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Sample records for 7a figure 7b

  1. Metal-Dependent Regulation of ATP7A and ATP7B in Fibroblast Cultures

    PubMed Central

    Lenartowicz, Malgorzata; Moos, Torben; Ogórek, Mateusz; Jensen, Thomas G.; Møller, Lisbeth B.

    2016-01-01

    Deficiency of one of the copper transporters ATP7A and ATP7B leads to the rare X-linked disorder Menkes Disease (MD) or the rare autosomal disorder Wilson disease (WD), respectively. In order to investigate whether the ATP7A and the ATP7B genes may be transcriptionally regulated, we measured the expression level of the two genes at various concentrations of iron, copper, and insulin. Treating fibroblasts from controls or from individuals with MD or WD for 3 and 10 days with iron chelators revealed that iron deficiency led to increased transcript levels of both ATP7A and ATP7B. Copper deficiency obtained by treatment with the copper chelator led to a downregulation of ATP7A in the control fibroblasts, but surprisingly not in the WD fibroblasts. In contrast, the addition of copper led to an increased expression of ATP7A, but a decreased expression of ATP7B. Thus, whereas similar regulation patterns for the two genes were observed in response to iron deficiency, different responses were observed after changes in the access to copper. Mosaic fibroblast cultures from female carriers of MD treated with copper or copper chelator for 6–8 weeks led to clonal selection. Cells that express the normal ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at high copper concentrations, whereas more surprisingly, cells that express the mutant ATP7A allele had a selective growth advantage at low copper concentrations. Thus, although the transcription of ATP7A is regulated by copper, clonal growth selection in mosaic cell cultures is affected by the level of copper. Female carriers of MD are rarely affected probably due to a skewed inactivation of the X-chromosome bearing the ATP7A mutation. PMID:27587995

  2. Solution structures of the linear leaderless bacteriocins enterocin 7A and 7B resemble carnocyclin A, a circular antimicrobial peptide.

    PubMed

    Lohans, Christopher T; Towle, Kaitlyn M; Miskolzie, Mark; McKay, Ryan T; van Belkum, Marco J; McMullen, Lynn M; Vederas, John C

    2013-06-11

    Leaderless bacteriocins are a class of ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides that are produced by certain Gram-positive bacteria without an N-terminal leader section. These bacteriocins are of great interest due to their potent inhibition of many Gram-positive organisms, including food-borne pathogens such as Listeria and Clostridium spp. We now report the NMR solution structures of enterocins 7A and 7B, leaderless bacteriocins recently isolated from Enterococcus faecalis 710C. These are the first three-dimensional structures to be reported for bacteriocins of this class. Unlike most other linear Gram-positive bacteriocins, enterocins 7A and 7B are highly structured in aqueous conditions. Both peptides are primarily α-helical, adopting a similar overall fold. The structures can be divided into three separate α-helical regions: the N- and C-termini are both α-helical, separated by a central kinked α-helix. The overall structures bear an unexpected resemblance to carnocyclin A, a 60-residue peptide that is cyclized via an amide bond between the C- and N-termini and has a saposin fold. Because of synergism observed for other two-peptide leaderless bacteriocins, it was of interest to probe possible binding interactions between enterocins 7A and 7B. However, despite synergistic activity observed between these peptides, no significant binding interaction was observed based on NMR and isothermal calorimetry.

  3. Mammalian copper-transporting P-Type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B: Emerging roles

    PubMed Central

    La Fontaine, Sharon; Ackland, M. Leigh; Mercer, Julian F.B.

    2010-01-01

    Copper (Cu) has a role in a diverse and increasing number of pathways, physiological and disease processes. These roles are testament to the fundamental importance of Cu in biology and the need to understand the mechanisms that regulate Cu homeostasis. The mammalian Cu-transporting P-type ATPases ATP7A and ATP7B are two key proteins that regulate the Cu status of the body. They transport Cu across cellular membranes for biosynthetic and protective functions, enabling Cu to fulfill its role as a structural cofactor for many essential enzymes, and to prevent a toxic build-up of Cu inside cells. A variety of regulatory mechanisms operate at transcriptional and post-translational levels to ensure adequate Cu supplies for both physiological and pathophysiological processes. This review summarizes the recent literature that is revealing the emerging roles of the Cu-ATPases in health and disease. PMID:19922814

  4. Role of the P-Type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B in brain copper homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Telianidis, Jonathon; Hung, Ya Hui; Materia, Stephanie; Fontaine, Sharon La

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades there have been significant advances in our understanding of copper homeostasis and the pathological consequences of copper dysregulation. Cumulative evidence is revealing a complex regulatory network of proteins and pathways that maintain copper homeostasis. The recognition of copper dysregulation as a key pathological feature in prominent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and prion diseases has led to increased research focus on the mechanisms controlling copper homeostasis in the brain. The copper-transporting P-type ATPases (copper-ATPases), ATP7A and ATP7B, are critical components of the copper regulatory network. Our understanding of the biochemistry and cell biology of these complex proteins has grown significantly since their discovery in 1993. They are large polytopic transmembrane proteins with six copper-binding motifs within the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, eight transmembrane domains, and highly conserved catalytic domains. These proteins catalyze ATP-dependent copper transport across cell membranes for the metallation of many essential cuproenzymes, as well as for the removal of excess cellular copper to prevent copper toxicity. A key functional aspect of these copper transporters is their copper-responsive trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the cell periphery. ATP7A- and ATP7B-deficiency, due to genetic mutation, underlie the inherited copper transport disorders, Menkes and Wilson diseases, respectively. Their importance in maintaining brain copper homeostasis is underscored by the severe neuropathological deficits in these disorders. Herein we will review and update our current knowledge of these copper transporters in the brain and the central nervous system, their distribution and regulation, their role in normal brain copper homeostasis, and how their absence or dysfunction contributes to disturbances in copper homeostasis and neurodegeneration.

  5. Role of the P-Type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B in brain copper homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Telianidis, Jonathon; Hung, Ya Hui; Materia, Stephanie; Fontaine, Sharon La

    2013-01-01

    Over the past two decades there have been significant advances in our understanding of copper homeostasis and the pathological consequences of copper dysregulation. Cumulative evidence is revealing a complex regulatory network of proteins and pathways that maintain copper homeostasis. The recognition of copper dysregulation as a key pathological feature in prominent neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and prion diseases has led to increased research focus on the mechanisms controlling copper homeostasis in the brain. The copper-transporting P-type ATPases (copper-ATPases), ATP7A and ATP7B, are critical components of the copper regulatory network. Our understanding of the biochemistry and cell biology of these complex proteins has grown significantly since their discovery in 1993. They are large polytopic transmembrane proteins with six copper-binding motifs within the cytoplasmic N-terminal domain, eight transmembrane domains, and highly conserved catalytic domains. These proteins catalyze ATP-dependent copper transport across cell membranes for the metallation of many essential cuproenzymes, as well as for the removal of excess cellular copper to prevent copper toxicity. A key functional aspect of these copper transporters is their copper-responsive trafficking between the trans-Golgi network and the cell periphery. ATP7A- and ATP7B-deficiency, due to genetic mutation, underlie the inherited copper transport disorders, Menkes and Wilson diseases, respectively. Their importance in maintaining brain copper homeostasis is underscored by the severe neuropathological deficits in these disorders. Herein we will review and update our current knowledge of these copper transporters in the brain and the central nervous system, their distribution and regulation, their role in normal brain copper homeostasis, and how their absence or dysfunction contributes to disturbances in copper homeostasis and neurodegeneration. PMID:23986700

  6. 75 FR 50942 - Airworthiness Directives; Pratt & Whitney JT8D-7, -7A, -7B, -9, -9A, -11, -15, -15A, -17, -17A...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-18

    ... JT8D-7, -7A, -7B, -9, - 9A, -11, -15, -15A, -17, -17A, -17R, and -17AR Series Turbofan Engines AGENCY..., -1A, -1B, -7, -7A, -7B, -9, -9A, -11, -15, -15A, -17, -17A, -17R, and -17AR series turbofan engines. That AD currently requires revisions to the engine manufacturer's time limits section (TLS) to...

  7. Reversibility of substrate adsorption for the cellulases Cel7A, Cel6A, and Cel7B from Hypocrea jecorina.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Vanessa O A; Lei, Nina; Kyasaram, Madhuri; Olsen, Johan P; Badino, Silke F; Windahl, Michael S; Colussi, Francieli; Cruys-Bagger, Nicolaj; Borch, Kim; Westh, Peter

    2014-10-28

    Adsorption of cellulases on the cellulose surface is an integral part of the catalytic mechanism, and a detailed description of the adsorption process is therefore required for a fundamental understanding of this industrially important class of enzymes. However, the mode of adsorption has proven intricate, and several key questions remain open. Perhaps most notably it is not clear whether the adsorbed enzyme is in dynamic equilibrium with the free population or irreversibly associated with no or slow dissociation. To address this, we have systematically investigated adsorption reversibility for two cellobiohydrolases (Cel7A and Cel6A) and one endoglucanase (Cel7B) on four types of pure cellulose substrates. Specifically, we monitored dilution-induced release of adsorbed enzyme in samples that had previously been brought to a steady state (constant concentration of free enzyme). In simple dilution experiments (without centrifugation), the results consistently showed full reversibility. In contrast to this, resuspension of enzyme-substrate pellets separated by centrifugation showed extensive irreversibility. We conclude that these enzymes are in a dynamic equilibrium between free and adsorbed states but suggest that changes in the physical properties of cellulose caused by compaction of the pellet hampers subsequent release of adsorbed enzyme. This latter effect may be pertinent to both previous controversies in the literature on adsorption reversibility and the development of enzyme recycling protocols in the biomass industry.

  8. Sevoflurane represses the self-renewal ability by regulating miR-7a,7b/Klf4 signalling pathway in mouse embryonic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qimin; Li, Guifeng; Li, Baolin; Chen, Qiu; Lv, Dongdong; Liu, Jiaying; Ma, Jieyu; Sun, Nai; Yang, Longqiu; Fei, Xuejie; Song, Qiong

    2016-10-01

    Sevoflurane is a frequently-used clinical inhalational anaesthetic and can cause toxicity to embryos during foetal development. Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are derived from the inner cell mass of blastospheres and can be used as a useful model of early development. Here, we found that sevoflurane significantly influenced self-renewal ability of mESCs on stemness maintenance and cell proliferation. The cell cycle was arrested via G1 phase delay. We further found that sevoflurane upregulated expression of miR-7a,7b to repress self-renewal. Next we performed rescue experiments and found that after adding miR-7a,7b inhibitor into mESCs treated with sevoflurane, its influence on self-renewal could be blocked. Further we identified stemness factor Klf4 as the direct target of miR-7a,7b. Overexpression of Klf4 restored self-renewal ability repressed by miR-7a,7b or sevoflurane. In this work, we determined that sevoflurane repressed self-renewal ability by regulating the miR-7a,7b/Klf4 signalling pathway in mESCs. Our study demonstrated molecular mechanism underlying the side effects of sevoflurane during early development, laying the foundation for studies on safe usage of inhalational anaesthetic during non-obstetric surgery.

  9. Ethnic differences in the prevalence of polymorphisms in CYP7A1, CYP7B1 AND CYP27A1 enzymes involved in cholesterol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Dias, Vera; Ribeiro, V

    2011-07-01

    It is well known that drug disposition and response are greatly determined by the activities of drug metabolizing enzymes, which are polymorphic. Some of these polymorphisms are clinically relevant and presented an ethnic-dependent pattern of distribution. The characterization of the genetic distribution of different populations allows the selection of therapeutic options in accordance with the genetic background, with the objective to avoid adverse reactions and inefficacy of the treatment. In this work, we studied selected genetic polymorphisms in drug metabolizing enzymes in three different ethnic groups - Portugal, Mozambique and Colombia. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) genotyping methods were developed for drug metabolizing enzymes, namely, cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) (-203A>C, -346C>T, -496C>T, N233S, G347S), sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1) (R164W, A169V, D273N, V400A) and oxysterol 7α-hydroxylase (CYP7B1) (-116C>G, R324H, 1774C>T) to characterize the allelic distribution of these polymorphisms among three different ethnic/geographic origins. A total of 12 CYP7A1, CYP27A1 and CYP7B1 genetic variants were genotyped in a sample of 92 Portuguese, 151 Mozambican and 91 Colombian subjects. The variants N233S in CYP7A1 and 1774C>T in CYP7B1 were not detected in any population studied. The promoter polymorphisms in CYP7A1 (-203A>C, -346C>T, -496C>T) had high frequency in the three ethnic groups. G347S (CYP7A1), R164W, A169V and V400A (CYP27A1) were present in a low frequency but with a similar distribution in the three ethnic groups. Significant differences were observed for D273N (CYP27A1), -346C>T (CYP7A1), -116C>G and R324H (CYP7B1)Our results demonstrate a high variability of drug metabolizing enzymes between the different populations analyzed, indicating that at least some of these polymorphisms are ethnic specific.

  10. Paralog-Specific Functions of RPL7A and RPL7B Mediated by Ribosomal Protein or snoRNA Dosage in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, Ryan J.; Fuchs, Gabriele; Lutz, Sheila; Curcio, M. Joan

    2016-01-01

    Most ribosomal proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae are encoded by two paralogs that additively produce the optimal protein level for cell growth. Nonetheless, deleting one paralog of most ribosomal protein gene pairs results in a variety of phenotypes not observed when the other paralog is deleted. To determine whether paralog-specific phenotypes associated with deleting RPL7A or RPL7B stem from distinct functions or different levels of the encoded isoforms, the coding region and introns of one paralog, including an intron-embedded snoRNA (small nucleolar RNA) gene, were exchanged with that of the other paralog. Among mutants harboring a single native or chimeric RPL7 allele, expression from the RPL7A locus exceeded that from the RPL7B locus, and more Rpl7a was expressed from either locus than Rpl7b. Phenotypic differences in tunicamycin sensitivity, ASH1 mRNA localization, and mobility of the Ty1 retrotransposon were strongly correlated with Rpl7 and ribosome levels, but not with the Rpl7 or snoRNA isoform expressed. Although Ty1 RNA is cotranslationally localized, depletion of Rpl7 minimally affected synthesis of Ty1 Gag protein, but strongly influenced Ty1 RNA localization. Unlike the other processes studied, Ty1 cDNA accumulation was influenced by both the level and isoform of Rpl7 or snoRNA expressed. These cellular processes had different minimal threshold values for Rpl7 and ribosome levels, but all were functional when isoforms of either paralog were expressed from the RPL7A locus or both RPL7 loci. This study illustrates the broad range of phenotypes that can result from depleting ribosomes to different levels. PMID:28007835

  11. ATP7B detoxifies silver in ciliated airway epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Ibricevic, Aida; Brody, Steven L.; Youngs, Wiley J.; Cannon, Carolyn L.

    2010-03-15

    Silver is a centuries-old antibiotic agent currently used to treat infected burns. The sensitivity of a wide range of drug-resistant microorganisms to silver killing suggests that it may be useful for treating refractory lung infections. Toward this goal, we previously developed a methylated caffeine silver acetate compound, SCC1, that exhibits broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity against clinical strains of bacteria in vitro and when nebulized to lungs in mouse infection models. Preclinical testing of high concentrations of SCC1 in primary culture mouse tracheal epithelial cells (mTEC) showed selective ciliated cell death. Ciliated cell death was induced by both silver- and copper-containing compounds but not by the methylated caffeine portion of SCC1. We hypothesized that copper transporting P-type ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, play a role in silver detoxification in the airway. In mTEC, ATP7A was expressed in non-ciliated cells, whereas ATP7B was expressed only in ciliated cells. The exposure of mTEC to SCC1 induced the trafficking of ATP7B, but not ATP7A, suggesting the presence of a cell-specific silver uptake and detoxification mechanisms. Indeed, the expression of the copper uptake protein CTR1 was also restricted to ciliated cells. A role of ATP7B in silver detoxification was further substantiated when treatment of SCC1 significantly increased cell death in ATP7B shRNA-treated HepG2 cells. In addition, mTEC from ATP7B{sup -/-} mice showed enhanced loss of ciliated cells compared to wild type. These studies are the first to demonstrate a cell type-specific expression of the Ag{sup +}/Cu{sup +} transporters ATP7A, ATP7B, and CTR1 in airway epithelial cells and a role for ATP7B in detoxification of these metals in the lung.

  12. Go Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenman, Geri

    2000-01-01

    Describes the first assignment for an intermediate oil painting class in which the students painted the human figure. Explains that the assignment involved three techniques: (1) abstract application of acrylic paint; (2) oil "Paintstiks" from Shiva; and (3) a final layer of actual oil paint. (CMK)

  13. Estimated Environmental Exposures for MISSE-7B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Moore, Chip; Norwood, Joseph K.; Henrie, Ben; DeGroh, Kim

    2012-01-01

    This paper details the 18-month environmental exposure for Materials International Space Station Experiment 7B (MISSE-7B) ram and wake sides. This includes atomic oxygen, ultraviolet radiation, particulate radiation, thermal cycling, meteoroid/space debris impacts, and observed contamination. Atomic oxygen fluence was determined by measured mass and thickness loss of polymers of known reactivity. Diodes sensitive to ultraviolet light actively measured solar radiation incident on the experiment. Comparisons to earlier MISSE flights are discussed.

  14. SLUDGE BATCH 7B GLASS VARIABILITY STUDY

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F.; Edwards, T.

    2011-10-25

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) is preparing to initiate processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b). In support of the upcoming processing, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) provided a recommendation to utilize Frits 418 with a 6% Na{sub 2}O addition (26 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) and 702 with a 4% Na{sub 2}O addition (24 wt% Na{sub 2}O in sludge) to process SB7b. This recommendation was based on assessments of the compositional projections for SB7b available at the time from the Savannah River Remediation (SRR). To support qualification of SB7b, SRNL executed a variability study to assess the applicability of the current durability models for SB7b. The durability models were assessed over the expected composition range of SB7b, including potential caustic additions, combined with Frits 702 and 418 over a 32-40% waste loading (WL) range. Thirty four glasses were selected based on Frits 418 and 702 coupled with the sludge projections with an additional 4-6% Na{sub 2}O to reflect the potential caustic addition. Six of these glasses, based on average nominal sludge compositions including the appropriate caustic addition, were developed for both Frit 418 and Frit 702 at 32, 36 and 40% WL to provide coverage in the center of the anticipated SB7b glass region. All glasses were fabricated and characterized using chemical composition analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the Product Consistency Test (PCT). To comply with the DWPF Glass Product Control Program, a total of thirty four glasses were fabricated to assess the applicability of the current DWPF PCCS durability models. Based on the measured PCT response, all of the glasses were acceptable with respect to the Environmental Assessment (EA) benchmark glass regardless of thermal history. The NL[B] values of the SB7b variability study glasses were less than 1.99 g/L as compared to 16.695 g/L for EA. A small number of the D-optimally selected 'outer layer' extreme vertices (EV) glasses were not predictable

  15. Analysis Of The Sludge Batch 7b (Macrobatch 9) DWPF Pour Stream Glass Sample

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, F. C.; Crawford, C. L.; Pareizs, J. M.

    2013-11-18

    The Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) began processing Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b), also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9), in January 2012. SB7b is a blend of the heel of Tank 40 from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and the SB7b material that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. SB7b was processed using Frit 418. During processing of each sludge batch, the DWPF is required to take at least one glass sample to meet the objectives of the Glass Product Control Program (GPCP), which is governed by the DWPF Waste Form Compliance Plan, and to complete the necessary Production Records so that the final glass product may be disposed of at a Federal Repository. Two pour stream glass samples were collected while processing SB7b. The samples were transferred to the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) where one was analyzed and the other was archived. The following conclusions were drawn from the analytical results provided in this report: The sum of oxides for the official SB7b pour stream glass is within the Product Composition Control System (PCCS) limits (95-105 wt%); The average calculated Waste Dilution Factor (WDF) for SB7b is 2.3. In general, the measured radionuclide content of the official SB7b pour stream glass is in good agreement with the calculated values from the Tank 40 dried sludge results from the SB7b Waste Acceptance Program Specification (WAPS) sample; As in previous pour stream samples, ruthenium and rhodium inclusions were detected by Scanning Electron Microscopy-Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) in the SB7b pour stream sample; The Product Consistency Test (PCT) results indicate that the official SB7b pour stream glass meets the waste acceptance criteria for durability with a normalized boron release of 0.8 g/L, which is an order of magnitude less than the Environmental Assessment (EA) glass; The measured density of the SB7b pour stream glass was 2.70 g/cm{sup 3}; The Fe{sup 2+}/ΣFe ratio of the SB7b pour stream samples was 0.07.

  16. Characterization of monoclonal antibodies against feline coronavirus accessory protein 7b.

    PubMed

    Lemmermeyer, Tanja; Lamp, Benjamin; Schneider, Rainer; Ziebuhr, John; Tekes, Gergely; Thiel, Heinz-Jürgen

    2016-02-29

    Feline coronaviruses (FCoVs) encode five accessory proteins termed 3a, 3b, 3c, 7a and 7b of unknown function. These proteins are dispensable for viral replication in vitro but are supposed to play a role in virulence. In the current study, we produced and characterized 7b-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). A recombinant form of the 7b protein was expressed as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli, purified by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and used as immunogen. Two hybridoma lines, 5B6 and 14D8, were isolated that expressed mAbs that recognized 7b proteins of both FCoV serotypes. Using an extensive set of N- and C-terminally truncated 7b proteins expressed in E. coli and a synthetic peptide, the binding sites of mAbs 5B6 and 14D8 were mapped to an 18-residue region that comprises the only potential N-glycosylation site of the FCoV 7b protein. The two mAbs were suitable to detect a 24-kDa protein, which represents the nonglycosylated form of 7b in FCoV-infected cells. We speculate that glycosylation of 7b is part of the viral evasion strategy to prevent an immune response against this antigenic site.

  17. SLUDGE BATCH 7B QUALIFICATION ACTIVITIES WITH SRS TANK FARM SLUDGE

    SciTech Connect

    Pareizs, J.; Click, D.; Lambert, D.; Reboul, S.

    2011-11-16

    Waste Solidification Engineering (WSE) has requested that characterization and a radioactive demonstration of the next batch of sludge slurry - Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) - be completed in the Shielded Cells Facility of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) via a Technical Task Request (TTR). This characterization and demonstration, or sludge batch qualification process, is required prior to transfer of the sludge from Tank 51 to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) feed tank (Tank 40). The current WSE practice is to prepare sludge batches in Tank 51 by transferring sludge from other tanks. Discharges of nuclear materials from H Canyon are often added to Tank 51 during sludge batch preparation. The sludge is washed and transferred to Tank 40, the current DWPF feed tank. Prior to transfer of Tank 51 to Tank 40, SRNL typically simulates the Tank Farm and DWPF processes with a Tank 51 sample (referred to as the qualification sample). With the tight schedule constraints for SB7b and the potential need for caustic addition to allow for an acceptable glass processing window, the qualification for SB7b was approached differently than past batches. For SB7b, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 and a Tank 40 sample for qualification. SRNL did not receive the qualification sample from Tank 51 nor did it simulate all of the Tank Farm washing and decanting operations. Instead, SRNL prepared a Tank 51 SB7b sample from samples of Tank 7 and Tank 51, along with a wash solution to adjust the supernatant composition to the final SB7b Tank 51 Tank Farm projections. SRNL then prepared a sample to represent SB7b in Tank 40 by combining portions of the SRNL-prepared Tank 51 SB7b sample and a Tank 40 Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) sample. The blended sample was 71% Tank 40 (SB7a) and 29% Tank 7/Tank 51 on an insoluble solids basis. This sample is referred to as the SB7b Qualification Sample. The blend represented the highest projected Tank 40 heel (as of May 25, 2011), and thus, the highest

  18. SULFATE SOLUBILITY LIMIT VERIFICATION FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, K.

    2011-10-03

    the targeted values. The results for the SB7b glasses fabricated with Frit 418 showed an apparent trend of increasing sulfate retention with increasing Na{sub 2}O additions to the 5/25/11 sludge projection. This trend appears contradictory to other recent studies of sulfate retention in Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) type glasses. Additional apparent contradictions to this trend were found in the data collected in the present study. Overall, the results for the SB7b sulfate study glasses with Frit 418 and the 5/25/11 projection with Na{sub 2}O additions showed that subtle changes in this complex glass composition impacted the degree of sulfate retention. These results do however provide confidence that a 0.6 wt % sulfate limit in glass is warranted for Frit 418 with the SB7b compositions evaluated in this study. The results for the SB7b glasses fabricated with Frit 702 are consistent with those of the previous SB7a study in that Frit 702 allowed for higher sulfate retention as compared to Frit 418 for the same sludge compositions. It is recommended that the DWPF implement a sulfate concentration limit of 0.6 wt % in glass for SB7b processing with Frit 418. If a higher than projected sulfate concentration is measured when SB7b processing begins (i.e., if a sulfate concentration higher than 0.6 wt % becomes necessary to achieve targeted waste loadings), DWPF should consider a transition to Frit 702. The sulfate limit could likely be raised to 0.8 wt % by transitioning to this frit. However, if DWPF considers transitioning from Frit 418 to Frit 702, additional glasses should be fabricated to confirm this higher limit due to the issues with incorrect B{sub 2}O{sub 3} concentrations for some of the glasses made with Frit 702 in this study. There are several factors other than sulfate retention that must also be carefully considered prior to changing frit compositions.

  19. 10 CFR 110.7b - Deliberate misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Deliberate misconduct. 110.7b Section 110.7b Energy... Provisions § 110.7b Deliberate misconduct. (a) Any licensee, applicant for a license, employee of a licensee... deliberate misconduct that causes or would have caused, if not detected, a licensee or applicant to be...

  20. Gas7b (growth arrest specific protein 7b) regulates neuronal cell morphology by enhancing microtubule and actin filament assembly.

    PubMed

    Gotoh, Aina; Hidaka, Masafumi; Hirose, Keiko; Uchida, Takafumi

    2013-11-29

    Neurons undergo several morphological changes as a part of normal neuron maturation process. Alzheimer disease is associated with increased neuroproliferation and impaired neuronal maturation. In this study, we demonstrated that Gas7b (growth arrest specific protein 7b) expression in a neuronal cell line, Neuro 2A, induces cell maturation by facilitating formation of dendrite-like processes and/or filopodia projections and that Gas7b co-localizes with neurite microtubules. Molecular analysis was performed to evaluate whether Gas7b associates with actin filaments and microtubules, and the data revealed two novel roles of Gas7b in neurite outgrowth: we showed that Gas7b enhances bundling of several microtubule filaments and connects microtubules with actin filaments. These results suggest that Gas7b governs neural cell morphogenesis by enhancing the coordination between actin filaments and microtubules. We conclude that lower neuronal Gas7b levels may impact Alzheimer disease progression.

  1. Determination Of Reportable Radionuclides For DWPF Sludge Batch 7B (Macrobatch 9)

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C. L.; Diprete, D. P.

    2012-12-17

    The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. Twenty-seven radionuclides have been identified as reportable for DWPF SB7b. Each of these radionuclides has a half-life greater than ten years and contributes more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis at some point from production through the 1100 year period between 2015 and 3115. For SB7b, all of the radionuclides in the Design Basis glass are reportable except for three radionuclides: Pd-107, Cs-135, and Th-230. At no time during the 1100- year period between 2015 and 3115 did any of these three radionuclides contribute to more than 0.01% of the radioactivity on a Curie basis. The radionuclide measurements made for SB7b are the most extensive conducted to date. Some method development/refinement occurred during the conduct of these measurements, leading to lower detection limits and more accurate measurement of some isotopes than was previously possible.

  2. All about Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    1993-01-01

    Uses diagrams and text to illustrate the use of Lissajous figures (the figures that are traced out when two simple harmonic motions are combined at right angles to each other) in teaching basic physics concepts. Covers the mathematics of the Lissajous Figure; demonstrating Lissajous Figures; and a typical class. (ZWH)

  3. DWPF SIMULANT CPC STUDIES FOR SB7B

    SciTech Connect

    Koopman, D.

    2011-11-01

    same acid stoichiometric factor. The slow acid addition in MCU seemed to alter the reactions that consumed the small excess acid present such that hydrogen generation was promoted relative to sludge-only processing. The coupled test reached higher wt.% total solids, and this likely contributed to the SME cycle hydrogen limit being exceeded at 110% KMA. It is clear from the trends in the SME processing GC data, however, that the frit slurry formic acid contributed to driving the hydrogen generation rate above the SME cycle limit. Hydrogen generation rates after the second frit addition generally exceeded those after the first frit addition. SRAT formate loss increased with increasing acid stoichiometry (15% to 35%). A substantial nitrate gain which was observed to have occurred after acid addition (and nitrite destruction) was reversed to a net nitrate loss in runs with higher acid stoichiometry (nitrate in SRAT product less than sum of sludge nitrate and added nitric acid). Increased ammonium ion formation was also indicated in the runs with nitrate loss. Oxalate loss on the order 20% was indicated in three of the four acid stoichiometry runs and in the coupled flowsheet run. The minimum acid stoichiometry run had no indicated loss. The losses were of the same order as the official analytical uncertainty of the oxalate concentration measurement, but were not randomly distributed about zero loss, so some actual loss was likely occurring. Based on the entire set of SB7b test data, it is recommended that DWPF avoid concentrating additional sludge solids in single SRAT batches to limit the concentrations of noble metals to SB7a processing levels (on a grams noble metal per SRAT batch basis). It is also recommended that DWPF drop the formic acid addition that accompanies the process frit 418 additions, since SME cycle data showed considerable catalytic activity for hydrogen generation from this additional acid (about 5% increase in stoichiometry occurred from the frit

  4. Age-related change in plasma concentration of 7B2(a novel pituitary polypeptide) in normal humans

    SciTech Connect

    Natori, S.; Iguchi, H.; Nawata, H.; Kato, K.; Ibayashi, H.; Chretian, M.

    1987-08-24

    Using a specific radioimmunoassay, the authors measured concentrations of plasma 7B2(a novel pituitary polypeptide) immunoreactivity(7B2-IR) in normal human subjects, patients with chronic renal failure and those with liver cirrhosis. Mean(+/-SEM) values of plasma 7B2-IR in normal healthy men and women were 55.8 +/- 1.2 pg/ml (n=266) and 56.1 +/- 0.9 pg/ml (n = 408), respectively. The elevation of plasma 7B2-IR showed a relationship with age of the subjects, in both men(r=0.39, t = 6.86, p < 0.001) and women (r=0.35, t=7.44, p < 0.001). Plasma 7B2-IR concentrations were elevated in patients with chronic renal failure (536 +/- 45 pg/ml, Mean +/- SEM, n = 10) as well as those in liver cirrhosis (95 +/- 10 pg/ml, Mean +/- SEM, n = 15) compared to values in normal subjects, suggesting that 7B2 is mainly eliminated through the kidney and is partly metabolized in the liver. 10 references, 4 figures.

  5. 7. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. B & O RAILROAD BRIDGE. PHILADELPHIA, PHILADELPHIA CO., PA. Sec. 1101, MP 3.11. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak route between Delaware-Pennsylvania & Pennsylvania-New Jersey state lines, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  6. Neuroendocrine secretory protein 7B2: structure, expression and functions.

    PubMed Central

    Mbikay, M; Seidah, N G; Chrétien, M

    2001-01-01

    7B2 is an acidic protein residing in the secretory granules of neuroendocrine cells. Its sequence has been elucidated in many phyla and species. It shows high similarity among mammals. A Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Cys-Pro polyproline motif is its most conserved feature, being carried by both vertebrate and invertebrate sequences. It is biosynthesized as a precursor protein that is cleaved into an N-terminal fragment and a C-terminal peptide. In neuroendocrine cells, 7B2 functions as a specific chaperone for the proprotein convertase (PC) 2. Through the sequence around its Pro-Pro-Asn-Pro-Cys-Pro motif, it binds to an inactive proPC2 and facilitates its transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to later compartments of the secretory pathway where the zymogen is proteolytically matured and activated. Its C-terminal peptide can inhibit PC2 in vitro and may contribute to keep the enzyme transiently inactive in vivo. The PC2-7B2 model defines a new neuroendocrine paradigm whereby proteolytic activation of prohormones and proneuropeptides in the secretory pathway is spatially and temporally regulated by the dynamics of interactions between converting enzymes and their binding proteins. Interestingly, unlike PC2-null mice, which are viable, 7B2-null mutants die early in life from Cushing's disease due to corticotropin ('ACTH') hypersecretion by the neurointermediate lobe, suggesting a possible involvement of 7B2 in secretory granule formation and in secretion regulation. The mechanism of this regulation is yet to be elucidated. 7B2 has been shown to be a good marker of several neuroendocrine cell dysfunctions in humans. The possibility that anomalies in its structure and expression could be aetiological causes of some of these dysfunctions warrants investigation. PMID:11439082

  7. Overview of Materials International Space Station Experiment 7B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaworske, Donald A.; Siamidis, John

    2009-01-01

    Materials International Space Station Experiment 7B (MISSE 7B) is the most recent in a series of experiments flown on the exterior of International Space Station for the purpose of determining the durability of materials and components in the space environment. A collaborative effort among the Department of Defense, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, industry, and academia, MISSE 7B will be flying a number of NASA experiments designed to gain knowledge in the area of space environmental effects to mitigate risk for exploration missions. Consisting of trays called Passive Experiment Containers, the suitcase sized payload opens on hinges and allows active and passive experiments contained within to be exposed to the ram and wake or zenith and nadir directions in low Earth orbit, in essence, providing a test bed for atomic oxygen exposure, ultraviolet radiation exposure, charged particle radiation exposure, and thermal cycling. New for MISSE 7B is the ability to monitor experiments actively, with data sent back to Earth via International Space Station communications. NASA?s active and passive experiments cover a range of interest for the Agency. Materials relevant to the Constellation Program include: solar array materials, seal materials, and thermal protection system materials. Materials relevant to the Exploration Technology Development Program include: fabrics for spacesuits, materials for lunar dust mitigation, and new thermal control coatings. Sensors and components on MISSE 7B include: atomic oxygen fluence monitors, ultraviolet radiation sensors, and electro-optical components. In addition, fundamental space environmental durability science experiments are being flown to gather atomic oxygen erosion data and thin film polymer mechanical and optical property data relevant to lunar lander insulation and the James Web Space Telescope. This paper will present an overview of the NASA experiments to be flown on MISSE 7B, along with a summary of the

  8. Facts and Figures

    MedlinePlus

    ... Saves Lives Facts & Figures My Blood, Your Blood Blood Donation Types Did you know there is more than one type of blood donation? Learn more about blood donation types here. Blood Safety and Testing The blood supply ...

  9. Figurative Language Awards Ceremony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fink, Lisa

    Figurative language enlivens a text, providing visuals in the minds of readers. This lesson will have students listening to and reading selected texts as they seek out their favorite literary devices. During the five to seven 50-minute sessions, grade three through five students will: acquire a clear understanding of the concept of figurative…

  10. OECD in Figures, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OECD Publishing (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    "OECD in Figures" is a primary statistical source for key data on OECD countries, ranging from economic growth and employment to inflation, trade and environment. Information is presented in tabular form for: (1) Demography and Health; (2) Economy; (3) Energy; (4) Labour; (5) Science and Technology; (6) Environment; (7) Education; (8)…

  11. Wnt7b is an important intrinsic regulator of hair follicle stem cell homeostasis and hair follicle cycling.

    PubMed

    Kandyba, Eve; Kobielak, Krzysztof

    2014-04-01

    The hair follicle (HF) is an exceptional mini-organ to study the mechanisms which regulate HF morphogenesis, cycling, hair follicle stem cell (hfSCs) homeostasis, and progeny differentiation. During morphogenesis, Wnt signaling is well-characterized in the initiation of HF patterning but less is known about which particular Wnt ligands are required and whether individual Wnt ligands act in an indispensable or redundant manner during postnatal hfSCs anagen onset and HF cycle progression. Previously, we described the function of the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling target gene WNT7a in intrinsic regulation of hfSCs homeostasis in vivo. Here, we investigated the role of Wnt7b, which was also intrinsically upregulated in hfSCs during physiological and precocious anagen after BMP inhibition in vivo. We demonstrated Wnt7b to be a direct target of canonical BMP signaling in hfSCs and using Wnt7b conditional gene targeting during HF morphogenesis revealed disrupted HF cycling including a shorter anagen, premature catagen onset with overall shorter hair production, and diminished HF differentiation marker expression. Additionally, we observed that postnatal ablation of Wnt7b resulted in delayed HF activation, affecting both the hair germ and bulge hfSCs but still maintaining a two-step sequence of HF stimulation. Interestingly, Wnt7b cKO hfSCs participated in reformation of the new HF bulge, but with slower self-renewal. These findings demonstrate the importance of intrinsic Wnt7b expression in hfSCs regulation and normal HF cycling and surprisingly reveal a nonredundant role for Wnt7b in the control of HF anagen length and catagen entry which was not compensated by other Wnt ligands.

  12. THE MASS OF CoRoT-7b

    SciTech Connect

    Hatzes, Artie P.; Wuchterl, Guenther; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gandolfi, Davide; Nachmani, Gil; Mazeh, Tsevi; Valencia, Diana; Hebrard, Guillaume; Borde, Pascal; Carone, Ludmila; Paetzold, Martin; Udry, Stephane; Bouchy, Francois; Deleuil, Magali; Moutou, Claire; Barge, Pierre; Deeg, Hans; Tingley, Brandon; Dvorak, Rudolf; Ferraz-Mello, Sylvio E-mail: malcolm.fridlund@esa.int; and others

    2011-12-10

    The mass of CoRoT-7b, the first transiting super-Earth exoplanet, is still a subject of debate. A wide range of masses have been reported in the literature ranging from as high as 8 M{sub Circled-Plus} to as low as 2.3 M{sub Circled-Plus }. This range in mass is largely due to the activity level of the star that contributes a significant amount of radial velocity (RV) 'jitter' and how the various methods correct this jitter. Although most mass determinations give a density consistent with a rocky planet, the lower value permits a bulk composition that can be up to 50% water. We present an analysis of the CoRoT-7b RV measurements that uses very few and simple assumptions in treating the activity signal. By analyzing those RV data for which multiple measurements were made in a given night, we remove the activity related RV contribution without any a priori model. We argue that the contribution of activity to the final RV curve is negligible and that the K-amplitude due to the planet is well constrained. This yields a mass of 7.42 {+-} 1.21 M{sub Circled-Plus} and a mean density of {rho} = 10.4 {+-} 1.8 gm cm{sup -3}. CoRoT-7b is similar in mass and radius to the second rocky planet to be discovered, Kepler-10b, and within the errors they have identical bulk densities-they are virtual twins. These bulk densities lie close to the density-radius relationship for terrestrial planets similar to what is seen for Mercury. CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b may have an internal structure more like Mercury than the Earth.

  13. Tank 40 Final SB7b Chemical Characterization Results

    SciTech Connect

    Bannochie, C. J.

    2012-11-06

    A sample of Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) was taken from Tank 40 in order to obtain radionuclide inventory analyses necessary for compliance with the Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS). The SB7b WAPS sample was also analyzed for chemical composition including noble metals and fissile constituents. At the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) the 3-L Tank 40 SB7b sample was transferred from the shipping container into a 4-L high density polyethylene bottle and solids were allowed to settle over the weekend. Supernate was then siphoned off and circulated through the shipping container to complete the transfer of the sample. Following thorough mixing of the 3-L sample, a 558 g sub-sample was removed. This sub-sample was then utilized for all subsequent analytical samples. Eight separate aliquots of the slurry were digested, four with HNO{sub 3}/HCl (aqua regia) in sealed Teflon vessels and four with NaOH/Na{sub 2}O{sub 2} (alkali or peroxide fusion) using Zr crucibles. Two Analytical Reference Glass ? 1 (ARG-1) standards were digested along with a blank for each preparation. Each aqua regia digestion and blank was diluted to 1:100 mL with deionized water and submitted to Analytical Development (AD) for inductively coupled plasma ? atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analysis, inductively coupled plasma ? mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis, atomic absorption spectroscopy (AA) for As and Se, and cold vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy (CV-AA) for Hg. Equivalent dilutions of the alkali fusion digestions and blank were submitted to AD for ICP-AES analysis. Tank 40 SB7b supernate was collected from a mixed slurry sample in the SRNL Shielded Cells and submitted to AD for ICP-AES, ion chromatography (IC), total base/free OH{sup -}/other base, total inorganic carbon/total organic carbon (TIC/TOC) analyses, and Cs-137 gamma scan. Weighted dilutions of slurry were submitted for IC, TIC/TOC, and total base/free OH-/other base analyses. Activities for U-233, U-235

  14. Lunar Regolith Figures of Merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Scjrader. Cjrostoam; Jpe (zer. Jams); Fourroux, Kathy

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the lunar regolith figures of merit. The contents include: 1) A quick review of Figures-of-Merit (FoM); 2) Software Implementation of FoM Algorithms; and 3) Demonstration of the Software.

  15. Making better scientific figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Ed; McNeall, Doug

    2016-04-01

    In the words of the UK government chief scientific adviser "Science is not finished until it's communicated" (Walport 2013). The tools to produce good visual communication have never been so easily accessible to scientists as at the present. Correspondingly, it has never been easier to produce and disseminate poor graphics. In this presentation, we highlight some good practice and offer some practical advice in preparing scientific figures for presentation to peers or to the public. We identify common mistakes in visualisation, including some made by the authors, and offer some good reasons not to trust defaults in graphics software. In particular, we discuss the use of colour scales and share our experiences in running a social media campaign (http://tiny.cc/endrainbow) to replace the "rainbow" (also "jet", or "spectral") colour scale as the default in (climate) scientific visualisation.

  16. KEPLER-7b: A TRANSITING PLANET WITH UNUSUALLY LOW DENSITY

    SciTech Connect

    Latham, David W.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Furesz, Gabor; Geary, John C.; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.; Brown, Timothy M.; Basri, Gibor; Batalha, Natalie M.; Caldwell, Douglas A.; Jenkins, Jon M.; Cochran, William D.; Dunham, Edward W.; Gautier, Thomas N.; Howell, Steve B.; Marcy, Geoffrey W.; Monet, David G.

    2010-04-20

    We report on the discovery and confirmation of Kepler-7b, a transiting planet with unusually low density. The mass is less than half that of Jupiter, M {sub P} = 0.43 M {sub J}, but the radius is 50% larger, R {sub P} = 1.48 R {sub J}. The resulting density, {rho}{sub P} = 0.17 g cm{sup -3}, is the second lowest reported so far for an extrasolar planet. The orbital period is fairly long, P = 4.886 days, and the host star is not much hotter than the Sun, T {sub eff} = 6000 K. However, it is more massive and considerably larger than the Sun, M {sub *} = 1.35 M {sub sun} and R {sub *} = 1.84 R {sub sun}, and must be near the end of its life on the main sequence.

  17. The Theory of Figural Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Efraim

    1993-01-01

    The main thesis of the paper is that geometry deals with mental entities (the so-called geometrical figures) which possess simultaneously conceptual and figural characters. The paper analyzes the internal tensions which may arise in figural concepts because of their double nature, developmental aspects, and didactical implications. (Author/MDH)

  18. THE HIGH ALBEDO OF THE HOT JUPITER KEPLER-7 b

    SciTech Connect

    Demory, Brice-Olivier; Seager, Sara; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Kjeldsen, Hans; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Gillon, Michael; Rowe, Jason F.; Borucki, William J.; Koch, David G.; Welsh, William F.; Adams, Elisabeth R.; Dupree, Andrea; McCarthy, Don; Kulesa, Craig

    2011-07-01

    Hot Jupiters are expected to be dark from both observations (albedo upper limits) and theory (alkali metals and/or TiO and VO absorption). However, only a handful of hot Jupiters have been observed with high enough photometric precision at visible wavelengths to investigate these expectations. The NASA Kepler mission provides a means to widen the sample and to assess the extent to which hot Jupiter albedos are low. We present a global analysis of Kepler-7 b based on Q0-Q4 data, published radial velocities, and asteroseismology constraints. We measure an occultation depth in the Kepler bandpass of 44 {+-} 5 ppm. If directly related to the albedo, this translates to a Kepler geometric albedo of 0.32 {+-} 0.03, the most precise value measured so far for an exoplanet. We also characterize the planetary orbital phase light curve with an amplitude of 42 {+-} 4 ppm. Using atmospheric models, we find it unlikely that the high albedo is due to a dominant thermal component and propose two solutions to explain the observed planetary flux. First, we interpret the Kepler-7 b albedo as resulting from an excess reflection over what can be explained solely by Rayleigh scattering, along with a nominal thermal component. This excess reflection might indicate the presence of a cloud or haze layer in the atmosphere, motivating new modeling and observational efforts. Alternatively, the albedo can be explained by Rayleigh scattering alone if Na and K are depleted in the atmosphere by a factor of 10-100 below solar abundances.

  19. DETERMINATION OF REPORTABLE RADIONUCLIDES FOR DWPF SLUDGE BATCH 7B (MACROBATCH 9)

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C. L.; Diprete, D. P.

    2014-05-01

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that “The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115”. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu- 242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to

  20. Determination Of Reportable Radionuclides For DWPF Sludge Batch 7B (Macrobatch 9)

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, C. L.; DiPrete, D. P.

    2013-08-22

    The Waste Acceptance Product Specifications (WAPS) 1.2 require that “The Producer shall report the inventory of radionuclides (in Curies) that have half-lives longer than 10 years and that are, or will be, present in concentrations greater than 0.05 percent of the total inventory for each waste type indexed to the years 2015 and 3115”. As part of the strategy to comply with WAPS 1.2, the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) will report for each waste type, all radionuclides (with half-lives greater than 10 years) that have concentrations greater than 0.01 percent of the total inventory from time of production through the 1100 year period from 2015 through 3115. The initial listing of radionuclides to be included is based on the design-basis glass as identified in the Waste Form Compliance Plan (WCP) and Waste Form Qualification Report (WQR). However, it is required that this list be expanded if other radionuclides with half-lives greater than 10 years are identified that may meet the greater than 0.01% criterion for Curie content. Specification 1.6 of the WAPS, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safeguards Reporting for High Level Waste (HLW), requires that the ratio by weights of the following uranium and plutonium isotopes be reported: U-233, U-234, U-235, U-236, U-238, Pu-238, Pu-239, Pu-240, Pu-241, and Pu-242. Therefore, the complete set of reportable radionuclides must also include this set of U and Pu isotopes. The DWPF is receiving radioactive sludge slurry from HLW Tank 40. The radioactive sludge slurry in Tank 40 is a blend of the heel from Sludge Batch 7a (SB7a) and Sludge Batch 7b (SB7b) that was transferred to Tank 40 from Tank 51. The blend of sludge in Tank 40 is also referred to as Macrobatch 9 (MB9). This report develops the list of reportable radionuclides and associated activities as a function of time. The DWPF will use this list and the activities as one of the inputs for the development of the Production Records that relate to

  1. Li-6/Li-7, B-10/B-11, and Li-7/B-11/Si-28 individual IDPs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Xu, Y.-L.; Song, L.-G.; Zhang, Y.-X.; Fan, C.-Y.

    1994-01-01

    At the initial stage of the development of our solar system, the solar nebula is presumably composed of H-1, H-2, He-3, He-4, and Li-7, which were made during the Big Band, and C, N, O, . . ., which are products of nearby supernova explosions. Li-6 nuclei (together with about equal amounts of Li-7), Be-9, B-10, and B-11 were produced later by cosmic ray particles bombarding the local interstellar C, N, O, . . . nuclei before the nebula condensed to become the Sun and the planets. Thus, the ratio Li-6/Li-7 is a measure of the length of the early epoch of the solar system. In this paper we shall report the measurement of Li-7/Li-6, B-11/B-10, and Li-7/B-11/Si-28 of four IDP's obtained from Johnson Space Center and discuss the findings.

  2. Figure Analysis: An Implementation Dialogue

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiles, Amy M.

    2016-01-01

    Figure analysis is a novel active learning teaching technique that reinforces visual literacy. Small groups of students discuss diagrams in class in order to learn content. The instructor then gives a brief introduction and later summarizes the content of the figure. This teaching technique can be used in place of lecture as a mechanism to deliver…

  3. Three-Dimensional Lissajous Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Mura, John M.

    1989-01-01

    Described is a mechanically driven device for generating three-dimensional harmonic space figures with different frequencies and phase angles on the X, Y, and Z axes. Discussed are apparatus, viewing stereo pairs, equations of motion, and using space figures in classroom. (YP)

  4. Wnt7b stimulates embryonic lung growth by coordinately increasing the replication of epithelium and mesenchyme.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Jayaraj; Carroll, Thomas J; Guseh, J Sawalla; Bores, Sam A; Blank, Leah J; Anderson, William J; Yu, Jing; Zhou, Qiao; McMahon, Andrew P; Melton, Douglas A

    2008-05-01

    The effects of Wnt7b on lung development were examined using a conditional Wnt7b-null mouse. Wnt7b-null lungs are markedly hypoplastic, yet display largely normal patterning and cell differentiation. In contrast to findings in prior hypomorphic Wnt7b models, we find decreased replication of both developing epithelium and mesenchyme, without abnormalities of vascular smooth muscle development. We further demonstrate that Wnt7b signals to neighboring cells to activate both autocrine and paracrine canonical Wnt signaling cascades. In contrast to results from hypomorphic models, we show that Wnt7b modulates several important signaling pathways in the lung. Together, these cascades result in the coordinated proliferation of adjacent epithelial and mesenchymal cells to stimulate organ growth with few alterations in differentiation and patterning.

  5. R-X Modeling Figures

    SciTech Connect

    Goda, Joetta Marie; Miller, Thomas; Grogan, Brandon

    2016-10-26

    This document contains figures that will be included in an ORNL final report that details computational efforts to model an irradiation experiment performed on the Godiva IV critical assembly. This experiment was a collaboration between LANL and ORNL.

  6. Facts and Figures on Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Room Position Statements AAPM Facts and Figures on Pain Overview What is Chronic Pain? Incidence of Pain, ... of them. Back to Top What is Chronic Pain? While acute pain is a normal sensation triggered ...

  7. Let-7b Inhibits Human Cancer Phenotype by Targeting Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenase 2J2

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shenglan; Gong, Wei; Wang, Yan; Cianflone, Katherine; Tang, Jiarong; Wang, Dao Wen

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules of 20 to 22 nucleotides that regulate gene expression by binding to their 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR). Increasing data implicate altered miRNA participation in the progress of cancer. We previously reported that CYP2J2 epoxygenase promotes human cancer phenotypes. But whether and how CYP2J2 is regulated by miRNA is not understood. Methods and Results Using bioinformatics analysis, we found potential target sites for miRNA let-7b in 3′UTR of human CYP2J2. Luciferase and western blot assays revealed that CYP2J2 was regulated by let-7b. In addition, let-7b decreased the enzymatic activity of endogenous CYP2J2. Furthermore, let-7b may diminish cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis of tumor cells via posttranscriptional repression of CYP2J2. Tumor xenografts were induced in nude mice by subcutaneous injection of MDA-MB-435 cells. The let-7b expression vector, pSilencer-let-7b, was injected through tail vein every 3 weeks. Let-7b significantly inhibited the tumor phenotype by targeting CYP2J2. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to determine the expression levels of let-7b and CYP2J2 protein from 18 matched lung squamous cell cancer and adjacent normal lung tissues; the expression level of CYP2J2 was inversely proportional to that of let-7b. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the decreased expression of let-7b could lead to the high expression of CYP2J2 protein in cancerous tissues. These findings suggest that miRNA let-7b reduces CYP2J2 expression, which may contribute to inhibiting tumor phenotypes. PMID:22761738

  8. Copper binding triggers compaction in N-terminal tail of human copper pump ATP7B.

    PubMed

    Mondol, Tanumoy; Åden, Jörgen; Wittung-Stafshede, Pernilla

    2016-02-12

    Protein conformational changes are fundamental to biological reactions. For copper ion transport, the multi-domain protein ATP7B in the Golgi network receives copper from the cytoplasmic copper chaperone Atox1 and, with energy from ATP hydrolysis, moves the metal to the lumen for loading of copper-dependent enzymes. Although anticipated, conformational changes involved in ATP7B's functional cycle remain elusive. Using spectroscopic methods we here demonstrate that the four most N-terminal metal-binding domains in ATP7B, upon stoichiometric copper addition, adopt a more compact arrangement which has a higher thermal stability than in the absence of copper. In contrast to previous reports, no stable complex was found in solution between the metal-binding domains and the nucleotide-binding domain of ATP7B. Metal-dependent movement of the first four metal-binding domains in ATP7B may be a trigger that initiates the overall catalytic cycle.

  9. MicroRNA let-7b regulates genomic balance by targeting Aurora B kinase.

    PubMed

    Mäki-Jouppila, Jenni Heidi Eveliina; Pruikkonen, Sofia; Tambe, Mahesh Balasaheb; Aure, Miriam Ragle; Halonen, Tuuli; Salmela, Anna-Leena; Laine, Leena; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Kallio, Marko Johannes

    2015-06-01

    The let-7 microRNA (miRNA) family has been implicated in the regulation of diverse cellular processes and disease pathogenesis. In cancer, loss-of-function of let-7 miRNAs has been linked to tumorigenesis via increased expression of target oncogenes. Excessive proliferation rate of tumor cells is often associated with deregulation of mitotic proteins. Here, we show that let-7b contributes to the maintenance of genomic balance via targeting Aurora B kinase, a key regulator of the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC). Our results indicate that let-7b binds to Aurora B kinase 3'UTR reducing mRNA and protein expression of the kinase. In cells, excess let-7b induced mitotic defects characteristic to Aurora B perturbation including increased rate of polyploidy and multipolarity, and premature SAC inactivation that leads to forced exit from chemically induced mitotic arrest. Moreover, the frequency of aneuploid HCT-116 cells was significantly increased upon let-7b overexpression compared to controls. Interestingly, together with a chemical Aurora B inhibitor, let-7b had an additive effect on polyploidy induction in HeLa cells. In breast cancer patients, reduced let-7b expression was found to be associated with increased Aurora B expression in grade 3 tumors. Furthermore, let-7b was found downregulated in the most aggressive forms of breast cancer determined by clinicopathological parameters. Together, our findings suggest that let-7b contributes to the fidelity of cell division via regulation of Aurora B. Moreover, the loss of let-7b in aggressive tumors may drive tumorigenesis by up-regulation of Aurora B and other targets of the miRNA, which further supports the role of let-7b in tumor suppression.

  10. Figure analysis: An implementation dialogue.

    PubMed

    Wiles, Amy M

    2016-07-08

    Figure analysis is a novel active learning teaching technique that reinforces visual literacy. Small groups of students discuss diagrams in class in order to learn content. The instructor then gives a brief introduction and later summarizes the content of the figure. This teaching technique can be used in place of lecture as a mechanism to deliver information to students. Here, a "how to" guide is presented in the form of an in-class dialogue, displaying the difficulties in visual interpretation that some students may experience while figure analysis is being implemented in an upper-level, cell biology course. Additionally, the dialogue serves as a guide for instructors who may implement the active learning technique as they consider how to respond to students' concerns in class. © 2016 by The International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 44(4):345-348, 2016.

  11. Concepts and Figures in Geometric Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischbein, Efraim; Nachlieli, Talli

    1998-01-01

    Opens with the theoretical construct of figural concepts. Argues that geometrical figures are characterized by both conceptual and sensorial properties. Investigates the effects of interaction between conceptual and figural components. Contains 19 references. (DDR)

  12. Rab7b at the intersection of intracellular trafficking and cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Distefano, Marita Borg; Kjos, Ingrid; Bakke, Oddmund; Progida, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Rab proteins are small GTPases essential for controlling and coordinating intracellular traffic. The small GTPase Rab7b regulates the retrograde transport from late endosomes toward the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN), and is important for the proper trafficking of several receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and sorting receptors. We recently identified the actin motor protein myosin II as a new interaction partner for Rab7b, and found that Rab7b transport is dependent on myosin II. Interestingly, we also discovered that Rab7b influences the phosphorylation state of myosin II by controlling the activation status of the small GTPase RhoA. Consequently, Rab7b is important for the remodeling of actin filaments in processes such as stress fiber formation, cell adhesion, polarization and cell migration. Our finding that Rab7b can control actomyosin reorganization reveals yet another important role for Rab proteins, in addition to their already established role as master regulators of intracellular transport. Here we discuss our findings and speculate how they can explain the importance of Rab7b in dendritic cells (DCs). PMID:27066171

  13. Rab7b at the intersection of intracellular trafficking and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Distefano, Marita Borg; Kjos, Ingrid; Bakke, Oddmund; Progida, Cinzia

    2015-01-01

    Rab proteins are small GTPases essential for controlling and coordinating intracellular traffic. The small GTPase Rab7b regulates the retrograde transport from late endosomes toward the Trans-Golgi Network (TGN), and is important for the proper trafficking of several receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and sorting receptors. We recently identified the actin motor protein myosin II as a new interaction partner for Rab7b, and found that Rab7b transport is dependent on myosin II. Interestingly, we also discovered that Rab7b influences the phosphorylation state of myosin II by controlling the activation status of the small GTPase RhoA. Consequently, Rab7b is important for the remodeling of actin filaments in processes such as stress fiber formation, cell adhesion, polarization and cell migration. Our finding that Rab7b can control actomyosin reorganization reveals yet another important role for Rab proteins, in addition to their already established role as master regulators of intracellular transport. Here we discuss our findings and speculate how they can explain the importance of Rab7b in dendritic cells (DCs).

  14. Spontaneous mutation 7B-1 in tomato impairs blue light-induced stomatal opening.

    PubMed

    Hlavinka, Jan; Nauš, Jan; Fellner, Martin

    2013-08-01

    It was reported earlier that 7B-1 mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.), an ABA overproducer, is defective in blue light (BL) signaling leading to BL-specific resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. In this work, we examine responses of stomata to blue, red and white lights, fusicoccin, anion channel blockers (anthracene-9-carboxylic acid; 9-AC and niflumic acid; NIF) and ABA. Our results showed that the aperture of 7B-1 stomata does not increase in BL, suggesting that 7B-1 mutation impairs an element of BL signaling pathway involved in stomatal opening. Similar stomatal responses of 7B-1 and wild type (WT) to fusicoccin or 9-AC points out that activity of H(+)-ATPase and 9-AC-sensitive anion channels per se is not likely affected by the mutation. Since 9-AC restored stomatal opening of 7B-1 in BL, it seems that 9-AC and BL could block similar type of anion channels. The stomata of both genotypes did not respond to NIF neither in darkness nor in any light conditions tested. In light, 9-AC but not NIF restored stomatal opening inhibited by ABA in WT and 7B-1. We suggest that in comparison to WT, the activity of S-type anion channels in 7B-1 is more promoted by increased ABA content, and less reduced by BL, because of the mutant resistance to BL.

  15. Choreography Styles in Figure Skating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moormann, Peter Paul

    2006-01-01

    Fifty-eight figure skating trainers from fifteen different countries acted as volunteers in this study on choreography styles. The styles were based on reports of artistic-creative strategies in composing music, drawing, writing poems or novels, and in making dances. The prevalence of the Mozartian (at the onset the choreographer already has a…

  16. Storytelling Figures: A Pueblo Tradition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraus, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    In a collaborative unit on pueblo storytelling figures involving art, music, language arts, and physical education, a teacher describes how she helped second graders understand the Pueblo pottery tradition by reading aloud literature covering the past and present. Lists folklore, fiction, poetry, nonfiction, professional resources, videos, CDs,…

  17. Effects of CYP7B1-mediated catalysis on estrogen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Pettersson, Hanna; Lundqvist, Johan; Norlin, Maria

    2010-09-01

    Most of the many biological effects of estrogens are mediated via the estrogen receptors ERalpha and beta. The current study examines the role of CYP7B1-mediated catalysis for activation of ER. Several reports suggest that CYP7B1 may be important for hormonal action but previously published studies are contradictory concerning the manner in which CYP7B1 affects ERbeta-mediated response. In the current study, we examined effects of several CYP7B1-related steroids on ER activation, using an estrogen response element (ERE) reporter system. Our studies showed significant stimulation of ER by 5-androstene-3beta,17beta-diol (Aene-diol) and 5alpha-androstane-3beta,17beta-diol (3beta-Adiol). In contrast, the CYP7B1-formed metabolites from these steroids did not activate the receptor, indicating that CYP7B1-mediated metabolism abolishes the ER-stimulating effect of these compounds. The mRNA level of HEM45, a gene known to be stimulated by estrogens, was strongly up-regulated by Aene-diol but not by its CYP7B1-formed metabolite, further supporting this concept. We did not observe stimulation by dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) or 7alpha-hydroxy-DHEA, previously suggested to affect ERbeta-mediated response. As part of these studies we examined metabolism of Aene-diol in pig liver which is high in CYP7B1 content. These experiments indicate that CYP7B1-mediated metabolism of Aene-diol is of a similar rate as the metabolism of the well-known CYP7B1 substrates DHEA and 3beta-Adiol. CYP7B1-mediated metabolism of 3beta-Adiol has been proposed to influence ERbeta-mediated growth suppression. Our results indicate that Aene-diol also might be important for ER-related pathways. Our data indicate that low concentrations of Aene-diol can trigger ER-mediated response equally well for both ERalpha and beta and that CYP7B1-mediated conversion of Aene-diol into a 7alpha-hydroxymetabolite will result in loss of action.

  18. Theory in Biology: Figure 1 or Figure 7?

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The pace of modern science is staggering. The quantities of data now flowing from DNA sequencers, fluorescence and electron microscopes, mass spectrometers and other mind-blowing instruments leave us faced with information overload. This explosion in data has brought on its heels a concomitant need for efforts at the kinds of synthesis and unification we see in theoretical physics. Often in cell biology, when theoretical modeling takes place, it is as a figure 7 reflection on experiments that have already been done, with data fitting providing a metric of success. Figure 1 theory, by way of contrast, is about living dangerously by turning our thinking into formal mathematical predictions and confronting that math with experiments that have not yet been done. PMID:26584768

  19. Theory in Biology: Figure 1 or Figure 7?

    PubMed

    Phillips, Rob

    2015-12-01

    The pace of modern science is staggering. The quantities of data now flowing from DNA sequencers, fluorescence and electron microscopes, mass spectrometers, and other mind-blowing instruments leave us faced with information overload. This explosion in data has brought on its heels a concomitant need for efforts at the kinds of synthesis and unification we see in theoretical physics. Often in cell biology, when theoretical modeling takes place, it is as a figure 7 reflection on experiments that have already been done, with data fitting providing a metric of success. Figure 1 theory, by way of contrast, is about living dangerously by turning our thinking into formal mathematical predictions and confronting that math with experiments that have not yet been done.

  20. Results of International Space Station Vehicle Materials Exposed on MISSE-7B

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finckenor, Miria M.; Golden, Johnny L.; O'Rourke, Mary Jane E.; Kravchenko, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Materials samples were exposed to the low Earth orbit (LEO) environment as part of the MISSE-7B flight experiment for 18 months. Optical properties, thickness/mass loss, surface elemental analysis, visual and microscopic analysis for surface change are some of the techniques employed in this investigation. Where possible, the MISSE-7B results are compared to analyses from other LEO experiments. ISS materials currently flying on MISSE-8 are also discussed.

  1. Transcriptional regulation of male-sterility in 7B-1 male-sterile tomato mutant

    PubMed Central

    Omidvar, Vahid; Mohorianu, Irina; Dalmay, Tamas; Zheng, Yi; Fei, Zhangjun; Pucci, Anna; Mazzucato, Andrea; Večeřová, Vendula; Sedlářova, Michaela; Fellner, Martin

    2017-01-01

    The 7B-1 tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. cv Rutgers) is a male-sterile mutant with enhanced tolerance to abiotic stress, which makes it a potential candidate for hybrid seed breeding and stress engineering. To underline the molecular mechanism regulating the male-sterility in 7B-1, transcriptomic profiles of the 7B-1 male-sterile and wild type (WT) anthers were studied using mRNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). In total, 768 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified, including 132 up-regulated and 636 down-regulated transcripts. Gene ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of DEGs suggested a general impact of the 7B-1 mutation on metabolic processes, such as proteolysis and carbohydrate catabolic process. Sixteen candidates with key roles in regulation of anther development were subjected to further analysis using qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization. Cytological studies showed several defects associated with anther development in the 7B-1 mutant, including unsynchronized anther maturation, dysfunctional meiosis, arrested microspores, defect in callose degradation and abnormal tapetum development. TUNEL assay showed a defect in programmed cell death (PCD) of tapetal cells in 7B-1 anthers. The present study provides insights into the transcriptome of the 7B-1 mutant. We identified several genes with altered expression level in 7B-1 (including beta-1,3 glucanase, GA2oxs, cystatin, cysteine protease, pectinesterase, TA29, and actin) that could potentially regulate anther developmental processes, such as meiosis, tapetum development, and cell-wall formation/degradation. PMID:28178307

  2. Figural symbolism in Chinese ideographs.

    PubMed

    Koriat, A; Levy, I

    1979-07-01

    Hebrew-speaking subjects were presented with 42 pairs of Chinese characters designating antonymic concepts and were required to match them with their corresponding Hebrew words. Correct translation was significant and was related to foreign language study and academic experience. Highest success was found for the activity domain of the semantic differential and for attributes judged to afford a diagrammatic representation. Examination of the character-referent relationships suggested that translation success was due to principles of figural symbolism rather than to pictographic representation of the attributes in question. The results are seen as suggestive of the effects of figural symbolization on the invention and/or evolution of natural scripts and are discussed in terms of the manner in which the graphic medium has been fashioned to convey abstract concepts.

  3. Otud7b controls noncanonical NF-κB activation via deubiquitination of TRAF3

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongbo; Brittain, George C.; Chang, Jae-Hoon; Puebla-Osorio, Nahum; Jin, Jin; Zal, Anna; Xiao, Yichuan; Cheng, Xuhong; Chang, Mikyoung; Fu, Yang-Xin; Zal, Tomasz; Zhu, Chengming; Sun, Shao-Cong

    2013-01-01

    The noncanonical NF-κB pathway forms a major arm of NF-κB signaling that mediates important biological functions, including lymphoid organogenesis, B lymphocyte function, and cell growth and survival1-3. Activation of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway involves degradation of an inhibitory protein, TNF receptor associated factor 3 (TRAF3), but how this signaling event is controlled is still unknown1,2. Here we have identified the deubiquitinase Otud7b as a pivotal regulator of the noncanonical NF-κB pathway. Otud7b deficiency in mice has no appreciable effect on canonical NF-κB activation but causes hyper-activation of noncanonical NF-κB. In response to noncanonical NF-κB stimuli, Otud7b binds and deubiquitinates TRAF3, thereby inhibiting TRAF3 proteolysis and preventing aberrant noncanonical NF-κB activation. Consequently, the Otud7b deficiency results in B-cell hyperresponsiveness to antigens, lymphoid follicular hyperplasia in the intestinal mucosa, and elevated host-defense ability against an intestinal bacterial pathogen, Citrobacter rodentium. These findings establish Otud7b as a crucial regulator of signal-induced noncanonical NF-κB activation and suggest a mechanism of immune regulation that involves Otud7b-mediated deubiquitination and stabilization of TRAF3. PMID:23334419

  4. WNT7B promotes bone formation in part through mTORC1.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianquan; Tu, Xiaolin; Esen, Emel; Joeng, Kyu Sang; Lin, Congxin; Arbeit, Jeffrey M; Rüegg, Markus A; Hall, Michael N; Ma, Liang; Long, Fanxin

    2014-01-01

    WNT signaling has been implicated in both embryonic and postnatal bone formation. However, the pertinent WNT ligands and their downstream signaling mechanisms are not well understood. To investigate the osteogenic capacity of WNT7B and WNT5A, both normally expressed in the developing bone, we engineered mouse strains to express either protein in a Cre-dependent manner. Targeted induction of WNT7B, but not WNT5A, in the osteoblast lineage dramatically enhanced bone mass due to increased osteoblast number and activity; this phenotype began in the late-stage embryo and intensified postnatally. Similarly, postnatal induction of WNT7B in Runx2-lineage cells greatly stimulated bone formation. WNT7B activated mTORC1 through PI3K-AKT signaling. Genetic disruption of mTORC1 signaling by deleting Raptor in the osteoblast lineage alleviated the WNT7B-induced high-bone-mass phenotype. Thus, WNT7B promotes bone formation in part through mTORC1 activation.

  5. sept7b is required for the differentiation of pancreatic endocrine progenitors

    PubMed Central

    Dash, Surjya Narayan; Hakonen, Elina; Ustinov, Jarkko; Otonkoski, Timo; Andersson, Olov; Lehtonen, Sanna

    2016-01-01

    Protection or restoration of pancreatic β-cell mass as a therapeutic treatment for type 1 diabetes requires understanding of the mechanisms that drive the specification and development of pancreatic endocrine cells. Septins are filamentous small GTPases that function in the regulation of cell division, cytoskeletal organization and membrane remodeling, and are involved in various tissue-specific developmental processes. However, their role in pancreatic endocrine cell differentiation remains unknown. Here we show by functional manipulation techniques in transgenic zebrafish lines that suppression of sept7b, the zebrafish ortholog of human SEPT7, profoundly increases the number of endocrine progenitors but limits their differentiation, leading to reduction in β- and α-cell mass. Furthermore, we discovered that shh (sonic hedgehog) expression in the endoderm, essential for the development of pancreatic progenitors of the dorsal pancreatic bud, is absent in larvae depleted of sept7b. We also discovered that sept7b is important for the differentiation of ventral pancreatic bud-derived cells: sept7b-depleted larvae exhibit downregulation of Notch receptors notch1a and notch1b and show precocious differentiation of NeuroD-positive endocrine cells in the intrapancreatic duct and gut epithelium. Collectively, this study provides a novel insight into the development of pancreatic endocrine progenitors, revealing an essential role for sept7b in endocrine progenitor differentiation. PMID:27114183

  6. Otud7b facilitates T cell activation and inflammatory responses by regulating Zap70 ubiquitination.

    PubMed

    Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Hui; Xiao, Yichuan; Jin, Jin; Chang, Jae-Hoon; Zou, Qiang; Xie, Xiaoping; Cheng, Xuhong; Sun, Shao-Cong

    2016-03-07

    Signal transduction from the T cell receptor (TCR) is crucial for T cell-mediated immune responses and, when deregulated, also contributes to the development of autoimmunity. How TCR signaling is regulated is incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism in which the deubiquitinase Otud7b has a crucial role in facilitating TCR signaling. Upon TCR ligation, Otud7b is rapidly recruited to the tyrosine kinase Zap70, a central mediator of TCR-proximal signaling. Otud7b deficiency attenuates the activation of Zap70 and its downstream pathways and impairs T cell activation and differentiation, rendering mice refractory to T cell-mediated autoimmune and inflammatory responses. Otud7b facilitated Zap70 activation by deubiquitinating Zap70, thus preventing the association of Zap70 with the negative-regulatory phosphatases Sts1 and Sts2. These findings establish Otud7b as a positive regulator of TCR-proximal signaling and T cell activation, highlighting the importance of deubiquitination in regulating Zap70 function.

  7. Otud7b facilitates T cell activation and inflammatory responses by regulating Zap70 ubiquitination

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Hongbo; Wang, Hui; Xiao, Yichuan; Jin, Jin; Chang, Jae-Hoon; Zou, Qiang; Xie, Xiaoping; Cheng, Xuhong

    2016-01-01

    Signal transduction from the T cell receptor (TCR) is crucial for T cell–mediated immune responses and, when deregulated, also contributes to the development of autoimmunity. How TCR signaling is regulated is incompletely understood. In this study, we demonstrate a ubiquitin-dependent mechanism in which the deubiquitinase Otud7b has a crucial role in facilitating TCR signaling. Upon TCR ligation, Otud7b is rapidly recruited to the tyrosine kinase Zap70, a central mediator of TCR-proximal signaling. Otud7b deficiency attenuates the activation of Zap70 and its downstream pathways and impairs T cell activation and differentiation, rendering mice refractory to T cell–mediated autoimmune and inflammatory responses. Otud7b facilitated Zap70 activation by deubiquitinating Zap70, thus preventing the association of Zap70 with the negative-regulatory phosphatases Sts1 and Sts2. These findings establish Otud7b as a positive regulator of TCR-proximal signaling and T cell activation, highlighting the importance of deubiquitination in regulating Zap70 function. PMID:26903241

  8. Evidence for synergistic effects of PRNP and ATP7B mutations in severe neuropsychiatric deterioration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Wilson’s disease (WD), a rare cause of neuropsychiatric deterioration, is associated with mutations in the ATP7B gene. Prion diseases are also rare causes of neuropsychiatric deterioration that can occur sporadically without an identifiable cause, or can be attributed to mutations in the PRNP gene. Case presentation Here we describe a biological “experiment of nature” in which a patient presented with severe neuropsychiatric decline and strong biochemical evidence of WD. Genetic analysis revealed that he was a compound heterozygote for two ATP7B sequence variants (c.2165dupT, p.Arg723Glufs*32; and c.4039G > A, p.Gly1347Ser), the first having been reported once previously, and the second being novel. In addition, the patient was heterozygous for a PRNP variant, c.160G > A, p.Gly54Ser, that has been reported in a neuropsychiatric patient only once previously in association with a similarly severe clinical course of neuropsychiatric disease and early age of onset, but no accompanying information on ATP7B genotype. Of particular interest was the observation that the patient’s older sister, who carried the same ATP7B genotype and laboratory evidence for biochemical WD but was clinically asymptomatic, lacked the PRNP variant allele. Conclusions We propose that synergism may occur between at least some allelic variants of ATP7B and PRNP, possibly exerted through effects on cellular copper metabolism. PMID:24555712

  9. Hooke's figurations: a figural drawing attributed to Robert Hooke.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Matthew C

    2010-09-20

    The experimental philosopher Robert Hooke (1635-1703) is known to have apprenticed to the leading painter Peter Lely on his first arrival in London in the late 1640s. Yet the relevance of Hooke's artistic training to his mature draughtsmanship and identity has remained unclear. Shedding light on that larger interpretive problem, this article argues for the attribution to Hooke of a figural drawing now in Tate Britain (T10678). This attributed drawing is especially interesting because it depicts human subjects and bears Hooke's name functioning as an artistic signature, both highly unusual features for his draughtsmanship. From evidence of how this drawing was collected and physically placed alongside images by leading artists in the early eighteenth century, I suggest how it can offer new insight into the reception of Hooke and his graphic work in the early Enlightenment.

  10. Expression of MIG-6, WNT-9A, and WNT-7B during osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Velasquillo, Cristina; Garciadiego-Cázares, David; Almonte, Maylin; Bustamante, Marcia; Ibarra, Clemente; Kouri, Juan B; Chimal-Monroy, Jesús

    2007-11-01

    Although the molecular mechanisms for initiation of cartilage destruction in osteoarthritis (OA) are unknown, it has been demonstrated that disruption of mitogen-inducible gene 6 (Mig-6) in mice leads to the onset of a degenerative joint disease like OA. On this basis, we correlated gene expression of Mig-6 with Wnt-9a and Wnt-7b genes; we showed downregulation of Mig-6, Wnt-7b, and Wnt-9a during OA, while Wnt-7b was expressed also in osteoblast-like cells. Here we suggest that Aggrecan degradation occurs before the downregulation of Mig-6. It remains to be proven whether there is any relation between Wnt signaling and Aggrecan degradation.

  11. Let-7b-mediated suppression of basigin expression and metastasis in mouse melanoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Tzu-Yen; Chang, Chia-Che; Lin, Chun-Ting; Lai, Cong-Hao; Peng, Shao-Yu; Ko, Yi-Ju; Tang, Pin-Chi

    2011-02-15

    Basigin (Bsg), also called extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), is highly expressed on the surface of tumor cells and stimulates adjacent fibroblasts or tumor cells to produce matrix metalloproteinases (mmps). It has been shown that Bsg plays an important role in growth, development, cell differentiation, and tumor progression. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of short endogenous non-protein coding RNAs of 20-25 nucleotides (nt) that function as post-transcriptional regulators of gene expression by base-pairing to their target mRNAs and thereby mediate cleavage of target mRNAs or translational repression. In this study, let-7b, one of the let-7 family members, was investigated for its effect on the growth and invasiveness of the mouse melanoma cell line B16-F10. We have shown that let-7b can suppress the expression of Bsg in B16-F10 cells and also provided evidence that this suppression could result in the indirect suppression of mmp-9. The ability of B16-F10 cells transfected with let-7b to invade or migrate was significantly reduced. In addition, let-7b transfected B16-F10 cells displayed an inhibition of both cellular proliferation and colony formation. Furthermore, it was shown that the overexpression of let-7b in B16-F10 cells could reduce lung metastasis. Taken together, the present study identifies let-7b as a tumor suppressor that represses cancer cell proliferation and migration as well as tumor metastasis in mouse melanoma cells.

  12. PHOBOS Experiment: Figures and Data

    DOE Data Explorer

    The PHOBOS Collaboration

    PHOBOS consists of many silicon detectors surrounding the interaction region. With these detectors physicists can count the total number of produced particles and study the angular distributions of all the products. Physicists know from other branches of physics that a characteristic of phase transitions are fluctuations in physical observables. With the PHOBOS array they look for unusual events or fluctuations in the number of particles and angular distribution. The articles that have appeared in refereed science journals are listed here with separate links to the supporting data plots, figures, and tables of numeric data.  See also supporting data for articles in technical journals at http://www.phobos.bnl.gov/Publications/Technical/phobos_technical_publications.htm and from conference proceedings at http://www.phobos.bnl.gov/Publications/Proceedings/phobos_proceedings_publications.htm

  13. MicroRNA Let-7b inhibits keratinocyte migration in cutaneous wound healing by targeting IGF2BP2.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Zhong, Julia Li; Hou, Ning; Sun, Yaolan; Ma, Benting; Nisar, Muhammad Farrukh; Teng, Yan; Tan, Zhaoli; Chen, Keping; Wang, Youliang; Yang, Xiao

    2017-02-01

    Wound healing is a complex process which involves proliferation and migration of keratinocyte for closure of epidermal injuries. A member of microRNA family, let-7b, has been expressed in mammalian skin, but its exact role in keratinocyte migration is still not in knowledge. Here, we showed that let-7b regulates keratinocyte migration by targeting the insulin-like growth factor IGF2BP2. Overexpression of let-7b led to reduced HaCaT cell migration, while knockdown of let-7b resulted in enhanced migration. Furthermore, let-7b was decreased during wound healing in wild-type mice, which led us to construct the transgenic mice with overexpression of let-7b in skin. The re-epithelialization of epidermis of let-7b transgenic mice was reduced during wound healing. Using bioinformatics prediction software and a reporter gene assay, we found that IGF2BP2 was a target of let-7b, which contributes to keratinocyte migration. Introduction of an expression vector of IGF2BP2 also rescued let-7b-induced migration deficiency, which confirms that IGF2BP2 is an important target for let-7b regulation. Our findings suggest that let-7b significantly delayed the re-epithelialization possibly due to reduction of keratinocyte migration and restraints IGF2BP2 during skin wound healing.

  14. Finding Figurative Language in "The Phantom Tollbooth."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hinton, Lisa

    This lesson is an exploration of figurative language using the novel "The Phantom Tollbooth" and various Web resources. Students examine figurative language in the story and create a chart representing the literal and figurative meanings of words and phrases. During the four to eight 40-minute class sessions, middle school students will: read the…

  15. Site-Directed Mutagenesis, in Vivo Electroporation and Mass Spectrometry in Search for Determinants of the Subcellular Targeting of Rab7b Paralogue in the Model Eukaryote Paramecium Octaurelia

    PubMed Central

    Wyroba, E.; Kwaśniak, P.; Miller, K.; Kobyłecki, K.; Osińska, M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein products of paralogous genes resulting from whole genome duplication may acquire new functions. The role of post-translational modifications (PTM) in proper targeting of Paramecium Rab7b paralogue (distinct from that of Rab7a directly involved in phagocytosis) was studied using point mutagenesis, proteomic analysis and double immunofluorescence after in vivo electroporation of the mutagenized protein. Here we show that substitution of Thr200 by Ala diminished the incorporation of [P32] by 37% and of [C14-]UDP-glucose by 24% into recombinant Rab7b_200 in comparison to the non-mutagenized control. Double confocal imaging revealed that Rab7b_200 was mistargeted upon electroporation into living cells in contrast to non-mutagenized recombinant Rab7b correctly incorporated in the cytostome area. Using nano LC-MS/MS to compare the peptide map of Rab7b with that after deglycosylation with a mixture of five enzymes of different specificity we identified a peptide ion at m/z=677.63+ representing a glycan group attached to Thr200. Based on its mass and quantitative assays with [P32] and [C14]UDP-glucose, the suggested composition of the adduct attached to Thr200 is (Hex)1(HexNAc)1(Phos)3 or (HexNAc)1 (Deoxyhexose)1 (Phos)1 (HexA)1. These data indicate that PTM of Thr200 located in the hypervariable C-region of Paramecium octaurelia Rab7b is crucial for the proper localization/function of this protein. Moreover, the two Rab7 paralogues differ also in another PTM: substantially more phosphorylated amino acid residues are in Rab7b than in Rab7a. PMID:27349314

  16. 29 CFR 778.602 - Special overtime provisions under section 7(b).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS OVERTIME COMPENSATION Miscellaneous § 778.602 Special overtime provisions under section 7(b). (a) Daily and weekly... number of hours worked exceeds the standard specified for the workweek; no overtime compensation on...

  17. A minigene approach for analysis of ATP7B splice variants in patients with Wilson disease.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Anna M E; Schlade-Bartusiak, Kamilla; Tison, Jean-Luc; Macintyre, Georgina; Cox, Diane W

    2009-10-01

    Wilson disease (WND) is an autosomal recessive condition that results in accumulation of copper in the liver and brain when a membrane bound copper transporter, ATP7B, is defective. ATP7B is expressed in hepatic, brain and kidney cells, and a defect can lead to liver, neurological and renal damage in WND patients. Presentation is variable with a broad range of age of onset and symptoms, and not all biochemical signs used in diagnosis are found in every patient. Therefore, diagnosis by mutation analysis is particularly important. To date, there are approximately 380 probable disease-causing variants in ATP7B, 33 of which are splice site variants that are predicted to affect splicing, based on their location. Few of these splice site variants have been analyzed in vivo. Some exonic variations also have the potential to affect splicing. The aim of this project was to use minigenes for transcript analysis. We have chosen exon 8 as our focus and have cloned a wild-type three-exon minigene into a mammalian expression vector. After transfection, extracted RNA was analyzed by reverse transcription PCR and accurate splicing was detected. This minigene will facilitate the analysis of the numerous potential splice variants identified in exon 8 of ATP7B, with the advantage that patient cell lines are not required for each variant.

  18. Let-7b promotes alpaca hair growth via transcriptional repression of TGFβR I.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shen; Yu, Zhang; Ning, Liu; Hai-Dong, Wang; Jian-Shan, Xie; Shu-Yuan, Gao; Jia-Qi, Cheng; Xiu-Ju, Yu; Ting, Wang; Chang-Sheng, Dong; Xiao-Yan, He

    2016-02-10

    The young male alpaca ear and the back skins were used to investigate the effect of transforming growth factor receptor-β I (TGFβR I) on alpaca hair follicles and hair growth. The expression level and location of TGFβR I in alpaca ear and dorsal skin were detected through real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) and paraffin section immunohistochemical technique (ICC-P). The results shown TGFβR I was lower expression in back skin compared to ear skin and the mean density of the positive reaction in ear skin was significantly higher than back skin. The targeted relationship with let-7b was detected using the dual-luciferase reporter vector of TGFβR I, which showed a significant target relationship between let-7b and TGFβR I. After transfection with let-7b eukaryotic expression vector, the relative mRNA expression of TGFβR I in alpaca skin fibroblasts did not differ, while the relative protein level was significantly decreased. In summary, a higher TGFβR I expression level in the ear skin suggests that TGFβR I may inhibit coat hair elongation. Further studies showed TGFβR I protein was downregulated by let-7b through transcriptional repression.

  19. Wilson disease: novel mutations in the ATP7B gene and clinical correlation in Brazilian patients.

    PubMed

    Deguti, Marta M; Genschel, Janine; Cancado, Eduardo L R; Barbosa, Egberto R; Bochow, Bettina; Mucenic, Marcos; Porta, Gilda; Lochs, Herbert; Carrilho, Flair J; Schmidt, Hartmut H-J

    2004-04-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is a rare inherited autosomal recessive disorder caused by a defect in a metal transporting P-type ATPase, resulting in copper overload in various tissues and cells. The aim was to assess both the phenotype in Brazilian WD patients and the corresponding ATP7B genotype. Sixty subjects belonging to 46 pedigrees diagnosed as WD were included in this study. Direct sequencing of all 21 exons within ATP7B and their flanking introns was performed. Demographic, clinical, laboratory and histopathological data at the time of diagnosis were obtained. We identified twenty-five mutations, twelve of them reported for the first time. The c.3402delC mutation had the highest allelic frequency (30.8%), followed by the c.2123T>C (p.L708P) (16.7%). Exons 8 and 15 were the site of 62.5% of the mutations. The common European mutation c.3207C>A (p.H1069Q) was not present at all. Phenotype varied greatly among individuals with the same ATP7B genotype. Our data confirm the heterogeneity of ATP7B genotype in Brazilian WD patients. The mutational spectrum is compatible with the Brazilian history of Mediterranean immigration; however, new mutations, and different frequencies and phenotype associated with the previously known mutations characterize this population. Exons 8 and 15 should be preferentially screened in WD cases from Brazil. Phenotype variation among subjects with the same ATP7B genotype suggests that modifying factors play an additional role in the pathogenesis of WD.

  20. Role of an adaptor protein Lin-7B in brain development: possible involvement in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ayumi; Hamada, Nanako; Ito, Hidenori; Miyauchi, Akihiko; Jimbo, Eriko F; Momoi, Mariko Y; Tabata, Hidenori; Yamagata, Takanori; Nagata, Koh-Ichi

    2015-01-01

    Using comparative genomic hybridization analysis for an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patient, a 73-Kb duplication at 19q13.33 (nt. 49 562 755-49 635 956) including LIN7B and 5 other genes was detected. We then identified a novel frameshift mutation in LIN7B in another ASD patient. Since LIN7B encodes a scaffold protein essential for neuronal function, we analyzed the role of Lin-7B in the development of cerebral cortex. Acute knockdown of Lin-7B with in utero electroporation caused a delay in neuronal migration during corticogenesis. When Lin-7B was knocked down in cortical neurons in one hemisphere, their axons failed to extend efficiently into the contralateral hemisphere after leaving the corpus callosum. Meanwhile, enhanced expression of Lin-7B had no effects on both cortical neuron migration and axon growth. Notably, silencing of Lin-7B did not affect the proliferation of neuronal progenitors and stem cells. Taken together, Lin-7B was found to play a pivotal role in corticogenesis through the regulation of excitatory neuron migration and interhemispheric axon growth, while further analyses are required to directly link functional defects of Lin-7B to ASD pathophysiology. Lin-7 plays a pivotal role as a scaffold protein in synaptic development and plasticity. Based on genetic analyses we identified mutations in LIN-7B gene in some ASD (autism-spectrum disorder) patients. Functional defects in Lin-7B caused abnormal neuronal migration and interhemispheric axon growth during mouse brain development. Thus, functional deficiency in Lin-7B could be implicated in clinical phenotypes in some ASD patients through bringing about abnormal cortical architecture.

  1. Recommended reference figures for geophysics and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khan, M. A.; Okeefe, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    Specific reference figures are recommended for consistent use in geophysics and geodesy. The selection of appropriate reference figure for geophysical studies suggests a relationship between the Antarctic negative gravity anomaly and the great shrinkage of the Antarctic ice cap about 4-5 million years ago. The depression of the south polar regions relative to the north polar regions makes the Southern Hemisphere flatter than the Northern Hemisphere, thus producing the third harmonic (pear-shaped) contribution to the earth's figure.

  2. Incomplete figure perception and invisible masking.

    PubMed

    Chikhman, Valery; Shelepin, Yuri; Foreman, Nigel; Merkuljev, Aleksey; Pronin, Sergey

    2006-01-01

    The Gollin test (measuring recognition thresholds for fragmented line drawings of everyday objects and animals) has traditionally been regarded as a test of incomplete figure perception or 'closure', though there is a debate about how such closure is achieved. Here, figural incompleteness is considered to be the result of masking, such that absence of contour elements of a fragmented figure is the result of the influence of an 'invisible' mask. It is as though the figure is partly obscured by a mask having parameters identical to those of the background. This mask is 'invisible' only consciously, but for the early stages of visual processing it is real and has properties of multiplicative noise. Incomplete Gollin figures were modeled as the figure covered by the mask with randomly distributed transparent and opaque patches. We adjusted the statistical characteristics of the contour image and empty noise patches and processed those using spatial and spatial-frequency measures. Across 73 figures, despite inter-subject variability, mean recognition threshold was always approximately 15% of total contour in naive observers. Recognition worsened with increasing spectral similarity between the figure and the 'invisible' mask. Near threshold, the spectrum of the fragmented image was equally similar to that of the 'invisible' mask and complete image. The correlation between spectral parameters of figures at threshold and complete figures was greatest for figures that were most easily recognised. Across test sessions, thresholds reduced when either figure or mask parameters were familiar. We argue that recognition thresholds for Gollin stimuli in part reflect the extraction of signal from noise.

  3. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of a Dissimilar Friction Stir-Welded AA5083-AA7B04 Butt Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Ding, Hua; Cai, Zhihui; Zhao, Jingwei; Li, Jizhong

    2016-12-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been used for joining AA5083 and AA7B04 alloy sheets with the aim of studying the microstructure and the mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW joints obtained by varying the initial base metal state of AA7B04 alloy. The results show that the initial base metal state has a significant impact on the material flow during dissimilar FSW. As compared with the joints placing hard alloy (artificially aged AA7B04-AA or naturally aged AA7B04-NA) on the retreating side, it becomes easier transporting AA5083 from advancing side to retreating side when soft alloy (annealed AA7B04-O) is placed on the retreating side. The atomic diffusion does not occur at the interface between AA5083 and AA7B04, indicating that the mixing of the two materials is merely mechanical. Grain refinement is observed in the stir zone. The failure location during tensile tests is different depending on the initial base metal state. The joints (AA5083/AA7B04-AA and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the base metal on the soft material side which corresponds to the minimum values in hardness profiles. Differently, the joints (AA5083/AA5083 and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the stir zone due to the presence of defects including "zigzag line," kissing bond and discontinuous voids.

  4. MicroRNAs let-7b/i suppress human glioma cell invasion and migration by targeting IKBKE directly

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Yuan; Hao, Shaobo; Ye, Minhua; Zhang, Anling; Nan, Yang; Wang, Guangxiu; Jia, Zhifan; Yu, Kai; Guo, Lianmei; Pu, Peiyu; Huang, Qiang; Zhong, Yue

    2015-03-06

    We demonstrated that IKBKE is overexpressed in human gliomas and that the downregulation of IKBKE markedly inhibits the proliferative and invasive abilities of glioma cells, which is consistent with the results reported by several different research groups. Therefore, IKBKE represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of glioma. In the present study, we verified that the microRNAs let-7b and let-7i target IKBKE through luciferase assays and found that let-7b/i mimics can knock down IKBKE and upregulate E-cadherin through western blot analysis. Moreover, the expression levels of let-7b/i were significantly lower in glioma cell lines than that in normal brain tissues, as determined by quantitative real-time PCR. Furthermore, let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells, as determined through wound healing and Transwell assays. The above-mentioned data suggest that let-7b/i inhibit the invasive ability of glioma cells by directly downregulating IKBKE and indirectly upregulating E-cadherin. - Highlights: • Let-7b and let-7i are downregulated in glioma cell lines. • IKBKE is a target gene of let-7b/i. • Let-7b/i inhibit the invasion and migration of glioma cells. • Let-7b/i upregulate E-cadherin by downregulating IKBKE.

  5. Microstructural and Mechanical Characterization of a Dissimilar Friction Stir-Welded AA5083-AA7B04 Butt Joint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Ding, Hua; Cai, Zhihui; Zhao, Jingwei; Li, Jizhong

    2017-02-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) has been used for joining AA5083 and AA7B04 alloy sheets with the aim of studying the microstructure and the mechanical properties of dissimilar FSW joints obtained by varying the initial base metal state of AA7B04 alloy. The results show that the initial base metal state has a significant impact on the material flow during dissimilar FSW. As compared with the joints placing hard alloy (artificially aged AA7B04-AA or naturally aged AA7B04-NA) on the retreating side, it becomes easier transporting AA5083 from advancing side to retreating side when soft alloy (annealed AA7B04-O) is placed on the retreating side. The atomic diffusion does not occur at the interface between AA5083 and AA7B04, indicating that the mixing of the two materials is merely mechanical. Grain refinement is observed in the stir zone. The failure location during tensile tests is different depending on the initial base metal state. The joints (AA5083/AA7B04-AA and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the base metal on the soft material side which corresponds to the minimum values in hardness profiles. Differently, the joints (AA5083/AA5083 and AA5083/AA7B04-O) fail in the stir zone due to the presence of defects including "zigzag line," kissing bond and discontinuous voids.

  6. Identification and analysis of mutations in the Wilson disease gene (ATP7B): population frequencies, genotype-phenotype correlation, and functional analyses.

    PubMed Central

    Shah, A B; Chernov, I; Zhang, H T; Ross, B M; Das, K; Lutsenko, S; Parano, E; Pavone, L; Evgrafov, O; Ivanova-Smolenskaya, I A; Annerén, G; Westermark, K; Urrutia, F H; Penchaszadeh, G K; Sternlieb, I; Scheinberg, I H; Gilliam, T C; Petrukhin, K

    1997-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by toxic accumulation of copper in the liver and subsequently in the brain and other organs. On the basis of sequence homology to known genes, the WD gene (ATP7B) appears to be a copper-transporting P-type ATPase. A search for ATP7B mutations in WD patients from five population samples, including 109 North American patients, revealed 27 distinct mutations, 18 of which are novel. A composite of published findings shows missense mutations in all exons-except in exons 1-5, which encode the six copper-binding motifs, and in exon 21, which spans the carboxy-terminus and the poly(A) tail. Over one-half of all WD mutations occur only rarely in any population sample. A splice-site mutation in exon 12 accounts for 3% of the WD mutations in our sample and produces an in-frame, 39-bp insertion in mRNA of patients homozygous, but not heterozygous, for the mutation. The most common WD mutation (His1069Glu) was represented in approximately 38% of all the WD chromosomes from the North American, Russian, and Swedish samples. In several population cohorts, this mutation deviated from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, with an overrepresentation of homozygotes. We did not find a significant correlation between His1069Glu homozygosity and several clinical indices, including age of onset, clinical manifestation, ceruloplasmin activity, hepatic copper levels, and the presence of Kayser-Fleischer rings. Finally, lymphoblast cell lines from individuals homozygous for His1069Glu and 4 other mutations all demonstrated significantly decreased copper-stimulated ATPase activity. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9311736

  7. Kepler's optical phase curve of the exoplanet HAT-P-7b.

    PubMed

    Borucki, W J; Koch, D; Jenkins, J; Sasselov, D; Gilliland, R; Batalha, N; Latham, D W; Caldwell, D; Basri, G; Brown, T; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J; Cochran, W D; DeVore, E; Dunham, E; Dupree, A K; Gautier, T; Geary, J; Gould, A; Howell, S; Kjeldsen, H; Lissauer, J; Marcy, G; Meibom, S; Morrison, D; Tarter, J

    2009-08-07

    Ten days of photometric data were obtained during the commissioning phase of the Kepler mission, including data for the previously known giant transiting exoplanet HAT-P-7b. The data for HAT-P-7b show a smooth rise and fall of light from the planet as it orbits its star, punctuated by a drop of 130 +/- 11 parts per million in flux when the planet passes behind its star. We interpret this as the phase variation of the dayside thermal emission plus reflected light from the planet as it orbits its star and is occulted. The depth of the occultation is similar in photometric precision to the detection of a transiting Earth-size planet for which the mission was designed.

  8. Figure-ground assignment in pigeons: evidence for a figural benefit.

    PubMed

    Lazareva, Olga E; Castro, Leyre; Vecera, Shaun P; Wasserman, Edward A

    2006-07-01

    Four pigeons discriminated whether a target spot appeared on a colored figural shape or on a differently colored background by first pecking the target and then reporting its location: on the figure or the background. We recorded three dependent variables: target detection time, choice response time, and choice accuracy. The birds were faster to detect the target, to report its location, and to learn the correct response on figure trials than on background trials. Later tests suggested that the pigeons might have attended to the figural region as a whole rather than using local properties in performing the figure-background discrimination. The location of the figural region did not affect figure-ground assignment. Finally, when 4 other pigeons had to detect and peck the target without making a choice report, no figural advantage emerged in target detection time, suggesting that the birds' attention may not have been automatically summoned to the figural region.

  9. A kinetic study of Trichoderma reesei Cel7B catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiangfei; Zhang, Shujun; Wang, Yefei; Li, Jingwen; He, Chunyan; Yao, Lishan

    2016-06-01

    One prominent feature of Trichoderma reesei (Tr) endoglucanases catalyzed cellulose hydrolysis is that the reaction slows down quickly after it starts (within minutes). But the mechanism of the slowdown is not well understood. A structural model of Tr- Cel7B catalytic domain bound to cellulose was built computationally and the potentially important binding residues were identified and tested experimentally. The 13 tested mutants show different binding properties in the adsorption to phosphoric acid swollen cellulose and filter paper. Though the partitioning parameter to filter paper is about 10 times smaller than that to phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, a positive correlation is shown for two substrates. The kinetic studies show that the reactions slow down quickly for both substrates. This slowdown is not correlated to the binding constant but anticorrelated to the enzyme initial activity. The amount of reducing sugars released after 24h by Cel7B in phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, Avicel and filter paper cellulose hydrolysis is correlated with the enzyme activity against a soluble substrate p-nitrophenyl lactoside. Six of the 13 tested mutants, including N47A, N52D, S99A, N323D, S324A, and S346A, yield ∼15-35% more reducing sugars than the wild type (WT) Cel7B in phosphoric acid swollen cellulose and filter paper hydrolysis. This study reveals that the slowdown of the reaction is not due to the binding of the enzyme to cellulose. The activity of Tr- Cel7B against the insoluble substrate cellulose is determined by the enzyme's capability in hydrolyzing the soluble substrate.

  10. Improving the activity of Trichoderma reesei cel7B through stabilizing the transition state.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yefei; Song, Xiangfei; Zhang, Shujun; Li, Jingwen; Shu, Zhiyu; He, Chunyan; Huang, Qingshan; Yao, Lishan

    2016-06-01

    Trichoderma reesei (Tr.) cellulases, which convert cellulose to reducing sugars, are a promising catalyst used in the lignocellulosic biofuel production. Improving Tr. cellulases activity, though very difficult, is highly desired due to the recalcitrance of lignocellulose. Meanwhile, it is preferable to enhance the cellulase's promiscuity so that substrates other than cellulose can also be hydrolyzed. In this work, an attempt is made to improve the catalytic activity of a major endogluanase Tr. Cel7B against xylan which crosslinks with cellulose in lignocellulose. By using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, the transition state of the xylo-oligosaccharide hydrolysis is identified. Then, mutations are introduced and their effect on the transition state stabilization is ranked based on the free energy calculations. Seven top ranked mutants are evaluated experimentally. Three mutants A208Q, A222D, and G230R show a higher activity than the wild-type Tr. Cel7B in the hydrolysis of xylan (by up to 47%) as well as filter paper (by up to 50%). The combination of the single mutants can further improve the enzyme activity. Our work demonstrates that the free energy method is effective in engineering the Tr. Cel7B activity against xylan and cellulose, and thus may also be useful for improving the activity of other Tr. cellulases. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 1171-1177. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Occipital network for figure/ground organization.

    PubMed

    Likova, Lora T; Tyler, Christopher W

    2008-08-01

    To study the cortical mechanism of figure/ground categorization in the human brain, we employed fMRI and the temporal-asynchrony paradigm. This paradigm is able to eliminate any differential activation for local stimulus features, and thus to identify only global perceptual interactions. Strong segmentation of the image into different spatial configurations was generated solely from temporal asynchronies between zones of homogeneous dynamic noise. The figure/ground configuration was a single geometric figure enclosed in a larger surround region. In a control condition, the figure/ground organization was eliminated by segmenting the noise field into many identical temporal-asynchrony stripes. The manipulation of the type of perceptual organization triggered dramatic reorganization in the cortical activation pattern. The figure/ground configuration generated suppression of the ground representation (limited to early retinotopic visual cortex, V1 and V2) and strong activation in the motion complex hMT+/V5+; conversely, both responses were abolished when the figure/ground organization was eliminated. These results suggest that figure/ground processing is mediated by top-down suppression of the ground representation in the earliest visual areas V1/V2 through a signal arising in the motion complex. We propose a model of a recurrent cortical architecture incorporating suppressive feedback that operates in a topographic manner, forming a figure/ground categorization network distinct from that for "pure" scene segmentation and thus underlying the perceptual organization of dynamic scenes into cognitively relevant components.

  12. Feature Assignment in Perception of Auditory Figure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregg, Melissa K.; Samuel, Arthur G.

    2012-01-01

    Because the environment often includes multiple sounds that overlap in time, listeners must segregate a sound of interest (the auditory figure) from other co-occurring sounds (the unattended auditory ground). We conducted a series of experiments to clarify the principles governing the extraction of auditory figures. We distinguish between auditory…

  13. Key Figures on Vocational Education and Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mossoux, Anne France, Ed.

    This brochure identifies key figures on vocational education and training (VET) and VET-related topics in Europe using harmonized data from Eurostat. Throughout, figures of candidate countries are compared to those of European Union (EU) member states. Background information on the education and training systems is as follows: increasing numbers…

  14. "Blessed": Musical Talent, Smartness, & Figured Identities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Adria R.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore smartness and talent as social constructs. Drawing on Holland et al.'s (1998) figured identities, this article explores the figuring of abilities by elucidating the voices of African American high school chorus students. Critical Race Theory (CRT) helps to unpack normalized language and practices that…

  15. Automatic figure classification in bioscience literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Daehyun; Ramesh, Balaji Polepalli; Yu, Hong

    2011-10-01

    Millions of figures appear in biomedical articles, and it is important to develop an intelligent figure search engine to return relevant figures based on user entries. In this study we report a figure classifier that automatically classifies biomedical figures into five predefined figure types: Gel-image, Image-of-thing, Graph, Model, and Mix. The classifier explored rich image features and integrated them with text features. We performed feature selection and explored different classification models, including a rule-based figure classifier, a supervised machine-learning classifier, and a multi-model classifier, the latter of which integrated the first two classifiers. Our results show that feature selection improved figure classification and the novel image features we explored were the best among image features that we have examined. Our results also show that integrating text and image features achieved better performance than using either of them individually. The best system is a multi-model classifier which combines the rule-based hierarchical classifier and a support vector machine (SVM) based classifier, achieving a 76.7% F1-score for five-type classification. We demonstrated our system at http://figureclassification.askhermes.org/.

  16. Detector array evaluation and figures of merit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dereniak, Eustace L.

    1990-01-01

    The commonly used methods to evaluate the performance of a two-dimensional focal-plane array using charge transfer devices are reviewed. Two figures of merit that attempt to combine quantum efficiency, read noise and dark-current generation into a single parameter are discussed. The figures of merit are suggested as possible alternatives to the D asterisk.

  17. Analysis of That Mysterious Figure 8

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leyden, Michael B.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a quantitative analysis of the "figure 8" found on the globes of most earth science textbooks, using an exercise of year's eccentric shadow plotting techniques. Indicates that the exercise can serve to change a student's abstract "figure 8" to his real learning experience. (CC)

  18. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oberhofer, E. S.

    1985-01-01

    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  19. The Development of Ambiguous Figure Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wimmer, Marina C.; Doherty, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Ambiguous figures have fascinated researchers for almost 200 years. The physical properties of these figures remain constant, yet two distinct interpretations are possible; these reverse (switch) from one percept to the other. The consensus is that reversal requires complex interaction of perceptual bottom-up and cognitive top-down elements. The…

  20. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Why have we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at…

  1. Expression and characterization of a cellobiohydrolase (CBH7B) from the thermophilic fungus Thielavia terrestris in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Woon, James Sy-Keen; Mackeen, Mukram Mohamed; Mahadi, Nor Muhammad; Illias, Rosli Md; Abdul Murad, Abdul Munir; Abu Bakar, Farah Diba

    2016-09-01

    The gene encoding a cellobiohydrolase 7B (CBH7B) of the thermophilic fungus Thielavia terrestris was identified, subcloned, and expressed in Pichia pastoris. CBH7B encoded 455 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 51.8 kDa. Domain analysis indicated that CBH7B contains a family 7 glycosyl hydrolase catalytic core but lacks a carbohydrate-binding module. Purified CBH7B exhibited optimum catalytic activity at pH 5.0 and 55 °C with 4-methylumbelliferryl-cellobioside as the substrate and retained 85% of its activity following 24 H incubation at 50 °C. Despite the lack of activity toward microcrystalline substrates, this enzyme worked synergistically with the commercial enzyme cocktail Cellic(®) CTec2 to enhance saccharification by 39% when added to a reaction mixture containing 0.25% alkaline pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB). Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy suggested a reduction of lignin and crystalline cellulose in OPEFB samples supplemented with CBH7B. Scanning electron microscopy revealed greater destruction extent of OPEFB strands in samples supplemented with CBH7B as compared with the nonsupplemented control. Therefore, CBH7B has the potential to complement commercial enzymes in hydrolyzing lignocellulosic biomass.

  2. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1509 - Figure 3 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1509 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.066...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 EC03OC91.063...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1509 - Figure 1 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 1 to Part 1509 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.064...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1509 - Figure 1 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 1 to Part 1509 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.064...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 EC03OC91.063...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1509 - Figure 3 to Part 1509

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1509 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1509 EC03OC91.066...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 3 to Part 1508 - Figure 3 to Part 1508

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Figure 3 to Part 1508 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 3 Figure 3 to Part 1508...

  11. ATP7B activity is stimulated by PKCɛ in porcine liver.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Luiza H D; Britto-Borges, Thiago; Vieyra, Adalberto; Lowe, Jennifer

    2014-09-01

    Copper is necessary for all organisms since it acts as a cofactor in different enzymes, although toxic at high concentrations. ATP7B is one of two copper-transporting ATPases in humans, its vital role being manifested in Wilson disease due to a mutation in the gene that encodes this pump. Our objective has been to determine whether pathways involving protein kinase C (PKC) modulate ATP7B activity. Different isoforms of PKC (α, ɛ, ζ) were found in Golgi-enriched membrane fractions obtained from porcine liver. Cu(I)-ATPase activity was assessed in the presence of different activators and inhibitors of PKC signaling pathways. PMA (10(-8) M), a PKC activator, increased Cu(I)-ATPase activity by 60%, whereas calphostin C and U73122 (PKC and PLC inhibitors, respectively) decreased the activity by 40%. Addition of phosphatase λ decreased activity by 60%, irrespective of pre-incubation with PMA. No changes were detected with 2 μM Ca(2+), whereas PMA plus EGTA increased activity. This enhanced activity elicited by PMA decreased with a specific inhibitor of PKCɛ to levels comparable with those found after phosphatase λ treatment, showing that the ɛ isoform is essential for activation of the enzyme. This regulatory phosphorylation enhanced Vmax without modifying affinities for ATP and copper. It can be concluded that signaling pathways leading to DAG formation and PKCɛ activation stimulate the active transport of copper by ATP7B, thus evidencing a central role for this specific kinase-mediated mechanism in hepatic copper handling.

  12. Cloning, expression and pharmacology of a truncated splice variant of the human 5-HT7 receptor (h5-HT7(b))

    PubMed Central

    Jasper, J R; Kosaka, A; To, Z P; Chang, D J; Eglen, R M

    1997-01-01

    The rat 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)7 receptor displays two splice variations, a long form, and a truncated splice isoform, arising from the introduction of a stop codon near the carboxy-terminus. The human 5-HT7 receptor gene contains at least two introns and encodes a 445 amino acid 5-HT receptor. A truncated splice variation in the human 5-HT7 receptor was isolated from a human placental cDNA library. In accordance with current NC-IUPHAR nomenclature guidelines, it is suggested that this receptor be denoted as the h5-HT7(b) receptor and the long form of the receptor as h5-HT7(a). The h5-HT7(b) receptor was stably expressed in HEK 293 cells and ligand affinities were determined by displacement of [3H]-5-carboxyamidotryptamine (5-CT; Kd=0.28±0.06 nM, Bmax=7.3±1.7 pmol mg−1 protein). The rank order of affinities (pKi) for a series of ligands was: 5-carboxamidotryptamine (5-CT, 9.65)>5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT, 9.41)>methiothepin (8.87)>mesulergine (7.87)>8-hydroxy-2(di-n-propylamino)tetralin (8-OH-DPAT, 6.85)>ketanserin (6.44). The h5-HT7(b) receptor coupled positively to adenylyl cyclase in HEK 293 cells. This response was elicited by a number of agonists with the following order of potency (pEC50): 5-CT (8.7±0.11)>5-MeOT (5-methoxytryptamine; 8.1±0.20)>5-HT (7.5±0.13)>tryptamine (5.6±0.36)>8-OH-DPAT (5.3±0.28)>5-methoxytryptamine (5.0±0.06). This rank order was comparable to that observed in the radioligand binding studies. In a similar fashion to that described for the 5-HT7(a) receptor, PCR studies suggested that the 5-HT7(b) receptor mRNA is found in great abundance throughout the brain, in the small intestine and aorta. It is concluded that the h5-HT7 receptor, like the rat receptor, exists as splice variants exhibiting similar pharmacology, signal transduction and distribution. It is thus likely that there exists a complex physiological role for alternate splicing products of the 5-HT7 receptor gene. PMID:9298538

  13. Advanced figure sensor operations and maintenance manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    This manual contains procedures for installing, operating, and maintaining the optical figure sensor and its associated electronic controls. The optical figure sensor, a system of integrated components, comprises: (1) a phase measuring modified interferometer employing a single frequency 6328 A laser, and a Vidissector; (2) a two-axis automatic thermal compensation control mount; (3) a five degree of freedom manual adjustment stand; and (4) a control console. This instrument provides real time output data of optical figure errors for spherical mirrors, and is also capable of measuring aspherical mirrors if a null corrector is added.

  14. Basolateral sorting and transcytosis define the Cu+-regulated translocation of ATP7B to the bile canaliculus.

    PubMed

    Lalioti, Vasiliki; Peiró, Ramón; Pérez-Berlanga, Manuela; Tsuchiya, Yo; Muñoz, Angeles; Villalba, Teresa; Sanchez, Carlos; Sandoval, Ignacio V

    2016-06-01

    The Cu(+) pump ATP7B plays an irreplaceable role in the elimination of excess Cu(+) by the hepatocyte into the bile. The trafficking and site of action of ATP7B are subjects of controversy. One current proposal is that an increase in intracellular Cu(+) results in the translocation of ATP7B to the lysosomes and excretion of excess Cu(+) through lysosomal-mediated exocytosis at the bile canaliculus. Here, we show that ATP7B is transported from the trans-Golgi network (TGN) to the bile canaliculus by basolateral sorting and endocytosis, and microtubule-mediated transcytosis through the subapical compartment. Trafficking ATP7B is not incorporated into lysosomes, and addition of Cu(+) does not cause relocalization of lysosomes and the appearance of lysosome markers in the bile canaliculus. Our data reveal the pathway of the Cu(+)-mediated transport of ATP7B from the TGN to the bile canaliculus and indicates that the bile canaliculus is the primary site of ATP7B action in the elimination of excess Cu(.)

  15. Past to Present: Undergrowth with Two Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Arts: The Art Education Magazine for Teachers, 2004

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes the historical, cultural, and artistic elements of Vincent van Gogh's oil on canvas "Undergrowth with Two Figures" of 1980. The article concludes with questions for students to consider in relation to these aspects of the painting.

  16. Rhetoric Denuded and Redressed: Figs and Figures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulakos, John; Whitson, Steve

    1995-01-01

    Replies to an article in this issue that responds to an earlier article by these authors. Replies aesthetically in aphorisms, subsuming philosophical argument within a vortex of figuration and thus troping the knowledge drive while privileging "doxa" over "episteme." (SR)

  17. Pituitary protein 7B2 plasma levels in patients with liver disease: Comparisons with other hormones and neuropeptides

    PubMed Central

    VENETIKOU, MARIA S.; MELEAGROS, LUKE; GHATEI, MOHHAMMAD A.; BLOOM, STEPHEN R.

    2013-01-01

    7B2, a protein initially isolated from the porcine pituitary gland, has been identified in numerous animal and human tissues, with the highest concentrations in the pituitary and hypothalamus. The 7B2 molecule is highly evolutionarily conserved and is considered to be indispensable in the function and regulation of proprotein convertase 2 (PC2). In the present study, the plasma 7B2 immunoreactivity (7B2-IR) of 18 patients with liver disease was studied. Of these patients, seven (three male and four female), aged 37–67 [54.6±13.5 (SD)] years, suffered from liver cirrhosis of cryptogenic (n=2) or alcoholic (n=5) aetiology. The remaining 11 patients (four male and seven female), aged 22–76 [56.1±17.6 (SD)] years, suffered from miscellaneous liver abnormalities. The clinical diagnosis was confirmed in the majority of patients by the histological examination of a percutaneous liver biopsy or by appropriate radiological investigations. Plasma bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, albumin, prothrombin time, electrolytes, urea and creatinine were measured. The plasma 7B2-IR levels were estimated using a sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA), and the elution position of 7B2-IR was verified by gel chromatography. The mean plasma 7B2-IR concentration in patients with liver disease was 99.44±15.9 pmol/l. In the patients with hepatocellular damage due to metastatic tumours [Ca bronchus, carcinoid (n=6)], the 7B2-IR concentrations were significantly higher [185±36.9 pmol/l, (P<0.05)] compared with the overall subjects with liver damage. The results of the present study demonstrate that 7B2-IR is increased in liver disease, with the highest levels detected in patients with tumourous liver conditions. PMID:24137355

  18. A Bayesian analysis of HAT-P-7b using the EXONEST algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Placek, Ben; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2015-01-01

    The study of exoplanets (planets orbiting other stars) is revolutionizing the way we view our universe. High-precision photometric data provided by the Kepler Space Telescope (Kepler) enables not only the detection of such planets, but also their characterization. This presents a unique opportunity to apply Bayesian methods to better characterize the multitude of previously confirmed exoplanets. This paper focuses on applying the EXONEST algorithm to characterize the transiting short-period-hot-Jupiter, HAT-P-7b (also referred to as Kepler-2b). EXONEST evaluates a suite of exoplanet photometric models by applying Bayesian Model Selection, which is implemented with the MultiNest algorithm. These models take into account planetary effects, such as reflected light and thermal emissions, as well as the effect of the planetary motion on the host star, such as Doppler beaming, or boosting, of light from the reflex motion of the host star, and photometric variations due to the planet-induced ellipsoidal shape of the host star. By calculating model evidences, one can determine which model best describes the observed data, thus identifying which effects dominate the planetary system. Presented are parameter estimates and model evidences for HAT-P-7b.

  19. Improving Trichoderma reesei Cel7B thermostability by targeting the weak spots.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shujun; Wang, Yefei; Song, Xiangfei; Hong, Jingbo; Zhang, Yu; Yao, Lishan

    2014-10-27

    For proteins that denature irreversibly, the denaturation is typically triggered by a partial unfolding, followed by a permanent change (e.g., aggregation). The regions that initiate the partial unfolding are named "weak spots". In this work, a molecular dynamics (MD) simulation and data analysis protocol is developed to identify the weak spots of Trichoderma reesei Cel7B, an important endoglucanase in cellulose hydrolysis, through assigning the local melting temperature (Tmp) to individual residue pairs. To test the predicted weak spots, a total of eight disulfide bonds were designed in these regions and all enhanced the enzyme thermostability. The increased stability, quantified by ΔT50 (which is the T50 difference between the mutant and the wild type enzyme), is negatively correlated with the MD-predicted Tmp, demonstrating the effectiveness of the protocol and highlighting the importance of the weak spots. Strengthening interactions in these regions proves to be a useful strategy in improving the thermostability of Tr. Cel7B.

  20. A Bayesian analysis of HAT-P-7b using the EXONEST algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Placek, Ben; Knuth, Kevin H.

    2015-01-13

    The study of exoplanets (planets orbiting other stars) is revolutionizing the way we view our universe. High-precision photometric data provided by the Kepler Space Telescope (Kepler) enables not only the detection of such planets, but also their characterization. This presents a unique opportunity to apply Bayesian methods to better characterize the multitude of previously confirmed exoplanets. This paper focuses on applying the EXONEST algorithm to characterize the transiting short-period-hot-Jupiter, HAT-P-7b (also referred to as Kepler-2b). EXONEST evaluates a suite of exoplanet photometric models by applying Bayesian Model Selection, which is implemented with the MultiNest algorithm. These models take into account planetary effects, such as reflected light and thermal emissions, as well as the effect of the planetary motion on the host star, such as Doppler beaming, or boosting, of light from the reflex motion of the host star, and photometric variations due to the planet-induced ellipsoidal shape of the host star. By calculating model evidences, one can determine which model best describes the observed data, thus identifying which effects dominate the planetary system. Presented are parameter estimates and model evidences for HAT-P-7b.

  1. Preliminary X-ray analysis of cellobiohydrolase Cel7B from Melanocarpus albomyces

    SciTech Connect

    Parkkinen, Tarja; Koivula, Anu; Vehmaanperä, Jari; Rouvinen, Juha

    2007-09-01

    The crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction analysis of cellobiohydrolase from M. albomyces is reported. Cellobiohydrolases are enzymes that cleave off cellobiose units from cellulose chains in a processive manner. Melanocarpus albomyces Cel7B is a thermostable single-module cellobiohydrolase that has relatively low activity on small soluble substrates at room temperature. It belongs to glycoside hydrolase family 7, which includes endo-β-1,4-glucanases and cellobiohydrolases. Cel7B was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and streak-seeding. The crystals belonged to space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 50.9, b = 94.5, c = 189.8 Å, β = 90.0° and four monomers in the asymmetric unit. Analysis of the intensity statistics showed that the crystals were pseudo-merohedrally twinned, with a twinning fraction of 0.37. X-ray diffraction data were collected at 1.6 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation.

  2. Evolution of the Significant Figure Rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Ashley R.

    2013-09-01

    Today, almost all introductory physics textbooks include standardized "rules" on how to find the number of significant figures in a calculated value. And yet, 30 years ago these rules were almost nonexistent. Whyhave we increased the role of significant figures in introductory classes, and should we continue this trend? A look back at the evolution of significant figures over the last 300 years, from Newton to Millikan to modern authors, sheds some light on their purpose moving forward. While there is much discussion for and against their use, especially in chemistry, a review of earlier versions of the rules suggests that we have lost some items of value, most notably, a significant figure rule for angles. In addition, we have lost the emphasis that the significant figure rules were designed to calculate an approximate (not exact) precision. Now that the significant figure rules are ingrained into our introductory physics sequence, we would be wise to reiterate that these are just general "rules of thumb."

  3. Ion beam figuring of small optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drueding, Thomas W.; Fawcett, Steven C.; Wilson, Scott R.; Bifano, Thomas G.

    1995-12-01

    Ion beam figuring provides a highly deterministic method for the final precision figuring of optical components with advantages over conventional methods. The process involves bombarding a component with a stable beam of accelerated particles that selectively removes material from the surface. Figure corrections are achieved by rastering the fixed-current beam across the workplace at appropriate, time-varying velocities. Unlike conventional methods, ion figuring is a noncontact technique and thus avoids such problems as edge rolloff effects, tool wear, and force loading of the workpiece. This work is directed toward the development of the precision ion machining system at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center. This system is designed for processing small (approximately equals 10-cm diam) optical components. Initial experiments were successful in figuring 8-cm-diam fused silica and chemical-vapor-deposited SiC samples. The experiments, procedures, and results of figuring the sample workpieces to shallow spherical, parabolic (concave and convex), and non-axially-symmetric shapes are discussed. Several difficulties and limitations encountered with the current system are discussed. The use of a 1-cm aperture for making finer corrections on optical components is also reported.

  4. ATP dependent charge movement in ATP7B Cu+-ATPase is demonstrated by pre-steady state electrical measurements.

    PubMed

    Tadini-Buoninsegni, Francesco; Bartolommei, Gianluca; Moncelli, Maria Rosa; Pilankatta, Rajendra; Lewis, David; Inesi, Giuseppe

    2010-11-19

    ATP7B is a copper dependent P-type ATPase, required for copper homeostasis. Taking advantage of high yield heterologous expression of recombinant protein, we investigated charge transfer in ATP7B. We detected charge displacement within a single catalytic cycle upon ATP addition and formation of phosphoenzyme intermediate. We attribute this charge displacement to movement of bound copper within ATP7B. Based on specific mutations, we demonstrate that enzyme activation by copper requires occupancy of a site in the N-terminus extension which is not present in other transport ATPases, as well as of a transmembrane site corresponding to the cation binding site of other ATPases.

  5. Safety pharmacology in focus: new methods developed in the light of the ICH S7B guidance document.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, Michael K; Curtis, Michael J

    2006-01-01

    'Safety' continues to be a growth area in 'Pharmacology'. This issue of Journal of Pharmacological and Toxicological Methods is the third to be focused on methods development in the safety pharmacology area. The unusual nature of safety pharmacology mandates that methods development be done with, not only scientific validation, but also, adherence to the mandates of legislation to the forefront. This focused issue draws on a broad range of global safety pharmacology experts, many of whom operate in the industrial milieu. They have reviewed and updated current models, validated modifications, and have also introduced novel methodology important to the conduct of non-clinical safety pharmacology studies. The contributors were all active participants at the 5th Annual Safety Pharmacology Society (SPS) meeting held in Mannheim, Germany September 25-28, 2005. The publications presented here describe in vitro and in vivo pharmacological methods development that has been informed by the S7A regulatory guidance document for pre-clinical safety testing of drugs. While S7A describes the 'core battery' of methods used to characterize the safety pharmacology profile of a compound, the most recent news in Safety Pharmacology involves ratification of the related S7B safety guidance document. Unlike the past, S7B heralds a new era for the pharmaceutical industry since it now sets out how to address safety concerns of a new chemical entity (NCE) in relation to adverse actions on ventricular repolarization, a topic that has vexed industry and regulatory authorities for many years. Unsurprisingly there are many papers in the present issue that address this specific aspect of safety pharmacology. These include results from the Health and Environmental Sciences Institute of the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI/HESI) initiative, in which non-clinical in vitro (hERG and Purkinje fiber) and in vivo (QT dog study) assays were found to be useful in the determination of drug

  6. Wet-Etch Figuring Optical Figuring by Controlled Application of Liquid Etchant

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J

    2001-02-13

    WET-ETCH FIGURING (WEF) is an automated method of precisely figuring optical materials by the controlled application of aqueous etchant solution. This technology uses surface-tension-gradient-driven flow to confine and stabilize a wetted zone of an etchant solution or other aqueous processing fluid on the surface of an object. This wetted zone can be translated on the surface in a computer-controlled fashion for precise spatial control of the surface reactions occurring (e.g. chemical etching). WEF is particularly suitable for figuring very thin optical materials because it applies no thermal or mechanical stress to the material. Also, because the process is stress-free the workpiece can be monitored during figuring using interferometric metrology, and the measurements obtained can be used to control the figuring process in real-time--something that cannot be done with traditional figuring methods.

  7. HATS-7b: A Hot Super Neptune Transiting a Quiet K Dwarf Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakos, G. Á.; Penev, K.; Bayliss, D.; Hartman, J. D.; Zhou, G.; Brahm, R.; Mancini, L.; de Val-Borro, M.; Bhatti, W.; Jordán, A.; Rabus, M.; Espinoza, N.; Csubry, Z.; Howard, A. W.; Fulton, B. J.; Buchhave, L. A.; Ciceri, S.; Henning, T.; Schmidt, B.; Isaacson, H.; Noyes, R. W.; Marcy, G. W.; Suc, V.; Howe, A. R.; Burrows, A. S.; Lázár, J.; Papp, I.; Sári, P.

    2015-11-01

    We report the discovery by the HATSouth network of HATS-7b, a transiting Super-Neptune with a mass of 0.120 ± 0.012 {M}{{J}}, a radius of {0.563}-0.034+0.046 {R}{{J}}, and an orbital period of 3.1853 days. The host star is a moderately bright (V=13.340\\+/- 0.010 mag, {K}S=10.976\\+/- 0.026 mag) K dwarf star with a mass of 0.849 ± 0.027 {M}⊙ , a radius of {0.815}-0.035+0.049 {R}⊙ , and a metallicity of [{Fe}/{{H}}] =+0.250\\+/- 0.080. The star is photometrically quiet to within the precision of the HATSouth measurements, has low RV jitter, and shows no evidence for chromospheric activity in its spectrum. HATS-7b is the second smallest radius planet discovered by a wide-field ground-based transit survey, and one of only a handful of Neptune-size planets with mass and radius determined to 10% precision. Theoretical modeling of HATS-7b yields a hydrogen-helium fraction of 18 ± 4% (rock-iron core and H2-He envelope), or 9 ± 4% (ice core and H2-He envelope), i.e., it has a composition broadly similar to that of Uranus and Neptune, and very different from that of Saturn, which has 75% of its mass in H2-He. Based on a sample of transiting exoplanets with accurately (<20%) determined parameters, we establish approximate power-law relations for the envelopes of the mass-density distribution of exoplanets. HATS-7b, which, together with the recently discovered HATS-8b, is one of the first two transiting super-Neptunes discovered in the Southern sky, is a prime target for additional follow-up observations with Southern hemisphere facilities to characterize the atmospheres of Super-Neptunes (which we define as objects with mass greater than that of Neptune, and smaller than halfway between that of Neptune and Saturn, i.e., 0.054 {M}{{J}}\\lt {M}{{p}}\\lt 0.18 {M}{{J}}). The HATSouth network is operated by a collaboration consisting of Princeton University (PU), the Max Planck Institute für Astronomie (MPIA), the Australian National University (ANU), and the Pontificia

  8. Minimizing Uncertainty in Cryogenic Surface Figure Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Peter; Mink, Ronald G.; Chambers, John; Robinson, F. David; Content, David; Davila, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    A new facility at the Goddard Space Flight Center is designed to measure with unusual accuracy the surface figure of mirrors at cryogenic temperatures down to 12 K. The facility is currently configured for spherical mirrors with a radius of curvature (ROC) of 600 mm, and apertures of about 150 mm or less. The goals of the current experiment were to 1) Obtain the best possible estimate of test mirror surface figure, S(x,y) at 87 K and 20 K; 2) Obtain the best estimate of the cryo-change, Delta (x,y): the change in surface figure between room temperature and the two cryo-temperatures; and 3) Determine the uncertainty of these measurements, using the definitions and guidelines of the ISO Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement. A silicon mirror was tested, and the cry-change from room temperature to 20K was found to be 3.7 nm rms, with a standard uncertainty of 0.23 nm in the rms statistic. Both the cryo-change figure and the uncertainty are among the lowest such figures yet published. This report describes the facilities, experimental methods, and uncertainty analysis of the measurements.

  9. Copper transport during lactation in transgenic mice expressing the human ATP7A protein

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, Roxana M.; Michalczyk, Agnes A.; Freestone, David J.; Currie, Scott; Linder, Maria C.; Ackland, M. Leigh; Mercer, Julian F.B.

    2008-01-01

    Both copper transporting ATPases, ATP7A and ATP7B, are expressed in mammary epithelial cells but their role in copper delivery to milk has not been clarified. We investigated the role of ATP7A in delivery of copper to milk using transgenic mice that over-express human ATP7A. In mammary gland of transgenic mice, human ATP7A protein was 10- to 20-fold higher than in control mice, and was localized to the basolateral membrane of mammary epithelial cells in lactating mice. The copper concentration in the mammary gland of transgenic dams and stomach contents of transgenic pups was significantly reduced compared to non-transgenic mice. The mRNA levels of endogenous Atp7a, Atp7b, and Ctr1 copper transporters in the mammary gland were not altered by the expression of the ATP7A transgene, and the protein levels of Atp7b and ceruloplasmin were similar in transgenic and non-transgenic mice. These data suggest that ATP7A plays a role in removing excess copper from the mammary epithelial cells rather than supplying copper to milk. PMID:18515074

  10. Software systems for modeling articulated figures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Cary B.

    1989-01-01

    Research in computer animation and simulation of human task performance requires sophisticated geometric modeling and user interface tools. The software for a research environment should present the programmer with a powerful but flexible substrate of facilities for displaying and manipulating geometric objects, yet insure that future tools have a consistent and friendly user interface. Jack is a system which provides a flexible and extensible programmer and user interface for displaying and manipulating complex geometric figures, particularly human figures in a 3D working environment. It is a basic software framework for high-performance Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations for modeling and manipulating geometric objects in a general but powerful way. It provides a consistent and user-friendly interface across various applications in computer animation and simulation of human task performance. Currently, Jack provides input and control for applications including lighting specification and image rendering, anthropometric modeling, figure positioning, inverse kinematics, dynamic simulation, and keyframe animation.

  11. [Figures of anima in the Odyssey].

    PubMed

    Meneghello, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Feminine characters in the Odyssey show different aspects of the archetype: Mother and Anima (C.G. Jung). From an Analytical Psychology perspective the encounters of Odysseus with goddesses: Circe, Calypso, Ino are looked at as different and successive stages of the hero's way into the inconscious, who shows himself in feminine figures, being masculine the consciousness of the hero. Nausicaa is a new, nearly-human figure of Anima who appears after the symbolic death of Odysseus and leads him to the royal couple Alcinous-Arete: in front of them all he finds his new, reborn, personality by creating and narrating his own myth.

  12. Metrics of Justice. A Sundial's Nomological Figuration.

    PubMed

    Behrmann, Carolin

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines a polyhedral dial from the British Museum made by the instrument maker Ulrich Schniep, and discusses the status of multifunctional scientific instruments. It discerns a multifaceted iconic meaning considering different dimensions such as scientific functionality (astronomy), the complex allegorical figure of Justice (iconography), and the representation of the sovereign (politics), the court and the Kunstkammer of Albrecht v of Bavaria. As a numen mixtum the figure of "Justicia" touches different fields that go far beyond pure astronomical measurement and represents the power of the ruler as well as the rules of economic justice.

  13. A novel role for hGas7b in microtubular maintenance: possible implication in tau-associated pathology in Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Hirotada; Gotoh, Aina; Shin, Ryong-Woon; Koga, Tomoe; Ohashi, Tsubasa; Sakamoto, Wataru; Harada, Akihiro; Arai, Hiroyuki; Sawa, Akira; Uchida, Chiyoko; Uchida, Takafumi

    2009-11-20

    Here, we report a novel role for hGas7b (human growth arrest specific protein 7b) in the regulation of microtubules. Using a bioinformatic approach, we studied the actin-binding protein hGas7b with a structural similarity to the WW domain of a peptidyl prolyl cis/trans isomerase, Pin1, that facilitates microtubule assembly. Thus, we have demonstrated that hGas7b binds Tau at the WW motif and that the hGas7b/Tau protein complex interacts with the microtubules, promoting tubulin polymerization. Tau, in turn, contributes to protein stability of hGas7b. Furthermore, we observed decreased levels of hGas7b in the brains from patients with Alzheimer disease. These results suggest an important role for hGas7b in microtubular maintenance and possible implication in Alzheimer disease.

  14. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  15. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  16. 50 CFR Figure 1 to Part 640 - Figure 1 to Part 640

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figure 1 to Part 640 1 Figure 1 to Part 640 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SPINY LOBSTER FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt....

  17. The Offerings of Fringe Figures and Migrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engels-Schwarzpaul, A.-Chr.

    2015-01-01

    "The Western tradition", as passe-partout, includes fringe figures, émigrés and migrants. Rather than looking to resources at the core of the Western tradition to overcome its own blindnesses, I am more interested in its gaps and peripheries, where other thoughts and renegade knowledges take hold. It is in the contact zones with…

  18. Cylindrical optic figuring dwell time optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waluschka, Eugene

    2000-11-01

    The Constellation-X, grazing incidence, x-ray telescope may be fabricated from replicated segments. A series of mandrels will serve as the 'masters' in the replication processes. Diamond turning (milling) followed by abrasive figuring followed by a super polishing are the steps currently envisioned in making just one (of many) mandrel. The abrasive figuring of a mandrel is accomplished by moving a grinding tool along a helical path on this almost cylindrical surface. The measurement of the surface is, however, performed along 'axial' scan lines which intercept this helical path. This approach to figuring and measuring permits a relatively simple scheme to be implemented for the determination of the optimal dwell times of the figuring tool. These optimal dwell times are determined by a deconvolution which approaches the problem in a linear programming context and uses the Simplex Method. The approach maximizes the amount of material removed at any point subject to inequality constraints. The effects of using these 'optimum' dwell times is to significantly improve the tools effectiveness at removing the higher spatial frequencies while staying (strictly) within the bounds and constraints imposed by the hardware. In addition, the ringing at the edges of the optic, frequently present in deconvolution problems, is completely eliminated.

  19. Go Figure. HEADJAM. Teaching Guide [and Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MATHCOUNTS Foundation, Alexandria, VA.

    The HeadJam series is comprised of six programs exploring mathematics, science, and critical thinking skills. It is an award-winning, educational videotape series for middle school students that explores multi-disciplinary skills in a highly entertaining way. The teacher's guide and 22-minute video, "Go Figure," demonstrate how math is used in the…

  20. Noise figure of hybrid optical parametric amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Marhic, Michel E

    2012-12-17

    Following a fiber optical parametric amplifier, used as a wavelength converter or in the phase-sensitive mode, by a phase-insensitive amplifier (PIA) can significantly reduce four-wave mixing between signals in broadband systems. We derive the quantum mechanical noise figures (NF) for these two hybrid configurations, and show that adding the PIA only leads to a moderate increase in NF.

  1. Computerized Testing: The Hidden Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Ronald L.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    This study adapted the Hidden Figures Test for use on PLATO and determined the reliability of the computerized version compared to the paper and pencil version. Results indicate the test was successfully adapted with some modifications, and it was judged reliable although it may be measuring additional constructs. (MBR)

  2. Human Figure Drawings of Vietnamese Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delatte, Joseph G. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Some characteristics of the human figure drawings of 93 Vietnamese children were investigated. Drawings were scored according to the Goodenough method. Mental age scores were high in relation to chronological age and this result is explained in terms of cultural emphasis on the value of copying well. (SE)

  3. Facts and Figures about Chinese Americans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Chinese Teachers, San Francisco, CA.

    In this brief collection of facts and figures about Chinese Americans, information and data are presented on the geographic location of Chinese in America, the pattern of Chinese immigration to the United States, and income and occupations of Chinese Americans. In addition, a brief chronology of Chinese American history is presented. (Author/AM)

  4. Data Behind the Figures in AAS Journals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biemesderfer, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Substantial amounts of digital data are produced in the scientific enterprise, and much of it is carefully analyzed and processed. Often resulting from a good deal of intellectual effort, many of these highly-processed products are published in the scholarly literature. Many of these data - or more precisely, representations of these data - are committed to the scholarly record in the forms of figures and tables that appear within articles: the AAS journals publish more than 30,000 figures and nearly 10,000 tables each year. For more than a decade, the AAS journals have accepted machine-readable tables that provide the data behind (some of) the tables, and recently the journals have started to encourage the submission of the data behind figures. (See the related poster by Greg Schwarz.) During this time, the journals have been refining techniques for acquiring and managing the digital data that underlie figures and tables. In 2012 the AAS was awarded a grant by the US NSF so that the journals can extend the methods for providing access to these data objects, through a deeper collaboration with the VO and with organizations like DataCite, and by spearheading discussions about the formats and metadata that will best facilitate long-term data management and access. An important component of these activities is educating scientists about the importance and benefits of making such data sets available.

  5. Cultural Impact on Human Figure Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De La Serna, Marcelo; And Others

    1979-01-01

    A human figure drawing instrument was administered to Black children from the Virgin Islands and Georgia and to White children from Mexico. Both cultural and sex differences occurred, influencing the drawings. Black children from different cultures differed from each other on this instrument. (Author/BEF)

  6. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  7. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  8. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1192

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures to Part 1192 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD AMERICANS WITH DISABILITIES ACT (ADA) ACCESSIBILITY GUIDELINES FOR TRANSPORTATION VEHICLES Other Vehicles and Systems Trams, similar vehicles and systems. Pt....

  9. 36 CFR Appendix - Figures to Part 1194

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures to Part 1194 Parks, Forests, and Public Property ARCHITECTURAL AND TRANSPORTATION BARRIERS COMPLIANCE BOARD ELECTRONIC AND INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY ACCESSIBILITY STANDARDS Information, Documentation, and Support Information, documentation, and support. Pt. 1194,...

  10. T'ang Dynasty Tomb Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selle, Penny

    1988-01-01

    Uses a print of a T'ang Dynasty tomb figure to acquaint grades 10-12 students with the tools needed for developing aesthetic judgement and artistic criticism. Includes background on the artwork and instructional strategies to help students describe the object, analyze the artmaking process, and formulate their own opinions. (GEA)

  11. Fading-Figure Tracing in Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagai, Chiyoko; Inui, Toshio; Iwata, Makoto

    2011-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe impairment of visuospatial abilities. Figure-drawing abilities, which are thought to reflect visuospatial abilities, have yet to be fully investigated in WS. The purpose of the present study was to clarify whether drawing abilities differ between WS individuals and…

  12. Participation in the Figured World of Graffiti

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valle, Imuris; Weiss, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    This article is based on ethnographic work with two "crews" of young graffiti artists in southern Mexico City. The crews share certain characteristics with gangs or urban tribes, but more with "communities of practice": they live in the "figured world" of graffiti, a community of practice at the local and global…

  13. Biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrateco-3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate) by Strain Azotobacter chroococcum 7B

    PubMed Central

    Bonartsev, A.P.; Bonartseva, G. A.; Myshkina, V. L.; Voinova, V. V.; Mahina, T. K.; Zharkova, I. I.; Yakovlev, S. G.; Zernov, A. L.; Ivanova, E. V.; Akoulina, E. A.; Kuznetsova, E. S.; Zhuikov, V. A.; Alekseeva, S. G.; Podgorskii, V. V.; Bessonov, I. V.; Kopitsyna, M. N.; Morozov, A. S.; Milanovskiy, E. Y.; Tyugay, Z. N.; Bykova, G. S.; Kirpichnikov, M. P.; Shaitan, K. V.

    2016-01-01

    Production of novel polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), biodegradable polymers for biomedical applications, and biomaterials based on them is a promising trend in modern bioengineering. We studied the ability of an effective strain-producer Azotobacter chroococcum 7B to synthesize not only poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) homopolymer (PHB) and its main copolymer poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV), but also a novel copolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate) (PHB4MV). For the biosynthesis of PHB copolymers, we used carboxylic acids as additional carbon sources and monomer precursors in the chain of synthesized copolymers. The main parameters of these polymers’ biosynthesis were determined: strain-producer biomass yield, polymer yield, molecular weight and monomer composition of the synthesized polymers, as well as the morphology of A. chroococcum 7B bacterial cells. The physico-chemical properties of the polymers were studied using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), contact angle test, and other methods. In vitro biocompatibility of the obtained polymers was investigated using stromal cells isolated from the bone marrow of rats with the XTT cell viability test. The synthesis of the novel copolymer PHB4MV and its chemical composition were demonstrated by NMR spectroscopy: the addition of 4-methylvaleric acid to the culture medium resulted in incorporation of 3-hydroxy-4-methylvalerate (3H4MV) monomers into the PHB polymer chain (0.6 mol%). Despite the low molar content of 3H4MV in the obtained copolymer, its physico-chemical properties were significantly different from those of the PHB homopolymer: it has lower crystallinity and a higher contact angle, i.e. the physico-chemical properties of the PHB4MV copolymer containing only 0.6 mol% of 3H4MV corresponded to a PHBV copolymer with a molar content ranging from 2.5% to 7.8%. In vitro biocompatibility of the obtained PHB4MV copolymer

  14. Mirror Figuring Techniques of Sir William Herschel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albin, E. F.

    2004-05-01

    Between the years 1773 to 1818, Sir William Herschel constructed dozens of speculum telescope mirrors, with diameters ranging from 6 - 48 inches. Very little, if any, detailed information has ever been published on the specifics of his mirror figuring efforts. The reason for this certainly relates to his desire to closely guard mirror production trade secrets. Upon Herschel's death, all telescope-making documents were passed on to his only son, Sir John Herschel. These materials are now in the possession of the British RAS and primarily consist of: a) a four volume series entitled "Experiments on the Construction of Specula," b) a 129 page treaty called "On the Construction of Specula," and c) a 179 page manuscript entitled "Results of Experiments on the Construction of Mirrors." It is suggested that publication was further delayed and then eventually abandoned due to silver-coated glass mirrors coming into favor. A recent investigation by the author, of the unpublished manuscripts on the construction of specula, suggests that Herschel's mirror figuring techniques did not involve any guess work; in fact, his methods were highly refined -- never leaving to chance the evolution of a spherical surface into the required paraboloid. At the heart of Herschel's figuring techniques were a series of aperture diaphragms (similar to the Couder masks used by modern telescope makers) that were placed over the mirror, which allowed for the precise determination of its curvature at various predefined zones. With this information, Herschel was able to vary his figuring strokes with his polishing tool accordingly. In addition, all mirrors were subsequently "star tested," sometimes with aperture diaphragms in place, allowing for field examination of the mirror's "distinctness" or performance. Double stars and the planet Saturn were favorite targets used to analyze and then correct a mirror's figure.

  15. DNA methylation and transcriptomic changes in response to different lights and stresses in 7B-1 male-sterile tomato.

    PubMed

    Omidvar, Vahid; Fellner, Martin

    2015-01-01

    We reported earlier that 7B-1 mutant in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L., cv. Rutgers), an ABA overproducer, is defective in blue light (B) signaling leading to B-specific resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Using a methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) assay, a number of genes were identified, which were differentially methylated between 7B-1 and its wild type (WT) seedlings in white (W), blue (B), red (R) lights and dark (D) or in response to exogenous ABA and mannitol-induced stresses. The genomic methylation level was almost similar in different lights between 7B-1 and WT seedlings, while significant differences were observed in response to stresses in D, but not B. Using a cDNA-AFLP assay, several transcripts were identified, which were differentially regulated between 7B-1 and WT by B or D or in response to stresses. Blue light receptors cryptochrome 1 and 2 (CRY1 and CRY2) and phototropin 1 and 2 (PHOT1 and PHOT2) were not affected by the 7B-1 mutation at the transcriptional level, instead the mutation had likely affected downstream components of the light signaling pathway. 5-azacytidine (5-azaC) induced DNA hypomethylation, inhibited stem elongation and differentially regulated the expression of a number of genes in 7B-1. In addition, it was shown that mir167 and mir390 were tightly linked to auxin signaling pathway in 5-azaC-treated 7B-1 seedlings via the regulation of auxin-response factor (ARF) transcripts. Our data showed that DNA methylation remodeling is an active epigenetic response to different lights and stresses in 7B-1 and WT, and highlighted the differences in epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of light and stress responses between 7B-1 and WT. Furthermore, it shed lights on the crosstalk between DNA hypomethylation and miRNA regulation of ARFs expression. This information could also be used as a benchmark for future studies of male-sterility in other crops.

  16. The Terpolymer Produced by Azotobacter Chroococcum 7B: Effect of Surface Properties on Cell Attachment

    PubMed Central

    Bonartsev, Anton; Yakovlev, Sergey; Boskhomdzhiev, Arasha; Zharkova, Irina; Bagrov, Dmitrii; Myshkina, Vera; Mahina, Tatiana; Kharitonova, Elena; Samsonova, Olga; Zernov, Anton; Zhuikov, Vsevolod; Efremov, Yurii; Voinova, Vera; Bonartseva, Garina; Shaitan, Konstantin

    2013-01-01

    The copolymerization of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) is a promising trend in bioengineering to improve biomedical properties, e.g. biocompatibility, of this biodegradable polymer. We used strain Azotobacter chroococcum 7B, an effective producer of PHB, for biosynthesis of not only homopolymer and its main copolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB-HV), but also novel terpolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PHB-HV-PEG), using sucrose as the primary carbon source and valeric acid and poly(ethylene glycol) 300 (PEG 300) as additional carbon sources. The chemical structure of PHB-HV-PEG was confirmed by 1H nuclear-magnetic resonance analysis. The physico-chemical properties (molecular weight, crystallinity, hydrophilicity, surface energy) of produced biopolymer, the protein adsorption to the terpolymer, and cell growth on biopolymer films were studied. Despite of low EG-monomers content in bacterial-origin PHB-HV-PEG polymer, the terpolymer demonstrated significant improvement in biocompatibility in vitro in contrast to PHB and PHB-HV polymers, which may be coupled with increased protein adsorption, hydrophilicity and surface roughness of PEG-containing copolymer. PMID:23468935

  17. Characterization of the Dielectric Constant in the Trichoderma reesei Cel7B Active Site.

    PubMed

    Song, Xiangfei; Wang, Yefei; Zhang, Shujun; Yan, Shihai; Li, Tong; Yao, Lishan

    2015-07-27

    An attempt is made to evaluate the dielectric constant of the Trichoderma reesei Cel7B active site. Through kinetic measurements, the pKa value of the catalytic acid E201 is determined. Mutations (away from E201) with net charge changes are introduced to perturb the E201 pKa. It is shown that the mutation with a +1 charge change (including G225R, G230R, and A335R) decreases the pKa of E201, whereas the mutation with a -1 charge change (including Q149E, A222D, G225D, and G230D) increases the pKa. This effect is consistent with the electrostatic interaction between the changed charge and the E201 side chain. The fitting of the experimental data yields an apparent dielectric constant of 25-80. Molecular dynamics simulations with explicit water molecules indicate that the high solvent accessibility of the active site contributes largely to the high dielectric constant. ONIOM calculations show that high dielectric constant benefits the catalysis through decreasing the energy of the transition state relative to that of the enzyme substrate complex.

  18. A mechanistic study of Trichoderma reesei Cel7B catalyzed glycosidic bond cleavage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu; Yan, Shihai; Yao, Lishan

    2013-07-25

    An ONIOM study is performed to illustrate the mechanism of Trichoderma reesei Cel7B catalyzed p-nitrophenyl lactoside hydrolysis. In both the glycosylation and deglycosylation steps, the reaction proceeds in a concerted way, meaning the nucleophilic attack and the glycosidic bond cleavage occur simultaneously. The glycosylation step is rate limiting with a barrier of 18.9 kcal/mol, comparable to the experimental value derived from the kcat measured in this work. The function of four residues R108, Y146, Y170, and D172, which form a hydrogen-bond network involving the substrate, is studied by conservative mutations. The mutants, including R108K, Y146F, Y170F, and D172N, decrease the enzyme activity by about 150-8000-fold. Molecular dynamics simulations show that the mutations disrupt the hydrogen-bond network, cause the substrate to deviate from active binding and hinder either the proton transfer from E201 to O4(+1) or the nucleophilic attack from E196 to C1(-1).

  19. An investigation of higher-order effects in modeling exoplanet HAT-P-7b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurth, Susan Anne

    In its search for Earth-like planets, NASA's Kepler mission observed over 200,000 stars. Among these systems were the class of planets known as the "hot Jupiters." These are giant gaseous planets with periods less than 10 days. Here I present an analysis of the Kepler observations of the exoplanet HAT-P-7b, a hot Jupiter with an orbital period of 2.2 days, a mass of 1.8 MJ, and a radius of 1.5 RJ. Due to its very close proximity to its host star, the planet has a day-side temperature of 2800 K and a night-side temperature of 1950 K. The tight orbit also causes planetary reflection, as well as higher-order effects in the system such as ellipsoidal variations, Doppler beaming, and gravity darkening. My thesis explores these effects on the Kepler HAT-P-7 light curve using the state of the art Eclipsing Light Curve (ELC) code. The "short cadence" data from Kepler contain 2 million measurements, which I phase folded and binned to get robust uncertainties, resulting in a final data set with 2,704 points. Because of the exquisitely high precision of the data (few ppm level), the physical effects mentioned above need to be accounted for. Including these effects enables me to accurately solve for the system parameters.

  20. Modeling the Axial Mechanical Response of Amorphous Fe45Ni45Mo7B3 Honeycombs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, Balaji; Hanan, Jay C.

    2012-08-01

    The high yield strength and elastic modulus of metallic glasses suggests they could perform an important role in structural applications. To produce materials with a high strength-to-weight ratio and excellent mechanical energy absorption, it is advantageous to form amorphous alloys as cellular solids. Using the elastic properties of slip cast amorphous Fe45Ni45Mo7B3 ribbons, a metallic glass honeycomb was manufactured with a unique manufacturing approach. First, prototypes were manufactured with a porosity of 97 pct, a cell wall thickness of 0.03 mm, and a cell size of 3 mm. Experimentally measured mechanical properties were reasonably similar to analytical models. This suggests that a three-times improvement in the yield strength along the out-of-plane direction is achievable when compared with crystalline aluminum honeycombs. An analytical model was developed to predict the relative density and the compressive stress ( σ {3/ * }) in the out-of-plane ( X 3) direction of the "teardrop" cellular structure. The predictions are validated by initial experimental results and compare well with existing analytical models for hexagonal cellular materials.

  1. Evaluating endoglucanase Cel7B-lignin interaction mechanisms and kinetics using quartz crystal microgravimetry.

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, Katherine A; Sorek, Hagit; Roche, Christine M; Strobel, Kathryn L; Blanch, Harvey W; Clark, Douglas S

    2015-11-01

    The kinetics and mechanisms of protein interactions with solid surfaces are important to fields as diverse as industrial biocatalysis, biomedical engineering, food science, and cell biology. The nonproductive adsorption of cellulase enzymes to lignin, a plant cell wall polymer, reduces their effectiveness in saccharifying biomass. Cellulase has been shown to interact with lignin, but the heterogeneity of lignin surfaces, challenges in measuring irreversible components of these interactions, and fast adsorption rates make quantifying the reaction kinetics difficult. This work employs quartz crystal microgravimetry with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) for real-time measurement of adsorbed mass on a flat lignin surface. We have developed a method for casting homogeneous lignin films that are chemically similar to lignin found in pretreated biomass, and used QCM-D to compare three models of reversible-irreversible binding behavior: a single-site transition model, a transition model with changing adsorbate footprint, and a two-site transition model. Of the three models tested, the two-site transition model provides the only kinetic mechanism able to describe the behavior of Cel7B binding to lignin. While the direct implications of lignin-cellulase interactions may be limited to biomass deconstruction for renewable energy and green chemistry, the analytical and experimental methods demonstrated in this work are relevant to any system in which the kinetics and reaction mechanism of reversible and irreversible protein adsorption at a solid-liquid interface are important.

  2. Identification of myopia-associated WNT7B polymorphisms provides insights into the mechanism underlying the development of myopia.

    PubMed

    Miyake, Masahiro; Yamashiro, Kenji; Tabara, Yasuharu; Suda, Kenji; Morooka, Satoshi; Nakanishi, Hideo; Khor, Chiea-Chuen; Chen, Peng; Qiao, Fan; Nakata, Isao; Akagi-Kurashige, Yumiko; Gotoh, Norimoto; Tsujikawa, Akitaka; Meguro, Akira; Kusuhara, Sentaro; Polasek, Ozen; Hayward, Caroline; Wright, Alan F; Campbell, Harry; Richardson, Andrea J; Schache, Maria; Takeuchi, Masaki; Mackey, David A; Hewitt, Alex W; Cuellar, Gabriel; Shi, Yi; Huang, Luling; Yang, Zhenglin; Leung, Kim Hung; Kao, Patrick Y P; Yap, Maurice K H; Yip, Shea Ping; Moriyama, Muka; Ohno-Matsui, Kyoko; Mizuki, Nobuhisa; MacGregor, Stuart; Vitart, Veronique; Aung, Tin; Saw, Seang-Mei; Tai, E-Shyong; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Baird, Paul N; Yamada, Ryo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2015-03-31

    Myopia can cause severe visual impairment. Here, we report a two-stage genome-wide association study for three myopia-related traits in 9,804 Japanese individuals, which was extended with trans-ethnic replication in 2,674 Chinese and 2,690 Caucasian individuals. We identify WNT7B as a novel susceptibility gene for axial length (rs10453441, Pmeta=3.9 × 10(-13)) and corneal curvature (Pmeta=2.9 × 10(-40)) and confirm the previously reported association between GJD2 and myopia. WNT7B significantly associates with extreme myopia in a case-control study with 1,478 Asian patients and 4,689 controls (odds ratio (OR)meta=1.13, Pmeta=0.011). We also find in a mouse model of myopia downregulation of WNT7B expression in the cornea and upregulation in the retina, suggesting its possible role in the development of myopia.

  3. Figure correction of multilayer coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Chapman; Henry N. , Taylor; John S.

    2010-02-16

    A process is provided for producing near-perfect optical surfaces, for EUV and soft-x-ray optics. The method involves polishing or otherwise figuring the multilayer coating that has been deposited on an optical substrate, in order to correct for errors in the figure of the substrate and coating. A method such as ion-beam milling is used to remove material from the multilayer coating by an amount that varies in a specified way across the substrate. The phase of the EUV light that is reflected from the multilayer will be affected by the amount of multilayer material removed, but this effect will be reduced by a factor of 1-n as compared with height variations of the substrate, where n is the average refractive index of the multilayer.

  4. Recommended Figures of Merit for Green Monopropellants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall. William M.; Deans, Matthew C.

    2013-01-01

    Hydrazine propellant has historically been used as a rocket thruster monopropellant since the mid-1960s. Mission managers are well aware of its characteristics and performance. However, it is a known toxic chemical and a wide effort is underway to reduce and/or eliminate its use worldwide. Several new propellant combinations have been developed in the last few years which tout or promise to provide same or better performance as hydrazine while being "non-toxic" or "green". Yet, there is no consistent definition for what constitutes "non-toxic" or "green", and thus no good figure of merit for which to compare. This paper seeks to review the three major categories of figures of merit, and discusses how they might be used to assess the viability of a propellant.

  5. LETTER TO THE EDITOR: Significant figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeler, David

    2000-05-01

    The interesting article on `University students' conceptions of basic astronomy concepts' by Ricardo Trumper (2000 Phys. Educ. 35 9-15) was spoiled by a lack of attention to detail. The percentages for the student responses were mostly quoted to three figures but the sample size of 76 allows for only two at most. As well as making the article much less `readable', the decimal point in the percentage figure implies a measurement accuracy that is just not there in reality. Sociologists and newspaper reporters have long been guilty of this kind of accidental deception. If we physicists don't set an example in our own journals how can we ever expect it to stop?

  6. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Takacs, P.Z. ); Church, E.L. . Army Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center)

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. High figure of merit thermoelectrics - Theoretical considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vining, Cronin B.

    1990-01-01

    The thermoelectric figure of merit of a semiconductor, ZT, can be calculated from a small number of microscopic material parameters, the material composition, the doping level, and the temperature. The functional dependence of ZT on these parameters has been studied for a range of material parameters using a recently developed model which accurately and self-consistently describes the thermoelectric properties of n-type silicon-germanium alloys. ZT values several times larger than current state-of-the-art values of ZT of about 1 are shown to be entirely consistent with existing theory, even using material parameters already observed. A search for materials with much higher figure of merit values therefore remains of interest, in spite of several decades of relatively slow progress in this area.

  8. Adolescent girls' parasocial interactions with media figures.

    PubMed

    Theran, Sally A; Newberg, Emily M; Gleason, Tracy R

    2010-01-01

    We examined aspects of adolescent girls' parasocial interactions in the context of typical development. Parasocial interactions are defined as symbolic, one-sided quasi-interactions between a viewer and a media figure. In total, 107 adolescent girls were examined; 94% reported engaging in parasocial interactions to some degree. Preoccupied attachment style predicted the degree of involvement in and emotional intensity of parasocial interactions. Results suggest that parasocial interactions are characteristic of girls with preoccupied attachment, but are also part of normative development.

  9. Figure-Ground Segmentation Using Factor Graphs.

    PubMed

    Shen, Huiying; Coughlan, James; Ivanchenko, Volodymyr

    2009-06-04

    Foreground-background segmentation has recently been applied [26,12] to the detection and segmentation of specific objects or structures of interest from the background as an efficient alternative to techniques such as deformable templates [27]. We introduce a graphical model (i.e. Markov random field)-based formulation of structure-specific figure-ground segmentation based on simple geometric features extracted from an image, such as local configurations of linear features, that are characteristic of the desired figure structure. Our formulation is novel in that it is based on factor graphs, which are graphical models that encode interactions among arbitrary numbers of random variables. The ability of factor graphs to express interactions higher than pairwise order (the highest order encountered in most graphical models used in computer vision) is useful for modeling a variety of pattern recognition problems. In particular, we show how this property makes factor graphs a natural framework for performing grouping and segmentation, and demonstrate that the factor graph framework emerges naturally from a simple maximum entropy model of figure-ground segmentation.We cast our approach in a learning framework, in which the contributions of multiple grouping cues are learned from training data, and apply our framework to the problem of finding printed text in natural scenes. Experimental results are described, including a performance analysis that demonstrates the feasibility of the approach.

  10. Generating Ambiguous Figure-Ground Images.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ying-Miao; Chu, Hung-Kuo; Chi, Ming-Te; Lee, Ruen-Rone; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2016-02-26

    Ambiguous figure-ground images, mostly represented as binary images, are fascinating as they present viewers a visual phenomena of perceiving multiple interpretations from a single image. In one possible interpretation, the white region is seen as a foreground figure while the black region is treated as shapeless background. Such perception can reverse instantly at any moment. In this paper, we investigate the theory behind this ambiguous perception and present an automatic algorithm to generate such images. We model the problem as a binary image composition using two object contours and approach it through a three-stage pipeline. The algorithm first performs a partial shape matching to find a good partial contour matching between objects. This matching is based on a content-aware shape matching metric, which captures features of ambiguous figure-ground images. Then we combine matched contours into a compound contour using an adaptive contour deformation, followed by computing an optimal cropping window and image binarization for the compound contour that maximize the completeness of object contours in the final composition. We have tested our system using a wide range of input objects and generated a large number of convincing examples with or without user guidance. The efficiency of our system and quality of results are verified through an extensive experimental study.

  11. Changes in area affect figure-ground assignment in pigeons.

    PubMed

    Castro, Leyre; Lazareva, Olga F; Vecera, Shaun P; Wasserman, Edward A

    2010-03-05

    A critical cue for figure-ground assignment in humans is area: smaller regions are more likely to be perceived as figures than are larger regions. To see if pigeons are similarly sensitive to this cue, we trained birds to report whether a target appeared on a colored figure or on a differently colored background. The initial training figure was either smaller than (Experiments 1 and 2) or the same area as (Experiment 2) the background. After training, we increased or decreased the size of the figure. When the original training shape was smaller than the background, pigeons' performance improved with smaller figures (and worsened with larger figures); when the original training shape was the same area as the background, pigeons' performance worsened when they were tested with smaller figures. A smaller figural region appeared to improve the figure-ground discrimination only when size was a relevant cue in the initial discrimination.

  12. Field strain feline coronaviruses with small deletions in ORF7b associated with both enteric infection and feline infectious peritonitis.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chao-Nan; Su, Bi-Ling; Huang, Hui-Pi; Lee, Jih-Jong; Hsieh, Min-Wei; Chueh, Ling-Ling

    2009-06-01

    Feline coronavirus (FCoV) varies greatly from causing subclinical or mild enteric infections to fatal feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). The open reading frame (ORF) 7b of FCoV has been speculated to play a determining role in virulence as deletions were found to be associated with avirulent viruses. To further clarify the correlation between this gene and FIP, clinical samples from 20 cats that had succumbed to wet-type FIP and 20 clinically healthy FCoV-infected cats were analysed. The ORF7b from the peritoneal/pleural effusions of FIP cats and from the rectal swabs of healthy cats was amplified. Of the 40 FCoVs analysed, 32 were found to have an intact 7b gene whereas eight showed deletions of either three or 12 nucleotides. Surprisingly, among the eight viruses with deletions, three were from FIP diseased cats. These results show that deletions in the ORF7b gene are not constrained to low pathogenicity/enteric biotypes but also associated with pathogenicity/FIP biotypes of FCoV.

  13. Family screening for a novel ATP7B gene mutation, c.2335T>G, in the South of Iran

    PubMed Central

    Manoochehri, J; Masoumi Dehshiri, R; Faraji, H; Mohammadi, S; Dastsooz, H; Moradi, T; Rezaei, E; Sadeghi, Kh; Fardaei, M

    2014-01-01

    Background Wilson disease (WD) is a rare autosomal recessive disorder, which leads to copper metabolism, due to mutations in ATP7B gene. The gene responsible for WD consists of 21 exons that span a genomic region of about 80 kb and encodes a copper transporting P-type ATPase (ATP7B), a protein consisting of 1465 amino acids. Identifying mutation in ATP7B gene is important to find carrier individuals for proper counseling. A novel mutation in exon 8 of ATP7B gene, c.2335T>G (p.Trp779Gly), with severe neuropsychiatric condition in the South of Iran, was recently identified. The aim of this study was to screen 120 individuals from a large family using a simple amplification refractory mutation system PCR (ARMS-PCR) for carrier screening in the South of Iran. Materials and Methods 120 individuals from family relatives of an index case in the Nasr Abad, south of Iran, were studied for screening of the c.2335T>G mutation. One patient with homozygous mutation and one homozygous normal individual were used as controls in this experiment. Results Altogether, 16 out of 120 (13.3%) individuals within this region had heterozygous mutation. One individual with homozygote mutation was also identified. Conclusion Identification of carriers in families with affected individuals is of great importance for counseling before marriage. The results of this study can be used for further counseling programs in this population. PMID:24734161

  14. 75 FR 2064 - Airworthiness Directives; CFM International, S.A. CFM56-7B Series Turbofan Engines

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-14

    .... CFM56-7B series turbofan engines. This AD requires initial and repetitive eddy current inspections (ECIs... about 3 work-hours to perform an eddy current inspection of an LP turbine rear frame. The average labor...-258-0; or 340-166-259-0, do the following: (1) Perform an initial eddy current inspection (ECI) of...

  15. 29 CFR 516.21 - Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7(b...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7(b)(3) of the Act. 516.21 Section 516.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor....21 Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section...

  16. 29 CFR 516.21 - Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7(b...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7(b)(3) of the Act. 516.21 Section 516.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor....21 Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section...

  17. 29 CFR 516.21 - Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7(b...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7(b)(3) of the Act. 516.21 Section 516.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor....21 Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section...

  18. 29 CFR 516.21 - Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7(b...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7(b)(3) of the Act. 516.21 Section 516.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor....21 Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section...

  19. 29 CFR 516.21 - Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7(b...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section 7(b)(3) of the Act. 516.21 Section 516.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor....21 Bulk petroleum employees partially exempt from overtime pay requirements pursuant to section...

  20. High CO2 Leads to Na,K-ATPase Endocytosis via c-Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase-Induced LMO7b Phosphorylation

    PubMed Central

    Trejo Bittar, Humberto E.; Welch, Lynn C.; Vagin, Olga; Deiss-Yehiely, Nimrod; Kelly, Aileen M.; Baker, Mairead R.; Capri, Joseph; Cohn, Whitaker; Whitelegge, Julian P.; Vadász, István; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2015-01-01

    The c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) plays a role in inflammation, proliferation, apoptosis, and cell adhesion and cell migration by phosphorylating paxillin and β-catenin. JNK phosphorylation downstream of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is required for high CO2 (hypercapnia)-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis in alveolar epithelial cells. Here, we provide evidence that during hypercapnia, JNK promotes the phosphorylation of LMO7b, a scaffolding protein, in vitro and in intact cells. LMO7b phosphorylation was blocked by exposing the cells to the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and by infecting cells with dominant-negative JNK or AMPK adenovirus. The knockdown of the endogenous LMO7b or overexpression of mutated LMO7b with alanine substitutions of five potential JNK phosphorylation sites (LMO7b-5SA) or only Ser-1295 rescued both LMO7b phosphorylation and the hypercapnia-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis. Moreover, high CO2 promoted the colocalization and interaction of LMO7b and the Na,K-ATPase α1 subunit at the plasma membrane, which were prevented by SP600125 or by transfecting cells with LMO7b-5SA. Collectively, our data suggest that hypercapnia leads to JNK-induced LMO7b phosphorylation at Ser-1295, which facilitates the interaction of LMO7b with Na,K-ATPase at the plasma membrane promoting the endocytosis of Na,K-ATPase in alveolar epithelial cells. PMID:26370512

  1. High CO2 Leads to Na,K-ATPase Endocytosis via c-Jun Amino-Terminal Kinase-Induced LMO7b Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Dada, Laura A; Trejo Bittar, Humberto E; Welch, Lynn C; Vagin, Olga; Deiss-Yehiely, Nimrod; Kelly, Aileen M; Baker, Mairead R; Capri, Joseph; Cohn, Whitaker; Whitelegge, Julian P; Vadász, István; Gruenbaum, Yosef; Sznajder, Jacob I

    2015-12-01

    The c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) plays a role in inflammation, proliferation, apoptosis, and cell adhesion and cell migration by phosphorylating paxillin and β-catenin. JNK phosphorylation downstream of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activation is required for high CO2 (hypercapnia)-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis in alveolar epithelial cells. Here, we provide evidence that during hypercapnia, JNK promotes the phosphorylation of LMO7b, a scaffolding protein, in vitro and in intact cells. LMO7b phosphorylation was blocked by exposing the cells to the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and by infecting cells with dominant-negative JNK or AMPK adenovirus. The knockdown of the endogenous LMO7b or overexpression of mutated LMO7b with alanine substitutions of five potential JNK phosphorylation sites (LMO7b-5SA) or only Ser-1295 rescued both LMO7b phosphorylation and the hypercapnia-induced Na,K-ATPase endocytosis. Moreover, high CO2 promoted the colocalization and interaction of LMO7b and the Na,K-ATPase α1 subunit at the plasma membrane, which were prevented by SP600125 or by transfecting cells with LMO7b-5SA. Collectively, our data suggest that hypercapnia leads to JNK-induced LMO7b phosphorylation at Ser-1295, which facilitates the interaction of LMO7b with Na,K-ATPase at the plasma membrane promoting the endocytosis of Na,K-ATPase in alveolar epithelial cells.

  2. Thermoelectric figure of merit in topological insulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Ryuji; Murakami, Shuichi

    2011-07-01

    Transport behavior of two-dimensional topological insulators is theoretically studied in narrow ribbon geometry. The system has perfectly conducting edge channels, which are free from backscattering. At high temperature, the bulk states dominate in the transport phenomenon. However, at low temperature the conducting channels along the edges become dominant. It causes a bulk-to-edge crossover. Namely, by lowering temperature, the figure of merit first decreases by a competition between the bulk and the edge transport, and then increases again because the edge transport become larger.

  3. Surface figure control for coated optics

    DOEpatents

    Ray-Chaudhuri, Avijit K.; Spence, Paul A.; Kanouff, Michael P.

    2001-01-01

    A pedestal optical substrate that simultaneously provides high substrate dynamic stiffness, provides low surface figure sensitivity to mechanical mounting hardware inputs, and constrains surface figure changes caused by optical coatings to be primarily spherical in nature. The pedestal optical substrate includes a disk-like optic or substrate section having a top surface that is coated, a disk-like base section that provides location at which the substrate can be mounted, and a connecting cylindrical section between the base and optics or substrate sections. The optic section has an optical section thickness.sup.2 /optical section diameter ratio of between about 5 to 10 mm, and a thickness variation between front and back surfaces of less than about 10%. The connecting cylindrical section may be attached via three spaced legs or members. However, the pedestal optical substrate can be manufactured from a solid piece of material to form a monolith, thus avoiding joints between the sections, or the disk-like base can be formed separately and connected to the connecting section. By way of example, the pedestal optical substrate may be utilized in the fabrication of optics for an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography imaging system, or in any optical system requiring coated optics and substrates with reduced sensitivity to mechanical mounts.

  4. Figures of Merit for Lunar Simulants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slane, Frederick

    The collection and analysis of lunar samples from 1969 to present has yielded large amounts of data. Published analyses give some idea of the complex nature of the regolith at all scales, rocks, soils and the smaller particulates commonly referred to as dust. Data recently acquired in support of NASA's simulant effort has markedly increased our knowledge and quantitatively demonstrates that complexity. It is anticipated that future analyses will further add to the known complexity. In an effort to communicate among the diverse technical communities performing research on or research using regolith samples and simulants, a set of Figures of Merit (FoM) have been devised. The objective is to allow consistent and concise comparative communication between researchers from multiple organizations and nations engaged in lunar exploration. This paper describes Figures of Merit in a working draft of an international standard for Lunar Simulants. The FoM methodology uses scientific understanding of the lunar samples to formulate parameters which are reproducibly quantifiable. Advanced work at NASA has evolved this effort to the point that formal definitions, supporting mathematics and functioning code have implemented the concept for testing.

  5. Figure-ground separation by cue integration.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xiangyu; von der Malsburg, Christoph

    2008-06-01

    This letter presents an improved cue integration approach to reliably separate coherent moving objects from their background scene in video sequences. The proposed method uses a probabilistic framework to unify bottom-up and top-down cues in a parallel, "democratic" fashion. The algorithm makes use of a modified Bayes rule where each pixel's posterior probabilities of figure or ground layer assignment are derived from likelihood models of three bottom-up cues and a prior model provided by a top-down cue. Each cue is treated as independent evidence for figure-ground separation. They compete with and complement each other dynamically by adjusting relative weights from frame to frame according to cue quality measured against the overall integration. At the same time, the likelihood or prior models of individual cues adapt toward the integrated result. These mechanisms enable the system to organize under the influence of visual scene structure without manual intervention. A novel contribution here is the incorporation of a top-down cue. It improves the system's robustness and accuracy and helps handle difficult and ambiguous situations, such as abrupt lighting changes or occlusion among multiple objects. Results on various video sequences are demonstrated and discussed. (Video demos are available at http://organic.usc.edu:8376/ approximately tangx/neco/index.html .).

  6. Figure-ground organization in real and subjective contours: a new ambiguous figure, some novel measures of ambiguity, and apparent distance across regions of figure and ground.

    PubMed

    Shank, M D; Walker, J T

    1989-08-01

    This study was designed to assess the effects of organization, luminance contrast, sector angle, and orientation on a new, highly ambiguous Cs-keyhole figure. Organization and contrast were the most important factors, and sector angle also influenced figure-ground relationships. There was no significant effect of orientation, nor was there any significant interaction between any of the factors. Several new measures of figure-ground organization were developed, such as ambiguity ratios based on reaction times and on ratings of the strength of perceived organizations, providing new quantitative measures of figure-ground relationships. Distances measured across figural regions appeared smaller than equal distances across the ground in the new reversible figure, and also in Rubin's classic vase-face figure presented in real and subjective contours. Inducing a perceptual set to see a particular organization in a reversible figure influenced the apparent distance across that organization. Several possible explanations of the observed effects are considered: (1) an instance of Emmert's law, based on the difference in apparent depth of figure and ground; (2) an aspect of the Müller-Lyer illusion; (3) a feature-detector model of contour attraction; (4) a natural set or predisposition to see a figure as smaller; and (5) framing effects. The first two explanations appear the most promising.

  7. Magnetoimpedance studies on urine treated Co66Ni7Si7B20 ribbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotagiri, Ganesh; Markandeyulu, G.; Doble, Mukesh; Nandakumar, V.

    2015-11-01

    Magnetoimpedance (MI) response of Co66Ni7Si7B20 ribbons treated with artificial urine with protein bovine serum albumin (BSA), artificial urine without protein BSA and healthy male urine was studied as a function of time of incubation. The maximum MI [(MI)m] values of the ribbons treated with artificial urine without protein (RTAU) after 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h of incubation are 30% (at 4 MHz), 15% (at 5 MHz), 14% (at 10 MHz) and 8% (at 13 MHz) respectively. On the other hand, the respective (MI)m values of the ribbons treated with artificial urine with protein (RTAUP) are 33% (at 4 MHz), 25% (at 5 MHz), 20% (at 8 MHz) and 15% (12 MHz). However (MI)m values of the ribbons treated with healthy male urine (RTHMU) after 4 h, 5 h, 10 h and 15 h of incubation are 71% (at 3 MHz), 57% (at 3 MHz), 25% (at 6 MHz) and 25% (at 5 MHz), respectively. The saturation magnetization (Ms) values of RTAU after 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24 h of incubation are 71 emu/g, 65 emu/g, 63 emu/g and 60 emu/g respectively whereas, the respective Ms values of RTAUP are 73 emu/g, 69 emu/g, 67 emu/g and 64 emu/g. The Ms values of RTHMU after 4 h, 5 h, 10 h and 15 h of incubation are 96 emu/g, 90 emu/g, 75 emu/g and 75 emu/g respectively. The decrease in Ms and (MI)m values in RTAU and RTAUP compared to as-quenched ribbon is related to the amounts of various elements etched out from the ribbons and increased surface roughness. The Ms and (MI)m values of RTHMU are seen to have increased after 4 h and 5 h of incubation, due to strain relaxation through removal of strain developed during rapid quenching of the ribbons. On the other hand, the Ms and (MI)m values of RTHMU after 10 h and 15 h have decreased due to deterioration of the surface of the ribbons and thus, increase in magnetic (surface) anisotropy. The decrease in (MI)m and MS of RTAU with the time of incubation are more rapid compared to that of RTAUP, probably due to the larger surface anisotropy due to rapid deterioration of the surface of the

  8. Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures Report

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Each year EPA releases the Advancing Sustainable Materials Management: Facts and Figures report, formerly called Municipal Solid Waste in the United States: Facts and Figures. It includes information on Municipal Solid Waste generation, recycling, an

  9. Figure Control of Lightweight Optical Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Main, John A.; Song, Haiping

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to demonstrate the use of fuzzy logic controllers in modifying the figure of a piezoceramic bimorph mirror. Non-contact electron actuation technology is used to actively control a bimorph mirror comprised two PZT-5H wafers by varying the electron flux and electron voltages. Due to electron blooming generated by the electron flux, it is difficult to develop an accurate control model for the bimorph mirror through theoretical analysis alone. The non-contact shape control system with electron flux blooming can be approximately described with a heuristic model based on experimental data. Two fuzzy logic feedback controllers are developed to control the shape of the bimorph mirror according to heuristic fuzzy inference rules generated from previous experimental results. Validation of the proposed fuzzy logic controllers is also discussed.

  10. Structure analysis for plane geometry figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Tianxiao; Lu, Xiaoqing; Liu, Lu; Li, Keqiang; Tang, Zhi

    2013-12-01

    As there are increasing numbers of digital documents for education purpose, we realize that there is not a retrieval application for mathematic plane geometry images. In this paper, we propose a method for retrieving plane geometry figures (PGFs), which often appear in geometry books and digital documents. First, detecting algorithms are applied to detect common basic geometry shapes from a PGF image. Based on all basic shapes, we analyze the structural relationships between two basic shapes and combine some of them to a compound shape to build the PGF descriptor. Afterwards, we apply matching function to retrieve candidate PGF images with ranking. The great contribution of the paper is that we propose a structure analysis method to better describe the spatial relationships in such image composed of many overlapped shapes. Experimental results demonstrate that our analysis method and shape descriptor can obtain good retrieval results with relatively high effectiveness and efficiency.

  11. Intragenic Deletions in ATP7B as an Unusual Molecular Genetics Mechanism of Wilson’s Disease Pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Savov, Alexey; Socha, Piotr; Schmidt, Hartmut H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Wilson’s disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the ATP7B resulting in copper overload in the liver and brain. Direct sequencing is routinely used to confirm WD diagnosis; however, partial and whole gene deletions in the heterozygous state cannot be detected by exon amplification since the normal allele will mask its presence. The aim of the present work was to search for unusual mutational events in the unexplained WD cases and to provide insight into the mechanisms. Out of 1420 clinically and biochemically confirmed WD samples received between 2000 and 2014 for routine mutation analysis, we were unable to detect mutant alleles in 142 samples, after extensive sequencing analysis. We used selective amplification and MLPA to identify the partial gene deletions and identified three different partial gene deletions in seven different families. All three deletions were fully characterized at the DNA sequence level. We report the first hemizygous case with WD due to intragenic deletion in the ATP7B (c.3134_3556+689del). This novel deletion resulted from an excision event mediated by consensus sequences in an AluSq2 repeat element and could be traced to micro homologous end joining (MMEJ). Finally, we determined the prevalence of the three deletions in DNA samples from a multinational group of WD patients. Our results emphasize the need for searching mutant alleles beyond routine methods and highlight that large ATP7B deletions are rare, but account for a detectable proportion in some WD patients. Screening for gene aberrations will further improve mutation detection in patients with unidentified ATP7B mutations presenting with clinical manifestations of WD. PMID:27992490

  12. The effect of zinc and D-penicillamine in a stable human hepatoma ATP7B knockout cell line.

    PubMed

    Chandhok, Gursimran; Schmitt, Nadine; Sauer, Vanessa; Aggarwal, Annu; Bhatt, Mohit; Schmidt, Hartmut H J

    2014-01-01

    Mutations in the copper (Cu) transporter gene ATP7B, the primary cause of Wilson disease (WD), result in high liver Cu and death of hepatocytes. Cu chelators and zinc salts are the two most important drugs used in the treatment of WD patients; however, the molecular mechanisms of the drugs with regard to ATP7B expression have not been determined. A targeted knockout of ATP7B (KO) was established in the most widely used human hepatoma cell line, HepG2 for molecular studies of the pathogenesis and treatment of the disease. KO cells showed similar growth, Cu uptake, release, and gene expression as compared to parental cells. However, in the presence of Cu, morphological changes, oxidative stress, apoptosis, and loss of viability were observed. Induction of metallothionein (MT1X) after Cu exposure was significantly reduced in KO cells. Following zinc treatment, MT1X expression was strongly induced and a high percentage of KO cells could be rescued from Cu induced toxicity. D-penicillamine treatment had a minor effect on the viability of KO cells whereas the parental cell line showed a pronounced improvement. Combined treatment displayed a highly synergistic effect in KO cells. The data suggest that zinc has a previously unrecognized effect on the viability of hepatocytes that lack ATP7B due to a high induction of MT1X expression that compensates low gene expression after Cu exposure. A combination therapy that simultaneously targets at MT1X induction and Cu chelation improves the overall survival of hepatocytes for most efficient therapy of patients having WD.

  13. Recombinant Trichoderma harzianum endoglucanase I (Cel7B) is a highly acidic and promiscuous carbohydrate-active enzyme.

    PubMed

    Pellegrini, Vanessa O A; Serpa, Viviane Isabel; Godoy, Andre S; Camilo, Cesar M; Bernardes, Amanda; Rezende, Camila A; Junior, Nei Pereira; Franco Cairo, João Paulo L; Squina, Fabio M; Polikarpov, Igor

    2015-11-01

    Trichoderma filamentous fungi have been investigated due to their ability to secrete cellulases which find various biotechnological applications such as biomass hydrolysis and cellulosic ethanol production. Previous studies demonstrated that Trichoderma harzianum IOC-3844 has a high degree of cellulolytic activity and potential for biomass hydrolysis. However, enzymatic, biochemical, and structural studies of cellulases from T. harzianum are scarce. This work reports biochemical characterization of the recombinant endoglucanase I from T. harzianum, ThCel7B, and its catalytic core domain. The constructs display optimum activity at 55 °C and a surprisingly acidic pH optimum of 3.0. The full-length enzyme is able to hydrolyze a variety of substrates, with high specific activity: 75 U/mg for β-glucan, 46 U/mg toward xyloglucan, 39 U/mg for lichenan, 26 U/mg for carboxymethyl cellulose, 18 U/mg for 4-nitrophenyl β-D-cellobioside, 16 U/mg for rye arabinoxylan, and 12 U/mg toward xylan. The enzyme also hydrolyzed filter paper, phosphoric acid swollen cellulose, Sigmacell 20, Avicel PH-101, and cellulose, albeit with lower efficiency. The ThCel7B catalytic domain displays similar substrate diversity. Fluorescence-based thermal shift assays showed that thermal stability is highest at pH 5.0. We determined kinetic parameters and analyzed a pattern of oligosaccharide substrates hydrolysis, revealing cellobiose as a final product of C6 degradation. Finally, we visualized effects of ThCel7B on oat spelt using scanning electron microscopy, demonstrating the morphological changes of the substrate during the hydrolysis. The acidic behavior of ThCel7B and its considerable thermostability hold a promise of its industrial applications and other biotechnological uses under extremely acidic conditions.

  14. Characterization of the molecular defect in the ATP7B gene in Wilson disease patients from Yugoslavia.

    PubMed

    Loudianos, Georgios; Kostic, Vladimir; Solinas, Paola; Lovicu, Mario; Dessì, Valeria; Svetel, Marina; Major, Tamara; Cao, Antonio

    2003-01-01

    Wilson disease (WD) is an autosomal recessive disorder of copper metabolism resulting from the absence or dysfunction of a copper transporting P-type ATPase (ATP7B). Approximately 150 mutations of the ATP7B have been identified to date. In this paper, we report the results of molecular characterization and genotype-phenotype analysis, which we have carried out on 35 patients from Yugoslavia affected by WD. Using single-strand conformational polymorphism (SSCP) followed by direct sequencing, we characterized the molecular defect in 80% of WD chromosomes and found 11 different mutations, three of which are novel. The most common mutations that accounted for the molecular defect in 71.3% of WD chromosomes were H1069Q (48.9%), 2304-2305insC (11.4%), R616Q (5.7%), and A1003T (5.7%). The results produced in this paper indicate that the best strategy for mutation detection in Yugoslavian patients with WD is an SSCP analysis of exons 14, 8, 5, and 13, where most of the defects (73.1%) lie, followed by mutation analysis of the remaining exons in ATP7B in patients in whom the mutation was not detected by the finitial screening. These data can be used to develop straightforward genetic testing in this population or in other countries composed of a genetically mixed population like the United States, where a significant number of immigrants came from Central and Eastern Europe.

  15. Spin-orbit alignment for KELT-7b and HAT-P-56b via Doppler tomography with TRES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, George; Latham, David W.; Bieryla, Allyson; Beatty, Thomas G.; Buchhave, Lars A.; Esquerdo, Gilbert A.; Berlind, Perry; Calkins, Michael L.

    2016-08-01

    We present Doppler tomographic analyses for the spectroscopic transits of KELT-7b and HAT-P-56b, two hot-Jupiters orbiting rapidly rotating F-dwarf host stars. These include analyses of archival Tillinghast Reflector Echelle Spectrograph (TRES) observations for KELT-7b, and a new TRES transit observation of HAT-P-56b. We report spin-orbit aligned geometries for KELT-7b (2.7° ± 0.6°) and HAT-P-56b (8° ± 2°). The host stars KELT-7 and HAT-P-56 are among some of the most rapidly rotating planet-hosting stars known. We examine the tidal re-alignment model for the evolution of the spin-orbit angle in the context of the spin rates of these stars. We find no evidence that the rotation rates of KELT-7 and HAT-P-56 have been modified by star-planet tidal interactions, suggesting that the spin-orbit angle of systems around these hot stars may represent their primordial configuration. In fact, KELT-7 and HAT-P-56 are two of three systems in supersynchronous, spin-orbit aligned states, where the rotation periods of the host stars are faster than the orbital periods of the planets.

  16. An electrochemical biosensor for double-stranded Wnt7B gene detection based on enzymatic isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Li, Junlong; Chen, Zhongping; Xiang, Yu; Zhou, Lili; Wang, Ting; Zhang, Zhang; Sun, Kexin; Yin, Dan; Li, Yi; Xie, Guoming

    2016-12-15

    Wnt7B gene plays an important role in the development and progression of breast cancer, gastric cancer, esophageal cancer and pancreatic cancer. While, the natural state of DNA is double stranded, which makes it difficult to be directly detected. Here, we develop an electrochemical biosensor method for Wnt7B gene detection without the need to denature the target. This method firstly used nicking enzyme for exploiting in the double-stranded DNA (dsDNA). Then, long single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) was generated from the cutting site through polymerase extension reaction. Whereafter, the long ssDNA triggered a hairpin self-assembly recycling reaction, which gave rise to another isothermal amplification reaction. Last, short ssDNA was formed after the this amplification process, which could hybridize with the capture probe immobilized on Au electrode and result in signal variation. This method showed excellent analytical performance for dsDNA, of which the linear range was 2fM to 500pM and the detection limit was 1.6fM (S/N=3). It also showed an good results when applied to the real sample of Wnt7B gene detection.

  17. Environmental fate, toxicity, characteristics and potential applications of novel bioemulsifiers produced by Variovorax paradoxus 7bCT5.

    PubMed

    Franzetti, Andrea; Gandolfi, Isabella; Raimondi, Chiara; Bestetti, Giuseppina; Banat, Ibrahim M; Smyth, Thomas J; Papacchini, Maddalena; Cavallo, Massimo; Fracchia, Letizia

    2012-03-01

    The aims of this work were the characterisation and the evaluation of potential environmental applications of the bioemulsifiers produced by Variovorax paradoxus 7bCT5. V. paradoxus 7bCT5 produces a mixture of high molecular weight polysaccharides. The extracellular bioemulsifiers were able to produce a thick stable oil/water emulsion and maintained the emulsification activity after boiling and at low temperatures. Environmental behavior and impact of bioemulsifiers release were assessed by evaluating biodegradability, toxicity and soil sorption. Respirometric tests showed that moderate biodegradability occurred by soil bacterial inoculum. Furthermore, the produced compounds did not show any toxic properties through different ecotoxicological tests. The K(d) values ranged from 1.3 to 7.3 L/kg indicating a high sorption affinity of the bioemulsifier molecules to soil particles. The soil sorption affinity likely affected the bioemulsifier ability to remove hydrocarbons from contaminated soils. In fact, V. paradoxus 7bCT5 bioemulsifiers significantly increased the removal of crude-oil from sandy soil compared to water.

  18. Differentially expressed plasma microRNAs and the potential regulatory function of Let-7b in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Guo, Lijuan; Yang, Yuanhua; Liu, Jie; Wang, Lei; Li, Jifeng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Gan, Huili; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Jason X-J; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease characterized by misguided thrombolysis and remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in multiple cell processes and functions. During CTEPH, circulating microRNA profile endued with characteristics of diseased cells could be identified as a biomarker, and might help in recognition of pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we compared the differentially expressed microRNAs in plasma of CTEPH patients and healthy controls and investigated their potential functions. Microarray was used to identify microRNA expression profile and qRT-PCR for validation. The targets of differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in silico, and the Gene Ontology database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database were used for functional investigation of target gene profile. Targets of let-7b were validated by fluorescence reporter assay. Protein expression of target genes was determined by ELISA or western blotting. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. The results showed that 1) thirty five microRNAs were differentially expressed in CTEPH patients, among which, a signature of 17 microRNAs, which was shown to be related to the disease pathogenesis by in silico analysis, gave diagnostic efficacy of both sensitivity and specificity >0.9. 2) Let-7b, one of the down-regulated anti-oncogenic microRNAs in the signature, was validated to decrease to about 0.25 fold in CTEPH patients. 3) ET-1 and TGFBR1 were direct targets of let-7b. Altering let-7b level influenced ET-1 and TGFBR1 expression in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) as well as the migration of PAECs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). These results suggested that CTEPH patients had aberrant microRNA signature which might provide some clue for pathogenesis study and biomarker screening. Reduced let-7b might be involved in the pathogenesis of CTEPH by

  19. Differentially Expressed Plasma MicroRNAs and the Potential Regulatory Function of Let-7b in Chronic Thromboembolic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Lijuan; Yang, Yuanhua; Liu, Jie; Wang, Lei; Li, Jifeng; Wang, Ying; Liu, Yan; Gu, Song; Gan, Huili; Cai, Jun; Yuan, Jason X.-J.; Wang, Jun; Wang, Chen

    2014-01-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH) is a progressive disease characterized by misguided thrombolysis and remodeling of pulmonary arteries. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs involved in multiple cell processes and functions. During CTEPH, circulating microRNA profile endued with characteristics of diseased cells could be identified as a biomarker, and might help in recognition of pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we compared the differentially expressed microRNAs in plasma of CTEPH patients and healthy controls and investigated their potential functions. Microarray was used to identify microRNA expression profile and qRT-PCR for validation. The targets of differentially expressed microRNAs were identified in silico, and the Gene Ontology database and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway database were used for functional investigation of target gene profile. Targets of let-7b were validated by fluorescence reporter assay. Protein expression of target genes was determined by ELISA or western blotting. Cell migration was evaluated by wound healing assay. The results showed that 1) thirty five microRNAs were differentially expressed in CTEPH patients, among which, a signature of 17 microRNAs, which was shown to be related to the disease pathogenesis by in silico analysis, gave diagnostic efficacy of both sensitivity and specificity >0.9. 2) Let-7b, one of the down-regulated anti-oncogenic microRNAs in the signature, was validated to decrease to about 0.25 fold in CTEPH patients. 3) ET-1 and TGFBR1 were direct targets of let-7b. Altering let-7b level influenced ET-1 and TGFBR1 expression in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) as well as the migration of PAECs and pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). These results suggested that CTEPH patients had aberrant microRNA signature which might provide some clue for pathogenesis study and biomarker screening. Reduced let-7b might be involved in the pathogenesis of CTEPH by

  20. Let-7b regulates the expression of the growth hormone receptor gene in deletion-type dwarf chickens

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background A deletion mutation in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene results in the inhibition of skeletal muscle growth and fat deposition in dwarf chickens. We used microarray techniques to determine microRNA (miRNA) and mRNA expression profiles of GHR in the skeletal muscles of 14-day-old embryos as well as 7-week-old deletion-type dwarf and normal-type chickens. Our aim was to elucidate the miRNA regulation of GHR expression with respect to growth inhibition and fat deposition. Results At the same developmental stages, different expression profiles in skeletal muscles of dwarf and normal chickens occurred for four miRNAs (miR-1623, miR-181b, let-7b, and miR-128). At different developmental stages, there was a significant difference in the expression profiles of a greater number of miRNAs. Eleven miRNAs were up-regulated and 18 down-regulated in the 7-week-old dwarf chickens when compared with profiles in 14-day-old embryos. In 7-week-old normal chickens, seven miRNAs were up-regulated and nine down-regulated compared with those in 14-day-old embryos. In skeletal muscles, 22 genes were up-regulated and 33 down-regulated in 14-day-old embryos compared with 7-week-old dwarf chickens. Sixty-five mRNAs were up-regulated and 108 down-regulated in 14-day-old embryos as compared with 7-week-old normal chickens. Thirty-four differentially expressed miRNAs were grouped into 18 categories based on overlapping seed and target sequences. Only let-7b was found to be complementary to its target in the 3′ untranslated region of GHR, and was able to inhibit its expression. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis and quantitative polymerase chain reactions indicated there were three main signaling pathways regulating skeletal muscle growth and fat deposition of chickens. These were influenced by let-7b-regulated GHR. Suppression of the cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) gene was found to be involved in the signaling pathway of adipocytokines. Conclusions There

  1. A Computer Graphics Human Figure Application Of Biostereometrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fetter, William A.

    1980-07-01

    A study of improved computer graphic representation of the human figure is being conducted under a National Science Foundation grant. Special emphasis is given biostereometrics as a primary data base from which applications requiring a variety of levels of detail may be prepared. For example, a human figure represented by a single point can be very useful in overview plots of a population. A crude ten point figure can be adequate for queuing theory studies and simulated movement of groups. A one hundred point figure can usefully be animated to achieve different overall body activities including male and female figures. A one thousand point figure si-milarly animated, begins to be useful in anthropometrics and kinesiology gross body movements. Extrapolations of this order-of-magnitude approach ultimately should achieve very complex data bases and a program which automatically selects the correct level of detail for the task at hand. See Summary Figure 1.

  2. A case of figurate urticaria by etanercept

    PubMed Central

    Sessa, Maurizio; Sullo, Maria Giuseppa; Mascolo, Annamaria; Cimmaruta, Daniela; Romano, Francesca; Puca, Rosa Valentina; Capuano, Annalisa; Rossi, Francesco; Schiavo, Ada Lo

    2016-01-01

    Etanercept is a competitive inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) a polypeptide hormone, involved in the development of the immune system, in host defense and immune surveillance. Even if the etanercept mechanism of action is not completely understood, it is supposed that it negatively modulates biological responses mediated by molecules (cytokines, adhesion molecules, or proteinases) induced or regulated by TNF. For this reason, it is widely used in the treatment of immunologicals diseases, such as rheumatoid and psoriatic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic active, ankylosing spondylitis, and plaque psoriasis. Etanercept has a good tolerability profile. Adverse events related to skin are rare, arising usually in about 5% of patients treated with anti-TNF α. In this scenario, we describe a case of figurate urticaria arose after the re-administration of etanercept in a patient affected by psoriasis and hepatitis B. A 65-year-old man, affected by psoriasis, was hospitalized in September 2014 to the Regional Center for the treatment of psoriasis and Biological Drugs of Second University of Naples for progressive extension of psoriatic skin lesions. The laboratory analysis detected positivity for hepatitis B virus (HBV) antigens. For this reason, it was administered to him lamivudine 100 mg/die about 30 days before to start etanercept treatment. The etanercept therapy has resulted in a progressive improving of skin manifestations, and the patient decided individually to stop the therapy. Afterwards, for worsening of the psoriatic lesions, he was again hospitalized and treated with the same therapeutic schedule (lamivudine followed by etanercept). Ten days after the start of therapy, the patient showed the onset of urticarial rash. Due to this, the treatment with lamivudine and etanercept was suspended and the patient's clinical conditions improved. It is probably that immunological disorders due to etanercept therapy and HBV infection could

  3. Thermoelectric Figure of Merit in Anisotropic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bies, W.; Radtke, R. J.; Ehrenreich, H.

    1998-03-01

    General expressions for the electrical conductivity, thermopower, and electronic thermal conductivity are derived for anisotropic materials including their full tensorial character and properly treating the effects of the sample boundaries. The thermoelectric figure of merit ZT constructed from these quantities is proved to be maximal only when the electric field (in thermoelectric coolers) or thermal gradient (in power generators) is applied along the direction of highest conductivity. Fields applied along directions for which the conductivity tensor is non-diagonal induce transverse electric fields and thermal gradients which may be larger in magnitude than the applied fields. These fields reduce ZT below that expected from anisotropy alone. Numerical results are presented for bulk n-type Bi_2Te3 and quantum well and quantum wire geometries using semiclassical transport theory in the effective mass and relaxation time approximations. The effects of multi-valley conduction and confinement-induced splitting of the valley degeneracy are included. Surprisingly, this model predicts generally that the thermopower and hence ZT are independent of the direction of the applied fields in the limit of vanishing lattice thermal conductivity.

  4. An economics figure of merit in ALPS

    SciTech Connect

    Shatilla, Y.A.

    2000-07-01

    One of the most pressing issues facing the deregulated nuclear electric power industry is its economic competitiveness when compared to other sources of electrical power. Traditionally, finding the optimum loading pattern (LP) that meets all the safety and operational objective functions and at the same time produces the most attractive economical solutions is an iterative process. This is because (a) LP search tools usually lack the capability to generate equilibrium solutions and (b) economics objective functions are hard to include in the search process. In this paper, the Westinghouse Advanced Loading Pattern Search code (ALPS) has been demonstrated to successfully find LPs that meet user-defined operational and safety as well as economics objectives. This has been made possible by the development of TULIP language that allows the integration of external procedures into the search process of the main program, ALPS. In the example given, an economic figure of merit (EFM) has been defined and included via TULIP script into the fuel management optimization problem of a three-loop Westinghouse core operating an 18-month cycle. The LPs found by ALPS exhibit a clear trend of meeting and, in some cases, exceeding the EFM objective function defined for the ALPS search process a priori.

  5. Birth delays skew developing world's fertility figures.

    PubMed

    1999-09-01

    This article explains that birth delays skew developing world's fertility figures. When successive groups of women who have delayed childbearing start having children, the rapid fertility decline stalls. Such change in the timing of childbearing skews the total fertility rate (TFR). Analysis of the tempo component of TFR trends in Taiwan suggests that tempo effects reduced its TFR by about 10% in the late 1970s and early 1990s and by about 19% in the late 1980s. In Colombia, on the basis of increasing mean maternal age at childbirth between the 1970s and the late 1980s, tempo distortions of the TFR during the most of the 1980s seem likely. Moreover, many developing countries are now experiencing rapid fertility declines that are in part attributable to tempo changes. These changes have accelerated past fertility transitions, but they also make these countries vulnerable to future stalls in fertility when the delays in childbearing end. Since fertility reductions caused by tempo effects lead to real declines in birth rates and hence in population growth, countries that wish to reduce birth rates can take actions that encourage women to delay marriage and the onset of childbearing.

  6. Molecular analysis of Wilson patients: direct sequencing and MLPA analysis in the ATP7B gene and Atox1 and COMMD1 gene analysis.

    PubMed

    Bost, Muriel; Piguet-Lacroix, Guénaelle; Parant, François; Wilson, C M R

    2012-06-01

    ATP7B mutations result in Cu storage in the liver and brain in Wilson disease (WD). Atox1 and COMMD1 were found to interact with ATP7B and involved in copper transport in the hepatocyte. To understand the molecular etiology of WD, we analyzed ATP7B, Atox1 and COMMD1 genes. Direct sequencing of (i) ATP7B gene was performed in 112 WD patients to identify the spectrum of disease-causing mutations in the French population, (ii) Atox1 gene was performed to study the known polymorphism 5'UTR-99T>C in 78 WD patients with two ATP7B mutations and (iii) COMMD1 gene was performed to detect the nucleotide change c.492GAT>GAC. MLPA (Multiplex Ligation-dependent Probe Amplification) analysis was performed in WD patients presenting only one ATP7B mutation. Among our 112 WD unrelated patients, 83 different ATP7B gene mutations were identified, 27 of which were novel. Two ATP7B mutations were identified in 98 WD cases, and one mutation was identified in 14 cases. In two of these 14 WD patients, we identified the deletion of exon 4 of the ATP7B gene by MLPA technique. In 78 selected patients of the cohort with two mutations in ATP7B, we have examined genotype-phenotype correlation between the detected changes in Atox1 and COMMD1 genes, and the presentation of the WD patients. Based on the data of this study, no major role can be attributed to Atox1 and COMMD in the pathophysiology or clinical variation of WD.

  7. Could CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b be remnants of evaporated gas or ice giants?

    PubMed Central

    Leitzinger, M.; Odert, P.; Kulikov, Yu.N.; Lammer, H.; Wuchterl, G.; Penz, T.; Guarcello, M.G.; Micela, G.; Khodachenko, M.L.; Weingrill, J.; Hanslmeier, A.; Biernat, H.K.; Schneider, J.

    2011-01-01

    We present thermal mass loss calculations over evolutionary time scales for the investigation if the smallest transiting rocky exoplanets CoRoT-7b (∼1.68REarth) and Kepler-10b (∼1.416REarth) could be remnants of an initially more massive hydrogen-rich gas giant or a hot Neptune-class exoplanet. We apply a thermal mass loss formula which yields results that are comparable to hydrodynamic loss models. Our approach considers the effect of the Roche lobe, realistic heating efficiencies and a radius scaling law derived from observations of hot Jupiters. We study the influence of the mean planetary density on the thermal mass loss by placing hypothetical exoplanets with the characteristics of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus to the orbital location of CoRoT-7b at 0.017 AU and Kepler-10b at 0.01684 AU and assuming that these planets orbit a K- or G-type host star. Our findings indicate that hydrogen-rich gas giants within the mass domain of Saturn or Jupiter cannot thermally lose such an amount of mass that CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b would result in a rocky residue. Moreover, our calculations show that the present time mass of both rocky exoplanets can be neither a result of evaporation of a hydrogen envelope of a “Hot Neptune” nor a “Hot Uranus”-class object. Depending on the initial density and mass, these planets most likely were always rocky planets which could lose a thin hydrogen envelope, but not cores of thermally evaporated initially much more massive and larger objects. PMID:21969736

  8. Could CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b be remnants of evaporated gas or ice giants?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitzinger, M.; Odert, P.; Kulikov, Yu. N.; Lammer, H.; Wuchterl, G.; Penz, T.; Guarcello, M. G.; Micela, G.; Khodachenko, M. L.; Weingrill, J.; Hanslmeier, A.; Biernat, H. K.; Schneider, J.

    2011-10-01

    We present thermal mass loss calculations over evolutionary time scales for the investigation if the smallest transiting rocky exoplanets CoRoT-7b (∼1.68REarth) and Kepler-10b (∼1.416REarth) could be remnants of an initially more massive hydrogen-rich gas giant or a hot Neptune-class exoplanet. We apply a thermal mass loss formula which yields results that are comparable to hydrodynamic loss models. Our approach considers the effect of the Roche lobe, realistic heating efficiencies and a radius scaling law derived from observations of hot Jupiters. We study the influence of the mean planetary density on the thermal mass loss by placing hypothetical exoplanets with the characteristics of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus to the orbital location of CoRoT-7b at 0.017 AU and Kepler-10b at 0.01684 AU and assuming that these planets orbit a K- or G-type host star. Our findings indicate that hydrogen-rich gas giants within the mass domain of Saturn or Jupiter cannot thermally lose such an amount of mass that CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b would result in a rocky residue. Moreover, our calculations show that the present time mass of both rocky exoplanets can be neither a result of evaporation of a hydrogen envelope of a “Hot Neptune” nor a “Hot Uranus”-class object. Depending on the initial density and mass, these planets most likely were always rocky planets which could lose a thin hydrogen envelope, but not cores of thermally evaporated initially much more massive and larger objects.

  9. Could CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b be remnants of evaporated gas or ice giants?

    PubMed

    Leitzinger, M; Odert, P; Kulikov, Yu N; Lammer, H; Wuchterl, G; Penz, T; Guarcello, M G; Micela, G; Khodachenko, M L; Weingrill, J; Hanslmeier, A; Biernat, H K; Schneider, J

    2011-10-01

    We present thermal mass loss calculations over evolutionary time scales for the investigation if the smallest transiting rocky exoplanets CoRoT-7b (∼1.68REarth) and Kepler-10b (∼1.416REarth) could be remnants of an initially more massive hydrogen-rich gas giant or a hot Neptune-class exoplanet. We apply a thermal mass loss formula which yields results that are comparable to hydrodynamic loss models. Our approach considers the effect of the Roche lobe, realistic heating efficiencies and a radius scaling law derived from observations of hot Jupiters. We study the influence of the mean planetary density on the thermal mass loss by placing hypothetical exoplanets with the characteristics of Jupiter, Saturn, Neptune, and Uranus to the orbital location of CoRoT-7b at 0.017 AU and Kepler-10b at 0.01684 AU and assuming that these planets orbit a K- or G-type host star. Our findings indicate that hydrogen-rich gas giants within the mass domain of Saturn or Jupiter cannot thermally lose such an amount of mass that CoRoT-7b and Kepler-10b would result in a rocky residue. Moreover, our calculations show that the present time mass of both rocky exoplanets can be neither a result of evaporation of a hydrogen envelope of a "Hot Neptune" nor a "Hot Uranus"-class object. Depending on the initial density and mass, these planets most likely were always rocky planets which could lose a thin hydrogen envelope, but not cores of thermally evaporated initially much more massive and larger objects.

  10. Studying the Atmosphere of the Exoplanet HAT-P-7b Via Secondary Eclipse Measurements with EPOXI, Spitzer, and Kepler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Jessie L.; Ballard, Sarah; Charbonneau, David; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Seager, Sara; Holman, Matthew J.; Wellnitz, Dennis D.; Deming, Drake; A'Hearn, Michael F.; EPOXI Team

    2010-02-01

    The highly irradiated transiting exoplanet, HAT-P-7b, currently provides one of the best opportunities for studying planetary emission in the optical and infrared wavelengths. We observe six near-consecutive secondary eclipses of HAT-P-7b at optical wavelengths with the EPOXI spacecraft. We place an upper limit on the relative eclipse depth of 0.055% (95% confidence). We also analyze Spitzer observations of the same target in the infrared, obtaining secondary eclipse depths of 0.098% ± 0.017%, 0.159% ± 0.022%, 0.245% ± 0.031%, and 0.225% ± 0.052% in the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm IRAC bands, respectively. We combine these measurements with the recently published Kepler secondary eclipse measurement and generate atmospheric models for the dayside of the planet that are consistent with both the optical and infrared measurements. The data are best fit by models with a temperature inversion, as expected from the high incident flux. The models predict a low optical albedo of lsim0.13, with subsolar abundances of Na, K, TiO, and VO. We also find that the best-fitting models predict that 10% of the absorbed stellar flux is redistributed to the nightside of the planet, which is qualitatively consistent with the inefficient day-night redistribution apparent in the Kepler phase curve. Models without thermal inversions fit the data only at the 1.25σ level, and also require an overabundance of methane, which is not expected in the very hot atmosphere of HAT-P-7b. We also analyze the eight transits of HAT-P-7b present in the EPOXI data set and improve the constraints on the system parameters, finding a period of P = 2.2047308 ± 0.0000025 days, a stellar radius of R sstarf = 1.824 ± 0.089 R sun, a planetary radius of Rp = 1.342 ± 0.068 R Jup, and an inclination of i = 85.7+3.5 -2.2 deg.

  11. STUDYING THE ATMOSPHERE OF THE EXOPLANET HAT-P-7b VIA SECONDARY ECLIPSE MEASUREMENTS WITH EPOXI, SPITZER, AND KEPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, Jessie L.; Ballard, Sarah; Charbonneau, David; Holman, Matthew J.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Seager, Sara; Wellnitz, Dennis D.; Deming, Drake; A'Hearn, Michael F.

    2010-02-10

    The highly irradiated transiting exoplanet, HAT-P-7b, currently provides one of the best opportunities for studying planetary emission in the optical and infrared wavelengths. We observe six near-consecutive secondary eclipses of HAT-P-7b at optical wavelengths with the EPOXI spacecraft. We place an upper limit on the relative eclipse depth of 0.055% (95% confidence). We also analyze Spitzer observations of the same target in the infrared, obtaining secondary eclipse depths of 0.098% +- 0.017%, 0.159% +- 0.022%, 0.245% +- 0.031%, and 0.225% +- 0.052% in the 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 {mu}m IRAC bands, respectively. We combine these measurements with the recently published Kepler secondary eclipse measurement and generate atmospheric models for the dayside of the planet that are consistent with both the optical and infrared measurements. The data are best fit by models with a temperature inversion, as expected from the high incident flux. The models predict a low optical albedo of {approx}<0.13, with subsolar abundances of Na, K, TiO, and VO. We also find that the best-fitting models predict that 10% of the absorbed stellar flux is redistributed to the nightside of the planet, which is qualitatively consistent with the inefficient day-night redistribution apparent in the Kepler phase curve. Models without thermal inversions fit the data only at the 1.25sigma level, and also require an overabundance of methane, which is not expected in the very hot atmosphere of HAT-P-7b. We also analyze the eight transits of HAT-P-7b present in the EPOXI data set and improve the constraints on the system parameters, finding a period of P = 2.2047308 +- 0.0000025 days, a stellar radius of R{sub *} = 1.824 +- 0.089 R{sub sun}, a planetary radius of R{sub p} = 1.342 +- 0.068 R{sub Jup}, and an inclination of i = 85.7{sup +3.5}{sub -2.2} deg.

  12. Sport-specific injuries and medical problems of figure skaters.

    PubMed

    Porter, Emily B; Young, Craig C; Niedfeldt, Mark W; Gottschlich, Laura M

    2007-09-01

    Figure skating is becoming increasingly popular as both a recreational and competitive sport. As the number of figure skating participants increases, so will the number of active patients who present to their primary care physician with sport-related injuries and medical problems. Figure skating is a unique sport that continues to evolve and progress with participants partaking in more difficult moves and more rigorous training programs. Common problems in figure skating include acute musculo-skeletal injuries and chronic overuse injuries, which primarily occur in the foot, ankle, knee, leg, hip, and lower back. Figure skaters are also more likely to endure specific medical problems such as exercise-induced bronchospasm and eating disorders. Primary care physicians are able to contribute to their figure skating patient's health by recognition and appropriate treatment of acute injuries and prevention of chronic injuries and other medical problems.

  13. Polarized sorting of the copper transporter ATP7B in neurons mediated by recognition of a dileucine signal by AP-1.

    PubMed

    Jain, Shweta; Farías, Ginny G; Bonifacino, Juan S

    2015-01-15

    Neurons are highly polarized cells having distinct somatodendritic and axonal domains. Here we report that polarized sorting of the Cu(2+) transporter ATP7B and the vesicle-SNARE VAMP4 to the somatodendritic domain of rat hippocampal neurons is mediated by recognition of dileucine-based signals in the cytosolic domains of the proteins by the σ1 subunit of the clathrin adaptor AP-1. Under basal Cu(2+) conditions, ATP7B was localized to the trans-Golgi network (TGN) and the plasma membrane of the soma and dendrites but not the axon. Mutation of a dileucine-based signal in ATP7B or overexpression of a dominant-negative σ1 mutant resulted in nonpolarized distribution of ATP7B between the somatodendritic and axonal domains. Furthermore, addition of high Cu(2+) concentrations, previously shown to reduce ATP7B incorporation into AP-1-containing clathrin-coated vesicles, caused loss of TGN localization and somatodendritic polarity of ATP7B. These findings support the notion of AP-1 as an effector of polarized sorting in neurons and suggest that altered polarity of ATP7B in polarized cell types might contribute to abnormal copper metabolism in the MEDNIK syndrome, a neurocutaneous disorder caused by mutations in the σ1A subunit isoform of AP-1.

  14. Beyond captions: linking figures with abstract sentences in biomedical articles.

    PubMed

    Bockhorst, Joseph P; Conroy, John M; Agarwal, Shashank; O'Leary, Dianne P; Yu, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Although figures in scientific articles have high information content and concisely communicate many key research findings, they are currently under utilized by literature search and retrieval systems. Many systems ignore figures, and those that do not typically only consider caption text. This study describes and evaluates a fully automated approach for associating figures in the body of a biomedical article with sentences in its abstract. We use supervised methods to learn probabilistic language models, hidden Markov models, and conditional random fields for predicting associations between abstract sentences and figures. Three kinds of evidence are used: text in abstract sentences and figures, relative positions of sentences and figures, and the patterns of sentence/figure associations across an article. Each information source is shown to have predictive value, and models that use all kinds of evidence are more accurate than models that do not. Our most accurate method has an F1-score of 69% on a cross-validation experiment, is competitive with the accuracy of human experts, has significantly better predictive accuracy than state-of-the-art methods and enables users to access figures associated with an abstract sentence with an average of 1.82 fewer mouse clicks. A user evaluation shows that human users find our system beneficial. The system is available at http://FigureItOut.askHERMES.org.

  15. Higher-order figure discrimination in fly and human vision.

    PubMed

    Aptekar, Jacob W; Frye, Mark A

    2013-08-19

    Visually-guided animals rely on their ability to stabilize the panorama and simultaneously track salient objects, or figures, that are distinct from the background in order to avoid predators, pursue food resources and mates, and navigate spatially. Visual figures are distinguished by luminance signals that produce coherent motion cues as well as more enigmatic 'higher-order' statistical features. Figure discrimination is thus a complex form of motion vision requiring specialized neural processing. In this minireview, we will highlight recent advances in understanding the perceptual, behavioral, and neurophysiological basis of higher-order figure detection in flies, much of which is grounded in the historical perspective and mechanistic underpinnings of human psychophysics.

  16. Surface reconstruction, figure-ground modulation, and border-ownership.

    PubMed

    Jeurissen, Danique; Self, Matthew W; Roelfsema, Pieter R

    2013-01-01

    The Differentiation-Integration for Surface Completion (DISC) model aims to explain the reconstruction of visual surfaces. We find the model a valuable contribution to our understanding of figure-ground organization. We point out that, next to border-ownership, neurons in visual cortex code whether surface elements belong to a figure or the background and that this is influenced by attention. We furthermore suggest that there must be strong links between object recognition and figure-ground assignment in order to resolve the status of interior contours. Incorporation of these factors in neurocomputational models will further improve our understanding of surface reconstruction, figure-ground organization, and border-ownership.

  17. BOOK REVIEW: Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mars, M.

    2009-08-01

    Compact fluid bodies in equilibrium under its own gravitational field are abundant in the Universe and a proper treatment of them can only be carried out using the full theory of General Relativity. The problem is of enormous complexity as it involves two very different regimes, namely the interior and the exterior of the fluid, coupled through the surface of the body. This problem is very challenging both from a purely theoretical point of view, as well as regarding the obtaining of realistic models and the description of their physical properties. It is therefore an excellent piece of news that the book 'Relativistic Figures of Equilibrium' by R Meinel, M Ansorg, A Kleinwächter, G Neugebauer and D Petroff has been recently published. This book approaches the topic in depth and its contents will be of interest to a wide range of scientists working on gravitation, including theoreticians in general relativity, mathematical physicists, astrophysicists and numerical relativists. This is an advanced book that intends to present some of the present-day results on this topic. The most basic results are presented rather succinctly, and without going into the details, of their derivations. Although primarily not intended to serve as a textbook, the presentation is nevertheless self-contained and can therefore be of interest both for experts on the field as well as for anybody wishing to learn more about rotating self-gravitating compact bodies in equilibrium. It should be remarked, however, that this book makes a rather strong selection of topics and concentrates fundamentally on presenting the main results obtained by the authors during their research in this field. The book starts with a chapter where the fundamental aspects of rotating fluids in equilibrium, including its thermodynamic properties, are summarized. Of particular interest are the so-called mass-shedding limit, which is the limit where the body is rotating so fast that it is on the verge of starting

  18. Polyamines release the let-7b-mediated suppression of initiation codon recognition during the protein synthesis of EXT2

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Masataka; Higashi, Kyohei; Yamaguchi, Katsutoshi; Asakura, Kiryu; Furihata, Tomomi; Terui, Yusuke; Satake, Toshihiko; Maegawa, Jiro; Yasumura, Kazunori; Ibuki, Ai; Akase, Tomoko; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Kashiwagi, Keiko; Linhardt, Robert J.; Igarashi, Kazuei; Toida, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Proteoglycans (PGs), a family of glycosaminoglycan (GAG)-protein glycoconjugates, contribute to animal physiology through interactions between their glycan chains and growth factors, chemokines and adhesion molecules. However, it remains unclear how GAG structures are changed during the aging process. Here, we found that polyamine levels are correlated with the expression level of heparan sulfate (HS) in human skin. In cultured cell lines, the EXT1 and EXT2 enzymes, initiating HS biosynthesis, were stimulated at the translational level by polyamines. Interestingly, the initiation codon recognition by 43S preinitiation complex during EXT2 translation is suppressed by let-7b, a member of the let-7 microRNA family, through binding at the N-terminal amino acid coding sequence in EXT2 mRNA. Let-7b-mediated suppression of initiation codon depends on the length of 5′-UTR of EXT2 mRNA and its suppression is inhibited in the presence of polyamines. These findings provide new insights into the HS biosynthesis related to miRNA and polyamines. PMID:27650265

  19. INVESTIGATION OF SYSTEMATIC EFFECTS IN KEPLER DATA: SEASONAL VARIATIONS IN THE LIGHT CURVE OF HAT-P-7b

    SciTech Connect

    Van Eylen, V.; Lindholm Nielsen, M.; Hinrup, B.; Tingley, B.; Kjeldsen, H.

    2013-09-10

    With years of Kepler data currently available, the measurement of variations in planetary transit depths over time can now be attempted. To do so, it is of primary importance to understand which systematic effects may affect the measurement of transits. We aim to measure the stability of Kepler measurements over years of observations. We present a study of the depth of about 500 transit events of the Hot Jupiter HAT-P-7b, using 14 quarters (Q0-Q13) of data from the Kepler satellite. We find a systematic variation in the depth of the primary transit, related to quarters of data and recurring yearly. These seasonal variations are about 1%. Within seasons, we find no evidence for trends. We speculate that the cause of the seasonal variations could be unknown field crowding or instrumental artifacts. Our results show that care must be taken when combining transits throughout different quarters of Kepler data. Measuring the relative planetary radius of HAT-P-7b without taking these systematic effects into account leads to unrealistically low error estimates. This effect could be present in all Kepler targets. If so, relative radius measurements of all Hot Jupiters to a precision much better than 1% are unrealistic.

  20. ATMOSPHERE AND SPECTRAL MODELS OF THE KEPLER-FIELD PLANETS HAT-P-7b AND TrES-2

    SciTech Connect

    Spiegel, David S.; Burrows, Adam E-mail: burrows@astro.princeton.ed

    2010-10-10

    We develop atmosphere models of two of the three Kepler-field planets that were known prior to the start of the Kepler mission (HAT-P-7b and TrES-2). We find that published Kepler and Spitzer data for HAT-P-7b appear to require an extremely hot upper atmosphere on the dayside, with a strong thermal inversion and little day-night redistribution. The Spitzer data for TrES-2 suggest a mild thermal inversion with moderate day-night redistribution. We examine the effect of nonequilibrium chemistry on TrES-2 model atmospheres and find that methane levels must be adjusted by extreme amounts in order to cause even mild changes in atmospheric structure and emergent spectra. Our best-fit models to the Spitzer data for TrES-2 lead us to predict a low secondary eclipse planet-star flux ratio ({approx}<2 x 10{sup -5}) in the Kepler bandpass, which is consistent with what very recent observations have found. Finally, we consider how the Kepler-band optical flux from a hot exoplanet depends on the strength of a possible extra optical absorber in the upper atmosphere. We find that the optical flux is not monotonic in optical opacity, and the non-monotonicity is greater for brighter, hotter stars.

  1. Sympathoexcitation in Rats With Chronic Heart Failure Depends on Homeobox D10 and MicroRNA-7b Inhibiting GABBR1 Translation in Paraventricular Nucleus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Renjun; Huang, Qian; Zhou, Rui; Dong, Zengxiang; Qi, Yunfeng; Li, Hua; Wei, Xiaowei; Wu, Hui; Wang, Huiping; Wilcox, Christopher S.; Hultström, Michael; Zhou, Xiaofu; Lai, En Yin

    2015-01-01

    Background Chronic heart failure (CHF) increases sympathoexcitation through Angiotensin II (ANG II) receptors (AT1R) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Recent publications indicate down regulation of γ-aminobutyric acid B-type receptor 1 (GABBR1) and has a binding site for microRNA-7b (miR-7b) that is expressed in the PVN. We hypothesized that ANG II regulates sympathoexcitation through homeobox D10 (HoxD10), which regulates miR-7b in other tissues. Methods and Results Ligation of the left anterior descendent coronary artery in rats caused CHF and sympathoexcitation. PVN expression of AT1R, HoxD10 and miR-7b was increased, while GABBR1 was lower in CHF. Infusion of miR-7b in the PVN caused sympathoexcitation in control animals, and enhanced the changes in CHF. Antisense miR-7b infused in PVN normalized GABBR1 expression while attenuating CHF symptoms including sympathoexcitation. A luciferase reporter assay detected miR-7b binding to the 3’-UTR of GABBR1 that was absent after targeted mutagenesis. ANG II induced HoxD10 and miR-7b in NG108 cells, effects blocked by AT1R-blocker losartan (Los) and by HoxD10 silencing. miR-7b transfection into NG108 cells decreased GABBR1 expression, which was inhibited by miR-7b antisense. In vivo PVN knockdown of AT1R attenuated the symptoms of CHF, while HoxD10 overexpression exaggerated them. Finally, in vivo PVN ANG II infusion caused dose dependent sympathoexcitation that was abrogated by miR-7b antisense and exaggerated by GABBR1 silencing. Conclusions There is an ANG II/AT1R/HoxD10/miR-7b/GABBR1 pathway in the PVN that contributes to sympathoexcitation and deterioration of cardiac function in CHF. PMID:26699387

  2. Figures and First Years: Examining first-year Calculus I student ability to incorporate figures into technical reports

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonacci, Nathan; Rogers, Michael; Pfaff, Thomas

    This three-year study focused on first-year Calculus I students and their abilities to incorporate figures into technical reports. Students were handed guidelines as part of their Multidisciplinary Sustainability Education Module meant to aid them in crafting effective figures. Figure-specific questionnaires were added in the class to gain insight into the quantitative literacy skills students possessed both before starting their course and after its completion. Reviews of the figures in 78 technical reports written by 106 students showed repeated failure to refer to figures in discussion sections and use them in evidence-based arguments. Analysis of quantitative literacy skills revealed that the students could both read and interpret figures, suggesting that issues with literacy were not the main contributor to the sub-par graphs.

  3. Dynamic Reaction Figures: An Integrative Vehicle for Understanding Chemical Reactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Emeric

    2008-01-01

    A highly flexible learning tool, referred to as a dynamic reaction figure, is described. Application of these figures can (i) yield the correct chemical equation by simply following a set of menu driven directions; (ii) present the underlying "mechanism" in chemical reactions; and (iii) help to solve quantitative problems in a number of different…

  4. The Young Child's Pictorial Representation of the Human Figure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Maureen V.; Mason, Sarah

    1998-01-01

    Examined reasons why young children typically omit the torso in human figure drawings. Found that more children produced a conventional figure when they constructed a manikin than when they were asked to draw, suggesting that children omit torsos because they have not yet devised a way of drawing them, rather than forgetting them or having an…

  5. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... - Test Specimens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test Specimens 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT... Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201—Test Specimens EC03OC91.006...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Percentile Male Pt. 572, Subpt. F, App. A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 572—Figures EC01AU91.168...

  9. Transformation of the Incomplete Figure in Young Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noda, Mitsuru

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to examine the developmental changes in young children's perception. A matching completion task consisting of three geometric figures and one bird-like figure were completed by children 3-5 years of age ("N" = 99). The rotation effect, in which the correct response decreased with orientation (45°, 90° 135°, and 180°), was…

  10. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  11. The naked truth about my classical nude figures.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Roger

    2002-02-28

    The story 'Concerns raised over nudes at cancer clinic' (news February 13) does not truly reflect the situation. Although the hospital authorities had concerns about placing the classical nude figures in the hospital environment, the overwhelming response from the public has been positive. Moreover, considerable support for the figures has come from cancer patients.

  12. Distinguishing between Realistic and Fantastical Figures in Iran

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davoodi, Telli; Corriveau, Kathleen H.; Harris, Paul L.

    2016-01-01

    Children in the United States come to distinguish historical from fictional story figures between the ages of 3 and 5 years, guided by the plausibility of the story events surrounding the figure (Corriveau, Kim, Schwalen, & Harris, 2009; Woolley & Cox, 2007). However, U.S. children vary in their reactions to stories that include…

  13. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 90, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.085 EC01MR92.086...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Procedures Pt. 90, Subpt. E, App. B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 90—Figures EC01MR92.087...

  16. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED.... D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 91—Figures ER04OC96.013 ER04OC96.014...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart D of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Provisions Pt. 89, Subpt. D, App. B Appendix B to Subpart D of Part 89—Figures EC01MR92.000 EC01MR92.001...

  19. 40 CFR Figure B-1 to Subpart B of... - Example

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Example B Figure B-1 to Subpart B of Part 53 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... of Automated Methods for SO2, CO, O3, and NO2 Pt. 53, Subpt. B, Fig. B-1 Figure B-1 to Subpart B...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  1. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  3. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  6. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform Probe EC03OC91.062...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  5. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform Probe EC03OC91.062...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  17. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  19. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1203 - Anatomical Planes

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anatomical Planes 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1203—Anatomical Planes ER10MR98.001...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1610 - Igniter

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Igniter 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1610—Igniter ER20OC08.001...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  5. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  6. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1509 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509—Headform Probe EC03OC91.065...

  8. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  9. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device Template

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brushing Device Template 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1610—Brushing...

  11. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 1 to Part 1511 - Pacifier Test Fixture

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pacifier Test Fixture 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt. 1511, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 1511—Pacifier Test Fixture...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Part 1610 - Brushing Device

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Brushing Device 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 7 Figure 7 to Part 1610—Brushing Device ER25MR08.006...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt. 1610, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 8 to Part 1610 - Brush

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Brush 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Pt.1610, Fig. 8 Figure 8 to Part 1610—Brush ER25MR08.007...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1509 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR NON-FULL-SIZE BABY CRIBS Pt. 1509, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1509—Headform Probe EC03OC91.065...

  19. 46 CFR Figure 1 to Part 150 - Compatibility Chart

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compatibility Chart 1 Figure 1 to Part 150 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES COMPATIBILITY OF CARGOES Pt. 150, Fig. 1 Figure 1 to Part 150—Compatibility Chart EC02FE91.079...

  20. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  1. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  2. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  3. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 2 Figure 2...

  4. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1511 - Small Parts Gage

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Small Parts Gage 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS REQUIREMENTS FOR PACIFIERS Pt.1511, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1511—Small Parts Gage EC03OC91.069...

  6. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  7. 16 CFR Figure 9 to Part 1203 - Impact Test Apparatus

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Impact Test Apparatus 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 9 Figure 9 to Part 1203—Impact Test Apparatus...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  10. 16 CFR Figure 5 to Subpart A of... - Impactor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Impactor 5 Figure 5 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Fig. 5 Figure 5...

  11. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  12. 16 CFR Figure 7 to Subpart A of... - Specimen Tray

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Specimen Tray 7 Figure 7 to Subpart A of Part 1209 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS INTERIM SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION The Standard Pt. 1209, Subpt. A, Fig. 7 Figure...

  13. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  14. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  15. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  16. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  17. 16 CFR Figure 6 to Part 1203 - Field of Vision

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Field of Vision 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS Pt. 1203, Fig. 6 Figure 6 to Part 1203—Field of Vision ER10MR98.006...

  18. 40 CFR 89.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 89.5 Section 89.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... will indicate the model year (if applicable) and the topic. (b) Figures for each subpart appear in an... appendix. The figure title will indicate the model year (if applicable) and the topic....

  19. 40 CFR 91.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 91.5 Section 91.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... consecutively by order of appearance in the appendix. The table title will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for... order or appearance in the appendix. The figure title will indicate the topic....

  20. 40 CFR 91.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 91.5 Section 91.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... consecutively by order of appearance in the appendix. The table title will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for... order or appearance in the appendix. The figure title will indicate the topic....

  1. 40 CFR 91.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 91.5 Section 91.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... consecutively by order of appearance in the appendix. The table title will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for... order or appearance in the appendix. The figure title will indicate the topic....

  2. 40 CFR 91.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 91.5 Section 91.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... consecutively by order of appearance in the appendix. The table title will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for... order or appearance in the appendix. The figure title will indicate the topic....

  3. 40 CFR 91.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 91.5 Section 91.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... consecutively by order of appearance in the appendix. The table title will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for... order or appearance in the appendix. The figure title will indicate the topic....

  4. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  5. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1508 - Headform Probe

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Headform Probe 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FEDERAL HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES ACT REGULATIONS FIREWORKS DEVICES Multiple-tube fireworks devices. Pt. 1508, Fig. 2 Figure 2 to Part 1508—Headform...

  6. Naive Prediction of Pathology from Human Figure Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arkell, R. N.

    1976-01-01

    The present study investigated the degree of accuracy of five groups of judges in inferring pathology in human figure drawings. It was suggested that intuition gained through several years of unsystematic observation of figure drawings played the major role in their interpretation. (Author)

  7. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  8. 50 CFR Figure 4 to Part 223 - Georgia TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Georgia TED 4 Figure 4 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 4 Figure 4...

  9. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  10. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  11. 50 CFR Figures 1-2 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 1 Figures 1-2 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figures 1-2 to Part 223...

  12. 50 CFR Figure 3 to Part 223 - Matagorda TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Matagorda TED 3 Figure 3 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 3 Figure 3...

  13. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  14. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Figure 11 to Part 223...

  15. 50 CFR Figure 10 to Part 223 - Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Flounder TED 10 Figure 10 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig. 10 Figure 10...

  16. Interpreting Children's Human Figure Drawings: Basic Guidelines for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Yuehong Chen; Mullis, Fran

    2008-01-01

    The literature was reviewed and summarized to provide common interpretations of human figure drawings. Basic guidelines for interpreting human figure drawings (i.e., face and head, body, arms and hands, and legs and feet) are presented. Expectations for students at different developmental levels (ages 1 1/2 through adolescence) are identified, and…

  17. Demonstration and Analysis of Reusable Launch Vehicle Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    15 Figure 9: P-7B Parachute Recovery...to the Launch Site......................................................... 18 Figure 12: P-7A Flight Profile - From Liftoff to Parachute Deployment...9 Table 6. Updated Model of P-7A Trajectory Events ...................................................... 19 Table

  18. Computational Investigations of Trichoderma Reesei Cel7A Suggest New Routes for Enzyme Activity Improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Beckham, G. T.; Payne, C. M.; Bu, L.; Taylor, C. B.; McCabe, C.; Chu, J. W.; Himmel, M. E.; Crowley, M. F.

    2012-01-01

    The Trichoderma reesei Family 7 cellulase (Cel7A) is a key industrial enzyme in the production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass. It is a multi-modular enzyme with a Family 1 carbohydrate-binding module, a flexible O-glycosylated linker, and a large catalytic domain. We have used simulation to elucidate new functions for the 3 sub-domains, which suggests new routes to increase the activity of this central enzyme. These findings include new roles for glycosylation, which we have shown can be used to tune the binding affinity. We have also examined the structures of the catalytically-active complex of Cel7A and its non-processive counterpart, Cel7B, engaged on cellulose, which suggests allosteric mechanisms involved in chain binding when these cellulases are complexed on cellulose. Our computational results also suggest that product inhibition varies significantly between Cel7A and Cel7B, and we offer a molecular-level explanation for this observation. Finally, we discuss simulations of the absolute and relative binding free energy of cellulose ligands and various mutations along the CD tunnel, which will affect processivity and the ability of Cel7A (and related enzymes) to digest cellulose. These results highlight new considerations in protein engineering for processive and non-processive cellulases for production of lignocellulosic biofuels.

  19. Mammary gland copper transport is stimulated by prolactin through alterations in Ctr1 and Atp7A localization.

    PubMed

    Kelleher, Shannon L; Lönnerdal, Bo

    2006-10-01

    Milk copper (Cu) concentration declines and directly reflects the stage of lactation. Three Cu-specific transporters (Ctr1, Atp7A, Atp7B) have been identified in the mammary gland; however, the integrated role they play in milk Cu secretion is not understood. Whereas the regulation of milk composition by the lactogenic hormone prolactin (PRL) has been documented, the specific contribution of PRL to this process is largely unknown. Using the lactating rat as a model, we determined that the normal decline in milk Cu concentration parallels declining Cu availability to the mammary gland and is associated with decreased Atp7B protein levels. Mammary gland Cu transport was highest during early lactation and was stimulated by suckling and hyperprolactinemia, which was associated with Ctr1 and Atp7A localization at the plasma membrane. Using cultured mammary epithelial cells (HC11), we demonstrated that Ctr1 stains in association with intracellular vesicles that partially colocalize with transferrin receptor (recycling endosome marker). Atp7A was primarily colocalized with mannose 6-phosphate receptor (M6PR; late endosome marker), whereas Atp7B was partially colocalized with protein disulfide isomerase (endoplasmic reticulum marker), TGN38 (trans-Golgi network marker) and M6PR. Prolactin stimulated Cu transport as a result of increased Ctr1 and Atp7A abundance at the plasma membrane. Although the molecular mechanisms responsible for these posttranslational changes are not understood, transient changes in prolactin signaling play a role in the regulation of mammary gland Cu secretion during lactation.

  20. SPITZER INFRARED OBSERVATIONS AND INDEPENDENT VALIDATION OF THE TRANSITING SUPER-EARTH CoRoT-7 b

    SciTech Connect

    Fressin, Francois; Torres, Guillermo; Charbonneau, David; Pont, Frederic; Knutson, Heather A.; Mazeh, Tsevi; Aigrain, Suzanne; Fridlund, Malcolm; Guillot, Tristan; Rauer, Heike

    2012-01-20

    The detection and characterization of the first transiting super-Earth, CoRoT-7 b, has required an unprecedented effort in terms of telescope time and analysis. Although the star does display a radial-velocity signal at the period of the planet, this has been difficult to disentangle from the intrinsic stellar variability and pinning down the velocity amplitude has been very challenging. As a result, the precise value of the mass of the planet-and even the extent to which it can be considered to be confirmed-has been debated in the recent literature, with six mass measurements published so far based on the same spectroscopic observations, ranging from about 2 to 8 Earth masses. Here we report on an independent validation of the planet discovery using one of the fundamental properties of a transit signal: its achromaticity. We observed four transits of CoRoT-7 b at 4.5 {mu}m and 8.0 {mu}m with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope in order to determine whether the depth of the transit signal in the near-infrared is consistent with that observed in the CoRoT bandpass, as expected for a planet. We detected the transit and found an average depth of 0.426 {+-} 0.115 mmag at 4.5 {mu}m, which is in good agreement with the depth of 0.350 {+-} 0.011 mmag (ignoring limb darkening) found by CoRoT. The observations at 8.0 {mu}m did not yield a significant detection. The 4.5 {mu}m observations place important constraints on the kinds of astrophysical false positives that could mimic the signal. Combining this with additional constraints reported earlier, we performed an exhaustive exploration of possible blend scenarios for CoRoT-7 b using the BLENDER technique. We are able to rule out the vast majority of false positives, and the remaining ones are found to be much less likely than a true transiting planet. We thus validate CoRoT-7 b as a bona fide planet with a very high degree of confidence, independently of any radial-velocity information

  1. Spitzer Infrared Observations and Independent Validation of the Transiting Super-Earth CoRoT-7 b

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fressin, Francois; Torres, Guillermo; Pont, Frederic; Knutson, Heather A.; Charbonneau, David; Mazeh, Tsevi; Aigrain, Suzanne; Fridlund, Malcolm; Henze, Christopher E.; Guillot, Tristan; Rauer, Heike

    2012-01-01

    The detection and characterization of the first transiting super-Earth, CoRoT-7 b, has required an unprecedented effort in terms of telescope time and analysis. Although the star does display a radial-velocity signal at the period of the planet, this has been difficult to disentangle from the intrinsic stellar variability and pinning down the velocity amplitude has been very challenging. As a result, the precise value of the mass of the planet—and even the extent to which it can be considered to be confirmed—has been debated in the recent literature, with six mass measurements published so far based on the same spectroscopic observations, ranging from about 2 to 8 Earth masses. Here we report on an independent validation of the planet discovery using one of the fundamental properties of a transit signal: its achromaticity. We observed four transits of CoRoT-7 b at 4.5 μm and 8.0 μm with the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) on board the Spitzer Space Telescope in order to determine whether the depth of the transit signal in the near-infrared is consistent with that observed in the CoRoT bandpass, as expected for a planet. We detected the transit and found an average depth of 0.426 ± 0.115 mmag at 4.5 μm, which is in good agreement with the depth of 0.350 ± 0.011 mmag (ignoring limb darkening) found by CoRoT. The observations at 8.0 μm did not yield a significant detection. The 4.5 μm observations place important constraints on the kinds of astrophysical false positives that could mimic the signal. Combining this with additional constraints reported earlier, we performed an exhaustive exploration of possible blend scenarios for CoRoT-7 b using the BLENDER technique. We are able to rule out the vast majority of false positives, and the remaining ones are found to be much less likely than a true transiting planet. We thus validate CoRoT-7 b as a bona fide planet with a very high degree of confidence, independently of any radial-velocity information. Our Spitzer

  2. Tissue-specific expression of cell-surface Qa-2 antigen from a transfected Q7b gene of C57BL/10 mice

    PubMed Central

    1987-01-01

    We screened a cDNA library prepared from a BALB.B10 CTL clone that expresses Qa-2 antigen, and isolated four clones derived from Q7b, a Qa region gene of C57BL/10. One of these Q7b cDNAs and the Q7b chromosomal gene were subcloned into expression vectors and transfected into L cells and R1.1 thymoma cells. We found that the chromosomal Q7b gene expresses Qa-2 on the surface of R1.1 cells, but not on L cells while the Q7b cDNA expresses protein on the surface of both cell types. The levels of Qa-2 expression do not correlate with the total levels of Q7b mRNA in these transfectants. Our results suggest that the tissue- specific expression of Qa-2 may be controlled, in part, by mechanisms of alternate RNA splicing. By using hybrid gene constructs, we have mapped the tissue-specific element to the 3' part of the gene, downstream of a site near the middle of exon 4. The hybrid polypeptides differ significantly in their transmembrane and cytoplasmic regions. These portions of the protein also may play a role in the tissue- specific expression of Qa-2. PMID:3502706

  3. The Prediction of Success in Engineering Graphics Using the Group Embedded Figures Test and the Hidden Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Russell C.; Davis, Paul D.

    1985-01-01

    A study was conducted to continue the assessment of the Group Embedded Figures Test (GEFT), to assess the value of the Hidden Figures Test (HFT), and to assess the usefulness of the two instruments used in combination as tools for predicting student success and early identification of students who may need special assistance in engineering…

  4. Figure-ground segregation: A fully nonlocal approach.

    PubMed

    Dimiccoli, Mariella

    2016-09-01

    We present a computational model that computes and integrates in a nonlocal fashion several configural cues for automatic figure-ground segregation. Our working hypothesis is that the figural status of each pixel is a nonlocal function of several geometric shape properties and it can be estimated without explicitly relying on object boundaries. The methodology is grounded on two elements: multi-directional linear voting and nonlinear diffusion. A first estimation of the figural status of each pixel is obtained as a result of a voting process, in which several differently oriented line-shaped neighborhoods vote to express their belief about the figural status of the pixel. A nonlinear diffusion process is then applied to enforce the coherence of figural status estimates among perceptually homogeneous regions. Computer simulations fit human perception and match the experimental evidence that several cues cooperate in defining figure-ground segregation. The results of this work suggest that figure-ground segregation involves feedback from cells with larger receptive fields in higher visual cortical areas.

  5. Ion Figuring of Replicated X-Ray Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantey, Thomas M.; Gregory, Don A.

    1997-01-01

    This investigation included experiments to demonstrate ion beam figuring effects on electroless nickel with the expressed desire to figure X-ray optic mandrels. It was important to establish that ion beam figuring did not induce any adverse effects to the nickel surface. The ion beam has consistently been shown to be an excellent indicator of the quality of the subsurface. Polishing is not the only cause for failure in the ion beam final figuring process, the material composition is equally important. Only by careful consideration of both these factors can the ion beam final figuring process achieve its greatest potential. The secondary goal was to construct a model for representing the ion beam material removal rate. Representing the ion beam removal rate is only an approximation and has a number of limiting factors. The resolution of the metrology apparatus limits the modeling of the beam function as well. As the surface error corrections demand more precision in the final figuring, the model representing beam function must be equally precise. The precision to which the beam function can be represented is not only determined by the model but also by the measurements producing that model. The method developed for determining the beam function has broad application to any material destined to be ion beam figured.

  6. Figure-ground modulation in awake primate thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Helen E.; Andolina, Ian M.; Shipp, Stewart D.; Adams, Daniel L.; Cudeiro, Javier; Salt, Thomas E.; Sillito, Adam M.

    2015-01-01

    Figure-ground discrimination refers to the perception of an object, the figure, against a nondescript background. Neural mechanisms of figure-ground detection have been associated with feedback interactions between higher centers and primary visual cortex and have been held to index the effect of global analysis on local feature encoding. Here, in recordings from visual thalamus of alert primates, we demonstrate a robust enhancement of neuronal firing when the figure, as opposed to the ground, component of a motion-defined figure-ground stimulus is located over the receptive field. In this paradigm, visual stimulation of the receptive field and its near environs is identical across both conditions, suggesting the response enhancement reflects higher integrative mechanisms. It thus appears that cortical activity generating the higher-order percept of the figure is simultaneously reentered into the lowest level that is anatomically possible (the thalamus), so that the signature of the evolving representation of the figure is imprinted on the input driving it in an iterative process. PMID:25901330

  7. Figure-ground modulation in awake primate thalamus.

    PubMed

    Jones, Helen E; Andolina, Ian M; Shipp, Stewart D; Adams, Daniel L; Cudeiro, Javier; Salt, Thomas E; Sillito, Adam M

    2015-06-02

    Figure-ground discrimination refers to the perception of an object, the figure, against a nondescript background. Neural mechanisms of figure-ground detection have been associated with feedback interactions between higher centers and primary visual cortex and have been held to index the effect of global analysis on local feature encoding. Here, in recordings from visual thalamus of alert primates, we demonstrate a robust enhancement of neuronal firing when the figure, as opposed to the ground, component of a motion-defined figure-ground stimulus is located over the receptive field. In this paradigm, visual stimulation of the receptive field and its near environs is identical across both conditions, suggesting the response enhancement reflects higher integrative mechanisms. It thus appears that cortical activity generating the higher-order percept of the figure is simultaneously reentered into the lowest level that is anatomically possible (the thalamus), so that the signature of the evolving representation of the figure is imprinted on the input driving it in an iterative process.

  8. Fast figuring of large optics by reactive atom plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castelli, Marco; Jourdain, Renaud; Morantz, Paul; Shore, Paul

    2012-09-01

    The next generation of ground-based astronomical observatories will require fabrication and maintenance of extremely large segmented mirrors tens of meters in diameter. At present, the large production of segments required by projects like E-ELT and TMT poses time frames and costs feasibility questions. This is principally due to a bottleneck stage in the optical fabrication chain: the final figuring step. State-of-the-art figure correction techniques, so far, have failed to meet the needs of the astronomical community for mass production of large, ultra-precise optical surfaces. In this context, Reactive Atom Plasma (RAP) is proposed as a candidate figuring process that combines nanometer level accuracy with high material removal rates. RAP is a form of plasma enhanced chemical etching at atmospheric pressure based on Inductively Coupled Plasma technology. The rapid figuring capability of the RAP process has already been proven on medium sized optical surfaces made of silicon based materials. In this paper, the figure correction of a 3 meters radius of curvature, 400 mm diameter spherical ULE mirror is presented. This work demonstrates the large scale figuring capability of the Reactive Atom Plasma process. The figuring is carried out by applying an in-house developed procedure that promotes rapid convergence. A 2.3 μm p-v initial figure error is removed within three iterations, for a total processing time of 2.5 hours. The same surface is then re-polished and the residual error corrected again down to λ/20 nm rms. These results highlight the possibility of figuring a metre-class mirror in about ten hours.

  9. Breath Figure Method for Construction of Honeycomb Films

    PubMed Central

    Dou, Yingying; Jin, Mingliang; Zhou, Guofu; Shui, Lingling

    2015-01-01

    Honeycomb films with various building units, showing potential applications in biological, medical, physicochemical, photoelectric, and many other areas, could be prepared by the breath figure method. The ordered hexagonal structures formed by the breath figure process are related to the building units, solvents, substrates, temperature, humidity, air flow, and other factors. Therefore, by adjusting these factors, the honeycomb structures could be tuned properly. In this review, we summarized the development of the breath figure method of fabricating honeycomb films and the factors of adjusting honeycomb structures. The organic-inorganic hybrid was taken as the example building unit to discuss the preparation, mechanism, properties, and applications of the honeycomb films. PMID:26343734

  10. Downregulation of let-7b promotes COL1A1 and COL1A2 expression in dermis and skin fibroblasts during heat wound repair.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinyan; Luo, Chengqun; Yin, Zhaoqi; Li, Ping; Wang, Shaohua; Chen, Jia; He, Quanyong; Zhou, Jianda

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRs), a class of non‑coding RNAs 18‑25 nucleotides in length, generally serve suppressive role in the regulation of gene expression via directly binding to the 3'‑untranslated region (UTR) of their target mRNA. Previous studies have identified several miRs to be involved in thermal injury repair. However, the role of miR let‑7b during the recovery of thermal injury, in addition to the underlying mechanisms, has not previously been studied. In the present study, the expression of let‑7b was observed to be significantly increased in skin tissue shortly following thermal injury, however, gradually reduced during the recovery of thermal injury. Notably, similar findings were observed in heat‑denatured skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, collagen, type I, alpha 1 (COL1A1) and collagen, type I, alpha 2 (COL1A2), which are associated with the synthesis of type I collagen, were identified as two targets of let‑7b in skin fibroblasts. The overexpression of let‑7b was observed to upregulate the protein expression levels of COL1A1 and COL1A2, while knockdown of let‑7b reduced the levels of COL1A1 and COL1A2 in skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, COL1A1 and COL1A2 were significantly downregulated shortly following thermal injury, while gradually upregulated during healing, in heat‑damaged skin tissue and skin fibroblasts, with the expression profiles opposite to that of let‑7b. Taken together, this suggests that the downregulation of let‑7b in heat‑damaged dermis promotes the synthesis of type I collagen and thus aids in burn wound repair.

  11. cAMP/PKA/CREB/GLT1 signaling involved in the antidepressant-like effects of phosphodiesterase 4D inhibitor (GEBR-7b) in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xu; Guo, Haibiao; Sayed, Mohammad Daud SOM; Lu, Yang; Yang, Ting; Zhou, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhongming; Wang, Haitao; Wang, Chuang; Xu, Jiangping

    2016-01-01

    Objectives GEBR-7b, a potential phosphodiesterase 4D inhibitor, has been shown to have memory-enhancing effects in rodents. However, it is still unknown whether GEBR-7b also has the antidepressant-like effects in rats. Herein, we examined the potential of GEBR-7b to attenuate depression-like behaviors in the rat model of depression induced by chronic unpredictable stress (CUS). Next, we also investigated the alterations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit (PKAca), cAMP response element-binding (CREB), and glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1) levels produced by GEBR-7b in the rats model of depression. Methods Effects of GEBR-7b on CUS (35 days)-induced depression-like behaviors were examined by measuring immobility time in the forced swimming test (FST). Hippocampal cAMP levels were examined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, whereas PKAca, phosphorylation of CREB (pCREB), CREB, and GLT1 in the hippocampus of rats were subjected to Western blot analysis. Results CUS exposure caused a depression-like behavior evidenced by the increased immobility time in FST. Depression-like behavior induced by CUS was accompanied by a significant increased GLT, decreased cAMP, PKAca, pCREB activities in hippocampus. However, repeated GEBR-7b administration significantly reversed CUS-induced depression-like behavior and changes of cAMP/PKA/CREB/GLT1 signaling. No alteration was observed in locomotor activity in open field test. Conclusion These findings indicate that GEBR-7b reversed the depression-like behaviors induced by CUS in rats, which is at least in part mediated by modulating cAMP, PKAca, pCREB, and GLT1 levels in the hippocampus of rats, supporting its neuroprotective potential against behavioral and biochemical dysfunctions induced by CUS. PMID:26855578

  12. Surface Figure Measurement of Silicon Carbide Mirrors at Cryogenic Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blake, Peter; Mink, Ronald G.; Chambers, John; Robinson, F. David; Content, David; Davila, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    The surface figure of a developmental silicon carbide mirror, cooled to 87 K and then 20 K within a cryostat, was measured with unusually high precision at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC). The concave spherical mirror, with a radius of 600 mm and a clear aperture of 150 mm, was fabricated of sintered silicon carbide. The mirror was mounted to an interface plate representative of an optical bench, made of the material Cesic@, a composite of silicon, carbon, and silicon carbide. The change in optical surface figure as the mirror and interface plate cooled from room temperature to 20 K was 3.7 nm rms, with a standard uncertainty of 0.23 nm in the rms statistic. Both the cryo-change figure and the uncertainty are among the lowest such figures yet published. This report describes the facilities, experimental methods, and uncertainty analysis of the measurements.

  13. A new figure of merit for wideband vibration energy harvesters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. Q.; Badel, A.; Formosa, F.; Wu, Y. P.

    2015-12-01

    The performance evaluation method is a very important part in the field of vibration energy harvesting. It provides the ability to compare and rate different vibration energy harvesters (VEHs). Considering the lack of a well-recognized tool, this article proposed a new systematic figure of merit for the appraisement of wideband VEHs. Extensive investigations are first performed for some classic figures for linear VEHs. With the common fundamental information obtained, the proposed figure integrates four essential factors: the revised energy harvester effectiveness, the mechanical quality factor, the normalized bandwidth and the effective mass density. Special considerations are devoted to the properties of wideband VEHs about the operation range and the average power in this domain which are related to the performance target of stable power output. Afterward, this new figure is applied to some literature VEHs and demonstrated to present good evaluations of wideband VEHs. Moreover, it exhibits the ability to point out the improvement information of the concerned VEHs further developments.

  14. [Effective English writing for tables and figures in andrological papers].

    PubMed

    Luo, Yong-He; Lu, Jin-Chun

    2012-08-01

    Tables and figures play a critical role in enhancing the quality of an andrological paper. As visual elements, well-presented tables and figures can reduce the length of the manuscript and meanwhile efficiently capture a large amount of information by clear and concise display of detailed results and complex relationships, patterns and trends, offer explicit statistical or graphical support to important ideas, and add to the value of the whole paper. The effectiveness of a table or figure lies not only in its well-crafted structural design, but even more in its language presentation. This article presents some essential and practical guidelines to effective English writing of the title, body and footnotes of tables and figures in andrological papers.

  15. High-precision Photogrammetric Surface Figure Measurements under Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Z.; Qian, Y.; Fan, S. H.; Liu, C. R.; Wang, H. R.; Zuo, Y. X.; Cheng, J. Q.; Yang, J.

    2016-01-01

    Limited by the working temperature of the measurement equipments, most of the high-precision surface figure measurement techniques cannot be applied under a cryogenic environment. This paper reports the first attempt to measure the surface figure of a high-precision terahertz reflector panel under low temperatures based on photogrammetry. The measurement employs a high resolution industrial camera sitting on an automatic experimental platform which enables photos been taken in an automatic fashion inside a climate chamber. A repeatable accuracy of 2.1 μm rms is achieved under the cryogenic environment. Furthermore, surface figure measured by a three-coordinate measuring machine under room temperature is used to calibrate the thickness variation of the paper targets. By this technique, the surface figure of an aluminum prototype panel of the 5 meter Dome A Terahertz Telescope (DATE5) is measured from room temperature down to -55°C.

  16. Figuring Large Mandrels for Forming X-Ray Mirrors Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, Geraldine; Fleetwood, Charles; Content, David; Saha, Timo; Kolos, Linette; Colella, David

    2004-01-01

    Constellation X mirrors are discussed in this presentation. Topics include:assemblies, mirror segments, optical assemble pathfinder mandrels, the figuring process, and a best quadrant,clear aperture, and full aperture.

  17. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS... Apparatus Views ER25MR08.001...

  18. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Part 1610 - Flammability Apparatus Views

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Flammability Apparatus Views 2 Figure 2 to Part 1610 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS... Apparatus Views ER25MR08.001...

  19. Figuring out the Statistics of the ICC World Cup 2011

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiwalkar, Jyoti P.; Deshpande, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of cricket match results from the ICC World Cup 2011. We believe that such data provide good material for interesting classroom exercises. (Contains 7 tables and 1 figure.)

  20. 13. WEST ELEVATION, POWERHOUSE, WITH FIGURES AND AUTOMOBILES Historic photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. WEST ELEVATION, POWERHOUSE, WITH FIGURES AND AUTOMOBILES Historic photograph no. 1646, no date, held at Media Arts and Services Department, Pacific Gas & Electric Co., San Francisco, CA. - Centerville Hydroelectric System, Powerhouse, Butte Creek, Centerville, Butte County, CA

  1. 40 CFR 90.6 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... 90.6 Section 90.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for each subpart appear in an appendix at the end of the subpart... the topic....

  2. 40 CFR 90.6 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    .... 90.6 Section 90.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for each subpart appear in an appendix at the end of the subpart... the topic....

  3. 40 CFR 90.6 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... 90.6 Section 90.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for each subpart appear in an appendix at the end of the subpart... the topic....

  4. 40 CFR 90.6 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... 90.6 Section 90.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for each subpart appear in an appendix at the end of the subpart... the topic....

  5. 40 CFR 90.6 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    .... 90.6 Section 90.6 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... will indicate the topic. (b) Figures for each subpart appear in an appendix at the end of the subpart... the topic....

  6. Non-Ceruloplasmin Copper Distincts Subtypes in Alzheimer's Disease: a Genetic Study of ATP7B Frequency.

    PubMed

    Squitti, Rosanna; Ventriglia, Mariacarla; Gennarelli, Massimo; Colabufo, Nicola A; El Idrissi, Imane Ghafir; Bucossi, Serena; Mariani, Stefania; Rongioletti, Mauro; Zanetti, Orazio; Congiu, Chiara; Rossini, Paolo M; Bonvicini, Cristian

    2017-01-01

    Meta-analyses show that serum copper non-bound-to-ceruloplasmin (non-Cp-Cu) is higher in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). ATP7B gene variants associate with AD, modulating the size of non-Cp-Cu pool. However, a dedicated genetic study comparing AD patients after stratification for a copper biomarker to demonstrate the existence of a copper subtype of AD has not yet been carried out. An independent patient sample of 287 AD patients was assessed for non-Cp-Cu serum concentrations, rs1801243, rs1061472, and rs732774 ATP7B genetic variants and the APOE4 genotype. Patients were stratified into two groups based on a non-Cp-Cu cutoff (1.9 μM). Single-locus and haplotype-group analyses were performed to define their frequencies in dependence of the non-Cp-Cu group. The two AD subgroups did not differ regarding age, sex, MMSE score, or APOE4 frequency allele, while they did differ regarding non-Cp-Cu concentrations in serum, allele, genotype, and haplotype frequencies of rs1061472 A > G and rs732774 C > T after multiple testing corrections. AD patients with a GG genotype had a 1.76-fold higher risk of having a non-Cp-Cu higher than 1.9 μmol/L (p = 0.029), and those with a TT genotype for rs732774 C > T of 1.8-fold (p = 0.018). After 100,000 permutations for multiple testing corrections, the haplotype containing the AC alleles appeared more frequently in AD patients with normal non-Cp-Cu [43 vs. 33 %; Pm = 0.03], while the haplotype containing the GT risk alleles appeared more frequently in the higher non-Cp-Cu AD (66 vs. 55 %; Pm = 0.01). Genetic heterogeneity sustains a copper AD metabolic subtype; non-Cp-Cu is a marker of this copper AD.

  7. Significant Figures in Measurements with Uncertainty: A Working Criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilchis, Abraham

    2017-03-01

    Generally speaking, students have difficulty reporting out measurements and estimates of quantities used in the laboratory, and with handling the significant figures associated with them. When required to make calculation involving quantities with different numbers of significant figures, they have difficulty in assigning the corresponding digits to the final result. When in addition, the quantities have uncertainty, the operations entailed pose an even greater challenge. The article advocates for some working rules for students (and teachers) in an effort to combat this problem.

  8. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart N of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures to Subpart N of Part 572 Transportation... Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N1 Figures to Subpart N of Part 572 ER18JY02.000 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N2 ER18JY02.001 Pt. 572, Subpt. N, Fig. N3 ER18JY02.002 Pt. 572,...

  9. Precise method for investigation of Lissajous generalized figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bednarek, Stanisław

    2014-07-01

    This article describes the Lissajous generalized figure and the original instrument for its investigation. Two specially prepared electrodynamic loudspeakers—a horizontal and a vertical—cause oscillations in two mirrors. It is possible to precisely control the motion of the mirrors, achieve a high frequency of oscillation and investigate anharmonic vibrations because loudspeakers are powered by electronic generators. Eccentric mounting, and rotation of a vertical loudspeaker, also allow composition of the oscillations in inclined directions, which generates Lissajous’ generalized figures.

  10. Constellation-X Cylinder Figuring and Polishing Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waluschka, Eugene; Arsenovic, Petar; Content, David; Saha, Timo; Strojny, Carl; Wright, Geraldine; Fleetwood, Charles

    2001-01-01

    In support of Goddard's Constellation-X mandrel manufacturing effort a series of fabrication experiments are being performed to determine a best approach. Currently, polishing immediately after diamond turning, produces a RMS surface roughness of 0.31 nm, on a nickel plated aluminum mandrel. Studies currently under way will incorporate an abrasive figuring step followed by a polishing operation. The current diamond turning, figuring and polishing procedures will be described and the results presented.

  11. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. U, App. A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572—Figures ER14DE06.000 ER16JN08.006 ER14DE06.002 ER14DE06.003...

  12. 40 CFR Appendix B to Subpart E of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Figures B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 91 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED..., App. B Appendix B to Subpart E of Part 91—Figures ER04OC96.044 ER04OC96.045 ER04OC96.046...

  13. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart U of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572... Dummy, 50th Percentile Adult Male Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. U, App. A Appendix A to Subpart U of Part 572—Figures ER14DE06.000 ER16JN08.006 ER14DE06.002 ER14DE06.003...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572... Dummy, Small Adult Female Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. V, App. A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572—Figures ER14DE06.009 ER14DE06.010 ER14DE06.011 ER14DE06.012 ER14DE06.013...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572... Dummy, Small Adult Female Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. V, App. A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part572—Figures ER14DE06.009 ER14DE06.010 ER14DE06.011 ER14DE06.012 ER14DE06.013...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572... Dummy, Small Adult Female Instrumentation and test conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. V, App. A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572—Figures ER14DE06.009 ER14DE06.010 ER14DE06.011 ER14DE06.012 ER14DE06.013...

  17. Noise destroys feedback enhanced figure-ground segmentation but not feedforward figure-ground segmentation.

    PubMed

    Romeo, August; Arall, Marina; Supèr, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Figure-ground (FG) segmentation is the separation of visual information into background and foreground objects. In the visual cortex, FG responses are observed in the late stimulus response period, when neurons fire in tonic mode, and are accompanied by a switch in cortical state. When such a switch does not occur, FG segmentation fails. Currently, it is not known what happens in the brain on such occasions. A biologically plausible feedforward spiking neuron model was previously devised that performed FG segmentation successfully. After incorporating feedback the FG signal was enhanced, which was accompanied by a change in spiking regime. In a feedforward model neurons respond in a bursting mode whereas in the feedback model neurons fired in tonic mode. It is known that bursts can overcome noise, while tonic firing appears to be much more sensitive to noise. In the present study, we try to elucidate how the presence of noise can impair FG segmentation, and to what extent the feedforward and feedback pathways can overcome noise. We show that noise specifically destroys the feedback enhanced FG segmentation and leaves the feedforward FG segmentation largely intact. Our results predict that noise produces failure in FG perception.

  18. Hexa-D-arginine treatment increases 7B2•PC2 activity in hyp-mouse osteoblasts and rescues the HYP phenotype.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Baozhi; Feng, Jian Q; Bowman, Stephen; Liu, Ying; Blank, Robert D; Lindberg, Iris; Drezner, Marc K

    2013-01-01

    Inactivating mutations of the "phosphate regulating gene with homologies to endopeptidases on the X chromosome" (PHEX/Phex) underlie disease in patients with X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) and the hyp-mouse, a murine homologue of the human disorder. Although increased serum fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF-23) underlies the HYP phenotype, the mechanism(s) by which PHEX mutations inhibit FGF-23 degradation and/or enhance production remains unknown. Here we show that treatment of wild-type mice with the proprotein convertase (PC) inhibitor, decanoyl-Arg-Val-Lys-Arg-chloromethyl ketone (Dec), increases serum FGF-23 and produces the HYP phenotype. Because PC2 is uniquely colocalized with PHEX in osteoblasts/bone, we examined if PC2 regulates PHEX-dependent FGF-23 cleavage and production. Transfection of murine osteoblasts with PC2 and its chaperone protein 7B2 cleaved FGF-23, whereas Signe1 (7B2) RNA interference (RNAi) transfection, which limited 7B2 protein production, decreased FGF-23 degradation and increased Fgf-23 mRNA and protein. The mechanism by which decreased 7B2•PC2 activity influences Fgf-23 mRNA was linked to reduced conversion of the precursor to bone morphogenetic protein 1 (proBMP1) to active BMP1, which resulted in limited cleavage of dentin matrix acidic phosphoprotein 1 (DMP1), and consequent increased Fgf-23 mRNA. The significance of decreased 7B2•PC2 activity in XLH was confirmed by studies of hyp-mouse bone, which revealed significantly decreased Sgne1 (7B2) mRNA and 7B2 protein, and limited cleavage of proPC2 to active PC2. The expected downstream effects of these changes included decreased FGF-23 cleavage and increased FGF-23 synthesis, secondary to decreased BMP1-mediated degradation of DMP1. Subsequent Hexa-D-Arginine treatment of hyp-mice enhanced bone 7B2•PC2 activity, normalized FGF-23 degradation and production, and rescued the HYP phenotype. These data suggest that decreased PHEX-dependent 7B2•PC2 activity is central to the

  19. Algorithm for ion beam figuring of low-gradient mirrors.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Changjun; Li, Shengyi; Xie, Xuhui

    2009-07-20

    Ion beam figuring technology for low-gradient mirrors is discussed. Ion beam figuring is a noncontact machining technique in which a beam of high-energy ions is directed toward a target workpiece to remove material in a predetermined and controlled fashion. Owing to this noncontact mode of material removal, problems associated with tool wear and edge effects, which are common in conventional contact polishing processes, are avoided. Based on the Bayesian principle, an iterative dwell time algorithm for planar mirrors is deduced from the computer-controlled optical surfacing (CCOS) principle. With the properties of the removal function, the shaping process of low-gradient mirrors can be approximated by the linear model for planar mirrors. With these discussions, the error surface figuring technology for low-gradient mirrors with a linear path is set up. With the near-Gaussian property of the removal function, the figuring process with a spiral path can be described by the conventional linear CCOS principle, and a Bayesian-based iterative algorithm can be used to deconvolute the dwell time. Moreover, the selection criterion of the spiral parameter is given. Ion beam figuring technology with a spiral scan path based on these methods can be used to figure mirrors with non-axis-symmetrical errors. Experiments on SiC chemical vapor deposition planar and Zerodur paraboloid samples are made, and the final surface errors are all below 1/100 lambda.

  20. Figure-ground interaction in the human visual cortex.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, Lawrence G; Wade, Alex R; Pettet, Mark W; Vildavski, Vladimir Y; Norcia, Anthony M

    2008-07-18

    Discontinuities in feature maps serve as important cues for the location of object boundaries. Here we used multi-input nonlinear analysis methods and EEG source imaging to assess the role of several different boundary cues in visual scene segmentation. Synthetic figure/ground displays portraying a circular figure region were defined solely by differences in the temporal frequency of the figure and background regions in the limiting case and by the addition of orientation or relative alignment cues in other cases. The use of distinct temporal frequencies made it possible to separately record responses arising from each region and to characterize the nature of nonlinear interactions between the two regions as measured in a set of retinotopically and functionally defined cortical areas. Figure/background interactions were prominent in retinotopic areas, and in an extra-striate region lying dorsal and anterior to area MT+. Figure/background interaction was greatly diminished by the elimination of orientation cues, the introduction of small gaps between the two regions, or by the presence of a constant second-order border between regions. Nonlinear figure/background interactions therefore carry spatially precise, time-locked information about the continuity/discontinuity of oriented texture fields. This information is widely distributed throughout occipital areas, including areas that do not display strong retinotopy.

  1. The Seventh Frederick H. Verhoeff Lecture. Collagenase and collagenase inhibitors.

    PubMed Central

    François, J

    1977-01-01

    Besides EDTA and cysteine, cystine and penicillamine are the best collagenase inhibitors. The collagenase is produced by the leucocytes. The action mechanism of the collagenase inhibitors is due to the chelation of Zn ions. The best clinical indications for collagenase inhibitors are punctate epithelial keratitis, chemical burns, recurrent corneal erosions in keratoconus, trophic postinfectious ulcerations of the cornea (metaherpetic ulcers), and descemetoceles. Images FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 2 B FIGURE 2 C FIGURE 4 A FIGURE 4 B FIGURE 4 C FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 11 FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B PMID:206998

  2. Combined Delivery of Let-7b MicroRNA and Paclitaxel via Biodegradable Nanoassemblies for the Treatment of KRAS Mutant Cancer.

    PubMed

    Dai, Xin; Fan, Wei; Wang, Yingzhe; Huang, Lijie; Jiang, Ying; Shi, Lei; Mckinley, DeAngelo; Tan, Wen; Tan, Chalet

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we synthesized a novel cationic copolymer composed of polyethylene glycol 5000 (PEG5K), vitamin E (VE), and diethylenetriamine (DET) at 1:4:20 molar ratio. The resulting PEG5K-VE4-DET20 copolymer formed nanoassemblies when mixed with the neutral PEG5K-VE4 copolymer at 1:8 weight ratio, which were investigated as the nanocarriers for combined delivery of paclitaxel and let-7b mimic. We found that the PEG5K-VE4-DET20 nanoassemblies could entrap paclitaxel for an extended period and burst release the drug in the presence of cathepsin B, demonstrating the biodegradability of the copolymers. At N/P ratio of 12:1, the PEG5K-VE4-DET20 nanoassemblies formed stable polyplexes with let-7b mimic, which were efficiently taken up by tumor cells and underwent endosomal escape. In non-small cell lung cancer A549 cells that harbor mutant KRAS, paclitaxel and let-7b mimic-loaded nanoassemblies (N-PTX/let-7b) markedly potentiated the cytotoxicity of paclitaxel, induced apoptosis, and diminished the invasiveness of tumor cells. In mice bearing subcutaneous A549 xenografts, intravenous administration of N-PTX/let-7b retarded tumor growth more efficaciously than Taxol. Our study demonstrates the promise of the PEG5K-VE4-DET20 nanoassemblies for concurrent delivery of hydrophobic drugs and miRNA mimics.

  3. Null mutation of the murine ATP7B (Wilson disease) gene results in intracellular copper accumulation and late-onset hepatic nodular transformation.

    PubMed

    Buiakova, O I; Xu, J; Lutsenko, S; Zeitlin, S; Das, K; Das, S; Ross, B M; Mekios, C; Scheinberg, I H; Gilliam, T C

    1999-09-01

    The Atp7b protein is a copper-transporting ATPase expressed predominantly in the liver and to a lesser extent in most other tissues. Mutations in the ATP7B gene lead to Wilson disease, a copper toxicity disorder characterized by dramatic build-up of intracellular hepatic copper with subsequent hepatic and neuro-logical abnormalities. Using homologous recombination to disrupt the normal translation of ATP7B, we have generated a strain of mice that are homozygous mutants (null) for the Wilson disease gene. The ATP7B null mice display a gradual accumulation of hepatic copper that increases to a level 60-fold greater than normal by 5 months of age. An increase in copper concentration was also observed in the kidney, brain, placenta and lactating mammary glands of homo-zygous mutants, although milk from the mutant glands was copper deficient. Morphological abnormalities resembling cirrhosis developed in the majority of the livers from homozygous mutants older than 7 months of age. Progeny of the homozygous mutant females demonstrated neurological abnormalities and growth retardation characteristic of copper deficiency. Copper concentration in the livers of the newborn homozygous null mutants was decreased dramatically. In summary, inactivation of the murine ATP7B gene produces a form of cirrhotic liver disease that resembles Wilson disease in humans and the 'toxic milk' phenotype in the mouse.

  4. Alpaca fiber growth is mediated by microRNA let-7b via down-regulation of target gene FGF5.

    PubMed

    Wang, T; Zhang, Y; Wang, H D; Shen, Y; Liu, N; Cao, J; Yu, X J; Dong, C S; He, X Y

    2015-10-29

    MicroRNAs are very small endogenous RNA molecules that play a crucial role in an array of biological processes, including regulation of skin morphogenesis. The microRNA let-7b is thought to modulate animal hair growth, by binding target genes that encode growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor 5 (FGF5) has been previously reported to be involved in the initiation of the catagen phase of hair growth. In this study, we combined previous reports with bioinformatic analysis techniques to identify and validate FGF5 and, using lucerifase assay, confirmed targeted binding of let-7b to FGF5. To investigate the interaction between let-7b and FGF5, alpaca skin fibroblasts were transfected with let-7b over-expression vectors, and then mRNA and protein expression levels of FGF5 and the gene encoding its receptor, FGFR1, were evaluated. Levels of FGF5 mRNA and protein were remarkably lower in transfected groups, as compared to controls. In summary, this study confirmed that let-7b acts as a regulator of skin morphogenesis, by directly targeting FGF5 and down-regulating its expression. It provides the evidence of hair growth regulated by miRNAs in animals and may have important applications in wool production.

  5. Upper eyelid retraction in Graves' ophthalmopathy: a new surgical technique and a study of the abnormal levator muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Small, R G

    1988-01-01

    A new surgical procedure, the proximal levator technique, achieves recession of the retracted upper eyelid in Graves' ophthalmopathy by sectioning the levator muscle proximal to Whitnall's ligament and fixing eyelid position with sutures that permit postoperative adjustment. This technique deserves further study. Enlargement of the proximal levator muscle in Graves' eye disease is shown on orbital CT scans and is found at surgery when the proximal levator technique is employed. Histologic and morphometric studies demonstrate increased levator muscle fiber size as well as increased extracellular volume. These findings suggest that levator muscle hypertrophy is important in the pathogenesis of upper eyelid retraction in Graves' ophthalmopathy. Images FIGURE 2 A FIGURE 3 A FIGURE 3 B FIGURE 3 C FIGURE 3 D FIGURE 4 A,B FIGURE 4 C,D,E FIGURE 4 F,G FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 8 A FIGURE 8 B FIGURE 9 A FIGURE 9 B FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 13 A FIGURE 13 B FIGURE 14 A FIGURE 14 B FIGURE 15 A FIGURE 15 B FIGURE 16 A FIGURE 16 B FIGURE 17 A FIGURE 17 B FIGURE 18 A FIGURE 18 B FIGURE 19 A FIGURE 19 B FIGURE 20 FIGURE 21 FIGURE 22 FIGURE 23 FIGURE 24 FIGURE 25 FIGURE 26 FIGURE 27 FIGURE 28 FIGURE 29 FIGURE 30 FIGURE 31 FIGURE 32 PMID:2979032

  6. Targeted Segment Transfer from Rye Chromosome 2R to Wheat Chromosomes 2A, 2B, and 7B.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tianheng; Li, Zhi; Yan, Benju; Tan, Feiquan; Tang, Zongxiang; Fu, Shulan; Yang, Manyu; Ren, Zhenglong

    2017-03-10

    Increased chromosome instability was induced by a rye (Secale cereale L.) monosomic 2R chromosome into wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Centromere breakage and telomere dysfunction result in high rates of chromosome aberrations, including breakages, fissions, fusions, deletions, and translocations. Plants with target traits were sequentially selected to produce a breeding population, from which 3 translocation lines with target traits have been selected. In these lines, wheat chromosomes 2A, 2B, and 7B recombined with segments of the rye chromosome arm 2RL. This was detected by FISH analysis using repeat sequences pSc119.2, pAs1 and genomic DNA of rye together as probes. The translocation chromosomes in these lines were named as 2ASMR, 2BSMR, and 7BSMR. The small segments that were transferred into wheat consisted of pSc119.2 repeats and other chromatin regions that conferred resistance to stripe rust and expressed target traits. These translocation lines were highly resistant to stripe rust, and expressed several typical traits that were associated with chromosome arm 2RL, which are better than those of its wheat parent, disomic addition, and substitution lines that show agronomic characteristics. The integration of molecular methods and conventional techniques to improve wheat breeding schemes are discussed.

  7. KEPLER'S OPTICAL SECONDARY ECLIPSE OF HAT-P-7b AND PROBABLE DETECTION OF PLANET-INDUCED STELLAR GRAVITY DARKENING

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, Brett M.; Deming, Drake; Mandell, Avi M.

    2013-02-20

    We present observations spanning 355 orbital phases of HAT-P-7 observed by Kepler from 2009 May to 2011 March (Q1-9). We find a shallower secondary eclipse depth than initially announced, consistent with a low optical albedo and detection of nearly exclusively thermal emission, without a reflected light component. We find an approximately 10 ppm perturbation to the average transit light curve near phase -0.02 that we attribute to a temperature decrease on the surface of the star, phased to the orbit of the planet. This cooler spot is consistent with planet-induced gravity darkening, slightly lagging the sub-planet position due to the finite response time of the stellar atmosphere. The brightness temperature of HAT-P-7b in the Kepler bandpass is T{sub B} = 2733 {+-} 21 K and the amplitude of the deviation in stellar surface temperature due to gravity darkening is approximately -0.18 K. The detection of the spot is not statistically unequivocal due its small amplitude, though additional Kepler observations should be able to verify the astrophysical nature of the anomaly.

  8. EEG signatures accompanying auditory figure-ground segregation.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Brigitta; Kocsis, Zsuzsanna; Háden, Gábor P; Szerafin, Ágnes; Shinn-Cunningham, Barbara G; Winkler, István

    2016-11-01

    In everyday acoustic scenes, figure-ground segregation typically requires one to group together sound elements over both time and frequency. Electroencephalogram was recorded while listeners detected repeating tonal complexes composed of a random set of pure tones within stimuli consisting of randomly varying tonal elements. The repeating pattern was perceived as a figure over the randomly changing background. It was found that detection performance improved both as the number of pure tones making up each repeated complex (figure coherence) increased, and as the number of repeated complexes (duration) increased - i.e., detection was easier when either the spectral or temporal structure of the figure was enhanced. Figure detection was accompanied by the elicitation of the object related negativity (ORN) and the P400 event-related potentials (ERPs), which have been previously shown to be evoked by the presence of two concurrent sounds. Both ERP components had generators within and outside of auditory cortex. The amplitudes of the ORN and the P400 increased with both figure coherence and figure duration. However, only the P400 amplitude correlated with detection performance. These results suggest that 1) the ORN and P400 reflect processes involved in detecting the emergence of a new auditory object in the presence of other concurrent auditory objects; 2) the ORN corresponds to the likelihood of the presence of two or more concurrent sound objects, whereas the P400 reflects the perceptual recognition of the presence of multiple auditory objects and/or preparation for reporting the detection of a target object.

  9. Full text and figure display improves bioscience literature search.

    PubMed

    Divoli, Anna; Wooldridge, Michael A; Hearst, Marti A

    2010-04-14

    When reading bioscience journal articles, many researchers focus attention on the figures and their captions. This observation led to the development of the BioText literature search engine, a freely available Web-based application that allows biologists to search over the contents of Open Access Journals, and see figures from the articles displayed directly in the search results. This article presents a qualitative assessment of this system in the form of a usability study with 20 biologist participants using and commenting on the system. 19 out of 20 participants expressed a desire to use a bioscience literature search engine that displays articles' figures alongside the full text search results. 15 out of 20 participants said they would use a caption search and figure display interface either frequently or sometimes, while 4 said rarely and 1 said undecided. 10 out of 20 participants said they would use a tool for searching the text of tables and their captions either frequently or sometimes, while 7 said they would use it rarely if at all, 2 said they would never use it, and 1 was undecided. This study found evidence, supporting results of an earlier study, that bioscience literature search systems such as PubMed should show figures from articles alongside search results. It also found evidence that full text and captions should be searched along with the article title, metadata, and abstract. Finally, for a subset of users and information needs, allowing for explicit search within captions for figures and tables is a useful function, but it is not entirely clear how to cleanly integrate this within a more general literature search interface. Such a facility supports Open Access publishing efforts, as it requires access to full text of documents and the lifting of restrictions in order to show figures in the search interface.

  10. MiR-7b directly targets DC-STAMP causing suppression of NFATc1 and c-Fos signaling during osteoclast fusion and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Dou, Ce; Zhang, Chengcheng; Kang, Fei; Yang, Xiaochao; Jiang, Hong; Bai, Yan; Xiang, Junyu; Xu, Jianzhong; Dong, Shiwu

    2014-11-01

    DC-STAMP is a key regulating molecule of osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast precursor (OCP) fusion. Emerging lines of evidence showed that microRNAs play crucial roles in bone metabolism and osteoclast differentiation, but no microRNA has yet been reported to be directly related to OCPs fusion. Through a microarray, we found that the expression of miR-7b in RAW264.7 cells was significantly decreased after induction with M-CSF and RANKL. The overexpression of miR-7b in RAW264.7 cells attenuated the number of TRAP-positive cells number and the formation of multinucleated cells, whereas the inhibition of miR-7b enhanced osteoclastogenesis. Through a dual luciferase reporter assay, we confirmed that miR-7b directly targets DC-STAMP. Other fusogenic molecules, such as CD47, ATP6v0d2, and OC-STAMP, were detected to be down-regulated in accordance with the inhibition of DC-STAMP. Because DC-STAMP also participates in osteoclast differentiation through the ITAM-ITIM network, multiple osteoclast-specific genes in the ITAM-ITIM network were detected to identify how DC-STAMP is involved in this process. The results showed that molecules associated with the ITAM-ITIM network, such as NFATc1 and OSCAR, which are crucial in osteoclastogenesis, were consistently altered due to DC-STAMP inhibition. These findings suggest that miR-7b inhibits osteoclastogenesis and cell-cell fusion by directly targeting DC-STAMP. In addition, the inhibition of DC-STAMP and its downstream signals changed the expression of other fusogenic genes and key regulating genes, such as Nfatc1, c-fos, Akt, Irf8, Mapk1, and Traf6. In conclusion, our findings indicate that miR-7b may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of osteoclast-related bone disorders.

  11. Learning to rank figures within a biomedical article.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifan; Yu, Hong

    2014-01-01

    Hundreds of millions of figures are available in biomedical literature, representing important biomedical experimental evidence. This ever-increasing sheer volume has made it difficult for scientists to effectively and accurately access figures of their interest, the process of which is crucial for validating research facts and for formulating or testing novel research hypotheses. Current figure search applications can't fully meet this challenge as the "bag of figures" assumption doesn't take into account the relationship among figures. In our previous study, hundreds of biomedical researchers have annotated articles in which they serve as corresponding authors. They ranked each figure in their paper based on a figure's importance at their discretion, referred to as "figure ranking". Using this collection of annotated data, we investigated computational approaches to automatically rank figures. We exploited and extended the state-of-the-art listwise learning-to-rank algorithms and developed a new supervised-learning model BioFigRank. The cross-validation results show that BioFigRank yielded the best performance compared with other state-of-the-art computational models, and the greedy feature selection can further boost the ranking performance significantly. Furthermore, we carry out the evaluation by comparing BioFigRank with three-level competitive domain-specific human experts: (1) First Author, (2) Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article but who works in the same field of the corresponding author of the article, and (3) Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert who is not the author nor co-author of an article and who may or may not work in the same field of the corresponding author of an article. Our results show that BioFigRank outperforms Non-Author-Out-Domain-Expert and performs as well as Non-Author-In-Domain-Expert. Although BioFigRank underperforms First Author, since most biomedical researchers are either in- or out

  12. Weight-related words associated with figure silhouettes.

    PubMed

    Greenleaf, Christy; Starks, Misty; Gomez, Laura; Chambliss, Heather; Martin, Scott

    2004-12-01

    Antifat attitudes and obesity bias are prevalent in Western society; however, little is known about the social meanings and connotations of weight-related words such as fat, overweight, and obese (e.g., Robison & Erdman, 1998). The purpose of this study was to explore college students' perceptions of weight-related terminology. Participants (n=131) completed a modified figure rating scale in which they identified male and female figure silhouettes most associated with a variety of weight-related words and personal characteristics. Additionally, participants completed a word association task and provided definitions of five weight terms. Results indicated that participants grouped weight terms into two groupings (i.e., "slender" and "heavy" weight terms) both in the figure rating task and in the word association and definition tasks. Both male and female participants selected smaller female figure silhouettes for the weight terms overweight, large, fat, and normal weight than for the male figure silhouettes. Moreover, associations between weight-related words and personal characteristics, including normal weight -physically fit and overweight -lazy, were found. The results suggest that weight-related words carry with them social meanings and values that reflect an "ideology of blame."

  13. Three-part Oppel-Kundt illusory figure.

    PubMed

    Bertulis, Algis; Surkys, Tadas; Bulatov, Aleksandr; Gutauskas, Algirdas

    2009-01-01

    The Oppel-Kundt illusion was examined in the psychophysical experiments with the classical two-part stimuli and modified three-part figures. The modified versions comprised either one filled medial interval and two empty flanking intervals or one empty space situated in between two fillings. The illusion was measured as a function of the number of filling elements in the referential parts of the figures. The curves obtained by two modified figures and by the original two-part stimulus were quite similar in shape, but the magnitudes of the illusions differed significantly. The figure with two filled intervals yielded about twice-stronger illusory effect than the contrasting figure with a single filled and two empty intervals. The two-part stimulus showed the illusion magnitudes in the midst. Our assumption suggests the illusory effect being related particularly to over estimations of the filled interval when compared with the empty interval displayed side-to-side. The unfilled interval might not contribute to the illusion.

  14. Reduced cost and improved figure of sapphire optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walters, Mark; Bartlett, Kevin; Brophy, Matthew R.; DeGroote Nelson, Jessica; Medicus, Kate

    2015-10-01

    Sapphire presents many challenges to optical manufacturers due to its high hardness and anisotropic properties. Long lead times and high prices are the typical result of such challenges. The cost of even a simple 'grind and shine' process can be prohibitive. The high precision surfaces required by optical sensor applications further exacerbate the challenge of processing sapphire thereby increasing cost further. Optimax has demonstrated a production process for such windows that delivers over 50% time reduction as compared to traditional manufacturing processes for sapphire, while producing windows with less than 1/5 wave rms figure error. Optimax's sapphire production process achieves significant improvement in cost by implementation of a controlled grinding process to present the best possible surface to the polishing equipment. Following the grinding process is a polishing process taking advantage of chemical interactions between slurry and substrate to deliver excellent removal rates and surface finish. Through experiments, the mechanics of the polishing process were also optimized to produce excellent optical figure. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. In addition to reducing the cost of producing large sapphire sensor windows, the grinding and polishing technology Optimax has developed aids in producing spherical sapphire components to better figure quality. Through specially developed polishing slurries, the peak-to-valley figure error of spherical sapphire parts is reduced by over 80%.

  15. Inhibitory competition in figure-ground perception: context and convexity.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Mary A; Salvagio, Elizabeth

    2008-12-15

    Convexity has long been considered a potent cue as to which of two regions on opposite sides of an edge is the shaped figure. Experiment 1 shows that for a single edge, there is only a weak bias toward seeing the figure on the convex side. Experiments 1-3 show that the bias toward seeing the convex side as figure increases as the number of edges delimiting alternating convex and concave regions increases, provided that the concave regions are homogeneous in color. The results of Experiments 2 and 3 rule out a probability summation explanation for these context effects. Taken together, the results of Experiments 1-3 show that the homogeneity versus heterogeneity of the convex regions is irrelevant. Experiment 4 shows that homogeneity of alternating regions is not sufficient for context effects; a cue that favors the perception of the intervening regions as figures is necessary. Thus homogeneity alone does not alone operate as a background cue. We interpret our results within a model of figure-ground perception in which shape properties on opposite sides of an edge compete for representation and the competitive strength of weak competitors is further reduced when they are homogeneous.

  16. Determination of visual figure and ground in dynamically deforming shapes.

    PubMed

    Barenholtz, Elan; Feldman, Jacob

    2006-10-01

    Figure/ground assignment - determining which part of the visual image is foreground and which background - is a critical step in early visual analysis, upon which much later processing depends. Previous research on the assignment of figure and ground to opposing sides of a contour has almost exclusively involved static geometric factors - such as convexity, symmetry, and size - in non-moving images. Here, we introduce a new class of cue to figural assignment based on the motion of dynamically deforming contours. Subjects viewing an animated, deforming shape tended to assign figure and ground so that articulating curvature extrema - i.e., "hinging" vertices - had negative (concave) contour curvature. This articulating-concavity bias is present when all known static cues to figure/ground are absent or neutral in each of the individual frames of the animation, and even seems to override a number of well-known static cues when they are in opposition to the motion cue. We propose that the phenomenon reflects the visual system's inbuilt expectations about the way shapes will deform - specifically, that deformations tend to involve rigid parts articulating at concavities.

  17. Cell attachment on poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-poly(ethylene glycol) copolymer produced by Azotobacter chroococcum 7B

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The improvement of biomedical properties, e.g. biocompatibility, of poly(3-hydroxyalkanoates) (PHAs) by copolymerization is a promising trend in bioengineering. We used strain Azotobacter chroococcum 7B, an effective producer of PHAs, for biosynthesis of not only poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) and its main copolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHB-HV), but also alternative copolymer, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate)-poly(ethylene glycol) (PHB-PEG). Results In biosynthesis we used sucrose as the primary carbon source and valeric acid or poly(ethylene glycol) 300 (PEG 300) as additional carbon sources. The chemical structure of PHB-PEG and PHB-HV was confirmed by 1H nuclear-magnetic resonance (1H NMR) analysis. The physico-chemical properties (molecular weight, crystallinity, hydrophilicity, surface energy) and surface morphology of films from PHB copolymers were studied. To study copolymers biocompatibility in vitro the protein adsorption and COS-1 fibroblasts growth on biopolymer films by XTT assay were analyzed. Both copolymers had changed physico-chemical properties compared to PHB homopolymer: PHB-HV and PHB-PEG had less crystallinity than PHB; PHB-HV was more hydrophobic than PHB in contrast to PHB-PEG appeared to have greater hydrophilicity than PHB; whereas the morphology of polymer films did not differ significantly. The protein adsorption to PHB-PEG was greater and more uniform than to PHB and PHB-PEG copolymer promoted better growth of COS-1 fibroblasts compared with PHB homopolymer. Conclusions Thus, despite low EG-monomers content in bacterial origin PHB-PEG copolymer, this polymer demonstrated significant improvement in biocompatibility in contrast to PHB and PHB-HV copolymers, which may be coupled with increased protein adsorption and hydrophilicity of PEG-containing copolymer. PMID:23692611

  18. Pathognomonic symptom associated with lightning strike: Lichtenberg figure.

    PubMed

    Yigit, Mehmet; Tanrikulu, Nazmiye; Turkdogan, Kenan Ahmet; Yigit, Eda

    2015-02-01

    Lightning strikes especially occur during spring and summer months in the afternoons when there is heavy rain. In deaths resulting from lightning strike, there may either be no evidence on the dead person's clothes or body, or there may be burnt or torn patches on their clothes and lichtenberg figures specific to lightning strikes on their bodies. In such cases that also have a comorbid of cognitive dysfunction, since there is generally amnesia, having these figures during the physical examination has a valuable place in early diagnosis and quick treatment. This paper presents a case of lightning strike that was found to have Lichtenberg figures on the back and right leg after secondary examination.

  19. Figure of Merit for Carbon Nanotube Photothermoelectric Detectors.

    PubMed

    Erikson, Kristopher J; He, Xiaowei; Talin, A Alec; Mills, Bernice; Hauge, Robert H; Iguchi, Takashi; Fujimura, Naoki; Kawano, Yukio; Kono, Junichiro; Léonard, François

    2015-12-22

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have emerged as promising materials for visible, infrared, and terahertz photodetectors. Further development of these photodetectors requires a fundamental understanding of the mechanisms that govern their behavior as well as the establishment of figures of merit for technology applications. Recently, a number of CNT detectors have been shown to operate based on the photothermoelectric effect. Here we present a figure of merit for these detectors, which includes the properties of the material and the device. In addition, we use a suite of experimental characterization methods for the thorough analysis of the electrical, thermoelectric, electrothermal, and photothermal properties of the CNT thin-film devices. Our measurements determine the quantities that enter the figure of merit and allow us to establish a path toward future performance improvements.

  20. Social dimensions of judgments of integrity in public figures.

    PubMed

    Sparks, Paul; Farsides, Tom

    2011-03-01

    The notion of 'integrity' remains relatively unexplored in the social psychological literature, despite it being central to some important theoretical perspectives (notably, self-affirmation theory). It is an eminently positive - and well-used - epithet in descriptions of public figures. The two studies reported here addressed laypeople's conceptions of integrity. The findings indicate that in relation to eight public figures, the best general predictor of judgments of integrity was perceptions of 'sincerity' (characterized by attributes such as genuine and honest). For three of the public figures strongly linked to civil rights issues, judgments of integrity were also predicted by perceptions of 'standing for something'. The findings suggest that the social character of integrity merits further psychological research attention.

  1. Brief report: human figure drawings by children with Asperger's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hui Keow; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-05-01

    Twenty-nine children with Asperger's syndrome and 28 typically developing children, matched on gender, chronological age and nonverbal IQ, were asked to produce a free drawing, then requested to draw a person, a house and a tree. The drawings were scored using standardized procedures for assessing accuracy, detail and complexity. There were no differences between the diagnostic groups on the tree or house drawing scores. The human figure drawing scores of children with Asperger's syndrome were significantly lower than those of the typically developing children, and there was a positive correlation between human figure drawing scores and communication sub-scores on the Vineland Adaptive Behaviour Scales, for the Asperger's group. These results suggest that the selective deficit in generating human figure representations may derive from a relative lack of interest in the social world, and/or limited practice in drawing people.

  2. Novel figurative phrases and idioms: phrase characteristics over multiple presentations.

    PubMed

    Schweigert, Wendy A; Cintron, Jennifer; Sullivan, Karin; Ilic, Emily; Ellis, Shannon; Dobrowits, Carrie; Roberts, Crystal

    2003-07-01

    In a series of three studies, characteristics of novel figurative phrases were compared with those of established idioms. Studies 1 and 2 found that certain correlations were found to be strong and in one direction for familiar idioms and comparably strong but in the opposite direction for novel figurative phrases, with the correlations for less familiar idioms usually falling partway between these extremes. Study 2 also noted that written or auditory presentation had minimal effects on characteristic ratings. In Study 3 the correlations among characteristics stayed relatively constant for familiar idioms after one, three, or six presentations, but for the novel figurative phrases, after multiple presentations the correlations changed in the direction of the established idioms.

  3. Kepler's Theory of Highly Symmetric Plane Figures and Solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betsch, Gerhard

    The main idea of Kepler's Mysterium Cosmographicum of 1596 involves the five regular "Platonic" polyhedra. Hence it seems appropriate to discuss Kepler's considerations on, or his "theory" of regular plane figures and solids. This is a key aspect of his "geometrical cosmology". In modern mathematics the regularity of figures and solids is normally expressed in terms of symmetries and symmetry groups. Although Kepler himself does not speak of symmetries, the author is applying at some points the modern, admittedly anachronistic terminology. This seems to be justified, because here is presented a mathematician's view rather than a historical discourse. The tradition of plane regular figures and regular solids, from antiquity to Kepler's time, and the sourses of Kepler's mathematics have been thoroughly investigated by Hofmann and Fields.

  4. Polarization preservation and control in a figure-8 ring

    SciTech Connect

    Derbenev, Yaroslav S.; Morozov, Vasiliy; Lin, Fanglei; Zhang, Yuhong; Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yuri

    2016-02-01

    We present a complete scheme for managing the polarization of ion beams in Jefferson Lab's proposed Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC). It provides preservation of the ion polarization during all stages of beam acceleration and polarization control in the collider's experimental straights. We discuss characteristic features of the spin motion in accelerators with Siberian snakes and in accelerators of figure-8 shape. We propose 3D spin rotators for polarization control in the MEIC ion collider ring. We provide polarization calculations in the collider with the 3D rotator for deuteron and proton beams. The main polarization control features of the figure-8 design are summarized.

  5. Modeling the noise figure of an acousto-optic receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristic, V. M.; Lee, J. P. Y.

    1996-02-01

    By defining the processing gain of an acousto-optic receiver as the ratio of the signal-to-noise ratio at the output of the detector to the signal-to-noise ratio of the intermediate-frequency input, one can model a noise figure for the acousto-optic receiver. The noise figure has a minimum of 0 dB and depends on the ratio of the noise power (internal to the acousto-optic cell) to the intermediate-frequency input noise power multiplied by the frequency and the spatially dependent exponential factor.

  6. Threshold Differences on Figure and Ground: Gelb and Granit (1923)

    PubMed Central

    Kinateder, Max

    2017-01-01

    In 1923, Gelb and Granit, using a method of adjustment for a small red light, reported a lower threshold for the target when presented on a ground region than on an adjacent figural region. More recent work in perceptual organization has found precisely the opposite—a processing advantage seems to go to items presented on the figure, not the ground. Although Gelb and Granit continue to be cited for their finding, it has not previously been available as an English translation. Understanding their methodology and results is important for integrating early Gestalt theory with more recent investigations. PMID:28286640

  7. Polarization Preservation and Control in a Figure-8 Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derbenev, Ya. S.; Morozov, V. S.; Lin, F.; Zhang, Y.; Kondratenko, A. M.; Kondratenko, M. A.; Filatov, Yu. N.

    2016-02-01

    We present a complete scheme for managing the polarization of ion beams in Jefferson Lab’s proposed Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC). It provides preservation of the ion polarization during all stages of beam acceleration and polarization control in the collider’s experimental straights. We discuss characteristic features of the spin motion in accelerators with Siberian snakes and in accelerators of figure-8 shape. We propose 3D spin rotators for polarization control in the MEIC ion collider ring. We provide polarization calculations in the collider with the 3D rotator for deuteron and proton beams. The main polarization control features of the figure-8 design are summarized.

  8. Preview of Hawaii Cancer Facts and Figures 2010.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Brenda Y; Green, Michael D; Cassel, Kevin D; Pobutsky, Ann M; Vu, Vyvy; Wilkens, Lynne R

    2010-09-01

    Each year, nearly 6,700 Hawaii residents are diagnosed with cancer and more than 2,000 die from the disease. Detailed data on the burden of cancer in Hawaii, including cancer incidence and mortality rates, are available in Hawaii Cancer Facts & Figures 2010 (CF&F). A collaborative effort of the Cancer Research Center of Hawaii, the American Cancer Society and the Hawaii Department of Health, this update of the original version published in 2003 is intended as a tool for public health education, research, and planning. The following are highlights of years 2000-2006 (a 6-year period) data as featured in Hawaii Cancer Facts & Figures 2010.

  9. Improved figure control with edge application of forces and moments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aspinwall, D. M.; Karr, T. J.

    1980-01-01

    A new actuation scheme for mirror figure control, introducing a complete set of membrane shear and bending stresses onto the edges of the mirror, is presented. Thermoelastic response of both segmented and continuous mirrors is analyzed from a closed form solution of the 'exact' Love theory of thin spherical shells. There are significant departures from Reissner's theory of shallow shells. Very low residual figure error is possible by edge control alone, lower than with interior point loads. Minimum rms residual error stress profiles are computed. Engineering applications are discussed.

  10. Express method of construction of accurate inverse pole figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlovich, Yu; Isaenkova, M.; Fesenko, V.

    2016-04-01

    With regard to metallic materials with the FCC and BCC crystal lattice a new method for constructing the X-ray texture inverse pole figures (IPF) by using tilt curves of spinning sample, characterized by high accuracy and rapidity (express), was proposed. In contrast to the currently widespread method to construct IPF using orientation distribution function (ODF), synthesized in several partial direct pole figures, the proposed method is based on a simple geometrical interpretation of a measurement procedure, requires a minimal operating time of the X-ray diffractometer.

  11. PROCEEDINGS: 1991 INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTION - VOLUME 2. SESSIONS 1B, 2B, 3B, 4B, 7A, 7B, 8A, 8B, AND 9B

    EPA Science Inventory

    The three-volumes document 82 presentations by authors from 15 countries at the Second International Conference on Municipal Waste Combustion (MWC) in Tampa, Florida, April 16-19, 1991. The Conference fostered the exchange of current information on research concerning MWC, ash di...

  12. Iowa Commercial Pesticide Applicator Manual, Category 7A: General and Household Pest Control. CS-19. Category 7B: Termite Control, CS-20. Category 7C: Food Industry Pest Control, CS-21. Category 7D: Community Insect Control, CS-22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Harold J., Ed.; And Others

    This manual provides information needed to meet specific standards for certification as a pesticide applicator. The first section discusses general and household pest control and is concerned with parasitic pests and man, stored product pests, and irritating vertebrates. Section two is devoted to identifying and controlling structural pests such…

  13. Temporal changes of microRNA gga-let-7b and gga-let-7i expression in chickens challenged with subgroup J avian leukosis virus.

    PubMed

    Ji, Jun; Shang, Huiqin; Zhang, Huanmin; Li, Hongxin; Ma, Jingyun; Bi, Yingzuo; Xie, Qingmei

    2017-02-11

    Two important microRNAs, gga-let-7b and gga-let-7i were examined for the relative expression in liver and bone marrow tissues from specific pathogen free chickens that were challenged either with GD1109 or NX0101 strain of subgroup J avian leukosis virus (ALV-J). The GD1109 strain of ALV-J reportedly causes hemangioma (HE) and NX0101 reportedly causes myeloma (ML) in susceptible chickens. Temporal changes of both gga-let-7b and gga-let-7i expression in ALV-J infected chickens were observed in contrast to its counterpart of a non-infected negative control group of chickens (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01) during the first 120 days post infection. Use of the web-based computational DIANA-mirPath software (available at http://microrna.gr/mirpath ), it was predicted that both gga-let-7b and gga-let-7i were involved in multiple pathways including signaling pathways, such as MAPK, TGF-beta, Notch, Wnt, mTOR, Cell cycle, P53 and Jak-STAT. Combining our experimental data with reports on the microRNAs, we suggest that both gga-let-7i and gga-let-7b may also act as tumor suppressors in chicken, especially play a critical role in tumorigenesis induced by ALV-J.

  14. An in vitro study of the antifungal activity of Trichoderma virens 7b and a profile of its non-polar antifungal components released against Ganoderma boninense.

    PubMed

    Angel, Lee Pei Lee; Yusof, Mohd Termizi; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Ping, Bonnie Tay Yen; Mohamed Azni, Intan Nur Ainni; Kamarudin, Norman Hj; Sundram, Shamala

    2016-11-01

    Ganoderma boninense is the causal agent of a devastating disease affecting oil palm in Southeast Asian countries. Basal stem rot (BSR) disease slowly rots the base of palms, which radically reduces productive lifespan of this lucrative crop. Previous reports have indicated the successful use of Trichoderma as biological control agent (BCA) against G. boninense and isolate T. virens 7b was selected based on its initial screening. This study attempts to decipher the mechanisms responsible for the inhibition of G. boninense by identifying and characterizing the chemical compounds as well as the physical mechanisms by T. virens 7b. Hexane extract of the isolate gave 62.60% ± 6.41 inhibition against G. boninense and observation under scanning electron microscope (SEM) detected severe mycelial deformation of the pathogen at the region of inhibition. Similar mycelia deformation of G. boninense was observed with a fungicide treatment, Benlate(®) indicating comparable fungicidal effect by T. virens 7b. Fraction 4 and 5 of hexane active fractions through preparative thin layer chromatography (P-TLC) was identified giving the best inhibition of the pathogen. These fractions comprised of ketones, alcohols, aldehydes, lactones, sesquiterpenes, monoterpenes, sulphides, and free fatty acids profiled through gas chromatography mass spectrometry detector (GC/MSD). A novel antifungal compound discovery of phenylethyl alcohol (PEA) by T. virens 7b is reported through this study. T. virens 7b also proved to be an active siderophore producer through chrome azurol S (CAS) agar assay. The study demonstrated the possible mechanisms involved and responsible in the successful inhibition of G. boninense.

  15. Downregulation of HMGA2 by the pan-deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat is dependent on hsa-let-7b expression in liver cancer cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Di Fazio, Pietro; Montalbano, Roberta; Neureiter, Daniel; Alinger, Beate; Schmidt, Ansgar; Merkel, Anna Lena; Quint, Karl; Ocker, Matthias

    2012-09-10

    Inhibitors of protein deacetylases represent a novel therapeutic option for cancer diseases due to their effects on transcriptional regulation by interfering with histones acetylation and on several other cellular pathways. Recently, their ability to modulate several transcription factors and, interestingly, also co-factors, which actively participate in formation and modulation of transcription complexes was shown. We here investigate whether HMGA2 (High Mobility Group AT-2 hook), a nuclear non-histone transcriptional co-factor with known oncogenic properties, can be influenced by the novel pan-deacetylase inhibitor panobinostat (LBH589) in human hepatocellular carcinoma models. Panobinostat strongly downregulated HMGA2 in HepG2 and Hep3B cells; this effect was mediated by transcriptional upregulation and promotion of the maturation of the tumorsuppressor miRNA hsa-let-7b, which could inhibit HMGA2 expression via RNA interference pathways. siRNA knockdown of HMGA2 or transfection of hsa-let-7b mimicking oligonucleotides confirmed the role of HMGA2 in regulating cell proliferation and apoptosis in liver cancer cell lines. Co-incubation with panobinostat showed an additive effect on inhibition of cell proliferation using an impedance-based real-time cell analyzer. Treatment of HepG2 xenografts with panobinostat also led to a downregulation of HMGA2 in vivo. These findings show that pan-deacetylase inhibitors also modulate other signaling pathways and networks than histone modifications to influence cell fate. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Panobinostat for the treatment of liver cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Panobinostat meddles with miRNAs-dependent transcriptional and translational control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tumorsuppressor miRNA hsa-let-7b upregulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer HMGA2 is downregulated via RNA interference pathways mediated by hsa-let-7b. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Panobinostat determines inhibition of

  16. High-precision Photogrammetric Surface Figure Measurements under Cryogenic Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Lou; Yuan, Qian; Sheng-hong, Fan; Chang-ru, Liu; Hai-ren, Wang; Ying-xi, Zuo; Jin-quan, Cheng; Ji, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Limited by the working temperature of the test equipment, most of high-precision surface figure measurement techniques cannot be put into application under a cryogenic environment. This paper reports the first attempt to measure the surface figure of a high-precision terahertz reflector panel under low temperatures based on photogrammetry. The measurement employs a high-resolution industrial camera sitting on the automatic testing platform which enables photos been taken in an automatic fashion inside a climate chamber. A repeatable accuracy of 2.1 μm (rms) is achieved under the cryogenic environment. Furthermore, the surface figure measured by a three-coordinate measuring machine under the room temperature is used to calibrate the thickness differences of the targets. By this technique, the surface figure of an aluminum prototype panel of the 5 meter Dome A Terahertz Telescope (DATE5) is measured from room temperature down to -55°C to obtain the rule of variation of surface deformation of the panel under low temperatures.

  17. Arborescent vascular dilatation mimicking Lichtenberg figures from lightning.

    PubMed

    Tempark, Therdpong; Iwasaki, Julie; Shwayder, Tor

    2014-01-01

    The clinical presentation of arborizing vascular dilatation can resemble Lichtenberg figures from lightning. Both have a feather-like or ferning pattern. We report an interesting case of pressure-induced vasodilatation (PIV) caused by temporary vascular occlusion from jeans buttons.

  18. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 654 - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Part 654 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Pt. 654, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart O of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures to Subpart O of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III 5th Percentile Female...

  20. 47 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart N of... - Measurement Site

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Measurement Site 1 Figure 1 to Subpart N of Part 2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO...—Measurement Site EC03JN91.005...

  1. 47 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart N of... - Measurement Site

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Measurement Site 1 Figure 1 to Subpart N of Part 2 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL FREQUENCY ALLOCATIONS AND RADIO...—Measurement Site EC03JN91.005...

  2. Preservice Mathematics Teachers' Personal Figural Concepts and Classifications about Quadrilaterals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erdogan, Emel Ozdemir; Dur, Zeliha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine preservice mathematics teachers' personal figural concepts and hierarchical classifications about quadrilaterals and to investigate the relationships between them. The participants were 57 preservice primary mathematics teachers in their senior year at a state university in Turkey. The preservice mathematics…

  3. 40 CFR 89.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2014-07-01 2013-07-01 true Table and figure numbering; position. 89.5 Section 89.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General §...

  4. 40 CFR 89.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Table and figure numbering; position. 89.5 Section 89.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General §...

  5. 40 CFR 89.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Table and figure numbering; position. 89.5 Section 89.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General §...

  6. 40 CFR 89.5 - Table and figure numbering; position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Table and figure numbering; position. 89.5 Section 89.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW AND IN-USE NONROAD COMPRESSION-IGNITION ENGINES General §...

  7. Perceiving the Impossible: How Individuals with Autism Copy Paradoxical Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheppard, Elizabeth; Ropar, Danielle; Mitchell, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Mottron and colleagues found that individuals with autism were less affected by geometric impossibility than comparison participants on a copying task. The current experiment sought to determine whether a local perceptual style could account for this. Participants with and without autism copied possible and impossible geometric figures. Geometric…

  8. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart F of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart F of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Side Impact Dummy...

  9. Some Prerequisites in Learning to Solve Figural Analogy Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, James

    A series of three experiments was conducted for the purposes of (1) clarifying problems of previous research on the relationship between working memory capacity and performance on figural analogy tasks, and (2) exploring developmental issues concerning executive strategies, working memory capacity, and perceptual processing. Directly manipulating…

  10. Teaching World History through Symbolic Figures: Zhou Enlai, an Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorantas, Raymond

    Use of symbolic figures in the college level world history course can provide a vehicle for studying social organization, political movements, and economic institutions of a given period. For example, Zhou Enlai, an activist and leader throughout much of the 20th century, symbolizes the major themes and forces of this era: change,…

  11. Trinocular stereovision using figural continuity, dealing with curved objects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaillant, R.; Faugeras, O. D.

    1989-01-01

    A method to build a dense and reliable 3-D description of a scene from three digital images by means of passive stereovision is presented. This method uses figural continuity to improve the results of a previously developed algorithm. In particular, it copes much better with curved objects and produces results which are organized as 3-D chains of segments.

  12. EU nurse figures in decline long before Brexit vote.

    PubMed

    Mckew, Matthew

    2017-03-08

    The falling number of European Union (EU) nurses applying to work in the UK has been widely blamed on Brexit. But figures obtained by Nursing Standard reveal interest from EU nurses was waning months before the June 2016 referendum, a trend experts say could be due to tougher language requirements introduced by the Nursing and Midwifery Council (NMC).

  13. 16 CFR Figure 2 to Subpart A of... - Test Frame

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Test Frame 2 Figure 2 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS... Subpart A of Part 1201—Test Frame EC03OC91.005...

  14. Baseline Data on Questions in Group Embedded Figures Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lusk, Edward J.; Wright, Haviland

    1982-01-01

    To study the learning effect on the Group Embedded Figures Test, the relative frequency of success on its 18 tasks must be estimated. This note provides such baseline data, collected by Lusk and Wright and categorized according to Science and Engineering, Business Administration, and Liberal Arts curricula. (Author/CM)

  15. 40 CFR Appendix A to Subpart C of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart C of Part 59 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED... Volatile Organic Compound Emission Standards for Consumer Products Pt. 59, Subpt. C, App. A Appendix A...

  16. 50 CFR Appendix A to Part 654 - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Part 654 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE STONE CRAB FISHERY OF THE GULF OF MEXICO Pt. 654, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  17. Cultivating Writers: Figurative Language in the Developmental Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Alexis

    2012-01-01

    Some teaching strategies grow out of the curricula educators inherit or develop through professional reading; others originate in the aromatic humus of their autobiographies. This article presents a proposal that has its origins in the latter. The author recognized that what delights her in prose or poetry is the figurative language a writer uses…

  18. 49 CFR Appendix - Part 238, Subpart C, Figure 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Part 238, Subpart C, Figure 1 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment Automated monitoring. Pt. 238, Subpt, C,...

  19. 33 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart H of Part 183

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Figures to Subpart H of Part 183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less Tests Level flotation...

  20. Novel method for high accuracy figure measurement of optical flat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    E, Kewei; Li, Dahai; Yang, Lijie; Guo, Guangrao; Li, Mengyang; Wang, Xuemin; Zhang, Tao; Xiong, Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Phase Measuring Deflectometry (PMD) is a non-contact, high dynamic-range and full-field metrology which becomes a serious competitor to interferometry. However, the accuracy of deflectometry metrology is strongly influenced by the level of the calibrations, including test geometry, imaging pin-hole camera and digital display. In this paper, we propose a novel method that can measure optical flat surface figure to a high accuracy. We first calibrate the camera using a checker pattern shown on a LCD display at six different orientations, and the last orientation is aligned at the same position as the test optical flat. By using this method, lens distortions and the mapping relationship between the CCD pixels and the subaperture coordinates on the test optical flat can be determined at the same time. To further reduce the influence of the calibration errors on measurements, a reference optical flat with a high quality surface is measured, and then the system errors in our PMD setup can be eliminated by subtracting the figure of the reference flat from the figure of the test flat. Although any expensive coordinates measuring machine, such as laser tracker and coordinates measuring machine are not applied in our measurement, our experimental results of optical flat figure from low to high order aberrations still show a good agreement with that from the Fizeau interferometer.

  1. Relationships of the Piagetian Cognitive Development to Human Figure Drawing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sisto, Fermino Fernandes

    2000-01-01

    Examined validity of use of human figure drawing to evaluate cognitive development status using Piagetian tasks with 7- to 11-year-olds. Found that scores for children's drawings of a man and a woman correlated significantly with mental imaging, conservation of mass, and conservation of length, suggesting the possibility of finding patterns to…

  2. Bone mineral density in elite adolescent female figure skaters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Elite adolescent figure skaters must accommodate both the physical demands of competitive training and the accelerated rate of bone growth that is associated with adolescence. Although, these athletes apparently undergo sufficient physical activity to develop healthy bones, it is possible that other...

  3. Frustrated Returns: Biography, Parental Figures, and the Apprenticeship of Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenwalt, Kyle A.

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the processes by which the past experiences of undergraduate teacher candidates with their parental figures return in the present, thereby shaping both the nature and the meaning of the experiences offered to them in their initial field placement. Using phenomenological and psychoanalytic lenses, I analyze findings from an…

  4. Judging Anomalies at the 2010 Olympics in Men's Figure Skating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looney, Marilyn A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the 2010 Olympic figure skating judges had trouble scoring Plushenko and the transitions program component, and if the International Skating Union's (ISU) "corridor" method flagged the same judging anomalies as the Rasch analyses. A 3-facet (skater by program component by judge) Rasch rating…

  5. International Higher Education in Facts and Figures. Summer 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Universities UK, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents facts and figures of the international higher education. Facts reveal that the UK sells more brainpower per capita than anywhere else in the world. The UK has 1% of the world's population but undertakes 5% of the world's scientific research and produces 14% of the world's most highly cited papers (Universities UK 2010). More…

  6. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart S of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart T of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures to Subpart T of Part 572 Appendix Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III...

  8. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart S of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart S of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart S of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted...

  11. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart S of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Figures to Subpart S of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) ANTHROPOMORPHIC TEST DEVICES Hybrid III Six-Year-Old Weighted...

  12. Kimura's Recurring-Figures-Test: A Normative Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rixecker, H.; Hartje, W.

    1980-01-01

    Administered Kimura's Recurring-Figures-Test to 427 normal subjects from Germany. A Kuder-Richardson test reliability was obtained. T-scale norms are given for two subgroups of different educational levels. Results indicated that the RFT is a valid instrument for the assessment of nonverbal memory function, and has a high test reliability. (Author)

  13. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart I of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Figs. Figures to Subpart I of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 40 EC01AU91.169 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 41 EC01AU91.170 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 42 EC01AU91.171 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 43 EC01AU91.172...

  14. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... - Test Specimens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Test Specimens 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Figs. 3,...

  15. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... - Test Specimens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Test Specimens 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Figs. 3,...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  17. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart I of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Figs. Figures to Subpart I of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 40 EC01AU91.169 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 41 EC01AU91.170 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 42 EC01AU91.171 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 43 EC01AU91.172...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart I of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Figs. Figures to Subpart I of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 40 EC01AU91.169 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 41 EC01AU91.170 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 42 EC01AU91.171 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 43 EC01AU91.172...

  19. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... - Test Specimens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test Specimens 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Figs. 3,...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart I of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Figs. Figures to Subpart I of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 40 EC01AU91.169 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 41 EC01AU91.170 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 42 EC01AU91.171 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 43 EC01AU91.172...

  1. 16 CFR Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart... - Test Specimens

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Test Specimens 3 Figures 3 and 4 to Subpart A of Part 1201 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY ACT REGULATIONS SAFETY STANDARD FOR ARCHITECTURAL GLAZING MATERIALS The Standard Pt. 1201, Subpt. A, Figs. 3,...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart I of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions. Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Figs. Figures to Subpart I of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 40 EC01AU91.169 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 41 EC01AU91.170 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 42 EC01AU91.171 Pt. 572, Subpt. I, Fig. 43 EC01AU91.172...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  4. 33 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart H of Part 183

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Figures to Subpart H of Part 183 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) BOATING SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Flotation Requirements for Outboard Boats Rated for Engines of 2 Horsepower or Less Tests Level flotation...

  5. Perceptual Training and Figure-Ground Performance in Low Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudeau, M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Twenty-five older adults with age-related macular degeneration were separated into one of three groups: in-clinic training, take-home-training, or no-training. After testing, results showed that the ability to distinguish figure from ground is an improvable skill with the take-home group improving the most. (Author/DB)

  6. Ambiguous Benefits: The Effect of Bilingualism on Reversing Ambiguous Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bialystok, Ellen; Shapero, Dana

    2005-01-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children, approximately 6 years old, attempted to identify the alternative image in a reversible figure. In both studies, bilingual children were more successful than monolinguals in seeing the other meaning in the images. In the first study, there was no relation between the ability to…

  7. Identity and Figured Worlds of School Technology Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lessem, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    Technology use in educational contexts is a personal and social activity. It is linked to individuals' attitudes and practices as well as the culture and structure of the institution. This research uses the theoretical framework of "figured worlds" and "self-in practice" to examine identities and cultural practices linked…

  8. Identifying Sexually Abused Children Using Human Figure Drawings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Raymond E.

    This paper presents a summary of the research literature concerning the psychological and behavioral impact of sexual abuse of children and adolescents. It examines the dynamics involved in the process of making such determinations and examines the utility of using Human Figure Drawings as part of an assessment battery to determine the probability…

  9. Figure/Ground Anomalies in Commercial Television: A Diagnostic Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metallinos, Nikos

    A diagnostic study tested the hypothesis that still advertising pictures and television commercials are governed by a basic visual communication principle: that viewers' comprehension and retention of still and moving images depends greatly on the harmonious coexistence of their figure/ground relationships. Ten still images (half in black and…

  10. Precise Method for Investigation of Lissajous Generalized Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bednarek, Stanislaw

    2014-01-01

    This article describes the Lissajous generalized figure and the original instrument for its investigation. Two specially prepared electrodynamic loudspeakers--a horizontal and a vertical--cause oscillations in two mirrors. It is possible to precisely control the motion of the mirrors, achieve a high frequency of oscillation and investigate…

  11. The Kinetic Energy of a Rotating Figure Skater.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei R.; Troelstra, Arne A.

    1998-01-01

    When a rotating figure skater's fully extended arms are pulled back toward the torso, the angular velocity is noticeably increased and the kinetic energy of the skater can also be shown to increase. Discusses the change of the kinetic energy during such a process, and the work necessary for such an increase is derived using a dynamic equilibrium…

  12. A feedback model of figure-ground assignment.

    PubMed

    Domijan, Drazen; Setić, Mia

    2008-05-30

    A computational model is proposed in order to explain how bottom-up and top-down signals are combined into a unified perception of figure and background. The model is based on the interaction between the ventral and the dorsal stream. The dorsal stream computes saliency based on boundary signals provided by the simple and the complex cortical cells. Output from the dorsal stream is projected to the surface network which serves as a blackboard on which the surface representation is formed. The surface network is a recurrent network which segregates different surfaces by assigning different firing rates to them. The figure is labeled by the maximal firing rate. Computer simulations showed that the model correctly assigns figural status to the surface with a smaller size, a greater contrast, convexity, surroundedness, horizontal-vertical orientation and a higher spatial frequency content. The simple gradient of activity in the dorsal stream enables the simulation of the new principles of the lower region and the top-bottom polarity. The model also explains how the exogenous attention and the endogenous attention may reverse the figural assignment. Due to the local excitation in the surface network, neural activity at the cued region will spread over the whole surface representation. Therefore, the model implements the object-based attentional selection.

  13. Figuring the World of Designing: Expert Participation in Elementary Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kangas, Kaiju; Seitamaa-Hakkarainen, Pirita; Hakkarainen, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the present article was to analyze the interaction between elementary students and a professional design expert. The expert was present in the classroom, facilitating a collaborative lamp designing process together with the teacher. Using the notion of "figured worlds" (Holland et al. 1998), we explored how learning could be…

  14. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Test Dummy, Small Adult Female Pt. 572, Subpt. V, App. A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix A to Subpart V of... - Figures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Figures A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part 572 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY... Test Dummy, Small Adult Female Pt. 572, Subpt. V, App. A Appendix A to Subpart V of Part...

  16. 50 CFR Figure 11 to Part 223 - Modified Flounder TED

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Modified Flounder TED 11 Figure 11 to Part 223 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS THREATENED MARINE AND ANADROMOUS SPECIES Pt. 223, Fig....

  17. Figurative language processing in atypical populations: the ASD perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vulchanova, Mila; Saldaña, David; Chahboun, Sobh; Vulchanov, Valentin

    2015-01-01

    This paper is intended to provide a critical overview of experimental and clinical research documenting problems in figurative language processing in atypical populations with a focus on the Autistic Spectrum. Research in the comprehension and processing of figurative language in autism invariably documents problems in this area. The greater paradox is that even at the higher end of the spectrum or in the cases of linguistically talented individuals with Asperger syndrome, where structural language competence is intact, problems with extended language persist. If we assume that figurative and extended uses of language essentially depend on the perception and processing of more concrete core concepts and phenomena, the commonly observed failure in atypical populations to understand figurative language remains a puzzle. Various accounts have been offered to explain this issue, ranging from linking potential failure directly to overall structural language competence (Norbury, 2005; Brock et al., 2008) to right-hemispheric involvement (Gold and Faust, 2010). We argue that the dissociation between structural language and figurative language competence in autism should be sought in more general cognitive mechanisms and traits in the autistic phenotype (e.g., in terms of weak central coherence, Vulchanova et al., 2012b), as well as failure at on-line semantic integration with increased complexity and diversity of the stimuli (Coulson and Van Petten, 2002). This perspective is even more compelling in light of similar problems in a number of conditions, including both acquired (e.g., Aphasia) and developmental disorders (Williams Syndrome). This dissociation argues against a simple continuity view of language interpretation. PMID:25741261

  18. Mucoceles of the sphenoid sinus: neuro-ophthalmologic manifestations.

    PubMed Central

    Alper, M G

    1976-01-01

    Seven examples of mucocele of the sphenoid sinus have been described. The characteristic symptoms and signs have been described, and the diagnostic neuroradiologic features have been demonstrated. The condition is not a benign one, as is demonstrated by total blindness which occurred in one patient (Case 2). A high index of suspicion for this condition with early referral for neuroradiologic diagnosis leads to proper management and treatment which is usually successful. Images FIGURE 5 A FIGURE 5 B FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 6 A FIGURE 6 B FIGURE 7 A FIGURE 7 B FIGURE 7 C FIGURE 7 D FIGURE 7 E FIGURE 7 F FIGURE 8 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 10 A FIGURE 10 B FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 12 A FIGURE 12 B FIGURE 12 C FIGURE 13 PMID:867637

  19. Effect of authority figures for pedestrian evacuation at metro stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Xiao; Zhang, Zenghui; Peng, Gongzhuang; Shi, Guoqiang

    2017-01-01

    Most pedestrian evacuation literatures are about routing algorithm, human intelligence and behavior etc. Few works studied how to fully explore the function of authority/security figures, who know more of the environment by simply being there every day. To evaluate the effect of authority figure (AF) in complex buildings, this paper fully investigates the AF related factors that may influence the evacuation effect of crowd, such as the number and locations of AFs, their spread of direction, calming effect and distribution strategies etc. Social force based modeling and simulation results show that these factors of AFs play important roles in evacuation efficiency, which means fewer AFs with right guiding strategy can have good evacuation performance. For our case study, Zhichun Avenue station, the conclusion is that deployment of four AFs is a good choice to achieve relatively high evacuation performance yet save cost.

  20. Enduring interest in perceptual ambiguity: alternating views of reversible figures.

    PubMed

    Long, Gerald M; Toppino, Thomas C

    2004-09-01

    Research favoring the so-called bottom-up and top-down classes of explanations for reversible figures that dominated the literature in last half of the 20th century is reviewed. Two conclusions are offered. First, any single-process model is extremely unlikely to be able to accommodate the wide array of empirical findings, suggesting that the "final" explanation will almost certainly involve a hybrid conceptualization of interacting sensory and cognitive processes. Second, the utility of distinguishing between 2 components of the observer's experience with reversible figures is emphasized. This distinction between the observer's ability to access multiple representations from the single stimulus pattern (ambiguity) and the observer's phenomenal experience of oscillation between those representations (reversibility) permits the literature to be segregated into useful categories of research that expose overlapping but distinctive cortical processes.

  1. Preliminary software development for optical mirror figure control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackinnon, D.

    1970-01-01

    The maintenance of accurate primary mirror figure in the face of environmental disturbances is the key to the achievement of diffraction-limited performance in a large space telescope. In order to develop the concepts of optical mirror figure control, an experimental program was initiated. A major component in this experiment will be an XDS Sigma 5.7 digital computer which will realize the control algorithm. A software package is described which realizes linear optimal, simplified linear, and iterative optimal control algorithms. The software, in addition, provides for interactive communication between the operator and the computer, and interaction between the computer and the experimental hardware elements. A brief description of a small hybrid computer system is also presented.

  2. Figural vividness and persuasion: capturing the "elusive" vividness effect.

    PubMed

    Guadagno, Rosanna E; Rhoads, Kelton V L; Sagarin, Brad J

    2011-05-01

    Despite the widespread belief that the use of vividness in persuasive communications is effective, many laboratory studies have failed to find vividness effects. A possible explanation for this discrepancy is that many laboratory tests have not vivified solely the central thesis of the message but have vivified irrelevant portions of the message as well or instead. Two experiments examined the effect of vivifying the central ("figure") or noncentral ("ground") features of a message on persuasion. In both experiments, the formerly "elusive vividness effect" of superior persuasion was found, but only in vivid-figure communications. A mediation analysis revealed the salutary role of supportive cognitive elaborations, rather than memory for the communication, in mediating the vividness effect. The findings caution against attempts to persuade by increasing overall message vividness because off-thesis vividness has the unintended and undercutting consequence of distracting recipients from the point of the communication.

  3. Relationship between thermoelectric figure of merit and energy conversion efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hee Seok; Liu, Weishu; Chen, Gang; Chu, Ching-Wu; Ren, Zhifeng

    2015-01-01

    The formula for maximum efficiency (ηmax) of heat conversion into electricity by a thermoelectric device in terms of the dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) has been widely used to assess the desirability of thermoelectric materials for devices. Unfortunately, the ηmax values vary greatly depending on how the average ZT values are used, raising questions about the applicability of ZT in the case of a large temperature difference between the hot and cold sides due to the neglect of the temperature dependences of the material properties that affect ZT. To avoid the complex numerical simulation that gives accurate efficiency, we have defined an engineering dimensionless figure of merit (ZT)eng and an engineering power factor (PF)eng as functions of the temperature difference between the cold and hot sides to predict reliably and accurately the practical conversion efficiency and output power, respectively, overcoming the reporting of unrealistic efficiency using average ZT values. PMID:26100905

  4. Ambiguous benefits: the effect of bilingualism on reversing ambiguous figures.

    PubMed

    Bialystok, Ellen; Shapero, Dana

    2005-11-01

    Two studies are reported in which monolingual and bilingual children, approximately 6 years old, attempted to identify the alternative image in a reversible figure. In both studies, bilingual children were more successful than monolinguals in seeing the other meaning in the images. In the first study, there was no relation between the ability to reverse the interpretation and performance on the children's embedded figures task, a task that superficially appeared to involve similar processes. The second study replicated this finding but showed that performance was strongly related to success in the post-switch phase of the dimensional change card sort task. In both cases, the meaning of an image must be reassigned, and bilinguals were better in both these tasks.

  5. Exploiting transient phenomena for imaging with breath figures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikumar, Harish; Varma, Manoj M.

    2017-02-01

    Breath figures refer to the patterns formed when vapor condenses into the liquid phase on a surface, revealing heterogeneities in topography or chemical composition. These figures are composed of micro-droplets, which scatter light and produce optical contrast. Differences in hydrophobicity imposed by surface features or contaminants result in a difference in micro-droplet densities, which has been used in applications such as substrate independent optical visualization of single layer graphene flakes. Here, we show that transient phenomena, such as the pinning transition of micro-droplets condensed over a polymer surface, can be used to enhance the optical contrast even when the time averaged difference in micro-droplet densities is not substantial. Thus, this work opens a new way of visualizing surface heterogeneities using transient phenomena occurring during condensation or evaporation of micro-droplets as opposed to only using time averaged differences in wettability due to the surface features.

  6. Figure-Ground Organization in Visual Cortex for Natural Scenes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Figure-ground organization and border-ownership assignment are essential for understanding natural scenes. It has been shown that many neurons in the macaque visual cortex signal border-ownership in displays of simple geometric shapes such as squares, but how well these neurons resolve border-ownership in natural scenes is not known. We studied area V2 neurons in behaving macaques with static images of complex natural scenes. We found that about half of the neurons were border-ownership selective for contours in natural scenes, and this selectivity originated from the image context. The border-ownership signals emerged within 70 ms after stimulus onset, only ∼30 ms after response onset. A substantial fraction of neurons were highly consistent across scenes. Thus, the cortical mechanisms of figure-ground organization are fast and efficient even in images of complex natural scenes. Understanding how the brain performs this task so fast remains a challenge. PMID:28058269

  7. Polarized Ion Beams in Figure-8 Rings of JLab's MEIC

    SciTech Connect

    Derbenev, Yaroslav; Lin, Fanglei; Morozov, Vasiliy; Zhang, Yuhong; Kondratenko, Anatoliy; Kondratenko, M A; Filatov, Yury

    2014-07-01

    The Medium-energy Electron-Ion Collider (MEIC) proposed by Jefferson Lab is designed to provide high polarization of both colliding beams. One of the unique features of JLab's MEIC is figure-8 shape of its rings. It allows preservation and control of polarization of all ion species including small-anomalous-magnetic-moment deuterons during their acceleration and storage. The figure-8 design conceptually expands the capability of obtaining polarized high-energy beams in comparison to conventional designs because of its property of having no preferred periodic spin direction. This allows one to control effectively the beam polarization by means of magnetic insertions with small field integrals. We present a complete scheme for preserving the ion polarization during all stages of acceleration and its control in the collider's experimental straights.

  8. Constellation Stick Figures Convey Information about Gravity and Neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mc Leod, David Matthew; Mc Leod, Roger David

    2008-10-01

    12/21/98, at America's Stonehenge, DMM detected, and drew, the full stick-figure equivalent of Canis Major, CM, as depicted by our Wolf Clan leaders, and many others. Profound, foundational physics is implied, since this occurred in the Watch House there, hours before the ``model rose.'' Similar configurations like Orion, Osiris of ancient Egypt, show that such figures are projected through solid parts of the Earth, as two-dimensional equivalents of the three-dimensional star constellations. Such ``sticks'' indicate that ``line equivalents'' connect the stars, and the physical mechanism projects outlines detectable by traditional cultures. We had discussed this ``flashlight'' effect, and recognized some of its implications. RDM states that the flashlight is a strong, distant neutrino source; the lines represent neutrinos longitudinally aligned in gravitational excitation, opaque, to earthbound, transient, transversely excited neutrinos. ``Sticks'' represent ``graviton'' detection. Neutrinos' longitudinal alignment accounts for the weakness of gravitational force.

  9. NOvA (Fermilab E929) Official Plots and Figures

    DOE Data Explorer

    The NOvA collaboration, consisting of 180 researchers across 28 institutions and managed by the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), is developing instruments for a neutrino-focused experiment that will attempt to answer three fundamental questions in neutrino physics: 1) Can we observe the oscillation of muon neutrinos to electron neutrinos; 2) What is the ordering of the neutrino masses; and 3) What is the symmetry between matter and antimatter? The collaboration makes various data plots and figures available. These are grouped under five headings, with brief descriptions included for each individual figure: Neutrino Spectra, Detector Overview, Theta12 Mass Hierarchy CP phase, Theta 23 Delta Msqr23, and NuSterile.

  10. Relationships between visual figure discrimination, verbal abilities, and gender.

    PubMed

    Tammik, Valdar; Toomela, Aaro

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the relationships between verbal thinking and performance on visual figure discrimination tasks from a Vygotskian perspective in a large varied adult sample (N = 428). A test designed to assess the structure of word meanings (ie tendency to think in 'everyday' or 'scientific' concepts as distinguished by Vygotsky) together with two contour picture tasks was presented. Visual tasks were a modified version of Poppelreuter's overlapping figures and a picture depicting a meaningful scene. On both tasks concrete objects and abstract meaningless shapes had to be identified. In addition to relationships between visual task performance and word meaning structure, the effects of the meaningful scene and relations with gender were examined. The results confirmed the expected relation between word meaning structure and visual performance. Furthermore, they suggested a specific effect of the meaningful whole and a male advantage, especially for the first task in which women seemed to benefit less from advanced word meaning structure.

  11. Ion beam figuring of thin glass plates: achievements and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Civitani, M.; Ghigo, M.; Hołyszko, J.; Vecchi, G.; Basso, S.

    2016-07-01

    Different hot slumping techniques have been developed in the last decade to shape thin glass plates in Wolter-I configuration for high angular resolution x-ray telescopes. The required high quality surface characteristic, both in terms of figure error and of micro-roughness, is challenging and the best results achieved so far are compatible with an HEW of few arcseconds. In order to push forward the technology enabling x-ray optics with final HEW below 1 arcsec, we investigate the ion beam figuring as a deterministic technology which can correct the low frequency components of the residual error directly on thin glasses. In this paper we present the tests performed so far, giving a first assessment on the deterministic process definition. In particular, we report on the results achieved on flat samples of D263 and Eagle glass, focusing on the removal function characterization, the micro-roughness evolution and the plate shape variation.

  12. Testing the figure of parabolic reflectors for solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Bodenheimer, J S; Eisenberg, N P; Gur, J

    1982-12-15

    A novel method for testing the optical quality of large parabolic solar concentrators is presented, based on autocollimation. An optical system continuously scans the reflector along a fixed reference axis. At each position along the axis, the spread function is obtained. Analysis of the location, width, and intensity changes of this function gives quantitative information about the reflector's defects. A figure of merit describing the performance of parabolic trough reflectors is proposed.

  13. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart P of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., Alpha Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Figs. Figures to Subpart P of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Fig. P1 ER22MR00.000 Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Fig. P2 ER22MR00.001 Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Fig. P3 ER22MR00.002 Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Fig. P4 ER13DE01.237 Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Fig. P5 ER22MR00.004...

  14. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart O of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Dummy, Alpha Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. 01 Figures to Subpart O of Part 572 ER15JY02.000 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O2 ER15JY02.001 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O3 ER15JY02.002 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O4 ER15jy02.003 Pt. 572, Subpt. O, Fig. O5 ER15JY02.004...

  15. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart R of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Figs. Figures to Subpart R of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R1 ER31MR00.008 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R2 ER31MR00.009 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R3 ER31MR00.010 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R4 ER31MR00.011 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R5 ER31MR00.012...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart P of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., Alpha Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Figs. Figures to Subpart P of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Fig. P1 ER22MR00.000 Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Fig. P2 ER22MR00.001 Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Fig. P3 ER22MR00.002 Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Fig. P4 ER13DE01.237 Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Fig. P5 ER22MR00.004...

  17. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart C of Part 587

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., Subpt. C, Figs. Figures to Subpart C of Part 587 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 1 ER31mr00.003 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 2 ER31MR00.004 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 3 ER31MR00.005 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 4 ER31MR00.006 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 5 ER31MR00.007...

  18. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart R of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Figs. Figures to Subpart R of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R1 ER31MR00.008 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R2 ER31MR00.009 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R3 ER31MR00.010 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R4 ER31MR00.011 Pt. 572, Subpt. R, Fig. R5 ER31MR00.012...

  19. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart P of Part 572

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Alpha Version Test conditions and instrumentation. Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Figs. Figures to Subpart P of Part 572 Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Fig. P1 ER22MR00.000 Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Fig. P2 ER22MR00.001 Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Fig. P3 ER22MR00.002 Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Fig. P4 ER13DE01.237 Pt. 572, Subpt. P, Fig. P5 ER22MR00.004...

  20. 49 CFR Appendix - Figures to Subpart C of Part 587

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., Subpt. C, Figs. Figures to Subpart C of Part 587 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 1 ER31mr00.003 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 2 ER31MR00.004 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 3 ER31MR00.005 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 4 ER31MR00.006 Pt. 587, Subpt. C, Fig. 5 ER31MR00.007...