment technologies. Even though the frequency and the intensity of observed algal blooms have decreased, blooms were observed in 2011 and 2012. These blooms are generally followed by a period of high organic matter accumulation, leading to high mineralization fluxes and potential oxygen depletion. The hydrodynamics and the water quality of the Seine River are simulated for the 2011-2012 period with the distributed process-based hydro-ecological model ProSe (Even et al., 1998). The simulated chlorophyll a and dissolved oxygen concentrations are compared to high frequency measurements at the Bougival monitoring station (50 km downstream from Paris), which is part of the CarboSeine monitoring network. The high frequency continuous dataset allows calibrating of primary producers' physiological parameters. New growth parameters are defined for the diatom community. The blooms occur at the end of the winter period (march 2011 and march 2012) and the optimal temperature for diatom growth is calibrated at 10°C, based on an analysis of the physiological response of the diatom community. One of the main outcomes of the modelling exercise is that the precise identification of the constituting communities of algal blooms must be achieved prior to the modelling itself. With the

  11. CO2-MEGAPARIS: Quantification of CO2 emissions from Paris megacity and their spread out to the neightbouring Centre region. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xueref-Remy, I.

    2010-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 concentration has been increasing of more than 30% since the pre-industrial era due to human activities, and is very likely involved in the recent global temperature increase [IPCC, 2007]. Although we have good estimates of the CO2 fluxes on a global basis, and have a relatively well-established system to detect the large-scale trends, regional information (10-500km) is needed if society is ever to manage or verify carbon emissions. We must improve our understanding of regional variations in the sources and sinks of CO2 because they help identify possible sequestration or emission management options. New programs are needed to improve our understanding of meso-scale carbon fluxes, and to discriminate between the anthropogenic and biospheric sources which are very strongly overlapped in European countries. In this context we need to monitor the emissions originating from the megalopolis such as Paris and its agglomeration, and the way they are spreading in the background atmosphere. Nowadays, inventories (CITEPA, AIRPARIF) based on statistical information provide CO2 emissions from Ile de France and all others regions of France, but no independent verification based on CO2 measurements has been done yet. Atmospheric measurements coupled to a meso-scale model can be used to provide such verification, especially to detect the interannual and decadal trends which could result from regional management strategy. The CO2-MEGAPARIS project (2009-2012) objective is to develop four independent methods to verify the emission inventories, and to monitor the daily to monthly CO2 emissions from Ile de France as well as their spreading to neighbouring regions with a scale up to 2x2 km2. The first method consists in developing a synergy between a mesoscale model (CHIMERE/MM5), inventories and observations using a top-down approach based on an inversion technique to retrieve surface fluxes (3 new observing stations are developed among which the top of the Eiffel

  12. When the Waves of European Neolithization Met: First Paleogenetic Evidence from Early Farmers in the Southern Paris Basin

    PubMed Central

    Rivollat, Maïté; Mendisco, Fanny; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Safi, Audrey; Saint-Marc, Didier; Brémond, Antoine; Couture-Veschambre, Christine; Rottier, Stéphane; Deguilloux, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    An intense debate concerning the nature and mode of Neolithic transition in Europe has long received much attention. Recent publications of paleogenetic analyses focusing on ancient European farmers from Central Europe or the Iberian Peninsula have greatly contributed to this debate, providing arguments in favor of major migrations accompanying European Neolithization and highlighting noticeable genetic differentiation between farmers associated with two archaeologically defined migration routes: the Danube valley and the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of the present study was to fill a gap with the first paleogenetic data of Neolithic settlers from a region (France) where the two great currents came into both direct and indirect contact with each other. To this end, we analyzed the Gurgy 'Les Noisats' group, an Early/Middle Neolithic necropolis in the southern part of the Paris Basin. Interestingly, the archaeological record from this region highlighted a clear cultural influence from the Danubian cultural sphere but also notes exchanges with the Mediterranean cultural area. To unravel the processes implied in these cultural exchanges, we analyzed 102 individuals and obtained the largest Neolithic mitochondrial gene pool so far (39 HVS-I mitochondrial sequences and haplogroups for 55 individuals) from a single archaeological site from the Early/Middle Neolithic period. Pairwise FST values, haplogroup frequencies and shared informative haplotypes were calculated and compared with ancient and modern European and Near Eastern populations. These descriptive analyses provided patterns resulting from different evolutionary scenarios; however, the archaeological data available for the region suggest that the Gurgy group was formed through equivalent genetic contributions of farmer descendants from the Danubian and Mediterranean Neolithization waves. However, these results, that would constitute the most ancient genetic evidence of admixture between farmers from both Central

  13. When the waves of European Neolithization met: first paleogenetic evidence from early farmers in the southern Paris Basin.

    PubMed

    Rivollat, Maïté; Mendisco, Fanny; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Safi, Audrey; Saint-Marc, Didier; Brémond, Antoine; Couture-Veschambre, Christine; Rottier, Stéphane; Deguilloux, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    An intense debate concerning the nature and mode of Neolithic transition in Europe has long received much attention. Recent publications of paleogenetic analyses focusing on ancient European farmers from Central Europe or the Iberian Peninsula have greatly contributed to this debate, providing arguments in favor of major migrations accompanying European Neolithization and highlighting noticeable genetic differentiation between farmers associated with two archaeologically defined migration routes: the Danube valley and the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of the present study was to fill a gap with the first paleogenetic data of Neolithic settlers from a region (France) where the two great currents came into both direct and indirect contact with each other. To this end, we analyzed the Gurgy 'Les Noisats' group, an Early/Middle Neolithic necropolis in the southern part of the Paris Basin. Interestingly, the archaeological record from this region highlighted a clear cultural influence from the Danubian cultural sphere but also notes exchanges with the Mediterranean cultural area. To unravel the processes implied in these cultural exchanges, we analyzed 102 individuals and obtained the largest Neolithic mitochondrial gene pool so far (39 HVS-I mitochondrial sequences and haplogroups for 55 individuals) from a single archaeological site from the Early/Middle Neolithic period. Pairwise FST values, haplogroup frequencies and shared informative haplotypes were calculated and compared with ancient and modern European and Near Eastern populations. These descriptive analyses provided patterns resulting from different evolutionary scenarios; however, the archaeological data available for the region suggest that the Gurgy group was formed through equivalent genetic contributions of farmer descendants from the Danubian and Mediterranean Neolithization waves. However, these results, that would constitute the most ancient genetic evidence of admixture between farmers from both Central

  14. When the waves of European Neolithization met: first paleogenetic evidence from early farmers in the southern Paris Basin.

    PubMed

    Rivollat, Maïté; Mendisco, Fanny; Pemonge, Marie-Hélène; Safi, Audrey; Saint-Marc, Didier; Brémond, Antoine; Couture-Veschambre, Christine; Rottier, Stéphane; Deguilloux, Marie-France

    2015-01-01

    An intense debate concerning the nature and mode of Neolithic transition in Europe has long received much attention. Recent publications of paleogenetic analyses focusing on ancient European farmers from Central Europe or the Iberian Peninsula have greatly contributed to this debate, providing arguments in favor of major migrations accompanying European Neolithization and highlighting noticeable genetic differentiation between farmers associated with two archaeologically defined migration routes: the Danube valley and the Mediterranean Sea. The aim of the present study was to fill a gap with the first paleogenetic data of Neolithic settlers from a region (France) where the two great currents came into both direct and indirect contact with each other. To this end, we analyzed the Gurgy 'Les Noisats' group, an Early/Middle Neolithic necropolis in the southern part of the Paris Basin. Interestingly, the archaeological record from this region highlighted a clear cultural influence from the Danubian cultural sphere but also notes exchanges with the Mediterranean cultural area. To unravel the processes implied in these cultural exchanges, we analyzed 102 individuals and obtained the largest Neolithic mitochondrial gene pool so far (39 HVS-I mitochondrial sequences and haplogroups for 55 individuals) from a single archaeological site from the Early/Middle Neolithic period. Pairwise FST values, haplogroup frequencies and shared informative haplotypes were calculated and compared with ancient and modern European and Near Eastern populations. These descriptive analyses provided patterns resulting from different evolutionary scenarios; however, the archaeological data available for the region suggest that the Gurgy group was formed through equivalent genetic contributions of farmer descendants from the Danubian and Mediterranean Neolithization waves. However, these results, that would constitute the most ancient genetic evidence of admixture between farmers from both Central

  15. Formation of organic aerosol in the Paris region during the MEGAPOLI summer campaign: evaluation of the volatility-basis-set approach within the CHIMERE model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. J.; Beekmann, M.; Drewnick, F.; Freutel, F.; Schneider, J.; Crippa, M.; Prevot, A. S. H.; Baltensperger, U.; Poulain, L.; Wiedensohler, A.; Sciare, J.; Gros, V.; Borbon, A.; Colomb, A.; Michoud, V.; Doussin, J.-F.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Haeffelin, M.; Dupont, J.-C.; Siour, G.; Petetin, H.; Bessagnet, B.; Pandis, S. N.; Hodzic, A.; Sanchez, O.; Honoré, C.; Perrussel, O.

    2013-06-01

    . Despite these uncertainties, the implementation of the VBS scheme into the CHIMERE model allowed for much more realistic organic aerosol simulations for Paris during summertime. The advection of SOA from outside Paris is mostly responsible for the highest OA concentration levels. During advection of polluted air masses from northeast (Benelux and Central Europe), simulations indicate high levels of both anthropogenic and biogenic SOA fractions, while biogenic SOA dominates during periods with advection from Southern France and Spain.

  16. Infant Mortality and Income in 4 World Cities: New York, London, Paris, and Tokyo

    PubMed Central

    Rodwin, Victor G.; Neuberg, Leland G.

    2005-01-01

    Objectives. We investigated the association between average income or deprivation and infant mortality rate across neighborhoods of 4 world cities. Methods. Using a maximum likelihood negative binomial regression model that controls for births, we analyzed data for 1988–1992 and 1993–1997. Results. In Manhattan, for both periods, we found an association (.05% significance level) between income and infant mortality. In Tokyo, for both periods, and in Paris and London for period 1, we found none (5% significance level). For period 2, the association just missed statistical significance for Paris, whereas for London it was significant (5% level). Conclusions. In stark contrast to Tokyo, Paris, and London, the association of income and infant mortality rate was strongly evident in Manhattan. PMID:15623865

  17. [Jacques Clarion (1776-1844), professor of l'Ecole de pharmacie de Paris].

    PubMed

    Trépardoux, Francis

    2006-11-01

    Engaged in military campaigns from 1793 to 1797, he then studied medicine in Paris, as well as pharmacy, specialised in chemistry and botany. Supported by Deyeux and Corvisart, he was nominated as pharmacist of the emperor. From 1819 to 1844, he taught botany at the School of pharmacy of Paris. In 1823, the authority gave him a second chair for the medical botany at the Faculty of medicine, but after the 1830 revolution, he was dismissed. He mainly worked in taxonomy, contributing to several publications with Palisot and de Candolle for Graminaceae. He was a member of the academy of medicine.

  18. Advanced MCT technologies in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefanis, Gérard; Tribolet, Philippe

    2007-04-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the very recent developments of the HgCdTe infrared detector technology developed by CEA-LETI and industrialized by Sofradir in France. Today Sofradir uses in production for more than 15years a very mature, reproducible, well mastered and fully understood, planar n on p ion implanted technology. This process that allows very high yields to be achieved in all infrared bands from SWIR to LWIR uses the very conventional approach of LPE growth of MCT on lattice-matched CdZnTe substrates. Progress in this field is continuous from 20years and has recently leaded to the fabrication of high performance VLWIR FPA (320x256 with cut off wavelengths as high as 20μm). Moreover, thanks to the design of the epitaxial structure and to the substrate removal step MCT FPAs present the unique features to have very high quantum efficiency (above 70%) from the cut off wavelength down to the UV. This effect, which opens new application fields, was recently demonstrated in SWIR 320x256 FPAs with cut off wavelength of 2.5μm. Very high quality FPAs (1280x1024) with pitches as small as 15μm have already been demonstrated last year using the MBE growth of MWIR MCT epilayers on 4 inches germanium substrates, n on p ion implanted photodiodes and the hot welding indium bump hybridization technique. At the same time, with the MBE growth, bicolor and dual band FPAs which uses more complex multi hetero-junctions architectures (both 4 layers npn and 'pseudo planar' structures and extrinsically doped MCT layers) were fabricated with formats of 320x256 and pitches as small as 25μm. A very new area of development concerns avalanche photodiodes (APD) made with MCT. This semiconductor presents a unique feature among all the over semiconductors. Extremely high avalanche gains can be obtained on n on p photodiodes without absolutely any noise excess (F(K)=1): MCT APDs act as perfect amplifiers. These results open new interesting fields of investigation for low

  19. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Kamili, K.; Merkel, M.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Wenger, J. C.

    2011-11-01

    An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS) data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150-1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC), inorganic ions and black carbon (BC) (R2 = 0.91). Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC) particles into four classes: (i) EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass), (ii) EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic), (iii) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx), and (iv) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx). Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65-0.68, respectively, n = 552). The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568). Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88 % and 12 % of EC particle mass was apportioned to fossil fuel and biomass burning respectively using the ATOFMS data

  20. Sources and mixing state of size-resolved elemental carbon particles in a European megacity: Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healy, R. M.; Sciare, J.; Poulain, L.; Kamili, K.; Merkel, M.; Müller, T.; Wiedensohler, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Stohl, A.; Sarda-Estève, R.; McGillicuddy, E.; O'Connor, I. P.; Sodeau, J. R.; Wenger, J. C.

    2012-02-01

    An Aerosol Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometer (ATOFMS) was deployed to investigate the size-resolved chemical composition of single particles at an urban background site in Paris, France, as part of the MEGAPOLI winter campaign in January/February 2010. ATOFMS particle counts were scaled to match coincident Twin Differential Mobility Particle Sizer (TDMPS) data in order to generate hourly size-resolved mass concentrations for the single particle classes observed. The total scaled ATOFMS particle mass concentration in the size range 150-1067 nm was found to agree very well with the sum of concurrent High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) and Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer (MAAP) mass concentration measurements of organic carbon (OC), inorganic ions and black carbon (BC) (R2 = 0.91). Clustering analysis of the ATOFMS single particle mass spectra allowed the separation of elemental carbon (EC) particles into four classes: (i) EC attributed to biomass burning (ECbiomass), (ii) EC attributed to traffic (ECtraffic), (iii) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium sulfate (ECOCSOx), and (iv) EC internally mixed with OC and ammonium nitrate (ECOCNOx). Average hourly mass concentrations for EC-containing particles detected by the ATOFMS were found to agree reasonably well with semi-continuous quantitative thermal/optical EC and optical BC measurements (r2 = 0.61 and 0.65-0.68 respectively, n = 552). The EC particle mass assigned to fossil fuel and biomass burning sources also agreed reasonably well with BC mass fractions assigned to the same sources using seven-wavelength aethalometer data (r2 = 0.60 and 0.48, respectively, n = 568). Agreement between the ATOFMS and other instrumentation improved noticeably when a period influenced by significantly aged, internally mixed EC particles was removed from the intercomparison. 88% and 12% of EC particle mass was apportioned to fossil fuel and biomass burning respectively using the ATOFMS data

  1. 75 FR 41523 - Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-16

    ... on May 27, 2010. The Notice was published in the Federal Register on June 16, 2010 (75 FR 34180). The... Employment and Training Administration Paris Accessories, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Job Connections, New Smithville, PA; Paris Accessories, Inc., Allentown, PA; Amended Certification...

  2. SUMOylation of the KRAB zinc-finger transcription factor PARIS/ZNF746 regulates its transcriptional activity.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Tamotsu; Yamada, Yoshiji

    2016-05-13

    Parkin-interacting substrate (PARIS), a member of the family of Krüppel-associated box (KRAB)-containing zinc-finger transcription factors, is a substrate of the ubiquitin E3 ligase parkin. PARIS represses the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), although the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. In the present study, we demonstrate that PARIS can be SUMOylated, and its SUMOylation plays a role in the repression of PGC-1a promoter activity. Protein inhibitor of activated STAT y (PIASy) was identified as an interacting protein of PARIS and shown to enhance its SUMOylation. PIASy repressed PGC-1a promoter activity, and this effect was attenuated by PARIS in a manner dependent on its SUMOylation status. Co-expression of SUMO-1 with PIASy completely repressed PGC-1a promoter activity independently of PARIS expression. PARIS-mediated PGC-1a promoter repression depended on the activity of histone deacetylases (HDAC), whereas PIASy repressed the PGC-1a promoter in an HDAC-independent manner. Taken together, these results suggest that PARIS and PIASy modulate PGC-1a gene transcription through distinct molecular mechanisms.

  3. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and breakage for each day's play and recalculate the net amount due to or from the systems operator on... equipment standards. (1) All pari-mutuel wagers shall be transacted through the pari-mutuel satellite system... be immediately entered into the system. (7) Future wagers shall be accepted and processed in the...

  4. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., and breakage for each day's play and recalculate the net amount due to or from the systems operator on... equipment standards. (1) All pari-mutuel wagers shall be transacted through the pari-mutuel satellite system... be immediately entered into the system. (7) Future wagers shall be accepted and processed in the...

  5. 25 CFR 542.11 - What are the minimum internal control standards for pari-mutuel wagering?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and breakage for each day's play and recalculate the net amount due to or from the systems operator on... equipment standards. (1) All pari-mutuel wagers shall be transacted through the pari-mutuel satellite system... be immediately entered into the system. (7) Future wagers shall be accepted and processed in the...

  6. [Epidemiology of tuberculosis in France in 2005].

    PubMed

    Antoine, D; Che, D

    2007-05-01

    This article presents results on cases of tuberculosis disease notified in France in 2005 by mandatory notification. In 2005, a total of 5,374 cases were notified in France, representing a rate of 8.9 cases per 100,000. The notification rate per 100,000 was below 10 in all French regions, except the Ile-de-France and French Guyana (with respective rates of 19.7/10(5) and 44.0/10(5)). Notification rates were higher in some population groups such as people born abroad (41.5/10(5)), especially those born in sub-Saharan Africa (160/10(5)), and those recently (<2 years) arrived in France (251/10(5)), in homeless people (214/10(5)), and in persons aged 80 years and over (21.7/10(5)). Pulmonary tuberculosis accounted for 73% of notified cases, 79% of which were contagious (positive direct examination of sputum, positive culture). Results from the notification of tuberculosis disease in 2005 indicate a continuing decrease of incidence in France. However, the high incidence in some population groups requires adapting public health actions to the needs of population groups more exposed to tuberculosis.

  7. Evidence for an Early Cretaceous mineralizing event above the basement/sediment unconformity in the intracratonic Paris Basin: paragenetic sequence and Sm-Nd dating of the world-class Pierre-Perthuis stratabound fluorite deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gigoux, Morgane; Delpech, Guillaume; Guerrot, Catherine; Pagel, Maurice; Augé, Thierry; Négrel, Philippe; Brigaud, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    World-class stratabound fluorite deposits are spatially associated with the basement/sediment unconformity of the intracratonic Paris Basin and the Morvan Massif in Burgundy (France). The reserves are estimated to be about 5.5 Mt of fluorite within six fluorite deposits. In this study, we aim to determine the age of the major fluorite mineralization event of the Pierre-Perthuis deposit (1.4 Mt fluorite) by a combined study of the paragenetic mineral sequence and Sm-Nd dating on fluorite crystals. Fluorite occurs as isolated cubes or filling geodes in a Triassic, silicified, dolomitic formation. Three fluorite stages associated with sphalerite, pyrite, galena, barite, and quartz have been distinguished using optical, cathodoluminescence, and scanning electron microscopes. Seven crystals of the geodic fluorite stage were analyzed for their rare earth element (REE) contents and their 147Sm/144Nd and 143Nd/144Nd isotopic compositions. The normalized REE distribution displays homogeneous bell-shaped patterns for all the geodic fluorite samples with a Mid-REE enrichment over the Light-REE and Heavy-REE. The 147Sm/144Nd varies from 0.3108 to 0.5504 and the 143Nd/144Nd from 0.512313 to 0.512518. A six-point Sm-Nd isochron defines an age of 130 ± 15 Ma (initial 143Nd/144Nd = 0.512054, MSWD = 0.21). This Sm-Nd isochron provides the first age for the stratabound fluorite sediment-hosted deposit, related to an unconformity in the Paris Basin, and highlights a major Early Cretaceous fluid circulation event mainly above the basement/sediment unconformity during a flexural deformation of the Paris Basin, which relates to the rifting of the Bay of Biscay and the formation of the Ligurian Sea in the Western Europe domain.

  8. The International Heliophysical Year in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.

    We are preparing in France the anniversary of IGY 50 We are gathering our efforts around few actions 1 We planned to follow the international campaigns with our solar Telescope THEMIS in Tenerife with the spacecrafts SOHO Cluster and the magnetometers of Superdarn A group is already formed with C Hanuise as responsible to understand some physical processes involved in these phenomena by using former data 2 On the initiative of CAWSES SCOSTEP program we plan to rehabilitate our heliograph in Meudon in order to be able to participate to the international network of flare survey The Japonese are leading this program Shibata and Kurokawa 3 We are developping lectures for students in different places in France We planned to work on the development of a DVD and video games in a IHY European context 4 We have also an outreach program which consists of an exhibition This exibition could be duplicated in France and for French speaking countries

  9. [Utilization of methylphenidate(Ritalin) in France].

    PubMed

    Frances, C; Hoizey, G; Millart, H; Trenque, T

    2002-01-01

    Methylphenidate (Ritalin) is the only psychostimulant approved in France and indicated in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children over 6 years. It is under restricted prescription and distribution conditions. As such, it requires a hospital initiated prescription from either a neurology, psychiatry or pediatric specialist and it is covered by the "narcotics" schedule. The French Pharmacovigilance database spontaneous adverse drug reactions reporting, since it was approved in 1995, were analyzed. 21 adverse drug reactions were reported. In 16 cases, methylphenidate was suspected. They were generally non-serious, mild side effects and in most cases promptly resolved. These results do not suggest methylphenidate misuse in France or an overuse in between 1300 and 4000 treated children, to date. Until more information is available concerning the long-term effects of methylphenidate, and in order to limit misuse, inappropriate or overuse, the current prescription and dispensing regulation should be maintained in France, and could well be developed in other countries.

  10. How an Anglo-American methodology took root in France.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    French organic chemistry had a strong nationalistic bent in the immediate aftermath to World War II. It continued to bask in the glow of the pre-World War I Nobel prize awarded jointly in 1912 to Victor Grignard and Paul Sabatier. In addition, the influence of the two mandarins then in power, Charles Prévost at the Sorbonne and Albert Kirrmann, a Dean in Strasbourg who would be called upon as vice-director at the École normale supérieure in Paris, saw to it that the only theory of organic reactions, admissible in the classroom and in the laboratory, was Prévost's. As Mary Jo Nye has shown, a wall was erected against penetration of the ideas of the British school of Ingold and Hughes. Mechanistic chemistry, as was being vigorously studied by the contemporary Anglo-American physical organic chemists, was 'persona non grata' in France. Publication by Bianca Tchoubar, in 1960, of "Les mécanismes réactionnels en chimie organique" opened a breach. The irony was for Dr. Tchoubar, a militant member of the Communist Party and a lady of fierce opinions, to have become a propagandist for the Anglo-American school of mechanistic studies. Truth for her overruled political propaganda. Her little book was revolutionary in the French context of the times. Together with the GECO (Groupe d'étude de chimie organique) summer conferences pioneered by Guy Ourisson after his return from Harvard, it ushered in the new ideas. This historical essay, based on an in-depth study of Tchoubar's book, will include a portrait of this remarkable woman scientist. It will delve at some length into the renewal of French science initiated by De Gaulle's government after his return to power in 1958. The tension in the French scientific establishment of the sixties reflected two opposed versions of nationalism, the one conservative, Malthusian, inner-directed, the other forward-looking, eager for the recovery of national status, seeing a strong French science as a means for asserting national

  11. How an Anglo-American methodology took root in France.

    PubMed

    Laszlo, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    French organic chemistry had a strong nationalistic bent in the immediate aftermath to World War II. It continued to bask in the glow of the pre-World War I Nobel prize awarded jointly in 1912 to Victor Grignard and Paul Sabatier. In addition, the influence of the two mandarins then in power, Charles Prévost at the Sorbonne and Albert Kirrmann, a Dean in Strasbourg who would be called upon as vice-director at the École normale supérieure in Paris, saw to it that the only theory of organic reactions, admissible in the classroom and in the laboratory, was Prévost's. As Mary Jo Nye has shown, a wall was erected against penetration of the ideas of the British school of Ingold and Hughes. Mechanistic chemistry, as was being vigorously studied by the contemporary Anglo-American physical organic chemists, was 'persona non grata' in France. Publication by Bianca Tchoubar, in 1960, of "Les mécanismes réactionnels en chimie organique" opened a breach. The irony was for Dr. Tchoubar, a militant member of the Communist Party and a lady of fierce opinions, to have become a propagandist for the Anglo-American school of mechanistic studies. Truth for her overruled political propaganda. Her little book was revolutionary in the French context of the times. Together with the GECO (Groupe d'étude de chimie organique) summer conferences pioneered by Guy Ourisson after his return from Harvard, it ushered in the new ideas. This historical essay, based on an in-depth study of Tchoubar's book, will include a portrait of this remarkable woman scientist. It will delve at some length into the renewal of French science initiated by De Gaulle's government after his return to power in 1958. The tension in the French scientific establishment of the sixties reflected two opposed versions of nationalism, the one conservative, Malthusian, inner-directed, the other forward-looking, eager for the recovery of national status, seeing a strong French science as a means for asserting national

  12. The 2015 Paris Climate Conference: A turning point in the world's energy history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimenko, V. V.; Mikushina, O. V.; Tereshin, A. G.

    2016-06-01

    It has been established that the consistent implementation of the 2015 Paris Climate Conference implies the quick retire of coal from the global energy balance and its replacement with the energy from unconventional and renewable sources. It is shown that even the full-scale implementation of the agreement will not keep global warming within 2°C.

  13. 1.5 °C and climate research after the Paris Agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulme, Mike

    2016-03-01

    The Paris Agreement contains an ambition to limit global warming to no more than 1.5 °C above pre-industrial levels, changing the context for policy-relevant research and extending a challenge to the IPCC and researchers.

  14. [Stories and drawings by children after the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris].

    PubMed

    Poget, Marc; Bouaziz, Nora; Apter, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Through the stories and drawings of children in a medical-psychological centre, it is possible to explore their psychological representations of the terrorist attacks which took place in Paris in January 2015. This work highlights the need to rethink the methods of care provided to these children in order to adapt them to their specific needs.

  15. Progress from Specificity: How to Monitor the Paris Declaration in the Malawi Education Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Laura

    2009-01-01

    At the time of writing, it is not possible to measure progress accurately, or even assess the baseline status of aid effectiveness in the education sector. Twelve targets en route to the five objectives of the Paris Declaration were set and agreed by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD); they were to be measured…

  16. The Moment of No Return: The University of Paris and the Death of Aristotelianism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brockliss, Laurence

    2006-01-01

    Aristotelianism remained the dominant influence on the course of natural philosophy taught at the University of Paris until the 1690s, when it was swiftly replaced by Cartesianism. The change was not one wanted by church or state and can only be understood by developments within the wider University. On the one hand, the opening of a new college,…

  17. Local Belonging and "Geographies of Emotions": Immigrant Children's Experience of Their Neighbourhoods in Paris and Berlin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    den Besten, Olga

    2010-01-01

    This article argues that a sense of local belonging and emotional attitudes to one's neighbourhood are inherently interconnected. It explores immigrant children's emotional experiences of their neighbourhoods in Paris and Berlin through subjective maps drawn by the children. The article highlights the social and spatial nature of immigrant…

  18. Rough Journal Page Documenting Ratification and Final Page of the Treaty of Paris, 1783

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2008-01-01

    The 1783 Treaty of Paris formally ended the American Revolution and established the United States as an independent and sovereign nation. In words reminiscent of those in the resolution presented by Richard Henry Lee to Congress in June 1776, and later included in the Declaration of Independence, Article I of the treaty stated that the king now…

  19. A decade of drilling innovation and progress in the Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Canter, D.B. ); Simon, J.M. )

    1991-03-01

    Since 1979, Esso Rep has drilled more than 150 exploration and development wells in the Paris basin. A cost-per-foot reduction of more than 40% was achieved despite a near doubling of rig rates. This paper discusses the unique directional drilling approach used and the drilling, formation evaluation, and contracting techniques.

  20. An Apprenticeship in Resistance May '68 and the Power of Vincennes (Universite de Paris VIII)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dolphijn, Rick

    2007-01-01

    Background: The riots in Paris '68 marked among others, the creation of a "Centre universitaire experimental" in Vincennes of which especially the philosophy faculty became the testing laboratory for educational reform. There, scholars like Michel Foucault, Gilles Deleuze, Alain Badiou and Jean-Francois Lyotard developed new ideas on education…

  1. Merchants of Light: The Paris Library School, Internationalism, and the Globalization of a Profession

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Amid growing isolationism after World War I, the American Library Association transferred its wartime programs to train librarians in Europe and promote the American model of public libraries. Working in collaboration with American philanthropists and members of the French library community, ALA established a permanent library school in Paris that…

  2. Program for Assisting the Replacement of Industrial Solvents PARIS III User’s Guide

    EPA Science Inventory

    PARIS III is a third generation Windows-based computer software to assist the design of less harmful solvent replacements by estimating values of the solvent properties that characterize the static, dynamic, performance, and environmental behavior of the original solvent mixture ...

  3. [Stories and drawings by children after the 2015 terrorist attacks in Paris].

    PubMed

    Poget, Marc; Bouaziz, Nora; Apter, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Through the stories and drawings of children in a medical-psychological centre, it is possible to explore their psychological representations of the terrorist attacks which took place in Paris in January 2015. This work highlights the need to rethink the methods of care provided to these children in order to adapt them to their specific needs. PMID:27015702

  4. [Sugar's sold by apothecaries and grocers in Paris in XVII century].

    PubMed

    Warolin, C

    1999-01-01

    Until the XVIth century Paris apothecaries and grocers sold sugars but from the beginning of the XVIIth century the former leaved the sale to the latter initiating the separation of both trades officialized by a Declaration royale, in 1777. PMID:11625525

  5. The Film as a Teaching Technique: "Coins de France."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bosch, Nancy Claire

    This paper describes the author's 30-minute film on Normandy, Paris, and the Alps. Suggestions are made for using the films in a French class to stimulate discussion and as a basis for class projects and assignments. (PMP)

  6. Working in Corporate France: A Cross-Cultural Challenge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federico, Salvatore; Moore, Catherine

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the experience of an American executive working in Paris. Touches on the working environment, working hours and vacation, dress code, professional hierarchy, internal communication, benefits, and cultural attitudes. (Six references) (CK)

  7. Establishing a Seismometer at PARI and Designing a Switching Circuit Utilizing Fiber Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ritchie, Justin

    2007-12-01

    At Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute (PARI) in Rosman, NC I spent ten weeks as the first NC Space Grant/Cline Astronomy Scholar developing multiple projects that helped to establish PARI as a resource for the scientific community. The first project that I worked on was establishing PARI's seismometer which serves as a resource for the region and utilizes sensitive equipment to measure 2.8 magnitude earthquakes occurring anywhere on earth. After basic seismometer operating principles were studied, multiple locations were surveyed to find an ideal location with little ambient noise and no disturbance from human or mechanical sources. Disturbances were generated at several locations identified as potential sites for the seismometer at 10, 20 and 30 feet by dropping a basketball and by driving a car around the location in an established pattern. Noise response was analyzed using the WinSDR software package which generates digital records of analog seismometer data and an ideal location was identified. The second project involved designing a circuit around the specific needs of the PARI optical telescope ridge. This ridge is susceptible to equipment that is damaged or improperly reset due to lightning. The circuit utilized the insulated properties of optical fiber to transmit a switching signal to the weather stations on the PARI optical ridge. This signal reset those stations that transmitted asynchronously after a lightning strike. Fiber optic transmitters were incorporated into the circuit along with TTL logic to provide a solid system that met the necessary specifications. After a rewarding an interesting summer I will follow up on my work next year for ten more weeks.

  8. The genus Aphidura (Hemiptera, Aphididae) in the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle of Paris, with six new species

    PubMed Central

    Nieto Nafría, Juan-Manuel; Mier Durante, Milagros-Pilar; Remaudière, Georges

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Specimens were studied of 65 samples of the genus Aphidura (Aphididae, Aphidinae, Macrosiphini) from the collection of the Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle (Paris). The possible synonymies of three pairs of species are discussed. New aphid host plant relationships are reported for Aphidura bozhkoae, Aphidura delmasi, Aphidura ornata, Aphidura pannonica and Aphidura picta; this last species is recorded for first time from Afghanistan. The record of Aphidura pujoli from Pakistan is refuted. The fundatrices, oviparous females and males of Aphidura delmasi are described. Six new species are established: Aphidura gallica sp. n. and Aphidura amphorosiphon sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Silene (Caryophyllaceae) from France and Iran, respectively, Aphidura pakistanensis sp. n., Aphidura graeca sp. n. and Aphidura urmiensis sp. n. from specimens caught on species of Dianthus, Gypsophila and Spergula (Caryophyllaceae) from Pakistan, Greece and Iran, respectively, and Aphidura iranensis sp. n. from specimens caught on Prunus sp. from Iran. Modifications are made to the keys by Blackman and Eastop to aphids living on Dianthus, Gypsophyla, Silene, Spergula and Prinsepia and Prunus (Rosaceae). An identification key to apterous viviparous females of species of Aphidura is also provided. PMID:23950674

  9. Diversity of Clavulanic Acid-Inhibited Extended-Spectrum β-Lactamases in Aeromonas spp. from the Seine River, Paris, France▿

    PubMed Central

    Girlich, Delphine; Poirel, Laurent; Nordmann, Patrice

    2011-01-01

    Environmental Aeromonas sp. isolates resistant to ceftazidime were recovered during an environmental survey performed with water samples from the Seine River, in Paris, France, in November 2009. Selected isolates were identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. PCR and cloning experiments were used to identify broad-spectrum-β-lactamase-encoding genes and their genetic context. Clavulanic acid-inhibited extended-spectrum-β-lactamase (ESBL) genes were identified in 71% of the Aeromonas sp. isolates. A variety of ESBL genes were detected, including blaVEB-1a, blaSHV-12, blaPER-1, blaPER-6, blaTLA-2, and blaGES-7, suggesting an aquatic reservoir of those ESBL genes. Moreover, the repeated elements and different insertion sequences were identified in association with the blaPER-6 and the blaVEB-1a genes, respectively, indicating a wide diversity of mobilization events, making Aeromonas spp. a vehicle for ESBL dissemination. PMID:21149627

  10. 75 FR 39277 - Sorbitol From France; Determination

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-08

    ... The Commission instituted this review on July 1, 2009 (74 FR 31762, July 2, 2009) and determined on... publishing the notice in the Federal Register on December 17, 2009 (74 FR 66992). The hearing was held in... COMMISSION Sorbitol From France; Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject...

  11. Murine Typhus, Reunion, France, 2011–2013

    PubMed Central

    Camuset, Guillaume; Socolovschi, Cristina; Moiton, Marie-Pierre; Kuli, Barbara; Foucher, Aurélie; Poubeau, Patrice; Borgherini, Gianandrea; Wartel, Guillaume; Audin, Héla; Raoult, Didier; Filleul, Laurent; Parola, Philippe; Pagès, Fréderic

    2015-01-01

    Murine typhus case was initially identified in Reunion, France, in 2012 in a tourist. Our investigation confirmed 8 autochthonous cases that occurred during January 2011–January 2013 in Reunion. Murine typhus should be considered in local patients and in travelers returning from Reunion who have fevers of unknown origin. PMID:25625653

  12. Frances Rauscher: Music and Reasoning. Interview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Neal

    1995-01-01

    Reports on an interview with Frances Rauscher, a research psychologist and musician who has studied the effects of music on the brain. Maintains that students who have studied music have enhanced spatial reasoning. Recommends that music education begin at younger ages. (CFR)

  13. The Occitan Movement in Southern France.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engelhardt, Klaus

    The Occitan movement in Southern France should be studied in the light of a world-wide political reality of our days, the surfacing of ethnic minorities which are beginning to voice cultural and political demands in almost all large industrialized or developing countries. The first step for a minority group to come into existence is almost without…

  14. [New conditions for organ donation in France].

    PubMed

    Antoine, Corinne; Maroudy, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    The procurement of organs from donors after circulatory death is a reliable technique which gives satisfactory posttransplant results and also represents a potential source of additional organs. In order to meet the growing need for organ donations, the 'anticipated organ donation approach' procedure is currently receiving renewed interest with new conditions for its implementation in France. PMID:27596496

  15. Shocks and Aftershocks: France Confronts Its Past.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracher, Nathan; Golsan, Richard

    1995-01-01

    Maintains that events in France during and after World War II are still controversial political and social issues. Describes the program and activities of U.S. teachers during a summer seminar on French literature and filmmaking during the German occupation years. (CFR)

  16. Competence: Conceptual Approach and Practice in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Deist, Francoise

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyse the conceptual approaches to competence and practice in competence management in France. Design/methodology/approach: Extensive literature review, discussion with academic experts in the French competence network of AGRH and interviews concerning developments following the 2003 national agreement…

  17. A Paradox in Physics Education in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureate 1…

  18. Les instituts universitaires de technologie en France. (The university institutes of technology in France)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineau, Gaston

    1971-01-01

    In 1966 France passed legislation naming three types of technical training: two year postbaccalaureate, short-cycle for those without a bachelor's degree, adult education, for those already employed. (MF)

  19. Modelling transport of storm-water pollutants using the distributed Multi-Hydro platform on an urban catchment near Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Yi; Bonhomme, Celine; Giangola-Murzyn, Agathe; Schertzer, Daniel; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the increasingly use of vehicles causes expanding contaminated storm-water runoff from roads and the associated quarters. Besides, the current utilization of city's separated sewer systems underlines the needs for evaluating precisely the growing impact of these polluted effluents on receiving water bodies. Nevertheless, traditional means of water quality modelling had shown its limits (Kanso, 2004), more accurate modelling schemes are hence required. In this paper, we found that the application of physically based and fully distributed model coupled with detailed high-resolution data is a promising approach to reproduce the various dynamics and interactions of water quantity/quality processes in urban or peri-urban environment. Over recent years, the physically based and spatially distributed numerical platform Multi-Hydro (MH) has been developed at Ecole des Ponts ParisTech (El-Tabach et al. , 2009 ; Gires et al., 2013 ; Giangola-Murzyn et al., 2014). This platform is particularly adapted for representing the hydrological processes for medium size watersheds, including the surface runoff, drainage water routing and the infiltrations on permeable zones. It is formed by the interactive coupling of several independent modules, which depend on generally used open-access models. In the framework of the ANR (French National Agency for Research) Trafipollu project, a new extension of MH, MH-quality, was set up for the water-quality modelling. MH-quality was used for the simulation of pollutant transport on a peri-urban and highly trafficked catchment located near Paris (Le Perreux-sur-Marne, 0.2 km2). The set-up of this model is based on the detailed description of urban land use features. For this purpose, 15 classes of urban land uses relevant to water quality modelling were defined in collaboration with the National Institute of Geography of France (IGN) using Digital Orthophoto Quadrangles (5cm). The delimitation of the urban catchment was then performed

  20. Calcium requirements from dairy foods in France can be met at low energy and monetary cost.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Tang, Wesley; Brazeilles, Rémi

    2015-12-14

    Inadequate Ca intakes are a concern for global public health. In France, most dietary Ca is provided by dairy products: milks, fermented milks (mostly yogurts), dairy desserts and cheeses. The present dairy database (n 837) included milks (n 101), fermented milks, yogurts and other fresh dairy products (n 326), desserts (n 162) and a wide variety of cheeses (n 248). Energy and nutrient values were obtained from industry sources and the French national nutrient composition database. Retail prices were from Paris supermarkets. Products in each group were aggregated into twenty-one categories using clustering analyses. The costs in energy (kJ (kcal)), euros (€), and in SFA, added sugar and Na (defined here as nutrients to LIMit) associated with providing 120 mg of Ca (equivalent to 15 % daily value (15 % DV)) were calculated for each product group and category. The milk group supplied Ca at the lowest energy, monetary and LIM cost. Fresh plain and 'light' yogurts and fermented milks were next, followed by sweetened yogurts and flavoured milks. Light dairy desserts provided Ca with relatively few energy but were more expensive. Cheeses were a heterogeneous group. Hard cheeses (Comté) provided the most Ca per serving. Semi-hard cheeses (Camembert) and cream and blue cheeses (Roquefort) provided Ca at a cost comparable with sweetened yogurts and flavoured milks. Double cream, soft and goat cheeses were not optimal Ca sources. New value metrics can help identify affordable dairy foods that provide Ca without excessive energy or nutrients to limit. These conditions were satisfied by a wide variety of dairy products in France.

  1. Calcium requirements from dairy foods in France can be met at low energy and monetary cost.

    PubMed

    Drewnowski, Adam; Tang, Wesley; Brazeilles, Rémi

    2015-12-14

    Inadequate Ca intakes are a concern for global public health. In France, most dietary Ca is provided by dairy products: milks, fermented milks (mostly yogurts), dairy desserts and cheeses. The present dairy database (n 837) included milks (n 101), fermented milks, yogurts and other fresh dairy products (n 326), desserts (n 162) and a wide variety of cheeses (n 248). Energy and nutrient values were obtained from industry sources and the French national nutrient composition database. Retail prices were from Paris supermarkets. Products in each group were aggregated into twenty-one categories using clustering analyses. The costs in energy (kJ (kcal)), euros (€), and in SFA, added sugar and Na (defined here as nutrients to LIMit) associated with providing 120 mg of Ca (equivalent to 15 % daily value (15 % DV)) were calculated for each product group and category. The milk group supplied Ca at the lowest energy, monetary and LIM cost. Fresh plain and 'light' yogurts and fermented milks were next, followed by sweetened yogurts and flavoured milks. Light dairy desserts provided Ca with relatively few energy but were more expensive. Cheeses were a heterogeneous group. Hard cheeses (Comté) provided the most Ca per serving. Semi-hard cheeses (Camembert) and cream and blue cheeses (Roquefort) provided Ca at a cost comparable with sweetened yogurts and flavoured milks. Double cream, soft and goat cheeses were not optimal Ca sources. New value metrics can help identify affordable dairy foods that provide Ca without excessive energy or nutrients to limit. These conditions were satisfied by a wide variety of dairy products in France. PMID:26450475

  2. Aging in France: Population Trends, Policy Issues, and Research Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beland, Daniel; Durandal, Jean-Philippe Viriot

    2013-01-01

    Like in other advanced industrial countries, in France, demographic aging has become a widely debated research and policy topic. This article offers a brief overview of major aging-related trends in France. The article describes France's demographics of aging, explores key policy matters, maps the institutional field of French social gerontology…

  3. The amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite, the most primitive CM chondrite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Zita; Modica, Paola; Zanda, Brigitte; Le Sergeant d'Hendecourt, Louis

    2015-04-01

    The Paris meteorite is reported to be the least aqueously altered CM chondrite [1,2], and to have experienced only weak thermal metamorphism [2-5]. The IR spectra of some of Paris' fragments suggest a primitive origin for the organic matter in this meteorite, similar to the spectra from solid-state materials in molecular clouds [6]. Most of the micron-sized organic particles present in the Paris matrix exhibit 0 < δD <2000‰ [7,8]. In order to understand the effect of aqueous alteration and thermal metamorphism on the abundance and distribution of meteoritic soluble organic matter, we have analyzed for the first time the amino acid and hydrocarbon contents of the Paris meteorite [9]. Extensive aqueous alteration in the parent body of carbonaceous meteorites may result in the decomposition of α-amino acids and the synthesis of β- and γ-amino acids. When plotted with several CM chondrites, Paris has the lowest relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine (0.15) for a CM chondrite, which fits with the relative abundance of β-alanine/glycine increasing with increasing aqueous alteration [10,11]. In addition, our results show that the isovaline detected in this meteorite is racemic (D/L= 0.99 ± 0.08; L-enantiomer excess (%) = 0.35 ± 0.5; corrected D/L = 1.03; corrected L-enantiomer excess (%) = -1.4 ± 2.6). Although aqueous alteration does not create by itself an isovaline asymmetry, it may amplify a small enantiomeric excess. Therefore, our data may support the hypothesis that aqueous alteration is responsible for the high L-enantiomer excess of isovaline observed in the most aqueously altered carbonaceous meteorites [12,13]. Paris has n-alkanes ranging from C16 to C25 and 3- to 5-ring non-alkylated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The lack of alkylated PAHs in Paris seems to be related to the low degree of aqueous alteration on its parent body [9,14]. The extra-terrestrial aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon content of Paris may have an interstellar origin

  4. Molecular characterization of Wolbachia infection in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) collected from several localities in France.

    PubMed

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Cannet, Arnaud; Loubatier, Céline; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Izri, Arezki; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia symbionts are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that have been detected in numerous insects including bed bugs. The objective of this study, the first epidemiological study in Europe, was to screen Wolbachia infection among Cimex lectularius collected in the field, using PCR targeting the surface protein gene (wsp), and to compare obtained Wolbachia strains with those reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius as well as other Wolbachia groups. For this purpose, 284 bed bug specimens were caught and studied from eight different regions of France including the suburbs of Paris, Bouches-du-Rhône, Lot-et-Garonne, and five localities in Alpes-Maritimes. Among the samples, 166 were adults and the remaining 118 were considered nymphs. In all, 47 out of 118 nymphs (40%) and 61 out of 166 adults (37%) were found positive on wsp screening. Among the positive cases, 10 samples were selected randomly for sequencing. The sequences had 100% homology with wsp sequences belonging to the F-supergroup strains of Wolbachia. Therefore, we confirm the similarity of Wolbachia strains detected in this epidemiological study to Wolbachia spp. reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius. PMID:27492563

  5. Faunal reorganisation in terrestrial mammalian communities: evidence from France during the Lateglacial-Early Holocene transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridault, Anne

    2010-05-01

    The Lateglacial-Early Holocene transition is characterized by rapid oscillations between warm and cold episodes. Their impact on ecosystem dynamics was particularly pronounced in north-western Europe where hunter-gatherer societies experienced a succession of environmental transformations, including the expansion and dispersal of biotic communities and changing herbivore habitats. Recent archaeozoological studies and AMS direct dating on mammalian bones/or bone collagen allow to map and precise this process at a supra-regional scale (France). At regional scales (i.e. Paris Basin & Jura-Northern French Alps), results indicate a rapid faunal reorganisation at the end of Lateglacial that will be presented in detail. Composition of faunal assemblages remains then unchanged during the Early Holocene. By contrast, significant herbivore habitat changes are recorded during the Early Holocene by other proxies (pollen data and isotopic data) and a decrease in Red Deer size through time is evidenced by osteometrical analyses. Hypotheses regarding the kind of adaptation process experienced by the faunal communities through time will be presented. Factors that may have controlled the observed changes will be discussed.

  6. Molecular characterization of Wolbachia infection in bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) collected from several localities in France

    PubMed Central

    Akhoundi, Mohammad; Cannet, Arnaud; Loubatier, Céline; Berenger, Jean-Michel; Izri, Arezki; Marty, Pierre; Delaunay, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Wolbachia symbionts are maternally inherited intracellular bacteria that have been detected in numerous insects including bed bugs. The objective of this study, the first epidemiological study in Europe, was to screen Wolbachia infection among Cimex lectularius collected in the field, using PCR targeting the surface protein gene (wsp), and to compare obtained Wolbachia strains with those reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius as well as other Wolbachia groups. For this purpose, 284 bed bug specimens were caught and studied from eight different regions of France including the suburbs of Paris, Bouches-du-Rhône, Lot-et-Garonne, and five localities in Alpes-Maritimes. Among the samples, 166 were adults and the remaining 118 were considered nymphs. In all, 47 out of 118 nymphs (40%) and 61 out of 166 adults (37%) were found positive on wsp screening. Among the positive cases, 10 samples were selected randomly for sequencing. The sequences had 100% homology with wsp sequences belonging to the F-supergroup strains of Wolbachia. Therefore, we confirm the similarity of Wolbachia strains detected in this epidemiological study to Wolbachia spp. reported from laboratory colonies of C. lectularius. PMID:27492563

  7. How to build an "active" patient? The work of AIDS associations in France.

    PubMed

    Barbot, Janine

    2006-02-01

    "What is an "active" patient?" is a question that arises in most medicine and illness-related social science research. This article examines the normative work carried out by AIDS associations in France to define an "active" patient in healthcare and research. While the fight against AIDS is often presented as being homogenous, we look at the diversity of opinion between different associations (Aides, Act Up-Paris, Actions Traitements and Positifs). We find four different cases: the patient as manager of his illness, the empowerment of patients, the science-wise patient and the experimenter. Systematic comparison of these cases shows that these perceptions of the "active" patient, in terms of the same pathology, are based upon different ways of seeing: the nature of the relationships between the different types of knowledge of the illness (scientific knowledge, clinical knowledge, experience of the illness) and the distribution of roles and powers among the various actors in the healthcare system (the government, pharmaceutical companies, the medical profession, the patients). This article highlights the historical dynamics which allow us to have a better understanding of these differences, especially the major distinction between two generations of associations, which adopted different positions with regard to their public identity.

  8. Geographic Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metropolitan Centres in France and Australia.

    PubMed

    Paquet, Catherine; Chaix, Basile; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Adams, Robert J; Taylor, Anne W; Thomas, Frédérique; Daniel, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how health outcomes are spatially distributed represents a first step in investigating the scale and nature of environmental influences on health and has important implications for statistical power and analytic efficiency. Using Australian and French cohort data, this study aimed to describe and compare the extent of geographic variation, and the implications for analytic efficiency, across geographic units, countries and a range of cardiometabolic parameters (Body Mass Index (BMI) waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, HbA1c). Geographic clustering was assessed using Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) coefficients in biomedical cohorts from Adelaide (Australia, n = 3893) and Paris (France, n = 6430) for eight geographic administrative units. The median ICC was 0.01 suggesting 1% of risk factor variance attributable to variation between geographic units. Clustering differed by cardiometabolic parameters, administrative units and countries and was greatest for BMI and resting heart rate in the French sample, HbA1c in the Australian sample, and for smaller geographic units. Analytic inefficiency due to clustering was greatest for geographic units in which participants were nested in fewer, larger geographic units. Differences observed in geographic clustering across risk factors have implications for choice of geographic unit in sampling and analysis, and highlight potential cross-country differences in the distribution, or role, of environmental features related to cardiometabolic health. PMID:27213423

  9. A new quasi-3D unsaturated-saturated hydrogeologic model of the Plateau de Saclay (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renard, François; Tognelli, Antoine

    2016-04-01

    A new hydrogeologic model is developed for the Plateau de Saclay (20 km south-west of Paris, France), which covers an area of 74 km2. It is based on a 2D model of the Fontainebleau Sands aquifer, combined with a 1D model of the unsaturated zone, taking into account the spatial variability of the groundwater permeability field and the thickness of the unsaturated zone. The paper focuses on the estimation of a triplet of parameters (permeability, infiltration and effective porosity), based on transient flow simulations. First, the permeability is obtained by inversion of mean hydraulic head data for different values of infiltration. Then, infiltration and effective porosity are determined by using transient flow simulations and fitting the hydraulic head measurements at several piezometers over the 1970-2014 period. The infiltration is estimated at between 125 and 150 mm/yr, the mean permeability between 2 · 10-5 and 6 · 10-5 m/s, and the effective porosity between 20% and 30%. Furthermore, the role of the unsaturated zone is quantified and the induced delay is estimated at about 20 years in the case of the transport of a tracer.

  10. Hydrological role of karst in the Chalk aquifer of Upper Normandy, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Janyani, Sanae; Dupont, Jean-Paul; Massei, Nicolas; Slimani, Smail; Dörfliger, Nathalie

    2014-05-01

    The role of karst on large-scale groundwater flow is defined for the Chalk aquifer of Upper Normandy (western Paris Basin), France. In the regional context, chalk plateaus occupy the greater part of watersheds and are the main sites of groundwater recharge. Previous studies focused on karstic output systems in the valleys and less on water-level variations in the recharge zones upstream. This study assesses the relevant hydrogeological processes using time-series data (boreholes and springs) recorded along a down-gradient hydrologeological cross-section in two selected watersheds. These hydrological data are interpreted in the framework of previous descriptions of the morphological organization of the study area's karst network. The results highlight the hydrological role of (1) the input karst (vertical conduits) which drains recharging water, (2) the output karst (sub-horizontal conduits widely developed in the vicinity of valleys in the surface watersheds) which drains the output flows, and (3) the connections between these two (input and output) networks, which control the upstream water levels and allow quick transfer to springs, particularly after strong rainfall events. A conceptual model of the hydrological functioning of this covered karst aquifer is established, which should serve for the structuring and parameterization of a numerical model.

  11. Geographic Clustering of Cardiometabolic Risk Factors in Metropolitan Centres in France and Australia

    PubMed Central

    Paquet, Catherine; Chaix, Basile; Howard, Natasha J.; Coffee, Neil T.; Adams, Robert J.; Taylor, Anne W.; Thomas, Frédérique; Daniel, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how health outcomes are spatially distributed represents a first step in investigating the scale and nature of environmental influences on health and has important implications for statistical power and analytic efficiency. Using Australian and French cohort data, this study aimed to describe and compare the extent of geographic variation, and the implications for analytic efficiency, across geographic units, countries and a range of cardiometabolic parameters (Body Mass Index (BMI) waist circumference, blood pressure, resting heart rate, triglycerides, cholesterol, glucose, HbA1c). Geographic clustering was assessed using Intra-Class Correlation (ICC) coefficients in biomedical cohorts from Adelaide (Australia, n = 3893) and Paris (France, n = 6430) for eight geographic administrative units. The median ICC was 0.01 suggesting 1% of risk factor variance attributable to variation between geographic units. Clustering differed by cardiometabolic parameters, administrative units and countries and was greatest for BMI and resting heart rate in the French sample, HbA1c in the Australian sample, and for smaller geographic units. Analytic inefficiency due to clustering was greatest for geographic units in which participants were nested in fewer, larger geographic units. Differences observed in geographic clustering across risk factors have implications for choice of geographic unit in sampling and analysis, and highlight potential cross-country differences in the distribution, or role, of environmental features related to cardiometabolic health. PMID:27213423

  12. Guidelines for doctors attending detainees in police custody: a consensus conference in France.

    PubMed

    Chariot, Patrick; Martel, Philippe; Penneau, Michel; Debout, Michel

    2008-01-01

    Medical practice in police custody needs to be harmonized. A consensus conference was held on 2-3 December 2004 in Paris, France. The health, integrity, and dignity of detainees must be safeguarded. The examination should take place in the police station so that the doctor can assess the conditions in which the detainee is being held. If the minimum conditions needed for a medical examination are not available, the doctor may refuse to express an opinion as to whether the detainee is fit to be held in custody or may ask for the detainee to be examined in a hospital. Doctors are subject to a duty of care and prevention. They should prescribe any ongoing treatment that needs to be continued, as well as any emergency treatment required. Custody officers may monitor the detainee and administer medication. However, their role should not be expected to exceed that required of the detainee's family under normal circumstances and must be specified in writing on the medical certificate. Doctor's opinion should be given in a national standard document. If the doctors consider that the custody conditions are disgraceful, they may refuse to express an opinion as to whether the detainee is fit for custody. PMID:17285321

  13. [Hopes for future practice of junior orthopedic surgeons in France: a sociological study].

    PubMed

    Grégory, T; Gaillard, R; Grenier, A

    2007-09-01

    Medical demographics have become a major public health issue in France since the publication of the Berlan report in 2002 which announced an upcoming shortage in the next 20 years. But demographic projections cannot be limited to an accounting of training and retirement figures. Other factors such as demographic distribution, changing societal aspirations (free time), modes and sites of occupational activities, the influence of feminization, and initial training and its effects on professional practice must be taken into consideration. The purpose of this work was to study these parameters in orthopedic and traumatology surgery. This was a sociological study designed to ascertain the aspirations of junior orthopedic surgeons. Forty-seven interns in orthopedic surgery in the Paris area were invited to complete a questionnaire in March 2003. Forty-two responded. The choice of orthopedics was an intellectual choice. The attractiveness of the specialty was particularly important during the final years of medical school. Fewer junior surgeons would rather practice in a university hospital setting, more preferring a mixed setting with a private (fees) and a public (salary) component. The desire for "free time" was particularly important. Fewer juniors wanted to practice in general hospitals. For orthopedic surgeons, private practice and payment by fees are the cornerstones of medical practice.

  14. Thromboprophylaxis in medical patients: focus on France.

    PubMed

    Bergmann, Jean-François; Mouly, Stéphane

    2002-08-01

    In 2000, the French authorities licensed the low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) enoxaparin for thromboprophylaxis in acutely ill medical patients. However, the lack of official recommendations for this group of patients has contributed to inappropriate use of LMWH. The recent College of Internal Medicine of Paris (CIMOP) and Données Epidémiologiques chez les Patients A Risque Thromboembolique (DEPART) epidemiological studies have confirmed that LMWH is prescribed for 32% of medical inpatients and up to 44% of outpatients. However, they highlight overuse in elderly bedridden patients without acute illness and underuse in patients with severe infections or cardiopulmonary disease. Guidelines are urgently needed to encourage French physicians to target thromboprophylaxis for medical patients who are genuinely at high risk of thromboembolic disease and to prescribe the appropriate dose and duration of therapy.

  15. [Knud Faber and the Paris medicine in the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Jensen, Niels Kristoffer

    2007-01-01

    The socalled "Paris medicine" in the beginning of the 19th century initiated by the French revolution has always been regarded as something special and of great importance for the development in the medical field and this period has attracted many authors and historians for interpretation. Foucault and Ackerknecht are the latest authors that have given an estimation. A need, however, was felt for a new reinterpretation. The papers of a conference at the College of Physicians in 1992 was published in The Wellcome Institute Series in the History of Medicine in 1998 under the name of "Constructing Paris Medicine" that should elucidate the problem. In Denmark we have a rather early estimation due to professor Knud Fabers book from 1919, which was translated into English in 1923 and 1930.

  16. Young people's heroes in France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Gash, Hugh; Domínguez Rodríguez, Pilar

    2009-05-01

    Heroes play collectivist or individualist roles in imagination and self-development. Representations of heroic figures in questionnaires given to French (n = 241) and Spanish (n = 227) samples of 10 and 15-year-olds were examined to assess the extent that heroes originated in digital media, and whether they were proximal or distal personalities. There is strong evidence that heroes in this sample were largely learned about in digital media (France 45%, Spain 50%): family and community heroes were a minority (France 11%, Spain 9%). Male heroes were more important to Spanish participants compared to their French peers. The acquisition sequence for hero type reported in the pre-television era, proximal (family and community) to distal (beyond the neighbourhood), is reversed in this study. Generally, 10-year-olds preferred heroes with collectivist qualities and 15-year-olds with individualised qualities. Findings are discussed in terms of the emergence of social capital. PMID:19476237

  17. Postglacial dispersal of Phlebotomus perniciosus into France.

    PubMed

    Perrotey, S; Mahamdallie, S S; Pesson, B; Richardson, K J; Gállego, M; Ready, P D

    2005-12-01

    Phlebotomus perniciosus was identified morphologically in samples from France and northeast Spain, and individuals were then characterized at three polymorphic isoenzyme loci (by isoelectrofocusing) and at the mitochondrial DNA locus (by comparative DNA sequence analysis of a fragment of the Cytochrome b gene). The four polymorphic loci gave conflicting patterns of population relationships, which can be explained by hypothesizing different amounts of gene introgression at each locus when two distinctive lineages met in southern France or northeast Spain after isolation in southern Italy and Spain during the Pleistocene Ice Ages. P. perniciosus is an important vector of leishmania infantum and so these population differentiation studies are relevant for predicting the emergence and spread of leishmaniasis in relation to environmental changes, including climate.

  18. Young people's heroes in France and Spain.

    PubMed

    Gash, Hugh; Domínguez Rodríguez, Pilar

    2009-05-01

    Heroes play collectivist or individualist roles in imagination and self-development. Representations of heroic figures in questionnaires given to French (n = 241) and Spanish (n = 227) samples of 10 and 15-year-olds were examined to assess the extent that heroes originated in digital media, and whether they were proximal or distal personalities. There is strong evidence that heroes in this sample were largely learned about in digital media (France 45%, Spain 50%): family and community heroes were a minority (France 11%, Spain 9%). Male heroes were more important to Spanish participants compared to their French peers. The acquisition sequence for hero type reported in the pre-television era, proximal (family and community) to distal (beyond the neighbourhood), is reversed in this study. Generally, 10-year-olds preferred heroes with collectivist qualities and 15-year-olds with individualised qualities. Findings are discussed in terms of the emergence of social capital.

  19. Minimally Invasive Forefoot Surgery in France.

    PubMed

    Meusnier, Tristan; Mukish, Prikesht

    2016-06-01

    Study groups have been formed in France to advance the use of minimally invasive surgery. These techniques are becoming more frequently used and the technique nuances are continuing to evolve. The objective of this article was to advance the awareness of the current trends in minimally invasive surgery for common diseases of the forefoot. The percutaneous surgery at the forefoot is less developed at this time, but also will be discussed.

  20. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000–2012) and Tunisia (2011–2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs. PMID:26709514

  1. First case of human gongylonemosis in France.

    PubMed

    Pesson, Bernard; Hersant, Christel; Biehler, Jean-François; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pfaff, Alexander W; Ferté, Hubert; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-01-01

    Gongylonema spp. are cosmopolitan spirurid nematodes that are common parasites of wild and domesticated mammals and birds. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 is most common in ruminants, where it invades mucosa and submucosa of the mouth, tongue, oesophagus and forestomachs. It extremely rarely occurs in man, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case from the Alsace region, which appears to be the first case of human gongylonemosis described in France.

  2. First case of human gongylonemosis in France

    PubMed Central

    Pesson, Bernard; Hersant, Christel; Biehler, Jean-François; Abou-Bacar, Ahmed; Brunet, Julie; Pfaff, Alexander W.; Ferté, Hubert; Candolfi, Ermanno

    2013-01-01

    Gongylonema spp. are cosmopolitan spirurid nematodes that are common parasites of wild and domesticated mammals and birds. Gongylonema pulchrum Molin, 1857 is most common in ruminants, where it invades mucosa and submucosa of the mouth, tongue, oesophagus and forestomachs. It extremely rarely occurs in man, and fewer than 60 cases have been reported worldwide. We report a case from the Alsace region, which appears to be the first case of human gongylonemosis described in France. PMID:23425508

  3. The e-Bug project in France.

    PubMed

    Touboul, Pia; Dunais, Brigitte; Urcun, Jeanne-Marie; Michard, Jean-Louis; Loarer, Christian; Azanowsky, Jean-Michel; Vincent, Isabelle; Jestin, Christine; Housseau, Bruno; de Warren, Anne; Dellamonica, Pierre

    2011-06-01

    The high rates of antibiotic prescriptions and antimicrobial resistance in France motivated its participation in the European e-Bug school project concerning microbes, and infection transmission, prevention and treatment. The prospect of raising awareness among children, helping them to adopt suitable attitudes and behaviour towards infection transmission and treatment starting from childhood, generated enthusiastic support from relevant national educational and health institutions throughout the Project. France was actively involved in every stage: background research showed that the subject matter was best suited to the national science curricula of the fourth and fifth forms in junior schools, and the sixth and ninth forms in senior schools; a focus group study with junior and senior teachers elicited teachers' needs concerning teaching resources; and a qualitative and quantitative evaluation, after translation and pack review, enabled further adaptation of the packs. This evaluation showed an overall enthusiastic reception by teachers and their students in France, and reassured teachers on the ease of use of the Project's resources and students' progress. The e-Bug Project was launched through a national institutional implementation plan in September 2009 and orders for e-Bug tools increased rapidly. By the end of October, 57% of all senior science teachers and 16% of all junior school teachers had ordered the pack. France is one of the most frequent users of the e-Bug web site. The collaboration with both educational and health partners was particularly helpful to implementing the Project, and this was confirmed by the favourable reception and participation of teachers and students in the field.

  4. Enterovirus Migration Patterns between France and Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Othman, Ines; Mirand, Audrey; Slama, Ichrak; Mastouri, Maha; Peigue-Lafeuille, Hélène; Aouni, Mahjoub; Bailly, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-01

    The enterovirus (EV) types echovirus (E-) 5, E-9, and E-18, and coxsackievirus (CV-) A9 are infrequently reported in human diseases and their epidemiologic features are poorly defined. Virus transmission patterns between countries have been estimated with phylogenetic data derived from the 1D/VP1 and 3CD gene sequences of a sample of 74 strains obtained in France (2000-2012) and Tunisia (2011-2013) and from the publicly available sequences. The EV types (E-5, E-9, and E-18) exhibited a lower worldwide genetic diversity (respective number of genogroups: 4, 5, and 3) in comparison to CV-A9 (n = 10). The phylogenetic trees estimated with both 1D/VP1 and 3CD sequence data showed variations in the number of co-circulating lineages over the last 20 years among the four EV types. Despite the low number of genogroups in E-18, the virus exhibited the highest number of recombinant 3CD lineages (n = 10) versus 4 (E-5) to 8 (E-9). The phylogenies provided evidence of multiple transportation events between France and Tunisia involving E-5, E-9, E-18, and CV-A9 strains. Virus spread events between France and 17 other countries in five continents had high probabilities of occurrence as those between Tunisia and two European countries other than France. All transportation events were supported by BF values > 10. Inferring the source of virus transmission from phylogenetic data may provide insights into the patterns of sporadic and epidemic diseases caused by EVs.

  5. Influence of thermohaline effects on groundwater modelling - Application to the Paris sedimentary Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Hoyos, Amélie; Viennot, Pascal; Ledoux, Emmanuel; Matray, Jean-Michel; Rocher, Muriel; Certes, Catherine

    2012-09-01

    SummaryIn the framework of evaluating the safety of a radioactive waste disposal in deep argillaceous formations and its assessment by the implementer, IRSN and MINES ParisTech built a hydrogeological model of the Paris Basin aquifer system with the aim of identifying radionuclide pathways, estimating transfer times associated with those pathways and locating potential outlets. Such modelling of fluid and mass transport through a sedimentary basin is a recurrent applied geology study. However, recent research shows that in a deep and saline environment, density effects induced by both temperature (to a small extent) and particularly salt concentration can play a major role in the predicted groundwater flow pathways. The present study highlights the relevance of building a hydrogeological model from the measured hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical parameters by combining the calibration of the piezometric levels and the salinity values simultaneously. The application of this strategy to the Paris Basin shows that the Keuper halite formation (Triassic), located in the eastern part of the basin, can be considered as the unique salt source, provided that the density effects are taken into account in the flow and transport modelling. The calibration requires, in particular, to also take into account some of the basin's major tectonic faults, which allow vertical hydraulic connections between aquifers and thus allow salt water fluxes toward the shallower formations. The results presented in this paper show that when considering “thermohaline” effects, the model effectively reproduces the observed hydraulic heads and salinity values throughout the entire Paris Basin, whilst at the same time outlining the role of faults and of the geometry of geological formations on salt transport.

  6. [The teaching of history of medicine in Paris in the 19th century (1794-1914)].

    PubMed

    Galanopoulos, Philippe

    2010-06-01

    The defeat of the erudition which characterised the teaching of history of medicine at the end of the 19th Century, was a sign of the passing of one culture to another. This article examines two aspects of Parisian teaching, the institutional and the educational. In addition the question of the usefulness of this teaching is examined, both in relation to Paris and also to the whole field of French medicine.

  7. Intense Particulate Pollution Events Observed with Lidar over the Paris Megalopolis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazette, Patrick; Royer, Philippe

    2016-06-01

    The great particulate pollution event that affected the Paris Megalopolis in March 2014 was due to long-range transport from the northern-northeastern Europe. Although this phenomenon has appeared as exceptional in the media, this is not an exception and similar events have already been observed by lidar measurements. Here we will briefly describe and illustrate the origin of this intense pollution obviously harmful to health.

  8. Thermal structure of the Paris Basin from tectonic-Heat Flow modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonté, Damien; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Guillou-Frottier, Laurent; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    Located on the inner part of the Variscan Orogen, the Paris Basin has evolved from the Permo-Carboniferous as an intracratonic basin. The usual description of the sediments in the Paris Basin involves imbricated bowl shaped layers, starting from the Triassic. Due to their discontinuity, depth and complexity the Permian and Carboniferous layers have been commonly left aside. Fortunately, recent studies have been completed to looks specifically at these deeper sedimentary layers. With the development of geothermal energy and the widely use shallow medium enthalpy geothermal resources in the Paris Basin (Dogger) these pre-Mesozoic sediments are of a lot of interest. In this work, we use a tectonic-heat flow modelling methodology to model the present day thermal structure of the Paris Basin. The modelling takes into account the geometry of the layering and the petrophysical parameters (i.e., thermal conductivity, the radiogenic heat production of the sedimentary layers in relation with their facies). In addition, the upper part of the basement is closely considered to allow the description of magmatic intrusions that could have a major impact on the present day temperature (i.e., the variation of the radiogenic heat production). To assess the result of our thermal modelling, the obtained temperature is compared to BHT's (Bottom Hole Temperature) and DST's (Drill Stem Test) values when available. As a result of this modelling, we are able to present present-day temperature within the basin as well as in the shallower part of the basement. The aim of this work is identify the sources of the temperature perturbation. The impact of the sediment's thermal conductivity has already been assed on a previous work, in this work the deeper source of perturbation are of great interest (thermal conductivity and heat production of the pre-Mesozoic sedimentary layers, heat production of magmatic intrusion in the basement, and regional faults in the sediments and basement).

  9. Paris Observatory Analysis Center (OPAR): Report on Activities, January - December 2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, Sebastien; Barache, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    We report on activities of the Paris Observatory VLBI Analysis Center (OPAR) for calendar year 2012 concerning the development of operational tasks, the development of our Web site, and various other activities: monitoring of the Earth's free core nutation, measuring of the post-seismic displacements of some stations, and the analysis of the recent IVS R&D sessions, including observations of quasars close to the Sun.

  10. Contribution of the airborne geophysical survey to the study of the regolith : A case study in southern Paris Basin.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prognon, Francois; Lacquement, Fréderic; Deparis, Jacques; Martelet, Guillaume; Perrin, José

    2010-05-01

    Studies of soil and subsoil, also called regolith, are at the crossroads of scientific new challenging questions as well as new environmental needs. Historically, geological maps were focussed on solid geology. Present societal needs increasingly require knowledge of regolith properties: superficial studies combining geology, geochemistry and geophysics become essential to better understand the natural processes which govern the repartition and evolution of subsoil formations. Such progress is critical to better orient the use and management of natural and groundwater resources. Among other techniques, airborne geophysics is appropriate to provide information on near surface, because of i) its high spatial coverage ii) the rapidity of acquisition and iii) the variety of available sensors (magnetic, spectral radiometry, electromagnetic …). We illustrate the results of an airborne geophysical survey carried out in France, in "Région Centre" administrative region in the southern part of the Paris Basin. Spectral radiometry data were collected throughout "Région Centre" with a line spacing of 1 km. This method provides maps of potassium (K), uranium (U) and thorium (Th) which are the only naturally occurring elements with direct or indirect radioisotopes that produce gamma rays of sufficient intensity to be measured at airborne survey heights. Gamma-rays emitted from the Earth surface are related to the primary mineralogy and geochemistry of the bedrock and/or the nature of secondary weathering including regolith materials. Obtained images are confronted with former geological investigations (1:50 000e geological maps). Geophysical data and geological maps are generally consistent on most of the covered area since the first-rate information delivered by the spectrometry derives from the geochemistry of the solid geology. Second-rate gamma-ray responses come from superimposed allochtonous deposits as well as in situ geochemical modifications. For instance

  11. Cancer mortality among Polish migrants to France.

    PubMed

    Tyczynski, J; Parkin, D; Zatonski, W; Tarkowski, W

    1992-01-01

    Cancer risk in the Polish-born population of France has been compared to that in Poland and in native French subjects (born in France), using mortality data from the period 1979-1985. The Polish-born community in France is a long-established one--most migration occurred during the 1920s--so that for many cancer sites the cancer pattern is closer to that of French natives than that in Poland (eg oral cavity, oesophagus, large bowel, gall bladder, uterus, leukaemia). Polish migrants, however, retain their characteristically high rates of cancer of the stomach and lung (in men), and low rates of breast and prostate cancer. The Polish-born community has a characteristic pattern of residence (living mainly in the Nord and the Pas-de-Calais) and occupational status (a higher proportion of 'workers' than the French-born); these are important confounding factors which can mask the true differences in risk for several sites (larynx, oesophagus, large bowel) if no adjustment is made during analysis. PMID:1467602

  12. Populations at Risk for Alveolar Echinococcosis, France

    PubMed Central

    Piarroux, Martine; Piarroux, Renaud; Knapp, Jenny; Bardonnet, Karine; Dumortier, Jérôme; Watelet, Jérôme; Gerard, Alain; Beytout, Jean; Abergel, Armand; Bresson-Hadni, Solange

    2013-01-01

    During 1982–2007, alveolar echinococcosis (AE) was diagnosed in 407 patients in France, a country previously known to register half of all European patients. To better define high-risk groups in France, we conducted a national registry-based study to identify areas where persons were at risk and spatial clusters of cases. We interviewed 180 AE patients about their way of life and compared responses to those of 517 controls. We found that almost all AE patients lived in 22 départements in eastern and central France (relative risk 78.63, 95% CI 52.84–117.02). Classification and regression tree analysis showed that the main risk factor was living in AE-endemic areas. There, most at-risk populations lived in rural settings (odds ratio [OR] 66.67, 95% CI 6.21–464.51 for farmers and OR 6.98, 95% CI 2.88–18.25 for other persons) or gardened in nonrural settings (OR 4.30, 95% CI 1.82–10.91). These findings can help sensitization campaigns focus on specific groups. PMID:23647623

  13. A paradox in physics education in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smigiel, Eddie; Sonntag, Michel

    2013-07-01

    This paper deals with the nature and the level of difficulty of teaching and learning physics in the first year of undergraduate engineering schools in France. Our case study is based on a survey regarding a classic and basic question in applied physics, and which was conducted with a group of second-year students in a post-baccalaureateThe French baccalaureate (baccalauréat) is the examination students must pass to graduate from high school. undergraduate engineering school. The responses to the survey indicate that many students fall into a kind of mathematical ‘formalism’, which prevents them from understanding the actual physics behind the question. This leads us to believe that we must reconsider the way that physics is taught. An analysis of a physics teaching sequence in French and English undergraduate textbooks confirms the weight given to mathematical formalism in France. When approached from a purely mathematical angle, physics becomes a long and slow process of assimilation of the specific scientific culture that underlies the teaching model used in classes préparatoires, classes that are usually presented as a model of academic excellence. However, this model appears to be less suitable when teaching more ‘ordinary students’, who respond better when taken through a ‘detour’ of the ‘important roots’ of physics. This paper shows that in France historically rooted pedagogical traditions persist, ignoring the latest advances in research on science teaching.

  14. Climate change impact on the management of water resources in the Seine River basin, France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorchies, David; Thirel, Guillaume; Chauveau, Mathilde; Jay-Allemand, Maxime; Perrin, Charles; Dehay, Florine

    2013-04-01

    It is today commonly accepted that adaptation strategies will be needed to cope with the hydrological consequences of projected climate change. The main objective of the IWRM-Net Climaware project is to design adaptation strategies for various socio-economic sectors and evaluate their relevance at the European scale. Within the project, the Seine case study focuses on dam management. The Seine River basin at Paris (43800km²) shows major socio-economic stakes in France. Due to its important and growing demography, the number of industries depending on water resources or located on the river sides, and the developed agricultural sector, the consequences of droughts and floods may be dramatic. To mitigate the extreme hydrological events, a system of four large multi-purpose reservoirs was built in the upstream part of the basin between 1949 and 1990. The IPCC reports indicate modifications of the climate conditions in northern France in the future. An increase of mean temperature is very likely, and the rainfall patterns could be modified: the uncertainty on future trends is still high, but summer periods could experience lower quantities of rainfall. Anticipating these changes are crucial: will the present reservoirs system be adapted to these conditions? Here we propose to evaluate the capacity of the Seine River reservoirs to withstand future projected climate conditions using the current management rules. For this study a modeling chain was designed. We used two hydrological models: GR4J, a lumped model used as a benchmark, and TGR, a semi-distributed model. TGR was tuned to explicitly account for reservoir management rules. Seven climatic models forced by the moderate A1B IPCC scenario and downscaled using a weather-type method (DSCLIM, Pagé et al., 2009), were used. A quantile-quantile type method was applied to correct bias in climate simulations. A model to mimic the way reservoirs are managed was also developed. The evolution of low flows, high flows and

  15. Long-term damage to glass in Paris in a changing environment.

    PubMed

    Ionescu, Anda; Lefèvre, Roger-Alexandre; Brimblecombe, Peter; Grossi, Carlota M

    2012-08-01

    Glass weathering depends mainly on its chemical composition: Si-Ca-K mediaeval glass is low durable, while Si-Ca-Na Roman as well as modern glass are very durable. Mediaeval glass is subject to the superficial leaching of K and Ca ions leading to the formation of a hydrated silica-gel layer. Both types of glass develop a superficial stratum of deposited atmospheric particles cemented by crystals of gypsum (and syngenite in the case of Si-Ca-K glass), leading to an impairment of the optical properties: decrease of transparency and increase of haze. Dose-response functions established for the two types of glass reveal that haze depends only on pollution parameters (PM, SO(2), NO(2)), while leaching depends both on pollution and climate parameters (RH, T, SO(2), NO(2)). Instrumental records are available for temperature in Paris from 1800. Air pollution in Paris was estimated from statistics of fuel use from 1875 to 1943, measurements that started in the 1950s and projections across the 21st century. The estimated annual rate of haze development indicates a gradual rise from the 16th century. The increasing importance of coal as a fuel through the 19th century and enhanced sulphur dioxide concentration make a rapid increase in haze formation, which reaches a peak about 1950. The likely damage to mediaeval glass follows a rather similar pattern. The period of damage from aggressive pollutants looks later and for a briefer time in Paris than in London.

  16. Three-dimensional modeling of the mixing state of particles over Greater Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Shupeng; Sartelet, Karine; Zhang, Yang; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-05-01

    A size-composition resolved aerosol model (SCRAM) is coupled to the Polyphemus air quality platform and evaluated over Greater Paris. SCRAM simulates the particle mixing state and solves the aerosol dynamic evolution taking into account the processes of coagulation, condensation/evaporation, and nucleation. Both the size and mass fractions of chemical components of particles are discretized. The performance of SCRAM to model air quality over Greater Paris is evaluated by comparison to PM2.5, PM10, and Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) measurements. Because air quality models usually assume that particles are internally mixed, the impact of the mixing state on aerosols formation, composition, optical properties, and their ability to be activated as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) is investigated. The simulation results show that more than half (up to 80% during rush hours) of black carbon particles are barely mixed at the urban site of Paris, while they are more mixed with organic species at a rural site. The comparisons between the internal-mixing simulation and the mixing state-resolved simulation show that the internal-mixing assumption leads to lower nitrate and higher ammonium concentrations in the particulate phase. Moreover, the internal-mixing assumption leads to lower single scattering albedo, and the difference of aerosol optical depth caused by the mixing state assumption can be as high as 72.5%. Furthermore, the internal-mixing assumption leads to lower CCN activation percentage at low supersaturation, but higher CCN activation percentage at high supersaturation.

  17. [Interuniversity Medical Library in Paris (BIUM) Collection of the Polish theses for doctor degrees].

    PubMed

    Pruszyńska, A

    2001-01-01

    The study consist of two parts. The first refers to the history and the present of Medical Library in Paris - one of the richest European medical book libraries, containing among others collection gathered by Medical Faculty and the Royal Medical Society since 1391. An abridged description of its edifice in the University of René Descartes, interior decorations of its main hall and opened quarters, as well as exhibits of the Museum of Medicine History is given. Author rises merits of professor Pierre Süe - surgeon and librarian - rendered by rescue of the library dismembered during the revolution of 1789. Here we shall find references of the most valuable incunabula and rare prints of the collection, distinctive for particular periods of progress in medicine and printing art. The second part of study contains information about unique collection of doctor theses presented in Medical Faculty since 1539 to 1778, and dissertations from Montpellier, Strasbourg and universities abroad - up to 1778. Particularly important seem to be titles of 32 theses prepared by the Polish authors awarding doctor degrees in Paris in the years 1890-1900 retrieved by the author, as completing in this field the Stanislas Konopka's Polish Medical Bibliography of XIX century (vol. IX, article: Doctor Theses - Paris).

  18. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2015-11-20

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). As a result, this device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.

  19. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    DOE PAGES

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2015-11-20

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert samplemore » measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). As a result, this device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.« less

  20. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    PubMed

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale.

  1. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, M. K. Velisavljevic, N.

    2015-11-15

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO{sub 2}) and uranium (U). This device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.

  2. Alkylphenolic compounds and bisphenol A contamination within a heavily urbanized area: case study of Paris.

    PubMed

    Cladière, Mathieu; Gasperi, Johnny; Lorgeoux, Catherine; Bonhomme, Céline; Rocher, Vincent; Tassin, Bruno

    2013-05-01

    This study evaluates the influence of a heavily urbanized area (Paris Metropolitan area), on receiving water contamination by both bisphenol A (BPA) and alkylphenol ethoxylate (APE) biodegradation product. The study began by investigating concentrations within urban sources. In addition to the more commonly studied wastewater treatment plant effluent, wet weather urban sources (including combined sewer overflows, urban runoff, and total atmospheric fallout) were considered. The initial results highlight a significant contamination of all urban sources (from a few nanograms per liter in atmospheric fallout to several micrograms per liter in the other sources) with clearly distinguishable distribution patterns. Secondly, concentration changes along the Seine River from upstream of the Paris Metropolitan area to downstream were investigated. While the concentrations of BPA and nonylphenoxy acetic acid (NP₁EC) increase substantially due to urban sources, the 4-nonylphenol concentrations remain homogeneous along the Seine. These results suggest a broad dissemination of 4-nonylphenol at the scale of the Seine River basin. Moreover, the relationship between pollutant concentrations and Seine River flow was assessed both upstream and downstream of the Paris conurbation. Consequently, a sharp decrease in dissolved NP1EC concentrations relative to Seine River flow underscores the influence of single-point urban pollution on Seine River contamination. Conversely, dissolved 4-nonylphenol concentrations serve to reinforce the hypothesis of its widespread presence at the Seine River basin scale. PMID:23054786

  3. Parkin loss leads to PARIS-dependent declines in mitochondrial mass and respiration

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Daniel A.; Lee, Yunjong; Kang, Ho Chul; Lee, Byoung Dae; Lee, Yun-Il; Bower, Aaron; Jiang, Haisong; Kang, Sung-Ung; Andrabi, Shaida A.; Dawson, Valina L.; Shin, Joo-Ho; Dawson, Ted M.

    2015-01-01

    Mutations in parkin lead to early-onset autosomal recessive Parkinson’s disease (PD) and inactivation of parkin is thought to contribute to sporadic PD. Adult knockout of parkin in the ventral midbrain of mice leads to an age-dependent loss of dopamine neurons that is dependent on the accumulation of parkin interacting substrate (PARIS), zinc finger protein 746 (ZNF746), and its transcriptional repression of PGC-1α. Here we show that adult knockout of parkin in mouse ventral midbrain leads to decreases in mitochondrial size, number, and protein markers consistent with a defect in mitochondrial biogenesis. This decrease in mitochondrial mass is prevented by short hairpin RNA knockdown of PARIS. PARIS overexpression in mouse ventral midbrain leads to decreases in mitochondrial number and protein markers and PGC-1α–dependent deficits in mitochondrial respiration. Taken together, these results suggest that parkin loss impairs mitochondrial biogenesis, leading to declining function of the mitochondrial pool and cell death. PMID:26324925

  4. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, M K; Velisavljevic, N

    2015-11-01

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). This device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source. PMID:26628148

  5. Containment system for experiments on radioactive and other hazardous materials in a Paris-Edinburgh press

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsen, M. K.; Velisavljevic, N.

    2015-11-01

    Recent technical developments using the large volume Paris-Edinburgh press platform have enabled x-ray synchrotron studies at high pressure and temperature conditions. However, its application to some materials of interest, such as high hazard materials that require special handling due to safety issues, reactivity, or other challenges, has not been feasible without the introduction of special containment systems to eliminate the hazards. However, introduction of a containment system is challenging due to the requirement to provide full safety containment for operation in the variety of environments available, while not hindering any of the experimental probes that are available for inert sample measurement. In this work, we report on the development and implementation of a full safety enclosure for a Paris-Edinburgh type press. During the initial development and subsequent application stage of work, experiments were performed on both cerium dioxide (CeO2) and uranium (U). As a result, this device allows for full implementation of all currently available experimental probes involving the Paris-Edinburgh press at the High Pressure Collaborative Access Team sector of the Advanced Photon Source.

  6. FOOD SHOPPING BEHAVIORS AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS INFLUENCE OBESITY RATES IN SEATTLE AND IN PARIS

    PubMed Central

    Drewnowski, Adam; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Jiao, Junfeng; Aggarwal, Anju; Charreire, Helene; Chaix, Basile

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the associations between food environment at the individual level, socioeconomic status (SES) and obesity rates in two cities: Seattle and Paris. Methods Analyses of the SOS (Seattle Obesity Study) were based on a representative sample of 1340 adults in metropolitan Seattle and King County. The RECORD (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease) cohort analyses were based on 7,131 adults in central Paris and suburbs. Data on socio-demographics, health and weight were obtained from a telephone survey (SOS) and from in-person interviews (RECORD). Both studies collected data on and geocoded home addresses and food shopping locations. Both studies calculated GIS network distances between home and the supermarket that study respondents listed as their primary food source. Supermarkets were further stratified into three categories by price. Modified Poisson regression models were used to test the associations among food environment variables, SES and obesity. Results Physical distance to supermarkets was unrelated to obesity risk. By contrast, lower education and incomes, lower surrounding property values, and shopping at lower-cost stores were consistently associated with higher obesity risk. Conclusion Lower SES was linked to higher obesity risk in both Paris and Seattle, despite differences in urban form, the food environments, and in the respective systems of health care. Cross-country comparisons can provide new insights into the social determinants of weight and health. PMID:23736365

  7. Paris NN potential constrained by recent antiprotonic-atom data and np total cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    El-Bennich, B.; Lacombe, M.; Loiseau, B.; Wycech, S.

    2009-05-15

    We report on an updated Paris NN optical potential. The long- and intermediate-range real parts are obtained by G-parity transformation of the Paris NN potential based on a theoretical dispersion-relation treatment of the correlated and uncorrelated two-pion exchange. The short-range imaginary potential parametrization results from the calculation of the NN annihilation box diagram into two mesons with a nucleon-antinucleon intermediate state in the crossed channel. The parametrized real and imaginary short range parts are determined by fitting not only the existing experimental data included in the 1999 version of the Paris NN potential, but also the recent antiprotonic-hydrogen data and np total cross sections. The description of these new observables is improved. Only this readjusted potential generates an isospin zero {sup 1}S{sub 0}, 52 MeV broad quasibound state at 4.8 MeV below the threshold. Recent BES data on J/{psi} decays could support the existence of such a state.

  8. Policies for solidarity. A personal view of the Second International Conference for non governmental organizations working on AIDS, Paris 1-4 November 1990.

    PubMed

    Lucas, S

    1991-01-01

    A summary of events at the Second International Conference for Non-Governmental Organizations working on AIDS, held in Paris November 1-4, 1990 is presented with comments on the effectiveness of arrangement, planning and sessions. The meeting was fraught with obstacles, the worst of which was a change of venue from San Francisco to Paris at the last minute, with serious consequences to speakers whose U.S. travel funds had to be found elsewhere. The goal of the conference was to facilitate international networking among AIDS Service, national and regional organizations. To this end 44 sessions were held informally. Plenary sessions were marked by moving presentations of such items as an international memorial quilt, and topics such as how children and women are affected by HIV, and how human rights abuses are often unseen. The need for solidarity among NGOs was stressed by Dr. J. Mann, who noted that NGOs perform up to half the health care in some countries. The major substance of the conference was 5 Seminar tracks of 5.5 hours duration on the topics of services and care, education and prevention, drugs and treatment, human rights, and organizational development. Human rights recognized internationally were described, but in some places lack of resources makes them a privilege. Illegal drug programs, decriminalization and research on cultural obstacles were within the broad range of issues addressed under services and care. While traditional symptomatic treatments and older drugs such as gentian violet as a treatment for candidiasis are being developed in African countries, serious social problems arise when people sell their possessions for a few doses of AZT or Kemron there. In the seminars on organizational development useful exchanges between major donors and project organizers explored professional methods of applying for grants, as well as accounting for funds spent later. ICASO the International Council of AIDS Service Organizations was ratified and a

  9. Neighbourhood Characteristics and Long-Term Air Pollution Levels Modify the Association between the Short-Term Nitrogen Dioxide Concentrations and All-Cause Mortality in Paris

    PubMed Central

    Deguen, Séverine; Petit, Claire; Delbarre, Angélique; Kihal, Wahida; Padilla, Cindy; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Lapostolle, Annabelle; Chauvin, Pierre; Zmirou-Navier, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Background While a great number of papers have been published on the short-term effects of air pollution on mortality, few have tried to assess whether this association varies according to the neighbourhood socioeconomic level and long-term ambient air concentrations measured at the place of residence. We explored the effect modification of 1) socioeconomic status, 2) long-term NO2 ambient air concentrations, and 3) both combined, on the association between short-term exposure to NO2 and all-cause mortality in Paris (France). Methods A time-stratified case-crossover analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of short-term NO2 variations on mortality, based on 79,107 deaths having occurred among subjects aged over 35 years, from 2004 to 2009, in the city of Paris. Simple and double interactions were statistically tested in order to analyse effect modification by neighbourhood characteristics on the association between mortality and short-term NO2 exposure. The data was estimated at the census block scale (n=866). Results The mean of the NO2 concentrations during the five days prior to deaths were associated with an increased risk of all-cause mortality: overall Excess Risk (ER) was 0.94% (95%CI=[0.08;1.80]. A higher risk was revealed for subjects living in the most deprived census blocks in comparison with higher socioeconomic level areas (ER=3.14% (95%CI=[1.41-4.90], p<0.001). Among these deprived census blocks, excess risk was even higher where long-term average NO2 concentrations were above 55.8 μg/m3 (the top tercile of distribution): ER=4.84% (95%CI=[1.56;8.24], p for interaction=0.02). Conclusion Our results show that people living in census blocks characterized by low socioeconomic status are more vulnerable to air pollution episodes. There is also an indication that people living in these disadvantaged census blocks might experience even higher risk following short-term air pollution episodes, when they are also chronically exposed to higher NO2 levels

  10. Ethics and Corruption in Education. Results from the Expert Workshop (Paris, France, November 28-29, 2001). Policy Forum on Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallak, Jacques; Poisson, Muriel

    This book summarizes the findings of a research workshop organized by the International Institute for Educational Planning on ethics and corruption in education. It makes a case for addressing the issue of corruption in education based on the experiences of the various participants of the workshop, representatives of various countries and…

  11. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (13th, Paris, France, July 9-13, 1989), Volume 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following papers: "Transformations Accelerees de l'Education Scientifique Pendant la Revolution Francaise" (Jean Dhombres); "Building on the Knowledge of Students and Teachers" (Thomas P. Carpenter & Elizabeth…

  12. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (13th, Paris, France, July 9-13, 1989), Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergnaud, Gerard, Ed.; Rogalski, Janine, Ed.; Artique, Michele, Ed.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following research papers: "Logo et Symetrie Centrale" (E. Gallou-Dumiel); "About Continuous Operator Subconstruct in Rational Numbers" (J. Gimenez); "Constructivist Epistemology and Discovery Learning in Mathematics"…

  13. Higher Education Expenditure in OECD Countries. Intergovernmental Conference on Policies for Higher Education in the 80s (Paris, France, October 12-14, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Psacharopoulos, George

    Cost and expenditure developments in countries that are members of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development are considered. The time evolution of overall educational expenditure without reference to a particular school level is examined, using National Account statistics. This analysis involves: examining the education share in…

  14. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (13th, Paris, France, July 9-13, 1989), Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vergnaud, Gerard, Ed.; Rogalski, Janine, Ed.; Artique, Michele, Ed.

    This proceedings of the annual conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) includes the following research papers: "A Model of Understanding Two-Digit Numeration and Computation" (H. Murray & A. Olivier); "The Computer Produces a Special Graphic Situation of Learning the Change of Coordinate System" (S.…

  15. Understanding the patient multidimensional experience: a qualitative study on coping in hospitals of Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, France

    PubMed Central

    Reach, Gérard; Fompeyrine, Denis; Mularski, Carole

    2015-01-01

    Objective Time spent in hospitals is complex and entails a number of distinct phases that fluctuate depending on many variables. Attempts to understand patients’ experiences often involve focusing on their needs using self-evaluation, but this does not clearly highlight the complexity of coping. Questionnaires based on telephone surveys and emails do not facilitate a sufficient assessment of the coping effort. However, when patients express themselves through spontaneous narration, different dimensions may emerge in their experience at the hospital. This qualitative study explores the various forms of coping among patients with a hospital experience. Methods Interviews were conducted with 75 patients in six hospital departments. Transcripts from interviews were thematically analyzed and a conceptual, multidimensional model was developed to explain the relationship between patient experience and coping complexity. Results Patients used a set of about 50 different terms to describe their experiences in the hospital. They described with the greatest number of words the aspects that triggered their stress or distress and forced them to cope. Stress resulting from the experienced situation was classifiable into five dimensions: trauma, environment, medical, interpersonal affective, and social impact, which constitute invariants that may require individual complex coping strategies. Conclusion Patient experience is hard to evaluate, and this represents a permanent challenge for medical teams. Considering the five coping dimensions delineated in this study may be helpful in improving the patient’s hospital experience. PMID:25914525

  16. International Symposium on Remote Sensing of Environment, 18th, Paris, France, October 1-5, 1984, Proceedings. Volumes 1, 2, & 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Papers are presented on the applications of satellite technology, such as monitoring of agriculture, appraising of natural resources, and studying disasters. Topics discussed include, advances in remote sensing processes, multisensor imaging, and mapping. Extensive consideration is given to the processing, modeling, integrating, and evaluating of satellite data.

  17. Enhancing Learning: From Access to Success. Report of the First Experts' Meeting: Defining Areas of Action (Paris, France, March 26-28, 2007)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO), 2007

    2007-01-01

    This document is a summary of the "First Experts' Meeting: Defining Areas of Action to Enhance Learning--From Access to Success," which took place at UNESCO Headquarters from March 26 to 28, 2007. The meeting brought together some 30 experts from around the world including researchers, educators, educational planners, representatives of United …

  18. Management of University-Industry Linkages. Policy Forum No. 11. Proceedings from the Policy Forum Held at the IIEP (Paris, France, June 1-2, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernes, Gudmund; Martin, Michaela

    To explore varying institutional responses to the structural problems involved in university-industry linkages, the International Institute for Educational Planning conducted case-study research during 1997 to 1999 and then held a Policy Forum to share and validate the insights gained from the projects. The Forum showed that one of the most…

  19. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. Reports of Governing and Major Subsidiary Bodies. Session of the Assembly (15th, Paris, France, July 4-19, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission was organized by UNESCO to promote scientific investigation with a view to learning about the nature and resources of the oceans and disseminating this knowledge through the concerted action of its members. The report contains a summary of the discussions that took place at the 15th Session of the…

  20. International Congress on Universal Availability of Publications (Paris, France, May 3-7, 1982). Summary of Research of the UAP Programme. Background Document N.1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    The summaries of seven research projects concerned with the universal availability of publications (UAP) which are presented describe (1) a literature review on the availability of book materials through commercial channels, particularly in developing countries, by John Clews and others; (2) a concomitant survey, by Priscilla Oakeshott, of…

  1. Methods of Study in Soil Ecology, Proceedings of the Symposium Organized by Unesco and the International Biological Programme (Paris, France, November, 1967).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, J., Ed.

    Included are papers (in French or English, with summaries in the other language) presented at a UNESCO-International Biological Programme symposium in 1967. The symposium provided an opportunity for the exchange of information on recent advances in soil ecology, with particular emphasis on soil productivity. Papers on broader theoretical aspects…

  2. Planning for Diversity: Education in Multi-Ethnic and Multicultural Societies. International Institute for Educational Planning Policy Forum (17th, Paris, France, June 19-20, 2003)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernes, Gudmund

    2004-01-01

    In June 2003, the International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP) organized its annual Policy Forum to discuss the impact of increasingly multi-ethnic and multicultural societies on education in general and the implications for educational planning in particular. The proceedings of this Policy Forum are presented in this volume. Part I,…

  3. Cross-National Studies of the Quality of Education: Planning Their Design and Managing Their Impact (Paris, France, June 17-18, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kenneth N., Ed.; Genevois, Ilona Jurgens, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    There has been a worldwide growth of interest among governments and international agencies in cross-national studies of the quality of education. However, such studies require careful planning, and have far-reaching implications for all concerned. Ministries of education should only become involved if they are prepared to actively engage in…

  4. Micromorphology of past urban soils: method and results (France, Iron Age - Middle Age)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cammas, Cécilia

    2014-05-01

    Urban soils in French protohistoric and Roman towns and present-day towns of roman origin are several meters thick accumulations, with great spatial and vertical variability due to long duration of occupation. In order to improve our knowledge of both sedimentary and pedological characteristics as well as formation processes of urban soils, micromorphological analysis was carried out on buried towns. The studied sites include Iron Age towns (floodplain sites: Lattes or Lattara, Le Cailar; oppidum: Pech-Maho in the south of France), a roman buried town (Famars or Fanum Martis, North of France), and various towns occupied from the Roman period until now (urban and periurban sites in Paris, Strasbourg, Mâcon… North and East of France). Original method and sampling strategy were elaborated in order to try to encompass both spatial and vertical variability as well as the "mitage" of the present-day cities. In Lattes, representative elementary urban areas such as streets, courtyard, and houses were sampled for micromorphology during extensive excavation. These analyses revealed specific microscopic features related to complex anthropogenic processes (craft and domestic activities discarding, trampling, backfill, building), moisture and heat, and biological activity, which defined each kind of area. Comparison between well preserved buried town and current cities of roman origin, where the sequence of past urban soils is preserved in few place ("mitage") help to identify past activities, building rhythms as well as specific building materials. For example, in Paris, compacted sandy backfills alternate with watertight hardfloors during the Roman period (soils similar to Technosols). At the opposite, various kinds of loose bioturbated laminated dark earth resulting from activities such as craft refuses, backfills, compost or trampled layers were discriminated for Early Medieval Period (soils similar to Cumulic Anthroposol). Moreover, biological activity is usually

  5. [Natural or interactive kinds? The transient mental disorders in Ian Hacking's lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006)].

    PubMed

    Delille, Emmanuel; Kirsch, Marc

    2016-12-01

    The concepts developed by Ian Hacking during his lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006) have provided an important contribution to the debates within the field of philosophy of psychiatry. Professor at the Chair of Philosophy and History of Scientific Concepts after Michel Foucault, Hacking is the author of a reflection on the classification of mental disorders, which arises from the problem of the natural kinds. In order to explain the case studies developed in Hacking's Paris lectures, we first go back to the definition of a series of concepts, then we discuss the status of his scientific metaphors. Finally we analyze the relationship between the notions, respectively, of "transient mental illness" and "culture-bound syndrome". We emphasize that the latter derives from the Canadian transcultural psychiatry. PMID:27550460

  6. [Natural or interactive kinds? The transient mental disorders in Ian Hacking's lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006)].

    PubMed

    Delille, Emmanuel; Kirsch, Marc

    2016-12-01

    The concepts developed by Ian Hacking during his lectures at the Collège de France (2000-2006) have provided an important contribution to the debates within the field of philosophy of psychiatry. Professor at the Chair of Philosophy and History of Scientific Concepts after Michel Foucault, Hacking is the author of a reflection on the classification of mental disorders, which arises from the problem of the natural kinds. In order to explain the case studies developed in Hacking's Paris lectures, we first go back to the definition of a series of concepts, then we discuss the status of his scientific metaphors. Finally we analyze the relationship between the notions, respectively, of "transient mental illness" and "culture-bound syndrome". We emphasize that the latter derives from the Canadian transcultural psychiatry.

  7. A tentative of Holocene sediment budget for the Seulles catchment (western France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viel, Vincent; Lespez, Laurent; Delahaye, Daniel; Le Gouee, Patrick

    2010-05-01

    Geomorphological and paleoenvironmental researches on Holocene sedimentation in the valleys of Normandy provide evidence for fluvial system changes related to climate and human activities in the Paris basin. Alluvial and colluvial deposits are important as archives of past environments changes. They can be used to construct the temporal frameworks for historical erosion and to give an indication of the past erosion processes. Few studies attempts to make long-term soil erosion and sediment storage in the valley bottom in North-western France. This work put into forward results of a research on Holocene sediment budget. This study focuses in the Seulles catchment (430 km²), located in Normandy at the junction between the Armorican massif (upstream part) and the sedimentary Paris Basin (downstream part). In order to reconstruct the Holocene sediment budget, different approaches were used to quantify sediment deposit within the floodplain, soil erosion rates and colluvial deposition. To characterize and quantify the sediment storage into the valley bottoms, 32 partial or complete cross-sections, regularly placed along the valley bottom, were established. These field investigations allow to evaluate the global bulk of fluvial sediment storage into the catchment. In a second step, the assessment of dry bulk densities permits to convert volumetric data into weight. To establish the chronology of the alluvial filling, 6 drilling cores were realized on selected cross-sections to sample organic material content for AMS radiocarbon dating. In total, 38 dates were obtained at the catchment scale and numerous are in process. In the same way, we evaluated Holocene slope erosion and sediment storage using soils profiles descriptions determined from auger coring transects of two small catchments (15 Km²). Results demonstrate the existence until 2500 BP of two morpho-sedimentary units (a model related to sediments dynamics into the catchment and a second one related to the

  8. [Infant botulism in France, 1991-2009].

    PubMed

    King, L-A; Popoff, M-R; Mazuet, C; Espié, E; Vaillant, V; de Valk, H

    2010-09-01

    Infant botulism is caused by the ingestion of spores of Clostridium botulinum and affects newborns and infants under 12 months of age. Ingested spores multiply and produce botulinum toxin in the digestive tract, which then induces clinical symptoms. A single French case was described in the literature prior to 1991. We describe the cases of infant botulism identified in France between 1991 and 2009. All clinical suspicions of botulism must be declared in France. Biological confirmation of the disease is provided by the National reference laboratory for anaerobic bacteria and botulism at the Pasteur Institute. During this period, 7 cases of infant botulism were identified, 1 per year from 2004 to 2008 and 2 in 2009. The median age of affected infants was 119 days and all were female. All infants presented with constipation and oculomotor symptoms. All were hospitalized and required mechanical ventilation. The infants recovered from their botulism. The diagnosis of infant botulism was biologically confirmed for all patients. One 4-month-old infant was treated with a single dose of the human-derived botulism antitoxin specific for infant botulism types A and B (BabyBIG®). The infants all had different feeding habits ranging from exclusive breast feeding to a mix of formula feeding and solid food consumption. The consumption of honey, the only documented risk food for this disease, was reported for 3 of the infants. The honey had been placed on the pacifier of 2 infants and directly in the mouth of the 3rd by the mother. Infant botulism, a form of botulism that was previously rarely recognized in France, has been reported more frequently during the last 6 years. This disease remains rare but nonetheless severe. In light of recent epidemiological data, efforts to raise awareness among parents of infants and health professionals on the danger of infant botulism and particularly, its association with honey consumption seems necessary.

  9. [Current data on malaria in metropolitan France].

    PubMed

    Danis, M; Legros, F; Thellier, M; Caumes, E

    2002-01-01

    Epidemiological data from the French National Reference Center for Imported Diseases showed that the estimated number of cases of imported malaria in France increased from 5,940 in 1998 to 7,127 in 1999 and 8,056 in 2000. This three-year progression ended in 2001 when the number of estimated cases fell back to 7,223. It was due mainly to the concomitant increase in the number of people traveling to endemic zones especially in Africa. In 2000 the median age of patients with imported malaria in France was 29.5 years and the sex ratio was 1.78. Sixty-three percent of cases involved people of African origin and 37% involved "Westerners". The countries in which contamination occurred were located in tropical Africa (95%), Asia (2.2%), and Latin America (2.7%). During the three year period from 1998 to 2000, there were a total of 13 accidental autochtonous cases of malaria involving patients with no history of travel to tropical areas. The distribution of Plasmodium species involved in imported malaria in France was stable with 83% of cases involving Plasmodium falciparum, 6% involving Plasmodium vivax, 6.5% involving Plasmodium ovale and 1.3% involving Plasmodium malariae. Attacks were clinically uncomplicated in 90 to 95% of cases and severe in 2 to 5% including fatal Plasmodium falciparum malaria in 0.49 to 0.37% of cases. Less than 10% of the 45% of patients claiming use of prophylaxis complied properly. Analysis of the drugs used for curative treatment in 2000 showed an increase in the use of quinine and mefloquine and decrease in the use of halofantrine. The main objectives remain reduction of mortality and improvement of prevention.

  10. France: Thrust and parry over nuclear risks

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, M.

    1997-01-31

    Claims about the health risks posed by nuclear-power installations are always controversial, but nowhere more so than in France, where some 75% of the nation`s electricity is generated from nuclear energy. So, it was no surprise that publication of a study by two French epidemiologists earlier this month claiming to show a link between cases of childhood leukemia and the nuclear-waste reprocessing plant at La Hague on the Normandy coast sparked fireworks in the French press. Several French epidemiologists sharply criticized the study`s methodology and conclusions. Their attacks have now drawn an unusual response from the British Medical Journal (BMJ), in which the paper appeared.

  11. Puumala and Tula hantaviruses in France.

    PubMed

    Plyusnina, Angelina; Deter, Julie; Charbonnel, Nathalie; Cosson, Jean-François; Plyusnin, Alexander

    2007-10-01

    The first genome sequences of Tula (TULV) and Puumala (PUUV) hantaviruses undoubtedly originated from France were recovered from tissue samples of European common voles and bank voles captured in Jura region. Genetic analysis of S and M segments of French PUUV strain revealed its highest similarity to strains from neighboring Belgium and Germany and also from Slovakia. On phylogenetic trees, French PUUV strain was placed within the central European lineage formed by strains from these three countries. Both of our French TULV strains clustered together and formed a distinct, well-supported genetic lineage. PMID:17532080

  12. [National organization of forensic medicine in France].

    PubMed

    Chariot, Patrick

    2012-06-01

    Forensic medicine has long been characterized, in France, by diverse medical practices, which affected its recognition and development. A change was needed, Harmonization procedure includes the development of professional guidelines and allows forensic medicine to look at itself. However, the implementation of the recommendations is still far from complete. A national reform came into effect on 15 January 2011 and has defined a national reform of forensic medicine which includes funding by global budgets instead of fee-for-service. This reform allows easier organization and identification of forensic medicine units. One year later, tangible results are mixed. Forensic medicine is now more clearly identified but properly defined funding criteria are still lacking.

  13. Frances E. Jensen's The Teenage Brain.

    PubMed

    Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery-especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen's own research and experience as a single mother. PMID:27408670

  14. [Cost of multiple sclerosis in France].

    PubMed

    Fromont, A; Lehanneur, M-N; Rollot, F; Weill, A; Clerc, L; Bonithon Kopp, C; Binquet, C; Moreau, T

    2014-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is one of the 30 chronic conditions specifically listed by the French healthcare system as a long-term disease (affections de longue durée [ALD]) for which the main health insurance fund (Caisse nationale d'assurance maladie des travailleurs salariés [CNAMTS]) provides full (100%) coverage of healthcare costs. The CNAMTS insures 87% of the French population (52,359,912 of the 60,028,292 inhabitants). The objectives of this study were to evaluate the direct and indirect medical costs of MS among the entire population insured by the CNAMTS in France in 2004. The CNAMTS provided us with access to the ALD database of patients with MS that contains different MS-related expenditures made in 2004. We calculated the overall direct and indirect cost of MS and the cost per patient and per item of expenditure. In 2004, 49,413 patients were registered on the ALD list for MS. Direct cost for MS patients was 469,719,967 €. The direct cost per patient and per year was 9,506 € with variations between regions (French administrative divisions) ranging from 10,800 € in northeastern France (Champagne-Ardenne) to 8,217 € in western France (Pays de la Loire). The different items of expenditure were treatments (44.5%), hospitalization (27.9%), nursing care (5.8%), physiotherapy (5.7%), transport (4%), biology (1.1%), and other (1.5%). During the course of the disease, the overall cost of MS increased slowly during the first 15 years (from 8,000 to 11,000 €), but dramatically the last year of life (23,410 €). The costs of immunomodulator treatments were higher during the first six years after registration on the ALD list. Conversely, physiotherapy costs increased linearly with time during the course of MS. Indirect costs were an estimated 116 million euros in 2004. A disability pension (8,918 € per patient) was perceived by 9,430 patients (19.1%) and a daily allowance (3,317 € per patient) by 9,894 patients (20%). In France, MS has an important

  15. Frances E. Jensen's The Teenage Brain.

    PubMed

    Silveri, Marisa M

    2015-01-01

    The unpredictable and sometimes incomprehensible moods and behaviors of a teenager can be a head-scratching mystery-especially to parents. Hormones, boredom, social media, peer pressure, and drugs and alcohol are just a few of the factors to consider. Frances E. Jensen, M.D., professor and chair of neurology at the University of Pennsylvania and the mother of two sons who are now in their twenties (along with Washington Post health and science reporter and Pulitzer Prize winner Amy Ellis Nutt) look at the emerging science of the adolescent brain and provide advice based on Jensen's own research and experience as a single mother.

  16. Increased multidecadal hydroclimate variability over northern France during the past 500 years, and its relation to large-scale atmospheric circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dieppois, Bastien; Lawler, Damian; Slonosky, Victoria; Massei, Nicolas; Bigot, Sylvain; Fournier, Matthieu; Durand, Alain

    2016-04-01

    We examine secular changes and multidecadal climate variability on a seasonal scale in northern France over the last 500 years and examine the extent to which they are driven by large-scale atmospheric variability. Multiscale trend analysis and segmentation procedures show statistically significant increases of winter and spring precipitation amounts in Paris since the end of the 19th century. This changes the seasonal precipitation distribution from one with a pronounced summer peak at the end of the Little Ice Age to an almost uniform distribution in the 20th century. This switch is linked to an early warming trend in winter temperature. Changes in spring precipitation are also correlated with winter precipitation for time scales greater than 50 years, which suggests a seasonal persistence. Hydrological modelling results show similar rising trends in river flow for the Seine at Paris. However, such secular trends in the seasonal climatic conditions over northern France are substantially modulated by irregular multidecadal (50-80 years) fluctuations. Furthermore, since the end of the 19th century, we find an increasing variance in multidecadal hydroclimatic winter and spring, and this coincides with an increase in the multidecadal North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) variability, suggesting a significant influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns. However, multidecadal NAO variability has decreased in summer. Using Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis, we detect multidecadal North Atlantic sea-level pressure anomalies, which are significantly linked to the NAO during the Modern period. In particular, a south-eastward (south-westward) shift of the Icelandic Low (Azores High) drives substantial multidecadal changes in spring. Wetter springs are likely to be driven by potential changes in moisture advection from the Atlantic, in response to northward shifts of North Atlantic storm tracks over European regions, linked to periods of positive NAO. Similar

  17. Les ammonites du Callovien Oxfordien des sondages Andra dans l'Est du bassin de Paris : synthèse biochronostratigraphique, intérêts paléoécologique et paléobiogéographique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thierry, Jacques; Marchand, Didier; Fortwengler, Dominique; Bonnot, Alain; Jardat, Rémy

    2006-10-01

    The ammonites collected in nine deep bore-holes and two open wells made by ANDRA near Bure (Meuse Department, France) in the eastern Paris Basin have allowed the following: a precise biochronostratigraphic calibration of the Callovian-Oxfordian clay-rich facies; the correlation between the boreholes and wells by means of the ammonite biostratigraphic units that show an outstanding disparity in the sedimentary registration; undertaking a palaeoecological and palaeobiogeographical investigation into the faunal associations; highlighting their palaeoenvironmental and palaeogeographical applications. In the Middle Callovian-Middle Oxfordian interval, the following remarkable bio-chronostratigraphic elements are seen: the position of the interpositum horizon (uppermost Middle Callovian, Coronatum Zone, Grossouvrei Subzone) and its importance for the localization of the Middle Callovian-Upper Callovian boundary; the respective importance of the paucicostatum horizon (uppermost Upper Callovian, Lamberti Zone, Lamberti Subzone) and the thuouxensis horizon (lowermost Lower Oxfordian, Mariae Zone, Scarburgense Subzone) for the localization of the Callovian-Oxfordian boundary; the validity of the woodhamense horizon based on the morphological variability of the corresponding species-index that corroborates its stratigraphic situation above the scarburgense horizon (Scarburgense Subzone, Mariae Zone, Early Oxfordian); the consequences of the morphological variability of the successive species Cardioceras praemartini, C. alphacordatum, C. praecordatum and their selection as species-index for the three horizons of the Praecordatum Subzone (Mariae Zone, Early Oxfordian); the difficulties of recognizing the Cordatum and Plicatilis Zones because of the scarcity, if not the total lack of characteristic ammonites of these units, which have consequences for the location of the Lower Oxfordian-Middle Oxfordian boundary. The correlations between bore-holes and wells underline that the

  18. Formation of secondary organic aerosol in the Paris pollution plume and its impact on surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. J.; Beekmann, M.; Freney, E.; Sellegri, K.; Pichon, J. M.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Bourrianne, T.; Michoud, V.; Borbon, A.

    2015-12-01

    Secondary pollutants such as ozone, secondary inorganic aerosol, and secondary organic aerosol formed in the plumes of megacities can affect regional air quality. In the framework of the FP7/EU MEGAPOLI (Megacities: Emissions, urban, regional and Global Atmospheric POLlution and climate effects, and Integrated tools for assessment and mitigation) project, an intensive campaign was launched in the greater Paris region in July 2009. The major objective was to quantify different sources of organic aerosol (OA) within a megacity and in its plume. In this study, we use airborne measurements aboard the French ATR-42 aircraft to evaluate the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE within and downwind of the Paris region. Two mechanisms of secondary OA (SOA) formation are used, both including SOA formation from oxidation and chemical aging of primary semivolatile and intermediate volatility organic compounds (SI-SOA) in the volatility basis set (VBS) framework. As for SOA formed from traditional VOC (volatile organic compound) precursors (traditional SOA), one applies chemical aging in the VBS framework adopting different SOA yields for high- and low-NOx environments, while another applies a single-step oxidation scheme without chemical aging. Two emission inventories are used for discussion of emission uncertainties. The slopes of the airborne OA levels versus Ox (i.e., O3 + NO2) show SOA formation normalized with respect to photochemical activity and are used for specific evaluation of the OA scheme in the model. The simulated slopes were overestimated slightly by factors of 1.1, 1.7 and 1.3 with respect to those observed for the three airborne measurements, when the most realistic "high-NOx" yields for traditional SOA formation in the VBS scheme are used in the model. In addition, these slopes are relatively stable from one day to another, which suggests that they are characteristic for the given megacity plume environment. The configuration with increased primary

  19. Acute anaphylactoid reactions during hemodialysis in France.

    PubMed

    Forêt, M; Kuentz, F; Meftahi, H; Milongo, R; Hachache, T; Elsener, M; Dechelette, E; Cordonnier, D

    1987-04-01

    A retrospective survey of anaphylactoid reactions during dialysis in France was conducted. In 52 of 112 hemodialysis units surveyed 111 patients who had suffered one or more anaphylactoid reactions during dialysis were identified. According to the Hamilton/Adkinson classification, in 31 patients reactions were minor, in 54 patients moderate, and in 26 patients severe. Four patients died of their reactions. A preponderance of reactions (75 and 11%) occurred with cuprammonium cellulose hollow-fiber and plate dialyzers, respectively. Severe dialyzer reactions were found to occur more frequently after the long (weekend) interdialytic interval. In an in vitro study, six brands of cuprammonium cellulose hollow-fiber dialyzers were rinsed with water and the eluates analyzed by size exclusion chromatography for contaminant particles. Substantial variation in the amount of extractable material was found between dialyzers of different brands, despite the fact that all dialyzers used membranes from the same manufacturer. Previous data by others has suggested that this extractable material is a derivative of cellulose. Results of our epidemiologic survey in France are similar to those previously reported in the United States and suggest an increased incidence of dialyzer reactions with ethylene oxide-sterilized cuprammonium cellulose dialyzers. The presence of cellulose-derived particles in the rinsing fluid of such dialyzers and the possible increased incidence of reactions after the long (weekend) interdialytic interval suggest that allergy to cellulose-derived particles eluted from cellulosic dialyzers may contribute to dialyzer hypersensitivity reactions.

  20. [Maternal mortality in France, 2007-2009].

    PubMed

    Saucedo, M; Deneux-Tharaux, C; Bouvier-Colle, M-H

    2013-11-01

    To monitor the maternal mortality which is an indicator of the quality of obstetric and intensive care, France has a specific approach since 1996. Recently linkages have been introduced to improve the inclusion of cases. Here are the results for the 2007 to 2009 period. The identification of the pregnancy associated deaths is lying on different data bases that are medical causes of death, birth register and hospital discharges. To document the cases, confidential enquiries are conducted by two assessors on the field; a committee of medical experts analyses the documents, select the underlying cause and assess the quality of health care. Two hundred and fifty-four obstetric deaths were identified from 2007 to 2009 giving the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) of 10.3 per 100,000 births. The maternal age and nationality, the region of deaths are associated to the MMR. The haemorrhages are the leading cause but their ratio is 1.9 versus 2.5 previously; this decrease results from the postpartum haemorrhage by uterine atony going down. The suboptimal care are still frequent (60%) but slightly less than before. The linkage method should be pursued. Maternal mortality is rather stable in France. We may reach more reduction as deaths due to atony decreased as suboptimal care did.

  1. Co-occurrence of Arum- and Paris-type morphologies of arbuscular mycorrhizae in cucumber and tomato.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Mayumi; McGonigle, Terence P; Hyakumachi, Mitsuro

    2005-03-01

    Colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi was investigated in cucumber (Cucumis sativus), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Clethra barbinervis (Ericales) grown in field-collected soil known from previous studies to generate Paris-type arbuscular mycorrhizae in C. barbinervis. Spores of Paraglomus, Acaulospora, Glomus, and Gigaspora were found in the soil. Formation of hyphal coils and arbusculate coils of Paris-type mycorrhizae and of arbuscules of Arum-type mycorrhizae in roots raised in this soil in the growth chamber were compared with the detection of DNA of AM fungi from the same root systems using Glomales-specific primers. Only Paris-type mycorrhizae with extensive arbusculate coils developed in C. barbinervis, but cucumber and tomato developed both Paris- and Arum-types in the same root systems. Glomaceae and Archaeosporaceae and/or Paraglomaceae were detected strongly in the DNA from both cucumber and tomato roots, in which Arum-type mycorrhizae were observed. In contrast, DNA of Glomaceae was detected more sparingly in C. barbinervis, in which Paris-type mycorrhizae dominated. Acaulosporaceae and Gigasporaceae were strongly detected in the DNA from both C. barbinervis and tomato, whereas they were more weakly detected in cucumber. These results indicate that the morphology of colonization is strongly influenced by the selection of fungi to colonize the host plant from among those in the soil environment.

  2. A new approach of monitoring and physically-based modelling to investigate urban wash-off process on a road catchment near Paris.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yi; Bonhomme, Celine; Le, Minh-Hoang; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, the increasing use of vehicles is causing contaminated stormwater runoff to drain from roads. The detailed understanding of urban wash-off processes is essential for addressing urban management issues. However, existing modelling approaches are rarely applied for these objectives due to the lack of realistic input data, unsuitability of physical descriptions, and inadequate documentation of model testing. In this context, we implement a method of coupling monitoring surveys with the physically-based FullSWOF (Full Shallow Water equations for Overland Flow) model (Delestre et al., 2014) and the process-based H-R (Hairsine-Rose) model (Hairsine and Rose, 1992a, 1992b) to evaluate urban wash-off process on a road catchment near Paris (Le Perreux sur Marne, Val de Marne, France, 2661 m(2)). This work is the first time that such an approach is applied for road wash-off modelling in the context of urban stormwater runoff. On-site experimental measurements have shown that only the finest particles of the road dry stocks could be transferred to the sewer inlet during rainfall events, and most Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found in the particulate phase. Simulations over different rainfall events represent promising results in reproducing the various dynamics of water flows and sediment transports at the road catchment scale. Elementary Effects method is applied for sensitivity analysis. It is confirmed that settling velocity (Vs) and initial dry stocks (S) are the most influential parameters in both overall and higher order effects. Furthermore, flow-driven detachment seems to be insignificant in our case study, while raindrop-driven detachment is shown to be the major force for detaching sediment from the studied urban surface. Finally, a multiple sediment classification regarding the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) can be suggested for improving the model performance for future studies. PMID:27328366

  3. Psychosocial risk factors, job characteristics and self-reported health in the Paris Military Hospital Group (PMHG): a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Verret, Catherine; Trichereau, Julie; Rondier, Jean-Philippe; Viance, Patrice; Migliani, René

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the associations between psychosocial risk factors and self-reported health, taking into account other occupational risk factors. Design Cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire. Setting The three military hospitals in Paris, France. Participants Surveys were distributed to 3173 employees (1807 military and 1336 civilian), a total of 1728 employees completed surveys. Missing data prohibited the use of 26 surveys. Primary and secondary outcome measures The authors used Karasek's model in order to identify psychosocial factors (psychological demands, decisional latitude, social support) in the workplace. The health indicator studied was self-reported health. Adjustments were made for covariates: age, gender, civil or military status, work injury, ergonomic score, physical and chemical exposures, and occupational profile. Occupational profile was defined by professional category, department, work schedule, supervisor status and service-related length in the hospital. Results Job strain (defined as high psychological demands and low decisional latitude) (adjusted OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.5 to 2.8, p<0.001) and iso-strain (job strain with low social support) were significantly associated with moderate or poor self-reported health. Among covariates, occupational profile (p<0.001) and an unsatisfactory ergonomic score (adjusted OR 2.3 95% CI 1.6 to 3.2, p<0.001) were also significantly associated with moderate or poor self-reported health. Conclusions The results support findings linking moderate or poor self-reported health to psychosocial risk factors. The results of this study suggest that workplace interventions that aim to reduce exposure to psychological demands as well as to increase decisional latitude and social support could help improve self-reported health. PMID:22855624

  4. Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in dated sediment cores: Chemical fingerprinting of the anthropogenic impacts in the Seine River basin, Paris.

    PubMed

    Lorgeoux, C; Moilleron, R; Gasperi, J; Ayrault, S; Bonté, P; Lefèvre, I; Tassin, B

    2016-01-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were extensively produced and used throughout the last century. In the early 1980s, a rising concern on the environmental impact of these chemicals has led to the establishment of regulations and changes of use including bans. Long term monitoring of the environmental impacts of these emissions and regulations is a challenge because regular monitoring was not mandatory at the beginning of the first emissions. Moreover, the analytical methods have been strongly improved over the decades. To overcome the lack of monitoring and accurate data, sediment cores are powerful tools to construct contamination records. In this study, a high resolution record was constructed for four POPs families (13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 15 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 alkylphenols (APs) and 8 polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) to establish their historical trends in a long-term urbanized and industrialized environment: the Seine River basin, France. These specific families were selected because they had different sources, uses and histories. The results showed concentrations up to 90 mg/kg for ∑PAHs, 2.3mg/kg for ∑PCB, 1.2mg/kg for ∑APs and 0.06 mg/kg for ∑PBDE. The vertical distribution profiles were different from one family to another and presented a good correlation with uses (e.g. transition from coal to natural gas for PAHs), and regulation implementation (e.g., AP ban after "OSPAR Convention" in 1992). The study of compounds distribution provided original information on sources, e.g. temporal variations in PAH uses. This study demonstrates the usefulness and accuracy of sedimentary archives in floodplain to assess the fate of POPs through time in continental hydrosystems. These first results give a comprehensive overview of the contamination in the Seine River basin downstream of Paris Megacity. They were in good agreement with previous studies dedicated to European areas and highlighted specificities of this basin

  5. Life cycle assessment of forecasting scenarios for urban water management: A first implementation of the WaLA model on Paris suburban area.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Guérin-Schneider, Laetitia; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2016-03-01

    A framework and an associated modeling tool to perform life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban water system, namely the WaLA model, has been recently developed. In this paper, the WaLA model is applied to a real case study: the urban water system of the Paris suburban area, in France. It aims to verify the capacity of the model to provide environmental insights to stakeholder's issues related to future trends influencing the system (e.g., evolution of water demand, increasing water scarcity) or policy responses (e.g., choices of water resources and technologies). This is achieved by evaluating a baseline scenario for 2012 and several forecasting scenarios for 2022 and 2050. The scenarios are designed through the modeling tool WaLA, which is implemented in Simulink/Matlab: it combines components representing the different technologies, users and resources of the UWS. The life cycle inventories of the technologies and users components include water quantity and quality changes, specific operation (electricity, chemicals) and infrastructures data (construction materials). The methods selected for the LCIA are midpoint ILCD, midpoint water deprivation impacts at the sub-river basin scale, and endpoint Impact 2002+. The results of the baseline scenario show that wastewater treatment plants have the highest impacts compared to drinking water production and distribution, as traditionally encountered in LCA of UWS. The results of the forecasting scenarios show important changes in water deprivation impacts due to water management choices or effects of climate change. They also enable to identify tradeoffs with other impact categories and to compare several scenarios. It suggests the capacity of the model to deliver information for decision making about future policies.

  6. Is There Still a French Eating Model? A Taxonomy of Eating Behaviors in Adults Living in the Paris Metropolitan Area in 2010

    PubMed Central

    Riou, Julien; Lefèvre, Thomas; Parizot, Isabelle; Lhuissier, Anne; Chauvin, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Background Meal times in France still represent an important moment in everyday life. The model of three rigorously synchronized meals is still followed by a majority of people, while meal frequencies have flattened in other European or North-American countries. We aimed to examine the “French model” of eating behavior by identifying and characterizing distinct meal patterns. Methods Analyses were based on data from the SIRS cohort, a representative survey of the adult population in the Paris area. A clustering algorithm was applied to meal variables (number, time, location, with whom the meal is usually shared and activities associated with meals). Regression models were used to investigate associations between patterns and socio-demographic, social environment and perceived food quality variables. Results Five different patterns were identified among 2994 participants. The first three types (prevalence 33%, 17% and 24%) followed a three-meal pattern, with differences in locations and social interactions mainly related to time constraints and age. More marked differences were observed in the remaining two types. In the fourth type (prevalence 13%), individuals ate one or two meals per day, often with an irregular schedule, at home and in front of the television. They frequently were unemployed and had lower income. Breakfast skipping, increased snacking and a low adherence to dietary guidelines suggested that this behavior might have health consequences. In the fifth type (12%), people also ate two meals or less per day, possibly with the same consequences on food quality. However, meals were often taken outside the home, in social settings, and individuals following this pattern were typically active, integrated, young people, suggesting that this pattern might be an adaptation to a modern urban lifestyle. Conclusions While a majority of the population still follows the three-meal pattern, our analysis distinguished two other eating patterns associated with

  7. CO Seasonal Variability and Trend over Paris Megacity Using Ground-Based QualAir FTS and Satellite IASI-MetOp Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Te, Yao; Jeseck, Pascal; Hadji-Lazaro, Juliette

    2012-11-01

    In a growing world with more than 7 billion inhabitants and big emerging countries such as China, Brazil and India, emissions of anthropogenic pollutants are increasing continuously. Monitoring and control of atmospheric pollutants in megacities have become a major challenge for scientists and public health authorities in environmental research area. The QualAir platform at University Pierre et Marie Curie (UPMC), is an innovating experimental research platform dedicated to survey urban atmospheric pollution and air quality. A Bruker Optics IFS 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer belonged to the Laboratoire de Physique Moléculaire pour l'Atmosphère et l'Astrophysique (LPMAA), was adapted for ground-based atmospheric measurements. As one of the major instruments of the QualAir platform, this ground-based Fourier transform spectrometer (QualAir FTS) analyses the composition of the urban atmosphere of Paris, which is the third largest European megacity. The continuous monitoring of atmospheric pollutants is essential to improve the understanding of urban air pollution processes. Associated with a sun-tracker, the QualAir remote sensing FTS operates in solar infrared absorption and enables to monitor many trace gases, and to follow up their variability in the Ile-de-France region. Concentrations of atmospheric pollutants are retrieved by the radiative transfer model PROFFIT. These ground-based remote sensing measurements are compared to ground in-situ measurements and to satellite data from IASI-MetOp (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer). The remote sensing total column of the carbon monoxide (CO) obtained from January 2009 to June 2012, has a seasonal variability with a maximum in April and a minimum in October. While, after 2008, the mean CO level is quite stable (no significant decrease as before 2008).

  8. Temporal trends of persistent organic pollutants in dated sediment cores: Chemical fingerprinting of the anthropogenic impacts in the Seine River basin, Paris.

    PubMed

    Lorgeoux, C; Moilleron, R; Gasperi, J; Ayrault, S; Bonté, P; Lefèvre, I; Tassin, B

    2016-01-15

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) were extensively produced and used throughout the last century. In the early 1980s, a rising concern on the environmental impact of these chemicals has led to the establishment of regulations and changes of use including bans. Long term monitoring of the environmental impacts of these emissions and regulations is a challenge because regular monitoring was not mandatory at the beginning of the first emissions. Moreover, the analytical methods have been strongly improved over the decades. To overcome the lack of monitoring and accurate data, sediment cores are powerful tools to construct contamination records. In this study, a high resolution record was constructed for four POPs families (13 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 15 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 3 alkylphenols (APs) and 8 polybromodiphenyl ethers (PBDEs)) to establish their historical trends in a long-term urbanized and industrialized environment: the Seine River basin, France. These specific families were selected because they had different sources, uses and histories. The results showed concentrations up to 90 mg/kg for ∑PAHs, 2.3mg/kg for ∑PCB, 1.2mg/kg for ∑APs and 0.06 mg/kg for ∑PBDE. The vertical distribution profiles were different from one family to another and presented a good correlation with uses (e.g. transition from coal to natural gas for PAHs), and regulation implementation (e.g., AP ban after "OSPAR Convention" in 1992). The study of compounds distribution provided original information on sources, e.g. temporal variations in PAH uses. This study demonstrates the usefulness and accuracy of sedimentary archives in floodplain to assess the fate of POPs through time in continental hydrosystems. These first results give a comprehensive overview of the contamination in the Seine River basin downstream of Paris Megacity. They were in good agreement with previous studies dedicated to European areas and highlighted specificities of this basin

  9. A new approach of monitoring and physically-based modelling to investigate urban wash-off process on a road catchment near Paris.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yi; Bonhomme, Celine; Le, Minh-Hoang; Chebbo, Ghassan

    2016-10-01

    Nowadays, the increasing use of vehicles is causing contaminated stormwater runoff to drain from roads. The detailed understanding of urban wash-off processes is essential for addressing urban management issues. However, existing modelling approaches are rarely applied for these objectives due to the lack of realistic input data, unsuitability of physical descriptions, and inadequate documentation of model testing. In this context, we implement a method of coupling monitoring surveys with the physically-based FullSWOF (Full Shallow Water equations for Overland Flow) model (Delestre et al., 2014) and the process-based H-R (Hairsine-Rose) model (Hairsine and Rose, 1992a, 1992b) to evaluate urban wash-off process on a road catchment near Paris (Le Perreux sur Marne, Val de Marne, France, 2661 m(2)). This work is the first time that such an approach is applied for road wash-off modelling in the context of urban stormwater runoff. On-site experimental measurements have shown that only the finest particles of the road dry stocks could be transferred to the sewer inlet during rainfall events, and most Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are found in the particulate phase. Simulations over different rainfall events represent promising results in reproducing the various dynamics of water flows and sediment transports at the road catchment scale. Elementary Effects method is applied for sensitivity analysis. It is confirmed that settling velocity (Vs) and initial dry stocks (S) are the most influential parameters in both overall and higher order effects. Furthermore, flow-driven detachment seems to be insignificant in our case study, while raindrop-driven detachment is shown to be the major force for detaching sediment from the studied urban surface. Finally, a multiple sediment classification regarding the Particle Size Distribution (PSD) can be suggested for improving the model performance for future studies.

  10. In situ, satellite measurement and model evidence on the dominant regional contribution to fine particulate matter levels in the Paris megacity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beekmann, M.; Prévôt, A. S. H.; Drewnick, F.; Sciare, J.; Pandis, S. N.; Denier van der Gon, H. A. C.; Crippa, M.; Freutel, F.; Poulain, L.; Ghersi, V.; Rodriguez, E.; Beirle, S.; Zotter, P.; von der Weiden-Reinmüller, S.-L.; Bressi, M.; Fountoukis, C.; Petetin, H.; Szidat, S.; Schneider, J.; Rosso, A.; El Haddad, I.; Megaritis, A.; Zhang, Q. J.; Michoud, V.; Slowik, J. G.; Moukhtar, S.; Kolmonen, P.; Stohl, A.; Eckhardt, S.; Borbon, A.; Gros, V.; Marchand, N.; Jaffrezo, J. L.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Wiedensohler, A.; Borrmann, S.; Lawrence, M.; Baklanov, A.; Baltensperger, U.

    2015-08-01

    A detailed characterization of air quality in the megacity of Paris (France) during two 1-month intensive campaigns and from additional 1-year observations revealed that about 70 % of the urban background fine particulate matter (PM) is transported on average into the megacity from upwind regions. This dominant influence of regional sources was confirmed by in situ measurements during short intensive and longer-term campaigns, aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements from ENVISAT, and modeling results from PMCAMx and CHIMERE chemistry transport models. While advection of sulfate is well documented for other megacities, there was surprisingly high contribution from long-range transport for both nitrate and organic aerosol. The origin of organic PM was investigated by comprehensive analysis of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), radiocarbon and tracer measurements during two intensive campaigns. Primary fossil fuel combustion emissions constituted less than 20 % in winter and 40 % in summer of carbonaceous fine PM, unexpectedly small for a megacity. Cooking activities and, during winter, residential wood burning are the major primary organic PM sources. This analysis suggests that the major part of secondary organic aerosol is of modern origin, i.e., from biogenic precursors and from wood burning. Black carbon concentrations are on the lower end of values encountered in megacities worldwide, but still represent an issue for air quality. These comparatively low air pollution levels are due to a combination of low emissions per inhabitant, flat terrain, and a meteorology that is in general not conducive to local pollution build-up. This revised picture of a megacity only being partially responsible for its own average and peak PM levels has important implications for air pollution regulation policies.

  11. The Problem of Longitude in the 18th Century: Jorge Juan, Antonio de Ulloa and the Expedition of the Paris Academy of Sciences to the Kingdom of Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutiérrez, Manuel Pérez

    2015-05-01

    Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa, naval officers of the Spanish Navy in the Midshipmen's Royal Academy were appointed to take part in one of the most important scientific expeditions of the 18th century. The question of the shape of the Earth, of vital importance for navigation, was solved by the Paris Academy of Sciences by request of Louis XV of France in 1735. The aim was to determine the form of the ellipsoid that Newton had described in the 17th century for any spherical and homogeneous body in rotation about an axis. Two expeditions were prepared for the geodetic measures of meridian arc both in high latitudes (Lapland, Finland) and in the equatorial zone (the Kingdom of Peru); Pierre Louis Maupertuis took charge of the northern expedition whereas the second one was charged to La Condamine, along with Jorge Juan and Antonio de Ulloa. The results obtained by the Spaniards were gathered in a publication: Observaciones astronómicas y físicas hechas en los Reinos del Perú. In it, they dedicate a chapter to the determination of astronomic longitude with the only technology that was providing certain precision at the moment: the simultaneous observation of the same astronomic phenomenon in two different places. Specifically, they explain in detail in Book III: Las Observaciones de la Inmersiones y Emersiones de los satélites de Júpiter, como asimismo de los eclipses de Luna; de las cuales de deduce la Longitud de los Lugares, incluyendo las correcciones a efectuar por la variación de la declinación diaria del Sol.

  12. The shielding effect of the protective glazing of historical stained glass windows from an atmospheric chemistry perspective: Case study Sainte Chapelle, Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godoi, Ricardo Henrique Moreton; Kontozova, Velichka; Van Grieken, René

    Atmospheric pollutants, gases as well as particulate, have been pointed out as a major cause of weathering of historic stained glass windows. Although conservators did not succeed in stopping or reversing the ensuing damage up to date, a slower rate of destruction to maintain the grandeur of the artifact is certainly achievable, by installing a protective glazing (PG). Measurements were carried out for a period of 1 year in the Sainte Chapelle in Paris, France, in order to integrate the influence of some major pollutants and acidifying substances indoors, and outdoors, as well as in the interspace, created by the PG. The concentrations of SO 2, NO 2 and O 3 were assessed using passive diffusion tubes. The PG reduced SO 2 and O 3 pollutant exposure of the stained glass windows by 80% relative to the outdoor concentrations. NO 2 concentrations remained almost the same inside, outside and in the interspace; however, previous studies showed that even in high concentrations of NO 2 accompanied by low concentrations of SO 2 the degradation of this kind of glass is modest. The results of bulk particle analyses by energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence indicated the accumulation and re-suspension of particles as the main factor of elevated concentration of elements inside of Sainte Chapelle. The abundance and type of particles obtained by electron probe X-ray micro analysis were slightly different in the three measured areas. The main distinction is the occurrence of CaSO 4 particles inside and in the interspace. In conclusion, the installation of a PG in Sainte Chapelle seems to be appropriate.

  13. Life cycle assessment of forecasting scenarios for urban water management: A first implementation of the WaLA model on Paris suburban area.

    PubMed

    Loubet, Philippe; Roux, Philippe; Guérin-Schneider, Laetitia; Bellon-Maurel, Véronique

    2016-03-01

    A framework and an associated modeling tool to perform life cycle assessment (LCA) of urban water system, namely the WaLA model, has been recently developed. In this paper, the WaLA model is applied to a real case study: the urban water system of the Paris suburban area, in France. It aims to verify the capacity of the model to provide environmental insights to stakeholder's issues related to future trends influencing the system (e.g., evolution of water demand, increasing water scarcity) or policy responses (e.g., choices of water resources and technologies). This is achieved by evaluating a baseline scenario for 2012 and several forecasting scenarios for 2022 and 2050. The scenarios are designed through the modeling tool WaLA, which is implemented in Simulink/Matlab: it combines components representing the different technologies, users and resources of the UWS. The life cycle inventories of the technologies and users components include water quantity and quality changes, specific operation (electricity, chemicals) and infrastructures data (construction materials). The methods selected for the LCIA are midpoint ILCD, midpoint water deprivation impacts at the sub-river basin scale, and endpoint Impact 2002+. The results of the baseline scenario show that wastewater treatment plants have the highest impacts compared to drinking water production and distribution, as traditionally encountered in LCA of UWS. The results of the forecasting scenarios show important changes in water deprivation impacts due to water management choices or effects of climate change. They also enable to identify tradeoffs with other impact categories and to compare several scenarios. It suggests the capacity of the model to deliver information for decision making about future policies. PMID:26724447

  14. Climate change and heat waves in Paris and London metropolitan areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dousset, B.

    2010-12-01

    Summer warming trends in Western and Central Europe and in Mediterranean regions are increasing the incidence, intensity, and duration of heat waves. Those extreme events are especially deadly in large cities, owing to high population densities, surface characteristics, heat island effects, anthropogenic heat and pollutants. In August 2003, a persistent anticyclone over Western Europe generated a heat wave of exceptional strength and duration with an estimated death toll of 70,000, including 4678 in the Paris region. A series of NOAA-AVHRR satellite thermal images over the Paris and London metropolitan areas, were used to analyze Land Surface Temperature (LST) and its related mortality. In the Paris region, LSTs were merged with land use and cover data to identify risk areas, and thermal indicators were produced at the addresses of ~ 500 elderly people to assess diurnal heat exposure. Results indicate: (i) contrasting night time and daytime heat island patterns related to land use and surface characteristics; (ii) the relation between night-time heat islands and heat waves intensity; (iii) the impact of elevated minimal temperatures on excess mortality, with a 0.5 °C increase doubling the risk of death, (in the temperature range of the heatwave); iv) the correlation between the spatial distribution of highest night-time LSTs and that of highest mortality ratios; and v) the significant impact of urban parks in the partitioning between latent and sensible surface heat fluxes, despite a prior warm and dry spring. Near-real time satellite monitoring of heat waves in urban areas improve our understanding of the LST processes and spatial variability, and of the related heat stress and mortality. These observations provide criteria for warning systems, contingency policies and planning, and climate adaptation and mitigation strategies.

  15. Formation of secondary organic aerosol in the Paris pollution plume and its impact on surrounding regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q. J.; Beekmann, M.; Freney, E.; Sellegri, K.; Pichon, J. M.; Schwarzenboeck, A.; Colomb, A.; Bourrianne, T.; Michoud, V.; Borbon, A.

    2015-03-01

    Secondary pollutants such as ozone, secondary inorganic aerosol, and secondary organic aerosol formed in the plume of megacities can affect regional air quality. In the framework of the FP7/EU MEGAPOLI project, an intensive campaign was launched in the Greater Paris Region in July 2009. The major objective was to quantify different sources of organic aerosol (OA) within a megacity and in its plume. In this study, we use airborne measurements aboard the French ATR-42 aircraft to evaluate the regional chemistry-transport model CHIMERE within and downwind the Paris region. Slopes of the plume OA levels vs. Ox (= O3 + NO2) show secondary OA (SOA) formation normalized with respect to photochemical activity and are used for specific evaluation of the OA scheme in the model. Simulated and observed slopes are in good agreement, when the most realistic "high-NOx" yields are used in the Volatility-Basis-Set scheme implemented into the model. In addition, these slopes are relatively stable from one day to another, which suggest that they are characteristic for the given megacity plume environment. Since OA within the plume is mainly formed from anthropogenic precursors (VOC and primary OA, POA), this work allows a specific evaluation of anthropogenic SOA and SOA formed from primary semi-volatile and intermediate volatile VOCs (SI-SOA) formation scheme in a model. For specific plumes, this anthropogenic OA build-up can reach about 10 μg m-3. For the average of the month of July 2009, maximum increases occur close to the agglomeration for primary OA are noticed at several tens (for POA) to hundred (for SI-SOA) kilometers of distance from the Paris agglomeration.

  16. Traffic induced particle resuspension in Paris: Emission factors and source contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amato, F.; Favez, O.; Pandolfi, M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; Moukhtar, S.; Bruge, B.; Verlhac, S.; Orza, J. A. G.; Bonnaire, N.; Le Priol, T.; Petit, J.-F.; Sciare, J.

    2016-03-01

    Gaining knowledge on the process of particle resuspension from urban paved roads is of particular importance considering the increasing relevance of this source in urban air quality management and the lack of basic information on emission factors and source contributions. In this study we performed extensive field measurements for the quantification of the emission factors from different types of road in the city of Paris, and investigated the causes of their variability and the contributions to the ambient air PM10 observed across one year at one traffic monitoring site in the ring road of Paris. Results show agreement between lower road dust loadings (RD10: 0.7-2.2 mg m-2) and emission factors (5.4-9.0 mg vehicle-1 km-1) at inner-roads of Paris, compared to the ring road (2.4 mg m-2 and 17 mg vehicle-1 km-1, respectively), where the two parameters are estimated independently. The higher values in the ring road were likely caused by the poor state of pavement and higher share of heavy duty vehicles. Road wear, brake wear and a carbonaceous source, were almost equally responsible for 96% of RD10. At the traffic monitoring site located at the ring road (220,000 vehicle/day), the contributions of road dust emissions were estimated by receptor modeling to be 13% of PM10 on an annual mean (6.3 μg m-3), while the sum of vehicle exhaust and wear accounted for 47% resulting in a total traffic contribution of 60% of PM10. Road salting resulted to be a minor contributor (1% of annual mean) also in winter time (2%).

  17. The contribution of Paris to limit global warming to 2 °C

    SciTech Connect

    Iyer, Gokul C.; Edmonds, James A.; Fawcett, Allen A.; Hultman, Nathan; Alsalam, Jameel; Asrar, Ghassem R.; Calvin, Katherine V.; Clarke, Leon E.; Creason, Jared; Jeong, Minji; McFarland, Jim; Mundra, Anupriya; Patel, Pralit L.; Shi, Wenjing; McJeon, Haewon C.

    2015-11-24

    International negotiators have clearly articulated a goal to limit global warming to 2°C. In preparation for the 21st Conference of Parties (COP21) in Paris in December 2015, countries are submitting their Intended Nationally Determined Contributions (INDCs) to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change indicating their emissions reduction commitments through 2025 or 2030. Limiting global warming to 2°C is a challenging goal and will entail a dramatic transformation of the global energy system, largely complete by 2040. The deliberations in Paris will help determine the balance of challenges faced in the near-term and long-term. We use GCAM, a global integrated assessment model, to analyze the energy and economic-cost implications of INDCs. The INDCs imply near-term actions that reduce the level of mitigation needed in the post-2030 period, particularly when compared with an alternative path, in which nations are unable to undertake emissions mitigation until after 2030. We find that the latter case could require up to 2300 GW of premature retirements of fossil fuel power plants and up to 2900 GW of additional low-carbon power capacity installations within a five-year period of 2031 to 2035. INDCs have the effect of reducing premature retirements and new-capacity installations after 2030 by 50% and 34% respectively. However, if presently announced INDCs were strengthened to achieve greater near-term emissions mitigation, the 2031-2035 transformation could be tempered to require 84% fewer premature retirements of power generation capacity and 56% fewer new-capacity additions. Our results suggest that the ensuing COP21 in Paris will be critical in shaping the challenges of limiting global warming to 2°C.

  18. Pressure transient tests on geothermal wells in the Dogger aquifer, Paris Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    giuglaris, elodie; hamm, virginie

    2014-05-01

    In this work, we propose a new interpretation of pressure transient tests conducted in more than sixty wells targeting the Dogger formation in the Paris basin. The most part of these wells were drilled during the eighties over a very short period of time in an urban area. The transient tests were only recorded during a pressure buildup and show that contrary to what has long been assumed the Dogger aquifer behavior is not homogeneous. The interpretation of the obtained data was mainly done with Horner's method, independently for each well, and assuming generally that the aquifer is homogeneous. Available data from pressure transient tests are limited because of the precision of the tools used, and because pressure buildup was only recorded during eight to twelve hours. The objective was to determine the average transmissivity and the skin factor in order to obtain the productivity of the wells. We gather all available data, including those obtained on the thirteen recent wells, and propose a new interpretation in terms of aquifer model. We use the pressure derivative method developed in the nineties for oil reservoirs which allows a better visualization of the model and of the heterogeneity of the aquifer. Most of the well tests have a derivative pressure curve with a slope equal to zero, that does not change after the well bore effects, confirming that the aquifer is relatively homogenous. However on a dozen of wells, data from pressure transient tests display singular behaviors that can be related to a double porosity or double permeability model for some wells and to a composite model for others. These observations question the validity of a homogeneous model for the Dogger aquifer in the Paris basin and the currently used parameters for the thermal and hydrodynamic predictive model of geothermal exploitation. Finally, this work increases our understanding of the Dogger aquifer in the Paris basin and will allow the optimization of the ongoing hydraulic tests and

  19. Structural style and hydrocarbon habitat of the English Channel and Paris basin

    SciTech Connect

    Vining, B.A.; Errat, D. )

    1991-03-01

    The structural style and hydrocarbon habitat of the English Channel and Paris basin are reviewed, and selected case histories are discussed. A new model for structural evolution invokes, in part, a detachment surface within the Early Jurassic sediments that differentiates the structural style of the Jurassic and younger sections from the underlying Triassic reservoirs. Compressional reactivation of certain faults in the Early Tertiary has resulted in the cessation of the generative capacity of Pliensbachian-Toarcian source rocks. A history of source rock maturation and migration is presented for Jurassic and Carboniferous source horizons that addresses structural configuration, fault profile analyses, and geologic timing.

  20. Raphaël Blanchard, parasitology, and the positioning of medical entomology in Paris.

    PubMed

    Osborne, M A

    2008-12-01

    The histories of medical entomology and parasitology are entwined. Raphaël Blanchard (1857-1919), Chair of Medical Natural History and Parasitology at the Faculty of Medicine in Paris, organized the teaching of medical entomology and civilian colonial medicine. He also founded and edited the journal Archives de Parasitologie and started the Institute de Médecine Coloniale where he mentored many foreign students and researchers. Additionally, Blanchard is important for his scientific internationalism and medical historical work on the cultural location of parasitology and for training the future professors of parasitology Jules Guiart, Emile Brumpt, and Charles Joyeux.

  1. Effects of Plaster of Paris waste on the mechanical properties of pottery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badarulzaman, N. A.; Nawi, A. M.; Ibrahim, M.

    2015-05-01

    Ceramic waste may come from ceramics industry such as Plaster of Paris(POP) mould waste. The purpose of this study is to investigate the possibility of using POP as filler in the manufacturing of pottery. The different weight percentage of filler (0 wt.%, 2 wt.%,4 wt.%, 6wt.%, 8wt.%) content were added into the composition of pottery. The samples were characterized via viscosity test and bending test. The result of the study revealed that the weight percent of waste POP increase affects the physical properties with increasing the strength values.

  2. Tackling air pollution and extreme climate changes in China: Implementing the Paris climate change agreement.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Duo-Quan, Wang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-10-01

    China still depends on coal for more than 60% of its power despite big investments in the process of shifting to nuclear, solar and wind power renewable energy resources alignment with Paris climate change agreement (Paris CCA). Chinese government through the Communist Party Central Committee (CPCC) ascribes great importance and commitment to Paris CCA legacy and history landmark implementation at all levels. As the world's biggest carbon dioxide emitter, China has embarked on "SMART" pollution and climate changes programs and measures to reduce coal-fired power plants to less than 50% in the next five years include: new China model of energy policies commitment on CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions reductions to less than 20% non-fossil energy use by 2030 without undermining their economic growth, newly introduced electric vehicles transportation benefits, interactive and sustained air quality index (AQI) monitoring systems, decreasing reliance on fossil fuel economic activities, revision of energy price reforms and renewable energy to less energy efficient technologies development. Furthermore, ongoing CPCC improved environmental initiatives, implemented strict regulations and penalties on local companies and firms' pollution production management, massive infrastructures such as highways to reduce CO2 expansion of seven regional emissions trading markets and programs for CO2 emissions and other pollutants are being documented. Maximizing on the centralized nature of the China's government, implemented Chinese pollution, climate changes mitigation and adaptation initiatives, "SMART" strategies and credible measures are promising. A good and practical example is the interactive and dynamic website and database covering 367 Chinese cities and providing real time information on environmental and pollution emissions AQI. Also, water quality index (WQI), radiation and nuclear safety monitoring and management systems over time and space. These are ongoing Chinese

  3. The cosmos of the Paris apartment: working-class family life in the nineteenth century.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eliza

    2011-01-01

    Drawing on Bachelard's notion of “cosmicity” this article investigates the living conditions of Parisian working-class families in the second half of the nineteenth century. Nineteenth-century social critics claimed that the lack of privacy in urban apartments made decent family life impossible. However, evidence from judicial dossiers concerning attentat à la pudeur (intimate assault against children) illuminates the lived experience of children and their families in Paris apartments. Rather than a sharp divide between public and private, children experienced their apartment homes as the core of a social and spatial world under the surveillance of parents, neighbors, and other children.

  4. Henry B. Stallard, MD: The 1924 Paris Olympics, and Chariots of Fire.

    PubMed

    Bullock, John D

    2011-01-01

    Hyla Bristow Stallard was one of the greatest middle-distance runners in British athletic history. While an English medical student, he won the bronze medal in the 1500-meter run at the 1924 Paris Olympics, immortalized in the critically acclaimed 1981 epic British film, Chariots of Fire. He later became one of the most famous ophthalmologists in the world for his pioneering work in radiation therapy of malignant eye disease. He was an inspiring role model for both athletes and physicians. As a gifted individual who enjoyed two international careers, he is worthy of great admiration and emulation.

  5. a New Design for Diamond Window Equipped Paris-Edinburgh — First Tests and Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchard, M.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Dedera, S.; Trautmann, C.

    2012-12-01

    High pressure cells of the Paris-Edinburgh type are important tools for experimental high pressure studies in material science. Although these cells were originally developed for use in neutron diffraction, today they are also applied in alternative experimental high pressure fields. Their main advantages are their small construction size, limited weight and the relative high reachable pressures with a maximized sample volume. The small construction size also results in very good cost efficiency. The major drawback of these cells is that due to their simple squeezer geometry pressure extrapolations are nearly impossible and, hence, the use of internal standard is mandatory. Consequently, the normal use of Paris-Edinburgh cells is mostly limited to experiments with neutron or synchrotron radiation, during which pressure and temperature are determined by using an internal diffraction standard. To overcome this problem, tone may combine the advantages of diamond anvil cells with those of Paris-Edinburgh-cells by integrating diamond windows into the upper and / or the lower anvil. With such a cell it is possible to retrieve pressure and / or temperature data by measuring the shift of Raman bands or fluorescence lines by spectroscopic methods. Several attempts have been made to build such a cell ([1] and Klotz pers. communication) using different window materials. Until now no final setup has been published. We present a new Paris-Edinburgh cell design especially constructed for use within high energy relativistic heavy ion radiation experiments. This design uses conventional diamond anvils as spectroscopic windows in conjunction with specially designed hardened steel anvils. We have performed first feasibility studies up to 2.5 GPa with a standard Raman spectrometer using a special adapted Raman glass fiber probe. We present results of several mechanical test runs and one experiment with relativistic heavy ion radiation at the GSI Helmholtzzentrum f

  6. Tackling air pollution and extreme climate changes in China: Implementing the Paris climate change agreement.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Duo-Quan, Wang; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2016-10-01

    China still depends on coal for more than 60% of its power despite big investments in the process of shifting to nuclear, solar and wind power renewable energy resources alignment with Paris climate change agreement (Paris CCA). Chinese government through the Communist Party Central Committee (CPCC) ascribes great importance and commitment to Paris CCA legacy and history landmark implementation at all levels. As the world's biggest carbon dioxide emitter, China has embarked on "SMART" pollution and climate changes programs and measures to reduce coal-fired power plants to less than 50% in the next five years include: new China model of energy policies commitment on CO2 and greenhouse gas emissions reductions to less than 20% non-fossil energy use by 2030 without undermining their economic growth, newly introduced electric vehicles transportation benefits, interactive and sustained air quality index (AQI) monitoring systems, decreasing reliance on fossil fuel economic activities, revision of energy price reforms and renewable energy to less energy efficient technologies development. Furthermore, ongoing CPCC improved environmental initiatives, implemented strict regulations and penalties on local companies and firms' pollution production management, massive infrastructures such as highways to reduce CO2 expansion of seven regional emissions trading markets and programs for CO2 emissions and other pollutants are being documented. Maximizing on the centralized nature of the China's government, implemented Chinese pollution, climate changes mitigation and adaptation initiatives, "SMART" strategies and credible measures are promising. A good and practical example is the interactive and dynamic website and database covering 367 Chinese cities and providing real time information on environmental and pollution emissions AQI. Also, water quality index (WQI), radiation and nuclear safety monitoring and management systems over time and space. These are ongoing Chinese

  7. 78 FR 37154 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-20

    ... FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska to the extent that it... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France (Eurocopter)...

  8. 78 FR 47230 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Model Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-05

    ...'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... authority of France and are approved for operation in the United States. Pursuant to our bilateral...

  9. 78 FR 66668 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-06

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... Determination These helicopters have been approved by the aviation authority of France and are approved...

  10. 78 FR 54792 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... 12866; 2. Is not a ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... France and are approved for operation in the United States. Pursuant to our bilateral agreement...

  11. 77 FR 58973 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France...). SUMMARY: We propose to adopt a new airworthiness directive (AD) for the Eurocopter France...

  12. 78 FR 63853 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); ] 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation...-033-AD; Amendment 39-17625; AD 2013-21-01] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... These helicopters have been approved by the aviation authority of France and are approved for...

  13. 77 FR 58925 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-25

    ...'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect...-17204; AD 2012-19-09] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France Helicopters AGENCY... comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for Eurocopter France...

  14. 78 FR 33766 - Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France (Eurocopter) Helicopters

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... FR 11034, February 26, 1979); 3. Will not affect intrastate aviation in Alaska to the extent that it... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 39 RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Eurocopter France... approved by the aviation authority of France and are approved for operation in the United States....

  15. France: The Move toward Distance Education in the University Sector

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortimer, Peter

    2005-01-01

    France is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leading force in Europe. A highly literate and well-educated society, France's education statistics for 2003 show 12.1 million French children in primary and secondary education and 2.2 million students in tertiary education. The concept of education as a market commodity--long since…

  16. France: The Challenges of Renewal. Headline Series #282.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DePorte, A. W.

    France has responded well to the social, economic, and political challenges which began when that nation was defeated by Germany in 1940. Two major challenges have been to limit internal quarrels which reduce the nation's ability to handle current issues and to accept the fact that France is no longer the greatest power in Europe. Chapter 1…

  17. Social Representation of Gifted Children: A Preliminary Study in France

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavani, Jean Louis; Zenasni, Franck; Pereira-Fradin, Maria

    2009-01-01

    There is a growing recognition of giftedness in France and the need for identification. Social Representations (SR) of gifted children have never been examined in France with an appropriate methodology, yet it is important to do so as the information obtained may help ensure the insertion and inclusion of these children in school and society. The…

  18. Absence of Pneumocystis dihydropteroate synthase mutants in Brittany, France.

    PubMed

    Le Gal, Solène; Robert-Gangneux, Florence; Perrot, Maëla; Rouillé, Amélie; Virmaux, Michèle; Damiani, Céline; Totet, Anne; Gangneux, Jean-Pierre; Nevez, Gilles

    2013-05-01

    Archival Pneumocystis jirovecii specimens from 84 patients monitored at Rennes University Hospital (Rennes, France) were assayed at the dihydropteroate synthase (DHPS) locus. No patient was infected with mutants. The results provide additional data showing that P. jirovecii infections involving DHPS mutants do not represent a public health issue in Brittany, western France.

  19. International Reports on Literacy Research: France and Argentina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malloy, Jacquelynn A., Comp.; Botzakis, Stergios, Comp.

    2006-01-01

    This is a compilation of two separate reports on international literacy research from France and Argentina. In the reports from France, research correspondent Jacques Fijalkow detailed three research projects that included the following: (1) A description of adult literacy skills; (2) An investigation of how study-abroad students were integrated…

  20. 47 CFR 3.46 - Use of gold francs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of gold francs. 3.46 Section 3.46... AUTHORITIES IN MARITIME AND MARITIME MOBILE-SATELLITE RADIO SERVICES Settlement Operations § 3.46 Use of gold francs. An accounting authority must accept accounts presented to it from foreign administrations in...