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  1. Prevalence of feline blood groups in the Montreal area of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Fosset, Fabrice T J; Blais, Marie-Claude

    2014-01-01

    The feline AB blood group system has clinical significance because type B cats have natural alloimmune anti-A antibodies which can cause isoerythrolysis of the newborn and life-threatening transfusion reactions. In the United States, the prevalence of type B blood is estimated to be 1% to 2%. This study determined the prevalence of feline AB blood groups among 207 potential blood donor cats that included 178 domestic cats, in the Montreal area of Quebec, Canada. Blood typing was performed using a standardized tube technique. Blood types AB and B were confirmed using a backtyping technique. The frequency of blood types among the studied population was as follows: 95.2% type A, 4.4% type B, and 0.48% type AB. Among domestic cats, the frequency was 94.4% for type A, 5% for type B, and 0.6% for type AB. The frequency of type B was higher than expected, which reinforces the recommendation to ensure blood compatibility of the recipient and donor before transfusion through typing and possibly cross-matching as well. PMID:24381340

  2. Understanding the Early Years: Early Childhood Development in the Montreal Study Area, Montreal, Quebec. An Analysis of the Communities Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Gong-Li; Ahmed, Nina; Abbes, Chahreddine

    2010-01-01

    This report presents survey findings from two cycles of data collection in a 45-km area of Montreal located east of the city centre. The study was conducted by Statistics Canada as part of the second pilot phase of the Understanding the Early Years initiative (UEY-II), using the Communities Survey, a research tool adapted from the National…

  3. Impact Evaluation of a Public Bicycle Share Program on Cycling: A Case Example of BIXI in Montreal, Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Fournier, Michel; Morency, Patrick; Drouin, Louis

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. We examined associations between residential exposure to BIXI (BIcycle-taXI)—a public bicycle share program implemented in Montreal, Quebec, in 2009, which increases accessibility to cycling by making available 5050 bicycles at 405 bicycle docking stations—and likelihood of cycling (BIXI and non-BIXI) in Montreal over the first 2 years of implementation. Methods. Three population-based samples of adults participated in telephone surveys. Data collection occurred at the launch of the program (spring 2009), and at the end of the first (fall 2009) and second (fall 2010) seasons of implementation. Difference in differences models assessed whether greater cycling was observed for those exposed to BIXI compared with those not exposed at each time point. Results. We observed a greater likelihood of cycling for those exposed to the public bicycle share program after the second season of implementation (odds ratio = 2.86; 95% confidence interval = 1.85, 4.42) after we controlled for weather, built environment, and individual variables. Conclusions. The implementation of a public bicycle share program can lead to greater likelihood of cycling among persons living in areas where bicycles are made available. PMID:23327280

  4. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits

    PubMed Central

    Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects. PMID:27513558

  5. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    PubMed

    Poder, Thomas G; Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects. PMID:27513558

  6. The Economic Value of the Greater Montreal Blue Network (Quebec, Canada): A Contingent Choice Study Using Real Projects to Estimate Non-Market Aquatic Ecosystem Services Benefits.

    PubMed

    Poder, Thomas G; Dupras, Jérôme; Fetue Ndefo, Franck; He, Jie

    2016-01-01

    This study used a contingent choice method to determine the economic value of improving various ecosystem services (ESs) of the Blue Network of Greater Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Three real projects were used and the evaluation focused on six ESs that are related to freshwater aquatic ecosystems: biodiversity, water quality, carbon sequestration, recreational activities, landscape aesthetics and education services. We also estimated the value associated with the superficies of restored sites. We calculated the monetary value that a household would be willing to pay for each additional qualitative or quantitative unit of different ESs, and these marginal values range from $0.11 to $15.39 per household per unit. Thus, under certain assumptions, we determined the monetary values that all Quebec households would allocate to improve each ES in Greater Montreal by one unit. The most valued ES was water quality ($13.5 million), followed by education services ($10.7 million), recreational activities ($8.9 million), landscape aesthetics ($4.1 million), biodiversity ($1.2 million), and carbon sequestration ($0.1 million). Our results ascribe monetary values to improved (or degraded) aquatic ecosystems in the Blue Network of Greater Montreal, but can also enhance economic analyses of various aquatic ecosystem restoration and management projects.

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part XIV: Newspapers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Newspapers section of the proceedings contains the following 11 papers: "News Items in the 'Shrinking Foreign Newshole': The Case of the New York Times" (Daniel Riffe and others); "Newspaper Coverage of Gays and Lesbians: Editors' Views of Its Longterm Effects" (Marilyn Greenwald and Joseph Bernt); "Effects of Staff Gender on Newspaper…

  8. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part XIII: Magazines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Magazine section of these proceedings contains the following six papers: "An Analysis of 'Magazine Type': Toward an Empirically Based Typology of Magazines and Non-Newspaper Periodicals" (Marcia R. Prior-Miller); "'Redbook': Changes in Attitude and Advice 1965-1990" (Jennifer Harbour); "A Quantitative Analysis of U.S. Consumer Magazines:…

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part XI: Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Advertising section of the proceedings contains the following 16 papers: "Ethics of Advertising Practitioners: An Explanation Based on a Classical Theoretical Framework" (Cornelius B. Pratt and E. Lincoln James); "Sex Roles in Frightening Film Newspaper Advertisements: An Overview of the Past 50 Years" (Melissa M. Spirek); "Is Seeing Believing…

  10. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). More Miscellaneous Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The More Miscellaneous Studies section of the proceedings contains the following 34 papers: "The Louisville Courier-Journal's News Content after Purchase by Gannett" (Hansen and Coulson); "Reflection of Cultural Values in Advertising: A Comparative Analysis of Taiwan and U.S. Advertising" (Zandpour and Qian); "Sex, Violence and…

  11. Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting (24th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 26-30, 2000).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmt, Elaine, Ed.; Davis, Brent, Ed.; McLoughlin, John Grant, Ed.

    This document contains the proceedings of the annual meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG) held at the University of Quebec in Montreal, Canada, May 26-30, 2000. The proceedings consist of two plenary lectures, five working groups, four topic sessions, new Ph.D. reports, and panel discussions. Papers include: (1)…

  12. [The implementation of the Quebec Mental Health Action Plan: hands-on experience at the Maisonneuve-Rosemont hospital in Montreal].

    PubMed

    Bernazzani, Odette; Rondeau, Alain

    2013-01-01

    The Mental Health Action Plan maps out the reorganization of mental health services in the province of Quebec. Accordingly, this paper presents the transformation process of the mental health program at the Maisonneuve-Rosemont hospital in Montreal. The authors discuss, on the one hand, the challenges that were met and, on the other hand, the model of care and organisational choices that were adopted. This article is divided in three parts. The first part describes the two main guiding principles underlying the Mental Health Action Plan. The second part examines the context surrounding the arrival of the Action Plan at the Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital. The third part describes the hospital transformation process that evolved in relation with: 1- the new centralized access points for mental health services; 2- the support for first line (or primary care) services; 3- the second line services for the specialized treatment of complex mental health problems.

  13. Suicides associated with the Jacques Cartier Bridge, Montreal, Quebec 1988-1993: descriptive analysis and intervention proposal.

    PubMed

    Prévost, C; Julien, M; Brown, B P

    1996-01-01

    Falls from heights represent an uncommon means of suicide. Regional variations are attributable to the presence of particular sites which attract suicidal individuals. The Jacques Cartier Bridge in Montreal is one such site, though less well known than North American sites such as the Golden Gate Bridge or Niagara Falls. According to Coroner's records, 54 suicides were associated with the bridge for the period 1988 to 1993. All but one of the suicides were the result of jumps from the bridge. The median age of victims was 30 years, and 46 of the victims were male. Bridge-specific verbalization of suicidal intent and prior history of medically diagnosed psychiatric disorders are frequently noted. Based on a review of the effectiveness of preventive measures, we propose limiting access to jumping by means of a fence along the bridge railing. PMID:9009392

  14. Identifying subgroups of the general population that may be susceptible to short-term increases in particulate air pollution: a time-series study in Montreal, Quebec.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, M S; Bailar, J C; Burnett, R T; Brook, J R; Tamblyn, R; Bonvalot, Y; Ernst, P; Flegel, K M; Singh, R K; Valois, M F

    2000-10-01

    This study was undertaken in order to shed light on which groups of the general population may be susceptible to the effects of ambient particles. The objectives of the study were (1) to determine whether concentrations of particles in the ambient air of Montreal, Quebec, were associated with daily all-cause and cause-specific mortality in the period 1984 to 1993, and (2) to determine whether groups of the population had higher than average risks of death from exposure to particles. From the network of fixed-site air pollution monitors in Montreal we obtained daily mean levels of various measures of particles, gaseous pollutants, and weather variables measured at Dorval International Airport. We also used measurements of sulfate from an acid rain monitoring station 150 km southeast of the city (Sutton, Quebec). We estimated associations for particulate matter (PM) with an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or smaller (PM10), or 2.5 microns or smaller (PM2.5), total suspended particles (TSP), coefficient of haze (COH), an extinction coefficient, and sulfate. Because substantial data for fine particles were missing, we developed a regression model to predict PM2.5 and to predict sulfate from PM2.5. In the main body of the report, we present results for COH, predicted PM2.5, and sulfate. Detailed results for all pollutants are included in Appendices H through O, which are available on request from Health Effects Institute and from the HEI web site at www.healtheffects.org. To address the first objective, we made use of the underlying causes of death among all 140,939 residents of Montreal who died between 1984 and 1993. We regressed the logarithm of daily counts of cause-specific mortality on the daily mean levels for a variety of measures of particles, accounting for seasonal and subseasonal fluctuations in the mortality time series, overdispersion, and weather factors. To address the second objective, we developed algorithms to define conditions that subjects had

  15. Active and uncontrolled asthma among children exposed to air stack emissions of sulphur dioxide from petroleum refineries in Montreal, Quebec: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Deger, Leylâ; Plante, Céline; Jacques, Louis; Goudreau, Sophie; Perron, Stéphane; Hicks, John; Kosatsky, Tom; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little attention has been devoted to the effects on children’s respiratory health of exposure to sulphur dioxide (SO2) in ambient air from local industrial emissions. Most studies on the effects of SO2 have assessed its impact as part of the regional ambient air pollutant mix. OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between exposure to stack emissions of SO2 from petroleum refineries located in Montreal’s (Quebec) east-end industrial complex and the prevalence of active asthma and poor asthma control among children living nearby. METHODS: The present cross-sectional study used data from a respiratory health survey of Montreal children six months to 12 years of age conducted in 2006. Of 7964 eligible households that completed the survey, 842 children between six months and 12 years of age lived in an area impacted by refinery emissions. Ambient SO2 exposure levels were estimated using dispersion modelling. Log-binomial regression models were used to estimate crude and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% CIs for the association between yearly school and residential SO2 exposure estimates and asthma outcomes. Adjustments were made for child’s age, sex, parental history of atopy and tobacco smoke exposure at home. RESULTS: The adjusted PR for the association between active asthma and SO2 levels was 1.14 (95% CI 0.94 to 1.39) per interquartile range increase in modelled annual SO2. The effect on poor asthma control was greater (PR=1.39 per interquartile range increase in modelled SO2 [95% CI 1.00 to 1.94]). CONCLUSIONS: Results of the present study suggest a relationship between exposure to refinery stack emissions of SO2 and the prevalence of active and poor asthma control in children who live and attend school in proximity to refineries. PMID:22536578

  16. A Difference-in-Differences Approach to Assess the Effect of a Heat Action Plan on Heat-Related Mortality, and Differences in Effectiveness According to Sex, Age, and Socioeconomic Status (Montreal, Quebec)

    PubMed Central

    Benmarhnia, Tarik; Bailey, Zinzi; Kaiser, David; Auger, Nathalie; King, Nicholas; Kaufman, Jay S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The impact of heat waves on mortality and health inequalities is well documented. Very few studies have assessed the effectiveness of heat action plans (HAPs) on health, and none has used quasi-experimental methods to estimate causal effects of such programs. Objectives: We developed a quasi-experimental method to estimate the causal effects associated with HAPs that allows the identification of heterogeneity across subpopulations, and to apply this method specifically to the case of the Montreal (Quebec, Canada) HAP. Methods: A difference-in-differences approach was undertaken using Montreal death registry data for the summers of 2000–2007 to assess the effectiveness of the Montreal HAP, implemented in 2004, on mortality. To study equity in the effect of HAP implementation, we assessed whether the program effects were heterogeneous across sex (male vs. female), age (≥ 65 years vs. < 65 years), and neighborhood education levels (first vs. third tertile). We conducted sensitivity analyses to assess the validity of the estimated causal effect of the HAP program. Results: We found evidence that the HAP contributed to reducing mortality on hot days, and that the mortality reduction attributable to the program was greater for elderly people and people living in low-education neighborhoods. Conclusion: These findings show promise for programs aimed at reducing the impact of extreme temperatures and health inequities. We propose a new quasi-experimental approach that can be easily applied to evaluate the impact of any program or intervention triggered when daily thresholds are reached. Citation: Benmarhnia T, Bailey Z, Kaiser D, Auger N, King N, Kaufman J. 2016. A difference-in-differences approach to assess the effect of a heat action plan on heat-related mortality, and differences in effectiveness according to sex, age, and socioeconomic status (Montreal, Quebec). Environ Health Perspect 124:1694–1699; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/EHP203 PMID:27203433

  17. Attempted Suicide Among Students and Young Adults in Montreal, Quebec, Canada: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study of Hospitalized and Nonhospitalized Suicide Attempts Based on Chart Review

    PubMed Central

    Rahme, Elham; Low, Nancy C. P.; Lamarre, Suzanne; Turecki, Gustavo; Bonin, Jean-Pierre; Daneau, Diane; Habel, Youssef; Yung, Emily C. C.; Morin, Suzanne; Szkrumelak, Nadia; Singh, Santokh; Renaud, Johanne; Lesage, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Objective We conducted a chart review to identify postsecondary students and nonstudents in the same age range who presented to the emergency department following a suicide attempt to (1) compare demographic characteristics and suicide risk factors and (2) determine factors associated with more serious attempts requiring hospitalizations. Method The study was conducted in 1 tertiary trauma hospital and 1 community hospital affiliated with McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, between January 1, 2009, and March 31, 2010. Charts of patients with potential suicide attempts were identified from medical records using ICD-10 codes that indicated traumatic injury, intentional self-harm, poisoning, and psychiatric or perception/cognition disorders and from the emergency department triage file using keywords that indicated suicidality or self-harm at presentation. Results In multivariable logistic regression models (odds ratio, 95% CI), students were younger (per 5-year increase: 0.22, 0.12–0.41), less likely to be born in Canada (0.17, 0.06–0.44), and more likely to use less violent methods (laceration, poisoning, other, multiple methods) versus more violent methods (collision, jump, fire burns, firearm, hanging) in their attempt. Fewer students had a history of substance abuse (0.12, 0.02–0.94) but were not different from nonstudents on history of other mental disorders. Less students attempted suicide in the winter/spring (January–April) versus fall (September–December) semester (0.32, 0.11–0.91). Students who attempted suicide were more likely to have family/social support. Those who attempted suicide in the previous year were more likely to require hospitalization for their current suicide attempt. Conclusions Knowledge of specific factors associated with suicide attempts in young people can help inform and guide suicide prevention efforts in both academic and community settings. Specific to the findings of this study regarding the method of suicide

  18. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part IV: Media and Law, Section A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    Section A of the Media and Law section of the proceedings contains the following nine papers: "RICO and the First Amendment: Racketeering Laws Threaten Free Expression" (Matthew D. Bunker and others); "Press Coverage of the Federal Appellate Courts: Technology and a Shared Notion of Newsworthiness" (Rebekah V. Bromley); "The Evolution of Illinois…

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part VI: Politics and Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Politics and Mass Media section of the proceedings contains the following eight papers: "Politics and the War on Drugs: Patterns of News Coverage" (Lisa Brockmeier); "The Challenge of Bearing Witness in Political Reporting: Making the Public Conversational Partners" (Karon Reinboth Speckman); "The Concrete-Avoidance Model: Media, Public…

  20. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part II: Journalism History, Section B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    Section B of the Journalism History section of the proceedings contains the following nine papers: "Weep into Silence/Cries of Rage: Bitter Divisions in Hawaii's Japanese Press" (Tom Brislin); "Viewing the Newspaper as International: The First International Organization of Journalists Debates News Copyright 1894-1898" (Ulf Jonas Bjork); "The…

  1. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part IX: Media and Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Media and Technology section of these proceedings contains the following six papers: "The Effects of Tabular and Graphical Display Formats on Time Spent Processing Statistics" (James D. Kelly); "Program Choice in a Broadband Environment" (Steven S. Wildman and Nancy Y. Lee); "Visual Crosstabs: A Technique for Enriching Information Graphics"…

  2. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part XVI: Miscellaneous Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Miscellaneous Studies section of the proceedings contains the following 16 papers: "Mickey Mouse and Bugs Bunny: Iconography of Two Corporate Stars" (William A. Mikulak); "We Know Who You Are: A Niche Communications Explication and Model" (Jana Frederick-Collins); "The Ways They Get Their Stories: Is Utilitarianism the Best Moral Theory for…

  3. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part VIII: Mass Media Effects.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Mass Media Effects section of the proceedings contains the following eight papers: "The Spiral of Static: A Multivariate Analysis of a Public Opinion Theory Applied to Perception of Radio Station Popularity" (Terry Wedel and Tony Rimmer); "More Than Just Talk: Uses, Gratifications and the Telephone" (Garrett J. O'Keefe and Barbara K.…

  4. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part X: Health, Science, and the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Health, Science, and the Environment section of these proceedings contains the following seven papers: "Columbus, Mars, and the Changing Images and Ideologies of Exploration: A Critical Examination" (Lin Bin and August T. Horvath); "Prime Time TV Portrayals of Sex, 'Safe Sex' and AIDS: A Longitudinal Analysis" (Dennis T. Lowry and Jon A.…

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part XII: Foreign and International Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The International Media section of the proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "Text and Context: A Case Study of International News Discourse" (Shujen Wang); "The Future of Public Service Broadcasting in Japan and the U.K.: A Comparative Analysis" (Roya Akhavan-Majid); "Reinventing Freedom of the Press: The Search for a Post-Soviet Model in…

  6. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part I: Journalism History, Section A.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    Section A of the Journalism History section of the proceedings contains the following 10 papers: "Mixed Messages in a Progressive Newspaper: The Milwaukee Journal and Woman Suffrage, 1911-1912" (Elizabeth Burt); "The Search for Unity: The Importance of the Black Press in the Emigration/Colonization Issues of the 1800s" (Bernell E. Tripp);…

  7. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part V: Media and Law, Section B.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    Section B of the Media and Law section of the proceedings contains the following nine papers: "The Professional Person as Libel Plaintiff: Reexamination of the Public Figure Doctrine" (Harry W. Stonecipher and Don Sneed); "The Anti-Federalists and Taxation under the Free Press Clause of the First Amendment" (Brad Thompson); "Independent State…

  8. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part XV: The Newspaper Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seneca Nation Educational Foundation, Salamanca, NY.

    The Newspaper Business section of the proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "Daily Newspaper Market Structure, Concentration and Competition" (Stephen Lacy and Lucinda Davenport); "Who's Making the News? Changing Demographics of Newspaper Newsrooms" (Ted Pease); "Race, Gender and White Male Backlash in Newspaper Newsrooms" (Ted Pease);…

  9. Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part III: Media History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication.

    The Media History section of the proceedings contains the following nine papers: "'This Is a Test': The Evolution of the Emergency Broadcast System" (Larry G. Burkum); "Radio Homemaker Programming: Old Time Radio's Ingredient for Attracting Women Listeners" (J. Steven Smethers and Lee Jolliffe); "Her Amplified Voice: Gender, War Propaganda and…

  10. Role of the Media in the Quebec Language Portfolio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkwold, Lorne O.

    In the Province of Quebec, and in particular on the island of Montreal, large communities of the French-speaking Quebecois majority and the English-speaking Quebecker minority have historically co-inhabited peacefully. There is, nonetheless, an ebb and flow in the conflict between the two languages. In recent years, the Government of Quebec has…

  11. Perspectives on Adult Education in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hrimech, Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    Canada is an officially bilingual (English and French) country, but for the most part, English and French people live in different areas of the country. Quebec's official language is French, although it has a large English-speaking community, especially in Montreal. The United States does not have an official second language, but adult education…

  12. English as the Second Language in Quebec: A Teacher Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acheson, Palmer; And Others

    The Official Language Act of 1974 designates French as the official language of the Province of Quebec and contains provisions intended to enhance the status and power of the French language. It also provides for instruction in English as a Second Language (ESL). A poll recently conducted in Montreal revealed that sixty percent of parents whose…

  13. Explanatory Factors of the Black Achievement Gap in Montreal's Public and Private Schools: A Multivariate Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Bernier, Sylvain; Marceau, Richard

    2009-01-01

    This exploratory analysis uses multiple regression modeling to help shed light on the correlates of the Black achievement gap in Montreal's public and private secondary schools. Using school-level testing data from Quebec's Ministry of Education, the authors show that there is a Black achievement gap, and that this gap is highly associated with…

  14. Telemedicine in northern Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, F. A.; Pagé, G.; Sylvestre, J.; Chahlaoui, J.

    1982-01-01

    Television transmission of diagnostic and educational information can help to improve specialized medical care in remote and underserviced areas. This paper describes a pilot study in which the Canadian satellite Anik-B was used to link the James Bay area in northern Quebec with two large Montreal teaching hospitals. Broad-band real-time television was well suited for tele-education and teleconsultation activities. A much less costly method, using narrow-band slow-scan television, was also examined, but it requires improvements. The technology of telemedicine is in place, but its future use is impeded by the prohibitive costs of operating an efficient two-way broad-band television system for several remote health care sites. A solution to this problem may be an intermediate-band system combining some of the low-cost features of narrowband slow-scan television with the interactive high-resolution advantages of broad-band real-time television. PMID:7139483

  15. Montreal protocol: Business opportunites

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was signed by 24 countries in 1987, establishing measures for controlling the production and consumption of ozone-depleting substances. This publication begins with some background information on ozone depletion and the history of the Protocol. It then describes aspects of the Protocol`s Multilateral Fund, created to assist developing countries to meet Protocol deadlines: Its administration, structure, and how projects are initiated. Names, addresses, and phone/fax numbers of Fund contacts are provided. Canadian projects under the Fund are then reviewed and opportunities for Canadian environmental companies are noted. Finally, information sheets are presented which summarize Fund-related Canadian bilateral projects undertaken to date.

  16. Taking the Bull by the Horns: The Critical Perspectives and Pedagogy of Two Black Teachers in Anglophone Montreal Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Philip S. S.

    2014-01-01

    In the midst of the complicated racial-linguistic landscape that is Montreal, Quebec, the educational experiences of the relatively small population of Anglophone Blacks are often invisibilized within the education literature, and relatively little attention is paid to the nature of Black students' and educators' struggles with racism…

  17. Language Attitudes and Self-Reports of French-English Language Usage in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourhis, Richard Y.

    1983-01-01

    Explores the impact of Quebec language planning in favor of French on self-reports of language use in cross-cultural encounters between Francophones and Anglophones in Montreal. Results indicate that discrepancies exist between respondents' self-reports of language use and their reported experience and that motivational and normative factors…

  18. Campylobacter coli Outbreak in Men Who Have Sex with Men, Quebec, Canada, 2010–2011

    PubMed Central

    Helferty, Melissa; Sylvestre, Jean-Loup; Allard, Robert; Pilon, Pierre A.; Poisson, Michel; Bekal, Sadjia

    2013-01-01

    During September 2010–November 2011, a cluster of erythromycin-susceptible, tetracycline- and ciprofloxacin-resistant Campylobacter coli pulsovar 1 infections was documented, involving 10 case-patients, in Montreal, Quebec, Canada. The findings suggested sexual transmission of an enteric infection among men who have sex with men. PMID:23647786

  19. French in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    d'Anglejan, Alison

    1979-01-01

    Discusses language legislation in Canada where French and English are both official languages, and in Quebec province where French has been declared the sole official language. Outlines the conflicts and the impact of these differing laws on Quebec, its population, and its relations with the rest of Canada. (JMF)

  20. SIR-B image of Montreal from STS 41-G

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    False-color image showing Montreal, Quebec, Canada, and was acquired by the Shuttle Imaging Radar-B (SIR-B) during STS 41-G. The St. lawrence River dominates the right portion of the photo. Several bridges cossing the river are visible. Pink and blue areas are generally buildings or pavement. Light green areas regions of natural vegetation; darker green areas are generally cultivated regions. A race track like structure is apparent at top left. The Riviere des Milles Illes and the Riviere des Prairies (left and right, respectively), join to form a U-shaped waterway at the center of the image. The large elliptical green-centered feature west of the St. Lawrence is Mt. Royal.

  1. Quebec: Lake Manicouagan

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    article title:  Manicouagan Impact Structure, Quebec     View Larger ... NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. The MISR data were obtained from the NASA Langley Research Center Atmospheric Science ...

  2. Pedagogical and Political Encounters in Linguistically and Culturally Diverse Primary Classrooms: Examples from Quebec, Canada, and Gauteng, South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breton-Carbonneau, Gabrielle; Cleghorn, Ailie; Evans, Rinelle; Pesco, Diane

    2012-01-01

    Comparative research in multilingual urban primary schools indicates that the pedagogical and political goals of schooling may operate at cross-purposes. Classroom observations and teacher interview-discussions were conducted in classes for immigrant children in Montreal, Quebec, Canada, where the language of instruction is French, and in classes…

  3. Southern Quebec in Late Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    These images of Canada's Quebec province were acquired by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer on March 4, 2001. The region's forests are a mixture of coniferous and hardwood trees, and 'sugar-shack' festivities are held at this time of year to celebrate the beginning of maple syrup production. The large river visible in the images is the northeast-flowing St. Lawrence. The city of Montreal is located near the lower left corner, and Quebec City, at the upper right, is near the mouth of the partially ice-covered St. Lawrence Seaway.

    Both spectral and angular information are retrieved for every scene observed by MISR. The left-hand image was acquired by the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera, and is a false-color spectral composite from the near-infrared, red, and blue bands. The right-hand image is a false-color angular composite using red band data from the 60-degree backward-viewing, nadir, and 60-degree forward-viewing cameras. In each case, the individual channels of data are displayed as red, green, and blue, respectively.

    Much of the ground remains covered or partially covered with snow. Vegetation appears red in the left-hand image because of its high near-infrared brightness. In the multi-angle composite, vegetated areas appear in shades of green because they are brighter at nadir, possibly as a result of an underlying blanket of snow which is more visible from this direction. Enhanced forward scatter from the smooth water surface results in bluer hues, whereas urban areas look somewhat orange, possibly due to the effect of vertical structures which preferentially backscatter sunlight.

    The data were acquired during Terra orbit 6441, and cover an area measuring 275 kilometers x 310 kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the

  4. Phosphorus cycling in Montreal's food and urban agriculture systems.

    PubMed

    Metson, Geneviève S; Bennett, Elena M

    2015-01-01

    Cities are a key system in anthropogenic phosphorus (P) cycling because they concentrate both P demand and waste production. Urban agriculture (UA) has been proposed as a means to improve P management by recycling cities' P-rich waste back into local food production. However, we have a limited understanding of the role UA currently plays in the P cycle of cities or its potential to recycle local P waste. Using existing data combined with surveys of local UA practitioners, we quantified the role of UA in the P cycle of Montreal, Canada to explore the potential for UA to recycle local P waste. We also used existing data to complete a substance flow analysis of P flows in the overall food system of Montreal. In 2012, Montreal imported 3.5 Gg of P in food, of which 2.63 Gg ultimately accumulated in landfills, 0.36 Gg were discharged to local waters, and only 0.09 Gg were recycled through composting. We found that UA is only a small sub-system in the overall P cycle of the city, contributing just 0.44% of the P consumed as food in the city. However, within the UA system, the rate of recycling is high: 73% of inputs applied to soil were from recycled sources. While a Quebec mandate to recycle 100% of all organic waste by 2020 might increase the role of UA in P recycling, the area of land in UA is too small to accommodate all P waste produced on the island. UA may, however, be a valuable pathway to improve urban P sustainability by acting as an activity that changes residents' relationship to, and understanding of, the food system and increases their acceptance of composting.

  5. [Cultural diversity in Montreal: a range of public health challenges].

    PubMed

    Vissandjee, B; Hemlin, I; Gravel, S; Roy, S; Dupéré, S

    2005-09-01

    Increasing immigration to Quebec has brought to the surface the need for adapting its public health systems and services, particularly in the area of primary care. The challenge is to take the heterogeneous nature of the population into account and to integrate diverse values, experience and know-how into the development of programmes and delivery of services, whilst simultaneously respecting the values of the various care providers and the norms of the institutions in the host country. This article addresses the question of adaptation strategies for health services, and namely the development of prevention and heath promotion programmes in public health within the framework of primary health care services within the intercultural context of Montreal. The issue of adaptation falls within the perspective and mandate of the Quebec government's policy on health and well-being (La politique de santé et du bien-être, 1992). Furthermore, it is a response to frequent demands from various health professionals and groups concerned with the adaptation of public services with respect to intercultural relationships confronted with the emerging realities associated with immigration. The article provides a reflection on specific ways of adapting prevention and health promotion initiatives targeting cultural communities and those who are undergoing immigration procedures or transitions. It also examines the development of ethno-cultural or other indicators which make it possible to capture migration experiences and their health impact. Since the Quebec health and social services system is currently in the process of major reform, it is hoped that it will seize this opportunity in order to make health and social service centres accountable for the adaptation of their programmes and services to the diversity of the populations they serve. PMID:16285423

  6. Utility of the Montreal Assessment of Need Questionnaire for Community Mental Health Planning

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Jacques; Bamvita, Jean-Marie; Grenier, Guy; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Needs assessment facilitates mental health services planning, provision, and evaluation. This study aimed to a) validate a new instrument, the Montreal Assessment of Needs Questionnaire (MANQ), and b) use this to assess variations and predictors of need (number and seriousness) in 297 individuals with severe mental disorders for 18 months, during implementation of the Quebec Mental Health Action Plan. MANQ internal and external validations were adequate. Variables significantly associated with need number and seriousness variations were used to build multiple linear regression models. Autonomous housing, not receiving welfare, not having consulted a health educator, higher level of help from services, Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test total score, and social support were associated with decreasing need number and seriousness over time. Having a higher education was also associated with decreasing need number. In a reform context, the MANQ’s unique ability to detect rapid improvement in patient needs has usefulness for Quebec mental health planning. PMID:25099300

  7. Quebec's Toxic Pollution Concern.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mingie, Walter

    The best solution to the problems of increased pollution of Quebec lakes and rivers with toxic wastes and increased incidence of pollution related diseases is to educate children, to make them aware of the environment and man's interrelationship with it. Attitudes of concern, based on knowledge, must be developed so that as adults, they will take…

  8. Sentinel hospital surveillance of HIV infection in Quebec. Quebec Sentinel Hospital HIV-Seroprevalence Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Alary, M; Joly, J R; Parent, R; Fauvel, M; Dionne, M

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the HIV seroprevalence rate in a surrogate sample of the general population in the province of Quebec, using a network of sentinel hospitals. DESIGN: Anonymous unlinked sentinel surveillance study. SETTING: Outpatient surgery units in 19 acute care hospitals throughout Quebec. PARTICIPANTS: All patients attending the outpatient surgery units from November 1990 to October 1992. A total of 61,547 plasma samples were obtained from leftover blood samples collected for cell counts. Fifty samples were excluded because of an insufficient amount of plasma and one because of an indeterminate result. INTERVENTION: HIV antibody testing with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; positive results confirmed with radioimmunoprecipitation assay. OUTCOME MEASURES: HIV antibody status, sex, year of birth and area of residence. RESULTS: The crude seroprevalence rate among the subjects aged 15 years or more was 0.4 per 1000 population (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.2 to 0.7) among the women and 3.6 per 1000 population (95% CI 2.8 to 4.4) among the men (p < 0.001). The rate after adjustment for age, sex and geographic distribution of the study population was 2.3 per 1000 population (95% CI 1.9 to 2.7). The seroprevalence rate among the male patients in the City of Montreal was much higher than the rates elsewhere in the province. It increased progressively during each of the four 6-month intervals of the study: 8.1, 8.7, 13.9 and 18.3 per 1000 respectively (chi 2 linear trend = 4.76; p = 0.029). No similar trends were observed outside Montreal for the male patients. There were too few seropositive female patients to draw any solid conclusion. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the possible drawbacks of a nonrandomized sampling scheme, this study suggests that in the male population the HIV seroprevalence rate is increasing in Montreal and is stable in all other areas of the province. The continued surveillance of HIV infection through anonymous unlinked studies is useful to

  9. St. Lawrence Seaway, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This high oblique view of the St. Lawrence Seaway, Quebec, Canada (47.5N, 69.5W) was taken over southeastern Quebec, looking southwest down the estuary of the St. Lawrence River towards the city of Quebec. The light snow cover enhances the area of forests (dark) and nonforests (light). Most of the large irregular open areas on the Canadian side of the river were previously forested and were burned over during forest fires in 1989.

  10. A Look Back at the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Montreal Protocol is an international treaty designed to protect the ozone layer. This video takes a look back at how scientists, industry leaders, and policy makers came together to regulate C...

  11. Network collaboration of organisations for homeless individuals in the Montreal region

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée; Grenier, Guy; Lesage, Alain; Ma, Nan; Ngui, André Ngamini

    2014-01-01

    Introduction We know little about the intensity and determinants of interorganisational collaboration within the homeless network. This study describes the characteristics and relationships (along with the variables predicting their degree of interorganisational collaboration) of 68 organisations of such a network in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). Theory and methods Data were collected primarily through a self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive analyses were conducted followed by social network and multivariate analyses. Results The Montreal homeless network has a high density (50.5%) and a decentralised structure and maintains a mostly informal collaboration with the public and cross-sectorial sectors. The network density showed more frequent contacts among four types of organisations which could point to the existence of cliques. Four variables predicted interorganisational collaboration: organisation type, number of services offered, volume of referrals and satisfaction with the relationships with public organisations. Conclusions and discussion The Montreal homeless network seems adequate to address non-complex homelessness problems. Considering, however, that most homeless individuals present chronic and complex profiles, it appears necessary to have a more formal and better integrated network of homeless organisations, particularly in the health and social service sectors, in order to improve services. PMID:24520216

  12. L'education au Quebec (Education in Quebec).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Francais dans le Monde, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Reviews the history of educational reform in Quebec, at the elementary, secondary, and postsecondary levels. The areas of curriculum design, parent involvement, human resources, and administration are addressed. (AM)

  13. HIV infection among Quebec women giving birth to live infants.

    PubMed Central

    Hankins, C A; Laberge, C; Lapointe, N; Lai Tung, M T; Racine, L; O'Shaughnessy, M

    1990-01-01

    This is the first anonymous unlinked seroprevalence study in Canada to use serum samples from newborns to determine the seroprevalence rate of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among childbearing women. Of the 68,808 samples tested 42 were confirmed as positive, for an overall crude seroprevalence rate of 6.1 per 10,000 live births (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.4 to 8.3), or 1 woman in 1638. Women who lived on Montreal island had an overall rate of 17.9 per 10,000 live births (95% CI 12.2 to 25.4), or 1 woman in 559. We observed a significant association between revenue index and seroprevalence; the rates were as high as 46.4 per 10,000 live births (95% CI 18.7 to 95.3), or 1 woman in 216, for Montreal island postal code areas with revenue indexes 20% or more below the provincial median. Extrapolation of the data suggested that 56 women with HIV infection gave birth to a live infant during 1989 in Quebec. Even though attempts to generalize the data from childbearing women to women of childbearing age have an inherent conservative bias, the results of our study suggest that 988 women (95% CI 713 to 1336) aged 15 to 44 years in Quebec had HIV infection in 1989. The actual number is likely substantially higher. The need for well-designed, creative interventions to prevent further HIV transmission to women is evident. Planning for the provision of medical and psychosocial services sensitive to specific needs of women who are already infected should start immediately. PMID:2224716

  14. Montreal Protocol benefits simulated with CCM SOCOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, T.; Rozanov, E.; Gröbner, J.; Hauser, M.; Schmutz, W.

    2012-07-01

    Ozone depletion is caused by the anthropogenic increase of halogen containing species in the atmosphere, which results in the enhancement of the concentration of reactive chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere. To reduce the influence of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODS), the Montreal Protocol was agreed by Governments in 1987, with several Amendments adopted later. In order to assess the benefits of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments (MPA) on ozone and UV radiation, two different runs of the chemistry-climate model (CCM) SOCOL have been carried out. The first run was driven by the emission of ozone depleting substances (ODS) prescribed according to the restrictions of the Montreal Protocol and all its Amendments. For the second run we allow the ODS to grow by 3% annually. We find that the MPA would have saved up to 80% of the global annual total ozone by the end of the 21st century. Our calculations also show substantial changes in surface temperature and precipitations that could occur in the world without MPA implementations. To illustrate the changes in UV radiation at the surface and to emphasize certain features which can only be seen for some particular regions if the influence of the cloud cover changes is accounted for, we calculate geographical distribution of the erythemally weighted irradiance (Eery). For the no Montreal Protocol simulation Eery increases by factor of 4 to 16 between the 1970s and 2100. For the scenario including the Montreal Protocol it is found that UV radiation starts to decrease in 2000, with continuous decline of 5% to 10% at middle latitudes in the Northern and Southern hemispheres.

  15. Dimensions of Literacy in a Multicultural Society. Conference Proceedings (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1992).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heft, Riva, Ed.; Rovinescu, Olivia, Ed.

    The following papers from a conference on the dimensions of literacy in a multicultural society are included in this volume: "Literacy: Affirmation and Empowerment in a Multicultural Society" (Simms); "Literacy, Border Pedagogy, and Multiculturalism in the Aftermath of the Los Angeles Uprising" (Giroux); "Alphabetisme et Communautes…

  16. Teaching EFL in a Unilingual Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schecter, Sandra

    1980-01-01

    Reviews the history of language legislation in Quebec, specifically regarding the relationship between French and English. It is suggested that English be taught as a "foreign" rather than a "second" language in Quebec. (AM)

  17. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  18. UV impacts avoided by the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Newman, Paul A; McKenzie, Richard

    2011-07-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "world expected" UV environment are compared with the "world avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes that could also be important.

  19. Montreal Protocol Benefits simulated with CCM SOCOL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egorova, T.; Rozanov, E.; Gröbner, J.; Hauser, M.; Schmutz, W.

    2013-04-01

    Ozone depletion is caused by the anthropogenic increase of halogen-containing species in the atmosphere, which results in the enhancement of the concentration of reactive chlorine and bromine in the stratosphere. To reduce the influence of anthropogenic ozone-depleting substances (ODS), the Montreal Protocol was agreed by Governments in 1987, with several Amendments and Adjustments adopted later. In order to assess the benefits of the Montreal Protocol and its Amendments and Adjustments (MPA) on ozone and UV radiation, two different runs of the chemistry-climate model (CCM) SOCOL have been carried out. The first run was driven by the emission of ozone depleting substances (ODS) prescribed according to the restrictions of the MPA. For the second run we allow the ODS to grow by 3% annually. We find that the MPA would have saved up to 80% of the global annual total ozone by the end of the 21st century. Our calculations also show substantial changes of the stratospheric circulation pattern as well as in surface temperature and precipitations that could occur in the world without MPA implementations. To illustrate the changes in UV radiation at the surface and to emphasise certain features, which can only be seen for some particular regions if the influence of the cloud cover changes is accounted for, we calculate geographical distribution of the erythemally weighted irradiance (Eery). For the no Montreal Protocol simulation Eery increases by factor of 4 to 16 between the 1970s and 2100. For the scenario including the Montreal Protocol it is found that UV radiation starts to decrease in 2000, with continuous decline of 5% to 10% at middle latitudes in the both Northern and Southern Hemispheres.

  20. [Ethnic entrepreneurship in Montreal: some preliminary results].

    PubMed

    Juteau, D; Daviau-guay, J; Moallem, M

    1992-01-01

    "This research note presents a first sketch of a study we are undertaking on ethnic entrepreneurship [in Montreal]. It details first of all our theoretical framework and then presents some preliminary results. For this research, we are studying various ethnic groups, those in the majority as well as the minority. For each of them, we will analyze the impact that immigration status, sex, the industrial sector and urban context play on entrepreneurial activity." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA) PMID:12287383

  1. Quebec. Reference Series No. 30.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of External Affairs, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This booklet, one of a series featuring the Canadian provinces, presents a brief overview of Quebec and is suitable for teacher reference or student reading. Separate sections discuss geography, climate, population, history, political history, recent politics, agriculture, forestry, mining, manufacturing and industry, hydroelectric power,…

  2. 3 CFR 8546 - Proclamation 8546 of August 13, 2010. 75th Anniversary of the Social Security Act

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Anniversary of the Social Security Act 8546 Proclamation 8546 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8546 of August 13, 2010 Proc. 8546 75th Anniversary of the Social Security ActBy the President of... into law the Social Security Act to protect ordinary Americans “against the loss of a job and...

  3. [The territorial dimension of Quebec's international immigration].

    PubMed

    Seguin, A; Termote, M

    1993-09-01

    "This paper is devoted to the spatial distribution of Quebec's international immigrants, and to the main territorial stakes related to this type of migration. After analysing international immigration as a flow (distribution of the cohorts of immigrants who entered Quebec during a given period) as well as a stock (distribution of all immigrants surviving in Quebec and their redistribution through internal migration), a critical analysis of the territorial stakes as defined by various agents (active at different levels) is proposed." (SUMMARY IN ENG)

  4. Contemporary disease management in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Gogovor, Amédé; Savoie, Michelle; Moride, Yola; Krelenbaum, Marilyn; Montague, Terrence

    2008-01-01

    Health or disease management (DM) has emerged as a promising solution to improve the quality of healthcare and patient outcomes in a cost-efficient way. This solution is particularly relevant in the care of our increasing, and aging, patient populations with multiple chronic diseases. This article reviews the recent history and current status of DM in the province of Quebec and summarizes its evolving perspectives and future prospects. Most DM projects in Quebec have developed from a public-private partnership, and they have addressed several disease states. The results of completed programs confirmed the presence of care gaps--the differences between best and usual care in several disease states. They also identified process changes leading to improved practices and enhanced professional satisfaction among stakeholders. Priorities identified for further research include increased knowledge of the underlying causes of care gaps and greater concentration on the measurement of clinical, humanistic and fiscal outcomes and their causal links to DM structures and processes. Although still embryonic in Quebec and Canada, the available evidence suggests that DM partnerships are practical and functional vehicles to expedite knowledge creation and transfer in the care of whole populations of patients. Future projects offer the promise of updated knowledge and continuously improved care and outcomes.

  5. Anglo Constituency in Quebec Has New Hero, Direction, Force. Quebec Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelebay, Yarema Gregory

    1997-01-01

    Provides a pithy, gossipy update on the political machinations concerning bilingualism and related issues in the French Canadian province of Quebec. Examines the activities of the Quebec Political Action Committee, formed to defend English-language rights and resist the separatists. Briefly reviews recent educational legislation in Quebec. (MJP)

  6. Echo-enabled harmonics up to the 75th order from precisely tailored electron beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hemsing, E.; Dunning, M.; Garcia, B.; Hast, C.; Raubenheimer, T.; Stupakov, G.; Xiang, D.

    2016-08-01

    The production of coherent radiation at ever shorter wavelengths has been a long-standing challenge since the invention of lasers and the subsequent demonstration of frequency doubling. Modern X-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) use relativistic electrons to produce intense X-ray pulses on few-femtosecond timescales. However, the shot noise that seeds the amplification produces pulses with a noisy spectrum and limited temporal coherence. To produce stable transform-limited pulses, a seeding scheme called echo-enabled harmonic generation (EEHG) has been proposed, which harnesses the highly nonlinear phase mixing of the celebrated echo phenomenon to generate coherent harmonic density modulations in the electron beam with conventional lasers. Here, we report on a demonstration of EEHG up to the 75th harmonic, where 32 nm light is produced from a 2,400 nm laser. We also demonstrate that individual harmonic amplitudes are controlled by simple adjustment of the phase mixing. Results show the potential of laser-based manipulations to achieve precise control over the coherent spectrum in future X-ray FELs for new science.

  7. Effects of diurnal variations in temperature on non-accidental mortality among the elderly population of Montreal, Québec, 1984-2007.

    PubMed

    Vutcovici, Maria; Goldberg, Mark S; Valois, Marie-France

    2014-07-01

    The association between ambient temperature and mortality has been studied extensively. Recent data suggest an independent role of diurnal temperature variations in increasing daily mortality. Elderly adults-a growing subgroup of the population in developed countries-may be more susceptible to the effects of temperature variations. The aim of this study was to determine whether variations in diurnal temperature were associated with daily non-accidental mortality among residents of Montreal, Québec, who were 65 years of age and over during the period between 1984 and 2007. We used distributed lag non-linear Poisson models constrained over a 30-day lag period, adjusted for temporal trends, mean daily temperature, and mean daily concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and ozone to estimate changes in daily mortality with diurnal temperature. We found, over the 30 day lag period, a cumulative increase in daily mortality of 5.12% [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02-10.49%] for a change from 5.9 °C to 11.1 °C (25th to 75th percentiles) in diurnal temperature, and a 11.27% (95%CI: 2.08-21.29%) increase in mortality associated with an increase of diurnal temperature from 11.1 to 17.5 °C (75th to 99th percentiles). The results were relatively robust to adjustment for daily mean temperature. We found that, in Montreal, diurnal variations in temperature are associated with a small increase in non-accidental mortality among the elderly population. More studies are needed in different geographical locations to confirm this effect.

  8. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica; Cleveland, Janet; Oulhote, Youssef; Dunkley-Hickin, Catherine; Rousseau, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH) program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec. An online questionnaire was completed by 1,772 staff and physicians from five hospitals and two primary care centres in Montreal. Low levels of knowledge and significant associations between knowledge and occupational group, age, and contact with refugees were documented. Social workers, respondents aged 40-49 years, and those who reported previous contact with refugee claimants seeking healthcare were significantly more likely to have 2 or more correct responses. Rapid and multiple changes to the complex IFH policy have generated a high level of confusion among healthcare providers. Simplification of the system and a knowledge transfer strategy aimed at improving healthcare delivery for IFH patients are urgently needed, proposing easy avenues to access rapidly updated information and emphasizing ethical and clinical issues. PMID:26789844

  9. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal

    PubMed Central

    Dunkley-Hickin, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH) program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers’ knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec. An online questionnaire was completed by 1,772 staff and physicians from five hospitals and two primary care centres in Montreal. Low levels of knowledge and significant associations between knowledge and occupational group, age, and contact with refugees were documented. Social workers, respondents aged 40–49 years, and those who reported previous contact with refugee claimants seeking healthcare were significantly more likely to have 2 or more correct responses. Rapid and multiple changes to the complex IFH policy have generated a high level of confusion among healthcare providers. Simplification of the system and a knowledge transfer strategy aimed at improving healthcare delivery for IFH patients are urgently needed, proposing easy avenues to access rapidly updated information and emphasizing ethical and clinical issues. PMID:26789844

  10. Knowledge of Healthcare Coverage for Refugee Claimants: Results from a Survey of Health Service Providers in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Casares, Mónica; Cleveland, Janet; Oulhote, Youssef; Dunkley-Hickin, Catherine; Rousseau, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Following changes to the Interim Federal Health (IFH) program in Canada in 2012, this study investigates health service providers' knowledge of the healthcare coverage for refugee claimants living in Quebec. An online questionnaire was completed by 1,772 staff and physicians from five hospitals and two primary care centres in Montreal. Low levels of knowledge and significant associations between knowledge and occupational group, age, and contact with refugees were documented. Social workers, respondents aged 40-49 years, and those who reported previous contact with refugee claimants seeking healthcare were significantly more likely to have 2 or more correct responses. Rapid and multiple changes to the complex IFH policy have generated a high level of confusion among healthcare providers. Simplification of the system and a knowledge transfer strategy aimed at improving healthcare delivery for IFH patients are urgently needed, proposing easy avenues to access rapidly updated information and emphasizing ethical and clinical issues.

  11. Home Education in Quebec: Family First

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brabant, Christine; Bourdon, Sylvain; Jutras, France

    2003-01-01

    In Canada, until now, no studies have focused on the practice of home education in the francophone province of Quebec. While the home-educating population in that province is tangible, it has remained largely unknown. Quebec's distinctive character on three fronts-- political, historical and cultural--make the application of results from the rare…

  12. Language Policies and Independence Policies in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Paul E.

    1997-01-01

    Overviews 20 years of language planning in Quebec and examines the effect of the province's institutional instability on the economy, language planning, and relations between ethnolinguistic groups. Elucidates the causes of Quebec's efforts to preserve its language and culture and concludes that the province needs its Anglophone population for the…

  13. The Real Face of Separatism. Quebec Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelebay, Yarema Gregory

    1997-01-01

    Provides an update on the continuing debate over separatism for the Canadian province of Quebec. Briefly profiles "La Patente," a group that eventually became the organizational core of the separatist movement. Maintains that the separatist movement is a well-organized minority that doesn't reflect the majority opinion in Quebec. (MJP)

  14. Language Policy and Administration in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavery, Robert E.

    The perceptions of an administrator embroiled for several years in the language issue in Quebec are briefly summarized in this paper. Before the first legislation concerning language (Bill 63) was passed, it became clear that in spite of the fact that Quebec was the home for a large number of French immigrants, French language and culture were in…

  15. [Psychotherapy: Legally recognized in Quebec].

    PubMed

    Trudeau, Jean-Bernard; Desjardins, Pierre; Dion, Alain

    2015-01-01

    Until recently, Quebec was the first to have regulated the practice of psychotherapy through law adopted in 2009. The law emerged following 30 years of efforts and inter-professional discussions that led to a consensus by an expert committee presided by Dr Jean-Bernard Trudeau in 2005. In this essay, Dr Jean-Bernard Trudeau, general practitioner, and two psychiatrist and psychologist colleagues, who have participated to the expert committee or have been involved more recently in the implementation of law no 21 in Quebec, relate the main landmarks and moments in the regulation of the practice in psychotherapy following this inter-professional consensus that was translated in the law 21. They relate particularly the last ten years that have led to the adoption of law 21 in 2009, following two parliamentary commission after the Trudeau report. They underline how the practice of psychotherapy is integrated in the professional system and submitted to strict regulation. It includes regulations for obtaining the license of psychotherapist and for maintaining competence. Guidelines emerging from continuous inter-professional discussions for the application of the law and of its regulation in the public and private sectors are produced by the Quebec Professions Office. The definition of psychotherapy that was reached by consensus is not limited to the treatment of mental disorders and is distinguished from other intervention in the area of human relations. Continuous training is mandatory and is implemented on one hand by the Order of the psychologists for the psychologists and other professionals practicing psychotherapy and on the other hand the College of physicians for physician practicing psychotherapy. The authors finally described the interdisciplinary advisory council for the practice of psychotherapy that the legislator has foreseen as an external mechanism to insure the conformity of regulation with the spirit of the law and to give opinions to the various

  16. Global environmental politics: Lessons from Montreal

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, J. )

    1994-01-01

    When 24 nations and the European Community signed the Montreal Protocol in September, 1987, it was widely praised for its reflection of unprecedented foresight in mandating preventive action on a global scale. Such praise may have been premature in light of more recent revelations that: (1) the rates of ozone depletion appear to be accelerating; and (2) the depletion seems to be spreading into the summer months over the north temperate zone of latitudes. Although there is still controversy over what the effects of such depletion ultimately will be, most nations of the world, including all of the advanced industrialized countries, agree that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) must be phased out of all production and use, and they are taking steps to do that before the turn of the century. Two distinctly different conclusions are thus possible regarding the outcome of the negotiations. As the first successfully negotiated multilateral agreement to address a global environmental problem, the Protocol is seen by many to be a triumph of environmental awareness and international cooperation. To other observers, however, the struggle for domestic commercial interests and national political debates that led to delays in action may already be causing serious and irreversible damage that could have been avoided. In short, the negotiation process worked, but it took to long for nations to agree that it was necessary and to begin the process.

  17. Quebec

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-17

    ... case, the individual channels of data are displayed as red, green, and blue, respectively. Much of the ground remains covered or ... from the smooth water surface results in bluer hues, whereas urban areas look somewhat orange, possibly due to the effect of vertical ...

  18. Education and the Marketplace--Quebec's Policies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaukopf, Phyllis; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Provides a summary and analysis of current Quebec policies on continuing education and manpower training. Describes government plans for manpower training and youth employment under the categories of accessibility, efficiency, and effectiveness. (NEC)

  19. A Political History of Public Libraries in Quebec (Bibliotheques Municipales au Quebec).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuntz, Patricia S.

    In the province of Quebec, the role of language and religion has been a significant feature in defining nationality, educating the young, and building infrastructures such as libraries. In contrast to English-Canadian provinces, only after 1960 did the government of Quebec authorize public support for public libraries to serve its francophone…

  20. Diglossie au Quebec, limites et tendances actuelles (Diglossia in Quebec, Its Limits and Tendencies)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chantefort, Pierre

    1976-01-01

    This article shows that the language situation in Quebec cannot be characterized as a diglossic one (as defined by Ferguson) because of the links existing between Standard Canadian French and "joual." Due to political factors, Quebec is moving toward a mixed standard language. (Text is in French.) (CDSH/CLK)

  1. Influence of attitudes on the intention to use condoms in Quebec sexually active male adolescents.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, M N; Saucier, J F; Pica, L A

    1994-05-01

    The authors surveyed between April and June 1989, 1328 males from six secondary schools in grades 7-11 in Laval, Quebec, to determine the influence of attitudes and other variables on their intentions to use condoms. Findings are based upon survey feedback from the 433 students who reported being sexually active. Although they ranged in age from 12 to 19 years, 91.9% were aged 13-17. Laval is a mainly French-speaking middle-class white suburb immediately north of Montreal and is the second most populous city in the province of Quebec with a population of 314,398. Condom use at first intercourse was greatest among 14 year olds at 72.7%, compared to only 51.2% of 17 year olds. Older adolescents depended more upon their female partners' use of oral contraceptives. In younger adolescents, the intention to use condoms was significantly associated with supportive parental attitudes about sexuality and contraception. Information on condoms provided by parents, peers, schools, and the media had no positive effect upon subjects' intentions to use condoms. The young men seemed instead to be more affected by their personal attitudes about condoms. The authors suggest exposing young men to programs designed to prevent unwanted pregnancy, HIV infection, and other sexually transmitted diseases early in their lives. Parents should also be encouraged to take a greater role in sex education.

  2. The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate

    PubMed Central

    Velders, Guus J. M.; Andersen, Stephen O.; Daniel, John S.; Fahey, David W.; McFarland, Mack

    2007-01-01

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is a landmark agreement that has successfully reduced the global production, consumption, and emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). ODSs are also greenhouse gases that contribute to the radiative forcing of climate change. Using historical ODSs emissions and scenarios of potential emissions, we show that the ODS contribution to radiative forcing most likely would have been much larger if the ODS link to stratospheric ozone depletion had not been recognized in 1974 and followed by a series of regulations. The climate protection already achieved by the Montreal Protocol alone is far larger than the reduction target of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Additional climate benefits that are significant compared with the Kyoto Protocol reduction target could be achieved by actions under the Montreal Protocol, by managing the emissions of substitute fluorocarbon gases and/or implementing alternative gases with lower global warming potentials. PMID:17360370

  3. The importance of the Montreal Protocol in protecting climate.

    PubMed

    Velders, Guus J M; Andersen, Stephen O; Daniel, John S; Fahey, David W; McFarland, Mack

    2007-03-20

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer is a landmark agreement that has successfully reduced the global production, consumption, and emissions of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). ODSs are also greenhouse gases that contribute to the radiative forcing of climate change. Using historical ODSs emissions and scenarios of potential emissions, we show that the ODS contribution to radiative forcing most likely would have been much larger if the ODS link to stratospheric ozone depletion had not been recognized in 1974 and followed by a series of regulations. The climate protection already achieved by the Montreal Protocol alone is far larger than the reduction target of the first commitment period of the Kyoto Protocol. Additional climate benefits that are significant compared with the Kyoto Protocol reduction target could be achieved by actions under the Montreal Protocol, by managing the emissions of substitute fluorocarbon gases and/or implementing alternative gases with lower global warming potentials.

  4. Hydro-Quebec is at it again

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, G.

    1993-12-31

    When New York governor Mario Cuomo pulled the plug on a purchase of 1,000 megawatts of power from Hydro-Quebec last June, the provincial utility talked tough. The cancellation, a senior Hydro-Quebec official claimed, would not jeopardize the future of its controversial Great Whale hydro project in the North. Bu Hydro-Quebec has quietly shoved Great Whale onto the back burner while an environmental review is underway. In the meantime the utility is barreling ahead with another mega-dam. The Ste. Marquerite project planned for north-eastern Quebec is modest by Hydro-Quebec standards, generating less than a third the power of Great Whale. Still, with an 880-megawatt power station and 190 square miles of reservoirs, it is one of the largest hydro projects on any drawing board in North America. Environmentalists say it is being pushed ahead without a serious study of its impacts. This article details the environmental impacts of the project, and the extended impacts, not yet accounted for.

  5. Proceedings of the Annual Adult Education Research Conference (24th, Montreal, Quebec, April 8-10, 1983).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montreal Univ. (Quebec).

    These proceedings contain 46 papers. Brief English-language titles include: "Some Research Findings on Study Methods in Adult Distance Education" (Bajtelsmit); "Self Planned Professional Learning among Public School Adult Education Directors" (Beder, et al.); "Participation in Study Circles and the Creation of Analysis" (Beder, et al.);…

  6. Commission of Professors of Adult Education. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, October 13-15, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Daniele, Ed.; And Others

    This document contains the following conference presentations and panel discussions: "What Went on at the 1990 CPAE [Commission of Professors of Adult Education] Meetings in Salt Lake City" (Michael Collins); "Reflections on the Commission of Professors of Adult Education" (Robert M. Smith); "Reconstructing the Mainstream: Issues in History on…

  7. The Janus Project Workshop. New Technologies and Women. Proceedings (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, March 21-22, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Christina

    A conference was held to discuss the new communications technologies, such as the Internet and the World Wide Web, and their effect on women's opportunities to learn. A paper on woman-centered learning in the digital universe and a discussion paper examining the pros and cons of introducing and using new technologies in educational programs for…

  8. Actes des Journees de linguistique (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference) (10th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 2-4, 1996).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laberge, Julie, Ed.; Vezina, Robert, Ed.

    The 33 papers, all in French, from the 1996 conference on research in linguistics address a wide range of topics in linguistics, including: linguists as an endangered species; categorizing verb specifiers in Yoruba; socio-terminology as a framework for understanding the language of orthodontia; French-to-Arabic borrowings in the 19th and 20th…

  9. Selections from the ABC 2011 Annual Convention, Montreal, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whalen, D. Joel; Andersen, Ken; Campbell, Gloria; Crenshaw, Cheri; Cross, Geoffrey A.; Grinols, Anne Bradstreet; Hildebrand, John; Newman, Amy; Ortiz, Lorelei A.; Paulson, Edward; Phillabaum, Melinda; Powell, Elizabeth A.; Sloan, Ryan

    2012-01-01

    The 12 Favorite Assignments featured in this article were presented at the 2011 Annual Convention of the Association for Business Communication (ABC), Montreal, Canada. A variety of learning objectives are featured: delivering bad news, handling difficult people, persuasion, reporting financial analysis, electronic media, face-to-face…

  10. English as a Minority Language in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boberg, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The variety of English spoken by about half a million people in the Canadian province of Quebec is a minority language in intensive contact with French, the local majority language. This unusual contact situation has produced a unique variety of English which displays many instances of French influence that distinguish it from other types of…

  11. Pour une education interculturelle au Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moisset, Jean

    1987-01-01

    Describes the multicultural nature of contemporary Quebec society. Discusses three major principles which serve as the foundation for the respect for the rights of others, arguing that a deep change in attitudes is necessary to guarantee the rights of ethnocultural minorities. Sees the role of intercultural education as promoting attitudinal…

  12. Gallicism, Anglo-Saxonism and Quebec Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Roger

    1984-01-01

    The current educational debate in Quebec results not only from language, religious, and political differences between English- and French-speaking Quebeckers but also from cultural differences between the Gallic tradition of rationalism, codifed law, and centralism and the Anglo-Saxon tradition of empiricism, common law, and localism. (SB)

  13. A Comparison Study of Volatile Organic Compound Species and Concentrations in Snow Samples From Rural Sites in South-Western Quebec and at Alert, Nunavut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortazavi, R.; Kos, G.; Ariya, P. A.

    2006-12-01

    An intercomparison study was undertaken to evaluate volatile organic compound (VOC) species and concentrations in snow from different environments. Samples were collected in semi-urban/rural environments in Montreal, south-western Quebec, approximately 50 and 150 km east and north of Montreal, Quebec. Samples were also collected in the High Arctic near Alert, Nunavut. Analysis was carried out using pre- concentration with solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and subsequent analyses using gas chromatography systems fitted with mass spectrometric (GC/MS) and flame ionisation detectors (GC/FID). Headspace and liquid phase of the snow samples were analysed. Bacterial and fungal species were isolated from sampled snow and their ice nucleation ability was assessed. Results demonstrate how VOC species and concentrations vary with the degree of anthropogenic activity and how long-range transport causes anthropogenic compounds to get deposited in the snow pack of remote areas. It is also shown, that snow provides a reservoir of various photo-labile compounds, and serves as an active site for microbiological processes. Atmospheric implications of the results will be discussed.

  14. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of macrolide-resistant group A Streptococcus strains in the province of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Weiss, K; De Azavedo, J; Restieri, C; Galarneau, L A; Gourdeau, M; Harvey, P; Paradis, J F; Salim, K; Low, D E

    2001-03-01

    Resistance to macrolides among group A streptococci is an increasing problem worldwide. We examined 496 strains phenotypically and genotypically for resistance to erythromycin and clindamycin. Strains were isolated in five different geographical areas representing about 45% of the total Quebec population. The overall resistance rate was 4.6% but varied from 0% in rural areas to 9.4% in Montreal. Of the 23 strains showing resistance to erythromycin, 15 (65%) had an identical pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern, were of serotype M28T28 and harboured the erm(TR) gene, suggesting the spread of a single clone. Of the remaining eight strains, two strains had the erm(B) gene, five had the mef gene and one with a different serotype also had the erm(TR) gene.

  15. Trends in cancer prevalence in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Louchini, Rabia; Beaupré, Michel; Demers, Alain A; Goggin, Patricia; Bouchard, Clermont

    2006-01-01

    Cancer prevalence is of prime interest in public health because of its use in estimating the disease's burden on the heath care system. This study's objective was to estimate five-year prevalence of tumours from 1989 to 1999 and ten-year prevalence of tumours from 1994 to 1999 in the Province of Quebec (Canada). Five-year prevalence was used to represent tumours for which people are more likely to obtain primary treatment; ten-year prevalence included those tumours in addition to tumours that can be considered cured but still need follow-up. Information was extracted from the Quebec Cancer Registry. Prostate cancer was the most prevalent malignancy among males (25 percent, five-year prevalent tumours), while breast cancer was most prevalent among females (38 percent, five-year prevalent tumours). For both sexes, the greatest observed prevalence increase was for endocrine glands. On average, five-year prevalence proportions were 16 percent higher in men than in women; those of ten year were 14 percent higher in men. Furthermore, the largest differences were observed for bladder and lung cancer. The change in cancer prevalence in Quebec was dependent on the tumour site. PMID:17306062

  16. 75th Anniversary Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmerij, Louis; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Includes "Editorial"; "Employment Problem and the International Economy" (Emmerij); "Declaration of Philadelphia" (Lee); "Pragmatism and Daring in International Labour Law" (Javillier); "Perspectives on the Future of Social Security" (von Maydell); and "Unions as Social Institutions in Democratic Market Economies" (Sugeno). (SK)

  17. Mitigation of hurricane potential intensity by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camargo, S. J.; Polvani, L. M.; Garcia, R. R.

    2014-12-01

    In the last decade, it has become apparent that the regulation ofozone depleting substances (ODS) by the Montreal Protocol has hadprofound impacts on the climate system, affecting not only surfacetemperatures but also the atmospheric circulation and the entirehydrological cycle. In this study we demonstrate that he MontrealProtocol will also be very effective in mitigating the potentialintensity (PI) of hurricanes in the coming half century. We accomplish this by comparing the projections of a standard CMIP5RCP4.5 scenario to those of the so-called "World Avoided" scenario, inwhich ODS grow unabated in the absence of regulations. For thiscomparison, we use ouput from two 3-member ensembles of WholeAtmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM), integrated between 2005and 2065. WACCM is the most comprehensive member of the CommunityEarth System Models (CESM), and includes interactive stratosphericchemistry, in addition to coupled land, ocean, and sea-ice components, In the World Avoided projections we find that the hurricane PI issubstantially larger that in the standard RCP4.5 case. Specifically,over the decade 2056-2065, the increase in PI is comparable to the onebetween RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 for the entire multi-model mean of the CMIP5models. Similar to what is projected by the CMIP5 models forincreasing CO2, in the World Avoided scenario the increase in hurricanPI is due to a combined increase in sea surface temperature and CAPE,and a decrease in the temperature in upper levels, near 70hPa. Our WACCM simulations indicate that the mitigating effect of theMontreal Protocol is highly significant: without ODSs regulations thePI would be twice as large as currently projected by the middle ofthis century.

  18. The unsheltering sky: China, India, and the Montreal Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, H.

    1996-12-31

    The cooperation of China and India in replacing chemicals that damage the stratospheric ozone layer is critical to the success of the world`s first environmental agreement, the Montreal Protocol. China`s leaders accepted the agreement more readily than did their Indian counterparts. These divergent responses are attributed to the nature of the policy issue in question, the impact of regime type upon state leaders` environmental policies, and dissimilar linkages between international and domestic actors and forces. The author examines these divergent responses.

  19. Synthetic greenhouse gases to decline if Montreal Protocol amended

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendel, JoAnna

    2014-07-01

    The Montreal Protocol, an international treaty designed to reduce the release into the atmosphere of ozone-depleting gases such as hydrochlorofluorocarbons and chlorofluorocarbons, has been successful since its implementation in the late 1980s. However, related greenhouse gases, such as hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), have increased in concentration in the atmosphere since then. HFCs, along with other synthetic greenhouse gases (SGHGs), account for a radiative forcing almost 20% as large as that due to the increase in carbon dioxide (CO2) since the preindustrial era.

  20. Drug sample management in University of Montreal family medicine teaching units

    PubMed Central

    Lussier, Marie-Thérèse; Vanier, Marie-Claude; Authier, Marie; Diallo, Fatoumata Binta; Gagnon, Justin

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the management and distribution of drug samples in family medicine teaching units (FMUs). Design Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting All 16 FMUs affiliated with the Department of Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine at the University of Montreal in Quebec. Participants Health care professionals (physicians, residents, pharmacists, and nurses) who manage (n = 22) and dispense (n = 294) drug samples in the FMUs. Methods Data were collected between February and March 2013 using 2 self-administered questionnaires completed by health care professionals who manage or dispense drug samples. The data were subjected to descriptive and bivariate analyses. Results The participation rate was 100.0% for staff who manage drug samples and 72.5% for those who dispense them. Of the 16 participating FMUs, 12 have drug sample cabinets. Eight of the FMUs have a written institutional policy governing the management of drug samples. Of the 76.2% of respondents who said they distributed samples, more than half did not know whether their institution had a policy. In 7 of 12 FMUs with drug sample cabinets, access to samples is not restricted to those authorized to prescribe medications. Cabinets are most often managed by nurses (9 of 12 FMUs). Only 4 of 12 FMUs take regular inventory of cabinet contents. The main reasons cited for dispensing samples were to help a patient financially and to test for tolerance and efficacy when initiating or modifying a treatment for a patient. Three-quarters (78.2%) of dispensers reported that sometimes they were unable to find the drug they wanted in the cabinet; half of those consequently gave patients drugs that were not their first choice. More than half the dispensers reported they never or only occasionally referred patients to their community pharmacists. Conclusion A portrait of drug sample management and dispensation in the academic FMUs emerged from this study. This study provides insight into current

  1. J'ai le gout du Quebec (I Am in the Mood for Quebec)!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetu de Labsade, Francoise

    1981-01-01

    Hails the vitality of the French language in the Quebec region as it manifests itself through advertisements, from political slogans to storefront signs. Discusses the relationship between the language of the Quebecois and their culture, and offers an effective visual commentary through numerous illustrations. (MES)

  2. La culture politique du Mouvement Quebec Francais [The Political Culture of the "French Quebec Movement"].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turcotte, Denis

    This study of the "Mouvement Quebec Francais (MQF)" covers the period from March 1971 through Spring 1974. The fundamental postulate of the study is that if the political culture is internalized by individuals, it is at the same time borne by groups. The study of groups represents, therefore, a good vehicle to reveal the most significant…

  3. L'enseignement du francais au Quebec (The Teaching of French in Quebec)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mear-Crine, A. M.

    1977-01-01

    This article reviews the situation of the instruction of French in Quebec, in terms of the role of French and attitudes toward standard and non-standard varieties of French, the acquisition of French by native French speakers. Bidialectal instruction is suggested as one way of dealing with non-standard varieties. (Text is in French.) (CLK)

  4. Multiculturalism and Interculturalism in Quebec: Between Myth and Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belhachmi, Zakia

    This paper discusses procedural liberalism as the main obstacle to democratic, pluralist cultural and educational practice in Quebec, Canada, arguing that institutional-level procedural liberalism promotes the status quo and precludes the democratic practice of intercultural education. It attributes this status quo to: (1) the Quebec government's…

  5. International Briefing 28: Training and Development in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foucher, Roland; Hassi, Abderrahman

    2013-01-01

    This briefing examines training and development (T&D) in Quebec, one of 10 provinces and three territories that make up Canada. Quebec has three distinguishing characteristics that encourage analysis of its T&D separately from that of Canada as a whole. First, it is the only North American region with a majority francophone population. Second,…

  6. Indians of Quebec and the Maritime Provinces (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Giving the history of the Indians of Quebec and the maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the Prince Edward Island), this document covers the period from the arrival of European explorers in the New World to 1967. Reviewing the history of these Indians, sections are devoted to (1) colonization of Acadia, (2) colonization of Quebec, (3)…

  7. Education and Society in Quebec in the 1970's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnuson, Roger

    1973-01-01

    Education in Quebec in the 1970's is being staged against the backdrop of the language question, which may be expressed as the desire of the French Canadians to promote the use of their language. The growing importance of language in Quebec is considered. (Editor/RK)

  8. Quebec Fiction: In the Shadow of "Maria Chapdelaine."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mezei, Kathy

    1988-01-01

    Claims that Quebec writers in the 1960s-80s, buoyed by nationalist and separatist aims, created alternative "Marias" who write out of their language, dreams, and bodies, and who are trying to effect a further liberation. Asks where future trajectories invented by Quebec writers will propel their readers next. (RAE)

  9. Montreal Protocol: The Gift that Keeps on Giving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reifsnyder, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Unlike many of my contemporaries, I did not begin my career with CFCs, ozone, and the Montreal Protocol. Instead, I began with climate change issue. In October 1989 I became Director of the Department of State's Office of Global Change, after the George H.W. Bush Administration agreed to host the Third Plenary of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) at Georgetown University. Bert Bolin was IPCC Chair, Bill Reilly was EPA Administrator and John Sununu was White House Chief of Staff. I survived those early years and afterward had a long run with the climate change policy - lasting through six administrations. Last year I even chaired the Ad Hoc Group on Long-Term Cooperative Action in Durban at the 17th Conference of the Parties under the UN FCCC. I really plunged into the ozone issue in 2006 when I became the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Environment. By then ozone was hardly ever mentioned, except to recall that the Montreal Protocol was undoubtedly the most successful multilateral environmental agreement ever undertaken - and to contrast it nostalgically with others that have not fared so well - particularly climate. Even worse, ozone was ancient history and most people thought we had solved that problem. Richard Benedict's Ozone Diplomacy had long been a staple of college courses on the global environment but few graduates saw a career in ozone, and it had become difficult to find people in government who were willing to work on it. In early 2007, my staff and I met with colleagues at EPA to brainstorm about the global effort to phase out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and move to alternatives - hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs). The transition from CFCs was nearing its end but HCFCs, though less potent, were still a problem for the ozone layer. We began to wonder -- could something be done to accelerate the phaseouts of HCFCs? We realized that proposing an acceleration would mean that developed countries would need to go first. Only later would they

  10. [Psychiatry in Quebec. Then and now].

    PubMed

    Lalonde, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This text narrates the evolution, since the 1960s, of different events that marked the history of psychiatry in the French-Canadian province of Quebec. From his personal experience, the author discusses. The evolution of the Départment de psychiatric de l'Université de Montréal fro where were issued more than 1000 psychiatrists who shaped clinical practice and research developments worthy of mention throughout the years. The evolution of diagnostic noselogy from the DSM-ii, very influenced by psychoanalysis, to the DSM-5 that is more atheortical, but that is still not based on objective data, which remains a challenge to the etiology of mental illness. The psychiatric drugs that we have learned to prescribe in the past 50 years in a more rational way thanks to a better understanding of their action mechanisms. In reality, there has been no discovery of new drug categories; rather it is the way we prescribe medication that evolved. The great adventure of the first textbook of Quebec psychiatry, which was first published in 1980, and is forthcoming in its 4th edition in 2015 in an improved and expanded format. The forthcoming version takes into consideration the developments in psychiatry. The creation of the Young Adults Clinic in 1988, providing treatment and rehabilitation to young adults in the early stages of schizophrenia, as well as psychoeducational support and information to heir family members. Through the years, this clinic had a considerable acknowledgement in Quebec and other French-speaking nations. PMID:26559212

  11. 14 CFR 203.3 - Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Montreal Agreement. 203.3 Section 203.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.3 Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement. All direct U.S. and foreign air... liability limitations of the Warsaw Convention and Hague Protocol approved by CAB Order E-23680, dated...

  12. 14 CFR 203.3 - Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Montreal Agreement. 203.3 Section 203.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.3 Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement. All direct U.S. and foreign air... liability limitations of the Warsaw Convention and Hague Protocol approved by CAB Order E-23680, dated...

  13. 14 CFR 203.3 - Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Montreal Agreement. 203.3 Section 203.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.3 Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement. All direct U.S. and foreign air... liability limitations of the Warsaw Convention and Hague Protocol approved by CAB Order E-23680, dated...

  14. 14 CFR 203.3 - Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Montreal Agreement. 203.3 Section 203.3 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... DEFENSES § 203.3 Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement. All direct U.S. and foreign air... liability limitations of the Warsaw Convention and Hague Protocol approved by CAB Order E-23680, dated...

  15. Greek Day Education in and around Montreal: The Case for a Greek Trilingual High School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bombas, Leonidas C.

    The history of the education of Montreal's Greek population is traced in this report, which is partly intended to act as a stimulus for future planning and development. Six chapters contain, respectively: (1) a history of Greek day education in and around Montreal, from its origin in 1910 with the founding of the "Plato" school to its securing of…

  16. A New Polarimeter at the Universite de Montreal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manset, Nadine; Bastien, Pierre

    1995-05-01

    We present Beauty and The Beast, a new polarimeter of the Universite de Montreal, formerly built for the Canada-France-Hawaii telescope (CFHT) but never commissioned there. This computer-controlled Pockels cell polarimeter has been restored to working order and offers a wide range of possibilities: almost all functions are under remote control, linear or circular polarization observations are both possible, a filter slide provides easy access to up to six different bandpasses, and the Pockels cell and Fabry lenses are kept at a constant temperature. In addition to controlling the instrument, the software allows the use of pre-defined sequences of observation, and does data acquisition and reduction. (SECTION: Astronomical Instrumentation)

  17. Multivariate analysis of parameters related to lake acidification in Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Bobee, B.; Lachance, M.

    1984-08-01

    Physico-chemical data from 234 lakes were collected during the spring and summer of 1980 by the Quebec Ministry of the Environment, the Quebec Ministry of Recreation, Hunting and Fishing and the Canadian Wildlife Service. A statistical method, based on the joint use of factorial correspondence analysis and cluster analysis, was applied to these data to obtain a general picture of the spatial variability of a member of physico-chemical parameters related to the sensitivity or acidification of lakewaters. This method was first applied to the entire Quebec territory, and showed that the part of Quebec lying on the Canadian shield is especially vulnerable to acidification. The method also showed that the southwestern portion of this area of Quebec was more substantially affected by acid fallout. A detailed study of spatial variability over the shield area revealed the existence of greater spatial heterogeneity. More precisely, it was possible to pinpoint zones which are highly vulnerable to acid precipitation and zones whose lakes show clear signs of acidification resulting from such precipitation. These two statistical analyses led to a first general diagnosis on lake acidification in Quebec. They contribute to the rationalization of data acquisition in Quebec by delimitating zones where network density needs to be increased.

  18. Quebec's Ice Storm '98: "all cards wild, all rules broken" in Quebec's shell-shocked hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J

    1998-01-01

    The remarkable ice storm that brought life to a standstill in most of Eastern Ontario and Quebec in January had a huge impact on medical services. Hospitals that lost power found themselves serving as shelters not only for patients but also for staff members and nearby residents. Doctors' offices were forced to close and a large number of operations were cancelled. The 2 articles that follow detail the huge impact the "ice storm of the century" had on health care. PMID:9627567

  19. Authentication controversies and impactite petrography of the New Quebec Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marvin, Ursula B.; Kring, David A.

    1992-12-01

    The literature reports that led to the current acceptance of New Quebec Crater (Chubb Crater) as an authentic impact crater are reviewed, and it is noted that, for reasons that are not entirely clear, a meteoritic origin for the New Quebec Crater achieved wider acceptance at an earlier data than for the Lake Bosumtwi Crater, for which petrographic and chemical evidence is more abundant and compelling. The petrography of two impact melt samples from the New Quebec Crater was investigated, and new evidence is obtained on the degrees of shock metamorphism affecting the accessory minerals such as apatite, sphene, magnetite, and zircon.

  20. Authentication controversies and impactite petrography of the New Quebec Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marvin, Ursula B.; Kring, David A.

    1992-01-01

    The literature reports that led to the current acceptance of New Quebec Crater (Chubb Crater) as an authentic impact crater are reviewed, and it is noted that, for reasons that are not entirely clear, a meteoritic origin for the New Quebec Crater achieved wider acceptance at an earlier data than for the Lake Bosumtwi Crater, for which petrographic and chemical evidence is more abundant and compelling. The petrography of two impact melt samples from the New Quebec Crater was investigated, and new evidence is obtained on the degrees of shock metamorphism affecting the accessory minerals such as apatite, sphene, magnetite, and zircon.

  1. Communities of practice as a professional and organizational development strategy in local public health organizations in Quebec, Canada: an evaluation model.

    PubMed

    Richard, Lucie; Chiocchio, François; Essiembre, Hélène; Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Lamy, Geneviève; Champagne, François; Beaudet, Nicole

    2014-02-01

    Communities of practice (CoPs) are among the professional development strategies most widely used in such fields as management and education. Though the approach has elicited keen interest, knowledge pertaining to its conceptual underpinnings is still limited, thus hindering proper assessment of CoPs' effects and the processes generating the latter. To address this shortcoming, this paper presents a conceptual model that was developed to evaluate an initiative based on a CoP strategy: Health Promotion Laboratories are a professional development intervention that was implemented in local public health organizations in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). The model is based on latest theories on work-group effectiveness and organizational learning and can be usefully adopted by evaluators who are increasingly called upon to illuminate decision-making about CoPs. Ultimately, validation of this conceptual model will help advance knowledge and practice pertaining to CoPs as well as professional and organizational development strategies in public health.

  2. Communities of Practice as a Professional and Organizational Development Strategy in Local Public Health Organizations in Quebec, Canada: An Evaluation Model

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Lucie; Chiocchio, François; Essiembre, Hélène; Tremblay, Marie-Claude; Lamy, Geneviève; Champagne, François; Beaudet, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Communities of practice (CoPs) are among the professional development strategies most widely used in such fields as management and education. Though the approach has elicited keen interest, knowledge pertaining to its conceptual underpinnings is still limited, thus hindering proper assessment of CoPs' effects and the processes generating the latter. To address this shortcoming, this paper presents a conceptual model that was developed to evaluate an initiative based on a CoP strategy: Health Promotion Laboratories are a professional development intervention that was implemented in local public health organizations in Montreal (Quebec, Canada). The model is based on latest theories on work-group effectiveness and organizational learning and can be usefully adopted by evaluators who are increasingly called upon to illuminate decision-making about CoPs. Ultimately, validation of this conceptual model will help advance knowledge and practice pertaining to CoPs as well as professional and organizational development strategies in public health. PMID:24726072

  3. Quebec: A Unique North American ESL Teaching Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lord, Jacquelyn

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on teaching English as a Second Language (ESL) in Quebec at the elementary and secondary levels. Highlights the educational system and second language requirements, educational reform, and professionals and parents advancing ESL instruction. (Author/VWL)

  4. Power from the north: The poetics and politics of energy in Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbiens, Caroline

    In 1971, Robert Bourassa, then Premier of Quebec, launched a major hydroelectric scheme to be built 1400 km North of Montreal. Known as the "James Bay" project, the first phase included the creation of eight powerhouses, six reservoirs and the diversion of two rivers. These transformations necessarily impacted the local Cree people; a territorial agreement partly compensated them but remains controversial to this day. While northern communities overwhelmingly bear the ecological cost of the project, the bulk of James Bay energy flows south to the industrial centers of Quebec, Ontario and the U.S. The assertion then that "James Bay belongs to all the Quebecois" which was meant to ease political tensions about the project begs the question, "Who are the Quebecois" and how do the Crees fit within such a community? This thesis explore that question by looking at the Quebecois cultural production of territory and its resources in the north. If James Bay was out of reach, it was never out of view. Media and political discourses reiterated key elements of a Quebecois cultural relationship to place, some of which are contained in the rural literature known as the roman de la terre. Several elements of this literature and its broader context were recontextualized in James Bay, particularly as they pertained to the will to occupy the land and develop natural resources. This was an important aspect of making James Bay---a land historically inhabited by the Crees---into a "Quebecois" national landscape. I suggest that this process was largely rooted in representations of nature that sought to bind it with nation and national identity. Thus James Bay demonstrates the close connection between identity and environmental struggles. For the Quebecois, the access to James Bay was supported by a territorial discourse that performed their own cultural past. This provoked an organized resistance from the Crees which constituted them as a modern political unit. A look at the cultural

  5. (222)Rn activity in groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, eastern Canada: relation with local geology and health hazard.

    PubMed

    Pinti, Daniele L; Retailleau, Sophie; Barnetche, Diogo; Moreira, Floriane; Moritz, Anja M; Larocque, Marie; Gélinas, Yves; Lefebvre, René; Hélie, Jean-François; Valadez, Arisai

    2014-10-01

    One hundred ninety-eight groundwater wells were sampled to measure the (222)Rn activity in the region between Montreal and Quebec City, eastern Canada. The aim of this study was to relate the spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity to the geology and the hydrogeology of the study area and to estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn in the most populated area of the Province of Quebec. Most of the groundwater samples show low (222)Rn activities with a median value of 8.6 Bq/L. Ninety percent of samples show (222)Rn activity lower than 100 Bq/L, the exposure limit in groundwater recommended by the World Health Organization. A few higher (222)Rn activities (up to 310 Bq/L) have been measured in wells from the Appalachian Mountains and from the magmatic intrusion of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, known for its high level of indoor radon. The spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity seems to be related mainly to lithology differences between U-richer metasediments of the Appalachian Mountains and magmatic intrusions and the carbonaceous silty shales of the St. Lawrence Platform. Radon is slightly enriched in sodium-chlorine waters that evolved at contact with clay-rich formations. (226)Ra, the parent element of (222)Rn could be easily adsorbed on clays, creating a favorable environment for the production and release of (222)Rn into groundwater. The contribution of groundwater radon to indoor radon or by ingestion is minimal except for specific areas near Mont-Saint-Hilaire or in the Appalachian Mountains where this contribution could reach 45% of the total radioactive annual dose. PMID:24973780

  6. Earthquake-triggered slumps (1935 Timiskaming M6.2) in Lake Kipawa, Western Quebec Seismic Zone, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doughty, M.; Eyles, N.; Daurio, L.

    2010-07-01

    The Western Quebec Seismic Zone (WQSZ) of eastern North America is characterised by frequent moderate magnitude intracratonic earthquakes (e.g., 1732, M5.8; 1935, M6.2 and 1944, M5.2). The WQSZ is centered along the Timiskaming and Ottawa-Bonnechere grabens, which form part of a complex aulacogen (St.Lawrence Rift) within the Canadian Shield. The WQSZ includes the urban areas of Montreal and Ottawa but seismic risk analysis is challenged by short instrumental records and long recurrence intervals. The M6.2 1935 Timiskaming Earthquake is the largest recorded to date and was felt over some 1.3 million km 2 of eastern North America with many aftershocks of magnitude 4 to 5. Its epicenter lies below the western margin of Lake Kipawa, Quebec in the area where a major Proterozoic crustal boundary (the Grenville Front Tectonic Zone) crosses the Timiskaming Graben. A high-resolution 'chirp' seismic reflection survey of the lateglacial and postglacial sediment infill of Lake Kipawa reveals a clear record of recent ground shaking that is attributed to the 1935 earthquake. Widespread large slumps record down slope failure of the lateglacial and postglacial sediment fill indicating that the 1935 temblor was the largest in this area since deglaciation some 8000 years ago. Systematic mapping of landslides shows that they extend across an area of 600 km 2 around the earthquake's epicenter. Lakes cover a large area of eastern Canada; a regional-scale survey of lake floors could constrain historic epicenters and postglacial seismic history of the heavily populated WQSZ.

  7. (222)Rn activity in groundwater of the St. Lawrence Lowlands, Quebec, eastern Canada: relation with local geology and health hazard.

    PubMed

    Pinti, Daniele L; Retailleau, Sophie; Barnetche, Diogo; Moreira, Floriane; Moritz, Anja M; Larocque, Marie; Gélinas, Yves; Lefebvre, René; Hélie, Jean-François; Valadez, Arisai

    2014-10-01

    One hundred ninety-eight groundwater wells were sampled to measure the (222)Rn activity in the region between Montreal and Quebec City, eastern Canada. The aim of this study was to relate the spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity to the geology and the hydrogeology of the study area and to estimate the potential health risks associated with (222)Rn in the most populated area of the Province of Quebec. Most of the groundwater samples show low (222)Rn activities with a median value of 8.6 Bq/L. Ninety percent of samples show (222)Rn activity lower than 100 Bq/L, the exposure limit in groundwater recommended by the World Health Organization. A few higher (222)Rn activities (up to 310 Bq/L) have been measured in wells from the Appalachian Mountains and from the magmatic intrusion of Mont-Saint-Hilaire, known for its high level of indoor radon. The spatial distribution of (222)Rn activity seems to be related mainly to lithology differences between U-richer metasediments of the Appalachian Mountains and magmatic intrusions and the carbonaceous silty shales of the St. Lawrence Platform. Radon is slightly enriched in sodium-chlorine waters that evolved at contact with clay-rich formations. (226)Ra, the parent element of (222)Rn could be easily adsorbed on clays, creating a favorable environment for the production and release of (222)Rn into groundwater. The contribution of groundwater radon to indoor radon or by ingestion is minimal except for specific areas near Mont-Saint-Hilaire or in the Appalachian Mountains where this contribution could reach 45% of the total radioactive annual dose.

  8. Equality in medical care under national health insurance in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Siemiatycki, J; Richardson, L; Pless, I B

    1980-07-01

    In November 1974, four years after national health insurance in Canada had eliminated all out-of-pocket payment for physicians' services, we surveyed 1559 households in a socially heterogeneous area of Montreal to assess social-class differences in the use of physicians' services. When reported health status as well as age and sex were taken into account, the rates of physician visits during the two-week period preceding the survey were essentially the same in the low, middle, and high economic classes, thus confirming that disparity of access had been reduced. However, relative to other groups, the poor still made considerable use of hospital clinics and emergency rooms for primary care and more of their visits entailed prescriptions and physician-initiated requests to return. The latter observations may indicate that the poor, as compared with other groups consulted the doctor for more advanced conditions. Official statistics showed no increase in the workload of the average physician, although the number of physician visits per person per year had risen steadily. There was no evidence of abuse of "free" medical care by the poor.

  9. The Montreal Criteria for the Ethical Feasibility of Uterine Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Lefkowitz, Ariel; Edwards, Marcel; Balayla, Jacques

    2012-04-01

    Absolute uterine factor infertility (UFI) refers to the refractory causes of female infertility stemming from the anatomical or physiological inability of a uterus to sustain gestation. Today, uterine factor infertility affects 3-5% of the population. Traditionally, although surrogacy and adoption have been the only viable options for females affected by this condition, the uterine transplant is currently under investigation as a potential medical alternative for women who desire to go through the experience of pregnancy. Although animal models have shown promising results, human transplantation cases have only been described in case reports and a successful transplant leading to gestation is yet to occur in humans. Notwithstanding the intricate medical and scientific complexities that a uterine transplant places on the medical minds of our time, ethical questions on this matter pose a similar, if not greater, challenge. In light of these facts, this article attempts to present the ethical issues in the context of experimentation and standard practice which surround this controversial and potentially paradigm-altering procedure; and given these, introduces "The Montreal Criteria for the Ethical Feasibility of Uterine Transplantation", a set of proposed criteria required for a woman to be ethically considered a candidate for uterine transplantation.

  10. Performance of five Montreal West Island home composters.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bijaya K; Trémier, Anne; Barrington, Suzelle

    2012-01-01

    Even if home composting can eliminate municipal organic waste collection, handling and treatment costs, its compost quality requires investigation outside the laboratory. A study was thus conducted to evaluate the influence of the following management practices on the compost quality produced by five backyards home composters in Montreal West Island from June to October 2010: the type and backyard location of the home composter (HC), and the rate and type of organic waste (OW) fed into the home composter. The parameters monitored were compost temperature and final characteristics including trace elements and pathogens. For all HC compost, maximum but not necessarily thermophilic temperatures were highly probable within one week of adding more than 10 kg of OW composed of equal volumes of food waste (FW) and yard trimmings (YT). Top and bottom HC perforations enhanced convective aeration but concentrated OW decomposition within the bottom layer. Fed an equal volume of FW and YT, the final HC compost had a dry and organic matter content exceeding 30%, and 50%, respectively, and a total nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium level of 2, 1 and 3% on a dry matter basis, representing a good quality soil amendment. Clean OW feeding resulted in compost respecting Canadian and European regulations for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, irrespective of the temperature regime. For trace elements, regulatory limits may be exceeded when the home composter is fed ashes and soil. Homeowners must also be careful when applying pesticides to their lawns and gardens and then feeding the residues to the home composter. PMID:23393981

  11. Montreal Cognitive Assessment: influence of sociodemographic and health variables.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Sandra; Simões, Mário R; Alves, Lara; Santana, Isabel

    2012-03-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a brief cognitive instrument for screening milder forms of cognitive impairment. The present study aimed to analyze the influence of sociodemographic (age, gender, educational level, marital and employment status, geographic region, geographic localization, and residence area) and health variables (subjective memory complaints of the participant and evaluated by the informant, depressive symptoms, and family history of dementia) on the participants' performance on the MoCA. The investigation was carried out in a Portuguese community-based sample of 650 cognitively healthy adults, who were representative of the distribution observed in the Portuguese population. Educational level and age significantly contributed to the prediction of the MoCA scores, explaining 49% of the variance. Regarding health variables, only the subjective memory complaints of the participant showed a small contribution (9%) to the variance on the MoCA scores. This study contributes a useful approach to understanding MoCA performance, stressing the great impact of education and age on scores. PMID:22277128

  12. Construct Validity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA).

    PubMed

    Freitas, Sandra; Simões, Mário R; Marôco, João; Alves, Lara; Santana, Isabel

    2012-03-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a brief instrument developed for the screening of milder forms of cognitive impairment. The present study aims to assess the construct related validity of the MoCA through the establishment of the factorial, convergent, and discriminant related validities, and the reliability of data. In a Portuguese sample of 830 participants, several models were tested using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Although all tested models showed a good fit, the six-factor model based on the conceptual model proposed by the MoCA's authors showed a significantly better fit. The results allowed us to establish the factorial, convergent, and discriminant validity of this six-dimensional structure. An overall psychometric adequacy of the items, and a good reliability were also found. This study contributes to overcome an important gap in the construct related validity of this instrument. The present findings corroborate the six-dimensional structure of the MoCA and provide good evidence of the construct related validity. The MoCA has proved to be an appropriate measure for cognitive screening taking into account different cognitive domains, which will enable clinicians and researchers to use this test and its six latent dimensions to achieve a better understanding of the individuals' cognitive profile. PMID:22115097

  13. Performance of five Montreal West Island home composters.

    PubMed

    Adhikari, Bijaya K; Trémier, Anne; Barrington, Suzelle

    2012-01-01

    Even if home composting can eliminate municipal organic waste collection, handling and treatment costs, its compost quality requires investigation outside the laboratory. A study was thus conducted to evaluate the influence of the following management practices on the compost quality produced by five backyards home composters in Montreal West Island from June to October 2010: the type and backyard location of the home composter (HC), and the rate and type of organic waste (OW) fed into the home composter. The parameters monitored were compost temperature and final characteristics including trace elements and pathogens. For all HC compost, maximum but not necessarily thermophilic temperatures were highly probable within one week of adding more than 10 kg of OW composed of equal volumes of food waste (FW) and yard trimmings (YT). Top and bottom HC perforations enhanced convective aeration but concentrated OW decomposition within the bottom layer. Fed an equal volume of FW and YT, the final HC compost had a dry and organic matter content exceeding 30%, and 50%, respectively, and a total nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium level of 2, 1 and 3% on a dry matter basis, representing a good quality soil amendment. Clean OW feeding resulted in compost respecting Canadian and European regulations for Escherichia coli and Salmonella, irrespective of the temperature regime. For trace elements, regulatory limits may be exceeded when the home composter is fed ashes and soil. Homeowners must also be careful when applying pesticides to their lawns and gardens and then feeding the residues to the home composter.

  14. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans.

  15. Prevalence and risk factors for Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., Coxiella burnetii, and Newcastle disease virus in feral pigeons (Columba livia) in public areas of Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Gabriele-Rivet, Vanessa; Fairbrother, Julie-Hélène; Tremblay, Donald; Harel, Josée; Côté, Nathalie; Arsenault, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Feral pigeons (Columbia livia) can harbor a range of zoonotic pathogens. A transversal study was undertaken to estimate the prevalence of feral pigeons infected by various pathogens in public areas in Montreal, Quebec. Cloacal swabs from captured birds were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Campylobacter spp. and tested by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the detection of Coxiella burnetii. An oropharyngeal swab was also submitted to real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) for the detection of Newcastle disease virus. Among the 187 pigeons tested from 10 public areas, 9.1% (95% CI: 3.0 to 15.2) were positive for Campylobacter spp. with all strains identified as Campylobacter jejuni. The Campylobacter status of birds was not associated with individual characteristics of birds, with the exception of body score. None of the pigeons tested positive for the other pathogens. Direct or indirect contacts with feral pigeons may constitute a potential risk for Campylobacter infection in humans. PMID:26733736

  16. Banque de Terminologie de l'universite de Montreal. Description du systeme Termium (Terminology Bank of the University of Montreal. Description of the Termium System).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dubuc, Robert

    The terminology bank at the University of Montreal is described. It consists of a dictionary of scientific and technical terms in the form of a bilingual card index permitting the entry of information into a computer and its retrieval via a terminal. The bank is intended for use by translators, government publication offices, information agencies,…

  17. The Practice of School Psychology in Quebec English Schools: Current Challenges and Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Cindy A.

    2016-01-01

    In Quebec, school psychology is alive and well. This article outlines current challenges and opportunities related to the practice of psychology in Quebec English schools. Changes to the practice of psychology in Quebec over the last decade have had an impact on the delivery of psychological services in schools. Modifications of the admission…

  18. The Public Finance of Private Education in the Province of Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bezeau, Lawrence M.

    1979-01-01

    Since 1968, Quebec province has subsidized private schools by a voucher system. This analytical literature review describes that system; summarizes information since 1968 on Quebec private schooling; and compares, using price theoretic concepts, Quebec's public and private education sectors in terms of economically efficient resource allocation.…

  19. 16-hour call duty schedules: the Quebec experience.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Charles; Saad, Nathalie; Carrier, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Since 1 July 2012, as a result of a labour arbitration ruling in the province of Quebec and the subsequent agreement negotiated by the Fédération des médecins résidents du Québec, all 3,400 medical residents training in Quebec have been on a 16-hour duty schedule for in-house calls. This is a major change within medical teaching sites, as well as a professional and educational challenge for physicians-in-training and their supervisors. The Quebec ruling now raises similar issues for all medical residents in Canada because of its legal basis, namely the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. PMID:25559990

  20. 16-hour call duty schedules: the Quebec experience.

    PubMed

    Dussault, Charles; Saad, Nathalie; Carrier, Johanne

    2014-01-01

    Since 1 July 2012, as a result of a labour arbitration ruling in the province of Quebec and the subsequent agreement negotiated by the Fédération des médecins résidents du Québec, all 3,400 medical residents training in Quebec have been on a 16-hour duty schedule for in-house calls. This is a major change within medical teaching sites, as well as a professional and educational challenge for physicians-in-training and their supervisors. The Quebec ruling now raises similar issues for all medical residents in Canada because of its legal basis, namely the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms.

  1. 16-hour call duty schedules: the Quebec experience

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Since 1 July 2012, as a result of a labour arbitration ruling in the province of Quebec and the subsequent agreement negotiated by the Fédération des médecins résidents du Québec, all 3,400 medical residents training in Quebec have been on a 16-hour duty schedule for in-house calls. This is a major change within medical teaching sites, as well as a professional and educational challenge for physicians-in-training and their supervisors. The Quebec ruling now raises similar issues for all medical residents in Canada because of its legal basis, namely the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. PMID:25559990

  2. Arts and Learning Research, 1999-2000. The Journal of the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, April 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bresler, Liora, Ed.; Ellis, Nancy C., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This volume contains papers which encompass visual arts, drama, music, literature, and poetry education, creating a space for scholars from diverse intellectual traditions. Following editorial notes and a message from the Arts and Learning Special Interest Group Chair, David Betts, are the papers of part 1, The Interconnectedness of Issues across…

  3. Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education. Proceedings of the Annual Conference (4th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, May 28-30, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education, Guelph (Ontario).

    These proceedings contain 28 papers (20 in English and 8 in French), including the following: "Beyond Ideology: The Case of the Corporate Classroom" (Zinman); "De quelques dimensions paradoxales de l'education interculturelle" (Ollivier); "Ideology, Indoctrination and the Language of Physics" (Winchester); "L'education des adultes comme rite…

  4. E-Learn 2002 World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, & Higher Education. Proceedings (7th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, October 15-19, 2002).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Driscoll, Margaret, Ed.; Reeves, Thomas C., Ed.

    The 7th annual E-Learn world conference on e-learning in corporate, government, healthcare, and higher education organized by the Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE) includes more than 600 papers. Papers from this proceedings come from contributors representing more than 50 countries, sharing their perspectives and…

  5. E-Learn 2012. World Conference on E-Learning in Corporate, Government, Healthcare, & Higher Education. Proceedings (Montreal, Quebec, Canada, October 9-12, 2012)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    This year's E-Learn conference has numerous exciting presentations and keynotes. Many speakers will be discussing how education is changing in the forthcoming years. Among them are Dale Stephens who works with the social movement "Uncollege" that empower students to create their own education, Saul Carliner who talks about Massive Online Open…

  6. Migration and HIV: an epidemiological study of Montrealers of Haitian origin.

    PubMed

    Adrien, A; Leaune, V; Remis, R S; Boivin, J F; Rud, E; Duperval, R; Noël, G E

    1999-04-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of HIV infection and associated risk factors among Montrealers of Haitian origin. We carried out a voluntary, anonymous survey in 7 primary care medical clinics in Montreal among 5039 persons aged 15 to 49 years born in Haiti or with at least one parent born in Haiti. The participation rate was 94.3%. Overall, HIV prevalence was 1.3% (1.6% in men and 1.1% in women). The HIV prevalence was lower among those born in Canada or who had resided in Canada longer. The prevalence among subjects who had travelled to Haiti in the previous 5 years was 2.0%, twice the rate of those who had not. The adjusted population attributable fraction of HIV infections associated with having had unprotected sex in Haiti was 10.2%. This study identified risk factors which will help in the design of more effective prevention programmes among Montrealers of Haitian origin.

  7. A Tale of Two Logics: Social Reproduction and Mobilisation in University Access in Quebec, 1945-2000

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laplante, Benoît; Doray, Pierre; Bastien, Nicolas; Chenard, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The 2012 Quebec students' protests against university tuition fees fostered a debate on access to higher education in Quebec, and specifically on the Quebec "educational lag". Using census data, we show that degree-holding is the same among Quebec French-speaking and Ontario English-speaking populations. Using event history analysis, we…

  8. 76 FR 32266 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Maine Northern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. (MMA) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to the Maine Northern Railway Company...

  9. 76 FR 32265 - Maine Northern Railway Company-Trackage Rights Exemption-Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board Maine Northern Railway Company--Trackage Rights Exemption-- Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. Pursuant to a written trackage rights agreement, Montreal, Maine & Atlantic Railway, Ltd. (MMA) has agreed to grant overhead trackage rights to the Maine Northern Railway Company...

  10. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  11. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  12. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  13. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  14. 14 CFR 203.4 - Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract and conditions of carriage. 203.4 Section 203.4 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE... CONVENTION LIABILITY LIMITS AND DEFENSES § 203.4 Montreal Agreement as part of airline-passenger contract...

  15. Conflict and the Principalship: Quebec English Secondary Schools Circa 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isherwood, Geoffrey B.; Achoka, Judith

    1992-01-01

    Interviewed 18 principals in Quebec about their recent experience with incidents involving conflict. Conflicts involved students, teachers, parents, school board members, and superiors. Principals used problem solving to treat most conflict situations but tended to use withdrawal when dealing with teachers who had strong negative attitudes. (KS)

  16. Correlates of Suicide in the Older Adult Population in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preville, Michel; Boyer, Richard; Hebert, Rejean; Bravo, Gina; Seguin, Monique

    2005-01-01

    This study was undertaken to describe the characteristics of adults aged 60 years and over who committed suicide in Quebec in 1998?1999. In this study, 42.6% of the suicide cases presented mental disorders at the time of their death, mainly depression. Sixty-five (65.3%) percent of the suicide cases would have been considered as having a mental…

  17. The Windsor-Quebec City Axis: Basic Characteristics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Maurice

    1984-01-01

    The Windsor-Quebec City axis is Canada's most important economic entity. The axis comprises four distinct physiographic units, with considerable climatic variation across the area. Containing two distinct linguistic groups (English and French), the axis has a rich agricultural system and is the manufacturing heartland of Canada. (RM)

  18. Quebec's Aboriginal Languages: History, Planning and Development. Multilingual Matters 107.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurais, Jacques, Ed.

    This book provides an overview of the history, present circumstances, and future prospects of the native languages of Quebec: Abenaki, Algonquin, Atikamekw, Cree, Inuktitut, Micmac, Mohawk, Montagnais, and Naskapi. Chapter 1, "The Situation of Aboriginal Languages in the Americas" (Jacques Maurais), discusses the linguistic demography of American…

  19. Quebec's Bifurcated Schools: Tensions between Democratic and Commercial Values

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVasseur, Louis

    2015-01-01

    In education decentralization policy may be beneficial in terms of overcoming an overly cumbersome bureaucracy in educational systems. However, it can also have adverse effects in terms of competition, yielding new kinds of inequalities. This is true in Quebec, where the division of educational labor and the emergence of technical work were…

  20. An Asset Management System for School Buildings in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerbasi, Dino; Marchand, Gilles

    2005-01-01

    Presented here are the major reasons why an asset management system (AMS) is needed, a brief history of their evolution and a description of the initiative undertaken by Quebec to implement such a system. The appendix contains the recommended basic requirements for an asset management system. (Contains 1 figure and 4 footnotes.)

  1. Two Related Occupational Cases of Legionella longbeachae Infection, Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Picard-Masson, Marianne; Lajoie, Élisabeth; Lord, Judith; Lalancette, Cindy; Marchand, Geneviève; Levac, Éric; Lemieux, Marc-André; Hudson, Patricia; Lajoie, Louise

    2016-07-01

    Two patients with no exposure to gardening compost had related Legionella longbeachae infections in Quebec, Canada. Epidemiologic investigation and laboratory results from patient and soil samples identified the patients' workplace, a metal recycling plant, as the likely source of infection, indicating a need to suspect occupational exposure for L. longbeachae infections. PMID:27314946

  2. Two Related Occupational Cases of Legionella longbeachae Infection, Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Lajoie, Élisabeth; Lord, Judith; Lalancette, Cindy; Marchand, Geneviève; Levac, Éric; Lemieux, Marc-André; Hudson, Patricia; Lajoie, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Two patients with no exposure to gardening compost had related Legionella longbeachae infections in Quebec, Canada. Epidemiologic investigation and laboratory results from patient and soil samples identified the patients’ workplace, a metal recycling plant, as the likely source of infection, indicating a need to suspect occupational exposure for L. longbeachae infections. PMID:27314946

  3. Piping causing thermokarst in permafrost, Ungava Peninsula, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seppälä, Matti

    1997-10-01

    An unusual piping tunnel some 80 cm in diameter and 2.5 m long 2 m below a terrace surface and a second smaller one formed in an ice wedge are reported from the continuous permafrost region in northernmost Quebec (mean annual temperature about -6°C). The hydrology of permafrost and its importance on thermokarst and gully erosion is discussed.

  4. Challenges of Literacy & Development in Rural Quebec. Chapter 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dionne, Hughes; Horth, Raynald

    Nearly half of Quebec's municipalities have fewer than 800 inhabitants and are struggling with conditions of economic decline, outmigration of youth, and political marginalization. In 1991, a regional coalition called Coalition Urgence Rurale was formed in the Lower Saint Lawrence area to support initiatives that promote community empowerment,…

  5. An Analysis of Direct Reciprocal Borrowing among Quebec University Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duy, Joanna C.; Lariviere, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    An analysis of Quebec academic libraries' direct reciprocal borrowing statistics from 2005 to 2010 reveals that the physical distance separating universities plays an important role in determining the amount of direct reciprocal borrowing activity conducted between institutions. Significant statistical correlations were also seen between the…

  6. Patterns of Perceived Language Ability and Use in Arctic Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Donald M.; Caron, M.; McAlpine, L.

    2000-01-01

    Focuses on mothers of school children living in small isolated communities in arctic Quebec. Patterns of perceived language ability and use in three languages, Inuttitut, English, and French, for both themselves and their children were examined. The pattern of perceived language ability was similar across the three languages. Results are discussed…

  7. Building a Community Language Development Team with Quebec Naskapi.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jancewicz, Bill; MacKenzie, Marguerite; Guanish, George; Nabinicaboo, Silas

    The Naskapi language is unique in northern Quebec because of the Naskapi people's late contact with Europeans, their geographic isolation, and the high proportion of Naskapi speakers in their territory. For the last two decades, a language development strategy has been emerging in the community as outside language specialists have been invited to…

  8. Educational Reform and the English Schools of Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Elaine

    1999-01-01

    Traces the context in which the minority English-language community in Quebec is coming together to take ownership of the reforms in its schools. Provides a glimpse of the English-speaking community and focuses on the Linguistic Boards, school governance, and curriculum reform. Discusses the context and model of implementation for reforms in…

  9. An Innovative Program for Primary ESL Students in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbown, Patsy M.; Spada, Nina

    1994-01-01

    This article describes the context and conditions of English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) programs in Quebec's French-language schools and reports on several studies of the intensive ESL classes used in some elementary schools. Research on these programs demonstrates their effectiveness in fostering English language skills and positive attitudes…

  10. Multilingual Codeswitching in Quebec Rap: Poetry, Pragmatics and Performativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarkar, Mela; Winer, Lise

    2006-01-01

    Quebec rap lyrics stand out on the world Hip-Hop scene by virtue of the ease and rapidity with which performers in this multilingual, multiethnic youth community codeswitch, frequently among three or more languages or language varieties (usually over a French and/or English base) in the same song. We construct a framework for understanding…

  11. Televised Instruction for Post-Secondary Education in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrier, Gilles; Schofield, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of the development of CANAL, a consortium of colleges, universities, and public corporations in Quebec that was formed to distribute televised courses for distance education of adult learners. The marketing of distance education courses is discussed, and audiences, consisting of students and the general public, are examined.…

  12. An Analysis of Historical Agency in Quebec History Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethier, Marc-Andre; Lefrancois, David; Demers, Stephanie

    2013-01-01

    In the 1980s, in Quebec history textbooks, authors presented history through linear, monocausal designs and attributed most social, political or economic changes favourable to democracy to unstable external causes or to stable external causes. They seldom attributed the evolution of democracy to "unstable internal causes". These…

  13. La Vie en Prose: The Women's Periodicals of Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spencer, Samia I.; Millman, Mary M.

    1983-01-01

    Eight women's periodicals published in Quebec are described and their contents, readership, and editorial policies are discussed at length. The information was derived from interviews with editors, executives, or journalists, and the grouping excludes magazines focusing on one specialized topic. (MSE)

  14. An Ultra Energy-Efficient School in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gastaldy, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    For the construction of its newest school in Quebec (Canada), the Grandes-Seigneuries School Board, which has long been noted for its energy efficiency approach, wanted to set itself an especially challenging project which would reduce greenhouse gas emissions to close to zero. From an architectural standpoint, a series of simple methods, well…

  15. Diabetic Education Program in the Mohawk Community of Kahnawake, Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Macaulay, Ann C.

    1988-01-01

    The Mohawk community of Kahnawake, Quebec, has a high prevalence rate of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. This article outlines the development and implementation of an extensive diabetic education program that is offered to all diabetics. It describes the benefits gained by the diabetic patients. PMID:21253033

  16. Remediation of contaminated sites in Quebec -- Research and development strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Elektorowicz, M.

    1995-11-01

    This paper presents an evolution of the approach to the contaminated soil issue in Quebec. This evolution is directly related to the various programs of the provincial government. Beginning with an inventory of contaminated sites in the province of Quebec, Environment Quebec provided funds specially for development and demonstration projects related to site remediation. Consequently to the program expectation, a cooperation of scientific units, environmental industry and owners of contaminated sites were demonstrated. This paper shows the fluctuation of interest in various R and D topics. This paper also presents a critical point of view of different companies involved in the development of new technologies for soil remediation. As a consequence of the various activities related to the contaminated soil at different levels of interest, a new approach to the problem of contaminated soil in the province of Quebec is presented. New, non-profit organizations such as RESOL, CAS, and GRAPE have been created to improve the effectiveness of site remediation and lead the R and D in the correct direction. The pollutants of concern are organic compounds.

  17. Analyse des attitudes envers les sciences chez des eleves du secondaire d'origine haitienne de milieux defavorises de la region de Montreal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fils-Aime, Nestor

    Having in perspective the slight representativeness of students, from Haitian background, from the most unprivileged sections of the great region of Montreal in the scientific fields in High School and in the choices of career, this study intends to examine the effect of the individual characteristics as well as the associated factors related to the familial, scholastic, socio-economic, and cultural environment upon the attitudes of those students toward sciences. The analysis of the datum is based on the results of a questionnaire focusing on the socio-demographic profile of a group of students from fourth and fifth year attending two multiethnic High Schools of the North-Crown of Montreal as well as on the interviews with fifteen of those students who are from a haitian background. There were also interviews with some parents, a member of a community organism, some staff members of some schools as well as some Haitian-Quebecer professionals and scientists, in order to have a critical viewpoint upon the different positions expressed by the fifteen students. The Bronfenbrenner's ecosystemic model (1979, 1986) has been used as scope of reference allowing to draw the prominent aspects from the attitudes toward science in the students, from haitian background. The synthesis of ideas expressed by different interviewee reveals the existence of a environment not much enhancing the value of sciences around of students, from Haitian background. The socio-economic conditions, the familial practices, the ethnocultural status as well as some individual representations of sciences contribute to create and maintain some attitudes very little committed to sciences in those students. The study shows how much it is urgent to demystify the sciences by breaking with some stereotypes that prevent some categories of students from acceding to sciences. It also commands to politicians, concerning education, to be more open to ethnocultural differences and to explore some dynamic ways in

  18. Acquisition du francais par des immigrants adultes au Quebec (Acquisition of French by Adult Immigrants to Quebec).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Painchaud, Gisele; And Others

    A study of the French language learning progress of immigrants to Quebec had four objectives: (1) to identify the functional level of oral French of two groups of immigrants after language training at one of the province's immigrant orientation centers; (2) to verify whether after a six month period of employment the language proficiency level has…

  19. Sensitivity and Specificity of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Modified for Individuals Who Are Visually Impaired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Walter; Phillips, Natalie; Nasreddine, Ziad S.; Chertkow, Howard

    2010-01-01

    Evaluating the cognitive status of individuals who are visually impaired is limited by the design of the test that is used. This article presents data on the sensitivity and specificity of the version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment for people who are visually impaired. The original validation data were reanalyzed, excluding the five visual…

  20. 14 CFR 213.7 - Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement. 213.7 Section 213.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... part 203 of this chapter. That form can be obtained from the Foreign Air Carrier Licensing Division...

  1. Using Outdoor Recreation to Foster Intercultural Understanding and the Integration of New Immigrants in Montreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blattel, Adrienne

    2011-01-01

    Being outdoors together seems to allow people to get beyond cultural differences effortlessly. This article describes how the author uses outdoor recreation to foster intercultural understanding and the integration of new immigrants in Montreal. She aims to foster crosscultural understanding and the integration of new immigrants through…

  2. The Representations of French as Part of the Linguistic Repertoire of Young Anglo-Montrealers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blondeau, Helene; Fonollosa, Marie-Odile

    2009-01-01

    Examining the linguistic repertoire of the Anglophone community living in Montreal, this article provides an analysis of the representations of the variety of French spoken by the first generation of young Anglophones who had experienced different types of contact with French. The relation between functional competence and usage of French is…

  3. Youth Participatory Action Research and School Improvement: The Missing Voices of Black Youth in Montreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, Anne-Marie; Celemencki, Jacqueline; Calixte, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    The article discusses the implementation and results of a youth participatory action research (YPAR) project carried out with black high school students in 2009 and 2010 in Montreal, QC. The aim of the project was to involve black youth in studying the factors that either enhance or impede their success in school and thereby have them identify…

  4. Electronic Thesis Initiative: Pilot Project of McGill University, Montreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Eun G.; Zou, Qing; McKnight, David

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To set up a protocol for electronic thesis and dissertation (ETD) submission for the electronic thesis initiative pilot project at McGill University in Montreal, Canada. Design/methodology/approach: An electronic thesis and dissertation submission protocol was implemented and tested. To test authoring tools, we had 50 students submit…

  5. Using Simple Linear Regression to Assess the Success of the Montreal Protocol in Reducing Atmospheric Chlorofluorocarbons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Following the Guidelines for Assessment and Instruction in Statistics Education (GAISE) recommendation to use real data, an example is presented in which simple linear regression is used to evaluate the effect of the Montreal Protocol on atmospheric concentration of chlorofluorocarbons. This simple set of data, obtained from a public archive, can…

  6. The Importance of the Montreal Protocol in Protecting the Earth's Hydroclimate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seager, R.; Wu, Y.; Polvani, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    The 1987 Montreal Protocol regulating emissions of ozone depleting chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) was motivated primarily by the harm to human health and ecosystems arising from increased exposure to ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation associated with depletion from the ozone layer. It is now known that the Montreal Protocol has reduced global warming since CFCs are greenhouse gases (GHGs). In this paper we show that the Montreal Protocol also significantly protects the Earth's hydroclimate, even though this was also not a motivating factor in the decision-making that led to the Protocol. General Circulation Model (GCM) results show that in the coming decade (2020-29), under the 'World Avoided' scenario of no regulations on CFC emissions, the subtropical dry zones would in general get drier, and the middle and high latitude regions wetter. This change is similar, in both pattern and magnitude, to that in the coming decade caused by projected increases in carbon dioxide concentrations. This implies that because of the Montreal Protocol, and the ozone depletion and global warming associated with CFCs thus avoided, the hydrological cycle changes in the coming decade will be significantly less than what they otherwise would have been.

  7. Thirty Years after Bill 101: A Contemporary Perspective on Attitudes Towards English and French in Montreal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kircher, Ruth

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a 2007 study that was conducted amongst 147 young anglophone, francophone and allophone Montrealers in order to shed light on their attitudes towards English and French in terms of status and solidarity. The study made use of both a questionnaire and a matched-guise experiment. The findings indicate that while a certain amount…

  8. 14 CFR 213.7 - Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Filing requirements for adherence to Montreal Agreement. 213.7 Section 213.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF... part 203 of this chapter. That form can be obtained from the Foreign Air Carrier Licensing Division...

  9. A cost-benefit/cost-effectiveness analysis of proposed supervised injection facilities in Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper will determine whether expanding Insite (North America’s first and only supervised injection facility) to more locations in Canada such as Montreal, cost less than the health care consequences of not having such expanded programs for injection drug users. Methods By analyzing secondary data gathered in 2012, this paper relies on mathematical models to estimate the number of new HIV and Hepatitis C (HCV) infections prevented as a result of additional SIF locations in Montreal. Results With very conservative estimates, it is predicted that the addition of each supervised injection facility (up-to a maximum of three) in Montreal will on average prevent 11 cases of HIV and 65 cases of HCV each year. As a result, there is a net cost saving of CDN$0.686 million (HIV) and CDN$0.8 million (HCV) for each additional supervised injection site each year. This translates into a net average benefit-cost ratio of 1.21: 1 for both HIV and HCV. Conclusions Funding supervised injection facilities in Montreal appears to be an efficient and effective use of financial resources in the public health domain. PMID:23837814

  10. Test de Français Laval-Montreal: Does It Measure What It Should Measure?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmit, Romain; Saif, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on a study conducted as part of a larger investigation of the predictive validity of the Test de Français Laval-Montreal (TFLM), a high-stakes French language test used for admission and placement purposes for Teacher-Training Programs (TTPs) in major francophone universities in Canada (Schmitt, 2015). The objective of this…

  11. A mass balance of genotoxicity in the St. Lawrence River (Montreal) based on SOS chromotest results

    SciTech Connect

    White, P.A.; Rasmussen, J.B.

    1995-12-31

    Mass balance models are frequently used to track contaminants in aquatic ecosystems. To the authors knowledge no mass balance has ever been constructed using only bioassay results for complex mixtures. They have used surface water SOS Chromotest results from Langevin et al (1992) and industrial effluent SOS Chromotest results from White et al (1996) to determine the steady state concentration of genotoxins in the surface waters of the St. Lawrence river around Montreal. The results of Langevin et al indicate that the St. Lawrence River west of Montreal is contributing 446 ng benzo(a)pyrene equivalents per L, while the Ottawa River is contributing 166 ng benzo(a)pyrene equivalents per L. The data of While et al indicate that industrial emissions in the Montreal area are contributing an additional 68 ng benzo(a)pyrene equivalents per L. The latter value is based on the genotoxic potency of final effluents from 13 priority industries, their daily discharge and the mean (n = 35 years) river discharge at Lasalle. Assuming that the industrial effluents do not alter the river discharge, the expected surface water concentration of genotoxins in the Montreal area is 680 ng benzo(a)pyrene equivalents per L. This value is extremely close to the mean of actual surface water measurements published by Langevin et al. (701 ng benzo(a)pyrene equivalents per L). The extremely short water residence time (< 2 days) and rapid current ({approx}1 m/sec) indicate that losses from sedimentation and decay between Valleyfield and Varennes are negligible. The results indicate that municipal wastewater discharges account for over 95% of the Montreal area contribution.

  12. Les linguistes et les questions de langue au Quebec: points de vue (Linguists and Language Questions in Quebec: Points of View).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deshaies, Denise, Ed.; Ouellon, Conrad, Ed.

    Papers, all in French, address four issues concerning linguistics and language in Quebec: language quality and linguistic reality; linguistic politics and the future of French in Quebec; the linguist's role in modern society; and dictionaries. Each section includes an untitled, substantive introduction and several papers. Papers include: "Discours…

  13. [Two "hybrid" vocational services for people with a severe mental illness in France and Quebec].

    PubMed

    de Pierrefeu, I; Charbonneau, C

    2014-06-01

    success in getting a job as well as in developing some recovery effects. Accès-Cible SMT located in Montreal (Quebec, Canada) is also an interesting "hybrid" program since people with severe mental disorders can be supported by a counsellor, with a short period of training (a 28-week program with 6 steps) before integrating the regular labor market. The philosophy of Accès-Cible SMT is to consider their clients as normal persons more than as patients, and its objective is mainly to restore confidence and self-esteem of the person by putting emphasis on their professional skills. Meetings in groups, practicums in the workplace, and the utilization of job search strategies are essential ingredients of Accès-Cible SMT, which are also efficient tools to develop a better empowerment of the person. Indeed, the common ingredients/elements of these two vocational services, Messidor and Accès-Cible SMT, seem to be the development of empowerment for people with severe mental disorders. The scientific literature supports that empowerment is one of the key factors of recovery for people with a mental illness, a recovery process that can be illustrated by their work integration in the regular labor market as a final goal. PMID:24930724

  14. [Two "hybrid" vocational services for people with a severe mental illness in France and Quebec].

    PubMed

    de Pierrefeu, I; Charbonneau, C

    2014-06-01

    success in getting a job as well as in developing some recovery effects. Accès-Cible SMT located in Montreal (Quebec, Canada) is also an interesting "hybrid" program since people with severe mental disorders can be supported by a counsellor, with a short period of training (a 28-week program with 6 steps) before integrating the regular labor market. The philosophy of Accès-Cible SMT is to consider their clients as normal persons more than as patients, and its objective is mainly to restore confidence and self-esteem of the person by putting emphasis on their professional skills. Meetings in groups, practicums in the workplace, and the utilization of job search strategies are essential ingredients of Accès-Cible SMT, which are also efficient tools to develop a better empowerment of the person. Indeed, the common ingredients/elements of these two vocational services, Messidor and Accès-Cible SMT, seem to be the development of empowerment for people with severe mental disorders. The scientific literature supports that empowerment is one of the key factors of recovery for people with a mental illness, a recovery process that can be illustrated by their work integration in the regular labor market as a final goal.

  15. Language and unintentional injury mortality in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Burrows, Stephanie; Auger, Nathalie; Lo, Ernest

    2016-02-01

    Language-based differences in unintentional injury are poorly understood, despite the importance of language as a determinant of health. This study assessed inequalities in unintentional injury mortality between Francophones and Anglophones of Quebec, Canada. We calculated age-standardised rates of death by period, region, residential deprivation and cause of injury, and estimated rate ratios for Francophones relative to Anglophones. Francophones had higher unintentional injury mortality rates than Anglophones. Inequalities decreased over time for men, but rates remained 50% higher for Francophones at the end of the study period. Rates were stable for women, but were 30% higher for Francophones compared with Anglophones. Inequalities were larger at age 15-44 years, in urban areas, and for MVCs. Better understanding of risk factors for MVCs may benefit injury prevention in Quebec. Language-based differences in injury mortality warrant attention in other multilingual populations, especially across different demographic, temporal, regional and cause-of-injury groups.

  16. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, M P; Dhomse, S S; Feng, W; McKenzie, R L; Velders, G J M; Pyle, J A

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ∼2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ∼15% by 2013. PMID:26011106

  17. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S. S.; Feng, W.; McKenzie, R. L.; Velders, G. J. M.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-05-01

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ~2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ~15% by 2013.

  18. The World Already Avoided: Quantifying the Ozone Benefits Achieved by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, Martyn; Dhomse, Sandip; Feng, Wuhu; McKenzie, Richard; Velders, Guus; Pyle, John

    2015-04-01

    Chlorine and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic Ozone Hole expected to disappear by ~2050. However, we show that by 2014 the Montreal Protocol has already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using an off-line 3-D atmospheric chemistry model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with benefits for surface UV and climate. A deep Arctic Ozone Hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given the meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic Ozone Hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The ozone decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ~15% by 2013.

  19. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Chipperfield, M P; Dhomse, S S; Feng, W; McKenzie, R L; Velders, G J M; Pyle, J A

    2015-05-26

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ∼2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ∼15% by 2013.

  20. Quantifying the ozone and ultraviolet benefits already achieved by the Montreal Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S. S.; Feng, W.; McKenzie, R. L.; Velders, G.J.M.; Pyle, J. A.

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine- and bromine-containing ozone-depleting substances (ODSs) are controlled by the 1987 Montreal Protocol. In consequence, atmospheric equivalent chlorine peaked in 1993 and has been declining slowly since then. Consistent with this, models project a gradual increase in stratospheric ozone with the Antarctic ozone hole expected to disappear by ∼2050. However, we show that by 2013 the Montreal Protocol had already achieved significant benefits for the ozone layer. Using a 3D atmospheric chemistry transport model, we demonstrate that much larger ozone depletion than observed has been avoided by the protocol, with beneficial impacts on surface ultraviolet. A deep Arctic ozone hole, with column values <120 DU, would have occurred given meteorological conditions in 2011. The Antarctic ozone hole would have grown in size by 40% by 2013, with enhanced loss at subpolar latitudes. The decline over northern hemisphere middle latitudes would have continued, more than doubling to ∼15% by 2013. PMID:26011106

  1. Implications of Montreal Protocol: With particular reference to India and other developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, K.

    The various international measures like the Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol to protect the ozone layer have been discussed. The predicted depletion of the ozone layer will cause increased ultraviolet radiation-B(UV-B) reaching the Earth's surface which is known to have various adverse impacts on the environment. A study on the state of ozone and UV-B radiation climate over India based on 25 years of network ozone and derived UV-B data which was carried out in Development Alternatives (DA) have been discussed and various likely environmental implications of ozone depletion brought out. The economic implications including the economic costs to India for the implementation of the Montreal Protocol have been addressed. In the conclusion, some of the critical issues of the developing countries and suggested alternative response strategies including R&D activities required for the implementation of the Protocol by the developing countries have been discussed.

  2. Economics of "essential use exemptions" for metered-dose inhalers under the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    DeCanio, Stephen J; Norman, Catherine S

    2007-10-01

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer has led to rapid reductions in the use of ozone-depleting substances worldwide. However, the Protocol provides for "essential use exemptions" (EUEs) if there are no "technically and economically feasible" alternatives. An application that might qualify as an "essential use" is CFC-powered medical metered-dose inhalers (MDIs) for the treatment of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), and the US and other nations have applied for exemptions in this case. One concern is that exemptions are necessary to ensure access to medications for low-income uninsureds. We examine the consequences of granting or withholding such exemptions, and conclude that government policies and private-sector programs are available that make it economically feasible to phase out chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) in this application, thereby furthering the global public health objectives of the Montreal Protocol without compromising the treatment of patients who currently receive medication by means of MDIs.

  3. A post-Kyoto partner: Considering the Montreal Protocol as a tool to manage nitrous oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauzerall, D. L.; Kanter, D.; Ravishankara, A. R.; Daniel, J. S.; Portmann, R. W.; Grabiel, P.; Moomaw, W.; Galloway, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    While nitrous oxide (N2O) was recently identified as the largest remaining anthropogenic threat to the stratospheric ozone layer, it is currently regulated under the 1997 Kyoto Protocol due to its simultaneous ability to warm the climate. The threat N2O poses to the stratospheric ozone layer, coupled with the uncertain future of the international climate regime, motivates our exploration of issues that could be relevant to the Parties to the 1987 Montreal Protocol if they decide to take measures to manage N2O in the future. There are clear legal avenues for the Montreal Protocol and its parent treaty, the 1985 Vienna Convention, to regulate N2O, as well as several ways to share authority with the existing and future international climate treaties. N2O mitigation strategies exist to address its most significant anthropogenic sources, including agriculture, where behavioral practices and new technologies could contribute significantly to mitigation efforts. Existing policies managing N2O and other forms of reactive nitrogen could be harnessed and built upon by the Montreal Protocol's existing bodies to implement N2O controls. Given the tight coupling of the nitrogen cycle, such controls would likely simultaneously reduce emissions of reactive nitrogen and hence have co-benefits for ecosystems and public health. Nevertheless, there are at least three major regulatory challenges that are unique and central to N2O control: food security, equity, and the nitrogen cascade. The possible inclusion of N2O in the Montreal Protocol need not be viewed as a sign of the Kyoto Protocol's failure to adequately deal with climate change, given the complexity of the issue. Rather, it could represent an additional tool in the field of sustainable development diplomacy.lt;img border=0 src="images/B43K-06_B.jpg">

  4. New Regional and Global HFC Projections and Effects of National Regulations and Montreal Protocol Amendment Proposals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velders, G. J. M.

    2015-12-01

    Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) are used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances that are being phased out globally under Montreal Protocol regulations. New global scenarios of HFC emissions reach 4.0-5.3 GtCO2-eq yr-1 in 2050, which corresponds to a projected growth from 2015 to 2050 which is 9% to 29% of that for CO2 over the same time period. New baseline scenarios are formulated for 10 HFC compounds, 11 geographic regions, and 13 use categories. These projections are the first to comprehensively assess production and consumption of individual HFCs in multiple use sectors and geographic regions with emission estimates constrained by atmospheric observations. In 2050, in percent of global HFC emissions, China (~30%), India and the rest of Asia (~25%), Middle East and northern Africa (~10%), and USA (~10%) are the principal source regions; and refrigeration and stationary air conditioning are the major use sectors. National regulations to limit HFC use have been adopted recently in the European Union, Japan and USA, and four proposals have been submitted in 2015 to amend the Montreal Protocol to substantially reduce growth in HFC use. Calculated baseline emissions are reduced by 90% in 2050 by implementing the North America Montreal Protocol amendment proposal. Global adoption of technologies required to meet national regulations would be sufficient to reduce 2050 baseline HFC consumption by more than 50% of that achieved with the North America proposal for most developed and developing countries. The new HFC scenarios and effects of national regulations and Montreal Protocol amendment proposals will be presented.

  5. Migration and HIV: an epidemiological study of Montrealers of Haitian origin.

    PubMed

    Adrien, A; Leaune, V; Remis, R S; Boivin, J F; Rud, E; Duperval, R; Noël, G E

    1999-04-01

    We aimed to determine the prevalence of HIV infection and associated risk factors among Montrealers of Haitian origin. We carried out a voluntary, anonymous survey in 7 primary care medical clinics in Montreal among 5039 persons aged 15 to 49 years born in Haiti or with at least one parent born in Haiti. The participation rate was 94.3%. Overall, HIV prevalence was 1.3% (1.6% in men and 1.1% in women). The HIV prevalence was lower among those born in Canada or who had resided in Canada longer. The prevalence among subjects who had travelled to Haiti in the previous 5 years was 2.0%, twice the rate of those who had not. The adjusted population attributable fraction of HIV infections associated with having had unprotected sex in Haiti was 10.2%. This study identified risk factors which will help in the design of more effective prevention programmes among Montrealers of Haitian origin. PMID:12035776

  6. Cohort Profile: The Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging (MoNNET-HA) study

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Spencer; Buckeridge, David L; Dubé, Laurette

    2016-01-01

    The Montreal Neighbourhood Networks and Healthy Aging study was established: (i) to assess the added value in using formal network methods and instruments to measure social capital and its relationship to health; (ii) to determine whether older adults are more vulnerable to the effects of network and neighbourhood environments; and (iii) to examine longitudinally the relationship between social capital and health among adults in Montreal, Canada. The MoNNET-HA cohort consists of men and women aged 25 years and older, residing in the Montreal Metropolitan Area (MMA). Participants were recruited using a random stratified cluster sampling design with oversampling of adults older than 65 years. Initial MoNNET-HA study participants (n = 2707) were recruited for telephone interviews in the summer of 2008. Since 2008, participants were interviewed in the autumn of 2010 and the winter of 2013/2014. Data currently fall into five categories: (i) social network and social capital; (ii) psychosocial and psychological; (ii) socio-demographic and socioeconomic; (iv) health behaviours and conditions; and (v) neighbourhood environmental characteristics. Healthcare utilization data will be available for a subsample of participants. Upon funding, future work will measure anthropometric and metabolic health directly. Based on agreements with participants, external researchers should request access to data via collaborations with the study group. PMID:24984955

  7. An evaluation of the current radiative forcing benefit of the Montreal Protocol at the high-Alpine site Jungfraujoch.

    PubMed

    Steinbacher, M; Vollmer, M K; Buchmann, B; Reimann, S

    2008-03-01

    A combination of reconstructed histories, long-term time series and recent quasi-continuous observations of non-CO2 greenhouse gases at the high-Alpine site Jungfraujoch is used to assess their current global radiative forcing budget and the influence of regulations due to the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer in terms of climate change. Extrapolated atmospheric greenhouse gases trends from 1989 assuming a business-as-usual scenario, i.e. no Montreal Protocol restriction, are presented and compared to the observations. The largest differences between hypothetical business-as-usual mixing ratios and current atmospheric observations over the last 16 years were found for chlorinated species, in particular methyl chloroform (CH3CCl3) at 167 to 203 ppt and chlorofluorocarbon-12 (CFC-12) at 121 to 254 ppt. These prevented increases were used to estimate the effects of their restrictions on the radiative forcing budget. The net direct effect due to the Montreal Protocol regulations reduces global warming and offsets about 14 to 30% of the positive greenhouse effect related to the major greenhouse gases CO2, CH4, N2O and also SF6, and about 12 to 22% of the hypothetical current radiative forcing increase without Montreal Protocol restrictions. Thus, the Montreal Protocol succeeded not only in reducing the atmospheric chlorine content in the atmosphere but also dampened global warming. Nevertheless, the Montreal Protocol controlled species still add to global warming.

  8. Quebec Science Education: Which Directions? Proceedings of a Symposium Sponsored by the Science Council of Canada and the Association des Professeurs de Sciences du Quebec (March 1982). P82/2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Souque, Jean-Pascal, Ed.; Dufour, Paul, Ed.

    Proceedings are presented of a symposium on science education in Quebec, which was sponsored by the Science Council of Canada and the Association des Professeurs de Sciences du Quebec. Papers and authors addressing the background and present state of Quebec science education are as follows: "Science Teaching at the Secondary Level: An Evaluation"…

  9. Type and Proximity of Green Spaces Are Important for Preventing Cardiovascular Morbidity and Diabetes—A Cross-Sectional Study for Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ngom, Roland; Gosselin, Pierre; Blais, Claudia; Rochette, Louis

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the role of proximity to specific types of green spaces (GSes) as well as their spatial location in the relationship with the most morbid cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and diabetes. We measured the accessibility to various types of GS and used a cross-sectional approach at census Dissemination Area (DA) levels in the Montreal and Quebec City metropolitan zones for the period 2006–2011. Poisson and negative binomial regression models were fitted to quantify the relationship between distances to specific types of GS and CVD morbidity as well as some risk factors (diabetes and hypertension) while controlling for several social and environmental confounders. GSes that have sports facilities showed a significant relationship to cerebrovascular diseases: the most distant population had an 11% higher prevalence rate ratio (PRR) compared to the nearest, as well as higher diabetes risk (PRR 9%) than the nearest. However, the overall model performance and the understanding of the role of GSes with sport facilities may be substantially achieved with lifestyle factors. Significantly higher prevalence of diabetes and cerebrovascular diseases as well as lower access to GSes equipped with sports facilities were found in suburban areas. GSes can advantageously be used to prevent some CVDs and their risk factors, but there may be a need to reconsider their types and location. PMID:27089356

  10. Immigration and Language Policy and Planning in Quebec and Canada: Language Learning and Integration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrick, Maeve; Donovan, Paula

    2010-01-01

    The connections between immigration and language policy and planning in Quebec and Canada are long established. With the continuing upward trajectory in levels of immigration to Canada and Quebec the linguistic integration of these new arrivals remains an important topic. In recent years, Asia has overtaken Europe as the leading source of…

  11. No ESL in English Schools: Language Policy in Quebec and Implications for TESL Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winer, Lise

    2007-01-01

    In this article, various aspects of official language policy in Quebec are seen as interacting with contested and contesting ideologies, as experienced by novice teachers in teaching English as a second or other language within the majority French school system. The context of TESL training in Quebec is described, focusing on legislative policy…

  12. Educational Research and Theory in Language Policy: ESL in Quebec Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightbown, Patsy M.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes the social and educational objectives for teaching English as a second language in Quebec schools. Further research is needed about appropriate teaching methods and appropriate ages for beginning instruction. The sociopolitical context of Quebec must be considered to assign highest priority to developing students' native languages. (CB)

  13. Citizenship, Secularity and the Ethics and Religious Culture Program of Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaver, Arzina; DeMartini, Ashley

    2016-01-01

    This article focuses on some of the broader complexities of citizenship in Quebec, paying particular attention to the Quiet Revolution and Bill 60 (Charter of Values) in order to understand how these historical events shape contemporary politics. Using a case study of the Ethics and Religious Culture Program (ERC) in Quebec, we seek to highlight…

  14. To Protect or To Promote or To Promote and Protect, Those Are the Questions: Quebec Ponders Its Future under FTAA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archibald, J.

    This paper considers the options for Quebec in a globalizing economy. Quebec has not only been recognized as being distinct in the Canadian political context, but it is also seen as having a distinct business culture. As Quebec looks to its expanding cultural and economic role within larger zones such as NAFTA and the FTAA, a certain tension has…

  15. Interdisciplinary collaboration within Quebec Community Health Care Centres.

    PubMed

    Sicotte, Claude; D'Amour, Danielle; Moreault, Marie-Pierre

    2002-09-01

    Central to the success of many recent health system reforms is the implementation of new primary health care delivery models. The central characteristic common to these new models usually emphasises interdisciplinary collaboration. Using empirical research, this paper studies interdisciplinary collaboration among various groups of professionals within an original Canadian primary health care delivery model, the Quebec Community Health Care Centres (CCHCs). The entire population of more than 150 CHCCs have been surveyed. The goals of this study are (1) to measure the achieved intensity of inter-professional collaboration among Quebec CHCCs, and (2) to identify the organisational and professional factors fostering or limiting interdisciplinary collaboration. The results show that Quebec CHCCs have reached modest results in achieving interdisciplinary collaboration especially since interdisciplinary collaboration is a central objective that has been pursued for more than 25 years. This study demonstrates that the main factors associated with interdisciplinary collaboration are closely linked to work group internal dynamics. Interdisciplinary collaboration is linked to the simultaneous and antagonistic effect of some central intragroup process factors. Conflicting values and beliefs are present that both enhance and limit interdisciplinary collaboration. The presence of conflicting stimuli seriously undermines the strength of the CHCC work group's shared beliefs and strongly limits interdisciplinary collaboration. The results also stress the importance of administrative formalisation initiatives to enhance collaboration among different professions. The efficacy of formalisation in this context is based on its capacity to offer an articulated and operative interdisciplinary framework that can generate a counteractive effect to the traditional professional framework. It offers concrete rules that help align the work group beliefs with interdisciplinary values. The

  16. Native American Admixture in the Quebec Founder Population

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Claudia; Lefebvre, Jean-François; Jomphe, Michèle; Bhérer, Claude; Ruiz-Linares, Andres; Vézina, Hélène; Roy-Gagnon, Marie-Hélène; Labuda, Damian

    2013-01-01

    For years, studies of founder populations and genetic isolates represented the mainstream of genetic mapping in the effort to target genetic defects causing Mendelian disorders. The genetic homogeneity of such populations as well as relatively homogeneous environmental exposures were also seen as primary advantages in studies of genetic susceptibility loci that underlie complex diseases. European colonization of the St-Lawrence Valley by a small number of settlers, mainly from France, resulted in a founder effect reflected by the appearance of a number of population-specific disease-causing mutations in Quebec. The purported genetic homogeneity of this population was recently challenged by genealogical and genetic analyses. We studied one of the contributing factors to genetic heterogeneity, early Native American admixture that was never investigated in this population before. Consistent admixture estimates, in the order of one per cent, were obtained from genome-wide autosomal data using the ADMIXTURE and HAPMIX software, as well as with the fastIBD software evaluating the degree of the identity-by-descent between Quebec individuals and Native American populations. These genomic results correlated well with the genealogical estimates. Correlations are imperfect most likely because of incomplete records of Native founders’ origin in genealogical data. Although the overall degree of admixture is modest, it contributed to the enrichment of the population diversity and to its demographic stratification. Because admixture greatly varies among regions of Quebec and among individuals, it could have significantly affected the homogeneity of the population, which is of importance in mapping studies, especially when rare genetic susceptibility variants are in play. PMID:23776491

  17. Optical ground wire for Hydro-Quebec`s telecommunication network

    SciTech Connect

    Ghannoum, E.; Chouteau, J.P.; Miron, M.; Yaacoub, S.; Yoshida, K.

    1995-10-01

    An extensive telecommunication network of 6,000 km of Optical Ground Wire (OPGW) is currently planned by Hydro-Quebec for progressive installation from 1992 to 2004. By 1994, about 1,600 km of OPGW have already been purchased and installed mostly on new 735 kV lines. This document provides information relative to the OPGW selection, characteristics, design, fabrication, and testing. Other sections are devoted to the installation experience, description of current and future R and D OPGW projects, and Authors` biography.

  18. Protection strategies for drinking groundwater sources in small Quebec municipalities.

    PubMed

    Sylvestre, Bruno; Rodriguez, Manuel J

    2008-07-01

    Awareness of groundwater protection has increased substantially in recent decades. In the Province of Quebec, Canada, the Groundwater Catchment Regulation (GWCR) was promulgated in 2002 to protect water quality in public wells. The goal of the present study was to document groundwater protection in the context of emerging regulations and identify factors explaining the propensity of municipalities applying protection strategies. Two types of information were used in this study: data from a questionnaire-based survey conducted among 665 municipalities in the Province of Quebec and complementary information gathered from various sources. Data from the survey revealed that fewer than half of the municipalities have been able to comply with the GWCR, mainly because of financial limitations. Also, close to half of the municipalities have either identified or are expecting land use conflicts to arise between protection areas required by the GWCR and other land usage, with agriculture being the main conflicting activity. Multivariate logistic regression models served to identify factors explaining the likelihood of municipalities to take groundwater protection measures. Those factors were municipality revenue, history of water contamination in distribution systems, land use near wellheads, location of municipalities within a provincial priority watershed and the importance of groundwater use in a region. Results of the study may prove helpful for government authorities in better understanding the groundwater protection issue and in implementing strategies that improve the ability of municipalities to protect groundwater.

  19. Virus occurrence in municipal groundwater sources in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Locas, Annie; Barthe, Christine; Barbeau, Benoit; Carrière, Annie; Payment, Pierre

    2007-06-01

    A 1 year study was undertaken on groundwater that was a source of drinking water in the province of Quebec, Canada. Twelve municipal wells (raw water) were sampled monthly during a 1 year period, for a total of 160 samples. Using historic data, the 12 sites were categorized into 3 groups: group A (no known contamination), group B (sporadically contaminated by total coliforms), and group C (historic and continuous contamination by total coliforms and (or) fecal coliforms). Bacterial indicators (total coliform, Escherichia coli, enteroccoci), viral indicators (somatic and male-specific coliphages), total culturable human enteric viruses, and noroviruses were analyzed at every sampling site. Total coliforms were the best indicator of microbial degradation, and coliform bacteria were always present at the same time as human enteric viruses. Two samples contained human enteric viruses but no fecal pollution indicators (E. coli, enterococci, or coliphages), suggesting the limited value of these microorganisms in predicting the presence of human enteric viruses in groundwater. Our results underline the value of historic data in assessing the vulnerability of a well on the basis of raw water quality and in detecting degradation of the source. This project allowed us to characterize the microbiologic and virologic quality of groundwater used as municipal drinking water sources in Quebec.

  20. Quebec mental health services networks: models and implementation

    PubMed Central

    Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Purpose In the transformation of health care systems, the introduction of integrated service networks is considered to be one of the main solutions for enhancing efficiency. In the last few years, a wealth of literature has emerged on the topic of services integration. However, the question of how integrated service networks should be modelled to suit different implementation contexts has barely been touched. To fill that gap, this article presents four models for the organization of mental health integrated networks. Data sources The proposed models are drawn from three recently published studies on mental health integrated services in the province of Quebec (Canada) with the author as principal investigator. Description Following an explanation of the concept of integrated service network and a description of the Quebec context for mental health networks, the models, applicable in all settings: rural, urban or semi-urban, and metropolitan, and summarized in four figures, are presented. Discussion and conclusion To apply the models successfully, the necessity of rallying all the actors of a system, from the strategic, tactical and operational levels, according to the type of integration involved: functional/administrative, clinical and physician-system is highlighted. The importance of formalizing activities among organizations and actors in a network and reinforcing the governing mechanisms at the local level is also underlined. Finally, a number of integration strategies and key conditions of success to operationalize integrated service networks are suggested. PMID:16773157

  1. [SURPS French version validation in a Quebec adolescent population].

    PubMed

    Castonguay-Jolin, Laura; Perrier-Ménard, Eveline; Castellanos-Ryan, Natalie; Parent, Sophie; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E; Garel, Patricia; Séguin, Jean R; Conrod, Patricia J

    2013-09-01

    Objective: The Substance Use Risk Profile Scale (SURPS) has been developed to screen personality risk factors for substance misuse. This scale assesses 4 high-risk personality traits using a 23-item, self-report questionnaire. SURPS helps guiding targeted approaches to prevention of substance abuse and misuse. It has been validated in the United Kingdom, English Canada, Sri Lanka, and China. This study aims to validate this scale in a sample of French-speaking adolescents from Quebec as well as its sensitivity in a clinical sample of adolescents. Method: Two hundred two 15-year-old youths from a community sample completed a French version of SURPS as well as other measures of personality and substance use. This study reports the internal consistency and concurrent validity of the scale, as well as a factor analysis of items. Further, 40 youths (mean age 15.7 years) from a clinical population completed SURPS and their scores were compared with those of the community sample. Results: SURPS French translation has good internal consistency and demonstrated a 4-factor structure very similar to the original scale. The 4 subscales show good concurrent validity, and 3 of the subscales were found to correlate with measures of substance use. Finally, 95% of the clinical sample was identified at high risk for substance misuse according to SURPS cut-off scores. Conclusion: SURPS French translation seems to be a valid and sensitive scale that can be used in a French-speaking adolescent population from Quebec.

  2. Complete migration cycle of golden eagles breeding in northern Quebec

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brodeur, Serge; DeCarie, R.; Bird, D.M.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    Radio tracking via satellite was initiated to study the year-round movements of Golden Eagles(Aquila chrysaetosc anadensis) breeding on the east coast of Hudson Bay, Quebec. In June and August 1992, six Golden Eagles(five adults and one juvenile) were marked, three of which completed their year-round movements. The eagles left their breeding area in mid- to late October and migrated to known wintering areas in the eastern United States. They used different routes but each followed the same general path during fall and spring migrations which lasted between 26 and 40 days,and 25 and 51 days, respectively. Eagles wintered from 93 to 135 days in areas located 1,650 to 3,000 km south of their breeding territory. In spring 1993, satellite telemetry located the eagles in their former breeding territory in late March, mid-April and early May. This study confirms previous suggestion that some breeding Golden Eagles wintering in eastern United States come from northern Quebec and describes the first successful tracking of the complete yearly migration cycle of a bird of prey.

  3. Ilot de chaleur a Quebec: Cas d'ete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leduc, Richard; Ferland, Michel; Gariepy, Jacques; Jacques, Ghislain; Lelievre, Claude; Paulin, Gaston

    1980-12-01

    This paper studies the urban heat island in Quebec City and its suburbs on one summer night. The region under study covers an area of 20 km by 20 km which streches from lake Saint-Charles on the north to Levis on the south and from the western suburb of Cap-Rouge to Beauport on the east. The total population of the region is about 400 000. On August 22, 1979 from 22:00 to 23:30 EDT, 109 measurements of wet- and dry-bulb temperatures were taken at preselected points. On that day, a large high pressure system gave clear skies to central Quebec while Quebec City Airport recorded a maximum temperature of 23 °C. The average wind measured at Duberger meteorological tower between 6 and 121 m above ground was 1.8 m s-1 at 22:00 EDT and 0.9 m s-1 at 23:30 EDT. Additional data were obtained from three thermographs installed at strategic points and five regular climatological stations, which were used to estimate cooling rates. During the period of measurement, the cooling rate averaged over the eight reference points was about 0.7 °C h-1. However, the maximum cooling rate, which occured earlier, ranged from 2.2 °C h-1 at Duberger to 4.4 °C h-1 at Courville-de-Poissy. No relation seems to exist, in our case, between the maximum cooling rate and the heat island spatial structure. Comparison of these results with the ones given by Oke et al. (1972) shows that the eight stations behaved more like rural stations than urban ones. The temperature gradient measured between the center of old Quebec City and the suburbs averaged 6 °C while it was 9 °C for the coldest spot. Clo units were used to characterize the microclimates prevailing on the region for that night; 1 clo would be sufficient for comfort downtown while 1.5 clo is needed in the coldest spot for a slowly walking person. Large open areas like parks or the Laval University campus had a definite effect on temperature. The humidity was calculated for each point using standard psychrometric tables; no significant

  4. Recent Increases in Stratospheric HCl: Stratospheric Dynamics versus the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chipperfield, Martyn; Mahieu, Emmanuel; Notholt, Justus

    2014-05-01

    Long-lived chlorine-containing source gases, such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), are transported into the stratosphere where they decompose and cause ozone depletion. Increases in chlorine during the 1970s-1990s resulted in long-term ozone decreases, especially in the polar regions. Following the implementation of the Montreal Protocol, the near-surface chlorine loading was observed to peak in 1993 and, since then, to decrease in line with expectations. After release from source gases in the stratosphere, chlorine mainly forms the reservoir HCl, providing an alternative method for monitoring the progress of the Montreal Protocol. A maximum in stratospheric HCl was observed around 1996, followed by decay at a rate close to 1%/year, consistent with the tropospheric chlorine peak and known transport timescales. However, we will present total column observations from ground-based FTIR instruments which show an unexpected and significant upturn in stratospheric HCl around 2007 in the northern hemisphere. Height-resolved observations from satellite instruments (HALOE, MLS, ACE) confirm this increase and show that it occurs in the lower stratosphere. These observations contrast with the ongoing monotonic decrease of near-surface chlorine source gases. Using 3-D model simulations (TOMCAT/SLIMCAT and KASIMA) we attribute this trend anomaly to a slowdown in the NH atmospheric circulation, causing air in the lower stratosphere to become more aged with a larger relative conversion of source gases to HCl. An important conclusion is that the Montreal Protocol is still on track and will still lead to long-term decreases in stratospheric chlorine. This dynamical variability could also significantly affect the evolution of stratospheric ozone and must be accounted for when searching for signs of ozone recovery.

  5. Variability and Uncertainty in Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Analysis for the Island of Montreal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elkady, Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

    The current seismic design process for structures in Montreal is based on the 2005 edition of the National Building Code of Canada (NBCC 2005) which is based on a hazard level corresponding to a probability of exceedence of 2% in 50 years. The code is based on the Uniform Hazard Spectrum (UHS) and deaggregation values obtained by Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) modified version of F-RISK software and were obtained by a process that did not formally consider epistemic uncertainty. Epistemic uncertainty is related to the uncertainty in model formulation. A seismological model consists of seismic sources (source geometry, source location, recurrence rate, magnitude distribution, and maximum magnitude) and a Ground-Motion Prediction Equation (GMPE). In general, and particularly Montreal, GMPEs are the main source of epistemic uncertainty with respect to other variables of seismological the model. The objective of this thesis is to use CRISIS software to investigate the effect of epistemic uncertainty on probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) products like the UHS and deaggregation values by incorporating different new GMPEs. The epsilon "epsilon" parameter is also discussed which represents the departure of the target ground motion from that predicted by the GMPE as it is not very well documented in Eastern Canada. A method is proposed to calculate epsilon values for Montreal relative to a given GMPE and to calculate robust weighted modal epsilon values when epistemic uncertainty is considered. Epsilon values are commonly used in seismic performance evaluations for identifying design events and selecting ground motion records for vulnerability and liquefaction studies. A brief overview of record epsilons is also presented which accounts for the spectral shape of the ground motion time history is also presented.

  6. Highlights from Faraday Discussion 170: challenges and opportunities of modern mechanochemistry, Montreal, Canada, 2014.

    PubMed

    Friščić, Tomislav; James, Stuart L; Boldyreva, Elena V; Bolm, Carsten; Jones, William; Mack, James; Steed, Jonathan W; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2015-04-14

    The Faraday Discussion Mechanochemistry: From Functional Solids to Single Molecules which took place 21-23 May 2014 in Montreal, Canada, brought together a diversity of academic and industrial researchers, experimentalists and theoreticians, students, as well as experienced researchers, to discuss the changing face of mechanochemistry, an area with a long history and deep connections to manufacturing, that is currently undergoing vigorous renaissance and rapid expansion in a number of areas, including supramolecular chemistry, smart polymers, metal-organic frameworks, pharmaceutical materials, catalytic organic synthesis, as well as mineral and biomass processing and nanoparticle synthesis. PMID:25785352

  7. Development and application of amorphous core-distribution transformers in Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, R.; Alexandrov, N.; Simoneau, R.; Roberge, R.; Tetreault, J.

    1995-08-01

    This paper describes research and development activities at Hydro-Quebec over the last ten years for improving the efficiency of distribution transformers in Quebec. A shell-type (wound-core) design making optimum use of the properties of amorphous metals (Metglas TCA formerly known as Metglas 2605s-2, Allied Signal Inc., Morristown, NJ) was adopted. Dry and oil-cooled, amorphous-core transformer prototypes were built. The joint research and development project was initiated with Transformateurs Ferranti-Packard Ltee, a company of Rolls-Royce Industries Canada Inc., to build and test a few units of high performance transformers on the Hydro-Quebec power system.

  8. Hydrogeology of a Transboundary Sandstone Aquifer, Quebec - New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastev, M.; Lamontagne, C.; Morin, R.; Williams, J.; Lavigne, M.; Croteau, A.; Tremblay, T.; Godin, R.; Dagenais, M.; Rouleau, A.

    2005-12-01

    The Potsdam sandstone aquifer of Cambrian age straddles southern Quebec and northern New York in a region known for its abundant and good quality groundwater, a resource that recently has been coveted by several bottling companies. The potential conflicts and concerns of the mainly rural and groundwater dependent population about the possible overuse of this resource has led the Quebec Ministry of Environment, Geological Survey of Canada and the U. S. Geological Survey to jointly carry out a transboundary hydrogeological study of the Potsdam sandstone aquifer. The Potsdam sandstone aquifer consists of a lower unit of arkose and conglomerate and an upper unit of well-cemented quartz arenite. The thickness of the regional aquifer ranges from nil at the base of Adirondacks to more than 500 m near the St. Lawrence River. Glacial till, littoral sand and gravel, and marine silt and clay discontinuously overlie the aquifer. The aquifer's water budget is characterized by low rates of surface runoff and high rates of infiltration and sub-surface runoff. Major recharge areas are present at higher altitudes near and to the south of the border. Strong downward hydraulic gradients in these areas result in cascading water and water-level depths of more than 30 m in deep wells. Bedding in the Potsdam sandstone is gently dipping with fractures along sub-horizontal bedding planes forming major flow conduits. Bedrock folds and faults, mainly developed by east-west compression during the Appalachian orogenies, locally complicates aquifer geometry and groundwater flow. Hydraulic tests (pump, slug, flowmeter and straddle packer) indicate similar horizontal transmissivities in the lower and upper aquifer units. However, differences in lithology and structure of the aquifer units impose some apparent differences in hydraulic properties and groundwater flow patterns. In the lower unit, regional flow appears to be sustained by a limited number of laterally extensive bedding-plane fractures

  9. Anaphylaxis cases presenting to primary care paramedics in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Kimchi, Nofar; Clarke, Ann; Moisan, Jocelyn; Lachaine, Colette; La Vieille, Sebastien; Asai, Yuka; Joseph, Lawrence; Mill, Chris; Ben-Shoshan, Moshe

    2015-12-01

    Data on anaphylaxis cases in pre-hospital settings is limited. As part of the Cross Canada Anaphylaxis Registry (C-CARE), we assessed anaphylaxis cases managed by paramedics in Outaouais, Quebec. A software program was developed to prospectively record demographic and clinical characteristics as well as management of cases meeting the definition of the anaphylaxis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regressions were compared to assess factors associated with severity of reactions and epinephrine use. Among 33,788 ambulance calls of which 23,486 required transport, 104 anaphylaxis cases were identified (anaphylaxis rate of 0.31% [95%CI, 0.25%, 0.37%] among all ambulance calls and 0.44% [95%CI, 0.36%, 0.54%] among those requiring transport). The median age was 46.8 years and 41.3% were males. The common triggers included food (32.7% [95%CI, 24.0%, 42.7%]), drugs (24.0% [16.4%, 33.6%]), and venom (17.3% [10.8%, 26.2%]). Among all reactions, 37.5% (95%CI, 28.4%, 47.6%) were severe. Epinephrine was not administered in 35.6% (95%CI, 26.6%, 45.6%) of all cases. Males were more likely to have severe reactions (Odds ratio [OR]: 2.50 [95%CI, 1.03, 6.01]). Venom-induced reactions and severe anaphylaxis were more likely to be managed with epinephrine (OR: 6.9 [95%CI, 1.3, 35.3] and 4.2 [95%CI, 1.5, 12.0], respectively). This is the first prospective study evaluating anaphylaxis managed by paramedics. Anaphylaxis accounts for a substantial proportion of the cases managed by paramedics in Outaouais, Quebec and exceeds prior reports of the proportion of Quebec emergency room visits attributed to anaphylaxis. Although guidelines recommend prompt use of epinephrine for all cases of anaphylaxis, more than a third of cases did not receive epinephrine. It is crucial to develop educational programs targeting paramedics to promote the use of epinephrine in all cases of anaphylaxis regardless of the specific trigger. PMID:26734462

  10. Modeling climate effects on hip fracture rate by the multivariate GARCH model in Montreal region, Canada.

    PubMed

    Modarres, Reza; Ouarda, Taha B M J; Vanasse, Alain; Orzanco, Maria Gabriela; Gosselin, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Changes in extreme meteorological variables and the demographic shift towards an older population have made it important to investigate the association of climate variables and hip fracture by advanced methods in order to determine the climate variables that most affect hip fracture incidence. The nonlinear autoregressive moving average with exogenous variable-generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARMAX-GARCH) and multivariate GARCH (MGARCH) time series approaches were applied to investigate the nonlinear association between hip fracture rate in female and male patients aged 40-74 and 75+ years and climate variables in the period of 1993-2004, in Montreal, Canada. The models describe 50-56% of daily variation in hip fracture rate and identify snow depth, air temperature, day length and air pressure as the influencing variables on the time-varying mean and variance of the hip fracture rate. The conditional covariance between climate variables and hip fracture rate is increasing exponentially, showing that the effect of climate variables on hip fracture rate is most acute when rates are high and climate conditions are at their worst. In Montreal, climate variables, particularly snow depth and air temperature, appear to be important predictors of hip fracture incidence. The association of climate variables and hip fracture does not seem to change linearly with time, but increases exponentially under harsh climate conditions. The results of this study can be used to provide an adaptive climate-related public health program and ti guide allocation of services for avoiding hip fracture risk.

  11. Evidence for the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol to protect the ozone layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäder, J. A.; Staehelin, J.; Peter, T.; Brunner, D.; Rieder, H. E.; Stahel, W. A.

    2010-12-01

    The release of man-made ozone depleting substances (ODS, including chlorofluorocarbons and halons) into the atmosphere has led to a near-linear increase in stratospheric halogen loading since the early 1970s, which levelled off after the mid-1990s and then started to decline, in response to the ban of many ODS by the Montreal Protocol (1987). We developed a multiple linear regression model to test whether this already had a measurable effect on total ozone values observed by the global network of ground-based instruments. The model includes explanatory variables describing the influence of various modes of dynamical variability and of volcanic eruptions. In order to describe the anthropogenic influence a first version of the model contains a linear trend (LT) term, whereas a second version contains a term describing the evolution of Equivalent Effective Stratospheric Chlorine (EESC). By comparing the explained variance of these two model versions we evaluated, which of the two terms better describes the observed ozone evolution. For a significant majority of the stations, the EESC proxy fits the long term ozone evolution better than the linear trend term. Therefore, we conclude that the Montreal Protocol has started to show measurable effects on the ozone layer about twenty years after it became legally binding.

  12. Evidence for the effectiveness of the Montreal Protocol to protect the ozone layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäder, J. A.; Staehelin, J.; Peter, T.; Brunner, D.; Rieder, H. E.; Stahel, W. A.

    2010-08-01

    The release of man-made ozone depleting substances (ODS, including chlorofluorocarbons and halons) into the atmosphere has lead to a near-linear increase in stratospheric halogen loading since the early 1970s, which started to level off after the mid-1990s and then to decline, in response to the ban of many ODSs by the Montreal Protocol (1987). We developed a multiple linear regression model to test whether this has already a measurable effect on total ozone values observed by the global network of ground-based instruments. The model includes explanatory variables describing the influence of various modes of dynamical variability and of volcanic eruptions. In order to describe the anthropogenic influence a first version of the model contains a linear trend (LT) term, whereas a second version contains a term describing the evolution of equivalent effective stratospheric chlorine (EESC). By comparing the explained variance of these two models we evaluated which of the two terms better describes the observed ozone evolution. For a significant majority of the stations, the EESC proxy fits the long term ozone evolution better than the linear trend term. Therefore, we conclude that the Montreal Protocol has started to show measurable effects on the ozone layer about twenty years after it became legally binding.

  13. Modeling climate effects on hip fracture rate by the multivariate GARCH model in Montreal region, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Modarres, Reza; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.; Vanasse, Alain; Orzanco, Maria Gabriela; Gosselin, Pierre

    2014-07-01

    Changes in extreme meteorological variables and the demographic shift towards an older population have made it important to investigate the association of climate variables and hip fracture by advanced methods in order to determine the climate variables that most affect hip fracture incidence. The nonlinear autoregressive moving average with exogenous variable-generalized autoregressive conditional heteroscedasticity (ARMA X-GARCH) and multivariate GARCH (MGARCH) time series approaches were applied to investigate the nonlinear association between hip fracture rate in female and male patients aged 40-74 and 75+ years and climate variables in the period of 1993-2004, in Montreal, Canada. The models describe 50-56 % of daily variation in hip fracture rate and identify snow depth, air temperature, day length and air pressure as the influencing variables on the time-varying mean and variance of the hip fracture rate. The conditional covariance between climate variables and hip fracture rate is increasing exponentially, showing that the effect of climate variables on hip fracture rate is most acute when rates are high and climate conditions are at their worst. In Montreal, climate variables, particularly snow depth and air temperature, appear to be important predictors of hip fracture incidence. The association of climate variables and hip fracture does not seem to change linearly with time, but increases exponentially under harsh climate conditions. The results of this study can be used to provide an adaptive climate-related public health program and ti guide allocation of services for avoiding hip fracture risk.

  14. Protestants, Catholics, and Masonic Conspiracies: The British Association in Montreal (1884).

    PubMed

    Toal, Ciaran

    2016-03-01

    The British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS), like many nineteenth-century institutions, sought to avoid controversy by excluding the discussion of political and religious topics from its proceedings. Nonpartisanship was a veneer it could hide behind. Yet during the Montreal meeting of 1884-the first time the association ventured beyond the comfortable confines of the British Isles-this "middle way" was tested. While local and visiting Anglophones, many of them BAAS members, viewed the proceedings and character of the association as "decidedly friendly" to religion and as promoting the broad interests of Protestants, Montreal's episcopacy and French-speaking press rallied against the anti-Catholic BAAS, accusing it of harboring a dangerous Masonic clique. In different material and social spaces, the relationship between science, religion, and the association was conceived in distinct ways. In examining this case, this essay seeks to augment the growing body of scholarship within science studies that recognizes the importance of writing both the history and the geography of encounters between science and religion.

  15. Protestants, Catholics, and Masonic Conspiracies: The British Association in Montreal (1884).

    PubMed

    Toal, Ciaran

    2016-03-01

    The British Association for the Advancement of Science (BAAS), like many nineteenth-century institutions, sought to avoid controversy by excluding the discussion of political and religious topics from its proceedings. Nonpartisanship was a veneer it could hide behind. Yet during the Montreal meeting of 1884-the first time the association ventured beyond the comfortable confines of the British Isles-this "middle way" was tested. While local and visiting Anglophones, many of them BAAS members, viewed the proceedings and character of the association as "decidedly friendly" to religion and as promoting the broad interests of Protestants, Montreal's episcopacy and French-speaking press rallied against the anti-Catholic BAAS, accusing it of harboring a dangerous Masonic clique. In different material and social spaces, the relationship between science, religion, and the association was conceived in distinct ways. In examining this case, this essay seeks to augment the growing body of scholarship within science studies that recognizes the importance of writing both the history and the geography of encounters between science and religion. PMID:27197410

  16. Mother's death and child survival: the case of early Quebec.

    PubMed

    Pavard, Samuel; Gagnon, Alain; Desjardins, Bertrand; Heyer, Evelyne

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to account for the effect of mother's death on child survival in a historical population. Using comprehensive data on the early French Canadian population of Quebec, evidence is provided for a higher risk of dying for motherless children that remains significant over all childhood and long after the death of the mother. The specific effect of the loss of maternal care was estimated by comparing mortality before and after mother's death, furnishing a means to control for family heterogeneity. No differential in investment between genders was detected before age 3, but older girls suffered a three-fold higher susceptibility to mother's death than their male counterparts. This suggests that grown-up girls assuming the responsibilities of the missing mother had a lower chance of survival.

  17. Jets over Labrador and Quebec: noise effects on human health.

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, J

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the noise from low-level flights over Labrador and Quebec is harmful to human health. DATA SOURCE AND SELECTION: Search of MEDLINE for articles on the effect of noise, particularly impulse noise associated with low-level flights, and a search of the references from identified articles. DATA SYNTHESIS: The noise levels from low-level flights could affect hearing acuity. However, the more important consequences appear to be stress-mediated physiologic effects, especially cardiovascular ones, and psychologic distress, particularly in children. Subjective perception of control over the noise has been found to mitigate some physiologic effects. CONCLUSION: There is sufficient evidence to show that the noise from low-level flights is harmful to human health. PMID:2007238

  18. The visible politics of the privatization debate in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Abelson, Julia; Lamarche, Paul; Bohémier, Katia

    2012-08-01

    This paper analyzes the debates surrounding the privatization of health services financing in Quebec. The objective is to clarify policy-making processes with regard to this important issue and, more generally, to provide a realistic understanding of health-related policy processes in Canada. The analysis is based on a large and continuous sample of mass media and National Assembly debates on the question during the four-and-a-half years following the Chaoulli ruling of the Supreme Court of Canada. These data are used to test four hypotheses about relationships among the types of political actors involved, their policy preferences, the rhetoric they use and the anticipated policy effects they assert. The results are applied to a discussion of questions about the factors that influence the effectiveness of political communication. PMID:23968604

  19. Teaching smoking cessation to future nurses: Quebec educators' beliefs.

    PubMed

    Lepage, Mario; Dumas, Louise; Saint-Pierre, Chantal

    2015-03-01

    Smoking cessation strategies are barely discussed in nursing education programs, even though initial education shapes how future professionals practice their profession. The aim of this research is to describe the practices, attitudes, and beliefs of nursing educators of Quebec with regard to smoking cessation strategies in initial nursing education. A descriptive design was chosen along with an online questionnaire. A total of 278 educators (20.8%) participated in the survey. Although educators recognize the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into their teaching practice, they allocate an average of only one hour per year to the topic. Tobacco use is addressed mostly in terms of risk factors, with little focus on how to help patients quit. The perceived obstacles are related to false beliefs and a lack of knowledge. The results of this study demonstrate the need to raise educators' awareness of the importance of incorporating smoking cessation strategies into classroom teaching.

  20. [Lack of conviction about vaccination in certain Quebec vaccinators].

    PubMed

    Dionne, M; Boulianne, N; Duval, B; Lavoie, F; Laflamme, N; Carsley, J; Valiquette, L; Gagnon, S; Rochette, L; De Serres, G

    2001-01-01

    A questionnaire was mailed to all vaccinators in Quebec in 1998. The objective of this survey was to document vaccinators' attitudes, knowledge, and practices related to vaccination. Vaccinators generally believe in the security, efficacy and usefulness of vaccines given to young children. However, 41% of nurses do not fully agree with these opinions. More than 94% of pediatricians completely disagree that "certain practices (homeopathy, good eating habits and a healthy lifestyle) can eliminate the need for vaccination", compared with 85% of general practitioners and only 60% of nurses. Less than 25% of doctors recall children who are late in getting their immunizations; approximately 45% of vaccinators are in complete agreement with simultaneous injections of two vaccines; many circumstances are incorrectly seen as contra indications for vaccination. Public health authorities should target systematic interventions towards vaccinators to improve this situation and to increase nurses' conviction regarding the benefits of vaccination.

  1. [Some demographic aspects of urban sprawl in Montreal from 1971 to 1991 and the implications for metropolitan management].

    PubMed

    Collin, J; Mongeau, J

    1992-01-01

    "Urban sprawl over the last two decades has changed the relationships between the central city and its suburb, as the urban character of the suburb asserts itself. Data on migrations and commuting inside Montreal show diminishing contracts between the suburbanites and the central city, indicating that Montreal...is experiencing this process of 'urbanization' of its suburb as well. However, the downtown area keeps a large part of its attractiveness: it is still visited by many suburbanites who nevertheless live in a different environment." (SUMMARY IN ENG AND SPA)

  2. Primary Reasons for Osteopathic Consultation: A Prospective Survey in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Morin, Chantal; Aubin, Andrée

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteopathy is an increasingly popular health care modality to address pain and function in the musculoskeletal system, organs and the head region, as well as functional somatic syndromes. Although osteopathy is recommended principally in guidelines for management of back pain, osteopaths' scope of practice is wide, albeit poorly defined. In order to understand better the practice of osteopathy, this study aimed to investigate the most common reasons for osteopathic consultations in clinical settings in Quebec. Methods A prospective survey of members of the Registre des ostéopathes du Québec was conducted to examine demographics in osteopathic practices, as well as patients' primary reasons for consultations over a two-week period. The questionnaire was devised following a literature review and refined and verified with two stages of expert input. Results 277 osteopaths (60.1% response rate) responded to the survey notice. 14,002 patients' primary reasons for consultations were reported in completed questionnaires and returned by practicing osteopaths. Musculoskeletal pain located in the spine, thorax, pelvis and limbs was the most common reason for consultations (61.9%), with females consulting most commonly for cervical pain and males for lumbar pain. Perinatal and paediatric (11.8%), head (9.1%), visceral (5.0%) and general concerns (4.8%) were the other most common reasons for consultations. Preventive care represented the remaining 0.3%. Interpretation The nature of primary reasons for osteopathic consultations, coupled with documented satisfaction of patients with this approach, suggest a future for multidisciplinary collaborative health care including osteopathy. Results of this survey may contribute to informing physicians and others pending regulation of Quebec osteopaths, and also provide direction for future clinical research and guidelines development. PMID:25184204

  3. Quebec's Medical Aid in Dying: An Inspiration for Other Canadian Jurisdictions?

    PubMed

    Boivin, Daniel; Barrette, Julie

    2016-02-01

    Soon, physicians across Canada will be permitted to assist patients in dying, provided certain conditions are met. Physicians in the province of Quebec can already provide this service since December 10, 2015. While Quebec has been studying the question of legislating medical aid in dying since 2009, the rest of the country must come up with legislation on this issue within the next few months. This article suggests that other Canadian jurisdictions, federally and provincially/territorially, may find inspiration in the extensive work done in Quebec leading to its end-of-life legislation, including on the issues of identifying proper safeguards to protect vulnerable people and eligibility criteria that could be put in place in these jurisdictions. The Quebec model could be particularly useful in regard to the approach to balancing physicians' rights of conscience with patients' constitutional right to access medical aid in dying. PMID:27169207

  4. Fractured bodies and diseased societies: medicalizing Quebec in Cité libre.

    PubMed

    Robert, Julie

    2011-01-01

    This essay seeks to rationalize and explain the evolution of medical rhetoric in Cité libre by looking at trends in the journal's use of tropes of illness and disease. Through a combination of broad content analysis and close readings, it contrasts how individual metaphors create the impression of a sickening nation and the manner in which these metaphors collectively, albeit paradoxically, act as a national allegory of cure for mid-twentieth-century Quebec's social ills in general, and specifically for its pathological inferiority complex. By examining how the journal uses medical metaphors and specifically how the writers employed the trope of the body politic to illustrate Quebec's national failings, the essay demonstrates how Quebec challenges the rhetorical stability of the age-old metaphor as it attempts to solve, but also creates, problems within Quebec's articulation of its own nationhood.

  5. Differences in Access to Services in Rural Emergency Departments of Quebec and Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Archambault, Patrick; Audette, Louis David; Plant, Jeff; Bégin, François; Poitras, Julien

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Rural emergency departments (EDs) are important safety nets for the 20% of Canadians who live there. A serious problem in access to health care services in these regions has emerged. However, there are considerable geographic disparities in access to trauma center in Canada. The main objective of this project was to compare access to local 24/7 support services in rural EDs in Quebec and Ontario as well as distances to Levels 1 and 2 trauma centers. Materials and Methods Rural EDs were identified through the Canadian Healthcare Association's Guide to Canadian Healthcare Facilities. We selected hospitals with 24/7 ED physician coverage and hospitalization beds that were located in rural communities. There were 26 rural EDs in Quebec and 62 in Ontario meeting these criteria. Data were collected from ministries of health, local health authorities, and ED statistics. Fisher’s exact test, the t-test or Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, were performed to compare rural EDs of Quebec and Ontario. Results All selected EDs of Quebec and Ontario agreed to participate in the study. The number of EDs visits was higher in Quebec than in Ontario (19 322 ± 6 275 vs 13 446 ± 8 056, p = 0.0013). There were no significant differences between Quebec and Ontario’s local population and small town population density. Quebec’s EDs have better access to advance imaging services such as CT scanner (77% vs 15%, p < .0001) and most the consultant support and ICU (92% vs 31%, p < .0001). Finally, more than 40% of rural EDs in Quebec and Ontario are more than 300 km away from Levels 1 and 2 trauma centers. Conclusions Considering that Canada has a Universal health care system, the discrepancies between Quebec and Ontario in access to support services are intriguing. A nationwide study is justified to address this issue. PMID:25874948

  6. A Tale of Two Montreal Communities: Parents' Perspectives on Their Children's Language and Literacy Development in a Multilingual Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riches, Caroline; Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2010-01-01

    This comparative inquiry examines the multi-/bilingual nature and cultural diversity of two distinctly different linguistic and ethnic communities in Montreal--English speakers and Chinese speakers--with a focus on the multi/bilingual and multi/biliterate development of children from these two communities who attend French-language schools, by…

  7. The Utility of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment as a Mental Capacity Assessment Tool for Patients with a Learning Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Daniel; Oyefeso, Adenekan; Evans, Carys; Evans, Amber

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the psychometric properties of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in patients with a learning disability and examine it's utility for conducting mental capacity assessment. Method: This study was a cross-sectional, instrument validation study in an inpatient hospital setting, located in the East of England. The sample…

  8. Immigration and cultural policies: a bone of contention between the Province of Quebec and the Canadian federal government.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, L

    1995-01-01

    "This article addresses the way in which the Province of Quebec has obtained increasing power in the area of immigration.... Data from interviews with key members of [the Ministry of Immigration] and from selected documents are drawn on to illustrate Quebec's cultural politics. The Quebec position on the question of immigration as it has evolved in the context of immigration policies defined by the federal government in Ottawa is examined.... In particular, the present article considers how attempts to construct a cultural identity and a nation-state in Quebec have had important consequences for immigration policy and for attitudes and policies concerning Quebec's cultural minorities. The emergence of the notion of 'cultural communities' as a result of the constitutional rivalry and the on-going struggle for legitimacy between Quebec and Ottawa is also explored."

  9. Montreal Museum exhibit provides clear picture of advances in medical imaging.

    PubMed Central

    Hamilton, J

    1995-01-01

    An exhibit at the McCord Museum of Canadian History, which runs until November, marks the centennial of the discovery of the x-ray. Among the items on display are a portable field x-ray machine used during World War I and one of the machines commonly found in shoe stores between 1930 and 1950 to x-ray customers' feet. The exhibit also features one of the first scanners used in North America. Dr. Denis Melançon, a radiologist at the Montreal Neurological Institute, was the driving force behind the McCord exhibit. "I wanted to show [not only] the historical and scientific aspects of the discovery, but also its medical and social applications," he says. PMID:7553500

  10. Selecting corporate political tactics: The Montreal Protocol on substances that deplete the ozone layer

    SciTech Connect

    Getz, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    This study examines factors influencing the choice of one set of tactics over others. The case of ozone depletion is used as the research context, and the data are drawn from US companies having a stake in this issue. A model is developed which suggests that a firm's choice of political tactics (dependent variable) is dependent on the targets of political activity and the nature of the issue of concern (independent variables), and a variety of organizational and industry factors (moderating variables). The paradigm of agency is used to systematically assess the relative importance of these factors. To test the relevance of the model, an empirical study was done. The case of the Montreal protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer was chosen as a setting; and 551 firms directly affected by policy intended to protect the ozone layer were surveyed. There were 151 usable responses. Generally, the findings were consistent with the model.

  11. The Fourth Meeting of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol: Report and Reflection

    SciTech Connect

    Rowlands, I.H.

    1993-07-01

    Between 23 and 25 November 1992, representatives from more than 100 states gathered in Copenhagen for the Fourth Meeting of the parties to the Montreal Protocol in Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. The Copenhagen gathering was significant not only because the international community had to respond to the ongoing deterioration of the Earth`s protective layer of stratospheric ozone, but also because it was one of the first major international environmental conferences to be held after the June 1992 UNCED in Rio de Janeiro. The results of the fourth meeting, discussed in this paper, might therefore suggest the extent to which UNCED cemented the international community`s commitment to the goal of sustainable development.

  12. Increase in HFC-134a emissions in response to the success of the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortems-Cheiney, A.; Saunois, M.; Pison, I.; Chevallier, F.; Bousquet, P.; Cressot, C.; Montzka, S. A.; Fraser, P. J.; Vollmer, M. K.; Simmonds, P. G.; Young, D.; O'Doherty, S.; Weiss, R. F.; Artuso, F.; Barletta, B.; Blake, D. R.; Li, S.; Lunder, C.; Miller, B. R.; Park, S.; Prinn, R.; Saito, T.; Steele, L. P.; Yokouchi, Y.

    2015-11-01

    The 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a), an important alternative to CFC-12 in accordance with the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, is a high global warming potential greenhouse gas. Here we evaluate variations in global and regional HFC-134a emissions and emission trends, from 1995 to 2010, at a relatively high spatial and temporal (3.75° in longitude × 2.5° in latitude and 8 day) resolution, using surface HFC-134a measurements. Our results show a progressive increase of global HFC-134a emissions from 19 ± 2 Gg/yr in 1995 to 167 ± 5 Gg/yr in 2010, with both a slowdown in developed countries and a 20%/yr increase in China since 2005. A seasonal cycle is also seen since 2002, which becomes enhanced over time, with larger values during the boreal summer.

  13. Organizational Strategies for Critical Transportation Infrastructure: Characteristics of Urban Resilience. The Case of Montreal.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauregard, Stéphane; Therrien, Marie-Christine; Normandin, Julie-Maude

    2010-05-01

    Organizational Strategies for Critical Transportation Infrastructure: Characteristics of Urban Resilience. The Case of Montreal. Stéphane Beauregard M.Sc. Candidate École nationale d'administration publique Julie-Maude Normandin Ph.D. Candidate École nationale d'administration publique Marie-Christine Therrien Professor École nationale d'administration publique The proposed paper presents preliminary results on the resilience of organizations managing critical infrastructure in the Metropolitan Montreal area (Canada). A resilient city is characterized by a network of infrastructures and individuals capable of maintaining their activities in spite of a disturbance (Godschalk, 2002). Critical infrastructures provide essential services for the functioning of society. In a crisis situation, the interruption or a decrease in performance of critical infrastructures could have important impacts on the population. They are also vulnerable to accidents and cascading effects because on their complexity and tight interdependence (Perrow, 1984). For these reasons, protection and security of the essential assets and networks are one of the objectives of organizations and governments. But prevention and recovery are two endpoints of a continuum which include also intermediate concerns: ensuring organizational robustness or failing with elegance rather than catastrophically. This continuum also includes organizational resilience (or system), or the ability to recover quickly after an interruption has occurred. Wildavsky (1988) proposes that anticipation strategies work better against known problems while resilience strategies focus on unknown problems. Anticipation policies can unnecessarily immobilize investments against risks, while resilience strategies include the potential for a certain sacrifice in the interests of a more long-term survival and adaptation to changing threats. In addition, a too large confidence in anticipation strategies can bring loss of capacity of an

  14. Mortality in late nineteenth-century Montreal: geographic pathways of contagion.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Patricia; Olson, Sherry

    2011-07-01

    In the City of Montreal, 1881, the presence of three cultural communities with different profiles of economic status makes it possible to observe the way social settings affected survival over a lifetime. Regression models show culturally determined maternal factors dominant for infants, and persistent throughout childhood. For post-neonates, children aged 1-4, and adults aged 15-59 household poverty has a comparable effect. Among adults, a gender penalty differs among the three communities. Models are improved when differentiated by cause of death. Locating households using a GIS reveals high levels of residential segregation by ethnicity and income, spatial correlation of environmental hazards, and constraints on exit from zones of risk, which together produce neighbourhood effects as large as household effects. Attention to groups excluded (foundlings and inmates of institutions) confirms that models limited to full household-level information significantly underestimate the impacts of poverty and exclusion.

  15. Mortality in late nineteenth-century Montreal: geographic pathways of contagion.

    PubMed

    Thornton, Patricia; Olson, Sherry

    2011-07-01

    In the City of Montreal, 1881, the presence of three cultural communities with different profiles of economic status makes it possible to observe the way social settings affected survival over a lifetime. Regression models show culturally determined maternal factors dominant for infants, and persistent throughout childhood. For post-neonates, children aged 1-4, and adults aged 15-59 household poverty has a comparable effect. Among adults, a gender penalty differs among the three communities. Models are improved when differentiated by cause of death. Locating households using a GIS reveals high levels of residential segregation by ethnicity and income, spatial correlation of environmental hazards, and constraints on exit from zones of risk, which together produce neighbourhood effects as large as household effects. Attention to groups excluded (foundlings and inmates of institutions) confirms that models limited to full household-level information significantly underestimate the impacts of poverty and exclusion. PMID:21644191

  16. Limitations of Single-Basket Trading: A Lesson from the Montreal Protocol for Climate Policy Options

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daniel, J. S.; Solomon, S.; Sanford, T. J.; McFarland, M.; Fuglestvedt, J.; Friedlingstein, P.

    2010-12-01

    The success of the Montreal Protocol in protecting stratospheric ozone has been widely recognized, with many viewing it as a model for international cooperation on global environmental issues. Years of collaborative problem solving by scientists, industry, and policymakers have provided numerous insights, some of which are applicable to addressing the international problem of anthropogenically-caused climate change. Here we suggest that one valuable lesson relates to the manner in which different greenhouse gases are controlled. The Montreal Protocol implemented a multi-basket scheme, which regulated various groups, or baskets, of ozone-depleting substances (ODSs); production and consumption trading were allowed within each basket, but not among baskets. This approach substantially reduced ODS emissions and the associated dangers of increased ozone losses. In contrast, discussions of greenhouse gas (GHG) regulation have generally focused on single-basket emissions trading. In particular, the Kyoto Protocol has allowed trading of emissions reductions among all regulated compounds. The flexibility of such an approach has the potential to lead to less expensive total abatement costs than if each GHG were regulated separately. Here we quantify the extent to which such a scheme may also lead to an ambiguous relationship between policy controls and the climate protection they provide over both short and long time horizons. We further show that the magnitude of this ambiguity depends strongly on the magnitude of the required emissions reduction. These results suggest it is important for policymakers to make a conscious and informed decision regarding whether the additional flexibility associated with a single-basket approach is worth the potentially reduced effectiveness for any particular reduction control level enacted. If it is not worth it, they should recognize that a multi-basket scheme has worked for protecting ozone and could also be effective for climate policy.

  17. [The role of families in the Quebec mental health system].

    PubMed

    Bonin, Jean-Pierre; Chicoine, Gabrielle; Fradet, Hélène; Larue, Caroline; Racine, Hélène; Jacques, Marie-Claude; St-Cyr Tribble, Denise

    2014-01-01

    Purpose. This paper aims to summarize the current situation regarding the role of families of persons with mental disorders within the mental health system in Quebec.Methods. We made a research in the most recent and pertinent papers or books regarding: 1) the history of the family involvement in the mental health system in Quebec; 2) the present situation of these families and the models that we can see and 3) identify in recent governmental or research documents recommendations regarding a greater empowerment of the families in the mental health system.Results. The research provides a historical perspective to the roles occupied by families. First the family was described as a causal agent; the work of the psychoanalyst Freud described the family unit as a source of conflicts in the areas of affect and sexual dynamics, and which results in the appearance of psychiatric symptoms. Later, this view of a causal agent came both from the point of view of genetic and from expressed emotions. In the 70's new perspectives such as general systems theory (von Bertalanffy, 1968), described the family as responsive to mental disorder of one of its members rather than a responsible agent. With the deinstitutionalization movement, the family was perceived as a source of solutions for persons with mental illness, but also as persons who can live some burden. This subject became well described and a several studies reported about adverse effects of caring for a person with mental disorder on the health, well-being and feeling of caregiver burden. In the 90's, some government action plans called for the relationship between the family and the health system as a partnership. Also, families want to be involved in decisions about care and to be informed about the diagnosis and treatment options. ( Lefley et Wasow, 1993)A new model developed by FFAPAMM that identifies three main roles enables to contextualize the current role in the current system. This model, called CAP lists and

  18. Evaluating the SWAT's snow hydrology over a Northern Quebec watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troin, M.; Caya, D.

    2012-12-01

    The snowmelt is an important component of the Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT[1]) model's hydrology when applied in snowy watersheds where spring flows are dominated by snow melting. However, little is known about its performance in modeling Nordic environments and its accuracy with respect to operational snowmelt models because most studies were conducted in rainfall-runoff catchments. To fill this gap in SWAT's knowledge, we aim to evaluate its performance for simulating a snowy Nordic catchment streamflow with comparison to the Streamflow Synthesis and Reservoir Regulation (SSARR[2]) model. SSARR is one of the selected operational models by the Snow Hydrology Guide as valuable tool for snowmelt runoff simulation (Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources, 1989). In the Côte Nord region of Quebec, most of the streamflow come from snowmelt in watersheds. Understanding the interactions among snow accumulation, snowmelt and streamflow generation is a challenge for water resources management in Quebec, since this province is the Canada's leader in hydroelectric energy production. The selected snow-covered watershed, namely the Outardes Basin, presents extreme climatic conditions. Few examples of model calibration in this Nordic environment exist because of the scarcity of reliable data. The basin has the interest of being well instrumented providing a comprehensive dataset to implement SWAT over this Nordic watershed. The evaluation indicates that SWAT has a good performance in simulating the daily, monthly, seasonal and annual mean discharges with low volume biases over the calibration and validation periods. The predominantly spring snow-melting generated streamflow is simulated with a good accuracy for both its magnitude and its timing. Seasonal snowpack plays an important role in defining the hydrologic regime where the accumulated snowmelt runoff contributes to 64% of the annual runoff. When we compared SWAT's results to SSARR, comparable performances in

  19. Second-Language Education Policy in Quebec: A Critical Analysis of the Policy of English as a Compulsory Subject at the Early Primary Level in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fallon, Gerald; Rublik, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    This is a critical policy study of language planning and policy in Quebec regarding the new policy direction requiring the compulsory teaching of English at the early primary level (grades 1-2, Cycle 1) in francophone public schools. Based on the analysis of policy documents, archives, and narratives from interviews, the goal of this policy study…

  20. Les Enjeux juridiques et sociopolitiques des conflits linguistiques au Quebec (The Legal and Sociopolitical Factors in Linguistic Conflicts in Quebec). Publication G-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Lucie

    A study looks at the economic, social, cultural, and political factors at work in conflicts between Quebec language communities in recent years. The historical and current demographic, economic, cultural, and political relationships between the French and English speaking communities are presented and discussed in terms of political issues and…

  1. Strontium isotope characterization of wines from Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Vinciguerra, Victor; Stevenson, Ross; Pedneault, Karine; Poirier, André; Hélie, Jean-François; Widory, David

    2016-11-01

    The (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios were measured on grape, wine and soil samples collected in 13 commercial vineyards located in three major wine producing areas of Quebec (Canada). The soils yield Sr isotope ratios that are intimately related to the local geology and unambiguously discriminate the different producing areas. A strong relationship exists between the (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios of the wine and the grapes. This suggests that the vinification process does not alter the overall Sr budget. Although the Sr isotope ratios of the grapes do not show a strong correlation with the bulk Sr isotope composition of the soil, they do correlate strongly with the Sr isotope composition contained in the labile fraction of the soil. This indicates that the labile fraction of the soil represents the Sr reservoir available to the plant during its growth. This study demonstrates that the Sr isotope approach can be used as a viable tool in forensic science for investigating the provenance of commercial wines.

  2. Polygenetic pyritic gold occurrences in Bousquet Township, Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Valliant, R.I.; Stone, W.E.

    1985-01-01

    Bousquet Township contains stratiform and stratabound pyritic gold deposits and gold-bearing quartz veins within volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks, felsic volcanic rocks and a granitoid stock on the south side of the Abitibi Greenstone Belt, 50 km east of Noranda, Quebec. Bousquet number3 is a large stratiform lens of fine grained gold in layered disseminated and massive pyrite with minor telluride and base metal sulfide minerals. The enclosing rock consists of quartz and muscovite with accessory andalusite, corundum, paragonite, chloritoid, and manganiferous garnet. Bousquet number5 and Doyon number2 are large stratabound lenses of fine grained gold with disseminated pyrite on a cleavage penetrating a rock of quartz, muscovite, chlorite and carbonate. The vein deposits are relatively small and have gold with quartz, pyrite, and chalcopyrite which crosscut the Doyon number2 lens and the granitoid stock. The stratiform, stratabound, and vein deposits record a progressive metallogenic event coeval with deposition and deformation of the enveloping rocks. The stratiform deposits are interpreted as products of exhalative activity accompanying felsic volcanism. Stratabound occurrences are interpreted as successively modified variations of the stratiform deposits or, as gold introduced during deformation which is synchronous with or after volcanism. The vein deposits represent waning stages of hydrothermal fluid circulation accompanying crystallization of the granitoid stock toward the end of volcanic activity in the district.

  3. Strontium isotope characterization of wines from Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Vinciguerra, Victor; Stevenson, Ross; Pedneault, Karine; Poirier, André; Hélie, Jean-François; Widory, David

    2016-11-01

    The (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios were measured on grape, wine and soil samples collected in 13 commercial vineyards located in three major wine producing areas of Quebec (Canada). The soils yield Sr isotope ratios that are intimately related to the local geology and unambiguously discriminate the different producing areas. A strong relationship exists between the (87)Sr/(86)Sr isotope ratios of the wine and the grapes. This suggests that the vinification process does not alter the overall Sr budget. Although the Sr isotope ratios of the grapes do not show a strong correlation with the bulk Sr isotope composition of the soil, they do correlate strongly with the Sr isotope composition contained in the labile fraction of the soil. This indicates that the labile fraction of the soil represents the Sr reservoir available to the plant during its growth. This study demonstrates that the Sr isotope approach can be used as a viable tool in forensic science for investigating the provenance of commercial wines. PMID:27211629

  4. Quebec public funding facilitates fertility preservation for male cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Herrero, M.B.; García, A.; Buckett, W.; Tulandi, T.; Chan, P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Sperm cryopreservation remains the only clinically feasible option to preserve male fertility. The quality of counselling provided by the treating physicians and the cost of sperm cryopreservation can both influence a patient’s decision about whether to preserve sperm. On 5 August 2010, the Quebec government introduced provincial coverage of assisted reproductive technologies, with sperm cryopreservation included as a covered service. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether and how such a program affects the behaviour of cancer patients with respect to sperm cryopreservation. Methods We analyzed the database derived from male patients undergoing sperm cryopreservation from August 2008 to August 2012 at our centre. The retrieved data included patient age, male infertility or oncologic diagnosis, sperm quality parameters, and details about the number of visits for sperm cryopreservation. Results The number of cancer patients who cryopreserved sperm before and after the policy change did not differ significantly, but a marked increase in the number of non-cancer patients was observed. Further analysis revealed that, after implementation of the public funding program, the total number of sperm cryopreservation sessions per patient increased significantly in cancer patients but not in non-cancer patients. Conclusions It appears that cancer patients who are willing to freeze sperm are keen to return for more sessions of sperm banking when no fees are associated with the service. Those findings suggest that cost reduction is an important factor for improving delivery of fertility preservation services to male cancer patients. PMID:26966400

  5. REE in the Great Whale River estuary, northwest Quebec

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Steven J.; Jacobsen, Stein B.

    1988-01-01

    A report on REE concentrations within the estuary of the Great Whale River in northwest Quebec and in Hudson Bay is given, showing concentrations which are less than those predicted by conservative mixing of seawater and river water, indicating removal of REE from solution. REE removal is rapid, occurring primarily at salinities less than 2 percent and ranges from about 70 percent for light REE to no more than 40 percent for heavy REE. At low salinity, Fe removal is essentially complete. The shape of Fe and REE vs. salinity profiles is not consistent with a simple model of destabilization and coagulation of Fe and REE-bearing colloidal material. A linear relationship between the activity of free ion REE(3+) and pH is consistent with a simple ion-exchange model for REE removal. Surface and subsurface samples of Hudson Bay seawater show high REE and La/Yb concentrations relative to average seawater, with the subsurface sample having a Nd concentration of 100 pmol/kg and an epsilon(Nd) of -29.3; characteristics consistent with river inputs of Hudson Bay. This indicates that rivers draining the Canadian Shield are a major source of nonradiogenic Nd and REE to the Atlantic Ocean.

  6. Proceedings of the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group = Actes de la Rencontre Annuelle 2004 du Groupe Canadien d'Etude en Didactique des Mathematiques (28th, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada, May 28-Jun 1, 2004)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmt, Elaine, Ed.; Davis, Brent, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This submission contains the Proceedings of the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Canadian Mathematics Education Study Group (CMESG), held at Universite Laval in Quebec City, Quebec. The CMESG is a group of mathematicians and mathematics educators who meet annually to discuss mathematics education issues at all levels of learning. The aims of the Study…

  7. Adaptation linguistique et culturelle: L'experience des refugies d'Asie du sud-est au Quebec (Linguistic and Cultural Adaptation: The Experience of Southeast Asian Refugees in Quebec).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Kwok B.; Dorais, Louis-Jacques

    A collection of papers, in English and French, on the adjustment processes and problems of Southeast Asian refugees in Quebec includes: "Prelude to Resettlement: A Clinical View on the Transit Camp Experience of Vietnamese Refugees" (David Loveridge, Kwok B. Chan); "Une communaute culturelle en situation de diglossie: Les Vietnamiens du Quebec"…

  8. Quebec: employer who disclosed employee's HIV-positive status violated rights to dignity and freedom from discrimination.

    PubMed

    Kazatchkine, Cécile

    2011-04-01

    The Quebec human rights tribunal held that an employer who disclosed the HIV-positive status of an employee to his staff violated the employee's right to the safeguard of his dignity, without distinction or exclusion based on disability, contrary to Sections 4 and 10 of the Charter of Human Rights and Freedoms (the Quebec Charter).

  9. The Effects of Competition from Private Schooling on French Public School Districts in the Province of Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Bernier, Sylvain

    2012-01-01

    The Province of Quebec subsidizes nearly 50% of private education, and at the same time heavily regulates private schools. To date, no studies have been done to determine the effect of the unique nature of competition from K-12 private schools on public school education of the sort found in Quebec. The authors used multiple regression to determine…

  10. Actes des Journees de linguistique (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference) (13th, Quebec, Canada, March 25-26, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kavanagh, Eric, Ed.

    Papers on language research in this volume include the following: Pour une comparaison des voyelles nasals du Quebec et du Haut-Jura: observations, methodologie et outils infomatiques (A Comparison of Quebec and Haut-Jura's Nasal Vowels: Observations, Methodologies, and Instrumentation) (Vincent Arnaud and Claude Paradis); Le negociation du sens…

  11. Interference lexicale dans la langue quebecoise rurale (1900-1950) (Lexical Interference in Rural Quebec's Language, 1900-1950).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, David-F.

    A study of rural Quebec's language showed that by comparison with the urban version, it is less influenced by anglicisms, and the borrowing that has occurred is not solely of terms of civilization designating objects or notions susceptible to exchange between anglophones and francophones in Quebec. Certain anglicisms seem to have become integrated…

  12. Computers on the Border: Case Studies from Three "Nations"--Quebec, The Foundry, and New England. Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoloff, David L.

    This paper argues that computers in education on the Quebec (Canada), New York, and Vermont borders reflect different styles of education and cultural ethos. This paper examines a 6-month period of this educational innovation from October 1984 to April 1985. In Quebec, the Ministry of Education is involved in the purchase of computers, teacher…

  13. Water budget of a Quebec North-boreal minerotrophic peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jutras, S.; Rousseau, A. N.; St-Hilaire, A.; Carrer, G.; Proulx-McInnis, S.; Clerc, C.; Levrel, G.

    2009-05-01

    A significant percentage of the northern Quebec boreal region consists of minerotrophic peatland. Their impact on large-scale watersheds, used for hydroelectric production, is important, especially in relation to climate change. During the last decades, a subtle increase in the surface of ponds at the expense of terrestrial compartments has been observed. To better understand the impacts of this development, a multidisciplinary study to perform a complete integrated analysis of the water balance was launched in summer 2008 on the Abeille peatland (54° 06'52" N, 72° 30'01"W), a minerotrophic peatland with an open-water surface. While all features of the water balance will be considered (precipitation, evapotranspiration, runoff, storage and error), some will be studied in greater depth. Notably, evapotranspiration and storage changes will be considered, since, they are particularly difficult to measure in peatland ecosystems. Indirect methods for estimating actual evapotranspiration are often used. One method is to use a semi-empirical formula to estimate potential evapotranspiration. The main problem with this method is that a relationship between potential and actual evapotranspiration must be established and this is a highly variable process for peat ecosystems. To establish a relationship appropriate to our study site, different methods of direct measurement of the actual evapotranspiration will be used (lysimeters, turbulence flow, daily fluctuations of storage, etc.) and compared. A dense network of wells has been installed to enable monitoring of changes in storage and subsurface runoff. A high accuracy topographic survey will be executed to assess the total water content of the site. A device for measuring the variation of peat surface elevation will also be established. Preliminary results are showing complex dynamic behaviors of water migration through the site, therefore opening the way to new questions and hypotheses to clarify in the coming years.

  14. Product Listing Agreements (PLAs): A New Tool for Reaching Quebec's Pharmaceutical Policy Objectives?

    PubMed Central

    Bourassa Forcier, Mélanie; Noël, François

    2013-01-01

    Product listing agreements (PLAs) with pharmaceutical manufacturers are increasingly viewed as an innovative and useful tool in the effort to control drug expenditures. To date, Quebec is the only province that has been reluctant to enter into such agreements, arguing that their confidential nature may lead to a disparity in coverage between individuals covered by the public plan and those covered by private insurance. While PLAs may, in fact, present such a risk, in this paper we will argue that when used correctly, these agreements are actually tools that could help attain all four of the objectives set out in Quebec's policy on medications, namely: (a) improved access to drugs, (b) fair and reasonable drug pricing, (c) optimal drug use and (d) maintaining a dynamic biopharmaceutical industry in Quebec. PMID:23968675

  15. Public participation in strategic environmental assessment (SEA): Critical review and the Quebec (Canada) approach

    SciTech Connect

    Gauthier, Mario; Simard, Louis; Waaub, Jean-Philippe

    2011-01-15

    It is widely accepted that public participation must be a part of strategic environmental assessment (SEA) procedures, and yet few studies have been conducted on the implementation of SEA public participation procedures. Accordingly, the theoretical and practical aspects of public participation in SEA remain research priorities for environmental policy-making. This paper presents a review of the Quebec (Canada) model of public participation in SEA through an evaluation of six public hearings on proposed directions and policies concerning, respectively, hazardous waste, forest protection, residual materials, energy, water management and pig farming. First, the authors examine the theoretical dimensions of SEA and public participation in the process. Second, they give a summary of the lessons that can be learned from the few Canadian and international experiences. Third, they outline the Quebec experience. Finally, they conclude by evaluating the opportunities and limitations of the Quebec experience and make some recommendations to improve its application.

  16. The recent findings of the "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010" and the World Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, P. A.; Scientific Assessment Panel to the Montreal Protocol

    2011-12-01

    The ozone layer is the Earth's natural sunscreen, blocking harmful solar ultraviolet radiation. In 1974, Mario Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland proposed that the ozone layer could be depleted by chlorine released from human-produced chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Follow-up science investigations supported this hypothesis, leading to the landmark 1987 Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer (a protocol to the Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer). One of the Montreal Protocol provisions is that science assessments on ozone depletion be written and submitted to the signatory Parties every 4 years. In this talk, I will primarily focus on the science findings from the recently published "Scientific Assessment of Ozone Depletion: 2010". This assessment is written and reviewed (multiple times) by the international science community. The 2010 assessment is the latest in a long series of reports that provide the science foundation for the Montreal Protocol. This assessment demonstrates that the Montreal Protocol is working, and that there are early signs that ozone is beginning to respond to decreasing CFC levels. There are now state-of-the-art simulations that show that the ozone layer would have been largely destroyed if CFCs had not been regulated, and therefore extreme levels of UV radiation have been avoided. The 2010 assessment also spotlights new insights into the impact of ozone depletion on surface climate, and climate impacts on ozone. However, the assessment also reveals that greenhouse gases are modifying the stratosphere and that the ozone layer will evolve into a different state than its pre-industrial values - you can't go home again.

  17. Culture and Interculturality in the Adult ESL Context in Urban Quebec: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dytynyshyn, Nancy; Collins, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the treatment of culture and the development of interculturality in the transcripts of a complete 36-hour ESL course organized by a community center in Montreal. The adult participants came from a variety of linguistic and cultural backgrounds. The adult second-language class has been identified as a potentially rich context…

  18. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)-Italian version: regression based norms and equivalent scores.

    PubMed

    Conti, Silvia; Bonazzi, Stefano; Laiacona, Marcella; Masina, Marco; Coralli, Mirco Vanelli

    2015-02-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a brief cognitive screening instrument developed by Nasreddine et al. to detect mild cognitive impairment, a high-risk condition for Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. In this study we report normative data on the MoCA-Italian version, collected on a sample of 225 Italian healthy subjects ranged in age between 60 and 80 years, and in formal education from 5 to 23 years. The global normal cognition was established in accordance with the Mini-Mental State Examination score and with the Prose Memory Test score (Spinnler and Tognoni, Ital J Neurol Sci 6:25-27, 1987). None of the participants had a history of psychiatric, neurological, cerebrovascular disorders or brain injury or took drugs affecting cognition. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential effect of age, education and sex on the MoCA total performance score. We provide correction grids to adjust raw scores and equivalent scores with cut-off value to allow comparison between MoCA performance and others neuropsychological test scores that can be administered on the same subject. PMID:25139107

  19. Broken English, broken bones? Mechanisms linking language proficiency and occupational health in a Montreal garment factory.

    PubMed

    Premji, Stéphanie; Messing, Karen; Lippel, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Language barriers are often cited as a factor contributing to ethnic inequalities in occupational health; however, little information is available about the mechanisms at play. The authors describe the multiple ways in which language influences occupational health in a large garment factory employing many immigrants in Montreal. Between 2004 and 2006, individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women and 10 men from 14 countries of birth. Interviews were conducted in French and English, Canada's official languages, as well as in non-official languages with the help of colleague-interpreters. Observation within the workplace was also carried out at various times during the project. The authors describe how proficiency in the official languages influences occupational health by affecting workers' ability to understand and communicate information, and supporting relationships that can affect work-related health. They also describe workers' strategies to address communication barriers and discuss the implications of these strategies from an occupational health standpoint. Along with the longer-term objectives of integrating immigrants into the linguistic majority and addressing structural conditions that can affect health, policies and practices need to be put in place to protect the health and well-being of those who face language barriers in the short term. PMID:18341120

  20. Growth in stratospheric chlorine from short-lived chemicals not controlled by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossaini, R.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Harrison, J. J.; Glasow, R.; Sommariva, R.; Atlas, E.; Navarro, M.; Montzka, S. A.; Feng, W.; Dhomse, S.; Harth, C.; Mühle, J.; Lunder, C.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Reimann, S.; Vollmer, M. K.; Krummel, P. B.; Bernath, P. F.

    2015-06-01

    We have developed a chemical mechanism describing the tropospheric degradation of chlorine containing very short-lived substances (VSLS). The scheme was included in a global atmospheric model and used to quantify the stratospheric injection of chlorine from anthropogenic VSLS ( ClyVSLS) between 2005 and 2013. By constraining the model with surface measurements of chloroform (CHCl3), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), tetrachloroethene (C2Cl4), trichloroethene (C2HCl3), and 1,2-dichloroethane (CH2ClCH2Cl), we infer a 2013 ClyVSLS mixing ratio of 123 parts per trillion (ppt). Stratospheric injection of source gases dominates this supply, accounting for ˜83% of the total. The remainder comes from VSLS-derived organic products, phosgene (COCl2, 7%) and formyl chloride (CHClO, 2%), and also hydrogen chloride (HCl, 8%). Stratospheric ClyVSLS increased by ˜52% between 2005 and 2013, with a mean growth rate of 3.7 ppt Cl/yr. This increase is due to recent and ongoing growth in anthropogenic CH2Cl2—the most abundant chlorinated VSLS not controlled by the Montreal Protocol.

  1. Montreal Protocol meeting looks to speed up phaseout of ozone depleters

    SciTech Connect

    Rotman, D.; Chynoweth, E.

    1992-11-25

    Delegates from around the world are meeting in Copenhagen this week to debate an accelerated phaseout of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), a time schedule for the eventual phaseout of hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), and phaseouts of methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. The fate of methyl bromide will also be a hot issue. The fourth meeting of the parties to the Montreal Protocol is widely expected to put through a 100% CFC phaseout by Jan. 1, 1996, coming into agreement with current US and European Community rules. But debate continues over the intermediate phaseout schedule, with European members pushing for an 85% reduction - from a 1986 baseline - by Jan. 1, 1994, and others arguing for a 70% cut by 1994. Delegates are expected to agree to the final phaseout of halons on Jan. 1, 1996, with an 85% cut in carbon tet by 1995. The meeting is also expected to broadly agree on a Jan. 1, 1996 phaseout of methyl chloroform, with a 50% reduction from a 1989 baseline by Jan. 1, 1994. A critical debate for chemical producers will be on the fate of methyl bromide. Many observers expect some phaseout for the chemical, but when and how is undetermined.

  2. Implementing the Montreal Protocol in China: Use of cleaner technology in two industrial sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, J.; Ortolano, L.

    1999-09-01

    An analysis of the household refrigeration sector and the foams sector investigates how Chinese enterprises have adopted cleaner technologies involving substitutes for ozone depleting substances (ODSs), such as chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). The performance of the household refrigeration sector in reducing ODS consumption has been superior to that of the foams sector, even though required technology changes are relatively simple for the foams sector. There are two expansions for this outcome. First, market demand matters. The influence of the global market, multinational corporations, intense (and occasionally misleading) advertising about non-CFC products, and severe competition for consumers caused China`s principal refrigerator manufacturers to adopt non-CFC production technologies. Similar incentives did not exist for enterprises in the foams sector. Second, industrial structure matters. The foams sector includes a large number of small enterprises with limited financial and technical capability and weak access to information and technology, and these factors obstructed technological change. In general, assistance from the Multilateral fund established under the Montreal Protocol has motivated enterprises to shift to ODS reduction technologies, but complex and lengthy procedures for accessing the Multilateral Fund, difficulties in finding appropriate suppliers of non-CFC technologies, and insufficient financial an technical capabilities of many enterprises have slowed down this shift. The results provide a foundation for making changes in international assistance programs and China`s strategies for CFC reduction.

  3. Promotion of breast-feeding in a Chinese community in Montreal.

    PubMed Central

    Chan-Yip, A. M.; Kramer, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Following a prospective survey that showed a very low rate of breast-feeding (10%) in 1977-79 among Chinese women in Montreal, a culturally targeted program, which included individual prenatal counselling and a community-wide promotion and education campaign, was developed to improve the rates. The study group consisted of all Chinese women delivering in 1980 and 1981 who had taken their infants to one pediatrician for continuing care. The rates of breast-feeding in the 88 women who had received prenatal counselling and the 93 women who had not were compared. Although the rates were substantially increased for both groups over the 1977-79 rate (54% and 34% in 1980 and 65% and 55% in 1981 respectively), the 2-year rate was significantly higher for the counselled group compared with the uncounselled group in the later study (59% v. 43%). The greatest effect of counselling was seen in young, primiparous women of higher socioeconomic status who spoke French or English in addition to Chinese. However, 33% of the counselled women who had started breast-feeding had stopped by 1 month, compared with only 15% of the uncounselled women. Thus, although the rates of breast-feeding in ethnic groups can be increased with the use of a language- and culture-specific approach, more support and encouragement must be given to women who start breast-feeding so that they will continue longer. PMID:6671183

  4. Montreal cognitive assessment: validation study for mild cognitive impairment and Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Sandra; Simões, Mário Rodrigues; Alves, Lara; Santana, Isabel

    2013-01-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) was recently proposed as a cognitive screening test for milder forms of cognitive impairment, having surpassed the well-known limitations of the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). This study aims to validate the MoCA for screening Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer disease (AD) through an analysis of diagnostic accuracy and the proposal of cut-offs. Patients were classified into 2 clinical groups according to standard criteria: MCI (n=90) and AD (n=90). The 2 control groups (C-MCI: n=90; C-AD: n=90) consisted of cognitively healthy community dwellers selected to match patients in sex, age, and education. The MoCA showed consistently superior psychometric properties compared with the MMSE, and higher diagnostic accuracy to discriminate between MCI (area under the curve=0.856; 95% confidence interval, 0.796-0.904) and AD patients (area under the curve=0.980; 95% confidence interval, 0.947-0.995). At an optimal cut-off of below 22 for MCI and below 17 for AD, the MoCA achieved significantly superior values in comparison with MMSE for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, and classification accuracy. Furthermore, the MoCA revealed higher sensitivity to cognitive decline in longitudinal monitoring. This study provides robust evidence that the MoCA is a better cognitive tool than the widely used MMSE for the screening and monitoring of MCI and AD in clinical settings.

  5. Scaling Cognitive Domains of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment: An Analysis Using the Partial Credit Model.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Sandra; Prieto, Gerardo; Simões, Mário R; Santana, Isabel

    2015-08-01

    The psychometric properties of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) were examined by using the Partial Credit Model. The study sample included 897 participants who were distributed into two main subgroups: (I) the clinical group (90 patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment, 90 patients with Alzheimer's disease, 33 patients with Frontotemporal Dementia, and 34 patients with Vascular dementia, whose diagnoses were previously established according to a consensus that was reached by a multidisciplinary team, based on the international criteria) and (II) the healthy group (composed of 650 cognitively healthy community dwellers). The results show (i) an overall good fit for both the items and the persons' values, (ii) high variability for the cognitive performance level of the cognitive domains (ranging between 1.90 and -3.35, where "Short-term Memory" was the most difficult item and "Spatial Orientation" was the easiest item) and between the subjects on the scale, (iii) high reliability for the estimation of the persons' values, (iv) good discriminant validity and high diagnostic utility, and (v) a minimal differential item functioning effect related to of pathology, gender, age, and educational level. MoCA and its cognitive domains are suitable measures to use for screening the cognitive status of cognitively healthy subjects and patients with cognitive impairment. PMID:25944337

  6. Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)-Italian version: regression based norms and equivalent scores.

    PubMed

    Conti, Silvia; Bonazzi, Stefano; Laiacona, Marcella; Masina, Marco; Coralli, Mirco Vanelli

    2015-02-01

    The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is a brief cognitive screening instrument developed by Nasreddine et al. to detect mild cognitive impairment, a high-risk condition for Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. In this study we report normative data on the MoCA-Italian version, collected on a sample of 225 Italian healthy subjects ranged in age between 60 and 80 years, and in formal education from 5 to 23 years. The global normal cognition was established in accordance with the Mini-Mental State Examination score and with the Prose Memory Test score (Spinnler and Tognoni, Ital J Neurol Sci 6:25-27, 1987). None of the participants had a history of psychiatric, neurological, cerebrovascular disorders or brain injury or took drugs affecting cognition. Linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the potential effect of age, education and sex on the MoCA total performance score. We provide correction grids to adjust raw scores and equivalent scores with cut-off value to allow comparison between MoCA performance and others neuropsychological test scores that can be administered on the same subject.

  7. Broken English, broken bones? Mechanisms linking language proficiency and occupational health in a Montreal garment factory.

    PubMed

    Premji, Stéphanie; Messing, Karen; Lippel, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    Language barriers are often cited as a factor contributing to ethnic inequalities in occupational health; however, little information is available about the mechanisms at play. The authors describe the multiple ways in which language influences occupational health in a large garment factory employing many immigrants in Montreal. Between 2004 and 2006, individual, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 women and 10 men from 14 countries of birth. Interviews were conducted in French and English, Canada's official languages, as well as in non-official languages with the help of colleague-interpreters. Observation within the workplace was also carried out at various times during the project. The authors describe how proficiency in the official languages influences occupational health by affecting workers' ability to understand and communicate information, and supporting relationships that can affect work-related health. They also describe workers' strategies to address communication barriers and discuss the implications of these strategies from an occupational health standpoint. Along with the longer-term objectives of integrating immigrants into the linguistic majority and addressing structural conditions that can affect health, policies and practices need to be put in place to protect the health and well-being of those who face language barriers in the short term.

  8. Latent segmentation based count models: Analysis of bicycle safety in Montreal and Toronto.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, Shamsunnahar; Eluru, Naveen

    2016-10-01

    The study contributes to literature on bicycle safety by building on the traditional count regression models to investigate factors affecting bicycle crashes at the Traffic Analysis Zone (TAZ) level. TAZ is a traffic related geographic entity which is most frequently used as spatial unit for macroscopic crash risk analysis. In conventional count models, the impact of exogenous factors is restricted to be the same across the entire region. However, it is possible that the influence of exogenous factors might vary across different TAZs. To accommodate for the potential variation in the impact of exogenous factors we formulate latent segmentation based count models. Specifically, we formulate and estimate latent segmentation based Poisson (LP) and latent segmentation based Negative Binomial (LNB) models to study bicycle crash counts. In our latent segmentation approach, we allow for more than two segments and also consider a large set of variables in segmentation and segment specific models. The formulated models are estimated using bicycle-motor vehicle crash data from the Island of Montreal and City of Toronto for the years 2006 through 2010. The TAZ level variables considered in our analysis include accessibility measures, exposure measures, sociodemographic characteristics, socioeconomic characteristics, road network characteristics and built environment. A policy analysis is also conducted to illustrate the applicability of the proposed model for planning purposes. This macro-level research would assist decision makers, transportation officials and community planners to make informed decisions to proactively improve bicycle safety - a prerequisite to promoting a culture of active transportation. PMID:27442595

  9. Fish consumption and contaminant exposure among Montreal-area sportfishers: Pilot study

    SciTech Connect

    Kosatsky, T. |; Przybysz, R.; Shatenstein, B.; Weber, J.P.; Armstrong, B.

    1999-02-01

    A 1995 pilot study assessed sport fish consumption and contaminant exposure among Montreal-area residents fishing the frozen St. Lawrence river. Interviews conducted among 223 ice fishers met on-site were used to create an index of estimated exposure to fish-borne contaminants. A second-stage assessment of sport fish consumption and tissue contaminant burdens included 25 interviewees at the highest level of estimated contaminant exposure and 15 low-exposure fishers. High-level fisher-consumers reported eating 0.92 {+-} 0.99 sport fish meals/week during the previous 3 weeks compared to 0.38 {+-} 0.21 for the low-level group. Based on the product of consumption frequency times mass of sport fish meals consumed, high-level consumers ate a mean of 18.3 kg of sport fish annually versus 3.3 kg for the low-level consumers. Tissue contaminant assessments showed significant groupwise differences: 0--1 cm hair mercury, lipid-adjusted plasma PCB congeners, and lipid-adjusted plasma DDE. No participant had a hair mercury or plasma DDE concentration above Health Canada recommendations but 2/25 high-level participants had plasma Aroclor 1260 concentrations above recommended limits.

  10. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S; Kaiser, David J; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-08-11

    The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent's residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise.

  11. Black carbon characterization in Quebec black spruce forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Quideau, Sylvie; Wasylishen, Roderick; MacKenzie, M. Derek

    2014-05-01

    Black carbon (BC), an important component of the global soil carbon pool, is a major by-product of wildfires in Quebec black spruce forests. However, BC characteristics vary depending on the environmental conditions under which it is formed and this may further affect its resistance to degradation. The objective of this study was to characterize the chemical and physical properties of BC formed under variable fire severity to assess its potential for recalcitrance as a passive carbon pool. Samples (n = 267) of BC produced by early season wildfires in 2005-2007 were collected from the surface of black spruce forest floors to cover the range of severity encountered in these fire-affected forests. Representative samples (n = 33) were then analyzed using elemental analysis, solid-state 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and surface area analysis (BET method). Properties of BC sampled in the field were compared with those of samples produced under a range of controlled formation conditions in the laboratory. The NMR spectra of the BC collected on sites affected by low fire severity showed a distribution of total intensity between the different spectral regions very similar to those of unburned fuels, and were dominated by peaks indicative of cellulose, while spectra for BC from higher fire severity sites were dominated by a broad peak assigned to aromatic carbons. Atomic H/C and O/C ratios decreased along the fire severity gradient, confirming that increasing severity was associated with an increase in condensation. By comparing field- to laboratory-produced samples, we concluded that the temperature of formation in the field ranged between 75 and 250 ° C. In all analyzed BC samples, the fraction of aromatic carbon:total carbon was low, suggesting that the freshly produced BC in this boreal forest environment may be susceptible to rapid physical alteration and chemical degradation. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight

  12. Action research for the health and safety of domestic workers in montreal: using numbers to tell stories and effect change.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Jill; Premji, Stephanie; Messing, Karen; Lippel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, a Filipina organization in Quebec (PINAY) sought the help of university researchers to document the workplace health and safety experiences of domestic workers. Together, they surveyed 150 domestic workers and produced a report that generated interest from community groups, policy-makers, and the media. In this article, we-the university researchers-offer a case study of community-university action research. We share the story of how one project contributed to academic knowledge of domestic workers' health and safety experiences and also to a related policy campaign. We describe how Quebec workers' compensation legislation excludes domestic workers, and we analyze the occupational health literature related to domestic work. Striking data related to workplace accidents and illnesses emerged from the survey, and interesting lessons were learned about how occupational health questions should be posed. We conclude with a description of the successful policy advocacy that was possible as an outcome of this project. PMID:21342868

  13. Action research for the health and safety of domestic workers in montreal: using numbers to tell stories and effect change.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Jill; Premji, Stephanie; Messing, Karen; Lippel, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    In 2007, a Filipina organization in Quebec (PINAY) sought the help of university researchers to document the workplace health and safety experiences of domestic workers. Together, they surveyed 150 domestic workers and produced a report that generated interest from community groups, policy-makers, and the media. In this article, we-the university researchers-offer a case study of community-university action research. We share the story of how one project contributed to academic knowledge of domestic workers' health and safety experiences and also to a related policy campaign. We describe how Quebec workers' compensation legislation excludes domestic workers, and we analyze the occupational health literature related to domestic work. Striking data related to workplace accidents and illnesses emerged from the survey, and interesting lessons were learned about how occupational health questions should be posed. We conclude with a description of the successful policy advocacy that was possible as an outcome of this project.

  14. Nunavik: Inuit-Controlled Education in Arctic Quebec. Northern Lights Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vick-Westgate, Ann

    This book documents the debate among the Inuit of Nunavik (northern Quebec) over the purposes, strengths, and weaknesses of public schools in their 14 arctic communities. The book begins with a summary of the history of education in Nunavik, including traditional Inuit methods and purposes of education. The 14 communities comprise the Kativik…

  15. Tensions between Teaching Sexuality Education and Neoliberal Policy Reform in Quebec's Professional Competencies for Beginning Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Dan; McGray. Robert

    2015-01-01

    This research draws into question the effects that neoliberal policy reforms--with an emphasis on individual and measurable "competencies"--has on new teachers teaching sexuality education in Quebec. While we examine professional competencies that teachers can use to define their mandate for teaching sexuality education as a beginning…

  16. Quebec's approach to population health: an overview of policy content and organization.

    PubMed

    Bernier, Nicole F

    2006-01-01

    While Canada's international leadership in the area of health promotion has been widely acknowledged in the past, Quebec's approach could be better known. Canada's second largest province has indeed developed a comprehensive public health infrastructure and adopted a population health approach which features an integrated set of legislative, organizational and programmatic policy instruments. These instruments not only ensure the core functions of public health, but also foster public intervention on the social determinants of health. In addition, Quebec's policy is supported by a solid research infrastructure, networked expertise and a mobilized workforce among health professionals. In spite of the interest it represents for the larger public health community in Canada and elsewhere, this largely French-speaking province's approach remains little known because of language and cultural barriers between Quebec and Anglo-Saxon countries, and it has yet to be systematically discussed in the English-language literature. This article provides an overview of policies and administrative structures in Quebec to support public health and address socially determined inequalities in health. It analyzes the development of these policies over the past decade and offers insight to their core content. PMID:16681186

  17. Developmental Change Among the Cree Indians of Quebec. Summary Report. McGill Cree Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chance, Norman A; And Others

    This summary report presents in highly condensed form some of the major findings and recommendations of an anthropological research study conducted among 1500 Cree Indians within a specified geographical area of north central Quebec in the years 1966-68. After a brief introduction, the study analyzes the historical roots of their underdevelopment,…

  18. Elementary Teachers' Formative Evaluation Practices in an Era of Curricular Reform in Quebec, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lynn; Deaudelin, Colette; Desjardins, Julie; Dezutter, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the formative evaluation practices of 13 experienced elementary school teachers in Quebec, Canada at the level of teacher-student interaction. The qualitative study is based on both semi-structured and stimulated recall interviews as well as videotapes of classroom activities. The participating teachers were found to be using…

  19. Autonomy, Parenting, Parental Involvement in Schooling and School Achievement: Perception of Quebec Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deslandes, Rollande; Potvin, Pierre

    This study examined differences in adolescents' levels of autonomy as a function of parenting and parental involvement practices and the adolescents' year-end grade point averages. Participating were 872 adolescents, with a mean age of 14.45 years, attending 5 French-speaking public high schools in Quebec, Canada. Measures were subjects' general…

  20. Student Organizations in Canada and Quebec's "Maple Spring"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bégin-Caouette, Olivier; Jones, Glen A.

    2014-01-01

    This article has two major objectives: to describe the structure of the student movement in Canada and the formal role of students in higher education governance, and to describe and analyze the "Maple Spring," the dramatic mobilization of students in opposition to proposed tuition fee increases in Quebec that eventually led to a…

  1. "Quand Je Sors D'Accueil": Linguistic Integration of Immigrant Adolescents in Quebec Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinbach, Marilyn

    2010-01-01

    This article describes the social, linguistic and academic integration processes of immigrant students in an area of low-density immigration in Quebec, Canada. Interviews were conducted with 15 secondary school students who had been in the country for 2 months to 4 years, in order to get a wide sampling of their experiences of the process of…

  2. (Under)Valuing Care Work: The Case of Childcare Workers in Small-Town Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albanese, Patrizia

    2007-01-01

    This paper challenges the assumptions that women "care" as a matter of course, that care work is natural, inevitable, and easy--requiring little skill and as a result should not be highly valued or rewarded. It does so by assessing the impact of Quebec's (Canada's) $7/day childcare program on an economically disadvantaged community near the…

  3. Genealogical analysis of maternal and paternal lineages in the Quebec population.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Marc; Vézina, Hélène

    2010-04-01

    The Quebec population is one of the rare populations of its size for which genealogical information is available for an uninterrupted period of almost four centuries. This allows for in-depth studies on the formation and evolution of a young founder population. Using data from two major population registers, in this study we focus on the maternal and paternal lineages (i.e., strictly female or male genealogical lines) that can be traced back within the Quebec genealogies. Through the analysis of these lineages it is possible to characterize the founders who transmitted to the contemporary population their mitochondrial (for females) and Y-chromosome (for males) DNA. The basic material consists of 2,221 ascending genealogies of subjects who married in the Quebec population between 1945 and 1965. On average, more than nine generations of ancestors were identified among the lineages. Analyses of maternal and paternal lineages show that the number of paternal founders is higher and their origins and genetic contributions are more variable than that of maternal founders, leading to a larger effective population size and greater diversity of Y chromosomes than of mtDNA. This is explained for the most part by differential migratory patterns among male and female founders of the Quebec population. Comparisons of sex-specific genetic contributions with total genetic contribution showed a strong correlation between the two values, with some discrepancies related to sex ratio differences among the founders' first descendants.

  4. [To become a psychiatrist in Quebec in the 50s to 60s].

    PubMed

    Doucet, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The author is the witness of a historic period of the psychiatry in the province of Quebec in Canada, widely francophone. He describes the context, the training in psychiatry, and the care. In Quebec, in the 1950s, the psychiatry did not exist as such as speciality. There was however a discipline: the neuropsychiatry. It was managed by the neurologists who agreed to take care of cases of psychiatry, which few doctors wanted to treat at this moment. The religious and rural society in Quebec of the 1950s got ready for the "Revolution tranquille". The latter finally burst after 1960. But the artistic environment was already in full excitement, and from 1948, it showed its opposition to the values which were current with the publication of the Refus global. Among the signatories of the latter, we find Bruno Cormier as medical student who will become, after 1950, a psychiatrist and a psychoanalyst. To become a psychiatrist, it was necessary to be trained as an intern in a residency program in the USA, UK or in France. The residency in the United States in the 1950s represented a great adventure for the young doctors of Quebec, especially for the French speakers. At the end of 1950s, the pharmacology emerged. However, he described his own experience as an observer or an actor with ECT, Sakel cure and about the lobotomy. PMID:26559204

  5. AmeriFlux CA-Qfo Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Mature Black Spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, Hank A.

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Qfo Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Mature Black Spruce. Site Description - 49.69247° N / 74.34204° W, elevation of 387 mm, 90 - 100 yr old Black Spruce, Jack Pine, feather moss

  6. Co-operative Education in the Pulp and Paper Sector in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savoie-Zajc, Lorraine; Dolbec, Andre

    2003-01-01

    A cooperative education program involved student practica in Quebec pulp and paper mills. Using the concept of community of practice and a typology of work experience, data from 175 students indicated that schools and workplaces placed traditional roles regarding theory and practice. Organizational cultures remained separate and opportunities for…

  7. Community-Based Occupational Therapy Services for Children: A Quebec Survey on Service Delivery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotellesso, Annie; Mazer, Barbara; Majnemer, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Community-based occupational therapy (OT) services are intended to promote social integration and minimize disability. The objective of this study was to describe community-based OT services for children in the province of Quebec, Canada. Specific aims included (a) to determine the proportion of Centres Locaux de Services Communautaires (CLSCs)…

  8. Shunning the Bird's Eye View: General Science in the Schools of Ontario and Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers the adoption of general science courses in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and Quebec, during the 1930s. In Ontario, a few science teachers had followed the early general science movements in the United States and Britain with interest. During the 1930s, several developments made the cross-disciplinary, applied thrust of…

  9. Factors Influencing the Adoption of a Health Promoting School Approach in the Province of Quebec, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschesnes, M.; Trudeau, F.; Kebe, M.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a prediction model that integrated three categories of predictors likely to influence adoption of the Quebec Healthy Schools (HS) approach, i.e. attributes of the approach, individual and contextual characteristics. HS receptivity was considered as a potential mediator. For this study, 141 respondents representing 96 schools…

  10. Some Aspects of Language Planning in Quebec and in Finland. Discussion Papers in Geolinguistics, 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laporte, Pierre-Etienne; Maurais, Jacques

    This report discusses and compares language planning and the Swedish-speaking minority in Finland and the English-speaking minority in Quebec. The report discusses four issues: historical minorities and the demographic dynamic; municipalities; the language of work; and other minority language groups. It is concluded that, despite numerous surface…

  11. Job Satisfaction among Librarians in English-Language Universities in Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierpe, Eino

    1999-01-01

    Spector's Job Satisfaction Survey was used to measure the job satisfaction of librarians in the three English-language universities in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Results showed that though librarians working in these institutions are generally satisfied, they are dissatisfied with communication and operating procedures. The relationship…

  12. Lambs to the Slaughter? Young Francophones and the Role of English in Quebec Today

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakes, Leigh

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, there has been a resurgence of fears concerning the status of English in Quebec. Unlike in the past, many now claim that it is francophones themselves who risk undermining the achievements of 30 years of successful status planning. The finger is pointed in particular at young francophones, accused of adopting an unfettered…

  13. [Research, impact and adaptation in public health for the new climate of Quebec].

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Pierre; Bélanger, Diane

    2010-01-01

    After its modest beginnings focusing on arctic Quebec in 1999, the Quebec research programme on health and climate change became interested in the remainder of the province around 2002. The European heat wave in 2003 accelerated the pace of this programme and prompted the Quebec health sector's participation in the Ouranos Research Consortium. The research findings from the 2003-2006 period have directly fed into the health component of the Quebec government's climate change action plan (2006-2012), financed through the first carbon tax in the Americas. This component is planning for a series of adaptations to the health network and to some other public networks, which will apply to construction, the built environment and outdoor developments, clinical management methods and practices, public health surveillance as well as emergency preparedness. In this article, the authors describe how research is supporting action and implementation, while also preparing for the future, and how this interaction has progressively established itself over the last 10 years. PMID:20858329

  14. A/Political Education: A Survey of Quebec Students' Perceptions of Their Citizenship Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fournier-Sylvester, Nicole

    2014-01-01

    This survey of 370 recent high school graduates reveals that history and citizenship courses in Quebec focus on cultural and religious viewpoints, favour a transmission approach to learning, and fail to connect the political process to students' concerns and interests. Without a clear conception of citizenship as a reference point, this curriculum…

  15. Leptospirosis in raccoons in Quebec: 2 case reports and seroprevalence in a recreational area.

    PubMed Central

    Mikaelian, I; Higgins, R; Lequient, M; Major, M; Lefebvre, F; Martineau, D

    1997-01-01

    Raccoons may represent a source of leptospires for humans and domestic animals. We describe a case of severe interstitial nephritis associated with the serovar bratislava of Leptospira interrogans (1st report in wildlife), and the seroprevalence to 4 leptospire serovars in a recreational area in Quebec. Images Figure 1. p442-a PMID:9220134

  16. Ethics Education Seen through the Lens of Habermas's Conception of Practical Reason: The Quebec Education Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouchard, Nancy; Morris, Ronald W.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines the Quebec Education Program (QEP), particularly the new course in ethics and religious culture (ERC), in the light of Habermas's conception of the moral and ethical uses of practical reason. Habermas's discursive theory of morality is used to assess the program's understanding of what it means to be competent in moral matters.…

  17. Teaching Ethics and Religious Culture in Quebec High Schools: An Overview, Contextualization and Some Analytical Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rymarz, Richard

    2012-01-01

    In 2008 Quebec introduced a new ethics and religious culture course. This marks a significant development in Canadian education as the mandated curriculum is intended for use in publically funded secular schools. In the past such courses have been in the domain of denominational schools. This new approach is examined in the context of the profound…

  18. Construction of a Computerized Adaptive Testing Version of the Quebec Adaptive Behavior Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasse, Marc J.; And Others

    Multilog (Thissen, 1991) was used to estimate parameters of 225 items from the Quebec Adaptive Behavior Scale (QABS). A database containing actual data from 2,439 subjects was used for the parameterization procedures. The two-parameter-logistic model was used in estimating item parameters and in the testing strategy. MicroCAT (Assessment Systems…

  19. Digitization of a geologic map for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine global geoscience transect

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Bruce E.; Stewart, David B.

    1990-01-01

    The Bedrock Geologic Map of Maine was digitized and combined with digital geologic data for Quebec and the Gulf of Maine for the Quebec-Maine-Gulf of Maine Geologic Transect Project. This map is being combined with digital geophysical data to produce three-dimensional depictions of the subsurface geology and to produce cross sections of the Earth's crust. It is an essential component of a transect that stretches from the craton near Quebec City, Quebec, to the Atlantic Ocean Basin south of Georges Bank. The transect is part of the Global Geosciences Transect Project of the International Lithosphere Program. The Digital Line Graph format is used for storage of the digitized data. A coding scheme similar to that used for base category planimetric data was developed to assign numeric codes to the digitized geologic data. These codes were used to assign attributes to polygon and line features to describe rock type, age, name, tectonic setting of original deposition, mineralogy, and composition of igneous plutonic rocks, as well as faults and other linear features. The digital geologic data can be readily edited, rescaled, and reprojected. The attribute codes allow generalization and selective retrieval of the geologic features. The codes allow assignment of map colors based on age, lithology, or other attribute. The Digital Line Graph format is a general transfer format that is supported by many software vendors and is easily transferred between systems.

  20. [Research, impact and adaptation in public health for the new climate of Quebec].

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Pierre; Bélanger, Diane

    2010-01-01

    After its modest beginnings focusing on arctic Quebec in 1999, the Quebec research programme on health and climate change became interested in the remainder of the province around 2002. The European heat wave in 2003 accelerated the pace of this programme and prompted the Quebec health sector's participation in the Ouranos Research Consortium. The research findings from the 2003-2006 period have directly fed into the health component of the Quebec government's climate change action plan (2006-2012), financed through the first carbon tax in the Americas. This component is planning for a series of adaptations to the health network and to some other public networks, which will apply to construction, the built environment and outdoor developments, clinical management methods and practices, public health surveillance as well as emergency preparedness. In this article, the authors describe how research is supporting action and implementation, while also preparing for the future, and how this interaction has progressively established itself over the last 10 years.

  1. Deinstitutionalisation and Adaptation of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities: Results from Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gascon, Hubert; Morin, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    During the past twenty years, an important body of research has examined the different impacts of deinstitutionalisation on the adaptation and quality of life of persons with intellectual disabilities. This empirical study was conducted with 136 persons with intellectual disabilities following the closure of the Hopital Saint-Julien (Quebec,…

  2. Understanding the Difficulties Hindering Inter-Agency Collaboration for Students with Special Needs in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tetreault, Sylvie; Patenaude, David; McLaughlin, Dayna; Freeman, Andrew; Gascon, Hubert; Beaupré, Pauline; Carrière, Monique; Deschênes, Pascale Marier

    2015-01-01

    In 2003, the government of Quebec established the "Agreement for the Complementarity of Services Between the Health and Social Services Network and the Education Network" to define principles and obligations for inter-agency collaboration aimed at students with special needs and their families. This study documents the perspectives of…

  3. Completed Suicides Among Quebec Adolescents Involved with Juvenile Justice and Child Welfare Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farand, Lambert; Chagnon, Francois; Renaud, Johanne; Rivard, Michele

    2004-01-01

    In the Province of Quebec (Canada), adolescents involved with the child welfare and juvenile justice systems committed at least one third of all completed suicides in their age group in 1995 and 1996. Their risk of suicide, standardized for age and sex, was five times that of the general adolescent population, and female juvenile delinquents had…

  4. French Variation and the Teaching of Quebec Literature: A Linguistic Guide to "la litterature journalisante."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ossipov, Helene

    1994-01-01

    Salient lexical, phonetic, and morphological peculiarities of the vernacular French of Quebec are examined and explained, and similarities to European popular French are discussed, both as a guide to texts written in the vernacular and to place this variety in its sociolinguistic context. (Author/MSE)

  5. Shunning the Bird's Eye View: General Science in the Schools of Ontario and Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, Michelle

    2013-04-01

    This paper considers the adoption of general science courses in two Canadian provinces, Ontario and Quebec, during the 1930s. In Ontario, a few science teachers had followed the early general science movements in the United States and Britain with interest. During the 1930s, several developments made the cross-disciplinary, applied thrust of general science particularly appealing to Ontario educationists. These developments included a new demand for vocational education, renewed reservations about pedagogical rationales based on transfer of training, and a growing professional divide between high school science teachers and university scientists. Around the same time, scientists in the Quebec's French-language universities were engaged in a concerted campaign to expand the place of science in the province's francophone secondary schools. The province's prestigious classical colleges, which were the scientists' principal target for reform, privileged an inductive view of science that had little in common with the applied, cross-disciplinary emphasis of the general science courses gaining support in English-speaking school systems. In 1934, however, a popular American general science textbook was adopted in a workers' cooperative devoted to adult education. Comparing the fate of general science within these two education systems draws attention to the fact that general science made inroads in francophone Quebec but had little influence in public and private schools. In light of the growing support general science enjoyed elsewhere, we are led to explore why general science met with little overt interest by Quebec scientists pushing for school science reform during the 1930s.

  6. Prenatal Exposure of the Northern Quebec Inuit Infants to Environmental Contaminants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muckle, Gina; Ayotte, Pierre; Dewailly, Eric; Jacobson, Sandra W.; Jacobson, Joseph L.

    2001-01-01

    Through their marine-based diet, the Inuit of Nunavik (Quebec) are exposed to neurotoxic environmental contaminants that impact cognitive development. Mercury levels in Nunavik Inuit mothers and newborns were higher than in U.S. and Canadian populations but lower than in previous Arctic samples. Lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, chorinated…

  7. Problemes et methodes de la lexicographie quebecoise (Problems and Methods of Quebec Lexicography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Monique C., Ed.; Francoeur, Aline, Ed.

    Papers on lexicographic research in Quebec (Canada) include: "Indications semantiques dans les dictionnaires bilingues" ("Semantic Indications in Bilingual Dictionaries) (Johanne Blais, Roda P. Roberts); "Definitions predictionnairiques de 'maison, batiment, et pavillon'" ("Pre-dictionary definitions of 'house, building, and pavillon'") (Helene…

  8. Increases in Atmospheric Chlorine from Dichloromethane, a Gas Not Controlled by the Montreal Protocol.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montzka, S. A.; Hossaini, R.; Hall, B. D.; Hu, L.; Miller, B.; Siso, C.; Andrews, A. E.; Sweeney, C.; Elkins, J. W.; Chipperfield, M.

    2015-12-01

    Short-lived, anthropogenically produced chlorinated gases historically have not been controlled by the Montreal Protocol; their contribution to stratospheric halogen loading has been relatively small and constant. Since 2000, however, tropospheric mole fractions of dichloromethane (mean lifetime of 5 months) have increased by a factor of 2 at remote sites throughout the globe. Dichloromethane currently adds more chlorine to the atmosphere (~80 ppt) than either HCFC-141b or HCFC-142b, and the implied resulting increase in stratospheric chlorine in recent years is comparable to the increase in total Cl from HCFCs. Emissions driving this global increase have been estimated at 800 Gg/yr in 2012, which is more than half of the chlorine emitted from the three main CFCs during their peak emissions in the late 1980s. Although dichloromethane is used typically as a cleaning agent, solvent, and feedstock in the production of other chemicals, the cause of the recent atmospheric increase is not well understood. Here we will show that the substantial increase in emissions does not appear to be coming from the U.S., as our ongoing observations from tall towers and aircraft profiles over North America since 2005 show a decreasing trend in measured mole fractions in the continental boundary layer relative to the background atmosphere during this period. Instead, our data from remote sites across the Northern Hemisphere reveal a shift in the atmospheric distribution of dichloromethane since 2000 that implies increased emissions from lower latitudes in the northern hemisphere. These changing distributions will be presented and discussed, along with an exploration of the potential causes for the large inter-annual variations observed in the rate of increase and what the results suggest about the main loss mechanism for dichloromethane: oxidation by the hydroxyl radical.

  9. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal.

    PubMed

    Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S; Kaiser, David J; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent's residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise. PMID:27529260

  10. Revising the diagnosis of congenital amusia with the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Jasmin; Hamann, Silke

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a critical survey of the prevalent usage of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA; Peretz et al., 2003) to assess congenital amusia, a neuro-developmental disorder that has been claimed to be present in 4% of the population (Kalmus and Fry, 1980). It reviews and discusses the current usage of the MBEA in relation to cut-off scores, number of used subtests, manner of testing, and employed statistics, as these vary in the literature. Furthermore, data are presented from a large-scale experiment with 228 German undergraduate students who were assessed with the MBEA and a comprehensive questionnaire. This experiment tested the difference between scores that were obtained in a web-based study (at participants’ homes) and those obtained under laboratory conditions with a computerized version of the MBEA. In addition to traditional statistical procedures, the data were evaluated using Signal Detection Theory (SDT; Green and Swets, 1966), taking into consideration the individual’s ability to discriminate and their response bias. Results show that using SDT for scoring instead of proportion correct offers a bias-free and normally distributed measure of discrimination ability. It is also demonstrated that a diagnosis based on an average score leads to cases of misdiagnosis. The prevalence of congenital amusia is shown to depend highly on the statistical criterion that is applied as cut-off score and on the number of subtests that is considered for the diagnosis. In addition, three different subtypes of amusics were found in our sample. Lastly, significant differences between the web-based and the laboratory group were found, giving rise to questions about the validity of web-based experimentation. PMID:25883562

  11. Montreal Archive of Sleep Studies: an open-access resource for instrument benchmarking and exploratory research.

    PubMed

    O'Reilly, Christian; Gosselin, Nadia; Carrier, Julie; Nielsen, Tore

    2014-12-01

    Manual processing of sleep recordings is extremely time-consuming. Efforts to automate this process have shown promising results, but automatic systems are generally evaluated on private databases, not allowing accurate cross-validation with other systems. In lacking a common benchmark, the relative performances of different systems are not compared easily and advances are compromised. To address this fundamental methodological impediment to sleep study, we propose an open-access database of polysomnographic biosignals. To build this database, whole-night recordings from 200 participants [97 males (aged 42.9 ± 19.8 years) and 103 females (aged 38.3 ± 18.9 years); age range: 18-76 years] were pooled from eight different research protocols performed in three different hospital-based sleep laboratories. All recordings feature a sampling frequency of 256 Hz and an electroencephalography (EEG) montage of 4-20 channels plus standard electro-oculography (EOG), electromyography (EMG), electrocardiography (ECG) and respiratory signals. Access to the database can be obtained through the Montreal Archive of Sleep Studies (MASS) website (http://www.ceams-carsm.ca/en/MASS), and requires only affiliation with a research institution and prior approval by the applicant's local ethical review board. Providing the research community with access to this free and open sleep database is expected to facilitate the development and cross-validation of sleep analysis automation systems. It is also expected that such a shared resource will be a catalyst for cross-centre collaborations on difficult topics such as improving inter-rater agreement on sleep stage scoring.

  12. Sleep Disturbance from Road Traffic, Railways, Airplanes and from Total Environmental Noise Levels in Montreal

    PubMed Central

    Perron, Stéphane; Plante, Céline; Ragettli, Martina S.; Kaiser, David J.; Goudreau, Sophie; Smargiassi, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    The objective of our study was to measure the impact of transportation-related noise and total environmental noise on sleep disturbance for the residents of Montreal, Canada. A telephone-based survey on noise-related sleep disturbance among 4336 persons aged 18 years and over was conducted. LNight for each study participant was estimated using a land use regression (LUR) model. Distance of the respondent’s residence to the nearest transportation noise source was also used as an indicator of noise exposure. The proportion of the population whose sleep was disturbed by outdoor environmental noise in the past 4 weeks was 12.4%. The proportion of those affected by road traffic, airplane and railway noise was 4.2%, 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. We observed an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those exposed to both rail and road noise when compared for those exposed to road only. We did not observe an increased prevalence in sleep disturbance for those that were both exposed to road and planes when compared to those exposed to road or planes only. We developed regression models to assess the marginal proportion of sleep disturbance as a function of estimated LNight and distance to transportation noise sources. In our models, sleep disturbance increased with proximity to transportation noise sources (railway, airplane and road traffic) and with increasing LNight values. Our study provides a quantitative estimate of the association between total environmental noise levels estimated using an LUR model and sleep disturbance from transportation noise. PMID:27529260

  13. [History of the department of Psychiatry at the University of Montreal].

    PubMed

    Stip, Emmanuel

    2015-01-01

    team at the Hôpital Louis-H. Lafontaine (now IUSMM). Significant advances related to the interaction between the psychoanalytic movement and community psychiatry were greatly influenced by the work at the Pavillon Albert-Prévost and the emergence of behavioral therapies (Dr. Yves Lamontagne) and cognitive studies conducted by the Hôpital Louis-H. Lafontaine. Great discoveries about sleep were performed at the Hôpital du Sacré-Coeur de Montréal by teams gathered around Jacques-Yves Montplaisir.We also recall that two ministers from the Quebec government with important political responsibilities were members or directors of the Département de psychiatrie. These are Drs. Camille Laurin and Denis Lazure.The Département aims to strengthen clinical and basic research by contributing new knowledge that will improve care for people with mental disorders. These efforts benefit both patients and the medical students and residents being trained to care for them. The Département remains committed to its program, to pre-doctoral education (ensuring that all medical students at the Université are trained to recognize, diagnose, and be familiar with treatment options for mental disorders), to post-doctoral education for future psychiatrists, and to the care of Quebec's patients.For over 50 years, the academic department has played a key role in attracting and recruiting excellent academic and clinical resources to staff the programs and services of our hospital partners.

  14. Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics: a special issue in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday Applications of zeta functions and other spectral functions in mathematics and physics: a special issue in honour of Stuart Dowker's 75th birthday

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowker, Fay; Elizalde, Emilio; Kirsten, Klaus

    2012-09-01

    extension that impacts particles never entering that region. What is the gravitational analogue for that situation? The analogue concerns the impact a localized curvature has, and the cone is an excellent example to shed light on that question. Related to the method of images, Stuart has done an enormous amount of work on the influence of topology and curvature on quantum field theory. An example is [17], where the vacuum stress-energy tensor for Clifford-Klein forms of the flat or spherical type were computed. Another strand we would like to mention is Stuart's interest in higher spin equations. In [18], Steven Weinberg wrote down a set of higher spin equations that took his fancy. They involved angular momentum theory, which has always pleased Stuart, and the description was an alternative to Roger Penrose's use of two-spinors. Investigating the inconsistencies that arose on coupling to gauge theories, Stuart extended the classic results in [19], from electromagnetism to gravity in accordance with his general philosophy; see, e.g., [20, 21, 22]. Lately, Stuart is best known for his many applications in the context of zeta function regularization and its applications to quantum field theory under external conditions and spectral theory. He can be considered the world expert on particular case calculations with a knowledge of the literature, old and recent, that is not seen very often and which originated in the many hours spent at different (mostly British) libraries. His attitude towards explicit computations is nicely summarized by himself: 'I have always been interested in exact solutions, even if unphysical, so long as they are pretty. They seem to be working mechanisms that fit together, complete in themselves, like a watch.' The following issue in honour of Stuart's 75th birthday contains contributions that touch upon the various topics he has worked on. References [1] de Broglie L 1928 La mécanique ondulatoire (Paris: Gauthier-Villars) [2] Castillejo L, Dalitz R H

  15. Recent trends in global emissions of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons: reflecting on the 2007 adjustments to the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Montzka, S A; McFarland, M; Andersen, S O; Miller, B R; Fahey, D W; Hall, B D; Hu, L; Siso, C; Elkins, J W

    2015-05-14

    Global-scale atmospheric measurements are used to investigate the effectiveness of recent adjustments to production and consumption controls on hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) and to assess recent projections of large increases in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) production and emission. The results show that aggregate global HCFC emissions did not increase appreciably during 2007-2012 and suggest that the 2007 Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol played a role in limiting HCFC emissions well in advance of the 2013 cap on global production. HCFC emissions varied between 27 and 29 kt CFC-11-equivalent (eq)/y or 0.76 and 0.79 GtCO2-eq/y during this period. Despite slower than projected increases in aggregate HCFC emissions since 2007, total emissions of HFCs used as substitutes for HCFCs and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have not increased more rapidly than rates projected [Velders, G. J. M.; Fahey, D. W.; Daniel, J. S.; McFarland, M.; Andersen, S. O. The Large Contribution of Projected HFC Emissions to Future Climate Forcing. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009, 106, 10949-10954] for 2007-2012. HFC global emission magnitudes related to this substitution totaled 0.51 (-0.03, +0.04) GtCO2-eq/y in 2012, a magnitude about two times larger than emissions reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for these HFCs. Assuming accurate reporting to the UNFCCC, the results imply that developing countries (non-Annex I Parties) not reporting to the UNFCCC now account for nearly 50% of global HFC emissions used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). Global HFC emissions (as CO2-eq) from ODS substitution can be attributed approximately equally to mobile air conditioning, commercial refrigeration, and the sum of all other applications. PMID:25405363

  16. Recent trends in global emissions of hydrochlorofluorocarbons and hydrofluorocarbons: reflecting on the 2007 adjustments to the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Montzka, S A; McFarland, M; Andersen, S O; Miller, B R; Fahey, D W; Hall, B D; Hu, L; Siso, C; Elkins, J W

    2015-05-14

    Global-scale atmospheric measurements are used to investigate the effectiveness of recent adjustments to production and consumption controls on hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (Montreal Protocol) and to assess recent projections of large increases in hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) production and emission. The results show that aggregate global HCFC emissions did not increase appreciably during 2007-2012 and suggest that the 2007 Adjustments to the Montreal Protocol played a role in limiting HCFC emissions well in advance of the 2013 cap on global production. HCFC emissions varied between 27 and 29 kt CFC-11-equivalent (eq)/y or 0.76 and 0.79 GtCO2-eq/y during this period. Despite slower than projected increases in aggregate HCFC emissions since 2007, total emissions of HFCs used as substitutes for HCFCs and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have not increased more rapidly than rates projected [Velders, G. J. M.; Fahey, D. W.; Daniel, J. S.; McFarland, M.; Andersen, S. O. The Large Contribution of Projected HFC Emissions to Future Climate Forcing. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009, 106, 10949-10954] for 2007-2012. HFC global emission magnitudes related to this substitution totaled 0.51 (-0.03, +0.04) GtCO2-eq/y in 2012, a magnitude about two times larger than emissions reported to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) for these HFCs. Assuming accurate reporting to the UNFCCC, the results imply that developing countries (non-Annex I Parties) not reporting to the UNFCCC now account for nearly 50% of global HFC emissions used as substitutes for ozone-depleting substances (ODSs). Global HFC emissions (as CO2-eq) from ODS substitution can be attributed approximately equally to mobile air conditioning, commercial refrigeration, and the sum of all other applications.

  17. L'enseignement des langues d'origne a l'ecole publique en Ontario et au Quebec: Politiques et enjeu (Heritage Language Instruction in Public Schools in Quebec and Ontario: Official Policy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAndrew, Marie

    1991-01-01

    Represents a comparative analysis of the instructional policies for heritage language programs in Ontario and Quebec. It is concluded that the differences in the programs reflect a distinct difference between the two provinces with relation to interethnic relations. (VWL)

  18. Adult Education: The Past, the Present, and the Future. Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the Canadian Association for the Study of Adult Education (14th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, June 1-3, 1995) = L'Education des Adultes: Un Passe, Un Present, un Avenir. Les Actes du Congress Annuel, l'Association Canadienne pour l'Etude de l'Education des Adultes (14e, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, 1-3 Juin, 1995).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danis, Claudia, Ed.; Hrimech, Mohamed, Ed.

    The following papers (with nine in French) are included: "Refocusing the Multicultural Discourse in Adult Education" (Acton); "University Extension and the Service University" (Archer); "Linking Cases to Course Content" (Block); "The Effects of Education on Food Security among Low Income Urban Adults" (Blunt); "Adult Education Research Trends in…

  19. International Labor Organization's 75th Anniversary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansenne, Michel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This special issue contains eight articles that examine the following: social justice, global employment issues, International Labor Organization (ILO) standards, social security, training, tripartism, the 1994 ILO conference, and labor standards--all from a global perspective. (JOW)

  20. Use of alumni and employer surveys for internal quality assurance of the DVM program at the University of Montreal.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Michèle Y; Vrins, André

    2010-01-01

    Annual alumni and employer surveys, initially designed as outcomes assessment tools, were integrated into a new internal quality assurance strategy to improve the doctor of veterinary medicine program at the University of Montreal's Faculté de Médecine Vétérinaire. Data collected annually from the classes of 2004-2007 indicated that alumni and their employers were generally satisfied with their level of preparation after one year of professional activity. Specific weaknesses were found in non-technical skills such as communication and resource management. These data were used in support of other forms of feedback to guide curricular reform.

  1. Different options for metal recovery after sludge decontamination at the Montreal Urban Community wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Meunier, N; Blais, J F; Lounès, M; Tyagi, R D; Sasseville, J L

    2002-01-01

    The MUG (Montreal Urban Community) treatment plant produces approximately 270 tons of dry sludge daily (270 tds/day) during the physico-chemical treatment of wastewater. Recently, this treatment plant endowed a system of drying and granulation of sludge for valorization as an agricultural fertilizer having a capacity of 70 tds/day (25% of the daily sludge production). However, the metal content (mainly Cu and Cd) of the sludge surpasses the norms for biosolids valorization. In order to solve this problem, a demonstration project, from the lab scale to the industrial pilot plant, was carried out to test the Metix-AC technology for the removal of metals. A strongly metal-loaded filtrate was generated during the sludge decontamination. Tests concerned the study of the metal recovery by total precipitation and selective precipitation, as well as the use of alternative products for the metal precipitation. Other works consisted to simulate the acid filtrate recirculation from the decontaminated sludge (25% of the total volume) in the untreated sludge (75% of the total volume) intended for the incineration. The total precipitation with hydrated limeappearedeffectivefortherecoveryof metals (87% Cd, 96% Cr, 97% Cu, 98% Fe, 71% Ni, 100% Pb, 98% Zn). However, this option entails the production of an important quantity of metallic residue, which should be disposed of expensively as dangerous material. The selective iron precipitation does not appear to bean interesting option because the iron in solution within the leached sludge was principally present in the form of ferrous iron, which cannot be precipitated at pH lower than five. On the other hand, the use of commercial precipitating agents (TMT-15, CP-33Z, CP-NB and CPX) without pH adjustment of filtrate gave good results for the recovery of Cu and, to a lesser degree for the recovery of Pb. However, the efficiency for the other metals' (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn) recovery was weaker (< 25%). Finally, the acid filtrate

  2. Different options for metal recovery after sludge decontamination at the Montreal Urban Community wastewater treatment plant.

    PubMed

    Meunier, N; Blais, J F; Lounès, M; Tyagi, R D; Sasseville, J L

    2002-01-01

    The MUG (Montreal Urban Community) treatment plant produces approximately 270 tons of dry sludge daily (270 tds/day) during the physico-chemical treatment of wastewater. Recently, this treatment plant endowed a system of drying and granulation of sludge for valorization as an agricultural fertilizer having a capacity of 70 tds/day (25% of the daily sludge production). However, the metal content (mainly Cu and Cd) of the sludge surpasses the norms for biosolids valorization. In order to solve this problem, a demonstration project, from the lab scale to the industrial pilot plant, was carried out to test the Metix-AC technology for the removal of metals. A strongly metal-loaded filtrate was generated during the sludge decontamination. Tests concerned the study of the metal recovery by total precipitation and selective precipitation, as well as the use of alternative products for the metal precipitation. Other works consisted to simulate the acid filtrate recirculation from the decontaminated sludge (25% of the total volume) in the untreated sludge (75% of the total volume) intended for the incineration. The total precipitation with hydrated limeappearedeffectivefortherecoveryof metals (87% Cd, 96% Cr, 97% Cu, 98% Fe, 71% Ni, 100% Pb, 98% Zn). However, this option entails the production of an important quantity of metallic residue, which should be disposed of expensively as dangerous material. The selective iron precipitation does not appear to bean interesting option because the iron in solution within the leached sludge was principally present in the form of ferrous iron, which cannot be precipitated at pH lower than five. On the other hand, the use of commercial precipitating agents (TMT-15, CP-33Z, CP-NB and CPX) without pH adjustment of filtrate gave good results for the recovery of Cu and, to a lesser degree for the recovery of Pb. However, the efficiency for the other metals' (Cd, Cr, Fe, Ni and Zn) recovery was weaker (< 25%). Finally, the acid filtrate

  3. Orientations and Motivation in the Acquisition of English as a Second Language Among High School Students in Quebec City.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belmechri, Faiza; Hummel, Kirsten

    1998-01-01

    Investigated the emergence of orientations and their relation to motivation in a predominantly monolingual context. Participants were 93 Quebec City francophone Grade 11 high school students learning English as a Second Language. (Author/JL)

  4. The potential modal shift and health benefits of implementing a public bicycle share program in Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This study estimated the modal shift associated with the implementation of a public bicycle share program in Montreal, Canada. Methods A population-based sample of adults participated in two cross sectional telephone surveys. Self-reported travel behaviors were collected at the end of the first (fall 2009) and second (fall 2010) season of implementation. The sample included 2502 (Mean age=47.8 years, 61.8% female), and 2509 (Mean age=48.9 years, 59.0% female) adult respondents in each survey. Results The estimated modal shift associated with the implementation of the PBSP from motor vehicle use to walking, cycling, and public transportation was 6483 and 8023 trips in 2009 and 2010. This change represents 0.34% and 0.43% of all motor vehicle trips in Montreal. Conclusions The implementation of a PBSP was associated with a shift toward active transportation. The modal shift was complex and not simply the result of a discrete shift from one mode to another. Promotion of active transportation should encourage integration of multiple active transportation modes to better reflect people’s actual transportation behaviors. PMID:23705934

  5. Stratospheric ozone protection: The Montreal Protocol and Title VI of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Babst, C.R. III

    1993-08-01

    The stratospheric ozone layer protects the surface of the Earth from harmful ultraviolet (UV-B) radiation, which has been causally linked to skin cancer and cataracts, suppression of the human immune system, damage to crops and aquatic organisms, the formation of ground-level zone and the rapid weathering of outdoor plastics. In recent years, scientists have observed a significant deterioration of the ozone layer, particularly over the poles, but increasingly over populated regions as well. This deterioration has been attributed to the atmospheric release of certain man-made halocarbons, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), halons, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Once used extensively as propellants for aerosol sprays (but generally banned for such purposes since 1978), CFCs are widely used today as refrigerants, foams and solvents. All of these chlorinated (CFC, methyl chloroform and carbon tetrachloride) and brominated (halon) compounds are classified for regulatory purposes as Class I substances because of their significant ozone-depleting potential. Hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs), developed as alternatives to CFCs and halons for many different applications, have been classified for regulatory purposes as Class II substances because of their relatively less destructive impact on stratospheric ozone. This paper describes the following regulations to reduce destruction of the ozone layer: the Montreal Protocol; Title VI of the Clean air Act Amendments of 1990; Accelerated Phase-out schedules developed by the countries which signed the Montreal Protocol; Use restrictions; Recycling and Emission reduction requirements; Servicing of motor vehicle air conditions; ban on nonessential products; labeling requirements; safe alternatives. 6 refs.

  6. Inuit exposure to organochlorines through the aquatic food chain in arctic Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Dewailly, E.; Ayotte, P.; Laliberte, C. ); Bruneau, S. ); Muir, D.C.G. ); Norstrom, R.J. )

    1993-12-01

    Inuit people (Eskimos) are likely exposed to persistent organochlorine compounds because their traditional diet includes fatty tissues of the arctic marine biota. Here we present the results of organochlorine compound analysis in milk fat samples from artic Quebec Inuit women and in fat tissues from various animal species inhabiting that region. The total concentration of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in Inuit milk fat was similar to that of the beluga, while the profile of the 10 congeners resembled that of the polar bear. Mean concentrations of various organochlorines in milk-fat samples from Inuit women were between 2 and 10 times greater than those found in samples previously collected from southern Quebec women. The Inuit mothers exhibit the greatest body burden known to occur from exposure to organochlorine residues present in the environment by virtue of their location at the highest trophic level of the arctic food web. 18 refs., 2 tabs.

  7. Normative data for the pyramids and palm trees test in the Quebec-French population.

    PubMed

    Callahan, Brandy L; Macoir, Joël; Hudon, Carol; Bier, Nathalie; Chouinard, Nancy; Cossette-Harvey, Mélissa; Daigle, Nathalie; Fradette, Catherine; Gagnon, Lise; Potvin, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    Semantic memory tests assess long-term memory for facts, objects, and concepts as well as words and their meaning. Since it holds culturally shared information, the development of normative data adjusted to the cultural and linguistic reality of the target population is of particular importance. The present study aimed to establish normative data for the Pyramids and Palm Trees Test, a commonly used test of semantic memory, in the French-Quebec population. The normative sample consisted of 214 healthy French-speaking adults and elderly persons from various regions of the province of Quebec. The effects of participants' age, gender, and education level on test performance were assessed. Results indicated that participants' level of education and age, but not sex, were found to be significantly associated with performance on this test. Normative data are presented as means and standard deviations. Overall, the present norms are consistent with those of previous studies with Spanish samples.

  8. Locked on course: Hydro-Quebec`s commitment to mega-projects

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, J.; Briscoe, F.; Suzuki, Tatsujiro; Lee, J.; Stewart, A.

    1997-01-01

    Large organizations often escalate their commitments to mega-project development, even after evidence becomes available of adverse environmental consequences or lack of economic feasibility. This escalation of commitment transcends both sectorial and national boundaries. Preeminent examples include controversial nuclear projects in the US, hydroelectric projects like the Three Gorges Dam in China, and transport projects like the Chunnel and the Concorde. In this article, the authors examine the experience of Hydro-Quebec with the Great Whale Project. They argue that Hydro-Quebec escalated its commitment even after serious questions emerged about its environmental impacts and economic feasibility, because of (1) its earlier success with large projects, (2) its engineering culture`s norms for consistency, and (3) its role in the government`s desire for economic and cultural autonomy. Finally, they discuss the changes that are necessary to break commitments to such projects.

  9. Survival of female mallards along the Vermont–Quebec border region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, Jerry R.; McAuley, Daniel G.; Heisey, Dennis M.; Bunck, Christine M.; Clugston, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding effects of location and timing of harvest seasons on mortality of ducks and geese from hunting is important in forming regulations that sustain viable waterfowl populations throughout their range. During 1990 and 1991 we alternately marked 80 hatching year (HY), female mallards along the Vermont–Quebec border; half with radio-transmitters and bands and half with only aluminum leg bands. We monitored radio-marked ducks daily and recorded survival status weekly for 15 weeks from August until December each year. Mallard mortalities began 25 September when the hunting season opened in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Overall survival of mallards at week 10 did not differ between years (0.51 in 1990 vs. 0.43 in 1991) or differ from that of HY American black ducks (0.44 females, 0.42 males) based on proportional hazard analysis in a Bayesian framework. The mortality rates for mallards from hunting (0.47) and causes unrelated to hunting (0.06) were similar between years and to those rates for HY black ducks at that same site. Hunter harvest accounted for most of the mortality recorded during this study and illegal feeding (i.e., baiting) at sites just before and during the hunting season was observed. Females with lower body condition index had greater mortality rates; a 1-standard-deviation increase in condition index would reduce mortality hazard by about 29%. Management options that may increase mallard survival in the area include lowering daily bag limit in Quebec and suspending split hunting seasons in Vermont that increase harvest, delaying opening date of hunting in Quebec to allow for increased body condition before hunting season opens, and improving enforcement of baiting restrictions.

  10. Trends in prevalence, incidence and mortality of diagnosed and silent coronary heart disease in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Blais, C.; Rochette, L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Of all cardiovascular causes of mortality, coronary heart disease (CHD) remains the leading cause of death. Our objectives were to establish trends in the prevalence and incidence of CHD in the province of Quebec, and to determine the proportion of CHD mortality that had no previous CHD diagnosis. Methods: Trends in prevalence, incidence and mortality were examined with a population-based study using the Quebec Integrated Chronic Disease Surveillance System, which links several health administrative databases. Data are presented using two case definitions for Quebecers aged 20 years and over: 1) a validated definition, and 2) CHD causes of death codes added to estimate the proportion of deaths that occurred without any previous CHD diagnosis as a proxy for sudden cardiac death (SCD). Results: In 2012/2013, the crude prevalence of CHD was 9.4% with the first definition (593 000 people). Between 2000/2001 and 2012/2013, the age-standardized prevalence increased by 14%, although it has been decreasing slightly since 2009/2010. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates decreased by 46% and 26% respectively, and represented a crude rate of 6.9 per 1000 and 5.2% in 2012/2013. The proportion identified only by CHD mortality, our SCD proxy, was only significant for the incident cases (0.38 per 1000 in 2009/2010) and declined over the study period. Conclusion: The prevalence of CHD has tended to decrease in recent years, and incidence and mortality have been declining in Quebec. Most CHD mortality occurs in previously diagnosed patients and only a small proportion of incident cases were not previously identified. PMID:26674188

  11. Genetic characterization of Cryptosporidium isolates from ringed seals (Phoca hispida) in Northern Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Santín, Mónica; Dixon, Brent R; Fayert, Ronald

    2005-06-01

    This study reports the molecular characterization of Cryptosporidium spp. isolates identified from intestinal contents of ringed seals (Phoca hispida) from Nunavik (Quebec, Canada). Cryptosporidium spp. fragments of 18S rRNA, HSP-70, and actin loci were amplified by PCR from seal intestinal contents. PCR-positive specimens were sequenced and compared with other Cryptosporidium species and genotypes reported previously. Sequence analysis showed the presence of C. muris and 2 novel genotypes in ringed seals. PMID:16108576

  12. Customized Training for Business and Industry: The Quebec College Experience. Notes for an Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Charles S.; Gauvreau, Rejean

    College Edouard-Monpetit (CEM) is the largest French-language college in Quebec. Its student body consists of 4,000 full-time students in pre-university programs, 3,000 full-time students in technical programs, and 11,500 part-time students in continuing education. CEM has two main campuses, offering four pre-university and 15 technical programs,…

  13. Phage types of Staphylococcus aureus received at the Quebec Public Health Laboratory from 1976 to 1983.

    PubMed Central

    Jetté, L P

    1986-01-01

    Phage typing of 13,579 clinical and environmental strains of Staphylococcus aureus received at the Quebec Public Health Laboratory between 1976 and 1983 was routinely performed to assess the distribution of lytic groups. Strains susceptible to phages 94, 95, and 96 predominated and accounted for 25% of the specimens. The distribution of strains in lytic groups varied with time and specimen source. PMID:2939102

  14. Macrosomia, Perinatal and Infant Mortality in Cree Communities in Quebec, 1996-2010

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Lin; Zhang, Dan-Li; Torrie, Jill; Auger, Nathalie; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background Cree births in Quebec are characterized by the highest reported prevalence of macrosomia (~35%) in the world. It is unclear whether Cree births are at greater elevated risk of perinatal and infant mortality than other First Nations relative to non-Aboriginal births in Quebec, and if macrosomia may be related. Methods This was a population-based retrospective birth cohort study using the linked birth-infant death database for singleton births to mothers from Cree (n = 5,340), other First Nations (n = 10,810) and non-Aboriginal (n = 229,960) communities in Quebec, 1996–2010. Community type was ascertained by residential postal code and municipality name. The primary outcomes were perinatal and infant mortality. Results Macrosomia (birth weight for gestational age >90th percentile) was substantially more frequent in Cree (38.0%) and other First Nations (21.9%) vs non-Aboriginal (9.4%) communities. Comparing Cree and other First Nations vs non-Aboriginal communities, perinatal mortality rates were 1.52 (95% confidence intervals 1.17, 1.98) and 1.34 (1.10, 1.64) times higher, and infant mortality rates 2.27 (1.71, 3.02) and 1.49 (1.16, 1.91) times higher, respectively. The risk elevations in perinatal and infant death in Cree communities attenuated after adjusting for maternal characteristics (age, education, marital status, parity), but became greater after further adjustment for birth weight (small, appropriate, or large for gestational age). Conclusions Cree communities had greater risk elevations in perinatal and infant mortality than other First Nations relative to non-Aboriginal communities in Quebec. High prevalence of macrosomia did not explain the elevated risk of perinatal and infant mortality in Cree communities. PMID:27517613

  15. [Paediatric anaesthesia outside the operating theatre suite: the situation in Germany and Quebec].

    PubMed

    Brackhahn, M; Mathews, S

    2013-12-01

    The authors describe the way pediatric anesthesia is organized outside the operating theatre in their country. In Germany, children can be anesthetized outside the operating theater in the hospital but also outside the hospital according to the concept of office-based anesthesia. National recommendations have been published and their revision is currently underway. In Quebec, pediatric anesthesia outside the operating theatre is well organized in order to ensure quality of care, patient's safety and efficiency of the system. PMID:24216020

  16. But other than mesothelioma? An estimate of the proportion of work-related cancers in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Labrèche, F.; Duguay, P.; Boucher, A.; Arcand, R.

    2016-01-01

    Background More than 30 exposures in the workplace are proven carcinogens. In the present study, we aimed to estimate the burden of occupational cancer in Quebec so as to increase awareness among stakeholders and to prioritize research activities. Methods Work-attributable fractions—that is, the proportions of cancers attributable to work—as published in Finland and the United Kingdom were applied to Quebec 2002–2006 cancer incidence and mortality data to estimate the number of work-related cases for 28 cancer sites. Results Overall, 6.0% of incident cancers (men: 9.1%; women: 2.7%) and 7.6% of cancer deaths (men: 11.8%; women: 2.8%) could be attributable to work, resulting annually in an average of 2160 new cancer diagnoses and 1190 cancer deaths in Quebec. Incident cancers of the lung, prostate, skin, bladder, and (female) breast were the most numerous; cancer sites resulting in more deaths were lung, (female) breast, and pleura. During the same period, compensation statistics reported annual averages of 94.3 incident cancers and 61.9 cancer deaths, mostly involving mesothelioma (64% of compensated incident cancers) and lung cancer (30% of compensated incident cancers). Conclusions Increased recognition of workplace cancers by all stakeholders, from workers and employers to treating physicians, will foster appropriate preventive measures for safer workplaces. PMID:27122983

  17. Aboriginal youth suicide in Quebec: the contribution of public policy for prevention.

    PubMed

    Tousignant, Michel; Vitenti, Livia; Morin, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    The high rate of youth suicide in some First Nations villages of Northern Quebec is an important public health problem. Based on a six-year field study in three villages belonging to the Atikamekw and Anishinabe groups, this paper proposes changes in three areas of social policy that could contribute to prevention of youth suicide. These three areas are: youth protection, administration of justice, and housing. An argument is made first to adapt the youth protection law of Quebec and to give greater responsibility to communities in individual cases in order to prevent child placement outside the villages. Regarding the administration of justice, we suggest initiatives to encourage rapid prosecution of crimes on reserves and the adoption of an approach based on reconciliation between perpetrator and victim. Finally, we indicate how housing measures could help safeguard children's wellbeing given that overcrowding can contribute to suicide. The discussion also proposes that these three key changes in social policy could be relevant in other Aboriginal communities both within and outside of Quebec.

  18. Greenhouse gas emissions from boreal reservoirs in Manitoba and Quebec, Canada, measured with automated systems.

    PubMed

    Demarty, Maud; Bastien, Julie; Tremblay, Alain; Hesslein, Raymond H; Gill, Robert

    2009-12-01

    Growing concern over the contribution of freshwater reservoirs to increases in atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations and the relevance of long-term continuous measurements has led Fisheries and Oceans Canada, in conjunction with Manitoba Hydro, to develop continuous GHG monitors. Continuous water pCO(2), pCH(4), and pO(2) measurements were gathered to estimate gas fluxes in one temperate reservoir (Riviere-des-Prairies) and two boreal reservoirs (Eastmain-1 and Robert-Bourassa) in Quebec, and in four boreal reservoirs (Grand Rapids, Jenpeg, Kettle, and McArthur Falls) in Manitoba, Canada. Mean daily CO(2) fluxes ranged between 7 and 14 mmolCO(2)*m(-2)*d(-1) in Manitoba and between 15 and 55 mmolCO(2)*m(-2)*d(-1) in Quebec. Summertime episodes of water undersaturation in CO(2) were observed at Jenpeg, Kettle, and McArthur, suggesting higher productivities of these systems compared to the other systems studied. Mean daily CH(4) fluxes ranged between 0 and 69 micromolCH(4)*m(-2)*d(-1) in Manitoba and between 9 and 48 micromolCH(4)*m(-2)*d(-1) in Quebec. Comparisons of results obtained in the Eastmain-1 area using automated monitors, floating chambers or dissolved gas analyses over multiple-station field campaigns demonstrated that a continuous GHG monitor at a single sampling station provided representative and robust results.

  19. Analysis of Chinese emissions trends of major halocarbons in monitoring the impacts of the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.; Park, S.; Park, M.; Kim, J.; Muhle, J.; Fang, X.; Stohl, A.; Weiss, R. F.; Kim, K.

    2013-12-01

    nationwide effort for the Clean Development Mechanism project benefit of the Kyoto protocol. Emission rates of the halocarbons determined from the empirical emission strengths will certainly vary according to emission trend of our reference species, HCFC-22 in China from 2008 and 2012. Annual and average of HCFC-22 emissions from 2008 to 2012 will be calculated with an inverse method based on FLEXPART transport model. More detailed discussion on the emission rate estimation and its related caveats will be made in the presentation, but overall our analysis highlights the significance of long-term continuous monitoring for CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs in China to investigate impacts of Montreal Protocol regulations.

  20. 75th anniversary of the N V Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IZMIRAN) (Scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 25 February 2015)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2015-06-01

    A scientific session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) celebrating the 75th anniversary of the N V Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere, and Radio Wave Propagation of the RAS (IZMIRAN) was held in the IZMIRAN conference hall on 25 February 2015. The agenda of the session announced on the website http://www.gpad.ac.ru of the RAS Physical Sciences Division contained the following reports: (1) Kuznetsov V D (IZMIRAN, Moscow) "N V Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IZMIRAN) yesterday, today, and tomorrow"; (2) Gvishiani A D (Geophysical Center, Moscow) "Studies of the terrestrial magnetic field and the network of Russian magnetic laboratories"; (3) Sokoloff D D (Faculty of Physics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow) "Magnetic dynamo questions"; (4) Petrukovich A A (Space Research Institute, RAS, Moscow) "Some aspects of magnetosphere-ionosphere relations"; (5) Lukin D S (Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (State University), Dolgoprudnyi, Moscow region) "Current problems of ionospheric radio wave propagation"; (6) Safargaleev V V (Polar Geophysical Institute, Kola Scientific Center, RAS, Murmansk), Sergienko T I (Swedish Institute of Space Physics (IRF), Sweden), Kozlovskii A E (Sodankyl \\ddot a Geophysical Observatory, Finland), Safargaleev A V (St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg), Kotikov A L (St. Petersburg Branch of IZMIRAN, St. Petersburg) "Magnetic and optical measurements and signatures of reconnection in the cusp and vicinity"; (7) Kuznetsov V D (IZMIRAN, Moscow) "Space solar research: achievements and prospects". Papers written on the basis of oral reports 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 are given below. • N V Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation of the Russian Academy of Sciences (IZMIRAN) yesterday, today, tomorrow, V D Kuznetsov Physics-Uspekhi, 2015

  1. Analysis of air pollution from swine production by using air dispersion model and GIS in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Sarr, Joachim H; Goïta, Kalifa; Desmarais, Camille

    2010-01-01

    Swine production, the second most important contributor to Quebec's agricultural revenue, faces many problems. Intensive piggeries, with up to 599 animal units, are used to raise finishing pigs for slaughter. Among the great number of gaseous species emitted to the atmospheric environment from livestock buildings and manure storage units is NH3, which is one of the most important and most offensive with respect to human health. Under appropriate meteorological and topographical conditions, gaseous contaminants can spread and cause a public nuisance--up to a 1-km radius around the farm. To mitigate these effects, the Quebec Government adopted regulations that set minimum buffer distances to be observed by any expansion of an existing or new pig farm. The objectives of this study were (i) to assess the efficiency of the current buffer distance prescriptions in Quebec in mitigating effects of air pollution from swine units and (ii) to identify potential areas for establishing pig farm operations that will not be offensive to people. The air dispersion American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model (AERMOD) with receptors distributed at 1.6 km around each source was used first, followed by a spatial geographic information system (GIS) model. Results from the dispersion model showed that the highest hourly concentration with a 99.5% compliance frequency for a single farm was 3078.1 microg/m3 and exceeded the NH3 odor criterion hourly standard set by the Quebec Government at 183.4 microg/m3. Thus, for public safety, densely populated areas like housing developments must be located >1300 m from a pig farm. This distance is in the range of setback distances (723 to 1447 m) obtained by using abacuses defined in the L'Erable Regional County Municipality. That is why we can say the current rules established by the Quebec Government, if rigorously applied, can prevent odor nuisance, due to NH3 emission, from swine farms. In the spatial model

  2. Survival of American Black Ducks radiomarked in Quebec, Nova Scotia and Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longcore, J.R.; McAuley, D.G.; Clugston, D.A.; Bunck, C.M.; Giroux, J.-F.; Ouellet, C.; Parker, G.R.; Dupuis, P.; Stotts, D.B.; Goldsberry, J.R.

    2000-01-01

    We monitored survival of 397 radiomarked juvenile American black ducks (Anas rubripes) distributed among Les Escoumins (n = 75) and Kamouraska, Quebec (n = 84), Amherst Point, Nova Scotia (n = 89), and a site on the Vermont-Quebec border (n = 149) during autumn 1990 and 1991. Eighty-six percent (215 of 250) of all confirmed mortalities during the study was from hunting; 72% of marked ducks were shot and retrieved and 14% were shot and unretrieved. We tested for differences in survival in relation to sex, body mass, year (1990-91, 1991-92), and among the 4 locations for each of 2 monitoring periods (early, EMP; late, LMP). With data from the EMP for Vermont-Quebec in 1990 and 1991, Les Escoumins in 1990, and Amherst Point in 1991, survival of hatching-year (HY) males and females did not differ (P = 0.357). For sexes combined for the EMP, survival of ducks was greater in 1991 than 1990 (P = 0.086), and differed among locations (P = 0.013). Survival (years combined) was greater at Amherst Point than at Kamouraska (P = 0.003) and Vermont-Quebec (P = 0.002) during the EMP. The highest survival rate at Amherst Point (0.545 ? 0.056 [SE]) was associated with the latest date (8 Oct) of season opening; the lowest survival rate (0.395 ? 0.043) was at the Vermont-Quebec border, where hunter numbers and activity were greatest. For the LMP, no interaction between years and locations was detected (P = 0.942), and no differences in survival existed between years (P = 0.102) and among locations (P = 0.349). No association was detected between body mass at capture and survival of combined males and females during the EMP (P = 0.572) or during the LMP (P = 0.965). When we censored hunting losses for combined years for each period, EMP or LMP, all survival estimates exceeded 0.800 (0.809-0.965). These data emphasize need for an improved harvest strategy for American black ducks in North America to allow for increases in breeding populations to achieve population goals.

  3. The Quebec Pregnancy Cohort – Prevalence of Medication Use during Gestation and Pregnancy Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bérard, Anick; Sheehy, Odile

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We evaluated the potential and the validity of the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort (QPC) as a research tool in perinatal pharmacoepidemiology. Methods The QPC was built by linking four administrative databases: RAMQ (medical and pharmaceutical data), Med-Echo (hospitalizations), ISQ (births/deaths), and MELS (Ministry of Education data). A self-administered questionnaire was sent to a random sample of women to collect lifestyle information. The QPC includes data on all pregnancies of women covered by the Quebec provincial prescription drug insurance between 1998 and 2008. Date of entry in the QPC is the first day of pregnancy, and women are followed during and after pregnancy; children are followed after birth up until 2009. The prevalence of prescribed medications before, during and after pregnancy was compared between time-window. Pregnancy outcomes were also estimated among pregnancies ending with a live born infant. Results The QPC included 289,688 pregnancies of 186,165 women. Among them, 167,398 ended with a delivery representing 19.4% of all deliveries occurring in the Province of Quebec between 1998–2009. The total frequency of abortions was 35.9% in the QPC comparable to the 36.4% observed in the Province of Quebec. The prevalence of prescribed medication use was 74.6%, 59.0%, and 79.6% before, during and after pregnancy, respectively. Although there was a statistically significant decrease in the proportion of use once the pregnancy was diagnosed (p<.01), post-pregnancy prescribed medication use returned above the pre-pregnancy level. The prevalence of pregnancy outcomes found in the QPC were similar to those observed in the Province of Quebec. Conclusion The QPC is an excellent tool for the study of the risk and benefit of drug use during the perinatal period. This cohort has the advantage of including a validated date of beginning of pregnancy giving the possibility of assigning the exact gestational age at the time of maternal exposure. PMID:24705674

  4. Municipal Solid Waste Landfills as a Source of Montreal Protocol-regulated gases in the United States and United Kingdom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodson, E.; Prinn, R.

    2008-12-01

    Bottom-up estimates from targeted field campaigns can provide important insight into fine-scale source emissions not captured by regular gas monitoring. In turn, these targeted data sets can shed new light on the effectiveness of environmental policies. Halocarbons regulated under the Montreal Protocol are important due both to their high global warming potential and destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer. Although the Montreal Protocol has been in effect in industrialized countries for over a decade, observation- based estimates continue to report lingering emissions of regulated halocarbons. Lack of data apportioning emissions of Montreal Protocol-regulated gases to individual sources has led to wide-ranging assumptions about the source of lingering halocarbon emissions. In particular, landfill emissions have been the subject of some controversy with the landfill source reported to be 0-100% of total halocarbon emissions in industrialized countries. This study provides the first comprehensive observation-based estimates of CFC-12, CFC-11, CFC-113, and CH3CCl3 emissions in the United States (US) and United Kingdom (UK) from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. Whole landfill mixing ratios and flow rates were sampled monthly at one US landfill to provide temporal coverage. Spatial coverage was achieved through one time sampling at seven US landfills and through data provided by nine UK landfills. Weighted linear least square regressions of generated halocarbon vs. CH4 were used in combination with national estimates of landfill CH4 emissions to estimate 2006 US and UK landfill halocarbon emissions. For all four halocarbons, 2006 US landfill emissions were ~ 0.6% (0.008 - 0.08 Gg/year) of total US emissions from all sources. The 2006 UK landfill emission estimates were 6% (0.03 Gg/year) and 0.8% (0.006 Gg/year) of total UK CFC-12 and CFC-11 emissions, respectively, indicating that landfill emissions may be a significant source of CFC-12 in the UK. For the US

  5. Risk of lung cancer associated with six types of chlorinated solvents: results from two case-control studies in Montreal, Canada

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods: Two case-control studies of occupation and lung cancer were conducted in Montreal, including 2,016 cases and 2,001 population controls. Occupational exposure to a host of agents was evaluated using a combination of subject-reported job history and expert assessment. We e...

  6. The Domestic Foodscapes of Young Low-Income Women in Montreal: Cooking Practices in the Context of an Increasingly Processed Food Supply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engler-Stringer, Rachel

    2010-01-01

    Over the course of the past century, the quantity of prepackaged, pre-prepared foods available in the North American context has increased dramatically. This study examines the shifts in food practices that are taking place through an exploration of the day-to-day cooking practices of a group of young, low-income women in Montreal and considers…

  7. Implications of the Montreal Protocol for atmospheric emissions of alternative chemicals. Report for January-March 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Hummel, K.E.; Smith, N.D.; Harmon, D.L.

    1988-08-01

    This paper is about alternative chemicals. The substitution, of less ozone-depleting chemicals wherever it is cost effective and technically feasible, is expected because of anticipated future limitations on production and consumption of the fully halogenated chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons (fluorocarbons containing bromine atoms) covered by the Montreal Protocol. Certain alternative chemicals (e.g., HCFC-22 and methyl chloroform) are already used in applications other than as CFC substitutes. Projected future consumption of alternative chemicals includes such non-substitution use. Study results indicate that the 50% reduction in weighted CFC/halon consumption (weighted for ozone-depletion potential) required by the Protocol in 1998 could initially be achieved by alternative chemicals alone. However, alternative processes or products not requiring either the controlled substances or their substitute chemicals and/or substantial recovery and reuse of the chemicals would be needed to maintain the 50% level of reduction in the longer term.

  8. Manganese concentrations in the air of the Montreal (Canada) subway in relation to surface automobile traffic density.

    PubMed

    Boudia, Nacéra; Halley, Renée; Kennedy, Greg; Lambert, Jean; Gareau, Lise; Zayed, Joseph

    2006-07-31

    Methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl (MMT) is an organic derivative of manganese (Mn), used since 1976 in Canadian gasoline as an octane enhancer. Its combustion leads to the emission of Mn particles. Several studies carried out by our research group have established a correlation between atmospheric Mn concentrations and automobile traffic density, suggesting that MMT in gasoline could play a significant role. This study aims to measure Mn concentrations in the air of the underground subway in Montreal (Canada) and to examine the relation with nearby surface automobile traffic density and, by extension, with the use of MMT in gasoline. Three subway stations were chosen for their location in different microenvironments with different traffic densities. Respirable (MnR<5 microm) and total Mn (MnT) were sampled over two weeks, 5 days/week, 12 h/day. For the station located in the lower traffic density area, relatively low levels of MnR and MnT were found, with averages of 0.018 and 0.032 microg/m(3), respectively. These concentrations are within the range of the background levels in Montreal. For the other two stations, the average concentrations of MnR were twice as high and exceeded the US EPA reference concentration of 0.05 microg/m(3). Although there may be several sources of Mn from different components of the subway structure and vehicles, no correlation was found between subway traffic and atmospheric Mn in the subway. Since the air in the underground subway is pumped directly from outside without filtration, our findings strongly suggest that the combustion of MMT in automobiles is an important factor. PMID:16297437

  9. PREFACE: SANS-YuMO User Meeting at the Start-up of Scientific Experiments on the IBR-2M Reactor: Devoted to the 75th anniversary of Yu M Ostanevich's birth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordely, Valentin; Kuklin, Alexander; Balasoiu, Maria

    2012-03-01

    The Second International Workshop 'SANS-YuMO User Meeting at the Start-up of Scientific Experiments on the IBR-2M Reactor', devoted to the 75th anniversary of the birth of Professor Yu M Ostanevich (1936-1992), an outstanding neutron physicist and the founder of small-angle neutron scattering (field, group, and instrument) at JINR FLNPh, was held on 27-30 May at the Frank Laboratory of Neutron Physics. The first Workshop was held in October 2006. Research groups from different neutron centers, universities and research institutes across Europe presented more than 35 oral and poster presentations describing scientific and methodological results. Most of them were obtained with the help of the YuMO instrument before the IBR-2 shutdown in 2006. For the last four years the IBR-2 reactor has been shut down for refurbishment. At the end of 2010 the physical launch of the IBR-2M reactor was finally realized. Nowadays the small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) technique is applied to a wide range of scientific problems in condensed matter, soft condensed matter, biology and nanotechnology, and despite the fact that there are currently over 30 SANS instruments in operation worldwide at both reactor and spallation sources, the demand for beam-time is considerably higher than the time available. It must be remembered, however, that as the first SANS machine on a steady-state reactor was constructed at the Institute Laue Langevin, Grenoble, the first SANS instrument on a 'white' neutron pulsed beam was accomplished at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research at the IBR-30 reactor, beamline N5. During the meeting Yu M Ostanevich's determinative and crucial contribution to the construction of spectrometers at the IBR-2 high-pulsed reactor was presented, as well as his contribution to the development of the time-of-flight (TOF) small-angle scattering technique, and a selection of other scientific areas. His leadership and outstanding scientific achievements in applications of the

  10. How Should Citizenship Be Integrated into High School History Programs? Public Controversies and the Quebec "History and Citizenship Education" Curriculum: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethier, Marc-Andre; Lefrancois, David

    2012-01-01

    This article is divided into two sections. The first section reviews the national high school history programs in Quebec from 1905 onward. It focuses on the national and civic identity developed through the programs, as well as on political wrangles over their identity-building goals. Because the Quebec public school system was denominational, and…

  11. Genomic Characterization of a Large Outbreak of Legionella pneumophila Serogroup 1 Strains in Quebec City, 2012

    PubMed Central

    Mendis, Nilmini; Cantin, Philippe; Marchand, Geneviève; Charest, Hugues; Raymond, Frédéric; Huot, Caroline; Goupil-Sormany, Isabelle; Desbiens, François; Faucher, Sébastien P.; Corbeil, Jacques; Tremblay, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 2012, a major Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 outbreak occurred in Quebec City, Canada, which caused 182 declared cases of Legionnaire's disease and included 13 fatalities. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from 23 patients as well as from 32 cooling towers located in the vicinity of the outbreak were recovered for analysis. In addition, 6 isolates from the 1996 Quebec City outbreak and 4 isolates from patients unrelated to both outbreaks were added to allow comparison. We characterized the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, sequence-based typing, and whole genome sequencing. The comparison of patients-isolated strains to cooling tower isolates allowed the identification of the tower that was the source of the outbreak. Legionella pneumophila strain Quebec 2012 was identified as a ST-62 by sequence-based typing methodology. Two new Legionellaceae plasmids were found only in the epidemic strain. The LVH type IV secretion system was found in the 2012 outbreak isolates but not in the ones from the 1996 outbreak and only in half of the contemporary human isolates. The epidemic strains replicated more efficiently and were more cytotoxic to human macrophages than the environmental strains tested. At least four Icm/Dot effectors in the epidemic strains were absent in the environmental strains suggesting that some effectors could impact the intracellular replication in human macrophages. Sequence-based typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis combined with whole genome sequencing allowed the identification and the analysis of the causative strain including its likely environmental source. PMID:25105285

  12. Factors explaining the increase in cost for physician care in Quebec's elderly population.

    PubMed Central

    Demers, M

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine what role demographic factors and increases in physician fees and utilization played in the rise in costs of physician services provided for elderly people in Quebec between 1982 and 1992, and to investigate changes in patterns of care (type and amount of services) related to utilization. DESIGN: Retrospective study of population-based data. SETTING: Province of Quebec. SUBJECTS: Elderly people (65 years of age and over) in Quebec in 1982 (n = 589,800) and in 1992 (n = 803,600). OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of the increase in physician care costs attributable to (a) aging (defined as a shift in the age distribution) of the elderly population, (b) the increase in the size of the elderly population, (c) the increase in physician fees and (d) the increase in utilization of physician services; proportion of care provided by general practitioners (GPs) and by specialists; proportion of minor and complete examinations provided by GPs; and rates of hospital admissions and surgery. RESULTS: Aging was responsible for 0.5% of the increase in physician care costs between 1982 and 1992, population growth for 27.0% and the increase in physician fees for 25.5%. The increased utilization accounted for 47.0% of the total cost increase. Analyses of the utilization data revealed a shift toward more costly services, more visits to specialists and higher rates of hospital admissions and surgery in 1992 than in 1982. CONCLUSIONS: Aging and population growth had minor effects on the increase in physician care costs between 1982 and 1992. Increased utilization was the most important factor. The appropriateness of this trend needs to be verified. PMID:8956832

  13. Nonmedical Use of Prescription Medication Among Adolescents Using Drugs in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Élise; Nolin, Marc-Antoine; Traoré, Issouf; Leclerc, Pascale; Vasiliadis, Helen-Maria

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence and factors associated with nonmedical use of prescription medication (NMUPM) among adolescents who use drugs (ages 12 to 17 years) in Quebec. Method: Secondary data analyses were carried out with data from a 6-month study, namely, the 2010–2011 Quebec Health Survey of High School Students—a large-scale survey that sought to gain a better understanding of the health and well-being of young Quebecers in high school. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to study NMUPM among adolescents who use drugs, according to sociodemographic characteristics, peer characteristics, health indicators (anxiety, depression, or attention-deficit disorder [ADD] with or without hyperactivity), self-competency, family environment, and substance use (alcohol and drug use) factors. Results: Among adolescents who had used drugs in the previous 12 months, 5.4% (95% CI 4.9% to 6.0%) reported NMUPM. Based on multivariate analyses, having an ADD (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 1.47; 95% CI 1.13 to 1.91), anxiety disorder (AOR 2.14; 95% CI 1.57 to 2.92), low self-esteem (AOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.26 to 2.08), low self-control (AOR 1.95; 95% CI 1.55 to 2.45), low parental supervision (AOR 1.43; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.83), regular alcohol use (AOR 1.72; 95% CI 1.36 to 2.16), and polysubstance use (AOR 4.09; 95% CI 3.06 to 5.48) were associated with increased odds of reporting NMUPM. Conclusions: The observed prevalence of NMUPM was lower than expected. However, the associations noted with certain mental health disorders and regular or heavy use of other psychoactive substances are troubling. Clinical implications are discussed. PMID:26720824

  14. Genomic characterization of a large outbreak of Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 strains in Quebec City, 2012.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Simon; Plante, Pier-Luc; Mendis, Nilmini; Cantin, Philippe; Marchand, Geneviève; Charest, Hugues; Raymond, Frédéric; Huot, Caroline; Goupil-Sormany, Isabelle; Desbiens, François; Faucher, Sébastien P; Corbeil, Jacques; Tremblay, Cécile

    2014-01-01

    During the summer of 2012, a major Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 outbreak occurred in Quebec City, Canada, which caused 182 declared cases of Legionnaire's disease and included 13 fatalities. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 isolates from 23 patients as well as from 32 cooling towers located in the vicinity of the outbreak were recovered for analysis. In addition, 6 isolates from the 1996 Quebec City outbreak and 4 isolates from patients unrelated to both outbreaks were added to allow comparison. We characterized the isolates using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis, sequence-based typing, and whole genome sequencing. The comparison of patients-isolated strains to cooling tower isolates allowed the identification of the tower that was the source of the outbreak. Legionella pneumophila strain Quebec 2012 was identified as a ST-62 by sequence-based typing methodology. Two new Legionellaceae plasmids were found only in the epidemic strain. The LVH type IV secretion system was found in the 2012 outbreak isolates but not in the ones from the 1996 outbreak and only in half of the contemporary human isolates. The epidemic strains replicated more efficiently and were more cytotoxic to human macrophages than the environmental strains tested. At least four Icm/Dot effectors in the epidemic strains were absent in the environmental strains suggesting that some effectors could impact the intracellular replication in human macrophages. Sequence-based typing and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis combined with whole genome sequencing allowed the identification and the analysis of the causative strain including its likely environmental source. PMID:25105285

  15. Architecture, religion, and tuberculosis in Sainte-Agathe-des-Monts, Quebec.

    PubMed

    Adams, Annmarie; Poutanen, Mary Anne

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the architecture of the Mount Sinai Sanatorium in Sainte-Agathe-des-Monts (Qc) to disentangle the role of religion in the treatment of tuberculosis. In particular, we analyze the design of Mount Sinai, the jewel in the crown of Jewish philanthropy in Montreal, in relation to that of the nearby Laurentian Sanatorium. While Mount Sinai offered free treatment to the poor in a stunning, Art Deco building of 1930, the Protestant hospital had by then served paying patients for more than two decades in a purposefully home-like, Tudor-revival setting. Using architectural historian Bernard Herman's concept of embedded landscapes, we show how the two hospitals differed in terms of their relationship to site, access, and, most importantly, to city, knowledge, and community. Architects Scopes & Feustmann, who designed the Laurentian hospital, operated an office at Saranac Lake, New York, America's premier destination for consumptives. The qualifications of Mount Sinai architects Spence & Goodman, however, derived from their experience with Jewish institutions in Montreal. Following Herman's approach to architecture through movement and context, how did notions of medical therapy and Judaism intersect in the plans of Mount Sinai?

  16. [Genetics of obesity and metabolic complications in the Quebec Family Study].

    PubMed

    Pérusse, Louis; Bouchard, Claude

    2003-10-01

    Considerable progress has been accomplished over the past 10 years in the understanding of the genetic basis of obesity and its related metabolic complications. It is now well established that obesity aggregates within families and that genes are partly responsible for this familial aggregation. The number of genes potentially involved in obesity continues to grow. This review summarizes the evidence accumulated so for regarding the contribution of genetic factors in obesity and the number of gene and loci linked to obesity in the Quebec Family Study.

  17. Fee increases and target income hypothesis: data from Quebec on physicians' compensation and service volumes.

    PubMed

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Perroux, Mélanie

    2013-11-01

    Recent years have witnessed important public investments in physicians' compensation across Canada. The current paper uses data from Quebec to assess the impact of those investments on the volumes of services provided to the population. While total physician compensation costs, average physician compensation and average unit cost per service all rose extremely fast, the total number of services, number of services per capita and average number of services per physician either stagnated or declined. This pattern is compatible with the economic target income hypothesis and raises important policy questions.

  18. Fee Increases and Target Income Hypothesis: Data from Quebec on Physicians' Compensation and Service Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Contandriopoulos, Damien; Perroux, Mélanie

    2013-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed important public investments in physicians' compensation across Canada. The current paper uses data from Quebec to assess the impact of those investments on the volumes of services provided to the population. While total physician compensation costs, average physician compensation and average unit cost per service all rose extremely fast, the total number of services, number of services per capita and average number of services per physician either stagnated or declined. This pattern is compatible with the economic target income hypothesis and raises important policy questions. PMID:24359715

  19. The burgeoning field of transdisciplinary adaptation research in Quebec (1998-): a climate change-related public health narrative.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Pierre; Bélanger, Diane; Lapaige, Véronique; Labbé, Yolaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a public health narrative on Quebec's new climatic conditions and human health, and describes the transdisciplinary nature of the climate change adaptation research currently being adopted in Quebec, characterized by the three phases of problem identification, problem investigation, and problem transformation. A transdisciplinary approach is essential for dealing with complex ill-defined problems concerning human-environment interactions (for example, climate change), for allowing joint research, collective leadership, complex collaborations, and significant exchanges among scientists, decision makers, and knowledge users. Such an approach is widely supported in theory but has proved to be extremely difficult to implement in practice, and those who attempt it have met with heavy resistance, succeeding when they find the occasional opportunity within institutional or social contexts. In this paper we narrate the ongoing struggle involved in tackling the negative effects of climate change in multi-actor contexts at local and regional levels, a struggle that began in a quiet way in 1998. The paper will describe how public health adaptation research is supporting transdisciplinary action and implementation while also preparing for the future, and how this interaction to tackle a life-world problem (adaptation of the Quebec public health sector to climate change) in multi-actors contexts has progressively been established during the last 13 years. The first of the two sections introduces the social context of a Quebec undergoing climate changes. Current climatic conditions and expected changes will be described, and attendant health risks for the Quebec population. The second section addresses the scientific, institutional and normative dimensions of the problem. It corresponds to a "public health narrative" presented in three phases: (1) problem identification (1998-2002) beginning in northern Quebec; (2) problem investigation (2002-2006) in which

  20. [Madness is Conforming to One's Own Norms, and No Others: Psychiatry in Post-war Quebec].

    PubMed

    Perreault, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1950s, both the publication of the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-I) and the advent of psychopharmacology - particularly the development of chlorpromazine (Thorazine - RP4650) - set the stage for models of psychiatric thought, research and practice that remain dominant today. It was during this pivotal period, in 1955, that the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal was founded by a cohort of young researchers newly arrived from well-known universities in France and the northeastern United States. This influential group quickly became staunch critics of the province's religion-based asylum system and lobbied for a government review that culminated into the 1962 Commission d'étude des hôpitaux psychiatriques (popularly known as the Bédard Report). What followed in Quebec between 1965 and 1975 was the secularization of psychiatric institutions and widespread deinstitutionalization. This paper illuminates cultural changes and intellectual shifts that have been overlooked in historical studies of post-war psychiatry by exploring the expansion of such "anti-psychiatry" schools of thought in Quebec in this period. PMID:26559205

  1. Neighborhood Characteristics Associated with the Availability of Alcohol Outlets in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Ngamini Ngui, André; Apparicio, Philippe; Philibert, Mathieu; Fleury, Marie-Josée

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The objectives of this study were to examine the spatial accessibility to alcohol outlets in Quebec and to assess the association between neighborhood level characteristics and availability of alcohol outlets. Methods. The Tobit Model was used to assess the association between neighborhood level characteristics and the availability of alcohol outlets within 500, 1000, 2000, and 3000 metres, respectively. Results. Alcohol outlets were found to be most available in the two largest metropolitan areas of the province of Quebec (Montréal and Québec City). Within 1000 metres, alcohol outlets are more available in neighbourhoods with the following characteristics: highest concentration of men, least materially deprived highest concentration of persons aged 20 years or more, and location either in a metropolitan area or in a small town. Finally, the number of bars with video lottery terminals increases with the level of social and material deprivation. Conclusion. In Québec, there is no rule governing the location of alcohol outlets. Thus, there is an abundant literature indicating that the regulation of alcohol outlet density could be an effective means of controlling risk attributable to alcohol consumption. PMID:25810946

  2. Community Remoteness, Perinatal Outcomes and Infant Mortality among First Nations in Quebec.

    PubMed

    Wassimi, Spogmai; McHugh, Nancy G L; Wilkins, Russell; Heaman, Maureen; Martens, Patricia; Smylie, Janet; Simonet, Fabienne; Fraser, William D; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Little is known about community remoteness in relation to birth outcomes among Indigenous populations. We assessed whether community remoteness matters for perinatal outcomes and infant mortality in Quebec First Nations communities. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study of all births (n=11,033) to residents of First Nations communities in Quebec 1991-2000, using linked vital statistics data. First Nations communities were grouped by community remoteness into four zones from the least to most remote. RESULTS: Preterm birth rates declined progressively from the least remote (8.0%) to the most remote (5.7%) zones (p=0.002). In contrast, total fetal and infant mortality rose progressively from the least remote (10.4 per 1000) to the most remote (22.7 per 1000) zones (p<0.001). The excess infant mortality in the more remote zones was mainly due to higher rates of postneonatal mortality. Similar patterns were observed after adjusting for maternal age, education, parity and marital status. Substantially elevated risks in most remote communities remained for perinatal death (adjusted OR=2.1), postneonatal death (adjusted OR=2.7), and total fetal and infant death (adjusted OR=2.3). CONCLUSION: Living in more remote First Nations communities was associated with a substantially higher risk of fetal and infant death, especially postneonatal death, despite a lower risk of preterm delivery. There is a need for more effective perinatal and infant care programs in more remote First Nations communities to reduce perinatal and infant mortality.

  3. Multilevel analysis of childhood nonviral gastroenteritis associated with environmental risk factors in Quebec, 1999-2006.

    PubMed

    Kaboré, Henri; Lebel, Alexandre; Levallois, Patrick; Michel, Pascal; Payment, Pierre; Déry, Pierre; Lebel, Germain

    2013-10-01

    Childhood nonviral gastroenteritis is a priority for various public health authorities. Given that waterborne transmission is sometimes incriminated during investigation of gastroenteritis outbreaks, the authors hypothesized that watershed characteristics may influence the occurrence of this disease and could contribute additional insights for better prevention and control. The study described here aimed to investigate watershed characteristics in relation to nonviral gastroenteritis and specifically three bacterial and parasitic forms of childhood gastroenteritis to assess their relative importance in the province of Quebec, Canada. Information on children aged 0-4 years with bacterial or parasitic enteric infections reported through ongoing surveillance between 1999 and 2006 in the province of Quebec was collected. Factors measured at the municipal and watershed levels were analyzed using multilevel models with a Poisson distribution and log link function. Childhood nonviral gastroenteritis, giardiasis, and campylobacteriosis were positively associated with small ruminants and cattle density. Childhood salmonellosis was positively associated with cattle density. Also, childhood campylobacteriosis incidence was positively associated with larger watershed agricultural surface. In addition to local agroenvironmental factors, this analysis revealed an important watershed effect.

  4. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations in the breast milk of women in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P; Laliberté, C; Weber, J P; Gingras, S; Nantel, A J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study documented the concentration of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene (DDE) in the breast milk of women from Quebec, Canada, and assessed the impact of various sociodemographic and lifestyle factors on these levels. METHODS: From 1988 to 1990, milk samples were obtained from 536 Quebec women and analyzed for seven PCB congeners and p,p'-DDE. Information was obtained on subjects' physical, sociodemographic, and lifestyle characteristics. RESULTS: Mean concentrations were 0.52 mg/kg lipids (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.50, 0.54) and 0.34 mg/kg lipids (95% CI = 0.32, 0.35) for PCBs (Aroclor 1260) and DDE, respectively. Age and history of breast-feeding showed statistically significant correlations with PCB and DDE concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Concentrations of PCBs and DDE measured in this study are at the lower end of the concentration range recently reported for women living in industrialized countries. The modulating factors identified here should be considered when conducting studies on organochlorine exposure and disease. PMID:8806375

  5. Developing professional values: perceptions of francophone occupational therapists in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Marie-Josée; Sauvageau, Anick

    2016-07-01

    Objective Recent literature shows growing interest in the values displayed by occupational therapists. Yet, none of these writings has so far examined the factors that contribute to the development of occupational therapists' professional values. These factors are important, since values play a pivotal role in forging professional identity, which in the case of some occupational therapists remains somewhat ambiguous. This article proposes possible answers to the following question: What do Quebec Francophone occupational therapists perceive as the building blocks of their professional values? Methods Using a phenomenological qualitative method, the subjective experience of occupational therapists in Quebec, Canada was examined. Twenty-six occupational therapists took part in the study. Results As intended, their professional experience was varied. According to the participants, four factors contributed significantly to their professional values: professional experience, university training, personal experience, and professional development. However, fewer than 50% of the participants cited six other factors (workplace, family upbringing, personal development, personality and abilities, professional normative framework, and sociocultural background). Conclusions Most of these results are consistent with those documented in existing works. They point to the relevance of discussing professional values during university training and continuing professional development, as well as encouraging occupational therapists to become exemplars for their colleagues and interns. This study constitutes an initial step in understanding how occupational therapists' axiological identity is formed.

  6. Dissolved organic carbon and sulfur in southwestern Quebec lakes: Relationships with catchment and lake properties

    SciTech Connect

    Houle, D.; Carignan, R.; Lachance, M.

    1995-06-01

    In 59 southwestern Quebec lakes, dissolved organic S (DOS) concentration averages 185{+-}92 {mu}g liter{sup -1} (9.2% of total S) and ranges from undetectable to 437 {mu}g liter{sup -1} (22% of total S). DOS can be predicted from dissolved organic C (DOC) concentrations: DOS ({mu}g liter{sup -1}) = 2.20 log{sub 10}(DOC) + 7, r{sup 2} = 0.55. When applied to 1,238 lakes from five Quebec regions, this relationship indicates that DOS can account for 8.5% (Ottawa) to 22.2% (North Shore) of total S. These results stress the importance of evaluating DOS concentrations in studies of catchment S budgets. Multiple regression models using lake and catchment properties as independent variables respectively explain 75, 43, 49, and 69% of the variance in DOC, DOS, DOC: DOS, and color. The regressions found for DOC, color, and DOS include a flowpath index, accounting for dissolved organic matter (DOM) leaching from the catchment, and a term for in-lake losses. The DOC:DOS regression includes the flowpath index, lake perimeter, and altitude and suggests that DOM supply and composition also depend on catchment properties. 23 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Implementing Key Strategies for Successful Network Integration in the Quebec Substance-Use Disorders Programme

    PubMed Central

    Perreault, Michel; Grenier, Guy; Imboua, Armelle; Brochu, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background: Fragmentation and lack of coordination often occur among organisations offering treatment for individuals with substance-use disorders. Better integration from a system perspective within a network of organisations offering substance-use disorder services can be developed using various integration strategies at the administrative and clinical levels. This study aims to identify integration strategies implemented in Quebec substance-use disorder networks and to assess their strengths and limitations. Methods: A total of 105 stakeholders representing two regions and four local substance-use disorder networks participated in focus groups or individual interviews. Thematic qualitative and descriptive quantitative analyses were conducted. Results: Six types of service integration strategies have been implemented to varying degrees in substance-use disorder networks. They are: 1) coordination activities-governance, 2) primary-care consolidation models, 3) information and monitoring management tools, 4) service coordination strategies, 5) clinical evaluation tools and 6) training activities. Conclusion: Important investments have been made in Quebec for the training and assessment of individuals with substance-use disorders, particularly in terms of support for emergency room liaison teams and the introduction of standardised clinical evaluation tools. However, the development of integration strategies was insufficient to ensure the implementation of successful networks. Planning, consolidation of primary care for substance-use disorders and systematic implementation of various clinical and administrative integration strategies are needed in order to ensure a better continuum of care for individuals with substance-use disorders. PMID:27616951

  8. Findings from the Quebec Family Study on the Etiology of Obesity: Genetics and Environmental Highlights.

    PubMed

    Chaput, Jean-Philippe; Pérusse, Louis; Després, Jean-Pierre; Tremblay, Angelo; Bouchard, Claude

    2014-01-01

    The Quebec Family Study (QFS) was an observational study with three cycles of data collection between 1979 and 2002 in Quebec City, Canada. The cohort is a mixture of random sampling and ascertainment through obese individuals. The study has significantly contributed to our understanding of the determinants of obesity and associated disease risk over the past 35 years. In particular, the QFS cohort was used to investigate the contribution of familial resemblance and genetic effects on body fatness and behaviors related to energy balance. Significant familial aggregation and genetic heritability were reported for total adiposity, fat-free mass, subcutaneous fat distribution, abdominal and visceral fat, resting metabolic rate, physical activity level and other behavioral traits. The resources of QFS were also used to study the contribution of several nontraditional (non-caloric) risk factors as predictors of excess body weight and gains in weight and adiposity over time, including low calcium and micronutrient intake, high disinhibition eating behavior trait, and short sleep duration. An important finding relates to the interactions between dietary macronutrient intake and exercise intensity on body mass and adiposity.

  9. Developing professional values: perceptions of francophone occupational therapists in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Drolet, Marie-Josée; Sauvageau, Anick

    2016-07-01

    Objective Recent literature shows growing interest in the values displayed by occupational therapists. Yet, none of these writings has so far examined the factors that contribute to the development of occupational therapists' professional values. These factors are important, since values play a pivotal role in forging professional identity, which in the case of some occupational therapists remains somewhat ambiguous. This article proposes possible answers to the following question: What do Quebec Francophone occupational therapists perceive as the building blocks of their professional values? Methods Using a phenomenological qualitative method, the subjective experience of occupational therapists in Quebec, Canada was examined. Twenty-six occupational therapists took part in the study. Results As intended, their professional experience was varied. According to the participants, four factors contributed significantly to their professional values: professional experience, university training, personal experience, and professional development. However, fewer than 50% of the participants cited six other factors (workplace, family upbringing, personal development, personality and abilities, professional normative framework, and sociocultural background). Conclusions Most of these results are consistent with those documented in existing works. They point to the relevance of discussing professional values during university training and continuing professional development, as well as encouraging occupational therapists to become exemplars for their colleagues and interns. This study constitutes an initial step in understanding how occupational therapists' axiological identity is formed. PMID:26824179

  10. [Madness is Conforming to One's Own Norms, and No Others: Psychiatry in Post-war Quebec].

    PubMed

    Perreault, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    In the early 1950s, both the publication of the first Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-I) and the advent of psychopharmacology - particularly the development of chlorpromazine (Thorazine - RP4650) - set the stage for models of psychiatric thought, research and practice that remain dominant today. It was during this pivotal period, in 1955, that the Département de psychiatrie de l'Université de Montréal was founded by a cohort of young researchers newly arrived from well-known universities in France and the northeastern United States. This influential group quickly became staunch critics of the province's religion-based asylum system and lobbied for a government review that culminated into the 1962 Commission d'étude des hôpitaux psychiatriques (popularly known as the Bédard Report). What followed in Quebec between 1965 and 1975 was the secularization of psychiatric institutions and widespread deinstitutionalization. This paper illuminates cultural changes and intellectual shifts that have been overlooked in historical studies of post-war psychiatry by exploring the expansion of such "anti-psychiatry" schools of thought in Quebec in this period.

  11. Correlates of bullying in Quebec high school students: the vulnerability of sexual-minority youth

    PubMed Central

    Cénat, Jude Mary; Blais, Martin; Hébert, Martine; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Bullying has become a significant public health issue, particularly among youth. This study documents cyberbullying, homophobic bullying and bullying at school or elsewhere and their correlates among both heterosexual and sexual-minority high school students in Quebec (Canada). Method A representative sample of 8,194 students aged 14–20 years was recruited in Quebec (Canada) high schools. We assessed cyberbullying, homophobic bullying and bullying at school or elsewhere in the past 12 months and their association with current self-esteem and psychological distress as well as suicidal ideations. Results Bullying at school or elsewhere was the most common form of bullying (26.1%), followed by cyberbullying (22.9%) and homophobic bullying (3.6%). Overall, girls and sexual-minority youth were more likely to experienced cyberbullying and other form of bullying as well as psychological distress, low self-esteem and suicidal ideations. The three forms of bullying were significantly and independently associated with all mental health outcomes. Conclusions The results underscore the relevance of taking into account gender and sexual orientation variations in efforts to prevent bullying experience and its consequences. PMID:26047959

  12. Mapping the Use of Engineered NM in Quebec's Industries and Research Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostiguy, Claude; Emond, Claude; Dossa, Inès; Malki, Yasmina; Boily, Chantale; Roughley, David; Plavski, Anton; Endo, Charles-Anica

    2013-04-01

    Engineered NanoMaterials (NM) offer an opportunity to develop a wide variety of new products with unique properties but many studies have shown potential OHS risks specific to NM. Addressing these risks requires knowledge about release of NM into the workplaces. This research aimed to map the state of nanotechnology OHS practices in Quebec through a questionnaire following a first contact by telephone when possible and by compiling the type and volumes of NM used as well as gathering information related to the working conditions and OHS aspects. This survey was conducted among 1310 Quebec industries and 653 researchers working in different specialties potentially involved in the development/production/distribution/integration of NM and use of NM containing products. Overall, 90 questionnaires, including 51 from the industries, were completed. These showed that NM are mainly used into the powder form, in many different sectors and deserve a wide range of markets. The prevention measures implemented vary widely from a workplace to another but about one third of the participants report that they have implemented NP adapted prevention measures but they remain worried on some specific operations. More than 50% of the participants request more information about the safe laboratory/plant design, toxicity, regulation, good work practices and prevention measures, efficiency of personal protective equipment and environmental impacts.

  13. Life Cycle of the Golden Cyst Nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, in Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Mimee, Benjamin; Dauphinais, Nathalie; Bélair, Guy

    2015-01-01

    In 2006, the golden cyst nematode, Globodera rostochiensis, was discovered in the province of Quebec, Canada. We report here the life cycle of G. rostochiensis under the climatic conditions of southwestern Quebec. Only one full generation was completed per year under these latitudes. On susceptible potato cv. Snowden, G. rostochiensis needed a minimum of 579 growing degree units (GDU) (base 5.9°C) to complete its life cycle and the first mature cysts were observed 42 to 63 days after planting (DAP). In soil, second-stage juveniles (J2) were first observed 14 to 21 DAP, whereas both white females on roots and males in soil appeared synchronously after 35 to 42 days. The duration of the life cycle was affected by temperature but not by soil type. A second wave of hatching systematically occurred later in the season and a second generation of males was observed during the 2011 growth season. No complete second cycle was observed before plant senescence. Climate change and later maturing cultivars/crops could allow the development of a full second generation in the future. PMID:26941456

  14. Prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the James Bay Cree of northern Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Brassard, P; Robinson, E; Lavallée, C

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of diabetes mellitus among the James Bay Cree in northern Quebec. DESIGN: Chart survey of physician-diagnosed cases of diabetes. The biochemical criteria of the World Health Organization were used to confirm the diagnoses. SETTING: Eight James Bay Cree communities: six remote and two rural. SUBJECTS: All James Bay Cree with diabetes whose names were in a chronic disease registry or on a diabetes clinic list kept at each community clinic. OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence rates, both crude and standardized to the 1986 Canadian population, were estimated by sex, age group and type of diabetes. RESULTS: A total of 235 cases of diabetes were confirmed, for a crude prevalence of 2.7%. The age-standardized rate of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus was 6.6% among people 20 years and over. The prevalence increased as the latitude decreased. CONCLUSIONS: Our crude prevalence resembles that in similar native linguistic and cultural groups elsewhere in Canada. Diabetes is becoming an important disease in the Cree population of Quebec. A better understanding of the sociocultural changes in this population is necessary. PMID:8339176

  15. Factors associated with cervical cancer screening uptake among Inuit women in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Canadian circumpolar Inuit population has a higher incidence rate of cervical cancer than the general population and the majority of cases occur among underscreened women. The objectives of this study were to determine Pap smear utilization rates and to determine factors associated with time-inappropriate use of cervical cancer screening among a cohort of Inuit women from Nunavik, Quebec, Canada. Methods This study utilizes baseline information collected from a cohort formed between January 2002 and December 2007 to study the natural history of HPV among Inuit women aged 21–69 years in Nunavik, Quebec. Cervical cancer screening history and other variables were obtained from a baseline questionnaire and medical chart review. Unconditional logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for potential predictors of not having a Pap smear within the previous 3 years prior to cohort entry. Results A total of 403 Inuit women who had a baseline questionnaire and chart review were included. The mean age of the study population was 34.2 years. In the three years prior to study entry, 25% of women did not have a Pap smear. Older age and never giving birth were significant predictors of time-inappropriate Pap smear use. Conclusions Our results suggest that older women and women who are not accessing reproductive care have a lower compliance with time-appropriate cervical cancer screening and future research should address potential strategies to increase screening coverage among this group. PMID:23642072

  16. The Internationalization of In-Service Teacher Training in Quebec Cegeps and Their Foreign Partners: An Institutional Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Begin-Caouette, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Through a case study of Quebec's general and vocational colleges (cegeps), this article analyzes the role that institutions play in internationalizing the in-service training they provide to their teachers, and explains how partnerships with educational institutions in developing countries contribute to this process. Data from a questionnaire…

  17. Inclusion on the Agenda in Four Different School Contexts in Canada (Ontario, Manitoba, New Brunswick and Quebec)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Nathalie; Gougeon, Nathalie A.

    2009-01-01

    Four case studies from four different Canadian provinces (Ontario, Manitoba, New Brunswick, and Quebec) are examined in order to better understand meanings given to an inclusive approach in education, as it is defined and experienced by the actors, practitioners, parents, and students. The data examined in this article come from a larger research…

  18. Quebec's Child Care Services: What Are the Mechanisms Influencing Children's Behaviors across Quantity, Type, and Quality of Care Experienced?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemay, Lise; Bigras, Nathalie; Bouchard, Caroline

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how quantity, type, and quality of care interact in predicting externalizing and internalizing behaviors of 36-month-old children attending Quebec's educational child care from their first years of life. To do so, the authors examined two hypothesized models: (1) a mediation model where quantity, type,…

  19. Didactics and Professional Practice in Preservice Teacher Education: A Comparison of the Situations in France and Quebec.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lacotte, Jacqueline; Lenoir, Yves

    1999-01-01

    Analyzes the role/function of didactics in preservice teacher education as presented in official texts from the ministries of education of Quebec and France. Demonstrates the vulnerable and limited position of didactics in teacher-education. Compares features of the two teacher education systems; notes differences relating to training in…

  20. Actes des Journees de Linguistique (Proceedings of the Linguistics Conference) (11th, Quebec, Canada, March 20-21, 1997).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caouette, Claudine, Ed.; Larrivee, Pierre, Ed.

    English translations of articles in French in this issue include these: "Discourse Reported in the Print Media"; "Comparison of Register in Quebec and French Speakers"; "Method of Description of Specialized Verbs in View of Machine Translation Applications"; "Dialectal Areas in the Brazilian State of Rio Grande do Sul"; "Effect of the Principle of…

  1. Predicting the Use of Single Versus Multiple Types of Violence Towards Children in a Representative Sample of Quebec Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Marie-Eve; Bouchard, Camil

    2005-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study is to determine which factors best predict parental use of single versus multiple types of violence. Methodology: The study uses data from a Quebec telephone survey conducted with a representative sample of 2,469 mothers of children aged 0-17 years. The interview covered topics such as mother's attitudes and…

  2. Is selective abortion for a genetic disease an issue for the medical profession? A comparative study of Quebec and France.

    PubMed

    Renaud, M; Bouchard, L; Kremp, O; Dallaire, L; Labadie, J F; Bisson, J; Trugeon, A

    1993-08-01

    This article discusses the results of a study of the stand and attitudes of physicians from the Picardie, Nord-Pas-de-Calais region in France and the province of Quebec (Canada) regarding abortion following the diagnosis of a fetal anomaly by ultrasound, amniocentesis, or chorionic villus sampling. The study examined the degree of acceptability of abortion for several specific conditions as well as the physicians' perceptions of their role in the women's decision to abort. The study shows a consensus (over 75 per cent of the physicians surveyed) for aborting a fetus with trisomy 21. There is a similar consensus, except among Francophones in Quebec, for muscular dystrophy, cystic fibrosis, and Huntington disease. Conversely, there is no consensus (below 60 per cent) for several anomalies. In these cases, Quebec Anglophone physicians find abortion more acceptable than Quebec Francophone or French physicians. Concerning the role of the practitioners in the decision to abort, physicians in France tend to be much more directive than their overseas colleagues. Several hypotheses are suggested to explain the difference between the three groups surveyed. PMID:8284288

  3. Early Lexical and Syntactic Development in Quebec French and English: Implications for Cross-Linguistic and Bilingual Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thordardottir, Elin T.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Although a number of studies have been conducted on normal acquisition in French, systematic methods for analysis of French and normative group data have been lacking. Aims: To develop a systematic method for the analysis of language samples in Quebec French, and to provide preliminary normative data on early lexical and syntactic…

  4. Legal Aspects in Quebec of Integration of Students with Handicaps, Social Maladjustments or Learning Disabilities: A Changing Situation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dore, Robert; Wagner, Serge; Dore, Isabelle

    2001-01-01

    This article examines the current situation and evolution of school integration policies in Quebec and the influence of court decisions on these policies. Variations across Canada are discussed, particularly the differences between English-language school boards, who integrate many more students with intellectual disability, and French-speaking…

  5. Development and Adaptation of an Employment-Integration Program for People Who Are Visually Impaired in Quebec, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittich, Walter; Watanabe, Donald H.; Scully, Lizabeth; Bergevin , Martin

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: In the Province of Quebec, Canada, it is estimated that only about one-third of working-age adults with visual impairments are part of the workforce, despite ongoing efforts of rehabilitation and government agencies to integrate these individuals. The present article describes the development and adaptation of a pre-employment…

  6. Invisible and Visible Language Planning: Ideological Factors in the Family Language Policy of Chinese Immigrant Families in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curdt-Christiansen, Xiao Lan

    2009-01-01

    This ethnographic inquiry examines how family languages policies are planned and developed in ten Chinese immigrant families in Quebec, Canada, with regard to their children's language and literacy education in three languages, Chinese, English, and French. The focus is on how multilingualism is perceived and valued, and how these three languages…

  7. Vitality and Ethnolinguistic Attitudes of Acadians, Franco-Ontarians and Francophone Quebecers: Two or Three Solitudes in Canada's Bilingual Belt?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sioufi, Rana; Bourhis, Richard Y.; Allard, Réal

    2016-01-01

    Do French-Canadian (FC) minorities in New Brunswick and Ontario remain as committed as majority Francophone Quebecers in developing their vitality within Canada's bilingual belt? FCs constitute host communities for interprovincial migrants of FC and English-Canadian (EC) background who can bolster or weaken the vitality of FCs. How FCs and ECs…

  8. Occurrence of species of the genus Pityophthorus Eichhoff (Coleoptera, Curculionidae, Scolytinae) in the province of Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Popa, Valentin; Morneau, Louis; Piché, Céline; Deshaies, André; Bauce, Eric; Guertin, Claude

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Twig beetles in the genus Pityophthorus Eichhoff, 1864 include more than 300 species worldwide, with maximum diversity in tropical and subtropical regions. To date, approximately 50 species of Pityophthorus have been recorded in Canada, and these species are associated mainly with coniferous trees. Since 1981, no comprehensive study on this difficult taxonomic group has been conducted in Quebec, Canada, most likely due to their limited significance as forest pests. Based on data gathered from five years of field sampling in conifer seed orchards and compiled from various entomological collections, the distribution of Pityophthorus species in Quebec is presented. Approximately 291 new localities were recorded for the Pityophthorus species. Five species-group taxa, namely Pityophthorus puberulus (LeConte, 1868), Pityophthorus pulchellus pulchellus Eichhoff, 1869, Pityophthorus pulicarius (Zimmermann, 1868), Pityophthorus nitidus Swaine, 1917,and Pityophthorus cariniceps LeConte&Horn, 1876 were the most widespread. In contrast, Pityophthorus consimilis LeConte, 1878, Pityophthorus intextus Swaine, 1917, Pityophthorus dentifrons Blackman, 1922, Pityophthorus ramiperda Swaine, 1917, and Pityophthorus concavus Blackman, 1928 display a notably limited distribution. In addition, the first distribution records of Pityophthorus intextus and Pityophthorus biovalis Blackman, 1922 are furnished, and the subspecies Pityophthorus murrayanae murrayanae Blackman, 1922is reported from Quebec for the second time. Moreover, distribution maps are provided for all Pityophthorus species recorded in the province of Quebec. PMID:24294076

  9. Co-Operation as a New Mode of Regulating and Planning Occupational and Technical Training: Quebec's Sectoral Committees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tremblay, Diane-Gabrielle; Doray, Pierre; Landry, Carol

    As part of its ongoing reform of occupational and technical training, Quebec has adopted a sectoral initiatives policy that has provided the mandate and organizational structure to sectoral committees for planning occupational and technical training based on dual cooperation between employers and unions in various sectors and between…

  10. Health and Psychiatric Disparities in Children with Cognitive and Developmental Delays: Implications for Health Policy in Quebec

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nachshen, Jennifer S.; Martin-Storey, Alexa; Campisi, Lisa; Stack, Dale; Schwartzman, Alex; Serbin, Lisa

    2009-01-01

    Background: Previous research on psychiatric and health disparities according to level of cognitive functioning has focused on adults within an American healthcare context. The current study compares children with and without cognitive and developmental delays in Quebec, Canada, using physician billing data from a longitudinal study of low-income,…

  11. Use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test to investigate the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly elective surgical population.

    PubMed

    Smith, N A; Yeow, Y Y

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative cognitive disorders are common in elderly patients. Pre-existing cognitive impairment including mild cognitive impairment may be an important risk factor for developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction and may not be detected in a standard preoperative interview, yet is not routinely sought. Our primary aim was to estimate the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment among elderly patients presenting to our hospital for elective surgery using a simple established screening tool: the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test. Secondarily, we wished to determine the proportion of patients with mild cognitive impairment who presented with this information available, the effect of increasing age on the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and whether the timing and location of testing influenced results. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test to screen preoperative patients aged 65 years and over. Our results suggested a potential prevalence of mild cognitive impairment of 56%, with prevalence increasing with age. No patients in the sample had a recorded diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. Testing in either the preadmission clinic or on admission on the day of surgery yielded similar results. We found the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test to be a simple screening tool that was easily administered during the pre-admission visit.

  12. Use of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test to investigate the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment in the elderly elective surgical population.

    PubMed

    Na, Smith; Yy, Yeow

    2016-09-01

    Postoperative cognitive disorders are common in elderly patients. Pre-existing cognitive impairment including mild cognitive impairment may be an important risk factor for developing postoperative cognitive dysfunction and may not be detected in a standard preoperative interview, yet is not routinely sought. Our primary aim was to estimate the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment among elderly patients presenting to our hospital for elective surgery using a simple established screening tool: the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test. Secondarily, we wished to determine the proportion of patients with mild cognitive impairment who presented with this information available, the effect of increasing age on the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment and whether the timing and location of testing influenced results. We used the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test to screen preoperative patients aged 65 years and over. Our results suggested a potential prevalence of mild cognitive impairment of 56%, with prevalence increasing with age. No patients in the sample had a recorded diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment. Testing in either the preadmission clinic or on admission on the day of surgery yielded similar results. We found the Montreal Cognitive Assessment test to be a simple screening tool that was easily administered during the pre-admission visit. PMID:27608340

  13. Cultural aspects of music perception: validation of a Greek version of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusias.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Peretz, Isabelle

    2010-07-01

    Despite music's universality, people perceive and interpret music according to their cultural background. The existing music perception batteries, however, do not take into account possible cultural differences. We adapted the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusias (MBEA) into the requirements of Eastern (Greek) music, where rhythm and melody scales are different from the ones used in Western music. We obtained norms for both the original version of MBEA and its Greek adaptation from the same Greek participants because they are exposed to both genres (traditional and Eastern). Results indicate that some parts of the original MBEA such as the meter test would not be suitable for evaluating the musical abilities of populations with a different musical tradition. Instead, our version of the MBEA, the Greek Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (GBEA) should be preferred in assessing music perception in cultures or individuals influenced by Eastern or both traditions. We also report the results of a congenitally amusic individual (B.Z.) evaluated with both batteries showing that GBEA is a more sensitive tool to evaluate her impairment in music perception. PMID:20441688

  14. The influence of genetics and household environment upon the variability of normal blood pressure: the Montreal Adoption Survey.

    PubMed

    Mongeau, J G; Biron, P; Sing, C F

    1986-01-01

    The Montreal Adoption Survey was conducted as a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of cardiovascular risk factors in French Canadian families. Analysis included blood pressure readings of 756 adopted and 445 natural children as well as 1176 parents. A genetic model was applied to the analysis of our data. Interindividual variability of blood pressure was studied and observed correlatives of systolic and diastolic pressure of parental and non parental subjects were calculated. Based on the maximum likelihood estimates presented in the models the explanation of the parent offspring and the between sibs expected population correlatives for systolic blood pressure was the following: 61% was due to shared genes and 39% to environment shared by both parents and children. For diastolic blood pressure the explanation between parents and offspring was the following: 58% was due to shared genes and 42% due to shared environment across generation. The explanation between sibs was estimated to be the following: 33% due to generation, 24% to shared environment across generation and 43% to shared environment within generation.

  15. Cultural aspects of music perception: validation of a Greek version of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusias.

    PubMed

    Paraskevopoulos, Evangelos; Tsapkini, Kyrana; Peretz, Isabelle

    2010-07-01

    Despite music's universality, people perceive and interpret music according to their cultural background. The existing music perception batteries, however, do not take into account possible cultural differences. We adapted the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusias (MBEA) into the requirements of Eastern (Greek) music, where rhythm and melody scales are different from the ones used in Western music. We obtained norms for both the original version of MBEA and its Greek adaptation from the same Greek participants because they are exposed to both genres (traditional and Eastern). Results indicate that some parts of the original MBEA such as the meter test would not be suitable for evaluating the musical abilities of populations with a different musical tradition. Instead, our version of the MBEA, the Greek Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (GBEA) should be preferred in assessing music perception in cultures or individuals influenced by Eastern or both traditions. We also report the results of a congenitally amusic individual (B.Z.) evaluated with both batteries showing that GBEA is a more sensitive tool to evaluate her impairment in music perception.

  16. Agreement and conversion formula between mini-mental state examination and montreal cognitive assessment in an outpatient sample

    PubMed Central

    Helmi, Luqman; Meagher, David; O’Mahony, Edmond; O’Neill, Donagh; Mulligan, Owen; Murthy, Sutha; McCarthy, Geraldine; Adamis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the agreement between the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) within community dwelling older patients attending an old age psychiatry service and to derive and test a conversion formula between the two scales. METHODS Prospective study of consecutive patients attending outpatient services. Both tests were administered by the same researcher on the same day in random order. RESULTS The total sample (n = 135) was randomly divided into two groups. One to derive a conversion rule (n = 70), and a second (n = 65) in which this rule was tested. The agreement (Pearson’s r) of MMSE and MoCA was 0.86 (P < 0.001), and Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was 0.57 (95%CI: 0.45-0.66). In the second sample MoCA scores were converted to MMSE scores according to a conversion rule from the first sample which achieved agreement with the original MMSE scores of 0.89 (Pearson’s r, P < 0.001) and CCC of 0.88 (95%CI: 0.82-0.92). CONCLUSION Although the two scales overlap considerably, the agreement is modest. The conversion rule derived herein demonstrated promising accuracy and warrants further testing in other populations. PMID:27679776

  17. [The imaginary in familialist terms, and social intervention among street youth: an alternative for collective intervention in Montreal.].

    PubMed

    Parazelli, M

    2000-01-01

    The creation of imaginary families among street youth gives the peer group an identity prop that enables a young person living on the street to escape from his or her real family, thus reinforcing the imaginary dimension surrounding the myth of natural autonomy. While the group may gain a real sense of protection that is necessary in adolescence, the familialist projection that these young people unconsciously call into play constitutes what the founder of socio-psychoanalysis, Gérard Mendel, calls "psycho-familialist regression". Society is not a family, and familialist projections may block social relations with any adults who are identified with parental authority that may be potentially threatening for the "family of street youth". For that reason, in 1998, a form of collective mediation was tested in Montreal as part of a pilot project to develop young street people's social autonomy through on-going dialogue between them, elected municipal officials and youth workers. Relying on applied research from socio-psychoanalysis, this pilot project made it possible to alleviate familialist projections and offer street youth other alternatives in terms of self-image. PMID:18253583

  18. Evaluating pharmaceuticals and caffeine as indicators of fecal contamination in drinking water sources of the Greater Montreal region.

    PubMed

    Daneshvar, Atlasi; Aboulfadl, Khadija; Viglino, Liza; Broséus, Romain; Sauvé, Sébastien; Madoux-Humery, Anne-Sophie; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A; Prévost, Michèle

    2012-06-01

    We surveyed four different river systems in the Greater Montreal region, upstream and downstream of entry points of contamination, from April 2007 to January 2009. The studied compounds belong to three different groups: PPCPs (caffeine, carbamazepine, naproxen, gemfibrozil, and trimethoprim), hormones (progesterone, estrone, and estradiol), and triazine herbicides and their metabolites (atrazine, deethylatrazine, deisopropylatrazine, simazine, and cyanazine). In the system A, B, and C having low flow rate and high TOC, we observed the highest detection frequencies and mass flows of PPCPs compared to the other compounds, reflecting discharge of urban contaminations through WWTPs and CSOs. However, in River D, having high flow rate and low TOC, comparable frequency of detection of triazine and their by-products and PPCPs, reflecting cumulative loads of these compounds from the Great Lakes as well as persistency against natural attenuation processes. Considering large differences in the removal efficiencies of caffeine and carbamazepine, a high ratio of caffeine/carbamazepine might be an indicative of a greater proportion of raw sewage versus treated wastewater in surface waters. In addition, caffeine appeared to be a promising indicator of recent urban fecal contaminations, as shown by the significant correlation with FC (R(2)=0.45), while carbamazepine is a good indicator of cumulative persistence compounds.

  19. Reducing abrupt climate change risk using the Montreal Protocol and other regulatory actions to complement cuts in CO2 emissions.

    PubMed

    Molina, Mario; Zaelke, Durwood; Sarma, K Madhava; Andersen, Stephen O; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Kaniaru, Donald

    2009-12-01

    Current emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) have already committed the planet to an increase in average surface temperature by the end of the century that may be above the critical threshold for tipping elements of the climate system into abrupt change with potentially irreversible and unmanageable consequences. This would mean that the climate system is close to entering if not already within the zone of "dangerous anthropogenic interference" (DAI). Scientific and policy literature refers to the need for "early," "urgent," "rapid," and "fast-action" mitigation to help avoid DAI and abrupt climate changes. We define "fast-action" to include regulatory measures that can begin within 2-3 years, be substantially implemented in 5-10 years, and produce a climate response within decades. We discuss strategies for short-lived non-CO(2) GHGs and particles, where existing agreements can be used to accomplish mitigation objectives. Policy makers can amend the Montreal Protocol to phase down the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) with high global warming potential. Other fast-action strategies can reduce emissions of black carbon particles and precursor gases that lead to ozone formation in the lower atmosphere, and increase biosequestration, including through biochar. These and other fast-action strategies may reduce the risk of abrupt climate change in the next few decades by complementing cuts in CO(2) emissions.

  20. Reducing abrupt climate change risk using the Montreal Protocol and other regulatory actions to complement cuts in CO2 emissions

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Mario; Zaelke, Durwood; Sarma, K. Madhava; Andersen, Stephen O.; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran; Kaniaru, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Current emissions of anthropogenic greenhouse gases (GHGs) have already committed the planet to an increase in average surface temperature by the end of the century that may be above the critical threshold for tipping elements of the climate system into abrupt change with potentially irreversible and unmanageable consequences. This would mean that the climate system is close to entering if not already within the zone of “dangerous anthropogenic interference” (DAI). Scientific and policy literature refers to the need for “early,” “urgent,” “rapid,” and “fast-action” mitigation to help avoid DAI and abrupt climate changes. We define “fast-action” to include regulatory measures that can begin within 2–3 years, be substantially implemented in 5–10 years, and produce a climate response within decades. We discuss strategies for short-lived non-CO2 GHGs and particles, where existing agreements can be used to accomplish mitigation objectives. Policy makers can amend the Montreal Protocol to phase down the production and consumption of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) with high global warming potential. Other fast-action strategies can reduce emissions of black carbon particles and precursor gases that lead to ozone formation in the lower atmosphere, and increase biosequestration, including through biochar. These and other fast-action strategies may reduce the risk of abrupt climate change in the next few decades by complementing cuts in CO2 emissions. PMID:19822751

  1. Providing care to vulnerable populations: a qualitative study among GPs working in deprived areas in Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Loignon, Christine; Fortin, Martin; Bedos, Christophe; Barbeau, David; Boudreault-Fournier, Alexandrine; Gottin, Thomas; Goulet, Émilie; Laprise, Elisha; Haggerty, Jeannie L

    2015-01-01

    Background. Communication barriers between persons living in poverty and healthcare professionals reduce care effectiveness. Little is known about the strategies general practitioners (GPs) use to enhance the effectiveness of care for their patients living in poverty. Objective. The aim of this study was to identify strategies adopted by GPs to deliver appropriate care to patients living in poverty. Methods. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews with 35 GPs practising in Montreal, Canada, who regularly provide care to underprivileged patients in primary care clinics located in deprived urban areas. Analysis consisted of interview debriefing, transcript coding, thematic analysis and data interpretation. Results. GPs develop specific skills for caring for these patients that are responsive to their complex medical needs and challenging social context. Our respondents used three main strategies in working with their patients: building a personal connection to overcome social distance, aligning medical expectations with patients’ social vulnerability and working collaboratively to empower patients. With these strategies, the physicians were able to enhance the patient–physician relationship and to take into account the impact of poverty on illness self-management. Conclusions. Our results may help GPs improve the health and care experience of their vulnerable patients by adopting these strategies. The strategies’ impacts on patients’ experience of care and health outcomes should be evaluated as a prelude to integrating them into primary care practice and the training of future physicians. PMID:25670205

  2. Agreement and conversion formula between mini-mental state examination and montreal cognitive assessment in an outpatient sample

    PubMed Central

    Helmi, Luqman; Meagher, David; O’Mahony, Edmond; O’Neill, Donagh; Mulligan, Owen; Murthy, Sutha; McCarthy, Geraldine; Adamis, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the agreement between the mini-mental state examination (MMSE) and montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA) within community dwelling older patients attending an old age psychiatry service and to derive and test a conversion formula between the two scales. METHODS Prospective study of consecutive patients attending outpatient services. Both tests were administered by the same researcher on the same day in random order. RESULTS The total sample (n = 135) was randomly divided into two groups. One to derive a conversion rule (n = 70), and a second (n = 65) in which this rule was tested. The agreement (Pearson’s r) of MMSE and MoCA was 0.86 (P < 0.001), and Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient (CCC) was 0.57 (95%CI: 0.45-0.66). In the second sample MoCA scores were converted to MMSE scores according to a conversion rule from the first sample which achieved agreement with the original MMSE scores of 0.89 (Pearson’s r, P < 0.001) and CCC of 0.88 (95%CI: 0.82-0.92). CONCLUSION Although the two scales overlap considerably, the agreement is modest. The conversion rule derived herein demonstrated promising accuracy and warrants further testing in other populations.

  3. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin

    PubMed Central

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001). The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31). The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries. PMID:27336001

  4. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin.

    PubMed

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001). The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31). The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries.

  5. Incidence Rate and Epidemiological and Clinical Aspects of Kawasaki Disease in Children of Maghrebi Origin in the Province of Quebec, Canada, Compared to the Country of Origin.

    PubMed

    Gorrab, Arbia Abir; Fournier, Anne; Bouaziz, Asma Abed; Spigelblatt, Linda; Scuccimarri, Rosie; Mrabet, Ali; Dahdah, Nagib

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of Kawasaki disease in Maghreb countries is apparently low, unlike those living in the province of Quebec, Canada. This retrospective study compared Maghrebi children living in Quebec to the countries of origin, Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia. The annualized incidence rate in Quebec (18.49/year/100 000 children under 5 years of age) was 4 to 12 times higher than in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria (0.95, 4.52, and 3.15, respectively). The prevalence of incomplete diagnostic criteria was higher in Quebec at 39%, Morocco 43%, and Tunisia 39% compared to Algeria at 8%, with minimal delayed diagnosis (7%) only in Quebec compared to 30%, 35%, and 62%, respectively (P < .001). The rate of coronary aneurysms was comparable however (11% in Quebec vs 4%, 10%, and 25%, in Tunisia, Morocco, and Algeria, respectively; P = .31). The higher incidence of Kawasaki disease in the Maghreb community in Quebec versus the countries of origin seems due to underdiagnosis, which represents a public health concern in those countries. PMID:27336001

  6. Summer outdoor temperature and occupational heat-related illnesses in Quebec (Canada)

    SciTech Connect

    Adam-Poupart, Ariane; Smargiassi, Audrey; Busque, Marc-Antoine; Duguay, Patrice; Fournier, Michel; Zayed, Joseph; Labrèche, France

    2014-10-15

    Background: Predicted rise in global mean temperature and intensification of heat waves associated with climate change present an increasing challenge for occupational health and safety. Although important scientific knowledge has been gathered on the health effects of heat, very few studies have focused on quantifying the association between outdoor heat and mortality or morbidity among workers. Objective: To quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer outdoor temperatures. Methods: We modeled 259 heat-related illnesses compensated by the Workers' Compensation Board of Quebec between May and September, from 1998 to 2010, with maximum daily summer outdoor temperatures in 16 health regions of Quebec (Canada) using generalized linear models with negative binomial distributions, and estimated the pooled effect sizes for all regions combined, by sex and age groups, and for different time lags with random-effect models for meta-analyses. Results: The mean daily compensation count was 0.13 for all regions of Quebec combined. The relationship between daily counts of compensations and maximum daily temperatures was log-linear; the pooled incidence rate ratio (IRR) of daily heat-related compensations per 1 °C increase in daily maximum temperatures was 1.419 (95% CI 1.326 to 1.520). Associations were similar for men and women and by age groups. Increases in daily maximum temperatures at lags 1 and 2 and for two and three-day lag averages were also associated with increases in daily counts of compensations (IRRs of 1.206 to 1.471 for every 1 °C increase in temperature). Conclusion: This study is the first to quantify the association between occupational heat-related illnesses and exposure to summer temperatures in Canada. The model (risk function) developed in this study could be useful to improve the assessment of future impacts of predicted summer outdoor temperatures on workers and vulnerable groups, particularly in colder

  7. Prevalence of anemia among Quebec Cree infants from 2002 to 2007 compared with 1995 to 2000

    PubMed Central

    Willows, Noreen; Dannenbaum, David; Vadeboncoeur, Sophie

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine if screening of infants for anemia at 9 months in the Cree region of Quebec should continue, by comparing the prevalence of anemia in the initial years of screening (1995 to 2000) with prevalence data from infants screened between 2002 and 2007. Design Comparison of anemia prevalence from 2 cross-sectional surveys. Nonoverlapping 95% CIs were used to determine if results were significantly different. Setting Nine Quebec Cree communities. Participants Infants screened for anemia between 1995 and 2000 (n = 716) or 2002 and 2007 (n = 1325). Main outcome measures Anemia was diagnosed based on hemoglobin concentration. An erythrocyte mean cell volume of less than 71 fL was used as a proxy for iron deficiency. Results Hemoglobin concentration among infants screened from 2002 to 2007 was, on average, 7 g/L greater than among infants screened from 1995 to 2000 (mean [standard deviation] 121 [11] g/L vs 114 [11] g/L). The prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 110 g/L) from 1995 to 2000 was 31.7% (95% CI 28.3% to 35.1%), but from 2002 to 2007 it was significantly lower at 12.5% (95% CI 10.7% to 14.2%). Using a hemoglobin concentration more specific to iron deficiency anemia (IDA) (hemoglobin < 100 g/L), from 1995 to 2000 7.5% (95% CI 5.6% to 9.4%) of infants had IDA, whereas from 2002 to 2007 only 2.0% (95% CI 1.2% to 2.8%) had IDA. The prevalence of iron deficiency based on mean cell volume declined from 18.3% (95% CI 15.5% to 21.1%) from 1995 to 2000 to 4.2% (95% CI 3.1% to 5.3%) from 2002 to 2007. Conclusion The 12.5% prevalence of anemia (hemoglobin < 110 g/L) among Cree infants from 2002 to 2007 was much lower than the prevalence from 1995 to 2000 but somewhat higher than among nonaboriginal infants (8.0%). The low anemia prevalence among Quebec Cree infants after 2002 suggests that replacing universal screening with targeted screening of higher-risk infants needs to be considered following studies to identify risk factors for anemia. PMID

  8. Polymorphic haplotypes on R408BW PKU and normal PAH chromosomes in Quebec and European populations

    SciTech Connect

    Byck, S.; Morgan, K.; Scriver, C.R.

    1994-09-01

    The R408W mutation in the phenylalanine hydroxylase gene (PAH) is associated with haplotype 2.3 (RFLP haplotype 2, VNTR 3 of the HindIII system) in most European populations. Another chromosome, first observed in Quebec and then in northwest Europe, carries R408W on haplotype 1.8. The occurrence of the R408W mutation on two different PKU chromosomes could be the result of intragenic recombination, recurrent mutation or gene conversion. In this study, we analyzed both normal and R408W chromosomes carrying 1.8 and 2.3 haplotypes in Quebec and European populations; we used the TCTA{sub (n)} short tandem repeat sequence (STR) at the 5{prime} end of the PAH gene and the HindIII VNTR system at the 3{prime} end of the PAH gene to characterize chromosomes. Fourteen of sixteen R408W chromosomes from {open_quotes}Celtic{close_quotes} families in Quebec and the United Kingdom (UK) harbor a 244 bp STR allele; the remaining two chromosomes, carry a 240 bp or 248bp STR allele. Normal chromosomes (n=18) carry the 240 bp STR allele. R408W chromosomes are different from mutant H1.8 chromosomes; mutant H2.3 carries the 240 bp STR allele (14 of 16 chromosomes) or the 236 allele (2 of 16 chromosomes). The HindIII VNTR comprises variable numbers of 30 bp repeats (cassettes); the repeats also vary in nucleotide sequence. Variation clusters toward the 3{prime} end of cassettes and VNTRs. VNTR 3 alleles on normal H2 (n=9) and mutant R408W H2 (n=19) chromosomes were identical. VNTR 8 alleles on normal H1 chromosomes (n=9) and on R408W H1 chromosomes (n=15) differ by 1 bp substitution near the 3{prime} end of the 6th cassette. In summary, the mutant H1.8 chromosome harboring the R408W mutation has unique features at both the 5{prime} and 3{prime} end of the gene that distinguish it from the mutant H2.3 and normal H1.8 and H2.3 counterparts. The explanation for the occurrence of R408W on two different PAH haplotypes is recurrent mutation affecting the CpG dinucleotide in PAH codon 408.

  9. Molecular Typing of Legionella pneumophila Isolates in the Province of Quebec from 2005 to 2015

    PubMed Central

    Lalancette, Cindy; Bernard, Kathryn; Pacheco, Ana Luisa; Dion, Réjean; Longtin, Jean; Tremblay, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    Legionella is found in natural and man-made aquatic environments, such as cooling towers and hot water plumbing infrastructures. Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1 (Lp1) is the most common etiological agent causing waterborne disease in the United States and Canada. This study reports the molecular characterization of Lp strains during a 10 year period. We conducted sequence-based typing (SBT) analysis on a large set of Lp isolates (n = 284) to investigate the province of Quebec sequence types (STs) distribution in order to identify dominant clusters. From 2005 to 2015, 181 clinical Lp isolates were typed by SBT (141 sporadic cases and 40 outbreak related cases). From the same period of time, 103 environmental isolates were also typed. Amongst the 108 sporadic cases of Lp1 typed, ST-62 was the most frequent (16.6%), followed by ST-213 (10.2%), ST-1 (8.3%) and ST-37 (8.3%). Amongst other serogroups (SG), ST-1327 (SG5) (27.3%) and ST-378 (SG10) (12.2%) were the most frequent. From the environmental isolates, ST-1 represent the more frequent SBT type (26.5%). Unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean (UPGMA) dendrogram from the 108 sporadic cases of SG1 contains 4 major clusters (A to D) of related STs. Cluster B contains the majority of the strains (n = 61) and the three most frequent STs in our database (ST-62, ST-213 and ST-1). During the study period, we observed an important increase in the incidence rate in Quebec. All the community associated outbreaks, potentially or confirmed to be associated with a cooling tower were caused by Lp1 strains, by opposition to hospital associated outbreaks that were caused by serogroups of Lp other than SG1. The recent major Quebec City outbreak caused by ST-62, and the fact that this genotype is the most common in the province supports whole genome sequencing characterization of this particular sequence type in order to understand its evolution and associated virulence factors. PMID:27706210

  10. Holocene vegetation histories from three sites in the Tundra of Northwestern Quebec, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Gajewski, K. ); Garralla, S.

    1992-11-01

    Two pollen diagrams from lakes north of treeline in northwestern Quebec indicate that Picea never extended north of its present-day limit during the past 6000 yr BP. Alnus crispa was slightly more abundant around 5000 BP, but there are few major changes in the vegetation of the region during the Holocene. A third site in the tundra along Hudson Bay has a slightly longer sequence (7000 yr BP) which indicates more open conditions in the early and recent part of the record. Picea may have been more abundant locally around 3000 BP. Few major changes in these diagrams can be unequivocally attributed to local changes in plant abundance; changes in tree and shrub pollen abundance parallel those seen south of treeline.

  11. [The evaluation of the retrograde memory in the Quebec population aged: PUB-40 and PUB-12].

    PubMed

    Langlois, Roxane; Joubert, Sven; Benoit, Sophie; Dostie, Valérie; Rouleau, Isabelle

    2015-09-01

    Memory assessment represents an important part of the clinical neuropsychologist's duties in a geriatric context. In fact, in Canada, about one-third of seniors report memory complaints, with different causes. Based on the underlying etiology, different components of memory may be affected in older adults. Nonautobiographical retrograde memory (public or semantic) is an important aspect of memory to assess; nevertheless, there is currently no reliable and standardized clinical tool to evaluate this aspect of memory in the elderly Quebecer population. The aims of this research were therefore: (1) to develop a protocol specifically aimed at assessing non-autobiographical retrograde memory in this population, the PUB-40; (2) to obtain reference data among 105 healthy subjects; and (3) to develop a short version based on the items which discriminated a group of 20 patients with amnestic Mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from older healthy subjects.

  12. Acceptability of live attenuated influenza vaccine by vaccine providers in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Dubé, Eve; Gagnon, Dominique; Kiely, Marilou; Boulianne, Nicole; Landry, Monique

    2015-01-01

    A live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) was offered during the 2012-13 influenza season in Quebec, Canada, to children aged between 2 and 17 years with chronic medical conditions. Despite the offer, uptake of the vaccine was low. We assessed the perceptions and opinions about seasonal influenza vaccination and LAIV use among vaccine providers who participated in the 2012-13 campaign. More than 70% of them thought that LAIV was safe and effective and more than 90% considered that the vaccine was well-received by parents and healthcare professionals. According to respondents, the most frequent concerns of parents about LAIV were linked to vaccine efficacy. LAIV is well-accepted by vaccine providers involved in influenza vaccination clinics, but more information about the vaccine and the recommendations for its use are needed to increase vaccine uptake.

  13. La gestion des gestionnaires de projets: Le cas de l'industrie aerospatiale au Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petit, Marie-Claude

    This research focuses on the management of project managers (PMs) working in high technology organizations. In particular, it examines how these professionals are taken charge of from a human resources management (HRM) standpoint in firms within the aerospace industry in Quebec. The literature in the field of project management generally depicts PMs as entrepreneurs and resource managers, managing human resources (e.g. project team members) among other things. It also defines them as single-handedly responsible for managing their own career, stress and motivation. This profile suggests that once selected and assigned to projects, PMs receive little attention in terms of HRM from the organization. It is hardly conceivable, however, that PMs would move about completely on their own within the organization, let alone that they wouldn't represent any special challenge in terms of HRM, as the ones the literature so clearly underlines for project team members. The review of the literature also reveals that the subject of HRM as applied to PMs is poorly documented empirically, especially on the topic of what particular challenges the project context might bring up for the HRM of PMs. There is also little told about the actors involved in supporting and contributing to meet the challenges that arise out of managing PMs. This study sought to discern those challenges and the means put forth to address them. Also, it wanted to identify the actors of the HRM of PMs, their roles, their skills, and their relationships, among themselves and with the PMs, in order to efficiently take charge of them. This study also wanted to demonstrate the logic that ties the means put forth by the identified actors with the objectives PM-employing organizations want to reach. Finally, the study wanted to identify the impact of the HRM of PMs as it is occurring in organizations. The Quebec aerospace sector was chosen as the field of research primarily because the success of projects in

  14. Bioeconomic modelling of raccoon rabies spread management impacts in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Shwiff, S; Aenishaenslin, C; Ludwig, A; Berthiaume, P; Bigras-Poulin, M; Kirkpatrick, K; Lambert, L; Bélanger, D

    2013-08-01

    Beginning in 2006, point infection control operations and aerial distribution of oral rabies vaccines along the US border were performed in Quebec, Canada, to control the potential spread of raccoon rabies. A benefit-cost analysis assessed the economic efficiency of this rabies control programme into the future. In this study, a mathematical simulation model was used to determine the potential spread of raccoon rabies from the 2006 index case, and incidence rates of human post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), animal testing and human exposure investigations were calculated. Benefits were calculated as the potential savings from reduced numbers of human PEP, animal testing and human exposure investigations owing to control, which ranged from $47 million to $53 million. Programme cost scenarios were based on projections of total expenditures, which ranged from $33 million to $49 million. Economic efficiency was indicated for approximately half of the modelled scenarios, with the greatest benefit-cost ratios resulting from reduced future programme costs.

  15. Cyberbullying, psychological distress and self-esteem among youth in Quebec Schools

    PubMed Central

    Cénat, Jude Mary; Hébert, Martine; Blais, Martin; Lavoie, Francine; Guerrier, Mireille; Derivois, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The advent of new technologies and social media offers a host of possibilities for teenagers to consolidate social networks. Unfortunately, new technologies also represent a potential setting for experiences of victimization. Methods The present study explores the prevalence of cyberbullying victimization in a representative sample of 8 194 teenagers in Quebec and the adverse associated consequences. Results Results indicate that 18% of boys and close to 1 out of 4 girls report at least one incident of cyberbullying in the past 12 months. Cyberbullying victimization contributes to the prediction of low self-esteem and psychological distress over and above other experiences of bullying in schools or other settings. Conclusions Cyberbullying appear as one important target for the design of prevention and intervention services designed for youth. PMID:25128859

  16. [Could the Quebec Tumor Registry be used to identify risks of occupational cancers?].

    PubMed

    De Guire, L; Armstrong, B; Case, B; Cyr, D

    1989-01-01

    Many countries have used their tumor registries to conduct studies on cancer and occupation. In the past, the Quebec Tumor Registry (QTR) has collected information on occupation of cases. The form currently in use has a space to include this information but it is not mandatory to do so. Among male cases of naso-sinusal, pleural and ocular cancer, diagnosed between 1975 and 1979, and aged 16 to 64, 72% had information on occupation. The occupation registered at the QTR and the occupation given by the case himself during epidemiological studies on bladder cancer and leukemia are respectively the same in 64% and 69% of cases. The association between mesothelioma and work in asbestos related industries was not found in the present study. Explanations and recommendations are given.

  17. U-Pb zircon dates of morin anorthosite suite rocks, Grenville Province, Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Doig, R. )

    1991-09-01

    U-Pb zircon ages of samples of anorthosite, pyroxene monzodiorite (jotunite), and pyroxene quartz monzonite (quartz mangerite) of the Morin anorthosite complex, Grenville Province, Quebec, are 1155 {plus minus} 3, 1146 {plus minus} 4 and 1135 {plus minus} 3 Ma, respectively. These dates are very similar to available dates for equivalent units of the Lac St-Jean and Adirondack anorthosite suite occurrences and slightly predate estimates of 1075-1100 Ma for peak metamorphic conditions during the Grenville orogeny in this region. {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr initial ratios of 0.7048-0.7051 for the three Morin units sampled permit a comagmatic origin if the different emplacement or cooling times can be reconciled. The mangerite sampled cannot have been formed by fusion of the upper crust, but may have been derived from a relatively juvenile crust at depth. All three units have interacted with continental crust, given the likely depleted nature of the mantle in this region.

  18. AmeriFlux CA-Qcu Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Black Spruce/Jack Pine Cutover

    SciTech Connect

    Margolis, Hank A.

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Qcu Quebec - Eastern Boreal, Black Spruce/Jack Pine Cutover. Site Description - The ground is gently rolling with a weak slope (<5%). In mesic areas (designated as well to moderately well drained areas, according to the Canadian System of Soil Classification (Agriculture Canada Expert Committee on Soil Survey, 1983)), the soil is a ferro-humic to humic podzol covered by an organic layer having an average depth of 26 cm (Fig. 1). In humid areas, the soil is organic (imperfectly to poorly drained) with an average organic layer of 125 cm. Mesic areas accounted for approximately 75% of the total surface area of the footprint and humid areas accounted for 25%. Full-time continuous measurements eneded in 2011. Intermittent measurements are on-going as resources permit.

  19. [LAST-Q: Adaptation and normalisation in Quebec of the Language Screening Test].

    PubMed

    Bourgeois-Marcotte, J; Flamand-Roze, C; Denier, C; Monetta, L

    2015-05-01

    The goal of the present study was to adapt and to establish normative data for the recently developed Language Screening Test (LAST; Flamand-Roze et al., 2011) in the French-Canadian population according to age and level of education. After an adaptation process, 100 French-Canadian speakers were evaluated with the LAST-Q. As expected, a perfect score of 15/15 was obtained for all high level education participants, and a score of 14/15 was obtained for all participants with a lowest level of education or aged 80 years or more. Thanks to this adaptation, LAST-Q can be used in acute patients in stroke unit in Quebec.

  20. Nutrient status of the lowbush blueberry, Lac-Saint-Jean area, Quebec, Canada. [Vaccinium angustifolium

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, A.R.; Gagnon, M.J.

    1987-01-01

    The lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium Ait.) is an important commercial crop of the Lac-Saint-Jean area (Quebec, Canada). The major blueberry fields are located on sandy soils relatively poor in available mineral nutrients. The nutrients originate from a thin organic layer found on the top of these sandy soils. The leaf mineral contents (N, P, K, Mg, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn and B) were measured in five blueberry fields during 1984 and 1985. Soil pH and soil available P, K, and Mg were also assessed. The results show that the leaf mineral contents are generally adequate. However, K and Zn might be occasionally deficient when compared to the actual established standards. The available Mg in soil was significantly correlated with the leaf Mg concentration. The data also suggest that the influence of the pH following the burn pruning seems to influence the nutrition of this species.

  1. Public Education and Multicultural Policy in Canada: The Special Case of Quebec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Ratna

    2004-11-01

    Education is a provincial responsibility in Canada, but there is a sharing of expenditure and strong support of public education, health and other welfare programs between the provinces and the federal government. Although the federal policy of multiculturalism has been aimed at making Canada a `just' society, the implementation of this policy in education in English-speaking Canada has been far from satisfactory, and there is great variation among the provinces in educational programs. In Quebec, the federal policy of multiculturalism is ideologically opposed to the vision of French-Québécois nationalism. While the federal policy of intercultural education has made some attempts to integrate immigrant populations, the focus remains on linguistic programs. In facing the dramatic changes driven by internationalization and a globalized economy, Canadians must respond - so the conclusion of the present study - to the urgent need to redefine the meaning of multiculturalism with radical educational programs.

  2. An Experiment with Public-Oriented Knowledge Transfer: A Video on Quebec's Bill 10.

    PubMed

    Bélisle Pipon, Jean-Christophe; Lemoine, Marie-Ève; Laliberté, Maude

    2016-05-01

    When decision-makers are engaged in a polarized discourse and leaving aside evidence-based recommendations, is there a role for researchers in the dissemination of this scientific evidence to the general public as a means to counterbalance the debate? In response to the controversial Bill 10 in Quebec, we developed and posted a knowledge transfer video on YouTube to help stimulate critical public debate. This article explains our approach and methodology, and the impact of the video, which, in the space of two weeks, had more than 9,500 views, demonstrating the pertinence of such initiatives. We conclude with recommendations for other research groups to engage in public debates. PMID:27232235

  3. Association between outdoor ozone and compensated acute respiratory diseases among workers in Quebec (Canada)

    PubMed Central

    ADAM-POUPART, Ariane; LABRÈCHE, France; BUSQUE, Marc-Antoine; BRAND, Allan; DUGUAY, Patrice; FOURNIER, Michel; ZAYED, Joseph; SMARGIASSI, Audrey

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory effects of ozone in the workplace have not been extensively studied. Our aim was to explore the relationship between daily average ozone levels and compensated acute respiratory problems among workers in Quebec between 2003 and 2010 using a time-stratified case-crossover design. Health data came from the Workers’ Compensation Board. Daily concentrations of ozone were estimated using a spatiotemporal model. Conditional logistic regressions, with and without adjustment for temperature, were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs, per 1 ppb increase of ozone), and lag effects were assessed. Relationships with respiratory compensations in all industrial sectors were essentially null. Positive non-statistically significant associations were observed for outdoor sectors, and decreased after controlling for temperature (ORs of 0.98; 1.01 and 1.05 at Lags 0, 1 and 2 respectively). Considering the predicted increase of air pollutant concentrations in the context of climate change, closer investigation should be carried out on outdoor workers. PMID:25736778

  4. Quaternary geologic map of the Quebec 4 degrees x 6 degrees quadrangle, United States and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    State compilations by Borns, H. W.; Gadd, N.R.; LaSalle, Pierre; Martineau, Ghismond; Chauvin, Luc; Fulton, R.J.; Chapman, W.F.; Wagner, W.P.; Grant, D.R.; edited and integrated by Richmond, Gerald Martin; Fullerton, David S.

    1987-01-01

    The Quaternary Geologic Map of the Quebec 4? x 6? Quadrangle was mapped as part of the Quaternary Geologic Atlas of the United States. The atlas was begun as an effort to depict the areal distribution of surficial geologic deposits and other materials that accumulated or formed during the past 2+ million years, the period that includes all activities of the human species. These materials are at the surface of the Earth. They make up the 'ground' on which we walk, the 'dirt' in which we dig foundations, and the 'soil' in which we grow crops. Most of our human activity is related in one way or another to these surface materials that are referred to collectively by many geologists as regolith, the mantle of fragmental and generally unconsolidated material that overlies the bedrock foundation of the continent. The maps were compiled at 1:1,000,000 scale.

  5. Waiting list management practices for home-care occupational therapy in the province of Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Raymond, Marie-Hélène; Demers, Louise; Feldman, Debbie E

    2016-03-01

    Referral prioritisation is commonly used in home-based occupational therapy to minimise the negative impacts of waiting, but this practice is not standardised. This may lead to inequities in access to care, especially for clients considered as low priority, who tend to bear the brunt of lengthy waiting lists. This cross-sectional study aimed to describe waiting list management practices targeting low-priority clients in home-based occupational therapy in the province of Quebec, Canada, and to investigate the association between these practices and the length of the waiting list. A structured telephone interview was conducted in 2012-2013 with the person who manages the occupational therapy waiting list in 55 home care programmes across Quebec. Questions pertained to strategies aimed at servicing low-priority clients, the date of the oldest referral and the number of clients waiting. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests. The median wait time for the oldest referral was 18 months (range: 2-108 months). A variety of strategies were used to service low-priority clients. Programmes that used no strategies to service low-priority clients (n = 16) had longer wait times (P < 0.0001) and a greater number of people on the waiting list (P = 0.006) compared with programmes that applied a maximum wait time target (n = 12). In conclusion, diverse strategies exist to allocate services to low-priority clients in home-based occupational therapy programmes. However, in programmes where none of these strategies are used, low-priority clients may be denied access to services indefinitely.

  6. Rates of stillbirth by gestational age and cause in Inuit and First Nations populations in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Auger, Nathalie; Park, Alison L.; Zoungrana, Hamado; McHugh, Nancy Gros-Louis; Luo, Zhong-Cheng

    2013-01-01

    Background: Inuit and First Nations populations have higher rates of stillbirth than non-Aboriginal populations in Canada do, but little is known about the timing and cause of stillbirth in Aboriginal populations. We compared gestational age– and cause-specific stillbirth rates in Inuit and First Nations populations with the rates in the non-Aboriginal population in Quebec. Methods: Data included singleton stillbirths and live births at 24 or more gestational weeks among Quebec residents from 1981 to 2009. We calculated odds ratios (ORs), rate differences and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for the retrospective cohort of Inuit and First Nations births relative to non-Aboriginal births using fetuses at risk (i.e., ongoing pregnancies) as denominators and adjusting for maternal characteristics. The main outcomes were stillbirth by gestational age (24–27, 28–36, ≥ 37 wk) and cause of death. Results: Rates of stillbirth per 1000 births were greater among Inuit (6.8) and First Nations (5.7) than among non-Aboriginal (3.6) residents. Relative to the non-Aboriginal population, the risk of stillbirth was greater at term (≥ 37 wk) than before term for both Inuit (OR 3.1, 95% CI 1.9 to 4.8) and First Nations (OR 2.6, 95% CI 2.1 to 3.3) populations. Causes most strongly associated with stillbirth were poor fetal growth, placental disorders and congenital anomalies among the Inuit, and hypertension and diabetes among the First Nations residents. Interpretation: Stillbirth rates in Aboriginal populations were particularly high at term gestation. Poor fetal growth, placental disorders and congenital anomalies were important causes of stillbirth among the Inuit, and diabetic and hypertensive complications were important causes in the First Nations population. Prevention may require improvements in pregnancy and obstetric care. PMID:23422443

  7. Ecological gradients driving the distribution of four Ericaceae in boreal Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Thiffault, Nelson; Grondin, Pierre; Noël, Jean; Poirier, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Understory species play a significant role in forest ecosystem dynamics. As such, species of the Ericaceae family have a major effect on the regeneration of tree species in boreal ecosystems. It is thus imperative to understand the ecological gradients controlling their distribution and abundance, so that their impacts can be taken into account in sustainable forest management. Using innovative analytical techniques from landscape ecology, we aimed to position, along ecological gradients, four Ericaceae found in the boreal forest of Quebec (Canada) (Rhododendron groenlandicum, Kalmia angustifolia, Chamaedaphne calyculata, and Vaccinium spp), to regionalize these species into landscape units relevant to forest management, and to estimate the relative importance of several ecological drivers (climate, disturbances, stand attributes, and physical environment) that control the species distribution and abundance. We conducted our study in boreal Quebec, over a study area covering 535,355 km2. We used data from 15,339 ecological survey plots and forest maps to characterize 1422 ecological districts covering the study region. We evaluated the relative proportion of each ericaceous species and explanatory variables at the district level. Vegetation and explanatory variables matrices were used to conduct redundancy, cluster, and variation partitioning analyses. We observed that ericaceous species are mainly distributed in the western part of the study area and each species has a distinct latitudinal and longitudinal gradient distribution. On the basis of these gradients, we delimited 10 homogeneous landscape units distinct in terms of ericaceous species abundance and environmental drivers. The distribution of the ericaceous species along ecological gradients is closely related to the overlaps between the four sets of explanatory variables considered. We conclude that the studied Ericaceae occupy specific positions along ecological gradients and possess a specific abundance

  8. The association between blood group and the risk of vascular disease in Quebec blood donors

    PubMed Central

    Blais, Claudia; Germain, Marc; Delage, Gilles; Grégoire, Yves

    2016-01-01

    Background The association between antigens A and B and arterial thrombosis, such as coronary heart disease, cerebrovascular disease or peripheral vascular disease, is still unclear. We evaluated the association between blood groups and thrombotic events in a cohort of blood donors from the province of Quebec, Canada. Material and methods Among all whole blood donors aged ≥18 years in Quebec between June 1990 and March 2009, a study sample with known blood groups was linked with the provincial hospitalisation and death records to count vascular events. All hospital admissions and deaths with codes for primary and relevant secondary diagnoses of coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral diseases, including coronary heart disease interventions, were included. Cox regression was used to evaluate the hazard ratio associated between blood groups and these events adjusted for other baseline characteristics. Results Among the blood donors, 64,686 had a known blood group and were linked with the provincial health databases. The mean age of these donors was 38 years. The Cox multivariate adjusted hazard ratio for coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral diseases was 1.19 (95% confidence interval: 1.01–1.40) for subjects with blood group AB compared to those with blood group O. There were no statistically significant associations with other blood groups. Only among women aged ≥40 years did those with blood group A have a higher hazard ratio for coronary heart disease (1.40 [1.01–1.92]) than those with blood group O, after adjusting for other characteristics. Discussion When compared to blood group O, only blood group AB was associated with a higher risk of hospitalisation or death because of thrombotic events such as coronary, cerebrovascular or peripheral diseases. However, the associations differed according to age and sex because only females aged ≥40 years with blood group A had a higher risk of coronary heart disease. PMID:27177404

  9. Health care utilization by preterm infants with respiratory complications in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Landry, Jennifer S; Croitoru, Dan; Jin, Yulan; Schwartzman, Kevin; Benedetti, Andrea; Menzies, Dick

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Despite notable advances in prenatal and neonatal care, respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) remain important complications of preterm births, and their long-term sequelae are poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: To describe health care utilization and costs over a 16- to 25-year follow-up period in a cohort of preterm infants with respiratory complications. METHODS: Using provincial health administrative databases from Quebec, a cohort of individuals who were born prematurely with complications of RDS and/or BPD between 1983 and 1992 were identified. From these databases, which cover all Quebec residents, health services use, medication prescriptions, associated diagnoses and costs were tabulated. RESULTS: A total of 3442 subjects with respiratory complications following preterm birth were identified, of whom 773 had been diagnosed with BPD and 2669 had RDS without BPD. Asthma was diagnosed twice as frequently (1.7 to 2.4 times) in the BPD group compared with the RDS group, with more frequent hospital readmission, and outpatient and emergency room visits. Although respiratory causes remained the main reason for consultation in both groups, 3.7% and 3.4% of the outpatient visits were for mental or psychological ailments, such as depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or dysthymia for the BPD and RDS groups, respectively. CONCLUSION: BPD patients experienced more hospital admissions, outpatient and emergency rooms visits, and were more likely to suffer from respiratory illnesses and to use respiratory drugs than RDS patients. Neurological and psychiatric complications occurred at a high frequency in both RDS and BPD subjects, and were associated with significant use of antipsychotic and antidepressant medications. PMID:22891185

  10. Housing characteristics and indoor concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde in Quebec City, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Nicolas L; Gauvin, Denis; Guay, Mireille; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Dupuis, Geneviève; Legris, Michel; Chan, Cecilia C; Dietz, Russell N; Lévesque, Benoît

    2006-09-01

    Concentrations of nitrogen dioxide and formaldehyde were determined in a study of 96 homes in Quebec City, Canada, between January and April 2005. In addition, relative humidity, temperature, and air change rates were measured in homes, and housing characteristics were documented through a questionnaire to occupants. Half of the homes had ventilation rates below 7.5 L/s person. Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 3.3 to 29.1 microg/m3 (geometric mean 8.3 microg/m3) and from 9.6 to 90.0 microg/m3 (geometric mean of 29.5 microg/m3), respectively. The housing characteristics documented in the study explained approximately half of the variance of NO2 and formaldehyde. NO2 concentrations in homes were positively correlated with air change rates (indicating a significant contribution of outdoor sources to indoor levels) and were significantly elevated in homes equipped with gas stoves and, to a lesser extent, in homes with gas heating systems. Formaldehyde concentrations were negatively correlated with air change rates and were significantly elevated in homes heated by electrical systems, in those with new wooden or melamine furniture purchased in the previous 12 months, and in those where painting or varnishing had been done in the sampled room in the previous 12 months. Results did not indicate any significant contribution of indoor combustion sources, including wood-burning appliances, to indoor levels of formaldehyde. These results suggest that formaldehyde concentrations in Quebec City homes are caused primarily by off-gassing, and that increasing air change rates in homes could reduce exposure to this compound. More generally, our findings confirm the influence of housing characteristics on indoor concentrations of NO2 and formaldehyde.

  11. Reduced postfire tree regeneration along a boreal forest-forest-tundra transect in northern Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Sirois, L.; Payette, S. )

    1991-04-01

    The large 1950s fires that burned > 5,500 km{sup 2} of land across a south-to-north climatic gradient in northern Quebec provide an opportunity to evaluate the role of fire in forest-tundra development on a demographic basis. The tree population density before and {approx} 30 yr after fire was estimated by censusing trees in plots of 400 m{sup 2} located in upland and lowland within four representative ecoregions of northern Quebec. The analysis of tree recruitment before and after fire, in 410 randomly selected sites along a transect crossing the upper boreal forest and forest-tundra zones, indicated that wildfires induced substantial depletion of tree populations. Taken as a whole, fires have significantly reduced the density of black spruce populations in forest-tundra uplands, but not in the lowlands. Sustained reduction of tree population density after several destructive fires appears as one of the main deforestation processed in the subarctic zone. This leads to the patchy distribution of forest stands and scattered tree populations typical of the forest-tundra biome. Comparisons with paleoecological data suggest that the impact of the 1950s fires contributed to the expansion of the forest tundra into the upper boreal forest. The ecological impact of these fires was probably similar to those fires responsible for development of the forest tundra during the Holocene. It is suggested that the fire-climate interaction should be considered in order to predict the ecological impact of warming climate on high-latitude forest ecosystems.

  12. Temporal trends of alcohol and drug use among Inuit of Northern Quebec, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Fortin, Marilyn; Bélanger, Richard E.; Boucher, Olivier; Muckle, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background Alcohol and drug use is a serious health problem for many indigenous populations across Canada, including Inuit. The literature on substance use in these populations is too sparse to devise public health interventions. Objective The present article portrays alcohol and drug use among Inuit living in Nunavik (Northern Quebec) between the 1990s and 2000s, and identifies socio-demographic characteristics related to substance use. Design The Santé Québec Health Survey (1992) and the Nunavik Inuit Health Survey Qanuippitaa (2004) served as databases for this empirical work. Statistical comparisons were made of substance use variables in the 2 samples. Proportions were compared by chi-square tests (p≤0.05) with benchmarking of statistics for all of Quebec and, when available, all of Canada. Results Alcohol and drug use among Inuit increased significantly between 1992 and 2004, particularly among young adults. Alcohol users consumed significantly more alcohol per drinking episode than other Canadians in both time periods. Considerable cannabis use was widespread. In 2004, no significant differences in frequencies of heavy drinking episodes were observed by gender, with 60% of drug users consuming alcohol on a regular basis. Conclusions As in other populations from North America, this study profiles the increase in substance use among Inuit from Nunavik in the first part of the last 20 years. We observed distinct substance use patterns among them in comparison to other Canadians. Such findings, if replicated in the coming years, emphasize the need for major, culturally-relevant public health interventions in this population. PMID:26689846

  13. Proxies for healthcare need among populations: validation of alternatives--a study in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Birch, S; Eyles, J; Newbold, K B

    1996-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the use of a non-mortality based proxy for relative needs for healthcare among regional populations with a mortality based proxy for population relative needs and to evaluate the additional value of a proxy based on a combination of non-mortality and mortality based proxies. DESIGN: Analysis of cross sectional data on mortality, socioeconomic status, and self assessments of health taken from registrar general records, a population census, and a population health survey. SETTING: The province of Quebec, Canada. COVERAGE: The populations of the 15 health regions in Quebec. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The levels of correlation of indicators based on mortality data, socioeconomic data, and combined data with a standardised indicator of self assessed health. RESULTS: Variations in scores of a proxy based on socioeconomic data among regions explain 37% of the observed variation in self assessed health, 4% more than the level of variation explained by the standardised mortality rate scores. A weighted combination of both mortality and socioeconomic based proxies explains 56% of variation in self assessed health. CONCLUSIONS: Justification of "deprivation weights" reflecting variations in socioeconomic status among populations should be based on empirical support concerning the performance of such weights as proxies for relative levels of need among populations. The socioeconomic proxy developed in this study provides a closer correlation to the self assessed health of the populations under study than the mortality based proxy. The superior performance of the combined indicator suggests that the development of social deprivation indicators should be viewed as a complement to, as opposed to a substitute for, mortality based measures in needs based resource allocation exercises. PMID:8944866

  14. Gas reservoir potential of the Lower Ordovician Beekmantown Group, Quebec Lowlands, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Dykstra, J.C.F.; Longman, M.W.

    1995-04-01

    The Beekmantown Group in the Quebec Lowlands was deposited as part of an extensive Early Ordovician coastal and shallow marine complex on the eastern margin of the North American craton. The Beekmantown is stratigraphically equivalent to the Beekmantown, Knox, Arbuckle, and Ellenburger rocks of the United States, and is subdivided into two formations: the sandstone-rich Theresa Formation and the overlying dolomite-rich Beauharnois. Dolomites of the Beekmantown provide an important exploration target in both the autochthon and the overlying thrust sheets of the Canadian and U.S. Appalachians. The reservoir potential of the autochthonous Beekmantown Group in the Quebec Lowlands can be determined from seismic data, well logs, cuttings, and petrographic analyses of depositional and diagenetic textures. Deposition of the Beekmantown occurred alongson the western passive margin of the Iapetus Ocean. By the Late Ordovician, the passive margin had been transformed into a foreland basin. Faulting locally positioned Upper Ordovician Utica source rocks against the Beekmantown and contributed to forming hydrocarbon reservoirs. The largest Beekmantown reservoir found to date is the St. Flavien field, with 7.75 bcf of original gas (methane) in place in fractured and possibly karst-influenced allochthonous dolomites within a thrust-fault anticline. Seven major depositional units can be distinguished in cuttings and correlated with wireline logs. Dolomites in the Beekmantown contain vuggy, moldic, intercrystalline, and fracture porosity. Early porosity formed at the top of the major depositional units in peritidal dolomites; however, much of this porosity was later filled by late-stage calcite cement after hydrocarbon migration. Thus, a key to finding gas reservoirs in the autochthonous Beekmantown is to define Ordovician poleostructures in which early and continuous entrapment of hydrocarbons prevented later cementation.

  15. The impact of traffic volume, composition, and road geometry on personal air pollution exposures among cyclists in Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Hatzopoulou, Marianne; Weichenthal, Scott; Dugum, Hussam; Pickett, Graeme; Miranda-Moreno, Luis; Kulka, Ryan; Andersen, Ross; Goldberg, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Cyclists may experience increased exposure to traffic-related air pollution owing to increased minute ventilation and close proximity to vehicle emissions. The aims of this study were to characterize personal exposures to air pollution among urban cyclists and to identify potential determinants of exposure including the type of cycling lane (separated vs on-road), traffic counts, and meteorological factors. In total, personal air pollution exposure data were collected over 64 cycling routes during morning and evening commutes in Montreal, Canada, over 32 days during the summer of 2011. Measured pollutants included ultrafine particles (UFPs), fine particles (PM(2.5)), black carbon (BC), and carbon monoxide (CO). Counts of diesel vehicles were important predictors of personal exposures to BC, with each 10 vehicle/h increase associated with a 15.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 5.7%, 24.0%) increase in exposure. Use of separated cycling lanes had less impact on personal exposures with a 12% (95% CI: -43%, 14%) decrease observed for BC and smaller decreases observed for UFPs (mean: -1.3%, 95% CI: -20%, 17%) and CO (mean: -5.6%, 95% CI: -17%, 4%) after adjusting for meteorological factors and traffic counts. On average, PM(2.5) exposure increased 7.8% (95% CI: -17%, 35%) with separate cycling lane use, but this estimate was imprecise and not statistically significant. In general, our findings suggest that diesel vehicle traffic is an important contributor to personal BC exposures and that separate cycling lanes may have a modest impact on personal exposure to some air pollutants. Further evaluation is required, however, as the impact of separate cycling lanes and/or traffic counts on personal exposures may vary between regions.

  16. Effect of increasing urban albedo on meteorology and air quality of Montreal (Canada) - Episodic simulation of heat wave in 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touchaei, Ali G.; Akbari, Hashem; Tessum, Christopher W.

    2016-05-01

    Increasing albedo is an effective strategy to mitigate urban air temperature in different climates. Using reflective urban surfaces decreases the air temperature, which potentially reduces the rate of generation of smog. However, for implementing the albedo enhancement, complicated interactions between air, moisture, aerosols, and other gaseous contaminant in the atmosphere should be considered. We used WRF-CHEM to investigate the effect of increasing albedo in Montreal, Canada, during a heat wave period (July 10th through July 12th, 2005) on air quality and urban climate. The reflectivity of roofs, walls, and roads are increased from 0.2 to 0.65, 0.6, and 0.45, respectively. Air temperature at 2-m elevation is decreased during all hours in the simulation period and the maximum reduction is about 1 °C on each day (Tmax is reduced by about 0.7 °C) The concentration of two regulated pollutants -ozone (O3) and fine particulate matters (PM2.5) - is calculated at a height of 5-m above the ground. The maximum decrease in 8-h averaged ozone concentration is about 3% (∼0.2 ppbv). 24-h averaged PM2.5 concentration decreases by 1.8 μg/m3. This relatively small change in concentration of pollutants is related to the decrease in planetary boundary layer height caused by increasing the albedo. Additionally, the combined effect of decreased solar heat gain by building surfaces and decreased air temperature reduces the energy consumption of HVAC systems by 2% (∼0.1 W/m2), which exacerbates the positive effect of the albedo enhancement on the air quality.

  17. Development of a computerized tool for the chinese version of the montreal cognitive assessment for screening mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ke; Zhang, Shangang; Wang, Qingsong; Wang, Xiaofei; Qin, Yang; Wang, Jian; Li, Congyang; Wu, Yuxian; Wang, Weiwen; Lin, Hang

    2014-11-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) is used for screening mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and the Beijing version (MoCA-BJ) is widely used in China. We aimed to develop a computerized tool for MoCA-BJ (MoCA-CC). Methods: MoCA-CC used person-machine interaction instead of patient-to-physician interaction; other aspects such as the scoring system did not differ from the original test. MoCA-CC, MoCA-BJ and routine neuropsychological tests were administered to 181 elderly participants (MCI = 96, normal controls [NC] = 85). Results: A total of 176 (97.24%) participants were evaluated successfully by MoCA-CC. Cronbach's α for MoCA-CC was 0.72. The test-retest reliability (retesting after six weeks) was good (intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.82; P < 0.001). Significant differences were observed in total scores (t = 9.38, P < 0.001) and individual item scores (t = 2.18-8.62, P < 0.05) between the NC and MCI groups, except for the score for "Naming" (t = 0.24, P = 0.81). The MoCA-CC total scores were highly correlated with the MoCA-BJ total scores (r = 0.93, P < 0.001) in the MCI participants. The area under receiver-operator curve for the prediction of MCI was 0.97 (95% confidence interval = 0.95-1.00). At the optimal cut-off score of 25/26, MoCA-CC demonstrated 95.8% sensitivity and 87.1% specificity. Conclusion: The MoCA-CC tool developed here has several advantages over the paper-pencil method and is reliable for screening MCI in elderly Chinese individuals, especially in the primary clinical setting. It needs to be validated in other diverse and larger populations. PMID:25362894

  18. Risk of Asthmatic Episodes in Children Exposed to Sulfur Dioxide Stack Emissions from a Refinery Point Source in Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Smargiassi, Audrey; Kosatsky, Tom; Hicks, John; Plante, Céline; Armstrong, Ben; Villeneuve, Paul J.; Goudreau, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about the respiratory effects of short-term exposures to petroleum refinery emissions in young children. This study is an extension of an ecologic study that found an increased rate of hospitalizations for respiratory conditions among children living near petroleum refineries in Montreal (Canada). Methods We used a time-stratified case–crossover design to assess the risk of asthma episodes in relation to short-term variations in sulfur dioxide levels among children 2–4 years of age living within 0.5–7.5 km of the refinery stacks. Health data used to measure asthma episodes included emergency department (ED) visits and hospital admissions from 1996 to 2004. We estimated daily levels of SO2 at the residence of children using a) two fixed-site SO2 monitors located near the refineries and b) the AERMOD (American Meteorological Society/Environmental Protection Agency Regulatory Model) atmospheric dispersion model. We used conditional logistic regression to estimate odds ratios associated with an increase in the interquartile range of daily SO2 mean and peak exposures (31.2 ppb for AERMOD peaks). We adjusted for temperature, relative humidity, and regional/urban background air pollutant levels. Results The risks of asthma ED visits and hospitalizations were more pronounced for same-day (lag 0) SO2 peak levels than for mean levels on the same day, or for other lags: the adjusted odds ratios estimated for same-day SO2 peak levels from AERMOD were 1.10 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.00–1.22] and 1.42 (95% CI, 1.10–1.82), over the interquartile range, for ED visits and hospital admissions, respectively. Conclusions Short-term episodes of increased SO2 exposures from refinery stack emissions were associated with a higher number of asthma episodes in nearby children. PMID:19440507

  19. Validation of the Turkish Version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA-TR) in patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Ozdilek, Betul; Kenangil, Gulay

    2014-01-01

    The study aimed to examine the reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale (MoCA-TR) as a screening tool for cognitive dysfunction in Parkinson's disease (PD). A total of 50 patients with PD and 50 healthy controls were included. The screening instruments-MoCA-TR followed by the Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE-TR) and MoCA-TR retest within 1 month-and detailed neuropsychological testing were administered to the PD patients. MoCA-TR and MMSE-TR were also administered to controls. The discriminant validities of the MoCA-TR and MMSE-TR as screening and diagnostic instruments were ascertained. The concurrent and criterion validity, test-retest reliability, and internal consistency of the MoCA-TR and MMSE-TR were examined. The Cronbach's alpha of the MoCA-TR as an index of internal consistency was 0.664, and the test-retest reliability of MoCA-TR was 0.742. With a cut-off score of < 21 points, the MoCA-TR showed sensitivity of 59% and specificity of 89% in the detection of cognitive dysfunction in PD. The area under the receiver-operating characteristics curve (95% confidence interval) for MoCA-TR was 0.794 (0.670-0.918), p<.001. The present results indicated that the MoCA-TR has acceptable psychometric properties and it should be used to assess mild cognitive impairment and early dementia in PD patients, whereas the MMSE-TR should remain the instrument of choice to assess cognitive impairment in PD dementia. PMID:24528299

  20. How health professionals perceive and experience treating people on social assistance: a qualitative study among dentists in Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In Canada, the prevalence of oral diseases is very high among people on social assistance. Despite great need for dental treatment, many are reluctant to consult dental professionals, arguing that dentists do not welcome or value poor patients. The objective of this research was thus to better understand how dentists perceived and experienced treating people on social assistance. Methods This descriptive qualitative research was based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with 33 dentists practicing in Montreal, Canada. Generally organized in dentists’ offices, the interviews lasted 60 to 120 minutes; they were digitally recorded and later transcribed verbatim. The interview transcripts were coded with NVivo software, and data was displayed in analytic matrices. Three members of the research team interpreted the data displayed and wrote the results of this study. Results Dentists express high levels of frustration with people on social assistance as a consequence of negative experiences that fall into 3 categories: 1) Organizational issues (people on social assistance ostensibly make the organization of appointments and scheduling difficult); 2) Biomedical issues (dentists feel unable to provide them with adequate treatment and fail to improve their oral health); 3) Financial issues (they are not lucrative patients). To explain their stance, dentists blame people on social assistance for neglecting themselves, and the health care system for not providing adequate coverage and fees. Despite dentists’ willingness to treat all members of society, an accumulation of frustration leads to feelings of powerlessness and discouragement. Conclusions The current situation is unacceptable; we urge public health planners and governmental health agencies to ally themselves with the dental profession in order to implement concrete solutions. PMID:24192504

  1. High-resolution satellite-based analysis of ground-level PM2.5 for the city of Montreal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Baozhen; Chen, Zhi

    2016-01-15

    Satellite remote sensing offers the opportunity to determine the spatial distribution of aerosol properties and could fill the gap of ground-level observations. Various algorithms have recently been developed in order to retrieve the aerosol optical depth (AOD) at continental scales. However, they are, to some extent, subject to coarse spatial resolutions which are not appropriate for intraurban scales as usually needed in health studies. This paper presents an improved AOD retrieval algorithm for satellite instrument MODIS at 1-km resolution for intraurban scales. The MODIS-retrieved AODs are used to derive the ground-level PM2.5 concentrations using the aerosol vertical profiles and local scale factors obtained from the GEOS-Chem model simulation. The developed method has been applied to retrieve the AODs and to evaluate the ground-level PM2.5 over the city of Montreal, Canada for 2009 on daily, monthly and annual scales. The daily and monthly results are compared with the monitoring values with correlations R(2) ranging from 0.86 to 0.93. Especially, the annual mean PM2.5 concentrations are in good agreement with the measurement values at all monitoring stations (r=0.96, slope=1.0132 ± 0.0025, intercept=0.5739 ± 0.0013). This illustrates that the developed AOD retrieval algorithm can be used to retrieve AODs at a higher spatial resolution than previous studies to further derive the regional full coverage PM2.5 results at finer spatial and temporal scales. The study results are useful in health risk assessment across this region. PMID:26473708

  2. The impacts of intergovernmental grants on municipal infrastructure: Evidence from the Canada-Quebec infrastructure works 2000 program.

    PubMed

    Mehiriz, Kaddour

    2016-10-01

    This article reports the results of a study on the outcomes of the Canada-Quebec Infrastructure Works 2000 Program (CQIWP), an infrastructure grant program to Quebec municipalities. The focus of this study is on the effects of the CQIWP on municipal investment and physical conditions of drinking water systems and, as such, it goes beyond the usual emphasis on the fiscal consequences of intergovernmental grants. The study results show that the CQIWP was an efficient tool to induce municipalities to increase investment and to reduce the number of aqueduct breakdowns. In light of these findings, this study suggests that upper levels of governments can rely on infrastructure grants to fill the gap in municipal investment and, therefore, to improve the availability and quality of municipal infrastructure.

  3. Quality of physiotherapy services for injured workers compensated by workers' compensation in Quebec: a focus group study of physiotherapy professionals.

    PubMed

    Hudon, Anne; Laliberté, Maude; Hunt, Matthew; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann

    2015-02-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are among the leading causes of work-related physical disability in the province of Quebec in Canada. The authors conducted a focus group study with physiotherapists and physical rehabilitation therapists working with patients whose treatments are compensated by the Quebec Workers' Compensation Board with the goal of exploring quality of care and ethical issues. Three main themes were identified: (1) systemic factors, (2) complexity in treatment decisions and (3) inequality of care. Although physiotherapy professionals strive to give these patients the best possible care, patients might not always be provided with optimal or equal treatment. When compared with other patients, there appear to be differences with respect to access to care and types of services offered to injured workers, raising equity concerns. Factors that shape and constrain quality of physiotherapy services for injured workers need to be addressed to improve care for these patients.

  4. Quality of Physiotherapy Services for Injured Workers Compensated by Workers' Compensation in Quebec: A Focus Group Study of Physiotherapy Professionals

    PubMed Central

    Laliberté, Maude; Hunt, Matthew; Feldman, Debbie Ehrmann

    2015-01-01

    Musculoskeletal disorders are among the leading causes of work-related physical disability in the province of Quebec in Canada. The authors conducted a focus group study with physiotherapists and physical rehabilitation therapists working with patients whose treatments are compensated by the Quebec Workers' Compensation Board with the goal of exploring quality of care and ethical issues. Three main themes were identified: (1) systemic factors, (2) complexity in treatment decisions and (3) inequality of care. Although physiotherapy professionals strive to give these patients the best possible care, patients might not always be provided with optimal or equal treatment. When compared with other patients, there appear to be differences with respect to access to care and types of services offered to injured workers, raising equity concerns. Factors that shape and constrain quality of physiotherapy services for injured workers need to be addressed to improve care for these patients. PMID:25947032

  5. The impacts of intergovernmental grants on municipal infrastructure: Evidence from the Canada-Quebec infrastructure works 2000 program.

    PubMed

    Mehiriz, Kaddour

    2016-10-01

    This article reports the results of a study on the outcomes of the Canada-Quebec Infrastructure Works 2000 Program (CQIWP), an infrastructure grant program to Quebec municipalities. The focus of this study is on the effects of the CQIWP on municipal investment and physical conditions of drinking water systems and, as such, it goes beyond the usual emphasis on the fiscal consequences of intergovernmental grants. The study results show that the CQIWP was an efficient tool to induce municipalities to increase investment and to reduce the number of aqueduct breakdowns. In light of these findings, this study suggests that upper levels of governments can rely on infrastructure grants to fill the gap in municipal investment and, therefore, to improve the availability and quality of municipal infrastructure. PMID:27423038

  6. Mortality and morbidity associated with gunshot in raptorial birds from the province of Quebec: 1986 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Desmarchelier, Marion; Santamaria-Bouvier, Ariane; Fitzgérald, Guy; Lair, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Although raptors have been protected for decades in Quebec they are still regular victims of poaching. The objective of this study was to characterize cases of raptor shootings in Quebec over the last 2 decades. We reviewed clinical files, radiographs, and pathology reports on 4805 free-flying birds of prey admitted to the Faculté de médecine vétérinaire between 1986 and 2007. Evidence of gunshots was detected in 6.4% of the birds. Large species, such as ospreys, turkey vultures, snowy owls, and bald eagles represented the most frequently targeted species. The percentage of shot birds has decreased from 13.4% during 1991 to 1992 to 2.2% in 2006 to 2007. Potential reasons for this trend include a decrease in the presence of firearms in raptor habitats and changes in human attitude towards raptorial birds. PMID:20357944

  7. Mortality and morbidity associated with gunshot in raptorial birds from the province of Quebec: 1986 to 2007

    PubMed Central

    Desmarchelier, Marion; Santamaria-Bouvier, Ariane; Fitzgérald, Guy; Lair, Stéphane

    2010-01-01

    Although raptors have been protected for decades in Quebec they are still regular victims of poaching. The objective of this study was to characterize cases of raptor shootings in Quebec over the last 2 decades. We reviewed clinical files, radiographs, and pathology reports on 4805 free-flying birds of prey admitted to the Faculté de médecine vétérinaire between 1986 and 2007. Evidence of gunshots was detected in 6.4% of the birds. Large species, such as ospreys, turkey vultures, snowy owls, and bald eagles represented the most frequently targeted species. The percentage of shot birds has decreased from 13.4% during 1991 to 1992 to 2.2% in 2006 to 2007. Potential reasons for this trend include a decrease in the presence of firearms in raptor habitats and changes in human attitude towards raptorial birds. PMID:20357944

  8. La Belle Mort en Milieu Rural: a report of an ethnographic study of the good death for Quebec rural francophones.

    PubMed

    Veillette, Anne-Marie; Fillion, Lise; Wilson, Donna M; Thomas, Roger; Dumont, Serge

    2010-01-01

    An ethnographic study was undertaken in two rural areas of Quebec to conceptualize the good death. The findings reveal that a good quality of life for the dying person and his or her family and friends is essential for a good death. The resulting conceptual model emphasized four dimensions: physical, spiritual, social, and emotiona/psychological. These dimensions were determined to be similar to those discovered through a previous urban study, indicating that there may be considerable overlap between good deaths in rural and urban areas. Some findings of this Quebec French-language rural study were similar to those of an Alberta English-language rural study, indicating that rural people may have some common needs and interests with regard to the good death. As such, there could be some common elements of the good death that transcend culture or ethnicity. Chief among these is the desire of rural people to die at home or in their home communities.

  9. The burgeoning field of transdisciplinary adaptation research in Quebec (1998-): a climate change-related public health narrative.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, Pierre; Bélanger, Diane; Lapaige, Véronique; Labbé, Yolaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a public health narrative on Quebec's new climatic conditions and human health, and describes the transdisciplinary nature of the climate change adaptation research currently being adopted in Quebec, characterized by the three phases of problem identification, problem investigation, and problem transformation. A transdisciplinary approach is essential for dealing with complex ill-defined problems concerning human-environment interactions (for example, climate change), for allowing joint research, collective leadership, complex collaborations, and significant exchanges among scientists, decision makers, and knowledge users. Such an approach is widely supported in theory but has proved to be extremely difficult to implement in practice, and those who attempt it have met with heavy resistance, succeeding when they find the occasional opportunity within institutional or social contexts. In this paper we narrate the ongoing struggle involved in tackling the negative effects of climate change in multi-actor contexts at local and regional levels, a struggle that began in a quiet way in 1998. The paper will describe how public health adaptation research is supporting transdisciplinary action and implementation while also preparing for the future, and how this interaction to tackle a life-world problem (adaptation of the Quebec public health sector to climate change) in multi-actors contexts has progressively been established during the last 13 years. The first of the two sections introduces the social context of a Quebec undergoing climate changes. Current climatic conditions and expected changes will be described, and attendant health risks for the Quebec population. The second section addresses the scientific, institutional and normative dimensions of the problem. It corresponds to a "public health narrative" presented in three phases: (1) problem identification (1998-2002) beginning in northern Quebec; (2) problem investigation (2002-2006) in which

  10. Geologic map of the Sherbrooke-Lewiston area, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, United States, and Quebec, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moench, R.H.; Boone, G.M.; Bothner, W.A.; Boudette, E.L.; Hatch, N.L.; Hussey, A. M.; Marvinney, R.G.

    1995-01-01

    This map is part of a folio of maps of the Lewiston I o x 2° quadrangle, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, and part of the Sherbrooke I o x 2° quadrangle, Maine, New Hampshire, and Vermont, United States, and Quebec, Canada, prepared under the Conterminous United States Mineral Assessment Program (CUSMAP). Adjacent areas in Quebec are shown, in order to illustrate the geologic continuity between northwestern Maine and northern Vermont and New Hampshire. Other results of the project are contained in reports by Nowlan and others (1990a,b,c; stream sediment geochemistry), and Cox (1990; potential tin resources related to the White Mountain Plutonic-Volcanic Suite), Bothner and others (in press; complete Bouguer gravity and aeromagnetic maps), Moench and Boudette (in press, geologic synthesis and mineral occurrence map), and Moench (in press; metallic mineral resources).

  11. Les cooperatives et l'electrification rurale du Quebec, 1945--1964

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorion, Marie-Josee

    Cette these est consacree a l'histoire de l'electrification rurale du Quebec, et, plus particulierement, a l'histoire des cooperatives d'electricite. Fondees par vagues successives a partir de 1945, les cooperatives rurales d'electricite ont ete actives dans plusieurs regions du Quebec et elles ont electrifie une partie significative des zones rurales. Afin de comprendre le contexte de la creation des cooperatives d'electricite, notre these debute (premiere partie) par une analyse du climat sociopolitique des annees precedant la naissance du systeme cooperatif d'electrification rurale. Nous y voyons de quelle facon l'electrification rurale devient progressivement, a partir de la fin des annees 1920, une question d'actualite a laquelle les divers gouvernements qui se succedent tentent de trouver une solution, sans engager---ou si peu---les fonds de l'Etat. En ce sens, la premiere etatisation et la mise sur pied d'Hydro-Quebec, en 1944, marquent une rupture quant au mode d'action privilegie jusque-la. La nouvelle societe d'Etat se voit cependant retirer son mandat d'electrifier le monde rural un an apres sa fondation, car le gouvernement Duplessis, de retour au pouvoir, prefere mettre en place son propre modele d'electrification rurale. Ce systeme repose sur des cooperatives d'electricite, soutenues par un organisme public, l'Office de l'electrification rurale (OER). L'OER suscite de grandes attentes de la part des ruraux et c'est par centaines qu'ils se manifestent. Cet engouement pour les cooperatives complique la tache de l'OER, qui doit superviser de nouvelles societes tout en assurant sa propre organisation. Malgre des hesitations et quelques delais introduits par un manque de connaissances techniques et de personnel qualifie, les commissaires de l'OER se revelent perspicaces et parviennent a mettre sur pied un systeme cooperatif d'electrification rurale qui produit des resultats rapides. Il leur faudra cependant compter sur l'aide des autres acteurs engages

  12. Conference highlights of the 16th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and related retroviruses, 26-30 June 2013, Montreal, Canada.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Benoit; Hiscott, John; Bazarbachi, Ali; Carvalho, Edgar; Jones, Kathryn; Martin, Fabiola; Matsuoka, Masao; Murphy, Edward L; Ratner, Lee; Switzer, William M; Watanabe, Toshiki

    2014-02-24

    The 16th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses was held in Montreal, Québec from June 26th to June 30th, 2013 and was therefore hosted by a Canadian city for the first time. The major topic of the meeting was human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs) and was covered through distinct oral and poster presentation sessions: clinical research, animal models, immunology, molecular and cellular biology, human endogenous and emerging exogenous retroviruses and virology. In this review, highlights of the meeting are provided by different experts for each of these research areas.

  13. Conference Highlights of the 16th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses, 26–30 June 2013, Montreal, Canada

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The 16th International Conference on Human Retrovirology: HTLV and Related Retroviruses was held in Montreal, Québec from June 26th to June 30th, 2013 and was therefore hosted by a Canadian city for the first time. The major topic of the meeting was human T-lymphotropic viruses (HTLVs) and was covered through distinct oral and poster presentation sessions: clinical research, animal models, immunology, molecular and cellular biology, human endogenous and emerging exogenous retroviruses and virology. In this review, highlights of the meeting are provided by different experts for each of these research areas. PMID:24558960

  14. Identity Profiles and Well-Being of Multicultural Immigrants: The Case of Canadian Immigrants Living in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Carpentier, Joëlle; de la Sablonnière, Roxane

    2013-01-01

    Studies worldwide point toward increased risk of mental health issues among immigrants. Immigrants’ ability to integrate the cultural identity of their new country has been found to be a key factor in their psychological well-being. Even though researchers agree on the crucial role of identity integration in immigrants’ well-being, the current literature has two main limitations: (1) researchers do not agree on the importance that should be allocated to each of the cultural identities, and (2) research has focused on bicultural individuals as opposed to multicultural individuals. The present paper proposes to study Canadians immigrants living in the province of Quebec who, because of the political and linguistic situation of the province, face the challenge of integrating two new cultural identities (Quebecer and Canadian) to their original one. Specifically, cluster analysis was used to observe identity profiles that naturally emerge among 120 Canadian immigrants from the province of Quebec. Identity profiles were then compared on various indices of well-being to identify the optimal identity structure. In total, four identity profiles emerged, differing in their levels of identity coherence (i.e., similar levels of identification with each group) and identification to either the original group or the Quebecers. ANOVA results confirmed that identity profiles differed in their average level of well-being. First, immigrants with coherent profiles displayed higher levels of well-being. Second, among incoherent profiles, the profile where identification to the original group is the highest showed the greatest well-being. Implications suggest that in order to maximize immigrants’ well-being, psychologists should focus on the coherence between cultural groups as well as identification to the original group. PMID:23450648

  15. The Certification of Teachers' Language Competence in Quebec in French and English: Two Different Perspectives?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laurier, Michel; Baker, Beverly

    2015-01-01

    Language tools are reflections of the academic traditions of assessment developers, as well as the perceptions of language quality as held by a society. The certification of Quebec's teachers offers an interesting case in point: the Québec Government's "ministère de l'Éducation, du Loisir et du Sport" (MELS) requires that…

  16. Development of a methodology to evaluate probable maximum precipitation (PMP) under changing climate conditions: Application to southern Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Alain N.; Klein, Iris M.; Freudiger, Daphné; Gagnon, Patrick; Frigon, Anne; Ratté-Fortin, Claudie

    2014-11-01

    Climate change (CC) needs to be accounted for in the estimation of probable maximum floods (PMFs). However, there does not exist a unique way to estimate PMFs and, furthermore the challenge in estimating them is that they should neither be underestimated for safety reasons nor overestimated for economical ones. By estimating PMFs without accounting for CC, the risk of underestimation could be high for Quebec, Canada, since future climate simulations indicate that in all likelihood extreme precipitation events will intensify. In this paper, simulation outputs from the Canadian Regional Climate Model (CRCM) are used to develop a methodology to estimate probable maximum precipitations (PMPs) while accounting for changing climate conditions for the southern region of the Province of Quebec, Canada. The Kénogami and Yamaska watersheds are herein of particular interest, since dam failures could lead to major downstream impacts. Precipitable water (w) represents one of the key variables in the estimation process of PMPs. Results of stationary tests indicate that CC will not only affect precipitation and temperature but also the monthly maximum precipitable water, wmax, and the ensuing maximization ratio used for the estimation of PMPs. An up-to-date computational method is developed to maximize w using a non-stationary frequency analysis, and then calculate the maximization ratios. The ratios estimated this way are deemed reliable since they rarely exceed threshold values set for Quebec, and, therefore, provide consistent PMP estimates. The results show an overall significant increase of the PMPs throughout the current century compared to the recent past.

  17. The ethics of farming-out: ideology, the state, and the asylum in nineteenth-century Quebec.

    PubMed

    Moran, J E

    1998-01-01

    This article traces the development of the farming-out system of asylum provision which emerged in Quebec for the treatment and care of those who were considered to be insane. The kind of asylum provision that developed in Quebec was met with strong criticism by alienists elsewhere in Ontario, Britain and the United States who considered farming-out to be highly unethical. These criticisms were not lost on the state which tried to exercise increased control over the daily affairs of the asylum. But for much of the nineteenth century the state largely failed in these efforts. The community response to the rise of the farming-out system further complicated the role of the state in the management and control of insanity. I argue that the farming-out system is best considered as the product of complex relations between the state officials, alienists, and community members. This understanding of asylum development in Quebec has important implications for the study of the nineteenth-century state formation.

  18. Whole-of-society approach for public health policymaking: a case study of polycentric governance from Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Addy, Nii A; Poirier, Alain; Blouin, Chantal; Drager, Nick; Dubé, Laurette

    2014-12-01

    In adopting a whole-of-society (WoS) approach that engages multiple stakeholders in public health policies across contexts, the authors propose that effective governance presents a challenge. The purpose of this paper is to highlight a case for how polycentric governance underlying the WoS approach is already functioning, while outlining an agenda to enable adaptive learning for improving such governance processes. Drawing upon a case study from Quebec, Canada, we employ empirically developed concepts from extensive, decades-long work of the 2009 Nobel laureate Elinor Ostrom in the governance of policy in nonhealth domains to analyze early efforts at polycentric governance in policies around overnutrition, highlighting interactions between international, domestic, state and nonstate actors and processes. Using information from primary and secondary sources, we analyze the emergence of the broader policy context of Quebec's public health system in the 20th century. We present a microsituational analysis of the WoS approach for Quebec's 21st century policies on healthy lifestyles, emphasizing the role of governance at the community level. We argue for rethinking prescriptive policy analysis of the 20th century, proposing an agenda for diagnostic policy analysis, which explicates the multiple sets of actors and interacting variables shaping polycentric governance for operationalizing the WoS approach to policymaking in specific contexts.

  19. Simulating groundwater-peatland interactions in depression and slope peatlands in southern Quebec (Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larocque, M.; Quillet, A.; Paniconi, C.

    2013-12-01

    It is crucial to understand hydrogeological interactions between aquifers and peatlands in order to grasp the influence of aquifers in peatland water budgets, to understand the role of groundwater in the evolution or organic matter deposition, and to quantify how a peatland can sustain groundwater levels in a superficial aquifer. These questions have rarely been addressed in literature and there is currently no understanding of which process dominates aquifer-peatland exchanges in different geomorphological settings. The main purpose of the study was to use groundwater flow modeling to answer these questions in two contrasted geological contexts of southern Quebec (Canada). During a three-year study, six peatlands have been instrumented in the Becancour (Centre-du-Quebec) and Amos (Abitibi-Temiscamingue) regions of southern Quebec (Canada). At each site, either one or two transects of six piezometer nests (at 1.20 m depth in the organic deposits and in the mineral deposits below the peat) have been installed, for a total of twelve aquifer-peatland transects of approximately 500 m. The stratigraphy and geometry of the peatland-aquifer system, as well as the hydrodynamic properties of the organic and mineral deposits have been measured at all sites. Groundwater levels have been recorded from autumn 2010 to summer 2012. The Becancour peatlands have developed in depressions while the Amos peatlands have developed through the paludification of esker slopes. The maximum peat thickness measured in the Bécancour peatlands is 6.4 m while it is 4.5 m in the Amos region. In both regions, peatlands are fringed by sandy deposits that extend at least partly under the organic deposits. The thickness of these underlying deposits is not well defined, but available data suggests a metric scale thickness in areas close to the adjacent superficial aquifer. Field data is used to create 2D numerical models in Modflow to simulate flow between the shallow groundwater and the peatland on

  20. Functional diversity in the denitrifying biofilm of the methanol-fed marine denitrification system at the Montreal Biodome.

    PubMed

    Auclair, Julie; Parent, Serge; Villemur, Richard

    2012-05-01

    Nitrate is a serious problem in closed-circuit public aquariums because its accumulation rapidly becomes toxic to many lifeforms. A moving bed biofilm denitrification reactor was installed at the Montreal Biodome to treat its 3,250-m(3) seawater system. Naturally occurring microorganisms from the seawater affluent colonized the reactor carriers to form a denitrifying biofilm. Here, we investigated the functional diversity of this biofilm by retrieving gene sequences related to narG, napA, nirK, nirS, cnorB, and nosZ. A total of 25 sequences related to these genes were retrieved from the biofilm. Among them, the corresponding napA1, nirK1, cnorB9, and nosZ3 sequences were identical to the corresponding genes found in Hyphomicrobium sp. NL23 while the narG1 and narG2 sequences were identical to the two corresponding narG genes found in Methylophaga sp. JAM1. These two bacterial strains were previously isolated from the denitrifying biofilm. To assess the abundance of denitrifiers and nitrate respirers in the biofilm, the gene copy number of all the narG, napA, nirS, and nirK sequences found in biofilm was determined by quantitative PCR. napA1, nirK1, narG1, and narG2, which were all associated with either Methylophaga sp. JAM1 or Hyphomicrobium sp. NL23, were the most abundant genes. The other genes were 10 to 10,000 times less abundant. nirK, cnorB, and nosZ but not napA transcripts from Hyphomicrobium sp. NL23 were detected in the biofilm, and only the narG1 transcripts from Methylophaga sp. JAM1 were detected in the biofilm. Among the 19 other genes, the transcripts of only two genes were detected in the biofilm. Our results show the predominance of Methylophaga sp. JAM1 and Hyphomicrobium sp. NL23 among the denitrifiers detected in the biofilm. The results suggest that Hyphomicrobium sp. NL23 could use the nitrite present in the biofilm generated by nitrate respirers such as Methylophaga sp. JAM1. PMID:22006549

  1. Physicians Taking Action Against Smoking: an intervention program to optimize smoking cessation counselling by Montreal general practitioners.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, M; Gervais, A; Lacroix, C; O'Loughlin, J; Makni, H; Paradis, G

    2001-09-01

    In 1997 the Direction de la santé publique de Montréal-Centre initiated "Physicians Taking Action Against Smoking," a 5-year intervention program to improve the smoking cessation counselling practices of general practitioners (GPs) in Montreal. Program development was guided by the precede-proceed model. This model advocates identifying factors influencing the outcome, in this case counselling practices. These factors are then used to determine the program objectives, to develop and tailor program activities and to design the evaluation. Program activities during the first 3 years included cessation counselling workshops and conferences for GPs, publication of articles in professional interest journals, publication of clinical guidelines for smoking cessation counselling and dissemination of educational material for both GPs and smokers. The program also supported activities encouraging smokers to ask their GPs to help them stop smoking. Results from 2 cross-sectional surveys, conducted in 1998 and 2000, of random samples of approximately 300 GPs suggest some improvements over time in several counselling practices, including offering counselling to more patients and discussing setting a quit date. More improvements were observed among female than male GPs in both psychosocial factors related to counselling and specific counselling practices. For example, improvements were noted among female GPs in self-perceived ability to provide effective counselling and in the belief that it is important to schedule specific appointments to help patients quit; in addition, the perceived importance of several barriers to counselling decreased among female GPs. A greater proportion of the female respondents to the 2000 survey offered written educational material than was the case in 1998, and a greater proportion of the male GPs devoted more time to counselling in 2000 than in 1998; however, among male GPs the proportion who discussed the pros and cons of smoking with patients

  2. Eastern Edge of the Laurentian Cratonic Lithosphere Beneath Southern Quebec from Teleseismic P Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, W. H.; Neitz, T.; Levin, V. L.; Darbyshire, F. A.; Bastow, I. D.

    2014-12-01

    The eastern margin of Laurentia was deformed by the late-Proterozoic Grenville orogeny, which metamorphosed the original Archean-age cratonic crust and added extensive intrusive rocks. The Laurentian crust clearly extends as far east as the Laurentian Highlands, just north of the St. Laurence River, where Grenville-deformed rocks outcrop. Small outliers of Grenville-deformed rocks amongst west-thrust Paleozoic sediments, 20-50 km east of the Appalachian Front in southern Quebec, suggest that the Laurentian crust extends beneath the shallow thrust sheets of this region, too. On the other hand, Laurentia does not extend east of the Norumbega fault in coastal Maine, for the crust there is derived from the Avalon micro-continent. We search for the eastern edge of Laurentia within this ~250 km wide interval using relative arrival times of teleseismic P waves which ascend sub-vertically through the lithosphere beneath the region. These times are expected to be most sensitive to upper mantle compressional velocity and so to be able to discriminate the cratonic lithosphere on the basis of its faster than average speed. We use signal-correlation techniques to measured delay times for all broadband seismic stations in the region, including the QMIII array, which is especially designed to have high station density near the Appalachian Front. As expected, we observe central Quebec to have anomalously early times and coastal Maine to have anomalously late times, by as much as ±1s, when compared to the predictions of the global AK135 traveltime model. The boundary between the two arrival time regimes is sharp and is collinear with the Appalachian Front, to within the ± 25 km spatial resolution of our study. We hypothesize that it represents the eastern edge of the Laurentian cratonic lithosphere. Tomographic inversion of the data indicates a 0.2 km/s (2.4%) drop in compressional velocity of the shallow (90 km deep) mantle from west to east across the boundary. This is a strong

  3. Skin cancer risks avoided by the Montreal Protocol--worldwide modeling integrating coupled climate-chemistry models with a risk model for UV.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Arjan; Slaper, Harry; den Outer, Peter N; Morgenstern, Olaf; Braesicke, Peter; Pyle, John A; Garny, Hella; Stenke, Andrea; Dameris, Martin; Kazantzidis, Andreas; Tourpali, Kleareti; Bais, Alkiviadis F

    2013-01-01

    The assessment model for ultraviolet radiation and risk "AMOUR" is applied to output from two chemistry-climate models (CCMs). Results from the UK Chemistry and Aerosols CCM are used to quantify the worldwide skin cancer risk avoided by the Montreal Protocol and its amendments: by the year 2030, two million cases of skin cancer have been prevented yearly, which is 14% fewer skin cancer cases per year. In the "World Avoided," excess skin cancer incidence will continue to grow dramatically after 2030. Results from the CCM E39C-A are used to estimate skin cancer risk that had already been inevitably committed once ozone depletion was recognized: excess incidence will peak mid 21st century and then recover or even super-recover at the end of the century. When compared with a "No Depletion" scenario, with ozone undepleted and cloud characteristics as in the 1960s throughout, excess incidence (extra yearly cases skin cancer per million people) of the "Full Compliance with Montreal Protocol" scenario is in the ranges: New Zealand: 100-150, Congo: -10-0, Patagonia: 20-50, Western Europe: 30-40, China: 90-120, South-West USA: 80-110, Mediterranean: 90-100 and North-East Australia: 170-200. This is up to 4% of total local incidence in the Full Compliance scenario in the peak year.

  4. The burgeoning field of transdisciplinary adaptation research in Quebec (1998–): a climate change-related public health narrative

    PubMed Central

    Gosselin, Pierre; Bélanger, Diane; Lapaige, Véronique; Labbé, Yolaine

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a public health narrative on Quebec’s new climatic conditions and human health, and describes the transdisciplinary nature of the climate change adaptation research currently being adopted in Quebec, characterized by the three phases of problem identification, problem investigation, and problem transformation. A transdisciplinary approach is essential for dealing with complex ill-defined problems concerning human–environment interactions (for example, climate change), for allowing joint research, collective leadership, complex collaborations, and significant exchanges among scientists, decision makers, and knowledge users. Such an approach is widely supported in theory but has proved to be extremely difficult to implement in practice, and those who attempt it have met with heavy resistance, succeeding when they find the occasional opportunity within institutional or social contexts. In this paper we narrate the ongoing struggle involved in tackling the negative effects of climate change in multi-actor contexts at local and regional levels, a struggle that began in a quiet way in 1998. The paper will describe how public health adaptation research is supporting transdisciplinary action and implementation while also preparing for the future, and how this interaction to tackle a life-world problem (adaptation of the Quebec public health sector to climate change) in multi-actors contexts has progressively been established during the last 13 years. The first of the two sections introduces the social context of a Quebec undergoing climate changes. Current climatic conditions and expected changes will be described, and attendant health risks for the Quebec population. The second section addresses the scientific, institutional and normative dimensions of the problem. It corresponds to a “public health narrative” presented in three phases: (1) problem identification (1998–2002) beginning in northern Quebec; (2) problem investigation (2002–2006

  5. Terminal Ordovician extinction: geochemical analysis of the Ordovician/Silurian boundary, Anticosti Island, Quebec

    SciTech Connect

    Orth, C.J.; Gilmore, J.S.; Quintana, L.R.; Sheehan, P.M.

    1986-05-01

    Elemental abundances (including Ir), carbon and oxygen ratios in carbonates, mineral content, and thin sections have been measured in samples collected across the conodont-defined Ordovician/Silurian (O/S) boundary exposed on Anticosti Island, Quebec. The Ir concentrations ranged from 5 to a maximum at the boundary of 58 parts per trillion (ppt). However, there is no evidence, on the basis of these Ir results, for the association of a large-body-Earth impact with the O/S extinction, because the Ir concentrations, like those of most other trace elements, are simply proportional to the clay (Al) content in the carbonate sequence. The /sup 13/C//sup 12/C and /sup 18/O//sup 16/O ratios decrease abruptly at the boundary, then just as abruptly increase to a long period of higher than preboundary ratios. These patterns are probably related to the salinity in the seaway, which was shallowing up to boundary time and then deepened and developed patch-reefs. Fresh-water input from rivers would have been most influential during the shallow-water conditions. 32 references, 4 figures.

  6. [Messages about physical activity and nutrition offered by Quebec mass media?].

    PubMed

    Renaud, Lise; Lagaé, Marie Claude; Caron-Bouchard, Monique

    2009-01-01

    As social elements of our environment, mass media are regarded as determinants of individual and population beliefs, social norms and habits. Since it is recognized that they influence population health, this study aims to obtain a better portrait of Quebec media content regarding physical activity and nutrition messages on a public health level. First, we analyzed the content of fictional television shows (n = 1 3) and advertisements broadcast during those shows (n = 68). Second, we reviewed the content of La Presse newspaper and of French television Société Radio-Canada from 1986 to 2005 with regard to physical activity and nutrition messages. Our results indicate a difference between how men and women are portrayed on French television, with women more often being shown as underweight and men as at or above healthy body weight. The results also show that during the 20-year period of the reviewed content, there were fewer messages about physical activity than about nutrition. To be successful in their goal of improving population health, mass media should address both subjects together in their messages. PMID:19507724

  7. An analysis of the daily radial activity of 7 boreal tree species, northwestern Quebec.

    PubMed

    Tardif, J; Flannigan, M; Bergeron, Y

    2001-01-01

    In the 'Des Vieux Arbres' ecological reserve situated within northwestern Quebec, 40 band dendrometers were installed on 7 of the major boreal tree species. The late Spring-early Summer daily radial activity registered in 1997 was related to daily weather variables. For each tree species, the daily mean i) cumulative radial increment and ii) radial activity indexed series obtained by first-difference standardization were analyzed. The results indicate the existence of strong similarities among the 7 species. All showed strong synchronous fluctuations in radius during late winter and early spring. This period ended with a short but sharp increase in radial increments that marked the passage of water into the stem. This initial swelling, less obvious in Pinus species was followed by a prolonged period of little change in radial activity. Meteorological data indicated that air temperature was positively related to stem swelling during the late winter-early spring period. Both air and soil temperatures became negatively related to radial expansion once the passage of water has occurred in the stem. Starting in early June, all species registered a sustained increase in radial increments possibly associated with active cell division. After this, radial expansion was negatively related to air temperature and positively to rainfall. PMID:11339696

  8. Survey of utilization of medetomidine and atipamezole in private veterinary practice in Quebec in 2002.

    PubMed

    Kaartinen, M Johanna; Cuvelliez, Sophie; Brouillard, Line; Rondenay, Yves; Kona-Boun, Jean Jacques; Troncy, Eric

    2007-07-01

    This survey evaluates early perceptions about the use of medetomidine and atipamezole among veterinary practitioners in Quebec in 2002. Response rate was 23.5%; 71.1% of the practitioners did not use these products because of lack of information (69.3%), unavailability of the drugs in the practice (23.3%), or other reasons (7.3%), including concerns about the safety of alpha-2 agonists. Most veterinarians who used these products (70.4%) used them only rarely. Sedation by medetomidine was qualified as good (44.2%) or excellent (36%), and analgesia as good (46.5%) or average (32.7%). Waking up after atipamezole was qualified as good (47.5%) or excellent (40.9%). These perceptions indicate an opportunity for wider use of the products in veterinary practice. With more education and experience, practitioners could find medetomidine hydrochloride alone or in combination with an opioid useful for sedation, analgesia, and premedication for healthy animals. Reversal with atipamezole hydrochloride is considered effective, when residual sedation is undesirable. PMID:17824157

  9. Triple-drug therapy and return to work: results of a Quebec survey.

    PubMed

    Jalbert, Y

    Recent Quebec and Canadian statistics show the death rate declining among people living with HIV/AIDS. Triple-drug therapy has been shown to increase life expectancy and overall health. In the United States, a study of 55 people in Chicago living with HIV/AIDS found that 82 percent of them had considered returning to work. Another U.S. study showed that half the respondents had disclosed their sexual orientation to their employer. A survey questionnaire was prepared and distributed throughout the AIDS service organizations (ASOs) network and in two gay publications to see if the Canadian population has similar figures. The results showed that respondents under 45 years of age were more likely to want to return to work. Other conclusions of the study were that people with HIV/AIDS are not necessarily secure in their jobs, that the state of their health is their major area of concern, and that most people with HIV/AIDS do not want to return to their former jobs because of stress, discrimination, or their employer's attitude. The obligation for employers to make reasonable accommodations is a difficult concept for the employers to understand, and patients have concerns with explaining long or frequent absences from the workforce on their resumes. In 1998, the questionnaire will be distributed throughout the health and social services network. Ordering information is included.

  10. Integrated watershed management in Quebec (Canada): a participatory approach centred on local solidarity.

    PubMed

    Baril, P; Maranda, Y; Baudrand, J

    2006-01-01

    The Quebec Water Policy was launched in November 2002 in support of reform of the water governance. One of the government commitments is to gradually implement watershed-based management for 33 major watercourses located primarily in the St. Lawrence plain. At the local and regional levels, watershed organizations are responsible for implementing integrated management, from a sustainable-development perspective, by preparing a master plan for water (MPW), which will include watercourses, lakes, wetlands and aquifers. These watershed organizations rely on public consultation, as well as local and regional expertise, on the responsibilities for water of the municipalities and regional county municipalities of the territory, as well as those of the ministries and other government agencies. They are also required to observe national priorities regarding protection, restoration, and development of water resources and to comply with relevant guidelines, directives, standards, regulations, and legislation. The role of watershed organizations is to act as planning and consultation tables. Government representatives are present, on the initial process, as the facilitator and for scientific and technical support. They do not have, at this moment, any voting or decisional rights. After two years, integrated water management mobilized water stakeholders on watersheds and they are on their way to initiating their first MPW.

  11. Evidence of late glacial paleoseismicity from submarine landslide deposits within Lac Dasserat, northwestern Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Gregory R.

    2016-09-01

    An integrated seismo- and chronostratigraphic investigation at Lac Dasserat, northwestern Quebec, identified 74 separate failures within eight event horizons. Horizons E and B, and H and G have strong or moderately-strong multi-landslide signatures, respectively, composed of 11-23 failures, while horizons F, D, C, and A have minor landslide signatures consisting of a single or pair of deposit(s). Cores collected at six sites recovered glacial Lake Ojibway varve deposits that are interbedded with the event horizons. The correlation of the varves to the regional Timiskaming varve series allowed varve ages or ranges of varve ages to be determined for the event horizons. Horizons H, G, E, and B are interpreted to be evidence of paleoearthquakes with differing levels of interpretative confidence, based on the relative strength of the multi-landslide signatures, the correlation to other disturbed deposits of similar age in the region, and the lack or possibility of alternative aseismic mechanisms. The four interpreted paleoearthquakes occurred between 9770 ± 200 and 8470 ± 200 cal yr BP, when glacial Lake Ojibway was impounded behind the Laurentide Ice Sheet during deglaciation. They probably represent an elevated period of seismicity at deglaciation that was driven by crustal unloading.

  12. Antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli in public beach waters in Quebec

    PubMed Central

    Turgeon, Patricia; Michel, Pascal; Levallois, Patrick; Chevalier, Pierre; Daignault, Danielle; Crago, Bryanne; Irwin, Rebecca; McEwen, Scott A; Neumann, Norman F; Louie, Marie

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Human exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria may result in the transfer of resistance to commensal or pathogenic microbes present in the gastrointestinal tract, which may lead to severe health consequences and difficulties in treatment of future bacterial infections. It was hypothesized that the recreational waters from beaches represent a source of antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli for people engaging in water activities. OBJECTIVE: To describe the occurrence of antimicrobial-resistant E coli in the recreational waters of beaches in southern Quebec. METHODS: Sampling occurred over two summers; in 2004, 674 water samples were taken from 201 beaches, and in 2005, 628 water samples were taken from 177 beaches. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of the antimicrobial-resistant E coli isolates against a panel of 16 antimicrobials were determined using microbroth dilution. RESULTS: For 2004 and 2005, respectively, 28% and 38% of beaches sampled had at least one water sample contaminated by E coli resistant to one or more antimicrobials, and more than 10% of the resistant isolates were resistant to at least one antimicrobial of clinical importance for human medicine. The three antimicrobials with the highest frequency of resistance were tetracycline, ampicillin and sulfamethoxazole. DISCUSSION: The recreational waters of these beaches represent a potential source of antimicrobial-resistant bacteria for people engaging in water activities. Investigations relating the significance of these findings to public health should be pursued. PMID:23730315

  13. Linkage results on 11q21-22 in Eastern Quebec pedigrees densely affected by schizophrenia

    SciTech Connect

    Maziade, M.; Raymond, V.; Cliche, D.

    1995-12-18

    The 11q21-22 region is of interest for schizophrenia because several candidate genes are located in this section of the genome. The 11q21-22 region, including DRD2, was surveyed by linkage analysis in a sample (N = 242) made of four large multigenerational pedigrees densely affected by schizophrenia (SZ) and eight others by bipolar disorder (BP). These pedigrees were ascertained in a large area of Eastern Quebec and Northern New Brunswick and are still being extended. Family members were administered a {open_quotes}consensus best-estimate diagnosis procedure{close_quotes} (DSM-III-R criteria) blind to probands and relatives` diagnosis and to pedigree assignment (SZ or BP). For linkage analysis, 11 microsatellite polymorphism (CA repeat) markers, located at 11q21-22, and comprising DRD2, were genotyped. Results show no evidence of a major gene for schizophrenia. However, a maximum lod score of 3.41 at the D11S35 locus was observed in an affected-only analysis of one large SZ family, pedigree 255. Whether or not the positive linkage trend in pedigree 255 reflects a true linkage for a small proportion of SZ needs to be confirmed through the extension of this kindred and through replication. 36 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Hydrological changes following restoration of the Bois-des-Bel Peatland, Quebec, 1999 2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shantz, M. A.; Price, J. S.

    2006-12-01

    SummaryRestoration efforts at peatlands drained for peat extraction attempt to return the hydrological conditions necessary for Sphagnum moss regeneration. One year of pre-restoration monitoring (1999) and three years of post restoration monitoring were done at the Bois-des-Bel peatland near Riviere-du-Loup, Quebec, to evaluate hydrological changes that occurred at a managed section (restored site) relative to an adjacent abandoned section of the same peatland (unrestored site). Restored site evaporation was 74%, 74%, and 98% of unrestored site evaporation in 2000, 2001, and 2002, while runoff at the restored site was 83%, 30%, and 12% of unrestored site runoff over the same period. Seasonal soil volume change (swelling and shrinking of the peat) was evident at the restored site indicating rewetting of the peat profile despite the prolonged period between site abandonment and the initiation of the restoration measures (19 years). Site rewetting may have benefited from the relatively deep layer of residual peat (around 1.5 m). Higher seasonal mean water table and soil moisture were observed at the restored site relative to the unrestored site in 2000 through 2002 along with increased seasonal variability at the former location. Mean soil-water pressure was also higher than at the unrestored site and the range decreased, both spatially and on a seasonal and daily basis. The restoration techniques contributed to the recovery of hydrological conditions necessary for Sphagnum recolonization, though successful application at different sites may be limited by specific peat and climate characteristics.

  15. Awareness and knowledge about human papillomavirus among Inuit women in Nunavik, Quebec.

    PubMed

    Cerigo, Helen; Macdonald, Mary Ellen; Franco, Eduardo L; Brassard, Paul

    2011-02-01

    Accurate knowledge about human Papillomavirus (HPV) and its link to cervical cancer is essential for women to understand and make use of cervical cancer prevention and detection opportunities. This study was the first to survey awareness and knowledge of HPV in a population of Canadian Inuit. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of awareness and knowledge of Inuit women in Nunavik, Quebec, Canada, about HPV infection and its relation to cervical cancer and to study correlates of this awareness. A cross-sectional survey design was used. Women were recruited through convenience sampling at two recruitment sites in Ungava Bay from March 2008 to June 2009. Questionnaires were completed by 175 women aged 18-63. Thirty one percentage reported that they had heard of HPV. Of the women who had heard of HPV, 53% knew that HPV causes cervical cancer. The level of HPV awareness was not found to vary with participants' age. Awareness of HPV was found to be associated with greater or equal to 13 years of education (OR = 4.4, 95%: 1.3-15.1) and knowing someone with cervical cancer (OR = 3.6, 95%: 1.4-8.9). Despite the high prevalence of HPV and incidence of cervical cancer in Inuit populations, there is a low level of knowledge in this population. The lack of awareness and knowledge and misconceptions found in this study has been consistently found in other non-Indigenous populations.

  16. Diffuse malignant mesothelioma of the pleura in Ontario and Quebec: a retrospective study of 332 patients.

    PubMed

    Ruffie, P; Feld, R; Minkin, S; Cormier, Y; Boutan-Laroze, A; Ginsberg, R; Ayoub, J; Shepherd, F A; Evans, W K; Figueredo, A

    1989-08-01

    Three-hundred thirty-two cases of pleural diffuse malignant mesothelioma (DMM) seen at large centers in Ontario and Quebec from 1965 to 1984 were reviewed retrospectively. Previous asbestos exposure was found in 44% of patients. Diagnosis was most often made by exploratory thoracotomy; pleural biopsy or cytology were rarely contributory. The delay in diagnosis was often long (median time, 3.5 months) and thrombocytosis (platelets greater than or equal to 400,000/microL) was common (41% of cases). The median survival (MS) was only 9 months. Eleven clinical variables were analyzed for prognostic significance. The three most important prognostic factors using a univariate analysis were stage, weight loss, and histologic type. For 118 patients with complete data, multivariate analysis showed that the stage of disease, high platelet count, and asbestos exposure were the most important prognostic factors. There was no cure of DMM, and we did not find any drastic differences in survival among groups of patients subjected to the different therapeutic measures. Radical surgery and radiotherapy were ineffective and we confirmed the low response rate to chemotherapeutic agents. This large retrospective trial can serve as a baseline for future studies in this field. In particular, it provides the basis for appropriate stratification variables to be used in future therapeutic trials.

  17. Crystallization and emplacement of the Lac St-Jean anorthosite massif (Quebec, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woussen, G.; Dimroth, E.; Corriveau, L.; Archer, P.

    1981-05-01

    The Lac St-Jean anorthosite massif underlies an area of over 20,000 km2 and has been emplaced into migmatitic gneisses of the central granulite terrain of the Grenville Province of the Canadian shield. Field data and petrography in an area straddling the anorthosite-gneiss contact, close to Chicoutimi (Quebec) permits an outline of its tecto-magmatic evolution. Depositional magmatic textures in the massif reveals that it crystallized from a magma in a relatively calm tectonic environment. The absence of fusion in pelitic gneisses at the contact proves that the crystallization did not take place at the level presently exposed. The parallelism of subvertical foliation in the enveloping gneisses and the anorthosite indicates that both were deformed together. It is suggested that the deformation results from a diapiric ascent of the anorthosite massif after its consolidation at depth. The depth of consolidation of the anorthosite is estimated at ˜ 25 30 km from subsolidus reaction between plagioclase and olivine. The diapiric ascent is further substantiated by the fact that three sets of mafic dykes of different ages, intrusive into the anorthosite, have a mineralogy which indicates successively decreasing P, T conditions of emplacement from granulite fades to amphibolite facies. An evolution of the basement gneisses and the anorthosite is proposed as a working hypothesis; it relies on the fact that metabasite dyke swarms in the basement gneisses represent a period of major crustal extension and could be used as a stratigraphic subdivision of the Grenville Province.

  18. Collaborative partnership in age-friendly cities: two case studies from Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Garon, Suzanne; Paris, Mario; Beaulieu, Marie; Veil, Anne; Laliberté, Andréanne

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to explain the collaborative partnership conditions and factors that foster implementation effectiveness within the age-friendly cities (AFC) in Quebec (AFC-QC), Canada. Based on a community-building approach that emphasizes collaborative partnership, the AFC-QC implementation process is divided into three steps: (1) social diagnostic of older adults' needs; (2) an action plan based on a logic model; and (3) implementation through collaborations. AFC-QC promotes direct involvement of older adults and seniors' associations at each of the three steps of the implementation process, as well as other stakeholders in the community. Based on two contrasting case studies, this article illustrates the importance of collaborative partnership for the success of AFC implementation. Results show that stakeholders, agencies, and organizations are exposed to a new form of governance where coordination and collaborative partnership among members of the steering committee are essential. Furthermore, despite the importance of the senior associations' participation in the process, they encountered significant limits in the capacity of implementing age-friendly environments solely by themselves. In conclusion, we identify the main collaborative partnership conditions and factors in AFC-QC.

  19. Formation of the enigmatic Matoush uranium deposit in the Paleoprotozoic Otish Basin, Quebec, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandre, Paul; Kyser, Kurt; Layton-Matthews, Daniel; Beyer, Steve R.; Hiatt, Eric E.; Lafontaine, Jonathan

    2015-10-01

    The Matoush uranium deposit is situated in the Paleoproterozoic Otish Basin, northern Quebec, Canada, and is hosted by the Indicator Formation sandstones. Its sheet-like ore bodies are closely associated with the steeply dipping Matoush Fracture, which hosts mafic dykes and minor quartz-feldspar-tourmaline pegmatites. Regional diagenesis, involving oxidizing basinal fluids (δ2H ˜-15‰, δ18O ˜8‰), produced mostly illite and possibly leached U from accessory phases in the Indicator Formation sandstones. The bimodal Matoush dyke intruded the Indicator Formation along the Matoush Fracture, and the related metasomatism produced Cr-rich dravite and muscovite in both the dyke and the proximal sandstones. Uraninite formed when U6+ in the basinal brine was reduced to U4+ in contact with the mafic dyke and by Fe2+ in Cr-dravite and Cr-muscovite, and precipitated together with eskolaite and hematite. Because of its unique characteristics, the Matoush deposit cannot be easily classified within the generally accepted classification of uranium deposits. Two of its main characteristics (unusual reduction mechanism, structural control) do not correspond to the sandstone-hosted group of deposits (unconformity type, tabular, roll front), in spite of uranium being derived from the Otish Group sandstones.

  20. Psychodemographic profile of stockpeople working on independent and integrated swine breeding farms in Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Ravel, A; D'Allaire, S; Bigras-Poulin, M; Ward, R

    1996-01-01

    As a part of a larger study, the psychodemographic profile of Quebec pig stockpeople was described based on a sample of 48 persons working on independent farms randomly selected in the Richelieu-Saint-Hyacinthe region, and on a convenience sample of 38 others employed by 5 organizations of integrated swine production chosen among the largest ones in Québec. The 2 groups of stockpeople were described separately because of the differences between the 2 types of production. Demographic data (age, sex, level of education, training and experience in swine production, seniority on the farm) were obtained through a face-to-face interview. The personality profile was assessed using a standard personality test (French translation of the Sixteen Personality Factor Questionnaire). Both the stockpersons on independent farms and those employed by the organizations were more reserved, emotionally stable, serious, conscientious, unsentimental, controlled, introverted, and less anxious than the average person in the general population. However, multivariate analyses revealed some differences between these two groups of stock-persons (P = 0.021) as well as between the employees of the different organizations (P = 0.0038). These differences in personality profiles may reflect differences in working conditions, particularly regarding the human relationships, and in corporate cultures of the organizations. PMID:8904659