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Sample records for 760-890 nm wavelength

  1. Absorption spectrum of DNA for wavelengths greater than 300 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Sutherland, J.C.; Griffin, K.P.

    1981-06-01

    Although DNA absorption at wavelengths greater than 300 nm is much weaker than that at shorter wavelengths, this absorption seems to be responsible for much of the biological damage caused by solar radiation of wavelengths less than 320 nm. Accurate measurement of the absorption spectrum of DNA above 300 nm is complicated by turbidity characteristic of concentrated solutions of DNA. We have measured the absorption spectra of DNA from calf thymus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, Micrococcus luteus, salmon testis, and human placenta using procedures which separate optical density due to true absorption from that due to turbidity. Above 300 nm, the relative absorption of DNA increases as a function of guanine-cytosine content, presumably because the absorption of guanine is much greater than the absorption of adenine at these wavelengths. This result suggests that the photophysical processes which follow absorption of a long-wavelength photon may, on the average, differ from those induced by shorter-wavelength photons. It may also explain the lower quantum yield for the killing of cells by wavelengths above 300 nm compared to that by shorter wavelengths.

  2. Simultaneous three-wavelength continuous wave laser at 946 nm, 1319 nm and 1064 nm in Nd:YAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Yanfei; Zhao, Lianshui; Zhai, Pei; Xia, Jing; Fu, Xihong; Li, Shutao

    2013-01-01

    A continuous-wave (cw) diode-end-pumped Nd:YAG laser that generates simultaneous laser at the wavelengths 946 nm, 1319 nm and 1064 nm is demonstrated. The optimum oscillation condition for the simultaneous three-wavelength operation has been derived. Using the separation of the three output couplers, we obtained the maximum output powers of 0.24 W at 946 nm, 1.07 W at 1319 nm and 1.88 W at 1064 nm at the absorbed pump power of 11.2 W. A total output power of 3.19 W for the three-wavelength was achieved at the absorbed pump power of 11.2 W with optical conversion efficiency of 28.5%.

  3. TCSPC FLIM in the wavelength range from 800 nm to 1700 nm (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becker, Wolfgang; Shcheslavsky, Vladislav

    2016-03-01

    Excitation and detection in the wavelength range above 800nm is a convenient and relatively inexpensive way to increase the penetration depth in optical microscopy. Moreover, detection at long wavelength avoids the problem that tissue autofluorescence contaminates the signals from endogenous fluorescence probes. FLIM at NIR wavelength may therefore be complementary to multiphoton microscopy, especially if the lifetimes of NIR fluorophores report biological parameters of the tissue structures they are bound to. Unfortunately, neither the excitation sources nor the detectors of standard confocal and multiphoton laser scanning systems are directly suitable for excitation and detection of NIR fluorescence. Most of these problems can be solved, however, by using ps diode lasers or Ti:Sapphire lasers at their fundamental wavelength, and NIR-sensitive detectors. With NIR-sensitive PMTs the detection wavelength range can be extended up to 900 nm, with InGaAs SPAD detectors up to 1700 nm. Here, we demonstrate the use of a combination of laser scanning, multi-dimensional TCSPC, and advanced excitation sources and detectors for FLIM at up to 1700 nm. The performance was tested at tissue samples incubated with NIR dyes. The fluorescence lifetimes generally get shorter with increasing absorption and emission wavelengths of the dyes. For the cyanine dye IR1061, absorbing around 1060 nm, the lifetime was found to be as short as 70 ps. Nevertheless the fluorescence decay could still be clearly detected. Almost all dyes showed clear lifetime changes depending on the binding to different tissue constituents.

  4. Distributed Humidity Sensing in PMMA Optical Fibers at 500 nm and 650 nm Wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Liehr, Sascha; Breithaupt, Mathias; Krebber, Katerina

    2017-03-31

    Distributed measurement of humidity is a sought-after capability for various fields of application, especially in the civil engineering and structural health monitoring sectors. This article presents a method for distributed humidity sensing along polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer optical fibers (POFs) by analyzing wavelength-dependent Rayleigh backscattering and attenuation characteristics at 500 nm and 650 nm wavelengths. Spatially resolved humidity sensing is obtained from backscatter traces of a dual-wavelength optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR). Backscatter dependence, attenuation dependence as well as the fiber length change are characterized as functions of relative humidity. Cross-sensitivity effects are discussed and quantified. The evaluation of the humidity-dependent backscatter effects at the two wavelength measurements allows for distributed and unambiguous measurement of relative humidity. The technique can be readily employed with low-cost standard polymer optical fibers and commercial OTDR devices.

  5. Remote-sensing vibrometry at 1550 nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dräbenstedt, A.; Sauer, J.; Rembe, C.

    2012-06-01

    Laser-Doppler vibrometry (LDV) is a proven technique for vibration analysis of mechanical structures. A wavelength of 633 nm is usually employed because of the availability of the relatively inexpensive Helium-Neon laser source which has a good coherence behavior. However, coherence break-down through the beat of multiple longitudinal modes and the limited detector carrier-to-noise-ratio (CNR) at a measurement laser power of 1 mW have prevented a wide use of LDV in remote sensing applications. Such applications in civil engineering are bridges, towers or wind turbines. The lower photon energy of IR light at 1550 nm wavelength increases the CNR by a factor 2.4. This helps especially in the condition where the carrier power decreases below the FM threshold. We have designed a heterodyne interferometer which allows the shot noise limited detection at 1550 nm wavelength close to the theoretical possible CNR. We present calculations of the fundamental noise contributions in interferometric light detection for a comparison of the achievable CNR between common HeNe vibrometers and IR vibrometers. The calculations are backed by measurements that show the devices working close to the theoretical limits. The achievable noise level of the demodulated velocity signal is shown in dependence from the standoff distance. Our novel heterodyne interferometer has been transferred to the Polytec product RSV-150. An application example of this new sensor will be demonstrated.

  6. THE SPECTRUM OF THORIUM FROM 250 nm TO 5500 nm: RITZ WAVELENGTHS AND OPTIMIZED ENERGY LEVELS

    SciTech Connect

    Redman, Stephen L.; Nave, Gillian; Sansonetti, Craig J.

    2014-03-01

    We have made precise observations of a thorium-argon hollow cathode lamp emission spectrum in the region between 350 nm and 1175 nm using a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. Our measurements are combined with results from seven previously published thorium line lists to re-optimize the energy levels of neutral, singly, and doubly ionized thorium (Th I, Th II, and Th III). Using the optimized level values, we calculate accurate Ritz wavelengths for 19, 874 thorium lines between 250 nm and 5500 nm (40, 000 cm{sup –1} to 1800 cm{sup –1}). We have also found 102 new thorium energy levels. A systematic analysis of previous measurements in light of our new results allows us to identify and propose corrections for systematic errors in Palmer and Engleman and typographical errors and incorrect classifications in Kerber et al. We also found a large scatter with respect to the thorium line list of Lovis and Pepe. We anticipate that our Ritz wavelengths will lead to improved measurement accuracy for current and future spectrographs that make use of thorium-argon or thorium-neon lamps as calibration standards.

  7. The Spectrum of Thorium from 250 nm to 5500 nm: Ritz Wavelengths and Optimized Energy Levels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redman, Stephen L.; Nave, Gillian; Sansonetti, Craig J.

    2014-03-01

    We have made precise observations of a thorium-argon hollow cathode lamp emission spectrum in the region between 350 nm and 1175 nm using a high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer. Our measurements are combined with results from seven previously published thorium line lists to re-optimize the energy levels of neutral, singly, and doubly ionized thorium (Th I, Th II, and Th III). Using the optimized level values, we calculate accurate Ritz wavelengths for 19, 874 thorium lines between 250 nm and 5500 nm (40, 000 cm-1 to 1800 cm-1). We have also found 102 new thorium energy levels. A systematic analysis of previous measurements in light of our new results allows us to identify and propose corrections for systematic errors in Palmer & Engleman and typographical errors and incorrect classifications in Kerber et al. We also found a large scatter with respect to the thorium line list of Lovis & Pepe. We anticipate that our Ritz wavelengths will lead to improved measurement accuracy for current and future spectrographs that make use of thorium-argon or thorium-neon lamps as calibration standards.

  8. Optical constants determination of neodymium and gadolinium in the 3-nm to 100-nm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kjornrattanawanich, B.; Windt, D. L.; Uspenskii, Y. A.; Seely, J. F.

    2006-08-01

    The optical constants (n, k) of the wavelength-dependent index of refraction N = n+ik = 1-δ+ik of Nd (Neodymium) and Gd (Gadolinium) are determined in the wavelength range of 3 nm to 100 nm by the transmittance method using synchrotron radiation. Nd and Gd films with thicknesses ranging from 5 nm to 180 nm were fabricated on Si photodiodes (which served as the coating substrates as well as the detectors) and capped with Si layers to protect these reactive rare earth elements from oxidation. The imaginary part (k) obtained directly from the transmittance measurement is used in the derivation of the real part (δ) of the complex index of refraction N through the Kramers- Kronig integral. The measured optical constants are used in the design of currently developed Nd- and Gd-based multilayers for solar imaging applications. Our results on Nd and Gd optical constants and the reflectance of some Nd- and Gd-based multilayers are presented.

  9. Measurements of Stokes parameters of materials at 1064-nm and 532-nm wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Songxin; Narayanan, Ram M.; Kalshoven, James E., Jr.

    2001-09-01

    Laser radar systems have found wide applications in the field of remote sensing. Reflectance as well as polarization features are used together for applications ranging from environmental monitoring to target classification. The Stokes parameters are ideal quantities for characterizing the above features because they provide useful information on both light intensity and polarization state. The University of Nebraska is currently refurbishing an airborne multi-wavelength laser radar system based on the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) developed Airborne Laser Polarimetric Sensor (ALPS). The system uses a Nd:YAG laser operating at wavelengths of 1064 nm and 532 nm, and contains four channels at each wavelength to measure the polarization states. This system was used to measure the Stokes parameters of backscattered laser light from different materials. These included canvas tarp, white paper, plywood, concrete, aluminum plate and anodized aluminum plate. The data provide an understanding of the polarized scattering properties of various materials, and are expected to be useful in developing target discrimination algorithms.

  10. Short-wavelength infrared laser activates the auditory neurons: comparing the effect of 980 vs. 810 nm wavelength.

    PubMed

    Tian, Lan; Wang, Jingxuan; Wei, Ying; Lu, Jianren; Xu, Anting; Xia, Ming

    2017-02-01

    Research on auditory neural triggering by optical stimulus has been developed as an emerging technique to elicit the auditory neural response, which may provide an alternative method to the cochlear implants. However, most previous studies have been focused on using longer-wavelength near-infrared (>1800 nm) laser. The effect comparison of different laser wavelengths in short-wavelength infrared (SWIR) range on the auditory neural stimulation has not been previously explored. In this study, the pulsed 980- and 810-nm SWIR lasers were applied as optical stimuli to irradiate the auditory neurons in the cochlea of five deafened guinea pigs and the neural response under the two laser wavelengths was compared by recording the evoked optical auditory brainstem responses (OABRs). In addition, the effect of radiant exposure, laser pulse width, and threshold with the two laser wavelengths was further investigated and compared. The one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze those data. Results showed that the OABR amplitude with the 980-nm laser is higher than the amplitude with the 810-nm laser under the same radiant exposure from 10 to 102 mJ/cm(2). And the laser stimulation of 980 nm wavelength has lower threshold radiant exposure than the 810 nm wavelength at varied pulse duration in 20-500 μs range. Moreover, the 810-nm laser has a wider optimized pulse duration range than the 980-nm laser for the auditory neural stimulation.

  11. Orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength Nd:LuVO4 laser at 1086 nm and 1089 nm.

    PubMed

    Huang, Y P; Cho, C Y; Huang, Y J; Chen, Y F

    2012-02-27

    A comparison between the fluorescence spectra of the Nd-doped vanadate crystals (Nd:YVO4, Nd:GdVO4, Nd:LuVO4) for the 4F3/2 → 4I11/2 transition is studied. We numerically analyze the condition of gain-to-loss balance via an uncoated intracavity etalon to achieve the dual-wavelength operation. We further experimentally demonstrate the orthogonally polarized dual-wavelength laser with a single Nd:LuVO4 crystal. The simultaneous dual-wavelength Nd:LuVO4 laser at 1085.7 nm in σ polarization and 1088.5 nm in π polarization is realized. At an incident pump power of 12 W, the average output power obtained at 1085.7 nm and 1088.5 nm is 0.4 W and 1.7 W, respectively.

  12. Continuous 1052, 1064 nm dual-wavelength Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaozhong; Yuan, Haiyang; Wang, Mingshan; Huang, Wencai

    2016-10-01

    Dual-wavelength lasers are usually obtained through balancing the net gain of the two oscillating lines. Competition between transitions 1052 nm, 1061 nm and 1064 nm is utilized to realize a continuous wave 1052 and 1064 nm dual-wavelength Nd:YAG laser firstly in this paper. A specially designed Fabry-Perot band-pass filter is exploited as output coupler to control the thresholds of the oscillating wavelengths. The maximum power of the dual-wavelength laser is 1.6 W and the slope efficiency is about 10%. The power instability of the output dual-wavelength laser is smaller than ±4% in half an hour. The mechanism presented in this paper may provide a new way to obtain dual-wavelength lasers.

  13. Efficient laser operation of Nd3+:Lu2O3 at various wavelengths between 917 nm and 1463 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Brunn, P.; Heuer, A. M.; Fornasiero, L.; Huber, G.; Kränkel, C.

    2016-08-01

    Even though the first Nd3+-doped sesquioxide lasers have been realized more than 50 years ago, up to now no reports on efficient laser operation of Nd3+:doped sesquioxides can be found. In this work, we review the favorable spectroscopic properties of the sesquioxide Nd3+:Lu2O3 in terms of ground state absorption, stimulated emission, and excited state absorption cross sections as well as the upper level lifetime. Making use of these properties, we achieved efficient laser performance on eight different laser transitions in the wavelength range between 917 nm and 1463 nm under Ti:sapphire laser pumping using state-of-the-art HEM-grown Nd3+:Lu2O3 crystals with good optical quality. At the strongest transition around 1076 nm we determined a slope efficiency of 69%, which represents the highest efficiency ever obtained for a Nd3+-doped sesquioxide. Furthermore, we could generate watt level output powers and high slope efficiencies for seven other transitions. Lasers at 917 nm, 1053 nm, 1108 nm and 1463 nm were realized for the first time and the latter represents one of the longest laser wavelengths obtained on the 4F3/2  →  4I13/2 transition in Nd3+-doped materials.

  14. Wavelength dependence on the forensic analysis of glass by nanosecond 266 nm and 1064 nm laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Cahoon, Erica M.; Almirall, Jose R.

    2010-05-01

    Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy can be used for the chemical characterization of glass to provide evidence of an association between a fragment found at a crime scene to a source of glass of known origin. Two different laser irradiances, 266 nm and 1064 nm, were used to conduct qualitative and quantitative analysis of glass standards. Single-pulse and double-pulse configurations and lens-to-sample-distance settings were optimized to yield the best laser-glass coupling. Laser energy and acquisition timing delays were also optimized to result in the highest signal-to-noise ratio corresponding to the highest precision and accuracy. The crater morphology was examined and the mass removed was calculated for both the 266 nm and 1064 nm irradiations. The analytical figures of merit suggest that the 266 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths are capable of good performance for the forensic chemical characterization of glass. The results presented here suggest that the 266 nm laser produces a better laser-glass matrix coupling, resulting in a better stoichiometric representation of the glass sample. The 266 nm irradiance is therefore recommended for the forensic analysis and comparison of glass samples.

  15. CdTe surface roughness by Raman spectroscopy using the 830 nm wavelength.

    PubMed

    Frausto-Reyes, C; Molina-Contreras, J Rafael; Medina-Gutiérrez, C; Calixto, Sergio

    2006-09-01

    A Raman spectroscopic study was performed to detect the surface roughness of a cadmium telluride (CdTe) wafer sample, using the 514.5, 632.8 and 830.0 nm excitations wavelengths. To verify the relation between the roughness and the structure of Raman spectra, in certain zones of the sample, we measured their roughness with an atomic force microscopy. It was found that, using the 830 nm wavelength there is a direct correspondence between the spectrum structure and the surface roughness. For the others wavelengths it was found, however, that there is not a clearly correspondence between them. Our results suggest that, using the excitation wavelength of 830 nm the Raman spectroscopy can be used as an on-line roughness monitor on the CdTe growth.

  16. Measurement of optical absorption coefficient of bio-tissue at 532nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chuyun; Li, Zhengjia; Yao, Yucheng; He, Yanyan

    2007-05-01

    Laser technology has succeeded in medical application. High power 532nm laser has applied in prostate ablation and other clinic application. To understand optical property of bio-tissue at 532nm wavelength, a method of monitoring surface temperature was used to measure absorption coefficient of gall-stone, porcine liver and canine prostate. The absorption coefficient of gall-stone is about 62cm -1 at 532nm wavelength, and those of porcine liver and canine prostate are about 13cm -1 and 5.4cm -1, respectively. These results help to understand the optical property of bio-tissue and offer theoretic reference for optical dosimetry in clinic application.

  17. High-order harmonic generation from plasma plume pumped by 400 nm wavelength laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ganeev, Rashid A.; Elouga Bom, Luc B.; Ozaki, Tsuneyuki

    2007-09-24

    The authors present their study on high-order harmonic generation pumped by 400 nm wavelength laser from plasma plumes produced on the surfaces of various solid-state targets. The maximum harmonic cutoff was observed for Be plasma (31st harmonic, {lambda}=12.9 nm). They compared these results with harmonic generation pumped by 800 nm wavelength laser. The authors demonstrated single harmonic enhancement for Cr, Sn, Sb, and Mn plasmas. They also studied the use of varying the chirp of the pump laser to control the enhancement of single harmonics within the plateau.

  18. Optical coherence tomography based imaging of dental demineralisation and cavity restoration in 840 nm and 1310 nm wavelength regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damodaran, Vani; Rao, Suresh Ranga; Vasa, Nilesh J.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, a study of in-house built optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with a wavelength of 840 nm for imaging of dental caries, progress in demineralisation and cavity restoration is presented. The caries when imaged with the 840 nm OCT system showed minute demineralisation in the order of 5 μm. The OCT system was also proposed to study the growth of lesion and this was demonstrated by artificially inducing caries with a demineralisation solution of pH 4.8. The progress of carious lesion to a depth of about 50-60 μm after 60 hours of demineralisation was clearly observed with the 840 nm OCT system. The tooth samples were subjected to accelerated demineralisation condition at pH of approximately 2.3 to study the adverse effects and the onset of cavity formation was clearly observed. The restoration of cavity was also studied by employing different restorative materials (filled and unfilled). In the case of restoration without filler material (unfilled), the restoration boundaries were clearly observed. Overall, results were comparable with that of the widely used 1310 nm OCT system. In the case of restoration with filler material, the 1310 nm OCT imaging displayed better imaging capacity due to lower scattering than 840 nm imaging.

  19. The temperature dependence of refractive index of hemoglobin at the wavelengths 930 and 1100 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazareva, Ekaterina N.; Tuchin, Valery V.

    2016-04-01

    In this study, the refractive index of hemoglobin was measured at different temperatures within a physiological range and above that is characteristic to light-blood interaction at laser therapy. Measurements were carried out using the multi-wavelength Abbe refractometer (Atago, Japan). The refractive index was measured at two NIR wavelengths of 930 nm and 1100 nm. Samples of hemoglobin solutions with concentration of 80, 120 and 160 g/l were investigated. The temperature was varied between 25 and 55 °C. It was shown that the dependence of the refractive index of hemoglobin is nonlinear with temperature, which may be associated with changes in molecular structure of hemoglobin.

  20. Long wavelength GaN blue laser (400-490nm) development

    SciTech Connect

    DenBaars, S P; Abare, A; Sink, K; Kozodoy, P; Hansen, M; Bowers, J; Mishra, U; Coldren, L; Meyer, G

    2000-10-26

    Room temperature (RT) pulsed operation of blue nitride based multi-quantum well (MQW) laser diodes grown on c-plane sapphire substrates was achieved. Atmospheric pressure MOCVD was used to grow the active region of the device which consisted of a 10 pair In{sub 0.21}Ga{sub 0.79}N (2.5nm)/In{sub 0.07}Ga{sub 0.93}N (5nm) InGaN MQW. The threshold current density was reduced by a factor of 2 from 10 kA/cm{sup 2} for laser diodes grown on sapphire substrates to 4.8 kA/cm{sub 2} for laser diodes grown on lateral epitaxial overgrowth (LEO) GaN on sapphire. Lasing wavelengths as long as 425nm were obtained. LEDs with emission wavelengths as long as 500nm were obtained by increasing the Indium content. These results show that a reduction in nonradiative recombination from a reduced dislocation density leads to a higher internal quantum efficiency. Further research on GaN based laser diodes is needed to extend the wavelength to 490nm which is required for numerous bio-detection applications. The GaN blue lasers will be used to stimulate fluorescence in special dye molecules when the dyes are attached to specific molecules or microorganisms. Fluorescein is one commonly used dye molecule for chemical and biological warfare agent detection, and its optimal excitation wavelength is 490 nm. InGaN alloys can be used to reach this wavelength.

  1. A Sounding Rocket Mission Concept to Acquire High-Resolution Radiometric Spectra Spanning the 9 nm - 31 nm Wavelength Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. Habash; Cirtain, Jonathan; McGuirck, Michael; Pavelitz, Steven; Weber, Ed.; Winebarger, Amy

    2012-01-01

    When studying Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) emissions, both single-wavelength, two- dimensional (2D) spectroheliograms and multi-wavelength, one-dimensional (1D) line spectra are important, especially for a thorough understanding of the complex processes in the solar magnetized plasma from the base of the chromosphere through the corona. 2D image data are required for a detailed study of spatial structures, whereas radiometric (i.e., spectral) data provide information on relevant atomic excitation/ionization state densities (and thus temperature). Using both imaging and radiometric techniques, several satellite missions presently study solar dynamics in the EUV, including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Hinode, and the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The EUV wavelengths of interest typically span 9 nm to 31 nm, with the shorter wavelengths being associated with the hottest features (e.g., intense flares and bright points) and the longer wavelengths associated with cooler features (e.g., coronal holes and filaments). Because the optical components of satellite instruments degrade over time, it is not uncommon to conduct sounding rocket underflights for calibration purposes. The authors have designed a radiometric sounding rocket payload that could serve as both a calibration underflight for and a complementary scientific mission to the upcoming Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) mission aboard the GOES-R satellite (scheduled for a 2015 launch). The challenge to provide quality radiometric line spectra over the 9-31 nm range covered by SUVI was driven by the multilayer coatings required to make the optical components, including mirrors and gratings, reflective over the entire range. Typically, these multilayers provide useful EUV reflectances over bandwidths of a few nm. Our solution to this problem was to employ a three-telescope system in which the optical components were coated with multilayers that spanned three wavelength ranges to cover

  2. Wavelength Dependence in the Analysis of Carbon Content in Coal by Nanosecond 266 nm and 1064 nm Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiongwei; Wang, Zhe; Fu, Yangting; Li, Zheng; Ni, Weidou

    2015-08-01

    The wavelength dependence of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in the analysis of the carbon contents of coal was studied using 266 nm and 1064 nm laser radiations. Compared with the 1064 nm wavelength laser ablation, the 266 nm wavelength laser ablation has less thermal effects, resulting in a better crater morphology on the coal pellets. Besides, the 266 nm wavelength laser ablation also provides better laser-sample coupling and less plasma shielding, resulting in a higher carbon line intensity and better signal reproducibility. The carbon contents in the bituminous coal samples have better linearity with the line intensities of atomic carbon measured by the 266 nm wavelength than those measured by the 1064 nm wavelength. The partial least square (PLS) model was established for the quantitative analysis of the carbon content in coal samples by LIBS. The results show that both of the 266 nm and 1064 nm wavelengths are capable of achieving good performance for the quantitative analysis of carbon content in coal using the PLS method. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51276100) and National Basic Research Program of China (973 Program) (No. 2013CB228501)

  3. 1300 nm wavelength InAs quantum dot photodetector grown on silicon.

    PubMed

    Sandall, Ian; Ng, Jo Shien; David, John P R; Tan, Chee Hing; Wang, Ting; Liu, Huiyun

    2012-05-07

    The optical and electrical properties of InAs quantum dots epitaxially grown on a silicon substrate have been investigated to evaluate their potential as both photodiodes and avalanche photodiodes (APDs) operating at a wavelength of 1300 nm. A peak responsivity of 5 mA/W was observed at 1280 nm, with an absorption tail extending beyond 1300 nm, while the dark currents were two orders of magnitude lower than those reported for Ge on Si photodiodes. The diodes exhibited avalanche breakdown at 22 V reverse bias which is probably dominated by impact ionisation occurring in the GaAs and AlGaAs barrier layers. A red shift in the absorption peak of 61.2 meV was measured when the reverse bias was increased from 0 to 22 V, which we attributed to the quantum confined stark effect. This shift also leads to an increase in the responsivity at a fixed wavelength as the bias is increased, yielding a maximum increase in responsivity by a factor of 140 at the wavelength of 1365 nm, illustrating the potential for such a structure to be used as an optical modulator.

  4. Anisotropic dependence of tune-out wavelength near Dy 741-nm transition.

    PubMed

    Kao, Wil; Tang, Yijun; Burdick, Nathaniel Q; Lev, Benjamin L

    2017-02-20

    We report the first measurement of a tune-out wavelength for ground-state bosonic Dy and linearly polarized light. The tune-out wavelength is measured as a detuning from the nearby narrow-line 741-nm transition in 162Dy, and is the wavelength at which the total Stark shift of the ground state vanishes. We find that it strongly depends on the relative angle between the optical field and quantization axis due to Dy's large tensor polarizability. This anisotropy provides a wide, 22-GHz tunability of the tune-out frequency for linearly polarized light, in contrast to Rb and Cs whose near-infrared tune-out wavelengths do not exhibit large anisotropy. The measurements of the total light shift are performed by measuring the contrast of multipulse Kapitza-Dirac diffraction. The calculated wavelengths are within a few GHz of the measured values using known Dy electronic transition data. The lack of hyperfine structure in bosonic Dy implies that the tune-out wavelengths for the other bosonic Dy isotopes should be related to this 162Dy measurement by the known isotope shifts.

  5. Parametric Study of Up-Conversion Efficiency in Er-Doped Lanthanide Hosts Under 780 nm/980 nm Excitation Wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samir, E.; Shehata, N.; Aldacher, M.; Kandas, I.

    2016-06-01

    Up-conversion is a process of converting low energy light photons to higher energy ones, which can be extensively used in many applications. This paper presents a detailed parametric study of the up-conversion process under different wavelength excitations—780 nm and 980 nm—showing the optical conversion mechanisms that affect the emitted light quantum yield efficiencies. The studied material is erbium-doped β-NaYF4 material, which is one of the most recently studied materials due to its low phonon energy. The studied simulation considers most processes and possible transitions that can take place between Er3+ ions. Einstein coefficients, which are the main parameters that are responsible for the transitions probabilities, are discussed in detail using Judd-Ofelt analysis. In addition, the effect of changing some parametric values is discussed, showing their optimum values that could improve the quantum yield efficiency. This model is very promising, and generic, and can be applied for any host material under any excitation wavelengths by varying the material-dependent parameters.

  6. Wavelength and Intensity Dependence of Short Pulse Laser Xenon Double Ionization between 500 and 2300 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gingras, G.; Tripathi, A.; Witzel, B.

    2009-10-01

    The wavelength and intensity dependence of xenon ionization with 50 fs laser pulses has been studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We compare the ion yield distribution of singly and doubly charged xenon with the Perelomov-Popov-Terent’ev (PPT) theory, Perelomov, Popov, and Terent’ev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz.ZETFA70044-4510 50, 1393 (1966) PerelomovPopovTerent’ev[Sov. Phys. JETPSPHJAR0038-5646 23, 924 (1966)], in the regime between 500 and 2300 nm. The intensity dependence for each wavelength is measured in a range between 1×1013 and 1×1015W/cm2. The Xe+-ion signal is in good agreement with the PPT theory at all used wavelengths. In addition we demonstrate that ionic 5s5p6 S2 state is excited by an electron impact excitation process and contributes to the nonsequential double ionization process.

  7. Wavelength and intensity dependence of short pulse laser xenon double ionization between 500 and 2300 nm.

    PubMed

    Gingras, G; Tripathi, A; Witzel, B

    2009-10-23

    The wavelength and intensity dependence of xenon ionization with 50 fs laser pulses has been studied using time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We compare the ion yield distribution of singly and doubly charged xenon with the Perelomov-Popov-Terent'ev (PPT) theory, Perelomov, Popov, and Terent'ev, Zh. Eksp. Teor. Fiz. 50, 1393 (1966) [Sov. Phys. JETP 23, 924 (1966)], in the regime between 500 and 2300 nm. The intensity dependence for each wavelength is measured in a range between 1 x 10(13) and 1 x 10(15) W/cm2. The Xe+-ion signal is in good agreement with the PPT theory at all used wavelengths. In addition we demonstrate that ionic 5s5p6 2S state is excited by an electron impact excitation process and contributes to the nonsequential double ionization process.

  8. New silicon photodiodes for detection of the 1064nm wavelength radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wegrzecki, Maciej; Piotrowski, Tadeusz; Puzewicz, Zbigniew; Bar, Jan; Czarnota, Ryszard; Dobrowolski, Rafal; Klimov, Andrii; Kulawik, Jan; Kłos, Helena; Marchewka, Michał; Nieprzecki, Marek; Panas, Andrzej; Seredyński, Bartłomiej; Sierakowski, Andrzej; Słysz, Wojciech; Synkiewicz, Beata; Szmigiel, Dariusz; Zaborowski, Michał

    2016-12-01

    In this paper a concept of a new bulk structure of p+-υ-n+ silicon photodiodes optimized for the detection of fast-changing radiation at the 1064 nm wavelength is presented. The design and technology for two types of quadrant photodiodes, the 8-segment photodiode and the 32-element linear photodiode array that were developed according to the concept are described. Electric and photoelectric parameters of the photodiodes mentioned above are presented.

  9. Optical properties of circulating human blood in the wavelength range 400-2500 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggan, Andre; Friebel, Moritz; Doerschel, Klaus; Hahn, Andreas; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1999-01-01

    Knowledge about the optical properties (mu) a, (mu) s, and g of human blood plays an important role for many diagnostic and therapeutic applications in laser medicine and medical diagnostics. They strongly depend on physiological parameters such as oxygen saturation, osmolarity, flow conditions, haematocrit, etc. The integrating sphere technique and inverse Monte Carlo simulations were applied to measure (mu) a, (mu) s, and g of circulating human blood. At 633 nm the optical properties of human blood with a haematocrit of 10% and an oxygen saturation of 98% were found to be 0.210 +/- 0.002 mm-1 for (mu) a, 77.3 +/- 0.5 mm-1 for (mu) s, and 0.994 +/- 0.001 for the g factor. An increase of the haematocrit up to 50% lead to a linear increase of absorption and reduced scattering. Variations in osmolarity and wall shear rate led to changes of all three parameters while variations in the oxygen saturation only led to a significant change of the absorption coefficient. A spectrum of all three parameters was measured in the wavelength range 400 - 2500 nm for oxygenated and deoxygenated blood, showing that blood absorption followed the absorption behavior of haemoglobin and water. The scattering coefficient decreased for wavelengths above 500 nm with approximately (lambda) -1.7; the g factor was higher than 0.9 over the whole wavelength range.

  10. [Carbonization in endovasal laser obliteration by radial light guide with wavelength of 1470 and 970 nm].

    PubMed

    Shaidakov, E V; Ilyukhin, E A; Grigoryan, A G; Bulatov, V L; Rosukhovsky, D A; Shonov, O A

    2015-01-01

    The authors assessed the effect of carbonization and its influence on the parameters of endovasal laser obliteration (EVLO) depending on wavelength of laser radiation (970 and 1470 nm) using a light guide with radial emission. They also analysed the value of drop of radiation power of the light guide after performing EVLO and visually assessed the degree of damage of the glass tip of the radial fibre by means of ultra-close-up photography. The study comprised a total of 20 patients with varicose disease. A total of ten procedures of EVLO were performed in two modes: mode one - W-laser 1470 nm, mode two - H-laser 970 nm, using fibre with radial emission, an automatic retractor of the light guide. It was determined that the median of power loss after EVLO with W-laser amounted to 0.6 W, and that for H-laser - 3.15 W (p=0.002). Ultra-close-up photography showed pronounced damage of the glass tip of the radial light guide while using H-laser and no damages while using the W-laser. It was proved that using laser radiation with wavelength of 970 nm using the light guide with radial emission leads to pronounced carbonization on the surface of the glass tip of the light guide, its damage, a decrease in radiation power and risk of mechanical destruction of the flask. Using the laser with wavelength of 1470 nm with the use of radial light guide did not result in the development of such negative effects, which increases the service life of laser fibre and makes it possible to use it for obliteration of several segments in one patient.

  11. Three-dimensional deep sub-wavelength defect detection using λ = 193 nm optical microscopy.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Bryan M; Sohn, Martin Y; Goasmat, Francois; Zhou, Hui; Vladár, András E; Silver, Richard M; Arceo, Abraham

    2013-11-04

    Optical microscopy is sensitive both to arrays of nanoscale features and to their imperfections. Optimizing scattered electromagnetic field intensities from deep sub-wavelength nanometer scale structures represents an important element of optical metrology. Current, well-established optical methods used to identify defects in semiconductor patterning are in jeopardy by upcoming sub-20 nm device dimensions. A novel volumetric analysis for processing focus-resolved images of defects is presented using simulated and experimental examples. This new method allows defects as narrow as (16 ± 2) nm (k = 1) to be revealed using 193 nm light with focus and illumination conditions optimized for three-dimensional data analysis. Quantitative metrics to compare two-dimensional and three-dimensional imaging indicate possible fourfold improvements in sensitivity using these methods.

  12. A compact dual-wavelength Nd:LuVO4 laser with adjustable power-ratio between 1064 nm and 1342 nm lines by controlling polarization dependent loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Yaoyao; Yu, Haijuan; Zhang, Jingyuan; Zhang, Ling; He, Chaojian; Lin, Xuechun

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a compact dual-wavelength operation of Nd:LuVO4 laser with a power-ratio adjustable between 1064 nm and 1342 nm lines in a compound cavity configuration. The output power at two wavelengths of the laser indicates that it depends not only on pumping-power and but also on the controllable polarization loss in the cavity. Also, the power-ratio, defined as ratio between the output power at 1064 nm and that at 1342 nm, can be adjusted from 0 to 8 or higher accurately by rotating a quarter-wave plate (QWP) in the cavity.

  13. Skin damage thresholds with continuous-wave laser exposures at the infrared wavelength of 1319 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, Jeffrey W.; Harbert, Corey A.; Noojin, Gary D.; Noojin, Isaac D.; Schuster, Kurt J.; Shingledecker, Aurora D.; Stolarski, David J.; Kumru, Semih S.

    2011-03-01

    ABSTRACT Damage thresholds (ED50) for skin using Yucatan mini-pig (Sus scrofa domestica) have been determined at the operational wavelength of 1319 nm with beam diameters of 0.61 cm and 0.96 cm. Exposure durations of 0.25, 1.0, 2.5 and 10 seconds were used to determine trends in damage threshold with respect to exposure time and beam diameter at this moderately-high penetrating wavelength. A relatively narrow range of total radiant exposure from 37.4 J/cm2 to 62.3 J/cm2 average was observed for threshold damage with laser parameters encompassing a factor of two in beam area and a factor of forty in exposure duration.

  14. Performance of a polarizer using synthetic mica crystal in the 12-25 nm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Ming-Qi; Chen, Kai; Zhao, Jia; Sun, Li-Juan; Xi, Shi-Bo; Yan, Fen

    2011-05-01

    To develop polarizer functioning in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and soft X-ray region, the polarization performance of synthetic mica has been investigated theoretically with a simulation code using Fresnel equations and optical constants from the Henke database. The reflectance of synthetic mica crystal for s and p polarization was measured to investigate its polarization performance in a home-made synchrotron radiation soft X-ray polarimeter at beamline 3W1B, Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility (BSRF). The reflectivity of the synthetic mica crystal at an angle of grazing incidence of 48° was obtained from the experimental data, which is about 4.8×10-3 at 25 nm and 6.0×10-4 at 12 nm, and the linear polarizance of the X-ray reflected by the synthetic mica crystal that we measured using an analyzer-rotating method increases from 80% to 96.6% in this EUV region, while higher than 98.2% in the simulation. The result indicates that this synthetic mica crystal works as a practical polarizer in this EUV region of 12-25 nm, and also in an extensive wavelength region higher than 25 nm.

  15. 21-nm-range wavelength-tunable L-band Er-doped fiber linear-cavity laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shiquan; Zhao, Chunliu; Li, Zhaohui; Ding, Lei; Yuan, Shuzhong; Dong, Xiaoyi

    2001-10-01

    A novel method, which utilizes amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) as a secondary pump source, is presented for implanting a linear cavity erbium-doped fiber laser operating in L-Band. The output wavelength tuned from 1566 nm to 1587 nm, about 21 nm tuning range, was obtained in the experiment and the stability of the laser is very good.

  16. Aqueous glucose measurement using differential absorption-based frequency domain optical coherence tomography at wavelengths of 1310 nm and 1625 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Pauline; Manoj, Murali; Sujatha, N.; Vasa, Nilesh J.; Rao, Suresh R.

    2015-07-01

    This work presents a combination of differential absorption technique and frequency domain optical coherence tomography for detection of glucose, which is an important analyte in medical diagnosis of diabetes. Differential absorption technique is used to detect glucose selectively in the presence of interfering species especially water and frequency domain optical coherence tomography (FDOCT) helps to obtain faster acquisition of depth information. Two broadband super-luminescent diode (SLED) sources with centre wavelengths 1586 nm (wavelength range of 1540 to 1640 nm) and 1312 nm (wavelength range of 1240 to 1380 nm) and a spectral width of ≍ 60 nm (FWHM) are used. Preliminary studies on absorption spectroscopy using various concentrations of aqueous glucose solution gave promising results to distinguish the absorption characteristics of glucose at two wavelengths 1310 nm (outside the absorption band of glucose) and 1625 nm (within the absorption band of glucose). In order to mimic the optical properties of biological skin tissue, 2% and 10% of 20% intralipid with various concentrations of glucose (0 to 4000 mg/dL) was prepared and used as sample. Using OCT technique, interference spectra were obtained using an optical spectrum analyzer with a resolution of 0.5 nm. Further processing of the interference spectra provided information on reflections from the surfaces of the cuvette containing the aqueous glucose sample. Due to the absorption of glucose in the wavelength range of 1540 nm to 1640 nm, a trend of reduction in the intensity of the back reflected light was observed with increase in the concentration of glucose.

  17. Total attenuation coefficient of intralipid dilutions for discrete laser wavelengths between 405 and 1315 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dreischuh, Tanja N.; Gurdev, Ljuan L.; Vankov, Orlin I.; Avramov, Lachezar A.; Stoyanov, Dimitar V.

    2015-01-01

    The experimental investigations on different aspects of optical tomography require the knowledge of the optical parameters of tissues and tissue-like phantoms in order to unambiguously interpret the experimental data and specify characteristic inhomogeneities in tissue diagnostics. The main optical parameters of interest are the absorption coefficient, the scattering, backscattering, and reduced-scattering coefficients, the total attenuation (extinction) coefficient and the anisotropy factor. In this work, we extend our investigations of the optical properties of tissuemimicking phantoms, such as Intralipid-20% fat emulsion, using an approach we have developed recently based on the peculiarities of laser radiation beams propagating through semi-infinite turbid media. The dependence of the total attenuation coefficient on the Intralipid concentration, for laser radiation wavelengths λ=405, 672, 850, and 1314 nm, is studied, by using a set of phantoms consisting of different dilutions of Intralipid in distilled water. The experimental results for the extinction are in agreement with our previous results and with empiric formulae found by other authors concerning the wavelength dependence of the scattering coefficient of Intralipid -10% and Intralipid - 20%. They are also in agreement with known data of the water absorptance. As a whole, the results obtained in this work confirm the consideration of the experimental phantoms as semi-infinite media. They also confirm and extend theoretical and experimental results obtained previously, and reveal advantages of using longer wavelengths for deeper diagnostics of tissues and mimic turbid media.

  18. Attenuation of near-IR light through dentin at wavelengths from 1300-1650-nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Andrew C.; Darling, Cynthia L.; Chan, Kenneth H.; Fried, Daniel

    2014-02-01

    Light scattering in dental enamel decreases markedly from the UV to the near-IR and recent studies employing near-IR transillumination and reflectance imaging including optical coherence tomography indicate that this wavelength region is ideally suited for imaging dental caries due to the high transparency of enamel. The opacity of dentin is an important factor in optimizing the contrast of demineralization in reflectance measurements. It also influences the contrast of occlusal lesions in transillumination. Light scattering in dentin is an order of magnitude larger than in enamel, it is highly anisotropic and has a different spectral light scattering dependence than enamel. The objective of this study was to measure the optical attenuation of near-IR light through dentin at near-IR wavelengths from 1300-1650-nm. In this study the collimated transmission of near-IR light through polished thin sections of dentin of 0.05 to 0.6 mm thickness was measured. Beer-Lambert plots show that the attenuation coefficients range in magnitude from 20 to 40 cm-1. Attenuation increased significantly with increasing wavelength and the increases were not entirely consistent with increased water absorption.

  19. SOPROCARE - 450 nm wavelength detection tool for microbial plaque and gingival inflammation: a clinical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechmann, P.; Liou, Shasan W.; Rechmann, Beate M.; Featherstone, John D.

    2014-02-01

    Gingivitis due to microbial plaque and calculus can lead over time if left untreated to advanced periodontal disease with non-physiological pocket formation. Removal of microbial plaque in the gingivitis stage typically achieves gingival health. The SOPROCARE camera system emits blue light at 450 nm wavelength using three blue diodes. The 450 nm wavelength is located in the non-ionizing, visible spectral wavelength region and thus is not dangerous. It is assumed that using the SOPROCARE camera in perio-mode inflamed gingiva can easily be observed and inflammation can be scored due to fluorescence from porphyrins in blood. The assumption is also that illumination of microbial plaque with blue light induces fluorescence due to the bacteria and porphyrin content of the plaque and thus can help to make microbial plaque and calculus visible. Aim of the study with 55 subjects was to evaluate the ability of the SOPROCARE fluorescence camera system to detect, visualize and allow scoring of microbial plaque in comparison to the Turesky modification of the Quigley and Hein plaque index. A second goal was to detect and score gingival inflammation and correlated the findings to the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index. The study showed that scoring of microbial plaque as well as gingival inflammation levels similar to the established Turesky modified Quigley Hein index and the Silness and Löe gingival inflammation index can easily be done using the SOPROCARE fluorescence system in periomode. Linear regression fits between the different clinical indices and SOPROCARE scores in fluorescence perio-mode revealed the system's capacity for effective discrimination between scores.

  20. Empirical Relationships Between Optical Properties and Equivalent Diameters of Fractal Soot Aggregates at 550 Nm Wavelength.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Chakrabarty, Rajan K.; Liu, Li; Mishchenko, Michael I.

    2015-01-01

    Soot aggregates (SAs)-fractal clusters of small, spherical carbonaceous monomers-modulate the incoming visible solar radiation and contribute significantly to climate forcing. Experimentalists and climate modelers typically assume a spherical morphology for SAs when computing their optical properties, causing significant errors. Here, we calculate the optical properties of freshly-generated (fractal dimension Df = 1.8) and aged (Df = 2.6) SAs at 550 nm wavelength using the numericallyexact superposition T-Matrix method. These properties were expressed as functions of equivalent aerosol diameters as measured by contemporary aerosol instruments. This work improves upon previous efforts wherein SA optical properties were computed as a function of monomer number, rendering them unusable in practical applications. Future research will address the sensitivity of variation in refractive index, fractal prefactor, and monomer overlap of SAs on the reported empirical relationships.

  1. Influence of consecutive picosecond pulses at 532 nm wavelength on laser ablation of human teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirdan, Balsam M.; Antonelli, Luca; Batani, Dimitri; Jafer, Rashida; Jakubowska, Katarzyna; Tarazi, Saad al; Villa, Anna Maria; Vodopivec, Bruno; Volpe, Luca

    2014-07-01

    The interaction of 40 ps pulse duration laser emitting at 532 nm wavelength with human dental tissue (enamel, dentin, and dentin-enamel junction) has been investigated. The crater profile and the surface morphology have been studied by using a confocal auto-fluorescence microscope (working in reflection mode) and a scanning electron microscope. Crater profile and crater morphology were studied after applying consecutive laser pulses and it was found that the ablation depth increases with the number of consecutive pulses, leaving the crater diameter unchanged. We found that the thermal damage is reduced by using short duration laser pulses, which implies an increased retention of restorative material. We observe carbonization of the irradiated samples, which does not imply changes in the chemical composition. Finally, the use of 40 ps pulse duration laser may become a state of art in conservative dentistry.

  2. Optical properties of apple skin and flesh in the wavelength range from 350 to 2200 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeys, Wouter; Velazco-Roa, Maria A.; Thennadil, Suresh N.; Ramon, Herman; Nicolaï, Bart M.

    2008-03-01

    Optical measurement of fruit quality is challenging due to the presence of a skin around the fruit flesh and the multiple scattering by the structured tissues. To gain insight in the light-tissue interaction, the optical properties of apple skin and flesh tissue are estimated in the 350-2200 nm range for three cultivars. For this purpose, single integrating sphere measurements are combined with inverse adding-doubling. The observed absorption coefficient spectra are dominated by water in the near infrared and by pigments and chlorophyll in the visible region, whose concentrations are much higher in skin tissue. The scattering coefficient spectra show the monotonic decrease with increasing wavelength typical for biological tissues with skin tissue being approximately three times more scattering than flesh tissue. Comparison to the values from time-resolved spectroscopy reported in literature showed comparable profiles for the optical properties, but overestimation of the absorption coefficient values, due to light losses.

  3. Optical properties of apple skin and flesh in the wavelength range from 350 to 2200 nm.

    PubMed

    Saeys, Wouter; Velazco-Roa, Maria A; Thennadil, Suresh N; Ramon, Herman; Nicolaï, Bart M

    2008-03-01

    Optical measurement of fruit quality is challenging due to the presence of a skin around the fruit flesh and the multiple scattering by the structured tissues. To gain insight in the light-tissue interaction, the optical properties of apple skin and flesh tissue are estimated in the 350-2200 nm range for three cultivars. For this purpose, single integrating sphere measurements are combined with inverse adding-doubling. The observed absorption coefficient spectra are dominated by water in the near infrared and by pigments and chlorophyll in the visible region, whose concentrations are much higher in skin tissue. The scattering coefficient spectra show the monotonic decrease with increasing wavelength typical for biological tissues with skin tissue being approximately three times more scattering than flesh tissue. Comparison to the values from time-resolved spectroscopy reported in literature showed comparable profiles for the optical properties, but overestimation of the absorption coefficient values, due to light losses.

  4. LD end-pumped acousto-optic Q-switched 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. T.; Yu, M.; Wang, C.; Yu, K.; Yu, Y. J.; Chen, X. Y.; Jin, G. Y.

    2016-10-01

    Laser characteristics of acousto-optic Q-switched operation of 1319 nm/1338 nm dual-wavelength composite Nd:YAG laser were studied. Maximum output power of 5.77 W was achieved in CW operation. Under Q-switched operation, the maximum peak power of 3.96 kW and minimum pulse width of 65.6 ns was obtained at repetition frequency of 20 kHz with the duty ratio of 96%. The influence of the duration of the ultrasonic field acted on the Q-switch to the output characteristics of dual-wavelength composite Nd:YAG laser had been reported first time.

  5. Radiative lifetimes of nitrogen dioxide for excitation wavelengths from 400 to 750 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Patten, K.O. Jr.; Burley, J.D.; Johnston, H.S. )

    1990-10-04

    At room temperature, the radiative lifetimes of nitrogen dioxide excited by pulsed, tunable, dye laser radiation are measured in a 50-L flask, for excitation wavelengths ranging from 400 to 750 nm, at total pressures between 0.25 and 2.0 mTorr, and for times between 0.7 and 60 {mu}s. The data are analyzed in terms of the Stern-Volmer mechanism to give zero-pressure radiative constants (k{sub 0} = 1/{tau}{sub 0}) and empirical collisional quenching rate constants k{sub q} by ground-state nitrogen dioxide. (a) The observed radiative coefficients generally increase linearly with increasing excitation energy (cm{sup {minus}1}): k{sub 0}/s{sup {minus}1} = 0.504(E-E{sub 0}) + 7.96 {times} 10{sup 3}, where E is the excitation energy and E{sub 0} is the energy of the origin of the {sup 2}B{sub 2} excited state. At wavelengths above about 540 nm there are strong state-to-state variations of radiative lifetime, producing large apparent scatter in the data. The zero-pressure radiative lifetimes {tau}{sub 0} are compared to previous measurements and are in rough agreement with a number of earlier studies. (b) On the other hand, different investigators typically obtain different numerical values for the Stern-Volmer collisional quenching rate constants. As observed here, the quenching rate constants k{sub q} are found to vary by almost a factor of 6 as filters are changed in front of the photomultiplier tube with all other experimental conditions held constant. Some of the difficulties of observing meaningful quenching rate constants for nitrogen dioxide are discussed.

  6. High power laser diodes at 14xx nm wavelength range for industrial and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Telkkälä, Jarkko; Boucart, Julien; Krejci, Martin; Crum, Trevor; Lichtenstein, Norbert

    2014-03-01

    We report on the development of the latest generation of high power laser diodes at 14xx nm wavelength range suitable for industrial applications such as plastics welding and medical applications including acne treatment, skin rejuvenation and surgery. The paper presents the newest chip generation developed at II-VI Laser Enterprise, increasing the output power and the power conversion efficiency while retaining the reliability of the initial design. At an emission wavelength around 1440 nm we applied the improved design to a variety of assemblies exhibiting maximum power values as high as 7 W for broad-area single emitters. For 1 cm wide bars on conductive coolers and for bars on active micro channel coolers we have obtained 50 W and 72 W in continuous wave (cw) operation respectively. The maximum power measured for a 1 cm bar operated with 50 μs pulse width and 0.01% duty cycle was 184 W, demonstrating the potential of the chip design for optimized cooling. Power conversion efficiency values as high as 50% for a single emitter device and over 40% for mounted bars have been demonstrated, reducing the required power budget to operate the devices. Both active and conductive bar assembly configurations show polarization purity greater than 98%. Life testing has been conducted at 95 A, 50% duty cycle and 0.5 Hz hard pulsed operation for bars which were soldered to conductive copper CS mounts using our hard solder technology. The results after 5500 h, or 10 million "on-off" cycles show stable operation.

  7. Simultaneous dual-wavelength laser operation at 937 and 1062 nm in Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, F.; Sun, G. C.; Li, Y. D.; Dong, Y.; Li, S. T.

    2013-08-01

    Diode-end-pumped continuous-wave (cw) simultaneous dual-wavelength laser operation at 937 and 1062 nm in a single Nd3+:Gd3Ga5O12 (Nd:GGG) crystal was demonstrated. A total output power of 1.12 W at the two fundamental wavelengths was achieved at incident pump power of 17.6 W. The optical-to-optical conversion was up to 6.4% with respect to the incident pump power. To the best of our knowledge, this is first work on cw simultaneous dual-wavelength operation at 937 and 1062 nm in Nd:GGG crystal.

  8. 760nm: a new laser diode wavelength for hair removal modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wölz, Martin; Zorn, Martin; Pietrzak, Agnieszka; Kindsvater, Alex; Meusel, Jens; Hülsewede, Ralf; Sebastian, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    A new high-power semiconductor laser diode module, emitting at 760 nm is introduced. This wavelength permits optimum treatment results for fair skin individuals, as demonstrated by the use of Alexandrite lasers in dermatology. Hair removal applications benefit from the industry-standard diode laser design utilizing highly efficient, portable and light-weight construction. We show the performance of a tap-water-cooled encapsulated laser diode stack with a window for use in dermatological hand-pieces. The stack design takes into account the pulse lengths required for selectivity in heating the hair follicle vs. the skin. Super-long pulse durations place the hair removal laser between industry-standard CW and QCW applications. The new 760 nm laser diode bars are 30% fill factor devices with 1.5 mm long resonator cavities. At CW operation, these units provide 40 W of optical power at 43 A with wall-plug-efficiency greater than 50%. The maximum output power before COMD is 90 W. Lifetime measurements starting at 40 W show an optical power loss of 20% after about 3000 h. The hair removal modules are available in 1x3, 1x8 and 2x8 bar configurations.

  9. Linearly polarized, single-frequency, widely tunable Er:Yb bulk laser at around 1550 nm wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Taccheo, S.; Laporta, P.; Svelto, O.

    1996-11-01

    We report on a 36 nm tunable, single-frequency, linearly polarized Er:Yb:glass laser. A tuning range from 1528 to 1564 nm, with output power ranging from 1 to 8 mW, is achieved. Wavelength tuning and linearly polarized output are simultaneously obtained by using a special polarizing etalon with anisotropic absorption losses. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. Wavelength beam combining of a 980-nm tapered diode laser bar in an external cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Thestrup, Birgitte

    2010-04-01

    High power diode lasers are used in a large number of applications. A limiting factor for more widespread use of broad area lasers is the poor beam quality. Gain guided tapered diode lasers are ideal candidates for industrial applications that demands watt level output power with good beam quality. By adapting a bar geometry, the output power could be scaled even up to several tens of watts. Unfortunately, the high divergence which is a characteristic feature of the bar geometry could lead to a degradation of the overall beam quality of the laser bar. However, spectral beam combining is an effective solution for preserving the beam quality of the bar in the range of that of a single emitter and at the same time, enabling the power scaling. We report spectral beam combining applied to a 12 emitter tapered laser bar at 980 nm. The external cavity has been designed for a wavelength separation of 4.0 nm between the emitters. An output power of 9 W has been achieved at an operating current of 30 A. The combined beam had an M2 value (1/e2) of 5.3 along the slow axis which is comparable to that of a single tapered emitter on the laser bar. The overall beam combining efficiency was measured to be 63%. The output spectrum of the individual emitters was narrowed considerably. In the free running mode, the individual emitters displayed a broad spectrum of the order of 0.5-1.0 nm while the spectral width has been reduced to 30-100 pm in the spectral beam combining mode.

  11. Measurements of absolute absorption cross sections of ozone in the 185- to 254-nm wavelength region and the temperature dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    Laboratory measurements of the relative absorption cross sections of ozone at temperatures 195, 228, and 295 K have been made throughout the 185 to 254 nm wavelength region. The absolute absorption cross sections at the same temperatures have been measured at several discrete wavelengths in the 185 to 250 nm region. The absolute cross sections of ozone have been used to put the relative cross sections on a firm absolute basis throughout the 185 to 255 nm region. These recalibrated cross sections are slightly lower than those of Molina and Molina (1986), but the differences are within a few percent and would not be significant in atmospheric applications.

  12. Zirconium and Niobium Transmission Data at Wavelengths from 11-16 nm and 200-1200 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, T; Soufli, R; Gulikson, E; Clift, M

    2004-08-30

    Transmission measurements of niobium and zirconium at both extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) and ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared (UV/Vis/NIR) wavelengths are presented. Thin foils of various thicknesses mounted on nickel mesh substrates were measured, and these data were used to calculate the optical constants {delta} and {beta} of the complex refractive index n = 1- {delta} +i{beta}. {beta} values were calculated directly from the measured transmittance of the foils after normalizing for the nickel mesh. The average {beta} values for each set of foils are presented as a function of wavelength. The real (dispersive) part of the refractive index, {delta} was then calculated from Kramers-Kronig analysis by combining these {beta} values with those from previous experimental data and the atomic tables.

  13. Reflectivity of black-chromium coating at a wavelength of 121.6 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldosanov, Kamil A.

    1999-10-01

    This paper concerns the light-absorptive black-chromium (BC) coating intended for reduction of stray light in the satellite-borne optical instruments and particle-analyzing apparatus operating in open space under intensive solar UV illumination. Resolution of this problem is also important in connection with development of the extra-atmospheric Far UV astronomy. The total hemispherical reflectance (THR) measurements of the BC coating samples were carried out at a wavelength of 121.6 nm -- the most intensive line in the short-wave part of the solar UV spectrum which creates the main contribution to the background noise of detectors in space apparatus. THR of the samples tested at a wavelength of 121.6 nm was as low as 2%. The samples of the BC coating were subjected to standard mechanical and environmental tests simulating the shipping, storage, launching, flight, and operating conditions of the space equipment. THR measurements of the samples were made following exposure to each test. As a result of mechanical and environmental testing the following features of the BC coating were discovered: (1) the coating stands up well to all types of mechanical effects (vibratory loads, linear overloads, and impacts) to which the space equipment may be subjected both when shipping to the space- vehicle launching site and also when launching; (2) the most undesirable effect for the undamaged surface of the coating is humidity -- this causes an increase of reflectivity with a factor of 1.2 on average; (3) the most dangerous outcome for the BC coating is the effect of rubbing -- the reflectivity is increased about two times at the place of contact. Advantages of the BC coating consists in its low reflectivity both in the vacuum UV and within the visible ranges, as well as in the short-wave infrared range. The BC coatings is also assumed to possess following valuable attributes: (1) at grazing incidence its reflectivity might be less than that of other types of coatings; (2) low

  14. Diode-pumped simultaneous multi-wavelength linearly polarized Nd:YVO4 laser at 1062, 1064 and 1066 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping

    2016-01-01

    We report on a diode-end-pumped simultaneous multiple wavelength Nd:YVO4 laser. Dual-wavelength laser is achieved at a π-polarized 1064 nm emission line and a σ-polarized 1066 nm emission line with total maximum output power of 1.38 W. Moreover, tri-wavelength laser emission at the π-polarized 1064 nm emission line and σ-polarized 1062 and 1066 nm emission lines can also be obtained with total maximum output power of about 1.23 W, for the first time to our knowledge. The operation of such simultaneous dual- and tri-wavelength lasers is only realized by employing a simple glass etalon to modulate the intracavity losses for these potential lasing wavelengths inside of an intracavity polarizer, which therefore makes a very compact two-mirror linear cavity and simultaneous orthogonal lasing possible. Such orthogonal linearly polarized multi-wavelength laser sources could be especially promising in THz wave generation and in efficient nonlinear frequency conversion to visible lasers.

  15. Simultaneous dual-wavelength lasing at 1047 and 1053 nm and wavelength tuning to 1072 nm in a diode-pumped a-cut Nd : LiYF4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Xu, Bin; Cheng, Yongjie; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping

    2015-12-01

    We report on diode-end-pumped a-cut Nd:YLF laser on F→I transition. In a free-running regime, using an output coupler with a radius of curvature of 1000 mm, we obtain dual-wavelength laser operation at both π-polarized 1047 nm and σ-polarized 1053 nm with maximum output power of about 1.25 W and the highest slope efficiency of about 50.9% at pump power of 5.77 W at room temperature, for the first time to our knowledge. Furthermore, using a 0.1-mm glass plate as a wavelength selector, a dual-wavelength laser at 1047 and 1072 nm can also be yielded with the maximum output power of 0.34 W, which has not been reported before.

  16. Inflammatory Cytokine Expression and Sebum Production after Exposure of Cultured Human Sebocytes to Ultraviolet A Radiation and Light at Wavelengths of 650 nm and 830 nm

    PubMed Central

    Chae, Soo Yuhl; Ryu, Hyo Sub; Jang, Yong Hyun; Lee, Seok-Jong; Kim, Do Won

    2015-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of ultraviolet (UV) radiation, visible light, or infrared light therapy for the treatment of acne is the subject of ongoing scientific debate. Objective This study was conducted to investigate changes in sebum production and the expression of inflammatory cytokines, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), following exposure of cultured human sebocytes to UVA radiation and light at wavelengths of 650 nm and 830 nm. Methods Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays were performed to measure the gene expression levels of inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor-α), MMPs (MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-9), and AMPs (psoriasin, hBD-2, hBD-3, and LL-37) in cultured sebocytes after exposure to UVA radiation (2 J/cm2, 3 J/cm2, and 5 J/cm2) and light at wavelengths of 650 nm (14 J/cm2, 29 J/cm2, and 87 J/cm2) and 830 nm (5 J/cm2, 10 J/cm2, and 30 J/cm2). Expression of inflammatory cytokine proteins and sebum production were measured using enzyme-linked immunoassays and a lipid analysis kit, respectively. Results Exposure of cultured sebocytes to UVA radiation and light at wavelengths of 650 nm and 830 nm did not show a significant increase in the expression of inflammatory cytokines, MMPs, or AMPs. Sebum production was not significantly decreased after exposure to UVA radiation and light at both wavelengths. Conclusion We propose that UVA radiation, visible light, and infrared light can be used to target Propionibacterium acnes for the treatment of acne, without an increase in the expression of inflammatory biomarkers and sebum production. PMID:25834355

  17. High-temperature operation of 640 nm wavelength high-power laser diode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imanishi, Daisuke

    2017-03-01

    We realized the fabrication of a red semiconductor laser array with high optical power and reliability using an AlGaInP-based compound semiconductor. To obtain a high optical output, the semiconductor laser requires high-quality quantum wells. In this work, we improved quantum well layer abruptness by applying high-temperature growth condition to quantum wells. We obtained a very high optical power of 20.1 W with a wavelength of 644 nm under this growth condition using magnesium as a dopant for a p-type layer. As a results, we achieved a high characteristic temperature of 68 K and a high electrical-to-optical (E–O) conversion efficiency 37% at 15 W optical output. When the laser lifetime at a temperature of 35 °C and an optical output power of 6.6 W for operation is defined as the time when the output power decreases to 50%, which is usually used for defining the lifetime of ultra high-pressure (UHP) lamps in projection display, we can estimate the lifetime of this laser to be longer than 10000 h or more.

  18. The optical absorption of triatomic carbon C3 for the wavelength range 260 to 560 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. J.

    1978-01-01

    The spectral absorption properties of C3 have been measured in a shock tube containing a test gas mixture of acetylene diluted with argon. The absorption of a pulsed xenon light source was measured by means of eight photomultiplier channels to a spectrograph and an accompanying drum camera. The postshock test gas temperature and pressure were varied over the range 3240 to 4300 K and 37 to 229 kPa, respectively. The results showed appreciable absorption by C3 for the wavelength range 300 to 540 nm. The various reported measurements of the heat of formation of C3 which are available in the open literature were reviewed, and a value of 198 kcal/mol is recommended. This value, along with best available values for other species, was used to calculate the number density of C3 for the conditions of the present experiments in order to compute absorption cross section or electronic oscillator strength. The computed electronic oscillator strength varied from a high of 0.062 at 3300 K to a low of 0.036 at 3900 K.

  19. Laser microirradiation of Chinese hamster cells at wavelength 365 nm: effects of psoralen and caffeine

    SciTech Connect

    Cremer, T.; Peterson, S.P.; Cremer, C.; Berns, M.W.

    1981-03-01

    Cells of a V79 subline of the Chinese hamster were microirradiated at wavelength 365 nm in the presence of the psoralen derivative, trioxsalen. Microirradiation was accomplished by a pulsed argon laser microbeam either in anaphase or in interphase 3 h after mitosis. Inhibition of clonal growth and formation of micronuclei at the first postirradiation mitosis were observed after microirradiation of anaphase chromosomes and of small parts of the interphase nucleus. Microirradiation of the cytoplasm beside the interphase nucleus or between the sets of chromosomes moving apart from each other in anaphase did not produce these effects. Anaphase experiments showed that only the daughter cell which received microirradiated chromatin exhibited an abnormal growth pattern. Most interestingly, shattering of the whole chromosome complement could be induced by microirradiation of small parts of the interphase nucleus and post-treatment with caffeine. Since microirradiation of chromatin in the absence of psoralen was not effective, we consider formation of psoralen photoadducts to nucleic acids in microirradiated chromatin to be the specific cause of the effects. We suggest that DNA photolesions in chromosome segments present in the microirradiated part of the nucleus can induce shattering of all the chromosomes in the microirradiated nucleus. Several possibilities are discussed to explain this unexpected finding.

  20. Multilayer coated grazing incidence condenser for large numerical aperture objective at wavelength of 4.5 nm.

    PubMed

    Ejima, T; Hatano, T; Ohno, K; Fukayama, T; Aihara, S; Yanagihara, M; Tsuru, T

    2014-10-10

    A grazing incidence condenser is developed for objectives with large numerical aperture working in Carbon-window wavelength region (λ=4.4-5.0  nm) with the use of a point light source. The condenser is composed of four pieces of toroidal mirrors and a piece of the mirror was fabricated to evaluate the performance of the mirror. The radii of the toroidal mirror are determined by ray-trace calculation, and each radius of the mirror substrate and the roughness of the polished surface were evaluated to satisfy the designed parameter. A Co/C reflection multilayer is also designed to reflect soft x-ray light at 4.5 nm wavelength, and the reflection multilayer was deposited on the mirror surface. Measured reflectance of the toroidal mirror with the reflection multilayer is higher than 0.32 at 4.5 nm wavelength.

  1. Satellite laser ranging using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors at 1064  nm wavelength.

    PubMed

    Xue, Li; Li, Zhulian; Zhang, Labao; Zhai, Dongsheng; Li, Yuqiang; Zhang, Sen; Li, Ming; Kang, Lin; Chen, Jian; Wu, Peiheng; Xiong, Yaoheng

    2016-08-15

    Satellite laser ranging operating at 1064 nm wavelength using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SNSPDs) is successfully demonstrated. A SNSPD with an intrinsic quantum efficiency of 80% and a dark count rate of 100 cps at 1064 nm wavelength is developed and introduced to Yunnan Observatory in China. With improved closed-loop telescope systems (field of view of about 26''), satellites including Cryosat, Ajisai, and Glonass with ranges of 1600 km, 3100 km, and 19,500 km, respectively, are experimentally ranged with mean echo rates of 1200/min, 4200/min, and 320/min, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of laser ranging for satellites using SNSPDs at 1064 nm wavelength. Theoretical analysis of the detection efficiency and the mean echo rate for typical satellites indicate that it is possible for a SNSPD to range satellites from low Earth orbit to geostationary Earth orbit.

  2. Single-frequency hybrid laser with an output power up to 3 W at a wavelength of 1064 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Trikshev, A I; Kurkov, Andrei S; Tsvetkov, V B

    2012-05-31

    A high-power single-frequency laser with an output power of 2.5 W in the cw regime at a wavelength of 1064 nm has been developed using a hybrid scheme based on a master singlefrequency semiconductor laser (wavelength 1064 nm, lasing linewidth less than 3 MHz) and a two-cascade fibre amplifier pumped by high-power laser diodes. At pump powers of 4.8 W in the first cascade and 6.8 W in the second cascade the total gain is about 100.

  3. TUNABLE RING LASER BASED ON A SEMICONDUCTOR OPTICAL AMPLIFIER AT 1300 NM USING A SIMPLE WAVELENGTH SELECTION FILTER

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Mansik; Kim, Jeehyun; Song, Jae-Won; Lee, Ho; Choi, Sanghoon; Nelson, J. Stuart

    2009-01-01

    A simple, compact, and low cost tunable ring laser with a commercial semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was demonstrated. The tunable ring laser is based on an external wavelength filter cavity that is analogous with the Littman configuration with a diffraction grating, a mirror, and a simple slit. The unique structural advantage of this new system is that the slit is displaced to select a desired wavelength instead of tilting the mirror as in the Littman configuration. This allows easy control over the selected wavelength by the translating action of the slit. The full width half maximum (FWHM) wavelength turning range is 45 nm, and the wavelength resolution is about 2 pm. The demonstrated tunable ring laser has 2 mW output power. The side mode suppression ratios is 70–73 dB. PMID:20539831

  4. Dispersive wave emission and supercontinuum generation in a silicon wire waveguide pumped around the 1550 nm telecommunication wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, François; Gorza, Simon-Pierre; Safioui, Jassem; Kockaert, Pascal; Coen, Stéphane; Dave, Utsav; Kuyken, Bart; Roelkens, Gunther

    2014-06-01

    We experimentally and numerically study dispersive wave emission, soliton fission and supercontinuum generation in a silicon wire at telecommunication wavelengths. Through dispersion engineering, we experimentally confirm a previously reported numerical study [1] and show that the emission of resonant radiation from the solitons can lead to the generation of a supercontinuum spanning over 500 nm. An excellent agreement with numerical simulations is observed.

  5. Dual-wavelength waveguide lasers at 1064 and 1079 nm in Nd:YAP crystal by direct femtosecond laser writing.

    PubMed

    Nie, Weijie; Cheng, Chen; Jia, Yuechen; Romero, Carolina; Vázquez de Aldana, Javier R; Chen, Feng

    2015-05-15

    Low-loss depressed cladding waveguides have been produced in Nd:YAP laser crystal by using direct femtosecond laser writing. Under optical pump at 812 nm at room temperature, continuous-wave simultaneous dual-wavelength laser oscillations at 1064 and 1079 nm, both along TM polarization, have been realized in the waveguiding structures. It has been found that, with the variation of pump polarization, the intensity ratio of 1064 and 1079 nm emissions varies periodically, while the polarization of output dual-wavelength laser remains unchanged. The maximum output power achieved for the Nd:YAP waveguide lasers is ∼200  mW with a slope efficiency of 33.4%.

  6. Investigation of wavelength-dependent tissue ablation: visible (λ=532 nm) vs IR (λ=2.01 μm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Hyun Wook; Peng, Yihlih Steven

    2010-02-01

    Laser prostatectomy with various lasers has been shown to be effective in the treatment of benign prostate hyperplasia. However, the impact of laser parameters on tissue ablation is still in question. The aim of this study is to experimentally characterize laser-tissue interactions in terms of wavelength by comparing visible (λ= 532 nm) and infrared (λ= 2.01 μm) spectra. Porcine kidney tissue was used as it has thermal properties and glandular structure similar to human prostatic tissue. Q-switched 532 nm (GreenLightTM HPS) and continuous-wave (CW) 2.01 μm (custom-made Tm:YAG) lasers were employed to remove soft tissue under various settings (power, working distance, and treatment speed). For both laser systems, ablation rate increased with power and was maximized at 4 mm/s. The 532 nm laser generated approximately 30% (p<0.005) higher ablation efficiency than the IR laser. A comparable ablation depth was found between the two wavelengths, but the 532nm laser generated relatively wider (up to 30%; p<0.005) craters. Owing to constant heating due the CW mode, the IR laser induced 20% thicker coagulation depth than the 532 nm (0.94 vs. 0.8 mm at 100 W; p<0.005). Histology also confirmed coagulation depth in response to each wavelength. Due to light absorption in aqueous environment, the IR laser exhibited a dramatic decrease in power transmission and ablation volume with increasing working distance whereas the 532 nm laser maintained relatively constant features. In conclusion, the characteristics of tissue ablation were contingent upon the applied wavelengths due to optical properties and laser parameters.

  7. Preliminary characterisation of new glass reference materials (GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G) by laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry using 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm wavelengths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guillong, M.; Hametner, K.; Reusser, E.; Wilson, S.A.; Gunther, D.

    2005-01-01

    New glass reference materials GSA-1G, GSC-1G, GSD-1G and GSE-1G have been characterised using a prototype solid state laser ablation system capable of producing wavelengths of 193 nm, 213 nm and 266 nm. This system allowed comparison of the effects of different laser wavelengths under nearly identical ablation and ICP operating conditions. The wavelengths 213 nm and 266 nm were also used at higher energy densities to evaluate the influence of energy density on quantitative analysis. In addition, the glass reference materials were analysed using commercially available 266 nm Nd:YAG and 193 nm ArF excimer lasers. Laser ablation analysis was carried out using both single spot and scanning mode ablation. Using laser ablation ICP-MS, concentrations of fifty-eight elements were determined with external calibration to the NIST SRM 610 glass reference material. Instead of applying the more common internal standardisation procedure, the total concentration of all element oxide concentrations was normalised to 100%. Major element concentrations were compared with those determined by electron microprobe. In addition to NIST SRM 610 for external calibration, USGS BCR-2G was used as a more closely matrix-matched reference material in order to compare the effect of matrix-matched and non matrix-matched calibration on quantitative analysis. The results show that the various laser wavelengths and energy densities applied produced similar results, with the exception of scanning mode ablation at 266 nm without matrix-matched calibration where deviations up to 60% from the average were found. However, results acquired using a scanning mode with a matrix-matched calibration agreed with results obtained by spot analysis. The increased abundance of large particles produced when using a scanning ablation mode with NIST SRM 610, is responsible for elemental fractionation effects caused by incomplete vaporisation of large particles in the ICP.

  8. Triple-wavelength, narrowband Mg/SiC multilayers with corrosion barriers and high peak reflectance in the 25-80 nm wavelength region

    SciTech Connect

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Soufli, Regina; Robinson, Jeff C.; De Marcos, Luis Rodríguez; Méndez, Jose A.; Larruquert, Juan I.; Gullikson, Eric M.

    2012-01-01

    We have developed new, corrosion-resistant Mg/SiC multilayer coatings which can be used to efficiently and simultaneously reflect extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in single or multiple narrow bands centered at wavelengths in the spectral region from 25 to 80 nm. Corrosion mitigation is achieved through the use of partially amorphous Al-Mg thin layers. Three different multilayer design concepts were developed and deposited by magnetron sputtering and the reflectance was measured at near-normal incidence in a broad spectral range. Unprotected Mg/SiC multilayers were also deposited and measured for comparison. They were shown to efficiently reflect radiation at a wavelength of 76.9 nm with a peak reflectance of 40.6% at near-normal incidence, the highest experimental reflectance reported at this wavelength for a narrowband coating. The demonstration of multilayer coatings with corrosion resistance and multiplewavelength EUV performance is of great interest in the development of mirrors for space-borne solar physics telescopes and other applications requiring long-lasting coatings with narrowband response in multiple emission lines across the EUV range.

  9. Simultaneous dual-wavelength Q-switched Nd:YAG laser at 1052 and 1073  nm.

    PubMed

    Lin, Haifeng; Zhu, Wenzhang; Xiong, Feibing; Ruan, Jianjian

    2017-02-01

    We report a continuous-wave dual-wavelength Nd:YAG laser at 1052 and 1073 nm, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, in free-running mode. The maximum output power reaches 6.64 W with slope efficiency of about 42.1% with respect to the absorbed power. Inserting a Cr:YAG saturable absorber, the dual-wavelength laser can operate in the Q-switching regime with maximum average output power of 880 mW. The minimum pulse width and the highest pulse repetition rate are 28 ns and 17.12 kHz, respectively. The dual-wavelength laser has potential to generate a 5.7 THz wave via the difference-frequency method.

  10. Application of the laser diode with central wavelength 975 nm for the therapy of neurofibroma and hemangiomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymańczyk, Jacek; Sawczak, Mirosław; Cenian, Witold; Karpienko, Katarzyna; Jędrzejewska-Szczerska, Małgorzata; Cenian, Adam

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a newly developed dermatological laser (with a central wavelength 975 nm) for application in therapies requiring deep penetration of tissue, e.g., cutaneous (dermal) neurofibroma (von Recklinghausen disease) and hemangiomas. This laser can work either in pulses or continues wave mode. Laser radiation is transmitted toward the application region by optical fiber with a diameter of 0.6 mm. The compact design of the laser facilitates its transport and increases the comfort of use.

  11. Polarization-independent triangular-groove fused-silica gratings with high efficiency at a wavelength of 1550 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Hongchao; Zhou, Changhe; Feng, Jijun; Lv, Peng; Ma, Jianyong

    2010-11-01

    We describe polarization-independent triangular-groove fused-silica gratings illuminated by incident lights in the C + L bands as (de)multiplexers for dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) application. The physical mechanisms of the grating can be shown clearly by using the simplified modal method with consideration of the corresponding accumulated average phase difference of two excited propagating grating modes, which illustrates that the grating structure depends mainly on the ratio of the average effective indices difference to the incident wavelength. Exact grating profile is optimized by using the rigorous coupled-wave analysis (RCWA). With the optimized grating parameters, the grating exhibits diffraction efficiencies of greater than 90% under TE- and TM-polarized incident lights for 101 nm spectral bandwidths (1500-1601 nm) and it can reach an efficiency of more than 99% for both polarizations at a wavelength of 1550 nm. Without loss of metal absorption, coating of dielectric film layers, the designed triangular-groove fused-silica grating should be of great interest for DWDM application.

  12. Simulation of the ohmic loss in photovoltaic laser-power converters for wavelengths of 809 and 1064 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Emelyanov, V. M. Mintairov, S. A.; Sorokina, S. V.; Khvostikov, V. P.; Shvarts, M. Z.

    2016-01-15

    The method of mathematical simulation is used to examine the influence exerted by the characteristics of the epitaxial structure and contact grid of photovoltaic laser-power converters on their ohmic loss. The maximum attainable photoconverter efficiency at a Gaussian distribution of the laser-beam intensity on the surface of a photovoltaic converter and at dark-current densities of p–n junctions typical of structures grown by the metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) technique are determined. An approach to finding the optimal parameters of GaAs and In{sub 0.24}Ga{sub 0.76}As/GaAs photovoltaic converters in relation to the optical power being converted is suggested, and the structural parameters for incident-power values of 5, 20, and 50 W at wavelengths of 809 and 1064 nm are determined. It is found that, at laser-light intensities of up to 5 W, >60% efficiency can be achieved in laser-light conversion at a wavelength of 809 nm and >55% efficiency, at a wavelength of 1064 nm.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of lipid concentration in atherosclerotic plaque phantom by near-infrared multispectral angioscope at wavelengths around 1200 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a primary cause of critical ischemic diseases like heart infarction or stroke. A method that can provide detailed information about the stability of atherosclerotic plaques is required. We focused on spectroscopic techniques that could evaluate the chemical composition of lipid in plaques. A novel angioscope using multispectral imaging at wavelengths around 1200 nm for quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques was developed. The angioscope consists of a halogen lamp, an indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) camera, 3 optical band pass filters transmitting wavelengths of 1150, 1200, and 1300 nm, an image fiber having 0.7 mm outer diameter, and an irradiation fiber which consists of 7 multimode fibers. Atherosclerotic plaque phantoms with 100, 60, 20 vol.% of lipid were prepared and measured by the multispectral angioscope. The acquired datasets were processed by spectral angle mapper (SAM) method. As a result, simulated plaque areas in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms that could not be detected by an angioscopic visible image could be clearly enhanced. In addition, quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaque phantoms based on the lipid volume fractions was performed up to 20 vol.%. These results show the potential of a multispectral angioscope at wavelengths around 1200 nm for quantitative evaluation of the stability of atherosclerotic plaques.

  14. Silica-on-silicon based 650/1550nm wavelength Mux/Demux for swept source OCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhongwei; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Xuan; Wan, Suiren; Sun, Xiaohan

    2015-02-01

    We propose a 650/1550nm wavelength Mux/DeMux for SS-OCT system based on silica-on-silicon (SoS), in which mixing red/infrared lightbeams can be fully separated at low insert loss through special cascaded multimode interference (MMI) structure. Each independent lightbeam is entered into its respective channel by selecting proper width and length of the MMI. By using of Finite Difference Beam Propagation Method (FD-BPM), the Mux/DeMux is optimally designed in size of 1×0.1cm2, working at 650nm and 1550nm simultaneously. The results show the degrees of separation between two lightwaves are super high, loss of infrared light is less than 0.5dB and 1dB, and its output power stability is less than 0.25dB and 0.8dB, in 1510nm -1570nm and in 1500nm -1600nm, respectively. The Mux/DeMux can be used in SS-OCT PIC based on SoS.

  15. Triple-wavelength, narrowband Mg/SiC multilayers with corrosion barriers and high peak reflectance in the 25-80 nm wavelength region

    DOE PAGES

    Fernández-Perea, Mónica; Soufli, Regina; Robinson, Jeff C.; ...

    2012-01-01

    We have developed new, corrosion-resistant Mg/SiC multilayer coatings which can be used to efficiently and simultaneously reflect extreme ultraviolet (EUV) radiation in single or multiple narrow bands centered at wavelengths in the spectral region from 25 to 80 nm. Corrosion mitigation is achieved through the use of partially amorphous Al-Mg thin layers. Three different multilayer design concepts were developed and deposited by magnetron sputtering and the reflectance was measured at near-normal incidence in a broad spectral range. Unprotected Mg/SiC multilayers were also deposited and measured for comparison. They were shown to efficiently reflect radiation at a wavelength of 76.9 nmmore » with a peak reflectance of 40.6% at near-normal incidence, the highest experimental reflectance reported at this wavelength for a narrowband coating. The demonstration of multilayer coatings with corrosion resistance and multiplewavelength EUV performance is of great interest in the development of mirrors for space-borne solar physics telescopes and other applications requiring long-lasting coatings with narrowband response in multiple emission lines across the EUV range.« less

  16. Ex-vivo Imaging of Thyroid Gland Using Ultrahigh-Resolution Optical Coherence Tomography at Wavelength from 800 to 1700 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishida, Shutaro; Nishizawa, Norihiko

    2012-03-01

    Wavelength dependence of ex-vivo ultrahigh-resolution optical coherence tomography (UHR-OCT) imaging of thyroid gland using supercontinuum at wavelength from 800 to 1700 nm was demonstrated. The wavelength dependence of the thickness of follicular epithelium and fine structures such as round or oval follicles were observed from the UHR-OCT cross sectional images. The reconstructed en-face OCT images at all wavelength regions were obtained and the images of follicles with several different signal intensities were observed in 1060 and 1700 nm UHR-OCT images. To our knowledge, this is the first observation of wavelength dependence of OCT images of thyroid gland structure.

  17. Transillumination of subcutaneous adipose tissues using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging in the 1100-1800 nm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Kitayabu, A.; Kobayashi, Y.; Honda, N.; Awazu, K.

    2011-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) is a chemical imaging modality with spectroscopic information. This technique was often used in agricultural or pharmaceutical industries. But there have been a few reports for clinical medical applications. In near-infrared (NIR) wavelength region, the significant absorption peaks are often observed by the overtone of midinfrared molecular vibration. In addition, NIR light has a high penetration because of low scattering and less absorption by water or protein. In this study, we constructed the NIR-HSI system and the high-contrast subcutaneous adipose tissue imaging was conducted in-vitro. In the absorption spectra which are obtained by our NIR-HSI system, the characteristic absorption bands were observed around 1200 nm and 1700 nm. In the processed images using these wavelength bands, subcutaneous adipose tissue was observed through a skin. In a hyperspectral image by another processing using all wavelengths, a high-contrast image of subcutaneous adipose tissue is also obtained. NIR-HSI system is a powerful diagnostic technique for adipose tissues distribution and their morphological change on/inside a tissue.

  18. Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging of lipid-rich plaques in the human aorta in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Thomas J.; Hall, Andrew; Dhillon, Amar P.; Owen, James S.; Beard, Paul C.

    2012-06-01

    Spectroscopic photoacoustic imaging has the potential to discriminate between normal and lipid-rich atheromatous areas of arterial tissue by exploiting the differences in the absorption spectra of lipids and normal arterial tissue in the 740 to 1400 nm wavelength range. Identification of regions of high lipid concentration would be useful to identify plaques that are likely to rupture (vulnerable plaques). To demonstrate the feasibility of visualizing lipid-rich plaques, samples of human aortas were imaged in forward mode, at wavelengths of 970 and 1210 nm. It was shown that the structure of the arterial wall and the boundaries of lipid-rich plaques obtained from the photoacoustic images were in good agreement with histology. The presence of lipids was also confirmed by comparing the photoacoustic spectra (740 to 1400 nm) obtained in a region within the plaque to the spectral signature of lipids. Furthermore, a lipid-rich plaque was successfully imaged while illuminating the sample through 2.8 mm of blood demonstrating the possibility of implementing the photoacoustic technique in vivo.

  19. Spectrally resolved fluorescence cross sections of BG and BT with a 266-nm pump wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkins, Joshua; Thomas, Michael E.; Joseph, Richard I.

    2007-04-01

    The spectrally resolved absolute fluorescence cross sections of Bacillus globigii (BG) and Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) were measured with a 266nm Nd:YAG laser source. The aerosol samples were prepared in dilute aqueous suspensions for measurement and the absolute cross section was found by use of the Raman scattering line from water. Integrated cross sections for BT and BG were found to be 1.1864 × 10 -12 cm2(spore sr) and 3.251 × 10 -13 cm2/ (spore sr) respectively.

  20. High-power cw laser bars of the 750 - 790-nm wavelength range

    SciTech Connect

    Degtyareva, N S; Kondakov, S A; Mikayelyan, G T; Gorlachuk, P V; Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, Aleksandr A; Ryaboshtan, Yu L; Yarotskaya, I V

    2013-06-30

    We have developed the effective design of semiconductor heterostructures, which allow one to fabricate cw laser diodes emitting in the 750 - 790-nm spectral range. The optimal conditions for fabrication of GaAsP/AlGaInP/GaAs heterostructures by MOCVD have been determined. It is shown that the use of quantum wells with a precisely defined quantity mismatch reduces the threshold current density and increases the external differential efficiency. The results of studies of characteristics of diode laser bars fabricated from these heterostructures are presented. (lasers)

  1. Steady state fluorescence spectroscopic characterization of normal and diabetic urine at selective excitation wavelength 280 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kesavan, Anjana; Pachaiappan, Rekha; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-03-01

    Urine is considered diagnostically important for tits native fluorophores and they vary in their distribution, concentration and physiochemical properties, depending upon the metabolic condition of the subject. In this study, we have made an attempt, to characterize the urine of normal subject and diabetic patients under medication by native fluorescence spectroscopy at 280 nm excitation. Further, the fluorescence data were analyzed employing the multivariate statistical method linear discriminant analysis (LDA) using leave one out cross validation method. The results were promising in discriminating diabetic urine from that of normal urine. This study in future may be extended to check the feasibility in ruling out the coexisting disorders such as cancer.

  2. Corrosion-resistant multilayer coatings for the 28-75 nm wavelength region

    SciTech Connect

    Soufli, R; Fernandez-Perea, M; Al, E T

    2011-11-08

    Corrosion has prevented use of SiC/Mg multilayers in applications requiring good lifetime stability. We have developed Al-based barrier layers that dramatically reduce corrosion, while preserving high reflectance and low stress. The aforementioned advances may enable the implementation of corrosion-resistant, high-performance SiC/Mg coatings in the 28-75 nm region in applications such as tabletop EUV/soft x-ray laser sources and solar physics telescopes. Further study and optimization of corrosion barrier structures and coating designs is underway.

  3. All-dielectric ultrathin conformal metasurfaces: lensing and cloaking applications at 532 nm wavelength

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jierong; Jafar-Zanjani, Samad; Mosallaei, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    Metasurfaces are ideal candidates for conformal wave manipulation on curved objects due to their low profiles and rich functionalities. Here we design and analyze conformal metasurfaces for practical optical applications at 532 nm visible band for the first time. The inclusions are silicon disk nanoantennas embedded in a flexible supporting layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). They behave as local phase controllers in subwavelength dimensions for successful modification of electromagnetic responses point by point, with merits of high efficiency, at visible regime, ultrathin films, good tolerance to the incidence angle and the grid stretching due to the curvy substrate. An efficient modeling technique based on field equivalence principle is systematically proposed for characterizing metasurfaces with huge arrays of nanoantennas oriented in a conformal manner. Utilizing the robust nanoantenna inclusions and benefiting from the powerful analyzing tool, we successfully demonstrate the superior performances of the conformal metasurfaces in two specific areas, with one for lensing and compensation of spherical aberration, and the other carpet cloak, both at 532 nm visible spectrum. PMID:27929070

  4. All-dielectric ultrathin conformal metasurfaces: lensing and cloaking applications at 532 nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Jierong; Jafar-Zanjani, Samad; Mosallaei, Hossein

    2016-12-01

    Metasurfaces are ideal candidates for conformal wave manipulation on curved objects due to their low profiles and rich functionalities. Here we design and analyze conformal metasurfaces for practical optical applications at 532 nm visible band for the first time. The inclusions are silicon disk nanoantennas embedded in a flexible supporting layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). They behave as local phase controllers in subwavelength dimensions for successful modification of electromagnetic responses point by point, with merits of high efficiency, at visible regime, ultrathin films, good tolerance to the incidence angle and the grid stretching due to the curvy substrate. An efficient modeling technique based on field equivalence principle is systematically proposed for characterizing metasurfaces with huge arrays of nanoantennas oriented in a conformal manner. Utilizing the robust nanoantenna inclusions and benefiting from the powerful analyzing tool, we successfully demonstrate the superior performances of the conformal metasurfaces in two specific areas, with one for lensing and compensation of spherical aberration, and the other carpet cloak, both at 532 nm visible spectrum.

  5. All-dielectric ultrathin conformal metasurfaces: lensing and cloaking applications at 532 nm wavelength.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jierong; Jafar-Zanjani, Samad; Mosallaei, Hossein

    2016-12-08

    Metasurfaces are ideal candidates for conformal wave manipulation on curved objects due to their low profiles and rich functionalities. Here we design and analyze conformal metasurfaces for practical optical applications at 532 nm visible band for the first time. The inclusions are silicon disk nanoantennas embedded in a flexible supporting layer of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). They behave as local phase controllers in subwavelength dimensions for successful modification of electromagnetic responses point by point, with merits of high efficiency, at visible regime, ultrathin films, good tolerance to the incidence angle and the grid stretching due to the curvy substrate. An efficient modeling technique based on field equivalence principle is systematically proposed for characterizing metasurfaces with huge arrays of nanoantennas oriented in a conformal manner. Utilizing the robust nanoantenna inclusions and benefiting from the powerful analyzing tool, we successfully demonstrate the superior performances of the conformal metasurfaces in two specific areas, with one for lensing and compensation of spherical aberration, and the other carpet cloak, both at 532 nm visible spectrum.

  6. Introductory investigations of dermatologic diode laser with wavelengths 975 nm: clinical therapy of Recklinghausen disease and of hemangiomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szymańczyk, J.; Cenian, W.; Piechowski, L.; Sawczak, M.; Jedrzejewska-Szczerska, M.; Cenian, A.

    2016-12-01

    The newly developed pulsed/cw dermatological laser (with wavelengths 975 nm) is applied for therapies requiring deep penetration of tissue e.g. cutaneous (dermal) neurofibroma (Recklinghausen disease) or hemangiomas. As the selected eight patients had been treated previously using pulsed a Nd:YAG laser a comparison of these therapies was possible. The results of cutaneous neurofibroma therapy using diode laser show an improvement compared with the case of Ho:YAG and Nd:YAG laser therapies - however this should be checked for a larger number of patients.

  7. Frequency stabilization to a molecular line of a diode-pumped Er{endash}Yb laser at 1533-nm wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Taccheo, S.; Longhi, S.; Pallaro, L.; Laporta, P.; Svelto, C.; Bava, E.

    1995-12-01

    Two identical diode-pumped bulk Er:Yb:glass lasers, operating at 1533-nm wavelength, have been locked independently to the {ital P}(13) vibrational{endash}rotational line of an acetylene molecule. A long-term frequency stability over a 4-h period of better than 1.5 MHz and a short-term laser linewidth narrower than 50 kHz have been obtained by measurement of the beat note between the two lasers. {copyright} {ital 1995 Optical Society of America.}

  8. Water-vapor line broadening and shifting by air, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon in the 720-nm wavelength region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossmann, Benoist E.; Browell, Edward V.

    1989-01-01

    High-resolution spectroscopic measurements of H2O vapor in the 720-nm wavelength region were conducted to investigate the broadening and shifting of H2O lines by air, nitrogen, oxygen, and argon over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. For each of the buffer gases under study, a linear relationship was found between the widths and the shifts, with the broader lines having the smaller pressure shifts. The pressure shifts measured compared favorably with theoretical values reported by Bykov et al. (1988). The temperature-dependence exponents for air-broadening were found to be J-dependent, with the lower-J lines having the higher exponents.

  9. Dense wavelength multiplexing of 1550 nm QKD with strong classical channels in reconfigurable networking environments

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Danna; Peterson, Charles G; Dallmann, Nicholas; Hughes, Richard J; Mccabe, Kevin P; Nordholt, Jane E; Tyagi, Hush T; Peters, Nicholas A; Toliver, Paul; Chapman, Thomas E; Runser, Robert J; Mcnown, Scott R

    2008-01-01

    To move beyond dedicated links and networks, quantum communications signals must be integrated into networks carrying classical optical channels at power levels many orders of magnitude higher than the quantum signals themselves. We demonstrate transmission of a 1550-nm quantum channel with up to two simultaneous 200-GHz spaced classical telecom channels, using ROADM (reconfigurable optical <1dd drop multiplexer) technology for multiplexing and routing quantum and classical signals. The quantum channel is used to perform quantum key distribution (QKD) in the presence of noise generated as a by-product of the co-propagation of classical channels. We demonstrate that the dominant noise mechanism can arise from either four-wave mixing or spontaneous Raman scattering, depending on the optical path characteristics as well <1S the classical channel parameters. We quantity these impairments and discuss mitigation strategies.

  10. Depth of penetration of a 785nm wavelength laser in food powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Kuanglin; Dhakal, Sagar; Qin, Jianwei; Kim, Moon S.; Peng, Yankun; Schmidt, Walter F.

    2015-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a useful, rapid, and non-destructive method for both qualitative and quantitative evaluation of chemical composition. However it is important to measure the depth of penetration of the laser light to ensure that chemical particles at the very bottom of a sample volume is detected by Raman system. The aim of this study was to investigate the penetration depth of a 785nm laser (maximum power output 400mw) into three different food powders, namely dry milk powder, corn starch, and wheat flour. The food powders were layered in 5 depths between 1 and 5 mm overtop a Petri dish packed with melamine. Melamine was used as the subsurface reference material for measurement because melamine exhibits known and identifiable Raman spectral peaks. Analysis of the sample spectra for characteristics of melamine and characteristics of milk, starch and flour allowed determination of the effective penetration depth of the laser light in the samples. Three laser intensities (100, 200 and 300mw) were used to study the effect of laser intensity to depth of penetration. It was observed that 785nm laser source was able to easily penetrate through every point in all three food samples types at 1mm depth. However, the number of points that the laser could penetrate decreased with increasing depth of the food powder. ANOVA test was carried out to study the significant effect of laser intensity to depth of penetration. It was observed that laser intensity significantly influences the depth of penetration. The outcome of this study will be used in our next phase of study to detect different chemical contaminants in food powders and develop quantitative analysis models for detection of chemical contaminants.

  11. Absolute absorption cross sections of ozone at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K in the wavelength region 185-240 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yoshino, K.; Parkinson, W. H.; Freeman, D. E.

    1992-01-01

    An account is given of progress of work on absorption cross section measurements of ozone at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K in the wavelength region 185-240 nm. In this wavelength region, the penetration of solar radiation into the Earth's atmosphere is controlled by O2 and O3. The transmitted radiation is available to dissociate trace species such as halocarbons and nitrous oxide. We have recently measured absolute absorption cross sections of O3 in the wavelength region 240-350 nm (Freeman et al., 1985; Yoshino et al., 1988). We apply these proven techniques to the determination of the absorption cross section of O3 at 300 K, 228 K and 195 K throughout the wavelength region 185-240 nm. A paper titled 'Absolute Absorption Cross Section Measurements of Ozone in the Wavelength Region 185-254 nm and the Temperature Dependence' has been submitted for publication in the Journal of Geophysical Research.

  12. Ablation efficiency and relative thermal confinement measurements using wavelengths 1,064, 1,320, and 1,444 nm for laser-assisted lipolysis.

    PubMed

    Youn, Jong-In; Holcomb, J David

    2013-02-01

    Laser-assisted lipolysis is routinely used for contouring the body and the neck while modifications of the technique have recently been advocated for facial contouring. In this study, wavelength-dependence measurements of laser lipolysis effect were performed using different lasers at 1,064, 1,320, and 1,444 nm wavelengths that are currently used clinically. Fresh porcine skin with fatty tissue was used for the experiments with radiant exposure of 5-8 W with the same parameters (beam diameter = 600 μm, peak power = 200 mJ, and pulse rate = 40 Hz) for 1,064, 1,320 and 1,444 nm laser wavelengths. After laser irradiation, ablation crater depth and width and tissue mass loss were measured using spectral optical coherence tomography and a micro-analytical balance, respectively. In addition, thermal temporal monitoring was performed with a thermal imaging camera placed over ex vivo porcine fat tissue; temperature changes were recorded for each wavelength. This study demonstrated greatest ablation crater depth and width and mass removal in fatty tissue at the 1,444 nm wavelength followed by, in order, 1,320 and 1,064 nm. In the evaluation of heat distribution at different wavelengths, reduced heat diffusion was observed at 1,444 nm. The ablation efficiency was found to be dependent upon wavelength, and the 1,444 nm wavelength was found to provide both the highest efficiency for fatty tissue ablation and the greatest thermal confinement.

  13. Single- and multi-wavelength Nd:YAlO3 lasers at 1328, 1339 and 1364 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Bin; Wang, Yi; Lin, Zhi; Peng, Jian; Cheng, Yongjie; Luo, Zhengqian; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Weng, Jian; Moncorgé, Richard

    2016-07-01

    We report on the diode-pumped continuous-wave (CW) and passively Q-switched laser operation of a c-cut Nd:YAlO3 (YAP) laser crystal. CW laser operation is demonstrated for the first time with 0.61 W output power on a low-gain emission line at 1364 nm by using a 0.08-mm glass etalon. Dual-wavelength laser operation is also achieved at 1328 and 1340 nm as well as at 1340 and 1364 nm with maximum output powers of 0.87 and 0.83 W, respectively. Using graphene oxide as saturable absorber, stable Q-switching is obtained at 1339 nm with a maximum average output power of 0.43 W, a pulse width of 380 ns and a repetition rate of 76.9 kHz, thus laser pulses with 14.7 W peak power and 5.6 μJ pulse energy. This work presents the first graphene oxide based Q-switched Nd:YAP laser and shows the effectiveness of graphene oxide as saturable absorber for the generation of 1.3 μm laser pulses.

  14. Angioscopic image-enhanced observation of atherosclerotic plaque phantom by near-infrared multispectral imaging at wavelengths around 1200 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, K.; Nagao, R.; Matsui, D.; Awazu, K.

    2015-02-01

    Spectroscopic techniques have been researched for intravascular diagnostic imaging of atherosclerotic plaque. Nearinfrared (NIR) light efficiently penetrates of biological tissues, and the NIR region contains the characteristic absorption range of lipid-rich plaques. The objective of this study is to observe atherosclerotic plaque using a NIR multispectral angioscopic imaging. Atherosclerotic plaque phantoms were prepared using a biological tissue model and bovine fat. For the study, we developed an NIR multispectral angioscopic imaging system with a halogen light, mercury-cadmiumtelluride camera, band-pass filters and an image fiber. Apparent spectral absorbance was obtained at three wavelengths, 1150, 1200 and 1300 nm. Multispectral images of the phantom were constructed using the spectral angle mapper algorithm. As a result, the lipid area, which was difficult to observe in a visible image, could be clearly observed in a multispectral image. Our results show that image-enhanced observation and quantification of atherosclerotic plaque by NIR multispectral imaging at wavelengths around 1200 nm is a promising angioscopic technique with the potential to identify lipid-rich plaques.

  15. Investigation of the lithium 670.7 nm wavelength range in the solar spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffau, Elisabetta; Mott, Alessandro; Harutyunyan, Gohar; Malherbe, Jean-Marie; Steffen, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Lithium is a key chemical element, with a chemical evolution that is different from that of most other elements. It is also very fragile, as it is destroyed by nuclear reactions with protons at temperatures higher than about 2.5 million K. According to standard Big Bang nucleosynthesis, only the isotope 7Li is produced in significant amounts, while the primordial abundance of the lighter isotope 6Li is negligible. Lithium is not produced by nucleosynthesis in normal stars, except in peculiar phases of stellar evolution (e.g. in AGB stars and Novae). Lithium may also be formed as a result of flares in the atmospheres of young, active stars. To investigate the history of Li production and depletion in the Galaxy, it is necessary to analyse stars of all ages, including those at solar metallicity. In this case, the spectroscopic determination of the Li abundance is complicated by the presence of other spectral lines overlapping with the Li doublet at 670.7 nm. The correct identification and knowledge of the atomic parameters of these blend lines is critical, especially if the 6LI/7Li isotopic ratio is to be derived. In this investigation, we consider several line lists of the blending components available in the literature and use them to compute synthetic spectra, performing the line formation computations both for the classical 1D Holweger-Mueller model and a CO5BOLD 3D hydrodynamical simulation of the solar atmosphere. The synthetic spectra are then compared to the solar spectrum observed at different limb angles. This allows us to check the quality of existing line lists, to find potentially misidentified blend lines, and to construct an optimized line list for solar-type stars.

  16. Deposition and characterization of B4C/CeO2 multilayers at 6.x nm extreme ultraviolet wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sertsu, M. G.; Giglia, A.; Brose, S.; Park, D.; Wang, Z. S.; Mayer, J.; Juschkin, L.; Nicolosi, P.

    2016-03-01

    New multilayers of boron carbide/cerium dioxide (B4C/CeO2) combination on silicon (Si) substrate are manufactured to represent reflective-optics candidates for future lithography at 6.x nm wavelength. This is one of only a few attempts to make multilayers of this kind. Combination of several innovative experiments enables detailed study of optical properties, structural properties, and interface profiles of the multilayers in order to open up a room for further optimization of the manufacturing process. The interface profile is visualized by high-angle annular dark-field imaging which provides highly sensitive contrast to atomic number. Synchrotron based at-wavelength extreme ultraviolet (EUV) reflectance measurements near the boron (B) absorption edge allow derivation of optical parameters with high sensitivity to local atom interactions. X-ray reflectivity measurements at Cu-Kalpha (8 keV ) determine the period of multilayers with high in-depth resolution. By combining these measurements and choosing robust nonlinear curve fitting algorithms, accuracy of the results has been significantly improved. It also enables a comprehensive characterization of multilayers. Interface diffusion is determined to be a major cause for the low reflectivity performance. Optical constants of B4C and CeO2 layers are derived in EUV wavelengths. Besides, optical properties and asymmetric thicknesses of inter-diffusion layers (interlayers) in EUV wavelengths near the boron edge are determined. Finally, ideal reflectivity of the B4C/CeO2 combination is calculated by using optical constants derived from the proposed measurements in order to evaluate the potentiality of the design.

  17. Photon counting performance measurements of transfer electron InGaAsP photocathode hybrid photomultiplier tubes at 1064 nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Krainak, Michael A.; Hasselbrack, William B.; La Rue, Ross A.

    2007-05-01

    We report the test results of a hybrid photomultiplier tube (HPMT) with a transfer electron (TE) InGaAsP photocathode and GaAs Schottky avalanche photodiode (APD) anode. Unlike Geiger mode InGaAsP APDs, these HPMTs (also known as intensified photodiode (IPD), vacuum APD, or hybrid photodetector) operate in linear mode without the need for quenching and gating. Their greatest advantages are wide dynamic range, high speed, large photosensitive area, and potential for photon counting and analog detection dual mode operation. The photon detection efficiency we measured was 25% at 1064 nm wavelength with a dark count rate of 60,000/s at -22 degrees Celsius. The output pulse width in response to a single photon detection is about 0.9 ns. The maximum count rate was 90 Mcts/s and was limited solely by the speed of the discriminator used in the measurement (10 ns dead time). The spectral response of these devices extended from 900 to 1300 nm. We also measured the HPMT response to 60 ps laser pulses. The average output pulse amplitude increased monotonically with the input pulse energy, which suggested that we can resolve photon number in an incident pulse. The jitter of the HPMT output was found to be about 0.5 ns standard deviation and depended on bias voltage applied to the TE photocathode. To our knowledge, these HPMTs are the most sensitive non gating photon detectors at 1064 nm wavelength, and they will have many applications in laser altimeters, atmospheric lidars, and free space laser communication systems.

  18. High-average-power, 100-Hz-repetition-rate, tabletop soft-x-ray lasers at sub-15-nm wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, Brendon; Berrill, Mark A; Wernsing, Keith; Baumgarten, Cory; Woolston, Mark; Rocca, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Efficient excitation of dense plasma columns at 100-Hz repetition rate using a tailored pump pulse profile produced a tabletop soft-x-ray laser average power of 0.1 mW at = 13.9 nm and 20 W at = 11.9 nm from transitions of Ni-like Ag and Ni-like Sn, respectively. Lasing on several other transitions with wavelengths between 10.9 and 14.7 nm was also obtained using 0.9-J pump pulses of 5-ps duration from a compact diode-pumped chirped pulse amplification Yb:YAG laser. Hydrodynamic and atomic plasma simulations show that the pump pulse profile, consisting of a nanosecond ramp followed by two peaks of picosecond duration, creates a plasma with an increased density of Ni-like ions at the time of peak temperature that results in a larger gain coefficient over a temporally and spatially enlarged space leading to a threefold increase in the soft-x-ray laser output pulse energy. The high average power of these compact soft-x-ray lasers will enable applications requiring high photon flux. These results open the path to milliwatt-average-power tabletop soft-x-ray lasers.

  19. Radiance Temperatures (in the Wavelength Range 530 to 1500 nm) of Nickel at Its Melting Point by a Pulse-Heating Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaschnitz, E.; McClure, J. L.; Cezairliyan, A.

    1998-11-01

    The radiance temperatures (at seven wavelengths in the range 530 to 1500 nm) of nickel at its melting point were measured by a pulse-heating technique. The method is based on rapid resistive self-heating of the specimen from room temperature to its melting point in less than 1 s and on simultaneously measuring specimen radiance temperatures every 0.5 ms. Melting of the specimen was manifested by a plateau in the radiance temperature-versus-time function for each wavelength. The melting-point radiance temperatures for a given specimen were determined by averaging the measured temperatures along the plateau at each wavelength. The melting-point radiance temperatures for nickel, as determined by averaging the results at each wavelength for 25 specimens, are: 1641 K at 530 nm, 1615 K at 627 nm, 1606 K at 657 nm, 1589 K at 722 nm, 1564 K at 812 nm, 1538 K at 908 nm, and 1381 K at 1500 nm. Based on uncertainties arising from pyrometry and specimen conditions, the combined uncertainty (two standard-deviation level) is about ± 6 K for the reported values in the range 530 to 900 nm and is about ± 8 K for the reported value at 1500 nm.

  20. Design of LCPG-type polarization-independent shutter with diffractive efficiency and high contrast at wavelength 532 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kavosh Tehrani, Masoud; Sajad Mousavi Fard, Sayed

    2017-02-01

    We have designed liquid crystal (LC) shutter of LCPG type with high diffractive efficiency and transmission rate of more than 99.747% for modulation of non-polar light with wavelength 532 nm and high contrast in this article. Compared to other similar cases, the advantages of this design include maximization of transmission percent of diffractive element (particularly first-order diffraction) and minimization of light leakage rate caused by zero-order, and other unwanted diffractive orders. The conditions have been prepared for using diffractive elements (gratings) with shorter periods and acquisition of diffraction orders with greater diffraction angles by benefitting from suitable compounds of LC in the given design. Similarly, required measures have been taken for the deletion of adverse effects caused by reflection from optic surfaces so that very appropriate status is prepared for the function of LCPG shutter.

  1. Inhibition of semiconservative DNA synthesis in ICR 2A frog cells exposed to monochromatic uv wavelengths (252-313 nm) and photoreactivating light

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenstein, B.S.

    1982-06-01

    Exposure of ICR 2A frog cells to monochromatic uv wavelengths in the range 252-313 nm caused an inhibition of semiconservative DNA synthesis which was partially relieved in cells receiving a post irradiation treatment with photoreactivating light (>350 nm). Hence pyrimidine dimers acted as lesions blocking DNA synthesis in uv-irradiated cells based upon the specificity of photoreactivating enzyme for the light-dependent monomerization of dimers in DNA. Compared with the shorter wavelengths tested, however, this recovery of DNA synthesis was not as great in cells exposed to 302-nm radiation and was nearly absent in 313-nm-irradiated cells up to 12 hr after treatment. These results suggest that nondimer photoproducts also play an important role in causing DNA synthesis inhibition in cells exposed to wavelengths greater than 300 nm.

  2. Combined CATV and very-high-speed data transmission over a 1550-nm wavelength indoor optical wireless link

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, M. I. Sakib; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Zhang, Weizhi; Deng, Peng

    2014-02-01

    We report details of an experimental demonstration involving a 15 meter pointed indoor optical wireless link in the 1550-nm wavelength range, that is comprised of a uni-directional Cable Television (CATV) signal and a bi-directional link comprised of two 10 Gbps data links. Four port wavelength division mux-demuxes have been used on both ends of the link. The CATV transmission system is connected to port 1 of the mux-demux. CATV signal consists of both analog and digital parts, and its bandwidth is 1 GHz. The laser is directly modulated by the CATV signal, and at the receiver end, the optical signal is demodulated and fed to a TV. Port 2 of the mux-demux is left unused. Ports 3 and 4 are used for the 10 Gbps links. A bit error rate tester has been used to generate the 10 Gbps signals that are converted to optical wavelengths by enhanced Small Form Factor Pluggable (SFP+) modules at both ends of the setup. Collimators are used at both ends to transmit the combined optical signal that is the output of the mux and to receive the optical signal by focusing it onto a single-mode fiber as the input of the demux. We present results on the CATV portion of the setup and the bit-error-rate performance of the two 10 Gbps links. This experiment shows the feasibility of using pointed optical links in datacenters as secondary links to alleviate the loads of highly utilized wired connections and improve the overall throughput performance of datacenters.

  3. Line centers, pressure shift, and pressure broadening of 1530-1560 nm hydrogen cyanide wavelength calibration lines

    SciTech Connect

    Swann, William C.; Gilbert, Sarah L.

    2005-08-01

    We have measured the line centers and pressure-induced shift and broadening of 25 lines in the 2{nu}{sub 3} rotational-vibrational band of hydrogen cyanide H{sup 13}C{sup 14}N. These lines can be used as wavelength references in the optical fiber communication wavelength division multiplexing C-band (approximately 1530-1565 nm). We find that the pressure shift varies with line number from +0.09 pm/kPa to -0.15 pm/kPa (approximately -1.5 to +2.5 MHz/Torr). The pressure broadening also varies with line number and is typically between 1 and 5.4 pm/kPa (17-90 MHz/Torr). We determined the line centers of 21 lines with an expanded uncertainty (2{sigma}) of 0.01 pm ({approx_equal}1 MHz), an improvement of more than 1 order of magnitude over previous line center measurements of this band. We also calculate the molecular constants for the band, yielding improved determination of the band origin frequency and the excited-state molecular constants.

  4. Prospective Comparison of Dual Wavelength Long-Pulsed 755-nm Alexandrite/1,064-nm Neodymium:Yttrium-Aluminum-Garnet Laser versus 585-nm Pulsed Dye Laser Treatment for Rosacea

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyun-Min; Kim, Jung-In; Kim, Han-Saem; Choi, Young-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Background Rosacea treatments including oral/topical medications and laser therapy are numerous but unsatisfactory. Objective To compare the effectiveness of the dual wavelength long-pulsed 755-nm alexandrite/1,064-nm neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser (LPAN) with that of 585-nm pulsed dye laser (PDL) for rosacea. Methods This was a randomized, single-blinded, comparative study. Full face received four consecutive monthly treatments with LPAN or PDL, followed-up for 6 months after the last treatment. Erythema index was measured by spectrophotometer, and digital photographs were evaluated by consultant dermatologists for physician's global assessment. Subjective satisfaction surveys and adverse effects were recorded. Results Forty-nine subjects with rosacea enrolled and 12 dropped out. There were no significant differences between LPAN and PDL in the mean reduction of the erythema index (p=0.812; 3.6% vs. 2.8%), improvement of physician's global assessment (p=1.000; 88.9% vs. 89.5%), and subject-rated treatment satisfaction (p=0.842; 77.8% vs. 84.2%). PDL showed more adverse effects including vesicles than LPAN (p=0.046; 26.3% vs. 0.0%). No other serious or permanent adverse events were observed in both treatments. Conclusion Both LPAN and PDL may be effective and safe treatments for rosacea. PMID:27746641

  5. Picosecond pulses compression at 1053-nm center wavelength by using a gas-filled hollow-core fiber compressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zhi-Yuan; Wang, Ding; Leng, Yu-Xin; Dai, Ye

    2015-01-01

    We theoretically study the nonlinear compression of picosecond pulses with 10-mJ of input energy at the 1053-nm center wavelength by using a one-meter-long gas-filled hollow-core fiber (HCF) compressor and considering the third-order dispersion (TOD) effect. It is found that when the input pulse is about 1 ps/10 mJ, it can be compressed down to less than 20 fs with a high transmission efficiency. The gas for optimal compression is krypton gas which is filled in a HCF with a 400-μm inner diameter. When the input pulse duration is increased to 5 ps, it can also be compressed down to less than 100 fs efficiently under proper conditions. The results show that the TOD effect has little impact on picosecond pulse compression and the HCF compressor can be applied on compressing picosecond pulses efficiently with a high compression ratio, which will benefit the research of high-field laser physics. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11204328, 61221064, 61078037, 11127901, and 11134010), the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB808101), the Commission of Science and Technology of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 12dz1100700), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 13ZR1414800), and the International Science and Technology Cooperation Program of China (Grant No. 2011DFA11300).

  6. Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Hau-Riege, S; London, R A; Bionta, R M; McKernan, M A; Baker, S L; Krzywinski, J; Sobierajski, R; Nietubyc, R; Pelka, J B; Jurek, M; Klinger, D; Juha, L; Chalupsky, J; Cihelka, J; Hajkova, V; Koptyaev, S; Velyhan, A; Krasa, J; Kuba, J; Tiedtke, K; Toleikis, S; Tschentscher, T; Wabnitz, H; Bergh, M; Caleman, C; Sokolowski-Tinten, K; Stojanovic, N; Zastrau, U; Tronnier, A; Meyer-ter-Vehn, J

    2007-12-03

    We exposed samples of B4C, amorphous C, chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD)-diamond C, Si, and SiC to single 25 fs-long pulses of 32.5 nm free-electron-laser radiation at fluences of up to 2.2 J/cm{sup 2}. The samples were chosen as candidate materials for x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) optics. We found that the threshold for surface-damage is on the order of the fluence required for thermal melting. For larger fluences, the crater depths correspond to temperatures on the order of the critical temperature, suggesting that the craters are formed by two-phase vaporization [1]. XFELs have the promise of producing extremely high-intensity ultrashort pulses of coherent, monochromatic radiation in the 1 to 10 keV regime. The expected high output fluence and short pulse duration pose significant challenges to the optical components, including radiation damage. It has not been possible to obtain direct experimental verification of the expected damage thresholds since appropriate x-ray sources are not yet available. FLASH has allowed us to study the interaction of high-fluence short-duration photon pulses with materials at the shortest wavelength possible to date. With these experiments, we have come closer to the extreme conditions expected in XFEL-matter interaction scenarios than previously possible.

  7. Initial clinical results of laser prostatectomy procedure for symptomatic BPH using a new 50-watt diode laser (wavelength 1000 nm)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatta, Krishna M.

    1995-05-01

    Lasers have been used for symptomatic Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH) in both contact and non-contact modes with reported success rates equivalent to that of Transurethral Resection of Prostate (TURP). A new high power diode laser (Phototome), capable of delivering up to 50 watts of 1000 nm wavelength laser power via a 1 mm quartz fiber, was used to treat 15 patients with symptomatic BPH. Five patients had acute retention, 3 had long term catheter (7 - 48 months), and 8 had severe prostatism. Spinal anesthesia was used in 11 patients, and 4 patients had local anesthesia and intravenous sedation. Four quadrant coagulation with an angle firing probe delivering 50 watts of laser power for 60 seconds in one quadrant was used as the core of the treatment in 11 patients, contact vaporization of BPH tissue was performed in one patient using a 4.5 mm ball tip was used in one patient and three patients with bladder neck stenosis had bladder neck incision performed using a 1 mm quartz fiber delivering 30 watts of laser power. A foley catheter was left indwelling and removed after 5 - 7 days. All patients except one were catheter free after a mean of 8 days. One patient continued to have severe prostatism and had a TURP performed with good results after 3 months of his laser prostatectomy procedure. AUA symptom scores available in 11 patients was found to be 4 after 1 - 3 months of the initial procedure.

  8. Optical properties of dental restorative materials in the wavelength range 400 to 700 nm for the simulation of color perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friebel, Moritz; Povel, Kirsten; Cappius, Hans-Joachim; Helfmann, Jürgen; Meinke, Martina

    2009-09-01

    Aesthetic restorations require dental restorative materials to have optical properties very similar to those of the teeth. A method is developed to this end to determine the optical parameters absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs, anisotropy factor g, and effective scattering coefficient μs' of dental restorative materials. The method includes sample preparation and measurements of transmittance and reflectance in an integrating sphere spectrometer followed by inverse Monte Carlo simulations. Using this method the intrinsic optical parameters are determined for shade B2 of the light-activated composites TPH® Spectrum®, Esthet-X®, and the Ormocer® Definite® in the wavelength range 400 to 700 nm. By using the determined parameters μa, μs, and g together with an appropriate phase function, the reflectance of samples with 1-mm layer thickness and shade B2 could be predicted with a very high degree of accuracy using a forward Monte Carlo simulation. The color perception was calculated from the simulated reflectance according to the CIELAB system. We initiate the compilation of a data pool of optical parameters that in the future will enable calculation models to be used as a basis for optimization of the optical approximation of the natural tooth, and the composition of new materials and their production process.

  9. High-performance 980-nm emission wavelength InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suruceanu, Grigore I.; Caliman, Andrei N.; Vieru, Stanislav T.; Iakovlev, V. P.; Sarbu, A. V.; Mereuta, Alexandru Z.

    2000-02-01

    This paper present the fabrication and mirrors passivation process of InGaAs/AlGaAs/GaAs narrow stripe 980 nm emission wavelength laser diodes. After mesa-stripe definition and Au-contact deposition procedures, a procedure of in-vacuum cleaving and in-situ passivation with (lambda) /2-thick ZnSe layers was performed. 960 micrometers and 500 micrometers length laser diodes bars was fabricated as a result. Antireflection-high reflectivity coating were formed on the bars facets. Laser diodes were soldered p-junction-side down on copper submounts. The room temperature CW threshold current value of 20 mA and CW maximum output power of 440 mW at 760 mA pumping current were obtained. The far-field emission pattern of laser diodes is lateral single mode in large range of output powers. These laser diodes were used for laser diode module fabrication. In this module the laser diodes was coupled with tapered single mode 9 micrometers /125 micrometers optical fiber with a fused microlens at the end. CW output optical power of 40 mW from the fiber was obtained at 240 mA operating current of the laser diode module.

  10. Optical properties of dental restorative materials in the wavelength range 400 to 700 nm for the simulation of color perception.

    PubMed

    Friebel, Moritz; Povel, Kirsten; Cappius, Hans-Joachim; Helfmann, Jürgen; Meinke, Martina

    2009-01-01

    Aesthetic restorations require dental restorative materials to have optical properties very similar to those of the teeth. A method is developed to this end to determine the optical parameters absorption coefficient mu(a), scattering coefficient mu(s), anisotropy factor g, and effective scattering coefficient mu(s) (') of dental restorative materials. The method includes sample preparation and measurements of transmittance and reflectance in an integrating sphere spectrometer followed by inverse Monte Carlo simulations. Using this method the intrinsic optical parameters are determined for shade B2 of the light-activated composites TPH((R)) Spectrum, Esthet-X, and the Ormocer Definite in the wavelength range 400 to 700 nm. By using the determined parameters mu(a), mu(s), and g together with an appropriate phase function, the reflectance of samples with 1-mm layer thickness and shade B2 could be predicted with a very high degree of accuracy using a forward Monte Carlo simulation. The color perception was calculated from the simulated reflectance according to the CIELAB system. We initiate the compilation of a data pool of optical parameters that in the future will enable calculation models to be used as a basis for optimization of the optical approximation of the natural tooth, and the composition of new materials and their production process.

  11. Simultaneous tri-wavelength laser operation at 916, 1086, and 1089 nm of diode-pumped Nd:LuVO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Bingjun; Jin, Lihong; Zhang, Jiajia; Tian, Jian

    2016-09-01

    We report a diode-pumped continuous-wave tri-wavelength Nd:LuVO4 laser operating at 916, 1086, and 1089 nm. A theoretical analysis has been introduced to determine the threshold conditions for simultaneous tri-wavelength laser operation. Using a T-shaped cavity, we realized efficient tri-wavelength operation at 4F3/2  →  4I9/2 and 4F3/2  →  4I11/2 transitions for Nd:LuVO4 crystal, simultaneously. The maximum output power was 2.8 W, which included 916, 1086, and 1089 nm, and the optical conversion efficiency was 15.1%. To our knowledge, this is the first work that realizes simultaneous tri-wavelength Nd:LuVO4 laser operation.

  12. An intra-cavity pumped dual-wavelength laser operating at 946 nm and 1064 nm with Nd:YAG  +  Nd:YVO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He-Dong, Xiao; Yuan, Dong; Yu, Liu; Shu-Tao, Li; Yong-Ji, Yu; Guang-Yong, Jin

    2016-09-01

    We adopt a compact intra-cavity pumped structure of Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 crystals to develop an efficient dual-wavelength laser that operates at 946 nm and 1064 nm. A 808 nm laser diode is used to pump the Nd:YAG crystal, which emits at 946 nm, and the Nd:YVO4 crystal, which emits at 1064 nm, is intra-cavity pumped at 946 nm. In order to avoid unnecessary pump light passing though the Nd:YAG crystal, reaching the Nd:YVO4 crystal and having an impact on the cavity pump, the two crystals are placed as far from one another as possible in this experiment. The output power at 1064 nm can be adjusted from 1 W-2.9 W by varying the separation between the two crystals. A total output power of 4 W at the dual-wavelengths is achieved at an incident pump power of 30.5 W, where the individual output powers for the 946 nm and 1064 nm emissions are 1.1 W and 2.9 W, respectively.

  13. External-cavity diamond Raman laser performance at 1240 nm and 1485 nm wavelengths with high pulse energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pashinin, V. P.; Ralchenko, V. G.; Bolshakov, A. P.; Ashkinazi, E. E.; Gorbashova, M. A.; Yurov, V. Yu; Konov, V. I.

    2016-06-01

    We report on an external-cavity diamond Raman laser (DRL) pumped with a Q-switched Nd:YAG and generating at 1st and 2nd Stokes (1240 nm and 1485 nm) with enhanced output energy. The slope efficiency of 54% and output energy as high as 1.2 mJ in single pulse at 1240 nm have been achieved with optimized cavity, while the pulse energy of 0.70 mJ was obtained in the eye-safe spectral region at 1485 nm. Calculations of thermal lensing effect indicate it as a possible reason for the observed decrease in conversion efficiency at the highest pump energies.

  14. Wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with a single SOA at 1020 nm for ultrahigh resolution Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Won; Song, Hyun-Woo; Jung, Moon-Youn; Kim, Seung-Hwan

    2011-10-24

    In this study, we demonstrated a wide tuning range wavelength-swept laser with a single semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) at 1020 nm for ultrahigh resolution, Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (UHR, FD-OCT). The wavelength-swept laser was constructed with an external line-cavity based on a Littman configuration. An optical wavelength selection filter consisted of a grating, a telescope, and a polygon scanner. Before constructing the optical wavelength selection filter, we observed that the optical power, the spectrum bandwidth, and the center wavelength of the SOA were affected by the temperature of the thermoelectric (TE) cooler in the SOA mount as well as the applied current. Therefore, to obtain a wide wavelength tuning range, we adjusted the temperature of the TE cooler in the SOA mount. When the temperature in the TE cooler was 9 °C, our swept source had a tuning range of 142 nm and a full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) of 121.5 nm at 18 kHz. The measured instantaneous spectral bandwidth (δλ) is 0.085 nm, which was measured by an optical spectrum analyzer with a resolution bandwidth of 0.06 nm. This value corresponds to an imaging depth of 3.1 mm in air. Additionally, the averaged optical power of our swept source was 8.2 mW. In UHR, FD/SS-OCT using our swept laser, the measured axial resolution was 4.0 μm in air corresponding to 2.9 μm in tissue (n = 1.35). The sensitivity was measured to be 93.1 dB at a depth of 100 μm. Finally, we obtained retinal images (macular and optic disk) and a corneal image.

  15. Continuous-wave simultaneous dual-wavelength and power-ratio-tunable operation at 1064 and 1342 nm in an Nd:LuVO4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, C.-C.; Wu, S.-S.; Chou, C.-C.; Wei, M.-D.

    2011-11-01

    This study demonstrates continuous-wave simultaneous dual-wavelength emission at 1064 and 1342 nm in an Nd:LuVO4 laser by using a T-type cavity configuration. The output powers indicating a function of pump power had two evolutions depending on the strength of the completion of two wavelength emissions. One is that the output power increased linearly with the pump power in weak competition, and the output power and slope efficiency of 1064 and 1342 nm were 1.17 W and 13%, and 0.213 W and 2.8%, respectively. The other is that the extracting-energy capabilities of two wavelength emissions were close, and the evolution was not linear and the variations demonstrated multiple stages depending on the pump power. Moreover, the ratio of output power, defined as the output power at 1064 nm divided by that at 1342 nm, is tuned from 0 to 5.5 by varying the 1064 nm cavity, and equal output powers of 1064 and 1342 nm can be obtained at each pump power.

  16. High photon-to-heat conversion efficiency in the wavelength region of 250–1200 nm based on a thermoelectric Bi2Te3 film structure

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Er-Tao; Yao, Yuan; Zang, Kai-Yan; Liu, Xin-Xing; Jiang, An-Qing; Zheng, Jia-Jin; Yu, Ke-Han; Wei, Wei; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Wang, Song-You; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Yoshie, Osamu; Lee, Young-Pak; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Lynch, David W.; Guo, Jun-Peng; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2017-01-01

    In this work, 4-layered SiO2/Bi2Te3/SiO2/Cu film structures were designed and fabricated and the optical properties investigated in the wavelength region of 250–1200 nm for their promising applications for direct solar-thermal-electric conversion. A typical 4-layered film sample with the structure SiO2 (66.6 nm)/Bi2Te3 (7.0 nm)/SiO2 (67.0 nm)/Cu (>100.0 nm) was deposited on a Si or K9-glass substrate by magnetron sputtering. The experimental results agree well with the simulated ones showing an average optical absorption of 96.5%, except in the shorter wavelength region, 250–500 nm, which demonstrates the superior absorption property of the 4-layered film due to the randomly rough surface of the Cu layer resulting from the higher deposition power. The high reflectance of the film structure in the long wavelength region of 2–20 μm will result in a low thermal emittance, 0.064 at 600 K. The simpler 4-layered structure with the thermoelectric Bi2Te3 used as the absorption layer may provide a straightforward way to obtain solar-thermal-electric conversion more efficiently through future study. PMID:28300178

  17. High photon-to-heat conversion efficiency in the wavelength region of 250–1200 nm based on a thermoelectric Bi2Te3 film structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Er-Tao; Yao, Yuan; Zang, Kai-Yan; Liu, Xin-Xing; Jiang, An-Qing; Zheng, Jia-Jin; Yu, Ke-Han; Wei, Wei; Zheng, Yu-Xiang; Zhang, Rong-Jun; Wang, Song-You; Zhao, Hai-Bin; Yoshie, Osamu; Lee, Young-Pak; Wang, Cai-Zhuang; Lynch, David W.; Guo, Jun-Peng; Chen, Liang-Yao

    2017-03-01

    In this work, 4-layered SiO2/Bi2Te3/SiO2/Cu film structures were designed and fabricated and the optical properties investigated in the wavelength region of 250–1200 nm for their promising applications for direct solar-thermal-electric conversion. A typical 4-layered film sample with the structure SiO2 (66.6 nm)/Bi2Te3 (7.0 nm)/SiO2 (67.0 nm)/Cu (>100.0 nm) was deposited on a Si or K9-glass substrate by magnetron sputtering. The experimental results agree well with the simulated ones showing an average optical absorption of 96.5%, except in the shorter wavelength region, 250–500 nm, which demonstrates the superior absorption property of the 4-layered film due to the randomly rough surface of the Cu layer resulting from the higher deposition power. The high reflectance of the film structure in the long wavelength region of 2–20 μm will result in a low thermal emittance, 0.064 at 600 K. The simpler 4-layered structure with the thermoelectric Bi2Te3 used as the absorption layer may provide a straightforward way to obtain solar-thermal-electric conversion more efficiently through future study.

  18. Comparison of characteristics of selected metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles produced by picosecond laser ablation at 532 and 1064 nm wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamad, Abubaker; Li, Lin; Liu, Zhu

    2016-10-01

    Picosecond laser generation of nanoparticles was only recently reported. The effect of laser wavelength in picosecond laser generation of nanoparticles is not yet fully understood. This investigation reports the new findings comparing the characteristics of Au, Ag, Ag-TiO2, TiO2, ZnO and iron oxide nanoparticles generated by picosecond laser ablation in deionised water at 532 and 1064 nm laser wavelengths. The laser ablation was carried out at a fixed pulse width of 10 ps, a repetition rate of 400 kHz and a scan speed of 250 mm/s. The nanoparticles were characterised by UV-Vis optical spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The work shows that there is no noticeable difference in the size of the metal oxide nanoparticles produced at 532 and 1064 nm, especially for the TiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles; however, a considerable size difference can be seen for metallic (e.g. Au) and metallic compound (e.g. Ag-TiO2) nanoparticles at the two wavelengths. It demonstrates that noble metals are more profoundly affected by laser wavelengths. The reasons behind these results are discussed. In addition, the work shows that there are different crystalline structures of the TiO2 nanoparticles at 1064 and 532 nm wavelengths.

  19. Influence of four-wave mixing in short- and medium-range 1310  nm dense wavelength division multiplexing systems.

    PubMed

    Markowski, Konrad; Chorchos, Łukasz; Turkiewicz, Jarosław Piotr

    2016-04-10

    In this paper, we demonstrate a comprehensive analysis of the impact of four-wave mixing (FWM) on the quality of transmission in short- and medium-range dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) systems in the 1310 nm wavelength domain. The presented analysis proves that, for the system with uniform power per channel assignment, setting proper input channel power can substantially reduce the influence of the FWM effect on bit error rate in low channel spaced short-range systems, despite the position of the DWDM grid around the zero-dispersion wavelength. Simulations and experimental analysis of the possibility of FWM suppression have been provided. The power penalty measurements show that the influence of FWM on system performance may be as low as 0.3 dB with reasonable input power (i.e., -11  dBm per channel), making possible the transmission of data by fiber over distances of 25 km. Finally, we demonstrate that, for channel spacing as low as 120 GHz, error-free transmission in the 1310 nm wavelength domain is possible, despite high efficiency of FWM generation. The results prove that utilization of the 1310 nm wavelength domain in a system with low channel spacing, i.e., with better bandwidth allocation, is an interesting solution for data storage and processing center applications.

  20. Spatially resolved in vivo measurement system for estimating the optical properties of tissue in the wavelength range 1000-1700 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hjalmarsson, Pär; Thennadil, Suresh N.

    2007-07-01

    For non-invasive estimation of optical properties (i.e. determination of the absorption and the reduced scattering coefficients) of turbid media such as tissue, spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy is one of most used technique. So far this has only been done for wavelengths covered by CCD-detectors (about 350-1050nm). The NIR region beyond 1050nm i.e. the second and first overtone regions, has absorption peaks of interest e.g. for tissue the glucose peak at around 1250nm and 1600nm. Thus for non-invasive medical diagnostics applications, a spatially resolved measurement system capable of estimating optical properties in this region will be very useful. Until now optical properties of tissue in this region have only been estimated using in vitro methods e.g. using an integrating sphere set-up. In this paper we describe a spatially resolved system that will extend the region up to 1700nm by using a TE cooled 320×256 pixel InGaAS detector, a white light source and a probe that consists of 9×200micron fibres spanning 0.3 to 2.7mm from the source. Across the 320 pixels 680nm will be dispersed giving a resolution of 2.125nm/pixel and a resolving power of about 14nm. The system is validated using tissue-like phantoms. Since tissue has a high concentration of water which leads to high absorption after 950nm, the diffusion approximation cannot be used to extract the optical properties from the spatially resolved measurements. Instead, two techniques based around Monte Carlo simulations of diffuse reflectance profiles, to build a lookup table coupled with interpolation using splines or a third order polynomial, have been used to calculate the optical properties for different wavelengths. The performances of these techniques are compared. It was found that the spline fitting produced lower error for the wavelength region considered.

  1. FM transmission of video signals beyond of the baseband of a 1-km 62.5 μm MMF at the 850 nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Marcin

    2009-06-01

    The paper presents the first, to the best knowledge of the author, successful transmission of the video signal beyond of the baseband of the multimode fibre at the 850 nm wavelength using the subcarrier multiplexing technology (SCM). The transmission system has been built on the basis of generally available, inexpensive optical and electronic components.

  2. Heading to 1 kW levels with laser bars of high-efficiency and emission wavelength around 880 nm and 940 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietrzak, A.; Woelz, M.; Huelsewede, R.; Zorn, M.; Hirsekorn, O.; Meusel, J.; Kindsvater, A.; Schröder, M.; Bluemel, V.; Sebastian, J.

    2015-03-01

    High-power quasi-CW laser bars are of great interest as pump sources of solid-state lasers generating high-energy ultrashort pulses for high energy projects. These applications require a continuous improvement of the laser diodes for reliable optical output powers and simultaneously high electrical-to-optical power efficiencies. An overview is presented of recent progress at JENOPTIK in the development of commercial quasi-CW laser bars emitting around 880 nm and 940 nm optimized for peak performance. At first, performances of 1.5 mm long laser bars with 75% fill-factor are presented. Both, 880 nm and 940 nm laser bars deliver reliable power of 500 W with wall-plug-efficiencies (WPE) <55% within narrow beam divergence angles of 11° and 45° in slow-axis and fast-axis directions, respectively. The reliability tests at 500 W powers under application quasi- CW conditions are ongoing. Moreover, laser bars emitting at 880 nm tested under 100 μs current pulse duration deliver 1 kW output power at 0.9 kA with only a small degradation of the slope efficiency. The applications of 940 nm laser bars require longer optical pulses and higher repetition rates (1-2 ms, ~10 Hz). In order to achieve output powers at the level of 1 kW under such long pulse duration, heating of the laser active region has to be minimized. Power-voltage-current characteristics of 4 mm long cavity bars with 50% fill-factor based on an optimized laser structure for strong carrier confinement and low resistivity were measured. We report an output power of 0.8 kW at 0.8 A with <60% conversion efficiency (52% WPE). By increasing the fill-factor of the bars a further improvement of the WPE at high currents is expected.

  3. Lipid volume fraction in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms classified under saline conditions by multispectral angioscopy at near-infrared wavelengths around 1200 nm.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-05-01

    To identify high-risk atherosclerotic lesions, we require detailed information on the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. In this study, we quantitatively classified the lipid volume fractions in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms by a novel angioscope combined with near-infrared multispectral imaging. The multispectral angioscope was operated at peak absorption wavelengths of lipid in vulnerable plaques (1150, 1200, and 1300 nm) and at lower absorption wavelengths of water. The potential of the multispectral angioscope was demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms containing 10-60 vol.% lipid and immersed in saline solution. The acquired multispectral data were processed by a spectral angle mapper algorithm, which enhanced the simulated plaque areas. Consequently, we classified the lipid volume fractions into five categories (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50, and 50-60 vol.%). Multispectral angioscopy at wavelengths around 1200 nm is a powerful tool for quantitatively evaluating the stability of atherosclerotic plaques based on the lipid volume fractions.

  4. Wavelength-multiplexed pumping with 478- and 520-nm indium gallium nitride laser diodes for Ti:sapphire laser.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Ryota; Tanaka, Hiroki; Sugiyama, Naoto; Kannari, Fumihiko

    2017-02-20

    We experimentally reveal the pump-induced loss in a Ti:sapphire laser crystal with 451-nm indium gallium nitride (InGaN) laser diode pumping and show that 478-nm pumping can reduce such loss. The influence of the pump-induced loss at 451-nm pumping is significant even for a crystal that exhibits higher effective figure-of-merit and excellent laser performance at 520-nm pumping. We demonstrate the power scaling of a Ti:sapphire laser by combining 478- and 520-nm InGaN laser diodes and obtain CW output power of 593 mW.

  5. Advances in short-wavelength x-ray multilayer optics: toward high-throughput multimirror systems for the wavelengths <10 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artyukov, Igor A.; Bugayev, Yegor A.; Devizenko, Oleksandr Yu.; Feshchenko, Ruslan M.; Hatano, Tadashi; Kasyanov, Yuri S.; Kondratenko, Valeri V.; Uspenski, Yuri A.; Vinogradov, Alexander V.

    2007-09-01

    This paper presents novel approaches and techniques in development and application of multi-mirror X-ray optical systems operating in the spectral region of "carbon window" (λ ~ 4.5 nm). Two approaches for fabrication of the graded Co/C multilayer mirrors for Schwarzschild objective are presented. A pair of the spherical mirrors with Co/C multilayer coatings was tested in combination with scandium/carbon filters and laser produced plasma X-ray source for stereoimaging of low density materials at λ ~ 4.5 nm.

  6. Method for wavelength stabilization of pulsed difference frequency laser at 1572 nm for CO(2) detection lidar.

    PubMed

    Gong, Wei; Ma, Xin; Han, Ge; Xiang, Chengzhi; Liang, Ailin; Fu, Weidong

    2015-03-09

    High-accuracy on-line wavelength stabilization is required for differential absorption lidar (DIAL), which is ideal for precisely measuring atmospheric CO(2) concentration. Using a difference-frequency laser, we developed a ground-based 1.57-μm pulsed DIAL for performing atmospheric CO(2) measurements. Owing to the system complexity, lacking phase, and intensity instability, the stabilization method was divided into two parts-wavelength calibration and locking-based on saturated absorption. After obtaining the on-line laser position, accuracy verification using statistical theory and locking stabilization using a one-dimensional template matching method, namely least-squares matching (LSM), were adopted to achieve wavelength locking. The resulting system is capable of generating a stable wavelength.

  7. Demonstration of saturated tabletop soft x-ray lasers at 5 Hz repetition rate in transitions of Ne-like ions with wavelengths near 30 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yong; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav N.; Rocca, Jorge J.

    2005-10-01

    Recent experiments have demonstrated that the laser pump energy required to operate collisional soft x-ray lasers in the gain saturated regime can be significantly reduced by directing the heating pulse into the plasma at grazing incidence for a more efficient energy deposition [1-2]. Optimization of the incidence angle led to gain-saturated operation at 5Hz repetition rate in several transitions of Ni-like ions at wavelengths ranging from 18.9nm to 13.2nm [3]. We report saturated high repetition rate laser-pumped table-top soft x-ray lasers in Ne-like ions at wavelengths near 30nm. Gain-saturated lasers operating at 5Hz repetition rate were obtained in Ne-like Ti at 32.6nm and in Ne-like V at 30.4nm heating plasmas with laser pulses of ˜1J and 8ps impinging at 20^o grazing incidence. Average powers > 1μW were measured. Strong lasing was also observed in Ne-like Cr at 28.6nm. 1. R. Keenan et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 94, 103901, (2005). 2. B. M. Luther et al, Opt. Lett., 30, 165, (2005). 3. Y. Wang et al, submitted to Phys. Rev. A, (2005).

  8. Broadband multilayer-coated normal incidence blazed grating with approximately 10% diffraction efficiency through the 13-16 nm wavelength region.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lichao; Lin, Hui; Jin, Chunshui; Zhou, Hongjun; Huo, Tonglin

    2009-03-15

    Diffraction gratings used in extreme UV are typically coated with periodic multilayer thin films. These coatings have a small bandwidth, thus leading to a narrow usable spectral region of multilayer gratings. Well-designed aperiodic multilayer coatings could provide high reflectivity over a much broader wavelength region, so they could broaden the usable spectral region of multilayer gratings. We designed and deposited an aperiodic Mo/Si multilayer coating onto a blazed grating substrate. At an incidence angle of 10 degrees, the -2nd-order diffraction efficiency of the multilayer grating is approximately 10% through the wavelength range of 13-16 nm.

  9. Efficient dual-wavelength laser at 946 and 1064 nm with compactly combined Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, C. Y.; Chang, C. C.; Chen, Y. F.

    2013-04-01

    We originally employ a compact combination of a Nd:YAG crystal and a Nd:YVO4 crystal to develop an efficient dual-wavelength laser operating at 946 and 1064 nm. We exploit a short Nd:YAG crystal to generate 946 nm laser by reducing the reabsorption loss and a follow-up Nd:YVO4 crystal to generate a 1064 nm laser by absorbing the residual pump light. The output power ratio between the 946 and 1064 nm emissions can be flexibly adjusted from 0.3 to 0.9 by varying the separation between the two output couplers. At an incident pump power of 17 W, the total output power is generally higher than 5.2 W, with an overall optical-to-optical efficiency greater than 30%.

  10. Direct Write Processing of Multi-micron Thickness Copper Nano-particle Paste on Flexible Substrates with 532 nm Laser Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Espiricueta, Dunia; Fearon, Eamonn; Edwardson, Stuart; Dearden, Geoffrey

    The Laser Assisted Direct Write (LA-DW) method has been implemented in the development of different markets and material processing, recently also used for creating Printed Circuit Boards (PCB) or electrical circuitry. The process consists in the deposition of metallic nano-particle (NP) inks, which are afterwards cured or sintered by laser irradiation, thus creating conductive pathways; advantages are speed, accuracy and the protection of the heat affected zone (HAZ). This research will study the behaviour of the heat dissipation relatively within the Nano-particle Copper paste after being irradiated with 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths, research will be developed on different widths and depths deposited onto flat surfaces such as flexible PET. Comparisons to be made between resistivity results obtained from different wavelengths.

  11. Direct x-ray imaging system using an amplified metal-oxide-semiconductor imager in the 4-13-nm wavelength region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haga, Tsuneyuki; Kinoshita, Hiroo

    1995-10-01

    We describe a direct x-ray imaging system that uses an amplified metal-oxide-semiconductor imager to detect soft x rays directly for real-time imaging. From the absolute sensitivity of this system as measured through the use of a monochromatic synchrotron radiation beam and a GaAsP Schottky-type photodiode, the minimum sensitivity at a wavelength of 13 nm was estimated to be greater than 108 photons mm-2. This is sufficient to detect soft x rays directly for real-time imaging. Onion cell observations at wavelengths of 4.3 and 4.6 nm indicate that x-ray absorption by the carbon in the cells was detected. This is a promising imaging system for the soft x-ray region in which conventional CCD's are difficult to use.

  12. Extended femtosecond laser wavelength range to 330 nm in a high power LBO based optical parametric oscillator.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jintao; Gu, Chenglin; Wang, Chingyue; Hu, Minglie

    2016-06-13

    We experimentally demonstrate a compact tunable, high average power femtosecond laser source in the ultraviolet (UV) regime. The laser source is based on intra-cavity frequency doubling of a temperature-tuned lithium tribotate (LBO) optical parametric oscillator (OPO), synchronously pumped at 520 nm by a frequency-doubled, Yb-fiber femtosecond laser amplifier system. By adjusting crystal temperature, the OPO can provide tunable visible to near-infrared (NIR) signal pulse, which have a wide spectral tuning range from 660 to 884 nm. Using a β-barium borate (BBO) crystal for intra-cavity frequency doubling, tunable femtosecond UV pulse are generated across 330~442 nm with up to 364 mW at 402 nm.

  13. High-power 808 nm ridge-waveguide diode lasers with very small divergence, wavelength-stabilized by an external volume Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, H; Häusler, K; Blume, G; Fricke, J; Spreemann, M; Zorn, M; Erbert, G

    2009-06-01

    We present data on ridge-waveguide diode lasers having a vertical far-field divergence of only 11.5 degrees (FWHM) owing to an appropriate waveguide design. The lasers emitted an optical power of more than 1 W into the spatial fundamental mode from a ridge width of 5 microm. The emission wavelength was stabilized to a narrow range around 808 nm by placing a volume Bragg grating in front of the outcoupling facet.

  14. Passive mode locking in a Ti:sapphire laser using a single-walled carbon nanotube saturable absorber at a wavelength of 810 nm.

    PubMed

    Khudyakov, Dmitry V; Lobach, Anatoly S; Nadtochenko, Viktor A

    2010-08-15

    We report mode locking in a Ti:sapphire (Ti:Sa) laser at the wavelength of 810 nm using a polymer film with single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) applied as a saturable absorber. Pulses with 600 fs duration and 0.4 nJ energy were generated from the Ti:Sa laser with polymer-SWNT composite film for cw passive mode locking.

  15. Measurements of the UV Nocturnal Atmospheric Background in the 300-400 nm Wavelength Band with the Experiment BaBy during a Transmediterranean Balloon Flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giarrusso, S.; Gugliotta, G.; Agnetta, G.; Assis, P.; Biondo, B.; Catalano, O.; Celi, F.; Cusumano, G.; D'Ali Staiti, G.; Raffaele, R.Di.; Espirito-Santo, M.C.; Gabriele, M.; Rosa, G.La; Maccarone, M.C.; Mangano, A.; Mineo, T.; Pimenta, M.; Russo, F.; Sacco, B.; Santangelo, A.; Scarsi, P.; Tome, B.

    2003-07-01

    We present new results of U V no cturnal atmospheric background measured with the balloon borne experiment BaBy that performed a trans-Mediterranean flight on July 11 2002. The experiment looked downwards from about 40 km of altitude the dark no cturnal atmosphere over the sea in a moonless night. It is composed of 8 filtered and collimated fast PMTs detecting the U V light in the 300-400 nm wavelength band and in the 3 narrow bands centered at the emission lines of the atmospheric Nitrogen molecules. Both single photon counting and charge integration methods are used in pairs of PMTs with the same filter. The background measured over the sea is about 300 photons m-2 sr-1 ns-1 in the 300-400 nm wavelength band. Introduction The Backround Bypass, BaBy, experiment is a scientific support activity to the evaluation of the sensitivity of EUSO [3], devoted to the observation of the Extreme Energy Cosmic Rays from space by detecting U V fluorescence light. One of the fundamental information in EUSO design is the U V no cturnal atmospheric background level whose main sources are: light pollution from cities, planes and ships, naturally occurring bioluminescence, lightning flashes, reflected moonlight and starlight, auroral flashes, low energy cosmic ray air showers and atmospheric chemical reactions. Since 1998, no cturnal atmospheric U V background measurements, in the wavelength interval (300-400 nm) relevant for EUSO, have been performed by

  16. Switchable 10 nm-spaced dual-wavelength SLM fiber laser with sub-kHz linewidth and high OSNR using a novel multiple-ring configuration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Ting; Ding, Dongliang; Zhao, Ziwei; Su, Hongxin; Yan, Fengping; Yao, X. Steve

    2016-10-01

    A switchable dual-wavelength (10 nm spacing) single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) that uses a multiple-ring configuration was demonstrated experimentally. A novel theoretically lossless triple-ring passive secondary cavity composed of three optical couplers was utilized to select the SLM from the dense main cavity longitudinal modes for the first time. Using two superimposed fiber Bragg gratings as one compact mode-restricting element and introducing the nonlinear polarization rotation effect to alleviate the strong mode competition for the fiber laser, a highly stable dual-wavelength mode-hop-free SLM operation with sub-kHz linewidths and optical signal to noise ratios (OSNRs) of  >69 dB was achieved for both lasing wavelengths. By adjusting the polarization controllers, the dual-wavelength operation could be easily switched to single-wavelength lasing with a linewidth of  <1 kHz and an OSNR of  >72 dB. The proposed EDFL may find many important applications, such as the generation of very pure terahertz waves.

  17. High repetition rate tabletop soft x-ray lasers at wavelengths down to 11.9 nm in Nickel-like ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Bradley M.; Shlyaptsev, Vyacheslav N.; Rocca, Jorge J.

    2005-10-01

    There is significant interest in the development of high average power table-top soft x-ray lasers (SXL) for applications. The repetition rate of gain-saturated collisional SXL operating at wavelengths of less than 30nm has been limited to one shot every several minutes by the large laser pump energy required to heat the plasma. Recent experiments have demonstrated a large pump energy reduction by directing the heating pulse into the plasma at grazing incidence [1-3]. This pumping geometry takes advantage of the refraction of the pump beam in the plasma to deposit a large fraction of its energy into the gain region. Here we report 5Hz repetition rate operation of gain-saturated table-top lasers with 1-2μW average power in transitions of Ni-like ions (Mo, Ru, Pd, Ag and Cd) at wavelengths between 18.9nm and 13.2nm, using a 1J, 8 ps heating pulse from a Ti:Sa laser. Strong amplification was also observed at 11.9 nm in Ni-like Sn. 1. R. Keenan et al, Phys. Rev. Lett., 94, 103901, (2005). 2. B. M. Luther et al, Opt. Lett., 30, 165, (2005). 3. D. Alessi et al, Opt. Express, 13, 2093, (2005).

  18. The spectral opacity of triatomic carbon measured in a graphite tube furnace over the 280 to 600 nm wavelength range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snow, W. L.; Wells, W. L.

    1980-01-01

    The opacity of linear triatomic carbon (C3) was measured in a graphite tube furnace from 280 to 600 nm to supplement the earlier measurements of Brewer and Engelke. The spectral cross section was estimated from the opacities using temperature profiles determined pyrometrically and a revised heat of formation delta H = 198 kcal/mole). The cross section was found to be nonnegligible over the range 300 to 500 nm and the electronic oscillator strength based on the total cross section estimate was 0.02.

  19. Diode-pumped dual-wavelength Nd:LSO laser at 1059 and 1067  nm with nearly diffraction-limited beam quality.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaoxu; Lan, Jinglong; Lin, Zhi; Wang, Yi; Xu, Bin; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Xu, Xiaodong; Zhang, Jian; Xu, Jun

    2016-04-10

    We report a diode-pumped continuous-wave simultaneous dual-wavelength Nd:LSO laser at 1059 and 1067 nm. By employing a specially coated output coupler with relatively high transmissions at high-gain emission lines of 1075 and 1079 nm, the two low-gain emission lines, 1059 and 1067 nm, can be achieved, for the first time to our knowledge, with maximum output power of 1.27 W and slope efficiency of about 29.2%. The output power is only limited by the available pump power. Output beam quality is also measured to be about 1.19 and 1.21 of the beam propagation factors in the x and y directions, respectively.

  20. Dissolved organic matter fluorescence at wavelength 275/342 nm as a key indicator for detection of point-source contamination in a large Chinese drinking water lake.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Shi, Kun; Liu, Xiaohan; Zhu, Guangwei

    2016-02-01

    Surface drinking water sources have been threatened globally and there have been few attempts to detect point-source contamination in these waters using chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) fluorescence. To determine the optimal wavelength derived from CDOM fluorescence as an indicator of point-source contamination in drinking waters, a combination of field campaigns in Lake Qiandao and a laboratory wastewater addition experiment was used. Parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis identified six components, including three humic-like, two tryptophan-like, and one tyrosine-like component. All metrics showed strong correlation with wastewater addition (r(2) > 0.90, p < 0.0001). Both the field campaigns and the laboratory contamination experiment revealed that CDOM fluorescence at 275/342 nm was the most responsive wavelength to the point-source contamination in the lake. Our results suggest that pollutants in Lake Qiandao had the highest concentrations in the river mouths of upstream inflow tributaries and the single wavelength at 275/342 nm may be adapted for online or in situ fluorescence measurements as an early warning of contamination events. This study demonstrates the potential utility of CDOM fluorescence to monitor water quality in surface drinking water sources.

  1. Experimental investigation of a diode-pumped powerful continuous-wave dual-wavelength Nd:YAG laser at 946 and 938.6 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Yu, X.; Yan, R. P.; Li, X. D.; Li, D. J.; Yang, G. L.; Xie, J. J.; Guo, J.

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a diode-pumped high-power continuous-wave (cw) dual-wavelength Nd:YAG laser at 946 and 938.6 nm is reported. By using an end-pumped structure, comparative experiments indicate that a 5 mm-length Nd:YAG crystal with a Nd3+-doping concentration of 0.3 at.% is favorable for high-power laser operation, and the optimal transmissivity of the output coupler is 9%. As a result, a maximum output power of 17.2 W for a dual-wavelength laser at 946 and 938.6 nm is obtained at an incident pump power of 75.9 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 26.5%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest output power of a quasi-three-level dual-wavelength laser using a conventional Nd:YAG crystal achieved to date. By using a traveling knife-edge method, the beam quality factor and far-field divergence angle at 17 W power level are estimated to be 4.0 and 6.13 mrad, respectively.

  2. Laser diodes with 353 nm wavelength enabled by reduced-dislocation-density AlGaN templates

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; Smith, Michael L.; Cross, Karen C.

    2015-10-30

    We fabricated optically pumped and electrically injected ultraviolet (UV) lasers on reduced-threading-dislocation-density (reduced-TDD) AlGaN templates. The overgrowth of sub-micron-wide mesas in the Al0.32Ga0.68N templates enabled a tenfold reduction in TDD, to (2–3) × 108 cm–2. Optical pumping of AlGaN hetero-structures grown on the reduced-TDD templates yielded a low lasing threshold of 34 kW/cm2 at 346 nm. Room-temperature pulsed operation of laser diodes at 353 nm was demonstrated, with a threshold of 22.5 kA/cm2. Furthermore, reduced-TDD templates have been developed across the entire range of AlGaN compositions, presenting a promising approach for extending laser diodes into the deep UV.

  3. Laser diodes with 353 nm wavelength enabled by reduced-dislocation-density AlGaN templates

    DOE PAGES

    Crawford, Mary H.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Armstrong, Andrew M.; ...

    2015-10-30

    We fabricated optically pumped and electrically injected ultraviolet (UV) lasers on reduced-threading-dislocation-density (reduced-TDD) AlGaN templates. The overgrowth of sub-micron-wide mesas in the Al0.32Ga0.68N templates enabled a tenfold reduction in TDD, to (2–3) × 108 cm–2. Optical pumping of AlGaN hetero-structures grown on the reduced-TDD templates yielded a low lasing threshold of 34 kW/cm2 at 346 nm. Room-temperature pulsed operation of laser diodes at 353 nm was demonstrated, with a threshold of 22.5 kA/cm2. Furthermore, reduced-TDD templates have been developed across the entire range of AlGaN compositions, presenting a promising approach for extending laser diodes into the deep UV.

  4. Spectral Phonon Scattering from Sub-10 nm Surface Roughness Wavelengths in Metal-Assisted Chemically Etched Si Nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Ghossoub, MG; Valavala, KV; Seong, M; Azeredo, B; Hsu, K; Sadhu, JS; Singh, PK; Sinha, S

    2013-03-06

    Frequency dependence in phonon surface scattering is a debated topic in fundamental phonon physics. Recent experiments and theory suggest such a phenomenon, but an independent agreement between the two remains elusive. We report low-temperature dependence of thermal conductivity in silicon nanowires fabricated using a two-step, metal-assisted chemical etch. By reducing etch rates down to 0.5 nm/s from the typical >100 nm/s, we report controllable roughening of nanowire surfaces and selectively focus on moderate roughness scales rather than the extreme scales investigated previously. This critically enables direct comparison with perturbation-based spectral scattering theory. Using experimentally characterized surface roughness, we show that a multiple scattering theory provides excellent agreement and explanation of the observed low-temperature dependence of rough surface nanowires. The theory does not employ any fitting parameters. A 5-10 nm roughness correlation length is typical in metal-assisted chemical etching and resonantly scatters dominant phonons in silicon, leading to the observed similar to T1.6-2.4 behavior. Our work provides fundamental and quantitative insight into spectral phonon scattering from rough surfaces. This advances applications of nanowires in thermoelectric energy conversion.

  5. Anti-Fungal Laser Treatment of Paper: A Model Study with a Laser Wavelength of 532 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilch, E.; Pentzien, S.; Mädebach, H.; Kautek, W.

    Biodeterioration of organic cultural heritage materials is a common problem. Particularly the removal of discoloration caused by fungal pigments is yet an unsolved problem in paper conservation. In the present study, cellulose (cotton and linters) and 16th century paper (rag), were incubated with several fungi types, such as Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Alternaria, Chaetomium, Aspergillus, Trichophyton, and Penicillium on agar for three weeks. Then they were immersed in 70% Ethanol for removal of hyphae and mycelia and deactivation of the remaining conidia. These specimens were laser-treated in a computer-controlled laser cleaning system with a high pulse energy diode pumped Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operating at 532 nm and a pulse duration of 8 ns. Colour differences were determined spectrophotometrically. Best cleaning results were observed with fungi such as Penicillium and Alternaria. Dry laser cleaning generally turned out to be superb over wet bleaching approaches.

  6. The atmospheric nightglow in the 300- 400 nm wavelength . Results by the balloon-borne experiment "BABY"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalano, O.; Agnetta, G.; Biondo, B.; Celi, F.; Di Raffaele, R.; Giarrusso, S.; Linsley, J.; La Rosa, G.; Lo Bue, A.; Mangano, A.; Russo, F.

    2002-03-01

    The balloon-borne experiment, named BAckground BYpass (BABY) belongs to a wider program that has as its final goal the detection and study of high-energy cosmic rays from space (satellite, Space Station). An information of fundamental importance for this class of projects concerns the nighttime background light. The instrument designed to detect fluorescence photons is basically composed of two collimated photomultipliers: a single photon-counting PMT and a charge integration PMT. We briefly report the details of the design, operation and performance of the detector, which was designed and completely built at the IFCAI-CNR Institute in Palermo. Preliminary analysis and results of the nocturnal background in the range of 300- 400 nm are presented for the whole duration of the flight during the 1998 Mediterranean balloon flight campaign. A substantial part of the flight was at night over the sea.

  7. Vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser in the long-wavelength (700 nm) region in the visible by energy transfer between organic dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liao, Zhifu; Zhou, Yuan; Cui, Yuanjing; Yang, Yu; Wang, Zhiyu; Qian, Guodong

    2014-06-01

    In this work, organic vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with single-mode laser output in the long-wavelength region (~700 nm) of the visible were reported based on the energy transfer between dye pairs consisting of pyrromethene 597 (PM597) and rhodamine 700 (LD700). By co-doping PM597 into the polymeric hosts, the fluorescence intensity of LD700 was enhanced by 30-fold and the photophysical parameters of the donor-acceptor pairs were investigated, indicating the involvement of non-radiative resonance energy transfer processes between PM597 and LD700. Active distributed Bragg reflectors (DBR) were made by alternately spin-coating dye-doped polyvinylcarbazole and cellulose acetate thin films as the high and low refractive index layers, respectively. By sandwiching the active layer with 2 DBR mirrors, VCSEL emission at 698.9 nm in the biological first window (650-950 nm) was observed under the 532-nm laser pulses. The laser slope efficiency and threshold were also measured.

  8. Determination of complex optical indices in the 80-140nm VUV wavelength region from reflectivity measurements under normal incidence: application to ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridou, F.; Cuniot-Ponsard, M.; Desvignes, J. M.

    2005-09-01

    The observation of hot plasmas in the interstellar medium requires efficient mirrors in the 80-120 nm wavelength range. Contrary to that of most metals, the high reflectivity of pure aluminum is maintained close to 80% in this range. Unfortunately, it is drastically reduced to values lower than 10% by the strongly absorbing thin alumina layer which spontaneously forms upon air contact. We report here the results obtained with a capper layer of ZnSe. The optical indices given for this material by Palik's tables lead to predict a resulting high reflectivity, provided the layer prevents oxidization of underlying Al. The measured reflectivity does not agree with theory. The reasons for this inconsistency are examined. It is shown that complex indices of ZnSe in the wavelength region between 80 and 140 nm can be extracted. from the reflectivity measurements obtained with different ZnSe thicknesses on Al. The imaginary part of the index is then found to differ strongly from Palik's tables value.

  9. Raman Shifting a Tunable ArF Excimer Laser to Wavelengths of 190 to 240 nm With a Forced Convection Raman Cell

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balla, R. Jeffrey; Herring, G. C.

    2000-01-01

    Tunable radiation, at ultraviolet wavelengths, is produced by Raman shifting a modified 285-mJ ArF excimer laser. Multiple Stokes outputs are observed in H2, CH4, D2, N2, SF6, and CF4 (20, 22, 53, 21, 2.1, and 0.35 percent, respectively). Numbers in parentheses are the first Stokes energy conversion efficiencies. We can access 70 percent of the frequency range 42000-52000 cm (exp -1) (190-240 nm) with Stokes energies that vary from 0.2 microJoule to 58 mJ inside the Raman cell. By using 110 mJ of pump energy and D 2 , the tunable first Stokes energy varies over the 29-58 mJ range as the wavelength is tuned over the 204-206 nm range. Dependence on input energy, gas pressure, He mixture fraction, and circulation of the gas in the forced convection Raman cell is discussed; Stokes conversion is also discussed for laser repetition rates from 1 to 100 Hz. An empirical equation is given to determine whether forced convection can improve outputs for a given repetition rate.

  10. Ex vivo evaluation of safety and efficacy of vaporization of the prostate using a 300 W high-power laser diode with the wavelength of 980 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, Junya; Honda, Norihiro; Hazama, Hisanao; Awazu, Kunio

    2014-03-01

    Laser vaporization of the prostate is one of the promising technique for less-invasive treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia. However, shorter operative duration and higher hemostatic ability are expected. The wavelength of 980 nm offers a high simultaneous absorption by water and hemoglobin, so that it combines the efficient vaporization with good hemostasis. Therefore, we have evaluated the safety and efficacy of vaporization of the prostate using a recently developed 300 W high-power laser diode with the wavelength of 980 nm. First, validity of bovine prostate tissue as the sample was confirmed by measuring the optical properties of bovine and human prostate tissue using a double integrating sphere optical system. Next, contact and non-contact ex vivo irradiations were performed for various irradiation powers and times, and vaporized and coagulated depths were measured. In the contact irradiation, the vaporized depth at the power of 300 W was significantly deeper than that at the power of 100 W, while the difference was relatively smaller for the coagulated depths at 300 and 100 W. In the non-contact irradiation, coagulation as thick as that in the contact irradiation was observed almost without vaporization. Therefore, it is suggested that the treatment in the contact irradiation using the high-power laser diode can vaporize the prostate more efficiently without increasing the risk of perforation. Hemostasis with the coagulation would be possible in both irradiation methods. To prevent the postoperative perforation, operators need to understand the relationship between the coagulated depth and the irradiation conditions.

  11. Optical properties measurement of laser coagulated tissues with double integrating sphere and inverse Monte Carlo technique in the wavelength range from 350 to 2100 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Norihiro; Nanjo, Takuya; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2012-03-01

    In laser medicine, the accurate knowledge about the optical properties (absorption coefficient; μa, scattering coefficient; μs, anisotropy factor; g) of laser irradiated tissues is important for the prediction of light propagation in tissues, since the efficacy of laser treatment depends on the photon propagation within the irradiated tissues. Thus, it is likely that the optical properties of tissues at near-ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared wavelengths will be more important due to more biomedical applications of lasers will be developed. For improvement of the laser induced thermotherapy, the optical property change during laser treatment should be considered in the wide wavelength range. For estimation of the optical properties of the biological tissues, the optical properties measurement system with a double integrating sphere setup and an inverse Monte Carlo technique was developed. The optical properties of chicken muscle tissue were measured in the native state and after laser coagulation using the optical properties measurement system in the wavelength range from 350 to 2100 nm. A CO2 laser was used for laser coagulation. After laser coagulation, the reduced scattering coefficient of the tissue increased. And, the optical penetration depth decreased. For improvement of the treatment depth during laser coagulation, a quantitative procedure using the treated tissue optical properties for determination of the irradiation power density following light penetration decrease might be important in clinic.

  12. Low Group Delay Dispersion Optical Coating for Broad Bandwidth High Reflection at 45° Incidence, P Polarization of Femtosecond Pulses with 900 nm Center Wavelength

    DOE PAGES

    Bellum, John C.; Field, Ella S.; Winstone, Trevor B.; ...

    2016-03-01

    We describe an optical coating design suitable for broad bandwidth high reflection (BBHR) at 45° angle of incidence (AOI), P polarization (Ppol) of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses whose wavelengths range from 800 to 1000 nm. The design process is guided by quarter-wave HR coating properties. Our design must afford low group delay dispersion (GDD) for reflected light over the broad, 200 nm bandwidth in order to minimize temporal broadening of the fs pulses due to dispersive alteration of relative phases between their frequency components. The design should also be favorable to high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT). We base the coatingmore » on TiO2/SiO2 layer pairs produced by means of e-beam evaporation with ion-assisted deposition, and use OptiLayer Thin Film Software to explore designs starting with TiO2/SiO2 layers having thicknesses in a reverse chirped arrangement. This approach led to a design with R > 99% from 800 to 1000 nm and GDD < 20 fs2 from 843 to 949 nm (45° AOI, Ppol). The design’s GDD behaves in a smooth way, suitable for GDD compensation techniques, and its electric field intensities show promise for high LIDTs. Reflectivity and GDD measurements for the initial test coating indicate good performance of the BBHR design. Subsequent coating runs with improved process calibration produced two coatings whose HR bands satisfactorily meet the design goals. Lastly, for the sake of completeness, we summarize our previously reported transmission spectra and LIDT test results with 800 ps, 8 ps and 675 fs pulses for these two coatings, and present a table of the LIDT results we have for all of our TiO2/SiO2 BBHR coatings, showing the trends with test laser pulse duration from the ns to sub-ps regimes.« less

  13. Low Group Delay Dispersion Optical Coating for Broad Bandwidth High Reflection at 45° Incidence, P Polarization of Femtosecond Pulses with 900 nm Center Wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Bellum, John C.; Field, Ella S.; Winstone, Trevor B.; Kletecka, Damon E.

    2016-03-01

    We describe an optical coating design suitable for broad bandwidth high reflection (BBHR) at 45° angle of incidence (AOI), P polarization (Ppol) of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses whose wavelengths range from 800 to 1000 nm. The design process is guided by quarter-wave HR coating properties. Our design must afford low group delay dispersion (GDD) for reflected light over the broad, 200 nm bandwidth in order to minimize temporal broadening of the fs pulses due to dispersive alteration of relative phases between their frequency components. The design should also be favorable to high laser-induced damage threshold (LIDT). We base the coating on TiO2/SiO2 layer pairs produced by means of e-beam evaporation with ion-assisted deposition, and use OptiLayer Thin Film Software to explore designs starting with TiO2/SiO2 layers having thicknesses in a reverse chirped arrangement. This approach led to a design with R > 99% from 800 to 1000 nm and GDD < 20 fs2 from 843 to 949 nm (45° AOI, Ppol). The design’s GDD behaves in a smooth way, suitable for GDD compensation techniques, and its electric field intensities show promise for high LIDTs. Reflectivity and GDD measurements for the initial test coating indicate good performance of the BBHR design. Subsequent coating runs with improved process calibration produced two coatings whose HR bands satisfactorily meet the design goals. Lastly, for the sake of completeness, we summarize our previously reported transmission spectra and LIDT test results with 800 ps, 8 ps and 675 fs pulses for these two coatings, and present a table of the LIDT results we have for all of our TiO2/SiO2 BBHR coatings, showing the trends with test laser pulse duration from the ns to sub-ps regimes.

  14. Planetary Boundary Layer (PBL) Structures and Evolution analysis by Combination of Fractal Dimension of 3 Wavelength Lidar Signal and Range Correct Signal of 1064nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, L.; McCormick, M. P.; Su, J.

    2015-12-01

    Detection of the PBL heights and the PBL structure is very important for understanding the dynamic of the PBL since heat, water vapor and pollutions which come from the surface must transport through the PBL before they can affect the upper atmosphere. Fractal dimension (FD) retrieved from the three wavelengths lidar signals and the range- corrected signal (RCS) of 1064nm were used to analyses the PBL height and structure in Hampton University (HU, 37.02° N, 76.33° W). And the result shows that the new method has the potential to determine the top of different layer at same time. Combination of the FD and RCS signal also can be used to derive the structure of the PBL. Also the PBL evolution and the long time variety of the PBL in Hampton were analyzed. Wavelet covariance transform (WCT) was used to objectively determine the top and structure of the PBL from the FD signal and RCS signal.

  15. Holographic recording and characterization of photorefractive Bi{sub 2}TeO{sub 5} crystals at 633 nm wavelength light

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, Ivan de

    2014-04-28

    We report on the holographic recording on photorefractive Bi{sub 2}TeO{sub 5} crystals using λ=633 nm wavelength light. We studied the behavior of this material under the action of this low photonic energy light and found out the presence of a fast and a slow hologram, both of photorefractive nature and exhibiting rather high diffraction efficiencies. The faster and the slower holograms are based on the excitation and diffusion of oppositely charged carriers (likely electrons and holes). Relevant parameters for the photoactive centers responsible for both kind of holograms were characterized using purely holographic techniques. No evidences of non-photosensitive ionic charge carriers being involved in the recording process at room temperature nor self-fixing effects were found.

  16. Comparative study on diode-pumped continuous wave laser at 607  nm using differently doped Pr(3+):LiYF(4) crystals and wavelength tuning to 604  nm.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Yongjie; Xu, Bin; Qu, Biao; Luo, Saiyu; Yang, Han; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping

    2014-11-20

    We comparatively study an InGaN laser-diode-pumped continuous-wave laser at ∼607  nm (σ polarization) using differently doped Pr:LiYF4 single crystals. Maximum output power and slope efficiency at this wavelength were up to 209 mW and 47.1%, respectively, using a 0.2 at. % doped and 8 mm sample. Findlay-Clay analysis shows roundtrip losses, including reabsorption loss at this particular emission of about 1.2% using the 0.2 at. % doped sample, which is lower than that of samples with higher doping concentrations at 0.5 and 1 at. %. Using a 0.15 mm glass plate as a Fabry-Perot etalon, a maximum output power of 73 mW was achieved at ∼604  nm (π polarization) with slope efficiency of 17.2% for what is believed to be the highest result currently.

  17. Ultrahigh wavelength range (300nm-2μm) polarization-independent 500gs/s single-shot pulse, all-optical real time oscilloscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleyze, Jean-François; Hocquet, Steve; Monnier Bourdin, Dominique; Le Boudec, Patrice; Arnaud, Romain; Chassagne, Bruno; Jolly, Alain; Penninckx, Denis

    2014-03-01

    The development of ultra-broadband oscilloscopes is mainly governed by the needs of future telecom networks. But other applications are requesting the availability of true real-time acquisition oscilloscopes. Systems able to be used in single-shot operation are of prime interest for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and for the related R&D for plasma physics. We previously demonstrate a single-shot, 100GHz design of an all-optical sampling oscilloscope at 1μm (MULO). This laboratory system has been improved in stability and compactness to make an all-in-one box prototype. More, by the addition of an opto-electro-optics (OEO) sub-system at the input, we developed the ability to use this oscilloscope to analyze an electrical input signal up to 60GHz. This new integrated subset also increases the range of wavelength for optical input signal, from 300nm up to 2μm. Furthermore, it allows the use of inexpensive opto-electronic components at telecom wavelength for this system regardless of the signal to be analysed. In parallel with these improvements, by optimizing the heart of the system, we get a very high sampling rate, up to 500Gs/s and more; this allows considering much higher bandwidths in the future. In this talk, we will present latest developments and integration of this system. It will also allow us to give more details on the innovative OEO sub-system.

  18. Influence of polymer packaging films on hyperspectral imaging data in the visible-near-infrared (450-950 nm) wavelength range.

    PubMed

    Gowen, A A; O'Donnell, C P; Esquerre, C; Downey, G

    2010-03-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) has recently emerged as a useful tool for quality analysis of consumer goods (e.g., food and pharmaceutical products). These products are typically packaged in polymeric film prior to distribution; however, HSI experiments are typically carried out on such samples ex-packaging (either prior to or after removal from packaging). This research examines the effects of polymer packaging films (polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET)) on spectral and spatial features of HSI data in order to investigate the potential of HSI for quality evaluation of packaged goods. The effects of packaging film were studied for hyperspectral images of samples obtained in the visible-near-infrared (Vis-NIR, i.e., 450-950 nm) wavelength range, which is relevant to many food, agricultural, and pharmaceutical products. The dominant influence of the films tested in this wavelength range could be attributed to light scattering. Relative position of the light source, film, and detector were shown to be highly influential on the scattering effects observed. Detection of features on samples imaged through film was shown to be possible after some data preprocessing. This suggests that quality analysis of products packaged in polymer film is feasible using HSI. These findings would be useful in the development of quality monitoring tools for consumer products post-packaging using HSI.

  19. Optical absorption of carbon and hydrocarbon species from shock heated acetylene and methane in the 135-220 nm wavelength range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shinn, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    Absorption spectroscopy of carbon and hydrocarbon species has been performed in a shock tube at an incident shock condition for a wavelength range of 135-220 nm, in order to obtain information needed for calculating radiation blockage ahead of a planetary probe. Instrumentation consisted of high frequency response pressure transducers, thin-film heat transfer gages, or photomultipliers coupled by light pipes. Two test-gas mixtures, one with acetylene and the other with methane, both diluted with argon, were used to provide a reliable variation of C3 and C2H concentration ratio. Comparison of tests results of the two mixtures, in the temperature range of 3750 + or - 100 K, showed the main absorbing species to be C3. The wavelength for maximum absorption agrees well with the theoretical values of 7.68 eV and 8.03 eV for the vertical excitation energy, and a value of 0.90 for the electronic oscillator strength, obtained from the measured absorption band, is also in good agreement with the predicted value of 0.92.

  20. Diffraction efficiency of 200-nm-period critical-angle transmission gratings in the soft x-ray and extreme ultraviolet wavelength bands

    SciTech Connect

    Heilmann, Ralf K.; Ahn, Minseung; Bruccoleri, Alex; Chang, Chih-Hao; Gullikson, Eric M.; Mukherjee, Pran; Schattenburg, Mark L.

    2011-04-01

    We report on measurements of the diffraction efficiency of 200-nm-period freestanding blazed transmission gratings for wavelengths in the 0.96 to 19.4 nm range. These critical-angle transmission (CAT) gratings achieve highly efficient blazing over a broad band via total external reflection off the sidewalls of smooth, tens of nanometer thin ultrahigh aspect-ratio silicon grating bars and thus combine the advantages of blazed x-ray reflection gratings with those of more conventional x-ray transmission gratings. Prototype gratings with maximum depths of 3.2 and 6 {mu}m were investigated at two different blaze angles. In these initial CAT gratings the grating bars are monolithically connected to a cross support mesh that only leaves less than half of the grating area unobstructed. Because of our initial fabrication approach, the support mesh bars feature a strongly trapezoidal cross section that leads to varying CAT grating depths and partial absorption of diffracted orders. While theory predicts broadband absolute diffraction efficiencies as high as 60% for ideal CAT gratings without a support mesh, experimental results show efficiencies in the range of {approx}50-100% of theoretical predictions when taking the effects of the support mesh into account. Future minimization of the support mesh therefore promises broadband CAT grating absolute diffraction efficiencies of 50% or higher.

  1. Direct analysis of intact biological macromolecules by low-energy, fiber-based femtosecond laser vaporization at 1042 nm wavelength with nanospray postionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Shi, Fengjian; Flanigan, Paul M; Archer, Jieutonne J; Levis, Robert J

    2015-03-17

    A fiber-based laser with a pulse duration of 435 fs and a wavelength of 1042 nm was used to vaporize biological macromolecules intact from the condensed phase into the gas phase for nanospray postionization and mass analysis. Laser vaporization of dried standard protein samples from a glass substrate by 10 Hz bursts of 20 pulses having 10 μs pulse separation and <50 μJ pulse energy resulted in signal comparable to a metal substrate. The protein signal observed from an aqueous droplet on a glass substrate was negligible compared to either a droplet on metal or a thin film on glass. The mass spectra generated from dried and aqueous protein samples by the low-energy, fiber laser were similar to the results from high-energy (500 μJ), 45-fs, 800-nm Ti:sapphire-based femtosecond laser electrospray mass spectrometry (LEMS) experiments, suggesting that the fiber-based femtosecond laser desorption mechanism involves a nonresonant, multiphoton process, rather than thermal- or photoacoustic-induced desorption. Direct analysis of whole blood performed without any pretreatment resulted in features corresponding to hemoglobin subunit-heme complex ions. The observation of intact molecular ions with low charge states from protein, and the tentatively assigned hemoglobin α subunit-heme complex from blood suggests that fiber-based femtosecond laser vaporization is a "soft" desorption source at a laser intensity of 2.39 × 10(12) W/cm(2). The low-energy, turnkey fiber laser demonstrates the potential of a more robust and affordable laser for femtosecond laser vaporization to deliver biological macromolecules into the gas phase for mass analysis.

  2. Optical and magneto-optical behavior of Cerium Yttrium Iron Garnet thin films at wavelengths of 200–1770 nm

    PubMed Central

    Onbasli, Mehmet C.; Beran, Lukáš; Zahradník, Martin; Kučera, Miroslav; Antoš, Roman; Mistrík, Jan; Dionne, Gerald F.; Veis, Martin; Ross, Caroline A.

    2016-01-01

    Magneto-optical cerium-substituted yttrium iron garnet (Ce:YIG) thin films display Faraday and Kerr rotation (rotation of light polarisation upon transmission and reflection, respectively) as well as a nonreciprocal phase shift due to their non-zero off-diagonal permittivity tensor elements, and also possess low optical absorption in the near-infrared. These properties make Ce:YIG useful in providing nonreciprocal light propagation in integrated photonic circuits, which is essential for accomplishing energy-efficient photonic computation and data transport architectures. In this study, 80 nm-thick Ce:YIG films were grown on Gadolinium Gallium Garnet substrates with (100), (110) and (111) orientations using pulsed laser deposition. The films had bulk-like structural and magnetic quality. Faraday and Kerr spectroscopies along with spectroscopic ellipsometry were used to deduce the complete permittivity tensor of the films in the ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared spectral region, and the magneto-optical figure of merit as a function of wavelength was determined. The samples showed the highest IR Faraday rotation reported for thin films of Ce:YIG, which indicates the importance of this material in development of nonreciprocal photonic devices. PMID:27025269

  3. X-ray emission analysis of a plasma source using an yttrium and a mylar target for the generation of 2.48 nm wavelength microbeam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palladino, Libero; Lorenzo, Ramon Gimenez De; Emilio, Maurizio Di Paolo; Limongi, Tania

    2013-05-01

    In this work, the characteristics of X-ray beam generated from a plasma produced by focusing a Nd-Yag/glass laser beam on mylar or yttrium target were presented. For each target material, the conversion efficiencies of the soft X-ray emission in two different energy ranges, (i) 300-510 eV (almost coincident with the Water Window), (ii) 450-850 eV were measured. The experimental results of the conversion efficiencies will be utilized at the PLASMA-X laboratory of L'Aquila University for the realization of an intense monochromatic X-ray microbeam to be used in radiobiological and in transmission X-ray microscopy applications. In the presented experimental set-up, at the wavelength of 2.48 nm, a monochromatic soft X-rays beam was collected by multilayer spherical mirrors reflecting at an incidence angle close to the normal of the surface. The optical system geometry, the monochromatic beam intensity and the measures of efficiency of conversion of X-ray were described in this paper [5].

  4. Measurements of snow and ice surface reflectance and penetration to short laser pulses at zero phase angles and 532 and 1064-nm wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, X. X.; Cooper, J. W.; Hom, M. G.; Shuman, C. A.; Harding, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    Laser ranging has become a powerful tool in geological and geophysical studies of Earth, moon, and other celestial bodies. However, there have been uncertainties in difference between the surface reflectance measured passively using sunlight and those seen by the laser rangers with the laser beam and the receiver line of sight exactly co-aligned (i.e., at zero phase angle, or opposition). The surface reflectance at opposition can be several times higher than those measured at other phase angles, as we have observed from ICESat data. There have also been uncertainties in laser pulse broadening and the resulted range bias due to laser penetration and diffusions in translucent materials, such as snow and ice. Understanding of the optical properties of various Earth surface types at opposition will help to interpret the data and to improve the design of future airborne and space borne laser ranging instruments. We have performed a series of measurements of surface reflectance and penetration in the laboratory with the laser beam and the receiver at opposition in a laser ranger measurement configuration. The laser used in the measurement was a Microchip laser with 0.5-ns pulse width and single polarization at 532 or 1064-nm wavelength. The receiver consisted of a high-speed photodiode and a digital oscilloscope with a 13.5-ps equivalent sample interval and 8-bit pulse amplitude resolution. Measurements included surface reflectance, transmitted and echo laser pulse waveforms, and time-of-flight, in two polarizations and at both laser wavelengths. The samples tested included fresh and old snow blocks collected from New Hampshire, USA, and Greenland, fragile river edge ice, see ice press ridge, sand, natural salt, soil, and water. The reflectance measurements were calibrated against a set of spectral reflectance standards traceable to the US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The estimated measurement accuracy using our test setup was about 20-ps in

  5. Wavelength-dependence of the relative rate constants for the main geometric and structural photoisomerization of bilirubin IX alpha bound to human serum albumin. Demonstration of green light at 510 nm as the most effective wavelength in photochemical changes from (ZZ)-bilirubin IX alpha to (EZ)-cyclobilirubin IX alpha via (EZ)-bilirubin.

    PubMed Central

    Onishi, S; Itoh, S; Isobe, K

    1986-01-01

    The kinetics for the quantitatively important reaction: (Formula: see text) that is, the photochemical interconversion between bilirubin and its geometric and structural photoisomers bound to human serum albumin in aqueous solution when various wavelengths of monochromatic light were used, were assayed by h.p.l.c. In order to clarify the wavelength-dependence of the relative rate constants in the individual steps, a light-source with a half-bandwidth of 10 nm was used at increments of 20 nm, in the range from 410 nm to 550 nm. We describe for the first time studies on the wavelength-dependence of rate constants in geometric and structural photoisomerization reactions in vitro of (ZZ)-bilirubin or (EZ)-bilirubin bound to human serum albumin, especially the relative rate constants of cyclization of (EZ)-bilirubin into (EZ)-cyclobilirubin. Because studies in vitro have demonstrated that the wavelengths from 350 to 450 nm are mutagenic, the results obtained indicated that the safest and ideal light-source for phototherapy is green light of 510 nm, which keeps (ZE)-bilirubin concentrations as low as possible, as shown by a maximal value of k2 at 510 nm and a relatively low value of k1 at 510 nm. This light-source still ensures the substantial absorption of (ZZ)-bilirubin, which is the precursor of (EZ)-bilirubin, the intermediate in (EZ)-cyclobilirubin formation and, furthermore, as shown by the maximal value of k5 and a considerable value of k4 at 510 nm, promotes the cyclization of (EZ)-bilirubin derived from (ZZ)-bilirubin even though k3 at 510 nm also shows a peak value. PMID:3790073

  6. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: Generating collimated intense monochromatic beams of soft x radiation from an X-pinch in the wavelength region 0.4-1.0 nm by means of spherical crystal mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faenov, A. Ya; Mingaleev, A. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Pikuz, T. A.; Romanova, V. M.; Skobelev, I. Yu; Shelkovenko, T. A.

    1993-05-01

    The generation of collimated intense monochromatic beams of soft x radiation in the wavelength interval 0.4-1.0 nm from an X-pinch is reported. This is the first such report. High-quality mica crystals with dimensions of 10 × (30-35) mm were used to form beams with an energy of 2-3.2 μJ, a wavelength spread Δλ/λ=4 · 10-3, and a divergence of 5 · 10-4 rad. The mica crystals were bent into spherical surfaces with a radius of curvature of 10 or 25 cm. The characteristics of the resulting beams are compared with those of the beams from Ta lasers, with a wavelength ~4.5 nm, which are the shortest-wavelength x-ray lasers which have been reported to date. This comparison shows that the beams obtained in the present study are better than those from the Ta laser in terms of several characteristics (divergence, wavelength, and efficiency), while they are worse (but not greatly so) in terms of certain other characteristics (wavelength spread and energy in the pulse. It is thus possible today to solve many practical problems involving the use of collimated intense monochromatic beams of soft x radiation in the wavelength interval 0.25-2.0 nm. These problems can be solved with the help of the x radiation from an X-pinch or from plasmas produced by picosecond or femtosecond table-top lasers and short-focal-length, large-aperture crystal mirrors.

  7. An efficient continuous-wave YVO4/Nd:YVO4/YVO4 self-Raman laser pumped by a wavelength-locked 878.9 nm laser diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Li; Zhao, Weiqian; Qiao, Xin; Xia, Changquan; Wang, Lichun; Fan, Huibo; Shen, Mingya

    2016-11-01

    We report an efficient continuous-wave self-Raman laser at 1176 nm based on a 20-mm-long composite YVO4/Nd:YVO4/YVO4 crystal and pumped by a wavelength-locked 878.9 nm diode laser. A maximum output power of 5.3 W is achieved at a pump power of 26 W, corresponding to an optical conversion efficiency of 20% and a slope efficiency of 21%. The Raman threshold for the diode pump power was only 0.92 W. The results reveal that in-band pumping by a wavelength-locked diode laser significantly enhances output power and efficiency of self-Raman lasers by virtue of improved pump absorption and relieved thermal loading. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province, China (Grant Nos. BK20130453 and BK20130434) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304271).

  8. EFFECT OF LASER LIGHT ON MATTER. LASER PLASMAS: L spectra of zinc ions in the wavelength region 0.65-1.18 nm observed in a plasma heated by a Nd laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, J.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu; Faenov, A. Ya; Khakhalin, S. Ya; Khabibulaev, B. K.; Érmatov, Sh A.

    1993-12-01

    A study has been made of the x-ray emission spectra of zinc ions (λ ~0.65-1.18 nm) excited in a plasma produced by the beam from a Nd laser. The wavelengths were measured within ±0.3 pm. The observed spectra have been identified. Detailed calculations have made it possible to identify, for the first time, some spectra lines due to the radiative decal of autoionizing states of Na-like zinc ions.

  9. A table of semiempirical gf values. Part 1: Wavelengths: 5.2682 nm to 272.3380 nm. [to calculate line-blanketed model atmospheres for solar and stellar spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurucz, R. L.; Peytremann, E.

    1975-01-01

    The gf values for 265,587 atomic lines selected from the line data used to calculate line-blanketed model atmospheres are tabulated. These data are especially useful for line identification and spectral synthesis in solar and stellar spectra. The gf values are calculated semiempirically by using scaled Thomas-Fermi-Dirac radial wavefunctions and eigenvectors found through least-squares fits to observed energy levels. Included in the calculation are the first five or six stages of ionization for sequences up through nickel. Published gf values are included for elements heavier than nickel. The tabulation is restricted to lines with wavelengths less than 10 micrometers.

  10. Nonlinear absorption and optical strength of BaF{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} at the wavelength of 248 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Morozov, Nikolai V; Sergeev, P B; Reiterov, V M

    1999-11-30

    An experimental investigation was made of the dependence of the transmission of BaF{sub 2} and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} samples on the intensity of KrF-laser radiation ({lambda} = 248 nm) pulses of 85 ns duration. The two-photon absorption coefficients were found at {lambda} = 248 nm and their values for these two crystals were 0.5 {+-} 0.2 and 2 {+-} 1 cm Gw{sup -1}. The surface and bulk laser breakdown thresholds were determined for these samples. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  11. Fine frequency tuning in sum-frequency generation of continuous-wave single-frequency coherent light at 252 nm with dual-wavelength enhancement.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Hiroshi

    2007-01-01

    Fine frequency tuning of the deep-ultraviolet single-mode coherent light at 252 nm was conducted through the PID feedback system automatically by changing the temperature of a beta-BaB(2)O(4) (BBO) crystal in a doubly resonant external cavity for the sum-frequency mixing of 373 and 780 nm light. The temperature-dependent frequency tuning rate is 19.3 MHzK(-1), which is sufficiently fine to realize the laser cooling of neutral silicon atoms because the natural width of the laser cooling transition is 28.8 MHz.

  12. Effect of buffer gases on broadening of the Iodine-127 resonance absorption line at a 633-nm He-Ne laser wavelength

    SciTech Connect

    Kireev, S.V.; Shnyrev, S.L.; Zaspa, Yu.P.

    1995-04-01

    Collisional broadening coefficients are measured for iodine-127 resonance absorption lines in several rare cases of atmospheric air and CO{sub 2}. The results obtained are used to determine the optimum pressure of a gaseous mixture in a measuring cell for detecting iodine-127 by a helium-neon (633 nm) laser-induced fluorescence technique of monitoring iodine in atmospheric air.

  13. Modeling of the initiation and evolution of a laser-ionized column in the lower atmosphere - 314.5 nm wavelength resonant multiphoton ionization of naturally occurring argon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fetzer, G. J.; Stockley, J. E.

    1992-01-01

    A 3+1 resonant multiphoton ionization process in naturally occurring argon is studied at 314.5 nm as a candidate for providing a long ionized channel through the atmosphere. Results are presented which indicate peak electron densities up to 10 exp 8/cu cm can be created using laser intensities on the order of 10 exp 8 W/sq cm.

  14. Physical model for high indium content InGaN/GaN self-assembled quantum dot ridge-waveguide lasers emitting at red wavelengths (λ ~ 630 nm).

    PubMed

    Su, Guan-Lin; Frost, Thomas; Bhattacharya, Pallab; Dallesasse, John M

    2015-05-18

    We present a physical model for recently demonstrated high indium content self-assembled In0.4Ga0.6N/GaN quantum dot (QD)-based ridge-waveguide lasers emitting at red wavelengths. The strain distribution in the QD is calculated using linear elastic theory with the application of shrink-fit boundary condition at the InGaN/GaN material interface, and the electronic states are evaluated using a single-band effective mass Hamiltonian. A Schrödinger-Poisson self-consistent solver is used to describe the effect of charge screening under current injection. Our theoretical result shows a good match to the measured Hakki-Paoli gain spectrum. Combining the calculated gain spectrum and cavity properties, we have developed a device-level simulation to successfully explain the electrical and optical characteristics of this specific laser. Possible solutions to improving the device performance have been explored.

  15. Two-photon absorption in SiO{sub 2}- and (SiO{sub 2} + GeO{sub 2})-based fibres at a wavelength of 349 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Chunaev, D S; Karasik, A Ya

    2014-06-30

    The nonlinear two-photon light absorption coefficients have been measured in an optical fibre with a quartz glass (SiO{sub 2}) core and in a fibre with a germanosilicate glass (SiO{sub 2} + GeO{sub 2}) core. The two-photon absorption coefficient β measured at a wavelength of 349 nm in the (SiO{sub 2} + GeO{sub 2})-based fibre (13.7 cm TW{sup -1}) multiply exceeds that for the pure quartz glass optical fibre (0.54 cm TW{sup -1}). (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  16. Predissociation linewidths of the (3,0)-(11,0) Schumann-Runge absorption bands of (O-18)2 and O-16O-18 in the wavelength region 180-196 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chiu, S. S.-L.; Cheung, A. S.-C.; Yoshino, K.; Esmond, J. R.; Freeman, D. E.

    1990-01-01

    The Yoshino et al. (1988) measurements of absolute cross sections and those of Cheung et al. (1988) for spectroscopic constants are presently used to derive the predissociation linewidths of the (3,0)-(11,0) Schumman-Runge bands of (O-18)2 and O-16O-18, in the 180-196 nm wavelength region. Linewidths are determined as parameters in the nonlinear, least-squares fitting of calculated cross-sections to measured ones. The predissociation linewidths obtained are noted to often be greater than previously obtained experimental values for both isotopic molecules.

  17. Study on discrimination of oral cancer from normal using blood plasma based on fluorescence steady and excited state at excitation wavelength 280 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rekha, Pachaiappan; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-03-01

    Many research works based on fluorescence spectroscopy have proven its potential in the diagnosis of various diseases using the spectral signatures of the native key fluorophores such as tryptophan, tyrosine, collagen, NADH, FAD and porphyrin. These fluorophores distribution, concentration and their conformation may be changed depending upon the pathological and metabolic conditions of cells and tissues. In this study, we have made an attempt to characterize the blood plasma of normal subject and oral cancer patients by native fluorescence spectroscopy at 280 nm excitation. Further, the fluorescence data were analyzed by employing the multivariate statistical method - linear discriminant analyses (LDA) using leaves one out cross validation method. The results illustrate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy technique in the diagnosis of oral cancer using blood plasma.

  18. Au25 cluster functionalized metal-organic nanostructures for magnetically targeted photodynamic/photothermal therapy triggered by single wavelength 808 nm near-infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dan; Yang, Guixin; Gai, Shili; He, Fei; An, Guanghui; Dai, Yunlu; Lv, Ruichan; Yang, Piaoping

    2015-11-01

    Near-infrared (NIR) light-induced cancer therapy has gained considerable interest, but pure inorganic anti-cancer platforms usually suffer from degradation issues. Here, we designed metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of Fe3O4/ZIF-8-Au25 (IZA) nanospheres through a green and economic procedure. The encapsulated Fe3O4 nanocrystals not only produce hyperthemal effects upon NIR light irradiation to effectively kill tumor cells, but also present targeting and MRI imaging capability. More importantly, the attached ultrasmall Au25(SR)18- clusters (about 2.5 nm) produce highly reactive singlet oxygen (1O2) to cause photodynamic effects through direct sensitization under NIR light irradiation. Furthermore, the Au25(SR)18- clusters also give a hand to the hyperthemal effect as photothermal fortifiers. This nanoplatform exhibits high biocompatibility and an enhanced synergistic therapeutic effect superior to any single therapy, as verified by in vitro and in vivo assay. This image-guided therapy based on a metal-organic framework may stimulate interest in developing other kinds of metal-organic materials with multifunctionality for tumor diagnosis and therapy.Near-infrared (NIR) light-induced cancer therapy has gained considerable interest, but pure inorganic anti-cancer platforms usually suffer from degradation issues. Here, we designed metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) of Fe3O4/ZIF-8-Au25 (IZA) nanospheres through a green and economic procedure. The encapsulated Fe3O4 nanocrystals not only produce hyperthemal effects upon NIR light irradiation to effectively kill tumor cells, but also present targeting and MRI imaging capability. More importantly, the attached ultrasmall Au25(SR)18- clusters (about 2.5 nm) produce highly reactive singlet oxygen (1O2) to cause photodynamic effects through direct sensitization under NIR light irradiation. Furthermore, the Au25(SR)18- clusters also give a hand to the hyperthemal effect as photothermal fortifiers. This nanoplatform exhibits high

  19. Real-time display with large field of view on fourier domain optical coherence tomography at 1310 nm wavelength for dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Qing; Hou, Jue; Fu, Ling

    2012-06-01

    A Fourier domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) system with 1310 nm light was demonstrated to study inflammatory human skin and the skin coated with a moisturizer in vivo. By using a graphics processing unit (GPU), the display rate could reach 20 frames/s with 1000 A-scans contained in one image. The field of view (FOV) of the cross-sectional image is 7 mm in the lateral direction and the penetration depth is ˜1 mm in skin. The result shows that, in inflammatory skin, the epidermis became thicker and had a decreased scattering; furthermore, the region of the severe lesion present an uneven thickness of the epidermis compared with the peripheral area. For the result of a finger tip coated with the moisturizer, the antireflection effect was significant and the stratum corneum became more transparent. In this letter, we demonstrated that real-time display with a large FOV could enable screening of a large tissue area; thereby increasing the dermatologic diagnostic potential of the method by permitting a comparison of the lesion and the normal peripheral region.

  20. Leak path passivation by in situ Al-N for InGaN solar cells operating at wavelengths up to 570 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ke; Imai, Daichi; Kusakabe, Kazuhide; Yoshikawa, Akihiko

    2016-02-01

    A leak path passivation (LPP) technology for InGaN solar cells with photo-response up to 570 nm was developed by inserting in situ monolayers of Al-N into active layers. The InGaN layer in the passivated sample is partially relaxed and incorporates more than 23.5% In. By adopting in situ Al-N LPP, the open circuit voltage increases from 0.96 V to 1.35 V under one sun illumination (1.45-1.68 V under 72 suns), and the dark shunt resistance increases from 3.6 kΩ cm2 to 12.6 kΩ cm2, leading to an increase in power conversion efficiency by a factor of 2.0-2.26 (1-72 suns). This in situ Al-N LPP approach paves a way to exploit the full potential of InGaN for high efficiency solar cell application, accepting the reality of defective high-In-content thick and relaxed InGaN.

  1. Nonlinear polarization rotation in a dispersion-flattened photonic-crystal fiber for ultrawideband (>100 nm) all-optical wavelength conversion of 10 Gbit/s nonreturn-to-zero signals.

    PubMed

    Kwok, C H; Chow, C W; Tsang, H K; Lin, Chinlon; Bjarklev, A

    2006-06-15

    We study the conversion bandwidth of the cross-polarization-modulation (XPoIM)-based wavelength conversion scheme with a dispersion-flattened highly nonlinear photonic-crystal fiber for signals with a nonreturn-to-zero (NRZ) modulation format. Both theoretical and experimental results show that the conversion bandwidth can be extended to cover a very wide band, including S-, C-, and L-bands for 10 Gbit/s NRZ signals (a total bandwidth of 120 nm is experimentally demonstrated). We also study the theoretical bandwidth limit for 40 Gbit/s NRZ signals. A significant extension of the conversion bandwidth using the XPoIM approach compared with the four-wave mixing approach previously reported is demonstrated.

  2. Photodynamic therapy using systemic administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid and a 410-nm wavelength light-emitting diode for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus-infected ulcers in mice.

    PubMed

    Morimoto, Kuniyuki; Ozawa, Toshiyuki; Awazu, Kunio; Ito, Nobuhisa; Honda, Norihiro; Matsumoto, Sohkichi; Tsuruta, Daisuke

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become a worldwide problem. One potential alternative for bacterial control is photodynamic therapy. 5-aminolevulinic acid is a natural precursor of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX. Relatively little is known about the antibacterial efficacy of photodynamic therapy using the systemic administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid; a few reports have shown that 5-aminolevulinic acid exerts photodynamic effects on methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in vitro. In this study, we evaluated the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy using 5-aminolevulinic acid and a 410-nm wavelength light-emitting diode in vitro and in vivo for the treatment of MRSA. We found that 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy with the light-emitting diode had an in-vitro bactericidal effect on MRSA. In vivo, protoporphyrin IX successfully accumulated in MRSA on ulcer surfaces after intraperitoneal administration of 5-aminolevulinic acid to mice. Furthermore, 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy accelerated wound healing and decreased bacterial counts on ulcer surfaces; in contrast, vancomycin treatment did not accelerate wound healing. Our findings indicate that 5-aminolevulinic acid photodynamic therapy may be a new treatment option for MRSA-infected wounds.

  3. Investigation of new Nd-doped crystals designed for laser operation at short wavelengths along the 4F 3/2-> 4I 9/2 channel around 900 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varona, C.; Loiseau, P.; Aka, G.; Ferrand, B.

    2006-04-01

    The study of neodymium ions emission along the channel 4F 3/2-> 4I 9/2 led us to select several materials for short laser wavelength application. The results obtained with three series of compounds are presented: ABGa 3O 7 (A = Ca or Sr-B = La or Gd), ABAlO 4 (A = Ca or Sr-B = Y, Ln) and AMO 4 (A= Ca, Sr or Ba-M = Mo or W). Crystal growth of these hosts and neodymium ions spectroscopic characterizations are presented. Among all these crystals, Nd-doped BaWO 4 seems to be the most promising one for laser emission at short wavelength, combining easy crystal growth, short emission wavelength and long lifetime.

  4. Short-wavelength MEMS-tunable VCSELs.

    PubMed

    Cole, Garrett D; Behymer, Elaine; Bond, Tiziana C; Goddard, Lynford L

    2008-09-29

    We present electrically-injected MEMS-tunable vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers with emission wavelengths below 800 nm. Operation in this wavelength range, near the oxygen A-band from 760-780 nm, is attractive for absorption-based optical gas sensing. These fully-monolithic devices are based on an oxide-aperture AlGaAs epitaxial structure and incorporate a suspended dielectric Bragg mirror for wavelength tuning. By implementing electrostatic actuation, we demonstrate the potential for tuning rates up to 1 MHz, as well as a wide wavelength tuning range of 30 nm (767-737 nm).

  5. Integrated Duo Wavelength VCSEL Using an Electrically Pumped GaInAs/AlGaAs 980 nm Cavity at the Bottom and an Optically Pumped GaInAs/AlGaInAs 1550 nm Cavity on the Top.

    PubMed

    Islam, Samiha Ishrat; Islam, Arnob; Islam, Saiful

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an integrated single chip dual cavity VCSEL has been designed which comprises an electrically pumped 980 nm bottom VCSEL section fabricated using GaInAs/AlGaAs MQW active region and a 1550 nm top VCSEL section constructed using GaInAs/AlGaInAs MQW active region but optically pumped using half of the produced 980 nm light entering into it from the electrically pumped bottom cavity. In this design, the active region of the intracavity structure 980 nm VCSEL consists of 3 quantum wells (QWs) using Ga0.847In0.153As, 2 barriers using Al0.03Ga0.97As, and 2 separate confinement heterostructures (SCH) using the same material as the barrier. The active region of the top emitting 1550 nm VCSEL consists of 3 QWs using Ga0.47In0.52As, 2 barriers using Al0.3Ga0.17In0.53As, and 2 SCHs using the same material as the barrier. The top DBR and the bottom DBR mirror systems of the 1550 nm VCSEL section plus the top and bottom DBR mirror systems of the 980 nm VCSEL section have been formed using GaAs/Al0.8Ga0.2As. Computations show that the VCSEL is capable of producing 8.5 mW of power at 980 nm from the bottom side and 2 mW of power at the 1550 nm from top side.

  6. Compact silicon photonic wavelength-tunable laser diode with ultra-wide wavelength tuning range

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, Tomohiro Tang, Rui; Yamada, Hirohito

    2015-03-16

    We present a wavelength-tunable laser diode with a 99-nm-wide wavelength tuning range. It has a compact wavelength-tunable filter with high wavelength selectivity fabricated using silicon photonics technology. The silicon photonic wavelength-tunable filter with wide wavelength tuning range was realized using two ring resonators and an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The wavelength-tunable laser diode fabricated by butt-joining a silicon photonic filter and semiconductor optical amplifier shows stable single-mode operation over a wide wavelength range.

  7. Compact silicon photonic wavelength-tunable laser diode with ultra-wide wavelength tuning range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Tomohiro; Tang, Rui; Yamada, Hirohito

    2015-03-01

    We present a wavelength-tunable laser diode with a 99-nm-wide wavelength tuning range. It has a compact wavelength-tunable filter with high wavelength selectivity fabricated using silicon photonics technology. The silicon photonic wavelength-tunable filter with wide wavelength tuning range was realized using two ring resonators and an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The wavelength-tunable laser diode fabricated by butt-joining a silicon photonic filter and semiconductor optical amplifier shows stable single-mode operation over a wide wavelength range.

  8. Experimental determination of optical constants in the vacuum ultra violet wavelength region between 80 and 140 nm: A reflectance versus thickness method and its application to ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridou, Françoise; Cuniot-Ponsard, Mireille; Desvignes, Jean-Michel

    2007-03-01

    The 80-120 nm spectral range is a key domain for solar physics. Below 105 nm solids do not transmit light and the reflectance of available mirrors is particularly low which makes optical measurements specifically difficult. Optical constants of the materials may consequently be unavailable or unreliable. We present here a two media reflectance method at normal incidence suited to this VUV range, in which the variable is not the incidence angle but the thickness of the top layer made of the material to be analyzed. The real (n) and imaginary (k) parts of the complex index are directly and graphically determined in the (n, k) plane as the common intersection point of isoreflectance curves corresponding to samples different only in the thickness of the top layer. The method is tested and illustrated with ZnSe films evaporated on Al covered float glass substrates. In the literature, the reflectance magnitudes measured on ZnSe crystals differ strongly from an author to the other, leading to discrepant data for ZnSe in the VUV domain. We obtain precise and reliable values of (n, k), which fit the experimental values determined on freshly cleaved ZnSe crystals by J.L. Freeouf and the theoretical values calculated from the electronic band structure of ZnSe by John P. Walter and Marvin L. Cohen, but strongly differ from the optical constants selected by E.D. Palik in his tables.

  9. Interference comparator for laser diode wavelength and wavelength instability measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobosz, Marek; KoŻuchowski, Mariusz

    2016-04-01

    Method and construction of a setup, which allows measuring the wavelength and wavelength instability of the light emitted by a laser diode (or a laser light source with a limited time coherence in general), is presented. The system is based on Twyman-Green interferometer configuration. Proportions of phases of the tested and reference laser's interference fringe obtained for a set optical path difference are a measure of the unknown wavelength. Optical path difference in interferometer is stabilized. The interferometric comparison is performed in vacuum chamber. The techniques of accurate fringe phase measurements are proposed. The obtained relative standard uncertainty of wavelength evaluation in the tested setup is about 2.5 ṡ 10-8. Uncertainty of wavelength instability measurement is an order of magnitude better. Measurement range of the current setup is from 500 nm to 650 nm. The proposed technique allows high accuracy wavelength measurement of middle or low coherence sources of light. In case of the enlarged and complex frequency distribution of the laser, the evaluated wavelength can act as the length master in interferometer for displacement measurement.

  10. Interference comparator for laser diode wavelength and wavelength instability measurement.

    PubMed

    Dobosz, Marek; Kożuchowski, Mariusz

    2016-04-01

    Method and construction of a setup, which allows measuring the wavelength and wavelength instability of the light emitted by a laser diode (or a laser light source with a limited time coherence in general), is presented. The system is based on Twyman-Green interferometer configuration. Proportions of phases of the tested and reference laser's interference fringe obtained for a set optical path difference are a measure of the unknown wavelength. Optical path difference in interferometer is stabilized. The interferometric comparison is performed in vacuum chamber. The techniques of accurate fringe phase measurements are proposed. The obtained relative standard uncertainty of wavelength evaluation in the tested setup is about 2.5 ⋅ 10(-8). Uncertainty of wavelength instability measurement is an order of magnitude better. Measurement range of the current setup is from 500 nm to 650 nm. The proposed technique allows high accuracy wavelength measurement of middle or low coherence sources of light. In case of the enlarged and complex frequency distribution of the laser, the evaluated wavelength can act as the length master in interferometer for displacement measurement.

  11. Triple wavelength monitor PDIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Deukhee; Ha, Chang-woo; Shin, Sang-cheol; Kwon, Kyoung-soo; Ko, Joo-yul; Kang, Shin-jae

    2006-08-01

    Recently the demand for high-capacity optical storage systems compatible with CD, DVD, and Blue is growing. We designed the Vertical NIP photodiode with a diameter of 700um and the trans-impedance circuits by using 0.6um BiCMOS process. The measured sensitivity of the photodiode is 0.25, 0.42, and 0.48A/W for 405, 650, and 780nm wavelength lights, respectively. The capacitance of the PD is 4.5pF. Monitor PDIC for detecting triple wavelength lights is presented in this paper. The complete monitor PDIC with the NIP photodiode of 700um in diameter occupies 1900um*1200um. -3dB bandwidth is 110MHz and the temperature drift of output voltage is 3.2%.

  12. Simultaneous triple 914 nm, 1084 nm, and 1086 nm operation of a diode-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lü, Yanfei; Xia, Jing; Liu, Huilong; Pu, Xiaoyun

    2014-10-01

    We report a diode-pumped continuous-wave (cw) triple-wavelength Nd:YVO4 laser operating at 914, 1084, and 1086 nm. A theoretical analysis has been introduced to determine the threshold conditions for simultaneous triple-wavelength laser. Using a T-shaped cavity, we realized an efficient triple-wavelength operation at 4F3/2→4I9/2 and 4F3/2→4I11/2 transitions for Nd:YVO4 crystal, simultaneously. At an absorbed pump power of 16 W (or 25 W of incident pump power), the maximum output power was 2.3 W, which included 914 nm, 1084 nm, and 1086 nm three wavelengths, and the optical conversion efficiency with respect to the absorbed pump power was 14.4%.

  13. Parametric wavelength conversion in photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Sigang; Wu, Zhaohui; Yang, Yi; Chen, Minghua; Xie, Shizhong

    2016-11-01

    Nonlinear wavelength conversion provides flexible solutions for generating wideband tunable radiation in novel wavelength band. Parametric process in photonic crystal fibers (PCFs) has attracted comprehensive interests since it can act as broadband tunable light sources in non-conventional wavelength bands. The current state-of-the-art photonic crystal fibers can provide more freedom for customizing the dispersion and nonlinearity which is critical to the nonlinear process, such as four wave mixing (FWM), compared with the traditional fibers fabricated with doping techniques. Here we demonstrate broadband parametric wavelength conversion in our homemade photonic crystal fibers. The zero dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of PCFs is critical for the requirement of phase matching condition in the parametric four wave mixing process. Firstly a procedure of the theoretical design of PCF with the ZDW at 1060 nm is proposed through our homemade simulation software. A group of PCF samples with gradually variable parameters are fabricated according to the theoretical design. The broadband parametric gain around 1060 nm band is demonstrated pumped with our homemade mode locked fiber laser in the anomalous dispersion region. Also a narrow gain band with very large wavelength detune with the pump wavelength in the normal dispersion region is realized. Wavelength conversion with a span of 194 nm is realized. Furthermore a fiber optical parametric oscillator based on the fabricated PCF is built up. A wavelength tunable range as high as 340 nm is obtained. This report demonstrates a systematic procedure to realize wide band wavelength conversion based on PCFs.

  14. 810nm, 980nm, 1470nm and 1950nm diode laser comparison: a preliminary "ex vivo" study on oral soft tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Merigo, Elisabetta; Sozzi, Michele; Selleri, Stefano; Vescovi, Paolo; Cucinotta, Annamaria

    2015-02-01

    The introduction of diode lasers in dentistry has several advantages, mainly consisting on the reduced size, reduced cost and possibility to beam delivering by optical fibers. At the moment the two diode wavelengths normally utilized in the dental field are 810 and 980 nm for soft tissues treatments. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of four different diode wavelengths: 810, 980, 1470 and 1950 nm diode laser for the ablation of soft tissues. Several samples of veal tongue were exposed to the four different wavelengths, at different fluences. The internal temperature of the soft tissues, in the area close to the beam, was monitored with thermocouple during the experiment. The excision quality of the exposed samples have been characterized by means of an optical microscope. Tissue damages and the cut regularity have been evaluated on the base of established criteria. The lowest thermal increase was recorded for 1950 nm laser. Best quality and speed of incision were obtained by the same wavelength. By evaluating epithelial, stromal and vascular damages for all the used wavelengths, the best result, in terms of "tissue respect", have been obtained for 1470 and 1950 nm exposures. From the obtained results 1470 and 1950 nm diode laser showed to be the best performer wavelengths among these used in this "ex vivo" study, probably due to their greatest affinity to water.

  15. Yb fiber amplifier at 972.5 nm with frequency quadrupling to 243.1 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkley, Z.; Rasor, C.; Cooper, S. F.; Brandt, A. D.; Yost, D. C.

    2017-01-01

    We demonstrate a continuous-wave ytterbium-doped fiber amplifier which produces 6.3 W at a wavelength of 972.5 nm. We frequency-quadruple this source in two resonant doubling stages to generate 530 mW at 243.1 nm. Radiation at this wavelength is required to excite the 1S-2S transition in atomic hydrogen and could therefore find application in experimental studies of hydrogen and anti-hydrogen.

  16. Sub-wavelength focusing meta-lens.

    PubMed

    Roy, Tapashree; Rogers, Edward T F; Zheludev, Nikolay I

    2013-03-25

    We show that a planar plasmonic metamaterial with spatially variable meta-atom parameters can focus transmitted light into sub-wavelength hot-spots located beyond the near-field of the metamaterial. By nano-structuring a gold film we created an array of meta-lenses generating foci of 160 nm (0.2λ) in diameter when illuminated by a wavelength of 800 nm. We attribute the occurrence of sub-wavelength hotspots beyond the near field to the phenomenon of superoscillation.

  17. 3 Watt CW OPO tunable 604nm to 616nm for quantum optics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, Angus; Halfmann, Thomas; Mieth, Simon

    2012-06-01

    A continuous wave optical parametric oscillator (CW OPO) pumped by a fiber laser has been developed which emits up to 3 Watts of single longitudinal mode radiation tunable in the wavelength range 604nm to 616nm. The device is a modified version of the ``Argos'' Model 2400 commercial product by Lockheed Martin Aculight. A 15 Watt 1064nm fiber laser pumps a CW OPO based upon periodically-poled Lithium Niobate (PPLN). A short section of the nonlinear crystal is poled to allow efficient intracavity sum frequency generation (SFG) between the OPO pump and signal wavelengths to generate orange radiation. The device can be coarsely tuned by matching the poling periods and temperature within the nonlinear crystal to phase-match both OPO and SFG processes simultaneously. Fine mode-hop-free tuning of the orange wavelength of up to 100GHz range can be achieved by applying a voltage to a PZT which tunes the pump laser. By similar intracavity conversion schemes, the system offers the potential of providing high power at wavelengths from 600nm to 1400nm in addition to the direct signal and idler wavelength ranges from 1400nm to 4630nm. Such capability comes without the complexity and reliability issues which are inherent in dye and Ti:Sapphire systems. Details of the OPO system performance and its use in quantum optics applications will be provided.

  18. Method of Controlling Lasing Wavelength(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Murray, Keith E. (Inventor); Hutcheson, Ralph L. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A method is provided to control the lasing wavelength of a laser material without changing or adjusting the mechanical components of a laser device, The rate at which the laser material is pumped with the pumping energy is controlled so that lasing occurs at one or more lasing wavelengths based on the rate. The lasing wavelengths are determined by transition lifetimes and/or energy transfer rates.

  19. Can DUV take us below 100 nm?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finders, Jo; Jorritsma, Louis; Eurlings, Mark; Moerman, Richard; van Greevenbroek, Henk; van Schoot, Jan B.; Flagello, Donis G.; Socha, Robert J.; Stammler, Thomas

    2001-09-01

    Currently, the 130 nm SIA node is being implemented at leading edge semiconductor manufacturing facilities. Previously, this node appeared to be the insertion point for 193 nm lithography. However, it is evident that for the majority of applications 248 nm will be the wavelength of choice. This once again raises the question how far DUV lithography (248 nm) will take us. To investigate this, overlay, imaging and productivity related issues have to be considered. Although these items become more and more linked at low k1-factors (e.g. overlay and imaging), this paper will focus on some of the imaging related topics.

  20. Wavelength Anomalies in UV-Vis Spectrophotometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellinghuisen, J.

    2012-06-01

    Commercial spectrophotometers are great tools for recording absorption spectra of low-to-moderate resolution and high photometic quality. However, in the case of at least one such instrument, the Shimadzu UV-2101PC (and by assumption, similar Shimadzu models), the wavelength accuracy may not match the photometric accuracy. In fact the wavelength varies with slit width, spectral sampling interval, and even the specified range, with a smoothing algorithm invoked any time the spectrum includes more than 65 sampled wavelengths. This behavior appears not to be documented anywhere, but it has been present for at least 20 years and persists even in the latest software available to run the instrument. The wavelength shifts can be as large as 1 nm, so for applications where wavelength accuracy better than this is important, wavelength calibration must be done with care to ensure that the results are valid for the parameters used to record the target spectra.

  1. Wavelengths effective in induction of malignant melanoma.

    PubMed Central

    Setlow, R B; Grist, E; Thompson, K; Woodhead, A D

    1993-01-01

    It is generally agreed that sunlight exposure is one of the etiologic agents in malignant melanoma of fair-skinned individuals. However, the wavelengths responsible for tumorigenesis are not known, although DNA is assumed to be the target because individuals defective in the repair of UV damage to DNA are several thousandfold more prone to the disease than the average population. Heavily pigmented backcross hybrids of the genus Xiphophorus (platyfish and swordtails) are very sensitive to melanoma induction by single exposures to UV. We irradiated groups of five 6-day-old fish with narrow wavelength bands at 302, 313, 365, 405, and 436 nm and scored the irradiated animals for melanomas 4 months later. We used several exposures at each wavelength to obtain estimates of the sensitivity for melanoma induction as a function of exposure and wavelength. The action spectrum (sensitivity per incident photon as a function of wavelength) for melanoma induction shows appreciable sensitivity at 365, 405, and probably 436 nm, suggesting that wavelengths not absorbed directly in DNA are effective in induction. We interpret the results as indicating that light energy absorbed in melanin is effective in inducing melanomas in this animal model and that, in natural sunlight, 90-95% of melanoma induction may be attributed to wavelengths > 320 nm--the UV-A and visible spectral regions. Images Fig. 4 PMID:8341684

  2. Wavelengths effective in induction of malignant melanoma

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, R.B.; Grist, E.; Thompson, K.; Woodhead, A.D. )

    1993-07-15

    It is generally agreed that sunlight exposure is one of the etiologic agents in malignant melanoma of fair-skinned individuals. However, the wavelengths responsible for tumorigenesis are not known, although DNA is assumed to be the target because individuals defective in the repair of UV damage to DNA are several thousandfold more prone to the disease than the average population. Heavily pigmented back-cross hybrids of the genus Xiphophorus (platyfish and swordtails) are very sensitive to melanoma induction by single exposures to UV. The authors irradiated groups of five 6-day-old fish with narrow wavelength bands at 302, 313, 365, 405, and 436 nm and score the irradiated animals for melanomas 4 months later. They used several exposures at each wavelength to obtain estimates of the sensitivity for melanoma induction as a function of exposure and wavelength. The action spectrum (sensitivity per incident photon as a function of wavelength) for melanoma induction shows appreciable sensitivity at 365, 405, and probably 436 nm, suggesting that wavelengths not absorbed directly in DNA are effective in induction. They interpret the results as indicating that light energy absorbed in melanin is effective in inducing melanomas in this animal model and that, in natural sunlight, 90-95% of melanoma induction may be attributed to wavelengths >320 nm-the UV-A and visible spectral regions. 25 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Synthesis of fluorinated materials for 193-nm immersion lithography and 157-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, T.; Ishikawa, T.; Yoshida, T.; Hayamai, T.; Araki, Takayuki; Aoyama, H.; Hagiwara, T.; Itani, Toshiro; Fujii, Kiyoshi

    2005-05-01

    Various fluorinated polymers were synthesized for application in 193-nm immersion lithography with the goal of improving 157-nm photoresist performance. Their fundamental properties were characterized, such as transparency at 193-nm and 157-nm (wavelength) and solubility in water and a standard alkaline developer. High transparency, i.e., absorbance better than 0.3 μm-1 at 193-nm wavelength, was achieved. The dissolution behaviors of them were studied by using the Quartz Crystal Microbalance (QCM) method. We find that the dissolution rate of Poly(norbornene-2-fluoro-2-hexafluoroalchol) (PNB1FVIP) in 0.065N tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) was >200 times (nm/s) faster than that of the copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and norbornene-2-fluoro-2-hexafluoroalchol (TFE/NB1FVIP). A resist based on TFE/NB1FVIP was able to delineate 75 nm dense lines by exposure at 193-nm (wavelength) with an alternating phase shift mask using a 0.75 NA ArF scanner. The dissolution rates of the fluoropolymers in water and a 0.262N and 0.065 TMAH can be controlled by optimizing counter monomers containing hexafluoroisopropanol (HFA) unit, carboxylic acid unit and so on. In addition, we have collect water contact angle data. This data shows that fluoropolymers can be used as resist cover materials for 193-nm immersion lithography.

  4. Dual Wavelength Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walsh, Brian M.

    2010-01-01

    Dual wavelength lasers are discussed, covering fundamental aspects on the spectroscopy and laser dynamics of these systems. Results on Tm:Ho:Er:YAG dual wavelength laser action (Ho at 2.1 m and Er at 2.9 m) as well as Nd:YAG (1.06 and 1.3 m) are presented as examples of such dual wavelength systems. Dual wavelength lasers are not common, but there are criteria that govern their behavior. Based on experimental studies demonstrating simultaneous dual wavelength lasing, some general conclusions regarding the successful operation of multi-wavelength lasers can be made.

  5. New antireflective coatings for 193-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gu; Guerrero, Douglas J.; Dobson, Norman

    1998-06-01

    New bottom antireflective coatings (BARCs) for 193 nm lithography have been recently developed by Brewer Science Inc. Copolymers of benzyl methacrylate (or benzyl acrylate) and hydroxypropyl methacrylate have been synthesized and used as a main component in 193 nm BARCs. The acrylic copolymers have strong absorbance at 193 nm UV light wavelength. The 193 nm BARCs were formulated in safe solvents such as ethyl lactate and formed by spin-on coating process. Thermosetting of the 193 nm BARCs limited their intermixing with photoresists. These 193 nm BARCs had optical density of about 10 micrometers -1, k equals 0.35, and n equals 1.81. Preliminary oxygen plasma etch rates were > 1.5 times DUV resists. Good profiles at small feature sizes (< 0.20 micrometers ) were achieved with tested photoresists.

  6. Filamentation of ultrashort laser pulses of different wavelengths in argon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Xiexing; Lin, Wenbin

    2017-02-01

    We investigate the filaments formed by the ultrashort laser pulses with different wavelengths of 400 nm, 586 nm and 800 nm propagating in argon. Numerical results show that, when the input power or the ratio of the input power to the critical power is given, the pulse with 400 nm wavelength has the largest on-axis intensity, as well as the narrowest filament and the most stable beam radius. These results indicate that the pulse with shorter wavelength is more suitable for the long-range propagation in argon.

  7. Monolithic single mode interband cascade lasers with wide wavelength tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Edlinger, M.; Weih, R.; Scheuermann, J.; Nähle, L.; Fischer, M.; Koeth, J.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.

    2016-11-01

    Monolithic two-section interband cascade lasers offering a wide wavelength tunability in the wavelength range around 3.7 μm are presented. Stable single mode emission in several wavelength channels was realized using the concept of binary superimposed gratings and two-segment Vernier-tuning. The wavelength selective elements in the two segments were based on specially designed lateral metal grating structures defined by electron beam lithography. A dual-step dry etch process provided electrical separation between the segments. Individual current control of the segments allowed wavelength channel selection as well as continuous wavelength tuning within channels. A discontinuous tuning range extending over 158 nm in up to six discrete wavelength channels was achieved. Mode hop free wavelength tuning up to 14 nm was observed within one channel. The devices can be operated in continuous wave mode up to 30 °C with the output powers of 3.5 mW around room temperature.

  8. Dual-wavelength InP quantum dot lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Shutts, S.; Smowton, P. M.; Krysa, A. B.

    2014-06-16

    We have demonstrated a two-section dual-wavelength diode laser incorporating distributed Bragg reflectors, with a peak-wavelength separation of 62.5 nm at 300 K. Each lasing wavelength has a different temperature dependence, providing a difference-tuning of 0.11 nm/K. We discuss the mechanisms governing the light output of the two competing modes and explain how the short wavelength can be relatively insensitive to output changes at the longer wavelength. Starting from an initial condition when the output at both wavelengths are equal, a 500% increase in the long wavelength output causes the short wavelength output to fall by only 6%.

  9. Ultraviolet 320 nm laser excitation for flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Telford, William; Stickland, Lynn; Koschorreck, Marco

    2017-02-27

    Although multiple lasers and high-dimensional analysis capability are now standard on advanced flow cytometers, ultraviolet (UV) lasers (usually 325-365 nm) remain an uncommon excitation source for cytometry. This is primarily due to their cost, and the small number of applications that require this wavelength. The development of the Brilliant Ultraviolet (BUV fluorochromes, however, has increased the importance of this formerly niche excitation wavelength. Historically, UV excitation was usually provided by water-cooled argon- and krypton-ion lasers. Modern flow cytometers primary rely on diode pumped solid state lasers emitting at 355 nm. While useful for all UV-excited applications, DPSS UV lasers are still large by modern solid state laser standards, and remain very expensive. Smaller and cheaper near UV laser diodes (NUVLDs) emitting at 375 nm make adequate substitutes for 355 nm sources in many situations, but do not work as well with very short wavelength probes like the fluorescent calcium chelator indo-1. In this study, we evaluate a newly available UV 320 nm laser for flow cytometry. While shorter in wavelength that conventional UV lasers, 320 is close to the 325 nm helium-cadmium wavelength used in the past on early benchtop cytometers. A UV 320 nm laser was found to excite almost all Brilliant Ultraviolet dyes to nearly the same level as 355 nm sources. Both 320 nm and 355 nm sources worked equally well for Hoechst and DyeCycle Violet side population analysis of stem cells in mouse hematopoetic tissue. The shorter wavelength UV source also showed excellent excitation of indo-1, a probe that is not compatible with NUVLD 375 nm sources. In summary, a 320 nm laser module made a suitable substitute for conventional 355 nm sources. This laser technology is available in a smaller form factor than current 355 nm units, making it useful for small cytometers with space constraints. © 2017 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry.

  10. Simple wavelength assignment protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suryaputra, Stephen; Touch, Joseph D.; Bannister, Joseph A.

    2000-10-01

    IP routers can be coupled with wavelength-selective optical cross- connects to support existing Internet infrastructure in a wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) optical network. Because optical wavelength routing is transparent to IP, packets can bypass traditional forwarding and pass directly through the optical cross-connect, resulting in very high throughput and low delay routing. This approach shares features with label switching, but wavelengths are much more scarce resource than labels. Because optical switches have larger switching times than electronic switches, and wavelength conversions are expensive, wavelength label swapping is not easily done. Wavelength label assignments must consider these limitations to be practical in an optical environment. The performance of an instance of this approach, called Packet over Wavelengths (POW) has been simulated and studied. A new signaling protocol, Simple Wavelength Assignment Protocol (SWAP) is devised to be POW signaling protocol. SWAP takes into account the optical device limitations, and is designed to minimize wavelength conversion, utilize wavelengths with the merging of flows, and reduce the reconfiguration of optical switches. SWAP, to our knowledge, is the first approach to combine signaling and wavelength assignment in an on- line protocol. This paper describes high level SWAP design challenges, decision, and overhead.

  11. Extending the wavelength range in the Oclaro high-brightness broad area modules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawlik, Susanne; Guarino, Andrea; Sverdlov, Boris; Müller, Jürgen; Button, Christopher; Arlt, Sebastian; Jaeggi, Dominik; Lichtenstein, Norbert

    2010-02-01

    The demand for high power laser diode modules in the wavelength range between 793 nm and 1060 nm has been growing continuously over the last several years. Progress in eye-safe fiber lasers requires reliable pump power at 793 nm, modules at 808 nm are used for small size DPSSL applications and fiber-coupled laser sources at 830 nm are used in printing industry. However, power levels achieved in this wavelength range have remained lower than for the 9xx nm range. Here we report on approaches to increasing the reliable power in our latest generations of high power pump modules in the wavelength range between 793 nm and 1060 nm.

  12. Optical amplification at the 1. 31 wavelength

    DOEpatents

    Cockroft, N.J.

    1994-02-15

    An optical amplifier operating at the 1.31 [mu]m wavelength for use in such applications as telecommunications, cable television, and computer systems is described. An optical fiber or other waveguide device is doped with both Tm[sup 3+] and Pr[sup 3+] ions. When pumped by a diode laser operating at a wavelength of 785 nm, energy is transferred from the Tm[sup 3+] ions to the Pr[sup 3+] ions, causing the Pr[sup 3+] ions to amplify at a wavelength of 1.31. 1 figure.

  13. 115 kHz tuning repetition rate ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser.

    PubMed

    Oh, W Y; Yun, S H; Tearney, G J; Bouma, B E

    2005-12-01

    We demonstrate an ultrahigh-speed wavelength-swept semiconductor laser using a polygon-based wavelength scanning filter. With a polygon rotational speed of 900 revolutions per second, a continuous wavelength tuning rate of 9200 nm/ms and a tuning repetition rate of 115 kHz were achieved. The wavelength tuning range of the laser was 80 nm centered at 1325 nm, and the average polarized output power was 23 mW.

  14. Polarization properties of lidar scattering from clouds at 347 nm and 694 nm.

    PubMed

    Pal, S R; Carswell, A I

    1978-08-01

    The polarization characteristics of lidar scattering from cumulus and low-lying shower clouds have been measured with a system operating at 694 nm (red) and 347 nm (blue). The backscatter profiles of the polarization components as well as of the total intensity of the return are presented and discussed for the two wavelengths. The linear depolarization ratio delta, which can be used as a measure of the unpolarized multiple scattering, has been obtained at both wavelengths. This quantity has a very low value at cloud base for both wavelengths and increases with pulse penetration. The blue registers generally higher values of a within the cloud. The measured total intensity backscatter functions for both wavelengths are presented and discussed in relation to theoretical calculations of cloud models.

  15. Dynamic sensor interrogation using wavelength-swept laser with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Yong Seok; Ko, Myeong Ock; Jung, Mi Sun; Park, Ik Gon; Kim, Namje; Han, Sang-Pil; Ryu, Han-Cheol; Park, Kyung Hyun; Jeon, Min Yong

    2013-07-29

    We report a high-speed (~2 kHz) dynamic multiplexed fiber Bragg grating (FBG) sensor interrogation using a wavelength-swept laser (WSL) with a polygon-scanner-based wavelength filter. The scanning frequency of the WSL is 18 kHz, and the 10 dB scanning bandwidth is more than 90 nm around a center wavelength of 1,540 nm. The output from the WSL is coupled into the multiplexed FBG array, which consists of five FBGs. The reflected Bragg wavelengths of the FBGs are 1,532.02 nm, 1,537.84 nm, 1,543.48 nm, 1,547.98 nm, and 1,553.06 nm, respectively. A dynamic periodic strain ranging from 500 Hz to 2 kHz is applied to one of the multiplexed FBGs, which is fixed on the stage of the piezoelectric transducer stack. Good dynamic performance of the FBGs and recording of their fast Fourier transform spectra have been successfully achieved with a measuring speed of 18 kHz. The signal-to-noise ratio and the bandwidth over the whole frequency span are determined to be more than 30 dB and around 10 Hz, respectively. We successfully obtained a real-time measurement of the abrupt change of the periodic strain. The dynamic FBG sensor interrogation system can be read out with a WSL for high-speed and high-sensitivity real-time measurement.

  16. Wavelength independent interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochberg, Eric B. (Inventor); Page, Norman A. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A polychromatic interferometer utilizing a plurality of parabolic reflective surfaces to properly preserve the fidelity of light wavefronts irrespective of their wavelengths as they pass through the instrument is disclosed. A preferred embodiment of the invention utilizes an optical train which comprises three off-axis parabolas arranged in conjunction with a beam-splitter and a reference mirror to form a Twyman-Green interferometer. An illumination subsystem is provided and comprises a pair of lasers at different preselected wavelengths in the visible spectrum. The output light of the two lasers is coaxially combined by means of a plurality of reflectors and a grating beam combiner to form a single light source at the focal point of the first parabolic reflection surface which acts as a beam collimator for the rest of the optical train. By using visible light having two distinct wavelengths, the present invention provides a long equivalent wavelength interferogram which operates at visible light wherein the effective wavelength is equal to the product of the wavelengths of the two laser sources divided by their difference in wavelength. As a result, the invention provides the advantages of what amounts to long wavelength interferometry but without incurring the disadvantage of the negligible reflection coefficient of the human eye to long wavelength frequencies which would otherwise defeat any attempt to form an interferogram at that low frequency using only one light source.

  17. Lithography strategy for 65-nm node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borodovsky, Yan A.; Schenker, Richard E.; Allen, Gary A.; Tejnil, Edita; Hwang, David H.; Lo, Fu-Chang; Singh, Vivek K.; Gleason, Robert E.; Brandenburg, Joseph E.; Bigwood, Robert M.

    2002-07-01

    Intel will start high volume manufacturing (HVM) of the 65nm node in 2005. Microprocessor density and performance trends will continue to follow Moore's law and cost-effective patterning solutions capable of supporting it have to be found, demonstrated and developed during 2002-2004. Given the uncertainty regarding the readiness and respective capabilities of 157nm and 193nm lithography to support 65nm technology requirements, Intel is developing both lithographic options and corresponding infrastructure with the intent to use both options in manufacturing. Development and use of dual lithographic options for a given technology node in manufacturing is not a new paradigm for Intel: whenever introduction of a new exposure wavelength presented excessive risk to the manufacturing schedule, Intel developed parallel patterning approaches in time for the manufacturing ramp. Both I-line and 248nm patterning solutions were developed and successfully used in manufacturing of the 350nm node at Intel. Similarly, 248nm and 193nm patterning solutions were fully developed for 130nm node high volume manufacturing.

  18. Effect of wavelength change in microholographic recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katayama, Ryuichi

    2016-09-01

    In microholographic recording, expensive laser diodes having no spectrum broadening (single mode) and no wavelength variation are used. On the other hand, in conventional optical disk systems, cheap laser diodes having spectrum broadening (multimode) and wavelength variation are used. It is a great advantage if the laser diodes for conventional optical disk systems can be used for microholographic recording. Therefore, the effect of wavelength change in microholographic recording was investigated through a numerical simulation. The laser diodes were modeled so that the full width at 1/e2 maximum of the spectrum was 0.8 nm and the center wavelength was 405 nm. The numerical aperture of the objective lenses was 0.85 and the thickness of the recording medium was 300 μm. The diffraction efficiency of the diffracted beam from a microhologram was calculated using the coupled wave theory and the following results were obtained. The diffraction efficiency decreased by three orders of magnitude by replacing single-mode laser diodes with multimode laser diodes, which makes it necessary to enhance the readout signal. The tolerance of the optical path length difference between the signal and reference beams was -50 110 μm, which makes it necessary to adjust the optical path length difference. The tolerance of the wavelength variation was 405 +/- 0.5 nm, which makes it necessary to select the laser diodes. The conclusion was that it is not practical to use the laser diodes for conventional optical disk systems for microholographic recording.

  19. Investigation of a Pulsed 1550 nm Fiber Laser System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-15

    Jain 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT...14. ABSTRACT There is a strong need for a pulsed laser system at eye safe wavelengths for illuminator applications . High power pulsed 1550 nm fiber...system at eye safe wavelengths for illuminator applications . High power pulsed 1550 nm fiber lasers systems are able to generate, shaped, pulses at

  20. Pump noise cancellation in parametric wavelength converters.

    PubMed

    Ataie, Vahid; Myslivets, Evgeny; Wiberg, Andereas O J; Alic, Nikola; Radic, Stojan

    2012-12-10

    A novel technique for pump noise effect mitigation in parametric wavelength converters is introduced. The method relies on digital signal processing and effectively takes advantage of the correlation property between the pump and idler, imposed by the parametric interaction. A 4 dB improvement in receiver performance is demonstrated experimentally for the conventional 10 Gbps OOK signal converted over 20 nm.

  1. Sub-10 nm nanopantography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Siyuan; Donnelly, Vincent M.; Ruchhoeft, Paul; Economou, Demetre J.

    2015-11-01

    Nanopantography, a massively parallel nanopatterning method over large areas, was previously shown to be capable of printing 10 nm features in silicon, using an array of 1000 nm-diameter electrostatic lenses, fabricated on the substrate, to focus beamlets of a broad area ion beam on selected regions of the substrate. In the present study, using lens dimensional scaling optimized by computer simulation, and reduction in the ion beam image size and energy dispersion, the resolution of nanopantography was dramatically improved, allowing features as small as 3 nm to be etched into Si.

  2. Sub-70-nm pattern fabrication using an alternating phase-shifting mask in 157-nm lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irie, Shigeo; Kanda, Noriyoshi; Watanabe, Kunio; Suganaga, Toshifumi; Itani, Toshiro

    2002-07-01

    In Selete, we have developed various resolution-enhancement technologies (RETs) such as the alternating phase shifting mask (alt-PSM), attenuated-PSM (att-PSM), and off-axis illumination (OAI). The alt-PSM, for example, reduces the k1 factor and extends the lithographic performance. A problem concerning the alt-PSM is the difference in the transmitted light intensities of the non-phase-shifting region and the phase-shifting region which can cause critical-dimension (CD) placement error. The transmitted light intensities of the two regions can be made equal by side-etching, in which the quartz (Qz) is undercut by wet-etching at the side of the transmitting region. We sought to optimize the mask structure in terms of a high numerical aperture (NA) through a simulation using two kinds of structures with a 157 nm exposure wavelength. The structures were a single-trench structure and a dual-trench structure, with each trench dug in the transmitting region. To attain a high NA (NA equals 0.85), we tried to optimize the parameters of the Cr film thickness, the amount of the undercut (side-etching), and the phase shift. The evaluated line pattern sizes were 70 nm (line/space size equals 70/70 nm, 70/140 nm, 70/210 nm, and 70/350 nm) and 50 nm (line/space size equals 50/50 nm, 50/100 nm, 50/150 nm, and 50/250 nm) at the wafer. Further, using the optimized mask, we calculated the lithographic margin of a sub 70 nm pattern through a simulation. For the 70 nm line patterns, we found that it will be difficult to fabricate precisely a 70 nm line patten using a mask with a single- trench structure. And we also found that the most suitable conditions for the dual-trench structure mask were a 90 nm undercut, a 100 nm Cr film thickness, and a 180 degree(s) phase shift. The exposure latitude at a depth of focus (DOF) of 0.3 micrometers , simulated using the optimized mask, was 5.3% for the 70/70 nm pattern, 3.6% for 70/140 nm 16.0% for 70/210 nm, and 29.3% for 70/350 nm. As the pitch

  3. Short wavelength FELS

    SciTech Connect

    Sheffield, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The generation of coherent ultraviolet and shorter wavelength light is presently limited to synchrotron sources. The recent progress in the development of brighter electron beams enables the use of much lower energy electron rf linacs to reach short-wavelengths than previously considered possible. This paper will summarize the present results obtained with synchrotron sources, review proposed short- wavelength FEL designs and then present a new design which is capable of over an order of magnitude higher power to the extreme ultraviolet. 17 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Chalcogenide waveguide structure for dispersion in mid-infrared wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashok, Nandam; Lak Lee, Yeung; Shin, WooJin

    2017-03-01

    We present a waveguide design with low dispersion in mid-infrared wavelengths. The design consists of slot-strip-slot structures horizontally, the strip structure is considered with high index and slot is considered with low index material. We show a dispersion of 0–350 ps/(km·nm) over a band width of 1375 nm, and the structure shows zero dispersions at 2512 and 3887 nm wavelength. The magnitude of dispersion can be fine-tuned by varying the waveguide parameters. Such a waveguide structure with low dispersion at mid-infrared wavelengths has a great potential for supercontinuum generation application. Apart this, we have also proposed dispersion compensation structure, the structure shows a high negative dispersion at 1510 nm wavelength. The structure should find application in the design of an integrated optic dispersion compensator for optical telecommunication and ultrafast waveguide lasers.

  5. Effect of wavelength on cutaneous pigment using pulsed irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, K.A.; Murray, S.; Kurban, A.K.; Tan, O.T.

    1989-05-01

    Several reports have been published over the last two decades describing the successful removal of benign cutaneous pigmented lesions such as lentigines, cafe au lait macules' nevi, nevus of Ota, and lentigo maligna by a variety of lasers such as the excimer (351 nm), argon (488,514 nm), ruby (694 nm), Nd:YAG (1060 nm), and CO/sub 2/ (10,600 nm). Laser treatment has been applied to lesions with a range of pigment depths from superficial lentigines in the epidermis to the nevus of Ota in the reticular dermis. Widely divergent laser parameters of wavelength, pulse duration, energy density, and spotsizes have been used, but the laser parameters used to treat this range of lesions have been arbitrary, with little effort focused on defining optimal laser parameters for removal of each type. In this study, miniature black pig skin was exposed to five wavelengths (504, 590, 694, 720, and 750 nm) covering the absorption spectrum of melanin. At each wavelength, a range of energy densities was examined. Skin biopsies taken from laser-exposed sites were examined histologically in an attempt to establish whether optimal laser parameters exist for destroying pigment cells in skin. Of the five wavelengths examined, 504 nm produced the most pigment specific injury; this specificity being maintained even at the highest energy density of 7.0 J/cm2. Thus, for the destruction of melanin-containing cells in the epidermal compartment, 504 nm wavelength appears optimal.

  6. Investigating the wavelength dependency of dot gain in color print

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namedanian, Mahziar; Gooran, Sasan; Nyström, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    By separating the optical dot gain from the physical dot gain, it is possible to study different behaviors of color inks on different papers. In this study we are investigating the dependency of dot gain and wavelength in color print. Microscopic images have been used to separate optical and physical dot gain from each other. The optical behavior of primary color inks in different absorbing wavelength bands has been studied. It has been illustrated that the light scattering in the paper is wavelength independent, and therefore the Point Spread Function which indicates the probability of light scattering of the paper does not change in visible wavelengths (380 nm -700 nm). We have shown that it is possible to separate two printed color inks on one specific wavelength, due to the filtering behavior of the color inks. By considering the fact that light scattering in the paper is wavelength independent, it was possible to separately analyze the dot gain of each color.

  7. Choice of the proper wavelength for photochemotherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moan, Johan; Iani, Vladimir; Ma, LiWei

    1996-01-01

    All photosensitizers applied in experimental- and clinical-photochemotherapy (PCT) have broad absorption spectra stretching from the ultraviolet up to 6 - 700 nm. Light of wavelengths in the red part of the spectrum is chosen for PCT even though the extinction coefficients of the sensitizers are usually smaller in this wavelength region than at shorter wavelengths. Thus, if one wants to treat superficial tumors or skin disorders, this may be a wrong choice. Two pieces of information are needed in order to make a proper choice of wavelength to treat a lesion of a given depth: the wavelength dependence of the optical penetration depth into tissue, and the action spectrum for tumor destruction. Additionally, the skin photosensitivity induced by the drug should be considered. We have non-invasively measured the optical penetration spectra of human tissues in vivo and the fluorescence excitation spectra for several sensitizers, including protoporphyrin (PpIX), in cells. Assuming that the action spectrum for cell inactivation can be approximated by the fluorescence excitation spectrum of the sensitizer -- which is indeed the case for a number of sensitizers in cells in vitro -- we have considered the situation for 5-aminolevulinic acid-induced PpIX in human tissue. All the way down to about 2 mm below the surface light in the Soret band (-410 nm) would give the largest cell inactivation, while at depth exceeding 2 mm, the conventional 635 nm light would be optimal. Light at the argon laser wavelength 514.5 nm is more efficient than light at 635 nm down to 1 mm. From the surface and down to 6 mm, the 635 nm peak of the excitation spectrum of PpIX, as evaluated per photon incident on the skin surface, is redshifted by less than 2 nm. In some cases photosensitizing photoproducts are formed during PCT, such as photoprotoporphyrin during PCT with PpIX. In such cases it may be advantageous to apply a broad-band light source with a spectrum that covers also part of the action

  8. Millimeter wavelength propagation studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hodge, D. B.

    1974-01-01

    The investigations conducted for the Millimeter Wavelength Propagation Studies during the period December, 1966, to June 1974 are reported. These efforts included the preparation for the ATS-5 Millimeter Wavelength Propagation Experiment and the subsequent data acquisition and data analysis. The emphasis of the OSU participation in this experiment was placed on the determination of reliability improvement resulting from the use of space diversity on a millimeter wavelength earth-space communication link. Related measurements included the determination of the correlation between radiometric temperature and attenuation along the earth-space propagation path. Along with this experimental effort a theoretical model was developed for the prediction of attenuation statistics on single and spatially separated earth space propagation paths. A High Resolution Radar/Radiometer System and Low Resolution Radar System were developed and implemented for the study of intense rain cells in preparation for the ATS-6 Millimeter Wavelength Propagation Experiment.

  9. Comparison of 980-nm and 1070-nm in endovenous laser treatment (EVLT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topaloglu, Nermin; Tabakoglu, Ozgur; Ergenoglu, Mehmet U.; Gülsoy, Murat

    2009-07-01

    The use of endovenous laser treatment for varicose veins has been increasing in recent years. It is a safer technique than surgical vein stripping. Its complications (e.g. bruising, pain) are less than the complications of surgical vein stripping. But best parameters such as optimum wavelength, power, and application duration are still under investigation to clarify uncertainties about this technique. To prevent its complications and improve its clinical outcomes, the exact mechanism of it has to be known. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of different laser wavelengths on endovenous laser therapy. In this study 980-nm diode laser and 1070-nm fiber laser were used. Human veins were irradiated with 980-nm and 1070-nm lasers at 8 W and 10 W to find the optimal power and wavelength. After laser application, remarkable shrinkage was observed. Inner and outer diameters of the veins also narrowed for both of the laser types. 10 W of 980-nm laser application led to better shrinkage results.

  10. Integration of both dense wavelength-division multiplexing and coarse wavelength-division multiplexing demultiplexer on one photonic crystal chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Huiping; Shen, Guansheng; Liu, Weijia; Ji, Yuefeng

    2013-07-01

    An integrated model of photonic crystal (PC) demultiplexer that can be used to combine dense wavelength-division multiplexing (DWDM) and coarse wavelength-division multiplexing (CWDM) systems is first proposed. By applying the PC demultiplexer, dense channel spacing 0.8 nm and coarse channel spacing 20 nm are obtained at the same time. The transmission can be improved to nearly 90%, and the crosstalk can be decreased to less than -18 dB by enlarging the width of the bus waveguide. The total size of the device is 21×42 μm2. Four channels on one side of the demultiplexer can achieve DWDM in the wavelength range between 1575 and 1578 nm, and the other four channels on the other side can achieve CWDM in the wavelength range between 1490 and 1565 nm, respectively. The demonstrated demultiplexer can be applied in the future CWDM and DWDM system, and the architecture costs can be significantly reduced.

  11. Wavelength-dependent polarization absorber based on multi-cladding fiber with gold coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Sijun; Pei, Li; Liu, Chao; Wang, Jianshuai; Li, Jing; Ning, Tigang

    2016-12-01

    The wavelength-dependent polarization absorber based on multi-cladding fiber (MCF) with surface plasmon resonance (SPR) is proposed and demonstrated. In order to obtain the SPR effect both in the x- and y- polarized direction, the MCF is polished in two sides. The numerical simulations show that the polarization absorber with the wavelengths of 980/1550 nm and 1310/1550 nm can be obtained by adjusting the parameters of dielectric layer. Each wavelength only transmits a single polarization in the wavelength-dependent polarization absorber, and the loss of unwanted polarized mode is more than 95 dB/cm. In addition, when the length of fiber is only 550 μm, the bandwidths of polarization absorber are 29 nm at 980 nm and 413 nm at 1550 nm, respectively; meanwhile, the bandwidth of 1310/1550 nm polarization absorber reaches 102 nm and 302 nm, respectively.

  12. The Dual Wavelength UV Transmitter Development for Space Based Ozone DIAL Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop efficient 1-micron to UV wavelength conversion technology to generate tunable, single mode, pulsed UV wavelengths of 320 nm and 308 nm. The 532 nm wavelength radiation is generated by a 1064 nm Nd:YAG laser through second harmonic generation. The 532 nm pumps an optical parametric oscillator (OPO) to generate 803 nm. The 320 nm is generated by sum frequency generation (SFG) of 532 nm and 803 nm wavelengths The hardware consists of a conductively cooled, 1 J/pulse, single mode Nd:YAG pump laser coupled to an efficient RISTRA OPO and SFG assembly-Both intra and extra-cavity approaches are examined for efficiency.

  13. New method for spectrofluorometer monochromator wavelength calibration.

    PubMed

    Paladini, A A; Erijman, L

    1988-09-01

    A method is presented for wavelength calibration of spectrofluorometer monochromators. It is based on the distortion that the characteristic absorption bands of glass filters (holmium or didymium oxide), commonly used for calibration of spectrophotometers, introduce in the emitted fluorescence of fluorophores like indole, diphenyl hexatriene, xylene or rhodamine 6G. Those filters or a well characterized absorber with sharp bands like benzene vapor can be used for the same purpose. The wavelength calibration accuracy obtained with this method is better than 0.1 nm, and requires no modification in the geometry of the spectrofluorometer sample compartment.

  14. Optimal wavelength selection for noncontact reflection photoplethysmography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corral Martinez, Luis F.; Paez, Gonzalo; Strojnik, Marija

    2011-08-01

    In this work, we obtain backscattered signals from human forehead for wavelengths from 380 to 980 nm. The results reveal bands with strong pulsatile signals that carry useful information. We describe those bands as the most suitable wavelengths in the visible and NIR regions from which heart and respiratory rate parameters can be derived using long distance non-contact reflection photoplethysmography analysis. The latter results show the feasibility of a novel technique for remotely detection of vital signs in humans. This technique, which may include morphological analysis or maps of tissue oxygenation, is a further step to real non-invasive remote monitoring of patients.

  15. Miniaturized optical wavelength sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Helen Ling-Ning

    Recently semiconductor processing technology has been applied to the miniaturization of optical wavelength sensors. Compact sensors enable new applications such as integrated diode-laser wavelength monitors and frequency lockers, portable chemical and biological detection, and portable and adaptive hyperspectral imaging arrays. Small sensing systems have trade-offs between resolution, operating range, throughput, multiplexing and complexity. We have developed a new wavelength sensing architecture that balances these parameters for applications involving hyperspectral imaging spectrometer arrays. In this thesis we discuss and demonstrate two new wavelength-sensing architectures whose single-pixel designs can easily be extended into spectrometer arrays. The first class of devices is based on sampling a standing wave. These devices are based on measuring the wavelength-dependent period of optical standing waves formed by the interference of forward and reflected waves at a mirror. We fabricated two different devices based on this principle. The first device is a wavelength monitor, which measures the wavelength and power of a monochromatic source. The second device is a spectrometer that can also act as a selective spectral coherence sensor. The spectrometer contains a large displacement piston-motion MEMS mirror and a thin GaAs photodiode flip-chip bonded to a quartz substrate. The performance of this spectrometer is similar to that of a Michelson in resolution, operating range, throughput and multiplexing but with the added advantages of fewer components and one-dimensional architecture. The second class of devices is based on the Talbot self-imaging effect. The Talbot effect occurs when a periodic object is illuminated with a spatially coherent wave. Periodically spaced self-images are formed behind the object. The spacing of the self-images is proportional to wavelength of the incident light. We discuss and demonstrate how this effect can be used for spectroscopy

  16. Wavelength stabilized multi-kW diode laser systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Bernd; Unger, Andreas; Kindervater, Tobias; Drovs, Simon; Wolf, Paul; Hubrich, Ralf; Beczkowiak, Anna; Auch, Stefan; Müntz, Holger; Biesenbach, Jens

    2015-03-01

    We report on wavelength stabilized high-power diode laser systems with enhanced spectral brightness by means of Volume Holographic Gratings. High-power diode laser modules typically have a relatively broad spectral width of about 3 to 6 nm. In addition the center wavelength shifts by changing the temperature and the driving current, which is obstructive for pumping applications with small absorption bandwidths. Wavelength stabilization of high-power diode laser systems is an important method to increase the efficiency of diode pumped solid-state lasers. It also enables power scaling by dense wavelength multiplexing. To ensure a wide locking range and efficient wavelength stabilization the parameters of the Volume Holographic Grating and the parameters of the diode laser bar have to be adapted carefully. Important parameters are the reflectivity of the Volume Holographic Grating, the reflectivity of the diode laser bar as well as its angular and spectral emission characteristics. In this paper we present detailed data on wavelength stabilized diode laser systems with and without fiber coupling in the spectral range from 634 nm up to 1533 nm. The maximum output power of 2.7 kW was measured for a fiber coupled system (1000 μm, NA 0.22), which was stabilized at a wavelength of 969 nm with a spectral width of only 0.6 nm (90% value). Another example is a narrow line-width diode laser stack, which was stabilized at a wavelength of 1533 nm with a spectral bandwidth below 1 nm and an output power of 835 W.

  17. Tunable multiwavelength SOA fiber laser with ultra-narrow wavelength spacing based on nonlinear polarization rotation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zuxing; Wu, Jian; Xu, Kun; Hong, Xiaobin; Lin, Jintong

    2009-09-14

    A tunable multiwavelength fiber laser with ultra-narrow wavelength spacing and large wavelength number using a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) has been demonstrated. Intensity-dependent transmission induced by nonlinear polarization rotation in the SOA accounts for stable multiwavelength operation with wavelength spacing less than the homogenous broadening linewidth of the SOA. Stable multiwavelength lasing with wavelength spacing as small as 0.08 nm and wavelength number up to 126 is achieved at room temperature. Moreover, wavelength tuning of 20.2 nm is implemented via polarization tuning.

  18. Efficient stimulated Raman scattering in hybrid liquid-silica fibers for wavelength conversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebrun, Sylvie; Phan Huy, Minh-Châu.; Delaye, Philippe; Pauliat, Gilles

    2016-10-01

    Wavelength Raman converters have been developed for years to provide an elegant solution to easily shift the wavelength of existing lasers. In the pulse regime, due to relatively low Raman gains, these converters are usually limited to high-energy pulses, typically a few J or a few mJ in the nanosecond or picosecond regime. In order to build efficient Raman converters with lower energy pulses, we have developed a new class of fiber wavelength shifters based on Stimulated Raman Scattering in the liquid filling the hollow core of photonic bandgap fibers or Kagome fibers. The liquid choice, the design of the photonic crystal microstructure, the fiber length and its diameter give us enough degrees of freedom to realize efficient and versatile shifters, each being optimized for a specific wavelength shift. Connecting such a fiber device to a fixed wavelength laser allows delivering a new wavelength. With the same laser, another wavelength can be obtained by connecting another shifter. Using microlasers delivering 532 nm sub-nanosecond pulses of about 1 μJ, we already built a full series of shifters to reach any wavelength among: 556 nm; 561 nm; 582 nm; 595 nm; 612 nm; 630 nm; 650 nm; 667 nm; 772 nm. Hereafter, we detail how we design and optimize these new devices.

  19. Long wavelength infrared detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasquez, Richard P. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Long wavelength infrared detection is achieved by a detector made with layers of quantum well material bounded on each side by barrier material to form paired quantum wells, each quantum well having a single energy level. The width and depth of the paired quantum wells, and the spacing therebetween, are selected to split the single energy level with an upper energy level near the top of the energy wells. The spacing is selected for splitting the single energy level into two energy levels with a difference between levels sufficiently small for detection of infrared radiation of a desired wavelength.

  20. Influence of three laser wavelengths on human fibroblasts cell culture.

    PubMed

    Crisan, Bogdan; Soritau, Olga; Baciut, Mihaela; Campian, Radu; Crisan, Liana; Baciut, Grigore

    2013-02-01

    Although experimental studies in vitro and vivo have been numerous, the effect of laser wavelength irradiation on human fibroblast cell culture is poorly understood. This emphasizes the need of additional cellular and molecular research into laser influence with low energy and power. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of three different laser wavelengths on the human skin fibroblasts cell culture. We wanted to evaluate if near infrared lasers had any influence in healing of wounds by stimulating mitochondrial activity of fibroblasts. The cells were irradiated using 830-, 980- and 2,940-nm laser wavelengths. The irradiated cells were incubated and their mitochondrial activity was assessed by the MTT assay at 24, 48 and 72 h. Simultaneously, an apoptosis assay was assessed on the irradiated fibroblasts. It can be concluded that laser light of the near-infrared region (830 and 980 nm) influences fibroblasts mitochondrial activity compared to the 2,940-nm wavelength which produces apoptosis.

  1. Albuquerque, NM, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Albuquerque, NM (35.0N, 106.5W) is situated on the edge of the Rio Grande River and flood plain which cuts across the image. The reddish brown surface of the Albuquerque Basin is a fault depression filled with ancient alluvial fan and lake bed sediments. On the slopes of the Manzano Mountains to the east of Albuquerque, juniper and other timber of the Cibola National Forest can be seen as contrasting dark tones of vegetation.

  2. Short wavelength laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagelstein, P.L.

    1984-06-25

    A short wavelength laser is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses. A multiplicity of panels, mounted on substrates, are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path. When the panels are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses, single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses are produced.

  3. Tune-out wavelengths for the alkaline-metal atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei-Wei, Yu; Rong-Mei, Yu; Yong-Jun, Cheng; Ya-Jun, Zhou

    2016-02-01

    An approximation formula is developed to determine the tune-out wavelengths for the ground states of the alkaline-metal atoms lithium, sodium and cesium from the existing relativistic reduced matrix elements and experimental energies. The first longest tune-out wavelengths for Li, Na, and Cs are 670.971 nm, 589.557 nm, and 880.237 nm, respectively. This is in good agreement with the previous high precise results of 670.971626 nm, 589.5565 nm, and 880.25 nm from the relativistic all-order many-body perturbation theory (RMBPT) calculation [Phys. Rev. A 84 043401 (2011)]. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11304063 and 11174066) and the Youth Foundation of Liaoning Normal University, China (Grant No. LS2014L002).

  4. The wavelength dependence of Triton's light curve

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hillier, J.; Veverka, J.; Helfenstein, P.; Mcewen, A.

    1991-01-01

    Using Voyager observations, it is demonstrated that Triton's orbital light curve is strongly wavelength-dependent, a characteristic which readily explains some of the apparent discrepancies among pre-Voyager telescopic measurements. Specifically, a light curve amplitude (peak to peak) is found that decreases systematically with increasing wavelength from about 0.08 magnitude (peak to peak) near 200 nm to less than 0.02 magnitude near 1000 nm. Peak brightness occurs near 90 deg orbital longitude (leading hemisphere). The brightness variation across this hemisphere is close to sinusoidal; the variation across the darker hemisphere is more complex. The decrease in light curve amplitude with increasing wavelength appears to be due to a decrease in contrast among surface markings, rather than to atmospheric obscuration. The model also explains the observed decrease in the amplitude of Triton's light curve at visible wavelengths over the past decade, a decrease related to the current migration of the subsolar latitude toward the south pole; it is predicted that this trend will continue into the 1990s.

  5. Trends in nanosecond melanosome microcavitation up to 1540 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, Morgan S.; Kennedy, Paul K.; Noojin, Gary D.; Vincelette, Rebecca L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.

    2015-09-01

    Thresholds for microcavitation of bovine and porcine melanosomes were previously reported, using single nanosecond (ns) laser pulses in the visible (532 nm) and the near-infrared (NIR) from 1000 to 1319 nm. Here, we report average radiant exposure thresholds for bovine melanosome microcavitation at additional NIR wavelengths up to 1540 nm, which range from ˜0.159 J/cm2 at 800 nm to 4.5 J/cm2 at 1540 nm. Melanosome absorption coefficients were also estimated, and decreased with increasing wavelength. These values were compared to retinal pigment epithelium coefficients, and to water absorption, over the same wavelength range. Corneal total intraocular energy retinal damage threshold values were estimated and compared to the previous (2007) and recently changed (2014) maximum permissible exposure (MPE) safe levels. Results provide additional data that support the recent changes to the MPE levels, as well as the first microcavitation data at 1540 nm, a wavelength for which melanosome microcavitation may be an ns-pulse skin damage mechanism.

  6. Measurement of Magic Wavelengths for the ^{40}Ca^{+} Clock Transition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Pei-Liang; Huang, Yao; Bian, Wu; Shao, Hu; Guan, Hua; Tang, Yong-Bo; Li, Cheng-Bin; Mitroy, J; Gao, Ke-Lin

    2015-06-05

    We demonstrate experimentally the existence of magic wavelengths and determine the ratio of oscillator strengths for a single trapped ion. For the first time, two magic wavelengths near 396 nm for the ^{40}Ca^{+} clock transition are measured simultaneously with high precision. By tuning the applied laser to an intermediate wavelength between transitions 4s_{1/2}→4p_{1/2} and 4s_{1/2}→4p_{3/2}, the sensitivity of the clock transition Stark shift to the oscillator strengths is greatly enhanced. Furthermore, with the measured magic wavelengths, we determine the ratio of the oscillator strengths with a deviation of less than 0.5%. Our experimental method may be applied to measure magic wavelengths for other ion clock transitions. Promisingly, the measurement of these magic wavelengths paves the way to building all-optical trapped ion clocks.

  7. Short wavelength laser

    DOEpatents

    Hagelstein, Peter L.

    1986-01-01

    A short wavelength laser (28) is provided that is driven by conventional-laser pulses (30, 31). A multiplicity of panels (32), mounted on substrates (34), are supported in two separated and alternately staggered facing and parallel arrays disposed along an approximately linear path (42). When the panels (32) are illuminated by the conventional-laser pulses (30, 31), single pass EUV or soft x-ray laser pulses (44, 46) are produced.

  8. Cost-effective tunable 1310nm DWDM transmitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chorchos, Łukasz; Turkiewicz, Jarosław P.

    2015-09-01

    The growing demand for higher data rate transmissions in local and metropolitan area networks is main reason of developing effective and inexpensive transmission systems. In this paper, study about the possibility to realize 1310 nm tunable DWDM transmitter using commercially available low-cost DFB lasers is presented. Extensive DFB lasers characterization has been performed which led to establish relationships between laser current, operational temperature, emitted wavelength and power. An algorithm to find the laser settings for a desired wavelength grid has been proposed and tested. Generation of the 1310nm DWDM channels with frequency spacing between 120 and 240GHz has been demonstrated.

  9. Photolysis of formic acid at 355 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Denhi; Bautista, Teonanacatl; Guerrero, Alfonso; Alvarez, Ignacio; Cisneros, Carmen

    2015-05-01

    Formic acid is well known as a food additive and recently an application on fuel cell technology has emerged. In this work we have studied the dissociative ionization process by multiphoton absorption of formic acid molecules at 355nm wavelength photons, using TOF spectrometry in reflectron mode (R-TOF). Some of the most abundant ionic fragments produced are studied at different settings of the laser harmonic generator. The dependence of the products on these conditions is reported. This work was supported by CONACYT Project 165410 and PAPIIT IN102613 and IN101215.

  10. Effect of light wavelength on polymerization of light-cured resins.

    PubMed

    Nomoto, R

    1997-06-01

    Experimental light-cured composite resins were exposed to a narrow-band light at a constant quantum number using a narrow-band interference filter. The IR spectra of the cured resin specimens were measured before and after extraction of residual monomers. Degree of conversion (DC) and polymerization conversion (PC) were calculated from these IR spectra. The light in 410-550 nm could be polymerized. With a brief exposure (5 s), DC and PC were affected by the wavelength. The effect of wavelength between 410 and 490 nm decreased with increasing duration of exposure. The most efficient wavelength was 470 nm and the most adequate wavelength was in the 450-490 nm wavelength range. The absorbance of camphorquinone strongly affected polymerization, especially during the initial stage. However, from the relationship between DC or PC and exposure energy, polymerization depended not only on the wavelength of the light, but also on the exposure energy.

  11. Interferometric Sensor of Wavelength Detuning Using a Liquid Crystalline Polymer Waveplate

    PubMed Central

    Wierzba, Paweł

    2016-01-01

    Operation of a polarization interferometer for measurement of the wavelength changes of a tunable semiconductor laser was investigated. A λ/8 waveplate made from liquid crystalline polymer is placed in one of interferometers’ arms in order to generate two output signals in quadrature. Wavelength was measured with resolution of 2 pm in the wavelength range 628–635 nm. Drift of the interferometer, measured in the period of 500 s, was 8 nm, which corresponded to the change in the wavelength of 1.3 pm. If needed, wavelength-dependent Heydemann correction can be used to expand the range of operation of such interferometer. PMID:27171082

  12. 2 nm continuously tunable 488nm micro-integrated diode-laser-based SHG light source for Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braune, M.; Maiwald, M.; Sumpf, B.; Tränkle, G.

    2016-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy in the visible spectral range is of great interest due to resonant Raman effects. Nevertheless, fluorescence and ambient light can mask the weak Raman lines. Shifted excitation Raman difference spectroscopy is a demonstrated tool to overcome this drawback. To apply this method, a light source with two alternating wavelengths is necessary. The spectral distance between these two wavelengths has to be adapted to the width of the Raman signal. According to the sample under investigation the width of the Raman signal could be in the range of 3 cm-1 - 12 cm-1. In this work, a micro-integrated light source emitting at 488 nm with a continuous wavelength tuning range up to 2 nm (83 cm-1) is presented. The pump source, a DFB laser emitting at 976 nm, and a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) ridge waveguide crystal is used for the second harmonic generation (SHG). Both components are mounted on a μ-Peltier-element for temperature control. Here, a common wavelength tuning of the pump wavelength and the acceptance bandwidth of the SHG crystal via temperature is achieved. With the results the light source is suitable for portable Raman and SERDS experiments with a flexible spectral distance between both excitation wavelengths for SERDS with respect to the sample under investigation.

  13. Efficient 1645-nm Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, York E.; Setzler, Scott D.; Snell, Kevin J.; Budni, Peter A.; Pollak, Thomas M.; Chicklis, E. P.

    2004-05-01

    We report a resonantly fiber-laser-pumped Er:YAG laser operating at the eye-safe wavelength of 1645 nm, exhibiting 43% optical efficiency and 54% incident slope efficiency and emitting 7-W average power when repetitively Q switched at 10 kHz. To our knowledge, this is the best performance (conversion efficiency and average power) obtained from a bulk solid-state Q-switched erbium laser. At a 1.1-kHz pulse repetition frequency the laser produces 3.4-mJ pulses with a corresponding peak power of 162 kW. Frequency doubling to produce 822.5-nm, 4.7-kW pulses at 10 kHz was performed to demonstrate the laser's utility.

  14. Wavelength-selective light quenching of biochemical fluorophores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryczynski, Ignacy; Kusba, Jozef; Lakowicz, Joseph R.

    1997-01-01

    The use of light quenching to selectively eliminate the emission of biochemical fluorophores based on the emission wavelength is described. To demonstrate the possibility of wavelength-selective light quenching, a mixture of two fluorophores, 4-(dimethylamino)-4'-cyanostillene (DCS) and Prodan, emitting at different wavelengths was examined first. The emission spectrum and intensity decay were altered by the 570-nm quenching pulse due to selective quenching of the longer wavelength emission of DCS. Quenching of the solvent-sensitive fluorophore partially bound to human serum albumin and partially in the aqueous phase was then examined. Light quenching with a long wavelength (570 nm) time-delayed pulse selectively quenched the Prodan fluorophore in the aqueous phase while in the presence of the Prodan bound to human serum albumin, which emitted at shorter wavelengths, was not quenched. Using one- beam short wavelength excitation and quenching, a selective quenching of the blue-shifted emission of ribonuclease T1 in the presence of the red-shifted emission of the tryptophan residue in adrenocorticotropic hormone was observed. In both systems wavelength-selective light quenching was demonstrated by a shift in the emission spectra, and by changes in the intensity decay consistent with preferential quenching of one species. Light quenching is instantly reversible by blocking or defocusing of the quenching beam. It can occur for inaccessible residues or in viscous solvents, and thus can be of wide applicability for resolving the complex emission of biological macromolecules.

  15. Center and limb solar spectrum in high spectral resolution 225.2 nm to 319.6 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, J. L.; Parkinson, W. H.; Kurucz, R. L.

    1978-01-01

    The atlas has been designed to fulfill the need in solar and stellar astronomy, in aeronomy, and in space science for a convenient reference source that provides a detailed and accurate record of the measured solar ultraviolet spectrum in high spectral resolution for the wavelength range from 225.2 nm to 319.6 nm. The atlas also contains a preliminary synthetic solar spectrum with a legend for identifying and describing the features of the synthetic spectrum. Attention is given to aspects of instrumentation, the radiometric calibration, the wavelength scale, background noise random fluctuations and data filtering, intermittent noise, the observational conditions, the experimental uncertainty, the atlas format, references, tables, and plots.

  16. Light wavelength effects on a lutein-fortified model colloidal beverage.

    PubMed

    Kline, Mark Alan; Duncan, Susan Ellen; Bianchi, Laurie Marie; Eigel, William Nicholas; O'Keefe, Sean Francis

    2011-07-13

    The effect of light on a model colloidal beverage system containing whey protein, lutein, and limonene was investigated. Changes in volatile chemistry were evaluated under accelerated conditions (12 h, 25 °C) at selected wavelengths regions (395, 463, 516, 567, and 610 nm absorbance maxima) using a photochemical reactor. The most damaging wavelengths to lutein stability were UV (200-400 nm) and 463 nm wavelengths. Hexanal formation was highest in the control beverage when exposed to full spectrum light and UV (200-400 nm) wavelengths. Hexanal also was formed in the lutein-fortified beverage under full spectrum light and UV (200-400 nm) wavelengths but to a significantly lesser degree. Limonene degraded significantly under all treatment conditions, with most degradation occurring during full spectrum light exposure. Lutein fortification did not completely protect limonene from degradation.

  17. Development of in situ, at-wavelength metrology for soft x-ray nano-focusing

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Sheng Sam; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Richard; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard A.

    2010-09-19

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), we are developing broadly applicable, high-accuracy, in situ, at-wavelength wavefront slope measurement techniques for Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror nano-focusing. We describe here details of the metrology beamline endstation, the at-wavelength tests, and an original alignment method that have already allowed us to precisely set a bendable KB mirror to achieve a FWHM focused spot size of ~;;120 nm, at 1-nm soft x-ray wavelength.

  18. Narrow-band radiation wavelength measurement by processing digital photographs in RAW format

    SciTech Connect

    Kraiskii, A V; Mironova, T V; Sultanov, T T

    2012-12-31

    The technique of measuring the mean wavelength of narrow-band radiation in the 455 - 625-nm range using the image of the emitting surface is presented. The data from the camera array unprocessed by the built-in processor (RAW format) are used. The method is applied for determining the parameters of response of holographic sensors. Depending on the wavelength and brightness of the image fragment, the mean square deviation of the wavelength amounts to 0.3 - 3 nm. (experimental techniques)

  19. Millimeter wavelength thermographic scanner.

    PubMed

    Cacak, R K; Winans, D E; Edrich, J; Hendee, W R

    1981-01-01

    Two new types of thermographic instruments sensitive to millimeter-wave electromagnetic radiation have been designed, constructed, and tested. These instruments utilize wavelengths that are three orders of magnitude longer and much more penetrating than those used in conventional infrared thermography. The instruments are capable of detecting apparent thermal variations as small as a fraction of a degree existing at tissue depths of several millimeters below the skin. By comparison, conventional IR thermographic units are limited to sampling radiation emitted only from the surface. The millimeter wave thermographic units are designed to contribute to the clinical detection of breast abnormalities with the specific aim of accurately and noninvasively detecting breast cancer.

  20. Evaluation of the Diode laser (810nm,980nm) on dentin tubule diameter following internal bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Kiomarsi, Nazanin; Salim, Soheil; Sarraf, Pegah; Javad-Kharazifard, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diode laser irradiation and bleaching materials on the dentinal tubule diameter after laser bleaching. Material and Methods The dentin discs of 40 extracted third molar were used in this experiment. Each disc surface was divided into two halves by grooving. Half of samples were laser bleached at different wavelengths with two different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide. Other half of each disc with no laser bleaching remained as a negative control. Dentin discs were assigned randomly into four groups (n=10) with following hydrogen peroxide and diode laser wavelength specifications; Group 1 (30% - 810 nm), group 2 (30% - 980 nm), group 3 (46% - 810 nm) and group 4 (46% - 980 nm). All specimens were sent for scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis in order to measure tubular diameter in laser treated and control halves. Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey test (p<0.05). Results A significant reduction in dentin tubule diameter was observed in groups 1, 2 and 4. There was no significant difference between groups 1 and 2 and between groups 3 and 4 after bleaching. Conclusions The SEM results showed that diode laser was able to reduce dentin tubule diameter and its effect on dentin was dependent on chemical action of bleaching material. Key words:Laser, diode, dentin, tubule, diameter. PMID:27398172

  1. Picosecond holmium fibre laser pumped at 1125 \\ {\\text{nm}}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamynin, V. A.; Filatova, S. A.; Zhluktova, I. V.; Tsvetkov, V. B.

    2016-12-01

    We report a passively mode-locked, all-fibre holmium laser based on nonlinear polarisation rotation. As a pump source use is made of an 1125-{\\text{nm}} ytterbium-doped fibre laser. The pulse repetition rate of the holmium laser is 7.5 {\\text{MHz}}, and the pulse duration does not exceed 52 {\\text{ps}} at wavelengths of 2065 and 2080 {\\text{nm}}. The average laser output power reaches 5 {\\text{mW}}.

  2. 750 nm 1.5 W frequency-doubled semiconductor disk laser with a 44 nm tuning range.

    PubMed

    Saarinen, Esa J; Lyytikäinen, Jari; Ranta, Sanna; Rantamäki, Antti; Sirbu, Alexei; Iakovlev, Vladimir; Kapon, Eli; Okhotnikov, Oleg G

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate 1.5 W of output power at the wavelength of 750 nm by intracavity frequency doubling a wafer-fused semiconductor disk laser diode-pumped at 980 nm. An optical-to-optical efficiency of 8.3% was achieved using a bismuth borate crystal. The wavelength of the doubled emission could be tuned from 720 to 764 nm with an intracavity birefringent plate. The beam quality parameter M2 of the laser output was measured to be below 1.5 at all pump powers. The laser is a promising tool for biomedical applications that can take advantage of the large penetration depth of light in tissue in the 700-800 nm spectral range.

  3. A hybrid multiplexer for wavelength/mode-division based on photonic crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ke; Chen, Heming; Zhuang, Yuyang

    2016-01-01

    A hybrid multiplexer (HMUX) for wavelength/mode-division (WDM/MDM) based on photonic crystals (PCs) is proposed. The device can realize TE0 and TE1 modes multiplexing at wavelengths of 1550nm and 1570nm. According to quasi phase matching, a structure with an asymmetrical parallel waveguide (APW) was used to achieve mode conversion. The transmittance of the TE0 mode at wavelengths of 1550nm and 1570nm are 98.4% and 96.3%, the corresponding insertion loss are 0.07dB and 0.16dB respectively. The crosstalk of the TE0 mode at wavelengths of 1550nm and 1570nm are -27.66dB and -27.32dB respectively. The transmittance of the TE1 mode at wavelengths of 1550nm and 1570nm are 95.8% and 93.9%, the corresponding insertion loss are 0.19dB and 0.27dB respectively. The crosstalk of the TE1 mode at wavelengths of 1550nm and 1570nm are -38.73dB and -38.9dB respectively. The PC-based HMUX has great performance, and it will have great application potential in future ultrahigh-speed and large-capacity communication systems.

  4. Detection limits of 405 nm and 633 nm excited PpIX fluorescence for brain tumor detection during stereotactic biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markwardt, Niklas; Götz, Marcus; Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Hollnburger, Bastian; Sroka, Ronald; Stepp, Herbert; Zelenkov, Petr; Rühm, Adrian

    2016-04-01

    5-aminolevulinic-acid-(5-ALA)-induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence may be used to improve stereotactic brain tumor biopsies. In this study, the sensitivity of PpIX-based tumor detection has been investigated for two potential excitation wavelengths (405 nm, 633 nm). Using a 200 μm fiber in contact with semi-infinite optical phantoms containing ink and Lipovenös, PpIX detection limits of 4.0 nM and 200 nM (relating to 1 mW excitation power) were determined for 405 nm and 633 nm excitation, respectively. Hence, typical PpIX concentrations in glioblastomas of a few μM should be well detectable with both wavelengths. Additionally, blood layers of selected thicknesses were placed between fiber and phantom. Red excitation was shown to be considerably less affected by blood interference: A 50 μm blood layer, for instance, blocked the 405- nm-excited fluorescence completely, but reduced the 633-nm-excited signal by less than 50%. Ray tracing simulations demonstrated that - without blood layer - the sensitivity advantage of 405 nm rises for decreasing fluorescent volume from 50-fold to a maximum of 100-fold. However, at a tumor volume of 1 mm3, which is a typical biopsy sample size, the 633-nm-excited fluorescence signal is only reduced by about 10%. Further simulations revealed that with increasing fiber-tumor distance, the signal drops faster for 405 nm. This reduces the risk of detecting tumor tissue outside the needle's coverage, but diminishes the overlap between optically and mechanically sampled volumes. While 405 nm generally offers a higher sensitivity, 633 nm is more sensitive to distant tumors and considerably superior in case of blood-covered tumor tissue.

  5. Ultrafast laser-written dual-wavelength waveguide laser.

    PubMed

    Ams, Martin; Dekker, Peter; Marshall, Graham D; Withford, Michael J

    2012-03-15

    We report the performance of a dual-wavelength waveguide laser based on a phase-modulated sampled-grating architecture fabricated using the femtosecond laser direct-write technique. The waveguide laser was written in Yb-doped phosphate glass and had a narrow linewidth (<10 pm), high signal-to-noise ratio (>60 dB), 5 mW output power per channel, and wavelength separation of 10 nm.

  6. Nonlinear absorption properties of DKDP crystal at 263 nm and 351 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chai, Xiangxu; Zhu, Qihua; Feng, Bin; Li, Fuquan; Feng, Xi; Wang, Fang; Han, Wei; Wang, Liquan

    2017-02-01

    At the wavelength of 263 nm and 351 nm, the nonlinear absorption curves of 66% deuterated DKDP crystal were measured in the geometries of beam polarizing along the optics axis (E∥Z) and perpendicular to it (E⊥Z). The results indicate that the nonlinear absorption in the E⊥Z geometry is stronger than that in the E∥Z geometry. The nonlinear absorptions at 263 nm and 351 nm are identified to two- and three-photon absorption, respectively. The theoretical fits to the experimental data yields the two-photon absorption coefficients of 0.32 ± 0.03 cm/GW (E⊥Z geometry) and 0.17 ± 0.02 cm/GW (E∥Z geometry) at 263 nm, and the three-photon absorption coefficients of (8.1 ± 1.1) × 10-4 cm3/GW2 (E⊥Z geometry) and (2.2 ± 0.5) × 10-4 cm3/GW2 (E∥Z geometry) at 351 nm.

  7. Wavelength conversion performance in a tellurite step-index optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuan, Tong Hoang; Zhang, Lei; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2016-12-01

    We demonstrated in this work the wavelength conversion performance based on the four-wave mixing process in a new tellurite step-index fiber as short as 1 m. The fiber was pumped by a femtosecond pulsed laser near the zero dispersion wavelength of the fundamental mode which was close to that of the material dispersion in the near-infrared region. When the pump and signal wavelengths were at 1795 and 1434 nm, respectively, the generated idler was obtained at 2400 nm and the conversion wavelength spacing could be as broad as 966 nm. In addition, a 17.5-dB signal gain at 1550 nm and 1.1-dB idler at 1757 nm were obtained when the pump was tuned to 1647 nm.

  8. Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, R.P.; Feldman, M.

    1992-12-01

    A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10[sup 8]. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing. 7 figs.

  9. Wavelength meter having elliptical wedge

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Richard P.; Feldman, Mark

    1992-01-01

    A wavelength meter is disclosed which can determine the wavelength of a laser beam from a laser source within an accuracy range of two parts in 10.sup.8. The wavelength meter has wedge having an elliptically shaped face to the optical path of the laser source and includes interferometer plates which form a vacuum housing.

  10. Age-related changes in wavelength discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Shinomori, Keizo; Schefrin, Brooke E.; Werner, John S.

    2008-01-01

    Wavelength discrimination functions (420 to 620–650 nm) were measured for four younger (mean 30.9 years) and four older (mean 72.5 years) observers. Stimuli consisted of individually determined isoluminant monochromatic lights (10 Td) presented in each half of a 2° circular bipartite field with use of a Maxwellian-view optical system. A spatial two-alternative forced-choice method was used in combination with a staircase procedure to determine discrimination thresholds across the spectrum. Small but consistent elevations in discrimination thresholds were found for older compared with younger observers. Because the retinal illuminance of the stimuli was equated across all observers, these age-related losses in discrimination are attributable to neural changes. Analyses of these data reveal a significant change in Weber fraction across adulthood for a chromatically opponent pathway receiving primarily antagonistic signals from middle-wavelength-sensitive and long-wavelength-sensitive cones but not for a short-wavelength-sensitive cone pathway. PMID:11205976

  11. Dual-wavelength laser with topological charge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Haohai; Xu, Miaomiao; Zhao, Yongguang; Wang, Yicheng; Han, Shuo; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang

    2013-09-01

    We demonstrate the simultaneous oscillation of different photons with equal orbital angular momentum in solid-state lasers for the first time to our knowledge. Single tunable Hermite-Gaussian (HG0,n) (0 ≤ n ≤ 7) laser modes with dual wavelength were generated using an isotropic cavity. With a mode-converter, the corresponding Laguerre-Gaussian (LG0,n) laser modes were obtained. The oscillating laser modes have two types of photons at the wavelengths of 1077 and 1081 nm and equal orbital angular momentum of nħ per photon. These results identify the possibility of simultaneous oscillation of different photons with equal and controllable orbital angular momentum. It can be proposed that this laser should have promising applications in many fields based on its compact structure, tunable orbital angular momentum, and simultaneous oscillation of different photons with equal orbital angular momentum.

  12. Comets at radio wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crovisier, Jacques; Bockelée-Morvan, Dominique; Colom, Pierre; Biver, Nicolas

    2016-11-01

    Comets are considered as the most primitive objects in the Solar System. Their composition provides information on the composition of the primitive solar nebula, 4.6 Gyr ago. The radio domain is a privileged tool to study the composition of cometary ices. Observations of the OH radical at 18 cm wavelength allow us to measure the water production rate. A wealth of molecules (and some of their isotopologues) coming from the sublimation of ices in the nucleus have been identified by observations in the millimetre and submillimetre domains. We present an historical review on radio observations of comets, focusing on the results from our group, and including recent observations with the Nançay radio telescope, the IRAM antennas, the Odin satellite, the Herschel space observatory, ALMA, and the MIRO instrument aboard the Rosetta space probe.

  13. Monolithic Michelson Interferometer as ultra stable wavelength reference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Xiaoke; Ge, Jian

    2010-07-01

    Ultra-stable Monolithic Michelson interferometer can be an ideal reference for highprecision applications such as RV measurement in planet searching and orbit study. The advantages include wide wavelength range, simple sinusoidal spectral format, and high optical efficiency. In this paper, we report that a monolithic Michelson interferometers has been in-house developed with minimized thermal sensitivity with compensation tuning. With a scanning white light interferometer, the thermal sensitivity is measured ~ 6x10-7/°C at 550 nm and it decreases to zero near 1000 nm. We expect the wideband wavelength reference source to be stabilized better than 0.3 m/s for RV experiments

  14. Optimal wavelength band clustering for multispectral iris recognition.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yazhuo; Zhang, David; Shi, Pengfei; Yan, Jingqi

    2012-07-01

    This work explores the possibility of clustering spectral wavelengths based on the maximum dissimilarity of iris textures. The eventual goal is to determine how many bands of spectral wavelengths will be enough for iris multispectral fusion and to find these bands that will provide higher performance of iris multispectral recognition. A multispectral acquisition system was first designed for imaging the iris at narrow spectral bands in the range of 420 to 940 nm. Next, a set of 60 human iris images that correspond to the right and left eyes of 30 different subjects were acquired for an analysis. Finally, we determined that 3 clusters were enough to represent the 10 feature bands of spectral wavelengths using the agglomerative clustering based on two-dimensional principal component analysis. The experimental results suggest (1) the number, center, and composition of clusters of spectral wavelengths and (2) the higher performance of iris multispectral recognition based on a three wavelengths-bands fusion.

  15. Gain measurements at 5 nm in nickel-like ytterbium

    SciTech Connect

    MacGowan, B.J.; Bourgade, J.L.; Combis, P.; Keane, C.J.; Louis-Jacquet, M.; Matthews, D.L.; Naccache, D.; Stone, G.; Thiell, G.; Whelan, D.A.

    1988-03-01

    Soft x-ray gain has been demonstrated at 5.03 nm within a laser produced plasma of Ni-like ytterbium. Experiments will also be described with higher Z Ni-like ions which can produce even shorter wavelength x-ray laser transition. 3 refs.

  16. Optical amplification at the 1.31 wavelength

    DOEpatents

    Cockroft, Nigel J.

    1994-01-01

    An optical amplifier operating at the 1.31 .mu.m wavelength for use in such applications as telecommunications, cable television, and computer systems. An optical fiber or other waveguide device is doped with both Tm.sup.3+ and Pr.sup.3+ ions. When pumped by a diode laser operating at a wavelength of 785 nm, energy is transferred from the Tm.sup.3+ ions to the Pr.sup.3+ ions, causing the Pr.sup.3+ ions to amplify at a wavelength of 1.31

  17. Synchronous two-wavelength temporal interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoqiong; Gao, Zhan; Qin, Jie; Li, Guangyu; Feng, Ziang; Wang, Shengjia

    2016-09-01

    Interferometry is an optical measuring method with the character of non-destructive, high sensitivity and high accuracy. However, its measurement range is limited by the phase ambiguity. Hence the method with two separate different wavelengths light source is introduced to enlarge the measurement range. As for the two-wavelength interferometry case, phase shifting is the traditional way to acquire the phase map, it needs to repeat the measurement twice, which means the measurement cannot be accomplished in real time. Hence to solve the problem, a temporal sequence interferometry has been used. This method can obtain the desired phase information in real time by using the Fourier transform methods of the interferogram recorded in a sequence while the object is being deformed. But, it is difficult to retrieve the phase information directly due to the multi extreme points in one period of the cosine function. In this paper, an algorithm based on the wavelet ridge analysis is adopted to retrieve the two wavelength phase fluctuation caused by the displacement simultaneously. The preliminary experiment is conducted and the results are compared with theoretical simulations to validate the proposed approach. The laser emits light with two wavelengths 532 nm and 473 nm, two separated interference patterns in time sequence are detected by the CCD camera in the same time. The overlapped interferograms of two colors are analyzed by this algorithm and the corresponding phase information are obtained. The maximum error value between the simulation and theory is 0.03 um and the relative error is 0.33%.

  18. Fluorescence wavelength and intensity variations of cave waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, A.; Genty, D.

    1999-04-01

    The fluorescence properties of groundwaters percolating into four cave systems have been monitored over the period 1997-1998. Fluorescence was excited between 220 and 400 nm and the emission measured from 300 to 500 nm using a fluorescence spectrophotometer. Three fluorescence centres were observed; one at the excitation-emission pair of 290-340:395-430 nm, (humic-like, probably fulvic acid), one at 265-280:300-370 nm (protein like) and a less defined region of high fluorescence at 230-280:310-420 nm (humic and/or protein like). The most consistent fluorescence intensity was observed in the excitation-emission pair of 290-340:395-430 nm, attributed to a fulvic acid source. Subtle differences (±5%) in the fluorescence excitation and emission wavelength of this fluorescence peak in the groundwater were observed between the four sites, and the fluorescence intensity varied considerably (×60) between the four sites. Both the wavelength and the intensity variations in fluorescence are caused by the differences in the vegetation cover, soil type and humification. Data from the most intensely monitored site (Brown's Folly Mine, England; 9 sample stations, 10-20 days frequency sampling) revealed no spatial variability in the 290-340:395-430 nm (fulvic acid) fluorescence; in contrast time-series analysis suggests that the seasonal variations do occur, with a decrease in the emission wavelength correlating with the first (autumn) peak in fluorescence intensity, and a decrease in the excitation wavelength correlating with a second (winter) fluorescence intensity peak. Results demonstrate the potential of utilising fluorescence wavelength variations in sourcing karst groundwaters, and as a possible palaeoenvironmental proxy of the overlying soil conditions if trapped within the cave speleothems.

  19. Machining of optical microstructures with 157 nm laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temme, Thorsten; Ostendorf, Andreas; Kulik, Christian J.

    2003-11-01

    The precision machining of glass by laser ablation has been expanded with the short wavelength of the 157 nm of the F2 excimer laser. The high absorption of this wavelength in any optical glass, especially in UV-grade fused silica, offers a new approach to generate high quality surfaces, addressing also micro-optical components. In this paper, the machining of basic diffractive and refractive optical components and the required machining and process technology is presented. Applications that are addressed are cylindrical and rotational symmetrical micro lenses and diffractive optics like phase transmission grating and diffractive optical elements (DOEs). These optical surfaces have been machined into bulk material as well as on fiber end surfaces, to achieve compact (electro) -- optical elements with high functionality and packaging density. The short wavelength of 157 nm used in the investigations require either vacuum or high purity inert gas environments. The influence of different ambient conditions is presented.

  20. Optically guided neuronal growth at near-infrared wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, D. J.; Lake, T. K.; Agate, B.; Garcés-Chávez, V.; Dholakia, K.; Gunn-Moore, F.

    2006-08-01

    Recent work has indicated the potential of light to guide the growth cones of neuronal cells using a Ti:Sapphire laser at 800 nm (Ehrlicher et al, PNAS, 2002). We have developed an optical set-up that has allowed, for the first time, the direct comparison of this process at near infrared wavelengths. A high number of growth cones were studied in order to provide a detailed statistical analysis. Actively extending growth cones of the neuroblastoma cell-line, NG108, can be guided at not only 780 nm, but also at 1064 nm. These wavelengths are an appropriate choice for guidance experiments, as wavelengths in the visible spectrum and UV are highly absorbing by cells and lead to death by phototoxicity and thermal stress. At 780 nm, 47% of actively extending growth cones were found to turn towards the focused incident light by at least 30° (n=32 growth cones). At 1064 nm, 61% of cells were successfully guided (n=31 growth cones). This suggests that the light detection mechanism within the cell is not due a single protein with a defined activity wavelength as occurs for example with the photoreceptor family of opsin proteins in the mammalian eye. We present two novel mechanisms of light induced neuronal guidance which are not related to temperature increases, or optical tweezing of the growth cone. We are also now identifying the signaling pathways that mediate this phenomenon.

  1. EUV mask inspection study for sub-20nm device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Inkyun; Yoon, Gisung; Na, Ji Hoon; Chung, Paul D. H.; Jeon, Chan-Uk

    2012-11-01

    Reflected light inspection has been used to inspect EUVL mask which consists of multi layers and metal absorber. However, sub-wavelength half pitch patterns and reflected inspection make unprecedented phenomenon like tone inversion. These lead EUV inspection more difficult in detectability and inspectability for separating out defects and false. In this study, we report the evaluation result of inspection dependency of illumination conditions like OAI(Off-Axis Illumination), sigma and polarization for sub-20nm EUVL PDM(programmed defect mask). With inspection of sub- 20nm device mask, we finally address the inspection feasibility for sub-20nm device and the future direction of inspection technology.

  2. 80 nm tunable DBR-free semiconductor disk laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Albrecht, A. R.; Cederberg, J. G.; Sheik-Bahae, M.

    2016-07-01

    We report a widely tunable optically pumped distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)-free semiconductor disk laser with 6 W continuous wave output power near 1055 nm when using a 2% output coupler. Using only high reflecting mirrors, the lasing wavelength is centered at 1034 nm and can be tuned up to a record 80 nm by using a birefringent filter. We attribute such wide tunability to the unique broad effective gain bandwidth of DBR-free semiconductor disk lasers achieved by eliminating the active mirror geometry.

  3. Design and analysis of O-S-C triple band wavelength division demultiplexer using cascaded MMI couplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chack, Devendra; Kumar, V.; Raghuwanshi, Sanjeev Kumar; Singh, Dev Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Compact triple O-S-C band wavelength demultiplexer, which consists of series cascaded multimode interference (MMI) couplers has been carried out in this paper. The MMI coupler has been used to drop the wavelengths of 1510 nm and 1550 nm at bar port while the wavelength 1300 nm into the cross port. Then another MMI coupler has been designed to separate the wavelength 1510 nminto one port and wavelength 1550 nm into another port. The triple wavelength demultiplexer function has been performed by choosing a suitable refractive index of the guiding region and geometrical parameters such as the width and length of MMI coupler. Numerical simulation with finite difference beam propagation method (BPM) has been utilized to design and optimize the operation of the proposed triple wavelength demultiplexer. The simulation results show that insertion losses of wavelength O, S and C, bands are 1.884 dB, 1.452 dB and 2.568 dB, respectively, with isolations for each output waveguide ranging from 10 dB to 28.72 dB. The 3-dB bandwidth of insertion loss for 1300 nm, 1510 nm and 1550 nm are 80 nm, 20 nm and 10 nm, respectively.

  4. Metal-dielectric composites for beam splitting and far-field deep sub-wavelength resolution for visible wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Yan, Changchun; Zhang, Dao Hua; Zhang, Yuan; Li, Dongdong; Fiddy, M A

    2010-07-05

    We report beam splitting in a metamaterial composed of a silver-alumina composite covered by a layer of chromium containing one slit. By simulating distributions of energy flow in the metamaterial for H-polarized waves, we find that the beam splitting occurs when the width of the slit is shorter than the wavelength, which is conducive to making a beam splitter in sub-wavelength photonic devices. We also find that the metamaterial possesses deep sub-wavelength resolution capabilities in the far field when there are two slits and the central silver layer is at least 36 nm in thickness, which has potential applications in superresolution imaging.

  5. Holographic topography using acousto-optically generated large synthetic wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeywickrema, U.; Beamer, D.; Banerjee, P.; Poon, T.-C.

    2016-03-01

    Digital holography uses phase imaging in a variety of techniques to produce a three-dimensional phase resolved image that includes accurate depth information about the object of interest. Multi-wavelength digital holography is an accurate method for measuring the topography of surfaces. Typically, the object phases are reconstructed for two wavelengths separately and the phase corresponding to the synthetic wavelength (obtained from the two wavelengths) is obtained by calculating the phase difference. Then the surface map can be obtained using proper phase-unwrapping techniques. Usually these synthetic wavelengths are on the order of microns which can be used to resolve depths on the order of microns. In this work, two extremely close wavelengths generated by an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) are used to perform two-wavelength digital holography. Since the difference between the two wavelengths is on the order of picometers, a large synthetic wavelength (on the order of centimeters) can be obtained which can be used to determine the topography of macroscopic surface features. Also since the synthetic wavelength is large, an accurate surface map can be obtained without using a phase-unwrapping technique. A 514 nm Argon-ion laser is used as the optical source, and used with an AOM to generate the zeroth-order and frequency-shifted first-order diffracted orders which are used as the two wavelengths. Both beams are aligned through the same spatial filter assembly. Holograms are captured sequentially using a typical Mach-Zehnder interferometric setup by blocking one beam at a time. Limitations of the large synthetic wavelength are also discussed.

  6. Combined fractional resurfacing (10600 nm/1540 nm): Tridimensional imaging evaluation of a new device for skin rejuvenation.

    PubMed

    Mezzana, Paolo; Valeriani, Maurizio; Valeriani, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    In this study were described the results, by tridimensional imaging evaluation, of the new "Combined Fractional Resurfacing" technique with the first fractional laser that overtakes the limits of traditional ablative, nonablative fractional resurfacing by combining CO2 ablative and GaAs nonablative lasers. These two wavelengths can work separately or in a mixed modality to give the best treatment choice to all the patients. In this study, it is demonstrated that the simultaneous combination of the CO2 wavelength (10600 nm) and GaAs wavelength (1540 nm) reduced the downtime, reduced pain during the treatment, and produced better results on fine wrinkles reduction and almost the same results on pigmentation as seen with 3D analysis by Antera (Miravex).

  7. Efficient wavelength-tunable operation of tandem-pumped Yb fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Y. J.; Jeon, M. J.; Jeong, H.; Kim, J. W.

    2017-02-01

    Highly efficient operation of double-clad Yb fiber lasers with fixed-wavelength and wavelength-tunable resonator configurations tandem-pumped by tunable Yb fiber lasers is reported. When wavelength selection was achieved using volume Bragg gratings in an external feedback cavity, the tandem-pumped Yb fiber laser produced maximum output powers of 7.0, 6.8, and 6.4 W at 1070 nm, corresponding to slope efficiencies of 88.2, 87.8, and 89.5%, for pump wavelengths of 1020, 1025, and 1030 nm, respectively. The wavelength-tunable fiber laser employing volume Bragg gratings and diffraction gratings was tuned from 1055 to 1112 nm with a linewidth of 0.3 nm (FWHM), which was in good agreement with the calculated gain spectra. Optimization of tandem-pumped Yb fiber lasers and the prospect for further improvement in performance are considered.

  8. Dual-wavelength tunable fibre laser with a 15-dBm peak power

    SciTech Connect

    Latif, A A; Awang, N A; Zulkifli, M Z; Harun, S W; Ghani, Z A; Ahmad, H

    2011-08-31

    A high-power dual-wavelength tunable fibre laser (HP-DWTFL) operating in the C-band at wavelengths from 1536.7 nm to 1548.6 nm is proposed and demonstrated. The HP-DWTFL utilises an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) (1 x 16 channels) and is capable of generating eight different dual-wavelength pairs with eight possible wavelength spacings ranging from 0.8 nm (the narrowest spacing) to 12.0 nm (the widest spacing). The average output power and side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of the HP-DWTFL are measured to be 15 dBm and 52.55 dB, respectively. The proposed HP-DWTFL is highly stable with no variations in the chosen output wavelengths and has minimal changes in the output power. Such a laser has good potential for use in measurements, communications, spectroscopy and terahertz applications. (control of radiation parameters)

  9. Internal to external wavelength calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, Kailash C.

    1999-01-01

    The spectra of Hen 1357 (the Stingray nebula) were used to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the STIS first order CCD modes. The radial velocity of the Stingray nebula is known to high accuracy (< 1 km/sec) and the line with of the nebular line is very narrow (< 8 km/sec for the integrated nebula). Thus the observations of the Stingray nebula are ideal to check the internal to external wavelength calibration of the first order modes. The observations were taken in G430L and G750M modes using a 52 x 0.05 arcsec slit covering the wavelength range 2900 to 5700 A and 6295 to 6867 A, respectively. The observed wavelength range includes many nebular emission lines. The wavelengths of the nebular lines derived using the pipeline internal wavelength calibration were compared with the wavelengths derived from other ground based observations. In all cases, the wavelength match between the two is of the same order as the accuracy to which the line center can be measured. These results imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibrations for these modes. The HDF-S QSO observations were also used for this test both for the first order and the Echelle modes. The results of the HDF-S QSO observations further confirm the above finding for the first order modes, and imply that there is no significant offset between the internal and external wavelength calibration for the Echelle modes.

  10. Polarization-Insensitive Metalenses at Visible Wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Khorasaninejad, M; Zhu, A Y; Roques-Carmes, C; Chen, W T; Oh, J; Mishra, I; Devlin, R C; Capasso, F

    2016-11-09

    In this Letter, we demonstrate highly efficient, polarization-insensitive planar lenses (metalenses) at red, green, and blue wavelengths (λ = 660, 532, and 405 nm). Metalenses with numerical apertures (NA) of 0.85 and 0.6 and corresponding efficiencies as high as 60% and 90% are achieved. These metalenses are less than 600 nm-thick and can focus incident light down to diffraction-limited spots as small as ∼0.64λ and provide high-resolution imaging. In addition, the focal spots are very symmetric with high Strehl ratios. The single step lithography and compatibility with large-scale fabrication processes make metalenses highly promising for widespread applications in imaging and spectroscopy.

  11. Wavelength-conserving grating router for intermediate wavelength density

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; Patel, Rajesh R.; Bond, Steven W.; Bennett, Cory V.

    2007-03-20

    A wavelength router to be used for fiber optical networking router is based on a diffraction grating which utilizes only N wavelengths to interconnect N inputs to N outputs. The basic approach is to augment the grating with additional couplers or wavelength selective elements so than N-1 of the 2N-1 outputs are combined with other N outputs (leaving only N outputs). One embodiment uses directional couplers as combiners. Another embodiment uses wavelength-selective couplers. Another embodiment uses a pair of diffraction gratings to maintain parallel propagation of all optical beams. Also, beam combining can be implemented either by using retroflection back through the grating pair or by using couplers.

  12. Dual illumination OCT at 1050nm and 840nm for whole eye segment imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Shanhui; Qin, Lin; Dai, Cuixia; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2014-11-01

    We presented an improved dual channel dual focus spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) with two illuminations at 840 nm and 1050 nm for whole eye segment imaging and biometry in vivo. The two light beams were coupled and optically optimized to scan the anterior and posterior segment of the eye simultaneously. This configuration with dichroic mirrors integrated in the sample arm enables us to acquire images from the anterior segment and retina effectively with minimum loss of sample signal. In addition, the full resolved complex (FRC) method was applied to double the imaging depth for the whole anterior segment imaging by eliminating the mirror image. The axial resolution for 1050 nm and 840 nm OCT was 14 μm and 8 μm in air, respectively. Finally, the system was successfully tested in imaging the unaccommodated and accommodated eyes. The preliminary results demonstrated the significant improvements comparing with our previous dual channel SD-OCT configuration in which the two probing beams had the same central wavelength of 840 nm.

  13. Dual-wavelength nano-engineered Thulium-doped fiber laser via bending of singlemode-multimode-singlemode fiber structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zulkifli, A. Z.; Latiff, A. A.; Paul, M. C.; Yasin, M.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a dual-wavelength fiber laser (DWFL) using nano-engineered Thulium-doped fiber as a gain medium with a bent singlemode-multimode-singlemode fiber structure (SMS) is demonstrated. The SMS structure is packaged systematically using Cr-39 polymer plates to provide linear bending via applied load. Experimental results have proved that the bent SMS is capable to provide highly effective wavelength filter and wavelengths stabilizer by balancing the net cavity gain between the two wavelengths. The DWFL provides very narrow spacing of 0.9 nm, narrow 3 dB spectral linewidth of ∼0.07 nm and SNR of ∼42 dB. Based on stability test, very small mode hopping is observed at the two wavelengths having deviations of ±0 nm and ±0.04 nm respectively. In conjunction, the DWFL provides very stable relative wavelength spacing with a deviation of ±0.04 nm.

  14. The Missing Solar Irradiance Spectrum: 1 to 7 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sojka, J. J.; Lewis, M.; David, M.; Schunk, R. W.; Woods, T. N.; Eparvier, F. G.; Warren, H. P.

    2015-12-01

    During large X-class flares the Earth's upper atmospheric E-region responds immediately to solar photons in the 1 to 7 nm range. The response can change the E-region density by factors approaching 10, create large changes in conductivity, and plague HF communications. GOES-XRS provide 0.1 to 0.8 nm and a 0.05 to 0.4 nm integral channels; SOHO-SEM provided a 0 to 50 nm irradiance; TIMED and SORCE-XPS diode measurements also integrated down to 0.1 nm; and most recently SDO-EVE provided a 0.1 to 7 nm irradiance. For atmospheric response to solar flares the cadence is also crucial. Both GOES and SDO provided integral measurements at 10 seconds or better. Unfortunately these measurements have failed to capture the 1 to 7 nm spectral changes that occur during flares. It is these spectral changes that create the major impact since the ionization cross-section of the dominant atmospheric species, N2 and O2, both contain step function changes in the cross-sections. Models of the solar irradiance over this critical wavelength regime have suffered from the need to model the spectral variability based on incomplete measurements. The most sophisticated empirical model FISM [Chamberlin et al., 2008] used 1 nm spectral binning and various implementations of the above integral measurements to describe the 1 to 7 nm irradiance. Since excellent solar observations exist at other wavelengths it is possible to construct an empirical model of the solar atmosphere and then use this model to infer the spectral distribution at wavelengths below 5 nm. This differential emission measure approach has been used successfully in other contexts [e.g., Warren, 2005, Chamberlin et al., 2009]. This paper contrasts the broadband versus spectrally resolved descriptions of the incoming irradiance that affects the upper atmospheric E-layer. The results provide a prescription of what wavelength resolution would be needed to adequately measure the incoming solar irradiance in the 1 to 7 nm range.

  15. Contribution of chlorophyll to photooxidation of soybean oil at specific visible wavelengths of light.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Laurie M; Duncan, Susan E; Webster, Janet B; Neilson, Andrew P; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2015-02-01

    Photosensitizers in foods and beverages are important considerations when selecting packaging materials. Chlorophyll is found at low concentrations in many food products. The objective of this study was to determine the photosensitizing effect of chlorophyll on soybean oil (SO) using broad-spectrum light and 3 visible wavelength regions of light. SO with added chlorophyll (0, 1, or 2 μg chlorophyll added/mL SO) was exposed to 5 light conditions, using a photochemical reactor (10 °C; 4 h). Light treatments included broad-spectrum (BS; no filter; 157.6 ± 4.7 mW intensity), 430 nm (10 nm; 1.8 ± 0.7 mW), and 660 nm (10 nm; 0.332 ± 0.05 mW) wavelengths compared to a no-light control. Chlorophyll a (but not b) absorbs light in the selected visible wavelength regions. Chlorophyll degradation was evaluated. Oxidative changes in SO were assessed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) assay, which measures malondialdehyde (MDA). Chlorophyll was completely degraded at BS and 430 nm conditions and degraded to 36% of original concentration at 660 nm wavelength. PV and MDA concentration significantly increased with chlorophyll addition (1 μg/mL) at BS and 430 nm wavelengths compared to no-light control. Lower light intensity at 660 nm initiated oxidation reactions as measured by PV, but not significantly. There were differences in PV (BS, 430 nm) and TBARS (BS) between the no-light and light-exposed SO without chlorophyll added. There was very little effect at 450 nm. This study suggests that broad-spectrum light and at least light wavelengths at or near 430 nm and 660 nm excite chlorophyll, resulting in initiation of oxidation reactions. Packaging material selection for foods and beverages should consider blocking excitation wavelengths of photosensitizing molecules, including chlorophyll, to protect product quality.

  16. A compact and efficient four-wavelength Q-switched Nd:YAP laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, C. H.; Zhang, G.; Wei, Y.; Zhu, H. Y.; Huang, L. X.

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, a four-wavelength electro-optic (E-O) Q-switched solid-state laser system was presented. This laser system only use one Nd:YAP laser crystal, which irradiates 1079.5 nm and 1341.4 nm fundamental wavelengths. Both of these wavelength lasers and their second harmonic generation (SHG) compose a four-wavelength Nd:YAP Q-switched laser. The Q-switched output energies of 277 mJ for 1079.5 nm and 61 mJ for 539.8 nm and that of 190 mJ for 1341.4 nm and 51 mJ for 670.7 nm wavelengths were achieved. The pulse durations of 1079.5 and 539.8 nm lasers and that of 1341.4 and 670.7 nm lasers are 20 and 40 ns, respectively. Due to this laser system has the larger chance and convenience for selecting the wavelengths and operation modes by moving a stepping motor and controlling the Q-switched devices, it will broaden applications in the fields of laser cosmetology, dermatotis therapy, material processing and laser display etc.

  17. Tunable dual-wavelength passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser using carbon nanotube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Chuanning; Wang, Zhaokun; Zhang, Jiayang; Yu, Ting; Zhou, Jun; Li, Nan; Qin, Guanshi; Ning, Ding; Zhang, Fujun; Feng, Dejun

    2016-10-01

    A tunable dual-wavelength passively mode-locked thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL) based on single-wall carbon nanotube is demonstrated. By properly tuning the pump power and the polarization controller, both single- and dual-wavelength mode-locked operation can be achieved. The repetition rates of the single- and dual-wavelength mode-locked operation are both 17.64 MHz. The duration of the ultrashort soliton pulse is about 3.7 ps. By appropriately adjusting the polarization state of the laser, the dual wavelength can be tuned from 1879.8 and 1894.5 nm to 1903.3 and 1914.1 nm.

  18. Switching of 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses using a compact PMN-PT modulator.

    PubMed

    Adany, Peter; Price, E Shane; Johnson, Carey K; Zhang, Run; Hui, Rongqing

    2009-03-01

    A voltage-controlled birefringent cell based on ceramic PMN-PT material is used to enable fast intensity modulation of femtosecond laser pulses in the 800 nm wavelength window. The birefringent cell based on a PMN-PT compound has comparatively high electro-optic response, allowing for a short interaction length of 3 mm and thus very small size, low attenuation of 0.16 dB, and negligible broadening for 100 fs optical pulses. As an application example, agile wavelength tuning of optical pulses is demonstrated using the soliton self-frequency shift in a photonic crystal fiber. By dynamically controlling the optical power into the fiber, this system switches the wavelength of 100 fs pulses from 900 nm to beyond 1120 nm with less than 5 micros time. In addition, a feedback system stabilizes the wavelength drift against external conditions resulting in high wavelength stability.

  19. Investigation of the Low Power Stage of an 1178 nm Raman System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-23

    the 1069 and 1178 nm signals enter the system through a common WDM upstream from the ytterbium amplifier has been described in detail previously15...1178 nm is injected into the laser downstream from the ytterbium doped amplifier. In addition, a 1069/1121/1178 (3 wavelength) WDM is inserted on the...downstream side of the ytterbium doped amplifier to remove any residual 1121 nm propagating upstream that would favorably compete with the 1069 nm

  20. Bismuth-doped fibre amplifier operating between 1600 and 1800 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Firstov, S V; Alyshev, S V; Riumkin, K E; Mel'kumov, M A; Dianov, E M; Khopin, V F; Gurjanov, A N

    2015-12-31

    We report the first bismuth-doped fibre amplifier operating between 1600 and 1800 nm, which utilises bidirectional pumping (co-propagating and counter-propagating pump beams) by laser diodes at a wavelength of 1550 nm. The largest gain coefficient of the amplifier is 23 dB, at a wavelength of 1710 nm. It has a noise figure of 7 dB, 3-dB gain bandwidth of 40 nm and gain efficiency of 0.1 dB mW{sup -1}. (letters)

  1. [Solid-state multi-wavelength lasers equipment for retina treatment].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenlu; Zhou, Chuanqing; Ren, Qiushi

    2012-09-01

    Solid-state multi-wavelength laser equipment is the treatment device with selected wavelength Nd: YAG laser frequency technology, integrated red (659 nm), yellow (589 nm) and green (532 nm) of three solid-state lasers. The device is designed by the accurate controlled laser output system, precision optical and electronic control through the optical coupler into the optical fiber transmission system. It's combined with an eye slit lamp integration of high precision, good stability stability for all solid-state multi-wavelength lasers equipment.

  2. Retinal injury thresholds for blue wavelength lasers.

    PubMed

    Lund, David J; Stuck, Bruce E; Edsall, Peter

    2006-05-01

    The interaction mechanism leading to laser-induced retinal alteration can be thermal or non-thermal, depending upon the wavelength of the laser radiation and the duration of the exposure. To investigate the effect of exposure duration on the interaction mechanism, retinal injury thresholds in the rhesus monkey were experimentally measured for exposure to laser radiation at wavelengths of 441.6, 457.9, 476.5, and 496.5 nm. Exposure durations were 0.1, 1, 5, 16, and 100 s; and 1/e retinal irradiance diameters were 50, 125, and 327 microm. Tissue response was observed via ophthalmoscope 1 h and 48 h post exposure. Thermal and non-thermal damage thresholds were obtained depending upon the exposure duration. These threshold data are in agreement with data previously reported in the literature for 100-s duration exposures, but differences were noted for shorter exposures. The current study yielded an estimated injury threshold for 1-s duration, 327-microm retinal irradiance diameter exposures at 441.6 nm, which is an order of magnitude higher than that previously reported. This study provides evidence that laser-induced retinal damage is primarily induced via thermal mechanisms for exposures shorter than 5 s in duration. Arguments are presented that support an amendment of the thermal hazard function, R(lambda).

  3. Design of dual ring wavelength filters for WDM applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathyadevaki, R.; Shanmuga sundar, D.; Sivanantha Raja, A.

    2016-12-01

    Wavelength division multiplexing plays a prime role in an optical communication due to its advantages such as easy network expansion, longer span lengths etc. In this work, photonic crystal based filters with the dual rings are proposed which act as band pass filters (BPF) and channel drop filter (CDF) that has found a massive applications in C and L-bands used for wavelength selection and noise filtering at erbium doped fiber amplifiers and dense wavelength division multiplexing operation. These filters are formulated on the square lattice with crystal rods of silicon material of refractive index 3.4 which are perforated on an air of refractive index 1. Dual ring double filters (band pass filter and channel drop filter) on single layout possess passing and dropping band of wavelengths in two distinct arrangements with entire band quality factors of 92.09523 & 505.263 and 124.85019 & 456.8633 for the pass and drop filters of initial setup and amended setup respectively. These filters have the high-quality factor with broad and narrow bandwidths of 16.8 nm & 3.04 nm and 12.85 nm & 3.3927 nm. Transmission spectra and band gap of the desired filters is analyzed using Optiwave software suite. Two dual ring filters incorporated on a single layout comprises the size of 15×11 μm which can also be used in the integrated photonic chips for the ultra-compact unification of devices.

  4. Absolute fluorescence measurements > 1000 nm: setup design, calibration and standards (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resch-Genger, Ute; Würth, Christian; Pauli, Jutta; Hatami, Soheil; Kaiser, Martin

    2016-03-01

    There is an increasing interest in optical reporters like semiconductor quantum dots and upconversion nanophosphors with emission < 1000 nm for bioanalysis, medical diagnostics, and safety barcodes and hence, in reliable fluorescence measurements in this wavelength region, e.g., for the comparison of material performance and the rational design of new nanomaterials with improved properties [1-4]. The performance of fluorescence measurements < 800 nm and especially < 1000 nm is currently hampered by the lack of suitable methods and standards for the simple determination of the wavelength-dependent spectral responsivity of fluorescence measuring systems and the control of measured emission spectra and intensities [3-5]. This is of special relevance for nanocrystalline emitters like quantum dots and rods as well as for upconversion nanocrystals, where surface states and the accessibility of emissive states by quenchers largely control accomplishable quantum yields and hence, signal sizes and detection sensitivities from the reporter side. Here, we present the design of an integrating sphere setup for the absolute measurement of emission spectra and quantum yields in the wavelength region of 650 to 1600 nm and its calibration as well as examples for potential fluorescence standards from different reporter classes for the control of the reliability of such measurements [5]. This includes new spectral fluorescence standards for the wavelength region of 650 nm to 1000 nm as well as a set of quantum yield standards covering the wavelength region from 400 nm to 1000 nm.

  5. Far-field measurements of short-wavelength surface plasmons

    SciTech Connect

    Blau, Yochai; Gjonaj, Bergin; David, Asaf; Dolev, Shimon; Shterman, Doron; Bartal, Guy

    2015-03-23

    We present direct far-field measurements of short-wavelength surface plasmon polaritons (SPP) by conventional optics means. Plasmonic wavelength as short as 231 nm was observed for 532 nm illumination on a Ag−Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} platform, demonstrating the capability to characterize SPPs well below the optical diffraction limit. This is done by scaling a sub-wavelength interferometric pattern to a far-field resolvable periodicity. These subwavelength patterns are obtained by coupling light into counter-propagating SPP waves to create a standing-wave pattern of half the SPP wavelength periodicity. Such patterns are mapped by a scattering slit, tilted at an angle so as to increase the periodicity of the intensity pattern along it to more than the free-space wavelength, making it resolvable by diffraction limited optics. The simplicity of the method as well as its large dynamic range of measurable wavelengths make it an optimal technique to characterize the properties of plasmonic devices and high-index dielectric waveguides, to improve their design accuracy and enhance their functionality.

  6. Do shorter wavelengths improve contrast in optical mammography?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taroni, P.; Pifferi, A.; Torricelli, A.; Spinelli, L.; Danesini, G. M.; Cubeddu, R.

    2004-04-01

    The detection of tumours with time-resolved transmittance imaging relies essentially on blood absorption. Previous theoretical and phantom studies have shown that both contrast and spatial resolution of optical images are affected by the optical properties of the background medium, and high absorption and scattering are generally beneficial. Based on these observations, wavelengths shorter than presently used (680-780 nm) could be profitable for optical mammography. A study was thus performed analysing time-resolved transmittance images at 637, 656, 683 and 785 nm obtained from 26 patients bearing 16 tumours and 15 cysts. The optical contrast proved to increase upon decreasing wavelengths for the detection of cancers in late-gated intensity images, with higher gain in contrast for lesions of smaller size (<1.5 cm diameter). For cysts either a progressive increase or decrease in contrast with wavelength was observed in scattering images.

  7. Photobiomodulation of human adipose-derived stem cells using 810nm and 980nm lasers operates via different mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuguang; Huang, Ying-Ying; Wang, Yong; Lyu, Peijun; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-02-01

    Photobiomodulation (PBM) using red or near-infrared (NIR) light has been used to stimulate the proliferation and differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells. The use of NIR wavelengths such as 810nm is reasonably well accepted to stimulate mitochondrial activity and ATP production via absorption of photons by cytochrome c oxidase. However, the mechanism of action of 980nm is less well understood. Here we study the effects of both wavelengths (810nm and 980nm) on adipose-derived stem cells in vitro. Both wavelengths showed a biphasic dose response, but 810nm had a peak dose response at 3J/cm(2) for stimulation of proliferation at 24h, while the peak dose for 980nm was 10-100 times lower at 0.03 or 0.3J/cm(2). Moreover, 980nm (but not 810nm) increased cytosolic calcium while decreasing mitochondrial calcium. The effects of 980nm could be blocked by calcium channel blockers (capsazepine for TRPV1 and SKF96365 for TRPC channels), which had no effect on 810nm. To test the hypothesis that the chromophore for 980nm was intracellular water, which could possibly form a microscopic temperature gradient upon laser irradiation, we added cold medium (4°C) during the light exposure, or pre-incubated the cells at 42°C, both of which abrogated the effect of 980nm but not 810nm. We conclude that 980nm affects temperature-gated calcium ion channels, while 810nm largely affects mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase.

  8. Coherent quasi-CW 153-nm light source at high repetition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Yutaka; Ito, Yoshiaki; Ozawa, Akira; Wang, Xiaoyang; Chen, Chuangtian; Shin, Shik; Watanabe, Shuntaro; Kobayashi, Yohei

    2012-02-01

    We present a quasi-cw laser in vacuum ultraviolet region at megahertz repetition rate. The narrowband pulses generated from an ytterbium-fiber laser system at 33 MHz repetition rate at the central wavelength of 1074 nm is frequency-converted by successive stages of LBO crystals and KBBF crystals. The generated radiation at 153 nm has the shortest wavelength achieved through phase-matched frequency conversion processes in nonlinear optical crystals to our knowledge.

  9. Absorption of 308-nm excimer laser radiation by balanced salt solution, sodium hyaluronate, and human cadaver eyes

    SciTech Connect

    Keates, R.H.; Bloom, R.T.; Schneider, R.T.; Ren, Q.; Sohl, J.; Viscardi, J.J. )

    1990-11-01

    Absorption of the excimer laser radiations of 193-nm argon fluorine and 308-nm xenon chloride in balanced salt solution, sodium hyaluronate, and human cadaver eyes was measured. The absorption of these materials as considerably different for the two wavelengths; we found that 308-nm light experienced much less absorption than the 193-nm light. The extinction coefficient (k) for 308 nm was k = 0.19/cm for balanced salt solution and k = 0.22/cm for sodium hyaluronate. In contrast to this, the extinction coefficient for 193 nm was k = 140/cm for balanced salt solution and k = 540/cm for sodium hyaluronate. Two 1-day-old human phakic cadaver eyes showed complete absorption with both wavelengths. Using aphakic eyes, incomplete absorption was noted at the posterior pole with 308 nm and complete absorption was noted with 193 nm. The extinction in the anterior part of aphakic eyes (the first 6 mm) was 4.2/cm for 308 nm, meaning that the intensity of the light is reduced by a factor of 10 after traveling the first 5.5 mm. However, we observed that the material in the eye fluoresces, meaning the 308 nm is transformed into other (longer) wavelengths that travel through the total eye with minimal absorption. Conclusions drawn from this experiment are that the use of the 308-nm wavelength may have undesirable side effects, while the use of the 193-nm wavelength should be consistent with ophthalmic use on both the cornea and the lens.

  10. Choosing optimal wavelength for photodynamic therapy of port wine stains by mathematic simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ying; Gu, Ying; Zuo, Zhaohui; Huang, Naiyan

    2011-09-01

    Many laser wavelengths have been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for port wine stains (PWS). However, how these wavelengths result in different PDT outcomes has not been clearly illuminated. This study is designed to analyze which wavelengths would be the most advantageous for use in PDT for PWS. The singlet oxygen yield in PDT-treated PWS skin under different wavelengths at the same photosensitizer dosage was simulated and the following three situations were simulated and compared: 1. PDT efficiency of 488, 532, 510, 578, and 630 nm laser irradiation at clinical dosage (100 mW/cm2, 40 min); 2. PDT efficiency of different wavelength for PWS with hyperpigmentation after previous PDT; 3. PDT efficiency of different wavelengths for PWS, in which only deeply located ectatic vessels remained. The results showed that singlet oxygen yield is the highest at 510 nm, it is similar at 532 nm and 488 nm, and very low at 578 nm and 630 nm. This result is identical to the state in clinic. According to this theoretical study, the optimal wavelength for PDT in the treatment of PWS should near the absorption peaks of photosensitizer and where absorption from native chromophores (haemoglobin and melanin) is diminished.

  11. Choosing optimal wavelength for photodynamic therapy of port wine stains by mathematic simulation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Gu, Ying; Zuo, Zhaohui; Huang, Naiyan

    2011-09-01

    Many laser wavelengths have been used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) for port wine stains (PWS). However, how these wavelengths result in different PDT outcomes has not been clearly illuminated. This study is designed to analyze which wavelengths would be the most advantageous for use in PDT for PWS. The singlet oxygen yield in PDT-treated PWS skin under different wavelengths at the same photosensitizer dosage was simulated and the following three situations were simulated and compared: 1. PDT efficiency of 488, 532, 510, 578, and 630 nm laser irradiation at clinical dosage (100 mW∕cm(2), 40 min); 2. PDT efficiency of different wavelength for PWS with hyperpigmentation after previous PDT; 3. PDT efficiency of different wavelengths for PWS, in which only deeply located ectatic vessels remained. The results showed that singlet oxygen yield is the highest at 510 nm, it is similar at 532 nm and 488 nm, and very low at 578 nm and 630 nm. This result is identical to the state in clinic. According to this theoretical study, the optimal wavelength for PDT in the treatment of PWS should near the absorption peaks of photosensitizer and where absorption from native chromophores (haemoglobin and melanin) is diminished.

  12. Dual-diode quantum-well modulator for C-band wavelength conversion and broadcasting.

    PubMed

    Demir, Hilmi; Sabnis, Vijit; Fidaner, Onur; Harris, James; Miller, David; Zheng, Jun-Fei

    2004-01-26

    We present a dual-diode, InGaAsP/InP quantum-well modulator that incorporates a monolithically-integrated, InGaAs photodiode as a part of its on-chip, InP optoelectronic circuit. We theoretically show that such a dual-diode modulator allows for wavelength conversion with 10-dB RF-extinction ratio using 7 mW absorbed optical power at 10 Gb/s. We experimentally demonstrate unlimited wavelength conversion across 45 nm between 1525 nm and 1570 nm, and dual-wavelength broadcasting over 20 nm between 1530 nm and 1565 nm, spanning the entire C-band with >10dB RF-extinction ratio and using 3.1-6.7 mW absorbed optical power at 1.25 Gb/s.

  13. Maskless plasmonic lithography at 22 nm resolution.

    PubMed

    Pan, Liang; Park, Yongshik; Xiong, Yi; Ulin-Avila, Erick; Wang, Yuan; Zeng, Li; Xiong, Shaomin; Rho, Junsuk; Sun, Cheng; Bogy, David B; Zhang, Xiang

    2011-01-01

    Optical imaging and photolithography promise broad applications in nano-electronics, metrologies, and single-molecule biology. Light diffraction however sets a fundamental limit on optical resolution, and it poses a critical challenge to the down-scaling of nano-scale manufacturing. Surface plasmons have been used to circumvent the diffraction limit as they have shorter wavelengths. However, this approach has a trade-off between resolution and energy efficiency that arises from the substantial momentum mismatch. Here we report a novel multi-stage scheme that is capable of efficiently compressing the optical energy at deep sub-wavelength scales through the progressive coupling of propagating surface plasmons (PSPs) and localized surface plasmons (LSPs). Combining this with airbearing surface technology, we demonstrate a plasmonic lithography with 22 nm half-pitch resolution at scanning speeds up to 10 m/s. This low-cost scheme has the potential of higher throughput than current photolithography, and it opens a new approach towards the next generation semiconductor manufacturing.

  14. Evaluation of dental pulp repair using low level laser therapy (688 nm and 785 nm) morphologic study in capuchin monkeys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pretel, H.; Oliveira, J. A.; Lizarelli, R. F. Z.; Ramalho, L. T. O.

    2009-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that low-level laser therapy (LLLT) 688 nm and 785 nm accelerate dentin barrier formation and repair process after traumatic pulp exposure. The sample consisted of 45 premolars of capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) with pulp exposure Class V cavities. All premolars were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), divided in groups of 15 teeth each, and analyzed on 7th, 25th, and 60th day. Group GI - only Ca(OH)2, GII - laser 688 nm, and GIII - laser 785 nm. Laser beam was used in single and punctual dose with the parameters: continuous, 688 nm and 785 nm wavelength, tip's area of 0.00785 cm2, power 50 mW, application time 20 s, dose 255 J/cm2, energy 2 J. Teeth were capped with Ca(OH)2, Ca(OH)2 cement and restored with amalgam. All groups presented pulp repair. On 25th day the thickness of the formed dentin barrier was different between the groups GI and GII (p < 0.05) and between groups GI and GIII (p < 0.01). On 60th day there was difference between GI and GIII (p < 0.01). It may be concluded that, LLLT 688 nm and 785 nm accelerated dentin barrier formation and consequently pulp repair process, with best results using infrared laser 785 nm.

  15. Characteristic wavelength of textile fiber in near infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Hongnian; Jin, Shangzhong; Gan, Bin

    2006-01-01

    Near Infrared (NIR) spectroscopy in the region from 1300 to 1700nm, coupled with multivariate analytic statistical techniques, have been used to predict the chemical properties of textile fiber. Molecule absorbs electromagnetic wave with especial wavelength, which leads to bring characteristic absorption spectrum. Characteristic wavelength is the most important parameter in NIR detection. How to select characteristic wavelength is the key to NIR measure. Different mathematical methods are used to find relationship between the NIR absorption spectrum and the chemical properties of the textile fiber. We adopt stepwise multiple linear regression (SMLR) to select characteristic wavelength. As objective condition is limited, this article only refers to cotton and terylene. By computing correlation coefficient, we establish calibration equation with the smoothed absorbance data. Finally, the bias was controlled under 6%. Then, we find that NIR can be used to carry on qualitative analysis and quantitative analysis of the textile.

  16. Wavelength Tunability of Ion-Bombardment-Induced Ripples on Sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou,H.; Wang, Y.; Zhou, L.; Headrick, R.; Ozcan, A.; Wang, Y.; Ozaydin, G.; Ludwig, Jr., K.; Siddons, D.

    2007-01-01

    A study of ripple formation on sapphire surfaces by 300-2000 eV Ar{sup +} ion bombardment is presented. Surface characterization by in-situ synchrotron grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering and ex-situ atomic force microscopy is performed in order to study the wavelength of ripples formed on sapphire (0001) surfaces. We find that the wavelength can be varied over a remarkably wide range -- nearly two orders of magnitude -- by changing the ion incidence angle. Within the linear theory regime, the ion induced viscous flow smoothing mechanism explains the general trends of the ripple wavelength at low temperature and incidence angles larger than 30{sup o}. In this model, relaxation is confined to a few nm thick damaged surface layer. The behavior at high temperature suggests relaxation by surface diffusion. However, strong smoothing is inferred from the observed ripple wavelength near normal incidence, which is not consistent with either surface diffusion or viscous flow relaxation.

  17. Inverse-Gaussian apodized fiber Bragg grating for dual-wavelength lasing.

    PubMed

    Lin, Bo; Zhang, Han; Tjin, Swee Chuan; Tang, Dingyuan; Hao, Jianzhong; Tay, Chia Meng; Liang, Sheng

    2010-03-10

    A fiber Bragg grating (FBG) with an inverse-Gaussian apodization function is proposed and fabricated. It is shown that such a FBG possesses dual-wavelength narrow transmission peaks and the wavelength spacing between the two peaks is easily controllable during fabrication. Incorporating such a FBG filter into a fiber laser with a linear cavity, we obtain stable dual-wavelength emission with 0.146 nm wavelength spacing. This arrangement provides a simple and low cost way of achieving dual-wavelength fiber laser operation.

  18. Multi-wavelength high efficiency laser system for lidar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Christina C. C.; Culpepper, Charles; Burnham, Ralph

    2015-09-01

    Motivated by the growing need for more efficient, high output power laser transmitters, we demonstrate a multi-wavelength laser system for lidar-based applications. The demonstration is performed in two stages, proving energy scaling and nonlinear conversion independently for later combination. Energy scaling is demonstrated using a 1064 nm MOPA system which employs two novel ceramic Nd:YAG slab amplifiers, the structure of which is designed to improve the amplifier's thermal performance and energy extraction via three progressive doping stages. This structure improved the extraction efficiency by 19% over previous single-stage dopant designs. A maximum energy of 34 mJ was produced at 500 Hz with a 10.8 ns pulse duration. High efficiency non-linear conversion from 1064 nm to 452 nm is demonstrated using a KTP ring OPO with a BBO intra-cavity doubler pumped with 50 Hz, 16 ns 1064 nm pulses. The OPO generates 1571 nm signal which is frequency doubled to 756 nm by the BBO. Output 786 nm pulses are mixed with the 1064 nm pump pulses to generate 452 nm. A conversion efficiency of 17.1% was achieved, generating 3 mJ of 452 nm pulses of 7.8 ns duration. Pump power was limited by intra-cavity damage thresholds, and in future experiments we anticipate >20% conversion efficiency.

  19. Nanolithography using Bessel Beams of Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Daniel; Wang, Li; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-08-01

    Bessel beams are nondiffracting light beams with large depth-of-focus and self-healing properties, making them suitable as a serial beam writing tool over surfaces with arbitrary topography. This property breaks the inherent resolution vs. depth-of-focus tradeoff of photolithography. One approach for their formation is to use circularly symmetric diffraction gratings. Such a ring grating was designed and fabricated for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength of 13.5 nm, a candidate wavelength for future industrial lithography. Exposure of the aerial images showed that a Bessel beam with an approximately 1 mm long z-invariant central core of 223 nm diameter had been achieved, in good agreement with theory. Arbitrary patterns were written using the Bessel spot, demonstrating possible future application of Bessel beams for serial beam writing. Lithographic marks of ~30 nm size were also observed using a high resolution Bessel beam.

  20. Fluorometric determination of whole blood with various excitation wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Xiufeng; Gao, Shumei; Peng, Changde; Liu, Ying; Ni, Xiao-Wu

    2003-12-01

    Autofluorescence spectra from whole blood of laboratory rat are measured in this paper. The excitation lights are light emitting diode (LED), Ar+ laser, and He-Ne laser with the wavelength located at 457nm, 457.9nm, and 632.8nm respectively. The three spectral profiles are found to be substantially different, each displaying its own characteristic fluorescence bands. Ar+ laser-induced spectrum has very rich and sharp peaks. The LED-induced one has the strongest and widest fluorescence bands. And the intensity of the spectrum induced by He-Ne laser is much lower than the former two. Comparisons of those three fluorescence spectra indicate that Ar+ laser induced spectrum can show partly fine structure of blood cells. Based on the theoretical analysis, it is presented that the absorption of the fluorophores in blood cells to the wavelength of exciting light has definite selectivity, which depend on energy level structure and state of the fluorophores.

  1. Nanolithography using Bessel Beams of Extreme Ultraviolet Wavelength

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Daniel; Wang, Li; Ekinci, Yasin

    2016-01-01

    Bessel beams are nondiffracting light beams with large depth-of-focus and self-healing properties, making them suitable as a serial beam writing tool over surfaces with arbitrary topography. This property breaks the inherent resolution vs. depth-of-focus tradeoff of photolithography. One approach for their formation is to use circularly symmetric diffraction gratings. Such a ring grating was designed and fabricated for the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength of 13.5 nm, a candidate wavelength for future industrial lithography. Exposure of the aerial images showed that a Bessel beam with an approximately 1 mm long z-invariant central core of 223 nm diameter had been achieved, in good agreement with theory. Arbitrary patterns were written using the Bessel spot, demonstrating possible future application of Bessel beams for serial beam writing. Lithographic marks of ~30 nm size were also observed using a high resolution Bessel beam. PMID:27501749

  2. 32nm node technology development using interference immersion lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sewell, Harry; McCafferty, Diane; Markoya, Louis; Hendrickx, Eric; Hermans, Jan; Ronse, Kurt

    2005-05-01

    The 38nm and 32nm lithography nodes are the next major targets for optical lithography on the Semiconductor Industry Roadmap. The recently developed water-based immersion lithography using ArF illumination will be able to provide an optical solution for lithography at the 45nm node, but it will not be able to achieve the 38nm or the 32nm nodes as currently defined. To achieve these next lithographic nodes will require new, very high refractive index fluids to replace the water used in current immersion systems. This paper describes tests and experiments using an interference immersion lithography test jig to develop key technology for the 32nm node. Interference imaging printers have been available for years, and with the advent of Immersion Lithography, they have a new use. Interference immersion image printing offers users a rapid, cost-effective way to develop immersion lithography, particularly at extremely high resolutions. Although it can never replace classical lens-based lithography systems for semiconductor device production, it does offer a way to develop resist and fluid technology at a relatively low cost. Its simple image-forming format offers easy access to the basic physics of advanced imaging. Issues such as: Polarization of the image forming light rays; Fluid/resist interaction during exposure; Topcoat film performance; and the Line Edge Roughness (LER) of resists at extremely high resolutions can all be readily studied. Experiments are described and results are provided for work on: 32nm imaging tests; high refractive index fluid testing using 193nm wavelength at resolutions well beyond current lens-based system capabilities; and polarization configuration testing on 45nm, 38nm, and 32nm L/S features. Results on the performance of resists and topcoats are reported for 32nm L/S features.

  3. Stable and wavelength-tunable silicon-micro-ring-resonator based erbium-doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Yang, L G; Yeh, C H; Wong, C Y; Chow, C W; Tseng, F G; Tsang, H K

    2013-02-11

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a stable and wavelength-tunable erbium-doped fiber (EDF) ring laser. Here, a silicon-on-insulator (SOI)-based silicon-micro-ring-resonator (SMRR) is used as the wavelength selective element inside the fiber ring cavity. A uniform period grating coupler (GC) is used to couple between the SMRR and single mode fiber (SMF) and serves also as a polarization dependent element in the cavity. The output lasing wavelength of the proposed fiber laser can be tuned at a tuning step of 2 nm (defined by the free spectral range (FSR) of the SMRR) in a bandwidth of 35.2 nm (1532.00 to 1567.20 nm), which is defined by the gain of the EDF. The optical-signal-to-noise-ratio (OSNR) of each lasing wavelength is larger than 42.0 dB. In addition, the output stabilities of power and wavelength are also discussed.

  4. A Novel Portable Multi-Wavelength Laser System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charlton, Andy; Dickinson, B.

    There is an established need for a portable and affordable Q-switched laser system for use in studio conservation and small scale field use. The ideal system would be capable of producing a variety of wavelengths ranging from the ultraviolet to the infrared with sufficient energy per pulse to treat a wide range of materials including stone, marble, terracotta, wood, organic materials, bone, parchment, textiles, and metals. In this paper we report on such a system which is capable of delivering Q-switched output at 1,064nm in excess of 300mJ per pulse and at repetition rates of up to 25 Hz. Additional outputs are also reported at 266 nm, 355 nm, 532 nm, and 2.94 μm. Preliminary cleaning results on a small range of objects using the Q-switched 1,064nm output are presented.

  5. Wavelength discrimination in the hummingbird hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum.

    PubMed

    Telles, Francismeire J; Kelber, Almut; Rodríguez-Gironés, Miguel A

    2016-02-01

    Despite the strong relationship between insect vision and the spectral properties of flowers, the visual system has been studied in detail in only a few insect pollinator species. For instance, wavelength discrimination thresholds have been determined in two species only: the honeybee (Apis mellifera) and the butterfly Papilio xuthus. Here, we present the wavelength discrimination thresholds (Δλ) for the hawkmoth Macroglossum stellatarum. We compared the data with those found for the honeybee, the butterfly P. xuthus and the predictions of a colour discrimination model. After training moths to feed from a rewarded disc illuminated with a monochromatic light, we tested them in a dual-choice situation, in which they had to choose between light of the training wavelength and a novel unrewarded wavelength. To characterise the Δλ function, we decreased the difference between wavelengths in subsequent tests. We also varied the light intensity to test its effect on the discrimination capacity. In agreement with the predictions of the model, we found two expected minima of discrimination where photoreceptor sensitivities overlap, as well as a third, minor, unpredicted minimum around the peak of the blue photoreceptor. Macroglossum stellatarum is capable of discriminating between lights with a wavelength difference of 1-2 nm. These discrimination minima are similar to those found for the tetrachromatic P. xuthus, and are better than those of the honeybee. The moth is also capable of using achromatic information to discriminate between lights of long wavelengths.

  6. Multi-wavelength generation based on cascaded Raman scattering and self-frequency-doubling in KTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, K.; Li, J. S.; Xu, D. G.; Ding, X.; Zhou, R.; Wen, W. Q.; Li, Z. Y.; Xu, X. Y.; Wang, P.; Yao, J. Q.

    2010-04-01

    A multi-wavelength laser is developed based on cascaded stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) and self-frequency-doubling in an x-cut KTA crystal pumped by an A-O Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The generation of 1178 nm from cascaded SRS of 234 and 671 cm-1 Raman modes is observed. The six wavelengths, including the fundamental 1064 nm, four Stokes waves at 1091, 1120, 1146, 1178 nm, and the second harmonic generation (SHG) of 1146 nm, are tens to hundreds of millwatts for each at 10 kHz, corresponding to a total conversion efficiency of 8.72%.

  7. Diffuse optical spectroscopy of breast tissue extended to 1100 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taroni, Paola; Bassi, Andrea; Comelli, Daniela; Farina, Andrea; Cubeddu, Rinaldo; Pifferi, Antonio

    2009-09-01

    The feasibility of in vivo measurements in the range of 1000 to 1100 nm and the potential benefits of operation in that wavelength range for diagnostic applications are investigated. To this purpose, an existing system for time-resolved diffuse spectroscopy is modified to enable in vivo studies to be carried out continuously from 600 to 1100 nm. The optical characterization of collagen powder is extended to 1100 nm and an accurate measurement of the absorption properties of lipid is carried out over the entire spectral range. Finally, the first in vivo absorption and scattering spectra of breast tissue are measured from 10 healthy volunteers between 600 and 1100 nm and tissue composition is evaluated in terms of blood parameters and water, lipid, and collagen content using a spectrally constrained global fitting procedure.

  8. Compact frequency-quadrupled pulsed 1030nm fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, Chris; Goldberg, Lew; Cole, Brian; DiLazaro, Tom; Hays, Alan D.

    2016-03-01

    A compact 1030nm fiber laser for ultraviolet generation at 257.5nm is presented. The laser employs a short length of highly-doped, large core (20μm), coiled polarization-maintaining ytterbium-doped double-clad fiber pumped by a wavelength-stabilized 975nm diode. It is passively Q-switched via a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber and generates 2.4W at 1030nm in a 110μJ pulse train. Lithium triborate (LBO) and beta-barium borate (BBO) are used to achieve 325mW average power at the fourth harmonic. The laser's small form factor, narrow linewidth and modest power consumption are suitable for use in a man-portable ultraviolet Raman explosives detection system.

  9. Multiple-wavelength tunable laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Norman P. (Inventor); Walsh, Brian M. (Inventor); Reichle, Donald J. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A tunable laser includes dispersion optics for separating generated laser pulses into first and second wavelength pulses directed along first and second optical paths. First and second reflective mirrors are disposed in the first and second optical paths, respectively. The laser's output mirror is partially reflective and partially transmissive with respect to the first wavelength and the second wavelength in accordance with provided criteria. A first resonator length is defined between the output mirror and the first mirror, while a second resonator length is defined between the output mirror and the second mirror. The second resonator length is a function of the first resonator length.

  10. AWG Filter for Wavelength Interrogator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, Richard J. (Inventor); Costa, Joannes M. (Inventor); Faridian, Fereydoun (Inventor); Moslehi, Behzad (Inventor); Sotoudeh, Vahid (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A wavelength interrogator is coupled to a circulator which couples optical energy from a broadband source to an optical fiber having a plurality of sensors, each sensor reflecting optical energy at a unique wavelength and directing the reflected optical energy to an AWG. The AWG has a detector coupled to each output, and the reflected optical energy from each grating is coupled to the skirt edge response of the AWG such that the adjacent channel responses form a complementary pair response. The complementary pair response is used to convert an AWG skirt response to a wavelength.

  11. Sensitivity enhancement of surface thermal lens technique with a short-wavelength probe beam: Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaorong; Li, Bincheng

    2015-02-15

    Surface thermal lens is a highly sensitive photothermal technique to measure low absorption losses of various solid materials. In such applications, the sensitivity of surface thermal lens is a key parameter for measuring extremely low absorption. In this paper, we experimentally investigated the influence of probe beam wavelength on the sensitivity of surface thermal lens for measuring the low absorptance of optical laser components. Three probe lasers with wavelength 375 nm, 633 nm, and 1570 nm were used, respectively, to detect the surface thermal lens amplitude of a highly reflective coating sample excited by a cw modulated Gaussian beam at 1064 nm. The experimental results showed that the maximum amplitude of surface thermal lens signal obtained at corresponding optimized detection distance was inversely proportional to the wavelength of the probe beam, as predicted by previous theoretical model. The sensitivity of surface thermal lens could, therefore, be improved by detecting surface thermal lens signal with a short-wavelength probe beam.

  12. Wavelength-tunable colloidal quantum dot laser on ultra-thin flexible glass

    SciTech Connect

    Foucher, C.; Guilhabert, B.; Laurand, N.; Dawson, M. D.

    2014-04-07

    A mechanically flexible and wavelength-tunable laser with an ultra-thin glass membrane as substrate is demonstrated. The optically pumped hybrid device has a distributed feedback cavity that combines a colloidal quantum dot gain film with a grating-patterned polymeric underlayer, all on a 30-μm thick glass sheet. The total thickness of the structure is only 75 μm. The hybrid laser has an average threshold fluence of 450 ± 80 μJ/cm{sup 2} (for 5-ns excitation pulses) at an emitting wavelength of 607 nm. Mechanically bending the thin-glass substrate enables continuous tuning of the laser emission wavelength over an 18-nm range, from 600 nm to 618 nm. The correlation between the wavelength tunability and the mechanical properties of the thin laser structure is verified theoretically and experimentally.

  13. Single linearly polarized, widely and freely tunable two wavelengths Yb3+-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dongfeng; Wang, Chinhua

    2010-01-01

    We report a novel single linearly polarized, widely, freely and continuously tunable two wavelengths Yb3+-doped fiber laser. The laser generates stable arbitrary two wavelengths output between 1003.1 and 1080.7 nm peak wavelengths simultaneously with a 346.0 mW CW power by using polarization beam splitting (PBS) for separation of two wavelengths. Each lasing line shows a single polarization with a polarization extinction ratio of >20 dB under different pump levels. The central and the interval of the two wavelengths can be tuned smoothly and independently in the entire gain region of >70 nm of PM Yb3+-doped single mode fiber. Strongly enhanced polarization-hole burning (PHB) phenomena in polarization maintain (PM) Yb3+-doped fiber was observed in the tunable two wavelengths Yb3+-doped fiber laser.

  14. Imaging CIN(3) photodissociation from 234 to 280 nm.

    PubMed

    Samartzis, Peter C; Hansen, Nils; Wodtke, Alec M

    2006-07-07

    We report Cl((2)P(3/2)) and Cl*((2)P(1/2)) fragment images following ClN(3) photolysis in the 234-280 nm region measured by velocity map imaging. Kinetic energy distributions change shape with photolysis wavelength from bimodal at 234 and 240 nm to single peak at 266 and 280 nm. Where two peaks exist, their ratio is significantly different for Cl and Cl* fragments. The single peak of 266 and 280 nm and the faster peak at 234 and 240 nm are assigned to a Cl + linear-N(3) dissociation channel, in agreement with previous work. The slow peak in the bimodal distributions is assigned to the formation of a high energy form (HEF) of N(3). Candidates for the identity of HEF-N(3) are discussed. Combining our data with photofragmentation translational spectroscopy results, we determined the threshold for the appearance of HEF-N(3) at 4.83 +/- 0.17 eV photolysis energy. This threshold behavior is similar to recently reported results on the wavelength dependence of HN(3) photolysis, where the threshold was associated with a ring closed isomer of HN(3) on the S(1) potential energy surface. We also note that the HEF-N(3) formation threshold observed for ClN(3) occurs where the energy available to the products equals the isomerization barrier from linear to cyclic-N(3).

  15. Low-loss arrayed waveguide grating at 760 nm.

    PubMed

    Stanton, E J; Spott, A; Davenport, M L; Volet, N; Bowers, J E

    2016-04-15

    An arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) at 760 nm is demonstrated with an insertion loss smaller than 0.5 dB. Interface roughness and waveguide length errors contribute much more to scattering loss and phase errors at 760 nm than at longer wavelengths, thus requiring improved design and fabrication. This Letter details how this is achieved by minimizing interfacial scattering, grating side-order excitation, and phase errors in the AWG. With silicon nitride core and silicon dioxide clad waveguides on silicon, this AWG is compatible with heterogeneously integrated lasers for on-chip spectral beam combining.

  16. Variation of cell spreading on TiO2 film modified by 775 nm and 388 nm femtosecond laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsukamoto, M.; Shinonaga, T.; Sato, Y.; Chen, P.; Nagai, A.; Hanawa, T.

    2014-03-01

    Titanium (Ti) is one of the most used biomaterials in metals. However, Ti is typically artificial materials. Thus, it is necessary for improving the biocompatibility of Ti. Recently, coating of the titanium dioxides (TiO2) film on Ti plate has been proposed to improve biocompatibility of Ti. We have developed coating method of the film on Ti plate with an aerosol beam. Periodic structures formation on biomaterials was also a useful method for improving the biocompatibility. Direction of cell spreading might be controlled along the grooves of periodic microstructures. In our previous study, periodic nanostructures were formed on the film by femtosecond laser irradiation at fundamental wave (775 nm). Period of the periodic nanostructures was about 230 nm. In cell test, cell spreading along the grooves of the periodic nanostructures was observed although it was not done for the film without the periodic nanostructures. Then, influence of the period of the periodic nanostructures on cell spreading has not been investigated yet. The period might be changed by changing the laser wavelength. In this study, the periodic nanostructures were created on the film with femtosecond laser at 775nm and 388 nm, respectively. After cell test, cell spreading along the grooves of the periodic nanostructures was observed on 775 nm and 388nm laser irradiated areas. Distribution of direction of cell spreading on laser irradiated area was also examined. These results suggested that controlling the cell spreading on periodic nanostructures with period of 230 nm was better than that with period of 130 nm.

  17. Deep ultraviolet (254 nm) focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cicek, Erdem; Vashaei, Zahra; McClintock, Ryan; Razeghi, Manijeh

    2011-10-01

    We report the synthesis, fabrication and testing of a 320 × 256 focal plane array (FPA) of back-illuminated, solarblind, p-i-n, AlxGa1-xN-based detectors, fully realized within our research laboratory. We implemented a novel pulsed atomic layer deposition technique for the metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) growth of crackfree, thick, and high Al composition AlxGa1-xN layers. Following the growth, the wafer was processed into a 320 × 256 array of 25 μm × 25 μm pixels on a 30 μm pixel-pitch and surrounding mini-arrays. A diagnostic mini-array was hybridized to a silicon fan-out chip to allow the study of electrical and optical characteristics of discrete pixels of the FPA. At a reverse bias of 1 V, an average photodetector exhibited a low dark current density of 1.12×10-8 A/cm2. Solar-blind operation is observed throughout the array with peak detection occurring at wavelengths of 256 nm and lower and falling off three orders of magnitude by 285 nm. After indium bump deposition and dicing, the FPA is hybridized to a matching ISC 9809 readout integrated circuit (ROIC). By developing a novel masking technology, we significantly reduced the visible response of the ROIC and thus the need for external filtering to achieve solar- and visible-blind operation is eliminated. This allowed the FPA to achieve high external quantum efficiency (EQE): at 254 nm, average pixels showed unbiased peak responsivity of 75 mA/W, which corresponds to an EQE of ~37%. Finally, the uniformity of the FPA and imaging properties are investigated.

  18. Magnetic compass orientation in European robins is dependent on both wavelength and intensity of light.

    PubMed

    Muheim, Rachel; Bäckman, Johan; Akesson, Susanne

    2002-12-01

    Magnetic compass orientation in birds has been shown to be light dependent. Results from behavioural studies indicate that magnetoreception capabilities are disrupted under light of peak wavelengths longer than 565 nm, and shifts in orientation have been observed at higher light intensities (43-44x10(15) quanta s(-1) m(-2)). To investigate further the function of the avian magnetic compass with respect to wavelength and intensity of light, we carried out orientation cage experiments with juvenile European robins, caught during their first autumn migration, exposed to light of 560.5 nm (green), 567.5 nm (green-yellow) and 617 nm (red) wavelengths at three different intensities (1 mW m(-2), 5 mW m(-2) and 10 mW m(-2)). We used monochromatic light of a narrow wavelength range (half bandwidth of 9-11 nm, compared with half bandwidths ranging between 30 nm and 70 nm used in other studies) and were thereby able to examine the magnetoreception mechanism in the expected transition zone between oriented and disoriented behaviour around 565 nm in more detail. We show (1) that European robins show seasonally appropriate migratory directions under 560.5 nm light, (2) that they are completely disoriented under 567.5 nm light under a broad range of intensities, (3) that they are able to orient under 617 nm light of lower intensities, although into a direction shifted relative to the expected migratory one, and (4) that magnetoreception is intensity dependent, leading to disorientation under higher intensities. Our results support the hypothesis that birds possess a light-dependent magnetoreception system based on magnetically sensitive, antagonistically interacting spectral mechanisms, with at least one high-sensitive short-wavelength mechanism and one low-sensitive long-wavelength mechanism.

  19. The Spectrum of Th-Ar Hollow Cathode Lamps in the 691nm to 5804nm region Database

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 161 The Spectrum of Th-Ar Hollow Cathode Lamps in the 691nm to 5804nm region Database (Web, free access)   This atlas presents observations of the infra-red (IR) spectrum of a low current Th-Ar hollow cathode lamp with the 2-m Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) at NIST. These observations establish more than 2400 lines that are suitable for use as wavelength standards in the range 691 nm to 5804 nm. The observations were made in collaboration with the European Southern Observatory (ESO), in order to provide calibration reference data for new high-resolution Echelle spectrographs, such as the Cryogenic High-Resolution IR Echelle Spectrograph ([CRIRES]), ESO's new IR spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope in Chile.

  20. A Limited International Intercomparison of Responsivity Scales at Fiber Optic Wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Gallawa, R. L.; Gardner, J. L.; Nettleton, D. H.; Stock, K. D.; Ward, T. H.; Li, Xiaoyu

    1991-01-01

    We report here on a recent limited international intercomparison of responsivity scales at wavelengths of interest to the optical communications community. Participants in the comparison were the national laboratories in the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and Australia. The wavelengths tested were 1300 and 1550 nm. Data taken at 850 nm are only briefly discussed. The disagreement between the national laboratories’ responsivity scale is comfortably within the uncertainty claimed by each laboratory. PMID:28184112

  1. Biophotopol's energetic sensitivity improved in 300 μm layers by tuning the recording wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Fuster, Víctor; Ortuño, Manuel; Gallego, Sergi; Márquez, Andrés; Beléndez, Augusto; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2016-02-01

    In order to obtain a highly environmentally compatible photopolymer to replace the well-known acrylamide photopolymer we optimized the previously developed Biophotopol composition to obtain volume transmission gratings in 300 μm layers, at a recording wavelength of 488 nm. The results obtained show an improved energetic sensitivity with similar diffraction efficiency to that obtained at the standard recording wavelength of 514 nm.

  2. Pupillary behavior in relation to wavelength and age

    PubMed Central

    Lobato-Rincón, Luis-Lucio; Cabanillas-Campos, Maria del Carmen; Bonnin-Arias, Cristina; Chamorro-Gutiérrez, Eva; Murciano-Cespedosa, Antonio; Sánchez-Ramos Roda, Celia

    2014-01-01

    Pupil light reflex can be used as a non-invasive ocular predictor of cephalic autonomic nervous system integrity. Spectral sensitivity of the pupil's response to light has, for some time, been an interesting issue. It has generally, however, only been investigated with the use of white light and studies with monochromatic wavelengths are scarce. This study investigates the effects of wavelength and age within three parameters of the pupil light reflex (amplitude of response, latency, and velocity of constriction) in a large sample of younger and older adults (N = 97), in mesopic conditions. Subjects were exposed to a single light stimulus at four different wavelengths: white (5600°K), blue (450 nm), green (510 nm), and red (600 nm). Data was analyzed appropriately, and, when applicable, using the General Linear Model (GLM), Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD), Student's t-test and/or ANCOVA. Across all subjects, pupillary response to light had the greatest amplitude and shortest latency in white and green light conditions. In regards to age, older subjects (46–78 years) showed an increased latency in white light and decreased velocity of constriction in green light compared to younger subjects (18–45 years old). This study provides data patterns on parameters of wavelength-dependent pupil reflexes to light in adults and it contributes to the large body of pupillometric research. It is hoped that this study will add to the overall evaluation of cephalic autonomic nervous system integrity. PMID:24795595

  3. Optical characterization of 193nm amorphous carbon ARC films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leng, Jingmin; Opsal, Jon; Pois, Heath

    2005-05-01

    In this study, the optical properties of amorphous carbon (aC) ARC films are investigated using an Opti-probe OP7341, and a metrology solution that robustly measures a broad range of process conditions is presented. We find that the aC material is consistent with uni-axial anisotropy, and that this effect may have important implications for photolithography. These results are obtained through the combination of multiple technologies in one tool: spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE); spectroscopic reflectometry or broadband (BB), with a wavelength range of 190-840 nm; single wavelength (673 nm) but multiple incident angle beam profile reflectometry (BPR) and beam profile ellipsometry (BPE), and single wavelength (633nm) absolute ellipsometry (AE). The combination of technologies at multiple angles and wavelengths provides additional optical information and sensitivity not possible with single-technology approaches. A complex wavelength dependent anisotropy model was developed for this analysis, and is compared with a real anisotropy model. The complex anisotropy model and the effective medium approximation (EMA) with two and three components were applied to a set of 12 wafer set with thickness swing aC films in the range of 500-750 Å as well as a second set of 23 pre- and post- etch wafers. The complex anisotropy model clearly has the advantage of best fit the BPR profiles along with the SE Fourier coefficients. The etch rate obtained by the complex anisotropy also showed a much narrower variation as compared with the EMA2 and EMA32 models with the real anisotropy.

  4. Reduction of patulin in apple juice products by UV light of different wavelengths in the UVC range.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Koutchma, Tatiana; Warriner, Keith; Zhou, Ting

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated three UVC wavelengths (222, 254, and 282 nm) to degrade patulin introduced into apple juice or apple cider. The average UV fluences of 19.6, 84.3, 55.0, and 36.6 mJ·cm(-2) achieved through exposure to UV lamps at 222-, 254-, and 282-nm wavelengths and the combination of these wavelengths, respectively, resulted in 90% reduction of patulin in apple juice. Therefore, the order of efficiency of the three wavelength lamps was as follows: far UVC (222 nm) > far UVC plus (282 nm) > UVC (254 nm). In terms of color, treatment of apple juice with 222 nm resulted in an increase in the L* (lightness) value but decreases in a* (redness) and b* (yellowness) values, although the changes were insignificantly different from the values for nontreated controls based on a sensory evaluation. The ascorbic acid loss in juice treated at 222 nm to support 90% reduction of patulin was 36.5%, compared with ascorbic acid losses of 45.3 and 36.1% in samples treated at 254 and 282 nm, respectively. The current work demonstrated that the 222-nm wavelength possesses the highest efficiency for patulin reduction in apple juice when compared with the reductions by 254 and 282 nm, with no benefit gained from using a combination of wavelengths.

  5. [Wavelength selection of the oximetry based on test analysis of variance].

    PubMed

    Lin, Ling; Li, Wei; Zeng, Rui-Li; Liu, Rui-An; Li, Gang; Wu, Xiao-Rong

    2014-07-01

    In order to improve the precision and reliability of the spectral measurement of blood oxygen saturation, and enhance the validity of the measurement, the method of test analysis of variance was employed. Preferred wavelength combination was selected by the analysis of the distribution of the coefficient of oximetry at different wavelength combinations and rational use of statistical theory. Calculated by different combinations of wavelengths (660 and 940 nm, 660 and 805 nm and 805 and 940 nm) through the clinical data under different oxygen saturation, the single factor test analysis of variance model of the oxygen saturation coefficient was established, the relative preferabe wavelength combination can be selected by comparative analysis of different combinations of wavelengths from the photoelectric volume pulse to provide a reliable intermediate data for further modeling. The experiment results showed that the wavelength combination of 660 and 805 nm responded more significantly to the changes in blood oxygen saturation and the introduced noise and method error were relatively smaller of this combination than other wavelength combination, which could improve the measurement accuracy of oximetry. The study applied the test variance analysis to the selection of wavelength combination in the blood oxygen result measurement, and the result was significant. The study provided a new idea for the blood oxygen measurements and other related spectroscopy quantitative analysis. The method of test analysis of variance can help extract the valid information which represents the measured values from the spectrum.

  6. High power room temperature 1014.8 nm Yb fiber amplifier and frequency quadrupling to 253.7 nm for laser cooling of mercury atoms.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jinmeng; Zhang, Lei; Liu, Hongli; Liu, Kangkang; Xu, Zhen; Feng, Yan

    2013-12-16

    An 8 W continuous wave linearly-polarized single-frequency 1014.8 nm fiber amplifier working at room temperature is developed with commercial double-clad single-mode Yb-doped silica fiber. Re-absorption at the laser wavelength and amplified spontaneous emission at longer wavelength are managed by optimizing the amplifier design. The laser has a linewidth of ~24 kHz without noticeable broadening after amplification. Using two resonant cavity frequency doublers, 1.03 W laser at 507.4 nm and 75 mW laser at 253.7 nm are generated with 4 W 1014.8 nm laser. Both absorption and saturated absorption spectra of the (1)S(0) - (3)P(1) transition of atomic mercury are measured with the 253.7 nm laser.

  7. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations on Stimulated Brillouin Scattering (SBS) in Multimode Fibers, at 1550 nm Wavelength

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-01

    determines a beam radius w,, which is equal to the second moment beam radius in the case of a Gaussian beam ( ISO 11146 :1999). The beam propagation...moments, M has to be corrected using the following formula (from ISO 11146 :1999): MA4 0.81 -1+1 (13) The siiilar correction should be done to obtain the...multimode fibers 3 . THEORETICAL MODEL I11o) -1 114 Fiber - " t "I. 5(L) 4/01 L Fig. 2 Schematic used to model the SBS interaction in the fiber The

  8. Design of near-infrared single photon detector at 1550nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jiali

    2016-09-01

    Technology of near-infrared single photon detection is used in quantum communication, laser ranging and weak light detection. Present single photon detectors are usually expensive and bulky. To overcome their disadvantages, a hand-held single photon detector based on InGaAs/InP avalanche photo diode (APD) is developed. A circuit program for temperature control and bias voltage is offered. The gating signal is generated and the avalanche signal is extracted by FPGA. Experiment results show that, the single photon detector yields only 8.2×10-6/ns dark count rate (DCR) when photon detection efficiency is 12%, and the maximum photon detection efficiency of 16% is obtained at temperature of -55°C.

  9. Study of the emission spectra of a 1320-nm semiconductor disk laser and its second harmonic

    SciTech Connect

    Gochelashvili, K S; Derzhavin, S I; Evdokimova, O N; Zolotovskii, I O; Podmazov, S V

    2016-03-31

    The spectral characteristics of an optically pumped external-cavity semiconductor disk laser near λ = 1320 nm are studied experimentally. Intracavity second harmonic generation is obtained using an LBO nonlinear crystal. The output power at a wavelength of 660 nm in the cw regime was 620 mW, and the peak power in the pulsed regime was 795 mW. (lasers)

  10. Tunable four-pass narrow spectral bandwidth amplifier for use at approximately 508 nm.

    PubMed

    Schwettmann, Arne; McGuffey, Chris; Chauhan, Savith; Overstreet, K Richard; Shaffer, James P

    2007-03-10

    We report the implementation of a tunable, narrow-spectral-bandwidth, pulsed, four-pass dye-laser amplifier with strongly reduced amplified spontaneous emission. We present temporal pulse profiles, pulse spectra, and gain measurements of the amplifier output for the case of Coumarin 307 dye as the gain medium, seeded at wavelengths of approximately 508 nm and pumped at 355 nm.

  11. High-power and highly efficient operation of wavelength-tunable Raman fiber lasers based on volume Bragg gratings.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Shen, Deyuan; Huang, Haitao; Zhao, Chujun; Zhang, Xiaoqi; Fan, Dianyuan

    2014-03-24

    Highly efficient and high-power operation of Raman fiber lasers in fixed-wavelength and wavelength-tunable cavity configurations based on a graded-index multimode fiber is reported. Fixed-wavelength and wavelength tunable operating regimes are achieved using volume Bragg gratings (VBGs) with center wavelengths of 1658 nm and 1750 nm, respectively. The fixed-wavelength laser yielded a maximum output power of 10.5 W at 1658.3 nm with a FWHM linewidth of ~0.1 nm for the launched pump power of 23.4 W, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 82.7% with respect to the launched pump power. The measured beam quality in the form of M² factor is ~1.35, corresponding to the fundamental mode of the fiber. For the wavelength-tunable Raman fiber laser, a wavelength tuning range of 37 nm from 1638.5 to 1675.1 nm is obtained with a maximum output power of 3.6 W at 1658.5 nm for the launched pump power of 13.0 W.

  12. An Ultrasensitive Long-Period Fiber Grating-Based Refractive Index Sensor with Long Wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiu-Shun; Zhang, Xu-Lin; Shi, Jian-Guo; Xiang, Dong; Zheng, Lan; Yang, Yan; Yang, Jun-Hui; Feng, Dong; Dong, Wen-Fei

    2016-01-01

    The response of a novel long-period fiber grating (LPFG) with a period of 180 µm to a surrounding refractive index (RI) was investigated. The results displayed that, with the increase in RI of the surrounding media of cladding glass in the grating region, the resonant peak located at 1336.4 nm in the transmission spectrum gradually shifts towards a shorter wavelength, while the resonant peak located at 1618 nm gradually shifted towards a longer wavelength. Moreover, the resonant peak at 1618 nm is much more sensitive to the surrounding RI than that of the one at 1336.4 nm. Compared with the conventional LPFG and other types of wavelength-interrogated RI sensors, such as ring resonators, surface plasmon resonance sensors, and Fabry–Perot interferometric sensors, this novel LPFG possesses a higher sensitivity, which achieved 10,792.45 nm/RIU (RI unit) over a RI range of 1.4436–1.4489. PMID:28009844

  13. Giant Bragg Wavelength Tuning of Tunable Hollow Waveguide Bragg Reflector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Yasuki; Matsutani, Akihiro; Sakaguchi, Takahiro; Koyama, Fumio

    2005-09-01

    We demonstrate a giant Bragg wavelength tuning with a grating loaded hollow waveguide Bragg reflector. An air-core thickness change of a hollow waveguide enables us to achieve a large propagation constant change over few tens percent, which would be useful for various tunable optical devices. Our observed Bragg-wavelength tuning range is over 160 nm at an air-core thickness change from 10.7 to 1.8 μm, which corresponds to a propagation constant change of over 10%. This is the record large tuning value ever reported in conventional tuning schemes such as thermo-optic or electro-optic effects.

  14. Compact wavelength demultiplexing using focusing negative index photonic crystal superprisms.

    PubMed

    Momeni, Babak; Huang, Jiandong; Soltani, Mohammad; Askari, Murtaza; Mohammadi, Saeed; Rakhshandehroo, Mohammad; Adibi, Ali

    2006-03-20

    Here, we demonstrate a compact photonic crystal wavelength demultiplexing device based on a diffraction compensation scheme with two orders of magnitude performance improvement over the conventional superprism structures reported to date. We show that the main problems of the conventional superprism-based wavelength demultiplexing devices can be overcome by combining the superprism effect with two other main properties of photonic crystals, i.e., negative diffraction and negative refraction. Here, a 4-channel optical demultiplexer with a channel spacing of 8 nm and cross-talk level of better than -6.5 dB is experimentally demonstrated using a 4500 microm(2) photonic crystal region.

  15. Laser radiation at various wavelengths for decompression of intervertebral disk. Experimental observations on human autopsy specimens.

    PubMed

    Choy, D S; Altman, P A; Case, R B; Trokel, S L

    1991-06-01

    The interaction of laser radiation with the nucleus pulposus from autopsy specimens of human intervertebral disks was evaluated at different wavelengths (193 nm, 488 nm & 514 nm, 1064 nm, 1318 nm, 2150 nm, 2940 nm, and 10600 nm). A significant correlation of linear least squares fit of the mass ablated as a function of incident energy was found for all lasers used except the Excimer at 193 nm. The 2940-nm Erbium:YAG laser was most efficient in terms of mass of disk ablated per joule in the limited lower range where this wavelength was observed. At higher energy levels, the CO2 laser in the pulsed mode was most efficient. However, the Nd:YAG 1064-nm and 1318-nm lasers are currently best suited for percutaneous laser disk decompression because of the availability of usable waveguides. Carbonization of tissue with the more penetrating Nd:YAG 1064-nm laser increases the efficiency of tissue ablation and makes it comparable to the Nd:YAG 1318-nm laser.

  16. Short-wavelength bottom-emitting VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choquette, Kent D.; Barton, Jonathon S.; Geib, Kent M.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Hindi, Jana J.

    1999-04-01

    The fabrication and performance of selectively oxidized 850 nm vertical cavity surface emitting laser (VCSEL) diodes which emit through transparent GaP substrates is reported. Emission through the substrate is advantageous for many VCSEL configurations, such as for the incorporation of optical elements in the substrate or flip-chip integration to microelectronic circuitry. The short wavelength bottom- emitting VCSELs are fabricated by wafer fusion using an inert gas low temperature annealing process. The electrical characteristics of n- and p-type GaAs/GaAs and GaAs/GaP wafer bonded interfaces have been examined to optimize the annealing temperature. A significant reduction of the current-voltage characteristics of the VCSELs bonded to GaP substrates has been achieved whereby the bottom-emitting VCSELs show similar threshold voltage as compared to top- emitting lasers.

  17. Experimental investigation on supercontinuum generation by single, dual, and triple wavelength pumping in a silica photonic crystal fiber.

    PubMed

    Gao, Weiqing; Xu, Qiang; Li, Xue; Zhang, Wei; Hu, Jigang; Li, Yuan; Chen, Xiangdong; Yuan, Zijun; Liao, Meisong; Cheng, Tonglei; Xue, Xiaojie; Suzuki, Takenobu; Ohishi, Yasutake

    2016-11-20

    We investigate the supercontinuum (SC) generation in an 1 cm long silica photonic crystal fiber (PCF) pumped by the pulse sources with single, dual, and triple wavelengths, respectively. The silica PCF has two zero-dispersion wavelengths at 900 and 2620 nm, respectively. When pumped by a single wavelength, the SC spectral range covers about 1000 nm. When pumped by dual and triple wavelengths, the SC spectral range covers wider than 2000 nm. Both the SC spectral range and the flatness are improved obviously when pumped by triple wavelengths. The maximum SC spectral range is obtained when the silica PCF is pumped by the triple wavelengths at 800, 1450, and 1785 nm. The SC spectral range covers 2810 nm from 350 to 3160 nm wider than three octaves. The 10 dB bandwidth covers 2280 nm from 450 to 2730 nm wider than two octaves. This is the first investigation on comparison of the SCs generated by different pump wavelengths up to three experimentally. The generated SC spectra have covered the full transmission window of silica fiber.

  18. EUV reticle inspection with a 193nm reticle inspector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broadbent, William; Inderhees, Gregg; Yamamoto, Tetsuya; Lee, Isaac; Lim, Phillip

    2013-06-01

    The prevailing industry opinion is that EUV Lithography (EUVL) will enter High Volume Manufacturing (HVM) in the 2015 - 2017 timeframe at the 16nm HP node. Every year the industry assesses the key risk factors for introducing EUVL into HVM - blank and reticle defects are among the top items. To reduce EUV blank and reticle defect levels, high sensitivity inspection is needed. To address this EUV inspection need, KLA-Tencor first developed EUV blank inspection and EUV reticle inspection capability for their 193nm wavelength reticle inspection system - the Teron 610 Series (2010). This system has become the industry standard for 22nm / 3xhp optical reticle HVM along with 14nm / 2xhp optical pilot production; it is further widely used for EUV blank and reticle inspection in R and D. To prepare for the upcoming 10nm / 1xhp generation, KLA-Tencor has developed the Teron 630 Series reticle inspection system which includes many technical advances; these advances can be applied to both EUV and optical reticles. The advanced capabilities are described in this paper with application to EUV die-to-database and die-to-die inspection for currently available 14nm / 2xhp generation EUV reticles. As 10nm / 1xhp generation optical and EUV reticles become available later in 2013, the system will be tested to identify areas for further improvement with the goal to be ready for pilot lines in early 2015.

  19. Generation of coherent 19- and 38-nm radiation at a free-electron laser directly seeded at 38 nm.

    PubMed

    Ackermann, S; Azima, A; Bajt, S; Bödewadt, J; Curbis, F; Dachraoui, H; Delsim-Hashemi, H; Drescher, M; Düsterer, S; Faatz, B; Felber, M; Feldhaus, J; Hass, E; Hipp, U; Honkavaara, K; Ischebeck, R; Khan, S; Laarmann, T; Lechner, C; Maltezopoulos, Th; Miltchev, V; Mittenzwey, M; Rehders, M; Rönsch-Schulenburg, J; Rossbach, J; Schlarb, H; Schreiber, S; Schroedter, L; Schulz, M; Schulz, S; Tarkeshian, R; Tischer, M; Wacker, V; Wieland, M

    2013-09-13

    Initiating the gain process in a free-electron laser (FEL) from an external highly coherent source of radiation is a promising way to improve the pulse properties such as temporal coherence and synchronization performance in time-resolved pump-probe experiments at FEL facilities, but this so-called "seeding" suffers from the lack of adequate sources at short wavelengths. We report on the first successful seeding at a wavelength as short as 38.2 nm, resulting in GW-level, coherent FEL radiation pulses at this wavelength as well as significant second harmonic emission at 19.1 nm. The external seed pulses are about 1 order of magnitude shorter compared to previous experiments allowing an ultimate time resolution for the investigation of dynamic processes enabling breakthroughs in ultrafast science with FELs. The seeding pulse is the 21st harmonic of an 800-nm, 15-fs (rms) laser pulse generated in an argon medium. Methods for finding the overlap of seed pulses with electron bunches in spatial, longitudinal, and spectral dimensions are discussed and results are presented. The experiment was conducted at FLASH, the FEL user facility at DESY in Hamburg, Germany.

  20. High-efficiency fiber laser at 1018 nm using Yb-doped phosphosilicate fiber.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianhua; Chen, Gui; Zhang, Lei; Hu, Jinmeng; Li, Jinyan; He, Bing; Chen, Jinbao; Gu, Xijia; Zhou, Jun; Feng, Yan

    2012-10-10

    A high-efficiency fiber laser at 1018 nm using homemade Yb-doped phosphosilicate fiber is demonstrated. The fiber shows blueshifted emission spectrum compared to Yb-doped aluminosilicate fiber, and is considered favorable for the short wavelength Yb-doped fiber laser. With a 7 m gain fiber, up to 22.8 W output at 1018 nm is achieved with an optical efficiency of 53%. The amplified spontaneous emission at 1030 nm is suppressed to 50 dB below the 1018 nm laser. This work shows that highly-efficient fiber laser at 1018 nm can be obtained with Yb-doped phosphosilicate fiber.

  1. 20 W continuous-wave cladding-pumped Nd-doped fiber laser at 910 nm.

    PubMed

    Laroche, M; Cadier, B; Gilles, H; Girard, S; Lablonde, L; Robin, T

    2013-08-15

    We demonstrate a double-clad fiber laser operating at 910 nm with a record power of 20 W. Laser emission on the three-level scheme is enabled by the combination of a small inner cladding-to-core diameter ratio and a high brightness pump source at 808 nm. A laser conversion efficiency as high as 44% was achieved in CW operating regime by using resonant fiber Bragg reflectors at 910 nm that prevent the lasing at the 1060 nm competing wavelength. Furthermore, in a master oscillator power-amplifier scheme, an amplified power of 14.8 W was achieved at 914 nm in the same fiber.

  2. Investigation of the bandwidth of multimode optical fibers used with 1550-nm LED and laser sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Preston A., III

    1992-01-01

    Multimode optical fibers are not intended to be used with 1550-nm sources; however, it is desirable to utilize 1300/1550-nm wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) on some multimode fibers at Kennedy Space Center (KSC). No information from fiber vendors nor from the literature is available to support this use. Preliminary studies at KSC have suggested that these fibers might be usable at 1550-nm if the fibers possessed enough bandwidth when sourced by LEDs. Detailed bandwidth studies were made on 12 multimode fibers using 1300- and 1550-nm lasers and LEDs. The results showed that the modal bandwidth at 1550-nm was about 50 percent of the 1300-nm value and that the chromatic dispersion could be predicted by extrapolating the vendor's specifications for wavelengths outside the 1550-nm region. Utilizing these data, predictions of the fiber's optical bandwidth were accurately made. Problems with launch conditions and possible differential attenuation at connectors was noted at 1300-nm but was less significant at 1550-nm. It appears that the multimode fibers studied will offer adequate performance in the 1550-nm region for a number of current KSC needs. Studies of additional fibers are encouraged to gain more confidence and better understanding of the 1550-nm bandwidth of KSC's multimode optical fibers before committing to 1300/1550-nm WDM.

  3. Semiconductor lasers with a continuous tuning range above 100 nm in the nearest IR spectral region

    SciTech Connect

    Kostin, Yu O; Lobintsov, A A; Shramenko, M V; Ladugin, M A; Marmalyuk, A A; Chamorovsky, A Yu; Yakubovich, S D

    2015-08-31

    We have developed two new types of lasers based on quantum-confined semiconductor optical amplifiers with an acousto-optic tunable filter in an external fibre ring cavity. The lasers offer continuous wavelength tuning ranges from 780 to 885 and from 880 to 1010 nm, 20 mW of cw output power, and a tuning rate up to 10{sup 4} nm s{sup -1} at an instantaneous spectral linewidth less than 0.1 nm. (lasers)

  4. Spatial phase stepping wavelength meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surrel, Yves; García-Márquez, Jorge; Fodor, Jozsua; Juncar, Patrick

    2005-03-01

    A new way of evaluating the ratio between a reference wavelength radiation and an unknown wavelength radiation in a two-beam interferometer is proposed here. The advantage of two-beam interferometry is the sinusoidal fringe signal for which precise phase detection algorithms exist. Modern algorithms can cope with different sources of errors, and correct them. We recall the principle of the Michelson-type lambdameter using temporal interference and we introduce the Young-type lambdameter using spatial interference. The Young-type lambdameter is based on the acquisition of the interference pattern from two point sources (e.g. two ends of monomode fibres projected onto a CCD camera). The measurement of an unknown wavelength can be achieved by comparing with a reference wavelength. Accurate interference phase maps can be calculated using spatial phase shifting. In this way, each small group of contiguous pixels acts as a single interferometer, and the whole set of pixels corresponds to many hundreds or thousands of interferometric measurement system units. The analysis of uncertainties shows that resolutions better than 10-7 can be achieved. An advantage of the fibre wavelength metre described here is the measurement velocity that takes only a few seconds.

  5. The Effects of Space Weathering at UV Wavelengths: S-Class Asteroids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendrix, Amanda R.; Vilas, Faith

    2006-01-01

    We present evidence that space weathering manifests itself at near-UV wavelengths as a bluing of the spectrum, in contrast with the spectral reddening that has been seen at visible-near-IR wavelengths. Furthermore, the effects of space weathering at UV wavelengths tend to appear with less weathering than do the longer wavelength effects, suggesting that the UV wavelength range is a more sensitive indicator of weathering, and thus age. We report results from analysis of existing near-UV (approx.220-350 nm) measurements of S-type asteroids from the International Ultraviolet Explorer and the Hubble Space Telescope and comparisons with laboratory measurements of meteorites to support this hypothesis. Composite spectra of S asteroids are produced by combining UV spacecraft data with ground-based longer wavelength data. At visible-near-IR wavelengths, S-type asteroids are generally spectrally redder (and darker) than ordinary chondrite meteorites, whereas the opposite is generally true at near-UV wavelengths. Similarly, laboratory measurements of lunar samples show that lunar soils (presumably more weathered) are spectrally redder at longer wavelengths, and spectrally bluer at near-UV wavelengths, than less weathered crushed lunar rocks. The UV spectral bluing may be a result of the addition of nanophase iron to the regolith through the weathering process. The UV bluing is most prominent in the 300-400 nm range, where the strong UV absorption edge is degraded with weathering.

  6. A stable and inexpensive wavelength reference for precise wavelength calibration of radial velocity spectrographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feger, Tobias; Ireland, Michael J.; Bento, Joao; Bacigalupo, Carlos

    2014-08-01

    We present a stable, inexpensive wavelength reference, based on a white-light interferometer for the use on current and future (arrays of) diffraction-limited radial velocity (RV) spectrographs. The primary aim of using an interferometer is to obtain a dense sinusoidal wavelength reference with spectral coverage between 450-650 nm. Its basic setup consists of an unbalanced fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FMZI) that creates an interference pattern in the spectral domain due to superposition of phase delayed light, set by a fixed optical path-length difference (OPD). To achieve long-term stability, the interferometer is actively locked to a stable atomic line. The system operates in closed-loop using a thermo-optic modulator as the phase feedback component. We conducted stability measurements by superimposing the wavelength reference with thorium-argon (ThAr) emission lines and found the differential RMS shift to be ~5 m s-1 within 30 minute bins in an experiment lasting 5 hours.

  7. Spectral fluorescent properties of tissues in vivo with excitation in the red wavelength range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stratonnikov, Alexander A.; Loschenov, Victor B.; Klimov, D. V.; Edinac, N. E.; Wolnukhin, V. A.; Strashkevich, I. A.

    1997-12-01

    The spectral fluorescence analysis is a promising method for differential tissue diagnostic. Usually the UV and visible light is used for fluorescence excitation with emission registration in the visible wavelength range. The light penetration length in this wavelength range is very small allowing one to analyze only the surface region of the tissue. Here we present the tissue fluorescent spectra in vivo excited in the red wavelength region. As excitation light source we used compact He-Ne laser (632.8 nm) and observed the fluorescence in 650 - 800 nm spectral range. The various tissues including normal skin, psoriasis, tumors, necrosis as well as photosensitized tissues have been measured.

  8. Wavelength-division and spatial multiplexing using tandem interferometers for Bragg grating sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalli, K.; Brady, G. P.; Webb, D. J.; Jackson, D. A.; Zhang, L.; Bennion, I.

    1995-12-01

    We present a new method for the interrogation of large arrays of Bragg grating sensors. Eight gratings operating between the wavelengths of 1533 and 1555 nm have been demultiplexed. An unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer illuminated by a single low-coherence source provides a high-phase-resolution output for each sensor, the outputs of which are sequentially selected in wavelength by a tunable Fabry-Perot interferometer. The minimum detectable strain measured was 90 n 3 / \\radical Hz \\end-radical at 7 Hz for a wavelength of 1535 nm.

  9. Dual Wavelength High Power Double-Clad Ytterbium-Doped Fiber Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M. R. A.; Harun, S. W.; Shahi, S.; Ahmad, H.

    A dual wavelength high power double-clad erbium/ytterbium-doped fiber laser with a narrowest spacing of 0.4 nm and a M2 value of close to unity is presented in the region of 1565 nm. This result can be realized with a significant improvement of the mode competition problem using a loop mirror as a comb filter. The wavelength region can also be varied using polarization controllers in the loop mirror. This dual-wavelength fiber laser with side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 40 dB is quite stable, and the output power variance is as low as 0.46 dB.

  10. Note: Broadly tunable all-fiber ytterbium laser with 0.05 nm spectral width based on multimode interference filter

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Pranab K. Gupta, Pradeep K.; Singh, Amarjeet; Sharma, Sunil K.; Bindra, Kushvinder S.; Oak, Shrikant M.

    2014-05-15

    A multimode interference filter with narrow transmission bandwidth and large self-imaging wavelength interval is constructed and implemented in an ytterbium doped fiber laser in all-fiber format for broad wavelength tunability as well as narrow spectral width of the output beam. The peak transmission wavelength of the multimode interference filter was tuned with the help of a standard in-fiber polarization controller. With this simple mechanism more than 30 nm (1038 nm–1070 nm) tuning range is demonstrated. The spectral width of the output beam from the laser was measured to be 0.05 nm.

  11. Double patterning in lithography for 65nm node with oxidation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, Eunsoo; Kim, Jeahee; Choi, Kwangsun; Lee, Minkon; Lee, Doosung; Kim, Myungsoo; Park, Chansik

    2008-03-01

    Recently, in order to increase the number of transistors in wafer by small feature size, optical lithography has been changed to low wavelength from 365nm to 193nm and high NA of 0.93. And further wavelength is aggressively shifting to 13.5nm for more small feature size, i.e., Extreme Ultra Violet Lithography(EUVL), a kind of Next Generation Lithography(NGL)1. And other technologies are developed such as water immersion(193nm) and photo resist Double Patterning(DP). Immersion lens system has high NA up to 1.3 due to high n of water(n=1.44 at 193nm), the parameter k1 is process constant, but 0.25 is a tough limit at a equal line and space, if we use immersion lens with 193nm wavelength than limit of resolution is 37nm. Especially, Double Exposure Technique(DET) process is widely studied because of the resolution enhancement ability using a same material and machine, despite of process complication. And SADP(Self Aligned Double Patten) is newly researched for overlay and LER(Line Edge Roughness) enhancement. In this paper, we illustrate the feasibility of the shift double pattern for 65nm-node flash using a 193nm light dipole source and the possibility of decrease minimum feature size using a property of silicon shrinkage during thermal oxidation process.

  12. A modified SAG technique for the fabrication of DWDM DFB laser arrays with highly uniform wavelength spacings.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Can; Liang, Song; Zhu, Hongliang; Wang, Baojun; Wang, Wei

    2012-12-31

    A modified selective area growth (SAG) technique, in which the effective index of only the upper separate confinement heterostructure (SCH) layer are modulated to obtain different emission wavelengths, is reported for the fabrication of dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) multi-wavelength laser arrays (MWLAs). InP based 1.5 μm distributed feedback (DFB) laser arrays with 0.8 nm, 0.42 nm, and 0.19 nm channel separations are demonstrated, all showing highly uniform wavelength spacings. The standard deviation of the distribution of the wavelength residues with respect to the corresponding linear fitting values is 0.0672 nm, which is a lot smaller than those of the MWLAs fabricated by other techniques including electron beam lithography. These results indicate that our SAG technique which needs only a simple procedure is promising for the fabrication of low cost DWDM MWLAs.

  13. Sub-wavelength plasmon laser

    DOEpatents

    Bora, Mihail; Bond, Tiziana C.

    2016-04-19

    A plasmonic laser device has resonant nanocavities filled with a gain medium containing an organic dye. The resonant plasmon frequencies of the nanocavities are tuned to align with both the absorption and emission spectra of the dye. Variables in the system include the nature of the dye and the wavelength of its absorption and emission, the wavelength of the pumping radiation, and the resonance frequencies of the nanocavities. In addition the pumping frequency of the dye is selected to be close to the absorption maximum.

  14. Optimal fluorescence excitation wavelengths for detection of squamous intra-epithelial neoplasia: results from an animal model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coghlan, Lezlee; Utzinger, Urs; Drezek, Rebekah A.; Heintzelmann, Doug; Zuluaga, Andres F.; Brookner, Carrie; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca R.; Gimenez-Conti, Irma; Follen, Michele

    2000-12-01

    Using the hamster cheek pouch carcinogenesis model, we explore which fluorescence excitation wavelengths are useful for the detection of neoplasia. 42 hamsters were treated with DMBA to induce carcinogenesis, and 20 control animals were treated only with mineral oil. Fluorescence excitation emission matrices were measured from the cheek pouches of the hamsters weekly. Results showed increased fluorescence near 350-370 nm and 410 nm excitation and decreased fluorescence near 450-470 nm excitation with neoplasia. The optimal diagnostic excitation wavelengths identified using this model - 350-370 nm excitation and 400-450 nm excitation - are similar to those identified for detection of human oral cavity neoplasia.

  15. Wavelength dependence on the elemental analysis of glass by Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Cleon; Cahoon, Erica; Almirall, José R.

    2008-10-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is presented as a tool for the elemental analysis of glass in forensic applications. Two harmonics of the Nd:YAG laser at 266 nm and 532 nm were used as the irradiation source for the analysis of several glass standards and soda-lime glass samples of interest to forensic scientists. Both lasers were kept at a constant energy of 20 mJ and focused using a 150 mm focal length lens. A series of experiments were also conducted to determine the importance of wavelength on lens-to-sample distance (LTSD) at each wavelength. It was determined that the optimal LTSD was found at ~ 1-2 mm focused into the surface for both wavelengths yet the crater depth resulting from the irradiation at 266 nm was significantly deeper (112 µm) than that from the 532 nm laser (41 µm). In addition, the analytical performance of LIBS on 5 NIST glasses and 6 automobile glasses at both wavelengths is reported. Good correlation for the quantitative analysis results for the trace and minor elements Sr, Ba and Al are reported along with the calibration curves, in most cases R2 > 0.95, using absolute intensities at various emission lines. Although 266 nm resulted in more mass removal, the 532 nm produced greater emission intensities. A slightly higher plasma density was determined for irradiation by 532 nm using the Stark broadening technique in comparison to the 266 nm irradiation.

  16. Wavelength selection in measuring red blood cell aggregation based on light transmittance.

    PubMed

    Uyuklu, Mehmet; Canpolat, Murat; Meiselman, Herbert J; Baskurt, Oguz K

    2011-11-01

    The reversible aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is of current basic science and clinical interest. Using a flow channel and light transmittance (LT) through RBC suspensions, we have examined the effects of wavelength (500 to 900 nm) on the static and dynamic aspects of RBC aggregation for normal blood and suspensions with reduced or enhanced aggregation; the effects of oxygenation were also explored. Salient observations include: 1. significant effects of wavelength on aggregation parameters reflecting the extent of aggregation (i.e., number of RBC per aggregate); 2. no significant effects of wavelength on parameters reflecting the time course of RBC aggregation; 3. a prominent influence of hemoglobin oxygen saturation on both extent and time-course related aggregation parameters measured at wavelengths less than 700 nm, but only on the time-course at 800 nm; and 4. the power of parameters in detecting a given alteration of RBC aggregation is affected by wavelength, in general being greater at higher wavelengths. It is recommended that light sources with wavelengths around 800 nm be used in instruments for measuring RBC aggregation via LT.

  17. Wavelength selection in measuring red blood cell aggregation based on light transmittance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uyuklu, Mehmet; Canpolat, Murat; Meiselman, Herbert J.; Baskurt, Oguz K.

    2011-11-01

    The reversible aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is of current basic science and clinical interest. Using a flow channel and light transmittance (LT) through RBC suspensions, we have examined the effects of wavelength (500 to 900 nm) on the static and dynamic aspects of RBC aggregation for normal blood and suspensions with reduced or enhanced aggregation; the effects of oxygenation were also explored. Salient observations include: 1. significant effects of wavelength on aggregation parameters reflecting the extent of aggregation (i.e., number of RBC per aggregate); 2. no significant effects of wavelength on parameters reflecting the time course of RBC aggregation; 3. a prominent influence of hemoglobin oxygen saturation on both extent and time-course related aggregation parameters measured at wavelengths less than 700 nm, but only on the time-course at 800 nm; and 4. the power of parameters in detecting a given alteration of RBC aggregation is affected by wavelength, in general being greater at higher wavelengths. It is recommended that light sources with wavelengths around 800 nm be used in instruments for measuring RBC aggregation via LT.

  18. Segmentation of the macular choroid in OCT images acquired at 830nm and 1060nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sieun; Beg, Mirza F.; Sarunic, Marinko V.

    2013-06-01

    Retinal imaging with optical coherence tomography (OCT) has rapidly advanced in ophthalmic applications with the broad availability of Fourier domain (FD) technology in commercial systems. The high sensitivity afforded by FD-OCT has enabled imaging of the choroid, a layer of blood vessels serving the outer retina. Improved visualization of the choroid and the choroid-sclera boundary has been investigated using techniques such as enhanced depth imaging (EDI), and also with OCT systems operating in the 1060-nm wavelength range. We report on a comparison of imaging the macular choroid with commercial and prototype OCT systems, and present automated 3D segmentation of the choroid-scleral layer using a graph cut algorithm. The thickness of the choroid is an important measurement to investigate for possible correlation with severity, or possibly early diagnosis, of diseases such as age-related macular degeneration.

  19. High Power 938nm Cladding Pumped Fiber Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J; Beach, R; Brobshoff, A; Liao, Z; Payne, S; Pennington, D; Taylor, L; Hackenberg, W; Bonaccini, D

    2002-12-26

    We have developed a Nd:doped cladding pumped fiber amplifier, which operates at 938nm with greater than 2W of output power. The core co-dopants were specifically chosen to enhance emission at 938nm. The fiber was liquid nitrogen cooled in order to achieve four-level laser operation on a laser transition that is normally three level at room temperature, thus permitting efficient cladding pumping of the amplifier. Wavelength selective attenuation was induced by bending the fiber around a mandrel, which permitted near complete suppression of amplified spontaneous emission at 1088nm. We are presently seeking to scale the output of this laser to 10W. We will discuss the fiber and laser design issues involved in scaling the laser to the 10W power level and present our most recent results.

  20. High power narrowband 589 nm frequency doubled fibre laser source.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Luke; Feng, Yan; Calia, Domenico Bonaccini

    2009-08-17

    We demonstrate high-power high-efficiency cavity-enhanced second harmonic generation of an in-house built ultra-high spectral density (SBS-suppressed) 1178 nm narrowband Raman fibre amplifier. Up to 14.5 W 589 nm CW emission is achieved with linewidth Delta nu(589) < 7 MHz in a diffraction-limited beam, with peak external conversion efficiency of 86%. The inherently high spectral and spatial qualities of the 589 nm source are particularly suited to both spectroscopic and Laser Guide Star applications, given the seed laser can be easily frequency-locked to the Na D(2a) emission line. Further, we expect the technology to be extendable, at similar or higher powers, to wavelengths limited only by the seed-pump-pair availability.

  1. Multi-wavelength Nd:GAGG picosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agnesi, Antonio; Pirzio, Federico; Reali, Giancarlo; Arcangeli, Andrea; Tonelli, Mauro; Jia, Zhitai; Tao, Xutang

    2010-07-01

    Laser operation near 1.06 μm by a diode-pumped Nd:Gd 3Al x Ga (5-x) O 12 ( x = 0.94) (Nd:GAGG) disordered crystal has been investigated. Free-running oscillation, with a slope efficiency as high as 55% and 256 mW output power, was achieved with 500 mW absorbed power using a 1-W laser diode for pumping. Stable passive mode-locking with dual-wavelength operation was obtained with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror (SAM) and a single-prism, dispersion-compensated cavity. The two-color mode-locking regime is well described by Fourier-limited synchronized pulses with duration ≈3.7 and 5.9 ps and output power ≈65 mW, with wavelength separation of 1.3 nm around 1062 nm.

  2. Wavelength shifting of intra-cavity photons: Adiabatic wavelength tuning in rapidly wavelength-swept lasers

    PubMed Central

    Jirauschek, Christian; Huber, Robert

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the physics behind the newest generation of rapidly wavelength tunable sources for optical coherence tomography (OCT), retaining a single longitudinal cavity mode during operation without repeated build up of lasing. In this context, we theoretically investigate the currently existing concepts of rapidly wavelength-swept lasers based on tuning of the cavity length or refractive index, leading to an altered optical path length inside the resonator. Specifically, we consider vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSELs) with microelectromechanical system (MEMS) mirrors as well as Fourier domain mode-locked (FDML) and Vernier-tuned distributed Bragg reflector (VT-DBR) lasers. Based on heuristic arguments and exact analytical solutions of Maxwell’s equations for a fundamental laser resonator model, we show that adiabatic wavelength tuning is achieved, i.e., hopping between cavity modes associated with a repeated build up of lasing is avoided, and the photon number is conserved. As a consequence, no fundamental limit exists for the wavelength tuning speed, in principle enabling wide-range wavelength sweeps at arbitrary tuning speeds with narrow instantaneous linewidth. PMID:26203373

  3. Studies on output characteristics of stable dual-wavelength ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Hongchun; Zhang, Sa; Hou, Zhiyun; Xia, Changming; Zhou, Guiyao; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Jiantao; Wu, Jiale; Fu, Jian

    2016-06-01

    A stable dual-wavelength ytterbium-doped photonic crystal fiber laser pumped by a 976 nm laser diode has been demonstrated at room temperature. Single-wavelength, dual-wavelength laser oscillations are observed when the fiber laser operates under different pump power by using different length of fibers. Stable dual-wavelength radiation around 1045 nm and 1075 nm has been generated simultaneously at a high pump power directly from an ytterbium-doped fiber laser without using any spectral control mechanism. A small core ytterbium-doped PCF fabricated by the powder sinter direction drawn rod technology is used as gain medium. The pump power and fiber length which can affect the output characteristics of dual-wavelength fiber laser are analyzed in the experiment. Experiments confirm that higher pump power and longer fiber length favors 1075 nm output; lower pump power and shorter fiber length favors 1045 nm output. Those results have a good reference in multi-wavelength fiber laser.

  4. Debunking the recurring myth of a magic wavelength for free-space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korevaar, Eric J.; Kim, Isaac I.; McArthur, Bruce

    2002-12-01

    Free-Space Optics (FSO) is a proven, reliable technology for last mile telecommunications applications, used worldwide for both enterprise network building-to-building connections and for wireless access to more traditional land line communications networks. In most mid-latitude coastal cities, link availability at distances above a few hundred meters is primarily affected by fog and low clouds. At longer distances, heavy rain and snow can also affect the link. The most mature technology used in FSO equipment relies on low cost semiconductor lasers or LED"s operating in the near infrared at wavelengths of 785 nm or 850 nm. In the past few years, systems operating at 1550 nm have also been developed. At first the vendors of these systems claimed that the 1550 nm wavelength had better propagation characteristics in severe weather than the 785 nm wavelength. With further analysis and research, those claims were withdrawn. Now there are claims that even longer wavelengths near 10 microns will solve the FSO link availability issues associated with severe weather. Hype about such magic wavelengths for FSO is both a disservice to the investors who will lose the money they are investing based on exaggerated claims, and to the rest of the FSO industry which should be creating realistic expectations for the capability of its equipment. In the weather conditions which normally cause the highest attenuation for FSO systems, namely coastal fog and low clouds, 10 microns offers no propagation advantage over shorter wavelengths.

  5. Development of fast FBG interrogator with wavelength-swept laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Tatsuya; Shinoda, Yukitaka

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this research is the construction of a structural health monitoring system that uses fiber Bragg grating (FBG) to determine the health of structures. We develop fast FBG interrogator for real-time measurement of the reflected wavelength of a multipoint FBG to monitor the broadband vibration of a structure. This FBG interrogator, which combines a wavelength-swept laser and a real-time measurement system is capable of measuring wavelength within a standard deviation of 2×10-3 nm or less. We have demonstrated that the FBG interrogator is able to measure vibration that has a resonance frequency of 440 Hz at intervals of 0.1 ms with a multipoint FBG.

  6. Methemoglobin in blood as determined by double-wavelength spectrophotometry.

    PubMed

    Sakata, M; Yoshida, A; Haga, M

    1982-03-01

    We describe spectrophotometric determination of methemoglobin (Met-Hb) in blood by absorbance differences at two wavelengths (characteristic of the instrument used) in the 500-600 nm region. Blood is diluted 100- to 200-fold with a solution containing KCN and carbon monoxide to convert hemoglobin to carboxyhemoglobin and Met-Hb to cyanomethemoglobin (CN-Met-Hb). Carboxyhemoglobin has the same absorbance at the two wavelengths used, so that the differences in absorbance reflect only the CN-Met-Hb component. After measurement of absorbance differences, potassium ferricyanide is added to convert all hemoglobin derivatives to CN-Met-Hb; samples are then remeasured at the same wavelengths. The percentage of Met-Hb is determined from the ratio of the absorbance differences. Results agree satisfactorily with currently accepted procedures and with calculated theoretical results for mixtures of oxyhemoglobin, carboxyhemoglobin, and Met-Hb.

  7. Magic wavelengths, matrix elements, polarizabilities, and lifetimes of Cs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Safronova, M. S.; Safronova, U. I.; Clark, Charles W.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by recent interest in their applications, we report a systematic study of Cs atomic properties calculated by a high-precision relativistic all-order method. Excitation energies, reduced matrix elements, transition rates, and lifetimes are determined for levels with principal quantum numbers n ≤12 and orbital angular momentum quantum numbers l ≤3 . Recommended values and estimates of uncertainties are provided for a number of electric-dipole transitions and the electric dipole polarizabilities of the n s , n p , and n d states. We also report a calculation of the electric quadrupole polarizability of the ground state. We display the dynamic polarizabilities of the 6 s and 7 p states for optical wavelengths between 1160 and 1800 nm and identify corresponding magic wavelengths for the 6 s -7 p1 /2 and 6 s -7 p3 /2 transitions. The values of relevant matrix elements needed for polarizability calculations at other wavelengths are provided.

  8. Long-wavelength photonic integrated circuits and avalanche photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsou, Yi-Jen D.; Zaytsev, Sergey; Pauchard, Alexandre; Hummel, Steve; Lo, Yu-Hwa

    2001-10-01

    Fast-growing internet traffic volume require high data communication bandwidth over longer distances. Access network bottlenecks put pressure on short-range (SR) telecommunication systems. To effectively address these datacom and telecom market needs, low-cost, high-speed laser modules at 1310 to 1550 nm wavelengths and avalanche photodetectors are required. The great success of GaAs 850nm VCSEls for Gb/s Ethernet has motivated efforts to extend VCSEL technology to longer wavelengths in the 1310 and 1550 nm regimes. However, the technological challenges associated with materials for long wavelength VCSELs are tremendous. Even with recent advances in this area, it is believed that significant additional development is necessary before long wavelength VCSELs that meet commercial specifications will be widely available. In addition, the more stringent OC192 and OC768 specifications for single-mode fiber (SMF) datacom may require more than just a long wavelength laser diode, VCSEL or not, to address numerous cost and performance issues. We believe that photonic integrated circuits (PICs), which compactly integrate surface-emitting lasers with additional active and passive optical components with extended functionality, will provide the best solutions to today's problems. Photonic integrated circuits have been investigated for more than a decade. However, they have produced limited commercial impact to date primarily because the highly complicated fabrication processes produce significant yield and device performance issues. In this presentation, we will discuss a new technology platform of InP-based PICs compatible with surface-emitting laser technology, as well as a high data rate externally modulated laser module. Avalanche photodetectors (APDs) are the key component in the receiver to achieve high data rate over long transmission distance because of their high sensitivity and large gain- bandwidth product. We have used wafer fusion technology to achieve In

  9. Four-wavelength retinal vessel oximetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drewes, Jonathan Jensen

    1999-11-01

    This dissertation documents the design and construction of a four-wavelength retinal vessel oximeter, the Eye Oximeter (EOX). The EOX scans low-powered laser beams (at 629, 678, 821 and 899 nm) into the eye and across a targeted retinal vessel to measure the transmittance of the blood within the vessel. From the transmittance measurements, the oxygen saturation of the blood within the vessel is computed. Retinal vessel oxygen saturation has been suggested as a useful parameter for monitoring a wide range of conditions including occult blood loss and a variety of ophthalmic diseases. An artificial eye that simulates the geometry of a human retinal vessel was constructed and used to calibrate the EOX saturation measurement. A number of different oximetry equations were developed and tested. From measurements made on whole human blood in the artificial eye, an oximetry equation that places a linear wavelength dependance on the scattering losses (3% decrease from 629 to 899 nm) is found to best calibrate the EOX oxygen saturation measurement. This calibration also requires that an adjustment be made to the absorption coefficient of hemoglobin at 629 nm that has been reported in the literature. More than 4,000 measurements were made in the eyes of three human subjects during the development of the EOX. Applying the oximetry equation developed through the in vitro experiments to human data, the average human retinal venous oxygen saturation is estimated to be 0.63 +/- 0.07 and the average human retinal arterial oxygen saturation is 0.99 +/- 0.03. Furthermore, measurements made away from the optic disk resulted in a larger variance in the calculated saturation when compared to measurements made on the optic disk. A series of EOX experiments using anesthetized swine helped to verify the sensitivity of the EOX measurement of oxygen saturation. It is found that the calibration in swine differed from the calibration in the artificial eye. An empirical calibration from the

  10. 1300 nm and 890 nm OCT images of oral cancer tissue engineered models and biopsy samples offer complimentary performance (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boadi, Joseph; Byers, Robert A.; Fernandes, Jon; Mittar, Shweta; Hearnden, Vanessa; Lu, Zenghai; MacNeil, Sheila; Thornhill, Martin; Murdoch, Craig; Hunter, Keith D.; McKechnie, Alasdair; Matcher, Stephen J.

    2016-02-01

    OCT has demonstrated great potential to non-invasively detect oral epithelial cancers, potentially guiding biopsy and surgical resection. On non-ophthalmic tissues the preferred illumination wavelength is 1300 nm. Previous studies on skin have shown that useful image data can also be obtained at shorter wavelengths, with systems at 1060 nm and 820 nm offering reduced depth penetration but higher contrast. Here we apply a similar comparison to tissue engineered models of oral cancer and also to human biopsy samples, generally finding a similar trend. 1300 nm multi-beam OCT (Michelson Diagnostics EX1301) visualises stromal structures and surface keratin more clearly, providing useful image contrast down to around 1 mm. This system was compared with an ultra-high resolution home-built system operating at 890 nm (2.5 micron resolution vs 7.5 micron axial resolution for the EX1301). The UHR system reveals epithelial features more clearly, especially in the DOK pre-invasive cell line model and the biopsy samples. The relative effects of center wavelength vs axial resolution in generating the differential, wavelength-dependent contrast are assessed and the OCT biopsy images are compared with contemporary histology.

  11. Enhanced UV light detection using wavelength-shifting properties of Silicon nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magill, S.; Nayfeh, M.; Fizari, M.; Malloy, J.; Maximenko, Y.; Xie, J.; Yu, H.

    2015-05-01

    Detection of UV photons is becoming increasingly necessary with the use of noble gases and liquids in elementary particle experiments. Cerenkov light in crystals and glasses, scintillation light in neutrino, dark matter, and rare decay experiments all require sensitivity to UV photons. New sensor materials are needed that can directly detect UV photons and/or absorb UV photons and re-emit light in the visible range measurable by existing photosensors. It has been shown that silicon nanoparticles are sensitive to UV light in a wavelength range around ~ 200 nm. UV light is absorbed and re-emitted at wavelengths in the visible range depending on the size of the nanoparticles. Initial tests of the wavelength-shifting properties of silicon nanoparticles are presented here that indicate by placing a film of nanoparticles in front of a standard visible-wavelength detecting photosensor, the response of the sensor is significantly enhanced at wavelengths < 320 nm.

  12. Power scaling of laser diode pumped Pr3+:LiYF4 cw lasers: efficient laser operation at 522.6 nm, 545.9 nm, 607.2 nm, and 639.5 nm.

    PubMed

    Gün, Teoman; Metz, Philip; Huber, Günter

    2011-03-15

    We report efficient cw laser operation of laser diode pumped Pr(3+)-doped LiYF4 crystals in the visible spectral region. Using two InGaN laser diodes emitting at λ(P)=443.9 nm with maximum output power of 1 W each and a 2.9-mm-long crystal with a doping concentration of 0.5%, output powers of 938 mW, 418 mW, 384 mW, and 773 mW were achieved for the laser wavelengths 639.5 nm, 607.2 nm, 545.9 nm, and 522.6 nm, respectively. The maximum absorbed pump powers were approximately 1.5 W, resulting in slope efficiencies of 63.6%, 32.0%, 52.1%, and 61.5%, as well as electro-optical efficiencies of 9.4%, 4.2%, 3.8%, and 7.7%, respectively. Within these experiments, laser diode-pumped laser action at 545.9 nm was demonstrated for what is believed to be the first time.

  13. Multi-wavelength narrow linewidth fiber laser based on distributed feedback fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Jingsheng; Qi, Haifeng; Song, Zhiqiang; Guo, Jian; Ni, Jiasheng; Wang, Chang; Peng, Gangding

    2016-09-01

    A narrow linewidth laser configuration based on distributed feedback fiber lasers (DFB-FL) with eight wavelengths in the international telecommunication union (ITU) grid is presented and realized. In this laser configuration, eight phase-shifted gratings in series are bidirectionally pumped by two 980-nm laser diodes (LDs). The final laser output with over 10-mW power for each wavelength can be obtained, and the maximum power difference within eight wavelengths is 1.2 dB. The laser configuration with multiple wavelengths and uniform power outputs can be very useful in large scaled optical fiber hydrophone fields.

  14. Sensitivity of laser-induced upconversion fluorescence dynamics to exciting wavelength in Er3+-doped YAG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, S.; Jiang, L.; Zhang, W.; Gong, W.; Fu, Z.; Dai, Z.

    2011-06-01

    A novel sensitivity of laser-induced upconversion (UC) fluorescence dynamics to the exciting wavelength in Er3+:YAG crystal has been observed. The sensitivities to exciting wavelength variations are only 0.02 and 0.06 nm for 2 G 9/2 and 2 P 3/2 UC luminescence, respectively. The observation of this sensitivity reveals that when a certain level is populated by more than one UC mechanisms, a precise determination of suitable exciting wavelength is crucial because the competition between different UC mechanisms has a sensitive variation with exciting wavelength in near-resonant range.

  15. Tunable multi-wavelength SOA based linear cavity dual-output port fiber laser using Lyot-Sagnac loop mirror.

    PubMed

    Ummy, M A; Madamopoulos, N; Joyo, A; Kouar, M; Dorsinville, R

    2011-02-14

    We propose and demonstrate a simple dual port tunable from the C- to the L-band multi-wavelength fiber laser based on a SOA designed for C-band operation and fiber loop mirrors. The laser incorporates a polarization maintaining fiber in one of the fiber loop mirrors and delivers multi-wavelength operation at 9 laser lines with a wavelength separation of ~2.8 nm at room temperature. We show that the number of lasing wavelengths increases with the increase of the bias current of the SOA. Wavelength tunability from the C to L-band is achieved by exploiting the gain compression of a SOA. Stable multi-wavelength operation is achieved at room temperature without temperature compensation techniques, with measured power and the wavelength stability within < ±0.5 dB and 
±0.1 nm, respectively.

  16. Solid colloidal optical wavelength filter

    DOEpatents

    Alvarez, Joseph L.

    1992-01-01

    A solid colloidal optical wavelength filter includes a suspension of spheal particles dispersed in a coagulable medium such as a setting plastic. The filter is formed by suspending spherical particles in a coagulable medium; agitating the particles and coagulable medium to produce an emulsion of particles suspended in the coagulable medium; and allowing the coagulable medium and suspended emulsion of particles to cool.

  17. Wavelength-shifted Cherenkov radiators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krider, E. P.; Jacobson, V. L.; Pifer, A. E.; Polakos, P. A.; Kurz, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    The scintillation and Cherenkov responses of plastic Cherenkov radiators containing different wavelength-shifting fluors in varying concentrations have been studied in beams of low energy protons and pions. For cosmic ray applications, where large Cherenkov to scintillation ratios are desired, the optimum fluor concentrations are 0.000025 by weight or less.

  18. Wavelength-modulated photocapacitance spectroscopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kamieniecki, E.; Lagowski, J.; Gatos, H. C.

    1980-01-01

    Derivative deep-level spectroscopy was achieved with wavelength-modulated photocapacitance employing MOS structures and Schottky barriers. The energy position and photoionization characteristics of deep levels of melt-grown GaAs and the Cr level in high-resistivity GaAs were determined. The advantages of this method over existing methods for deep-level spectroscopy are discussed.

  19. A diode-pumped Nd:YAlO3 dual-wavelength yellow light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Fu, Xihong; Zhai, Pei; Xia, Jing; Li, Shutao

    2013-11-01

    We present what is, to the best of our knowledge, the first diode-pumped Nd:YAlO3 (Nd:YAP) continuous-wave (cw) dual-wavelength yellow laser at 593 nm and 598 nm, based on sum-frequency generation between 1064 and 1339 nm in a-axis polarization using LBO crystal and between 1079 and 1341 nm in c-axis polarization using PPKTP crystal, respectively. At an incident pump power of 17.3 W, the maximum output power obtained at 593 nm and 598 nm is 0.18 W and 1.86 W, respectively. The laser experiment shows that Nd:YAP crystal can be used for an efficient diode-pumped dual-wavelength yellow laser system.

  20. Optical design of f-theta lens for dual wavelength selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lianhua; Cao, Hongzhong; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Xiping; Duan, Xuanming

    2016-10-01

    F-theta lens is an important unit for selective laser melting (SLM) manufacture. The dual wavelength f-theta lens has not been used in SLM manufacture. Here, we present the design of the f-theta lens which satisfies SLM manufacture with coaxial 532 nm and 1030 nm 1080 nm laser beams. It is composed of three pieces of spherical lenses. The focal spots for 532 nm laser and 1030 nm 1080 nm laser are smaller than 35 μm and 70 μm, respectively. The results meet the demands of high precision SLM. The chromatic aberration could cause separation between two laser focal spots in the scanning plane, so chromatic aberration correction is very important to our design. The lateral color of the designed f-theta lens is less than 11 μm within the scan area of 150 mm x 150 mm, which meet the application requirements of dual wavelength selective laser melting.

  1. Magic and tune-out wavelengths for atomic francium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammalapati, U.; Harada, K.; Sakemi, Y.

    2016-04-01

    The frequency dependent polarizabilities of the francium atom are calculated from the available data of energy levels and transition rates. Magic wavelengths for the state insensitive optical dipole trapping are identified from the calculated light shifts of the 7 s 2S1/2, 7 p 2P1/2,3/2, and 8 s 2S1/2 levels of the 7 s -7 p 2S1/2 2P1/2,3/2 and 7 s -8 s 2S1/2 2S1/2 transitions, respectively. Wavelengths in the ultraviolet, visible, and near infrared region are identified that are suitable for cooling and trapping. Magic wavelengths between the 600-700 nm and 700-1000 nm regions, which are blue and red detuned with the 7 s -7 p and 7 s -8 s transitions, are feasible to implement as lasers with sufficient power are available. In addition, we calculated the tune-out wavelengths where the ac polarizability of the ground 7 s 2S1/2 state in francium is zero. These results are beneficial as laser cooled and trapped francium has been in use for fundamental symmetry investigations like searches for an electron permanent electric dipole moment in an atom and for atomic parity nonconservation.

  2. Compact fixed wavelength femtosecond oscillators for multi-photon imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakulinen, T.; Klein, J.; Zadoyan, R.; Baldacchini, T.; Franke, T.

    2015-03-01

    In recent years two-photon microscopy with fixed-wavelength has raised increasing interest in life-sciences: Two-photon (2P) absorption spectra of common dyes are broader than single-photon ones. Therefore, excitation of several dyes simultaneously with a single IR laser wavelength is feasible and could be seen as an advantage in 2P microscopy. We used pulsed fixed-wavelength infrared lasers with center wavelength at 1040 nm, for two-photon microscopy in a variety of biologically relevant samples, among these a mouse brain sample, a mouse artery (within the animal, acute preparation), and a preparation of mouse bladder. The 1040 nm laser proved to be efficient not only in exciting fluorescence from yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) and red fluorescent dyes, but also for second harmonic generation (SHG) signals from muscle tissue and collagen. With this work we demonstrate that economical, small-footprint fixedwavelength lasers can present an interesting alternative to tunable lasers that are commonly used in multiphoton microscopy.

  3. Single shot extreme ultraviolet laser imaging of nanostructures with wavelength resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, Juanita; Brewer, Courtney A.; Brizuela, Fernando; Wachulak, Przemyslaw; Martz, Dale H.; Chao, Weilun; Anderson, Erik H.; Attwood, David T.; Vinogradov, Alexander V.; Artyukov, Igor A.; Ponomareko, Alexander G.; Kondratenko, Valeriy V.; Marconi, Mario C.; Rocca, Jorge J.; Menoni, Carmen S.

    2008-01-07

    We have demonstrated near-wavelength resolution microscopy in the extreme ultraviolet. Images of 50 nm diameter nanotubes were obtained with a single {approx}1 ns duration pulse from a desk-top size 46.9 nm laser. We measured the modulation transfer function of the microscope for three different numerical aperture zone plate objectives, demonstrating that 54 nm half-period structures can be resolved. The combination of near-wavelength spatial resolution and high temporal resolution opens myriad opportunities in imaging, such as the ability to directly investigate dynamics of nanoscale structures.

  4. Free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner demonstration.

    PubMed

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A

    2002-09-10

    Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92 degrees as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively.

  5. Free-Space Wavelength-Multiplexed Optical Scanner Demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaqoob, Zahid; Riza, Nabeel A.

    2002-09-01

    Experimental demonstration of a no-moving-parts free-space wavelength-multiplexed optical scanner (W-MOS) is presented. With fast tunable lasers or optical filters and planar wavelength dispersive elements such as diffraction gratings, this microsecond-speed scanner enables large several-centimeter apertures for subdegree angular scans. The proposed W-MOS design incorporates a unique optical amplifier and variable optical attenuator combination that enables the calibration and modulation of the scanner response, leading to any desired scanned laser beam power shaping. The experimental setup uses a tunable laser centered at 1560 nm and a 600-grooves/mm blazed reflection grating to accomplish an angular scan of 12.92° as the source is tuned over an 80-nm bandwidth. The values for calculated maximum optical beam divergance, required wavelength resolution, beam-pointing accuracy, and measured scanner insertion loss are 1.076 mrad, 0.172 nm, 0.06 mrad, and 4.88 dB, respectively.

  6. Observation of dynamic wavelength shifts of a four-beam laser diode and study of its adaptability to optical heads.

    PubMed

    Shinoda, M; Kime, K

    1995-04-01

    Dynamic wavelength shifts for a four-beam laser diode were observed with a streak camera system. The wavelength shift does not exceed 2 nm for pulsed laser beam operation at a bottom power of 5 mW and a peak power of 40 mW. For a 5-mW continuous operation laser beam, the induced wavelength shift in the presence of another laser beam under the above pulse condition does not exceed 1 nm. The observed wavelength shifts are small enough for practical use, and this four-beam laser diode can be successfully applied to multibeam optical heads for parallel data processing.

  7. Multi-wavelength imaging system for the Dutch Open Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bettonvil, Felix C.; Suetterlin, Peter; Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Jagers, Aswin P.; Rutten, Robert J.

    2003-02-01

    The Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) is an innovative solar telescope, completely open, on an open steel tower, without a vacuum system. The aim is long-duration high resolution imaging and in order to achieve this the DOT is equipped with a diffraction limited imaging system in combination with a data acquisition system designed for use with the speckle masking reconstruction technique for removing atmospheric aberrations. Currently the DOT is being equipped with a multi-wavelength system forming a high-resolution tomographic imager of magnetic fine structure, topology and dynamics in the photosphere and low- and high chromosphere. Finally the system will contain 6 channels: G-band (430.5 nm), Ca II H (K) (396.8 nm), H-α (656.3 nm), Ba II (455.4 nm), and two continuum channels (432 and 651 nm). Two channels are in full operation now and observations show that the DOT produces real diffraction limited movies (with 0.2" resolution) over hours in G-band (430.5 nm) and continuum (432 nm).

  8. Proposed SLR Optical Bench Required to Track Debris Using 1550 nm Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shappirio, M.; Coyle, D. B.; McGarry, J. F.; Bufton, J.; Cheek, J. W.; Clarke, G.; Hull, S. M.; Skillman, D. R.; Stysley, P. R.; Sun, X.; Young, R. P.; Zagwodzki, T.

    2015-01-01

    A previous study has indicated that by using approx.1550 nm wavelengths a laser ranging system can track debris objects in an "eye safe" manner, while increasing the expected return rate by a factor of approx. 2/unit area of the telescope. In this presentation we develop the optical bench required to use approx.1550nm lasers, and integration with a 532nm system. We will use the optical bench configuration for NGSLR as the baseline, and indicate a possible injection point for the 1550 nm laser. The presentation will include what elements may need to be changed for transmitting the required power on the approx.1550nm wavelength, supporting the alignment of the laser to the telescope, and possible concerns for the telescope optics.

  9. Theoretical and experimental research on the ˜980-nm Yb-doped fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanshan; Ke, Weiwei; Ma, Yi; Sun, Yinhong; Feng, Yujun

    2016-07-01

    The output properties of the ˜980-nm Yb-doped fiber laser versus pump power and core-cladding ratio of gain fiber, also the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) at different wavelengths of seed laser, are investigated theoretically. An all-fiber amplifier based on different wavelengths of seed laser at 974.4, 977, and 981.7 nm brings the studies on parasitic oscillation and ASE in the ˜980-nm Yb-doped fiber amplifier. Through the theoretical and experimental research, we found that the controlling of three-level ASE around ˜980-nm is pivotal for obtaining a high-power 980-nm Yb-doped fiber amplifier.

  10. Full-field step profile measurement with sinusoidal wavelength scanning interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Samuel; Sasaki, Osami; Suzuki, Takamasa

    2014-05-01

    A sinusoidal wavelength scanning interferometer is proposed for 3-D profile measurement. The interference phase-shift signal generated by the sinusoidal wavelength scanning contains information of optical path difference (OPD) covering nm-mm scale structure. The interference phase-shift signal was obtained by the four-step phase shifting method. The sinusoidal wavelength shifting bandwidth of 5.7 nm with a frequency of approximately 180 Hz was performed by the Littman-Metcalf external resonator-type tunable laser with a center of 772.1 nm. The full-field step-height surface profile measurement and 3-D surface measurement were conducted by a CCD image sensor with an accuracy of few tens nm. The surface profile of gauge blocks with a step-height of up to 10 μm was successfully measured.

  11. Two-wavelength passively Q-switched ytterbium doped fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Pan, Lei; Utkin, Ilya; Fedosejevs, Robert

    2008-08-04

    A high power passively Q-switched dual wavelength Yb fiber laser using a Cr4+:YAG saturable absorber has been realized. Two wavelengths centered at 1040 nm and 1070 nm are generated directly from the cladding pumped Yb doped fiber laser. The pulse trains exhibit regions of stability and instability dependent on the pump power. At a pump power of 7.8 W, 1040 nm and 1070 nm pulses are generated alternatively, with pulse durations of 105 ns, pulse-repetition rates of 32 KHz and average pulse energies of 56 microJ and 47 microJ, respectively. A theoretical model is developed to simulate the two-wavelength Q-switched operation, which gives qualitative agreement with the experimental observations.

  12. Research of the Additional Losses Occurring in Optical Fiber at its Multiple Bends in the Range Waves 1310nm, 1550nm and 1625nm Long

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, A. V.; Gorlov, N. I.; Alkina, A. D.; Mekhtiev, A. D.; Kovtun, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    Article is devoted to research of the additional losses occurring in the optical fiber at its multiple bends in the range waves of 1310 nanometers, 1550 nanometers and 1625 nanometers long. Article is directed on creation of the external factors methods which allow to estimate and eliminate negative influence. The automated way of calculation of losses at a bend is developed. Results of scientific researches are used by engineers of “Kazaktelekom” AS for practical definition of losses service conditions. For modeling the Wolfram|Alpha environment — the knowledge base and a set of computing algorithms was chosen. The greatest losses are noted on wavelength 1310nm and 1625nm. All dependences are nonlinear. Losses with each following excess are multiplicative.

  13. Increased signals from short-wavelength-excited fluorescent molecules using sub-Ti:Sapphire wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Norris, G; Amor, R; Dempster, J; Amos, W B; McConnell, G

    2012-11-01

    We report the use of an all-solid-state ultrashort pulsed source specifically for two-photon microscopy at wavelengths shorter than those of the conventional Ti:Sapphire laser. Our approach involves sum-frequency mixing of the output from an optical parametric oscillator (λ= 1400-1640 nm) synchronously pumped by a Yb-doped fibre laser (λ= 1064 nm), with the residual pump radiation. This generated an fs-pulsed output tunable in the red spectral region (λ= 620-636 nm, ~150 mW, 405 fs, 80 MHz, M(2) ~ 1.3). We demonstrate the performance of our ultrashort pulsed system using fluorescently labelled and autofluorescent tissue, and compare with conventional Ti:Sapphire excitation. We observe a more than 3-fold increase in fluorescence signal intensity using our visible laser source in comparison with the Ti:Sapphire laser for two-photon excitation at equal illumination peak powers of 1.16 kW or less.

  14. Highly efficient entanglement swapping and teleportation at telecom wavelength.

    PubMed

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Takeoka, Masahiro; Takagi, Utako; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Sasaki, Masahide

    2015-03-20

    Entanglement swapping at telecom wavelengths is at the heart of quantum networking in optical fiber infrastructures. Although entanglement swapping has been demonstrated experimentally so far using various types of entangled photon sources both in near-infrared and telecom wavelength regions, the rate of swapping operation has been too low to be applied to practical quantum protocols, due to limited efficiency of entangled photon sources and photon detectors. Here we demonstrate drastic improvement of the efficiency at telecom wavelength by using two ultra-bright entangled photon sources and four highly efficient superconducting nanowire single photon detectors. We have attained a four-fold coincidence count rate of 108 counts per second, which is three orders higher than the previous experiments at telecom wavelengths. A raw (net) visibility in a Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between the two independent entangled sources was 73.3 ± 1.0% (85.1 ± 0.8%). We performed the teleportation and entanglement swapping, and obtained a fidelity of 76.3% in the swapping test. Our results on the coincidence count rates are comparable with the ones ever recorded in teleportation/swapping and multi-photon entanglement generation experiments at around 800 nm wavelengths. Our setup opens the way to practical implementation of device-independent quantum key distribution and its distance extension by the entanglement swapping as well as multi-photon entangled state generation in telecom band infrastructures with both space and fiber links.

  15. Sensitivity of heterointerfaces on emission wavelength of quantum cascade lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. A.; Schwarz, B.; Siriani, D. F.; Connors, M. K.; Missaggia, L. J.; Calawa, D. R.; McNulty, D.; Akey, A.; Zheng, M. C.; Donnelly, J. P.; Mansuripur, T. S.; Capasso, F.

    2017-04-01

    The measured emission wavelengths of AlInAs/GaInAs/InP quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE) have been reported to be 0.5-1 μm longer than the designed QCL wavelength. This work clarifies the origin of the red-shifted wavelength. It was found that AlInAs/GaInAs heterointerfaces are compositionally graded over 2.5-4.5 nm, and indium accumulates at the AlInAs-to-GaInAs interface. Thus, the as-grown QCLs are far from the ideal abrupt interfaces used in QCL modeling. When graded layers are incorporated in QCL band structure and wavefunction calculations, the emission wavelengths are red shifted. Furthermore, we demonstrate that QCLs with graded interfaces can be designed without compromising performance and show greatly improved correlation between designed and measured emission wavelength. QCLs were designed for emission between 7.5 and 8.5 μm. These structures were grown and wet-etched ridge devices were fabricated. The QCLs exhibit room temperature peak powers exceeding 900 mW and pulsed efficiencies of 8 to 10%.

  16. Tunable all-optical wavelength broadcasting in a PPLN with multiple QPM peaks.

    PubMed

    Ahlawat, Meenu; Tehranchi, Amirhossein; Pandiyan, Krishnamoorthy; Cha, Myoungsik; Kashyap, Raman

    2012-11-19

    We experimentally demonstrate tunable multiple-idler wavelength broadcasting of a signal to selective channels for wavelength division multiplexing (WDM). This is based on cascaded χ(2) nonlinear mixing process in a novel multiple-QPM 10-mm-long periodically poled LiNbO3 having an aperiodic domain in the center. The idlers' spacing is varied utilizing detuning of the pump wavelength within the SHG bandwidth. The temperature-assisted tuning of QPM pump wavelengths allows shifting the idlers together to different set of WDM channels. Our experimental results indicate that an overall idler wavelength shift of less than 10 nm realized by selecting pump wavelengths via temperature tuning, is sufficient to cover up to 40 WDM channels for multiple idlers broadcasting.

  17. High-energy femtosecond 1086/543-nm fiber system for nano- and micromachining in transparent materials and on solid surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobtsev, S. M.; Kukarin, S. V.; Fedotov, Y. S.; Ivanenko, A. V.

    2011-02-01

    The first experimental results on a fiber laser system that generates femtosecond pulses with an energy of 1 μJ at a wavelength of 1086 and an energy of 300 nJ at a wavelength of 543 nm are presented. The pulse parameters at a wavelength of 1086 nm are optimized with respect to the effective frequency doubling. The high-energy fiber system makes it possible to solve several problems in the femtosecond material processing.

  18. Comments on “Wavelength-tunable add/drop multiplexer for dense wavelength division multiplexing using long-period gratings and fiber stretchers”

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Florence Y. M.; Chiang, K. S.

    2004-11-01

    The authors of the above paper [1] present a design of a wavelength-tunable add/drop multiplexer (ADM) using two pairs of parallel long-period fiber gratings (LPFGs), each of which is mounted on a piezoelectric ceramic fiber stretcher [1, Fig. 2]. They claim that their device can be used to tune 50 wavelength channels with a 0.75 nm channel spacing from 1526.25 to 1563.75 nm with a crosstalk lower than -39 dB [1, Fig. 6]. Here, we present arguments and results to show that their claim is not substantiated.

  19. Effects of excitation laser wavelength on Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} line emission from nitrogen plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Harilal, S. S.; Miloshevsky, G. V.; Sizyuk, T.; Hassanein, A.

    2013-01-15

    Laser-produced nitrogen plasmas emitting radiation at 2.48 nm (Ly-{alpha}) and 2.88 nm (He-{alpha}) are considered potential efficient sources for water-window (WW) microscopy. The atomic and optical properties of nitrogen plasma and influence of the laser wavelength on the line emission in the WW range are investigated. It is found that the optimal temperatures for maximum emission from Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} spectral lines are 40-60 eV and 80-100 eV, respectively. The WW line emission and the conversion efficiency (CE) are estimated for three distinct Nd:YAG laser wavelengths (1064 nm, 532 nm, and 266 nm). The calculated CEs are compared with experimentally observed CE values. It is found that 1064 nm wavelength provides the highest CE from laser to Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} radiation.

  20. Complex refractive index of Martian dust - Wavelength dependence and composition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, K.; Ajello, J. M.

    1977-01-01

    The size distribution and complex refractive index of Martian dust-cloud particles observed in 1971 with the Mariner 9 UV spectrometer are determined by matching the observed single-scattering albedo and phase function with Mie-scattering calculations for size distributions of spheres. Values of phase function times single-scattering albedo are presented for 12 wavelength intervals in the range from 190 to 350 nm, and best-fit values are obtained for the absorption index. It is found that the absorption index of the dust particles increases with decreasing wavelength from 350 to about 210 nm and then drops off shortward of 210 nm, with a structural shoulder occurring in the absorption spectrum between 240 and 250 nm. A search for a candidate material that can explain the strong UV absorption yields TiO2, whose anatase polymorph has an absorption spectrum matching that of the Martian dust. The TiO2 content of the dust particles is estimated to be a few percent or less.

  1. Ytterbium-doped fibre laser tunable in the range 1017 - 1040 nm with second-harmonic generation

    SciTech Connect

    Dontsova, E I; Kablukov, S I; Babin, Sergei A

    2013-05-31

    A cladding-pumped ytterbium-doped fibre laser has been tuned to shorter emission wavelengths (from 1040 to 1017 nm). The laser output power obtained has been compared to calculation results. We have studied frequency doubling of the laser in a KTiOPO{sub 4} (KTP) crystal with type II phase matching in the XY plane and demonstrated wavelength tuning in the range 510 - 520 nm. (lasers)

  2. A low-temperature external cavity diode laser for broad wavelength tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobias, William G.; Rosenberg, Jason S.; Hutzler, Nicholas R.; Ni, Kang-Kuen

    2016-11-01

    We report on the design and characterization of a low-temperature external cavity diode laser (ECDL) system for broad wavelength tuning. The performance achieved with multiple diode models addresses the scarcity of commercial red laser diodes below 633 nm, which is a wavelength range relevant to the spectroscopy of many molecules and ions. Using a combination of multiple-stage thermoelectric cooling and water cooling, the operating temperature of a laser diode is lowered to -64 °C, more than 85 °C below the ambient temperature. The laser system integrates temperature and diffraction grating feedback tunability for coarse and fine wavelength adjustments, respectively. For two different diode models, single-mode operation is achieved with 38 mW output power at 616.8 nm and 69 mW at 622.6 nm, more than 15 nm below their ambient temperature free-running wavelengths. The ECDL design can be used for diodes of any available wavelength, allowing individual diodes to be tuned continuously over tens of nanometers and extending the wavelength coverage of commercial laser diodes.

  3. Single-mode 140 nm swept light source realized by using SSG-DBR lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujiwara, N.; Yoshimura, R.; Kato, K.; Ishii, H.; Kano, F.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Kondo, Y.; Ohbayashi, K.; Oohashi, H.

    2008-02-01

    We demonstrate a single-mode and fast wavelength swept light source by using Superestrucuture grating distributed Bragg reflector (SSG-DBR) lasers for use in optical frequency-domain reflectometry optical coherence tomography. The SSG-DBR lasers provide single-mode operation resulting in high coherency. Response of the wavelength tuning is very fast; several nanoseconds, but there was an unintentional wavelength drift resulting from a thermal drift due to injecting tuning current. The dri1ft unfortunately requires long time to converge; more than a few milliseconds. For suppressing the wavelength drift, we introduced Thermal Drift Compensation mesa (TDC) parallel to the laser mesa with the spacing of 20 μm. By controlling TDC current to satisfy the total electric power injected into both the laser mesa and the TDC mesa, the thermal drift can be suppressed. In the present work, we fabricated 4 wavelength's kinds of SSG-DBR laser, which covers respective wavelength band; S-band (1496-1529 nm), C-band (1529-1564 nm), L --band (1564-1601 nm), and L +-band (1601-1639). We set the frequency channel of each laser with the spacing 6.25 GHz and 700 channels. The total frequency channel number is 2800 channels (700 ch × 4 lasers). We simultaneously operated the 4 lasers with a time interval of 500 ns/channel. A wavelength tuning range of more than 140 nm was achieved within 350 μs. The output power was controlled to be 10 mW for all channels. A single-mode, accurate, wide, and fast wavelength sweep was demonstrated with the SSG-DBR lasers having TDC mesa structure for the first time.

  4. Chaos, Consternation and CALIPSO Calibration: New Strategies for Calibrating the CALIOP 1064 nm Channel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Mark; Garnier, Anne; Liu, Zhaoyan; Josset, Damien; Hu, Yongxiang; Lee, Kam-Pui; Hunt, William; Vernier, Jean-Paul; Rodier, Sharon; Pelon, Jaques; Winker, David

    2012-01-01

    The very low signal-to-noise ratios of the 1064 nm CALIOP molecular backscatter signal make it effectively impossible to employ the "clear air" normalization technique typically used to calibrate elastic back-scatter lidars. The CALIPSO mission has thus chosen to cross-calibrate their 1064 nm measurements with respect to the 532 nm data using the two-wavelength backscatter from cirrus clouds. In this paper we discuss several known issues in the version 3 CALIOP 1064 nm calibration procedure, and describe the strategies that will be employed in the version 4 data release to surmount these problems.

  5. Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography selectively extracting wavelength information from wavelength-multiplexed holograms.

    PubMed

    Tahara, Tatsuki; Mori, Ryota; Kikunaga, Shuhei; Arai, Yasuhiko; Takaki, Yasuhiro

    2015-06-15

    Dual-wavelength phase-shifting digital holography that selectively extracts wavelength information from five wavelength-multiplexed holograms is presented. Specific phase shifts for respective wavelengths are introduced to remove the crosstalk components and extract only the object wave at the desired wavelength from the holograms. Object waves in multiple wavelengths are selectively extracted by utilizing 2π ambiguity and the subtraction procedures based on phase-shifting interferometry. Numerical results show the validity of the proposed technique. The proposed technique is also experimentally demonstrated.

  6. High-power continuous-wave dual-wavelength operation of a diode-pumped Yb:KGW laser.

    PubMed

    Akbari, Reza; Zhao, Haitao; Major, Arkady

    2016-04-01

    High-power dual-wavelength diode-pumped Yb:KGW laser using a single birefringent filter plate was demonstrated. Two oscillating wavelengths maintained the same polarization and stable dual-wavelength operation at 1014.6 and 1041.3 nm (7.57 THz of frequency offset) with 3.4 W of average output power and a diffraction-limited beam profile was obtained. Dual-wavelength laser operation at shorter- or longer-wavelength pairs with lower average output power could also be realized for other output-coupling transmissions.

  7. Switchable dual-wavelength fiber laser based on semiconductor optical amplifier and polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Suchun; Xu, Ou; Lu, Shaohua; Ren, Wenhua; Jian, Shuisheng

    2008-12-01

    Switchable dual-wavelength with orthogonal polarizations fiber laser based on semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) and polarization-maintaining fiber Bragg grating (PMFBG) at room temperature is proposed. Owing to the polarization dependent loss of the PMFBG, the laser can be designed to operate in stable dual-wavelength or wavelength-switching modes with a wavelength spacing of 0.336 nm at room temperature by adjusting the polarization controller (PC). The amplitude variation in nearly half an hour is less than 0.1 dB for both wavelengths, which is more stable than that of erbium doped fiber (EDF)-based laser with similar configuration.

  8. Wavelength scaling of terahertz radiation in plasma gas targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Hang; Huang, Suxia; Zhang, Cunlin; Zhang, Liangliang

    2016-11-01

    In our experiments, terahertz radiation via two-color generated laser plasma gas targets is studied using nitrogen and the noble gases (helium, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon) as the generation media. Carried out at the infrared beam of the advanced laser light source, we studied the effects of different pump wavelengths (between 1200 nm and 1600 nm) on THz generation. Terahertz pulse energy is measured as functions of input pulse energy, gas species, gas pressure. The experimental results show that the terahertz pulse energy approach a maximum value of 0.0578 μJ per pulse in xenon gas when the input 1600 nm pulse energy is 0.4 mJ per pulse.

  9. Mg 280-nm doublet as a monitor of changes in solar ultraviolet irradiance

    SciTech Connect

    Heath, D.F.; Schlesinger, B.M.

    1986-07-20

    Five years of 160- to 400-nm solar flux measurements by the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet experiment on Nimbus 7 have been analyzed. The flux in the center of strong lines and at shorter wavelengths varies with periods that correspond to modulation by the rotation of active regions. The modulation is greater at the centers of strong lines and at shorter wavelengths, corresponding to radiation that originates at higher levels in the solar atmosphere. The ratio of the irradiance in the core of the Mg 280-nm line to the irradiance at neighboring wavelengths is used as an index of solar variation. A scaling factor is derived by comparing rotational modulation at other wavelengths with the rotational modulation of the index. The scaled Mg II 280-nm strength successfully represents both rotational and long-term variations across the Al absorption edge near 210 nm. This ratio can therefore provide an empirical representation of long-term ultraviolet solar variability. Scaling factors are derived and changes estimated at several ultraviolet wavelengths. At 204 nm, in the wavelength region that drives atmospheric photochemistry, the solar irradiance drops about 4% from its average level for 1979-1980 to late 1983. The total estimated range of variation of the 27-day averaged (one rotation) 204-nm irradiance is 6%, over the 5 years of measurements. A least squares fit shows that over the 5 years, 27-day averages of 10.7-cm radio flux and of the Mg II index follow a linear relation. The radio flux can therefore be used to estimate changes in the solar ultraviolet for times before the launch of Nimbus 7.

  10. Ocular aberrations as a function of wavelength in the near infrared measured with a femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, Enrique J.; Unterhuber, Angelika; Prieto, Pedro M.; Hermann, Boris; Drexler, Wolfgang; Artal, Pablo

    2005-01-01

    A compact mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser, emitting a broad spectrum of 277 nm bandwidth, centered at 790 nm, was used to measure the dependence of the aberrations of the human eye with wavelength in the near infrared region. The aberrations were systematically measured with a Hartmann-Shack wave-front sensor at the following wavelengths: 700, 730, 750, 780, 800, 850, 870 and 900 nm, in four normal subjects. During the measurements, the wavelengths were selected by using 10 nm band-pass filters. We found that monochromatic high order aberrations, beyond defocus, were nearly constant across 700 to 900 nm wavelength in the four subjects. The average chromatic difference in defocus was 0.4 diopters in the considered wavelength band. The predictions of a simple water-eye model were compared with the experimental results in the near infrared. These results have potential applications in those situations where defocus or higher order aberration correction in the near infrared is required. This is the case of many imaging techniques: scanning laser ophthalmoscope, flood illumination fundus camera, or optical coherence tomography.

  11. Localized surface plasmon resonance sensors based on wavelength-tunable spectral dips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazuma, Emiko; Tatsuma, Tetsu

    2014-01-01

    Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensors serve as sensitive analytical tools based on refractive index changes, which can be applied to affinity-based chemical sensing and biosensing. However, to select the monitoring wavelength, monodisperse Au or Ag nanoparticles must be synthesized. Here we developed LSPR sensors that operate at arbitrary wavelengths after preirradiation at the corresponding wavelength. Polydisperse plasmonic Ag nanospheroids or nanorods are photocatalytically deposited on TiO2. The nanoparticle ensemble shows a broad absorption band over the visible and near infrared regions, and absorption dips can be formed at desired wavelengths simply by photoexciting the ensemble at the wavelengths, on the basis of plasmon-induced charge separation. The dips redshift linearly in response to a positive change of refractive index, and the refractive index sensitivity linearly increases with increasing dip wavelength (e.g., 356 nm RIU-1 at 1832 nm). The dip-based sensor is applied to monitoring of selective binding between biotin and streptavidin. The present system would allow development of miniaturized and cost-effective sensors that operate at the optimum wavelength at which the sensitivity is highest within the optical window of the sample.Localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) sensors serve as sensitive analytical tools based on refractive index changes, which can be applied to affinity-based chemical sensing and biosensing. However, to select the monitoring wavelength, monodisperse Au or Ag nanoparticles must be synthesized. Here we developed LSPR sensors that operate at arbitrary wavelengths after preirradiation at the corresponding wavelength. Polydisperse plasmonic Ag nanospheroids or nanorods are photocatalytically deposited on TiO2. The nanoparticle ensemble shows a broad absorption band over the visible and near infrared regions, and absorption dips can be formed at desired wavelengths simply by photoexciting the ensemble at the

  12. Generation of tunable multi-wavelength EDFL by using graphene thin film as nonlinear medium and stabilizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Harith; Hassan, Nor Ahya; Aidit, Siti Nabila; Tiu, Zian Cheak

    2016-07-01

    The applications of graphene thin film as a nonlinear medium and stabilizer to generate a stable multi-wavelength is proposed and demonstrated. A 50 m long highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is incorporated into the cavity to achieve unstable multi-wavelength based on nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) effect. By introducing the graphene thin film into the cavity, a stable multi-wavelength oscillation is obtained. The laser generates more than 7 lasings with constant spacing of 0.47 nm. The output is highly stable with power fluctuation of less than 3 dB within a period of 30 min. The multi-wavelength EDFL exhibits a tunability from the center wavelength of 1550 nm to 1560 nm.

  13. Excitation wavelength dependence of water-window line emissions from boron-nitride laser-produced plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Crank, M.; Harilal, S. S.; Hassan, S. M.; Hassanein, A.

    2012-02-01

    We investigated the effects of laser excitation wavelength on water-window emission lines of laser-produced boron-nitride plasmas. Plasmas are produced by focusing 1064 nm and harmonically generated 532 and 266 nm radiation from a Nd:YAG laser on BN target in vacuum. Soft x-ray emission lines in the water-window region are recorded using a grazing-incidence spectrograph. Filtered photodiodes are used to obtain complementary data for water-window emission intensity and angular dependence. Spectral emission intensity changes in nitrogen Ly-{alpha} and He-{alpha} are used to show how laser wavelength affects emission. Our results show that the relative intensity of spectral lines is laser wavelength dependent, with the ratio of Ly-{alpha} to He-{alpha} emission intensity decreasing as laser wavelength is shortened. Filtered photodiode measurements of angular dependence showed that 266 and 532 nm laser wavelengths produce uniform emission.

  14. Photo-fragmentation cross-section of gaseous 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene at different ultraviolet wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ramesh C; Miller, Tracy S; Usachev, Alexander D; Singh, Jagdish P; Yueh, Fang-Yu; Monts, David L

    2009-04-01

    The photo-fragmentation cross-section of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) vapor at room temperature was determined at different ultraviolet wavelengths (254, 300, 340, and 400 nm) by measuring the concentration of NO molecule with cavity ring down spectroscopy and correcting for the photo-fragmentation cross-section of NO(2). Nitric oxide (NO) molecules are produced by the TNT photo-fragmentation processes via an intermediate production of NO(2). Our results reveal that the photo-fragmentation cross-section of TNT changes appreciably with change in wavelength with xenon arc lamp illumination, increasing with decreasing excitation wavelength. The maximum value of cross-section was observed at the shortest photo-fragmentation wavelength studied (254 nm), which is closest to the wavelength of an absorption peak of TNT near 220 nm.

  15. Two-photon absorption and Kerr coefficients of silicon for 850-2200 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, Alan D.; Rotenberg, Nir; van Driel, Henry M.

    2007-05-01

    The degenerate two-photon absorption coefficient β and Kerr nonlinearity n2 are measured for bulk Si at 300K using 200fs pulses with carrier wavelength of 850<λ<2200nm for which indirect gap transitions occur. With a broad peak near the indirect gap and maximum value of 2±0.5cm/GW, the dispersion of β compares favorably with theoretical calculations of Garcia and Kalyanaraman [J. Phys. B 39, 2737 (2006)]. Within our wavelength range, n2 varies by a factor of 4 with a peak value of 1.2×10-13cm2/W at λ =1800nm.

  16. Second-harmonic generation of light at 245 nm in a lithium tetraborate whispering gallery resonator.

    PubMed

    Fürst, Josef U; Buse, Karsten; Breunig, Ingo; Becker, Petra; Liebertz, Josef; Bohatý, Ladislav

    2015-05-01

    A millimeter-sized, monolithic whispering gallery resonator made of a lithium tetraborate, Li2B4O7, crystal was employed for doubly resonant second-harmonic generation with a continuous-wave laser source at 490 nm. An intrinsic quality factor of 2×10(8) was observed at the pump wavelength. A conversion efficiency of 2.2% was attained with 5.9 mW of mode-matched pump power. In the lithium tetraborate resonator, it is feasible to achieve phase-matching of second-harmonic generation for pump wavelengths between 486 and 506 nm.

  17. 167 W, power scalable ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier at 1178 nm.

    PubMed

    Olausson, C B; Shirakawa, A; Chen, M; Lyngsø, J K; Broeng, J; Hansen, K P; Bjarklev, A; Ueda, K

    2010-08-02

    An ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber amplifier operating at the long wavelength edge of the ytterbium gain band is investigated for high power amplification. The spectral filtering effect of the photonic bandgap efficiently suppresses amplified spontaneous emission at the conventional ytterbium gain wavelengths and thus enables high power amplification at 1178 nm. A record output power of 167 W, a slope efficiency of 61% and 15 dB saturated gain at 1178 nm have been demonstrated using the ytterbium-doped photonic bandgap fiber.

  18. Ultra sub-wavelength surface plasmon confinement using air-gap, sub-wavelength ring resonator arrays

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jaehak; Sung, Sangkeun; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Eom, Seok Chan; Mortensen, N. Asger; Shin, Jung H.

    2016-01-01

    Arrays of sub-wavelength, sub-10 nm air-gap plasmonic ring resonators are fabricated using nanoimprinting. In near infra-red (NIR) range, the resonator supports a single dipole mode which is excited and identified via simple normal illumination and explored through transmission measurements. By controlling both lateral and vertical confinement via a metal edge, the mode volume is successfully reduced down to 1.3 × 10−5 λ03. The advantage of such mode confinement is demonstrated by applying the resonators biosensing. Using bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules, a dramatic enhancement of surface sensitivity up to 69 nm/nm is achieved as the modal height approaches the thickness of the adsorbed molecule layers. PMID:26923610

  19. Ultra sub-wavelength surface plasmon confinement using air-gap, sub-wavelength ring resonator arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaehak; Sung, Sangkeun; Choi, Jun-Hyuk; Eom, Seok Chan; Mortensen, N. Asger; Shin, Jung H.

    2016-02-01

    Arrays of sub-wavelength, sub-10 nm air-gap plasmonic ring resonators are fabricated using nanoimprinting. In near infra-red (NIR) range, the resonator supports a single dipole mode which is excited and identified via simple normal illumination and explored through transmission measurements. By controlling both lateral and vertical confinement via a metal edge, the mode volume is successfully reduced down to 1.3 × 10-5 λ03. The advantage of such mode confinement is demonstrated by applying the resonators biosensing. Using bovine serum albumin (BSA) molecules, a dramatic enhancement of surface sensitivity up to 69 nm/nm is achieved as the modal height approaches the thickness of the adsorbed molecule layers.

  20. Calibration-Free Pulse Oximetry Based on Two Wavelengths in the Infrared — A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Nitzan, Meir; Noach, Salman; Tobal, Elias; Adar, Yair; Miller, Yaacov; Shalom, Eran; Engelberg, Shlomo

    2014-01-01

    The assessment of oxygen saturation in arterial blood by pulse oximetry (SpO2) is based on the different light absorption spectra for oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin and the analysis of photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals acquired at two wavelengths. Commercial pulse oximeters use two wavelengths in the red and infrared regions which have different pathlengths and the relationship between the PPG-derived parameters and oxygen saturation in arterial blood is determined by means of an empirical calibration. This calibration results in an inherent error, and pulse oximetry thus has an error of about 4%, which is too high for some clinical problems. We present calibration-free pulse oximetry for measurement of SpO2, based on PPG pulses of two nearby wavelengths in the infrared. By neglecting the difference between the path-lengths of the two nearby wavelengths, SpO2 can be derived from the PPG parameters with no need for calibration. In the current study we used three laser diodes of wavelengths 780, 785 and 808 nm, with narrow spectral line-width. SaO2 was calculated by using each pair of PPG signals selected from the three wavelengths. In measurements on healthy subjects, SpO2 values, obtained by the 780–808 nm wavelength pair were found to be in the normal range. The measurement of SpO2 by two nearby wavelengths in the infrared with narrow line-width enables the assessment of SpO2 without calibration. PMID:24763216

  1. Allsky Airglow Imagery from Albuquerque, NM; TOMEX 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swenson, G. R.

    2001-12-01

    Allsky imager of OH Meinel and O2 Atmospheric emission bands were observed for the TOMEX rocket campaign from Albuquerque, NM, along with the Na/wind temperature lidar. Motion analysis of imagery describes a main wave propagating from the NW but other secondary waves appear from the NE to present a quasi chaotic wave field. The main wave had a typical horizontal wavelength of a several 10s of km and a period of less than15 minutes. The instrinsic wave parameters of the high frequency waves will be presented.

  2. Diode-end-pumped solid-state lasers with dual gain media for multi-wavelength emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, C. Y.; Chang, C. C.; Chen, Y. F.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theoretical model for designing a compact efficient multi-wavelength laser with dual gain media in a shared resonator. The developed model can be used to analyze the optimal output reflectivity for each wavelength to achieve maximum output power for multi-wavelength emission. We further demonstrate a dual-wavelength laser at 946 nm and 1064 nm with Nd:YAG and Nd:YVO4 crystals to confirm the numerical analysis. Under optimum conditions and at incident pump power of 17 W, output power at 946 nm and 1064 nm was up to 2.51 W and 2.81 W, respectively.

  3. Diode-pumped Kerr-lens mode-locked Yb:CaGdAlO4 laser with tunable wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ziye; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Wang, Junli; Wang, Zhaohua; Wei, Zhiyi; Xu, Xiaodong; Zheng, Lihe; Su, Liangbi; Xu, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrated a wavelength tunable Kerr-lens mode-locked femtosecond laser based on an Yb:CaGdAlO4 (Yb:CGA) crystal. The Kerr-lens mode-locked wavelength tuning range was from 1043.5 to 1076 nm, as broad as 32.5 nm, by slightly tilting the end mirror. Pulses as short as 60 fs were generated at the central wavelength of 1043.8 nm with an average output power of 66 mW. By using an output coupler with 1.5% transmittance, the Kerr-lens mode-locked average output power reached 127 mW with a pulse duration of 81 fs at a central wavelength of 1049.5 nm.

  4. 1064 nm rotational Raman lidar for particle extinction and lidar-ratio profiling: cirrus case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haarig, Moritz; Engelmann, Ronny; Ansmann, Albert; Veselovskii, Igor; Whiteman, David N.; Althausen, Dietrich

    2016-09-01

    For the first time, vertical profiles of the 1064 nm particle extinction coefficient obtained from Raman lidar observations at 1058 nm (nitrogen and oxygen rotational Raman backscatter) are presented. We applied the new technique in the framework of test measurements and performed several cirrus observations of particle backscatter and extinction coefficients, and corresponding extinction-to-backscatter ratios at the wavelengths of 355, 532, and 1064 nm. The cirrus backscatter coefficients were found to be equal for all three wavelengths keeping the retrieval uncertainties in mind. The multiple-scattering-corrected cirrus extinction coefficients at 355 nm were on average about 20-30 % lower than the ones for 532 and 1064 nm. The cirrus-mean extinction-to-backscatter ratio (lidar ratio) was 31 ± 5 sr (355 nm), 36 ± 5 sr (532 nm), and 38 ± 5 sr (1064 nm) in this single study. We further discussed the requirements needed to obtain aerosol extinction profiles in the lower troposphere at 1064 nm with good accuracy (20 % relative uncertainty) and appropriate temporal and vertical resolution.

  5. Molecular Genetic Response to Varied Wavelengths of Light in Xiphophorus maculatus Skin

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jordan; Lu, Yuan; Boswell, William T.; Boswell, Mikki; Caballero, Kaela L.; Walter, Ronald B.

    2015-01-01

    Xiphophorus fishes represent a model often utilized to study UVB induced tumorigenesis. Recently, varied genetic responses to UVB exposure has been documented in the skin of female and male Xiphophorus, as have differences in UVB response in the skin of different parental species and for interspecies hybrids produced from crossing them. Additionally, it has been shown that exposure to “cool white” fluorescent light induces a shift in the genetic profiles of Xiphophorus skin that is nearly as robust as the UVB response, but involves a fundamentally different set of genes. Given these results and the use of Xiphophorus interspecies hybrids as an experimental model for UVB inducible melanoma, it is of interest to characterize genes that may be transcriptionally modulated in a wavelength specific manner. The global molecular genetic response of skin upon exposure of the intact animal to specific wavelengths of light has not been investigated. Herein, we report results of RNA-Seq experiments from the skin of male Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B following exposure to varied 50 nm wavelengths of light ranging from 300–600 nm. We identify two specific wavelength regions, 350–400 nm (88 genes) and 500–550 nm (276 genes) that exhibit transcriptional modulation of a significantly greater number of transcripts than any of the other 50 nm regions in the 300–600 nm range. Observed functional sets of genes modulated within these two transcriptionally active light regions suggest different mechanisms of gene modulation. PMID:26460196

  6. Molecular genetic response to varied wavelengths of light in Xiphophorus maculatus skin.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jordan; Lu, Yuan; Boswell, William T; Boswell, Mikki; Caballero, Kaela L; Walter, Ronald B

    2015-12-01

    Xiphophorus fishes represent a model often utilized to study UVB induced tumorigenesis. Recently, varied genetic responses to UVB exposure have been documented in the skin of female and male Xiphophorus, as have differences in UVB response in the skin of different parental species and for interspecies hybrids produced from crossing them. Additionally, it has been shown that exposure to "cool white" fluorescent light induces a shift in the genetic profiles of Xiphophorus skin that is nearly as robust as the UVB response, but involves a fundamentally different set of genes. Given these results and the use of Xiphophorus interspecies hybrids as an experimental model for UVB inducible melanoma, it is of interest to characterize genes that may be transcriptionally modulated in a wavelength specific manner. The global molecular genetic response of skin upon exposure of the intact animal to specific wavelengths of light has not been investigated. Herein, we report results of RNA-Seq experiments from the skin of male Xiphophorus maculatus Jp 163 B following exposure to varied 50nm wavelengths of light ranging from 300-600nm. We identify two specific wavelength regions, 350-400nm (88 genes) and 500-550nm (276 genes), that exhibit transcriptional modulation of a significantly greater number of transcripts than any of the other 50nm regions in the 300-600nm range. Observed functional sets of genes modulated within these two transcriptionally active light regions suggest different mechanisms of gene modulation.

  7. Simultaneous determination of Cinnarizine and Domperidone by area under curve and dual wavelength spectrophotometric methods.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahman, Maha M

    2013-09-01

    Accurate, selective and sensitive spectrophotometric methods have been developed and validated for simultaneous determination of Cinnarizine and Domperidone, a binary mixture with overlapping spectra, without preliminary separation. These methods include area under the curve (AUC) and dual wavelength spectrophotometry. For the AUC method, the area under curve of mixture solutions in the wavelength ranges 241-258 nm and 280-292 nm were selected for determination of Cinnarizine and Domperidone and by applying Cramer's rule, concentration of each drug was obtained. In dual wavelength method, two wavelengths were selected for each drug in a way so that the difference in absorbance is zero for another drug. Domperidone shows equal absorbance at 240.2 nm and 273.2 nm, where the differences in absorbance were measured for the determination of Cinnarizine. Similarly, differences in absorbance at 230.8 nm and 259.2 nm were measured for determination of Domperidone. The proposed methods were applied for determination of Cinnarizine and Domperidone over the concentration ranges of 2-20 and 2-22 μg mL(-1), respectively. The suggested methods were validated as per USP guidelines and the results revealed that they are reliable, reproducible and precise for routine use with short analysis time. The results obtained by the proposed methods were statistically compared to the reported method, and there was no significant difference between them regarding both accuracy and precision.

  8. Wavelength Dependence of Solar Flare Irradiation and its Influence on the Thermosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Yanshi; Richmond, Arthur D.; Deng, Yue; Qian, L.; Solomon, S.; Chamberlin, P.

    2012-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of solar flare enhancement is one of the important factors determining how the Thermosphere-Ionosphere (T-I) system response to flares. To investigate the wavelength dependence of solar flare, the Flare Irradiance Spectral Model (FISM) has been run for 34 X-class flares. The results show that the percentage increases of solar irradiance at flare peak comparing to pre-flare condition have a clear wavelength dependence. In the wavelength range between 0 - 195 nm, it can vary from 1% to 10000%. The solar irradiance enhancement is largest ( 1000%) in the XUV range (0 - 25 nm), and is about 100% in EUV range (25 - 120 nm). The influence of different wavebands on the T-I system during the October 28th, 2003 flare (X17.2-class) has also been examined using the latest version of National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) Thermosphere- Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM). While the globally integrated solar energy deposition is largest in the 0 - 14 nm waveband, the impact of solar irradiance enhancement on the thermosphere at 400 km is largest for 25 - 105 nm waveband. The effect of 122 - 195 nm is small in magnitude, but it decays slowly.

  9. Note: Laser wavelength precision measurement based on a laser synthetic wavelength interferometer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Liping; Chen, Benyong; Zhang, Shihua; Liu, Pengpeng; Zhang, Enzheng

    2016-08-01

    A laser wavelength precision measurement method is presented based on the laser synthetic wavelength interferometer (LSWI). According to the linear relation between the displacements of measurement and reference arms in the interferometer, the synthetic wavelength produced by an unknown wavelength and a reference wavelength can be measured by detecting the phase coincidences of two interference signals. The advantage of the method is that a larger synthetic wavelength resulting from an unknown wavelength very close to the reference wavelength can be easily determined according to the linear relation in the interferometer. Then the unknown wavelength is derived according to the one-to-one corresponding relationship between single wavelength and synthetic wavelength. Wavelengths of an external cavity diode laser and two He-Ne lasers were determined experimentally. The experimental results show that the proposed method is able to realize a relative uncertainty on the order of 10(-8).

  10. Wavelength tunable alexandrite regenerative amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Harter, D.J.; Bado, P.

    1988-11-01

    We describe a wavelength tunable alexandrite regenerative amplifier which is used to amplify nanosecond slices from a single-frequency cw dye laser or 50-ps pulses emitted by a diode laser to energies in the 10-mJ range. The amplified 5-ns slices generated by the cw-pumped line narrowed dye laser are Fourier transform limited. The 50-ps pulses emitted by a gain-switched diode laser are amplified by more than 10 orders of magnitude in a single stage.

  11. A deep-UV optical frequency comb at 205 nm.

    PubMed

    Peters, E; Diddams, S A; Fendel, P; Reinhardt, S; Hänsch, T W; Udem, Th

    2009-05-25

    By frequency quadrupling a picosecond pulse train from a Ti:sapphire laser at 820 nm we generate a frequency comb at 205 nm with nearly bandwidth-limited pulses. The nonlinear frequency conversion is accomplished by two successive frequency doubling stages that take place in resonant cavities that are matched to the pulse repetition rate of 82 MHz. This allows for an overall efficiency of 4.5 % and produces an output power of up to 70 mW for a few minutes and 25 mW with continuous operation for hours. Such a deep UV frequency comb may be employed for direct frequency comb spectroscopy in cases where it is less efficient to convert to these short wavelengths with continuous wave lasers.

  12. Aerosol Absorption Retrieval at Ultraviolet Wavelengths in a Complex Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kazadzis, Stelios; Raptis, Panagiotis; Kouremeti, Natalia; Amirdis, Vassilis; Arola, Antti; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Schuster, Gregory L.

    2016-01-01

    We have used total and diffuse UV irradiance measurements from a multi-filter rotating shadow-band radiometer (UVMFR) in order to investigate aerosol absorption in the UV range for a 5-year period in Athens, Greece. This dataset was used as input to a radiative transfer model and the single scattering albedo (SSA) at 368 and 332 nm was calculated. Retrievals from a collocated CIMEL sun photometer were used to evaluate the products and study the absorption spectral behavior of retrieved SSA values. The UVMFR SSA, together with synchronous, CIMEL-derived retrievals of SSA at 440 nm, had a mean of 0.90, 0.87 and 0.83, with lowest values (higher absorption) encountered at the shorter wavelengths. In addition, noticeable diurnal variation of the SSA in all wavelengths is shown, with amplitudes up to 0.05. Strong SSA wavelength dependence is revealed for cases of low Angstrom exponents, accompanied by a SSA decrease with decreasing extinction optical depth, suggesting varying influence under different aerosol composition. However, part of this dependence for low aerosol optical depths is masked by the enhanced SSA retrieval uncertainty. Dust and brown carbon UV absorbing properties were also investigated to explain seasonal patterns.

  13. Aerosol absorption retrieval at ultraviolet wavelengths in a complex environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazadzis, Stelios; Raptis, Panagiotis; Kouremeti, Natalia; Amiridis, Vassilis; Arola, Antti; Gerasopoulos, Evangelos; Schuster, Gregory L.

    2016-12-01

    We have used total and diffuse UV irradiance measurements from a multi-filter rotating shadow-band radiometer (UVMFR) in order to investigate aerosol absorption in the UV range for a 5-year period in Athens, Greece. This dataset was used as input to a radiative transfer model and the single scattering albedo (SSA) at 368 and 332 nm was calculated. Retrievals from a collocated CIMEL sun photometer were used to evaluate the products and study the absorption spectral behavior of retrieved SSA values. The UVMFR SSA, together with synchronous, CIMEL-derived retrievals of SSA at 440 nm, had a mean of 0.90, 0.87 and 0.83, with lowest values (higher absorption) encountered at the shorter wavelengths. In addition, noticeable diurnal variation of the SSA in all wavelengths is shown, with amplitudes up to 0.05. Strong SSA wavelength dependence is revealed for cases of low Ångström exponents, accompanied by a SSA decrease with decreasing extinction optical depth, suggesting varying influence under different aerosol composition. However, part of this dependence for low aerosol optical depths is masked by the enhanced SSA retrieval uncertainty. Dust and brown carbon UV absorbing properties were also investigated to explain seasonal patterns.

  14. Mode-locked Nd:YAG laser with output at 1052, 1061, 1064, and 1074 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Badalian, A.A.; Sapondzhian, S.O.; Sarkisian, D.G.; Torosian, G.A.

    1985-10-01

    The picosecond Nd:YAG laser with an output radiation at 1064 nm is currently widely used. However, in connection with many applications, picosecond pulses at other wavelengths are also needed. The present study is, therefore, concerned with the development of a picosecond laser which provides pulses at 1052, 1061.5, and 1073.7 nm. Lasing at 1052, 1061.5, 1064, and 1073.7 nm was achieved by varying the angle between the resonator axis and the normal to the etalon by four degrees. Attention is given to the measurement of the lengths of the ultrashort pulses, and the transverse distribution of the energy in the second harmonic for the wavelength 1052 nm. The discretely tunable picosecond Nd:YAG laser described appears to be a promising tool for many research applications. 9 references.

  15. Random-phase metasurfaces at optical wavelengths

    PubMed Central

    Pors, Anders; Ding, Fei; Chen, Yiting; Radko, Ilya P.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-01-01

    Random-phase metasurfaces, in which the constituents scatter light with random phases, have the property that an incident plane wave will diffusely scatter, hereby leading to a complex far-field response that is most suitably described by statistical means. In this work, we present and exemplify the statistical description of the far-field response, particularly highlighting how the response for polarised and unpolarised light might be alike or different depending on the correlation of scattering phases for two orthogonal polarisations. By utilizing gap plasmon-based metasurfaces, consisting of an optically thick gold film overlaid by a subwavelength thin glass spacer and an array of gold nanobricks, we design and realize random-phase metasurfaces at a wavelength of 800 nm. Optical characterisation of the fabricated samples convincingly demonstrates the diffuse scattering of reflected light, with statistics obeying the theoretical predictions. We foresee the use of random-phase metasurfaces for camouflage applications and as high-quality reference structures in dark-field microscopy, while the control of the statistics for polarised and unpolarised light might find usage in security applications. Finally, by incorporating a certain correlation between scattering by neighbouring metasurface constituents new types of functionalities can be realised, such as a Lambertian reflector. PMID:27328635

  16. Random-phase metasurfaces at optical wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pors, Anders; Ding, Fei; Chen, Yiting; Radko, Ilya P.; Bozhevolnyi, Sergey I.

    2016-06-01

    Random-phase metasurfaces, in which the constituents scatter light with random phases, have the property that an incident plane wave will diffusely scatter, hereby leading to a complex far-field response that is most suitably described by statistical means. In this work, we present and exemplify the statistical description of the far-field response, particularly highlighting how the response for polarised and unpolarised light might be alike or different depending on the correlation of scattering phases for two orthogonal polarisations. By utilizing gap plasmon-based metasurfaces, consisting of an optically thick gold film overlaid by a subwavelength thin glass spacer and an array of gold nanobricks, we design and realize random-phase metasurfaces at a wavelength of 800 nm. Optical characterisation of the fabricated samples convincingly demonstrates the diffuse scattering of reflected light, with statistics obeying the theoretical predictions. We foresee the use of random-phase metasurfaces for camouflage applications and as high-quality reference structures in dark-field microscopy, while the control of the statistics for polarised and unpolarised light might find usage in security applications. Finally, by incorporating a certain correlation between scattering by neighbouring metasurface constituents new types of functionalities can be realised, such as a Lambertian reflector.

  17. Gain structuration in dual-wavelength Nd:YSAG ceramic lasers.

    PubMed

    Jaffres, Lionel; Labruyère, Alexis; Couderc, Vincent; Carreaud, Julie; Maître, Alexandre; Boulesteix, Rémi; Brenier, Alain; Boulon, Georges; Guyot, Yannick; Rabinovitch, Yoël; Sallé, Christian

    2012-11-05

    We demonstrate a dual-wavelength Nd:YSAG ceramic laser in which the gain volume is structurated into two different regions providing gain at the wavelength of 1061 nm and 1064 nm respectively. We discuss the role of the nonuniform distribution of the temperature in structurating the gain region via the Boltzmann effect. We show that the two laser wavelengths can be switched by adjusting the size of the pump beam or by slightly modifying the geometrical parameters of the laser cavity, either the length of the cavity or the orientation of a mirror. Additionally, we demonstrate that the transverse modes at the two wavelengths are shaped according to the effect of gain filtering caused by the structuration of the gain region.

  18. Optimal ultraviolet wavelength for in vivo photoacoustic imaging of cell nuclei.

    PubMed

    Yao, Da-Kang; Chen, Ruimin; Maslov, Konstantin; Zhou, Qifa; Wang, Lihong V

    2012-05-01

    In order to image noninvasively cell nuclei in vivo without staining, we have developed ultraviolet photoacoustic microscopy (UV-PAM), in which ultraviolet light excites nucleic acids in cell nuclei to produce photoacoustic waves. Equipped with a tunable laser system, the UV-PAM was applied to in vivo imaging of cell nuclei in small animals. We found that 250 nm was the optimal wavelength for in vivo photoacoustic imaging of cell nuclei. The optimal wavelength enables UV-PAM to image cell nuclei using as little as 2 nJ laser pulse energy. Besides the optimal wavelength, application of a wavelength between 245 and 275 nm can produce in vivo images of cell nuclei with specific, positive, and high optical contrast.

  19. Polarization study of a supercontinuum light source for different wavelengths through a photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valle-Atilano, F. J.; Estudillo-Ayala, J. M.; Filoteo-Razo, J. D.; Hernández-Garcia, J. C.; Lauterio-Cruz, J. P.; Jáuregui-Vázquez, D.; Ibarra-Escamilla, B.; Rojas-Laguna, R.; Pottiez, O.; Kuzin, E. A.

    2016-03-01

    In this work we show the changes of polarization at different wavelengths in the end of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF) by means bandpass filters in a supercontinuum light source. A linear and circular polarization was introduced in a piece of PCF, showing the changes of the polarization for each wavelength of each one of the filters from 450 to 700nm. We used a microchip laser as pumping source with wavelength of 532nm and short pulses of 650ps with repetition rate of 5kHz. We obtained a continuous spectrum in the visible spectral region, showing a comparison of the polarization state at the fiber input with respect to polarization state in the fiber output for different wavelengths by rotating the axes of the PCF.

  20. Triple-wavelength erbium fiber ring laser based on compound-ring scheme.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chien Hung; Shih, Fu Yuan; Chen, Chang Tai; Chi, Sien

    2007-12-24

    .A triple-wavelength erbium-doped compound ring fiber laser using the fiber-based triple-ring filter (TRF) is proposed and experimentally investigated. Using the fiber-based TRF laser scheme, the proposed laser can lase three wavelengths simultaneously. The fiber laser retrieve the optical side-mode suppression ratios (SMSRs) of 40.2, 40.4 and 41.6 dB and the output powers of -9, -8.8 and -7.6 dBm at the wavelengths 1555.89, 1556.77 and 1557.66 nm, respectively. The mode spacing of the triple-wavelength fiber laser is nearly 0.9 nm. Moreover, the output power stability of the ring laser has also been measured and analyzed.

  1. Measurement of nonlinear refractive index based on multiple configuration of FBG in generating multi wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Mohd Nizam; Shaari, Sahbudin; Ehsan, Abang Annuar; Menon, Susthitha; Zakaria, Osman

    2015-06-01

    A reliable method for measurement of the nonlinear refractive index through application of multi wavelength phenomenon. Multi wavelength realisation based on Erbium doped fibre laser (EDFL) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A combination of 15 m high efficiency Erbium doped fibre (EDF) and a 20 m Photonic Crystal Fibre (PCF) as main catalyst to suppress the homogenous broadening of EDF and to obtain highly stability of multi wavelength through insertion of a set of fibre Bragg gratings (FBGs) in the cavity. This PCF has zero dispersion of 1040 nm which mismatch from transmission window of 1550 nm. A reliable repeatability of multi wavelength based on multiple configuration of FBGs less than 0.2% obtained. This consistent results influence in determination of nonlinear refractive index by relation of four wave mixing (FWM).

  2. A tunable, single frequency, fiber ring at 1053 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Wilcox, R.B.

    1997-02-21

    This laser is a tunable source designed for applications where a shorter pulse will be chopped from a long Q-switched pulse by electrooptic modulators, then amplified in Nd:phosphate glass. The laser employs ytterbium-doped silica fiber as the gain medium, pumped by a laser diode at 980nm. Gain in Yb:silica is distributed over an 90nm range, making it suitable for operation at many wavelengths. Our previous experiments with this medium demonstrated oscillation over a 50nm wide band. In addition, pumping at 980nm allows the use of stable pump diodes used in erbium-doped fiber amplifiers (EDFA`s). We designed the laser to take advantage of this wideband gain medium, and yet operate on a single cavity mode. A circulator causes unidirectional operation, and allows use of a fiber grating in reflection. This grating has a 0.2 Angstrom bandwidth, and defines the coarse tuning of the laser. It is piezoelectrically stretch tuned to the desired wavelength band. A single mode of the cavity is selected by a piezoelectrically tuned fiber grating Fabry-Perot etalon with 64MHz bandwidth. The laser is Q-switched by a bulk acousto-optic device at lkhz reprate. The loss is controlled to allow the oscillator to lase close to threshold for 500{micro}s before the Q-switch is turned off completely, creating a pulse. This ``pre-lasing`` stabilizes the single mode, since Q-switch pulse builds up from the prelase level. To prevent mode hopping during long term operation, cavity length is feedback controlled. Another piezoelectric device stretches a fiber in the cavity according to an error signal derived from the output optical signal. Due to the long, high loss cavity, the Q-switched pulse is about 3OOns long. The central part of this pulse will be gated by an electrooptic modulator to produce a 30ns square pulse, used for further amplification and modulation.

  3. Multi-wavelength fluorescence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwong, Tiffany C.; Lo, Pei-An; Cho, Jaedu; Nouizi, Farouk; Chiang, Huihua K.; Kim, Chang-Seok; Gulsen, Gultekin

    2016-03-01

    The strong scattering and absorption of light in biological tissue makes it challenging to model the propagation of light, especially in deep tissue. This is especially true in fluorescent tomography, which aims to recover the internal fluorescence source distribution from the measured light intensities on the surface of the tissue. The inherently ill-posed and underdetermined nature of the inverse problem along with strong tissue scattering makes Fluorescence Tomography (FT) extremely challenging. Previously, multispectral detection fluorescent tomography (FT) has been shown to improve the image quality of FT by incorporating the spectral filtering of biological tissue to provide depth information to overcome the inherent absorption and scattering limitations. We investigate whether multi-wavelength fluorescent tomography can be used to distinguish the signals from multiple fluorophores with overlapping fluorescence spectrums using a unique near-infrared (NIR) swept laser. In this work, a small feasibility study was performed to see whether multi-wavelength FT can be used to detect subtle shifts in the absorption spectrum due to differences in fluorophore microenvironment.

  4. Flare stars at radio wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1990-01-01

    The radio emission from dMe flare stars is discussed using Very Large Array and Arecibo observations as examples. Active flare stars emit weak, unpolarized, quiescent radio radiation that may be always present. Although thermal bremsstrahlung and/or thermal gyroresonance radiation account for the slowly-varying, quiescent radio radiation of solar active regions, these processes cannot account for the long-wavelength quiescent radiation observed from nearby dMe flare stars. It has been attributed to nonthermal gyrosynchrotron radiation, but some as yet unexplained mechanism must be continually producing the energetic electrons. Long duration, narrow-band radiation is also emitted from some nearby dMe stars at 20 cm wavelength. Such radiation may be attributed to coherent plasma radiation or to coherent electron-cyclotron masers. Impulsive stellar flares exhibit rapid variations that require radio sources that are smaller than the star in size, and high brightness temperatures greater than 10(exp 15) K that are also explained by coherent radiation processes. Quasi-periodic temporal fluctuations suggest pulsations during some radio flares. Evidence for frequency structure and positive or negative frequency drifts during radio flares from dMe stars is also presented.

  5. Flare stars at radio wavelengths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    1989-01-01

    The radio emission from dMe flare stars is discussed using Very Large Array and Arecibo observations as examples. Active flare stars emit weak, unpolarized, quiescent radio radiation that may be always present. Although thermal bremsstrahlung and/or thermal gyroresonance radiation account for the slowly-varying, quiescent radio radiation of solar active regions, these processes cannot account for the long-wavelength quiescent radiation observed from nearby dMe flare stars. It has been attributed to nonthermal gyrosynchrotron radiation, but some as yet unexplained mechanism must be continually producing the energetic electrons. Long duration, narrow-band radiation is also emitted from some nearby dMe stars at 20 cm wavelength. Such radiation may be attributed to coherent plasma radiation or to coherent electron-cyclotron masers. Impulsive stellar flares exhibit rapid variations that require radio sources that are smaller than the star in size, and high brightness temperatures greater than 10(exp 15) K that are also explained by coherent radiation processes. Quasi-periodic temporal fluctuations suggest pulsations during some radio flares. Evidence for frequency structure and positive or negative frequency drifts during radio flares from dMe stars is also presented.

  6. Comparison of the single-wavelength and spectral-reconstruction methods for determining the solvation-response function

    SciTech Connect

    Gardecki, J.A.; Maroncelli, M.

    1999-03-04

    A comparison of the solvation/spectral-response functions obtained by two independent techniques, the single-wavelength and spectral-reconstruction methods, is reported. Determination of the best wavelengths for application of the linear-single-wavelength approximation for the solute coumarin 153 (C153) is achieved using radiative rate data and steady-state emission spectra in a series of 36 different solvents at room temperature. The optimal linear wavelength is found to be 555 nm. (This wavelength, which is on the red side of the spectrum, yields superior results when compared to the more traditional choice of 470--480 nm, on the blue side.) Response functions determined using both 560- and 470-nm observation wavelengths are compared to previously reported spectral-reconstruction results in 24 solvents. A comparison of the characteristic times indicates that the linear-single-wavelength method can be used to predict solvation times with an accuracy of roughly {+-}30--40% (1 standard deviation) using suitably scaled data collected at {approximately}560 nm. Application of a nonlinear version of the single-wavelength method does not provide increased accuracy.

  7. Metal-assisted photonic mode for ultrasmall bending with long propagation length at visible wavelengths.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chengyuan; Teo, Ee Jin; Goh, Tian; Teo, Siew Lang; Teng, Jing Hua; Bettiol, Andrew A

    2012-10-08

    In this work, we investigate the use of metal-assisted photonic guiding in a polymer-metal waveguide as an alternative approach for high density photonic integration at visible wavelengths. We demonstrate high confinement and long propagation length in sub-wavelength dimensions down to 300nm × 200nm using leakage radiation microscopy at a wavelength of 632.8 nm. Simulations using the finite element method (FEM) show that the optimum dimension that gives good confinement and propagation length is similar to that of the predicted plasmonic mode supported in the same waveguide. Under such optimum conditions, the metal-assisted photonic mode shows a five times longer propagation length and higher transmission efficiency for all 90° bending radius down to 1 μm compared to the plasmonic mode.

  8. Integrated ultracompact and broadband wavelength demultiplexer based on multi-component nano-cavities

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Cuicui; Liu, Yong-Chun; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-01-01

    Integrated nanoscale photonic devices have wide applications ranging from optical interconnects and optical computing to optical communications. Wavelength demultiplexer is an essential on-chip optical component which can separate the incident wavelength into different channels; however, the experimental progress is very limited. Here, using a multi-component nano-cavity design, we realize an ultracompact, broadband and high-contrast wavelength demultiplexer, with 2.3 μm feature size, 200 nm operation bandwidth (from 780 nm to 980 nm) and a contrast ratio up to 13.7 dB. The physical mechanism is based on the strong modulation of the surface plasmon polaritons induced by the multi-component nano-cavities, and it can be generalized to other nanoscale photonic devices. This provides a strategy for constructing on-chip photon routers, and also has applications for chip-integrated optical filter and optical logic gates. PMID:27263859

  9. Integrated ultracompact and broadband wavelength demultiplexer based on multi-component nano-cavities.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cuicui; Liu, Yong-Chun; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-06-06

    Integrated nanoscale photonic devices have wide applications ranging from optical interconnects and optical computing to optical communications. Wavelength demultiplexer is an essential on-chip optical component which can separate the incident wavelength into different channels; however, the experimental progress is very limited. Here, using a multi-component nano-cavity design, we realize an ultracompact, broadband and high-contrast wavelength demultiplexer, with 2.3 μm feature size, 200 nm operation bandwidth (from 780 nm to 980 nm) and a contrast ratio up to 13.7 dB. The physical mechanism is based on the strong modulation of the surface plasmon polaritons induced by the multi-component nano-cavities, and it can be generalized to other nanoscale photonic devices. This provides a strategy for constructing on-chip photon routers, and also has applications for chip-integrated optical filter and optical logic gates.

  10. Facet-rotated echelle grating for cyclic wavelength router with uniform loss and flat passband.

    PubMed

    Mu, Ge; Huang, Pingli; Wu, Lin; He, Jian-Jun

    2015-09-01

    A novel method for designing a cyclic echelle grating wavelength router with uniform loss and flat passband is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A 4×4 cyclic wavelength router with a channel spacing of 400 GHz at 1550 nm wavelength band is designed and fabricated in InP. Measurement results show that the loss of 16 input-output combinations varies from 9 to 19.3 dB in a conventional design, with a nonuniformity of 10.3 dB, while the 1-dB spectral bandwidth is only 0.3 nm. By rotating angles of grating facets according to an appropriately designed distribution function, the loss nonuniformity is reduced to 1.5 dB, and a flat-top spectral response with 1 dB bandwidth of 1.0 nm is achieved simultaneously.

  11. Integrated ultracompact and broadband wavelength demultiplexer based on multi-component nano-cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Cuicui; Liu, Yong-Chun; Hu, Xiaoyong; Yang, Hong; Gong, Qihuang

    2016-06-01

    Integrated nanoscale photonic devices have wide applications ranging from optical interconnects and optical computing to optical communications. Wavelength demultiplexer is an essential on-chip optical component which can separate the incident wavelength into different channels; however, the experimental progress is very limited. Here, using a multi-component nano-cavity design, we realize an ultracompact, broadband and high-contrast wavelength demultiplexer, with 2.3 μm feature size, 200 nm operation bandwidth (from 780 nm to 980 nm) and a contrast ratio up to 13.7 dB. The physical mechanism is based on the strong modulation of the surface plasmon polaritons induced by the multi-component nano-cavities, and it can be generalized to other nanoscale photonic devices. This provides a strategy for constructing on-chip photon routers, and also has applications for chip-integrated optical filter and optical logic gates.

  12. 7-W single-mode thulium-doped fibre laser pumped at 1230 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Kravtsov, K S; Bufetov, Igor' A; Medvedkov, O I; Dianov, Evgenii M; Yashkov, M V; Gur'yanov, A N

    2005-07-31

    An efficient thulium-doped fibre laser emitting at {approx}2 {mu}m upon pumping into the long-wavelength {sup 3}H{sub 6} {yields} {sup 3}H{sub 5} absorption band of Tm{sup 3+} ions is developed. The maximum output power of the single-mode thulium laser pumped at 1230 nm was 7 W at 1956 nm for a pump conversion efficiency of 35%. (lasers)

  13. Wavelength locking of single emitters and multi-emitter modules: simulation and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanson, Dan; Rappaport, Noam; Peleg, Ophir; Berk, Yuri; Dahan, Nir; Klumel, Genady; Baskin, Ilya; Levy, Moshe

    2016-03-01

    Wavelength-stabilized high-brightness single emitters are commonly used in fiber-coupled laser diode modules for pumping Yb-doped lasers at 976 nm, and Nd-doped ones at 808 nm. We investigate the spectral behavior of single emitters under wavelength-selective feedback from a volume Bragg (or hologram) grating (VBG) in a multi-emitter module. By integrating a full VBG model as a multi-layer thin film structure with commercial raytracing software, we simulated wavelength locking conditions as a function of beam divergence and angular alignment tolerances. Good correlation between the simulated VBG feedback strength and experimentally measured locking ranges, in both VBG misalignment angle and laser temperature, is demonstrated. The challenges of assembling multi-emitter modules based on beam-stacked optical architectures are specifically addressed, where the wavelength locking conditions must be achieved simultaneously with high fiber coupling efficiency for each emitter in the module. It is shown that angular misorientation between fast and slow-axis collimating optics can have a dramatic effect on the spectral and power performance of the module. We report the development of our NEON-S wavelength-stabilized fiber laser pump module, which uses a VBG to provide wavelength-selective optical feedback in the collimated portion of the beam. Powered by our purpose-developed high-brightness single emitters, the module delivers 47 W output at 11 A from an 0.15 NA fiber and a 0.3 nm linewidth at 976 nm. Preliminary wavelength-locking results at 808 nm are also presented.

  14. Wavelength dependence for the photoreactions of DNA-Psoralen monoadducts. 1. Photoreversal of monoadducts

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y.; Hearst, J.E.

    1987-06-30

    The authors have studied the wavelength dependence for the photoreversal of a monoadducted psoralen derivative, HMT (4'(hydroxymethyl)-4,5',8-trimethylpsoralen), in a single-stranded deoxyoligonucleotide (5'-GAAGCTACGAGC-3'). The psoralen was covalently attached to the thymidine residue in the oligonucleotide as either a furan-side monoadduct, which is formed through the cycloaddition between the 4',5' double bond of the psoralen and the 5,6 double bond of the thymidine, or a pyrone-side monoadduct, which is formed through the cycloaddition between the 3,4 double bond of the psoralen and the 5,6 double bond of the thymidine. As a comparison, they have also investigated the wavelength-dependent photoreversal of the isolated thymidine-HMT monoadducts. All photoreversal action spectra correlate with the extinction spectra of the isolate monoadducts. In the case of the pyrone-side monoadduct, two absorption bands contribute to the photoreversal with a quantum yield of 2 x 10/sup -2/ at wavelengths below 250 nm and 7 x 10/sup -3/ at wavelengths from 287 to 314 nm. The incorporation of the monoadduct into the DNA oligomer had little effect upon the photoreversal rate. For the furan-side monoadduct at least three absorption bands contribute to the photoreversal. The quantum yield varied from 5 x 10/sup -2/ at wavelengths below 250 nm to 7 x 10/sup -4/ at wavelengths between 295 and 365 nm. In contrast to the case of the pyrone-side monoadduct, the incorporation of the furan-side monoadduct into the DNA oligomer reduced the photoreversal rate constant at wavelengths above 285 nm.

  15. Assessment of interplay between UV wavelengths, material surfaces and food residues in open surface hygiene validation.

    PubMed

    Abban, Stephen; Jakobsen, Mogens; Jespersen, Lene

    2014-12-01

    The use of UV-visible radiation for detecting invisible residue on different surfaces as a means of validating cleanliness was investigated. Wavelengths at 365, 395, 435, 445, 470 and 490 nm from a monochromator were used to detect residues of beef, chicken, apple, mango and skim milk. These were on three surfaces: aluminium, fibre re-enforced plastic (FRP; Q-Liner®) and stainless steel, pre- and post a cleaning step using commercial detergent. The area covered by residues as detected by specific wavelengths was compared statistically. The sensitivity of the wavelengths for detection differed significantly (p < 0.05) for various residues depending on the material surfaces. Generally, wavelengths 365-445 nm were consistently able to illuminate all residue before cleaning, though sensitivity varied, while 490 nm showed more of the surface structural features instead of residue. The 365-395 nm wavelengths were significantly more sensitive (p < 0.05) for detecting beef and chicken residues on aluminium and stainless steel both before and after cleaning. The 435-445 nm wavelengths were significantly more sensitive for detecting apple and mango residues on the FRP both before and after cleaning. It is important when UV-systems are used as real-time tools for assessing cleanliness of surfaces that the surface materials being illuminated are taken into account in the choice of lamp wavelength, in addition to expected residue. This will ensure higher confidence in results during the use of UV-light for real-time hygiene validation of surfaces.

  16. All-optical wavelength conversion by four-wave mixing in a semiconductor optical amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Robert Bumju

    1997-11-01

    Wavelength division multiplexed optical communication systems will soon become an integral part of commercial optical networks. A crucial new function required in WDM networks is wavelength conversion, the spectral translation of information-laden optical carriers, which enhances wavelength routing options and greatly improves network reconfigurability. One of several techniques for implementing this function is four-wave mixing utilizing ultra-fast intraband nonlinearities in semiconductor optical amplifiers. The effects of input power, noise prefiltering and semiconductor optical amplifier length on the conversion efficiency and optical signal-to-noise ratio were examined. Systems experiments have been conducted in which several important performance characteristics of the wavelength converter were studied. A bit-error-rate performance of <10-9 at 10 Gb/s was achieved for a record shift of 18 nm down in wavelength and 10 nm up in wavelength. Two cascaded conversions spanning a 40 km fiber link at 10 Gb/s are also demonstrated for conversions of up to 9 nm down and up in wavelength. The dynamic range of input signal power and its impact on the BER performance were studied at 2.5 Gb/s for both a single-channel conversion and a simultaneous 2-channel conversion. The crosstalk penalty induced by parasitic cross-gain modulation in 2-channel conversion is quantified. The spectral inversion which results from the conversion process is studied by time-resolved spectral analysis, and its application as a technique for dispersion compensation is demonstrated. Finally, the application of selective organometallic vapor-phase epitaxy for the formation of highly-uniform and densely-packed arrays of GaAs quantum dots is demonstrated. GaAs dots of 15-20 nm in base diameter and 8-10 nm in height terminated by slow-growth crystallographic planes were grown within dielectric-mask openings and characterized by atomic force microscopy.

  17. Laser optogalvanic wavelength calibration with a commercial hollow cathode iron - neon discharge lamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Xinming; Nur, Abdullahi H.; Misra, Prabhakar

    1994-01-01

    351 optogalvanic transitions have been observed in the 337 - 598 nm wavelength region using an iron - neon hollow cathode discharge lamp and a pulsed tunable dye laser. 223 of these have been identified as transitions associated with neon energy levels. These optogalvanic transitions have allowed, in conjunction with interference fringes recorded concomitantly with an etalon, the calibration of the dye laser wavelength with 0.3/cm accuracy.

  18. Noise-reduction capabilities of a raman-mediated wavelength converter.

    PubMed

    Dahan, David; Bilenca, Alberto; Eisenstein, Gadi

    2003-04-15

    We describe ultrawideband Raman-mediated wavelength conversion. The nonlinear conversion transfer function is calculated analytically and simulated numerically in the cw regime, and the predicted performance is confirmed experimentally. Data conversion from long- to short-wavelength bands with signal reshaping and significant noise reduction are demonstrated experimentally at 10 Gbits/s and modeled by numerical simulations. Q factors and extinction ratios that are both larger than 10 dB are possible over an effective conversion bandwidth of 35 nm.

  19. Long-wavelength VCSEL: the technology for 10-gigabit enterprise networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Wenbin; Shieh, Chan-Long; Murty, Ramana; Liu, Guoli; Huang, Xiaodong; Sun, Diechi; Cheng, Julian; Lee, Hsing-Chung

    2005-03-01

    Long wavelength VCSELs at 1300 nm have been developed to serve 10-Gigabit enterprise networks over FDDI grade multimode fibers up to 300 m in distance. The long wavelength VCSELs operate CW at temperatures over 100 °C. They are ideal low cost alternatives to DFB lasers for transceivers and transponders compatible with IEEE 10GBASE-LX4 or 10GBASE-LRM standards over multimode fibers.

  20. Broad and ultra-flattened supercontinuum generation in the visible wavelengths based on the fundamental mode of photonic crystal fibre with central holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Jin-Hui; Sang, Xin-Zhu; Yu, Chong-Xiu; Xin, Xiang-Jun; Shen, Xiang-Wei; Zhang, Jin-Long; Zhou, Gui-Yao; Li, Shu-Guang; Hou, Lan-Tian

    2011-05-01

    By coupling a train of femtosecond pulses with 100 fs pulse width at a repetition rate of 76 MHz generated by a mode-locked Ti: sapphire laser into the fundamental mode of photonic crystal fibre (PCF) with central holes fabricated through extracting air from the central hole, the broad and ultra-flattened supercontinuum (SC) in the visible wavelengths is generated. When the fundamental mode experiences an anomalous dispersion regime, three phases in the SC generation process are primarily presented. The SC generation (SCG) in the wavelength range from 470 nm to 805 nm does not emerge significant ripples due to a higher pump peak power and the corresponding mode fields at different wavelengths are observed using Bragg gratings. The relative intensity fluctuations of output spectrum in the wavelength ranges of 530 nm to 640 nm and 543 nm to 590 nm are only 0.028 and 0.0071, respectively.

  1. Multiple wavelength light collimator and monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gore, Warren J. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An optical system for receiving and collimating light and for transporting and processing light received in each of N wavelength ranges, including near-ultraviolet, visible, near-infrared and mid-infrared wavelengths, to determine a fraction of light received, and associated dark current, in each wavelength range in each of a sequence of time intervals.

  2. Sub-70 nm resolution tabletop microscopy at 13.8 nm using a compact laser-plasma EUV source.

    PubMed

    Wachulak, Przemyslaw W; Bartnik, Andrzej; Fiedorowicz, Henryk

    2010-07-15

    We report the first (to our knowledge) demonstration of a tabletop, extreme UV (EUV) transmission microscope at 13.8 nm wavelength with a spatial (half-pitch) resolution of 69 nm. In the experiment, a compact laser-plasma EUV source based on a gas puff target is applied to illuminate an object. A multilayer ellipsoidal mirror is used to focus quasi-monochromatic EUV radiation onto the object, while a Fresnel zone plate objective forms the image. The experiment and the spatial resolution measurements, based on a knife-edge test, are described. The results might be useful for the realization of a compact high-resolution tabletop imaging systems for actinic defect characterization.

  3. Megahertz FDML laser with up to 143nm sweep range for ultrahigh resolution OCT at 1050nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolb, Jan Philip; Klein, Thomas; Eibl, Matthias; Pfeiffer, Tom; Wieser, Wolfgang; Huber, Robert

    2016-03-01

    We present a new design of a Fourier Domain Mode Locked laser (FDML laser), which provides a new record in sweep range at ~1μm center wavelength: At the fundamental sweep rate of 2x417 kHz we reach 143nm bandwidth and 120nm with 4x buffering at 1.67MHz sweep rate. The latter configuration of our system is characterized: The FWHM of the point spread function (PSF) of a mirror is 5.6μm (in tissue). Human in vivo retinal imaging is performed with the MHz laser showing more details in vascular structures. Here we could measure an axial resolution of 6.0μm by determining the FWHM of specular reflex in the image. Additionally, challenges related to such a high sweep bandwidth such as water absorption are investigated.

  4. Evaluation of high quantum efficiency silicon photodiodes for calibration in the 400 nm to 900 nm spectral region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorquera, Carlos; Bruegge, Carol; Duval, Valerie

    1992-01-01

    The reflectance and internal quantum efficiency (QE) of three single-element photodiodes are determined using two different light-trapping devices. The QED-200 light trapping device which is based on inversion layer photodiodes exhibits the best performance within the short wavelengths of the visible spectrum (VIS), while the A-O device based on p-n photodiodes, performs best in the long wave VIS up to 950 nm. The combination of the two light-traps provides nearly 100 percent external QE coverage from 400 to 950 nm. The reflectances and internal QE were determined within this spectral range for three photodiodes: UV100, an inversion layer photodiode; X-UV100, a shallow diffused n-p photodiode; and 10DPI/SB, a blue-enhanced p-n photodiode.

  5. Comparisons of multi-wavelength oscillations using Sagnac loop mirror and Mach-Zehnder interferometer for ytterbium doped fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghaddam, M. R. A.; Harun, S. W.; Shahi, S.; Lim, K. S.; Ahmad, H.

    2010-02-01

    A multiwavelength Ytterbium-doped fiber ring laser operating at 1030 nm region is demonstrated using a Sagnac loop mirror and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. We report the Performance comparisons of multi-wavelength oscillations in Yb3+ doped fiber lasers (YDFL) with typical commercial ytterbium doped silica fibers. By adjusting the polarization controller (PC), a widely tunable laser range of 22 nm from 1030 nm to 1050 nm is obtained. The Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) design has exhibited simplicity in the operation for controlling the smallest wavelength spacing compared to Sagnac loop mirror method. In our observations, the smallest achieved stable wavelength spacing in Sagnac loop mirror setup and MZI setup were 2.1 nm and 0.7 nm, respectively. In case of nine-wavelength operation with a MZI setup, the stability, Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM) and side mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of laser lines are not affected by increasing pump power, While for above four wavelength operation, the laser stability with Sagnac loop mirror becomes worse specially for higher input pump power and the power fluctuation among the wave-lengths would be also slightly larger.

  6. GOME wavelength calibration using solar and atmospheric spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caspar, C.; Chance, K.

    1997-01-01

    Spectral information in the global ozone monitoring experiment (GOME) solar irradiance spectra and GOME earth radiance spectra are used in conjunction with the GOME solar reference spectrum to provide absolute vacuum internal wavelength calibration for GOME. Two methods for wavelength calibration of GOME data are investigated. The first employs chi-square minimization of a merit function involving wavelength and the GOME slit function. It is quite robust and requires little GOME data in the processing (calibration window regions from 15 to 40 pixels). The second employs cross correlation of GOME data and the solar reference spectrum in the Fourier transform domain, using a procedure in the image reduction and analysis facility (IRAF) software system developed for the determination of galaxy redshifts. It also requires small amounts of GOME data (calibration window regions with from 10 to 15 pixels). Both methods provide absolute wavelength calibration accurate to a small fraction of a GOME pixel across the entire GOME spectrum, and to 0.001 nm over much of the range.

  7. Observation of Quiet Limb in He I 1083.0 nm, H Paschen alpha1281.8 nm and H Brackett gamma 2166.1 nm lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad Choudhary, Debi

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we shall present the results of an observational study of the quiet solar limb in the near infrared lines using the New IR Array Camera (NAC) and the vertical spectrograph at the focal plane of McMath-Pierce telescope. The NAC, at the exit port of the spectrograph, was used to record the limb spectrum in HeI 1083.0 nm, Hydrogen Paschen 1281.8 nm and Brackett 2165.5 nm wavelength regions. The NAC is a 1024x1024 InSb Alladin III Detector operating over 1-5 micron range with high density sampling at 0.018 arc second/pixel. The all-reflective optical train minimizes number of surfaces and eliminates ghosts leading to low scatter, ghost-free optics. The close-cycle cryogenic provides a stable cooling environment over six hour period with an accuracy of 0.01K leading to low dark current. The low read out noise combined with low scattered light and dark current makes NAC an ideal detector for making high quality infrared spectral observations of solar limb. The limb spectrums were obtained by placing the spectrograph slit perpendicular to the limb at an interval of 10 degrees around the solar disk. We shall report the intensity profile, line-of-sight velocity and line width distribution around the sun derived from the spectra along the slit.

  8. Imaging of tissue using a NIR supercontinuum laser light source with wavelengths in the second and third NIR optical windows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sordillo, Laura A.; Lindwasser, Lukas; Budansky, Yury; Leproux, Philippe; Alfano, R. R.

    2015-03-01

    Supercontinuum light (SC) at wavelengths in the second (1,100 nm to 1,350 nm) and third (1,600 nm to 1,870 nm) NIR optical windows can be used to improve penetration depths of light through tissue and produce clearer images. Image quality is increased due to a reduction in scattering (inverse wavelength power dependence 1/λn, n≥1). We report on the use of a compact Leukos supercontinuum laser (model STM-2000-IR), which utilizes the spectral range from 700 nm to 2,400 nm and offers between 200 - 500 microwatt/nm power in the second and third NIR windows, with an InGaAs detector to image abnormalities hidden beneath thick tissue.

  9. High-resolution, VUV (147-201 nm) photoabsorption cross sections for C2H2 at 195 and 295 K

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Peter L.; Yoshino, Kouichi; Parkinson, W. H.; Ito, Kenji; Stark, Glenn

    1991-01-01

    Results of measurements of photoabsorption cross sections of acetylene at 195 and 295 K in the wavelength range of 147-201 nm are reported. Short-wavelength data are obtained at 0.002 nm intervals, but no structure was observed on that scale. Emission and absorption lines from contaminant species in xenon and hydrogen discharges are used to determine the correct wavelength scale for the data. The uncertainty in the relative wavelengths is estimated to be about 0.004 nm, whereas the absolute wavelength values are accurate to + or - 0.043 nm. No significant photodestruction of C2H2 was found during the measurements. Cross-section values determined at the beginning portions of the measurements are indistinguishable from the values determined at the ends, thus demonstrating that there was no loss of absorbers.

  10. Wavelength and energy dependent absorption of unconventional fuel mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, N.; Saleem, Z.; Mirza, A. A.

    2005-11-01

    Economic considerations of laser induced ignition over the normal electrical ignition of direct injected Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) engines has motivated automobile industry to go for extensive research on basic characteristics of leaner unconventional fuel mixtures to evaluate practical possibility of switching over to the emerging technologies. This paper briefly reviews the ongoing research activities on minimum ignition energy and power requirements of natural gas fuels and reports results of present laser air/CNG mixture absorption coefficient study. This study was arranged to determine the thermo-optical characteristics of high air/fuel ratio mixtures using laser techniques. We measured the absorption coefficient using four lasers of multiple wavelengths over a wide range of temperatures and pressures. The absorption coefficient of mixture was found to vary significantly over change of mixture temperature and probe laser wavelengths. The absorption coefficients of air/CNG mixtures were measured using 20 watts CW/pulsed CO2 laser at 10.6μm, Pulsed Nd:Yag laser at 1.06μm, 532 nm (2nd harmonic) and 4 mW CW HeNe laser at 645 nm and 580 nm for temperatures varying from 290 to 1000K using optical transmission loss technique.

  11. Sub-microsecond wavelength stabilization of tunable lasers with the internal wavelength locker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Ryoga; Tatsumoto, Yudai; Sakuma, Kazuki; Onji, Hirokazu; Shimokozono, Makoto; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Kato, Kazutoshi

    2016-08-01

    We proposed a method of accelerating the wavelength stabilization after wavelength switching of the tunable distributed amplification-distributed feedback (TDA-DFB) laser using the internal wavelength locker to reduce the size and the cost of the wavelength control system. The configuration of the wavelength stabilization system based on this locker was as follows. At the wavelength locker, the light intensity after an optical filter is detected as a current by the photodiodes (PDs). Then, for estimating the wavelength, the current is processed by the current/voltage-converting circuit (IVC), logarithm amplifier (Log Amp) and field programmable gate array (FPGA). Finally, the laser current is tuned to the desired wavelength with reference to the estimated wavelength. With this control system the wavelength is stabilized within 800 ns after wavelength switching, which is even faster than that with the conventional control system.

  12. All-optical SOA-based wavelength converter assisted by optical filters with wide operation wavelength and large dynamic input power range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; Wang, J.; Marculescu, A.; Vorreau, P.; Zhang, Z.; Freude, W.; Leuthold, J.

    2008-11-01

    All-optical wavelength converters (AOWCs) based on nonlinear processes of semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) have attracted interest to overcome the wavelength blocking issues in future transparent networks. While many schemes work well, pattern effect impairments that are due to the finite lifetime of charge carriers are an issue most of the time. Recently, wavelength conversion and pattern effect mitigation techniques that work by properly shaping the passband of filters following the converter have been introduced. However, due to the necessity of selecting filter slope and position precisely, one would expect that the schemes are extremely sensitive to any drift of the center wavelength. In this work, we demonstrate a 40 Gbit/s SOA-based wavelength converter with more than 15 dB dynamic input power range. In addition, the center wavelength of the converted signal has a tolerance of ~0.2 nm towards the red spectral region and of ~0.1nm towards blue spectral region, respectively. This success is due to combining advantageously pattern effect mitigation techniques connected to the pulse reformatting optical filter, the red-shift and the blue-shift optical filter.

  13. Flat Supercontinuum Generation at 1550 nm in a Dispersion-Flattened Microstructure Fibre Using Picosecond Pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Yong-Zhao; Ren, Xiao-Min; Wang, Zi-Nan; Zhang, Xia; Huang, Yong-Qing

    2007-03-01

    The generation of a flat supercontinuum of over 80 nm in the 1550 nm region by injecting 1.6 ps 10 GHz repetition rate optical pulses into an 80-m-long dispersion-flattened microstructure fibre is demonstrated. The fibre has small normal dispersion with a variation smaller than 1.5 (ps.nm-1.km-1) between 1500 and 1650 nm. The generated supercontinuum ranging from 1513 to 1591 nm has the flatness of +/-1.5 dB and it is not so flat in the range of several nanometres around the pump wavelength 1552 nm. Numerical simulation is also used to study the effect of optical loss, fibre parameters and pumping conditions on supercontinuum generation in the dispersion-flattened microstructure fibre, and can be used for further optimization to generate flat broad spectra.

  14. Behavior of 157 nm excimer-laser-induced refractive index changes in silica

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Charlene M.; Borrelli, Nicholas F.

    2006-09-15

    This study describes the observation of large induced refractive index changes produced by 157 nm excimer laser exposure in high-purity synthetic silica glasses. With 157 nm exposure, large induced changes are observed within a few hundred thousand pulses of exposure. Similar to 193 nm exposures, exposure with polarized 157 nm light yields polarization-induced birefringence (PIB). However, the 157 nm exposure also exhibits a behavior not observed with 193 nm exposures; namely, the initial response of the glass is a decrease in refractive index, followed by an increase with continued exposure. An explanation of the behaviors for both wavelength results is proposed where the induced refractive index is considered to arise from two different concurrent phenomena. One produces a decreased refractive index and also accounts for the PIB. The other, which accounts for the increased refractive index, is associated with an isotropic laser-induced volume change.

  15. Rb-stabilized laser at 1572 nm for CO2 monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthey, R.; Moreno, W.; Gruet, F.; Brochard, P.; Schilt, S.; Mileti, G.

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a compact rubidium-stabilized laser system to serve as optical frequency reference in the 1.55-μm wavelength region, in particular for CO2 monitoring at 1572 nm. The light of a fiber-pigtailed distributed feedback (DFB) laser emitting at 1560 nm is frequency-doubled and locked to a sub-Doppler rubidium transition at 780 nm using a 2-cm long vapor glass cell. Part of the DFB laser light is modulated with an electro-optical modulator enclosed in a Fabry-Perot cavity, generating an optical frequency comb with spectral coverage extending from 1540 nm to 1580 nm. A second slave DFB laser emitting at 1572 nm and offset-locked to one line of the frequency comb shows a relative frequency stability of 1.10-11 at 1 s averaging time and <4.10-12 from 1 hour up to 3 days.

  16. Synthesized femtosecond laser pulse source for two-wavelength contouring with simultaneously recorded digital holograms.

    PubMed

    Hansel, Thomas; Steinmeyer, Günter; Grunwald, Ruediger; Falldorf, Claas; Bonitz, Jens; Kaufmann, Christian; Kebbel, Volker; Griebner, Uwe

    2009-02-16

    A dual-wavelength femtosecond laser pulse source and its application for digital holographic single-shot contouring are presented. The synthesized laser source combines sub-picosecond time scales with a wide reconstruction range. A center wavelength distance of the two separated pulses of only 15 nm with a high contrast was demonstrated by spectral shaping of the 50 nm broad seed spectrum centered at 800 nm. Owing to the resulting synthetic wavelength, the scan depth range without phase ambiguity is extended to the 100-microm-range. Single-shot dual-wavelength imaging is achieved by using two CMOS cameras in a Twyman-Green interferometer, which is extended by a polarization encoding sequence to separate the holograms. The principle of the method is revealed, and experimental results concerning a single axis scanner mirror operating at a resonance frequency of 0.5 kHz are presented. Within the synthetic wavelength, the phase difference information of the object was unambiguously retrieved and the 3D-shape calculated. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that single-shot two-wavelength contouring on a sub-ps time scale is reported.

  17. Dual-transverse-mode microsquare lasers with tunable wavelength interval.

    PubMed

    Long, Heng; Huang, Yong-Zhen; Ma, Xiu-Wen; Yang, Yue-De; Xiao, Jin-Long; Zou, Ling-Xiu; Liu, Bo-Wen

    2015-08-01

    A dual-transverse-mode microsquare laser with a tunable wavelength interval is designed and realized by using a square-ring-patterned contact window. For a 30-μm-side-length microsquare laser with the square-ring width of 4 μm, the wavelength interval varies from 0.25 to 0.37 nm with the intensity ratio less than 2.5 dB as the injection current increases from 89 to 108 mA. Based on the dual-transverse-mode microsquare laser, the microwave signals with the frequencies of 30.56, 32.70, 35.12, and 39.51 GHz and the 3-dB bandwidths of 47, 53, 54, and 47 MHz are obtained at the injection currents of 90, 95, 100, and 105 mA, respectively.

  18. Wavelength-selective plasmonics for enhanced cultivation of microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Ooms, Matthew D.; Jeyaram, Yogesh; Sinton, David

    2015-02-09

    Optimal photon management is a key challenge for photobioreactor design, since light gradients and varying spectral sensitivities between organisms result in uneven illumination and unused photons. This paper demonstrates wavelength specific scattering from plasmonic nano-patterned surfaces as a means of addressing the challenge of photon management in photobioreactors. Modular photobioreactors were constructed with different reflective substrates including arrays of plasmonic nanodisks, broadband reflectors, and untreated glass. It was found that the growth rate of cyanobacterium S. elongatus in photobioreactors equipped with a plasmonic substrate (R{sub 623 nm} ∼ 35%) was enhanced by 6.5% compared to photobioreactors equipped with untreated glass. Furthermore, plasmonic reflectors showed a normalized power efficiency improvement of 52% over broadband reflectors. Wavelength-specific reflection from plasmonic reflectors increases the flux of useful light to cultures without sacrificing the full spectrum.

  19. Three wavelength optical oxymetry including the measurement of carboxyhemoglobin concentration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieralli, Christian; Devillers, Robert; Tribillon, Gilbert M.; Barthelemy, Jean-Claude; Geyssant, Andre

    1995-02-01

    The measurement of blood component concentrations is of great interest for medical applications such as anaesthetizing monitoring, heart disease evolution, respiratory insufficiency, etc. The common system is the spectroscopic analysis of blood samples. Analyzing the absorption versus wavelengths permits the determination of blood component concentrations by comparison to the theoretical extinction coefficients of the investigated components. The functional saturation rate of oxyhemoglobin HbO2 called SfO2 is therefore accessible. A new system is presented in this paper utilizing three laser diodes at wavelengths 660, 830, and 1060 nm. We have, therefore, access to a supplementary parameter which is the concentration of carboxyhemoglobin HbCO. The set-up can be portable because it utilizes small light sources, optical fibers, and integrated electrical supply and signal processing device. The performances reach a SfO2 resolution of 2% and 1% on HbCO measurement.

  20. Airborne backscatter lidar measurements at three wavelengths during ELITE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schreiber, H. G.; Wirth, Martin; Moerl, P.; Renger, Wolfgang

    1995-09-01

    The German Aerospace Establishment (DLR) operates an airborne backscatter lidar based on a Nh:YAG laser which is flashlamp-pumped at 10 Hz. It works on the wavelengths 1064, 532, and 354 nm. It is mounted downward-looking on the research aircraft Falcon 20, flying at about 12 km altitude at speeds of 200 m/s. We present airborne measurements correlated with the orbit tracks of the shuttle-borne LITE-instrument (lidar in-space technology experiment). The emphasis in data evalution is on the comparison between the airborne and the shuttle- borne lidars. First results show excellent agreement between the two instruments even on details of cirrus clouds. The results comprise cloud geometrical and optical depths, as well as profiles of aerosol backscattering coefficients at three wavelengths.