Science.gov

Sample records for 7be decay rate

  1. Search for Environmental Influences on the ^7Be Decay Rate*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norman, E. B.; Rech, G. A.; Dragowsky, M. R.; Chan, Y. D.; Perillo Isaac, M. C.; Larimer, R.-M.

    1998-10-01

    ^7Be plays an important role in the generation of solar neutrinos. Because ^7Be decays via electron capture, its half life depends on the electron density at the nucleus. Two groups have recently reported observations of variations on the order of 1 percent in the decay rate of ^7Be as a function of the physical environment in which the ^7Be is located.^1,2 In order to test this idea, we measured the half life of ^7Be in four different materials. Samples of ^7Be in graphite, boron nitride, tantalum, and gold were produced at LBNL's 88" Cyclotron. Each ^7Be sample was packaged together with a ^133Ba reference source and then counted in 1-day time bins periodically over a 4-month period using a germanium detector. In order to reduce systematic effects from variations in detector or electronics performance, the ^7Be half life was determined by comparing the numbers of 478-keV ^7Be and 356-keV ^133Ba gamma rays from each sample. Results from analysis of this data will be presented. *Work supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract Nos. DE-AC03-76SF00098 and DE-FG03-98ER41060. 1. D. Souza et al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 42, 1679 (1997). 2. A. Ray et al., submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. (1998).

  2. Radioactive decay speedup at T=5 K: electron-capture decay rate of (7)Be encapsulated in C(60).

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, T; Ohno, K; Morisato, T; Mitsugashira, T; Hirose, K; Yuki, H; Kasagi, J

    2007-06-22

    The electron-capture (EC) decay rate of (7)Be in C(60) at the temperature of liquid helium (T=5 K) was measured and compared with the rate in Be metal at T=293 K. We found that the half-life of (7)Be in endohedral C(60) ((7)Be@C(60)) at a temperature close to T=5 K is 52.47+/-0.04 d, a value that is 0.34% faster than that at T=293 K. In this environment, the half-life of (7)Be is nearly 1.5% faster than that inside Be metal at room temperature (T=293 K). We then interpreted our observations in terms of calculations of the electron density at the (7)Be nucleus position inside the C(60); further, we estimate theoretically the temperature dependence (at T=0 K and 293 K) of the electron density at the Be nucleus position in the stable center inside C(60). The theoretical estimates were almost in agreement with the experimental observations.

  3. Electron-capture decay rate of {sup 7}Be-C{sub 60} by first-principles calculations based on density functional theory

    SciTech Connect

    Morisato, Tsuguo; Ohno, Kaoru; Ohtsuki, Tsutomu; Hirose, Kentaro; Sluiter, Marcel; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2008-09-15

    Carrying out a first-principles calculation assuming linear relationship between the electron density at Be nucleus and the electron-capture (EC) decay rate, we explained why {sup 7}Be-C{sub 60} shows higher EC decay rate than {sup 7}Be crystal, which was originally found experimentally by Ohtsuki et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 112501 (2004)]. From the results of the calculation, we found that there are inequivalent four stable (i.e., lower energy) Be sites inside C{sub 60} and that center of C{sub 60} (C{sub C60}) is the most favorable site. For C{sub C60}, the electron density at the Be nucleus is the highest. It is also much higher than that at the Be nucleus in a Be crystal. Also, we estimated the expected electron density at the Be nucleus at room temperature by taking statistical average of the electron densities at the four Be nucleus sites using the Boltzmann distribution. The results of the calculation show fairly good agreement with the experimental results. In this paper, we focus on the detail of calculation, which was not fully demonstrated in the paper by Ohtsuki.

  4. Beta-decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzov, I. N.

    2006-10-01

    Major astrophysical applications involve a huge number of exotic nuclei. Their beta-decay properties play a crucial role in stellar explosive events. An important effort has been developed in last decades to measure the masses and β-decay properties of very neutron-rich nuclei at radioactive nuclear beam facilities. However, most of them cannot be synthesized in terrestrial laboratories and only theoretical predictions can fill the gap. We will concentrate mainly on the β-decay rates needed for stellar r-process modeling and for performing the RNB experiments. An overview of the microscopic approaches to the β-decay strength function is given. The continuum QRPA approach based on the self-consistent ground state description in the framework of the density functional theory is outlined. For the first time, a systematic study of the total β-decay half-lives and delayed neutron emission probabilities takes into account the Gamow Teller and first-forbidden transitions. Due to the shell configuration effects, the first-forbidden decays have a strong impact on the β-decay characteristics of the r-process relevant nuclei at Z≈28, N>50; Z⩾50, N>82 and Z=60 70, N≈126. Suppression of the delayed neutron emission probability is found in nuclei with the neutron excess bigger than one major shell. The effect originates from the high-energy first-forbidden transitions to the states outside the (Q-B)-window in the daughter nuclei. The performance of existing global models for the nuclides near the r-process paths is critically analyzed and confronted with the recent RIB experiments in the regions of 78Ni, 132Sn and “east” of 208Pb.

  5. Absence of a day-night asymmetry in the 7Be solar neutrino rate in Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Buizza Avanzini, M.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Cavalcante, P.; Chavarria, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Davini, S.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Kobychev, V.; Korablev, D.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Lombardi, F.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Peña-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Re, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Testera, G.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wright, A.; Wurm, M.; Xu, J.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2012-01-01

    We report the result of a search for a day-night asymmetry in the 7Be solar neutrino interaction rate in the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso (LNGS) in Italy. The measured asymmetry is Adn = 0.001 ± 0.012 (stat) ± 0.007 (syst), in agreement with the prediction of MSW-LMA solution for neutrino oscillations. This result disfavors MSW oscillations with mixing parameters in the LOW region at more than 8.5 σ. This region is, for the first time, strongly disfavored without the use of reactor anti-neutrino data and therefore the assumption of CPT symmetry. The result can also be used to constrain some neutrino oscillation scenarios involving new physics.

  6. The distribution of sunspot decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Pillet, V.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Vazquez, M.

    1993-07-01

    The distribution of sunspot decay rates is studied using the Greenwich Photoheliographic Results (GPR) for a total of approximately hundred years between 1874 and 1976. The decay rates are seen to be lognormally distributed. The discrepancies between the decay rates given in the past by different authors are shown to originate as a consequence of this asymmetric distribution. It is pointed out that the extended tails shown by the lognormal distributions are associated to spots decaying much faster than suggested by Bumba's (1963) work. A cycle by cycle analysis of the lognormal distributions associated with each sunspot group type and for single spots is presented. The differences between the nine solar cycles involved are studied. As a remarkable property of the decay process, we show that it happens at a nearly constant total to umbral area ratio. This property holds for decaying spots which are still large enough to show a penumbra. We have studied the suitability of a decay law with the instantaneous decay rate proportional to the length of the spot boundary. This law predicts a parabolic decay pattern with some specific characteristics. No definite conclusion in favour of this law is reached, but it is suggested that a linear decay is as weakly supported by the GPR data as a peripheral one. On the other hand, weak non-linearities are seen in the decay of isolated spots with a clear tendency to produce a convex pattern in the area vs. time diagram. The implication is that sunspot decay is braked as time proceeds.

  7. Development of InP solid state detector and liquid scintillator containing metal complex for measurement of pp/7Be solar neutrinos and neutrinoless double beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Yoshiyuki; Moriyama, Shigetaka

    2012-07-01

    A large volume solid state detector using a semi-insulating Indium Phosphide (InP) wafer have been developed for measurement of pp/7Be solar neutrinos. Basic performance such as the charge collection efficiency and the energy resolution were measured by 60% and 20%, respectively. In order to detect two gammas (115keV and 497keV) from neutrino capture, we have designed hybrid detector which consist InP detector and liquid xenon scintillator for IPNOS experiment. New InP detector with thin electrode (Cr 50Å- Au 50Å). For another possibility, an organic liquid scintillator containing indium complex and zirconium complex were studied for a measurement of low energy solar neutrinos and neutrinosless double beta decay, respectively. Benzonitrile was chosen as a solvent because of good solubility for the quinolinolato complexes (2 wt%) and of good light yield for the scintillation induced by gamma-ray irradiation. The photo-luminescence emission spectra of InQ3 and ZrQ4 in benzonitrile was measured and liquid scintillator cocktail using InQ3 and ZrQ4 (50mg) in benzonitrile solutions (20 mL) with secondary scintillators with PPO (100mg) and POPOP (10mg) was made. The energy spectra of incident gammas were measured, and they are first results of the gamma-ray energy spectra using luminescent of metal complexes.

  8. Ratios of heavy hadron semileptonic decay rates

    SciTech Connect

    Gronau, Michael; Rosner, Jonathan L.

    2011-02-01

    Ratios of charmed meson and baryon semileptonic decay rates appear to be satisfactorily described by considering only the lowest-lying (S-wave) hadronic final states and assuming the kinematic factor describing phase space suppression is the same as that for free quarks. For example, the rate for D{sub s} semileptonic decay is known to be (17.0{+-}5.3)% lower than those for D{sup 0} or D{sup +}, and the model accounts for this difference. When applied to hadrons containing b quarks, this method implies that the B{sub s} semileptonic decay rate is about 1% higher than that of the nonstrange B mesons. This small difference thus suggests surprisingly good local quark-hadron duality for B semileptonic decays, complementing the expectation based on inclusive quark-hadron duality that these differences in rates should not exceed a few tenths of a percent. For {Lambda}{sub b} semileptonic decay, however, the inclusive rate is predicted to be about 13% greater than that of the nonstrange B mesons. This value, representing a considerable departure from a calculation using a heavy-quark expansion, is close to the corresponding experimental ratio {Gamma}({Lambda}{sub b})/{Gamma}(B)=1.13{+-}0.03 of total decay rates.

  9. Power spectrum analyses of nuclear decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javorsek, D.; Sturrock, P. A.; Lasenby, R. N.; Lasenby, A. N.; Buncher, J. B.; Fischbach, E.; Gruenwald, J. T.; Hoft, A. W.; Horan, T. J.; Jenkins, J. H.; Kerford, J. L.; Lee, R. H.; Longman, A.; Mattes, J. J.; Morreale, B. L.; Morris, D. B.; Mudry, R. N.; Newport, J. R.; O'Keefe, D.; Petrelli, M. A.; Silver, M. A.; Stewart, C. A.; Terry, B.

    2010-10-01

    We provide the results from a spectral analysis of nuclear decay data displaying annually varying periodic fluctuations. The analyzed data were obtained from three distinct data sets: 32Si and 36Cl decays reported by an experiment performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), 56Mn decay reported by the Children's Nutrition Research Center (CNRC), but also performed at BNL, and 226Ra decay reported by an experiment performed at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) in Germany. All three data sets exhibit the same primary frequency mode consisting of an annual period. Additional spectral comparisons of the data to local ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, Earth-Sun distance, and their reciprocals were performed. No common phases were found between the factors investigated and those exhibited by the nuclear decay data. This suggests that either a combination of factors was responsible, or that, if it was a single factor, its effects on the decay rate experiments are not a direct synchronous modulation. We conclude that the annual periodicity in these data sets is a real effect, but that further study involving additional carefully controlled experiments will be needed to establish its origin.

  10. Upwelling Rates and Vertical Diffusivities Determined During the 2013 US GEOTRACES Eastern Tropical Pacific Zonal Transect: Results from 7Be Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadko, D. C.

    2014-12-01

    Upwelling is an important physical process affecting biogeochemical cycling within the global ocean. Direct measurements are difficult because of the relatively small velocities involved, and must therefore be inferred by indirect methods such as those provided by tracer observations. Measurements of the cosmogenic radioisotope 7Be (half-life = 53.3 d) were used to derive upwelling rates and upper thermocline vertical diffusivities during the 2013 US GEOTRACES Eastern Tropical Pacific Zonal Transect. In the eastern, upwelling zone of this transect, the 7Be activity in the mixed layer varied between low values of 63 dpm/m3 in areas with the coldest sea surface temperatures (SSTs) to values of 190 dpm/m3 associated with warm SSTs. The 7Be inventory in the coldest water was only 5,150 dpm/m2 while that in the warmer water was 19,000 dpm/m2. The decrease in mixed layer 7Be with decrease in temperature occurs as 7Be ''dead'', cold water is upwelled from below. The deficit of the 7Be inventory relative to the non-upwelling stations provides a measure of the upwelling rate. For the eastern-most station with the lowest SST (17.6 deg C) an upwelling rate of 2.56 m/d was derived. Towards the west, as SST increased, derived upwelling rates decreased. At SST of 20.9 deg C, upwelling was zero. With knowledge of upwelling rates, 7Be and temperature profiles were used to constrain vertical diffusivity within the upper thermocline. Diffusivities derived from 7Be profiles were approximately twice that derived from temperature, likely reflecting the difference in vertical resolution of these measurements. Diffusivities derived from temperature were on the order of 1-4 x 10-4 m2/s. These parameters will be applied to profiles of nutrients and trace elements to derive fluxes of these species into the mixed layer.

  11. Tunneling decay rate in quantum cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mithani, Audrey T.; Vilenkin, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    In canonical quantum cosmology, the wave function of the Universe lacks explicit time dependence. However, time evolution may be present implicitly through the semiclassical superspace variables, which themselves depend on time in classical dynamics. In this paper, we apply this approach to an oscillating universe model recently introduced by Graham et al. [A simple harmonic universe, J. High Energy Phys. 02 (2014) 029.] By extending the model to include a massless, minimally coupled scalar field ϕ which has little effect on the dynamics but can play the role of a "clock," we determine the decay rate of the oscillating universe.

  12. Form factors and decay rate of Bc * Dsl+l- decays in the QCD sum rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeynali, K.; Bashiry, V.; Zolfagharpour, F.

    2014-08-01

    Rare exclusive decays are analyzed in the framework of the three-point QCD sum rules approach. The two-gluon condensate corrections to the correlation function are included and the form factors of this transition are evaluated. Using the form factors, the decay width and integrated decay rate for these decays are also calculated.

  13. Universal Distribution of Litter Decay Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forney, D. C.; Rothman, D. H.

    2008-12-01

    Degradation of litter is the result of many physical, chemical and biological processes. The high variability of these processes likely accounts for the progressive slowdown of decay with litter age. This age dependence is commonly thought to result from the superposition of processes with different decay rates k. Here we assume an underlying continuous yet unknown distribution p(k) of decay rates [1]. To seek its form, we analyze the mass-time history of 70 LIDET [2] litter data sets obtained under widely varying conditions. We construct a regularized inversion procedure to find the best fitting distribution p(k) with the least degrees of freedom. We find that the resulting p(k) is universally consistent with a lognormal distribution, i.e.~a Gaussian distribution of log k, characterized by a dataset-dependent mean and variance of log k. This result is supported by a recurring observation that microbial populations on leaves are log-normally distributed [3]. Simple biological processes cause the frequent appearance of the log-normal distribution in ecology [4]. Environmental factors, such as soil nitrate, soil aggregate size, soil hydraulic conductivity, total soil nitrogen, soil denitrification, soil respiration have been all observed to be log-normally distributed [5]. Litter degradation rates depend on many coupled, multiplicative factors, which provides a fundamental basis for the lognormal distribution. Using this insight, we systematically estimated the mean and variance of log k for 512 data sets from the LIDET study. We find the mean strongly correlates with temperature and precipitation, while the variance appears to be uncorrelated with main environmental factors and is thus likely more correlated with chemical composition and/or ecology. Results indicate the possibility that the distribution in rates reflects, at least in part, the distribution of microbial niches. [1] B. P. Boudreau, B.~R. Ruddick, American Journal of Science,291, 507, (1991). [2] M

  14. Use of 7Be measurements to estimate rates of soil loss from cultivated land: Testing a new approach applicable to individual storm events occurring during an extended period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E.

    2014-10-01

    The techniques available for documenting rates and patterns of soil redistribution in the landscape have many limitations and the value of those employing fallout radionuclides (FRNs), including caesium-137 (137Cs) and excess lead-210 (210Pbex) is being increasingly recognized. However, the use of 137Cs and 210Pbex measurements is best suited to investigations of longer-term soil redistribution rates (i.e., ˜50-60 years for 137Cs and ˜100 years for 210Pbex). For many purposes, a much shorter timeframe is required. Beryllium-7 (7Be), another FRN (half-life 53 days), offers the potential to document soil redistribution associated with individual events or short periods of heavy rainfall. However, existing approaches for using 7Be possess important limitations related to both the timing of the study period and its length. This contribution reports the development of a new approach that permits estimation of the soil loss associated with all individual events or short periods of rainfall occurring during a study period extending over a year or more. The approach was validated using data collected from an erosion plot located in southern Italy. The close agreement of the measured and estimated values demonstrates the validity of the new approach which has the potential to greatly increase the scope for using 7Be measurements to document short-term soil redistribution associated with individual storm events.

  15. Molecular decay rate near nonlocal plasmonic particles.

    PubMed

    Girard, Christian; Cuche, Aurélien; Dujardin, Erik; Arbouet, Arnaud; Mlayah, Adnen

    2015-05-01

    When the size of metal nanoparticles is smaller than typically 10 nm, their optical response becomes sensitive to both spatial dispersion and quantum size effects associated with the confinement of the conduction electrons inside the particle. In this Letter, we propose a nonlocal scheme to compute molecular decay rates near spherical nanoparticles which includes the electron-electron interactions through a simple model of electronic polarizabilities. The plasmonic particle is schematized by a dynamic dipolar polarizability α(NL)(ω), and the quantum system is characterized by a two-level system. In this scheme, the light matter interaction is described in terms of classical field susceptibilities. This theoretical framework could be extended to address the influence of nonlocality on the dynamics of quantum systems placed in the vicinity of nano-objects of arbitrary morphologies.

  16. Aftershock Decay Rates in the Iranian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ommi, S.; Zafarani, H.; Zare, M.

    2016-07-01

    Motivated by the desire to have more information following the occurrence of damaging events, the main purpose of this article is to study aftershock sequence parameters in the Iranian plateau. To this end, the catalogue of the Iranian earthquakes between 2002 to the end of 2013 has been collected and homogenized among which 15 earthquakes have been selected to study their aftershock decay rates. For different tectonic provinces, the completeness magnitudes ( M c) of the earthquake catalogue have been calculated in different time intervals. Also, the M c variability in spatial and temporal windows has been determined for each selected event. For major Iranian earthquakes, catalogue of aftershocks has been collected thanks to three declustering methods: first, the classical windowing method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974); second, a modified version of this using spatial windowing based on the Wells and Coppersmith (Bull Seismol Soc Am 84:974-1002, 1994) relations; and third, the Burkhard and Grünthal (Swiss J Geosci 102:149-188, 2009) scheme. Effects of the temporal windows also have been investigated using the time periods of 1 month, 100 days, and 1 year in the declustering method of Gardner and Knopoff (Bull Seismol Soc Am 64:1363-1367, 1974). In the next step, the modified Omori law coefficients have been calculated for the 15 selected earthquakes. The calibrated regional generic model describing the temporal and magnitude distribution of aftershocks is of interest for time-dependent seismic hazard forecasts. The regional characteristics of the aftershock decay rates have been studied for the selected Iranian earthquakes in the Alborz, Zagros and Central Iran regions considering their different seismotectonics regimes. However, due to the lack of sufficient data, no results have been reported for the Kopeh-Dagh and Makran seismotectonic regions.

  17. Astrophysical Impact of the Updated 9Be(p,α)6Li and 10B(p,α)7Be Reaction Rates As Deduced By THM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamia, L.; Spitaleri, C.; Tognelli, E.; Degl'Innocenti, S.; Pizzone, R. G.; Prada Moroni, P. G.

    2015-10-01

    The complete understanding of the stellar abundances of lithium, beryllium, and boron represents one of the most interesting open problems in astrophysics. These elements are largely used to probe stellar structure and mixing phenomena in different astrophysical scenarios, such as pre-main-sequence or main-sequence stars. Their different fragility against (p,α) burning reactions allows one to investigate different depths of the stellar interior. Such fusion mechanisms are triggered at temperatures between T ≈ (2-5) × {10}6 K, thus defining a corresponding Gamow energy between ≈ 3-10 keV, where S(E)-factor measurements need to be performed to get reliable reaction rate evaluations. The Trojan Horse Method is a well defined procedure to measure cross sections at Gamow energies overcoming the uncertainties due to low-energy S(E)-factor extrapolation as well as electron screening effects. Taking advantage of the {\\mathtt{THM}} measure of the 9Be(p,α)6Li and 10B(p,α)7Be cross sections, the corresponding reaction rates have been calculated and compared with the evaluations by the NACRE collaboration, widely used in the literature. The impact on surface abundances of the updated 9Be and 10B (p,α) burning rates is discussed for pre-MS stars.

  18. Measurement of neutron energy spectra and neutron dose rates from 7Li(p,n)7Be reaction induced on thin LiF target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atanackovic, Jovica; Matysiak, Witold; Dubeau, Jacques; Witharana, Sampath; Waker, Anthony

    2015-02-01

    The measurements of neutron energy spectra and neutron dose rates were performed using the KN Van de Graaff accelerator, located at the McMaster University Accelerator Laboratory (MAL). Protons were accelerated on the thin lithium fluoride (LiF) target and produced mono-energetic neutrons which were measured using three different spectrometers: Bonner Sphere Spectrometer (BSS), Nested Neutron Spectrometer (NNS), and Rotational Proton Recoil Spectrometer (ROSPEC). The purpose of this work is (1) measurement and quantification of low energy accelerator neutron fields in terms of neutron fluence and dose, (2) comparison of results obtained by three different instruments, (3) comparison of measurements with Monte Carlo simulations based on theoretical neutron yields from 7Li(p,n)7Be nuclear reaction, and (4) comparison of results obtained using different neutron spectral unfolding methods. The nominal thickness of the LiF target used in the experiment was 50 μg /cm2, which corresponds to the linear thickness of 0.19 μm and results in approximately 6 keV energy loss for the proton energies used in the experiment (2.2, 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5 MeV). For each of the proton energies, neutron fluence per incident proton charge was measured and several dosimetric quantities of interest in radiation protection were derived. In addition, theoretical neutron yield calculations together with the results of Monte Carlo (MCNP) modeling of the neutron spectra are reported. Consistent neutron fluence spectra were obtained with three detectors and good agreement was observed between theoretically calculated and measured neutron fluences and derived dosimetric quantities for investigated proton energies at 2.3, 2.4 and 2.5 MeV. In the case of 2.2 MeV, some plausibly explainable discrepancies were observed.

  19. 40 CFR 1065.644 - Vacuum-decay leak rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Vacuum-decay leak rate. 1065.644 Section 1065.644 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.644 Vacuum-decay leak...

  20. 40 CFR 1065.644 - Vacuum-decay leak rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Vacuum-decay leak rate. 1065.644 Section 1065.644 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.644 Vacuum-decay leak...

  1. 40 CFR 1065.644 - Vacuum-decay leak rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Vacuum-decay leak rate. 1065.644 Section 1065.644 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.644 Vacuum-decay leak...

  2. 40 CFR 1065.644 - Vacuum-decay leak rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Vacuum-decay leak rate. 1065.644 Section 1065.644 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.644 Vacuum-decay leak...

  3. 40 CFR 1065.644 - Vacuum-decay leak rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Vacuum-decay leak rate. 1065.644 Section 1065.644 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.644 Vacuum-decay leak...

  4. Modern Measurements of Uranium Decay Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons-Moss, T.; Faye, S. A.; Williams, R. W.; Wang, T. F.; Renne, P. R.; Mundil, R.; Harrison, M.; Bandong, B. B.; Moody, K.; Knight, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    It has been widely recognized that accurate and precise decay constants (λ) are critical to geochronology as highlighted by the EARTHTIME initiative, particularly the calibration benchmarks λ235U and λ238U. [1] Alpha counting experiments in 1971[2] measured λ235U and λ238U with ~0.1% precision, but have never been independently validated. We are embarking on new direct measurements of λ235U, λ238U, λ234Th, and λ234U using independent approaches for each nuclide. For the measurement of λ235U, highly enriched 235U samples will be chemically purified and analyzed for U concentration and isotopic composition by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). Thin films will be electrodeposited from these solutions and the α activity will be measured in an α-γ coincidence counting apparatus, which allows reduced uncertainty in counting efficiency while achieving adequate counting statistics. For λ238U measurement we will measure ingrowth of 234Th in chemically purified, isotopically enriched 238U solutions, by quantitatively separating the Th and allowing complete decay to 234U. All of the measurements will be done using MC-ICP-MS aiming at 0.05% precision. This approach is expected to result in values of λ238U with less than 0.1% uncertainty, if combined with improved λ234Th measements. These will be achieved using direct decay measurements with an E-∆E charged particle telescope in coincidence with a gamma detector. This system allows measurement of 234Th β-decay and simultaneous detection and identification of α particles emitted by the 234U daughter, thus observing λ234U at the same time. The high-precision λ234U obtained by the direct activity measurements can independently verify the commonly used values obtained by indirect methods.[3] An overarching goal of the project is to ensure the quality of results including metrological traceability in order to facilitate implementation across diverse disciplines. [1] T

  5. Decay rate of the second radiation belt.

    PubMed

    Badhwar, G D; Robbins, D E

    1996-01-01

    Variations in the Earth's trapped (Van Allen) belts produced by solar flare particle events are not well understood. Few observations of increases in particle populations have been reported. This is particularly true for effects in low Earth orbit, where manned spaceflights are conducted. This paper reports the existence of a second proton belt and it's subsequent decay as measured by a tissue-equivalent proportional counter and a particle spectrometer on five Space Shuttle flights covering an eighteen-month period. The creation of this second belt is attributed to the injection of particles from a solar particle event which occurred at 2246 UT, March 22, 1991. Comparisons with observations onboard the Russian Mir space station and other unmanned satellites are made. Shuttle measurements and data from other spacecraft are used to determine that the e-folding time of the peak of the second proton belt. It was ten months. Proton populations in the second belt returned to values of quiescent times within eighteen months. The increase in absorbed dose attributed to protons in the second belt was approximately 20%. Passive dosimeter measurements were in good agreement with this value.

  6. Photoluminescence decay rate of silicon nanoparticles modified with gold nanoislands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dan'ko, Viktor; Michailovska, Katerina; Indutnyi, Ivan; Shepeliavyi, Petro

    2014-04-01

    We investigated plasmon-assisted enhancement of emission from silicon nanoparticles (ncs-Si) embedded into porous SiO x matrix in the 500- to 820-nm wavelength range. In the presence in the near-surface region of gold nanoisland film, ncs-Si exhibited up to twofold luminescence enhancement at emission frequencies that correspond to the plasmon resonance frequency of Au nanoparticles. Enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity was attributed to coupling with the localized surface plasmons (LSPs) excited in Au nanoparticles and to increase in the radiative decay rate of ncs-Si . It has been shown that spontaneous emission decay rate of ncs-Si modified by thin Au film over the wide emission spectral range was accelerated. The emission decay rate distribution was determined by fitting the experimental decay curves to the stretched exponential model. The observed increase of the PL decay rate distribution width for the Au-coated nc-Si-SiO x sample in comparison with the uncoated one was explained by fluctuations in the surface-plasmon excitation rate .

  7. Evidence for a Solar Influence on Nuclear Decay Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.; Buncher, J. B.; Fischbach, E.; Gruenwald, J. T.; Javorsek, D., II; Jenkins, J. H.; Lee, R.; Mattes, J. T.; Newport, J. R.

    2010-05-01

    Analyses of data acquired during two experiments at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and one at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt in Germany have yielded strong evidence for an annual variation of some nuclear decay rates. Since the Sun-Earth distance has an annual period, it is possible that some radiation from the Sun plays a role. We here present evidence in support of this conjecture. The low-energy solar-neutrino flux as detected by the Homestake and GALLEX experiments, and the total solar irradiance as measured by the ACRIM experiment, both exhibit a periodicity of about 12 year-1. We infer that the solar core rotates at this synodic frequency, and that nuclear burning in the core is not spherically symmetric. If neutrinos influence some decay rates, the same periodicity may be manifested in decay measurements. We have for this reason carried out a power-spectrum analysis of measurements made at BNL over a 7-year interval of the decay rates of 32Si and 36Cl. This analysis yields strong evidence for a cluster of periodicities centered on 12 year-1, such as one might obtain from stochastic fluctuations of nuclear burning in a rotating core. These results imply that some nuclear decay rates are influenced either by solar neutrinos or by some other form of radiation that has its origin in the solar core. This work was supported by the NSF grant AST-0607572 and DOE grant DE-AC-02-76ER071428.

  8. Observations of HF backscatter decay rates from HAARP generated FAI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bristow, William; Hysell, David

    2016-07-01

    Suitable experiments at the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facilities in Gakona, Alaska, create a region of ionospheric Field-Aligned Irregularities (FAI) that produces strong radar backscatter observed by the SuperDARN radar on Kodiak Island, Alaska. Creation of FAI in HF ionospheric modification experiments has been studied by a number of authors who have developed a rich theoretical background. The decay of the irregularities, however, has not been so widely studied yet it has the potential for providing estimates of the parameters of natural irregularity diffusion, which are difficult measure by other means. Hysell, et al. [1996] demonstrated using the decay of radar scatter above the Sura heating facility to estimate irregularity diffusion. A large database of radar backscatter from HAARP generated FAI has been collected over the years. Experiments often cycled the heater power on and off in a way that allowed estimates of the FAI decay rate. The database has been examined to extract decay time estimates and diffusion rates over a range of ionospheric conditions. This presentation will summarize the database and the estimated diffusion rates, and will discuss the potential for targeted experiments for aeronomy measurements. Hysell, D. L., M. C. Kelley, Y. M. Yampolski, V. S. Beley, A. V. Koloskov, P. V. Ponomarenko, and O. F. Tyrnov, HF radar observations of decaying artificial field aligned irregularities, J. Geophys. Res. , 101, 26,981, 1996.

  9. Radiative decay rates of impurity states in semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Turkov, Vadim K.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.

    2015-10-15

    Doped semiconductor nanocrystals is a versatile material base for contemporary photonics and optoelectronics devices. Here, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, we theoretically calculate the radiative decay rates of the lowest-energy states of donor impurity in spherical nanocrystals made of four widely used semiconductors: ZnS, CdSe, Ge, and GaAs. The decay rates were shown to vary significantly with the nanocrystal radius, increasing by almost three orders of magnitude when the radius is reduced from 15 to 5 nm. Our results suggest that spontaneous emission may dominate the decay of impurity states at low temperatures, and should be taken into account in the design of advanced materials and devices based on doped semiconductor nanocrystals.

  10. Validating a mass balance accounting approach to using 7Be measurements to estimate event-based erosion rates over an extended period at the catchment scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porto, Paolo; Walling, Des E.; Cogliandro, Vanessa; Callegari, Giovanni

    2016-07-01

    Use of the fallout radionuclides cesium-137 and excess lead-210 offers important advantages over traditional methods of quantifying erosion and soil redistribution rates. However, both radionuclides provide information on longer-term (i.e., 50-100 years) average rates of soil redistribution. Beryllium-7, with its half-life of 53 days, can provide a basis for documenting short-term soil redistribution and it has been successfully employed in several studies. However, the approach commonly used introduces several important constraints related to the timing and duration of the study period. A new approach proposed by the authors that overcomes these constraints has been successfully validated using an erosion plot experiment undertaken in southern Italy. Here, a further validation exercise undertaken in a small (1.38 ha) catchment is reported. The catchment was instrumented to measure event sediment yields and beryllium-7 measurements were employed to document the net soil loss for a series of 13 events that occurred between November 2013 and June 2015. In the absence of significant sediment storage within the catchment's ephemeral channel system and of a significant contribution from channel erosion to the measured sediment yield, the estimates of net soil loss for the individual events could be directly compared with the measured sediment yields to validate the former. The close agreement of the two sets of values is seen as successfully validating the use of beryllium-7 measurements and the new approach to obtain estimates of net soil loss for a sequence of individual events occurring over an extended period at the scale of a small catchment.

  11. Influences of the astrophysical environment on nuclear decay rates

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, E.B.

    1987-09-01

    In many astronomical environments, physical conditions are so extreme that nuclear decay rates can be significantly altered from their laboratory values. Such effects are relevant to a number of current problems in nuclear astrophysics. Experiments related to these problems are now being pursued, and will be described in this talk. 19 refs., 5 figs.

  12. Uncertainties in Astrophysical β-decay Rates from the FRDM

    SciTech Connect

    Bertolli, M.G.; Möller, P.; Jones, S.

    2014-06-15

    β{sup −}-decay rates are of crucial importance in stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis, as they are a key component in stellar processes. Tabulated values of the decay rates as functions of both temperature T and density ρ are necessary input to stellar evolution codes such as MESA, or largescale nucleosynthesis simulations such as those performed by the NuGrid collaboration. Therefore, it is interesting to know the uncertainties in these rates and the effects of these uncertainties on stellar structure and isotopic yields. We have calculated β-strength functions and reaction rates for nuclei ranging from {sup 16}O to {sup 339}136, extending from the proton drip line to the neutron drip line based on a quasi-particle random-phase approximation (QRPA) in a deformed folded-Yukawa single-particle model. Q values are determined from the finite-range droplet mass model (FRDM). We have investigated the effect of model uncertainty on astrophysical β{sup −}-decay rates calculated by the FRDM. The sources of uncertainty considered are Q values and deformation. The rates and their uncertainties are generated for a variety of temperature and density ranges, corresponding to key stellar processes. We demonstrate the effects of these rate uncertainties on isotopic abundances using the NuGrid network calculations.

  13. Materials Outgassing Rate Decay in Vacuum at Isothermal Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Alvin Y.; Kastanas, George N.; Kramer, Leonard; Soares, Carlos E.; Mikatarian, Ronald R.

    2016-01-01

    As a laboratory for scientific research, the International Space Station has been in Low Earth Orbit for nearly 20 years and is expected to be on-orbit for another 10 years. The ISS has been maintaining a relatively pristine contamination environment for science payloads. Materials outgassing induced contamination is currently the dominant source for sensitive surfaces on ISS and modeling the outgassing rate decay over a 20 to 30 year period is challenging. Materials outgassing is described herein as a diffusion-reaction process using ASTM E 1559 rate data. The observation of -1/2 (diffusion) or non-integers (reaction limited) as rate decay exponents for common ISS materials indicate classical reaction kinetics is unsatisfactory in modeling materials outgassing. Non-randomness of reactant concentrations at the interface is the source of this deviation from classical reaction kinetics. A diffusion limited decay was adopted as the result of the correlation of the contaminant layer thicknesses on returned ISS hardware, the existence of high outgassing silicone exhibiting near diffusion limited decay, and the confirmation of non-depleted material after ten years in the Low Earth Orbit.Keywords: Materials Outgassing, ASTM E 1559, Reaction Kinetics, Diffusion, Space Environments Effects, Contamination

  14. Fine and ultrafine particle decay rates in multiple homes.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Lance; Kindzierski, Warren; Kearney, Jill; MacNeill, Morgan; Héroux, Marie-Ève; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2013-11-19

    Human exposure to particles depends on particle loss mechanisms such as deposition and filtration. Fine and ultrafine particles (FP and UFP) were measured continuously over seven consecutive days during summer and winter inside 74 homes in Edmonton, Canada. Daily average air exchange rates were also measured. FP were also measured outside each home and both FP and UFP were measured at a central monitoring station. A censoring algorithm was developed to identify indoor-generated concentrations, with the remainder representing particles infiltrating from outdoors. The resulting infiltration factors were employed to determine the continuously changing background of outdoor particles infiltrating the homes. Background-corrected indoor concentrations were then used to determine rates of removal of FP and UFP following peaks due to indoor sources. About 300 FP peaks and 400 UFP peaks had high-quality (median R(2) value >98%) exponential decay rates lasting from 30 min to 10 h. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) decay rates for UFP were 1.26 (0.82-1.83) h(-1); for FP 1.08 (0.62-1.75) h(-1). These total decay rates included, on average, about a 25% contribution from air exchange, suggesting that deposition and filtration accounted for the major portion of particle loss mechanisms in these homes. Models presented here identify and quantify effects of several factors on total decay rates, such as window opening behavior, home age, use of central furnace fans and kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans, use of air cleaners, use of air conditioners, and indoor-outdoor temperature differences. These findings will help identify ways to reduce exposure and risk. PMID:24143863

  15. Fine and ultrafine particle decay rates in multiple homes.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Lance; Kindzierski, Warren; Kearney, Jill; MacNeill, Morgan; Héroux, Marie-Ève; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2013-11-19

    Human exposure to particles depends on particle loss mechanisms such as deposition and filtration. Fine and ultrafine particles (FP and UFP) were measured continuously over seven consecutive days during summer and winter inside 74 homes in Edmonton, Canada. Daily average air exchange rates were also measured. FP were also measured outside each home and both FP and UFP were measured at a central monitoring station. A censoring algorithm was developed to identify indoor-generated concentrations, with the remainder representing particles infiltrating from outdoors. The resulting infiltration factors were employed to determine the continuously changing background of outdoor particles infiltrating the homes. Background-corrected indoor concentrations were then used to determine rates of removal of FP and UFP following peaks due to indoor sources. About 300 FP peaks and 400 UFP peaks had high-quality (median R(2) value >98%) exponential decay rates lasting from 30 min to 10 h. Median (interquartile range (IQR)) decay rates for UFP were 1.26 (0.82-1.83) h(-1); for FP 1.08 (0.62-1.75) h(-1). These total decay rates included, on average, about a 25% contribution from air exchange, suggesting that deposition and filtration accounted for the major portion of particle loss mechanisms in these homes. Models presented here identify and quantify effects of several factors on total decay rates, such as window opening behavior, home age, use of central furnace fans and kitchen and bathroom exhaust fans, use of air cleaners, use of air conditioners, and indoor-outdoor temperature differences. These findings will help identify ways to reduce exposure and risk.

  16. Early aftershock decay rate of the M6 Parkfield earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z.; Vidale, J. E.

    2004-12-01

    Mainshock rupture is typically followed by its aftershocks that diminish in rate approximately as the reciprocal of the elapse time. However, it is notoriously difficult to observe aftershock activity in the noisy aftermath of larger earthquakes. Many aftershocks were missed in the existing seismicity catalogs in the initial few minutes (Kagan, 2004). Yet this period holds valuable information about the transition from mainshock rupture to sporadic aftershocks, and the friction laws that control earthquakes. The Parkfield section of the San Andreas fault is one of most densely seismometered places in the world. Many near-fault, non-clipped and continuous recordings of the M6 Parkfield earthquake and its aftermath have been recovered, providing an excellent opportunity for us to study the aftershock decay rates in the first few hundred seconds after the mainshock. We have so far analyzed recordings from station PKD and 13 stations in the Parkfield High Resolution Seismic Network. By scrutinizing the high-frequency signal, we are able to distinguish mainshock coda from early aftershocks. We find up to 10 times more aftershocks in the first 1000 s than in the USGS NCSN catalog. More than 30 events are detected in the first 200 s after the mainshock. None of these events are in the USGS NCSN catalog. Preliminary results suggest a strong deficit of aftershocks in the first 100 s after the mainshock relative to a 1/t aftershock rate decay. This pattern is consistent with a lack of seismicity in the first 120 s following the 10/31/2001 M5.1 Anza earthquake (Kilb et al., 2004), and our study of early aftershock rates using data from HiNet array in Japan (Vidale et al., 2004). Our observations will allow us to test the prediction of such an interval in rate-and-state friction models prior to the onset of the 1/t aftershock decay rate (Dieterich, 1994).

  17. On the thermodynamic basis of the affinity decay rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Colín, L. S.; Piña, E.; de la Selva, S. M. T.

    1990-03-01

    In the past five years exhaustive studies in chemical reactions have lead to an empirical equation describing how isothermal-isometric homogeneous reactions evolve towards equilibrium independently of their particular mechanism or rate law. Such an equation expresses the time rate of change of the chemical affinity as a linear function of the inverse of time. In this paper we show that by invoking the local equilibrium hypothesis one may provide, a time evolution equation for the chemical affinity that is uniquely given by the solution of the particular rate law of the reaction considered. Consequently such an equation is not of the same functional form for all reactions. On the other hand, integration of Dalton's law under specific initial conditions, together with the local equilibrium assumption and the ideality requirement for the reacting species, exhibits a unique inverse time decay for the chemical affinity. This explains the good fitting of the inverse in time dependence of the chemical affinity with experimental data.

  18. Decay channels and decay rates for the hydrogen-antihydrogen quasimolecule

    SciTech Connect

    Labzowsky, L.; Sharipov, V.; Prozorov, A.; Plunien, G.; Soff, G.

    2005-08-15

    Calculations of leptonic and hadronic annihilation rates in the hydrogen-antihydrogen molecule are presented. Both the leptonic potential and leptonic wave function are evaluated within the Born-Oppenheimer approximation employing the Ritz variational principle. Nonadiabatic corrections to the leptonic potential are also obtained. Explicitly correlated Gaussians are employed as basis functions, which describe accurately the hydrogen-antihydrogen interaction. Given the leptonic potential the hadronic part of the wave function for each molecular level of the hydrogen-antihydrogen quasimolecule is calculated by solving the corresponding Schroedinger equation by means of precise B-spline representations. The decay rates of the quasimolecule into separate positronium and protonium systems are estimated for a number of molecular levels. Utilizing the leptonic and hadronic wave functions the leptonic- and hadronic-annihilation rates for different molecular levels are computed.

  19. Solvent Polarity Effect on Nonradiative Decay Rate of Thioflavin T.

    PubMed

    Stsiapura, Vitali I; Kurhuzenkau, Siarhei A; Kuzmitsky, Valery A; Bouganov, Oleg V; Tikhomirov, Sergey A

    2016-07-21

    It has been established earlier that fluorescence quantum yield of thioflavin T (ThT)-a probe widely used for amyloid fibrils detection-is viscosity-dependent, and photophysical properties of ThT can be well-described by the fluorescent molecular rotor model, which associates twisted internal charge transfer (TICT) reaction with the main nonradiative decay process in the excited state of the dye. Solutions of ThT in a range of polar solvents were studied using steady-state fluorescence and sub-picosecond transient absorption spectroscopy methods, and we showed that solvent effect on nonradiative transition rate knr cannot be reduced to the dependence on viscosity only and that ∼3 times change of knr can be observed for ThT in aprotic solvents and water, which correlates with solvent polarity. Different behavior was observed in alcohol solutions, particularly in longer n-alcohols, where TICT rate was mainly determined by rotational diffusion of ThT fragments. Quantum-chemical calculations of S0 → S1 transition energy were performed to get insight of polar solvent contribution to the excited-state energy stabilization. Effect of polar solvent on electronic energy levels of ThT was simulated by applying homogeneous electric field according to the Onsager cavity model. Static solvent effect on the excited-state potential energy surface, where charge transfer reaction takes place, was not essential to account for experimentally observed TICT rate differences in water and aprotic solvents. From the other side, nonradiative decay rate of ThT in water, ethylene glycol, and aprotic solvents was found to follow dynamics of polar solvation knr ∼ τS(-1), which can explain dependence of the TICT rate on both polarity and viscosity of the solvents.

  20. Precision measurements of positronium decay rate and energy level

    SciTech Connect

    Asai, S.; Kataoka, Y.; Kobayashi, T.; Namba, T.; Suehara, T.; Akimoto, G.; Ishida, A.; Hashimoto, M. M.; Saito, H.; Idehara, T.; Yoshida, M.

    2008-08-08

    Positronium is an ideal system for the research of the bound state QED. New precise measurement of orthopositronium decay rate has been performed with an accuracy of 150 ppm, and the result combined with the last three is 7.0401{+-}0.0007 {mu}s{sup -1}. It is the first result to validate the 2nd order correction. The Hyper Fine Splitting of positronium is sensitive to the higher order corrections of the QED prediction and also to the new physics beyond Standard Model via the quantum oscillation into virtual photon. The discrepancy of 3.5{sigma} is found recently between the measured values and the QED prediction (O({alpha}{sup 3})). It might be due to the contribution of the new physics or the systematic problems in the previous measurements: (non-thermalized Ps and non-uniformity of the magnetic field). We propose new methods to measure HFS precisely without the these uncertainties.

  1. Modeling the nonradiative decay rate of electronically excited thioflavin T.

    PubMed

    Erez, Yuval; Liu, Yu-Hui; Amdursky, Nadav; Huppert, Dan

    2011-08-01

    A computational model of nonradiative decay is developed and applied to explain the time-dependent emission spectrum of thioflavin T (ThT). The computational model is based on a previous model developed by Glasbeek and co-workers (van der Meer, M. J.; Zhang, H.; Glasbeek, M. J. Chem. Phys. 2000, 112, 2878) for auramine O, a molecule that, like ThT, exhibits a high nonradiative rate. The nonradiative rates of both auramine O and ThT are inversely proportional to the solvent viscosity. The Glasbeek model assumes that the excited state consists of an adiabatic potential surface constructed by adiabatic coupling of emissive and dark states. For ThT, the twist angle between the benzothiazole and the aniline is responsible for the extensive mixing of the two excited states. At a twist angle of 90°, the S(1) state assumes a charge-transfer-state character with very small oscillator strength, which causes the emission intensity to be very small as well. In the ground state, the twist angle of ThT is rather small. The photoexcitation leads first to a strongly emissive state (small twist angle). As time progresses, the twist angle increases and the oscillator strength decreases. The fit of the experimental results by the model calculations is good for times longer than 3 ps. When a two-coordinate model is invoked or a solvation spectral-shift component is added, the fit to the experimental results is good at all times. PMID:21711024

  2. Attenuation of excitation decay rate due to collective effect.

    PubMed

    Tay, B A

    2014-08-01

    We study a series of N oscillators, each coupled to its nearest neighbors, and linearly to a phonon field through the oscillator's number operator. We show that the Hamiltonian of a pair of adjacent oscillators, or a dimer, within the series of oscillators can be transformed into a form in which they are collectively coupled to the phonon field as a composite unit. In the weak coupling and rotating-wave approximation, the system behaves effectively as the trilinear boson model in the one excitation subspace of the dimer subsystem. The reduced dynamics of the one excitation subspace of the dimer subsystem coupled weakly to a phonon bath is similar to that of a two-level system, with a metastable state against the vacuum. The decay constant of the subsystem is proportional to the dephasing rate of the individual oscillator in a phonon bath, attenuated by a factor that depends on site asymmetry, intersite coupling, and the resonance frequency between the transformed oscillator modes, or excitons. As a result of the collective effect, the excitation relaxation lifetime is prolonged over the dephasing lifetime of an individual oscillator coupled to the same bath. PMID:25215723

  3. Decay rates of the solution of the Cauchy thermoelastic Bresse system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afilal, Mounir; Merabtene, Tarek; Rhofir, Karim; Soufyane, Abdelaziz

    2016-10-01

    We consider two Cauchy problems for the one-dimensional thermoelastic Bresse model. Using the energy method in the Fourier space, we show that for the first model, the {L2}-norm of the solution decays with the rate {(1+t)^{-1/12}}. In addition, the same decay rate has been obtained for the second model.

  4. Optimal decay rate for the local energy of a unbounded network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assel, R.; Jellouli, M.; Khenissi, M.

    2016-10-01

    We consider the wave equation on a unbounded network with Dirichlet and Kirchhoff conditions. We study the local energy decay of the solution. We prove that the energy is exponentially decaying and we give an exact formula for exponential decay rate. The limit energy is also given in terms of the initial conditions. The results are obtained using two approaches. A direct one uses type τ operators in the case of equal edge lengths. The other one is based on a spectral investigation of an associated linear operator leading to the correspondence between the resonances width and the local energy decay rate.

  5. Resonances in (11)C observed in the (4)He((7)Be, alpha)(7)Be and (4)He((7)Be, p)(10)B reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Freer, M.; Ashwood, N. I.; Curtis, N.; Malcolm, J.; Munoz-Britton, T.; Price, D.; Wheldon, C.; Achouri, N. L.; Demaret, P.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Pain, Steven D; Brown, S.; Catford, W.; Harlin, Christopher W; Thomas, J. S.; Wilson, G.; Chipps, K.; Milin, M.; Raabe, R.; Soic, N.

    2012-01-01

    Measurements of the {sup 4}He({sup 7}Be,{alpha}){sup 7}Be and {sup 4}He({sup 7}Be,p){sup 10}B reactions were performed using {sup 7}Be beam energies of 7.1 and 23 MeV and a helium-4 target, employing the thick target technique. Resonances were observed between E{sub x}({sup 11}C) = 8.6 to 13.8 MeV. An R-matrix analysis was performed to characterize the spins and partial widths. This analysis showed that the observed sequence of states was consistent with that found for {sup 7}Li + {alpha} resonant scattering populating resonances in {sup 11}B. A comparison of the proposed partial widths for decay with the Wigner limit indicates that several of the states are associated with cluster-like structures.

  6. Long-term measurements of 36Cl to investigate potential solar influence on the decay rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossert, Karsten; Nähle, Ole J.

    2014-03-01

    Recently, Jenkins et al. [6] reported on fluctuations in the detected decay events of 36Cl which were measured with a Geiger-Müller counter. Experimental data of 32Si measured by means of an end-window gas-flow proportional counter at the Brookhaven National Laboratory show similar periodicity, albeit a different amplitude. Jenkins et al. interpret the fluctuations as evidence of solar influence on the decay rates of beta-decaying radionuclides.

  7. The use of decay rates to analyse the performance of railway track in rolling noise generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. J. C.; Thompson, D. J.; Diehl, R. J.

    2006-06-01

    Through the development and testing of theoretical models for rolling noise in the past, it has been well demonstrated that the rate of decay of vibration along the rail is closely linked to the noise performance of the track, since it controls the effective radiating length of the rail. The decay rates of vibration along the rail have long been used by researchers as an intermediate, measurable parameter by which to test and improve the accuracy of prediction models. Recently, it has been suggested that the decay rates should be used as a criterion for the selection of track for noise measurements that are part of the acceptance testing of interoperable trains in Europe. In this context, a more detailed understanding of the factors that affect the measurement of decay rates and a consistent approach to the data processing have become important topics. Here, a method is suggested for the calculation of decay rates from frequency response measurements. Different effects are shown in the measured decay rates of a ballasted track with mono-bloc sleepers, a slab track and a ballasted track with bi-bloc sleepers. In the last case, a model for a periodically supported track is used to study the effects observed. It is shown that a peak in the decay rate just above the pinned-pinned frequency may be overestimated because of the measurement procedure that has been used.

  8. Biomass decay rates and tissue nutrient loss in bloom and non-bloom-forming macroalgal species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conover, Jessie; Green, Lindsay A.; Thornber, Carol S.

    2016-09-01

    Macroalgal blooms occur in shallow, low-wave energy environments and are generally dominated by fast-growing ephemeral macroalgae. When macroalgal mats undergo senescence and decompose they can cause oxygen depletion and release nutrients into the surrounding water. There are relatively few studies that examine macroalgal decomposition rates in areas impacted by macroalgal blooms. Understanding the rate of macroalgal bloom decomposition is essential to understanding the impacts of macroalgal blooms following senescence. Here, we examined the biomass, organic content, nitrogen decay rates and δ15N values for five macroalgal species (the bloom-forming Agardhiella subulata, Gracilaria vermiculophylla, Ulva compressa, and Ulva rigida and the non-bloom-forming Fucus vesiculosus) in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island, U.S.A. using a litterbag design. Bloom-forming macroalgae had similar biomass decay rates (0.34-0.51 k d-1) and decayed significantly faster than non-bloom-forming macroalgae (0.09 k d-1). Biomass decay rates also varied temporally, with a significant positive correlation between biomass decay rate and water temperature for U. rigida. Tissue organic content decreased over time in all species, although A. subulata and G. vermiculophylla displayed significantly higher rates of organic content decay than U. compressa, U. rigida, and F. vesiculosus. Agardhiella subulata had a significantly higher rate of tissue nitrogen decay (0.35 k d-1) than all other species. By contrast, only the δ15N of F. vesiculosus changed significantly over the decay period. Overall, our results indicate that bloom-forming macroalgal species decay more rapidly than non-bloom-forming species.

  9. Transition Rates of Decays from Collective States in 150Nd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, A.; Prados-Estévez, F. M.; Choudry, S. N.; Crider, B. P.; Kumar, A.; McEllistrem, M. T.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Mynk, M. G.; Peters, E. E.; Wood, J. L.; Yates, S. W.; Garrett, P. E.; Kulp, W. D.; Orce, J. N.

    2013-03-01

    The low-lying level structure of the "so-called" transitional nucleus 150Nd has been explored using the (n, n' γ) reaction. A significant extension of the level scheme was made within the energy and spin regime of 2 MeV and 6ħ, respectively. Level lifetimes were extracted through a Doppler-shift attenuation analysis, and the level decay properties have been investigated. The observed low-lying level structure of 150Nd indicates a close resemblance to its neighboring isotone, 152Sm.

  10. Calculations on decay rates of various proton emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Yibin; Ren, Zhongzhou

    2016-03-01

    Proton radioactivity of neutron-deficient nuclei around the dripline has been systematically studied within the deformed density-dependent model. The crucial proton-nucleus potential is constructed via the single-folding integral of the density distribution of daughter nuclei and the effective M3Y nucleon-nucleon interaction or the proton-proton Coulomb interaction. After the decay width is obtained by the modified two-potential approach, the final decay half-lives can be achieved by involving the spectroscopic factors from the relativistic mean-field (RMF) theory combined with the BCS method. Moreover, a simple formula along with only one adjusted parameter is tentatively proposed to evaluate the half-lives of proton emitters, where the introduction of nuclear deformation is somewhat discussed as well. It is found that the calculated results are in satisfactory agreement with the experimental values and consistent with other theoretical studies, indicating that the present approach can be applied to the case of proton emission. Predictions on half-lives are made for possible proton emitters, which may be useful for future experiments.

  11. Use of geostatistics to predict virus decay rates for determination of septic tank setback distances.

    PubMed

    Yates, M V; Yates, S R; Warrick, A W; Gerba, C P

    1986-09-01

    Water samples were collected from 71 public drinking-water supply wells in the Tucson, Ariz., basin. Virus decay rates in the water samples were determined with MS-2 coliphage as a model virus. The correlations between the virus decay rates and the sample locations were shown by fitting a spherical model to the experimental semivariogram. Kriging, a geostatistical technique, was used to calculate virus decay rates at unsampled locations by using the known values at nearby wells. Based on the regional characteristics of groundwater flow and the kriged estimates of virus decay rates, a contour map of the area was constructed. The map shows the variation in separation distances that would have to be maintained between wells and sources of contamination to afford similar degrees of protection from viral contamination of the drinking water in wells throughout the basin.

  12. Beta decay rates of neutron-rich nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marketin, Tomislav; Huther, Lutz; Petković, Jelena; Paar, Nils; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2016-06-01

    Heavy element nucleosynthesis models involve various properties of thousands of nuclei in order to simulate the intricate details of the process. By necessity, as most of these nuclei cannot be studied in a controlled environment, these models must rely on the nuclear structure models for input. Of all the properties, the beta-decay half-lives are one of the most important ones due to their direct impact on the resulting abundance distributions. In this study we present the results of a large-scale calculation based on the relativistic nuclear energy density functional, where both the allowed and the first-forbidden transitions are studied in more than 5000 neutron-rich nuclei. Aside from the astrophysical applications, the results of this calculation can also be employed in the modeling of the electron and antineutrino spectra from nuclear reactors.

  13. Beta decay rates of neutron-rich nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Marketin, Tomislav; Huther, Lutz; Martínez-Pinedo, Gabriel

    2015-10-15

    Heavy element nucleosynthesis models involve various properties of thousands of nuclei in order to simulate the intricate details of the process. By necessity, as most of these nuclei cannot be studied in a controlled environment, these models must rely on the nuclear structure models for input. Of all the properties, the beta-decay half-lives are one of the most important ones due to their direct impact on the resulting abundance distributions. Currently, a single large-scale calculation is available based on a QRPA calculation with a schematic interaction on top of the Finite Range Droplet Model. In this study we present the results of a large-scale calculation based on the relativistic nuclear energy density functional, where both the allowed and the first-forbidden transitions are studied in more than 5000 neutron-rich nuclei.

  14. A multi-rate decay model to predict energy-based acoustic parameters in churches (L).

    PubMed

    Martellotta, Francesco

    2009-03-01

    Multi-rate decays are sometimes observed in room acoustics, appearing when markedly different volumes are coupled together and resulting in nonlinear decay curves. Such behavior appears in several churches at the very beginning of the decay process, although in conditions which cannot be explicitly referred to as coupling phenomena. Consequently, multi-rate exponential decays may be suitable to model energy distribution in this group of buildings, providing a more elegant and easily applicable set of equations in place of a previously defined "linear" model, used to adapt Barron's revised theory. The paper shows that the multi-rate approach ensures ease of calculation, without significant loss in accuracy in predicting energy-based acoustic parameters.

  15. Seasonal variations of decay rate measurement data and their interpretation.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Heinrich

    2016-08-01

    Measurement data of long-lived radionuclides, for example, (85)Kr, (90)Sr, (108m)Ag, (133)Ba, (152)Eu, (154)Eu and (226)Ra, and particularly the relative residuals of fitted raw data from current measurements of ionization chambers for half-life determination show small periodic seasonal variations with amplitudes of about 0.15%. The interpretation of these fluctuations is a matter of controversy whether the observed effect is produced by some interaction with the radionuclides themselves or is an artifact of the measuring chain. At the origin of such a discussion there is the exponential decay law of radioactive substances used for data fitting, one of the fundamentals of nuclear physics. Some groups of physicists use statistical methods and analyze correlations with various parameters of the measurement data and, for example, the Earth-Sun distance, as a basis of interpretation. In this article, data measured at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and published earlier are the subject of a correlation analysis using the corresponding time series of data with varying measurement conditions. An overview of these measurement conditions producing instrument instabilities is given and causality relations are discussed. The resulting correlation coefficients for various series of the same radionuclide using similar measurement conditions are in the order of 0.7, which indicates a high correlation, and for series of the same radionuclide using different measurement conditions and changes of the measuring chain of the order of -0.2 or even lower, which indicates an anti-correlation. These results provide strong arguments that the observed seasonal variations are caused by the measuring chain and, in particular, by the type of measuring electronics used.

  16. Seasonal variations of decay rate measurement data and their interpretation.

    PubMed

    Schrader, Heinrich

    2016-08-01

    Measurement data of long-lived radionuclides, for example, (85)Kr, (90)Sr, (108m)Ag, (133)Ba, (152)Eu, (154)Eu and (226)Ra, and particularly the relative residuals of fitted raw data from current measurements of ionization chambers for half-life determination show small periodic seasonal variations with amplitudes of about 0.15%. The interpretation of these fluctuations is a matter of controversy whether the observed effect is produced by some interaction with the radionuclides themselves or is an artifact of the measuring chain. At the origin of such a discussion there is the exponential decay law of radioactive substances used for data fitting, one of the fundamentals of nuclear physics. Some groups of physicists use statistical methods and analyze correlations with various parameters of the measurement data and, for example, the Earth-Sun distance, as a basis of interpretation. In this article, data measured at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and published earlier are the subject of a correlation analysis using the corresponding time series of data with varying measurement conditions. An overview of these measurement conditions producing instrument instabilities is given and causality relations are discussed. The resulting correlation coefficients for various series of the same radionuclide using similar measurement conditions are in the order of 0.7, which indicates a high correlation, and for series of the same radionuclide using different measurement conditions and changes of the measuring chain of the order of -0.2 or even lower, which indicates an anti-correlation. These results provide strong arguments that the observed seasonal variations are caused by the measuring chain and, in particular, by the type of measuring electronics used. PMID:27258217

  17. WEST NILE VIRUS ANTIBODY DECAY RATE IN FREE-RANGING BIRDS.

    PubMed

    McKee, Eileen M; Walker, Edward D; Anderson, Tavis K; Kitron, Uriel D; Brawn, Jeffrey D; Krebs, Bethany L; Newman, Christina; Ruiz, Marilyn O; Levine, Rebecca S; Carrington, Mary E; McLean, Robert G; Goldberg, Tony L; Hamer, Gabriel L

    2015-07-01

    Antibody duration, following a humoral immune response to West Nile virus (WNV) infection, is poorly understood in free-ranging avian hosts. Quantifying antibody decay rate is important for interpreting serologic results and for understanding the potential for birds to serorevert and become susceptible again. We sampled free-ranging birds in Chicago, Illinois, US, from 2005 to 2011 and Atlanta, Georgia, US, from 2010 to 2012 to examine the dynamics of antibody decay following natural WNV infection. Using serial dilutions in a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we quantified WNV antibody titer in repeated blood samples from individual birds over time. We quantified a rate of antibody decay for 23 Northern Cardinals (Cardinalis cardinalis) of 0.198 natural log units per month and 24 individuals of other bird species of 0.178 natural log units per month. Our results suggest that juveniles had a higher rate of antibody decay than adults, which is consistent with nonlinear antibody decay at different times postexposure. Overall, most birds had undetectable titers 2 yr postexposure. Nonuniform WNV antibody decay rates in free-ranging birds underscore the need for cautious interpretation of avian serology results in the context of arbovirus surveillance and epidemiology.

  18. Proton resonance scattering of 7Be

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Saito, A.; He, J. J.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Amadio, G.; Fujikawa, H.; Kubono, S.; Khiem, L. H.; Niikura, M.; Kwon, Y. K.; Teranishi, T.; Nishimura, S.; Togano, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Inafuku, K.

    2006-07-12

    We have studied the proton resonance scattering of 7Be by using a pure 7Be beam produced at CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator; CNS stands for Center of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo). The excitation function of 8B was measured up to the excitation energy of 6.8 MeV, with the thick-target method. The excited states of 8B higher than 3.5 MeV were not known by the past experiments. This proton elastic scattering is also of importance in relation with the 7Be(p,{gamma})8B reaction, which is a key reaction in the standard solar model.

  19. Proton resonance scattering of 7Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Saito, A.; He, J. J.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Amadio, G.; Fujikawa, H.; Kubono, S.; Khiem, L. H.; Kwon, Y. K.; Niikura, M.; Teranishi, T.; Nishimura, S.; Togano, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Inafuku, K.

    2006-07-01

    We have studied the proton resonance scattering of 7Be by using a pure 7Be beam produced at CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator; CNS stands for Center of Nuclear Study, University of Tokyo). The excitation function of 8B was measured up to the excitation energy of 6.8 MeV, with the thick-target method. The excited states of 8B higher than 3.5 MeV were not known by the past experiments. This proton elastic scattering is also of importance in relation with the 7Be(p,γ)8B reaction, which is a key reaction in the standard solar model.

  20. Short term memory bowing effect is consistent with presentation rate dependent decay.

    PubMed

    Tarnow, Eugen

    2010-12-01

    I reanalyze the free recall data of Murdock, J Exp Psychol 64(5):482-488 (1962) and Murdock and Okada, J Verbal Learn and Verbal Behav 86:263-267 (1970) which show the famous bowing effect in which initial and recent items are recalled better than intermediate items (primacy and recency effects). Recent item recall probabilities follow a logarithmic decay with time of recall consistent with the tagging/retagging theory. The slope of the decay increases with increasing presentation rate. The initial items, with an effectively low presentation rate, decay with the slowest logarithmic slope, explaining the primacy effect. The finding that presentation rate limits the duration of short term memory suggests a basis for memory loss in busy adults, for the importance of slow music practice, for long term memory deficiencies for people with attention deficits who may be artificially increasing the presentation rates of their surroundings. A well-defined, quantitative measure of the primacy effect is introduced.

  1. Geometrical scaling and modal decay rates in periodic arrays of deeply subwavelength Terahertz resonators

    SciTech Connect

    Isić, Goran Gajić, Radoš

    2014-12-21

    It is well known that due to the high conductivity of noble metals at terahertz frequencies and scalability of macroscopic Maxwell equations, a geometrical downscaling of a terahertz resonator results in the linear upscaling of its resonance frequency. However, the scaling laws of modal decay rates, important for the resonator excitation efficiency, are much less known. Here, we investigate the extent to which the scale-invariance of decay rates is violated due to the finite conductivity of the metal. We find that the resonance quality factor or the excitation efficiency may be substantially affected by scaling and show that this happens as a result of the scale-dependence of the metal absorption rate, while the radiative decay and the dielectric cavity absorption rates are approximately scale-invariant. In particular, we find that by downscaling overcoupled resonators, their excitation efficiency increases, while the opposite happens with undercoupled resonators.

  2. Neglected role of fungal community composition in explaining variation in wood decay rates.

    PubMed

    Van der Wal, A; Ottosson, E; De Boer, W

    2015-01-01

    Decomposition of wood is an important component of global carbon cycling. Most wood decomposition models are based on tree characteristics and environmental conditions; however, they do not include community dynamics of fungi that are the major wood decomposers. We examined the factors explaining variation in sapwood decay in oak tree stumps two and five years after cutting. Wood moisture content was significantly correlated with sapwood decay in younger stumps, whereas ITS-based composition and species richness of the fungal community were the best predictors for mass loss in the older stumps. Co-occurrence analysis showed that, in freshly cut trees and in younger stumps, fungal communities were nonrandomly structured, whereas fungal communities in old stumps could not be separated from a randomly assembled community. These results indicate that the most important factors explaining variation in wood decay rates can change over time and that the strength of competitive interactions between fungi in decaying tree stumps may level off with increased wood decay. Our field analysis further suggests that ascomycetes may have a prominent role in wood decay, but their wood-degrading abilities need to be further tested under controlled conditions. The next challenging step will be to integrate fungal community assembly processes in wood decay models to improve carbon sequestration estimates of forests.

  3. Neglected role of fungal community composition in explaining variation in wood decay rates.

    PubMed

    Van der Wal, A; Ottosson, E; De Boer, W

    2015-01-01

    Decomposition of wood is an important component of global carbon cycling. Most wood decomposition models are based on tree characteristics and environmental conditions; however, they do not include community dynamics of fungi that are the major wood decomposers. We examined the factors explaining variation in sapwood decay in oak tree stumps two and five years after cutting. Wood moisture content was significantly correlated with sapwood decay in younger stumps, whereas ITS-based composition and species richness of the fungal community were the best predictors for mass loss in the older stumps. Co-occurrence analysis showed that, in freshly cut trees and in younger stumps, fungal communities were nonrandomly structured, whereas fungal communities in old stumps could not be separated from a randomly assembled community. These results indicate that the most important factors explaining variation in wood decay rates can change over time and that the strength of competitive interactions between fungi in decaying tree stumps may level off with increased wood decay. Our field analysis further suggests that ascomycetes may have a prominent role in wood decay, but their wood-degrading abilities need to be further tested under controlled conditions. The next challenging step will be to integrate fungal community assembly processes in wood decay models to improve carbon sequestration estimates of forests. PMID:26236897

  4. Communication: Engineered tunable decay rate and controllable dissipative dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Lue Zhiguo; Zheng Hang

    2012-03-28

    We investigate the steering dissipative dynamics of a two-level system (qubit) by means of the modulation of an assisted tunneling degree of freedom which is described by a quantum-oscillator spin-boson model. Our results reveal that the decoherence rate of the qubit can be significantly suppressed and simultaneously its quality factor is enhanced. Moreover, the modulated dynamical susceptibility exhibits a multi-peak feature which is indicative of the underlying structure and measurable in experiment. Our findings demonstrate that the interplay between the combined degrees of freedom and the qubit is crucial for reducing the dissipation of qubit and expanding the coherent regime of quantum operation much large. The strategy might be used to fight against deterioration of quantum coherence in quantum information processing.

  5. Nonlinear Stability Analysis with Decay Rates of Two Classes of Waves for Conservation Laws.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zingano, Paulo Ricardo

    1990-08-01

    We study in this work the decay rate of disturbances to certain elementary waves for conservation laws when their initial profile is perturbed. In the first problem, rarefaction waves for the scalar equation u_ {t}+f(u)_{x}=u_{xx }, f convex, are considered, and we show that disturbances decay in the L^2 -norm as O(t^{-1/4+mu }), for mu > 0 arbitrarily small, provided they belong to the space L^1cap H^1 initially. The second problem concerns the stability of weak shock waves of a certain class of hyperbolic systems with relaxation, disturbances in this case are shown to decay in L ^2 at certain algebraic rates which depend on how fast they die off as x to +/- infty at initial time, provided they are sufficiently weak. This behavior is due to the compressibility of such waves with respect to the dynamic characteristics governing the propagation of disturbances, a basic feature of shock waves. This result is in vivid contrast to the corresponding one for rarefaction waves, where the decay is ultimately governed by diffusion processes which impose a limit on the overall rate. In both problems treated here, the analysis is based on the derivation of suitable energy inequalities with appropriate decay rates.

  6. Sensitivity studies for the main r process: β-decay rates

    SciTech Connect

    Mumpower, M.; Cass, J.; Passucci, G.; Aprahamian, A.; Surman, R.

    2014-04-15

    The pattern of isotopic abundances produced in rapid neutron capture, or r-process, nucleosynthesis is sensitive to the nuclear physics properties of thousands of unstable neutron-rich nuclear species that participate in the process. It has long been recognized that the some of the most influential pieces of nuclear data for r-process simulations are β-decay lifetimes. In light of experimental advances that have pushed measurement capabilities closer to the classic r-process path, we revisit the role of individual β-decay rates in the r process. We perform β-decay rate sensitivity studies for a main (A > 120) r process in a range of potential astrophysical scenarios. We study the influence of individual rates during (n, γ)-(γ, n) equilibrium and during the post-equilibrium phase where material moves back toward stability. We confirm the widely accepted view that the most important lifetimes are those of nuclei along the r-process path for each astrophysical scenario considered. However, we find in addition that individual β-decay rates continue to shape the final abundance pattern through the post-equilibrium phase, for as long as neutron capture competes with β decay. Many of the lifetimes important for this phase of the r process are within current or near future experimental reach.

  7. Coordinate-dependent diffusion coefficients: Decay rate in open quantum systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sargsyan, V. V.; Palchikov, Yu. V.; Antonenko, N. V.; Kanokov, Z.; Adamian, G. G.

    2007-06-15

    Based on a master equation for the reduced density matrix of an open quantum collective system, the influence of coordinate-dependent microscopical diffusion coefficients on the decay rate from a metastable state is treated. For various frictions and temperatures larger than a crossover temperature, the quasistationary decay rates obtained with the coordinate-dependent microscopical set of diffusion coefficients are compared with those obtained with the coordinate-independent microscopical set of diffusion coefficients and coordinate-independent and -dependent phenomenological sets of diffusion coefficients. Neglecting the coordinate dependence of diffusion coefficients, one can strongly overestimate or underestimate the decay rate at low temperature. The coordinate-dependent phenomenological diffusion coefficient in momentum are shown to be suitable for applications.

  8. Radioactive 7Be materials flown on LDEF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    1992-01-01

    Following the discovery of the atmospheric cosmogenic radionuclide Be-7 on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF), we began a search for other known nuclides produced by similar mechanisms. None of the others have the narrow gamma-ray line emission of Be-7 decay which enable its rapid detection and quantification. A search for Be-10 atoms on LDEF clamp plates using accelerator mass spectrometry is described. An unexpected result was obtained.

  9. Reduction of the magnetization decay rate in high- T sub c superconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lairson, B.M.; Sun, J.Z.; Bravman, J.C.; Geballe, T.H. )

    1990-07-01

    Small decrements in the temperature {Delta}T of superconducting samples in the critical state are shown to cause substantial reduction in the rate of magnetic relaxation. Quantitative agreement is obtained between experimental data and a model, which assumes the decay of the supercurrent subsequent to the change in temperature can be described in terms of the critical state. Experiments were performed in an applied field of 5.07 kG, on thick film (1.6 {mu}m) samples which generate a substantial self-field ({similar to}5 kG). The effect of temperature reduction is shown to be calculable from a knowledge of the decay-rate exponent {ital n} and {ital J}{sub {ital c}}(T) in the relevant temperature range. These results indicate that cooling in the critical state can be used to study magnetization decay at current densities reduced from the critical current.

  10. Disproof of solar influence on the decay rates of 90Sr/90 Y

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kossert, Karsten; Nähle, Ole J.

    2015-09-01

    A custom-built liquid scintillation counter was used for long-term measurements of 90Sr/90 Y sources. The detector system is equipped with an automated sample changer and three photomultiplier tubes, which makes the application of the triple-to-double coincidence ratio (TDCR) method possible. After decay correction, the measured decay rates were found to be stable and no annual oscillation could be observed. Thus, the findings of this work are in strong contradiction to those of Parkhomov (2011) who reported on annual oscillations when measuring 90Sr/90 Y with a Geiger-Müller counter. Sturrock et al. (2012) carried out a more detailed analysis of the experimental data from Parkhomov and claimed to have found correlations between the decay rates and processes inside the Sun. These findings are questionable, since they are based on inappropriate experimental data as is demonstrated in this work. A frequency analysis of our activity data does not show any significant periodicity.

  11. Rates of exponential decay in systems of discrete energy levels by Stieltjes imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Craigie, Jacob; Hammad, Ali; Cooper, Bridgette; Averbukh, Vitali

    2014-07-07

    An isolated bound state coupled to a continuum shows an exponential decay of its survival probability. Rates of the exponential decay occurring due to the bound-continuum coupling can be recovered from discretized continuum (L{sup 2}) calculations using a computational technique known as Stieltjes-Chebyshev moment theory or Stieltjes imaging. At the same time, some genuinely discrete level systems, e.g., Bixon-Jortner model, also show an exponential (or approximately exponential) decay of the initially populated level before the onset of quantum revivals. Here, we demonstrate numerically that Stieltjes imaging can be used for calculation of the rates of the exponential decay in such discrete level systems. We apply the Stieltjes imaging technique to the approximately exponential decay of inner-valence vacancies in trans-butadiene in order to show that the breakdown of the molecular orbital picture of ionization in the inner valence region can be physically interpreted as an energy-forbidden Coster-Kronig transition.

  12. Ratio of hadronic decay rates of J/{psi} and {psi}(2S) and the {rho}{pi} puzzle

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Y. F.; Li, X. H.

    2001-06-01

    The so-called {rho}{pi} puzzle of J/{psi} and {psi}(2S) decays is examined using the experimental data available to date. Two different approaches were taken to estimate the ratio of J/{psi} and {psi}(2S) hadronic decay rates. While one of the estimates could not yield the exact ratio of {psi}(2S) to J/{psi} inclusive hadronic decay rates, the other, based on a computation of the inclusive ggg decay rate for {psi}(2S)(J/{psi}) by subtracting other decay rates from the total decay rate, differs by two standard deviations from the naive prediction of perturbative QCD, even though its central value is nearly twice as large as what was naively expected. A comparison between this ratio, upon making corrections for specific exclusive two-body decay modes, and the corresponding experimental data confirms the puzzles in J/{psi} and {psi}(2S) decays. We find from our analysis that the exclusively reconstructed hadronic decays of the {psi}(2S) account for only a small fraction of its total decays, and a ratio exceeding the above estimate should be expected to occur for a considerable number of the remaining decay channels. We also show that the recent new results from the BES experiment provide crucial tests of various theoretical models proposed to explain the puzzle.

  13. Estimate Of The Decay Rate Constant of Hydrogen Sulfide Generation From Landfilled Drywall

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research was conducted to investigate the impact of particle size on H2S gas emissions and estimate a decay rate constant for H2S gas generation from the anaerobic decomposition of drywall. Three different particle sizes of regular drywall and one particle size of paperless drywa...

  14. Conserved Non-Coding Sequences are Associated with Rates of mRNA Decay in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Spangler, Jacob B; Feltus, Frank Alex

    2013-01-01

    Steady-state mRNA levels are tightly regulated through a combination of transcriptional and post-transcriptional control mechanisms. The discovery of cis-acting DNA elements that encode these control mechanisms is of high importance. We have investigated the influence of conserved non-coding sequences (CNSs), DNA patterns retained after an ancient whole genome duplication event, on the breadth of gene expression and the rates of mRNA decay in Arabidopsis thaliana. The absence of CNSs near α duplicate genes was associated with a decrease in breadth of gene expression and slower mRNA decay rates while the presence CNSs near α duplicates was associated with an increase in breadth of gene expression and faster mRNA decay rates. The observed difference in mRNA decay rate was fastest in genes with CNSs in both non-transcribed and transcribed regions, albeit through an unknown mechanism. This study supports the notion that some Arabidopsis CNSs regulate the steady-state mRNA levels through post-transcriptional control mechanisms and that CNSs also play a role in controlling the breadth of gene expression.

  15. Invariance of decay rate with respect to boundary conditions in thermoelastic Timoshenko systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, M. S.; Jorge Silva, M. A.; Ma, T. F.; Muñoz Rivera, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    This paper is mainly concerned with the polynomial stability of a thermoelastic Timoshenko system recently introduced by Almeida Júnior et al. (Z Angew Math Phys 65(6):1233-1249, 2014) that proved, in the general case when equal wave speeds are not assumed, different polynomial decay rates depending on the boundary conditions, namely, optimal rate {t^{-1/2}} for mixed Dirichlet-Neumann boundary condition and rate {t^{-1/4}} for full Dirichlet boundary condition. Here, our main achievement is to prove the same polynomial decay rate {t^{-1/2}} (corresponding to the optimal one) independently of the boundary conditions, which improves the existing literature on the subject. As a complementary result, we also prove that the system is exponentially stable under equal wave speeds assumption. The technique employed here can probably be applied to other kind of thermoelastic systems.

  16. Configuration splitting and gamma-decay transition rates in the two-group shell model

    SciTech Connect

    Isakov, V. I.

    2015-09-15

    Expressions for reduced gamma-decay transition rates were obtained on the basis of the twogroup configuration model for the case of transitions between particles belonging to identical groups of nucleons. In practical applications, the present treatment is the most appropriate for describing decays for odd–odd nuclei in the vicinity of magic nuclei or for nuclei where the corresponding subshells stand out in energy. Also, a simple approximation is applicable to describing configuration splitting in those cases. The present calculations were performed for nuclei whose mass numbers are close to A ∼ 90, including N = 51 odd—odd isotones.

  17. Characterization of decay and emission rates of ultrafine particles in indoor ice rink.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Lee, K

    2013-08-01

    The purposes of this study were to determine indoor ultrafine particle (UFP, diameter <100 nm) levels in ice rinks and to characterize UFP decay and emission rates. All 15 public ice rinks in Seoul were investigated for UFP and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations. Three ice rinks did not show peaks in UFP concentrations, and one ice rink used two resurfacers simultaneously. High peaks of UFP and CO concentrations were observed when the resurfacer was operated. The average air change rate in the 11 ice rinks was 0.21 ± 0.13/h. The average decay rates of UFP number concentrations measured by the P-Trak and DiSCmini were 0.54 ± 0.21/h and 0.85 ± 0.34/h, respectively. The average decay rate of UFP surface area concentration was 0.33 ± 0.15/h. The average emission rates of UFP number concentrations measured by P-Trak and DiSCmini were 1.2 × 10(14) ± 6.5 × 10(13) particles/min and 3.3 × 10(14) ± 2.4 × 10(14) particles/min, respectively. The average emission rate of UFP surface area concentration was 3.1 × 10(11) ± 2.0 × 10(11) μm(2)/min. UFP emission rate was associated with resurfacer age. DiSCmini measured higher decay and emission rates than P-Trak due to their different measuring mechanisms and size ranges.

  18. Measurement of the decay rate of the SiH feature as a function of temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nuth, Joseph A., III; Kraus, George F.

    1994-01-01

    We have previously suggested that the SiH fundamental stretch could serve as a diagnostic indicator of the oxidation state of silicate surfaces exposed to the solar wind for prolonged periods. We have now measured the primary decay rate of SiH in vacuo as a function of temperature and find that the primary rate constant for the decay can be characterized by the following equation: k(min(exp -1)) approximately equals 0.186 exp(-9/RT) min(exp -1), where R = 2 x 10(exp -3) kcal deg(exp -1) mole(exp -1). This means that the half-life for the decay of the SiH feature at room temperature is approximately 20 yrs, whereas the half-life at a peak lunar regolith temperature of approximately 500K would be only approximately 20 days. At the somewhat lower temperature of approximately 400K the half-life for the decay is on the order of 200 days. The rate of loss of SiH as a function of temperature provides an upper limit to the quantity of H implanted by the solar wind which can be retained by a silicate grain in a planetary regolith. This will be discussed in more detail here.

  19. Beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability of improved gross theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koura, Hiroyuki

    2014-09-01

    A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for unmeasured nuclei are adopted from the KTUY nuclear mass formula, which is based on the spherical-basis method. Considering the properties of the integrated Fermi function, we can roughly categorized energy region of excited-state of a daughter nucleus into three regions: a highly-excited energy region, which fully affect a delayed neutron probability, a middle energy region, which is estimated to contribute the decay heat, and a region neighboring the ground-state, which determines the beta-decay rate. Some results will be given in the presentation. A theoretical study has been carried out on beta-decay rate and beta-delayed neutron emission probability. The gross theory of the beta decay is based on an idea of the sum rule of the beta-decay strength function, and has succeeded in describing beta-decay half-lives of nuclei overall nuclear mass region. The gross theory includes not only the allowed transition as the Fermi and the Gamow-Teller, but also the first-forbidden transition. In this work, some improvements are introduced as the nuclear shell correction on nuclear level densities and the nuclear deformation for nuclear strength functions, those effects were not included in the original gross theory. The shell energy and the nuclear deformation for

  20. The role of wall confinement on the decay rate of an initially isotropic turbulent field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Movahed, Pooya; Johnsen, Eric

    2014-11-01

    The problem of freely decaying isotropic turbulence has been the subject of intensive research during the past few decades due to its importance for modeling purposes. While isotropy and periodic boundary conditions assumptions simplify the analysis, large-scale anisotropy (e.g., caused by rotation, shear, acceleration or walls) is in practice present in most turbulent flows and affects flow dynamics across different scales, as well as the kinetic energy decay. We investigate the role of wall confinement and viscous dissipation on the decay rate of an initially isotropic field for confining volumes of different aspect ratios. We first generate an isotropic velocity field in a cube with periodic boundary conditions. Next, using this field, we change the boundary conditions to no-slip walls on all sides. These walls restrict the initial field to a confined geometry and also provide an additional viscous dissipation mechanism. The problem is considered for confining volumes of different aspect ratios by adjusting the initial field. The change in confining volume introduces an additional length scale to the problem. Direct numerical simulation of the proposed set-up is used to verify the scaling arguments for the decay rate of kinetic energy. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number ACI-1053575.

  1. A Self-Organized Model for Cell-Differentiation Based on Variations of Molecular Decay Rates

    PubMed Central

    Hanel, Rudolf; Pöchacker, Manfred; Schölling, Manuel; Thurner, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    Systemic properties of living cells are the result of molecular dynamics governed by so-called genetic regulatory networks (GRN). These networks capture all possible features of cells and are responsible for the immense levels of adaptation characteristic to living systems. At any point in time only small subsets of these networks are active. Any active subset of the GRN leads to the expression of particular sets of molecules (expression modes). The subsets of active networks change over time, leading to the observed complex dynamics of expression patterns. Understanding of these dynamics becomes increasingly important in systems biology and medicine. While the importance of transcription rates and catalytic interactions has been widely recognized in modeling genetic regulatory systems, the understanding of the role of degradation of biochemical agents (mRNA, protein) in regulatory dynamics remains limited. Recent experimental data suggests that there exists a functional relation between mRNA and protein decay rates and expression modes. In this paper we propose a model for the dynamics of successions of sequences of active subnetworks of the GRN. The model is able to reproduce key characteristics of molecular dynamics, including homeostasis, multi-stability, periodic dynamics, alternating activity, differentiability, and self-organized critical dynamics. Moreover the model allows to naturally understand the mechanism behind the relation between decay rates and expression modes. The model explains recent experimental observations that decay-rates (or turnovers) vary between differentiated tissue-classes at a general systemic level and highlights the role of intracellular decay rate control mechanisms in cell differentiation. PMID:22693554

  2. Optimal decay rates of classical solutions for the full compressible MHD equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Jincheng; Tao, Qiang; Yao, Zheng-an

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we are concerned with optimal decay rates for higher-order spatial derivatives of classical solutions to the full compressible MHD equations in three-dimensional whole space. If the initial perturbation is small in {H^3}-norm and bounded in {L^q(qin [1, 6/5 ))}-norm, we apply the Fourier splitting method by Schonbek (Arch Ration Mech Anal 88:209-222, 1985) to establish optimal decay rates for the second-order spatial derivatives of solutions and the third-order spatial derivatives of magnetic field in {L^2}-norm. These results improve the work of Pu and Guo (Z Angew Math Phys 64:519-538, 2013).

  3. Estimation of HF artificial ionospheric turbulence characteristics using comparison of calculated plasma wave decay rates with the measured decay rates of the stimulated electromagnetic emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bareev, D. D.; Gavrilenko, V. G.; Grach, S. M.; Sergeev, E. N.

    2016-02-01

    It is shown experimentally that the relaxation time of the stimulated electromagnetic emission (SEE) after the pump wave turn off decreases when frequency of the electromagnetic wave, responsible for the SEE generation (pump wave f0 or diagnostic wave fdw) approaches 4th harmonic of the electron cyclotron frequency fce . Since the SEE relaxation is determined by the damping rate of plasma waves with the same frequency, responsible for the SEE generation, we calculated damping rates of plasma waves with ω ∼ωuh (ω is the plasma wave frequency, ωuh is the upper hybrid frequency) for frequencies close to and distant from the double resonance where ωuh ∼ 4ωce (ωce = 2 πfce). The calculations were performed numerically on the base of linear plasma wave dispersion relation at arbitrary ratio between | Δ | = ω - 4ωce and |k‖ |VTe (VTe is the electron thermal speed and k‖ is the projection of the wave vector onto the magnetic field direction. A comparison of calculation and experimental results has shown that obtained frequency dependence of the SEE decay rate is similar to the damping rate frequency dependence for plasma waves with wave vectors directed at the angles 60-70° to the magnetic field, and gives a strong hint that oblique upper hybrid plasma waves should be responsible for the SEE generation.

  4. Absorption cross-section and decay rate of rotating linear dilaton black holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakalli, I.; Aslan, O. A.

    2016-02-01

    We analytically study the scalar perturbation of non-asymptotically flat (NAF) rotating linear dilaton black holes (RLDBHs) in 4-dimensions. We show that both radial and angular wave equations can be solved in terms of the hypergeometric functions. The exact greybody factor (GF), the absorption cross-section (ACS), and the decay rate (DR) for the massless scalar waves are computed for these black holes (BHs). The results obtained for ACS and DR are discussed through graphs.

  5. Evidence against correlations between nuclear decay rates and Earth-Sun distance

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, Eric B.; Browne, Edgardo; Shugart, Howard A.; Joshi, Tenzing H.; Firestone, Richard B.

    2008-12-08

    We have reexamined our previously published data to search for evidence of correlations between the rates for the alpha, beta-minus, beta-plus, and electron capture decays of 22Na, 44Ti, 108Agm, 121Snm, 133Ba, and 241Am and the Earth?Sun distance. We find no evidence for such correlations and set limits on the possible amplitudes of such correlations substantially smaller than those observed in previous experiments.

  6. Measurement of the decay rate of single-frequency perturbations on blast waves.

    PubMed

    Edens, A D; Ditmire, T; Hansen, J F; Edwards, M J; Adams, R G; Rambo, P K; Ruggles, L; Smith, I C; Porter, J L

    2005-12-01

    To explore the validity of theories forwarded to explain the dynamics of hydrodynamic perturbations on high Mach number blast waves, we have studied the decay rate of perturbations on blast waves traveling through nitrogen gas. In our experiments, 1 kJ pulses from the Z-Beamlet laser at Sandia National Laboratories illuminated solid targets immersed in gas and created blast waves. The polytropic index implied by comparing experiment to theoretical predictions is compared to simulation results. PMID:16384385

  7. The Kalman-Tran-D'Souza model and the semileptonic decay rates of heavy baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Souza, I.; Kalman, C. S.; Kulikov, P. Yu.; Narodetskii, I. M.

    2001-03-01

    We present an investigation of the inclusive semileptonic decay widths of the heavy baryons Λ Q, Σ Q and Ξ Q, ( q = b, c) performed within a relativistic constituent quark model, formulated on the light-front. In a way conceptually similar to the deep-inelastic scattering case, the H Q-baryon inclusive width is expressed as the integral of the free Q-quark partial width multiplied by a bound-state factor related to the Q-quark distribution function in the H Q. The non-perturbative meson structure is described through the quark-model wave functions, constructed via the Hamiltonian light-front formalism using as input the Kalman-Tran-D'Souza equal time wave functions. A link between spectroscopic quark models and the H Q decay physics is obtained in this way. It is shown that the bound-state effects and the Fermi motion of the b-quark remarkably reduce the decay rate with respect to the free-quark result. Our predictions for the BR(Λ c → X sl ν e) and BR(Λ b → X cl ν e) decays are in good agreement with existing data.

  8. Direct Measurement of the Unimolecular Decay Rate of Criegee Intermediates to OH Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang; Fang, Yi; Klippenstein, Stephen; McCoy, Anne; Lester, Marsha

    Ozonolysis of alkenes is an important non-photolytic source of OH radicals in the troposphere. The production of OH radicals proceeds though formation and unimolecular decay of Criegee intermediates such as syn-CH3CHOO and (CH3)2COO. These alkyl-substituted Criegee intermediates can undergo a 1,4-H transfer reaction to form an energized vinyl hydroperoxide species, which breaks apart to OH and vinoxy products. Recently, this laboratory used IR excitation in the C-H stretch overtone region to initiate the unimolecular decay of syn-CH3CHOO and (CH3)2COO Criegee intermediates, leading to OH formation. Here, direct time-domain measurements are performed to observe the rate of appearance of OH products under collision-free conditions utilizing UV laser-induced fluorescence for detection. The experimental rates are in excellent agreement with statistical RRKM calculations using barrier heights predicted from high-level electronic structure calculations. Accurate determination of the rates and barrier heights for unimolecular decay of Criegee intermediates is essential for modeling the kinetics of alkene ozonolysis reactions, a significant OH radical source in atmospheric chemistry, as well as the steady-state concentration of Criegee intermediates in the atmosphere. This research was supported through the National Science Foundation under grant CHE-1362835.

  9. Photonic effects on the radiative decay rate and luminescence quantum yield of doped nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Senden, Tim; Rabouw, Freddy T; Meijerink, Andries

    2015-02-24

    Nanocrystals (NCs) doped with luminescent ions form an emerging class of materials. In contrast to excitonic transitions in semiconductor NCs, the optical transitions are localized and not affected by quantum confinement. The radiative decay rates of the dopant emission in NCs are nevertheless different from their bulk analogues due to photonic effects, and also the luminescence quantum yield (QY, important for applications) is affected. In the past, different theoretical models have been proposed to describe the photonic effects for dopant emission in NCs, with little experimental validation. In this work we investigate the photonic effects on the radiative decay rate of luminescent doped NCs using 4 nm LaPO4 NCs doped with Ce(3+) or Tb(3+) ions in different refractive index solvents and bulk crystals. We demonstrate that the measured influence of the refractive index on the radiative decay rate of the Ce(3+) emission, having near unity QY, is in excellent agreement with the theoretical nanocrystal-cavity model. Furthermore, we show how the nanocrystal-cavity model can be used to quantify the nonunity QY of Tb(3+)-doped LaPO4 NCs and demonstrate that, as a general rule, the QY is higher in media with higher refractive index.

  10. 31Cl beta decay and the 30P31S reaction rate in nova nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, Michael; Wrede, C.; Brown, B. A.; Liddick, S. N.; Pérez-Loureiro, D.; NSCL e12028 Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The 30P31S reaction rate is critical for modeling the final isotopic abundances of ONe nova nucleosynthesis, identifying the origin of presolar nova grains, and calibrating proposed nova thermometers. Unfortunately, this rate is essentially experimentally unconstrained because the strengths of key 31S proton capture resonances are not known, due to uncertainties in their spins and parities. Using a 31Cl beam produced at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory, we have populated several 31S states for study via beta decay and devised a new decay scheme which includes updated beta feedings and gamma branchings as well as multiple states previously unobserved in 31Cl beta decay. Results of this study, including the unambiguous identification due to isospin mixing of a new l = 0 , Jπ = 3 /2+ 31S resonance directly in the middle of the Gamow Window, will be presented, and significance to the evaluation of the 30P31S reaction rate will be discussed. Work supported by U.S. Natl. Sci. Foundation (Grants No. PHY-1102511, PHY-1404442, PHY-1419765, and PHY-1431052); U.S. Dept. of Energy, Natl. Nucl. Security Administration (Award No. DE-NA0000979); Nat. Sci. and Eng. Research Council of Canada.

  11. Instrument for precision long-term β-decay rate measurements.

    PubMed

    Ware, M J; Bergeson, S D; Ellsworth, J E; Groesbeck, M; Hansen, J E; Pace, D; Peatross, J

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experimental setup for making precision measurements of relative β-decay rates of (22)Na, (36)Cl, (54)Mn, (60)Co, (90)Sr, (133)Ba, (137)Cs, (152)Eu, and (154)Eu. The radioactive samples are mounted in two automated sample changers that sequentially position the samples with high spatial precision in front of sets of detectors. The set of detectors for one sample changer consists of four Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and the other set of detectors consists of two NaI scintillators. The statistical uncertainty in the count rate is few times 0.01% per day for the GM detectors and about 0.01% per hour on the NaI detectors. The sample changers, detectors, and associated electronics are housed in a sealed chamber held at constant absolute pressure, humidity, and temperature to isolate the experiment from environmental variations. The apparatus is designed to accumulate statistics over many years in a regulated environment to test recent claims of small annual variations in the decay rates. We demonstrate that absent this environmental regulation, uncontrolled natural atmospheric pressure variations at our location would imprint an annual signal of 0.1% on the Geiger-Müller count rate. However, neither natural pressure variations nor plausible indoor room temperature variations cause a discernible influence on our NaI scintillator detector count rate. PMID:26233381

  12. Instrument for precision long-term β-decay rate measurements.

    PubMed

    Ware, M J; Bergeson, S D; Ellsworth, J E; Groesbeck, M; Hansen, J E; Pace, D; Peatross, J

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experimental setup for making precision measurements of relative β-decay rates of (22)Na, (36)Cl, (54)Mn, (60)Co, (90)Sr, (133)Ba, (137)Cs, (152)Eu, and (154)Eu. The radioactive samples are mounted in two automated sample changers that sequentially position the samples with high spatial precision in front of sets of detectors. The set of detectors for one sample changer consists of four Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and the other set of detectors consists of two NaI scintillators. The statistical uncertainty in the count rate is few times 0.01% per day for the GM detectors and about 0.01% per hour on the NaI detectors. The sample changers, detectors, and associated electronics are housed in a sealed chamber held at constant absolute pressure, humidity, and temperature to isolate the experiment from environmental variations. The apparatus is designed to accumulate statistics over many years in a regulated environment to test recent claims of small annual variations in the decay rates. We demonstrate that absent this environmental regulation, uncontrolled natural atmospheric pressure variations at our location would imprint an annual signal of 0.1% on the Geiger-Müller count rate. However, neither natural pressure variations nor plausible indoor room temperature variations cause a discernible influence on our NaI scintillator detector count rate.

  13. Instrument for precision long-term β-decay rate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, M. J.; Bergeson, S. D.; Ellsworth, J. E.; Groesbeck, M.; Hansen, J. E.; Pace, D.; Peatross, J.

    2015-07-01

    We describe an experimental setup for making precision measurements of relative β-decay rates of 22Na, 36Cl, 54Mn, 60Co, 90Sr, 133Ba, 137Cs, 152Eu, and 154Eu. The radioactive samples are mounted in two automated sample changers that sequentially position the samples with high spatial precision in front of sets of detectors. The set of detectors for one sample changer consists of four Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and the other set of detectors consists of two NaI scintillators. The statistical uncertainty in the count rate is few times 0.01% per day for the GM detectors and about 0.01% per hour on the NaI detectors. The sample changers, detectors, and associated electronics are housed in a sealed chamber held at constant absolute pressure, humidity, and temperature to isolate the experiment from environmental variations. The apparatus is designed to accumulate statistics over many years in a regulated environment to test recent claims of small annual variations in the decay rates. We demonstrate that absent this environmental regulation, uncontrolled natural atmospheric pressure variations at our location would imprint an annual signal of 0.1% on the Geiger-Müller count rate. However, neither natural pressure variations nor plausible indoor room temperature variations cause a discernible influence on our NaI scintillator detector count rate.

  14. Instrument for precision long-term β-decay rate measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, M. J. Bergeson, S. D.; Ellsworth, J. E.; Groesbeck, M.; Hansen, J. E.; Pace, D.; Peatross, J.

    2015-07-15

    We describe an experimental setup for making precision measurements of relative β-decay rates of {sup 22}Na, {sup 36}Cl, {sup 54}Mn, {sup 60}Co, {sup 90}Sr, {sup 133}Ba, {sup 137}Cs, {sup 152}Eu, and {sup 154}Eu. The radioactive samples are mounted in two automated sample changers that sequentially position the samples with high spatial precision in front of sets of detectors. The set of detectors for one sample changer consists of four Geiger-Müller (GM) tubes and the other set of detectors consists of two NaI scintillators. The statistical uncertainty in the count rate is few times 0.01% per day for the GM detectors and about 0.01% per hour on the NaI detectors. The sample changers, detectors, and associated electronics are housed in a sealed chamber held at constant absolute pressure, humidity, and temperature to isolate the experiment from environmental variations. The apparatus is designed to accumulate statistics over many years in a regulated environment to test recent claims of small annual variations in the decay rates. We demonstrate that absent this environmental regulation, uncontrolled natural atmospheric pressure variations at our location would imprint an annual signal of 0.1% on the Geiger-Müller count rate. However, neither natural pressure variations nor plausible indoor room temperature variations cause a discernible influence on our NaI scintillator detector count rate.

  15. Combined Results on b-Hadron Production Rates and Decay Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Dong

    2002-09-11

    Combined results on b-hadron lifetimes, b-hadron production rates, B{sub d}{sup 0}-{bar B}{sub d}{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0}-{bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} oscillations, the decay width difference between the mass eigenstates of the B{sub s}{sup 0}-{bar B}{sub s}{sup 0} system, the average number of c and {bar c} quarks in b-hadron decays, and searches for CP violation in the B{sub d}{sup 0}-{bar B}{sub d}{sup 0} system are presented. They have been obtained from published and preliminary measurements available in Summer 2000 from the ALEPH, CDF, DELPHI, L3, OPAL and SLD Collaborations. These results have been used to determine the parameters of the CKM unitarity triangle.

  16. Initial colonization, community assembly and ecosystem function: fungal colonist traits and litter biochemistry mediate decay rate.

    PubMed

    Cline, Lauren C; Zak, Donald R

    2015-10-01

    Priority effects are an important ecological force shaping biotic communities and ecosystem processes, in which the establishment of early colonists alters the colonization success of later-arriving organisms via competitive exclusion and habitat modification. However, we do not understand which biotic and abiotic conditions lead to strong priority effects and lasting historical contingencies. Using saprotrophic fungi in a model leaf decomposition system, we investigated whether compositional and functional consequences of initial colonization were dependent on initial colonizer traits, resource availability or a combination thereof. To test these ideas, we factorially manipulated leaf litter biochemistry and initial fungal colonist identity, quantifying subsequent community composition, using neutral genetic markers, and community functional characteristics, including enzyme potential and leaf decay rates. During the first 3 months, initial colonist respiration rate and physiological capacity to degrade plant detritus were significant determinants of fungal community composition and leaf decay, indicating that rapid growth and lignolytic potential of early colonists contributed to altered trajectories of community assembly. Further, initial colonization on oak leaves generated increasingly divergent trajectories of fungal community composition and enzyme potential, indicating stronger initial colonizer effects on energy-poor substrates. Together, these observations provide evidence that initial colonization effects, and subsequent consequences on litter decay, are dependent upon substrate biochemistry and physiological traits within a regional species pool. Because microbial decay of plant detritus is important to global C storage, our results demonstrate that understanding the mechanisms by which initial conditions alter priority effects during community assembly may be key to understanding the drivers of ecosystem-level processes.

  17. Initial colonization, community assembly and ecosystem function: fungal colonist traits and litter biochemistry mediate decay rate.

    PubMed

    Cline, Lauren C; Zak, Donald R

    2015-10-01

    Priority effects are an important ecological force shaping biotic communities and ecosystem processes, in which the establishment of early colonists alters the colonization success of later-arriving organisms via competitive exclusion and habitat modification. However, we do not understand which biotic and abiotic conditions lead to strong priority effects and lasting historical contingencies. Using saprotrophic fungi in a model leaf decomposition system, we investigated whether compositional and functional consequences of initial colonization were dependent on initial colonizer traits, resource availability or a combination thereof. To test these ideas, we factorially manipulated leaf litter biochemistry and initial fungal colonist identity, quantifying subsequent community composition, using neutral genetic markers, and community functional characteristics, including enzyme potential and leaf decay rates. During the first 3 months, initial colonist respiration rate and physiological capacity to degrade plant detritus were significant determinants of fungal community composition and leaf decay, indicating that rapid growth and lignolytic potential of early colonists contributed to altered trajectories of community assembly. Further, initial colonization on oak leaves generated increasingly divergent trajectories of fungal community composition and enzyme potential, indicating stronger initial colonizer effects on energy-poor substrates. Together, these observations provide evidence that initial colonization effects, and subsequent consequences on litter decay, are dependent upon substrate biochemistry and physiological traits within a regional species pool. Because microbial decay of plant detritus is important to global C storage, our results demonstrate that understanding the mechanisms by which initial conditions alter priority effects during community assembly may be key to understanding the drivers of ecosystem-level processes. PMID:26331892

  18. Application of the renormalization group to the calculation of the vacuum decay rate in flat and curved space-time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, Dimitrios

    2007-02-01

    I show that an application of renormalization group arguments may lead to significant corrections to the vacuum decay rate for phase transitions in flat and curved space-time. It can also give some information regarding its dependence on the parameters of the theory, including the cosmological constant in the case of decay in curved space-time.

  19. The impact of sea-level rise on organic matter decay rates in Chesapeake Bay brackish tidal marshes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirwanm, M.L.; Langley, J.A.; Guntenspergen, Gleen R.; Megonigal, J.P.

    2013-01-01

    The balance between organic matter production and decay determines how fast coastal wetlands accumulate soil organic matter. Despite the importance of soil organic matter accumulation rates in influencing marsh elevation and resistance to sea-level rise, relatively little is known about how decomposition rates will respond to sea-level rise. Here, we estimate the sensitivity of decomposition to flooding by measuring rates of decay in 87 bags filled with milled sedge peat, including soil organic matter, roots and rhizomes. Experiments were located in field-based mesocosms along 3 mesohaline tributaries of the Chesapeake Bay. Mesocosm elevations were manipulated to influence the duration of tidal inundation. Although we found no significant influence of inundation on decay rate when bags from all study sites were analyzed together, decay rates at two of the sites increased with greater flooding. These findings suggest that flooding may enhance organic matter decay rates even in water-logged soils, but that the overall influence of flooding is minor. Our experiments suggest that sea-level rise will not accelerate rates of peat accumulation by slowing the rate of soil organic matter decay. Consequently, marshes will require enhanced organic matter productivity or mineral sediment deposition to survive accelerating sea-level rise.

  20. An Examination of Sunspot Number Rates of Growth and Decay in Relation to the Sunspot Cycle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.; Hathaway, David H.

    2006-01-01

    On the basis of annual sunspot number averages, sunspot number rates of growth and decay are examined relative to both minimum and maximum amplitudes and the time of their occurrences using cycles 12 through present, the most reliably determined sunspot cycles. Indeed, strong correlations are found for predicting the minimum and maximum amplitudes and the time of their occurrences years in advance. As applied to predicting sunspot minimum for cycle 24, the next cycle, its minimum appears likely to occur in 2006, especially if it is a robust cycle similar in nature to cycles 17-23.

  1. Evidence Against Correlations Between Nuclear Decay Rates and Earth-Sun Distance

    SciTech Connect

    Norman, E B; Browne, E; Shugart, H A; Joshi, T H; Firestone, R B

    2008-10-21

    We have reexamined our previously published data to search for evidence of correlations between the rates for the alpha, beta-minus, beta-plus, and electron-capture decays of {sup 22}Na, {sup 44}Ti, {sup 108}Ag{sup m}, {sup 121}Sn{sup m}, {sup 133}Ba, and {sup 241}Am and the Earth-Sun distance. We find no evidence for such correlations and set limits on the possible amplitudes of such correlations substantially smaller than those observed in previous experiments.

  2. Derivative expansion and gauge independence of the false vacuum decay rate in various gauges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, D.

    2001-04-01

    In theories with radiative symmetry breaking, the calculation of the false vacuum decay rate requires the inclusion of higher-order terms in the derivative expansion of the effective action. I show here that, in the case of covariant gauges, the presence of infrared singularities forbids the consistent calculation by keeping the lowest-order terms. The situation is remedied, however, in the case of Rξ gauges. Using the Nielsen identities I show that the final result is gauge independent for generic values of the gauge parameter v that are not anomalously small.

  3. Comparison of nonmesonic hypernuclear decay rates computed in laboratory and center-of-mass coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    De Conti, C.; Barbero, C.; Galeão, A. P.; Krmpotić, F.

    2014-11-11

    In this work we compute the one-nucleon-induced nonmesonic hypernuclear decay rates of {sub Λ}{sup 5}He, {sub Λ}{sup 12}C and {sub Λ}{sup 13}C using a formalism based on the independent particle shell model in terms of laboratory coordinates. To ascertain the correctness and precision of the method, these results are compared with those obtained using a formalism in terms of center-of-mass coordinates, which has been previously reported in the literature. The formalism in terms of laboratory coordinates will be useful in the shell-model approach to two-nucleon-induced transitions.

  4. Global observation of Omori-law decay in the rate of triggered earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, T.

    2001-12-01

    Triggered earthquakes can be large, damaging, and lethal as evidenced by the 1999 shocks in Turkey and the 2001 events in El Salvador. In this study, earthquakes with M greater than 7.0 from the Harvard CMT catalog are modeled as dislocations to calculate shear stress changes on subsequent earthquake rupture planes near enough to be affected. About 61% of earthquakes that occurred near the main shocks are associated with calculated shear stress increases, while ~39% are associated with shear stress decreases. If earthquakes associated with calculated shear stress increases are interpreted as triggered, then such events make up at least 8% of the CMT catalog. Globally, triggered earthquakes obey an Omori-law rate decay that lasts between ~7-11 years after the main shock. Earthquakes associated with calculated shear stress increases occur at higher rates than background up to 240 km away from the main-shock centroid. Earthquakes triggered by smaller quakes (foreshocks) also obey Omori's law, which is one of the few time-predictable patterns evident in the global occurrence of earthquakes. These observations indicate that earthquake probability calculations which include interactions from previous shocks should incorporate a transient Omori-law decay with time. In addition, a very simple model using the observed global rate change with time and spatial distribution of triggered earthquakes can be applied to immediately assess the likelihood of triggered earthquakes following large events, and can be in place until more sophisticated analyses are conducted.

  5. Stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis of 7Be: measurement of 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be.

    PubMed

    Di Leva, A; Gialanella, L; Kunz, R; Rogalla, D; Schürmann, D; Strieder, F; De Cesare, M; De Cesare, N; D'Onofrio, A; Fülöp, Z; Gyürky, G; Imbriani, G; Mangano, G; Ordine, A; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Romano, M; Somorjai, E; Terrasi, F

    2009-06-12

    The 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction presently represents the largest nuclear uncertainty in the predicted solar neutrino flux and has important implications on the big bang nucleosynthesis, i.e., the production of primordial 7Li. We present here the results of an experiment using the recoil separator ERNA (European Recoil separator for Nuclear Astrophysics) to detect directly the 7Be ejectiles. In addition, off-beam activation and coincidence gamma-ray measurements were performed at selected energies. At energies above 1 MeV a large discrepancy compared to previous results is observed both in the absolute value and in the energy dependence of the cross section. Based on the available data and models, a robust estimate of the cross section at the astrophysical relevant energies is proposed. PMID:19658929

  6. Stellar and primordial nucleosynthesis of 7Be: measurement of 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be.

    PubMed

    Di Leva, A; Gialanella, L; Kunz, R; Rogalla, D; Schürmann, D; Strieder, F; De Cesare, M; De Cesare, N; D'Onofrio, A; Fülöp, Z; Gyürky, G; Imbriani, G; Mangano, G; Ordine, A; Roca, V; Rolfs, C; Romano, M; Somorjai, E; Terrasi, F

    2009-06-12

    The 3He(alpha,gamma)7Be reaction presently represents the largest nuclear uncertainty in the predicted solar neutrino flux and has important implications on the big bang nucleosynthesis, i.e., the production of primordial 7Li. We present here the results of an experiment using the recoil separator ERNA (European Recoil separator for Nuclear Astrophysics) to detect directly the 7Be ejectiles. In addition, off-beam activation and coincidence gamma-ray measurements were performed at selected energies. At energies above 1 MeV a large discrepancy compared to previous results is observed both in the absolute value and in the energy dependence of the cross section. Based on the available data and models, a robust estimate of the cross section at the astrophysical relevant energies is proposed.

  7. Analysis of flow decay potential on Galileo. [oxidizer flow rate reduction by iron nitrate precipitates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cole, T. W.; Frisbee, R. H.; Yavrouian, A. H.

    1987-01-01

    The risks posed to the NASA's Galileo spacecraft by the oxidizer flow decay during its extended mission to Jupiter is discussed. The Galileo spacecraft will use nitrogen tetroxide (NTO)/monomethyl hydrazine bipropellant system with one large engine thrust-rated at a nominal 400 N, and 12 smaller engines each thrust-rated at a nominal 10 N. These smaller thrusters, because of their small valve inlet filters and small injector ports, are especially vulnerable to clogging by iron nitrate precipitates formed by NTO-wetted stainless steel components. To quantify the corrosion rates and solubility levels which will be seen during the Galileo mission, corrosion and solubility testing experiments were performed with simulated Galileo materials, propellants, and environments. The results show the potential benefits of propellant sieving in terms of iron and water impurity reduction.

  8. Additional experimental evidence for a solar influence on nuclear decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, Jere H.; Herminghuysen, Kevin R.; Blue, Thomas E.; Fischbach, Ephraim; Javorsek, Daniel; Kauffman, Andrew C.; Mundy, Daniel W.; Sturrock, Peter A.; Talnagi, Joseph W.

    2012-09-01

    Additional experimental evidence is presented in support of the recent hypothesis that a possible solar influence could explain fluctuations observed in the measured decay rates of some isotopes. These data were obtained during routine weekly calibrations of an instrument used for radiological safety at The Ohio State University Research Reactor using 36Cl. The detector system used was based on a Geiger-Müller gas detector, which is a robust detector system with very low susceptibility to environmental changes. A clear annual variation is evident in the data, with a maximum relative count rate observed in January/February, and a minimum relative count rate observed in July/August, for seven successive years from July 2005 to June 2011. This annual variation is not likely to have arisen from changes in the detector surroundings, as we show here.

  9. Viral decay and viral production rates in continental-shelf and deep-sea sediments of the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Dell'Anno, Antonio; Magagnini, Mirko; Danovaro, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Here, for the first time, we have carried out synoptic measurements of viral production and decay rates in continental-shelf and deep-sea sediments of the Mediterranean Sea to explore the viral balance. The net viral production and decay rates (1.1-61.2 and 0.6-13.5 x 10(7) viruses g(-1) h(-1), respectively) were significantly correlated, and were also related to prokaryotic heterotrophic production. The addition of enzymes increased the decay rates in the surface sediments, but not in the subsurface sediments. Both the viral production and the decay rates decreased significantly in the deeper sediment layers, while the virus-to-prokaryote abundance ratio increased, suggesting a high preservation of viruses in the subsurface sediments. Viral decay did not balance viral production at any of the sites investigated, accounting on average for c. 32% of the gross viral production in the marine sediments. We estimate that the carbon (C) released by viral decay contributed 6-23% to the total C released by the viral shunt. Because only c. 2% of the viruses produced can infect other prokaryotes, the majority is not subjected to direct lysis and potentially remains as a food source for benthic consumers. The results reported here suggest that viral decay can play an important role in biogeochemical cycles and benthic trophodynamics. PMID:20337705

  10. Size and shape dependent photoluminescence and excited state decay rates of diamondoids.

    PubMed

    Richter, Robert; Wolter, David; Zimmermann, Tobias; Landt, Lasse; Knecht, Andre; Heidrich, Christoph; Merli, Andrea; Dopfer, Otto; Reiss, Philipp; Ehresmann, Arno; Petersen, Jens; Dahl, Jeremy E; Carlson, Robert M K; Bostedt, Christoph; Möller, Thomas; Mitric, Roland; Rander, Torbjörn

    2014-02-21

    We present photoluminescence spectra and excited state decay rates of a series of diamondoids, which represent molecular structural analogues to hydrogen-passivated bulk diamond. Specific isomers of the five smallest diamondoids (adamantane-pentamantane) have been brought into the gas phase and irradiated with synchrotron radiation. All investigated compounds show intrinsic photoluminescence in the ultraviolet spectral region. The emission spectra exhibit pronounced vibrational fine structure which is analyzed using quantum chemical calculations. We show that the geometrical relaxation of the first excited state of adamantane, exhibiting Rydberg character, leads to the loss of Td symmetry. The luminescence of adamantane is attributed to a transition from the delocalized first excited state into different vibrational modes of the electronic ground state. Similar geometrical changes of the excited state structure have also been identified in the other investigated diamondoids. The excited state decay rates show a clear dependence on the size of the diamondoid, but are independent of the particle geometry, further indicating a loss of particle symmetry upon electronic excitation.

  11. Sensitivity of β -decay rates to the radial dependence of the nucleon effective mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severyukhin, A. P.; Margueron, J.; Borzov, I. N.; Van Giai, N.

    2015-03-01

    We analyze the sensitivity of β -decay rates in 78Ni and Sn,132100 to a correction term in Skyrme energy-density functionals (EDFs) which modifies the radial shape of the nucleon effective mass. This correction is added on top of several Skyrme parametrizations which are selected from their effective mass properties and predictions about the stability properties of 132Sn . The impact of the correction on high-energy collective modes is shown to be moderate. From the comparison of the effects induced by the surface-peaked effective mass in the three doubly magic nuclei, it is found that 132Sn is largely impacted by the correction, while 78Ni and 100Sn are only moderately affected. We conclude that β -decay rates in these nuclei can be used as a test of different parts of the nuclear EDF: 78Ni and 100Sn are mostly sensitive to the particle-hole interaction through the B (GT) values, while 132Sn is sensitive to the radial shape of the effective mass. Possible improvements of these different parts could therefore be better constrained in the future.

  12. Size and shape dependent photoluminescence and excited state decay rates of diamondoids.

    PubMed

    Richter, Robert; Wolter, David; Zimmermann, Tobias; Landt, Lasse; Knecht, Andre; Heidrich, Christoph; Merli, Andrea; Dopfer, Otto; Reiss, Philipp; Ehresmann, Arno; Petersen, Jens; Dahl, Jeremy E; Carlson, Robert M K; Bostedt, Christoph; Möller, Thomas; Mitric, Roland; Rander, Torbjörn

    2014-02-21

    We present photoluminescence spectra and excited state decay rates of a series of diamondoids, which represent molecular structural analogues to hydrogen-passivated bulk diamond. Specific isomers of the five smallest diamondoids (adamantane-pentamantane) have been brought into the gas phase and irradiated with synchrotron radiation. All investigated compounds show intrinsic photoluminescence in the ultraviolet spectral region. The emission spectra exhibit pronounced vibrational fine structure which is analyzed using quantum chemical calculations. We show that the geometrical relaxation of the first excited state of adamantane, exhibiting Rydberg character, leads to the loss of Td symmetry. The luminescence of adamantane is attributed to a transition from the delocalized first excited state into different vibrational modes of the electronic ground state. Similar geometrical changes of the excited state structure have also been identified in the other investigated diamondoids. The excited state decay rates show a clear dependence on the size of the diamondoid, but are independent of the particle geometry, further indicating a loss of particle symmetry upon electronic excitation. PMID:24398975

  13. No evidence for a decrease of nuclear decay rates with increasing heliocentric distance based on radiochronology of meteorites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Matthias M. M.; Wieler, Rainer

    2014-03-01

    It has been argued that the decay rates of several radioactive nuclides are slightly lower at Earth's aphelion than at perihelion, and that this effect might depend on heliocentric distance. It might then be expected that nuclear decay rates be considerably lower at larger distances from the sun, e.g., in the asteroid belt at 2-3 AU from where most meteorites originate. If so, ages of meteorites obtained by analyses of radioactive nuclides and their stable daughter isotopes might be in error, since these ages are based on decay rates determined on Earth. Here we evaluate whether the large data base on nuclear cosmochronology offers any hint for discrepancies which might be due to radially variable decay rates. Chlorine-36 (t1/2 = 301,000 a) is produced in meteorites by interactions with cosmic rays and is the nuclide for which a decay rate dependence from heliocentric distance has been proposed, which, in principle, can be tested with our approach and the current data base. We show that compilations of 36Cl concentrations measured in meteorites offer no support for a spatially variable 36Cl decay rate. For very short-lived cosmic-ray produced radionuclides (half-lives < 10-100 days), the concentration should be different for meteorites hitting the Earth on the incoming vs. outgoing part of their orbit. However, the current data base of very short-lived radionuclides in freshly fallen meteorites is far from sufficient to deduce solid constraints. Constraints on the age of the Earth and the oldest meteorite phases obtained by the U-Pb dating technique give no hints for radially variable decay rates of the α-decaying nuclides 235U or 238U. Similarly, some of the oldest phases in meteorites have U-Pb ages whose differences agree almost perfectly with respective age differences obtained with "short-lived" radionuclides present in the early solar system, again indicating no variability of uranium decay rates in different meteorite parent bodies in the asteroid belt

  14. Time Modulation of the {beta}{sup +}-Decay Rate of H-Like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. N.; Kryshen, E. L.; Pitschmann, M.; Kienle, P.

    2008-10-31

    Recent experimental data at GSI on the rates of the number of daughter ions, produced by the nuclear K-shell electron capture (EC) decays of the H-like ions {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} and {sup 142}Pm{sup 60+}, suggest that they are modulated in time with periods T{sub EC}{approx_equal}7 sec and amplitudes a{sub EC}{approx_equal}0.20. Since it is known that these ions are unstable also under the nuclear positron ({beta}{sup +}) decays, we study a possible time dependence of the nuclear {beta}{sup +}-decay rate of the H-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} ion. We show that the time dependence of the {beta}{sup +}-decay rate of the H-like {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} ion as well as any H-like heavy ions cannot be observed.

  15. 7-Be Implantation in Plastics for Prosthesis Wear Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greife, Uwe; Erikson, L.; Patel, N.; Wimmer, M.; Dwiwedi, Y.; Laurent, M.; Chipps, K.; Blackmon, J.; Kozub, R.; Bardayan, D.; Gross, C.; Stracener, D.; Smith, M.; Nesaraya, C.; Rehm, E.; Ahmed, I.; Greene, J.

    2010-11-01

    The current generation of highly cross linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylenes (PE) for hip and knee joint replacement have achieved such low in vitro wear rates that efforts have been underway to develop more sensitive methods to measure polyethylene wear. The most widely used technique, the gravimetric method, suffers from the notable disadvantage that mass gain by fluid absorption can considerably exceed mass loss by wear, making the wear measurement inaccurate, sometimes even leading to negative ``wear'' values. The purpose of this experiment was to investigate the use of a radioactive tracer, beryllium-7 (7-Be), to circumvent the problem of fluid absorption and thereby achieve a much more sensitive and accurate wear measurement. This proof of principle study demonstrated the general feasibility of 7-Be implantation (performed at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility of Oak Ridge National Laboratory) for PE wear analysis.

  16. Initial measurements of O-ion and He-ion decay rates observed from the Van Allen probes RBSPICE instrument

    PubMed Central

    Gerrard, Andrew; Lanzerotti, Louis; Gkioulidou, Matina; Mitchell, Donald; Manweiler, Jerry; Bortnik, Jacob; Keika, Kunihiro

    2014-01-01

    H-ion (∼45 keV to ∼600 keV), He-ion (∼65 keV to ∼520 keV), and O-ion (∼140 keV to ∼1130 keV) integral flux measurements, from the Radiation Belt Storm Probe Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument aboard the Van Allan Probes spacecraft B, are reported. These abundance data form a cohesive picture of ring current ions during the first 9 months of measurements. Furthermore, the data presented herein are used to show injection characteristics via the He-ion/H-ion abundance ratio and the O-ion/H-ion abundance ratio. Of unique interest to ring current dynamics are the spatial-temporal decay characteristics of the two injected populations. We observe that He-ions decay more quickly at lower L shells, on the order of ∼0.8 day at L shells of 3–4, and decay more slowly with higher L shell, on the order of ∼1.7 days at L shells of 5–6. Conversely, O-ions decay very rapidly (∼1.5 h) across all L shells. The He-ion decay time are consistent with previously measured and calculated lifetimes associated with charge exchange. The O-ion decay time is much faster than predicted and is attributed to the inclusion of higher-energy (> 500 keV) O-ions in our decay rate estimation. We note that these measurements demonstrate a compelling need for calculation of high-energy O-ion loss rates, which have not been adequately studied in the literature to date. Key Points We report initial observations of ring current ions We show that He-ion decay rates are consistent with theory We show that O-ions with energies greater than 500 keV decay very rapidly PMID:26167435

  17. The minimum energy decay rate in quasi-isotropic grid turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davidson, P. A.

    2011-08-01

    We consider high Reynolds number, freely-decaying, isotropic turbulence in which the large scales evolve in a self-similar manner when normalized by the integral scales, u and ℓ. As it is well known, a range of possible behaviors may be observed depending on the form of the longitudinal velocity correlation at large separation, uf∞=u 2f(r →∞). We consider the cases u2f∞=cmr-m,2≤m ≤6, whose spectral counterpart is E(k →0)~cmkm -1 for m <6, with or without a lnk correction, and E(k →0)~I k4 for m =6. (I is Loitsyansky's integral.) It has long been known that the cmm=constant during the decay. This, in turn, sets the energy decay rate as u2~t-(1-p)2m /(m+2), where p is the power-law exponent for the normalized dissipation rate, εℓ/εℓu3u3~t-p, observed empirically to be a small positive number in grid turbulence. We systematically explore the properties of these different classes of turbulence and arrive at the following conclusions. (i) The invariance of cm is a direct consequence of linear momentum conservation for m ≤4, and angular momentum conservation for m =5. (ii) The classical spectra of Saffman, E(k →0)~c3k2, and Batchelor, E(k →0)~Ik4, are robust in the sense that they emerge from a broad class of initial conditions. In particular, it is necessary only that <ωi ω'j >∞ ≤O(r-8) at t =0. The non-classical spectra (m =2,4,5), on the other hand, require very specific initial conditions in order to be realized, of the form <ωiω'j>∞=O(r-(m +2)). (Note the equality rather than the inequality here.) This makes the non-classical spectra less likely to be observed in practice. (iii) The case of m =2, which is usually associated with the u2~t-1 decay law, is pathological in a number of respects. For example, its spectral tensor diverges as k →0, and the long-range correlations ∞=O(r-2) are too strong to be a consequence of the Biot-Savart law. (It is the Biot-Savart law that lies behind the long-range correlations in the

  18. Smallness of tree-dominated charmless two-body baryonic B decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hai-Yang; Chua, Chun-Khiang

    2015-02-01

    The long-awaited baryonic B decay B¯0→p p ¯ was recently observed by LHCb with a branching fraction of order 1 0-8. All the earlier model predictions are too large compared with experiment. In this work, we point out that for a given tree operator Oi, the contribution from its Fiertz transformed operator, an effect often missed in the literature, tends to cancel the internal W -emission amplitude induced from Oi. The wave function of low-lying baryons is symmetric in momenta and the quark flavor with the same chirality but antisymmetric in color indices. Using these symmetry properties and the chiral structure of weak interactions, we find that half of the Feynman diagrams responsible for internal W emission cancel. Since this feature holds in the charmless modes but not in the charmful ones, we advocate that the partial cancellation accounts for the smallness of the tree-dominated charmless two-body baryonic B decays. This also explains why most previous model calculations predicted too large rates as the above consideration was not taken into account. Finally, we emphasize that, contrary to the claim in the literature, the internal W -emission tree amplitude should be proportional to the Wilson coefficient c1+c2 rather than c1-c2.

  19. Vacuum stability and Higgs diphoton decay rate in the Zee-Babu model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Wei; Zhang, Jian-Hui; Zhang, Yongchao

    2013-06-01

    Although recent Higgs data from ATLAS and CMS are compatible with a Standard Model (SM) signal at 2σ level, both experiments see indications for an excess in the diphoton decay channel, which points to new physics beyond the SM. Given such a low Higgs mass m H ~ 125 GeV, another sign indicating the existence of new physics beyond the SM is the vacuum stability problem, i.e., the SM Higgs quartic coupling may run to negative values at a scale below the Planck scale. In this paper, we study the vacuum stability and enhanced Higgs diphoton decay rate in the Zee-Babu model, which was used to generate tiny Majorana neutrino masses at two-loop level. We find that it is rather difficult to find overlapping regions allowed by the vacuum stability and diphoton enhancement constraints. As a consequence, it is almost inevitable to introduce new ingredients into the model, in order to resolve these two issues simultaneously.

  20. Hadron Mass Spectra and Decay Rates in a Potential Model with Relativistic Wave Equations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namgung, Wuk

    Hadron properties of mass spectra and decay rates are calculated in a quark potential model. Wave equations based on the Klein-Gordon and Todorov equations both of which incorporate the feature of relativistic two-body kinematics are used. The wave equations are modified to contain potentials which transform either like a Lorentz scalar or like a time-component of a four-vector. Potentials based on the Fogleman-Lichtenberg-Wills potential which has the properties suggested by QCD of both confinement and asymptotic freedom are used. The potentials, motivated by QCD but otherwise phenomenological, are further generalized to forms which can apply to any color representation. To break the degeneracy between vector and pseudoscalar mesons or between spin-3/2 and spin-1/2 baryons, the essential feature of spin dependence is included in the potentials. The masses of vector and pseudoscalar mesons are calculated with only a small number of adjustable parameters, and good qualitative agreement with experiment is obtained for both heavy and light mesons. Baryons are treated in this framework by making use of a quark-diquark two-body model of baryons. First, diquark properties are calculated without any additional parameters. The g-factors of diquarks and spin-flavor configuration of baryons, which are necessary for the calculation of baryons, are given. Then baryon masses are calculated also without additional parameters. The results of the masses of ground-state baryons are in good qualitative agreement with experiment. Also effective constituent quark masses are obtained using current quark masses as input. The calculated effective constituent quark masses are in the right range of the values that most theoretical estimates have given. The general qualitative features of hadron spectra are similar with the two relativistic wave equations, although there are differences in detail. The Van Royen-Weisskopf formula for electromagnetic decay widths of vector mesons into lepton

  1. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Non-uniform convergence of two-photon decay rates for excited atomic states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jentschura, Ulrich D.

    2007-03-01

    Two-photon decay rates in simple atoms such as hydrogen-like systems represent rather interesting fundamental problems in atomic physics. The sum of the energies of the two emitted photons has to fulfil an energy conservation condition, the decay takes place via intermediate virtual states, and the total decay rate is obtained after an integration over the energy of one of the emitted photons. Here, we investigate cases with a virtual state having an intermediate energy between the initial and the final states of the decay process, and we show that due to non-uniform convergence, only a careful treatment of the singularities infinitesimally displaced from the photon integration contour leads to consistent and convergent results.

  2. Tracing nitrogen accumulation in decaying wood and examining its impact on wood decomposition rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinne, Katja T.; Rajala, Tiina; Peltoniemi, Krista; Chen, Janet; Smolander, Aino; Mäkipää, Raisa

    2016-04-01

    Decomposition of dead wood, which is controlled primarily by fungi is important for ecosystem carbon cycle and has potentially a significant role in nitrogen fixation via diazotrophs. Nitrogen content has been found to increase with advancing wood decay in several studies; however, the importance of this increase to decay rate and the sources of external nitrogen remain unclear. Improved knowledge of the temporal dynamics of wood decomposition rate and nitrogen accumulation in wood as well as the drivers of the two processes would be important for carbon and nitrogen models dealing with ecosystem responses to climate change. To tackle these questions we applied several analytical methods on Norway spruce logs from Lapinjärvi, Finland. We incubated wood samples (density classes from I to V, n=49) in different temperatures (from 8.5oC to 41oC, n=7). After a common seven day pre-incubation period at 14.5oC, the bottles were incubated six days in their designated temperature prior to CO2 flux measurements with GC to determine the decomposition rate. N2 fixation was measured with acetylene reduction assay after further 48 hour incubation. In addition, fungal DNA, (MiSeq Illumina) δ15N and N% composition of wood for samples incubated at 14.5oC were determined. Radiocarbon method was applied to obtain age distribution for the density classes. The asymbiotic N2 fixation rate was clearly dependent on the stage of wood decay and increased from stage I to stage IV but was substantially reduced in stage V. CO2 production was highest in the intermediate decay stage (classes II-IV). Both N2 fixation and CO2 production were highly temperature sensitive having optima in temperature 25oC and 31oC, respectively. We calculated the variation of annual levels of respiration and N2 fixation per hectare for the study site, and used the latter data together with the 14C results to determine the amount of N2 accumulated in wood in time. The proportion of total nitrogen in wood

  3. Indoor acrolein emission and decay rates resulting from domestic cooking events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Vincent Y.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Cahill, Thomas M.

    2009-12-01

    Acrolein (2-propenal) is a common constituent of both indoor and outdoor air, can exacerbate asthma in children, and may contribute to other chronic lung diseases. Recent studies have found high indoor levels of acrolein and other carbonyls compared to outdoor ambient concentrations. Heated cooking oils produce considerable amounts of acrolein, thus cooking is likely an important source of indoor acrolein. A series of cooking experiments were conducted to determine the emission rates of acrolein and other volatile carbonyls for different types of cooking oils (canola, soybean, corn and olive oils) and deep-frying different food items. Similar concentrations and emission rates of carbonyls were found when different vegetable oils were used to deep-fry the same food product. The food item being deep-fried was generally not a significant source of carbonyls compared to the cooking oil. The oil cooking events resulted in high concentrations of acrolein that were in the range of 26.4-64.5 μg m -3. These concentrations exceed all the chronic regulatory exposure limits and many of the acute exposure limits. The air exchange rate and the decay rate of the carbonyls were monitored to estimate the half-life of the carbonyls. The half-life for acrolein was 14.4 ± 2.6 h, which indicates that indoor acrolein concentrations can persist for considerable time after cooking in poorly-ventilated homes.

  4. Spatio-temporal attributes of left ventricular pressure decay rate during isovolumic relaxation.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Erina; Kovács, Sándor J

    2012-03-01

    Global left ventricular (LV) isovolumic relaxation rate has been characterized: 1) via the time constant of isovolumic relaxation τ or 2) via the logistic time constant τ(L). An alternate kinematic method, characterizes isovolumic relaxation (IVR) in accordance with Newton's Second Law. The model's parameters, stiffness E(k), and damping/relaxation μ result from best fit of model-predicted pressure to in vivo data. All three models (exponential, logistic, and kinematic) characterize global relaxation in terms of pressure decay rates. However, IVR is inhomogeneous and anisotropic. Apical and basal LV wall segments untwist at different times and rates, and transmural strain and strain rates differ due to the helically variable pitch of myocytes and sheets. Accordingly, we hypothesized that the exponential model (τ) or kinematic model (μ and E(k)) parameters will elucidate the spatiotemporal variation of IVR rate. Left ventricular pressures in 20 subjects were recorded using a high-fidelity, multipressure transducer (3 cm apart) catheter. Simultaneous, dual-channel pressure data was plotted in the pressure phase-plane (dP/dt vs. P) and τ, μ, and E(k) were computed in 1631 beats (average: 82 beats per subject). Tau differed significantly between the two channels (P < 0.05) in 16 of 20 subjects, whereas μ and E(k) differed significantly (P < 0.05) in all 20 subjects. These results show that quantifying the relaxation rate from data recorded at a single location has limitations. Moreover, kinematic model based analysis allows characterization of restoring (recoil) forces and resistive (crossbridge uncoupling) forces during IVR and their spatio-temporal dependence, thereby elucidating the relative roles of stiffness vs. relaxation as IVR rate determinants.

  5. Combined results on b-hadron production rates, lifetimes, oscillations and semileptonic decays

    SciTech Connect

    WIllocq, stephane

    2000-08-02

    Combined results on b-hadron lifetimes, b-hadron production rates B{sub d}{sup 0}--Anti-B{sub d}{sup 0} and B{sub s}{sup 0}--Anti-B{sub s}{sup 0} oscillations, the decay width difference between the mass eigenstates of the B{sub s}{sup 0}--Anti-B{sub s}{sup 0} system, and the values of the CKM matrix elements {vert_bar}V{sub cb}{vert_bar} and {vert_bar}V{sub ub}{vert_bar} are obtained from published and preliminary measurements available in Summer 99 from the ALEPH, CDF, DELPHI, L3, OPAL and SLD Collaborations.

  6. Cooperative Lamb shift and the cooperative decay rate for an initially detuned phased state

    SciTech Connect

    Friedberg, Richard; Manassah, Jamal T.

    2010-04-15

    The cooperative Lamb shift (CLS) is hard to measure because in samples much larger than a resonant wavelength it is much smaller, for an initially prepared resonantly phased state, than the cooperative decay rate (CDR). We show, however, that if the phasing of the initial state is detuned so that the spatial wave vector is k{sub 1} congruent with k{sub 0{+-}}O((1/R)) (where k{sub 0}={omega}{sub 0}/c is the resonant frequency), the CLS grows to 'giant' magnitudes making it comparable to the CDR. Moreover, for certain controlled values of detuning, the initial CDR becomes small so that the dynamical Lamb shift (DLS) can be measured over a considerable period of time.

  7. Rate of Temperature Decay in Human Muscle Following 3 MHz Ultrasound: The Stretching Window Revealed.

    PubMed

    Draper, D O; Ricard, M D

    1995-10-01

    Researchers have determined that when therapeutic ultrasound vigorously heats connective tissue, it can be effective in increasing extensibility of collagen affected by scar tissue. These findings give credence to the use of continuous thermal ultrasound to heat tissue before stretching, exercise, or friction massage in an effort to decrease joint contractures and increase range of motion. Before our investigation, it was not known how long following an ultrasound treatment the tissue will remain at a vigorous heating level (>3 degrees C). We conducted this study to determine the rate of temperature decay following 3 MHz ultrasound, in order to determine the time period of optimal stretching. Twenty subjects had a 23-gauge hypodermic needle microprobe inserted 1.2 cm deep into the medial aspect of their anesthetized triceps surae muscle. Subjects then received a 3 MHz ultrasound treatment at 1.5 W/cm(2) until the tissue temperature was increased at least 5 degrees C. The mean baseline temperature before each treatment was 33.8 +/- 1.3 degrees C, and it peaked at 39.1 +/- 1.2 degrees C from the ultrasound. Immediately following the treatment, we recorded the rate at which the temperature dropped at 30-second intervals. We ran a stepwise nonlinear regression analysis to predict temperature decay as a function of time following ultrasound treatment. We found a significant nonlinear relationship between time and temperature decay. The average time it took for the temperature to drop each degree as expressed in minutes and seconds was: 1 degrees C = 1:20; 2 degrees C = 3:22; 3 degrees C = 5:50; 4 degrees C = 9:13; 5 degrees C = 14:55; 5.3 degrees C = 18:00 (baseline). We conclude that under similar circumstances where the tissue temperature is raised 5 degrees C, stretching will be effective, on average, for 3.3 minutes following an ultrasound treatment. To increase this stretching window, we suggest that stretching be applied during and immediately after ultrasound

  8. Graphene plasmonics for tuning photon decay rate near metallic split-ring resonator in a multilayered substrate.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yongpin P; Sha, Wei E I; Jiang, Lijun; Hu, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Study of photon decay rate is essential to various optical devices, where graphene is an emerging building block due to its electrical tunability. In this paper, we study photon decay rate of a quantum emitter near a metallic split-ring resonator, which is embedded in a multilayered substrate incorporating a graphene layer. Analyzing photon decay rate in such a complex multilayered system is not only computationally challenging but also highly important to experimentally realizable devices. First, the dispersion relation of graphene plasmonics supported at a dieletric/graphene/dielectric structure is investigated systematically. Meanwhile, the dispersion relation of metallic plasmonics supported at a dielectric/metal structure is studied comparatively. According to our investigation, graphene offers several flexible tuning routes for manipulating photon decay rate, including tunable chemical potential and the emitter's position and polarization. Next, considering plasmonic waves in a graphene sheet occur in the infrared regime, we carefully design a metallic split ring resonating around the same frequency range. Consequently, this design enables a mutual interaction between graphene plasmonics and metallic plasmonics. The boundary element method with a multilayered medium Green's function is adopted in the numerical simulation. Blue-shifted and splitting resonance peaks are theoretically observed, which suggests a strong mode coupling. Moreover, the mode coupling has a switch on-off feature via electrostatically doping the graphene sheet. This work is helpful to dynamically manipulate photon decay rate in complex optical devices.

  9. Pressure Decay Testing Methodology for Quantifying Leak Rates of Full-Scale Docking System Seals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunlap, Patrick H., Jr.; Daniels, Christopher C.; Wasowski, Janice L.; Garafolo, Nicholas G.; Penney, Nicholas; Steinetz, Bruce M.

    2010-01-01

    NASA is developing a new docking system to support future space exploration missions to low-Earth orbit and the Moon. This system, called the Low Impact Docking System, is a mechanism designed to connect the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle to the International Space Station, the lunar lander (Altair), and other future Constellation Project vehicles. NASA Glenn Research Center is playing a key role in developing the main interface seal for this docking system. This seal will be relatively large with an outside diameter in the range of 54 to 58 in. (137 to 147 cm). As part of this effort, a new test apparatus has been designed, fabricated, and installed to measure leak rates of candidate full-scale seals under simulated thermal, vacuum, and engagement conditions. Using this test apparatus, a pressure decay testing and data processing methodology has been developed to quantify full-scale seal leak rates. Tests performed on untreated 54 in. diameter seals at room temperature in a fully compressed state resulted in leak rates lower than the requirement of less than 0.0025 lbm, air per day (0.0011 kg/day).

  10. Investigating the decay rates of Escherichia coli relative to Vibrio parahemolyticus and Salmonella Typhi in tropical coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon Weng; Ng, Angie Yee Fang; Bong, Chui Wei; Narayanan, Kumaran; Sim, Edmund Ui Hang; Ng, Ching Ching

    2011-02-01

    Using the size fractionation method, we measured the decay rates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia. The size fractions were total or unfiltered, <250 μm, <20 μm, <2 μm, <0.7 μm, <0.2 μm and <0.02 μm. We also carried out abiotic (inorganic nutrients) and biotic (bacterial abundance, production and protistan bacterivory) measurements at Port Dickson, Klang and Kuantan. Klang had highest nutrient concentrations whereas both bacterial production and protistan bacterivory rates were highest at Kuantan. We observed signs of protist-bacteria coupling via the following correlations: Protistan bacterivory-Bacterial Production: r = 0.773, df = 11, p < 0.01; Protist-Bacteria: r = 0.586, df = 12, p < 0.05. However none of the bacterial decay rates were correlated with the biotic variables measured. E. coli and Salmonella decay rates were generally higher in the larger fraction (>0.7 μm) than in the smaller fraction (<0.7 μm) suggesting the more important role played by protists. E. coli and Salmonella also decreased in the <0.02 μm fraction and suggested that these non-halophilic bacteria did not survive well in seawater. In contrast, Vibrio grew well in seawater. There was usually an increase in Vibrio after one day incubation. Our results confirmed that decay or loss rates of E. coli did not match that of Vibrio, and also did not correlate with Salmonella decay rates. However E. coli showed persistence where its decay rates were generally lower than Salmonella. PMID:21146847

  11. Investigating the decay rates of Escherichia coli relative to Vibrio parahemolyticus and Salmonella Typhi in tropical coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Lee, Choon Weng; Ng, Angie Yee Fang; Bong, Chui Wei; Narayanan, Kumaran; Sim, Edmund Ui Hang; Ng, Ching Ching

    2011-02-01

    Using the size fractionation method, we measured the decay rates of Escherichia coli, Salmonella Typhi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in the coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia. The size fractions were total or unfiltered, <250 μm, <20 μm, <2 μm, <0.7 μm, <0.2 μm and <0.02 μm. We also carried out abiotic (inorganic nutrients) and biotic (bacterial abundance, production and protistan bacterivory) measurements at Port Dickson, Klang and Kuantan. Klang had highest nutrient concentrations whereas both bacterial production and protistan bacterivory rates were highest at Kuantan. We observed signs of protist-bacteria coupling via the following correlations: Protistan bacterivory-Bacterial Production: r = 0.773, df = 11, p < 0.01; Protist-Bacteria: r = 0.586, df = 12, p < 0.05. However none of the bacterial decay rates were correlated with the biotic variables measured. E. coli and Salmonella decay rates were generally higher in the larger fraction (>0.7 μm) than in the smaller fraction (<0.7 μm) suggesting the more important role played by protists. E. coli and Salmonella also decreased in the <0.02 μm fraction and suggested that these non-halophilic bacteria did not survive well in seawater. In contrast, Vibrio grew well in seawater. There was usually an increase in Vibrio after one day incubation. Our results confirmed that decay or loss rates of E. coli did not match that of Vibrio, and also did not correlate with Salmonella decay rates. However E. coli showed persistence where its decay rates were generally lower than Salmonella.

  12. Decay Rates and Semi-stable Fraction Formation after 12 years of Foliar Litter Decomposition in Canadian Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Smyth, C.; Moore, T.; Prescott, C.; Titus, B.; Siltanen, M.; Visser, S.; Preston, C. M.; Nault, J.

    2009-12-01

    Litter decay in early and midphases of decomposition have been shown to highly influenced by climate and substrate quality, however factors affecting decay during the late semi-stable phase are less well understood. The Canadian Intersite Decomposition Experiment (CIDET) was established in 1992 with the objective of providing data on the long-term rates of litter decomposition and nutrient mineralization for a range of forested ecoclimatic regions in Canada. Such data were needed to help verify models used for national C accounting, as well as aid in the development of other soil C models. CIDET examined the annual decay, over a 12-year period, of 10 standard foliar litters and 2 wood substrates at 18 forested upland and 3 wetland sites ranging from the cool temperate to subarctic regions, a nearly 20oC span in temperature. On a subset of sites and litter types, changes in litter C chemistry over time were also determined. Over the first 6 years, C/N ratio and iron increased, NMR showed an overall decline in O-alkyl C (carbohydrates) and increase in alkyl, aromatic, phenolic, and carboxyl C. Proximate analysis showed the acid unhydrolyzable residue (AUR) increases, but true lignin did not accumulate, in contrast to the conceptual ligno-cellulose model of decomposition. Litter decay during first phase was related to initial litter quality (AUR and water soluble extract), winter precipitation, but not temperature, suggesting the importance of leaching during this phase. Decay rate “k” during the mid phase was related to temperature, initial litter quality (AUR and AUR/N), summer precipitation, but not soil N. In most cases decay had approached an asymptote before end of experiment. Although annual temperature was the best single predictor for 12-year asymptotes, summer precipitation and forest floor pH and C/N ratio were the best set of combined predictors. The changes in the decay factors during different phases may explain some of the discrepancies in the

  13. Design of cycler trajectories and analysis of solar influences on radioactive decay rates during space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Blake A.

    This thesis investigates the design of interplanetary missions for the continual habitation of Mars via Earth-Mars cyclers and for the detection of variations in nuclear decay rates due to solar influences. Several cycler concepts have been proposed to provide safe and comfortable quarters for astronauts traveling between the Earth and Mars. However, no literature has appeared to show how these massive vehicles might be placed into their cycler trajectories. Trajectories are designed that use either Vinfinity leveraging or low thrust to establish cycler vehicles in their desired orbits. In the cycler trajectory cases considered, the use of Vinfinity leveraging or low thrust substantially reduces the total propellant needed to achieve the cycler orbit compared to direct orbit insertion. In the case of the classic Aldrin cycler, the propellant savings due to Vinfinity leveraging can be as large as a 24 metric ton reduction for a cycler vehicle with a dry mass of 75 metric tons, and an additional 111 metric ton reduction by instead using low thrust. The two-synodic period cyclers considered benefit less from Vinfinity leveraging, but have a smaller total propellant mass due to their lower approach velocities at Earth and Mars. It turns out that, for low-thrust establishment, the propellant required is approximately the same for each of the cycler trajectories. The Aldrin cycler has been proposed as a transportation system for human missions between Earth and Mars. However, the hyperbolic excess velocity values at the planetary encounters for these orbits are infeasibly large, especially at Mars. In a new version of the Aldrin cycler, low thrust is used in the interplanetary trajectories to reduce the encounter velocities. Reducing the encounter velocities at both planets reduces the propellant needed by the taxis (astronauts use these taxis to transfer between the planetary surfaces and the cycler vehicle) to perform hyperbolic rendezvous. While the propellant

  14. Contributions of the W-boson propagator to the μ and τ leptonic decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferroglia, Andrea; Greub, Christoph; Sirlin, Alberto; Zhang, Zhibai

    2013-08-01

    We derive closed expressions and useful expansions for the contributions of the tree-level W-boson propagator to the muon and τ leptonic decay rates. Calling M and m the masses of the initial and final charged leptons, our results in the limit m=0 are valid to all orders in M2/MW2. In the terms of O(mj2/MW2) (mj=M, m), our leading corrections, of O(M2/MW2), agree with the canonical value (3/5)M2/MW2, while the coefficient of our subleading contributions, of O(m2/MW2), differs from that reported in the recent literature. A possible explanation of the discrepancy is presented. The numerical effect of the O(mj2/MW2) corrections is briefly discussed. A general expression, valid for arbitrary values of MW, M, and m in the range MW>M>m, is given in the Appendix. The paper also contains a review of the traditional definition and evaluation of the Fermi constant.

  15. Relative rates of B meson decays into {psi}(2S) and J/{psi} mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Abazov, V. M.; Alexeev, G. D.; Kharzheev, Y. M.; Malyshev, V. L.; Tokmenin, V. V.; Vertogradov, L. S.; Yatsunenko, Y. A.; Abbott, B.; Gutierrez, P.; Hossain, S.; Jain, S.; Rominsky, M.; Severini, H.; Skubic, P.; Strauss, M.; Abolins, M.; Benitez, J. A.; Brock, R.; Dyer, J.; Edmunds, D.

    2009-06-01

    We report on a study of the relative rates of B meson decays into {psi}(2S) and J/{psi} mesons using 1.3 fb{sup -1} of pp collisions at {radical}(s)=1.96 TeV recorded by the D0 detector operating at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider. We observe the channels B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}{psi}(2S){phi}, B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}{phi}, B{sup {+-}}{yields}{psi}(2S)K{sup {+-}}, and B{sup {+-}}{yields}J/{psi}K{sup {+-}} and we measure the relative branching fractions for these channels to be (B(B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}{psi}(2S){phi})/B(B{sub s}{sup 0}{yields}J/{psi}{phi}))=0.53{+-}0.10(stat){+-}0.07(syst){+-}0.06(B), (B(B{sup {+-}}{yields}{psi}(2S)K{sup {+-}})/B(B{sup {+-}}{yields}J/{psi}K{sup {+-}}))=0.63{+-}0.05(stat){+-}0.03(syst){+-}0.07(B),where the final error corresponds to the uncertainty in the J/{psi} and {psi}(2S) branching ratio into two muons.

  16. Determination of plate wave velocities and diffuse field decay rates with braod-band acousto-ultrasonic signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kautz, Harold E.

    1993-01-01

    Lowest symmetric and lowest antisymmetric plate wave modes were excited and identified in broad-band acousto-ultrasonic (AU) signals collected from various high temperature composite materials. Group velocities have been determined for these nearly nondispersive modes. An algorithm has been developed and applied to determine phase velocities and hence dispersion curves for the frequency ranges of the broad-band pulses. It is demonstrated that these data are sensitive to changes in the various stiffness moduli of the materials, in agreement by analogy, with the theoretical and experimental results of Tang and Henneke on fiber reinforced polymers. Diffuse field decay rates have been determined in the same specimen geometries and AU configuration as for the plate wave measurements. These decay rates are of value in assessing degradation such as matrix cracking in ceramic matrix composites. In addition, we verify that diffuse field decay rates respond to fiber/matrix interfacial shear strength and density in ceramic matrix composites. This work shows that velocity/stiffness and decay rate measurements can be obtained in the same set of AU experiments for characterizing materials and in specimens with geometries useful for mechanical measurements.

  17. Viral abundance, production, decay rates and life strategies (lysogeny versus lysis) in Lake Bourget (France).

    PubMed

    Thomas, Rozenn; Berdjeb, Lyria; Sime-Ngando, Télesphore; Jacquet, Stéphan

    2011-03-01

    We have investigated the ecology of viruses in Lake Bourget (France) from January to August 2008. Data were analysed for viral and bacterial abundance and production, viral decay, frequency of lysogenic cells, the contribution of bacteriophages to prokaryotic mortality and their potential influence on nutrient dynamics. Analyses and experiments were conducted on samples from the epilimnion (2 m) and the hypolimnion (50 m), taken at the reference site of the lake. The abundance of virus-like particles (VLP) varied from 3.4 × 10⁷to 8.2 × 10⁷ VLP ml⁻¹; with the highest numbers and virus-to-bacterium ratio (VBR = 69) recorded in winter. Viral production varied from 3.2 × 10⁴ VLP ml⁻¹  h⁻¹ (July) to 2 × 10⁶ VLP ml⁻¹ h⁻¹ (February and April), and production was lower in the hypolimnion. Viral decay rate reached 0.12-0.15 day⁻¹, and this parameter varied greatly with sampling date and methodology (i.e. KCN versus filtration). Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis, viral lysis was responsible for 0% (January) to 71% (February) of bacterial mortality, while viral lysis varied between 0% (April) and 53% (January) per day when using a modified dilution approach. Calculated from viral production and burst size, the virus-induced bacterial mortality varied between 0% (January) and 68% (August). A weak relationship was found between the two first methods (TEM versus dilution approach). Interestingly, flow cytometry analysis performed on the dilution experiment samples revealed that the viral impact was mostly on high DNA content bacterial cells whereas grazing, varying between 8.3% (June) and 75.4% (April), was reflected in both HDNA and LDNA cells equally. The lysogenic fraction varied between 0% (spring/summer) and 62% (winter) of total bacterial abundance, and increased slightly with increasing amounts of mitomycin C added. High percentages of lysogenic cells were recorded when bacterial abundance and activity were the lowest

  18. Exact evaluation of the rates of electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Layden, B.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    2013-08-15

    Electrostatic decay of Langmuir waves into Langmuir and ion sound waves (L→L′+S) and scattering of Langmuir waves off thermal ions (L+i→L′+i′, also called “nonlinear Landau damping”) are important nonlinear weak-turbulence processes. The rates for these processes depend on the quadratic longitudinal response function α{sup (2)} (or, equivalently, the quadratic longitudinal susceptibility χ{sup (2)}), which describes the second-order response of a plasma to electrostatic wave fields. Previous calculations of these rates for an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma have relied upon an approximate form for α{sup (2)} that is valid where two of the wave fields are fast (i.e., v{sub φ}=ω/k≫V{sub e} where ω is the angular frequency, k is the wavenumber, and V{sub e} is the electron thermal speed) and one is slow (v{sub φ}≪V{sub e}). Recently, an exact expression was derived for α{sup (2)} that is valid for any phase speeds of the three waves in an unmagnetized Maxwellian plasma. Here, this exact α{sup (2)} is applied to the calculation of the three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay and scattering off thermal ions, and the resulting exact rates are compared with the approximate rates. The calculations are performed using previously derived three-dimensional rates for electrostatic decay given in terms of a general α{sup (2)}, and newly derived three-dimensional rates for scattering off thermal ions; the scattering rate is derived assuming a Maxwellian ion distribution, and both rates are derived assuming arc distributions for the wave spectra. For most space plasma conditions, the approximate rate is found to be accurate to better than 20%; however, for sufficiently low Langmuir phase speeds (v{sub φ}/V{sub e}≈3) appropriate to some spatial domains of the foreshock regions of planetary bow shocks and type II solar radio bursts, the use of the exact rate may be necessary for accurate calculations. The relative rates of electrostatic decay

  19. Rates of decay to non homogeneous Timoshenko model with tip body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz Rivera, Jaime E.; Ávila, Andrés I.

    2015-05-01

    We consider the uniform stabilization of a hybrid elastic model consisting of a Timoshenko beam and a tip load at the free end of the beam. Our main result proves that the semigroup eAt associated to this model is not exponentially stable. Moreover, we prove that the semigroup decays polynomially to zero as t - 1 / 2. When the damping mechanism is effective only on the boundary of the rotational angle, the solution also decays polynomially as t - 1 / 2 provided the wave speeds are equal. Otherwise it decays as t - 1 / 4 for any initial data taken in D (A).

  20. Decay rates of Gaussian-type I-balls and Bose-enhancement effects in 3+1 dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yamada, Masaki

    2014-02-03

    I-balls/oscillons are long-lived spatially localized lumps of a scalar field which may be formed after inflation. In the scalar field theory with monomial potential nearly and shallower than quadratic, which is motivated by chaotic inflationary models and supersymmetric theories, the scalar field configuration of I-balls is approximately Gaussian. If the I-ball interacts with another scalar field, the I-ball eventually decays into radiation. Recently, it was pointed out that the decay rate of I-balls increases exponentially by the effects of Bose enhancement under some conditions and a non-perturbative method to compute the exponential growth rate has been derived. In this paper, we apply the method to the Gaussian-type I-ball in 3+1 dimensions assuming spherical symmetry, and calculate the partial decay rates into partial waves, labelled by the angular momentum of daughter particles. We reveal the conditions that the I-ball decays exponentially, which are found to depend on the mass and angular momentum of daughter particles and also be affected by the quantum uncertainty in the momentum of daughter particles.

  1. Decay rates of Gaussian-type I-balls and Bose-enhancement effects in 3+1 dimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Yamada, Masaki E-mail: yamadam@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-02-01

    I-balls/oscillons are long-lived spatially localized lumps of a scalar field which may be formed after inflation. In the scalar field theory with monomial potential nearly and shallower than quadratic, which is motivated by chaotic inflationary models and supersymmetric theories, the scalar field configuration of I-balls is approximately Gaussian. If the I-ball interacts with another scalar field, the I-ball eventually decays into radiation. Recently, it was pointed out that the decay rate of I-balls increases exponentially by the effects of Bose enhancement under some conditions and a non-perturbative method to compute the exponential growth rate has been derived. In this paper, we apply the method to the Gaussian-type I-ball in 3+1 dimensions assuming spherical symmetry, and calculate the partial decay rates into partial waves, labelled by the angular momentum of daughter particles. We reveal the conditions that the I-ball decays exponentially, which are found to depend on the mass and angular momentum of daughter particles and also be affected by the quantum uncertainty in the momentum of daughter particles.

  2. The effect of restoration of broken SU(4) symmetry on 2 νβ-β- decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünlü, Serdar; Çakmak, Neçla

    2015-07-01

    The effect of restoration of SU(4) symmetry violations stemming from the mean field approximation on the 2 νβ-β- decay amplitudes and half-lives for 76Ge →76Se, 82Se →82Kr, 96Zr →96Mo and 100Mo →100Ru decay systems is investigated within the framework of the proton-neutron quasi-particle random phase approximation (pnQRPA) method. In this respect, the broken SU(4) symmetry property of the central quasi-particle mean field term is restored by using Pyatov's restoration method. In order to see the influence of restoration on the stability of the nuclear matrix element, the variation of the nuclear matrix element with particle-particle strength parameter is computed within and without restoration. The calculated decay rates within restoration are compared with the schematic and shell model estimates.

  3. DNA decay rate in papyri and human remains from Egyptian archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Marota, Isolina; Basile, Corrado; Ubaldi, Massimo; Rollo, Franco

    2002-04-01

    The writing sheets made with strips from the stem (caulis) of papyri (Cyperus papyrus) are one of the most ingenious products of ancient technology. We extracted DNA from samples of modern papyri varying in age from 0-100 years BP and from ancient specimens from Egypt, with an age-span from 1,300-3,200 years BP. The copy number of the plant chloroplast DNA in the sheets was determined using a competitive PCR system designed on the basis of a short (90 bp) tract of the chloroplast's ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase large subunit (rbcL) gene sequence. The results allowed us to establish that the DNA half-life in papyri is about 19-24 years. This means that the last DNA fragments will vanish within no more than 532-672 years from the sheets being manufactured. In a parallel investigation, we checked the archaeological specimens for the presence of residual DNA and determined the extent of racemization of aspartic (Asp) acid in both modern and ancient specimens, as a previous report (Poinar et al. [1996], Science 272:864-866) showed that racemization of aspartic acid and DNA decay are linked. The results confirmed the complete loss of authentic DNA, even in the less ancient (8th century AD) papyri. On the other hand, when the regression for Asp racemization rates in papyri was compared with that for human and animal remains from Egyptian archaeological sites, it proved, quite surprisingly, that the regressions are virtually identical. Our study provides an indirect argument against the reliability of claims about the recovery of authentic DNA from Egyptian mummies and bone remains.

  4. Large-scale evaluation of β -decay rates of r -process nuclei with the inclusion of first-forbidden transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marketin, T.; Huther, L.; Martínez-Pinedo, G.

    2016-02-01

    Background: r -process nucleosynthesis models rely, by necessity, on nuclear structure models for input. Particularly important are β -decay half-lives of neutron-rich nuclei. At present only a single systematic calculation exists that provides values for all relevant nuclei making it difficult to test the sensitivity of nucleosynthesis models to this input. Additionally, even though there are indications that their contribution may be significant, the impact of first-forbidden transitions on decay rates has not been systematically studied within a consistent model. Purpose: Our goal is to provide a table of β -decay half-lives and β -delayed neutron emission probabilities, including first-forbidden transitions, calculated within a fully self-consistent microscopic theoretical framework. The results are used in an r -process nucleosynthesis calculation to asses the sensitivity of heavy element nucleosynthesis to weak interaction reaction rates. Method: We use a fully self-consistent covariant density functional theory (CDFT) framework. The ground state of all nuclei is calculated with the relativistic Hartree-Bogoliubov (RHB) model, and excited states are obtained within the proton-neutron relativistic quasiparticle random phase approximation (p n -RQRPA). Results: The β -decay half-lives, β -delayed neutron emission probabilities, and the average number of emitted neutrons have been calculated for 5409 nuclei in the neutron-rich region of the nuclear chart. We observe a significant contribution of the first-forbidden transitions to the total decay rate in nuclei far from the valley of stability. The experimental half-lives are in general well reproduced for even-even, odd-A , and odd-odd nuclei, in particular for short-lived nuclei. The resulting data table is included with the article as Supplemental Material. Conclusions: In certain regions of the nuclear chart, first-forbidden transitions constitute a large fraction of the total decay rate and must be

  5. Environmental Controls on Cumulative and Yearly Litter Decay Rates Over Four Years in Forested and Harvested Sites Across Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofymow, J. A.; Thompson, E.; Cameron, A.; Pare, D.; Amiro, B. D.; Lavigne, M.; Smyth, C.; Black, T. A.; Barr, A. G.; Margolis, H. A.

    2010-12-01

    weak. Both temperature and moisture accounted for differences in cumulative decay rates and mass loss of surface litter among forest site type and cover, though soil microenvironment accounted for more variation than did site climate. Forest site type and cover effects were still significant even when controlled for microenvironment, suggesting other soil or biotic factors need to be accounted for in predicting litter decay.

  6. Large β-delayed one and two neutron emission rates in the decay of 86Ga.

    PubMed

    Miernik, K; Rykaczewski, K P; Gross, C J; Grzywacz, R; Madurga, M; Miller, D; Batchelder, J C; Borzov, I N; Brewer, N T; Jost, C; Korgul, A; Mazzocchi, C; Mendez, A J; Liu, Y; Paulauskas, S V; Stracener, D W; Winger, J A; Wolińska-Cichocka, M; Zganjar, E F

    2013-09-27

    Beta decay of 86Ga was studied by means of β-neutron-γ spectroscopy. An isotopically pure ^{86}Ga beam was produced at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility using a resonance ionization laser ion source and high-resolution electromagnetic separation. The decay of 86Ga revealed a half-life of 43(-15)(+21) ms and large β-delayed one-neutron and two-neutron branching ratios of P1n=60(10)% and P2n=20(10)%. The βγ decay of 86Ga populated a 527 keV transition that is interpreted as the deexcitation of the first 2+ state in the N=54 isotone 86Ge and suggests a quick onset of deformation in Ge isotopes beyond N=50. PMID:24116772

  7. Enhanced Dark Matter Annihilation Rate for Positron and Electron Excesses from Q-Ball Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonald, John

    2009-10-01

    We show that Q-ball decay in Affleck-Dine baryogenesis models can account for dark matter when the annihilation cross section is sufficiently enhanced to explain the positron and electron excesses observed by PAMELA, ATIC, and PPB-BETS. For Affleck-Dine baryogenesis along a d=6 flat direction, the reheating temperature is approximately 30 GeV and the Q-ball decay temperature is in the range of 10-100 MeV. The lightest supersymmetric particles produced by Q-ball decay annihilate down to the observed dark matter density if the cross section is enhanced by a factor ˜103 relative to the thermal relic cross section.

  8. Enhanced Dark Matter Annihilation Rate for Positron and Electron Excesses from Q-Ball Decay

    SciTech Connect

    McDonald, John

    2009-10-09

    We show that Q-ball decay in Affleck-Dine baryogenesis models can account for dark matter when the annihilation cross section is sufficiently enhanced to explain the positron and electron excesses observed by PAMELA, ATIC, and PPB-BETS. For Affleck-Dine baryogenesis along a d=6 flat direction, the reheating temperature is approximately 30 GeV and the Q-ball decay temperature is in the range of 10-100 MeV. The lightest supersymmetric particles produced by Q-ball decay annihilate down to the observed dark matter density if the cross section is enhanced by a factor approx10{sup 3} relative to the thermal relic cross section.

  9. Observation of Dicke superradiance for two artificial atoms in a cavity with high decay rate.

    PubMed

    Mlynek, J A; Abdumalikov, A A; Eichler, C; Wallraff, A

    2014-01-01

    An individual excited two-level system decays to its ground state in a process known as spontaneous emission. The probability of detecting the emitted photon decreases exponentially with the time passed since its excitation. In 1954, Dicke first considered the more subtle situation in which two emitters decay in close proximity to each other. He argued that the emission dynamics of a single two-level system is altered by the presence of a second one, even if it is in its ground state. Here, we present a close to ideal realization of Dicke's original two-spin Gedankenexperiment, using a system of two individually controllable superconducting qubits weakly coupled to a fast decaying microwave cavity. The two-emitter case of superradiance is explicitly demonstrated both in time-resolved measurements of the emitted power and by fully reconstructing the density matrix of the emitted field in the photon number basis.

  10. Rates, polarizations, and asymmetries in charmless vector-vector B meson decays.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Ford, K; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Morgan, S E; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Latham, T E; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, Sh; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Kuznetsova, N; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Schalk, T; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Abe, T; Barillari, T; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Clark, P J; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Lacker, H M; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Morii, M; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Eschrich, I; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Sanders, P; Taylor, G P; Grenier, G J; Lee, S-J; Mallik, U; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Lamsa, J; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Yi, J; Davier, M; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Laplace, S; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Petersen, T C; Plaszczynski, S; Schune, M H; Tantot, L; Wormser, G; Brigljević, V; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Coleman, J P; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; Kay, M; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Sloane, R J; Touramanis, C; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Shorthouse, H W; Strother, P; Vidal, P B; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flack, R L; Flaecher, H U; George, S; Green, M G; Kurup, A; Marker, C E; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Vaitsas, G; Winter, M A; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, R J; Forti, A C; Hart, P A; Jackson, F; Lafferty, G D; Lyon, A J; Weatherall, J H; Williams, J C; Farbin, A; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Flood, K T; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Sciolla, G; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Mangeol, D J J; Milek, M; Patel, P M; Lazzaro, A; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Hast, C; Taras, P; Nicholson, H; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M A; Raven, G; LoSecco, J M; Gabriel, T A; Brau, B; Pulliam, T; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Torrence, E; Colecchia, F; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Tiozzo, G; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; de la Vaissière, Ch; Del Buono, L; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Ocariz, J; Pivk, M; Roos, L; Stark, J; T'Jampens, S; Therin, G; Manfredi, P F; Re, V; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bondioli, M; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Martinez-Vidal, F; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Sandrelli, F; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Paick, K; Wagoner, D E; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lu, C; Miftakov, V; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Tanaka, H A; Varnes, E W; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Pierini, M; Piredda, G; Tehrani, F Safai; Voena, C; Christ, S; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Geddes, N I; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Xella, S M; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Hamel De Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Langer, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Schott, G; Vasseur, G; Yeche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Yumiceva, F X; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Convery, M R; Coupal, D P; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Grauges-Pous, E; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Jessop, C P; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Langenegger, U; Leith, D W G S; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Menke, S; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Petrak, S; Ratcliff, B N; Robertson, S H; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Simi, G; Snyder, A; Soha, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Va'vra, J; Wagner, S R; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wright, D H; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Meyer, T I; Roat, C; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saleem, M; Wappler, F R; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Kim, H; Ritchie, J L; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Borean, C; Bosisio, L; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Poropat, P; Vitale, L; Vuagnin, G; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Jackson, P D; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Band, H R; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Hu, H; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Di Lodovico, F; Mihalyi, A; Mohapatra, A K; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Sekula, S J; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, J; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2003-10-24

    With a sample of approximately 89 x 10(6) B(-)B pairs collected with the BABAR detector, we perform a search for B meson decays into pairs of charmless vector mesons (phi, rho, and K*). We measure the branching fractions, determine the degree of longitudinal polarization, and search for CP violation asymmetries in the processes B+-->phiK(*+), B0-->phiK(*0), B+-->rho(0)K(*+), and B+-->rho(0)rho(+). We also set an upper limit on the branching fraction for the decay B0-->rho(0)rho(0).

  11. Extracting partial decay rates of helium from complex rotation: autoionizing resonances of the one-dimensional configurations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Klaus; Lugan, Pierre; Jörder, Felix; Heitz, Nicolai; Schmidt, Maximilian; Bouri, Celsus; Rodriguez, Alberto; Buchleitner, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Partial autoionization rates of doubly excited one-dimensional helium in the collinear Zee and eZe configuration are obtained by means of the complex rotation method. The approach presented here relies on a projection of back-rotated resonance wave functions onto singly ionized H{{e}+} channel wave functions and the computation of the corresponding particle fluxes. In spite of the long-range nature of the Coulomb potential between the electrons and the nucleus, an asymptotic region where the fluxes are stationary is clearly observed. Low-lying doubly excited states are found to decay predomintantly into the nearest single-ionization continuum. This approach paves the way for a systematic analysis of the decay rates observed in higher-dimensional models, and of the role of electronic correlations and atomic structure in recent photoionization experiments.

  12. Measurement of HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate due to radon decay in air

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, Huiling

    1993-08-01

    Radon in indoor air may cause the exposure of the public to excessive radioactivity. Radiolysis of water vapor in indoor air due to radon decay could produce ({center_dot}OH and HO{sub 2} {center_dot}) that may convert atmospheric constituents to compounds of lower vapor pressure. These lower vapor pressure compounds might then nucleate to form new particles in the indoor atmosphere. Chemical amplification was used to determine HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate in indoor air caused by radon decay. Average HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate was found to be (4.31{plus_minus}0.07) {times} 10{sup 5} HO{sub x}{center_dot} per Rn decay per second (Bq) 3.4 to 55.0% at 22C. This work provided G{sub (HO{sub x}{center_dot})}-value, 7.86{plus_minus}0.13 No./100 eV in air by directly measuring [HO{sub x}{center_dot}] formed from the radiolysis procedure. This G value implies that HO{sub x}{center_dot} produced by radon decay in air might be formed by multiple processes and may be result of positive ion-molecule reactions, primary radiolysis, and radical reactions. There is no obvious relation between HO{sub x}{center_dot} production rate and relative humidity. A laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) system has been used for {center_dot}OH production rate measurement; it consists of an excimer laser, a dye laser, a frequency doubler, a gaseous fluorescence chamber, and other optical and electronic parts. This system needs to be improved to eliminate the interferences of light scattering and artificial {center_dot}OH produced from the photolysis of O{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O.

  13. Temperature, pressure and deuterium effects on the phosphorescence decay-rate constant of naphthalene in a single crystal of durene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoshi, Nagahiro; Yamauchi, Seigo; Hirota, Noboru

    1990-06-01

    It is suggested that the hitherto unexplained drastic temperature, pressure and external deuterium isotope effects on the phosphorescence decay-rate constant ( kT) of naphthalene in a single crystal of durene can be consistently explained in terms of the photoinduced hydrogen-abstraction reaction of triplet naphthalene from durene in which tunneling plays an essential role. This suggestion is supported by calculations based on the "golden rule" approach to tunneling developed by Siebrand, Wildman and Zgierski.

  14. Experimental investigation of effects of jet decay rate on jet-induced pressures on a flat plate: Tabulated data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlman, J. M.; Ousterhout, D. S.; Warcup, R. W.

    1978-01-01

    Tabular data are presented for an experimental study of the effects of jet decay rate on the jet-induced pressure distribution on a flat plate for a single jet issuing at right angle to the flat plate into a uniform crossflow. The data are presented in four sections: (1) presents the static nozzle calibration data; (2) lists the plate surface static pressure data and integrated loads; (3) lists the jet centerline trajectory data; and (4) lists the centerline dynamic pressure data.

  15. Measurement of the Branching Fraction and Decay Rate Asymmetry of B to D_pi+ pi- pi0 K-

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /Padua U. /INFN, Padua /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Oregon U. /SLAC /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Stony Brook /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-06-10

    The authors report the observation of the decay B{sup -} {yields} D{sub {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}}K{sup -}, where D{sub {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}} indicates a neutral D meson detected in the final state {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}, excluding K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}. This doubly Cabibbo-suppressed decay chain can be used to measure the CKM phase {gamma}. Using about 229 million e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} B{bar B} events recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II e{sup +}e{sup -} storage ring, they measure the branching fraction {Beta}(B{sup -} {yields} D{sub {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}K{sup -}}) = (5.5 {+-} 1.0 (stat.) {+-} 0.7 (syst.)) x 10{sup -6} and the decay rate asymmetry A = -0.02 {+-} 0.16 (stat.) {+-} 0.03 (syst.) for the full decay chain.

  16. General decay rates for the wave equation with mixed-type damping mechanisms on unbounded domain with finite measure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias Silva, Flávio R.; Nascimento, Flávio A. F.; Rodrigues, José H.

    2015-12-01

    This paper is concerned with the study of the uniform decay rates of the energy associated with the wave equation subject to a locally distributed viscoelastic dissipation and a nonlinear frictional damping u_{tt}- Δ u+ int_0^t g(t-s)div[a(x)nabla u(s)] ds + b(x) f(u_t)=0 quad on quad Ω×]0,infty[, where {Ωsubset{R}^n, n≥ 2} is an unbounded open set with finite measure and unbounded smooth boundary {partialΩ = Γ}. Supposing that the localization functions satisfy the "competitive" assumption {a(x)+b(x)≥δ>0} for all {xin Ω} and the relaxation function g satisfies certain nonlinear differential inequalities introduced by Lasiecka et al. (J Math Phys 54(3):031504, 2013), we extend to our considered domain the prior results of Cavalcanti and Oquendo (SIAM J Control Optim 42(4):1310-1324, 2003). In addition, while in Cavalcanti and Oquendo (2003) the authors just consider exponential and polynomial decay rate estimates, in the present article general decay rate estimates are obtained.

  17. Evidence for CP violation in time-integrated D0→h(-)h(+) decay rates.

    PubMed

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Mangiafave, N; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinez Santos, D; Massafferri, A; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Matveev, M; Maurice, E; Maynard, B; Mazurov, A; McGregor, G; McNulty, R; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Merkel, J; Messi, R; Miglioranzi, S; Milanes, D A; Minard, M-N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Musy, M; Mylroie-Smith, J; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Nedos, M; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Nikitin, N; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, K; Palacios, J; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Paterson, S K; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petrella, A; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pie Valls, B; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Plackett, R; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Navarro, A Puig; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Rinnert, K; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodrigues, F; Rodriguez Perez, P; Rogers, G J; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Rosello, M; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruiz, H; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santinelli, R; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schleich, S; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M-H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, A C; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Sobczak, K; Soler, F J P; Solomin, A; Soomro, F; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'jampens, S; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tran, M T; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urquijo, P; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Viaud, B; Videau, I; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Visniakov, J; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Voss, H; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Witzeling, W; Wotton, S A; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yushchenko, O; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhong, L; Zverev, E; Zvyagin, A

    2012-03-16

    A search for time-integrated CP violation in D(0)→h(-)h(+) (h=K, π) decays is presented using 0.62 fb(-1) of data collected by LHCb in 2011. The flavor of the charm meson is determined by the charge of the slow pion in the D(*+)→D(0)π(+) and D(*-)→D[over ¯](0)π(-) decay chains. The difference in CP asymmetry between D(0)→K(-)K(+) and D(0)→π(-)π(+), ΔA(CP)≡A(CP)(K(-)K(+))-A(CP)(π(-)π(+)), is measured to be [-0.82±0.21(stat)±0.11(syst)]%. This differs from the hypothesis of CP conservation by 3.5 standard deviations. PMID:22540460

  18. Computing decay rates for new physics theories with FEYNRULES and MADGRAPH 5_AMC@NLO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwall, Johan; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Mattelaer, Olivier; Öztürk, Deniz Gizem; Shen, Chia-Hsien

    2015-12-01

    We present new features of the FEYNRULES and MADGRAPH 5_AMC@NLO programs for the automatic computation of decay widths that consistently include channels of arbitrary final-state multiplicity. The implementations are generic enough so that they can be used in the framework of any quantum field theory, possibly including higher-dimensional operators. We extend at the same time the conventions of the Universal FEYNRULES Output (or UFO) format to include decay tables and information on the total widths. We finally provide a set of representative examples of the usage of the new functions of the different codes in the framework of the Standard Model, the Higgs Effective Field Theory, the Strongly Interacting Light Higgs model and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and compare the results to available literature and programs for validation purposes.

  19. Theoretical estimates of the rates of radioactive decay of radium isotopes by /sup 14/C emission

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Y.; Swiatecki, W.J.

    1985-01-28

    The measured branching ratios for the decays of /sup 222,223,224/Ra by alpha or /sup 14/C emissions can be accounted for within a factor of 10 in terms of the ratios of Gamow penetrabilities through potential-energy barriers consisting of a Coulomb repulsion, the nuclear proximity attraction, and an interpolation between the configuration of tangent fragments and the configuration of the parent nucleus.

  20. Simultaneous detection of tissue autofluorescence decay distribution and time-gated photo-bleaching rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihachev, Alexey; Ferulova, Inesa; Spigulis, Janis; Tamosiunas, Mindaugas

    2015-05-01

    Experimental methodology for parallel measurements of in-vivo skin autofluorescence (AF) lifetimes and photobleaching dynamic has been developed and tested. The AF lifetime decay distributions were periodically collected from fixed tissue area with subsequent detection of the fluorescence intensity decrease dynamic at different time gates after the pulse excitation. Temporal distributions of human in-vivo skin AF lifetimes and bleaching kinetics were collected and analyzed by means of commercial time-correlated single photon counting system.

  1. Development of a water boil-off spent-fuel calorimeter system. [To measure decay heat generation rate

    SciTech Connect

    Creer, J.M.; Shupe, J.W. Jr.

    1981-05-01

    A calorimeter system was developed to measure decay heat generation rates of unmodified spent fuel assemblies from commercial nuclear reactors. The system was designed, fabricated, and successfully tested using the following specifications: capacity of one BWR or PWR spent fuel assembly; decay heat generation range 0.1 to 2.5 kW; measurement time of < 12 h; and an accuracy of +-10% or better. The system was acceptance tested using a dc reference heater to simulate spent fuel assembly heat generation rates. Results of these tests indicated that the system could be used to measure heat generation rates between 0.5 and 2.5 kW within +- 5%. Measurements of heat generation rates of approx. 0.1 kW were obtained within +- 15%. The calorimeter system has the potential to permit measurements of heat generation rates of spent fuel assemblies and other devices in the 12- to 14-kW range. Results of calorimetry of a Turkey Point spent fuel assembly indicated that the assembly was generating approx. 1.55 kW.

  2. A variable reaction rate model for chlorine decay in drinking water due to the reaction with dissolved organic matter.

    PubMed

    Hua, Pei; Vasyukova, Ekaterina; Uhl, Wolfgang

    2015-05-15

    A second order kinetic model for simulating chlorine decay in bulk water due to the reaction with dissolved organic matter (DOM) was developed. It takes into account the decreasing reactivity of dissolved organic matter using a variable reaction rate coefficient (VRRC) which decreases with an increasing conversion. The concentration of reducing species is surrogated by the maximum chlorine demand. Temperature dependency, respectively, is described by the Arrhenius-relationship. The accuracy and adequacy of the proposed model to describe chlorine decay in bulk water were evaluated and shown for very different waters and different conditions such as water mixing or rechlorination by applying statistical tests. It is thus very well suited for application in water quality modeling for distribution systems.

  3. Factors influencing 7Be accumulation on rock varnish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Willard S.; Liu, Tanzhuo; Broecker, Wallace S.; Finkel, Robert C.; Wright, Allen

    Rocks coated with desert varnish were translocated from Scottsdale, Arizona, and Panamint Valley, California, to a fenced-in plot near Biosphere 2 where they were allowed to accumulate a new crop of the 53 day half life, cosmic ray-produced 7Be. Those exposed to precipitation accumulated several times more of this isotope than those shielded from precipitation. No significant difference in 7Be accumulation was observed between a set which was UV irradiated (in an attempt to kill resident bacteria) and a set which received no UV irradiation. This experiment suggests that 62 ± 10 percent of the beryllium accumulated on the varnish was supplied by precipitation and 38 ± 10 percent by some combination of dew, dust, and aerosols. If bacteria are, as has been proposed, responsible for varnish growth, then either our UV irradiation was inadequate to squelch their activity or the 7Be we measured had not yet been built into the varnish.

  4. Rates, Polarizations, and Asymmetries in Charmless Vector-Vector B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Gaillard, J-M; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Schaffer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu. G; Kral, J F; Kukartsev, G; LeClerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, M T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schmuecker, H; Barlow, N R; Bhimji, W; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Mackay, C; Wilson, F F; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Kyberd, P; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; McMahon, S; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hadavand, H K; Wright, Doug

    2003-03-11

    With a sample of approximately 89 million B{bar B} pairs collected with the BABAR detector, they measure branching fractions, determine the degree of longitudinal polarization, and search for direct CP violation in the decays B{sup 0} {yields} {phi}K*{sup 0} and B{sup +} {yields} {phi}K*{sup +}. They perform a search for other charmless vector-vector B decays involving {rho} and K*(892) resonances and observe the decays B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup 0} K*{sup +} and B{sup +} {yields} {rho}{sup 0}{rho}{sup +}. The branching fractions are measured to be {Beta}({phi}K*{sup 0}) = (11.1{sub -1.2}{sup +1.3} {+-} 1.1) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}({phi}K*{sup +}) = (12.1{sub -1.9}{sup +2.1} {+-} 1.5) x 10{sup -6}, {Beta}({rho}{sup 0} K*{sup +}) = (7.7{sub -2.0}{sup +2.1} {+-} 1.4) x 10{sup -6}, and {Beta}({rho}{sup 0}{rho}{sup +}) = (9.9{sub -2.5}{sup +2.6} {+-} 2.5) x 10{sup -6}. The longitudinal polarization fractions are measured to be {Lambda}{sub L}/{Lambda}({phi}K*{sup 0}) = 0.65 {+-} 0.07 {+-} 0.04 and {Lambda}{sub L}/{Lambda}({phi}K*{sup +}) = 0.46 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.05. They measure the charge asymmetries: {Alpha}{sub CP}({phi}K*{sup 0}) = +0.04 {+-} 0.12 {+-} 0.02 and {Alpha}{sub CP}({phi}K*{sup +}) = +0.16 {+-} 0.17 {+-} 0.04.

  5. Disintegration rate and gamma ray emission probability per decay measurement of 123I.

    PubMed

    Koskinas, M F; Gishitomi, K C; Brito, A B; Yamazaki, I M; Dias, M S

    2012-09-01

    A series of (123)I measurements have been carried out in a 4π(e(A),X)-γ coincidence system. The experimental extrapolation curve was determined and compared to Monte Carlo simulation, performed by code ESQUEMA. From the slope of the experimental curve, the total conversion coefficient for the 159 keV total gamma transition, α(159), was determined. All radioactive sources were also measured in an HPGe spectrometry system, in order to determine the gamma-ray emission probability per decay for several gamma transitions. All uncertainties involved and their correlations were analyzed applying the covariance matrix methodology and the measured parameters were compared with those from the literature.

  6. Design of cycler trajectories and analysis of solar influences on radioactive decay rates during space missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, Blake A.

    This thesis investigates the design of interplanetary missions for the continual habitation of Mars via Earth-Mars cyclers and for the detection of variations in nuclear decay rates due to solar influences. Several cycler concepts have been proposed to provide safe and comfortable quarters for astronauts traveling between the Earth and Mars. However, no literature has appeared to show how these massive vehicles might be placed into their cycler trajectories. Trajectories are designed that use either Vinfinity leveraging or low thrust to establish cycler vehicles in their desired orbits. In the cycler trajectory cases considered, the use of Vinfinity leveraging or low thrust substantially reduces the total propellant needed to achieve the cycler orbit compared to direct orbit insertion. In the case of the classic Aldrin cycler, the propellant savings due to Vinfinity leveraging can be as large as a 24 metric ton reduction for a cycler vehicle with a dry mass of 75 metric tons, and an additional 111 metric ton reduction by instead using low thrust. The two-synodic period cyclers considered benefit less from Vinfinity leveraging, but have a smaller total propellant mass due to their lower approach velocities at Earth and Mars. It turns out that, for low-thrust establishment, the propellant required is approximately the same for each of the cycler trajectories. The Aldrin cycler has been proposed as a transportation system for human missions between Earth and Mars. However, the hyperbolic excess velocity values at the planetary encounters for these orbits are infeasibly large, especially at Mars. In a new version of the Aldrin cycler, low thrust is used in the interplanetary trajectories to reduce the encounter velocities. Reducing the encounter velocities at both planets reduces the propellant needed by the taxis (astronauts use these taxis to transfer between the planetary surfaces and the cycler vehicle) to perform hyperbolic rendezvous. While the propellant

  7. RETAS Stochastic Model to Study Aftershock Rate Decay of the Denali Fault M7.9 Earthquake, November 3, 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Gospodinov, D. K.; Marekova, E. G.; Marinov, A. T.

    2007-04-23

    A RETAS model is used to analyze aftershock rate decay after the Denaly Fault earthquake with a main shock magnitude MS=7.9. We verify different variants of the RETAS model ranging from the limit case Mth = Mmain (main shock) to the case when Mth=Mo (lower magnitude cut-off). We first test the model on simulated data following the MOF (modified Omori formula) model. The results for the Denali Fault sequence reveal the best fit model to be RETAS with a triggering threshold Mth =3.2.

  8. Improving rate capability and decelerating voltage decay of Li-rich layered oxide cathodes via selenium doping to stabilize oxygen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Quanxin; Li, Ruhong; Zheng, Rujuan; Liu, Yuanlong; Huo, Hua; Dai, Changsong

    2016-11-01

    To improve the rate performance and decelerate the voltage decay of Li-rich layered oxide cathode materials, a series of cathode materials Li1.2[Mn0.7Ni0.2Co0.1]0.8-xSexO2 (x = 0, 0.07, 0.14 and 0.21) was synthesized via co-precipitation. Based on the characterization results, it can be concluded that uniform Se6+ doping can improve the degree of crystallinity of Li2MnO3, resulting in a better ordering of atoms in the transition metal layer of this type of cathode materials. In the electrochemical experiments, compared to un-doped samples, one of the Se doped samples (LLMO-Se0.14) exhibited a longer sloping region and shorter potential plateau in the initial charge curves, a larger first coulombic efficiency (ca. 77%), better rate capability (178 mAhm g-1 at 10 C) and higher mid-point voltage (MPV) retention (ca. 95%) after 100 cycles. These results prove that Se doping can effectively improve the rate capability and decelerate the voltage decay process of these cathode materials during cycling via suppressing the oxidation process of O2- to O2 and curbing a layered-to-spinel phase transformation. The above-mentioned functions of Se doping are probably due to the higher bonding energy of Sesbnd O than that of Mnsbnd O.

  9. Survival analysis approach to account for non-exponential decay rate effects in lifetime experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coakley, K. J.; Dewey, M. S.; Huber, M. G.; Huffer, C. R.; Huffman, P. R.; Marley, D. E.; Mumm, H. P.; O`Shaughnessy, C. M.; Schelhammer, K. W.; Thompson, A. K.; Yue, A. T.

    2016-03-01

    In experiments that measure the lifetime of trapped particles, in addition to loss mechanisms with exponential survival probability functions, particles can be lost by mechanisms with non-exponential survival probability functions. Failure to account for such loss mechanisms produces systematic measurement error and associated systematic uncertainties in these measurements. In this work, we develop a general competing risks survival analysis method to account for the joint effect of loss mechanisms with either exponential or non-exponential survival probability functions, and a method to quantify the size of systematic effects and associated uncertainties for lifetime estimates. As a case study, we apply our survival analysis formalism and method to the Ultra Cold Neutron lifetime experiment at NIST. In this experiment, neutrons can escape a magnetic trap before they decay due to a wall loss mechanism with an associated non-exponential survival probability function.

  10. Measurement of branching fractions and rate asymmetries in the rare decays B→K(*)l⁺l⁻

    DOE PAGES

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; et al

    2012-08-24

    In a sample of 471×10⁶ BB¯¯¯ events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e⁺e⁻ collider we study the rare decays B→K(*)l⁺l⁻, where l⁺l⁻ is either e⁺e⁻ or μ⁺μ⁻. We report results on partial branching fractions and isospin asymmetries in seven bins of dilepton mass-squared. We further present CP and lepton-flavor asymmetries for dilepton masses below and above the J/ψ resonance. We find no evidence for CP or lepton-flavor violation. The partial branching fractions and isospin asymmetries are consistent with the Standard Model predictions and with results from other experiments.

  11. Production and separation of carrier-free 7Be

    DOE PAGES

    Gharibyan, N.; Moody, K. J.; Tumey, S. J.; Brown, T. A.; Despotopulos, J. D.; Faye, S. A.; Roberts, K. E.; Shaughnessy, D. A.

    2015-10-24

    A high-purity carrier-free 7Be was efficiently isolated following proton bombardment of a lithium hydroxide - aluminum target. The separation of beryllium from lithium and aluminum was achieved through a hydrochloric acid elution system utilizing cation exchange chromatography. The beryllium recovery, +99%, was assessed through gamma spectroscopy while the chemical purity was established by mass spectrometry. In conclusion, the decontamination factors of beryllium from lithium and aluminum were determined to be 6900 and 300, respectively.

  12. Aerobic stabilization of biological sludge characterized by an extremely low decay rate: modeling, identifiability analysis and parameter estimation.

    PubMed

    Martínez-García, C G; Olguín, M T; Fall, C

    2014-08-01

    Aerobic digestion batch tests were run on a sludge model that contained only two fractions, the heterotrophic biomass (XH) and its endogenous residue (XP). The objective was to describe the stabilization of the sludge and estimate the endogenous decay parameters. Modeling was performed with Aquasim, based on long-term data of volatile suspended solids and chemical oxygen demand (VSS, COD). Sensitivity analyses were carried out to determine the conditions for unique identifiability of the parameters. Importantly, it was found that the COD/VSS ratio of the endogenous residues (1.06) was significantly lower than for the active biomass fraction (1.48). The decay rate constant of the studied sludge (low bH, 0.025 d(-1)) was one-tenth that usually observed (0.2d(-1)), which has two main practical significances. Digestion time required is much more long; also the oxygen uptake rate might be <1.5 mg O₂/gTSSh (biosolids standards), without there being significant decline in the biomass.

  13. Experimental status of 7Be production and destruction at astrophysical relevant energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Leva, A.; Gialanella, L.; Strieder, F.

    2016-01-01

    The production and destruction of 7Be plays a significant role in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis as well as in the framework of the solar neutrino. The 3He(α, γ)7Be reaction cross sections has been measured several times in the last decades, but the precision achieved on reaction rate determinations at the relevant astrophysical energies is not yet satisfactory. The experimental status of this reaction will be critically reviewed, and the theoretical descriptions available will be discussed.

  14. Convergence Properties of Posttranslationally Modified Protein-Protein Switching Networks with Fast Decay Rates.

    PubMed

    Fan, Gaoyang; Cummins, Bree; Gedeon, Tomáš

    2016-06-01

    A significant conceptual difficulty in the use of switching systems to model regulatory networks is the presence of so-called "black walls," co-dimension 1 regions of phase space with a vector field pointing inward on both sides of the hyperplane. Black walls result from the existence of direct negative self-regulation in the system. One biologically inspired way of removing black walls is the introduction of intermediate variables that mediate the negative self-regulation. In this paper, we study such a perturbation. We replace a switching system with a higher-dimensional switching system with rapidly decaying intermediate proteins, and compare the dynamics between the two systems. We find that the while the individual solutions of the original system can be approximated for a finite time by solutions of a sufficiently close perturbed system, there are always solutions that are not well approximated for any fixed perturbation. We also study a particular example, where global basins of attraction of the perturbed system have a strikingly different form than those of the original system. We perform this analysis using techniques that are adapted to dealing with non-smooth systems. PMID:27271120

  15. A measurement of the 2 neutrino double beta decay rate of Te-130 in the CUORICINO experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Kogler, Laura K.

    2011-11-30

    CUORICINO was a cryogenic bolometer experiment designed to search for neutrinoless double beta decay and other rare processes, including double beta decay with two neutrinos (2vββ). The experiment was located at Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and ran for a period of about 5 years, from 2003 to 2008. The detector consisted of an array of 62 TeO2 crystals arranged in a tower and operated at a temperature of 10 mK. Events depositing energy in the detectors, such as radioactive decays or impinging particles, produced thermal pulses in the crystals which were read out using sensitive thermistors. The experiment included 4 enriched crystals, 2 enriched with 130Te and 2 with 128Te, in order to aid in the measurement of the 2vββ rate. The enriched crystals contained a total of 350 g 130Te. The 128-enriched (130-depleted) crystals were used as background monitors, so that the shared backgrounds could be subtracted from the energy spectrum of the 130- enriched crystals. Residual backgrounds in the subtracted spectrum were fit using spectra generated by Monte-Carlo simulations of natural radioactive contaminants located in and on the crystals. The 2vββ half-life was measured to be T2v1/2 = [9.81± 0.96(stat)± 0.49(syst)] x1020 y.

  16. Time Modulation of the K-Shell Electron Capture Decay Rates of H-like Heavy Ions at GSI Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, A. N.; Kienle, P.

    2009-08-07

    According to experimental data at GSI, the rates of the number of daughter ions, produced by the nuclear K shell electron capture decays of the H-like heavy ions with one electron in the K shell, such as {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+}, {sup 142}Pm{sup 60+}, and {sup 122}I{sup 52+}, are modulated in time with periods T{sub EC} of the order of a few seconds, obeying an A scaling T{sub EC}=A/20 s, where A is the mass number of the mother nuclei, and with amplitudes a{sub d}{sup EC}approx0.21. We show that these data can be explained in terms of the interference of two massive neutrino mass eigenstates. The appearance of the interference term is due to overlap of massive neutrino mass eigenstate energies and of the wave functions of the daughter ions in two-body decay channels, caused by the energy and momentum uncertainties introduced by time differential detection of the daughter ions in GSI experiments.

  17. Reaction dynamics studies for the system 7Be+58Ni

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torresi, D.; Mazzocco, M.; Acosta, L.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Diaz-Torres, A.; Fierro, N.; Glodariu, T.; Grilj, L.; Guglielmetti, A.; Keeley, N.; La Commara, M.; Martel, I.; Mazzocchi, C.; Molini, P.; Pakou, A.; Parascandolo, C.; Parkar, V. V.; Patronis, N.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Romoli, M.; Rusek, K.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M.; Sandoli, M.; Signorini, C.; Silvestri, R.; Soramel, F.; Stiliaris, E.; Strano, E.; Stroe, L.; Zerva, K.

    2015-04-01

    The study of reactions induced by exotic weakly bound nuclei at energies around the Coulomb barrier had attracted a large interest in the last decade, since the features of these nuclei can deeply affect the reaction dynamics. The discrimination between different reaction mechanisms is, in general, a rather difficult task. It can be achieved by using detector arrays covering high solid angle and with high granularity that allow to measure the reaction products and, possibly, coincidences between them, as, for example, recently done for stable weakly bound nuclei [1, 2]. We investigated the collision of the weakly bound nucleus 7Be on a 58Ni target at the beam energy of 1.1 times the Coulomb barrier, measuring the elastic scattering angular distribution and the energy and angular distributions of 3He and 4He. The 7Be radioactive ion beam was produced by the facility EXOTIC at INFN-LNL with an energy of 22 MeV and an intensity of ~3×105 pps. Results showed that the 4He yeld is about 4 times larger than 3He yield, suggesting that reaction mechanisms other than the break-up mostly produce the He isotopes. Theoretical calculations for transfer channels and compound nucleus reactions suggest that complete fusion accounts for (41±5%) of the total reaction cross section extracted from optical model analysis of the elastic scattering data, and that 3He and 4He stripping are the most populated reaction channels among direct processes. Eventually estimation of incomplete fusion contributions to the 3,4He production cross sections was performed through semi-classical calculations with the code PLATYPUS [3].

  18. Comparison of Electron Capture and Beta Decay Rates in High Temperature Environment in Explosion of Supernova Type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Rulee

    2015-08-01

    It is generally acknowledged that Type II supernova result from the collapse of iron core of a massive star which , at least in some cases, produces a neutron star. At this stage, the neutrinos are produced by neutronization which speeds up as collapse continues. During collapse an outward bound shock wave forms in the matter falling onto the nearly stationary core which shows reflectivity of matter . The conditions behind the shock at 100 to 200 km are suitable for neutrino heating . This neutrino heating blows a hot bubble above the protoneutron star and is the most important source of energy for Supernova explosion . At this stage , we try to attain the r-process path responsible for the production of heavy elements beyond iron , which are otherwise not possible to be formed by fusion reactions . The most interesting evolution occurs as temperature falls from 1010 K to 109 K . At these high temperature conditions , the near critical fluids after fusion reactions are forbidden and transform into the respective atoms by r-process path which on beta decaying produce the ultimate elements of the periodic chart . Another astrophysical parameter needed for our analysis is neutron number density which we take to be greater than 1020 cm-3 . With these , at different entropy environments , we assign the neutron binding energy that represents the r-process path in the chart of nuclides . Along the path , the experimental data of observed elements matches our calculated one . It is found that the dynamical timescale of the final collapse is dominated by electron capture on nuclei and not on free protons. It is also found that the beta decay rates are much higher than the corresponding electron capture rates at the same classical condition.

  19. Comparison of electron capture and beta decay rates in high temperature environment in explosion of supernova type II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baruah, Rulee

    It is generally acknowledged that Type II supernova results from the collapse of iron core of a massive star which, at least in some cases, produces a neutron star. At this stage, the neutrinos are produced by neutronization which speeds up as collapse continues. During collapse an outward bound shock wave forms in the matter falling onto the nearly stationary core. The conditions behind the shock at 100 to 200 km are suitable for neutrino heating. This neutrino heating blows a hot bubble above the protoneutron star and is the most important source of energy for Supernova explosion. At this stage, we try to attain the r-process (rapid neutron capture process) path responsible for the production of heavy elements beyond iron, which are otherwise not possible to be formed by fusion reactions. The most interesting evolution occurs as temperature falls from 1010 K to 109 K. At these high temperature conditions, the near critical fluids after fusion reactions transform into the respective atoms by r-process path which on beta decaying produce the ultimate elements of the periodic chart. Another astrophysical parameter needed for our analysis is neutron number density which we take to be greater than 1020 cm^{-3}. With these, at different entropy environments, we assign the neutron binding energy that represents the r-process path in the chart of nuclides. Along the path, the experimental data of observed elements matches our calculated one. It is found that the dynamical timescale of the final collapse is dominated by electron capture on nuclei and not on free protons. It is also found that the beta decay rates are much higher than the corresponding electron capture rates at the same classical condition.

  20. Detection and decay rates of prey and prey symbionts in the gut of a predator through metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Paula, Débora P; Linard, Benjamin; Andow, David A; Sujii, Edison R; Pires, Carmen S S; Vogler, Alfried P

    2015-07-01

    DNA methods are useful to identify ingested prey items from the gut of predators, but reliable detection is hampered by low amounts of degraded DNA. PCR-based methods can retrieve minute amounts of starting material but suffer from amplification biases and cross-reactions with the predator and related species genomes. Here, we use PCR-free direct shotgun sequencing of total DNA isolated from the gut of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis at five time points after feeding on a single pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Sequence reads were matched to three reference databases: Insecta mitogenomes of 587 species, including H. axyridis sequenced here; A. pisum nuclear genome scaffolds; and scaffolds and complete genomes of 13 potential bacterial symbionts. Immediately after feeding, multicopy mtDNA of A. pisum was detected in tens of reads, while hundreds of matches to nuclear scaffolds were detected. Aphid nuclear DNA and mtDNA decayed at similar rates (0.281 and 0.11 h(-1) respectively), and the detectability periods were 32.7 and 23.1 h. Metagenomic sequencing also revealed thousands of reads of the obligate Buchnera aphidicola and facultative Regiella insecticola aphid symbionts, which showed exponential decay rates significantly faster than aphid DNA (0.694 and 0.80 h(-1) , respectively). However, the facultative aphid symbionts Hamiltonella defensa, Arsenophonus spp. and Serratia symbiotica showed an unexpected temporary increase in population size by 1-2 orders of magnitude in the predator guts before declining. Metagenomics is a powerful tool that can reveal complex relationships and the dynamics of interactions among predators, prey and their symbionts. PMID:25545417

  1. Detection and decay rates of prey and prey symbionts in the gut of a predator through metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Paula, Débora P; Linard, Benjamin; Andow, David A; Sujii, Edison R; Pires, Carmen S S; Vogler, Alfried P

    2015-07-01

    DNA methods are useful to identify ingested prey items from the gut of predators, but reliable detection is hampered by low amounts of degraded DNA. PCR-based methods can retrieve minute amounts of starting material but suffer from amplification biases and cross-reactions with the predator and related species genomes. Here, we use PCR-free direct shotgun sequencing of total DNA isolated from the gut of the harlequin ladybird Harmonia axyridis at five time points after feeding on a single pea aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum. Sequence reads were matched to three reference databases: Insecta mitogenomes of 587 species, including H. axyridis sequenced here; A. pisum nuclear genome scaffolds; and scaffolds and complete genomes of 13 potential bacterial symbionts. Immediately after feeding, multicopy mtDNA of A. pisum was detected in tens of reads, while hundreds of matches to nuclear scaffolds were detected. Aphid nuclear DNA and mtDNA decayed at similar rates (0.281 and 0.11 h(-1) respectively), and the detectability periods were 32.7 and 23.1 h. Metagenomic sequencing also revealed thousands of reads of the obligate Buchnera aphidicola and facultative Regiella insecticola aphid symbionts, which showed exponential decay rates significantly faster than aphid DNA (0.694 and 0.80 h(-1) , respectively). However, the facultative aphid symbionts Hamiltonella defensa, Arsenophonus spp. and Serratia symbiotica showed an unexpected temporary increase in population size by 1-2 orders of magnitude in the predator guts before declining. Metagenomics is a powerful tool that can reveal complex relationships and the dynamics of interactions among predators, prey and their symbionts.

  2. The β-decay rates of 59Fe isotopes in shell burning environments and their influences on the production of 60Fe in massive star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, K.; Lam, Y. H.; Qi, C.; Tang, X.; Zhang, N.

    2016-02-01

    The experimental B(GT) strengths of the 59Fe excited states were employed to determine the transition strengths which greatly contribute 59Fe stellar β-decay at typical carbon shell burning temperature. The result has been compared with the theoretical rates FFN (Fuller-Fowler-Newman) and LMP (Langanke&Martinez-Pinedo). Impact of the newly determined rate on the synthesis of cosmic γ emitter 60Fe has also been studied using one-zone model calculation. Our results show 59Fe stellar β-decay rate plays an important role in the 60Fe nucleosynthesis. However the uncertainty of the decay rate is rather large due to the error of B(GT) strength that requires further studies.

  3. Short-term seasonal variability in 7Be wet deposition in a semiarid ecosystem of central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Juri Ayub, J; Di Gregorio, D E; Velasco, H; Huck, H; Rizzotto, M; Lohaiza, F

    2009-11-01

    The (7)Be wet deposition has been intensively investigated in a semiarid region at San Luis Province, Argentina. From November 2006 to May 2008, the (7)Be content in rainwater was determined in 58 individual rain events, randomly comprising more than 50% of all individual precipitations at the sampling period. (7)Be activity concentration in rainwater ranged from 0.7+/-0.3 Bq l(-1) to 3.2+/-0.7 Bq l(-1), with a mean value of 1.7 Bq l(-1) (sd=0.53 Bq l(-1)). No relationship was found between (7)Be content in rainwater and (a) rainfall amount, (b) precipitation intensity and (c) elapsed time between events. (7)Be ground deposition was found to be well correlated with rainfall amount (R=0.92). For the precipitation events considered, the (7)Be depositional fluxes ranged from 1.1 to 120 Bq m(-2), with a mean value of 32.7 Bq m(-2) (sd=29.9 Bq m(-2)). The annual depositional flux was estimated at 1140+/-120 Bq m(-2)y(-1). Assuming the same monthly deposition pattern and that the (7)Be content in soil decreases only through radioactive decay, the seasonal variation of (7)Be areal activity density in soil was estimated. Results of this investigation may contribute to a valuable characterization of (7)Be input in the explored semiarid ecosystem and its potential use as tracer of environmental processes.

  4. Surface induced phonon decay rates in thin film nano-structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Photiadis, D. M.

    2007-12-01

    Nano-scale structure significantly impacts phonon transport and related phonon relaxation rates, with order of magnitude effects on the thermal conductivity of dielectric thin films and quantum wires, and even larger effects on the lifetimes of ultrasonic phonons of micro- (nano-) oscillators. In both cases, efforts to explain the data have been hampered by our lack of knowledge of the effects of confined dimensionality on phonon-phonon scattering rates. Using a phonon Boltzmann equation with appropriate boundary conditions on the free surfaces to take surface roughness into account, we have obtained an expression yielding phonon lifetimes in 2-D dielectric nanostructures(thin films) resulting from phonon-phonon scattering in conjunction with phonon-surface scattering. We present these theoretical results and, in the limit in which surface induced losses dominate, obtain explicit predictions for the phonon lifetimes. The predicted temperature dependence of the ultrason! ic loss does not explain the observed saturation of the loss at low temperatures(τ(T) → const), but does give results of the order of magnitude of measured ultrasonic lifetimes.

  5. Decay Rates to Equilibrium for Nonlinear Plate Equations with Degenerate, Geometrically-Constrained Damping

    SciTech Connect

    Geredeli, Pelin G.; Webster, Justin T.

    2013-12-15

    We analyze the convergence to equilibrium of solutions to the nonlinear Berger plate evolution equation in the presence of localized interior damping (also referred to as geometrically constrained damping). Utilizing the results in (Geredeli et al. in J. Differ. Equ. 254:1193–1229, 2013), we have that any trajectory converges to the set of stationary points N . Employing standard assumptions from the theory of nonlinear unstable dynamics on the set N , we obtain the rate of convergence to an equilibrium. The critical issue in the proof of convergence to equilibria is a unique continuation property (which we prove for the Berger evolution) that provides a gradient structure for the dynamics. We also consider the more involved von Karman evolution, and show that the same results hold assuming a unique continuation property for solutions, which is presently a challenging open problem.

  6. The 7Be ii Resonance Lines in Two Classical Novae V5668 Sgr and V2944 Oph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tajitsu, Akito; Sadakane, Kozo; Naito, Hiroyuki; Arai, Akira; Kawakita, Hideyo; Aoki, Wako

    2016-02-01

    We report spectroscopic observations of the resonance lines of singly ionized 7Be in the blueshifted absorption line systems found in the post-outburst spectra of two classical novae—V5668 Sgr (Nova Sagittarii 2015 No. 2) and V2944 Oph (Nova Ophiuchi 2015). The unstable isotope 7Be should have been created during the thermonuclear runaway (TNR) of these novae and decayed to form 7Li within a short period (a half-life of 53.22 days). These confirmations of 7Be are the second and the third ones following the first case found in V339 Del by Tajitsu et al. The blueshifted absorption line systems in both novae are clearly divided into two velocity components, both of which contain 7Be. This means that the absorbing gases in both velocity components consist of products of TNR. We estimated the amounts of 7Be produced during the outbursts of both novae and concluded that significant 7Li should have been created. These findings strongly suggest that the explosive production of 7Li via the reaction 3He(α,γ)7Be and its subsequent decay to 7Li occurs frequently among classical novae and contributes to the process of Galactic Li enrichment.

  7. Measurement of the {beta}{sup +} and Orbital Electron-Capture Decay Rates in Fully Ionized, Hydrogenlike, and Heliumlike {sup 140}Pr Ions

    SciTech Connect

    Litvinov, Yu. A.; Geissel, H.; Winckler, N.; Knoebel, R.; Litvinov, S. A.; Scheidenberger, C.; Bosch, F.; Beckert, K.; Brandau, C.; Dimopoulou, C.; Hess, S.; Kozhuharov, C.; Mazzocco, M.; Nociforo, C.; Nolden, F.; Prochazka, A.; Reuschl, R.; Steck, M.; Stoehlker, T.; Trassinelli, M.

    2007-12-31

    We report on the first measurement of the {beta}{sup +} and orbital electron-capture decay rates of {sup 140}Pr nuclei with the simplest electron configurations: bare nuclei, hydrogenlike, and heliumlike ions. The measured electron-capture decay constant of hydrogenlike {sup 140}Pr{sup 58+} ions is about 50% larger than that of heliumlike {sup 140}Pr{sup 57+} ions. Moreover, {sup 140}Pr ions with one bound electron decay faster than neutral {sup 140}Pr{sup 0+} atoms with 59 electrons. To explain this peculiar observation one has to take into account the conservation of the total angular momentum, since only particular spin orientations of the nucleus and of the captured electron can contribute to the allowed decay.

  8. Effect of metal side claddings on emission decay rates of single quantum dots embedded in a sub-wavelength semiconductor waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamoto, Takumi; Ota, Yasutomo; Ishida, Satomi; Kumagai, Naoto; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-08-01

    We experimentally investigate the emission decay rates of self-assembled single InAs quantum dots (QDs) embedded in sub-wavelength semiconductor waveguides with and without metal side claddings. Compared with as-grown single QDs, we observe a clear suppression (enhancement) in the radiative decay rates of single InAs QDs embedded in the sub-wavelength semiconductor waveguides without (with) metal cladding, respectively. The decay rate for QDs in metal-clad waveguides is ∼2 times faster than that in waveguides without metal. Numerical calculations using models that include the effects of structural imperfections show good agreement with the experimental results, and reveal that the most important structural imperfection is the gap between the metal and the semiconductor.

  9. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, M.; Cherubini, P.; Fravolini, G.; Ascher, J.; Schärer, M.; Synal, H.-A.; Bertoldi, D.; Camin, F.; Larcher, R.; Egli, M.

    2015-09-01

    Due to the large size and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the time scales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests have been poorly investigated and are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the five-decay class system commonly employed for forest surveys, based on a macromorphological and visual assessment. For the decay classes 1 to 3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) and some others not having enough tree rings, radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model. In the decay classes 1 to 3, the ages of the CWD were similar varying between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative for deadwood age. We found, however, distinct tree species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were 0.012 to 0.018 yr-1 for spruce and 0.005 to 0.012 yr-1 for larch. Cellulose and lignin time trends half-lives (using a multiple-exponential model) could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 yr for spruce and 50 yr for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than 100 years in larch CWD.

  10. Application of the t-model of optimal prediction to the estimationof the rate of decay of solutions of the Euler equations in two and threedimensions

    SciTech Connect

    Hald, Ole H.; Shvets, Yelena; Stinis, Panagiotis

    2006-10-07

    The "t-model" for dimensional reduction is applied to theestimation of the rate of decay of solutions of the Burgers equation andof the Euler equations in two and three space dimensions. The model wasfirst derived in a statistical mechanics context, but here we analyze itpurely as a numerical tool and prove its convergence. In the Burgers casethe model captures the rate of decay exactly, as was already previouslyshown. For the Euler equations in two space dimensions, the modelpreserves energy as it should. In three dimensions, we find a power lawdecay in time and observe a temporal intermittency.

  11. First-forbidden β-decay rates, energy rates of β-delayed neutrons and probability of β-delayed neutron emissions for neutron-rich nickel isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabi, Jameel-Un; Çakmak, Necla; Iftikhar, Zafar

    2016-01-01

    First-forbidden (FF) transitions can play an important role in decreasing the calculated half-lives specially in environments where allowed Gamow-Teller (GT) transitions are unfavored. Of special mention is the case of neutron-rich nuclei where, due to phase-space amplification, FF transitions are much favored. We calculate the allowed GT transitions in various pn-QRPA models for even-even neutron-rich isotopes of nickel. Here we also study the effect of deformation on the calculated GT strengths. The FF transitions for even-even neutron-rich isotopes of nickel are calculated assuming the nuclei to be spherical. Later we take into account deformation of nuclei and calculate GT + unique FF transitions, stellar β-decay rates, energy rate of β-delayed neutrons and probability of β-delayed neutron emissions. The calculated half-lives are in excellent agreement with measured ones and might contribute in speeding-up of the r-matter flow.

  12. Trophic Position and Metabolic Rate Predict the Long-Term Decay Process of Radioactive Cesium in Fish: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Teruhiko; Tanaka, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (137Cs) can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term 137Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate) and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type) influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1) trophic position could predict the day of maximum 137Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2) the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of 137Cs activity concentration in fish. PMID:22279534

  13. Trophic position and metabolic rate predict the long-term decay process of radioactive cesium in fish: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Doi, Hideyuki; Takahara, Teruhiko; Tanaka, Kazuya

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the long-term behavior of radionuclides in organisms is important for estimating possible associated risks to human beings and ecosystems. As radioactive cesium (¹³⁷Cs) can be accumulated in organisms and has a long physical half-life, it is very important to understand its long-term decay in organisms; however, the underlying mechanisms determining the decay process are little known. We performed a meta-analysis to collect published data on the long-term ¹³⁷Cs decay process in fish species to estimate biological (metabolic rate) and ecological (trophic position, habitat, and diet type) influences on this process. From the linear mixed models, we found that 1) trophic position could predict the day of maximum ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish; and 2) the metabolic rate of the fish species and environmental water temperature could predict ecological half-lives and decay rates for fish species. These findings revealed that ecological and biological traits are important to predict the long-term decay process of ¹³⁷Cs activity concentration in fish.

  14. Time since death and decay rate constants of Norway spruce and European larch deadwood in subalpine forests determined using dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrillo, Marta; Cherubini, Paolo; Fravolini, Giulia; Marchetti, Marco; Ascher-Jenull, Judith; Schärer, Michael; Synal, Hans-Arno; Bertoldi, Daniela; Camin, Federica; Larcher, Roberto; Egli, Markus

    2016-03-01

    Due to the large size (e.g. sections of tree trunks) and highly heterogeneous spatial distribution of deadwood, the timescales involved in the coarse woody debris (CWD) decay of Picea abies (L.) Karst. and Larix decidua Mill. in Alpine forests are largely unknown. We investigated the CWD decay dynamics in an Alpine valley in Italy using the chronosequence approach and the five-decay class system that is based on a macromorphological assessment. For the decay classes 1-3, most of the dendrochronological samples were cross-dated to assess the time that had elapsed since tree death, but for decay classes 4 and 5 (poorly preserved tree rings) radiocarbon dating was used. In addition, density, cellulose, and lignin data were measured for the dated CWD. The decay rate constants for spruce and larch were estimated on the basis of the density loss using a single negative exponential model, a regression approach, and the stage-based matrix model. In the decay classes 1-3, the ages of the CWD were similar and varied between 1 and 54 years for spruce and 3 and 40 years for larch, with no significant differences between the classes; classes 1-3 are therefore not indicative of deadwood age. This seems to be due to a time lag between the death of a standing tree and its contact with the soil. We found distinct tree-species-specific differences in decay classes 4 and 5, with larch CWD reaching an average age of 210 years in class 5 and spruce only 77 years. The mean CWD rate constants were estimated to be in the range 0.018 to 0.022 y-1 for spruce and to about 0.012 y-1 for larch. Snapshot sampling (chronosequences) may overestimate the age and mean residence time of CWD. No sampling bias was, however, detectable using the stage-based matrix model. Cellulose and lignin time trends could be derived on the basis of the ages of the CWD. The half-lives for cellulose were 21 years for spruce and 50 years for larch. The half-life of lignin is considerably higher and may be more than

  15. Nuclear Structure of 8B Studied by Proton Resonance Scatterings on 7Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Amadio, G.; Kubono, S.; Fujikawa, H.; Saito, A.; He, J. J.; Teranishi, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Nishimura, S.; Togano, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Inafuku, K.; Niikura, M.; Binh, D. N.; Khiem, L. H.

    2008-05-01

    A new measurement of the proton resonance scattering on 7Be was performed up to the excitation energy of 6.8 MeV using the low-energy RI beam facility CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. The excitation function of 8B above 3.5 MeV was successfully measured for the first time, providing important information about the reaction rate of 7Be(p,γ)8B, which is the key reaction in the solar 8B neutrino production. For more intensive experimental studies with RI beams, the development of a cryogenic gas target system is ongoing at CNS. In this paper a preliminary result of the 7Be experiment and the present status of the development of the target system are presented.

  16. Nuclear Structure of {sup 8}B Studied by Proton Resonance Scatterings on {sup 7}Be

    SciTech Connect

    Yamaguchi, H.; Wakabayashi, Y.; Hayakawa, S.; Amadio, G.; Kubono, S.; Fujikawa, H.; Niikura, M.; Binh, D. N.; Saito, A.; He, J. J.; Teranishi, T.; Kwon, Y. K.; Nishimura, S.; Togano, Y.; Iwasa, N.; Inafuku, K.; Khiem, L. H.

    2008-05-21

    A new measurement of the proton resonance scattering on {sup 7}Be was performed up to the excitation energy of 6.8 MeV using the low-energy RI beam facility CRIB (CNS Radioactive Ion Beam separator) at the Center for Nuclear Study (CNS) of the University of Tokyo. The excitation function of {sup 8}B above 3.5 MeV was successfully measured for the first time, providing important information about the reaction rate of {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B, which is the key reaction in the solar {sup 8}B neutrino production. For more intensive experimental studies with RI beams, the development of a cryogenic gas target system is ongoing at CNS. In this paper a preliminary result of the {sup 7}Be experiment and the present status of the development of the target system are presented.

  17. THE LONG-TERM DECAY IN PRODUCTION RATES FOLLOWING THE EXTREME OUTBURST OF COMET 17P/HOLMES

    SciTech Connect

    Schleicher, David G.

    2009-10-15

    Numerous sets of narrowband filter photometry were obtained of Comet 17P/Holmes from Lowell Observatory during the interval of 2007 November 1 to 2008 March 5. Observations began 8 days following its extreme outburst, at which time the derived water production rate, based on OH measurements, was 5 x 10{sup 29} molecule s{sup -1} and the derived proxy of dust production, A({theta})f{rho}, was about 5 x 10{sup 5} cm. Relative production rates for the other gas species, CN, C{sub 2}, C{sub 3}, and NH, are consistent with 'typical' composition (based on our update to the classifications by A'Hearn et al.). An exponential decay in the logarithm of measured production rates as a function of time was observed for all species, with each species dropping by factors of about 200-500 after 125 days. All gas species exhibited clear trends with aperture size, and these trends are consistent with larger apertures having a greater proportion of older material that was released when production rates were higher. Much larger aperture trends were measured for the dust, most likely because the dust grains have smaller outflow velocities and longer lifetimes than the gas species; therefore, a greater proportion of older, i.e., higher production dust is contained within a given aperture. By extrapolating to a sufficiently small aperture size, we derive near-instantaneous water and dust production rates throughout the interval of observation, and also estimate values immediately following the outburst. The finite lifetime of the gas species requires that much higher ice vaporization rates were taking place throughout the observation interval than occurred prior to the outburst, likely due to the continued release of icy grains from the nucleus. The relatively small aperture trends for the gas species also imply that the bulk of fresh, excess volatiles are confined to the nucleus and near-nucleus regime, rather than being associated with the outburst ejecta cloud. A minimum of about 0

  18. Global Well-Posedness and Decay Rates of Strong Solutions to a Non-Conservative Compressible Two-Fluid Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evje, Steinar; Wang, Wenjun; Wen, Huanyao

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we consider a compressible two-fluid model with constant viscosity coefficients and unequal pressure functions {P^+neq P^-}. As mentioned in the seminal work by Bresch, Desjardins, et al. (Arch Rational Mech Anal 196:599-629, 2010) for the compressible two-fluid model, where {P^+=P^-} (common pressure) is used and capillarity effects are accounted for in terms of a third-order derivative of density, the case of constant viscosity coefficients cannot be handled in their settings. Besides, their analysis relies on a special choice for the density-dependent viscosity [refer also to another reference (Commun Math Phys 309:737-755, 2012) by Bresch, Huang and Li for a study of the same model in one dimension but without capillarity effects]. In this work, we obtain the global solution and its optimal decay rate (in time) with constant viscosity coefficients and some smallness assumptions. In particular, capillary pressure is taken into account in the sense that {Δ P=P^+ - P^-=fneq 0} where the difference function {f} is assumed to be a strictly decreasing function near the equilibrium relative to the fluid corresponding to {P^-}. This assumption plays an key role in the analysis and appears to have an essential stabilization effect on the model in question.

  19. Recent results on mesonic and non-mesonic weak decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Elena

    2010-04-01

    Recent results from the FINUDA experiment on the Mesonic Weak Decay (MWD) and Non-Mesonic Weak Decay (NMWD) channels of p-shell Λ-hypernuclei are presented and discussed. Magnetic analysis of π's from MWD was performed for the first time for LiΛ7, BeΛ9, BΛ11 and NΛ15; decay rates were evaluated and a spin-parity assignment J=3/2 for NΛ15 ground-state was derived. Spectra of protons from NMWD were obtained for HeΛ5, LiΛ7, BeΛ9, BΛ11, CΛ12, CΛ13, NΛ15 and OΛ16. An estimation of the contributions of both Final State Interactions (FSI) and two-nucleon induced (2N) decay processes was done, following a model independent approach.

  20. Evaluating physical and biological influences on sedimentation in a tidal freshwater marsh with 7Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palinkas, Cindy M.; Engelhardt, Katharina A. M.; Cadol, Dan

    2013-09-01

    Key differences exist between tidal fresh- and saltwater marshes, such as the relative importance of mineral versus organic sedimentation and plant species diversity, that likely result in different drivers of sedimentation. In tidal freshwater marshes, we hypothesize that vegetation composition, along with physical marsh features (i.e., elevation and tidal channels), play a critical role in sedimentation. This hypothesis is evaluated in Dyke Marsh Preserve (Potomac River, VA, USA) by examining sediment character (grain size, organic content) and deposition rates across the marsh in spring and summer 2010 and 2011. 7Be is especially well suited to capture seasonal sedimentation patterns owing to its short half-life (53.3 d) and ability to assess both sediment deposition and erosion. However, its use in marshes can be challenging, especially due the presence of vegetation. In this study, 7Be-derived sedimentation rates are compared with sediment deposition observed on ceramic tiles to assess its utility in tidal freshwater marshes, and biophysical influences on sediment deposition are examined through statistical models. 7Be- and tile-derived sedimentation rates show similar spatial and temporal patterns, with highest rates occurring at sites closer to tidal channels, highlighting the importance of sediment availability. In addition, complex feedbacks between sedimentation and the plant community are discussed.

  1. A new study of 10B(p,α)7Be reaction at low energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caciolli, A.; Depalo, R.; Broggini, C.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Menegazzo, R.; Mou, L.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rigato, V.; Romano, S.; Rossi Alvarez, C.; Sergi, M. L.; Spitaleri, C.; Tumino, A.

    2016-05-01

    The 10B(p,α)7Be reaction is of great interest since it has many applications in different fields of research such as nuclear astrophysics, nuclear physics, and models of new reactors for clean energy generation. This reaction has been studied at the AN2000 accelerator of the INFN National Laboratories of Legnaro (LNL). The total cross section has been measured in a wide energy range (250-1182 keV) by using the activation method. The decays of the 7Be nuclei produced by the reaction were measured at the low counting facility of LNL by using two fully shielded high-purity germanium detectors. The present dataset shows a large discrepancy with respect to one of the previous data at the same energies and reduces the total uncertainty to the level of 6%. An R-matrix calculation has been performed on the present data using the parameters from previous Trojan Horse measurements for the 10 and 500keV resonances. The present data do not lay on the R-matrix fit in one point suggesting the existence of a 11C level not observed yet. Further nuclear investigations are needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  2. Atmospheric deposition of {sup 7}Be by rain events, incentral Argentina

    SciTech Connect

    Ayub, J. Juri; Velasco, H.; Rizzotto, M.; Di Gregorio, D. E.; Huck, H.

    2008-08-07

    Beryllium-7 is a natural radionuclide that enters into the ecosystems through wet and dry depositions and has numerous environmental applications in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Atmospheric wet deposition of {sup 7}Be was measured in central Argentina. Rain traps were installed (1 m above ground) and individual rain events have been collected. Rain samples were filtered and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The gamma counting was undertaken using a 40%-efficient p-type coaxial intrinsic high-purity natural germanium crystal built by Princeton Gamma-Tech. The cryostat was made from electroformed high-purity copper using ultralow-background technology. The detector was surrounded by 50 cm of lead bricks to provide shielding against radioactive background. The detector gamma efficiency was determined using a water solution with known amounts of chemical compounds containing long-lived naturally occurring radioisotopes, {sup 176}Lu, {sup 138}La and {sup 40}K. Due to the geometry of the sample and its position close to the detector, the efficiency points from the {sup 176}Lu decay, had to be corrected for summing effects. The measured samples were 400 ml in size and were counted curing one day. The {sup 7}Be detection limit for the present measurements was as low as 0.2 Bq l{sup -1}. Thirty two rain events were sampled and analyzed (November 2006-May 2007). The measured values show that the events corresponding to low rainfall (<20 mm) are characterized by significantly higher activity concentrations (Bq l{sup -1}). The activity concentration of each individual event varied from 0.8 to 3.5 Bq l{sup -1}, while precipitations varied between 4 and 70 mm. The integrated activity by event of {sup 7}Be was fitted with a model that takes into account the precipitation amount and the elapsed time between two rain events. The integrated activities calculated with this model show a good agreement with experimental values.

  3. 7Be as a tracer of flood sedimentation on the northern California continental margin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sommerfield, C. K.; Nittrouer, C. A.; Alexander, C. R.

    1999-01-01

    Sediment inventories of the cosmogenic radionuclide 7Be (t1/2=53 d) were measured on the Eel River shelf and slope (northern California continental margin) to investigate sedimentation processes associated with coastal river flooding. Seabed coring shortly after major riverflow events in 1995 and 1997 documented a shelf-wide flood deposit, and subsequent radionuclide studies determined 7Be to be a powerful tracer of fine-grained river sediment. In addition, distinctive signatures of 234Th and 210Pb were observed in oceanic flood deposits and provided additional information regarding depositional processes. During the 1995–1997 monitoring period, 7Be was present (2–35 dpm cm-2) in shelf and slope sediments only after periods of high rainfall and river runoff during the winter months. It is suggested that fluvial input was the primary source of 7Be in shelf sediments after the floods. 7Be sediment inventories and sediment-trap fluxes determined after the 1997 flood revealed that fine-grained fluvial sediments were rapidly (within one month) broadcast over the continental margin, to the 500 m isobath. Dispersal was apparently facilitated by energetic storm waves, which resuspended and redistributed some fraction of the suspended load residing on the shelf prior to accretion as flood deposits. These observations illustrate that floods are an important sedimentary process for modern environments of the Eel shelf and slope, and perhaps for other fluviomarine sedimentary systems of the northern California continental margin. Ratios of the 210Pb sediment-accumulation rate (100 yr average) to the 7Be deposition rate (1–2 month average) for shelf sites illustrate the episodic nature of shelf sedimentation, and suggest that a minimum of 3–30 depositional events complete the most recent stratigraphic record. This observation is consistent with the magnetude and frequency of fluvial sediment input, as Eel River floods with return periods of 3–33 yr (3% of the time of

  4. Activity size distribution and residence time of 7Be aerosols in the Arctic atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidou, Alexandra; Paatero, Jussi

    2014-05-01

    The activity size distributions of the natural radionuclide tracer 7Be in different size range fractions (<0.39 μm, 0.39-0.69 μm, 0.69-1.3 μm, 1.3-2.1 μm, 2.1-4.2 μm, 4.2-10.2 μm and >10.2 μm) were determined in the boreal atmosphere in the Arctic Research Centre of the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI) at Sodankylä, Finland (67°22‧ N, 26°38‧ E, 180 m asl). The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) ranged from 0.54 μm to 1.05 μm (average 0.83 μm). A residence time of about 8 days applies to aerosols of 0.83 μm diameter, representing the residence of aerosol particles in arctic environment. The observed positive correlation between AMAD values and RH% can be explained by the fact that condensation during high relative humidity conditions becomes more intense, resulting in increased particle sizes of atmospheric aerosols. However, greater aerosol particle sizes means higher wet scavenging rate of aerosols and as a result lower activity concentration of 7Be in the atmosphere, explaining the anti-correlation between the AMAD values and activity concentrations of 7Be. But this associated with possibly higher scavenging rates of aerosols does not necessarily alone explain the anti-correlation between the AMAD and the 7Be activities. The air mass origin associated with synoptic scale weather phenomena may contribute to that too. The Flextra model was used to assess the transport pattern and to explain the deviation in radionuclide activity concentrations and AMAD values observed in the site of investigation.

  5. Determination of the residence time of suspended particles in the turbidity maximum of the Loire estuary by 7Be analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciffroy, Philippe; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Siclet, Françoise

    2003-07-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the half life of suspended particles in the Loire estuarine turbidity maximum by analysis of 7Be budgets. The methodology was based on in situ sampling and further measurements aiming at quantifying 7Be sources (atmospheric deposition and river inputs) and 7Be stock in the water column of the turbidity maximum. 7Be river inputs were determined by monthly 7Be measurements performed upstream of the estuary. 7Be atmospheric deposition was estimated by using an empirical relation between 7Be deposition and rainfall. 7Be in particles of the estuarine turbidity maximum was measured at eight different dates corresponding to different tidal and hydrological conditions. 7Be sources and stocks thus determined have been compared to a mathematical model. Results allow to quantify the 'standard half life' of suspended particles in the Loire estuarine turbidity maximum and show that it depends on the season (6-10 months in summer and about 0.7 month during flood periods). Furthermore, a rather good linear correlation was observed between the standard half life of particles and the sum of flow rates in the Loire river during 60 days before each sampling date. The kinetic evolution of the mass of particles within the turbidity maximum could be estimated by this method and appeared to be consistent with previous studies. Moreover, the method proposed in this study could presumably be used for estimating 60Co concentrations in the estuarine turbidity maximum.

  6. Analysis of D0 -> K+ pi- pi0 Decays: Search for D0-D0bar Mixing, and Measurements of the Doubly Cabibbo-Suppressed Decay Rate and Resonance Contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, Michael Galante

    2005-12-13

    Analyzing D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} decays, herein are presented the methods and results of a search for D{sup 0}-{bar D}{sup 0} mixing, a measurement of the branching ratio R {equivalent_to} {Lambda}(D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0})/{Lambda}(D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}), and measurements of the contributions from D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{rho}{sup -}, K*{sup +}{pi}{sup -}, K*{sup 0}{pi}{sup 0}; 230.4 fb{sup -1} of data collected from the BABAR detector at the PEP-II collider during 2000-2004 (Runs 1-4) are analyzed. An event-level tagging technique is developed, which facilitates the accurate determination of doubly Cabibbo-suppressed resonance contributions by suppressing background from Cabibbo-favored decays. The branching ratio is measured as R = (0.214 {+-} 0.008 (stat) {+-} 0.008 (syst))%, with (46.1 {+-} 3.3 (stat) {+-} 2.9 (syst))% of D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0} decays proceeding through the channel D{sup 0} {yields} K*{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. The data are consistent with the null-D-mixing hypothesis at a confidence level of 10%, and the expected value of {+-} {radical}(x{sup 2} + y{sup 2}) is measured as -0.013 {+-} 0.010 (stat), indicating negative interference between mixing and doubly Cabibbo-suppressed decay. The expected value of the integrated mixing rate is (x{sup 2} + y{sup 2})/2 = (0.013 {+-} 0.013 (stat))%.

  7. Equivalence between the mechanical model and energy-transfer theory for the classical decay rates of molecules near a spherical particle.

    PubMed

    Chung, H Y; Leung, P T; Tsai, D P

    2012-05-14

    In the classical modeling of decay rates for molecules interacting with a nontrivial environment, it is well known that two alternate approaches exist which include: (1) a mechanical model treating the system as a damped harmonic oscillator driven by the reflected fields from the environment; and (2) a model based on the radiative and nonradiative energy transfers from the excited molecular system to the environment. While the exact equivalence of the two methods is not trivial and has been explicitly demonstrated only for planar geometry, it has been widely taken for granted and applied to other geometries such as in the interaction of the molecule with a spherical particle. Here we provide a rigorous proof of such equivalence for the molecule-sphere problem via a direct calculation of the decay rates adopting each of the two different approaches.

  8. Estimation of decay rates for fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens in agricultural field-applied manure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Field-applied manure is an important source of pathogenic exposure in surface water bodies for humans and ecological receptors. We analyzed the persistence and decay of fecal indicator bacteria and bacterial pathogens from three sources (cattle, poultry, swine) for agricultural f...

  9. Refractive index effects on the oscillator strength and radiative decay rate of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Jyotirmayee; Nau, Werner M

    2004-01-01

    The photophysical properties of 2,3-diazabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-2-ene (DBO) were determined in 15 solvents, two supramolecular hosts (cucurbit[7]uril and beta-cyclodextrin) as well as in the gas phase. The oscillator strength and radiative decay rate of DBO as a function of refractive index i.e. polarizability have been analyzed. The oscillator strength increases by a factor of 10 upon going from the gas phase to the most polarizable carbon disulfide, while the corresponding radiative decay rates increase by a factor of 40. There is a good empirical correlation between the oscillator strength of the weakly allowed n,pi* transition of DBO and the reciprocal bulk polarizability, which can be employed to assess the polarizability of unknown microheterogeneous environments. A satisfactory correlation between the radiative decay rate and the square of the refractive index is also found, as previously documented for chromophores with allowed transitions. However, the correlation improves significantly when the oscillator strength is included in the correlation, which demonstrates the importance of this factor in the Strickler-Berg equation for chromophores with forbidden or weakly allowed transitions, for which the oscillator strength may be strongly solvent dependent. The radiative decay rate of DBO in two supramolecular assemblies has been determined, confirming the very low polarizability inside the cucurbituril cavity, in between perfluorohexane and the gas phase. The fluorescence quantum yield of DBO in the gas phase has been remeasured (5.1 +/- 0.5%) and was found to fall one full order of magnitude below a previously reported value.

  10. Quantitative retention of atmospherically deposited elements by native vegetation is traced by the fallout radionuclides 7Be and 210Pb.

    PubMed

    Landis, Joshua D; Renshaw, Carl E; Kaste, James M

    2014-10-21

    Atmospheric deposition is the primary mechanism by which remote environments are impacted by anthropogenic contaminants. Vegetation plays a critical role in intercepting atmospheric aerosols, thereby regulating the timing and magnitude of both contaminant and nutrient delivery to underlying soils. However, quantitative models describing the fate of atmospherically derived elements on vegetation are limited by a lack of long-term measurements of both atmospheric flux and foliar concentrations. We addressed this gap in understanding by quantifying weekly atmospheric deposition of the naturally occurring radionuclide tracers (7)Be and (210)Pb, as well as their activities in leaves of colocated trees, for three years in New Hampshire, U.S. The accumulation of both (7)Be and (210)Pb in deciduous and coniferous vegetation is predicted by a model that is based solely on measured atmospheric fluxes, duration of leaf exposure, and radioactive decay. Any "wash off" processes that remove (7)Be and (210)Pb from foliage operate with a maximum half-time of greater than 370 days (P > 99%), which is an order of magnitude longer than previously assumed. The retention of both (7)Be and (210)Pb on leaves is thus quantitative and permanent, coupling the fate of (7)Be, (210)Pb and similar atmospheric species to that of the leaf matter itself. These findings demonstrate that the long-standing paradigm of a short "environmental half-life" for atmospheric contaminants deposited on natural surfaces must be re-evaluated.

  11. High precision 7Be solar neutrinos measurement and day night effect obtained with Borexino

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testera, G.; Bellini, G.; Benziger, J.; Bick, D.; Bonetti, S.; Bonfini, G.; Caccianiga, B.; Cadonati, L.; Calaprice, F.; Carraro, C.; Chavarria, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Derbin, A.; Etenko, A.; Fomenko, K.; Franco, D.; Galbiati, C.; Gazzana, S.; Ghiano, C.; Giammarchi, M.; Göger-Neff, M.; Goretti, A.; Grandi, L.; Guardincerri, E.; Hardy, S.; Ianni, Aldo; Ianni, Andrea; Korablev, D.; Kobychev, V.; Korga, G.; Koshio, Y.; Kryn, D.; Laubenstein, M.; Leung, M.; Lewke, T.; Litvinovich, E.; Loer, B.; Lombardi, P.; Lombardi, F.; Ludhova, L.; Machulin, I.; Manecki, S.; Maneschg, W.; Manuzio, G.; Meindl, Q.; Meroni, E.; Miramonti, L.; Misiaszek, M.; Montanari, D.; Mosteiro, P.; Muratova, V.; Oberauer, L.; Obolensky, M.; Ortica, F.; Pallavicini, M.; Papp, L.; Pena-Garay, C.; Perasso, L.; Perasso, S.; Pocar, A.; Raghavan, R. S.; Ranucci, G.; Razeto, A.; Romani, A.; Sabelnikov, A.; Saldanha, R.; Salvo, C.; Schönert, S.; Simgen, H.; Skorokhvatov, M.; Smirnov, O.; Sotnikov, A.; Sukhotin, S.; Suvorov, Y.; Tartaglia, R.; Vignaud, D.; Vogelaar, R. B.; von Feilitzsch, F.; Winter, J.; Wojcik, M.; Wurm, M.; Zaimidoroga, O.; Zavatarelli, S.; Zuzel, G.

    2012-11-01

    We report the direct measurement of the 7Be solar neutrino signal rate performed with the Borexino detector at the Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso and the search for a day-night asymmetry of this interaction rate. The interaction rate of the 0.862 MeV 7Be neutrinos is 46±1.6(stat)-1.6+1.5(syst) counts/(day · 100 ton). The hypothesis of no oscillation for this solar neutrinos is inconsistent with our measurement at the 5.8σ C.L. Our result is the first direct measurement of solar neutrinos with an accuracy better than 5%. We report the survival probability for solar νe in the transition region between matter-enhanced and vacuum-driven oscillations. The measured day night asymmetry is Adn=0.001±0.012 (stat)±0.007 (syst), in agreement with the predicition of MSW-LMA neutrino [13] oscillations. This result discourages MSW oscillations with mixing parameters in the LOW region at more than 8.5σ, meaning that this region is, for the first time, strongly rejected without the assumption of CPT symmetry. The result can also be used to constrain some neutrino oscillation scenarios involving new physics.

  12. Transition in the decay rates of stationary distributions of Lévy motion in an energy landscape.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, Kamil; Lőrinczi, József

    2016-02-01

    The time evolution of random variables with Lévy statistics has the ability to develop jumps, displaying very different behaviors from continuously fluctuating cases. Such patterns appear in an ever broadening range of examples including random lasers, non-Gaussian kinetics, or foraging strategies. The penalizing or reinforcing effect of the environment, however, has been little explored so far. We report a new phenomenon which manifests as a qualitative transition in the spatial decay behavior of the stationary measure of a jump process under an external potential, occurring on a combined change in the characteristics of the process and the lowest eigenvalue resulting from the effect of the potential. This also provides insight into the fundamental question of what is the mechanism of the spatial decay of a ground state. PMID:26986316

  13. Transition in the decay rates of stationary distributions of Lévy motion in an energy landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaleta, Kamil; Lőrinczi, József

    2016-02-01

    The time evolution of random variables with Lévy statistics has the ability to develop jumps, displaying very different behaviors from continuously fluctuating cases. Such patterns appear in an ever broadening range of examples including random lasers, non-Gaussian kinetics, or foraging strategies. The penalizing or reinforcing effect of the environment, however, has been little explored so far. We report a new phenomenon which manifests as a qualitative transition in the spatial decay behavior of the stationary measure of a jump process under an external potential, occurring on a combined change in the characteristics of the process and the lowest eigenvalue resulting from the effect of the potential. This also provides insight into the fundamental question of what is the mechanism of the spatial decay of a ground state.

  14. Computing decay rates for new physics theories with FEYNRULES  and MADGRAPH 5_AMC@NLO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alwall, Johan; Duhr, Claude; Fuks, Benjamin; Mattelaer, Olivier; Öztürk, Deniz Gizem; Shen, Chia-Hsien

    2015-12-01

    We present new features of the FEYNRULES  and MADGRAPH 5_AMC@NLO  programs for the automatic computation of decay widths that consistently include channels of arbitrary final-state multiplicity. The implementations are generic enough so that they can be used in the framework of any quantum field theory, possibly including higher-dimensional operators. We extend at the same time the conventions of the Universal FEYNRULES  Output (or UFO) format to include decay tables and information on the total widths. We finally provide a set of representative examples of the usage of the new functions of the different codes in the framework of the Standard Model, the Higgs Effective Field Theory, the Strongly Interacting Light Higgs model and the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model and compare the results to available literature and programs for validation purposes.

  15. Study of η - η' mixing from measurement of B{(s)/0} → J/ψη(') decay rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, AB; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R. C. M.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A. C.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H.-M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianí, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lowdon, P.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Moggi, N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A.-B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Polikarpov, S.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilschut, H. W.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-01-01

    A study of B and Bs meson decays into J/ψ η and J/ψ η' final states is performed using a data set of proton-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 7 and 8 TeV, collected by the LCHb experiment and corresponding to 3.0 fb-1 of integrated luminosity. The decay B0 → J/ψ η' is observed for the first time. The following ratios of branching fractions are measured: where the third uncertainty is related to the present knowledge of fs/fd, the ratio between the probabilities for a b quark to form a Bs or a B0 meson. The branching fraction ratios are used to determine the parameters of η - η' meson mixing. In addition, the first evidence for the decay Bs → ψ(2S)η' is reported, and the relative branching fraction is measured, where the third uncertainty is due to the limited knowledge of the branching fractions of J/ψ and ψ(2S) mesons. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  16. Electron-capture and β-decay Rates for sd-Shell Nuclei in Stellar Environments Relevant to High-density O-Ne-Mg Cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Toshio; Toki, Hiroshi; Nomoto, Ken'ichi

    2016-02-01

    Electron-capture and β-decay rates for nuclear pairs in the sd-shell are evaluated at high densities and high temperatures relevant to the final evolution of electron-degenerate O-Ne-Mg cores of stars with initial masses of 8-10 M⊙. Electron capture induces a rapid contraction of the electron-degenerate O-Ne-Mg core. The outcome of rapid contraction depends on the evolutionary changes in the central density and temperature, which are determined by the competing processes of contraction, cooling, and heating. The fate of the stars is determined by these competitions, whether they end up with electron-capture supernovae or Fe core-collapse supernovae. Since the competing processes are induced by electron capture and β-decay, the accurate weak rates are crucially important. The rates are obtained for pairs with A = 20, 23, 24, 25, and 27 by shell-model calculations in the sd-shell with the USDB Hamiltonian. Effects of Coulomb corrections on the rates are evaluated. The rates for pairs with A = 23 and 25 are important for nuclear Urca processes that determine the cooling rate of the O-Ne-Mg core, while those for pairs with A = 20 and 24 are important for the core contraction and heat generation rates in the core. We provide these nuclear rates at stellar environments in tables with fine enough meshes at various densities and temperatures for studies of astrophysical processes sensitive to the rates. In particular, the accurate rate tables are crucially important for the final fates of not only O-Ne-Mg cores but also a wider range of stars, such as C-O cores of lower-mass stars.

  17. Regional stressing rate appears to control duration and decay of off-fault aftershocks in the 2011 M=9.0 Tohoku-oki, Japan, earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toda, S.; Stein, R. S.

    2013-12-01

    The 11 March 2001 M=9.0 Tohoku-oki, Japan, earthquake brought the unprecedented broad increase in seismicity over inland Japan and far offshore. The seismicity rate increase was observed at distances of up to 425 km from the locus of high seismic slip on the megathrust, which roughly corresponds to the areas over 0.1 bar Coulomb stress increase (e.g., Toda et al., 2011). Such stress perturbation in the entire eastern Honshu island gives us a great opportunity to test one of the hypotheses in rate and state friction of Dieterich (1994): aftershock duration (ta) is inversely proportional to fault stressing rate. The Tohoku-oki mainshock indeed started a stopwatch simultaneously for all the off-fault and on-fault aftershocks in various tectonic situations. We have carefully examined the aftershock decays fitting the Omori-Utsu formula in several activated regions, including on the 2011 source fault, several inland areas of Tohoku (Akita, Iwaki, northern Sendai, and Fukushima), Tokyo metropolitan area, Choshi (east of Tokyo), Izu Peninsula, and areas along the most active Itoigawa-Shizuoka Tectonic Line (ISTL) central Honshu. Comparing the regional aftershock decays with the background rates of seismicity estimated from the JMA catalog from 2000 to 2010, we measured ta. One of the extreme short duration was measured at the Izu Peninsula where the heightened seismicity was rapidly toned down to the normal in one month. Overall seismicity in the Tohoku mainshock zone has been mostly closing to normal in 2 - 3 years. Both regions are characterized by high loading rate due to plate collision and subduction. Seismicity beneath Tokyo, also characterized by complex plate interfaces and brought average 1 bar closer to failure, has not followed the simple Omori decay but being settled a new higher rate after a rapid decay. In contrast to these highly deformed regions, current seismicity in slowly loading Tohoku inland regions are still much higher than background rate, which

  18. A Novel Pulse-Chase SILAC Strategy Measures Changes in Protein Decay and Synthesis Rates Induced by Perturbation of Proteostasis with an Hsp90 Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Fierro-Monti, Ivo; Racle, Julien; Hernandez, Celine; Waridel, Patrice; Hatzimanikatis, Vassily; Quadroni, Manfredo

    2013-01-01

    Standard proteomics methods allow the relative quantitation of levels of thousands of proteins in two or more samples. While such methods are invaluable for defining the variations in protein concentrations which follow the perturbation of a biological system, they do not offer information on the mechanisms underlying such changes. Expanding on previous work [1], we developed a pulse-chase (pc) variant of SILAC (stable isotope labeling by amino acids in cell culture). pcSILAC can quantitate in one experiment and for two conditions the relative levels of proteins newly synthesized in a given time as well as the relative levels of remaining preexisting proteins. We validated the method studying the drug-mediated inhibition of the Hsp90 molecular chaperone, which is known to lead to increased synthesis of stress response proteins as well as the increased decay of Hsp90 “clients”. We showed that pcSILAC can give information on changes in global cellular proteostasis induced by treatment with the inhibitor, which are normally not captured by standard relative quantitation techniques. Furthermore, we have developed a mathematical model and computational framework that uses pcSILAC data to determine degradation constants kd and synthesis rates Vs for proteins in both control and drug-treated cells. The results show that Hsp90 inhibition induced a generalized slowdown of protein synthesis and an increase in protein decay. Treatment with the inhibitor also resulted in widespread protein-specific changes in relative synthesis rates, together with variations in protein decay rates. The latter were more restricted to individual proteins or protein families than the variations in synthesis. Our results establish pcSILAC as a viable workflow for the mechanistic dissection of changes in the proteome which follow perturbations. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000538. PMID:24312217

  19. Asymptotic normalization coefficients (nuclear vertex constants) for p + 7Be → 8B and the direct 7Be( p, γ)8B astrophysical S factors at solar energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igamov, S. B.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2008-10-01

    A new analysis of the precise experimental astrophysical S factors for the direct-capture reaction 7Be( p, γ)8B [A.J. Junghans et al., Phys. Rev. C 68, 065803 (2003) and L.T. Baby et al., Phys. Rev. C 67, 065805 (2003)] is carried out on the basis of a modified two-body potential approach in which the direct astrophysical S factor, S 17( E), is expressed in terms of the asymptotic normalization constants for p + 7Be → 8B and two additional conditions are involved to verify the peripheral character of the reaction under consideration. The Woods-Saxon potential form is used for the bound-( p + 7Be)-state wave function and for p 7Be-scattering wave function. New estimates are obtained for the “indirectly measured” values of the asymptotic normalization constants (the nuclear vertex constants) for the p + 7Be → 8B and S 17( E) at E ≤ 115 keV, including E = 0. These values of S 17( E) and asymptotic normalization constants have been used for obtaining the indirectly measured values of the s-wave average scattering length and the p-wave effective-range parameters for p 7Be scattering.

  20. Measurement of branching fractions and rate asymmetries in the rare decays B→K(*)l⁺l⁻

    SciTech Connect

    Lees, J. P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Garra Tico, J.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Eigen, G.; Stugu, B.; Brown, D. N.; Kerth, L. T.; Kolomensky, Yu. G.; Lynch, G.; Koch, H.; Schroeder, T.; Asgeirsson, D. J.; Hearty, C.; Mattison, T. S.; McKenna, J. A.; Khan, A.; Blinov, V. E.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Druzhinin, V. P.; Golubev, V. B.; Kravchenko, E. A.; Onuchin, A. P.; Serednyakov, S. I.; Skovpen, Yu. I.; Solodov, E. P.; Todyshev, K. Yu.; Yushkov, A. N.; Bondioli, M.; Kirkby, D.; Lankford, A. J.; Mandelkern, M.; Atmacan, H.; Gary, J. W.; Liu, F.; Long, O.; Vitug, G. M.; Campagnari, C.; Hong, T. M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Richman, J. D.; West, C. A.; Eisner, A. M.; Kroseberg, J.; Lockman, W. S.; Martinez, A. J.; Schumm, B. A.; Seiden, A.; Chao, D. S.; Cheng, C. H.; Echenard, B.; Flood, K. T.; Hitlin, D. G.; Ongmongkolkul, P.; Porter, F. C.; Rakitin, A. Y.; Andreassen, R.; Huard, Z.; Meadows, B. T.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Sun, L.; Bloom, P. C.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Wagner, S. R.; Ayad, R.; Toki, W. H.; Spaan, B.; Schubert, K. R.; Schwierz, R.; Bernard, D.; Verderi, M.; Clark, P. J.; Playfer, S.; Bettoni, D.; Bozzi, C.; Calabrese, R.; Cibinetto, G.; Fioravanti, E.; Garzia, I.; Luppi, E.; Munerato, M.; Negrini, M.; Piemontese, L.; Santoro, V.; Baldini-Ferroli, R.; Calcaterra, A.; de Sangro, R.; Finocchiaro, G.; Patteri, P.; Peruzzi, I. M.; Piccolo, M.; Rama, M.; Zallo, A.; Contri, R.; Guido, E.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Passaggio, S.; Patrignani, C.; Robutti, E.; Bhuyan, B.; Prasad, V.; Lee, C. L.; Morii, M.; Edwards, A. J.; Adametz, A.; Uwer, U.; Lacker, H. M.; Lueck, T.; Dauncey, P. D.; Behera, P. K.; Mallik, U.; Chen, C.; Cochran, J.; Meyer, W. T.; Prell, S.; Rubin, A. E.; Gritsan, A. V.; Guo, Z. J.; Arnaud, N.; Davier, M.; Derkach, D.; Grosdidier, G.; Le Diberder, F.; Lutz, A. M.; Malaescu, B.; Roudeau, P.; Schune, M. H.; Stocchi, A.; Wormser, G.; Lange, D. J.; Wright, D. M.; Chavez, C. A.; Coleman, J. P.; Fry, J. R.; Gabathuler, E.; Hutchcroft, D. E.; Payne, D. J.; Touramanis, C.; Bevan, A. J.; Di Lodovico, F.; Sacco, R.; Sigamani, M.; Cowan, G.; Brown, D. N.; Davis, C. L.; Denig, A. G.; Fritsch, M.; Gradl, W.; Griessinger, K.; Hafner, A.; Prencipe, E.; Barlow, R. J.; Jackson, G.; Lafferty, G. D.; Behn, E.; Cenci, R.; Hamilton, B.; Jawahery, A.; Roberts, D. A.; Dallapiccola, C.; Cowan, R.; Dujmic, D.; Sciolla, G.; Cheaib, R.; Lindemann, D.; Patel, P. M.; Robertson, S. H.; Biassoni, P.; Neri, N.; Palombo, F.; Stracka, S.; Cremaldi, L.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D. J.; Nguyen, X.; Simard, M.; Taras, P.; De Nardo, G.; Monorchio, D.; Onorato, G.; Sciacca, C.; Martinelli, M.; Raven, G.; Jessop, C. P.; LoSecco, J. M.; Wang, W. F.; Honscheid, K.; Kass, R.; Brau, J.; Frey, R.; Sinev, N. B.; Strom, D.; Torrence, E.; Feltresi, E.; Gagliardi, N.; Margoni, M.; Morandin, M.; Posocco, M.; Rotondo, M.; Simi, G.; Simonetto, F.; Stroili, R.; Akar, S.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bomben, M.; Bonneaud, G. R.; Briand, H.; Calderini, G.; Chauveau, J.; Hamon, O.; Leruste, Ph.; Marchiori, G.; Ocariz, J.; Sitt, S.; Biasini, M.; Manoni, E.; Pacetti, S.; Rossi, A.; Angelini, C.; Batignani, G.; Bettarini, S.; Carpinelli, M.; Casarosa, G.; Cervelli, A.; Forti, F.; Giorgi, M. A.; Lusiani, A.; Oberhof, B.; Paoloni, E.; Perez, A.; Rizzo, G.; Walsh, J. J.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Olsen, J.; Smith, A. J. S.; Telnov, A. V.; Anulli, F.; Faccini, R.; Ferrarotto, F.; Ferroni, F.; Gaspero, M.; Li Gioi, L.; Mazzoni, M. A.; Piredda, G.; Bünger, C.; Grünberg, O.; Hartmann, T.; Leddig, T.; Schröder, H.; Voss, C.; Waldi, R.; Adye, T.; Olaiya, E. O.; Wilson, F. F.; Emery, S.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Vasseur, G.; Yèche, Ch.; Aston, D.; Bard, D. J.; Bartoldus, R.; Benitez, J. F.; Cartaro, C.; Convery, M. R.; Dorfan, J.; Dubois-Felsmann, G. P.; Dunwoodie, W.; Ebert, M.; Field, R. C.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Fulsom, B. G.; Gabareen, A. M.; Graham, M. T.; Grenier, P.; Hast, C.; Innes, W. R.; Kelsey, M. H.; Kim, P.; Kocian, M. L.; Leith, D. W. G. S.; Lewis, P.; Lindquist, B.; Luitz, S.; Luth, V.; Lynch, H. L.; MacFarlane, D. B.; Muller, D. R.; Neal, H.; Nelson, S.; Perl, M.; Pulliam, T.; Ratcliff, B. N.; Roodman, A.; Salnikov, A. A.; Schindler, R. H.; Snyder, A.; Su, D.; Sullivan, M. K.; Va’vra, J.; Wagner, A. P.; Wisniewski, W. J.; Wittgen, M.; Wright, D. H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Young, C. C.; Ziegler, V.; Park, W.; Purohit, M. V.; White, R. M.; Wilson, J. R.; Randle-Conde, A.; Sekula, S. J.; Bellis, M.; Burchat, P. R.; Miyashita, T. S.; Alam, M. S.; Ernst, J. A.; Gorodeisky, R.; Guttman, N.; Peimer, D. R.; Soffer, A.; Lund, P.; Spanier, S. M.; Ritchie, J. L.; Ruland, A. M.; Schwitters, R. F.; Wray, B. C.; Izen, J. M.; Lou, X. C.; Bianchi, F.; Gamba, D.; Lanceri, L.; Vitale, L.; Martinez-Vidal, F.; Oyanguren, A.; Ahmed, H.; Albert, J.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Choi, H. H. F.; King, G. J.; Kowalewski, R.; Lewczuk, M. J.; Nugent, I. M.; Roney, J. M.; Sobie, R. J.; Tasneem, N.; Gershon, T. J.; Harrison, P. F.; Latham, T. E.; Puccio, E. M. T.; Band, H. R.; Dasu, S.; Pan, Y.; Prepost, R.; Wu, S. L.

    2012-08-24

    In a sample of 471×10⁶ BB¯¯¯ events collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II e⁺e⁻ collider we study the rare decays B→K(*)l⁺l⁻, where l⁺l⁻ is either e⁺e⁻ or μ⁺μ⁻. We report results on partial branching fractions and isospin asymmetries in seven bins of dilepton mass-squared. We further present CP and lepton-flavor asymmetries for dilepton masses below and above the J/ψ resonance. We find no evidence for CP or lepton-flavor violation. The partial branching fractions and isospin asymmetries are consistent with the Standard Model predictions and with results from other experiments.

  1. Wear measurement of highly cross-linked UHMWPE using a 7Be tracer implantation technique.

    PubMed

    Wimmer, Markus A; Laurent, Michel P; Dwiwedi, Yasha; Gallardo, Luis A; Chipps, Kelly A; Blackmon, Jeffery C; Kozub, Raymond L; Bardayan, Daniel W; Gross, Carl J; Stracener, Daniel W; Smith, Michael S; Nesaraja, Caroline D; Erikson, Luke; Patel, Nidhi; Rehm, Karl E; Ahmad, Irshad; Greene, John P; Greife, Uwe

    2013-04-01

    The very low wear rates achieved with the current highly cross-linked ultrahigh molecular weight polyethylenes (UHMWPE) used in joint prostheses have proven to be difficult to measure accurately by gravimetry. Tracer methods are therefore being explored. The purpose of this study was to perform a proof-of-concept experiment on the use of the radioactive tracer beryllium-7 ((7)Be) for the determination of in vitro wear in a highly cross-linked orthopedic UHMWPE. Three cross-linked and four conventional UHMWPE pins made from compression-molded GUR 1050, were activated with 10(9) to 10(10) (7)Be nuclei using a new implantation setup that produced a homogenous distribution of implanted nuclei up to 8.5 μm below the surface. The pins were tested for wear in a six-station pin-on-flat apparatus for up to 7.1 million cycles (178 km). A Germanium gamma detector was employed to determine activity loss of the UHMWPE pins at preset intervals during the wear test. The wear of the cross-linked UHMWPE pins was readily detected and estimated to be 17 ± 3 μg per million cycles. The conventional-to-cross-linked ratio of the wear rates was 13.1 ± 0.8, in the expected range for these materials. Oxidative degradation damage from implantation was negligible; however, a weak dependence of wear on implantation dose was observed limiting the number of radioactive tracer atoms that can be introduced. Future applications of this tracer technology may include the analysis of location-specific wear, such as loss of material in the post or backside of a tibial insert.

  2. Strong-coupling-expansion analysis of the false-vacuum decay rate of the lattice φ4 model in 1 + 1 dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Yoshihiro

    2001-12-01

    Strong-coupling expansion is performed for the lattice φ4 model in 1 + 1 dimensions. Because the strong-coupling limit itself is not solvable, we employed numerical calculations so as to set up unperturbed eigensystems. Restricting the number of Hilbert-space bases, we performed linked-cluster expansion up to 11th order. We carried out an alternative simulation by means of the density-matrix renormalization group. Thereby, we confirmed that our series-expansion data with a convergence-acceleration trick are in good agreement with the simulation result. Through the analytic continuation to the domain of negative biquadratic interaction, we obtain the false-vacuum decay rate. Contrary to common belief that the tunnelling phenomenon lies out of perturbative treatments, our series expansion reproduces the instanton-theory behaviour for a high potential barrier. For a shallow barrier, in contrast, our result tells us that the relaxation is no longer described by an instanton, but the decay rate acquires notable enhancement.

  3. Magnetic field effects on the Rabi splitting and radiative decay rates of the exciton-polariton states in a semiconductor microcavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenniche, H.; Jaziri, S.; Bennaceur, R.

    1998-12-01

    We study theoretically a particular type of semiconductor microcavity formed by a quantum well embedded inside it and the distributed Bragg reflectors presenting a gradual structure. We apply to this structure a static magnetic field along the growth direction. In the strong coupling regime between the confined exciton and cavity modes, we evaluate the polariton Rabi splitting corresponding to the two lowest lying exciton states: HH1-CB1 and HH2-CB2 as a function of the applied magnetic field. In high magnetic field and for distinct reflectivities, we find that the Rabi splitting magnitude of the HH2-CB2 exciton is close to the fundamental one (HH1-CB1). In the presence of the magnetic field, the polariton Rabi splitting can be obtained even in low reflectivity. The dispersion polariton radiative decay rates related to the two lowest lying exciton states: HH1-CB1 and HH2-CB2 are calculated for different magnetic field values. At k //=0 and in the weak coupling regime, the polariton radiative decay rates are evaluated for both the HH1-CB1 and HH2-CB2 excitons. We show that for the fundamental excitonic state, the magnetic field value which determines the transition from the weak to the strong coupling regime is different from the HH2-CB2 exciton state.

  4. Signature of a sudden stratospheric warming in the near-ground 7Be flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacini, A. A.; Usoskin, I. G.; Mursula, K.; Echer, E.; Evangelista, H.

    2015-07-01

    We present here an evidence that cosmogenic 7Be isotopes produced in the lower stratosphere were measured in near-ground air at Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, after the southern hemispheric Sudden Stratospheric Warming (SSW) of 2002. The analysis presented here is based on a comparison of 7Be data measured around Angra Nuclear Power Station (23°S 44°W) during the last three decades and a model estimate of the near-ground air 7Be concentration using the CRAC:7Be model of cosmogenic production together with a simplified model for atmospheric 7Be deposition that assimilates the regional precipitation data. Our results indicate that an anomalous stratosphere-troposphere coupling associated to the unique SSW of 2002 allowed stratospheric aerosols carrying 7Be to reach the ground level very quickly. This methodology points to an important use of 7Be as a quantitative tracer for stratospheric influence on near-ground air patterns.

  5. Evaluating uncertainty in 7Be-based soil erosion estimates: an experimental plot approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, Will; Taylor, Alex; Abdelli, Wahid; Gaspar, Leticia; Barri, Bashar Al; Ryken, Nick; Mabit, Lionel

    2014-05-01

    Soil erosion remains a major concern for the international community and there is a growing need to improve the sustainability of agriculture to support future food security. High resolution soil erosion data are a fundamental requirement for underpinning soil conservation and management strategies but representative data on soil erosion rates are difficult to achieve by conventional means without interfering with farming practice and hence compromising the representativeness of results. Fallout radionuclide (FRN) tracer technology offers a solution since FRN tracers are delivered to the soil surface by natural processes and, where irreversible binding can be demonstrated, redistributed in association with soil particles. While much work has demonstrated the potential of short-lived 7Be (half-life 53 days), particularly in quantification of short-term inter-rill erosion, less attention has focussed on sources of uncertainty in derived erosion measurements and sampling strategies to minimise these. This poster outlines and discusses potential sources of uncertainty in 7Be-based soil erosion estimates and the experimental design considerations taken to quantify these in the context of a plot-scale validation experiment. Traditionally, gamma counting statistics have been the main element of uncertainty propagated and reported but recent work has shown that other factors may be more important such as: (i) spatial variability in the relaxation mass depth that describes the shape of the 7Be depth distribution for an uneroded point; (ii) spatial variability in fallout (linked to rainfall patterns and shadowing) over both reference site and plot; (iii) particle size sorting effects; (iv) preferential mobility of fallout over active runoff contributing areas. To explore these aspects in more detail, a plot of 4 x 35 m was ploughed and tilled to create a bare, sloped soil surface at the beginning of winter 2013/2014 in southwest UK. The lower edge of the plot was bounded by

  6. Investigation and modeling of biomass decay rate in the dark and its potential influence on net productivity of solar photobioreactors for microalga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and cyanobacterium Arthrospira platensis.

    PubMed

    Le Borgne, François; Pruvost, Jérémy

    2013-06-01

    Biomass decay rate (BDR) in the dark was investigated for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii (microalga) and Arthrospira platensis (cyanobacterium). A specific setup based on a torus photobioreactor with online gas analysis was validated, enabling us to follow the time course of the specific BDR using oxygen monitoring and mass balance. Various operating parameters that could limit respiration rates, such as culture temperature and oxygen deprivation, were then investigated. C. reinhardtii was found to present a higher BDR in the dark than A. platensis, illustrating here the difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. In both cases, temperature proved an influential parameter, and the Arrhenius law was found to efficiently relate specific BDR to culture temperature. The utility of decreasing temperature at night to increase biomass productivity in a solar photobioreactor is also illustrated.

  7. Deposition of 7Be to Bermuda and the regional ocean: Environmental factors affecting estimates of atmospheric flux to the ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadko, David; Prospero, Joseph

    2011-02-01

    The distribution of 7Be in ocean surface waters is used as tracer of upper ocean transport and atmospheric deposition processes. However, there is very little ocean deposition data available to characterize the temporal and spatial input of 7Be to the oceans and test model results. Here we measure the deposition of 7Be in bulk collectors at two sites at Bermuda over a span of nearly 2 years (April 2007 to January 2009) and compare these rates to the flux required to sustain the inventory of 7Be measured in the nearby Sargasso Sea. The Tudor Hill collector site undersampled (by ˜40%) both the rainfall compared to other Bermuda sites and the 7Be flux required for the ocean inventory. On the other hand, the 7Be flux captured at the Bermuda Institute of Ocean Sciences station site (0.048 dpm cm-2 d-1) matched that expected from the ocean observations. Previously measured long-term atmospheric concentration of 7Be in surface air at Bermuda was used to estimate deposition velocities and scavenging ratios, and our estimates in this marine environment were found to be similar to those measured in continental regions. The deposition of 7Be to the oceans is overwhelmingly determined by wet processes; dry deposition to the ocean surface accounts for only a few percent, at most, of the total deposition to the ocean. We place these measurements in a longer-term and large-scale spatial context by using climatological rainfall data on Bermuda and ocean rainfall estimates from the Global Precipitation Climatology Program and Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission.

  8. Determination of rate constants and branching ratios for TCE degradation by zero-valent iron using a chain decay multispecies model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Hyoun-Tae; Jeen, Sung-Wook; Sudicky, Edward A.; Illman, Walter A.

    2015-06-01

    The applicability of a newly-developed chain-decay multispecies model (CMM) was validated by obtaining kinetic rate constants and branching ratios along the reaction pathways of trichloroethene (TCE) reduction by zero-valent iron (ZVI) from column experiments. Changes in rate constants and branching ratios for individual reactions for degradation products over time for two columns under different geochemical conditions were examined to provide ranges of those parameters expected over the long-term. As compared to the column receiving deionized water, the column receiving dissolved CaCO3 showed higher mean degradation rates for TCE and all of its degradation products. However, the column experienced faster reactivity loss toward TCE degradation due to precipitation of secondary carbonate minerals, as indicated by a higher value for the ratio of maximum to minimum TCE degradation rate observed over time. From the calculated branching ratios, it was found that TCE and cis-dichloroethene (cis-DCE) were dominantly dechlorinated to chloroacetylene and acetylene, respectively, through reductive elimination for both columns. The CMM model, validated by the column test data in this study, provides a convenient tool to determine simultaneously the critical design parameters for permeable reactive barriers and natural attenuation such as rate constants and branching ratios.

  9. Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... in your mouth made up mostly of germs. Tooth decay starts in the outer layer, called the enamel. Without a filling, the decay can get deep into the tooth and its nerves and cause a toothache or ...

  10. EFFECT OF VENTILATION SYSTEMS AND AIR FILTERS ON DECAY RATES OF PARTICLES PRODUCED BY INDOOR SOURCES IN AN OCCUPIED TOWNHOUSE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several studies have shown the importance of particle losses in real homes due to deposition and filtration; however, none have quantitatively shown the impact of using a central forced air fan and in-duct filter on particle loss rates. In an attempt to provide such data, we me...

  11. Effect of ventilation systems and air filters on decay rates of particles produced by indoor sources in an occupied townhouse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard-Reed, Cynthia; Wallace, Lance A.; Emmerich, Steven J.

    Several studies have shown the importance of particle losses in real homes due to deposition and filtration; however, none have quantitatively shown the impact of using a central forced air fan and in-duct filter on particle loss rates. In an attempt to provide such data, we measured the deposition of particles ranging from 0.3 to 10 μm in an occupied townhouse and also in an unoccupied test house. Experiments were run with three different sources (cooking with a gas stove, citronella candle, pouring kitty litter), with the central heating and air conditioning (HAC) fan on or off, and with two different types of in-duct filters (electrostatic precipitator and ordinary furnace filter). Particle size, HAC fan operation, and the electrostatic precipitator had significant effects on particle loss rates. The standard furnace filter had no effect. Surprisingly, the type of source (combustion vs. mechanical generation) and the type of furnishings (fully furnished including carpet vs. largely unfurnished including mostly bare floor) also had no measurable effect on the deposition rates of particles of comparable size. With the HAC fan off, average deposition rates varied from 0.3 h -1 for the smallest particle range (0.3-0.5 μm) to 5.2 h -1 for particles greater than 10 μm. Operation of the central HAC fan approximately doubled these rates for particles <5 μm, and increased rates by 2 h -1 for the larger particles. An in-duct electrostatic precipitator increased the loss rates compared to the fan-off condition by factors of 5-10 for particles <2.5 μm, and by a factor of 3 for 2.5-5.0 μm particles. In practical terms, use of the central fan alone could reduce indoor particle concentrations by 25-50%, and use of an in-duct ESP could reduce particle concentrations by 55-85% compared to fan-off conditions.

  12. Scavenging and fractionation of particle-reactive radioisotopes 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po in the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jinfang; Luo, Shangde; Huang, Yipu

    2016-09-01

    The scavenging and fractionation of 7Be, 210Pb, and 210Po in the atmosphere are investigated by measuring their activities in rainwater collected from 68 rain events during March 2004 to April 2006 at a coastal station of Xiamen, southeastern China. In addition to documenting the large temporal variations in activities, fluxes, and isotope ratios of 7Be, 210Pb and 210Po in rainwater and the role of rainfall intensity in radionuclide scavenging, our results show that an enhanced deposition of 7Be and 210Pb occurs in the spring than in other seasons and is attributed to the "funnel effect" due to the increased atmospheric vertical convective mixing in the spring. This latter hypothesis is further supported by the observed seasonal and inter-annual variations in 7Be/210Pb and 210Po/210Pb ratios showing that the weakening of vertical convective mixing or stratosphere-troposphere exchange (STE) at the study site is linked with the enhancement of summer monsoons. It appears that the rainfall intensity, in connection with the vertical (e.g., STE) and horizontal (summer monsoons) air transport, exerts an important control on the activities, fluxes, and isotope ratios of 7Be, 210Pb, and 210Po in the atmosphere. Application of the observational data to a theoretical model shows that there are significant fractionations among 7Be, 210Pb, and 210Po in the atmosphere, with the scavenging rate constant or reciprocal of the residence time of radionuclide in the atmosphere being 210Pb > 7Be > 210Po. A revised Poet et al. (1972)'s method is proposed for quantitative constraint on the scavenging behavior of radionuclide, aerosols, and aerosol-associated trace pollutants in the atmosphere.

  13. Tuning fork decay.

    PubMed

    Miller, G W

    1979-03-01

    Tuning fork tests are used routinely by many otologists. A different group of otologists find the tests inconsistent and unreliable. This controversy has probably developed because the audiometer has replaced the tuning fork in hearing measurement. As a result, the art of use of the tuning fork is poorly learned. This study examines decay, one of the physical parameters of tuning forks. Measurements of acoustic (sound wave) and vibration (stem movement) decay were made. Alteration in decay due to pressure changes on the fork stem were studied. Acoustic signals were generated in an anechoic chamber. Vibration measurements were obtained using an artificial mastoid. Analysis of the signals was accomplished by a system of amplifiers, filters, tape recorders, and a graphic recorder. Tuning fork sound decay is a property of the instrument which occurs every time the fork is struck. The decay is a constant in decibels per second. The acoustic mode and the vibration mode decay at similar rates for the same fork. The strike frequency (a higher frequency than the fundamental produced when the fork is struck) also has a constant decay rate in decibels per second, and it is reported here for the first time. Force of 800 gm. and less applied to the bottom of the stem in vibration measurement caused minimal decay constant changes. When the physical parameters of the tuning fork (including this information on damping) are fully studied, tuning fork testing should become more of a science and less of an art.

  14. Beam suppression of the DRAGON recoil separator for 3He(α,γ)7Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sjue, S. K. L.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Adsley, P.; Buchmann, L.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Davids, B.; Fallis, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Galinski, N.; Hager, U.; Hass, M.; Howell, D.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Laird, A. M.; Martin, L.; Ottewell, D.; Reeve, S.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Triambak, S.

    2013-02-01

    Preliminary studies in preparation for an absolute cross-section measurement of the radiative capture reaction 3He(α,γ)7Be with the DRAGON recoil separator have demonstrated beam suppression >1014 at the 90% confidence level. A measurement of this cross section by observation of 7Be recoils at the focal plane of the separator should be virtually background free.

  15. 7Be radioactive beam production at CIRCE and its utilization in basic and applied physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limata, Benedicta Normanna; Gialanella, Lucio; Leva, Antonino Di; Cesare, Nicola De; D'Onofrio, Antonio; Gyurky, G.; Rolfs, Claus; Romano, Mario; Rogalla, Detlef; Rossi, Cesare; Russo, Michele; Somorjai, Endre; Terrasi, Filippo

    2008-05-01

    A pure 7Be beam with an energy E = 1-8 MeV is available for nuclear and applied physics at the 3 MV Pelletron tandem accelerator CIRCE in Caserta. The beam is produced using an offline technique. Typical analyzed beam intensities are about 2 ppA, using cathodes with an activity of the order of 200 MBq. The 7Be implantation has been used for both fundamental nuclear physics and applied physics. In particular, different metals have been implanted with 7Be in order to study the influence of the chemical composition and of the number of quasi-free electrons of the host material on the 7Be half-life. In the field of applied physics, the 7Be implantation turns out to be very interesting for wear measurement. In fact, in this case 7Be is used as a depth-sensitive tracer. The continuous detection of the sample activity during the wear allows a high sensitivity measurement of wearing speed. The 7Be beam production at CIRCE, the implantation procedure and the results obtained from the 7Be half-life measurements and the wear characterization of implanted steel samples are described.

  16. Hypernuclear Weak Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itonaga, K.; Motoba, T.

    The recent theoretical studies of Lambda-hypernuclear weak decaysof the nonmesonic and pi-mesonic ones are developed with the aim to disclose the link between the experimental decay observables and the underlying basic weak decay interactions and the weak decay mechanisms. The expressions of the nonmesonic decay rates Gamma_{nm} and the decay asymmetry parameter alpha_1 of protons from the polarized hypernuclei are presented in the shell model framework. We then introduce the meson theoretical Lambda N -> NN interactions which include the one-meson exchanges, the correlated-2pi exchanges, and the chiral-pair-meson exchanges. The features of meson exchange potentials and their roles on the nonmesonic decays are discussed. With the adoption of the pi + 2pi/rho + 2pi/sigma + omega + K + rhopi/a_1 + sigmapi/a_1 exchange potentials, we have carried out the systematic calculations of the nonmesonic decay observables for light-to-heavy hypernuclei. The present model can account for the available experimental data of the decay rates, Gamma_n/Gamma_p ratios, and the intrinsic asymmetry parameters alpha_Lambda (alpha_Lambda is related to alpha_1) of emitted protons well and consistently within the error bars. The hypernuclear lifetimes are evaluated by converting the total weak decay rates Gamma_{tot} = Gamma_pi + Gamma_{nm} to tau, which exhibit saturation property for the hypernuclear mass A ≥ 30 and agree grossly well with experimental data for the mass range from light to heavy hypernuclei except for the very light ones. Future extensions of the model and the remaining problems are also mentioned. The pi-mesonic weak processes are briefly surveyed, and the calculations and predictions are compared and confirmed by the recent high precision FINUDA pi-mesonic decay data. This shows that the theoretical basis seems to be firmly grounded.

  17. Photonuclear channel of {sup 7}Be production in the Earth's atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Bezuglov, M. V.; Malyshevsky, V. S.; Malykhina, T. V.; Torgovkin, A. V.; Fomin, G. V.; Shramenko, B. I.

    2012-04-15

    Measurements of average values of cross sections for the A({gamma},X){sup 7}Be photonuclear reactions on nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon of natural isotopic composition were performed in the energy range from the threshold to 90 MeV. On the basis of the measured cross sections for {sup 7}Be photoproduction and on the basis of the results obtained by simulating the nuclear-electromagnetic cascade in the Earth's atmosphere, the contribution of the photonuclear mechanism to the production of the cosmogenic radioisotope {sup 7}Be in the atmosphere and its latitude dependence were investigated for the first time. It is shown that the contribution of the photonuclear mechanism is commensurate with the contribution of the proton and neutron mechanisms of 7Be production in the atmosphere and that the inclusion of this mechanism is mandatory in analyzing the accumulation and transfer of {sup 7}Be in the planetary boundary layer.

  18. A theoretical investigation of the influence of gold nanosphere size on the decay and energy transfer rates and efficiencies of quantum emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marocico, Cristian A.; Zhang, Xia; Bradley, A. Louise

    2016-01-01

    We present in this contribution a comprehensive investigation of the effect of the size of gold nanospheres on the decay and energy transfer rates of quantum systems placed close to these nanospheres. These phenomena have been investigated before, theoretically and experimentally, but no comprehensive study of the influence of the nanoparticle size on important dependences of the decay and energy transfer rates, such as the dependence on the donor-acceptor spectral overlap and the relative positions of the donor, acceptor, and nanoparticle, exists. As such, different accounts of the energy transfer mechanism have been presented in the literature. We perform an investigation of the energy transfer mechanisms between emitters and gold nanospheres and between donor-acceptor pairs in the presence of the gold nanospheres using a Green's tensor formalism, experimentally verified in our lab. We find that the energy transfer rate to small nanospheres is greatly enhanced, leading to a strong quenching of the emission of the emitter. When the nanosphere size is increased, it acts as an antenna, increasing the emission of the emitter. We also investigate the emission wavelength and intrinsic quantum yield dependence of the energy transfer to the nanosphere. As evidenced from the literature, the energy transfer process between the quantum system and the nanosphere can have a complicated distance dependence, with a r-6 regime, characteristic of the Förster energy transfer mechanism, but also exhibiting other distance dependences. In the case of a donor-acceptor pair of quantum systems in the presence of a gold nanosphere, when the donor couples strongly to the nanosphere, acting as an enhanced dipole; the donor-acceptor energy transfer rate then follows a Förster trend, with an increased Förster radius. The coupling of the acceptor to the nanosphere has a different distance dependence. The angular dependence of the energy transfer efficiency between donor and acceptor

  19. A theoretical investigation of the influence of gold nanosphere size on the decay and energy transfer rates and efficiencies of quantum emitters.

    PubMed

    Marocico, Cristian A; Zhang, Xia; Bradley, A Louise

    2016-01-14

    We present in this contribution a comprehensive investigation of the effect of the size of gold nanospheres on the decay and energy transfer rates of quantum systems placed close to these nanospheres. These phenomena have been investigated before, theoretically and experimentally, but no comprehensive study of the influence of the nanoparticle size on important dependences of the decay and energy transfer rates, such as the dependence on the donor-acceptor spectral overlap and the relative positions of the donor, acceptor, and nanoparticle, exists. As such, different accounts of the energy transfer mechanism have been presented in the literature. We perform an investigation of the energy transfer mechanisms between emitters and gold nanospheres and between donor-acceptor pairs in the presence of the gold nanospheres using a Green's tensor formalism, experimentally verified in our lab. We find that the energy transfer rate to small nanospheres is greatly enhanced, leading to a strong quenching of the emission of the emitter. When the nanosphere size is increased, it acts as an antenna, increasing the emission of the emitter. We also investigate the emission wavelength and intrinsic quantum yield dependence of the energy transfer to the nanosphere. As evidenced from the literature, the energy transfer process between the quantum system and the nanosphere can have a complicated distance dependence, with a r(-6) regime, characteristic of the Förster energy transfer mechanism, but also exhibiting other distance dependences. In the case of a donor-acceptor pair of quantum systems in the presence of a gold nanosphere, when the donor couples strongly to the nanosphere, acting as an enhanced dipole; the donor-acceptor energy transfer rate then follows a Förster trend, with an increased Förster radius. The coupling of the acceptor to the nanosphere has a different distance dependence. The angular dependence of the energy transfer efficiency between donor and acceptor

  20. Can the measurement of the cross-section of proton-capture on beryllium-7 be improved?

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, C.

    1993-01-01

    The solar neutrino ``problem`` arises from the discrepancy between the observations of solar neutrinos fluxes in experiments at Homestake and Kamiokande and the solar model predictions of those fluxes. Both experiments, which are sensitive mainly to high-energy neutrinos, observe fewer neutrinos than predicted by solar models. Most of the expected high-energy solar neutrinos come from the beta-decay of {sup 8}B, which is produced in the reaction {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B. A study of all of the measurements to date of the zero-energy S-factor for the reaction {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B concludes that S{sub 17}(0) = 0.0224 +{plus_minus} 0.0021 keV-barn. Although a 10% error in S{sub 17}(0) alone wig not solve the solar neutrino problem, it would still be useful to nail down all of the inputs of the solar models as well as possible. This serves to guard against the possibility that a conspiracy among the errors might be the source of the discrepancy and provides tighter constraints on the ``new physics`` interpretations of the experimentally measured solar neutrino spectrum. In this paper, we examine several ways of improving this measurement. None appear to offer a significant improvement over past experiments.

  1. Can the measurement of the cross-section of proton-capture on beryllium-7 be improved

    SciTech Connect

    Bowers, C.

    1993-01-01

    The solar neutrino problem'' arises from the discrepancy between the observations of solar neutrinos fluxes in experiments at Homestake and Kamiokande and the solar model predictions of those fluxes. Both experiments, which are sensitive mainly to high-energy neutrinos, observe fewer neutrinos than predicted by solar models. Most of the expected high-energy solar neutrinos come from the beta-decay of [sup 8]B, which is produced in the reaction [sup 7]Be(p,[gamma])[sup 8]B. A study of all of the measurements to date of the zero-energy S-factor for the reaction [sup 7]Be(p,[gamma])[sup 8]B concludes that S[sub 17](0) = 0.0224 +[plus minus] 0.0021 keV-barn. Although a 10% error in S[sub 17](0) alone wig not solve the solar neutrino problem, it would still be useful to nail down all of the inputs of the solar models as well as possible. This serves to guard against the possibility that a conspiracy among the errors might be the source of the discrepancy and provides tighter constraints on the new physics'' interpretations of the experimentally measured solar neutrino spectrum. In this paper, we examine several ways of improving this measurement. None appear to offer a significant improvement over past experiments.

  2. /sup 7/Be in Sargasso Sea and Long Island Sound waters

    SciTech Connect

    Aaboe, E.; Dion, E.P.; Turekian, K.K.

    1981-04-20

    /sup 7/Be was measured in surface waters of the western Sargasso Sea and Long Island Sound. The calculated standing crop in the Sargasso Sea is equal to that predicted from precipitation collectors. Long Island Sound is deficient in /sup 7/Be; virtually none exists in the water column, and less than half of the expected standing crop has been reported for the sediments. A possible sink for the missing /sup 7/Be may be the salt marshes or tidal mud flats ringing Long Island Sound.

  3. Measurement of the Radiative Decay Rate and Energy of the Metastable (2s22p51=23s1=2)(J=0) Level in Fe XVII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiersdorfer, P.; Crespo López-Urrutia, J. R.; Träbert, E.

    2016-01-01

    Measurements at the Livermore electron beam ion trap have been performed in order to infer the energy and the radiative lifetime of the {(1{s}22{s}22{p}1/253{s}1/2)}J=0 level in the Fe xvii spectrum. This is the longest-lived level in the neonlike iron ion, and its radiative decay produces the Fe xvii line at 1153 Å, feeding the population of the {(1{s}22{s}22{p}3/253{s}1/2)}J=1 upper level of one of the most prominent lines in the Fe xvii L-shell X-ray spectrum, commonly dubbed 3G. In the presence of a strong (≥slant few kG) magnetic field, the {(1{s}22{s}22{p}1/253{s}1/2)}J=0 level has a finite probability to decay directly to the {(1{s}22{s}22{p}6)}J=0 neonlike ground level via the emission of an L-shell X-ray. Our measurements allow us to observe this X-ray line in the Fe xvii L-shell spectrum and from it to infer the radiative rate for the magnetic dipole decay of the {(1{s}22{s}22{p}1/253{s}1/2)}J=0 level to the {(1{s}22{s}22{p}3/253{s}1/2)}J=1. Our result of (1.45+/- 0.15)× {10}4 s-1 is in agreement with predictions. We have also measured the wavelength of the associated X-ray line to be 16.804 ± 0.002 Å, which means that the line is displaced 1.20 ± 0.05 eV from the neighboring {(2{s}22{p}1/253{s}1/2)}J=1\\to {(2{s}22{p}6)}J=0 transition, commonly labeled 3F. From our measurement, we infer 5950570 ± 710 cm-1 for the energy of the {(1{s}22{s}22{p}1/253{s}1/2)}J=0 level.

  4. Conservation laws, radiative decay rates, and excited state localization in organometallic complexes with strong spin-orbit coupling.

    PubMed

    Powell, B J

    2015-01-01

    There is longstanding fundamental interest in 6-fold coordinated d(6) (t(2g)(6)) transition metal complexes such as [Ru(bpy)3](2+) and Ir(ppy)3, particularly their phosphorescence. This interest has increased with the growing realisation that many of these complexes have potential uses in applications including photovoltaics, imaging, sensing, and light-emitting diodes. In order to design new complexes with properties tailored for specific applications a detailed understanding of the low-energy excited states, particularly the lowest energy triplet state, T1, is required. Here we describe a model of pseudo-octahedral complexes based on a pseudo-angular momentum representation and show that the predictions of this model are in excellent agreement with experiment - even when the deviations from octahedral symmetry are large. This model gives a natural explanation of zero-field splitting of T1 and of the relative radiative rates of the three sublevels in terms of the conservation of time-reversal parity and total angular momentum modulo two. We show that the broad parameter regime consistent with the experimental data implies significant localization of the excited state. PMID:26123864

  5. Conservation laws, radiative decay rates, and excited state localization in organometallic complexes with strong spin-orbit coupling.

    PubMed

    Powell, B J

    2015-06-30

    There is longstanding fundamental interest in 6-fold coordinated d(6) (t(2g)(6)) transition metal complexes such as [Ru(bpy)3](2+) and Ir(ppy)3, particularly their phosphorescence. This interest has increased with the growing realisation that many of these complexes have potential uses in applications including photovoltaics, imaging, sensing, and light-emitting diodes. In order to design new complexes with properties tailored for specific applications a detailed understanding of the low-energy excited states, particularly the lowest energy triplet state, T1, is required. Here we describe a model of pseudo-octahedral complexes based on a pseudo-angular momentum representation and show that the predictions of this model are in excellent agreement with experiment - even when the deviations from octahedral symmetry are large. This model gives a natural explanation of zero-field splitting of T1 and of the relative radiative rates of the three sublevels in terms of the conservation of time-reversal parity and total angular momentum modulo two. We show that the broad parameter regime consistent with the experimental data implies significant localization of the excited state.

  6. Separating soil CO2 efflux into C-pool-specific decay rates via inverse analysis of soil incubation data.

    PubMed

    Schädel, Christina; Luo, Yiqi; David Evans, R; Fei, Shenfeng; Schaeffer, Sean M

    2013-03-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is heterogeneous in structure and has been considered to consist of various pools with different intrinsic turnover rates. Although those pools have been conceptually expressed in models and analyzed according to soil physical and chemical properties, separation of SOM into component pools is still challenging. In this study, we conducted inverse analyses with data from a long-term (385 days) incubation experiment with two types of soil (from plant interspace and from underneath plants) to deconvolute soil carbon (C) efflux into different source pools. We analyzed the two datasets with one-, two- and three-pool models and used probability density functions as a criterion to judge the best model to fit the datasets. Our results indicated that soil C release trajectories over the 385 days of the incubation study were best modeled with a two-pool C model. For both soil types, released C within the first 10 days of the incubation study originated from the labile pool. Decomposition of C in the recalcitrant pool was modeled to contribute to the total CO2 efflux by 9-11 % at the beginning of the incubation. At the end of the experiment, 75-85 % of the initial soil organic carbon (SOC) was modeled to be released over the incubation period. Our modeling analysis also indicated that the labile C-pool in the soil underneath plants was larger than that in soil from interspace. This deconvolution analysis was based on information contained in incubation data to separate carbon pools and can facilitate integration of results from incubation experiments into ecosystem models with improved parameterization.

  7. Monitoring (7)Be and tritium in rainwater in Daejeon, Korea and its significance.

    PubMed

    Kim, K J; Choi, Y; Yoon, Y-Y

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the concentrations of beryllium-7 and tritium in rainwater along with sodium concentration in the region of Daejeon, Korea for 7 months. The results demonstrate that (7)Be in rainwater is inversely proportional to the amount of sodium present and proportional to the rainfall. Also, it was observed that tritium reaches ground level about a month later than (7)Be. This study will guide prospective geological research applications associated with cosmogenic nuclides especially in rainwater for the Korean region. PMID:26688366

  8. Radioactive decay.

    PubMed

    Groch, M W

    1998-01-01

    When a parent radionuclide decays to its daughter radionuclide by means of alpha, beta, or isomeric transition, the decay follows an exponential form, which is characterized by the decay constant lambda. The decay constant represents the probability per unit time that a single radioatom will decay. The decay equation can be used to provide a useful expression for radionuclide decay, the half-life, the time when 50% of the radioatoms present will have decayed. Radiotracer half-life has direct implications in nuclear imaging, radiation therapy, and radiation safety because radionuclide half-life affects the ability to evaluate tracer kinetics and create appropriate nuclear images and also affects organ, tumor, and whole-body radiation dose. The number of radioatoms present in a sample is equal to the activity, defined as the number of transitions per unit time, divided by the decay constant; the mass of radioatoms present in a sample can be calculated to determine the specific activity (activity per unit mass). The dynamic relationship between the number of parent and daughter atoms present over time may lead to radioactive equilibrium, which takes two forms--secular and transient--and has direct relevance to generator-produced radionuclides.

  9. Shear wave attenuation estimated from the spectral decay rate in the vicinity of the Petropavlovsk station, Kamchatka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusev, A. A.; Guseva, E. M.

    2016-07-01

    The parameters of S-wave attenuation (the total effect of absorption and scattering) near the Petropavlovsk (PET) station in Kamchatka were estimated by means of the spectral method through an original procedure. The spectral method typically analyzes the changes with distance of the shape of spectra of the acceleration records assuming that the acceleration spectrum at the earthquake source is flat. In reality, this assumption is violated: the source acceleration spectra often have a high-frequency cutoff (the source-controlled f max) which limits the spectral working bandwidth. Ignoring this phenomenon not only leads to a broad scatter of the individual estimates but also causes systematic errors in the form of overestimation of losses. In the approach applied in the present study, we primarily estimated the frequency of the mentioned high-frequency cutoff and then constructed the loss estimates only within the frequency range where the source spectrum is approximately flat. The shape of the source spectrum was preliminarily assessed by the approximate loss compensation technique. For this purpose, we used the tentative attenuation estimates which are close to the final ones. The difference in the logarithms of the spectral amplitudes at the edges of the working bandwidth is the input for calculating the attenuation. We used the digital accelerograms from the PET station, with 80 samples per second digitization rate, and based on them, we calculated the averaged spectrum of the S-waves as the root mean square along two horizontal components. Our analysis incorporates 384 spectra from the local earthquakes with M = 4-6.5 at the hypocentral distances ranging from 80 to 220 km. By applying the nonlinear least-square method, we found the following parameters of the loss model: the Q-factor Q 0 = 156 ± 33 at frequency f = 1 Hz for the distance interval r = 0-100 km; the exponent in the power-law relationship describing the growth of the Q-factor with frequency,

  10. A new capability for ANTARES: 7Be by AMS for ice samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. M.; Mokhber-Shahin, L.; Simon, K. J.

    2013-01-01

    ANSTO, in collaboration with the Australian Antarctic Division (AAD) and the Antarctic Climate and Ecosystems Cooperative Research Centre (ACE CRC), has an on-going program of 10Be (t½ = 1.39 × 106 a) concentration measurement in firn and ice at Law Dome, Antarctica. In recent years snow pit samples have also been measured for 7Be (t½ = 53.28 d) concentration as this isotope has the potential to give further insight into the transport and deposition of cosmogenic beryllium to Law Dome and so improve the use of 10Be as a proxy for solar activity. Early 7Be measurements were made by gamma-ray spectrometry (GRS) with typical counting times of 3 days. In 2010, we developed the capability for 7Be/9Be measurement on the 10 MV ANTARES (Australian National Tandem Accelerator for Applied Research) accelerator using carbon foil post-stripping of 7Be3+ to 7Be4+ to eliminate the 7Li isobar. We describe the method and explain the advantages of using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) over GRS for 7Be analysis.

  11. Modulated curvaton decay

    SciTech Connect

    Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk

    2013-03-01

    We study primordial density perturbations generated by the late decay of a curvaton field whose decay rate may be modulated by the local value of another isocurvature field, analogous to models of modulated reheating at the end of inflation. We calculate the primordial density perturbation and its local-type non-Gaussianity using the sudden-decay approximation for the curvaton field, recovering standard curvaton and modulated reheating results as limiting cases. We verify the Suyama-Yamaguchi inequality between bispectrum and trispectrum parameters for the primordial density field generated by multiple field fluctuations, and find conditions for the bound to be saturated.

  12. Radiative B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Bard, D.; /Imperial Coll., London

    2011-11-23

    I discuss recent results in radiative B decays from the Belle and BaBar collaborations. I report new measurements of the decay rate and CP asymmetries in b {yields} s{gamma} and b {yields} d{gamma} decays, and measurements of the photon spectrum in b {yields} s{gamma}. Radiative penguin decays are flavour changing neutral currents which do not occur at tree level in the standard model (SM), but must proceed via one loop or higher order diagrams. These transitions are therefore suppressed in the SM, but offer access to poorlyknown SM parameters and are also a sensitive probe of new physics. In the SM, the rate is dominated by the top quark contribution to the loop, but non-SM particles could also contribute with a size comparable to leading SM contributions. The new physics effects are potentially large which makes them theoretically very interesting, but due to their small branching fractions they are typically experimentally challenging.

  13. Annual variation of (7)Be soil inventory in a semiarid region of central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lohaiza, F; Velasco, H; Juri Ayub, J; Rizzotto, M; Di Gregorio, D E; Huck, H; Valladares, D L

    2014-04-01

    Reliable information on environmental radionuclides atmospheric entrance, and their distribution along the soil profile, is a necessary condition for using these soil and sediment tracers to investigate key environmental processes. To address this need, (7)Be content in rainwater and the wet deposition in a semiarid region at San Luis Province, Argentina, were studied. Following these researches, in the same region, we have assessed the (7)Be content along a soil profile, during 2.5 years from September 2009 to January 2012. As expected, the specific activity values in soil samples in the wet period (November-April) were higher than in the dry period (May-October). During the investigated period (2009 - beginning 2012) and for all sampled points, the maximum value of the (7)Be specific activity (Bq kg(-1)) was measured at the surface level. A typical decreasing exponential function of (7)Be areal activity (Bq m(-2)) with soil mass depth (kg m(-2)) was found and the key distribution parameters were determined for each month. The minimum value of areal activity was 51 Bq m(-2) in August, and the maximum was 438 Bq m(-2) in February. The relaxation mass depth ranges from 2.9 kg m(-2) in March to 1.3 kg m(-2) in August. (7)Be wet deposition can explain in a very significant proportion the (7)Be inventory in soil. During the period of winds in the region (September and October), the (7)Be content in soil was greater than the expected contribution from wet deposition, situation that is compatible with a higher relative contribution of dry deposition at this period of the year. PMID:24487256

  14. Temporal variations of 7Be and 210Pb activity in aerosols at Xiamen, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dekun

    2016-04-01

    The radionuclides serve as powerful tracers to identify and quantify several atmospheric processes, such as source, transport and mixing of air masses, air masses exchanging between various atmospheric layers, residence times of atmospheric gasses and pollutants. 7Be and 210Pb activities in aerosols were measurement from October, 2013 to September, 2015 at Xiamen (24°26'7.44″N, 118°5'31.30″N) in South China. The activity of 7Be and 210Pb in aerosols from 2013 to 2015 in Xiamen ranged from 0.26 to 9.05 (mean:4.15) mBq m-3 and from 0.14 to 2.64 (mean:1.05) mBq m-3, respectively. The mean activity of 7Be was comparable with the activities of other places in the same latitude, while the mean activity of 210Pb was lower than the activity of the locations at high altitudes. The possible reason is that Xiamen is a coastal city located on southwest Pacific. The activities of 7Be and 210Pb had a commonly low value in summer (July-September) and a high value in autumn (October-December), it may be controlled by the rainfall. There is significant relationship between the monthly 210Pb activities and the concentration of PM 2.5 and PM 10. In contrast, monthly 7Be activities only show significant correlation with the concentration of PM 10, which implies that 7Be and 210Pb can be used to trace the different sources of the aerosols. And the dry 7Be depositional fluxes increased with latitude along the coast of China (R2=0.92, n=8).

  15. Annual variation of (7)Be soil inventory in a semiarid region of central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lohaiza, F; Velasco, H; Juri Ayub, J; Rizzotto, M; Di Gregorio, D E; Huck, H; Valladares, D L

    2014-04-01

    Reliable information on environmental radionuclides atmospheric entrance, and their distribution along the soil profile, is a necessary condition for using these soil and sediment tracers to investigate key environmental processes. To address this need, (7)Be content in rainwater and the wet deposition in a semiarid region at San Luis Province, Argentina, were studied. Following these researches, in the same region, we have assessed the (7)Be content along a soil profile, during 2.5 years from September 2009 to January 2012. As expected, the specific activity values in soil samples in the wet period (November-April) were higher than in the dry period (May-October). During the investigated period (2009 - beginning 2012) and for all sampled points, the maximum value of the (7)Be specific activity (Bq kg(-1)) was measured at the surface level. A typical decreasing exponential function of (7)Be areal activity (Bq m(-2)) with soil mass depth (kg m(-2)) was found and the key distribution parameters were determined for each month. The minimum value of areal activity was 51 Bq m(-2) in August, and the maximum was 438 Bq m(-2) in February. The relaxation mass depth ranges from 2.9 kg m(-2) in March to 1.3 kg m(-2) in August. (7)Be wet deposition can explain in a very significant proportion the (7)Be inventory in soil. During the period of winds in the region (September and October), the (7)Be content in soil was greater than the expected contribution from wet deposition, situation that is compatible with a higher relative contribution of dry deposition at this period of the year.

  16. Review of semileptonic charm decays

    SciTech Connect

    Potter, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    The experimental status of D{sup 0} and D{sup +} semileptonic decays is reviewed and compared to model predictions. Topics covered are the form factor pole mass and decay rate for D {yields} Klv, the decay rate and form factor ratios for D {yields} K*lv, and, finally, the issue of modes other than Klv and K*lv. 4 refs., 5 tabs.

  17. Neutron Interactions With 7Be and the Primordial 7Li Problem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kading, Emily E.; Gai, Moshe; Kahn, Merav; Lee, Morit; Tessler, Moshe; Paul, Michael; Weiss, Aryeh; Berkovitz, Dan; Halfon, Shlomi; Kijel, Danny; Kreisel, Arik; Shor, Asher; Silverman, Ido; Weissman, Leonid; Hass, Michael; Mukul, Ish; Maugeri, Emilio A.; Dressler, Rugard; Schumann, Dorothea; Heinitz, Stephan; Stora, Thierry; Ticehurst, David; Howell, Calvin R.

    2015-10-01

    We study the interaction of neutrons with 7Be to estimate the direct destruction of 7Be during BBN; i.e. the predicted primordial 7Li. We plan to use a 7Be target (15 GBq) prepared by electro-deposition at PSI. The intense neutron flux of up to 5×1010 n/sec/cm2 are produced with proton beams and a high power liquid-lithium target (LiLiT) from the SARAF (phase I) facility in Israel. The outgoing particles will be measured using CR-39 plates that were tested to be insensitive to the large neutron flux and were calibrated with protons and alpha-particles from the TUNL. In a separate stage implanted 7Be target will be prepared at the ISOLDE facility of CERN. The results of the calibration of the CR-39 plates and the test experiment at SARAF with 10B target as well as a very low activity 7Be test target prepared at PSI, will be presented. Supported in part by the US-Israel Binational Science Foundation Proposal No. 2012098, the USDOE Grants No. DE-FG02-94ER40870, DE-FG02-97ER41033, and the Pazi Foundation, Israel.

  18. Atmospheric deposition patterns of (210)Pb and (7)Be in Cienfuegos, Cuba.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Hernández, Carlos M; Morera-Gómez, Yasser; Cartas-Águila, Héctor; Guillén-Arruebarrena, Aniel

    2014-12-01

    The radiometric composition of bulk deposition samples, collected monthly for one year, February 2010 until January 2011, at a site located in Cienfuegos (22° 03' N, 80° 29' W) (Cuba), are analysed in this paper. Measurement of (7)Be and (210)Pb activity concentrations were carried out in 12 bulk deposition samples. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of (7)Be and (210)Pb are in the range of 13.2-132 and 1.24-8.29 Bq m(-2), and their mean values are: 56.6 and 3.97 Bq m(-2), respectively. The time variations of the different radionuclide have been discussed in relation with meteorological factors and the mean values have been compared to those published in recent literature from other sites located at different latitudes. The annual average flux of (210)Pb and (7)Be were 47 and 700 Bq m(-2) y(-1), respectively. Observed seasonal variations of deposition data are explained in terms of different environmental features. The atmospheric deposition fluxes of (7)Be and (210)Pb were moderately well correlated with precipitation and well correlated with one another. The (210)Pb/(7)Be ratios in the monthly depositions samples varied in the range of 0.05-0.10 and showed a strong correlation with the number of rainy days.

  19. Elastic scattering measurements for {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}Al system at RIBRAS facility

    SciTech Connect

    Morcelle, V.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Morais, M. C.; Lepine-Szily, A.; Guimaraes, V.; Faria, P. N. de; Gasques, L.; Pires, K. C. C.; Condori, R. P.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.; Mendes, D. R. Jr.; Barioni, A.; Shorto, J. M. B.; Zamora, J. C.

    2013-05-06

    Elastic scattering angular distribution measurements of {sup 7}Be+{sup 27}Al system were performed at the laboratory energy of 15.6 MeV. The {sup 7}Be secondary beam was produced by the proton transfer reaction {sup 3}He({sup 6}Li,{sup 7}Be) and impinged on {sup 27}Al and {sup 197}Au targets, using the Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility, RIBRAS. The elastic angular distribution was obtained within the angular range of 15{sup 0} - 80{sup 0} at the center of mass frame. Optical model calculations have been performed using the Woods- Saxon form factors and the Sao Paulo potential to fit the experimental data. The total reaction cross section was derived.

  20. Background considerations for the 2H(7Be,3H)6Be experimental data II: Three-body continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chae, K. Y.; Guimarães, V.

    2015-11-01

    The present article reports second background considerations for the experimentally obtained 2H(7Be,3H)6Be differential cross sections. The one-neutron transfer reaction was measured in inverse kinematics by using radioactive 7Be ( t 1/2 = 53.2 days) beams at the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory in 2004 in order to search for the resonances in the unbound 6Be nucleus. Resonances in this nucleus would affect the 3He(3He,2 p)4He reaction rate of the proton-proton chain occurring in stars such as our sun. The result shows, however, that the direct transfer to 6Be resonances is not particularly strong compared to other reaction channels that can produce tritons in the exit channels. The goals of the present work is to better understand the cross section data from transfer reaction measurements by adopting background considerations using the three-body continuum.

  1. Measurement of the reaction ^7Be(p,γ)^8B with a solid radioactive target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greife, Uwe

    2000-04-01

    The reaction ^7Be(p,γ)^8B is regarded as a key to the understanding of the solar neutrino spectrum and thus most probably to the understanding of new neutrino properties. This contribution describes an experiment measuring the absolute cross section of ^7Be(p,γ)^8B with a solid radioactive target in the energy range between 350 keV and 2.6 MeV. The experiment was performed at the Dynamitron Tandem Laboratory of the Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Germany.

  2. Dry and wet deposition of 7Be, 210Pb and 137Cs in Monaco air during 1998-2010: seasonal variations of deposition fluxes.

    PubMed

    Pham, Mai K; Povinec, Pavel P; Nies, Hartmut; Betti, Maria

    2013-06-01

    Temporal variations of (7)Be, (210)Pb and (137)Cs activity concentrations in precipitation in Monaco from 1998 to 2010 showed that maxima of (7)Be and (210)Pb deposition fluxes coincide with the peaks of precipitation amounts observed in different months of a year, and most of (7)Be and (210)Pb was washout from the atmosphere by precipitation. The seasonal variations were not uniform from year to year, and the amount of precipitation controlled the deposition fluxes of (7)Be and (210)Pb, which was not the case for (137)Cs. The fractional deposition fluxes of (7)Be and (210)Pb in different seasons were in the order fall > spring > winter > summer, while the fractional amount of precipitation followed the order fall > winter > spring > summer. The fractional deposition fluxes of (137)Cs were found in the order spring > fall > summer > winter. The precipitation-normalized deposition fluxes of (7)Be, (210)Pb and (137)Cs were generally higher during summer. The highest (7)Be/(210)Pb activity ratio was observed in 2010, and the smallest one in 2001, following the influence of the modulation of cosmic rays on the production rates of (7)Be in the atmosphere by solar activity. Activity ratios of (7)Be/(210)Pb observed in winter and fall were generally higher than during summer and spring.

  3. 3He(α,γ)7Be cross section measured using complementary techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Rojas, A.; Borge, M. J. G.; Davids, B.; Fulton, B. R.; Hass, M.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Ruiz, C.; Tengblad, O.

    2014-03-01

    The astrophysical S-factor for the 3He(α,γ)7Be reaction plays an important role in the Solar Standard Model and in the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis scenario. The advances from two recent experiments performed using complementary techniques at center of mass (C.M.) energies between 1 and 3 MeV are discussed.

  4. Elastic scattering of {sup 6}He and {sup 7}Be on a {sup 9}Be target

    SciTech Connect

    Pires, K. C. C.; Lichtenthaeler, R.; Mukha, I.; Moro, A. M.; Gomez-Camacho, J.

    2010-04-26

    The elastic scattering data for the {sup 6}He+{sup 9}Be and {sup 7}Be+{sup 9}Be reactions, measured at E{sub lab} = 16.2 MeV and E{sub lab} = 23.7 MeV respectively, are presented and analyzed using the optical model and coupled-channels formalisms.

  5. Influence of precipitation on (7)Be concentrations in air as measured by CTBTO global monitoring system.

    PubMed

    Kusmierczyk-Michulec, J; Gheddou, A; Nikkinen, M

    2015-06-01

    Data collected by the International Monitoring System (IMS) during 2009-2012 were used to study influence of precipitation and relative humidity on changes in (7)Be concentrations in atmosphere. The significant decrease in (7)Be concentrations, corresponding to measurements collected by stations located within Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) is demonstrated. This effect can be attributed to the process of enhanced wet deposition within the ITCZ. To quantify this effect data collected by IMS stations within ITCZ were thoroughly analyzed. It was found that the atmospheric content of (7)Be strongly decreases under the rain conditions. The rain mediated depletion of (7)Be to half of its before rain value, needs about 62 h in case of light precipitation, while in the case of moderate precipitation about 38 h is needed. In addition the evaluated impact of humidity showed that increase in relative humidity by 20%, for example from 70% ± 5% to 90% ± 5% causes almost a double decrease in beryllium concentration in surface air.

  6. 7Be(p,(gamma))8B S-factor From Ab Initio Wave Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P; Bertulani, C; Caurier, E

    2005-08-15

    Nuclear structure of {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}B and {sup 7,8}Li is studied within the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM). Starting from the high-precision CD-Bonn 2000 nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction, wave functions of {sup 7}Be and {sup 8}B bound states are obtained in basis spaces up to 10{h_bar}{Omega} and used to calculate channel cluster form factors (overlap integrals) of the {sup 8}B ground state with {sup 7}Be+p. Due to the use of the harmonic oscillator (HO) basis, the overlap integrals have incorrect asymptotic properties. We fix this problem in two alternative ways. First, by a Woods-Saxon (WS) potential solution fit to the interior of the NCSM overlap integrals. Second, by a direct matching with the Whittaker function. The corrected overlap integrals are then used for the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B S-factor calculation. We study the convergence of the S-factor with respect to the NCSM HO frequency and the model space size. Our S-factor results are in agreement with recent direct measurement data.

  7. 7Be(p,gamma)8B S-factor from Ab Initio Wave Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P; Bertulani, C A; Caurier, E

    2006-10-12

    There has been a significant progress in ab initio approaches to the structure of light nuclei. Starting from realistic two- and three-nucleon interactions the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM) predicts low-lying levels in p-shell nuclei. It is a challenging task to extend ab initio methods to describe nuclear reactions. We present here a brief overview of the first steps taken toward nuclear reaction applications. In particular, we discuss our calculation of the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B S-factor. We also present our first results of the {sup 3}He({alpha},{gamma}){sup 7}Be S-factor and of the S-factor of the mirror reaction {sup 3}H({alpha},{gamma}){sup 7}Li. The {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B and {sup 3}He({alpha},{gamma}){sup 7}Be reactions correspond to the most important uncertainties in solar model predictions of neutrino fluxes.

  8. Seasonal variations on the residence times and partitioning of short-lived radionuclides (234Th, 7Be and 210Pb) and depositional fluxes of 7Be and 210Pb in Tampa Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baskaran, M.; Swarzenski, P.W.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, Tampa Bay has been impacted heavily by a wide range of anthropogenic perturbations that may include, agricultural-, shipping-, phosphate mining/distribution-related activities, as well as a burgeoning coastal population. Due to the presence of U-rich underlying sediments, elevated activities of U- and Th-series daughter products may be naturally released into this system. This region is also known for summer thunderstorms and corresponding increases in precipitation and surface water runoff. Only limited work has been conducted on the partitioning of particle-reactive radionuclides (such as 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th) in such a dynamic coastal system. We investigated both the removal residence time and partitioning of these radionuclides between filter-retained particulate matter (≥ 0.5 μm) and the filtrate ( Our results indicate that the partitioning of 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th between filtrate and filter-retained phase is controlled foremost by enhanced bottom resuspension events during summer thunderstorms. As a consequence, no significant relationship exists between the distribution coefficients (Kd values) of these isotopes and the concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM). Relatively faster recycling rates of atmospheric water vapor derived from the ocean results in lower atmospheric depositional fluxes of 210Pb to the study site than predicted. The relationship between 7Be and 210Pb in bulk (wet + dry) deposition is compared to their respective water column activities. The residence times of particulate and dissolved 234Th, 7Be and 210Pb, as well the distribution coefficients of these radionuclides, are then compared to values reported in other coastal systems.

  9. A Variety of Aftershock Decays in the Rate- and State-Friction Model Due to the Effect of Secondary Aftershocks: Implications Derived from an Analysis of Real Aftershock Sequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwata, Takaki

    2016-01-01

    The model based on rate- and state-dependent friction law reproduces the temporal decay of an aftershock sequence with the p value of the Omori-Utsu law equal to 1, if we simply assume a constant stress rate over time. However, because p values vary in real aftershock sequences, this model requires some modification. This study examined the effect of secondary aftershocks on the variety of the p value. A large aftershock causes a stepwise stress increase in the aftershock area, and the expected seismicity rate derived from the friction law also increases abruptly. These multiple increases in the seismicity rate during its decay following a mainshock could cause variation in the apparent p value. In this study, a model incorporating this idea is applied to two aftershock sequences observed in Japan and is shown to substantially modify the modeling of aftershock activity.

  10. Rare decays and CP asymmetries in charged B decays

    SciTech Connect

    Deshpande, N.G.

    1991-01-01

    The theory of loop induced rare decays and the rate asymmetry due to CP violation in charged B Decays in reviewed. After considering b {yields} s{gamma} and b {yields} se{sup +}e{sup {minus}} decays, the asymmetries for pure penguin process are estimated first. A larger asymmetry can result in those modes where a tree diagram and a penguin diagram interfere, however these estimates are necessarily model dependent. Estimates of Cabbibo suppressed penguins are also considered.

  11. Highly enriched 7Be in the ejecta of Nova Sagittarii 2015 No. 2 (V5668 Sgr) and the Galactic 7Li origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaro, P.; Izzo, L.; Mason, E.; Bonifacio, P.; Della Valle, M.

    2016-11-01

    We report on the evidence of highly blue-shifted resonance lines of the singly ionised isotope of 7BeII in high resolution UVES spectra of Nova Sagittarii 2015 No. 2 (V5668 Sgr). The resonance doublet lines 7BeII at lambda 313.0583, 313.1228 nm are clearly detected in several non saturated and partially resolved high velocity components during the evolution of the outburst. The total absorption identified with Beryllium has an equivalent width much larger than all other elements and comparable to hydrogen. We estimate an atomic fraction N(7Be)/N(Ca) ~ 53-69 from unsaturated and resolved absorption components. The detection of 7Be in several high velocity components shows that it has been freshly created in a thermonuclear runaway via the reaction 3He}(alpha,gamma) 7Be during the Nova explosion, as postulated by Arnould and Norgaard (1975) , however in much larger amounts than predicted by current models. 7Be decays to 7Li with a half-life of 53.22 days, comparable to the temporal span covered by the observations. The non detection of LiI requires that LiII remains ionised throughout our observations. The massive 7Be ejecta result into a 7Li production that is about 4.7-4.9 dex above the meteoritic abundance. If such a high production is common even in a small fraction (~5%) of Novae, they can make all the "stellar" 7Li of the Milky Way.

  12. Particle dynamics of the Changjiang Estuary and adjacent coastal region determined by natural particle-reactive radionuclides (7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Dekun; Du, Jinzhou; Moore, Willard S.; Zhang, Jing

    2013-04-01

    timescale of transport processes in estuarine and coastal regions can be evaluated using natural radionuclides with different half-lives. The distribution patterns of 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th in the water column from April to July 2008 were used to calculate the removal and residence times in the Changjiang Estuary. The results showed that the maximum particulate activities of 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th were observed approximately 150 km downstream (the turbidity maximum zone) of the freshwater end-number. The mean distribution coefficients (Kd, cm3 g-1) of the high suspended particulate matter (SPM) group are higher than those of the lower-SPM group for 7Be and 210Pb; for 234Th, the reverse is true. Based on a material balance in two-dimensional models of 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th in the Changjiang River mouth, the removal times of these nuclides were approximately 0.66-12, 1.6-21, and 1.2-5.4 days, respectively. The residence times increased toward the seaward side. In the coastal region, the removal times of 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th calculated by material balance in one-dimensional models were approximately 1.1-26, 1.2-27, and 0.70-23 days, respectively. Moreover, an enhanced resuspension process not only controlled the partitioning of 7Be, 210Pb, and 234Th between the particulate and dissolved phases, but also, this process may play a dominant role in controlling the dynamic behavior of SPM in the water column compared with the advection input/output fluxes of the SPM in the river mouth areas. The removal and the resuspension fluxes were comparable in the estuary. Meanwhile, old composition (whose deposition into the seabed for a long time is enough for 7Be to decay completely) occupied only a small part in the resuspended sediment during resuspension process.

  13. Measurements of rates, asymmetries, and angular distributions in B(d) meson decays to kaon-lepton-antilepton and B(d) meson decays to kaon resonance-charged leptons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollar, Jonathan

    This dissertation describes studies of the rare decays B d → Kℓ+ℓ - and Bd → K*ℓ +ℓ-, where ℓ+ℓ - is either an e+e - or a mu+mu- pair. These decays are highly suppressed in the Standard Model, and could be strongly affected by physics beyond the Standard Model. We measure the total branching fractions BBd→Kℓ +ℓ- =0.34+/-0.07+/-0.03 x10-6, BBd→K*ℓ +ℓ-= 0.78+0.19-0.17+/-0.12 x10-6. In addition, we measure the partial branching fractions, relative abundance of muons to electrons, direct CP asymmetry, dilepton forward-backward asymmetry, and longitudinal polarization of the K* in these modes. We also search for the lepton flavor-violating decays B d → Ke+/-mu ∓ and Bd → K* e+/-mu∓. The measurements were performed at the SLAC PEP II storage ring running at the Upsilon(4 S) resonance.

  14. {sup 3}He+{sup 4}He {yields} {sup 7}Be astrophysical S factor

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T. A. D.; Bordeanu, C.; Snover, K. A.; Storm, D. W.; Melconian, D.; Sallaska, A. L.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Triambak, S.

    2007-11-15

    We present precision measurements of the {sup 3}He+{sup 4}He {yields} {sup 7}Be reaction in the range E{sub c.m.}=0.33 to 1.23 MeV using a small gas cell and detection of both prompt {gamma} rays and {sup 7}Be activity. Our prompt and activity measurements are in good agreement within the experimental uncertainty of several percent. We find S(0)=0.595{+-}0.018 keV b from fits of the Kajino theory to our data. We compare our results with published measurements, and we discuss the consequences for Big Bang Nucleosynthesis and for solar neutrino flux calculations.

  15. Exploring Light Neutron Rich Nuclei via the ({sup 7}Li,{sup 7}Be) Reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallaro, M.; Cappuzzello, F.; Cunsolo, A.; Foti, A.; Orrigo, S. E. A.; Rodrigues, M. R. D.; Borello-Lewin, T.; Lenske, H.; Petrascu, H.; Winfield, J. S.

    2008-11-11

    A systematic study of the nuclei that can be described as an integer number of {alpha} particles plus three neutrons via the ({sup 7}Li,{sup 7}Be) reaction at about 8 MeV/u has shown the presence of Bound States Embedded in the Continuum in the energy spectra. These are experimental signatures of the dynamical correlations of an easily polarizable core with a single-particle state of the valence neutron.

  16. Seasonal 7Be and 137Cs activities in surface air before and after the Chernobyl event.

    PubMed

    Kulan, A

    2006-01-01

    Seasonal fluctuations of cosmogenic (7)Be (T(1/2)=53.4 days) and anthropogenic (137)Cs (T(1/2)=30 years) activities in surface air (aerosols) have been extracted from a long data record (1972-2000) at high latitude (56 degrees N-68 degrees N, Sweden). Normalization to weekly average values was used to control long-term trends so that cyclical trends could be investigated. Enhanced (7)Be activity was observed in spring and summer seasons and likely relates to the seasonal thinning of the tropopause. Variations in the (137)Cs activity record seem to reflect how the isotope was injected in the atmosphere (stratospheric from bomb tests and tropospheric from the Chernobyl accident) and subsequent transport mechanisms. Accordingly, until 1986, the surface air (137)Cs activity was strongly related to nuclear weapons test fallout and exhibits temporal fluctuations resembling the (7)Be. Conversely, since 1986 the Chernobyl-produced (137)Cs dominates the long-term record that shows annual cycles that are strongly controlled by atmospheric boundary layer conditions. Additionally, short-term data within the post-Chernobyl period suggest subtle intrusion of air masses rich in (137)Cs that may occur throughout the year, and differences resulting from spatial occurrence at these latitudes. This is an important observation that may have to do with year-to-year variation and calls for caution when interpreting short-term data records. PMID:16876295

  17. Measurements of the Higgs boson production and decay rates and coupling strengths using pp collision data at √s = 7 and 8 TeV in the ATLAS experiment

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; et al

    2016-01-05

    In this study, combined analyses of the Higgs boson production and decay rates as well as its coupling strengths to vector bosons and fermions are presented. The combinations include the results of the analyses of the H → γγ, ZZ*, WW*, Zγ, bb¯, ττ and μμ decay modes, and the constraints on the associated production with a pair of top quarks and on the off-shell coupling strengths of the Higgs boson. The results are based on the LHC proton-proton collision datasets, with integrated luminosities of up to 4.7 fb–1 at √s = 7 TeV and 20.3 fb–1 at √s =more » 8 TeV, recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2011 and 2012. Combining all production modes and decay channels, the measured signal yield, normalised to the Standard Model expectation, is 1.18+0.15-0.14. The observed Higgs boson production and decay rates are interpreted in a leading-order coupling framework, exploring a wide range of benchmark coupling models both with and without assumptions on the Higgs boson width and on the Standard Model particle content in loop processes. The data are found to be compatible with the Standard Model expectations for a Higgs boson at a mass of 125.36 GeV for all models considered.« less

  18. Measurements of the Higgs boson production and decay rates and coupling strengths using pp collision data at √{s}=7 and 8 TeV in the ATLAS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimoto, G.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnal, V.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Auerbach, B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Bansil, H. S.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Becker, S.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Bieniek, S. P.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Brazzale, S. F.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, K.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Brown, J.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Buda, S. I.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, L.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burghgrave, B.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Butt, A. I.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminada, L. M.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Cardarelli, R.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catastini, P.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerny, K.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chalupkova, I.; Chang, P.; Chapleau, B.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, L.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Childers, J. T.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chislett, R. T.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chu, M. L.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Citron, Z. H.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Cleland, W.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Cogan, J. G.; Cole, B.; Cole, S.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consonni, S. M.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conta, C.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Côté, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dafinca, A.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, E.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Davygora, Y.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Nooij, L.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Deigaard, I.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Domenico, A.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Mattia, A.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Dubreuil, E.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edson, W.; Edwards, N. C.; Ehrenfeld, W.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. J.; Faltova, J.; Fang, Y.; Fanti, M.; Farbin, A.; Farilla, A.; Farooque, T.; Farrell, S.; Farrington, S. M.; Farthouat, P.; Fassi, F.; Fassnacht, P.; Fassouliotis, D.; Faucci Giannelli, M.; Favareto, A.; Fayard, L.; Federic, P.; Fedin, O. L.; Fedorko, W.; Feigl, S.; Feligioni, L.; Feng, C.; Feng, E. J.; Feng, H.; Fenyuk, A. B.; Fernandez Martinez, P.; Fernandez Perez, S.; Ferrando, J.; Ferrari, A.; Ferrari, P.; Ferrari, R.; Ferreira de Lima, D. E.; Ferrer, A.; Ferrere, D.; Ferretti, C.; Ferretto Parodi, A.; Fiascaris, M.; Fiedler, F.; Filipčič, A.; Filipuzzi, M.; Filthaut, F.; Fincke-Keeler, M.; Finelli, K. D.; Fiolhais, M. C. N.; Fiorini, L.; Firan, A.; Fischer, A.; Fischer, C.; Fischer, J.; Fisher, W. C.; Fitzgerald, E. A.; Flechl, M.; Fleck, I.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleischmann, S.; Fletcher, G. T.; Fletcher, G.; Flick, T.; Floderus, A.; Flores Castillo, L. R.; Flowerdew, M. J.; Formica, A.; Forti, A.; Fournier, D.; Fox, H.; Fracchia, S.; Francavilla, P.; Franchini, M.; Francis, D.; Franconi, L.; Franklin, M.; Fraternali, M.; Freeborn, D.; French, S. T.; Friedrich, F.; Froidevaux, D.; Frost, J. A.; Fukunaga, C.; Fullana Torregrosa, E.; Fulsom, B. G.; Fuster, J.; Gabaldon, C.; Gabizon, O.; Gabrielli, A.; Gabrielli, A.; Gadatsch, S.; Gadomski, S.; Gagliardi, G.; Gagnon, P.; Galea, C.; Galhardo, B.; Gallas, E. J.; Gallop, B. J.; Gallus, P.; Galster, G.; Gan, K. K.; Gao, J.; Gao, Y.; Gao, Y. S.; Garay Walls, F. M.; Garberson, F.; García, C.; García Navarro, J. E.; Garcia-Sciveres, M.; Gardner, R. W.; Garelli, N.; Garonne, V.; Gatti, C.; Gaudiello, A.; Gaudio, G.; Gaur, B.; Gauthier, L.; Gauzzi, P.; Gavrilenko, I. L.; Gay, C.; Gaycken, G.; Gazis, E. N.; Ge, P.; Gecse, Z.; Gee, C. N. P.; Geerts, D. A. A.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Geisler, M. P.; Gemme, C.; Genest, M. H.; Gentile, S.; George, M.; George, S.; Gerbaudo, D.; Gershon, A.; Ghazlane, H.; Giacobbe, B.; Giagu, S.; Giangiobbe, V.; Giannetti, P.; Gibbard, B.; Gibson, S. M.; Gilchriese, M.; Gillam, T. P. S.; Gillberg, D.; Gilles, G.; Gingrich, D. M.; Giokaris, N.; Giordani, M. P.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giorgi, F. M.; Giraud, P. F.; Giromini, P.; Giugni, D.; Giuliani, C.; Giulini, M.; Gjelsten, B. K.; Gkaitatzis, S.; Gkialas, I.; Gkougkousis, E. L.; Gladilin, L. K.; Glasman, C.; Glatzer, J.; Glaysher, P. C. F.; Glazov, A.; Goblirsch-Kolb, M.; Goddard, J. R.; Godlewski, J.; Goldfarb, S.; Golling, T.; Golubkov, D.; Gomes, A.; Gonçalo, R.; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J.; Gonella, L.; González de la Hoz, S.; Gonzalez Parra, G.; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S.; Goossens, L.; Gorbounov, P. A.; Gordon, H. A.; Gorelov, I.; Gorini, B.; Gorini, E.; Gorišek, A.; Gornicki, E.; Goshaw, A. T.; Gössling, C.; Gostkin, M. I.; Goujdami, D.; Goussiou, A. G.; Govender, N.; Grabas, H. M. X.; Graber, L.; Grabowska-Bold, I.; Grafström, P.; Grahn, K.-J.; Gramling, J.; Gramstad, E.; Grancagnolo, S.; Grassi, V.; Gratchev, V.; Gray, H. M.; Graziani, E.; Greenwood, Z. D.; Gregersen, K.; Gregor, I. M.; Grenier, P.; Griffiths, J.; Grillo, A. A.; Grimm, K.; Grinstein, S.; Gris, Ph.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Grohs, J. P.; Grohsjean, A.; Gross, E.; Grosse-Knetter, J.; Grossi, G. C.; Grout, Z. J.; Guan, L.; Guenther, J.; Guescini, F.; Guest, D.; Gueta, O.; Guido, E.; Guillemin, T.; Guindon, S.; Gul, U.; Gumpert, C.; Guo, J.; Gupta, S.; Gutierrez, P.; Gutierrez Ortiz, N. G.; Gutschow, C.; Guyot, C.; Gwenlan, C.; Gwilliam, C. B.; Haas, A.; Haber, C.; Hadavand, H. K.; Haddad, N.; Haefner, P.; Hageböck, S.; Hajduk, Z.; Hakobyan, H.; Haleem, M.; Haley, J.; Hall, D.; Halladjian, G.; Hallewell, G. D.; Hamacher, K.; Hamal, P.; Hamano, K.; Hamer, M.; Hamilton, A.; Hamity, G. N.; Hamnett, P. G.; Han, L.; Hanagaki, K.; Hanawa, K.; Hance, M.; Hanke, P.; Hanna, R.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, M. C.; Hansen, P. H.; Hara, K.; Hard, A. S.; Harenberg, T.; Hariri, F.; Harkusha, S.; Harrington, R. D.; Harrison, P. F.; Hartjes, F.; Hasegawa, M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hasegawa, Y.; Hasib, A.; Hassani, S.; Haug, S.; Hauser, R.; Hauswald, L.; Havranek, M.; Hawkes, C. M.; Hawkings, R. J.; Hawkins, A. D.; Hayashi, T.; Hayden, D.; Hays, C. P.; Hays, J. M.; Hayward, H. S.; Haywood, S. J.; Head, S. J.; Heck, T.; Hedberg, V.; Heelan, L.; Heim, S.; Heim, T.; Heinemann, B.; Heinrich, L.; Hejbal, J.; Helary, L.; Hellman, S.; Hellmich, D.; Helsens, C.; Henderson, J.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Heng, Y.; Hengler, C.; Henrichs, A.; Henriques Correia, A. M.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Herbert, G. H.; Hernández Jiménez, Y.; Herrberg-Schubert, R.; Herten, G.; Hertenberger, R.; Hervas, L.; Hesketh, G. G.; Hessey, N. P.; Hetherly, J. W.; Hickling, R.; Higón-Rodriguez, E.; Hill, E.; Hill, J. C.; Hiller, K. H.; Hillier, S. J.; Hinchliffe, I.; Hines, E.; Hinman, R. R.; Hirose, M.; Hirschbuehl, D.; Hobbs, J.; Hod, N.; Hodgkinson, M. C.; Hodgson, P.; Hoecker, A.; Hoeferkamp, M. R.; Hoenig, F.; Hohlfeld, M.; Hohn, D.; Holmes, T. R.; Homann, M.; Hong, T. M.; Hooft van Huysduynen, L.; Hopkins, W. H.; Horii, Y.; Horton, A. J.; Hostachy, J.-Y.; Hou, S.; Hoummada, A.; Howard, J.; Howarth, J.; Hrabovsky, M.; Hristova, I.; Hrivnac, J.; Hryn'ova, T.; Hrynevich, A.; Hsu, C.; Hsu, P. J.; Hsu, S.-C.; Hu, D.; Hu, Q.; Hu, X.; Huang, Y.; Hubacek, Z.; Hubaut, F.; Huegging, F.; Huffman, T. B.; Hughes, E. W.; Hughes, G.; Huhtinen, M.; Hülsing, T. 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H.; Salihagic, D.; Salnikov, A.; Salt, J.; Salvatore, D.; Salvatore, F.; Salvucci, A.; Salzburger, A.; Sampsonidis, D.; Sanchez, A.; Sánchez, J.; Sanchez Martinez, V.; Sandaker, H.; Sandbach, R. L.; Sander, H. G.; Sanders, M. P.; Sandhoff, M.; Sandoval, C.; Sandstroem, R.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sannino, M.; Sansoni, A.; Santoni, C.; Santonico, R.; Santos, H.; Santoyo Castillo, I.; Sapp, K.; Sapronov, A.; Saraiva, J. G.; Sarrazin, B.; Sasaki, O.; Sasaki, Y.; Sato, K.; Sauvage, G.; Sauvan, E.; Savage, G.; Savard, P.; Sawyer, C.; Sawyer, L.; Saxon, J.; Sbarra, C.; Sbrizzi, A.; Scanlon, T.; Scannicchio, D. A.; Scarcella, M.; Scarfone, V.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schacht, P.; Schaefer, D.; Schaefer, R.; Schaeffer, J.; Schaepe, S.; Schaetzel, S.; Schäfer, U.; Schaffer, A. C.; Schaile, D.; Schamberger, R. D.; Scharf, V.; Schegelsky, V. A.; Scheirich, D.; Schernau, M.; Schiavi, C.; Schillo, C.; Schioppa, M.; Schlenker, S.; Schmidt, E.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitt, C.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, B.; Schnellbach, Y. J.; Schnoor, U.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoening, A.; Schoenrock, B. D.; Schopf, E.; Schorlemmer, A. L. S.; Schott, M.; Schouten, D.; Schovancova, J.; Schramm, S.; Schreyer, M.; Schroeder, C.; Schuh, N.; Schultens, M. J.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schulz, H.; Schumacher, M.; Schumm, B. A.; Schune, Ph.; Schwanenberger, C.; Schwartzman, A.; Schwarz, T. A.; Schwegler, Ph.; Schweiger, H.; Schwemling, Ph.; Schwienhorst, R.; Schwindling, J.; Schwindt, T.; Schwoerer, M.; Sciacca, F. G.; Scifo, E.; Sciolla, G.; Scuri, F.; Scutti, F.; Searcy, J.; Sedov, G.; Sedykh, E.; Seema, P.; Seidel, S. C.; Seiden, A.; Seifert, F.; Seixas, J. M.; Sekhniaidze, G.; Sekhon, K.; Sekula, S. J.; Selbach, K. E.; Seliverstov, D. M.; Semprini-Cesari, N.; Serfon, C.; Serin, L.; Serkin, L.; Serre, T.; Sessa, M.; Seuster, R.; Severini, H.; Sfiligoj, T.; Sforza, F.; Sfyrla, A.; Shabalina, E.; Shamim, M.; Shan, L. Y.; Shang, R.; Shank, J. T.; Shapiro, M.; Shatalov, P. B.; Shaw, K.; Shaw, S. M.; Shcherbakova, A.; Shehu, C. Y.; Sherwood, P.; Shi, L.; Shimizu, S.; Shimmin, C. O.; Shimojima, M.; Shiyakova, M.; Shmeleva, A.; Shoaleh Saadi, D.; Shochet, M. J.; Shojaii, S.; Shrestha, S.; Shulga, E.; Shupe, M. A.; Shushkevich, S.; Sicho, P.; Sidiropoulou, O.; Sidorov, D.; Sidoti, A.; Siegert, F.; Sijacki, Dj.; Silva, J.; Silver, Y.; Silverstein, S. B.; Simak, V.; Simard, O.; Simic, Lj.; Simion, S.; Simioni, E.; Simmons, B.; Simon, D.; Simoniello, R.; Sinervo, P.; Sinev, N. B.; Siragusa, G.; Sisakyan, A. N.; Sivoklokov, S. Yu.; Sjölin, J.; Sjursen, T. B.; Skinner, M. B.; Skottowe, H. P.; Skubic, P.; Slater, M.; Slavicek, T.; Slawinska, M.; Sliwa, K.; Smakhtin, V.; Smart, B. H.; Smestad, L.; Smirnov, S. Yu.; Smirnov, Y.; Smirnova, L. N.; Smirnova, O.; Smith, M. N. K.; Smith, R. W.; Smizanska, M.; Smolek, K.; Snesarev, A. A.; Snidero, G.; Snyder, S.; Sobie, R.; Socher, F.; Soffer, A.; Soh, D. A.; Solans, C. A.; Solar, M.; Solc, J.; Soldatov, E. Yu.; Soldevila, U.; Solodkov, A. A.; Soloshenko, A.; Solovyanov, O. V.; Solovyev, V.; Sommer, P.; Song, H. Y.; Soni, N.; Sood, A.; Sopczak, A.; Sopko, B.; Sopko, V.; Sorin, V.; Sosa, D.; Sosebee, M.; Sotiropoulou, C. L.; Soualah, R.; Soueid, P.; Soukharev, A. M.; South, D.; Sowden, B. C.; Spagnolo, S.; Spalla, M.; Spanò, F.; Spearman, W. R.; Spettel, F.; Spighi, R.; Spigo, G.; Spiller, L. A.; Spousta, M.; Spreitzer, T.; St. Denis, R. D.; Staerz, S.; Stahlman, J.; Stamen, R.; Stamm, S.; Stanecka, E.; Stanescu, C.; Stanescu-Bellu, M.; Stanitzki, M. M.; Stapnes, S.; Starchenko, E. A.; Stark, J.; Staroba, P.; Starovoitov, P.; Staszewski, R.; Stavina, P.; Steinberg, P.; Stelzer, B.; Stelzer, H. J.; Stelzer-Chilton, O.; Stenzel, H.; Stern, S.; Stewart, G. A.; Stillings, J. A.; Stockton, M. C.; Stoebe, M.; Stoicea, G.; Stolte, P.; Stonjek, S.; Stradling, A. R.; Straessner, A.; Stramaglia, M. E.; Strandberg, J.; Strandberg, S.; Strandlie, A.; Strauss, E.; Strauss, M.; Strizenec, P.; Ströhmer, R.; Strom, D. M.; Stroynowski, R.; Strubig, A.; Stucci, S. A.; Stugu, B.; Styles, N. A.; Su, D.; Su, J.; Subramaniam, R.; Succurro, A.; Sugaya, Y.; Suhr, C.; Suk, M.; Sulin, V. V.; Sultansoy, S.; Sumida, T.; Sun, S.; Sun, X.; Sundermann, J. E.; Suruliz, K.; Susinno, G.; Sutton, M. R.; Suzuki, S.; Suzuki, Y.; Svatos, M.; Swedish, S.; Swiatlowski, M.; Sykora, I.; Sykora, T.; Ta, D.; Taccini, C.; Tackmann, K.; Taenzer, J.; Taffard, A.; Tafirout, R.; Taiblum, N.; Takai, H.; Takashima, R.; Takeda, H.; Takeshita, T.; Takubo, Y.; Talby, M.; Talyshev, A. A.; Tam, J. Y. C.; Tan, K. G.; Tanaka, J.; Tanaka, R.; Tanaka, S.; Tannenwald, B. B.; Tannoury, N.; Tapprogge, S.; Tarem, S.; Tarrade, F.; Tartarelli, G. F.; Tas, P.; Tasevsky, M.; Tashiro, T.; Tassi, E.; Tavares Delgado, A.; Tayalati, Y.; Taylor, F. E.; Taylor, G. N.; Taylor, W.; Teischinger, F. A.; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M.; Teixeira-Dias, P.; Temming, K. K.; Ten Kate, H.; Teng, P. K.; Teoh, J. J.; Tepel, F.; Terada, S.; Terashi, K.; Terron, J.; Terzo, S.; Testa, M.; Teuscher, R. J.; Therhaag, J.; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T.; Thomas, J. P.; Thomas-Wilsker, J.; Thompson, E. N.; Thompson, P. D.; Thompson, R. J.; Thompson, A. S.; Thomsen, L. A.; Thomson, E.; Thomson, M.; Thun, R. P.; Tibbetts, M. J.; Ticse Torres, R. E.; Tikhomirov, V. O.; Tikhonov, Yu. A.; Timoshenko, S.; Tiouchichine, E.; Tipton, P.; Tisserant, S.; Todorov, T.; Todorova-Nova, S.; Tojo, J.; Tokár, S.; Tokushuku, K.; Tollefson, K.; Tolley, E.; Tomlinson, L.; Tomoto, M.; Tompkins, L.; Toms, K.; Torrence, E.; Torres, H.; Torró Pastor, E.; Toth, J.; Touchard, F.; Tovey, D. R.; Trefzger, T.; Tremblet, L.; Tricoli, A.; Trigger, I. M.; Trincaz-Duvoid, S.; Tripiana, M. F.; Trischuk, W.; Trocmé, B.; Troncon, C.; Trottier-McDonald, M.; Trovatelli, M.; True, P.; Truong, L.; Trzebinski, M.; Trzupek, A.; Tsarouchas, C.; Tseng, J. C.-L.; Tsiareshka, P. V.; Tsionou, D.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsirintanis, N.; Tsiskaridze, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Tskhadadze, E. G.; Tsukerman, I. I.; Tsulaia, V.; Tsuno, S.; Tsybychev, D.; Tudorache, A.; Tudorache, V.; Tuna, A. N.; Tupputi, S. A.; Turchikhin, S.; Turecek, D.; Turra, R.; Turvey, A. J.; Tuts, P. M.; Tykhonov, A.; Tylmad, M.; Tyndel, M.; Ueda, I.; Ueno, R.; Ughetto, M.; Ugland, M.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Ukegawa, F.; Unal, G.; Undrus, A.; Unel, G.; Ungaro, F. C.; Unno, Y.; Unverdorben, C.; Urban, J.; Urquijo, P.; Urrejola, P.; Usai, G.; Usanova, A.; Vacavant, L.; Vacek, V.; Vachon, B.; Valderanis, C.; Valencic, N.; Valentinetti, S.; Valero, A.; Valery, L.; Valkar, S.; Valladolid Gallego, E.; Vallecorsa, S.; Valls Ferrer, J. A.; Van Den Wollenberg, W.; Van Der Deijl, P. C.; van der Geer, R.; van der Graaf, H.; Van Der Leeuw, R.; van Eldik, N.; van Gemmeren, P.; Van Nieuwkoop, J.; van Vulpen, I.; van Woerden, M. C.; Vanadia, M.; Vandelli, W.; Vanguri, R.; Vaniachine, A.; Vannucci, F.; Vardanyan, G.; Vari, R.; Varnes, E. W.; Varol, T.; Varouchas, D.; Vartapetian, A.; Varvell, K. E.; Vazeille, F.; Vazquez Schroeder, T.; Veatch, J.; Veloce, L. M.; Veloso, F.; Velz, T.; Veneziano, S.; Ventura, A.; Ventura, D.; Venturi, M.; Venturi, N.; Venturini, A.; Vercesi, V.; Verducci, M.; Verkerke, W.; Vermeulen, J. C.; Vest, A.; Vetterli, M. C.; Viazlo, O.; Vichou, I.; Vickey, T.; Vickey Boeriu, O. E.; Viehhauser, G. H. A.; Viel, S.; Vigne, R.; Villa, M.; Villaplana Perez, M.; Vilucchi, E.; Vincter, M. G.; Vinogradov, V. B.; Vivarelli, I.; Vives Vaque, F.; Vlachos, S.; Vladoiu, D.; Vlasak, M.; Vogel, M.; Vokac, P.; Volpi, G.; Volpi, M.; von der Schmitt, H.; von Radziewski, H.; von Toerne, E.; Vorobel, V.; Vorobev, K.; Vos, M.; Voss, R.; Vossebeld, J. H.; Vranjes, N.; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M.; Vrba, V.; Vreeswijk, M.; Vuillermet, R.; Vukotic, I.; Vykydal, Z.; Wagner, P.; Wagner, W.; Wahlberg, H.; Wahrmund, S.; Wakabayashi, J.; Walder, J.; Walker, R.; Walkowiak, W.; Wang, C.; Wang, F.; Wang, H.; Wang, H.; Wang, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, K.; Wang, R.; Wang, S. M.; Wang, T.; Wang, X.; Wanotayaroj, C.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C. P.; Wardrope, D. R.; Warsinsky, M.; Washbrook, A.; Wasicki, C.; Watkins, P. M.; Watson, A. T.; Watson, I. J.; Watson, M. F.; Watts, G.; Watts, S.; Waugh, B. M.; Webb, S.; Weber, M. S.; Weber, S. W.; Webster, J. S.; Weidberg, A. R.; Weinert, B.; Weingarten, J.; Weiser, C.; Weits, H.; Wells, P. S.; Wenaus, T.; Wengler, T.; Wenig, S.; Wermes, N.; Werner, M.; Werner, P.; Wessels, M.; Wetter, J.; Whalen, K.; Wharton, A. M.; White, A.; White, M. J.; White, R.; White, S.; Whiteson, D.; Wickens, F. J.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wielers, M.; Wienemann, P.; Wiglesworth, C.; Wiik-Fuchs, L. A. M.; Wildauer, A.; Wilkens, H. G.; Williams, H. H.; Williams, S.; Willis, C.; Willocq, S.; Wilson, A.; Wilson, J. A.; Wingerter-Seez, I.; Winklmeier, F.; Winter, B. T.; Wittgen, M.; Wittkowski, J.; Wollstadt, S. J.; Wolter, M. W.; Wolters, H.; Wosiek, B. K.; Wotschack, J.; Woudstra, M. J.; Wozniak, K. W.; Wu, M.; Wu, M.; Wu, S. L.; Wu, X.; Wu, Y.; Wyatt, T. R.; Wynne, B. M.; Xella, S.; Xu, D.; Xu, L.; Yabsley, B.; Yacoob, S.; Yakabe, R.; Yamada, M.; Yamaguchi, Y.; Yamamoto, A.; Yamamoto, S.; Yamanaka, T.; Yamauchi, K.; Yamazaki, Y.; Yan, Z.; Yang, H.; Yang, H.; Yang, Y.; Yao, L.; Yao, W.-M.; Yasu, Y.; Yatsenko, E.; Yau Wong, K. H.; Ye, J.; Ye, S.; Yeletskikh, I.; Yen, A. L.; Yildirim, E.; Yorita, K.; Yoshida, R.; Yoshihara, K.; Young, C.; Young, C. J. S.; Youssef, S.; Yu, D. R.; Yu, J.; Yu, J. M.; Yu, J.; Yuan, L.; Yurkewicz, A.; Yusuff, I.; Zabinski, B.; Zaidan, R.; Zaitsev, A. M.; Zalieckas, J.; Zaman, A.; Zambito, S.; Zanello, L.; Zanzi, D.; Zeitnitz, C.; Zeman, M.; Zemla, A.; Zengel, K.; Zenin, O.; Ženiš, T.; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, D.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, R.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, X.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, Z.; Zhemchugov, A.; Zhong, J.; Zhou, B.; Zhou, C.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, L.; Zhou, N.; Zhu, C. G.; Zhu, H.; Zhu, J.; Zhu, Y.; Zhuang, X.; Zhukov, K.; Zibell, A.; Zieminska, D.; Zimine, N. I.; Zimmermann, C.; Zimmermann, S.; Zinonos, Z.; Zinser, M.; Ziolkowski, M.; Živković, L.; Zobernig, G.; Zoccoli, A.; zur Nedden, M.; Zurzolo, G.; Zwalinski, L.

    2016-01-01

    Combined analyses of the Higgs boson production and decay rates as well as its coupling strengths to vector bosons and fermions are presented. The combinations include the results of the analyses of the H→ γ γ , ZZ^*, WW^*, Zγ , bbar{b}, τ τ and μ μ decay modes, and the constraints on the associated production with a pair of top quarks and on the off-shell coupling strengths of the Higgs boson. The results are based on the LHC proton-proton collision datasets, with integrated luminosities of up to 4.7 {fb}^{-1} at √{s}=7 TeV and 20.3 {fb}^{-1} at √{s}=8 TeV, recorded by the ATLAS detector in 2011 and 2012. Combining all production modes and decay channels, the measured signal yield, normalised to the Standard Model expectation, is 1.18^{+0.15}_{-0.14}. The observed Higgs boson production and decay rates are interpreted in a leading-order coupling framework, exploring a wide range of benchmark coupling models both with and without assumptions on the Higgs boson width and on the Standard Model particle content in loop processes. The data are found to be compatible with the Standard Model expectations for a Higgs boson at a mass of 125.36 GeV for all models considered.

  19. Penguin diagram dominance in radiative weak decays of bottom baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Kohara, Yoji

    2005-05-01

    Radiative weak decays of antitriplet bottom baryons are studied under the assumption of penguin diagram dominance and flavor-SU(3) (or SU(2)) symmetry. Relations among decay rates of various decay modes are derived.

  20. Constraining the Astrophysical S Factor of the 3He(α,γ)7Be Reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Rojas, A.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Akers, C.; Aviv, O.; Borge, M. J. G.; Christian, G.; Davids, B.; Fallis, J.; Fulton, B. R.; Hager, U.; Haquin, G.; Hass, M.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Nir-El, Y.; Ottewell, D.; Ruiz, C.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Tengblad, O.; Yaniv, R.; Yungreis, Z.

    The cross section of the 3He(α,γ)7Be reaction has been widely studied both from the theoretical and the experimental fronts due to its relevance to the standard solar model and to the Big Bang Nucleosynthesis calculations. We report here on cross section measurements in the energy region Ec.m. = 1-3 MeV using the direct recoil counting method in an attempt to resolve the discrepancies among the previous data sets and calculations in this energy region and thus to constrain the extrapolations of the S34(E) curve to astrophysical energies.

  1. Using 7Be measurements to estimate the relative contributions of interrill and rill erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Feng-Bao; Yang, Ming-Yi; Walling, Des E.; Zhang, Bo

    2014-02-01

    Rapid and reliable methods for estimating the relative contribution of interrill and rill erosion during a rainfall event are needed to provide an improved understanding of soil erosion processes and to develop process-based soil erosion prediction models. Use of the radionuclide 7Be in controlled experiments provides a means of addressing this need and this paper reports an experimental study aimed at refining and testing procedures employed to estimate the relative contribution of the two components of erosion. Four experimental plots (area 5 × 2 m and 10°, 15°, 20°, and 25° slope), filled with a loessial soil, manually tilled, and kept free of weeds with herbicides, were subjected to high intensity rainfall (91.8-120.6 mm h- 1), in order to induce rill development. The evolution of the rill network was documented photographically during the rainfall events and the runoff and sediment output from the plots were collected and measured. The sediment was recovered from the runoff and its mass and 7Be activity were measured. The Yang model, reported previously, was used to estimate the relative contributions of interrill and rill erosion from the 7Be activity of the exported sediment and this model was further refined to take account of the dynamic growth of the rills during the rainfall event. The results from the experiments were also used to develop a simple empirical linear model for estimating the relative contributions of interrill and rill erosion from the 7Be measurements. A comparison of the results provided by the three models showed some differences in the estimates of the magnitude of the relative contributions, although their trend during the event was similar. The estimates provided by the empirical linear model tended to be higher than those obtained using the refined model and lower than those generated by the Yang model, but were closer to those provided by the refined model which was seen as being theoretically the most accurate model. The

  2. Beam shaping assembly optimization for (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be accelerator based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2014-06-01

    Within the framework of accelerator-based BNCT, a project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole accelerator is under way at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The proposed accelerator is conceived to deliver a proton beam of 30mA at about 2.5MeV. In this work we explore a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) design based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be neutron production reaction to obtain neutron beams to treat deep seated tumors.

  3. Beam shaping assembly optimization for (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be accelerator based BNCT.

    PubMed

    Minsky, D M; Kreiner, A J

    2014-06-01

    Within the framework of accelerator-based BNCT, a project to develop a folded Tandem-ElectroStatic-Quadrupole accelerator is under way at the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina. The proposed accelerator is conceived to deliver a proton beam of 30mA at about 2.5MeV. In this work we explore a Beam Shaping Assembly (BSA) design based on the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be neutron production reaction to obtain neutron beams to treat deep seated tumors. PMID:24345525

  4. Rare B Decays at Babar

    SciTech Connect

    Palombo, Fernando; Collaboration, for the BABAR

    2009-01-12

    The author presents some of the most recent BABAR measurements for rare B decays. These include rate asymmetries in the B decays to K{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -} and K{sup +}{pi}{sup -} and branching fractions in the B decays to l{sup +}{nu}{sub l}, K{sub 1}(1270){sup +}{pi}{sup -} and K{sub 1}(1400){sup +}{pi}{sup -}. The author also reports a search for the B{sup +} decay to K{sub S}{sup 0}K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}.

  5. Searching for resonances in the unbound 6Be nucleus using a radioactive 7Be beam

    SciTech Connect

    Chae, K. Y.; Bardayan, Daniel W; Blackmon, Jeffery C; Smith, Michael Scott; Champagne, A. E.; Fitzgerald, R. P.; Visser, D. W.; Das, Jiban; Guimaraes, V.; Jones, K. L.; Pain, S. D.; Thomas, J. S.; Johnson, M. S.; KOZUB, RAYMOND L; Livesay, R. J.; Ma, Z.; Nesaraja, Caroline D

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge of the 3He(3He,2p)4He reaction is important for understanding stellar burning and solar neutrino production. Previous measurements have found a surprisingly large rise in the cross section at low energies that could be due to a low energy resonance in the 3He + 3He (6Be) system or electron screening. In the 6Be nucleus, however, no excited states have been observed above the first 2+ state at Ex = 1:67 MeV up to 23 MeV, even though several are expected. The d(7Be,t)6Be reaction has been studied for the first time to search for resonances in the 6Be nucleus that may affect our understanding of the 3He(3He,2p)4He reaction. A 100-MeV radioactive 7Be beam from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) was used to bombard CD2 targets, and tritons were detected by the Silicon Detector Array (SIDAR). It appears that a combination of reaction mechanisms are necessary to explain the observed triton energy spectrum.

  6. New measurement of the 3He(α,γ)7Be cross section at medium energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Borge, M. J. G.; Briz, J. A.; Cubero, M.; Fulton, B. R.; Fynbo, H.; Gordillo, N.; Hass, M.; Haquin, G.; Maira, A.; Nácher, E.; Nir-El, Y.; Kumar, V.; McGrath, J.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Perea, A.; Pesudo, V.; Ribeiro, G.; Sánchez del Rio, J.; Tengblad, O.; Yaniv, R.; Yungreis, Z.

    2012-09-01

    We report on a new cross-section measurement for the 3He(α, γ)7Be reaction at three medium energies of Ec.m. between 1 and 3 MeV. The interest stems from the significant role played by the reaction in calculating an accurate solar neutrino flux and the primordial 7Li abundance. The energy dependence of the astrophysical S34 factor observed in the present work, especially above 1 MeV, highlights the need to constrain theories in order to obtain a precise extrapolated value for S34(0). In this context, a comparison with the recent theoretical work in a fully microscopic fermionic molecular dynamics approach and a few other representative calculations emphasize the need for further experimental as well as theoretical work to resolve the existing conflicts.

  7. (7)Be, (210)Pb, and (210)Po in the surface air from the Arctic to Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Persson, Bertil R R; Holm, Elis

    2014-12-01

    In the present study we have investigated the activity concentrations of (210)Pb, (210)Po as well as (7)Be in surface air of the North and South Atlantic (1988-1989), the Arctic Ocean (1991), and along the coastline of Siberia (1994) during succeeding expeditions in the Swedish Polar Research program. During the cruises in the Arctic Ocean during 1991-07-28 to 1991-10-04 the average air concentrations of (7)Be was 0.6 ± 0.4 mBq/m(3), (210)Pb 40 ± 4 μBq/m(3) and (210)Po-38 ± 10 μBq/m(3). During the Swedish-Russian Tundra Ecology-94 expedition along the Siberian coastline the average air concentrations of (7)Be and (210)Pb measured during May-July were 11 ± 3, and 2.4 ± 0.4 mBq/m(3), and during July-September they were 7.2 ± 2 and 2.7 ± 1.1 mBq/m(3) respectively. The results from measurements of the activity concentration of (210)Pb in the air over the Arctic Ocean vary between 75 and 176 μBq/m(3). In the air close to land masses, however, the activity concentration of (210)Pb in the air increases to 269-2712 μBq/m(3). The activity concentration of (7)Be in the South Atlantic during the cruise down to Antarctica varied between 1.3 and 1.7 with an average of 1.5 ± 0.8 mBq/m(3). The activity concentration of (210)Pb in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica varied between 6 and 14 μBq/m(3). At the Equator the activity concentration recorded in November 1988 was 630 μBq/m(3) and in April 1989 it was 260 μBq/m(3). The average activity concentration of (210)Pb during the route Gothenburg-Montevideo in 1988 was 290 and on the return Montevideo-Gothenburg it was 230 μBq/m(3). The activity concentration of (210)Po in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica varied between 15 and 58 μBq/m(3). At the Equator the activity concentration in November 1988 was 170 and in April 1989 it was 70 μBq/m(3). The average activity concentration of (210)Po during the route Gothenburg-Montevideo in 1988 was 63 and on the return Montevideo

  8. (7)Be, (210)Pb, and (210)Po in the surface air from the Arctic to Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Persson, Bertil R R; Holm, Elis

    2014-12-01

    In the present study we have investigated the activity concentrations of (210)Pb, (210)Po as well as (7)Be in surface air of the North and South Atlantic (1988-1989), the Arctic Ocean (1991), and along the coastline of Siberia (1994) during succeeding expeditions in the Swedish Polar Research program. During the cruises in the Arctic Ocean during 1991-07-28 to 1991-10-04 the average air concentrations of (7)Be was 0.6 ± 0.4 mBq/m(3), (210)Pb 40 ± 4 μBq/m(3) and (210)Po-38 ± 10 μBq/m(3). During the Swedish-Russian Tundra Ecology-94 expedition along the Siberian coastline the average air concentrations of (7)Be and (210)Pb measured during May-July were 11 ± 3, and 2.4 ± 0.4 mBq/m(3), and during July-September they were 7.2 ± 2 and 2.7 ± 1.1 mBq/m(3) respectively. The results from measurements of the activity concentration of (210)Pb in the air over the Arctic Ocean vary between 75 and 176 μBq/m(3). In the air close to land masses, however, the activity concentration of (210)Pb in the air increases to 269-2712 μBq/m(3). The activity concentration of (7)Be in the South Atlantic during the cruise down to Antarctica varied between 1.3 and 1.7 with an average of 1.5 ± 0.8 mBq/m(3). The activity concentration of (210)Pb in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica varied between 6 and 14 μBq/m(3). At the Equator the activity concentration recorded in November 1988 was 630 μBq/m(3) and in April 1989 it was 260 μBq/m(3). The average activity concentration of (210)Pb during the route Gothenburg-Montevideo in 1988 was 290 and on the return Montevideo-Gothenburg it was 230 μBq/m(3). The activity concentration of (210)Po in the South Atlantic down to Antarctica varied between 15 and 58 μBq/m(3). At the Equator the activity concentration in November 1988 was 170 and in April 1989 it was 70 μBq/m(3). The average activity concentration of (210)Po during the route Gothenburg-Montevideo in 1988 was 63 and on the return Montevideo

  9. 7Be, 210Pb and 137Cs concentrations in cloud water.

    PubMed

    Bourcier, L; Masson, O; Laj, P; Paulat, P; Pichon, J-M; Chausse, P; Gurriaran, R; Sellegri, K

    2014-02-01

    Cloud water was sampled during 8 months, in 2008 and 2009, at the puy de Dome high-altitude atmospheric research station (France). The concentrations of (7)Be and (210)Pb, both naturally occurring radionuclides, and (137)Cs of anthropogenic origin, were determined. Those values are useful for a better knowledge of the aftermath cloud deposition and more generally for wet deposition assessment of radionuclides. This is of primary interest in case of a nuclear accident, especially considering (137)Cs deposition, both for high-altitude locations that are regularly embedded by clouds and also for lowlands where fog can occur. The (7)Be and (210)Pb average activity concentrations in cloud water found were 1.9±0.11 mBq m(-3) air and 140±10 μBq m(-3) air, respectively. For (137)Cs, the average concentration was 0.14±0.02 μBq m(-3) air. This very low-level is representative of the long term post-accidental background level. Indeed, for the studied period, the last accidental (137)Cs release was that of Chernobyl accident, in April 1986. To our knowledge this is the first data about (137)Cs reference level determination in cloud water. The comparison between cloud water and rain water concentrations showed a ratio cloud/rain ranging between 3.4 and 8.1, in agreement with previous studies performed on inorganic compounds. Scavenging efficiencies of aerosols by cloud droplets were also calculated with the additional aerosol concentrations routinely measured at the station and were quite low (0.13-0.40) compared to what has previously been observed for inorganic soluble ions.

  10. 234Th and 7Be as tracers for transport and sources of particle-associated contaminants in the Hudson River Estuary.

    PubMed

    Feng, H; Cochran, J K; Hirschberg, D J

    1999-09-30

    The natural radionuclides 234Th and 7Be have known sources in estuaries and strongly and rapidly associate with particles. They are thus good tracers of the transport and sources of particles in the suspended sediment reservoir, and, by implication, of particle-associated contaminants such as heavy metals. In the Hudson River estuary, 234Th is produced from decay of dissolved 238U, which varies linearly with salinity, while 7Be is added directly to the estuary from the atmosphere. The 234Th/7Be activity ratio eliminates variations in radionuclide specific activities that result from changes in sediment grain size or composition. Sampling in the Hudson under conditions of low and high river flow shows that 234Th/7Be in suspended sediment increases from low salinity to higher salinity waters at all sampling times. The Th/Be activity ratio may thus be used as a tracer of where particles are labeled with these radionuclides in the estuary and of the relative importance of resuspension and particle transport through the estuary. The distribution of heavy metals in the suspended sediment reservoir can be compared with that of 234Th/7Be by normalizing the metals to Fe. Iron and Al are well correlated in suspended sediments of the Hudson, indicating that either element can be used to normalize grain size effects on specific concentrations of metals. Ratios of Ag and Pb to Fe in suspended particles generally increase down-estuary at all sampling times, whereas Cu, Zn and Cd-to-Fe ratios show more scatter and less consistency in trends. Both source(s) and chemical behavior affect the metal/Fe ratios. The strongest positive correlation with 234Th/7Be is seen for Ag/Fe, reflecting the dominance of lower estuary sources of this trace metal to the Hudson. Relationships between Pb/Fe, Cu/Fe and 234Th/7Be are less strong, reflecting multiple sources of these elements. No correlation is seen for Cd/Fe with 234Th/7Be, indicating either a source up-river or release of Cd as its Kd

  11. 234Th and 7Be as tracers for transport and sources of particle-associated contaminants in the Hudson River Estuary.

    PubMed

    Feng, H; Cochran, J K; Hirschberg, D J

    1999-09-30

    The natural radionuclides 234Th and 7Be have known sources in estuaries and strongly and rapidly associate with particles. They are thus good tracers of the transport and sources of particles in the suspended sediment reservoir, and, by implication, of particle-associated contaminants such as heavy metals. In the Hudson River estuary, 234Th is produced from decay of dissolved 238U, which varies linearly with salinity, while 7Be is added directly to the estuary from the atmosphere. The 234Th/7Be activity ratio eliminates variations in radionuclide specific activities that result from changes in sediment grain size or composition. Sampling in the Hudson under conditions of low and high river flow shows that 234Th/7Be in suspended sediment increases from low salinity to higher salinity waters at all sampling times. The Th/Be activity ratio may thus be used as a tracer of where particles are labeled with these radionuclides in the estuary and of the relative importance of resuspension and particle transport through the estuary. The distribution of heavy metals in the suspended sediment reservoir can be compared with that of 234Th/7Be by normalizing the metals to Fe. Iron and Al are well correlated in suspended sediments of the Hudson, indicating that either element can be used to normalize grain size effects on specific concentrations of metals. Ratios of Ag and Pb to Fe in suspended particles generally increase down-estuary at all sampling times, whereas Cu, Zn and Cd-to-Fe ratios show more scatter and less consistency in trends. Both source(s) and chemical behavior affect the metal/Fe ratios. The strongest positive correlation with 234Th/7Be is seen for Ag/Fe, reflecting the dominance of lower estuary sources of this trace metal to the Hudson. Relationships between Pb/Fe, Cu/Fe and 234Th/7Be are less strong, reflecting multiple sources of these elements. No correlation is seen for Cd/Fe with 234Th/7Be, indicating either a source up-river or release of Cd as its Kd

  12. Weak radiative baryonic decays of B mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Kohara, Yoji

    2004-11-01

    Weak radiative baryonic B decays B{yields}B{sub 1}B{sub 2}-bar{gamma} are studied under the assumption of the short-distance b{yields}s{gamma} electromagnetic penguin transition dominance. The relations among the decay rates of various decay modes are derived.

  13. Improving the luminescence properties of aequorin by conjugating to CdSe/ZnS quantum dot nanoparticles: Red shift and slowing decay rate.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, Nezam; Shanehsaz, Maryam; Sajedi, Reza H; Gharaat, Morteza; Ghahremanzadeh, Ramin

    2016-09-01

    Changing the properties of photoprotein aequorin such as the wavelength emission and decay half-life by using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) phenomenon is the main aim in this paper. BRET system was set up with CdSe/ZnS quantum dot nanoparticles as an acceptor molecule and photoprotein as an energy donor molecule. Quantum dots are semiconductor nanoparticles with very interesting optical properties, including broad excitation spectra, narrow and the symmetric band width emission spectra, tunable by their sizes, compositions, negligible photo-bleaching and good chemical and photo-stability. In this QD-BRET system, aequorin is conjugated to the carboxyl groups on quantum dot surface by EDC/NHS chemistry as cross linker. Bioluminescence energy generates by aequorin upon adding Ca(2+) and transfers to the quantum dots in a radiationless manner and emits at a longer wavelength. The determined bioluminescent parameters for this method included aequorin activity, emission spectra and decay half-life time. In fact, this spectrum tuning strategy resulted in a change in bioluminescent properties of photoprotein, therefore, the maximum emission wavelength shifted from 455 to 540nm and the decay time increased from 3.76 to 12.11s. Nowadays, photoproteins with different characteristics are capable of being employed as a reporter in multi-analyte detections and in vivo imaging.

  14. Improving the luminescence properties of aequorin by conjugating to CdSe/ZnS quantum dot nanoparticles: Red shift and slowing decay rate.

    PubMed

    Jalilian, Nezam; Shanehsaz, Maryam; Sajedi, Reza H; Gharaat, Morteza; Ghahremanzadeh, Ramin

    2016-09-01

    Changing the properties of photoprotein aequorin such as the wavelength emission and decay half-life by using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) phenomenon is the main aim in this paper. BRET system was set up with CdSe/ZnS quantum dot nanoparticles as an acceptor molecule and photoprotein as an energy donor molecule. Quantum dots are semiconductor nanoparticles with very interesting optical properties, including broad excitation spectra, narrow and the symmetric band width emission spectra, tunable by their sizes, compositions, negligible photo-bleaching and good chemical and photo-stability. In this QD-BRET system, aequorin is conjugated to the carboxyl groups on quantum dot surface by EDC/NHS chemistry as cross linker. Bioluminescence energy generates by aequorin upon adding Ca(2+) and transfers to the quantum dots in a radiationless manner and emits at a longer wavelength. The determined bioluminescent parameters for this method included aequorin activity, emission spectra and decay half-life time. In fact, this spectrum tuning strategy resulted in a change in bioluminescent properties of photoprotein, therefore, the maximum emission wavelength shifted from 455 to 540nm and the decay time increased from 3.76 to 12.11s. Nowadays, photoproteins with different characteristics are capable of being employed as a reporter in multi-analyte detections and in vivo imaging. PMID:27371914

  15. A Correlation between the Intrinsic Brightness and Average Decay Rate of Gamma-Ray Burst X-Ray Afterglow Light Curves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racusin, J. L.; Oates, S. R.; de Pasquale, M.; Kocevski, D.

    2016-07-01

    We present a correlation between the average temporal decay ({α }{{X},{avg},\\gt 200{{s}}}) and early-time luminosity ({L}{{X},200{{s}}}) of X-ray afterglows of gamma-ray bursts as observed by the Swift X-ray Telescope. Both quantities are measured relative to a rest-frame time of 200 s after the γ-ray trigger. The luminosity-average decay correlation does not depend on specific temporal behavior and contains one scale-independent quantity minimizing the role of selection effects. This is a complementary correlation to that discovered by Oates et al. in the optical light curves observed by the Swift Ultraviolet Optical Telescope. The correlation indicates that, on average, more luminous X-ray afterglows decay faster than less luminous ones, indicating some relative mechanism for energy dissipation. The X-ray and optical correlations are entirely consistent once corrections are applied and contamination is removed. We explore the possible biases introduced by different light-curve morphologies and observational selection effects, and how either geometrical effects or intrinsic properties of the central engine and jet could explain the observed correlation.

  16. Particle decay in inflationary cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Boyanovsky, D.; Vega, H.J. de

    2004-09-15

    We investigate the relaxation and decay of a particle during inflation by implementing the dynamical renormalization group. This investigation allows us to give a meaningful definition for the decay rate in an expanding universe. As a prelude to a more general scenario, the method is applied here to study the decay of a particle in de Sitter inflation via a trilinear coupling to massless conformally coupled particles, both for wavelengths much larger and much smaller than the Hubble radius. For superhorizon modes we find that the decay is of the form {eta}{sup {gamma}{sub 1}} with {eta} being conformal time and we give an explicit expression for {gamma}{sub 1} to leading order in the coupling which has a noteworthy interpretation in terms of the Hawking temperature of de Sitter space-time. We show that if the mass M of the decaying field is <decay rate during inflation is enhanced over the Minkowski space-time result by a factor 2H/{pi}M. For wavelengths much smaller than the Hubble radius we find that the decay law is e with C({eta}) the scale factor and {alpha} determined by the strength of the trilinear coupling. In all cases we find a substantial enhancement in the decay law as compared to Minkowski space-time. These results suggest potential implications for the spectrum of scalar density fluctuations as well as non-Gaussianities.

  17. Seal Out Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics > Tooth Decay (Caries) > Seal Out Tooth Decay Seal Out Tooth Decay Main Content What are dental ... back teeth decay so easily? Who should get seal​ants? Should sealants be put on baby teeth? ...

  18. Measurements of the Higgs boson production and decay rates and constraints on its couplings from a combined ATLAS and CMS analysis of the LHC pp collision data at $$$\\sqrt{s}=7 $$$ and 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; et al

    2016-08-05

    Combined ATLAS and CMS measurements of the Higgs boson production and decay rates, as well as constraints on its couplings to vector bosons and fermions, are presented. The combination is based on the analysis of five production processes, namely gluon fusion, vector boson fusion, and associated production with a W or a Z boson or a pair of top quarks, and of the six decay modes H → ZZ, W W , γγ, ττ, bb, and μμ. All results are reported assuming a value of 125.09 GeV for the Higgs boson mass, the result of the combined measurement by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. The analysis uses the CERN LHC proton-proton collision data recorded by the ATLAS and CMS experiments in 2011 and 2012, corresponding to integrated luminosities per experiment of approximately 5 fbmore » $$^{–1}$$ at $$ \\sqrt{s}=7 $$ TeV and 20 fb$$^{–1}$$ at $$ \\sqrt{s}=8 $$ TeV. The Higgs boson production and decay rates measured by the two experiments are combined within the context of three generic parameterisations: two based on cross sections and branching fractions, and one on ratios of coupling modifiers. Several interpretations of the measurements with more model-dependent parameterisations are also given. The combined signal yield relative to the Standard Model prediction is measured to be 1.09 ± 0.11. The combined measurements lead to observed significances for the vector boson fusion production process and for the H → ττ decay of 5.4 and 5.5 standard deviations, respectively. In conclusion, the data are consistent with the Standard Model predictions for all parameterisations considered.« less

  19. Measurements of the Higgs boson production and decay rates and constraints on its couplings from a combined ATLAS and CMS analysis of the LHC pp collision data at √{s}=7 and 8 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Abeloos, B.; Aben, R.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abraham, N. L.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Aliev, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allen, B. W.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Alstaty, M.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amako, K.; Amaral Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Armitage, L. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Artz, S.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barranco Navarro, L.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bedognetti, M.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, A. S.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Belyaev, N. L.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez, J.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Beringer, J.; Berlendis, S.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertram, I. A.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Bielski, R.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Boerner, D.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bokan, P.; Bold, T.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortoletto, D.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Bossio Sola, J. D.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Broughton, J. H.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Brunt, BH; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryant, P.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.; Budagov, I. A.; Buehrer, F.; Bugge, M. K.; Bulekov, O.; Bullock, D.; Burckhart, H.; Burdin, S.; Burgard, C. D.; Burghgrave, B.; Burka, K.; Burke, S.; Burmeister, I.; Busato, E.; Büscher, D.; Büscher, V.; Bussey, P.; Butler, J. M.; Buttar, C. M.; Butterworth, J. M.; Butti, P.; Buttinger, W.; Buzatu, A.; Buzykaev, A. R.; Cabrera Urbán, S.; Caforio, D.; Cairo, V. M.; Cakir, O.; Calace, N.; Calafiura, P.; Calandri, A.; Calderini, G.; Calfayan, P.; Caloba, L. P.; Calvet, D.; Calvet, S.; Calvet, T. P.; Camacho Toro, R.; Camarda, S.; Camarri, P.; Cameron, D.; Caminal Armadans, R.; Camincher, C.; Campana, S.; Campanelli, M.; Camplani, A.; Campoverde, A.; Canale, V.; Canepa, A.; Cano Bret, M.; Cantero, J.; Cantrill, R.; Cao, T.; Capeans Garrido, M. D. M.; Caprini, I.; Caprini, M.; Capua, M.; Caputo, R.; Carbone, R. M.; Cardarelli, R.; Cardillo, F.; Carli, I.; Carli, T.; Carlino, G.; Carminati, L.; Caron, S.; Carquin, E.; Carrillo-Montoya, G. D.; Carter, J. R.; Carvalho, J.; Casadei, D.; Casado, M. P.; Casolino, M.; Casper, D. W.; Castaneda-Miranda, E.; Castelijn, R.; Castelli, A.; Castillo Gimenez, V.; Castro, N. F.; Catinaccio, A.; Catmore, J. R.; Cattai, A.; Caudron, J.; Cavaliere, V.; Cavallaro, E.; Cavalli, D.; Cavalli-Sforza, M.; Cavasinni, V.; Ceradini, F.; Cerda Alberich, L.; Cerio, B. C.; Cerqueira, A. S.; Cerri, A.; Cerrito, L.; Cerutti, F.; Cerv, M.; Cervelli, A.; Cetin, S. A.; Chafaq, A.; Chakraborty, D.; Chan, S. K.; Chan, Y. L.; Chang, P.; Chapman, J. D.; Charlton, D. G.; Chatterjee, A.; Chau, C. C.; Chavez Barajas, C. A.; Che, S.; Cheatham, S.; Chegwidden, A.; Chekanov, S.; Chekulaev, S. V.; Chelkov, G. A.; Chelstowska, M. A.; Chen, C.; Chen, H.; Chen, K.; Chen, S.; Chen, S.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. C.; Cheng, H. J.; Cheng, Y.; Cheplakov, A.; Cheremushkina, E.; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R.; Chernyatin, V.; Cheu, E.; Chevalier, L.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, G.; Chiodini, G.; Chisholm, A. S.; Chitan, A.; Chizhov, M. V.; Choi, K.; Chomont, A. R.; Chouridou, S.; Chow, B. K. B.; Christodoulou, V.; Chromek-Burckhart, D.; Chudoba, J.; Chuinard, A. J.; Chwastowski, J. J.; Chytka, L.; Ciapetti, G.; Ciftci, A. K.; Cinca, D.; Cindro, V.; Cioara, I. A.; Ciocio, A.; Cirotto, F.; Citron, Z. H.; Citterio, M.; Ciubancan, M.; Clark, A.; Clark, B. L.; Clark, M. R.; Clark, P. J.; Clarke, R. N.; Clement, C.; Coadou, Y.; Cobal, M.; Coccaro, A.; Cochran, J.; Coffey, L.; Colasurdo, L.; Cole, B.; Colijn, A. P.; Collot, J.; Colombo, T.; Compostella, G.; Conde Muiño, P.; Coniavitis, E.; Connell, S. H.; Connelly, I. A.; Consorti, V.; Constantinescu, S.; Conti, G.; Conventi, F.; Cooke, M.; Cooper, B. D.; Cooper-Sarkar, A. M.; Cormier, K. J. R.; Cornelissen, T.; Corradi, M.; Corriveau, F.; Corso-Radu, A.; Cortes-Gonzalez, A.; Cortiana, G.; Costa, G.; Costa, M. J.; Costanzo, D.; Cottin, G.; Cowan, G.; Cox, B. E.; Cranmer, K.; Crawley, S. J.; Cree, G.; Crépé-Renaudin, S.; Crescioli, F.; Cribbs, W. A.; Crispin Ortuzar, M.; Cristinziani, M.; Croft, V.; Crosetti, G.; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T.; Cummings, J.; Curatolo, M.; Cúth, J.; Cuthbert, C.; Czirr, H.; Czodrowski, P.; D'amen, G.; D'Auria, S.; D'Onofrio, M.; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M. J.; Da Via, C.; Dabrowski, W.; Dado, T.; Dai, T.; Dale, O.; Dallaire, F.; Dallapiccola, C.; Dam, M.; Dandoy, J. R.; Dang, N. P.; Daniells, A. C.; Dann, N. S.; Danninger, M.; Dano Hoffmann, M.; Dao, V.; Darbo, G.; Darmora, S.; Dassoulas, J.; Dattagupta, A.; Davey, W.; David, C.; Davidek, T.; Davies, M.; Davison, P.; Dawe, E.; Dawson, I.; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K.; De, K.; de Asmundis, R.; De Benedetti, A.; De Castro, S.; De Cecco, S.; De Groot, N.; de Jong, P.; De la Torre, H.; De Lorenzi, F.; De Maria, A.; De Pedis, D.; De Salvo, A.; De Sanctis, U.; De Santo, A.; De Vivie De Regie, J. B.; Dearnaley, W. J.; Debbe, R.; Debenedetti, C.; Dedovich, D. V.; Dehghanian, N.; Deigaard, I.; Del Gaudio, M.; Del Peso, J.; Del Prete, T.; Delgove, D.; Deliot, F.; Delitzsch, C. M.; Deliyergiyev, M.; Dell'Acqua, A.; Dell'Asta, L.; Dell'Orso, M.; Della Pietra, M.; della Volpe, D.; Delmastro, M.; Delsart, P. A.; Deluca, C.; DeMarco, D. A.; Demers, S.; Demichev, M.; Demilly, A.; Denisov, S. P.; Denysiuk, D.; Derendarz, D.; Derkaoui, J. E.; Derue, F.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Deterre, C.; Dette, K.; Deviveiros, P. O.; Dewhurst, A.; Dhaliwal, S.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Di Ciaccio, L.; Di Clemente, W. K.; Di Donato, C.; Di Girolamo, A.; Di Girolamo, B.; Di Micco, B.; Di Nardo, R.; Di Simone, A.; Di Sipio, R.; Di Valentino, D.; Diaconu, C.; Diamond, M.; Dias, F. A.; Diaz, M. A.; Diehl, E. B.; Dietrich, J.; Diglio, S.; Dimitrievska, A.; Dingfelder, J.; Dita, P.; Dita, S.; Dittus, F.; Djama, F.; Djobava, T.; Djuvsland, J. I.; do Vale, M. A. B.; Dobos, D.; Dobre, M.; Doglioni, C.; Dohmae, T.; Dolejsi, J.; Dolezal, Z.; Dolgoshein, B. A.; Donadelli, M.; Donati, S.; Dondero, P.; Donini, J.; Dopke, J.; Doria, A.; Dova, M. T.; Doyle, A. T.; Drechsler, E.; Dris, M.; Du, Y.; Duarte-Campderros, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Ducu, O. A.; Duda, D.; Dudarev, A.; Duflot, L.; Duguid, L.; Dührssen, M.; Dumancic, M.; Dunford, M.; Duran Yildiz, H.; Düren, M.; Durglishvili, A.; Duschinger, D.; Dutta, B.; Dyndal, M.; Eckardt, C.; Ecker, K. M.; Edgar, R. C.; Edwards, N. C.; Eifert, T.; Eigen, G.; Einsweiler, K.; Ekelof, T.; El Kacimi, M.; Ellajosyula, V.; Ellert, M.; Elles, S.; Ellinghaus, F.; Elliot, A. A.; Ellis, N.; Elmsheuser, J.; Elsing, M.; Emeliyanov, D.; Enari, Y.; Endner, O. C.; Endo, M.; Ennis, J. S.; Erdmann, J.; Ereditato, A.; Ernis, G.; Ernst, J.; Ernst, M.; Errede, S.; Ertel, E.; Escalier, M.; Esch, H.; Escobar, C.; Esposito, B.; Etienvre, A. I.; Etzion, E.; Evans, H.; Ezhilov, A.; Fabbri, F.; Fabbri, L.; Facini, G.; Fakhrutdinov, R. M.; Falciano, S.; Falla, R. 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C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grenier, G.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Popov, A.; Sabes, D.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schomakers, C.; Schulte, J. F.; Schulz, J.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Zhukov, V.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Knutzen, S.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Mukherjee, S.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Beernaert, K.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bin Anuar, A. A.; Borras, K.; Campbell, A.; Connor, P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Grados Luyando, J. M.; Gunnellini, P.; Harb, A.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Keaveney, J.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Lelek, A.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Ntomari, E.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Stefaniuk, N.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Dreyer, T.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Niedziela, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schumann, S.; Schwandt, J.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Stober, F. M.; Stöver, M.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Schröder, M.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Williamson, S.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Filipovic, N.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Bahinipati, S.; Choudhury, S.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Nayak, A.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Keshri, S.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, R.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutt, S.; Dutta, S.; Ghosh, S.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Nandan, S.; Purohit, A.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Roy Chowdhury, S.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Thakur, S.; Behera, P. K.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Netrakanti, P. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Dugad, S.; Kole, G.; Mahakud, B.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Ganguly, S.; Guchait, M.; Jain, Sa.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Kapoor, A.; Kothekar, K.; Rane, A.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Chenarani, S.; Eskandari Tadavani, E.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Albergo, S.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Vetere, M. Lo; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Pigazzini, S.; Ragazzi, S.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; De Nardo, G.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, A.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Leonardi, R.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; SavoyNavarro, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; Cipriani, M.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bartosik, N.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Shchelina, K.; Sola, V.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Traczyk, P.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; La Licata, C.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Lee, S.; Lee, S. W.; Oh, Y. D.; Sekmen, S.; Son, D. C.; Yang, Y. C.; Kim, H.; Lee, A.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, T. J.; Cho, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Ha, S.; Hong, B.; Jo, Y.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Lim, J.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Almond, J.; Kim, J.; Oh, S. B.; Seo, S. h.; Yang, U. K.; Yoo, H. D.; Yu, G. B.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Md Ali, M. A. B.; Mohamad Idris, F.; Wan Abdullah, W. A. T.; Yusli, M. N.; Zolkapli, Z.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Mejia Guisao, J.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Uribe Estrada, C.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Qazi, S.; Waqas, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Walczak, M.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Hollar, J.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Karjavin, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Savina, M.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Voytishin, N.; Zarubin, A.; Chtchipounov, L.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Sulimov, V.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Toms, M.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Chistov, R.; Markin, O.; Rusinov, V.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Rusakov, S. V.; Terkulov, A.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Miagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Elumakhov, D.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Cirkovic, P.; Devetak, D.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Sanchez Cruz, S.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras De Saa, J. R.; Curras, E.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cepeda, M.; Cerminara, G.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Duggan, D.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Fartoukh, S.; Franzoni, G.; Fulcher, J.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Knünz, V.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Krammer, M.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Racz, A.; Reis, T.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Sauvan, J. B.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veckalns, V.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lecomte, P.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meinhard, M. T.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrin, G.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Schönenberger, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Rauco, G.; Robmann, P.; Salerno, D.; Yang, Y.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Paganis, E.; Psallidas, A.; Tsai, J. f.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Damarseckin, S.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Zorbilmez, C.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Sen, S.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Burns, D.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Futyan, D.; Haddad, Y.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Lane, R.; Laner, C.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Penning, B.; Pesaresi, M.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Gastler, D.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Benelli, G.; Berry, E.; Cutts, D.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Jesus, O.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Spencer, E.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Burns, D.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Flores, C.; Funk, G.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mclean, C.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Florent, A.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Paneva, M. I.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Gerosa, R.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Wood, J.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bhandari, R.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Heller, R.; Incandela, J.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Ovcharova, A.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bendavid, J.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Tao, Z.; Thom, J.; Tucker, J.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Cremonesi, M.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Ristori, L.; SextonKennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stoynev, S.; Strobbe, N.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Wang, M.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Shchutska, L.; Sperka, D.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bein, S.; Diamond, B.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Santra, A.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Zhang, J.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Blumenfeld, B.; Cocoros, A.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Al-bataineh, A.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Bowen, J.; Bruner, C.; Castle, J.; Kenny, R. P.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Majumder, D.; Mcbrayer, W.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Tapia Takaki, J. D.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bi, R.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Hsu, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krajczar, K.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Tatar, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bartek, R.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Stieger, B.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Parker, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Bhattacharya, S.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Low, J. F.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Schmitt, M. H.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Hurtado Anampa, K.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Rupprecht, N.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Alimena, J.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Francis, B.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Cooperstein, S.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Luo, J.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barker, A.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Folgueras, S.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, A. W.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Duh, Y. t.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Lo, K. H.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Gershtein, Y.; Gómez Espinosa, T. A.; Halkiadakis, E.; Heindl, M.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Kyriacou, S.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Saka, H.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Heideman, J.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; Thapa, K.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Celik, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Huang, T.; Juska, E.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Perniè, L.; Rathjens, D.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Wang, Z.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Barria, P.; Cox, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Verwilligen, P.; Woods, N.

    2016-08-01

    Combined ATLAS and CMS measurements of the Higgs boson production and decay rates, as well as constraints on its couplings to vector bosons and fermions, are presented. The combination is based on the analysis of five production processes, namely gluon fusion, vector boson fusion, and associated production with a W or a Z boson or a pair of top quarks, and of the six decay modes H → ZZ, W W , γγ , ττ, bb, and μμ. All results are reported assuming a value of 125 .09 GeV for the Higgs boson mass, the result of the combined measurement by the ATLAS and CMS experiments. The analysis uses the CERN LHC proton-proton collision data recorded by the ATLAS and CMS experiments in 2011 and 2012, corresponding to integrated luminosities per experiment of approximately 5 fb-1 at √{s}=7 TeV and 20 fb-1 at √{s}=8 TeV. The Higgs boson production and decay rates measured by the two experiments are combined within the context of three generic parameterisations: two based on cross sections and branching fractions, and one on ratios of coupling modifiers. Several interpretations of the measurements with more model-dependent parameterisations are also given. The combined signal yield relative to the Standard Model prediction is measured to be 1 .09 ± 0 .11. The combined measurements lead to observed significances for the vector boson fusion production process and for the H → ττ decay of 5 .4 and 5 .5 standard deviations, respectively. The data are consistent with the Standard Model predictions for all parameterisations considered. [Figure not available: see fulltext.][Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Dissociation of relativistic {sup 7}Be nuclei through the {sup 3}He+{sup 4}He channel on a proton target

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrov, Yu. A.; Peresadko, N. G. Gerasimov, S. G.; Dronov, V. A.; Pisetskaya, A. V.; Fetisov, V. N.; Kharlamov, S. P.; Shesterkina, L. N.

    2015-05-15

    The differential cross section for the interaction of {sup 7}Be nuclei with protons was measured in the momentum-transfer region extending up to a value of 0.5 GeV/c at which {sup 7}Be decay to {sup 3}He and {sup 4}He fragments was not accompanied by the emergence of other charged particles. In the momentum-transfer region extending up to about 100 MeV/c, the cross section is strongly suppressed in just the same way as in the case of the dissociation of {sup 7}Li nuclei on a proton target through the {sup 3}H+{sup 4}He channel. The total reaction cross section is 10 ± 4 mb. The mean transverse-momentum transfer in observed events is 233 ± 6 MeV/c, the dispersion of its distribution being about 63 MeV/c. The interactions in question were detected in photoemulsion irradiated with {sup 7}Be nuclei originating from a charge-exchange process involving {sup 7}Li nuclei accelerated to the momentum of 1.7 GeV/c per nucleon at the nuclotron of the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (Dubna)

  1. Decay Dynamics of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The fractional cell kill is a mathematical expression describing the rate at which a certain population of cells is reduced to a fraction of itself. We investigate the mathematical function that governs the rate at which a solid tumor is lysed by a cell population of cytotoxic lymphocytes. We do it in the context of enzyme kinetics, using geometrical and analytical arguments. We derive the equations governing the decay of a tumor in the limit in which it is plainly surrounded by immune cells. A cellular automaton is used to test such decay, confirming its validity. Finally, we introduce a modification in the fractional cell kill so that the expected dynamics is attained in the mentioned limit. We also discuss the potential of this new function for non-solid and solid tumors which are infiltrated with lymphocytes. PMID:27310010

  2. Semileptonic B Meson Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Luth, Vera G.; /SLAC

    2012-01-03

    Semileptonic decays of B mesons play a critical role in the determination of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa (CKM) matrix elements V{sub cb} and V{sub ub}. These two quantities are fundamental parameters of the Standard Model and have to be determined experimentally. Over the past decade, the vast samples of B mesons recorded at the B factories at LEP at Cornell University, KEK at Tsukuba, and SLAC at Stanford University have allowed for detailed studies of semileptonic B decays. These decays proceed via first-order weak interactions; thus, they are expected to be free of non-Standard Model contributions and therefore are well suited for the extraction of the quark-mixing parameters. Differential decay rates are combined with theoretical calculations of hadronization effects, leading to a substantially improved knowledge of |V{sub cb}| and |V{sub ub}|. The results are used to constrain the parameters of the CKM matrix and to test the Standard Model predictions for CP-violating effects.

  3. Analysis of beta-decay rates for Ag 108, Ba 133, Eu 152, Eu 154, Kr 85, Ra 226, and Sr 90, measured at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt from 1990 to 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Sturrock, P. A.; Fischbach, E.; Jenkins, J.

    2014-10-10

    We present the results of an analysis of measurements of the beta-decay rates of Ag 108, Ba 133, Eu 152, Eu 154, Kr 85, Ra 226, and Sr 90 acquired at the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt from 1990 through 1995. Although the decay rates vary over a range of 165 to 1 and the measured detector current varies over a range of 19 to 1, the detrended and normalized count rate measurements exhibit a sinusoidal annual variation with amplitude in the small range 0.068%-0.088% (mean 0.081%, standard deviation 0.0072%, a rejection of the zero-amplitude hypothesis) and phase-of-maximum in the small range 0.062-0.083 (January 23 to January 30). In comparing these results with those of other related experiments that yield different results, it may be significant that this experiment, at a standards laboratory, seems to be unique in using a 4π detector. These results are compatible with a solar influence, and do not appear to be compatible with an experimental or environmental influence. It is possible that Ba 133 measurements are also subject to a non-solar (possibly cosmic) influence.

  4. The Fourier analysis applied to the relationship between (7)Be activity in the Serbian atmosphere and meteorological parameters.

    PubMed

    Rajačić, M M; Todorović, D J; Krneta Nikolić, J D; Janković, M M; Djurdjević, V S

    2016-09-01

    Air sample monitoring in Serbia, Belgrade started in the 1960s, while (7)Be activity in air and total (dry and wet) deposition has been monitored for the last 22 years by the Environment and Radiation Protection Department of the Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Vinca. Using this data collection, the changes of the (7)Be activity in the air and the total (wet and dry) deposition samples, as well as their correlation with meteorological parameters (temperature, pressure, cloudiness, sunshine duration, precipitation and humidity) that affect (7)Be concentration in the atmosphere, were mathematically described using the Fourier analysis. Fourier analysis confirmed the expected; the frequency with the largest intensity in the harmonic spectra of the (7)Be activity corresponds to a period of 1 year, the same as the largest intensity frequency in Fourier series of meteorological parameters. To analyze the quality of the results produced by the Fourier analysis, we compared the measured values of the parameters with the values calculated according to the Fourier series. Absolute deviations between measured and predicted mean monthly values are in range from 0.02 mBq/m(3) to 0.7 mBq/m(3) for (7)Be activity in air, and 0.01 Bq/m(2) and 0.6 Bq/m(2) for (7)Be activity in deposition samples. Relatively good agreement of measured and predicted results offers the possibility of prediction of the (7)Be activity. PMID:27396670

  5. Higgs decays and brane gravi-vectors

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, T. E.; Liu Boyang; Love, S. T.; Xiong, C.; Veldhuis, T. ter

    2008-10-01

    Higgs boson decays in flexible brane world models with stable, massive gravi-vectors are considered. Such vectors couple bilinearly to the standard model fields through either the standard model energy-momentum tensor, the weak hypercharge field strength, or the Higgs scalar. The role of the coupling involving the extrinsic curvature is highlighted. It is found that within the presently allowed parameter space, the decay rate of the Higgs into two gravi-vectors (which would appear as an invisible Higgs decay) can be comparable to the rate for any of the standard model decay modes.

  6. Analysis of the influence of solar activity and atmospheric factors on 7Be air concentration by seasonal-trend decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bas, M. C.; Ortiz, J.; Ballesteros, L.; Martorell, S.

    2016-11-01

    7Be air concentrations were measured at the Universitat Politècnica de Valencia campus (in the east of Spain) during the period 2007-2014. The mean values of monthly 7Be concentrations ranged from 2.65 to 8.11 mBq/m3, showing significant intra and interannual variability. A seasonal-trend decomposition methodology was applied to identify the trend-cycle, seasonal and irregular components of the 7Be time series. The decomposition model makes it possible to estimate the influence of solar activity and atmospheric factors on the independent components, in order to find the different sources of 7Be variability. The results show that solar activity is a factor with a high inverse influence on the trend-cycle pattern of 7Be variability. Solar radiation, temperature and relative humidity are positive influential factors on the seasonal 7Be variation with a regular pattern over the years. Finally, the irregular component presents a significant negative correlation with precipitation and wind speed parameters, which have an irregular behavior over the years and seasons.

  7. Distribution of 7Be, 210Pb and 137Cs in watersheds of different scales in the Seine River basin: inventories and residence times.

    PubMed

    Le Cloarec, Marie-Françoise; Bonté, Philippe; Lefèvre, Irène; Mouchel, Jean-Marie; Colbert, Steven

    2007-04-01

    The activity of environmental radionuclides ((7)Be, (210)Pb and (137)Cs) was monitored in nested catchments, inside the Seine River basin. Suspended matter data was collected at 8 different watersheds, ranging from order 1 to order 7, and ranging in size over 4 orders of magnitude. Suspended matter was analyzed for (210)Pb, (137)Cs and (7)Be, and used to calculate the flux of sediments out of each watershed. Monthly atmospheric flux data of (210)Pb and (7)Be was analyzed to assess the input flux of each into the watersheds, taking into account the rainfall during sampling periods. Taking advantage of the different half-lives of (7)Be (53 days) and (210)Pb (22 years), a two-box model was built for each of the catchments following a methodology previously developed by Dominik et al. [Dominik J, Burrus D, Vernet JP. Transport of the environmental radionuclides in alpine watershed. Earth Planet Sci Letters 1987; 84: 165-180.]. The model divides the watershed into a soil box and a rapid reservoir and provides insight into the removal rate of suspended matter from the surrounding watershed. The model enables the assessment of the surface area and the residence time of slow and rapid reservoirs to describe the fate of contaminants of atmospheric origin inside the river basin. The model was improved by considering the dissolved fraction in the total flux and adding the (137)Cs inventory as an additional constraint. The effects of these changes are discussed. Residence times in the soil box, characterized by low transport velocity, range between 4800 years at Melarchez (order 1) to about 30000 years at Andresy and Poses (order 7). They remain constant in each watershed over a large range of variation of atmospheric fluxes of (7)Be and (210)Pb during the whole study, but are sensitive to SM variations. The residence time in the rapid box, which includes the surface of the river and immediate surroundings, is less than one year, while its surface area is in the range 0.6% to

  8. Temporal changes of 7Be, 137Cs and 210Pb activity concentrations in surface air at Monaco and their correlation with meteorological parameters.

    PubMed

    Pham, Mai K; Betti, Maria; Nies, Hartmut; Povinec, Pavel P

    2011-11-01

    Results of analysis of (7)Be, (137)Cs and (210)Pb on aerosol filters carried out from 1998 to 2010 in Monaco show that a weak correlation between activity concentrations of these radionuclides in the atmosphere and meteorological parameters has been found for (7)Be and temperature (r = 0.50), (210)Pb and temperature and humidity (r = 0.43 and 0.41, respectively), and (137)Cs and precipitation (r = 0.51). The minimum and maximum (7)Be activity concentrations were observed during 2000 and 2009, corresponding with the maximum and minimum solar activity, respectively. The maximum (137)Cs activity concentration found in May-June 1998 was due to the accident at Algeciras in Spain. The deposition velocities of (7)Be, (137)Cs and (210)Pb depended on the precipitation rate, and attained maximum values during dry seasons. The investigated radionuclides may be used as atmospheric tracers, especially in long-term periods.

  9. Absolute rate constant determinations for the deactivation of O/1D/ by time resolved decay of O/1D/ yields O/3P/ emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, J. A.; Sadowski, C. M.; Schiff, H. I.; Howard, C. J.; Schmeltekopf, A. L.; Jennings, D. A.; Streit, G. E.

    1976-01-01

    Absolute rate constants for the deactivation of O(1D) atoms by some atmospheric gases have been determined by observing the time-resolved emission of O(1D) at 630 nm. O(1D) atoms were produced by the dissociation of ozone via repetitive laser pulses at 266 nm. Absolute rate constants for the relaxation of O(1D) at 298 K are reported for N2, O2, CO2, O3, H2, D2, CH4, HCl, NH3, H2O, N2O, and Ne. The results obtained are compared with previous relative and absolute measurements reported in the literature.

  10. Reionization and dark matter decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldengott, Isabel M.; Boriero, Daniel; Schwarz, Dominik J.

    2016-08-01

    Cosmic reionization and dark matter decay can impact observations of the cosmic microwave sky in a similar way. A simultaneous study of both effects is required to constrain unstable dark matter from cosmic microwave background observations. We compare two reionization models with and without dark matter decay. We find that a reionization model that fits also data from quasars and star forming galaxies results in tighter constraints on the reionization optical depth τreio, but weaker constraints on the spectral index ns than the conventional parametrization. We use the Planck 2015 data to constrain the effective decay rate of dark matter to Γeff < 2.9 × 10-25/s at 95% C.L. This limit is robust and model independent. It holds for any type of decaying dark matter and it depends only weakly on the chosen parametrization of astrophysical reionization. For light dark matter particles that decay exclusively into electromagnetic components this implies a limit of Γ < 5.3 × 10-26/s at 95% C.L. Specifying the decay channels, we apply our result to the case of keV-mass sterile neutrinos as dark matter candidates and obtain constraints on their mixing angle and mass, which are comparable to the ones from the diffuse X-ray background.

  11. Reionization and dark matter decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oldengott, Isabel M.; Boriero, Daniel; Schwarz, Dominik J.

    2016-08-01

    Cosmic reionization and dark matter decay can impact observations of the cosmic microwave sky in a similar way. A simultaneous study of both effects is required to constrain unstable dark matter from cosmic microwave background observations. We compare two reionization models with and without dark matter decay. We find that a reionization model that fits also data from quasars and star forming galaxies results in tighter constraints on the reionization optical depth τreio, but weaker constraints on the spectral index ns than the conventional parametrization. We use the Planck 2015 data to constrain the effective decay rate of dark matter to Γeff < 2.9 × 10‑25/s at 95% C.L. This limit is robust and model independent. It holds for any type of decaying dark matter and it depends only weakly on the chosen parametrization of astrophysical reionization. For light dark matter particles that decay exclusively into electromagnetic components this implies a limit of Γ < 5.3 × 10‑26/s at 95% C.L. Specifying the decay channels, we apply our result to the case of keV-mass sterile neutrinos as dark matter candidates and obtain constraints on their mixing angle and mass, which are comparable to the ones from the diffuse X-ray background.

  12. Temperature and viscosity dependence of the nonradiative decay rates of auramine-O and thioflavin-T in glass-forming solvents.

    PubMed

    Erez, Yuval; Amdursky, Nadav; Gepshtein, Rinat; Huppert, Dan

    2012-12-13

    Both auramine-O (AuO) and thioflavin-T (ThT) behave as fluorescent molecular rotors, meaning that their (non)radiative properties are markedly affected by the intramolecular rotation of the molecule. In this article, steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence of AuO and ThT were measured in three alcohols, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol, over a wide range of temperatures (86-260 K). These solvents are glass-forming liquids, and their viscosity and dielectric relaxation time increase by more than 10 orders of magnitude as the temperature is lowered from room temperature to ~100 K. Accordingly, the fluorescence nonradiative rates constants of AuO and ThT in these solvents decrease by about 3 orders of magnitude at the latter temperature range. We found very good correspondence between the temperature dependence of the nonradiative rate constant, k(nr), of both molecules and the dielectric relaxation rate of the solvents. The k(nr) values of AuO are twice those of ThT along the whole temperature range. The temperature dependence of k(nr) is consistent with the nonradiative model suggested by Glasbeek and co-workers.

  13. Modeling of Kashmir Aftershock Decay Based on Static Coulomb Stress Changes and Laboratory-Derived Rate-and-State Dependent Friction Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javed, F.; Hainzl, S.; Aoudia, A.; Qaisar, M.

    2016-05-01

    We model the spatial and temporal evolution of October 8, 2005 Kashmir earthquake's aftershock activity using the rate-and-state dependent friction model incorporating uncertainties in computed coseismic stress perturbations. We estimated the best possible value for frictional resistance " Aσ n", background seismicity rate " r" and coefficient of stress variation "CV" using maximum log-likelihood method. For the whole Kashmir earthquake sequence, we measure a frictional resistance Aσ n ~ 0.0185 MPa, r ~ 20 M3.7+ events/year and CV = 0.94 ± 0.01. The spatial and temporal forecasted seismicity rate of modeled aftershocks fits well with the spatial and temporal distribution of observed aftershocks that occurred in the regions with positive static stress changes as well as in the apparent stress shadow region. To quantify the effect of secondary aftershock triggering, we have re-run the estimations for 100 stochastically declustered catalogs showing that the effect of aftershock-induced secondary stress changes is obviously minor compared to the overall uncertainties, and that the stress variability related to uncertain slip model inversions and receiver mechanisms remains the major factor to provide a reasonable data fit.

  14. Algebraic Rate of Decay for the Excess Free Energy and Stability of Fronts for a Nonlocal Phase Kinetics Equation with a Conservation Law. I

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlen, E. A.; Carvalho, M. C.; Orlandi, E.

    1999-06-01

    This is the first of two papers devoted to the study of a nonlocal evolution equation that describes the evolution of the local magnetization in a continuum limit of an Ising spin system with Kawasaki dynamics and Kac potentials. We consider subcritical temperatures, for which there are two local equilibria, and begin the proof of a local nonlinear stability result for the minimum free energy profiles for the magnetization at the interface between regions of these two different local equilibria; i.e., the fronts. We shall show in the second paper that an initial perturbation v 0 of a front that is sufficiently small in L 2 norm, and sufficiently localized that ∫ x 2 v 0( x)2 dx<∞, yields a solution that relaxes to another front, selected by a conservation law, in the L 1 norm at an algebraic rate that we explicitly estimate. There we also obtain rates for the relaxation in the L 2 norm and the rate of decrease of the excess free energy. Here we prove a number of estimates essential for this result. Moreover, the estimates proved here suffice to establish the main result in an important special case.

  15. Boron depletion: indirect measurement of the 10B(p,α)7Be S(E)-factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; Carlin, N.; Cherubini, S.; Crucillà, V.; de Moura, M. M.; Del Santo, M. G.; Munhoz, M. G.; Gulino, M.; Liguori Neto, R.; La Cognata, M.; Mudò, F.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Sergi, M. L.; Souza, F. A.; Spitaleri, C.; Suaide, A. A. P.; Szanto, E.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.

    2007-05-01

    The 10B(p,α)7Be reaction is the main responsible for 10B destruction in stellar interior. In such environments this p-capture process occurs at a Gamow energy of ˜10 keV, and takes places mainly through a resonant state (E=8.701 MeV) of the compound 11C nucleus. Thus, a resonance right in the region of the Gamow peak is expected to significantly influence the behaviour of the astrophysical S(E)-factor. The 10B(p,α)7Be reaction has been investigated by means of the Trojan Horse Method (THM) applied to the 2H(10B,α7Be)n three-body process. The experiment was performed at E=27 MeV at the Instituto de Fisica Nuclear de São Paulo. Preliminary results concerning the extraction of the bare-nucleus S(E)-factor will be presented.

  16. Combining multiple fallout radionuclides (137Cs, 7Be, 210Pbxs) improves our understanding of sediment source dynamics in tropical rivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evrard, O.; Laceby, J. P.; Huon, S.; Lefèvre, I.; Sengtaheuanghoung, O.; Ribolzi, O.

    2015-12-01

    Soil erosion has accelerated as a result of land use change, increasing the sediment supply to rivers worldwide. A thorough knowledge of sediment dynamics is required to design efficient management measures to control erosion and reduce sediment delivery from catchments. Fallout radionuclides are often used separately to provide spatial (137Cs) or temporal (7Be, 210Pbxs) information on sediment sources. In this study, we examine their combined application to simultaneously model spatial and temporal sediment source dynamics. To this end, potential sediment sources (n=84) and suspended sediment (n=16) were collected at two stations in a 12 km² catchment in Northern Laos during the first flood of the 2014 wet season. Part of the source material was directly sampled in ephemeral flow occurring on hillslopes to avoid the grain size selectivity problems that may occur during erosion and river transport processes. A distribution modelling approach quantified the relative contributions of recently eroded surface (labelled with both 7Be and 137Cs), recently eroded subsurface (depleted in both 7Be and 137Cs), re-suspended surface (depleted in 7Be and labelled with 137Cs) and re-suspended subsurface sources (enriched in 7Be and depleted in 137Cs). At an upstream sampling location, surface sources contributed the majority of sediment (55%) whereas subsurface sources dominated the supply of sediment downstream (74%). Importantly, re-suspended subsurface sources, labelled with 7Be, were a significant sediment source at the catchment outlet (60%). This approach demonstrates the utility of combining multiple radionuclides when investigating spatial and temporal sediment source dynamics in tropical catchments. In the future, sampling of source material in ephemeral flows occurring on hillslopes should be encouraged. Furthermore, the proposed approach should be tested in larger catchments to guide the implementation of efficient erosion control measures.

  17. Quaternary downcutting rate of the new river, Virginia, measured from differential decay of cosmogenic {sup 26}Al and {sup 10}Be in cave-deposited alluvium

    SciTech Connect

    Granger, D.E.; Kirchner, J.W.; Finkel, R.C.

    1997-02-01

    The concentrations of the cosmogenic radionuclides {sup 26}Al and {sup 10}Be in quartz can be used to date sediment burial. Here we use {sup 26} Al and {sup 10}Be in cave-deposited river sediment to infer the time of sediment emplacement. Sediment burial dates from a vertical sequence of caves along the New River constrain its Quaternary downcutting rate to 27.3{+-}4.5 m/m.y. and may provide evidence of regional tectonic tilt. 32 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The Transport and Fate of Particulate Material in a Shallow, Turbid Estuary: Seasonal and Decadal Characteristics from 7-Be and 210-Pb Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, J. G.; McKee, Brent A.; Meriwether, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Seasonal and long-term sediment transport characteristics were examined using surficial sediment 7-Be inventories and the down core distribution of excess 210-Pb. Data were collected in the Barataria Basin, LA over the fifteen month period from September 1995 to January 1997. Seasonal sediment transport rates based on 7-Be inventories ranged from -1.6E3 to 1.42E4 g/m2/yr, whereas decadal sediment burial rates based on excess 210-Pb ranged from 3.83E2 to 2.00E3 g/m2/yr, respectively. Seasonal transport characteristics vary with location in the basin and appear to be largely controlled by seasonal weather patterns and the associated winds. It appears that, at less sheltered locations, long term rates of sediment burial are controlled by frontal passages and the associated strong northerly and southerly component winds; whereas at fetch limited locations burial rates are likely controlled by stronger weather events such as tropical storms and hurricanes.

  19. Seasonal and spatial variation of atmospheric 210Pb and 7Be deposition: features of the Japan Sea side of Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Sasaki, Keiichi; Hirose, Katsumi; Igarashi, Yasuhito; Kim, Chang Kyu

    2006-01-01

    Monthly depositional fluxes of (210)Pb and (7)Be at Tatsunokuchi, Japan which faces the Japan Sea were studied over a 12-year period from 1991 to 2002. The data were compared with the spatial variability of these fluxes at Taejon in Korea and at 11 other sites in Japan from Ishigaki of the southern islands of Okinawa to Wakkanai of the northern end of Hokkaido over a 2-year period from 2000 to 2001. The monthly depositions of both (210)Pb and (7)Be at Tatsunokuchi revealed very similar seasonal variations with a single peak; both depositions were high in winter and low in summer. This phenomenon was found to be not transient but stationary. The deposition of these nuclides was much greater on the Japan Sea side of Japan than on the Pacific Ocean side. The cause for high deposition of (210)Pb and (7)Be in winter might be explained by a combination of a series of the following processes: blowing out of air masses with a high (210)Pb concentration near the surface layer over the continent by strong winter monsoons, additional flow of cold air masses with high (7)Be concentration at high latitude, well-mixing with generation of ascending current and convection clouds over the Japan Sea, and heavy snowfalls accompanying them.

  20. 7Be(p,(gamma))8B S-factor from Ab Initio No-Core Shell Model Wave Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P; Bertulani, C A; Caurier, E

    2005-12-02

    Nuclear structure of {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}B and {sup 7,8}Li is studied within the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM). Starting from high-precision nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions, wave functions of {sup 7}Be and {sup 8}B bound states are obtained in basis spaces up to 10 h bar{Omega} and used to calculate channel cluster form factors (overlap integrals) of the {sup 8}B ground state with {sup 7}Be+p. Due to the use of the harmonic oscillator (HO) basis, the overlap integrals have incorrect asymptotic properties. We fix this problem in two alternative ways. First, by a Woods-Saxon (WS) potential solution fit to the interior of the NCSM overlap integrals. Second, by a direct matching with the Whittaker function. The corrected overlap integrals are then used for the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B S-factor calculation. We study the convergence of the S-factor with respect to the NCSM HO frequency and the model space size. Our S-factor results are in agreement with recent direct measurement data. We also test the spectroscopic factors and the corrected overlap integrals from the NCSM in describing the momentum distributions in knockout reactions with {sup 8}B projectiles. A good agreement with the available experimental data is also found, attesting the overall consistency of the calculations.

  1. Laser-Assisted Muon Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Aihua; Li Shumin; Berakdar, Jamal

    2007-06-22

    We show theoretically that the muon lifetime can be changed dramatically by embedding the decaying muon in a strong linearly polarized laser field. Evaluating the S-matrix elements taking all electronic multiphoton processes into account we find that a CO{sub 2} laser with an electric field amplitude of 10{sup 6} V cm{sup -1} results in an order of magnitude shorter lifetime of the muon. We also analyze the dependencies of the decay rate on the laser frequency and intensity.

  2. Determination of the 3He+α→7Be asymptotic normalization coefficients, the nuclear vertex constants, and their application for the extrapolation of the 3He(α,γ)7Be astrophysical S factors to the solar energy region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tursunmahatov, Q. I.; Yarmukhamedov, R.

    2012-04-01

    A new analysis of the modern astrophysical S factors for the direct-capture 3He(α,γ)7Be reaction, precisely measured in recent works [B.S. Nara Singh , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.93.262503 93, 262503 (2004); D. Bemmerer , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.97.122502 97, 122502 (2006);F. Confortola , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.75.065803 75, 065803 (2007), Gy. Gyürky , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.75.035805 75, 035805 (2007), T. A. D. Brown , Phys. Rev. CPRVCAN0556-281310.1103/PhysRevC.76.055801 76, 055801 (2007), and A. Di Leva, , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.102.232502 102, 232502 (2009)], has been carried out within the modified two-body potential approach. New estimates are obtained for the “indirectly determined” values of the asymptotic normalization constants and the respective nuclear vertex constants for 3He+α→7Be(g.s.) and 3He+α→7Be(0.429 MeV) as well as the astrophysical S factors S34(E) at E≤90 keV, including E=0. The values of asymptotic normalization constants have been used to obtain the values of the ratio of the α-particle spectroscopic factors for the mirror (7Li7Be) pair.

  3. Determination of waste decay rate for a large Finnish landfill by calibrating methane generation models on the basis of methane recovery and emissions.

    PubMed

    Sormunen, Kai; Laurila, Tuomas; Rintala, Jukka

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the methane (CH(4)) generation factor (k) and CH(4) generation potential (L) for bulk waste in order to calibrate a CH(4) generation model (USEPA Landgem 3.02) and provide information on the remaining CH(4) generation potential in a large (54 ha) municipal solid waste landfill located in a boreal climate. The CH(4) generation model was calibrated by actual CH(4) recovery and emission measurement data. Moreover, waste characterisation information from a previous study was considered.The appropriate k for bulk waste was 0.18 in the studied landfill, which indicated a higher rate of degradation than proposed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change as a default k value of 0.09 for wet conditions in boreal and temperate climes, whereas the calibrated L of 100 m(3)/t was lower than estimated on the basis of a previous waste characterisation study. The results demonstrate the importance of model calibration, as inappropriate model parameters may result in a large discrepancy (approximately 100 % or 119 million m(3) having an energy equivalent of nearly 1.2 TWh) in cumulative CH(4) generation estimates within a 18-year timescale (2012–30) at the studied landfill.

  4. Decay of capillary wave turbulence.

    PubMed

    Deike, Luc; Berhanu, Michael; Falcon, Eric

    2012-06-01

    We report on the observation of freely decaying capillary wave turbulence on the surface of a fluid. The capillary wave turbulence spectrum decay is found to be self-similar in time with the same power law exponent as the one found in the stationary regime, in agreement with weak turbulence predictions. The amplitude of all Fourier modes are found to decrease exponentially with time at the same damping rate. The longest wavelengths involved in the system are shown to be damped by a viscous surface boundary layer. These long waves play the role of an energy source during the decay that sustains nonlinear interactions to keep capillary waves in a wave turbulent state.

  5. Study of the {sup 10}B(p,α){sup 7}Be reaction through the indirect Trojan Horse method

    SciTech Connect

    Puglia, S. M. R.; Spitaleri, C.; Lamia, L.; Romano, S.; La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R. G.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Sergi, M. L.; Burjan, V.; Kroha, V.; Hons, Z.; Mrazek, J.; Carlin, N.; Del Santo, M. G.; Munhoz, M. G.; Souza, F.; Szanto de Toledo, A.; Chengbo, L.; Qungang, W.; Shu-Hua, Z.; and others

    2015-02-24

    Boron abundances in stellar atmospheres, as well as berillium and lithium ones, can give useful hints for non-standard transport processes discrimination in stars. They can also be relevant for understanding several astrophysical processes (e.g. primordial nucleosynthesis and spallation reactions in ISM). A comprehensive study of Li Be B abundances can therefore confirm or not the presence of non-standard mixing processes in stellar envelopes. For this reason nuclear processes producing or depleting boron isotope abundance need to be studied at astrophysical energies. The {sup 10}B(p,α){sup 7}Be reaction has been studied by means of the Trojan Horse Method. The Trojan Horse Method was thus applied to the {sup 10}B(d,α{sup 7}Be)n reaction, studied at 24 MeV. The obtained results will be discussed.

  6. Reaction dynamics induced by the radioactive ion beam {sup 7}Be on medium-mass and heavy targets

    SciTech Connect

    Mazzocco, M. Stefanini, C.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Lay, J. A.; Molini, P.; Soramel, F.; Boiano, A.; Parascandolo, C.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Di Meo, P.; Boiano, C.; La Commara, M.; Sandoli, M.; Silvestri, R.; Manea, C.; Nicoletto, M.; Acosta, L.; Fernandez-Garcia, J. P.; Glodariu, T.; and others

    2015-10-15

    We studied the reaction dynamics induced at Coulomb barrier energies by the weakly-bound Radioactive Ion Beam {sup 7}Be (S{sub α} = 1.586 MeV) on medium-mass ({sup 58}Ni) and heavy ({sup 208}Pb) targets. The experiments were performed at INFN-LNL (Italy), where a 2-3×10{sup 5} pps {sup 7}Be secondary beam was produced with the RIB in-flight facility EXOTIC. Charged reaction products were detected by means of high-granularity silicon detectors in rather wide angular ranges. The contribution presents an up-to-date status of the data analysis and theoretical interpretation for both systems.

  7. Evidence for the decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Cartelle, P. Alvarez; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Gutierrez, O. Aquines; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Gomez, M. Calvo; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Perez, D. Campora; Caponio, F.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Akiba, K. Carvalho; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Garcia, L. Castillo; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Vidal, X. Cid; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Counts, I.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Torres, M. Cruz; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Suárez, A. Dosil; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Esen, S.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Ferguson, D.; Albor, V. Fernandez; Rodrigues, F. Ferreira; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Torreira, A. Gallas; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Tico, J. Garra; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Giani', S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Gotti, C.; Gándara, M. Grabalosa; Diaz, R. Graciani; Cardoso, L. A. Granado; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Hafkenscheid, T. W.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Morata, J. A. Hernando; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jawahery, A.; Jezabek, M.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez-March, N.; Lowdon, P.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luo, H.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manzali, M.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Benito, C. Marin; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Sánchez, A. Martín; Martinelli, M.; Santos, D. Martinez; Vidal, F. Martinez; Tostes, D. Martins; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; McSkelly, B.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Rodriguez, J. Molina; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, G.; Orlandea, M.; Goicochea, J. M. Otalora; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Alvarez, A. Pazos; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Altarelli, M. Pepe; Perazzini, S.; Trigo, E. Perez; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pescatore, L.; Pesen, E.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Olloqui, E. Picatoste; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Casasus, M. Plo; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Navarro, A. Puig; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Molina, V. Rives; Romero, D. A. Roa; Robbe, P.; Roberts, D. A.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Perez, P. Rodriguez; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Vidal, A. Romero; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Valls, P. Ruiz; Sabatino, G.; Silva, J. J. Saborido; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Guimaraes, V. Salustino; Sedes, B. Sanmartin; Santacesaria, R.; Rios, C. Santamarina; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Senderowska, K.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Sidorov, F.; Coutinho, R. Silva; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; De Paula, B. Souza; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spinella, F.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Subbiah, V. K.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szilard, D.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Garcia, M. Ubeda; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Gomez, R. Vazquez; Regueiro, P. Vazquez; Sierra, C. Vázquez; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2014-05-01

    Evidence is presented for the decay using proton-proton collision data, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 3 fb-1, collected with the LHCb detector. A signal yield of 32 ± 8 decays is found with a significance of 4.5 standard deviations. The ratio of the branching fraction of the decay to that of the decay is measured to be where the first uncertainty is statistical and the second is systematic. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  8. Cross section measurements of the 3He(α, γ)7Be reaction using DRAGON at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nara Singh, B. S.; Sjue, S. K. L.; Davids, B.; Hass, M.; Adsley, P.; Buchmann, L.; Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Fallis, J.; Fox, S. P.; Fulton, B.; Galinski, N.; Hager, U.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Laird, A. M.; Martin, L.; Ottewell, D.; Reeve, S.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Shotter, A.; Tengblad, O.

    2012-02-01

    We present our initial efforts with the DRAGON separator at TRIUMF facility towards obtaining the energy dependence of the astrophysical S-factor for 3He(α, γ)7Be reaction in the energy range of Ecm = 2 to 3 MeV that was recommended by the recent evaluations. A comparison between the existing data and our new complementary Madrid data, together with the recent theoretical calculations, is also given in the context of our ongoing work.

  9. Simulation of d(7Be,t)6Be with Fresco, and investigation of resonant states of 6Be

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelham, Timothy

    2008-10-01

    An ongoing study is presented into the resonant states of 6Be via simulation of d(7Be,t)6Be with Fresco to investigate the results of ``Searching for resonances in the unbound 6Be nucleus'' a paper by K.Y. Chae [1]. In this paper the d(7Be,t)6Be reaction was studied to search for resonances in the 6Be nucleus that may be used to increase our knowledge of the 3He(3He,2p)4He reaction. A 100-MeV 7Be beam from the Holifield Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (HRIBF) was used to bombard CD2 targets, and tritons were detected by the Silicon Detector Array (SIDAR). It was concluded that a combination of reaction mechanisms are necessary to account for the observed triton energy spectrum. This will be further investigated by simulating the various reaction mechanisms with Fresco to try to reproduce and explain these results. Preliminary Results will be presented.

  10. Decay of Turbulence at High Reynolds Numbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinhuber, Michael; Bodenschatz, Eberhard; Bewley, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    Turbulent motions in a fluid decay at a certain rate once stirring has stopped. The role of the most basic parameter in fluid mechanics, the Reynolds number, in setting the decay rate is not generally known. This Letter concerns the high-Reynolds-number limit of the process. In a classical grid-turbulence wind-tunnel experiment that both reaches higher Reynolds numbers than ever before and covers a wide range of them (1 04decay rate with the unprecedented precision of about 2%. Here U is the mean speed of the flow, M is the forcing scale, and ν is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid. We observe that the decay rate is Reynolds-number independent, which contradicts some models and supports others.

  11. Vacuum decay in a soluble model

    SciTech Connect

    Ferraz de Camargo F, A.; Shellard, R.C.; Marques, G.C.

    1984-03-15

    We study a field-theoretical model where the decay rate of the false vacuum can be computed up to the first quantum corrections in both the high-temperature and zero-temperature limits. We find that the dependence of the decay rate on the height and width of the potential barrier does not follow the same simple area rule as in the quantum-mechanical case. Furthermore, its behavior is strongly model dependent.

  12. Distinguishing activity decay and cell death from bacterial decay for two types of methanogens.

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiaodi; Cai, Zhengqing; Fu, Kunming; Zhao, Dongye

    2012-03-15

    As bacterial decay consists of cell death and activity decay, and the corresponding information about AOB/NOB, OHO, PAOs and GAOs has been experimentally acquired, another functional type of bacteria in biological wastewater treatment, methanogens, remains to be investigated, to gather the same information, which is extremely important for such bacteria with low growth rates. With successfully selection and enrichment of both aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and by means of measuring specific methane activity (SMA) and hydrogen consumption rate (HCR), a series of decay experiments and molecular techniques such as FISH verification and LIVE/DEAD staining revealed, identified and calculated the decay and death rates of both aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens respectively. The results indicated that the decay rates of aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens were 0.070 and 0.034 d(-1) respectively, and the death rates were thus calculated at 0.022 and 0.016 d(-1) respectively. For this reason, cell deaths were only responsible for 31% and 47% of the total bacterial decay of aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, and activity decays actually contributed significantly to the total bacterial decay, respectively at 69% and 53%.

  13. [Experimental determination of bacterial decay characteristics in biological wastewater treatment system].

    PubMed

    Hao, Xiao-Di; Zhu, Jing-Yi; Cao, Xiu-Qin; Cao, Ya-Li

    2008-11-01

    The characteristics of cell decay in biological wastewater treatment systems were investigated under aerobic condition, by measuring the decay rate and by determining the death rate with LIVE/DEAD dyeing experiments. It was found that cell decay in biological wastewater treatment systems can be actually described as two parts: decay caused by cell death and decay derived from activity decrease. The experimental results revealed that 60% of cell decay in a nitrifying system was caused by activity decrease and 40% was caused by cell death. In a heterotrophic system, however, activity decrease was responsible for 80% of cell decay, and the other cell decay for 20% was caused by cell death.

  14. The impact of increased sedimentation rates associated with the decay of the Fennoscandian ice-sheet on gas hydrate stability and focused fluid flow at the Nyegga pockmark field, offshore mid-Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karstens, Jens; Haflidason, Haflidi; Becker, Lukas; Petter Sejrup, Hans; Berndt, Christian; Planke, Sverre; Dahlgreen, Torbjørn

    2016-04-01

    Climatic changes since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) have affected the stability of gas hydrate systems on glaciated margins by sea-level changes, bottom water temperature changes, isostatic uplift or subsidence and variability in sedimentation rates. While subsidence and sea-level rise stabilize gas hydrate deposits, bottom water temperature warming, uplift and enhanced sedimentation have the opposite effect. The response of gas hydrate systems to post-glaciation warming is therefore a complex phenomenon and highly depends on the timing and magnitude of each of these processes. While the impact of bottom water warming on the dissociation of gas hydrates have been addressed in numerous studies, the potential of methane release due to basal gas hydrate dissociation during periods of warming has received less attention. Here, we present results from numerical simulations which show that rapid sedimentation associated with the decay of the Fennoscandian ice-sheet was capable of causing significant basal gas hydrate dissociation. The modeling is constrained by a high-resolution three-dimensional sedimentation rate reconstruction of the Nyegga pockmark field, offshore mid-Norway, obtained by integrating chrono-stratigraphic information derived from sediments cores and a seismo-stratigraphic framework. The model run covers the period between 28,000 and 15,000 calendar years before present and predict that the maximum sedimentation rate-related gas hydrate dissociation coincides temporally and spatially with enhanced focused fluid flow activity in the study area. Basal gas hydrate dissociation due to rapid sedimentation may have occurred as well in other glaciated continental margins after the LGM and may have caused the release of significant amounts of methane to the hydrosphere and atmosphere. The major post glaciation deposition centers are the location of some of the largest known submarine slide complexes. The release of free gas due to basal gas hydrate

  15. Destruction of {sup 7}Be in big bang nucleosynthesis via long-lived sub-strongly interacting massive particles as a solution to the Li problem

    SciTech Connect

    Kawasaki, Masahiro; Kusakabe, Motohiko

    2011-03-01

    We identify reactions which destroy {sup 7}Be and {sup 7}Li during big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) in the scenario of BBN catalyzed by a long-lived sub-strongly-interacting massive particle (sub-SIMP or X particle). The destruction associated with nonradiative X captures of the nuclei can be realized only if the interaction strength between an X particle and a nucleon is properly weaker than that between two nucleons to a degree depending on the mass of X. Binding energies of nuclei to an X particle are estimated taking the mass and the interaction strength to nuclei of the X as input parameters. Nuclear reaction rates associated with the X are estimated naively and adopted in calculating evolutions of nuclear abundances. We suggest that the {sup 7}Li problem, which might be associated with as-yet-unrecognized particle processes operating during BBN, can be solved if the X particle interacts with nuclei strongly enough to drive {sup 7}Be destruction but not strongly enough to form a bound state with {sup 4}He of relative angular momentum L=1. Justifications of this scenario by rigorous calculations of reaction rates using quantum mechanical many-body models are highly desirable since this result involves many significant uncertainties.

  16. TPD-based evaluation of near threshold mono-energetic proton energies for the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be production of neutrons for BNCT.

    PubMed

    Bengua, Gerard; Kobayashi, Tooru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu; Unesaki, Hironobu

    2006-08-21

    An evaluation of mono-energetic proton energies ranging from 1.885 MeV to 1.920 MeV was carried out to determine the viability of these near threshold energies in producing neutrons for BNCT via the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction. Neutron fields generated at these proton energies were assessed using the treatable protocol depth (TPD) and the maximum TPD (TPD(max)) as evaluation indices. The heavy charged particle (HCP) dose rate to tumour was likewise applied as a figure of merit in order to account for irradiation time and required proton current. Incident proton energies closer to the reaction threshold generated deeper TPDs compared to higher energy protons when no boron dose enhancers (BDE) were placed in the irradiation field. Introducing a BDE resulted in improved TPDs for high proton energies but their achievable TPD(max) were comparatively lower than that obtained for lower proton energies. In terms of the HCP dose rate to tumour, higher proton energies generated neutron fields that yielded higher dose rates both at TPD(max) and at fixed depths of comparison. This infers that higher currents are required to deliver the prescribed treatment dose to tumours for proton beams with energies closer to the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction threshold and more achievable proton currents of around 10 mA or less for proton energies from 1.900 MeV and above. The dependence on incident proton energy of the TPD, TPD(max) and the HCP dose rate to tumour with respect to the (10)B concentration in tumour and healthy tissues were also clarified in this study. Increasing the (10)B concentration in tumour while maintaining a constant T/N ratio resulted in deeper TPD(max) where a greater change in TPD(max) was obtained for proton energies closer to the (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be reaction threshold. The HCP dose rates to tumour for all proton energies also went up, with the higher proton energies benefiting more from the increased (10)B concentration.

  17. 7Be Measured at Ground Air Level and Rainfall in the City of SÃO Paulo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damatto, S. R.; Frujuele, J. V.; Máduar, M. F.; Pecequilo, B. S.

    2012-12-01

    The cosmogenic radionuclide 7Be, produced in the upper atmosphere by cosmic ray spallation of oxygen and nitrogen, is one of the cosmogenic radionuclides that can be used as tracers for heavy metals and pollutants in the environment, tracer of soil erosion, transport processes in watershed and sedimentation in lakes, among other examples. Their subsequent deposition to the land surface occurs as both wet and dry fallout, although it has been demonstrated that 7Be fallout is primarily associated with precipitation. This short-lived radionuclide (T1/2 = 53.3 d) was measured, from March 2011 to July 2012, in samples of air at ground level, every fifteen days, and rainfall in all the rainy events that ocurred at Instituto de Pesquisas Energéticas e Nucleares (IPEN) which campus (23o32'S - 46o37'W at 760 m above sea level) is located in the city of São Paulo, state of São Paulo, Brazil. The concentrations of 7Be were measured by non-destructive gamma-ray spectrometry using a coaxial Be-layer HPGe detector with 25% relative efficiency, 2.09 keV resolution at 1.33 MeV for 60Co and associated electronic devices and live counting time varing from 150,000 s to 300,000 s. The results obtained were correlated to seasons, rainfall, temperature and sunspot number. The higher values obtained for the concentrations were in spring and summer time presenting good correlations with the amount of precipitation and sunspot number and a clearly seasonal variations was observed.

  18. Kinetics of fast island decay on Ag(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Morgenstern, Karina; Rosenfeld, Georg; Comsa, George; Sorensen, Mads R.; Hammer, Bjork; Laegsgaard, Erik; Besenbacher, Flemming

    2001-01-15

    The kinetics of fast island decay on Ag(111) close to steps has been studied in scanning tunneling microscopy experiments and atomistic total energy calculations. We show that a breakdown of the step-edge barrier is not sufficient to explain the decay rates observed during fast decay events. From the interplay between experiments and theory, we instead propose that fast decay originates from concerted diffusion processes, which bypass the detachment barrier of atoms from kinks and step sites.

  19. Astrophysical S factor for the 4He(3He,γ)7Be reaction at medium energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona-Gallardo, M.; Nara Singh, B. S.; Tengblad, O.; Hass, M.; Alcorta, M.; Borge, M. J. G.; Briz, J. A.; Cruz, C.; Cubero, M.; Domínguez-Reyes, R.; Fulton, B. R.; Fynbo, H.; Gordillo, N.; Haquin, G.; Nir-El, Y.; Kumar, V.; Maira, A.; McGrath, J.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Perea, A.; Yungreis, Z.

    2012-02-01

    The astrophysical S factor for the 4He(3He,γ)7Be direct capture reaction plays a major role in the context of solar neutrino flux and primordial 7Li abundances that demand accurate information on the reaction. We report here our recent cross section measurements using the activation method in the region of ECM = 900-2800 keV, that aim to shed light on the discrepancies in the existing data and lead to a more accurate extrapolation of the S factor.

  20. The decay of highly excited open strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, D.; Turok, N.; Wilkinson, R.; Jetzer, P.

    1988-01-01

    The decay rates of leading edge Regge trajectory states are calculated for very high level number in open bosonic string theories, ignoring tachyon final states. The optical theorem simplifies the analysis while enabling identification of the different mass level decay channels. The main result is that (in four dimensions) the greatest single channel is the emission of a single photon and a state of the next mass level down. A simple asymptotic formula for arbitrarily high level number is given for this process. Also calculated is the total decay rate exactly up to N=100. It shows little variation over this range but appears to decrease for larger N. The formalism is checked in examples and the decay rate of the first excited level calculated for open superstring theories. The calculation may also have implications for high spin meson resonances.

  1. Scattering process for the system 7Be + 58Ni at 23.2 MeV beam energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzocco, M.; Torresi, D.; Fierro, N.; Acosta, L.; Boiano, A.; Boiano, C.; Glodariu, T.; Guglielmetti, A.; La Commara, M.; Martel, I.; Mazzocchi, C.; Molini, P.; Pakou, A.; Parascandolo, C.; Parker, V. V.; Patronis, N.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Romoli, M.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M.; Sandoli, M.; Signorini, C.; Silvestri, R.; Soramel, F.; Stiliaris, E.; Strano, E.; Stroe, L.; Zerva, K.

    2013-03-01

    We measured for the first time the scattering process of 7Be nuclei from a 58Ni target at 23.2 MeV beam energy. The experiment was performed at the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro (LNL, Italy), where the 7Be Radioactive Ion Beam was in-flight produced with the facility EXOTIC. Charged reaction products were detected by means of the detector array DINEX, arranged in a cylindrical configuration around the target to ensure a polar angle coverage in the ranges θcm = 40°-80° and 110°-150°. The scattering differential cross section was analyzed within the optical model formalism with the coupled-channel code FRESCO to extract the total reaction cross section. The result was compared with those obtained at lower beam energies in an earlier experiment performed at the University of Notre Dame (USA). At the present stage of our analysis, the two data sets were found to be not fully consistent each other.

  2. Experimental setup and procedure for the measurement of the 7Be(n,α)α reaction at n_TOF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosentino, L.; Musumarra, A.; Barbagallo, M.; Pappalardo, A.; Colonna, N.; Damone, L.; Piscopo, M.; Finocchiaro, P.; Maugeri, E.; Heinitz, S.; Schumann, D.; Dressler, R.; Kivel, N.; Aberle, O.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Ayranov, M.; Bacak, M.; Barros, S.; Balibrea-Correa, J.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y. H.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dupont, E.; Duran, I.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Furman, W.; Ganesan, S.; García-Rios, A.; Gawlik, A.; Gheorghe, I.; Glodariu, T.; Göbel, K.; Gonc̗alves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Käppeler, F.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Kimura, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lerendegui, J.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Meo, S. Lo; Lonsdale, S.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Matteucci, F.; Mazzone, A.; Mendoza, E.; Mengoni, A.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Rout, P.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J.; Sabate-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Vollaire, J.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Z̆ugec, P.

    2016-09-01

    The newly built second experimental area EAR2 of the n_TOF spallation neutron source at CERN allows to perform (n, charged particles) experiments on short-lived highly radioactive targets. This paper describes a detection apparatus and the experimental procedure for the determination of the cross-section of the 7Be(n,α)α reaction, which represents one of the focal points toward the solution of the cosmological Lithium abundance problem, and whose only measurement, at thermal energy, dates back to 1963. The apparently unsurmountable experimental difficulties stemming from the huge 7Be γ-activity, along with the lack of a suitable neutron beam facility, had so far prevented further measurements. The detection system is subject to considerable radiation damage, but is capable of disentangling the rare reaction signals from the very high background. This newly developed setup could likely be useful also to study other challenging reactions requiring the detectors to be installed directly in the neutron beam.

  3. Sorption characteristics of 210Pb, 210Po and 7Be onto microparticle surfaces and the effects of macromolecular organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Guo, L.; Chuang, C.; Santschi, P. H.

    2011-12-01

    210Pb, 210Po and 7Be have been widely used as tracers of particle dynamics, carbon cycling, ocean circulation, sedimentation, and other geochemical and oceanographic studies. However, the pathways and mechanisms in the interactions between these radionuclides and particulate surfaces in marine environments are not well understood. Controlled laboratory experiments have been carried out to examine the interactions of 210Pb, 210Po and 7Be in ultrafiltered seawater (<1 kDa) with different microparticles, including kaolinite, SiO2, CaCO3, Al2O3, Fe2O3, MnO2 and chitin, in the presence or absence of macromolecular organic matter, such as humic acids (HA), acid polysaccharides (APS, carrageenan type V) and proteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA). Values of the log of the partition coefficient (Kd) of 210Pb between dissolved and particulate phases varied from 3.22 to 6.29, with the highest value for MnO2 and the lowest for CaCO3. LogKd values of 210Pb increased in the presence of natural organic matter compounds (e.g. HA, APS and BSA) for SiO2, CaCO3 and kaolinite, but decreased for Al2O3. 210Pb sorption on Fe2O3 and MnO2 seemed to be enhanced by humic acid but depressed by BSA. Measured logKd values for 210Po varied from 3.02 to 5.19 with the highest value for MnO2 and the lowest for kaolinite. Humic acids, APS and BSA promoted the adsorption of 210Po onto CaCO3, kaolinite, SiO2 and MnO2, but slightly decreased sorption onto Al2O3 and Fe2O3. 7Be had logKd values similar to those observed in the field, ranging from 3.5 to 4.6 with the highest value for SiO2 and the lowest for CaCO3. The highly selective adsorption on different particle surfaces resulted in fractionations between 210Pb, 210Po and 7Be, with the largest fractionation between 210Pb and 210Po (FPb/Po>10) on MnO2 in the absence of organic matter. All particles preferentially absorbed 210Pb in the presence of APS and HA (except for HA-CaCO3), whereas Al2O3, SiO2 and CaCO3 preferred 210Po to 210Pb in the presence of

  4. Constraining weak annihilation using semileptonic D decays

    SciTech Connect

    Ligeti, Zoltan; Luke, Michael; Manohar, Aneesh V.

    2010-08-01

    The recently measured semileptonic D{sub s} decay rate can be used to constrain weak annihilation (WA) effects in semileptonic D and B decays. We revisit the theoretical predictions for inclusive semileptonic D{sub (s)} decays using a variety of quark mass schemes. The most reliable results are obtained if the fits to B decay distributions are used to eliminate the charm quark mass dependence, without using any specific charm mass scheme. Our fit to the available data shows that WA is smaller than commonly assumed. There is no indication that the WA octet contribution (which is better constrained than the singlet contribution) dominates. The results constrain an important source of uncertainty in the extraction of |V{sub ub}| from inclusive semileptonic B decays.

  5. Decay of isolated hills and saddles on Si(001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirschbaum, Pierre; Brendel, Lothar; Roos, Kelly R.; Horn-von Hoegen, Michael; Heringdorf, Frank-J. Meyer zu

    2016-08-01

    We discuss the high temperature decay of isolated hills and saddle points on Si(001). Using in situ dark-field imaging in low energy electron microscopy, we track the movement of individual steps during high temperature annealing. We find different temperature dependent decay rates for the top of the hill compared to a saddle point with low step density that is present in the vicinity of the hill. The decay rate of the hill is always higher than the decay rate at the saddle. The two rates converge with increasing temperature and become equal at temperatures above 1060 °C. We also report an alternating fast and low decay rate for the layer-by-layer decay of the hills. This surprising finding is independent of temperature and is explained by macroscopic strain in the sample.

  6. Decay of oscillating universes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mithani, Audrey Todhunter

    It has been suggested by Ellis et al that the universe could be eternal in the past, without beginning. In their model, the "emergent universe'' exists forever in the past, in an "eternal'' phase before inflation begins. We will show that in general, such an "eternal'' phase is not possible, because of an instability due to quantum tunneling. One candidate model, the "simple harmonic universe'' has been shown by Graham et al to be perturbatively stable; we find that it is unstable with respect to quantum tunneling. We also investigate the stability of a distinct oscillating model in loop quantum cosmology with respect to small perturbations and to quantum collapse. We find that the model has perturbatively stable and unstable solutions, with both types of solutions occupying significant regions of the parameter space. All solutions are unstable with respect to collapse by quantum tunneling to zero size. In addition, we investigate the effect of vacuum corrections, due to the trace anomaly and the Casimir effect, on the stability of an oscillating universe with respect to decay by tunneling to the singularity. We find that these corrections do not generally stabilize an oscillating universe. Finally, we determine the decay rate of the oscillating universe. Although the wave function of the universe lacks explicit time dependence in canonical quantum cosmology, time evolution may be present implicitly through the semiclassical superspace variables, which themselves depend on time in classical dynamics. Here, we apply this approach to the simple harmonic universe, by extending the model to include a massless, minimally coupled scalar field φ which has little effect on the dynamics but can play the role of a "clock''.

  7. Rare Decays at LHCb

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Sam

    2014-04-01

    Rare decays of beauty and charm hadrons provide an effective method of testing the Standard Model and probing possible new physics scenarios. The LHCb experiment has published a variety of interesting results in this field, some of which are presented here. In particular the measurements of the branching fractions of B(s)0 → μ+μ- which, in combination with CMS, resulted in the first observation of the Bs0 → μ+μ- decay. Other topics include searches for the rare decay D0 → μ+μ-, the lepton flavour violating decays B(s)0 → e±μ∓, and the observation of the ψ(4160) resonance in the region of low recoil in B+ → K+μ+μ- decay. New results on the angular analysis of the decay B0 → K*0μ+μ- with form factor independent observables are also shown.

  8. First observation of the decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Abellan Beteta, C.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Adrover, C.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreassen, R.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Baesso, C.; Balagura, V.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Bauer, Th.; Bay, A.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Belogurov, S.; Belous, K.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Benayoun, M.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Bizzeti, A.; Bjørnstad, P. M.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borgia, A.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Brambach, T.; van den Brand, J.; Bressieux, J.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brook, N. H.; Brown, H.; Burducea, I.; Bursche, A.; Busetto, G.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Callot, O.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Camboni, A.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carranza-Mejia, H.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casse, G.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chen, P.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Ciba, K.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coca, C.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; David, P.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bonis, I.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Di Canto, A.; Dijkstra, H.; Dogaru, M.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dupertuis, F.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; van Eijk, D.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Elsby, D.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Fardell, G.; Farinelli, C.; Farry, S.; Fave, V.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Furcas, S.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; Garofoli, J.; Garosi, P.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gaspar, C.; Gauld, R.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gibson, V.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gordon, H.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hampson, T.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; Hartmann, T.; He, J.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Hicheur, A.; Hicks, E.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Holtrop, M.; Hombach, C.; Hopchev, P.; Hulsbergen, W.; Hunt, P.; Huse, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Iakovenko, V.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jans, E.; Jaton, P.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Kaballo, M.; Kandybei, S.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kerzel, U.; Ketel, T.; Keune, A.; Khanji, B.; Kochebina, O.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kozlinskiy, A.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanciotti, E.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leo, S.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Li Gioi, L.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Liu, B.; Liu, G.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lopez Asamar, E.; Lopez-March, N.; Lu, H.; Lucchesi, D.; Luisier, J.; Luo, H.; Machefert, F.; Machikhiliyan, I. V.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Marconi, U.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martens, A.; Martín Sánchez, A.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Maurice, E.; Mazurov, A.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Moran, D.; Morawski, P.; Morello, M. J.; Mountain, R.; Mous, I.; Muheim, F.; Müller, K.; Muresan, R.; Muryn, B.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neufeld, N.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Nicol, M.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Nomerotski, A.; Novoselov, A.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Oggero, S.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Orlandea, M.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Pal, B. K.; Palano, A.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Parkes, C.; Parkinson, C. J.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrick, G. N.; Patrignani, C.; Pavel-Nicorescu, C.; Pazos Alvarez, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perego, D. L.; Perez Trigo, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Perret, P.; Perrin-Terrin, M.; Pessina, G.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Phan, A.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Polci, F.; Polok, G.; Poluektov, A.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Powell, A.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redford, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, A.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Roa Romero, D. A.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruffini, F.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Sabatino, G.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salzmann, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Sannino, M.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sapunov, M.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Savrie, M.; Savrina, D.; Schaack, P.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Seco, M.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shatalov, P.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, O.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, N. A.; Smith, E.; Smith, M.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; De Paula, B. Souza; Spaan, B.; Sparkes, A.; Spradlin, P.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Subbiah, V. K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Teklishyn, M.; Teodorescu, E.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Tolk, S.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ubeda Garcia, M.; Ukleja, A.; Urner, D.; Uwer, U.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; Voss, H.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, R.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Webber, A. D.; Websdale, D.; Whitehead, M.; Wicht, J.; Wiechczynski, J.; Wiedner, D.; Wiggers, L.; Wilkinson, G.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wishahi, J.; Witek, M.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wu, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xing, Z.; Yang, Z.; Young, R.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, F.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, W. C.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.; Zvyagin, A.

    2013-11-01

    The first observation of the decay is reported. The analysis is based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 1.0 fb-1 of pp collisions at TeV, collected with the LHCb detector. A yield of 30 ± 6 decays is found in the mass windows 1012.5 < M ( K + K -) < 1026.5 MeV/ c 2 and 746 < M( K - π +) < 1046 MeV/ c 2. The signal yield is found to be dominated by decays, and the corresponding branching fraction is measured to be = (1.10 ± 0.24 (stat) ± 0.14 (syst) ± 0.08 ( f d / f s )) × 10-6, where the uncertainties are statistical, systematic and from the ratio of fragmentation fractions f d / f s which accounts for the different production rate of B 0 and mesons. The significance of signal is 6.1 standard deviations. The fraction of longitudinal polarization in decays is found to be f 0 = 0.51 ± 0.15 (stat) ± 0.07 (syst). [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. Astrophysical S-factor for 6Li(ρ, γ)7Be in the coupled-channel Gamow shell model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, G. X.; Fossez, K.; Michel, N.; Płoszajczak, M.

    2016-02-01

    We have applied the Gamow shell model (GSM) in the coupled-channel representation to study the astrophysical S-factor for the proton radiative capture reaction of 6Li. Reaction channels are built by coupling the proton wave function expanded in different partial waves with the GSM wave functions of the ground state (1+) and the excited states (31+, 01+ and 21+) of 6Li. All relevant E1, M1, and E2 transitions from the initial continuum states in 7Be to the final bound states (3/21- and 1/21-) are included. It is found that the calculated total astrophysical S factor for this reaction agrees well with the experimental data.

  10. Elastic scattering measurements for the system {sup 7}Be+{sup 28}Si at 17.2 MeV

    SciTech Connect

    Sgouros, O.; Pakou, A.; Aslanoglou, X.; Soukeras, V.; Pierroutsakou, D.; Boiano, A.; Mazzocco, M.; Parascandolo, C.; Signorini, C.; Strano, E.; Torresi, D.; Acosta, L.; Marquinez-Duran, G.; Martel, I.; Boiano, C.; Grebosz, J.; Keeley, N.; Strojek, I.; La Commara, M.; Rusek, K.; and others

    2015-02-24

    Elastic scattering of {sup 7}Be+{sup 28}Si was studied at several near barrier energies for probing the energy dependence of the optical potential. Our analysis at 17.2 MeV will be presented in this article and discussed, in terms of Continuum Coupled Channel Calculations (CDCC). This research is part of a long term plan concerning the energy dependence of the optical potential for weakly bound projectiles, at near barrier energies and for probing the potential threshold anomaly. The experiment took place at the EXOTIC facility - Laboratori Nationali di Legnaro (LNL), and refers to an angular distribution measurement, using the detector array EXPADES (Exotic Particle Detection System). Results at 9 MeV (Rutherford region) were also analyzed and were used for estimating the solid angle. Our analysis for other energies is under process.

  11. Effective Majorana neutrino decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Lucía; Romero, Ismael; Peressutti, Javier; Sampayo, Oscar A.

    2016-08-01

    We study the decay of heavy sterile Majorana neutrinos according to the interactions obtained from an effective general theory. We describe the two- and three-body decays for a wide range of neutrino masses. The results obtained and presented in this work could be useful for the study of the production and detection of these particles in a variety of high energy physics experiments and astrophysical observations. We show in different figures the dominant branching ratios and the total decay width.

  12. Optimization parameters for BDE in BNCT using near threshold 7Li(p,n)7Be direct neutrons.

    PubMed

    Bengua, Gerard; Kobayashi, Tooru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu

    2004-11-01

    The dose contribution of (10)B(n,alpha)(7)Li reaction in BNCT using near threshold (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be direct neutrons can be increased through the use of materials referred to as boron-dose enhancers (BDE). In this paper, possible BDE optimization criteria were determined from the characteristics of candidate BDE materials namely (C(2)H(4))(n), (C(2)H(3)F)(n), (C(2)H(2)F(2))(n), (C(2)HF(3))(n), (C(2)D(4))(n), (C(2)F(4))(n), beryllium metal, graphite, D(2)O and (7)LiF. The treatable protocol depth (TPD) was used as the assessment index for evaluating the effect of these materials on the dose distribution in a medium undergoing BNCT using near threshold (7)Li(p,n)(7)Be direct neutrons. The maximum TPD (TPD(max)) did not exhibit an explicit dependence on material type as evidenced by its small range and arbitrary variations. The dependence of TPD on BDE thickness was influenced by the BDE material used as indicated by the sharply peaked TPD versus BDE thickness curves for materials with hydrogen compared to the broader curves obtained for those without hydrogen. The BDE thickness required to achieve TPD(max) (BDE(TPD(max))) were also found to be thinner for materials with hydrogen. The TPD(max), the dependence of TPD on BDE thickness, and the BDE(TPD(max)) were established as appropriate BDE optimization parameters. Based on these criteria and other practical considerations, the suitable choice as BDE among the candidate materials considered in this study for treatments involving tumors located at shallow depths would be (C(2)H(4))(n) while beryllium metal was judged as more appropriate for treatment of deep-seated tumors.

  13. Evaluation of decay curves of a chemical species undergoing simultaneous first- and second-order decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidt, K. H.

    1970-01-01

    IBM 1620 computer prepares tables to enable fast calculation of the first- and second-order rate constants from two half-lives and the corresponding initial concentrations, obtained from either one or two decay curves.

  14. First forbidden beta decay in light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Millener, D.J.; Warburton, E.K.

    1984-01-01

    Beta decay matrix elements for the operators sigma dot del and sigma dot r are calculated for eight J/sup +/ ..-->.. J/sup -/ or J/sup -/ ..-->.. J/sup +/ beta transitions. Results using harmonic oscillator wave functions differ markedly from those using more realistic Woods-Saxon wave functions. A substantial contribution to the sigma dot del matrix elements from pion exchange currents is required to reproduce the experimental beta decay rates. 15 references.

  15. Decay properties of double heavy baryons

    SciTech Connect

    Faessler, Amand; Gutsche, Thomas; Lyubovitskij, Valery; Ivanov, Mikhail A.; Koerner, Juergen G.

    2010-08-05

    We study the semileptonic decays of double heavy baryons using a manifestly Lorentz covariant constituent three-quark model. We present complete results on transition form factors between double-heavy baryons for finite values of the heavy quark/baryon masses and in the heavy quark symmetry limit which is valid at and close to zero recoil. Decay rates are calculated and compared to each other in the full theory, keeping masses finite, and also in the heavy quark limit.

  16. Leptonic and semileptonic decays of B mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingfelder, Jochen; Mannel, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Semileptonic decays are ideally suited to study the weak interaction as well as strong interaction effects in B -meson decays. In the last decade, precision studies of semileptonic B decays have been made possible by the large samples of B mesons collected at the B factories KEKB in Japan and PEP-II in the USA. Measurements of the charged-current semileptonic transitions b →q ℓν (q =u , c ) allow for a determination of the magnitude of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix elements Vc b and Vu b and the masses of the b and c quarks, which are fundamental parameters of the standard model of particle physics. The values of |Vc b| and |Vu b| are determined from measurements of inclusive B decays in combination with calculations of partial decay rates or from exclusive decays combined with theoretical predictions of hadronic form factors. Purely leptonic B decays B →ℓν (ℓ=e , μ , τ ) also provide access to |Vu b|. They are theoretically simpler, but the available signal samples are still small. Decays involving a τ lepton, B →τ ν and B →D(*)τ ν , are sensitive to new physics, in particular, to charged Higgs bosons in models with an extended Higgs sector, and provide a window to the physics of the third generation. In this article, the measurements and theoretical descriptions of charged-current leptonic and semileptonic B decays and the status of |Vc b| and |Vu b| determinations are reviewed. An overview of the theoretical approaches and the experimental techniques used in the study of these decays is also provided.

  17. Radioactive Decay - An Analog.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGeachy, Frank

    1988-01-01

    Presents an analog of radioactive decay that allows the student to grasp the concept of half life and the exponential nature of the decay process. The analog is devised to use small, colored, plastic poker chips or counters. Provides the typical data and a graph which supports the analog. (YP)

  18. Excitation function shape and neutron spectrum of the 7Li(p ,n )7Be reaction near threshold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Hernández, Guido; Mastinu, Pierfrancesco; Maggiore, Mario; Pranovi, Lorenzo; Prete, Gianfranco; Praena, Javier; Capote-Noy, Roberto; Gramegna, Fabiana; Lombardi, Augusto; Maran, Luca; Scian, Carlo; Munaron, Enrico

    2016-09-01

    The forward-emitted low energy tail of the neutron spectrum generated by the 7Li(p ,n )7Be reaction on a thick target at a proton energy of 1893.6 keV was measured by time-of-flight spectroscopy. The measurement was performed at BELINA (Beam Line for Nuclear Astrophysics) of the Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro. Using the reaction kinematics and the proton on lithium stopping power the shape of the excitation function is calculated from the measured neutron spectrum. Good agreement with two reported measurements was found. Our data, along with the previous measurements, are well reproduced by the Breit-Wigner single-resonance formula for s -wave particles. The differential yield of the reaction is calculated and the widely used neutron spectrum at a proton energy of 1912 keV was reproduced. Possible causes regarding part of the 6.5% discrepancy between the 197Au(n ,γ ) cross section measured at this energy by Ratynski and Kappeler [Phys. Rev. C 37, 595 (1988), 10.1103/PhysRevC.37.595] and the one obtained using the Evaluated Nuclear Data File version B-VII.1 are given.

  19. Improving the use of the fallout radionuclide 7Be as a sediment tracer by incorporating the hydraulic conductivity in the conversion model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryken, Nick; Al-Barri, Bashar; Blake, Will; Taylor, Alex; Boeckx, Pascal; Verdoodt, Ann

    2016-04-01

    There is growing interest in the application of the natural fallout radionuclide 7Be as a soil erosion and sediment tracer. Development of robust datasets is, however, hampered by unquantified spatial variability in its distribution within the surface soil. Models that convert 7Be inventory measurements to soil erosion estimates are all based on the observed depth distribution of 7Be, described by the relaxation mass depth (h0) parameter. Previous work, however, has not considered potential spatial variation in h0 linked to variability in soil physical properties, which could have major implications for the reliability of soil erosion estimates. This work addresses the close relation between infiltration rate and the 7Be depth distribution. During a laboratory rainfall simulation experiment, water spiked with stable 9Be was used to study the variability in 9Be depth distribution for eight compacted and eight non-compacted natural undisturbed soil cores, whereby 9Be was used as a substitute for 7Be. X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) scans were used to characterize the porosity of both groups, showing significant lower, strongly horizontally oriented, total porosity of the compacted soil cores. The average saturated hydraulic conductivity (ksat) of the different groups was 0.89 m day-1 and 17 m day-1 for the compacted and the non-compacted samples respectively. This physical compaction resulted in a clear distinction in 9Be depth distribution between both groups. With an average h0 of 4.66 ± 1.1 kg m-2, 9Be penetrated deeper in the non-compacted soil cores, while the compacted cores showed an average h0 of 2.42 ± 0.26 kg m-2. The reported h0 values at the former site were also characterized by a larger coefficient of variation (24%) than those at the latter site (11%), similar to the variations in soil structure observed by the CT-scans. Furthermore, the correlation between the hydraulic conductivity and the 9Be depth distribution is under investigation by

  20. The weak decay of helium hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Athanas, M.J.

    1992-08-01

    A {Lambda} hyperon replaces a neutron in a nucleus to form a hypernucleus via the {sup A}X(K{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup {minus}}) {sub {Lambda}}{sup A}X reaction at 750 MeV/c (Brookhaven Experiment 788). The free {Lambda} decay rates {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} p{pi}{sup {minus}}) and {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} n{pi}{sup 0}) are diminished due to Pauli blocking; but a non-mesonic decay mode, nucleon stimulated decay N{Lambda} {yields} Nn, is present and is detected via the energetic decay nucleon(s) ({approx} 400MeV/c). Measurements of the various hypernuclear decay rates {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} p{pi}{sup {minus}}), {Gamma}({Lambda} {yields} n{pi}{sup 0}) and {Gamma}({Lambda}n {yields} nn) provides insight into the strong modification of the weak interaction such as the baryon-baryon {Delta}I ={1/2} rule. The hypernuclear state is isolated by momentum analysis of (K{sup {minus}}, {pi}{sup {minus}}) target reaction. Out-of-beam large volume scintillation detectors and tracking chambers axe used to make particle identification of the hypernuclear decay products by time-of-flight, dE/dx, and range. The kinetic energy of the decay neutrons are measured by time of flight using the large volume 100 element neutron detector system. The hypernuclear lifetime is directly measured using precision scintillator counters and tracking chambers. Measurements of the various decay rates as well as the total lifetime are discussed for {sub {Lambda}}{sup 4}He.

  1. Ring current proton decay by charge exchange

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, P. H.; Hoffman, R. A.; Fritz, T.

    1975-01-01

    Explorer 45 measurements during the recovery phase of a moderate magnetic storm have confirmed that the charge exchange decay mechanism can account for the decay of the storm-time proton ring current. Data from the moderate magnetic storm of 24 February 1972 was selected for study since a symmetrical ring current had developed and effects due to asymmetric ring current losses could be eliminated. It was found that after the initial rapid decay of the proton flux, the equatorially mirroring protons in the energy range 5 to 30 keV decayed throughout the L-value range of 3.5 to 5.0 at the charge exchange decay rate calculated by Liemohn. After several days of decay, the proton fluxes reached a lower limit where an apparent equilibrium was maintained, between weak particle source mechanisms and the loss mechanisms, until fresh protons were injected into the ring current region during substorms. While other proton loss mechanisms may also be operating, the results indicate that charge exchange can entirely account for the storm-time proton ring current decay, and that this mechanism must be considered in all studies involving the loss of proton ring current particles.

  2. Impact of leptonic τ decays on the distribution of B→ Pμ bar{ν } decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bordone, Marzia; Isidori, Gino; Dyk, Danny van

    2016-07-01

    We calculate the fully-differential rate of the decays B→ Pτ (→ μ bar{ν }ν )bar{ν } where P = D,π , background to the semimuonic decays B→ Pμ bar{ν }. The decays with a 3ν final state can have a sizable impact on the experimental analyses of the ratios R_D and R_π , depending on the event selection in the analysis. We outline a strategy which permits the extraction of R_P B(τ → μ bar{ν }ν ) from the neutrino-inclusive rate. Our analytic results can also be used to test both existing and upcoming experimental analyses. We further provide Monte Carlo samples of the 5D rate of the neutrino-inclusive decays B→ Pμ X_{bar{ν }}.

  3. First observation of the B$0\\atop{s}$→K+K- decay mode, and measurement of the B0 and $0\\atop{s}$ mesons decay-rates into two-body charmless final states at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Tonelli, Diego

    2006-11-30

    The authors searched for decays of the type B$0\\atop{s}$→ h+h'- (where h, h' = K or π) in a sample corresponding to 180 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV, collected by the upgraded Collider Detector at the Fermilab Tevatron. A total signal of approximately 900 events was reconstructed, and the relative branching fractions (β) of each decay mode were determined with a likelihood fit.

  4. Axions from wall decay

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S; Hagmann, C; Sikivie, P

    2001-01-08

    The authors discuss the decay of axion walls bounded by strings and present numerical simulations of the decay process. In these simulations, the decay happens immediately, in a time scale of order the light travel time, and the average energy of the radiated axions is {approx_equal} 7m{sub a} for v{sub a}/m{sub a} {approx_equal} 500. is found to increase approximately linearly with ln(v{sub a}/m{sub a}). Extrapolation of this behavior yields {approx_equal} 60 m{sub a} in axion models of interest.

  5. Rare charm and B decays at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Julia Thom

    2003-12-15

    We present results on rare charm and B decays using 65pb{sup -1} of data taken with the CDF detector in Run II. Three results are discussed, a measurement of the relative branching ratios {Lambda}(D{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -})/{Lambda}(D{sup 0} {yields} K{pi}) and {Lambda}(D{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -})/{Lambda}(D{sup 0} {yields} K{pi}) and the direct CP-violating decay rate asymmetry, and a limit on the branching ratio of the FCNC decay D{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -}. We also discuss the prospects for the search for B{sub s}{sup 0} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} decays.

  6. Radiative And Electroweak Penguin Decays of B

    SciTech Connect

    Richman, Jeffrey D.; /UC, Santa Barbara

    2007-11-09

    Radiative and electroweak penguin decays of B mesons are flavor-changing-neutral-current processes that provide powerful ways to test the Standard Model at the one-loop level, to search for the effects of new physics, and to extract Standard Model parameters such as CKM matrix elements and quark masses. The large data samples obtained by the B-factory experiments BaBar and Belle, together with an intensive theoretical effort, have led to significant progress towards understanding these rare decays. Recent experimental results include the measurements of the b {yields} d{gamma} decays B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma}, the observation of B {yields} K(*){ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} decays (together with studies of the associated kinematic distributions), and improved measurements of the inclusive B {yields} Xs{gamma} rate and photon energy spectrum.

  7. Thermal effects and sudden decay approximation in the curvaton scenario

    SciTech Connect

    Kitajima, Naoya; Takesako, Tomohiro; Yokoyama, Shuichiro; Langlois, David; Takahashi, Tomo E-mail: langlois@apc.univ-paris7.fr E-mail: takesako@icrr.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-10-01

    We study the impact of a temperature-dependent curvaton decay rate on the primordial curvature perturbation generated in the curvaton scenario. Using the familiar sudden decay approximation, we obtain an analytical expression for the curvature perturbation after the decay of the curvaton. We then investigate numerically the evolution of the background and of the perturbations during the decay. We first show that the instantaneous transfer coefficient, related to the curvaton energy fraction at the decay, can be extended into a more general parameter, which depends on the net transfer of the curvaton energy into radiation energy or, equivalently, on the total entropy ratio after the complete curvaton decay. We then compute the curvature perturbation and compare this result with the sudden decay approximation prediction.

  8. Leptonic Decays of Charged Pseudoscalar Mesons - 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, Jonathan L.; Stone, Sheldon; Van de Water, Ruth S.

    2015-09-07

    We review the physics of purely leptonic decays of $\\pi^\\pm$, $K^\\pm$, $D^{\\pm}$, $D_s^\\pm$, and $B^\\pm$ pseudoscalar mesons. The measured decay rates are related to the product of the relevant weak-interaction-based CKM matrix element of the constituent quarks and a strong interaction parameter related to the overlap of the quark and antiquark wave-functions in the meson, called the decay constant $f_P$. The leptonic decay constants for $\\pi^\\pm$, $K^\\pm$, $D^{\\pm}$, $D_s^\\pm$, and $B^\\pm$ mesons can be obtained with controlled theoretical uncertainties and high precision from {\\it ab initio} lattice-QCD simulations. The combination of experimental leptonic decay-rate measurements and theoretical decay-constant calculations enables the determination of several elements of the CKM matrix within the standard model. These determinations are competitive with those obtained from semileptonic decays, and also complementary because they are sensitive to different quark flavor-changing currents. They can also be used to test the unitarity of the first and second rows of the CKM matrix. Conversely, taking the CKM elements predicted by unitarity, one can infer "experimental" values for $f_P$ that can be compared with theory. These provide tests of lattice-QCD methods, provided new-physics contributions to leptonic decays are negligible at the current level of precision. This review is the basis of the article in the Particle Data Group's 2016 edition, updating the versions in Refs. [1-3].

  9. RARE KAON DECAYS.

    SciTech Connect

    LITTENBERG, L.

    2005-07-19

    Lepton flavor violation (LFV) experiments have probed sensitivities corresponding to mass scales of well over 100 TeV, making life difficult for models predicting accessible LFV in kaon decay and discouraging new dedicated experiments of this type.

  10. Charmless B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Gradl, Wolfgang; /Edinburgh U.

    2007-03-06

    Rare charmless hadronic B decays are a good testing ground for the standard model. The dominant amplitudes contributing to this class of B decays are CKM suppressed tree diagrams and b {yields} s or b {yields} d loop diagrams (''penguins''). These decays can be used to study interfering standard model (SM) amplitudes and CP violation. They are sensitive to the presence of new particles in the loops, and they provide valuable information to constrain theoretical models of B decays. The B factories BABAR at SLAC and Belle at KEK produce B mesons in the reaction e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} {Upsilon}(4S) {yields} B{bar B}. So far they have collected integrated luminosities of about 406 fb{sup -1} and 600 fb{sup -1}, respectively. The results presented here are based on subsets of about 200-500 fb{sup -1} and are preliminary unless a journal reference is given.

  11. Open Flavor Strong Decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Tecocoatzi, H.; Bijker, R.; Ferretti, J.; Galatà, G.; Santopinto, E.

    2016-10-01

    In this contribution, we discuss the results of a QM calculation of the open-flavor strong decays of **** light nucleon resonances. These are the results of a recent calculation, where we used a modified ^3P_0 model for the amplitudes and the U(7) algebraic model and the hypercentral quark model to predict the baryon spectrum. The decay amplitudes are compared with the existing experimental data.

  12. Vacuum Decay via Lorentzian Wormholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosales, J. L.

    We speculate about the space-time description due to the presence of Lorentzian worm-holes (handles in space-time joining two distant regions or other universes) in quantum gravity. The semiclassical rate of production of these Lorentzian wormholes in Reissner-Nordström space-times is calculated as a result of the spontaneous decay of vacuum due to a real tunneling configuration. In the magnetic case it only depends on the value of the field theoretical fine structure constant. We predict that the quantum probability corresponding to the nucleation of such geodesically complete space-times should be acutally negligible in our physical Universe.

  13. Radiative decay of massious neutrinos: Implications for physics and astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stecker, F. W.

    1981-01-01

    The radiative lifetime tau for the decay of massious neutrinos is calculated using various physical models for neutrino decay. The results are related to the astrophysical problem of the detectability of the decay photons from cosmic neutrinos. Conversely, the astrophysical data are used to place lower limits on tau. However, an observed feature at approximately 1700 A in the ultraviolet background radiation at high galactic latitudes may be from the decay of neutrinos with mass approximately 14 eV. This would require a decay rate much larger than the predictions of standard models but could be indicative of a decay rate possible in composite models. It is considered that this may be an important test for substructure in leptons and quarks.

  14. Search for CP violation in charged D meson decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aitala, E. M.; Amato, S.; Anjos, J. C.; Appel, J. A.; Ashery, D.; Banerjee, S.; Bediaga, I.; Blaylock, G.; Bracker, S. B.; Burchat, P. R.; Burnstein, R. A.; Carter, T.; Carvalho, H. S.; Copty, N. K.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Darling, C.; Denisenko, K.; Fernandez, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gobel, C.; Gounder, K.; Halling, A. M.; Herrera, G.; Hurvits, G.; James, C.; Kasper, P. A.; Kwan, S.; Langs, D. C.; Leslie, J.; Lundberg, B.; Maytal-Beck, S.; Meadows, B.; de Mello Neto, J. R. T.; Milburn, R. H.; de Miranda, J. M.; Napier, A.; Nguyen, A.; D'Oliveira, A. B.; O'Shaughnessy, K.; Peng, K. C.; Perera, L. P.; Purohit, M. V.; Quinn, B.; Radeztsky, S.; Rafatian, A.; Reay, N. W.; Reidy, J. J.; Dos Reis, A. C.; Rubin, H. A.; Santha, A. K. S.; Santoro, A. F. S.; Schwartz, A. J.; Sheaff, M.; Sidwell, R. A.; Slaughter, A. J.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Stanton, N. R.; Stenson, K.; Summers, D. J.; Takach, S.; Thorne, K.; Tripathi, A. K.; Watanabe, S.; Weiss-Babai, R.; Wiener, J.; Witchey, N.; Wolin, E.; Yi, D.; Yoshida, S.; Zaliznyak, R.; Zhang, C.

    1997-02-01

    We report results of a search for CP violation in the singly Cabibbo-suppressed decays D+ -> K-K+π+, φπ+, K* (892)0K+, and π-π+π+ based on data from the charm hadroproduction experiment E791 at Fermilab. We search for a difference in the D+ and D- decay rates for each of the final states. No evidence for a difference is seen. The decay rate asymmetry parameters (ACP), defined as the difference in the D+ and D- decay rates divided by the sum of the decay rates, are measured to be: ACP (KKπ) = -0.014 +/- 0.029, ACP(φπ) = -0.028 +/- 0.036, ACP (K* (892) K) = -0.010 +/- 0.050, and ACP (πππ) = -0.017 +/- 0.042.

  15. Quantile regression applied to spectral distance decay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rocchini, D.; Cade, B.S.

    2008-01-01

    Remotely sensed imagery has long been recognized as a powerful support for characterizing and estimating biodiversity. Spectral distance among sites has proven to be a powerful approach for detecting species composition variability. Regression analysis of species similarity versus spectral distance allows us to quantitatively estimate the amount of turnover in species composition with respect to spectral and ecological variability. In classical regression analysis, the residual sum of squares is minimized for the mean of the dependent variable distribution. However, many ecological data sets are characterized by a high number of zeroes that add noise to the regression model. Quantile regressions can be used to evaluate trend in the upper quantiles rather than a mean trend across the whole distribution of the dependent variable. In this letter, we used ordinary least squares (OLS) and quantile regressions to estimate the decay of species similarity versus spectral distance. The achieved decay rates were statistically nonzero (p < 0.01), considering both OLS and quantile regressions. Nonetheless, the OLS regression estimate of the mean decay rate was only half the decay rate indicated by the upper quantiles. Moreover, the intercept value, representing the similarity reached when the spectral distance approaches zero, was very low compared with the intercepts of the upper quantiles, which detected high species similarity when habitats are more similar. In this letter, we demonstrated the power of using quantile regressions applied to spectral distance decay to reveal species diversity patterns otherwise lost or underestimated by OLS regression. ?? 2008 IEEE.

  16. On gravitational and thermal corrections to vacuum decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Urbano, Alfredo

    2016-09-01

    We reconsider gravitational corrections to vacuum decay, confirming and simplifying earlier results and extending them allowing for a non-minimal coupling of the Higgs to gravity, finding that leading-order gravitational corrections suppress the vacuum decay rate. Furthermore, we find minor corrections to thermal vacuum decay in the SM adding one-loop corrections to the Higgs kinetic term, two-loop corrections to the Higgs potential and allowing for time-dependent bounces.

  17. Inclusive radiative {psi}(2S) decays

    SciTech Connect

    Libby, J.; Martin, L.; Powell, A.; Thomas, C.; Wilkinson, G.; Mendez, H.; Ge, J. Y.; Miller, D. H.; Shipsey, I. P. J.; Xin, B.; Adams, G. S.; Hu, D.; Moziak, B.; Napolitano, J.; Ecklund, K. M.; He, Q.; Insler, J.; Muramatsu, H.; Park, C. S.; Thorndike, E. H.

    2009-10-01

    Using e{sup +}e{sup -} collision data taken with the CLEO-c detector at the Cornell Electron Storage Ring, we have investigated the direct photon spectrum in the decay {psi}(2S){yields}{gamma}gg. We determine the ratio of the inclusive direct photon decay rate to that of the dominant three-gluon decay rate {psi}(2S){yields}ggg (R{sub {gamma}}{identical_to}{gamma}({gamma}gg)/{gamma}(ggg)) to be R{sub {gamma}}(z{sub {gamma}}>0.4)=0.070{+-}0.002{+-}0.019{+-}0.011, with z{sub {gamma}} defined as the scaled photon energy relative to the beam energy. The errors shown are statistical, systematic, and that due to the uncertainty in the input branching fractions used to extract the ratio, respectively.

  18. Production of cosmogenic isotopes 7Be, 10Be, 14C, 22Na, and 36Cl in the atmosphere: Altitudinal profiles of yield functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poluianov, S. V.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Mishev, A. L.; Usoskin, I. G.

    2016-07-01

    New consistent and precise computations of the production of five cosmogenic radioisotopes, 7Be, 10Be, 14C, 22Na, and 36Cl, in the Earth's atmosphere by cosmic rays are presented in the form of tabulated yield functions. For the first time, a detailed set of the altitude profiles of the production functions is provided which makes it possible to apply the results directly as input for atmospheric transport models. Good agreement with most of the earlier published works for columnar and global isotopic production rates is shown. Altitude profiles of the production are important, in particular for such tasks as studies of strong solar particle events in the past, precise reconstructions of solar activity on long-term scale, tracing air mass dynamics using cosmogenic radioisotopes, etc. As an example, computations of the 10Be deposition flux in the polar region are shown for the last decades and also for a period around 780 A.D. and confronted with the actual measurements in Greenland and Antarctic ice cores.

  19. Search for anomalous couplings in the W tb vertex from the measurement of double differential angular decay rates of single top quarks produced in the t-channel with the ATLAS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; Abulaiti, Y.; Acharya, B. S.; Adamczyk, L.; Adams, D. L.; Adelman, J.; Adomeit, S.; Adye, T.; Affolder, A. A.; Agatonovic-Jovin, T.; Agricola, J.; Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A.; Ahlen, S. P.; Ahmadov, F.; Aielli, G.; Akerstedt, H.; Åkesson, T. P. A.; Akimov, A. V.; Alberghi, G. L.; Albert, J.; Albrand, S.; Alconada Verzini, M. J.; Aleksa, M.; Aleksandrov, I. N.; Alexa, C.; Alexander, G.; Alexopoulos, T.; Alhroob, M.; Alimonti, G.; Alio, L.; Alison, J.; Alkire, S. P.; Allbrooke, B. M. M.; Allport, P. P.; Aloisio, A.; Alonso, A.; Alonso, F.; Alpigiani, C.; Altheimer, A.; Alvarez Gonzalez, B.; Álvarez Piqueras, D.; Alviggi, M. G.; Amadio, B. T.; Amaral Amako, K.; Coutinho, Y.; Amelung, C.; Amidei, D.; Amor Dos Santos, S. P.; Amorim, A.; Amoroso, S.; Amram, N.; Amundsen, G.; Anastopoulos, C.; Ancu, L. S.; Andari, N.; Andeen, T.; Anders, C. F.; Anders, G.; Anders, J. K.; Anderson, K. J.; Andreazza, A.; Andrei, V.; Angelidakis, S.; Angelozzi, I.; Anger, P.; Angerami, A.; Anghinolfi, F.; Anisenkov, A. V.; Anjos, N.; Annovi, A.; Antonelli, M.; Antonov, A.; Antos, J.; Anulli, F.; Aoki, M.; Aperio Bella, L.; Arabidze, G.; Arai, Y.; Araque, J. P.; Arce, A. T. H.; Arduh, F. A.; Arguin, J.-F.; Argyropoulos, S.; Arik, M.; Armbruster, A. J.; Arnaez, O.; Arnold, H.; Arratia, M.; Arslan, O.; Artamonov, A.; Artoni, G.; Asai, S.; Asbah, N.; Ashkenazi, A.; Åsman, B.; Asquith, L.; Assamagan, K.; Astalos, R.; Atkinson, M.; Atlay, N. B.; Augsten, K.; Aurousseau, M.; Avolio, G.; Axen, B.; Ayoub, M. K.; Azuelos, G.; Baak, M. A.; Baas, A. E.; Baca, M. J.; Bacci, C.; Bachacou, H.; Bachas, K.; Backes, M.; Backhaus, M.; Bagiacchi, P.; Bagnaia, P.; Bai, Y.; Bain, T.; Baines, J. T.; Baker, O. K.; Baldin, E. M.; Balek, P.; Balestri, T.; Balli, F.; Balunas, W. K.; Banas, E.; Banerjee, Sw.; Bannoura, A. A. E.; Barak, L.; Barberio, E. L.; Barberis, D.; Barbero, M.; Barillari, T.; Barisonzi, M.; Barklow, T.; Barlow, N.; Barnes, S. L.; Barnett, B. M.; Barnett, R. M.; Barnovska, Z.; Baroncelli, A.; Barone, G.; Barr, A. J.; Barreiro, F.; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J.; Bartoldus, R.; Barton, A. E.; Bartos, P.; Basalaev, A.; Bassalat, A.; Basye, A.; Bates, R. L.; Batista, S. J.; Batley, J. R.; Battaglia, M.; Bauce, M.; Bauer, F.; Bawa, H. S.; Beacham, J. B.; Beattie, M. D.; Beau, T.; Beauchemin, P. H.; Beccherle, R.; Bechtle, P.; Beck, H. P.; Becker, K.; Becker, M.; Beckingham, M.; Becot, C.; Beddall, A. J.; Beddall, A.; Bednyakov, V. A.; Bee, C. P.; Beemster, L. J.; Beermann, T. A.; Begel, M.; Behr, J. K.; Belanger-Champagne, C.; Bell, W. H.; Bella, G.; Bellagamba, L.; Bellerive, A.; Bellomo, M.; Belotskiy, K.; Beltramello, O.; Benary, O.; Benchekroun, D.; Bender, M.; Bendtz, K.; Benekos, N.; Benhammou, Y.; Benhar Noccioli, E.; Benitez Garcia, J. A.; Benjamin, D. P.; Bensinger, J. R.; Bentvelsen, S.; Beresford, L.; Beretta, M.; Berge, D.; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E.; Berger, N.; Berghaus, F.; Beringer, J.; Bernard, C.; Bernard, N. R.; Bernius, C.; Bernlochner, F. U.; Berry, T.; Berta, P.; Bertella, C.; Bertoli, G.; Bertolucci, F.; Bertsche, C.; Bertsche, D.; Besana, M. I.; Besjes, G. J.; Bessidskaia Bylund, O.; Bessner, M.; Besson, N.; Betancourt, C.; Bethke, S.; Bevan, A. J.; Bhimji, W.; Bianchi, R. M.; Bianchini, L.; Bianco, M.; Biebel, O.; Biedermann, D.; Biesuz, N. V.; Biglietti, M.; Bilbao De Mendizabal, J.; Bilokon, H.; Bindi, M.; Binet, S.; Bingul, A.; Bini, C.; Biondi, S.; Bjergaard, D. M.; Black, C. W.; Black, J. E.; Black, K. M.; Blackburn, D.; Blair, R. E.; Blanchard, J.-B.; Blanco, J. E.; Blazek, T.; Bloch, I.; Blocker, C.; Blum, W.; Blumenschein, U.; Blunier, S.; Bobbink, G. J.; Bobrovnikov, V. S.; Bocchetta, S. S.; Bocci, A.; Bock, C.; Boehler, M.; Bogaerts, J. A.; Bogavac, D.; Bogdanchikov, A. G.; Bohm, C.; Boisvert, V.; Bold, T.; Boldea, V.; Boldyrev, A. S.; Bomben, M.; Bona, M.; Boonekamp, M.; Borisov, A.; Borissov, G.; Borroni, S.; Bortfeldt, J.; Bortolotto, V.; Bos, K.; Boscherini, D.; Bosman, M.; Boudreau, J.; Bouffard, J.; Bouhova-Thacker, E. V.; Boumediene, D.; Bourdarios, C.; Bousson, N.; Boutle, S. K.; Boveia, A.; Boyd, J.; Boyko, I. R.; Bozic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, A.; Brandt, G.; Brandt, O.; Bratzler, U.; Brau, B.; Brau, J. E.; Braun, H. M.; Breaden Madden, W. D.; Brendlinger, K.; Brennan, A. J.; Brenner, L.; Brenner, R.; Bressler, S.; Bristow, T. M.; Britton, D.; Britzger, D.; Brochu, F. M.; Brock, I.; Brock, R.; Bronner, J.; Brooijmans, G.; Brooks, T.; Brooks, W. K.; Brosamer, J.; Brost, E.; Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A.; Bruncko, D.; Bruneliere, R.; Bruni, A.; Bruni, G.; Bruschi, M.; Bruscino, N.; Bryngemark, L.; Buanes, T.; Buat, Q.; Buchholz, P.; Buckley, A. G.

    2016-04-01

    The electroweak production and subsequent decay of single top quarks is determined by the properties of the Wtb vertex. This vertex can be described by the complex parameters of an effective Lagrangian. An analysis of angular distributions of the decay products of single top quarks produced in the t -channel constrains these parameters simultaneously. The analysis described in this paper uses 4.6 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at √{s}=7 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Two parameters are measured simultaneously in this analysis. The fraction f 1 of decays containing transversely polarised W bosons is measured to be 0 .37 ± 0 .07 (stat.⊕syst.). The phase δ - between amplitudes for transversely and longitudinally polarised W bosons recoiling against left-handed b-quarks is measured to be -0 .014 π ± 0 .036 π (stat.⊕syst.). The correlation in the measurement of these parameters is 0 .15. These values result in two-dimensional limits at the 95% confidence level on the ratio of the complex coupling parameters g R and V L, yielding Re[ g R /V L] ∈ [-0 .36 , 0 .10] and Im[ g R /V L] ∈ [-0 .17 , 0 .23] with a correlation of 0 .11. The results are in good agreement with the predictions of the Standard Model. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  20. Search for anomalous couplings in the W tb vertex from the measurement of double differential angular decay rates of single top quarks produced in the t-channel with the ATLAS detector

    DOE PAGES

    Aad, G.; Abbott, B.; Abdallah, J.; Abdinov, O.; Aben, R.; Abolins, M.; AbouZeid, O. S.; Abramowicz, H.; Abreu, H.; Abreu, R.; et al

    2016-04-05

    The electroweak production and subsequent decay of single top quarks is determined by the properties of the Wtb vertex. This vertex can be described by the complex parameters of an effective Lagrangian. An analysis of angular distributions of the decay products of single top quarks produced in the t -channel constrains these parameters simultaneously. The analysis described in this paper uses 4.6 fb-1 of proton-proton collision data at √s=7 TeV collected with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. Two parameters are measured simultaneously in this analysis. The fraction f 1 of decays containing transversely polarised W bosons is measured tomore » be 0.37 ± 0.07 (stat.⊕syst.). The phase δ - between amplitudes for transversely and longitudinally polarised W bosons recoiling against left-handed b-quarks is measured to be -0.014π ± 0.036π (stat.⊕syst.). The correlation in the measurement of these parameters is 0.15. These values result in two-dimensional limits at the 95% confidence level on the ratio of the complex coupling parameters g R and V L, yielding Re[g R /V L] ϵ [-0.36, 0.10] and Im[g R /V L] ϵ [-0.17, 0.23] with a correlation of 0.11. We find the results are in good agreement with the predictions of the Standard Model.« less

  1. HALF-LIVES OF LONG-LIVED ALPHA DECAY, BETA DECAY, ELECTRON CAPTURE DECAY, BETA BETA-DECAY, PROTON DECAY AND SPONTANEOUS FISSION DECAY NUCLIDES.

    SciTech Connect

    HOLDEN, H.E.

    2003-08-08

    In his review of radionuclides for dating purposes, Roth noted that there were a large number of nuclides, normally considered ''stable'' but which are radioactive with a very long half-life. Roth suggested that I review the data on the half-life values of these long-lived nuclides for the 2001 Atomic Weights Commission meeting in Brisbane. I provided a report, BNL-NCS-68377, to fulfill Roth's request. Peiser has now made a similar suggestion that I review these data for our next Commission meeting in Ottawa for their possible inclusion in our Tables. These half-life values for long-lived nuclides include those due to various decay modes, {alpha}-decay, {beta}-decay, electron capture decay, {beta}{beta}-decay, proton decay and spontaneous fission decay. This data review (post Brisbane) provides an update to the recommendation of the 2001 review.

  2. Mitigation of radon and thoron decay products by filtration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin; Meisenberg, Oliver; Chen, Yongheng; Karg, Erwin; Tschiersch, Jochen

    2011-09-01

    Inhalation of indoor radon ((222)Rn) and thoron ((220)Rn) decay products is the most important source of exposure to ionizing radiation for the human respiratory tract. Decreasing ventilation rates due to energy saving reasons in new buildings suggest additional active mitigation techniques to reduce the exposure in homes with high radon and thoron concentrations but poor ventilation. Filtration techniques with HEPA filters and simple surgical mask material have been tested for their potential to reduce the indoor exposure in terms of the total effective dose for mixed radon and thoron indoor atmospheres. The tests were performed inside an experimental room providing stable conditions. Filtration (at filtration rates of 0.2 h(-1) and larger) removes attached radon and thoron decay products effectively but indoor aerosol as well. Therefore the concentration of unattached decay products (which have a higher dose coefficient) may increase. The decrease of the attached decay product concentrations could be theoretically described by a slowly decreasing exponential process. For attached radon decay products, it exhibited a faster but weaker removal process compared to attached thoron decay products (-70% for attached radon decay products and -80% for attached thoron decay products at a filtration rate of 0.5 h(-1) with an HEPA filter). The concentration of unattached thoron decay products increased distinctly during the filtration process (+300%) while that of unattached radon decay products rose only slightly though at a much higher level (+17%). In the theoretical description these observed differences could be attributed to the different half-lives of the nuclides. Considering both effects, reduced attached and increased unattached decay product concentrations, filtration could significantly decrease the total effective dose from thoron whereas the overall effect on radon dose is small. A permanent filtration is recommended because of the slow decrease of the thoron

  3. Leptonic B Decays at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Baracchini, Elisabetta; /Rome U. /INFN, Rome

    2011-11-10

    We will present the most recent results on leptonic B decays B{sup {+-}(0)} {yields} K*{sup {+-}(0)}{nu}{bar {nu}} and B{sup {+-}} {yields} {mu}{sup {+-}}{nu}, based on the data collected by the BaBar detector at PEP-II, an asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider at the center of mass energy of the {Upsilon}(4S) resonance. Rare B decays have always been a standard probe for New Physics (NP) searches. The very low Standard Model (SM) rate of these decays often make them unaccessible with the present experimental datasets, unless NP effects enhance the rate up to the current experimental sensitivity. Moreover, as NP effects can modify the decay kinematic, particular attention must be paid in order to perform a model independent analysis. A B-Factory provides an unique environment to investigate these processes. The high number of B{bar B} pairs produced by a B-Factory often allows to approach the needed experimental sensitivity. Moreover, the clean environment and the closed kinematic of the initial state enable to obtaining a very pure sample where to look for these decays.

  4. Suppressed Charmed B Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Snoek, Hella Leonie

    2009-06-02

    This thesis describes the measurement of the branching fractions of the suppressed charmed B0 → D*- a0+ decays and the non-resonant B0 → D*- ηπ+ decays in approximately 230 million Υ(4S) → B$\\bar{B}$ events. The data have been collected with the BABAR detector at the PEP-II B factory at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center in California. Theoretical predictions of the branching fraction of the B0 → D*- a{sub 0}+ decays show large QCD model dependent uncertainties. Non-factorizing terms, in the naive factorization model, that can be calculated by QCD factorizing models have a large impact on the branching fraction of these decay modes. The predictions of the branching fractions are of the order of 10-6. The measurement of the branching fraction gives more insight into the theoretical models. In general a better understanding of QCD models will be necessary to conduct weak interaction physics at the next level. The presence of CP violation in electroweak interactions allows the differentiation between matter and antimatter in the laws of physics. In the Standard Model, CP violation is incorporated in the CKM matrix that describes the weak interaction between quarks. Relations amongst the CKM matrix elements are used to present the two relevant parameters as the apex of a triangle (Unitarity Triangle) in a complex plane. The over-constraining of the CKM triangle by experimental measurements is an important test of the Standard Model. At this moment no stringent direct measurements of the CKM angle γ, one of the interior angles of the Unitarity Triangle, are available. The measurement of the angle γ can be performed using the decays of neutral B mesons. The B0 → D*- a0+ decay is sensitive to the angle γ and, in comparison to the current decays that are being employed, could significantly

  5. Decay of superdeformed bands

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, M.P.; Khoo, T.L.; Lauritsen, T.

    1995-12-31

    One of the major challenges in the study of superdeformation is to directly connect the large number of superdeformed bands now known to the yrast states. In this way, excitation energies, spins and parities can be assigned to the levels in the second well which is essential to establish the collective and single-particle components of these bands. This paper will review some of the progress which has been made to understand the decay of superdeformed bands using the new arrays including the measurement of the total decay spectrum and the establishment of direct one-step decays from the superdeformed band to the yrast line in {sup 194}Hg. 42 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Kinetics of Radioactive Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, S.

    At present there are over 3,000 known nuclides (see the Appendix in Vol. 2 on the “Table of the Nuclides”), 265 of which are stable, while the rest, i.e., more than 90% of them, are radioactive. The chemical applications of the specific isotopes of chemical elements are mostly connected with the latter group, including quite a number of metastable nuclear isomers, making the kinetics of radioactive decay an important chapter of nuclear chemistry. After giving a phenomenological and then a statistical interpretation of the exponential law, the various combinations of individual decay processes as well as the cases of equilibrium and nonequilibrium will be discussed. Half-life systematics of the different decay modes detailed in Chaps. 2 and 4 of this volume are also summarized.

  7. Weak decay of hypernuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Grace, R.

    1983-01-01

    The Moby Dick spectrometer (at BNL) in coincidence with a range spectrometer and a TOF neutron detector will be used to study the weak decay modes of /sup 12/C. The Moby Dick spectrometer will be used to reconstruct and tag events in which specific hypernuclear states are formed in the reaction K/sup -/ + /sup 12/C ..-->.. ..pi../sup -/ + /sup 12/C. Subsequent emission of decay products (pions, protons and neutrons) in coincidence with the fast forward pion will be detected in a time and range spectrometer, and a neutron detector.

  8. Search for the decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaij, R.; Adeva, B.; Adinolfi, M.; Affolder, A.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Akar, S.; Albrecht, J.; Alessio, F.; Alexander, M.; Ali, S.; Alkhazov, G.; Alvarez Cartelle, P.; Alves, A. A.; Amato, S.; Amerio, S.; Amhis, Y.; An, L.; Anderlini, L.; Anderson, J.; Andreotti, M.; Andrews, J. E.; Appleby, R. B.; Aquines Gutierrez, O.; Archilli, F.; d'Argent, P.; Artamonov, A.; Artuso, M.; Aslanides, E.; Auriemma, G.; Baalouch, M.; Bachmann, S.; Back, J. J.; Badalov, A.; Baesso, C.; Baldini, W.; Barlow, R. J.; Barschel, C.; Barsuk, S.; Barter, W.; Batozskaya, V.; Battista, V.; Bay, A.; Beaucourt, L.; Beddow, J.; Bedeschi, F.; Bediaga, I.; Bel, L. J.; Belyaev, I.; Ben-Haim, E.; Bencivenni, G.; Benson, S.; Benton, J.; Berezhnoy, A.; Bernet, R.; Bertolin, A.; Bettler, M.-O.; van Beuzekom, M.; Bien, A.; Bifani, S.; Bird, T.; Birnkraut, A.; Bizzeti, A.; Blake, T.; Blanc, F.; Blouw, J.; Blusk, S.; Bocci, V.; Bondar, A.; Bondar, N.; Bonivento, W.; Borghi, S.; Borsato, M.; Bowcock, T. J. V.; Bowen, E.; Bozzi, C.; Braun, S.; Brett, D.; Britsch, M.; Britton, T.; Brodzicka, J.; Brook, N. H.; Bursche, A.; Buytaert, J.; Cadeddu, S.; Calabrese, R.; Calvi, M.; Calvo Gomez, M.; Campana, P.; Campora Perez, D.; Capriotti, L.; Carbone, A.; Carboni, G.; Cardinale, R.; Cardini, A.; Carniti, P.; Carson, L.; Carvalho Akiba, K.; Casanova Mohr, R.; Casse, G.; Cassina, L.; Castillo Garcia, L.; Cattaneo, M.; Cauet, Ch.; Cavallero, G.; Cenci, R.; Charles, M.; Charpentier, Ph.; Chefdeville, M.; Chen, S.; Cheung, S.-F.; Chiapolini, N.; Chrzaszcz, M.; Cid Vidal, X.; Ciezarek, G.; Clarke, P. E. L.; Clemencic, M.; Cliff, H. V.; Closier, J.; Coco, V.; Cogan, J.; Cogneras, E.; Cogoni, V.; Cojocariu, L.; Collazuol, G.; Collins, P.; Comerma-Montells, A.; Contu, A.; Cook, A.; Coombes, M.; Coquereau, S.; Corti, G.; Corvo, M.; Couturier, B.; Cowan, G. A.; Craik, D. C.; Crocombe, A.; Cruz Torres, M.; Cunliffe, S.; Currie, R.; D'Ambrosio, C.; Dalseno, J.; David, P. N. Y.; Davis, A.; De Bruyn, K.; De Capua, S.; De Cian, M.; De Miranda, J. M.; De Paula, L.; De Silva, W.; De Simone, P.; Dean, C.-T.; Decamp, D.; Deckenhoff, M.; Del Buono, L.; Déléage, N.; Derkach, D.; Deschamps, O.; Dettori, F.; Dey, B.; Di Canto, A.; Di Ruscio, F.; Dijkstra, H.; Donleavy, S.; Dordei, F.; Dorigo, M.; Dosil Suárez, A.; Dossett, D.; Dovbnya, A.; Dreimanis, K.; Dujany, G.; Dupertuis, F.; Durante, P.; Dzhelyadin, R.; Dziurda, A.; Dzyuba, A.; Easo, S.; Egede, U.; Egorychev, V.; Eidelman, S.; Eisenhardt, S.; Eitschberger, U.; Ekelhof, R.; Eklund, L.; El Rifai, I.; Elsasser, Ch.; Ely, S.; Esen, S.; Evans, H. M.; Evans, T.; Falabella, A.; Färber, C.; Farinelli, C.; Farley, N.; Farry, S.; Fay, R.; Ferguson, D.; Fernandez Albor, V.; Ferrari, F.; Ferreira Rodrigues, F.; Ferro-Luzzi, M.; Filippov, S.; Fiore, M.; Fiorini, M.; Firlej, M.; Fitzpatrick, C.; Fiutowski, T.; Fol, P.; Fontana, M.; Fontanelli, F.; Forty, R.; Francisco, O.; Frank, M.; Frei, C.; Frosini, M.; Fu, J.; Furfaro, E.; Gallas Torreira, A.; Galli, D.; Gallorini, S.; Gambetta, S.; Gandelman, M.; Gandini, P.; Gao, Y.; García Pardiñas, J.; Garofoli, J.; Garra Tico, J.; Garrido, L.; Gascon, D.; Gaspar, C.; Gastaldi, U.; Gauld, R.; Gavardi, L.; Gazzoni, G.; Geraci, A.; Gerick, D.; Gersabeck, E.; Gersabeck, M.; Gershon, T.; Ghez, Ph.; Gianelle, A.; Gianì, S.; Gibson, V.; Giubega, L.; Gligorov, V. V.; Göbel, C.; Golubkov, D.; Golutvin, A.; Gomes, A.; Gotti, C.; Grabalosa Gándara, M.; Graciani Diaz, R.; Granado Cardoso, L. A.; Graugés, E.; Graverini, E.; Graziani, G.; Grecu, A.; Greening, E.; Gregson, S.; Griffith, P.; Grillo, L.; Grünberg, O.; Gui, B.; Gushchin, E.; Guz, Yu.; Gys, T.; Hadjivasiliou, C.; Haefeli, G.; Haen, C.; Haines, S. C.; Hall, S.; Hamilton, B.; Hampson, T.; Han, X.; Hansmann-Menzemer, S.; Harnew, N.; Harnew, S. T.; Harrison, J.; He, J.; Head, T.; Heijne, V.; Hennessy, K.; Henrard, P.; Henry, L.; Hernando Morata, J. A.; van Herwijnen, E.; Heß, M.; Hicheur, A.; Hill, D.; Hoballah, M.; Hombach, C.; Hulsbergen, W.; Humair, T.; Hussain, N.; Hutchcroft, D.; Hynds, D.; Idzik, M.; Ilten, P.; Jacobsson, R.; Jaeger, A.; Jalocha, J.; Jans, E.; Jawahery, A.; Jing, F.; John, M.; Johnson, D.; Jones, C. R.; Joram, C.; Jost, B.; Jurik, N.; Kandybei, S.; Kanso, W.; Karacson, M.; Karbach, T. M.; Karodia, S.; Kelsey, M.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kenzie, M.; Ketel, T.; Khanji, B.; Khurewathanakul, C.; Klaver, S.; Klimaszewski, K.; Kochebina, O.; Kolpin, M.; Komarov, I.; Koopman, R. F.; Koppenburg, P.; Korolev, M.; Kravchuk, L.; Kreplin, K.; Kreps, M.; Krocker, G.; Krokovny, P.; Kruse, F.; Kucewicz, W.; Kucharczyk, M.; Kudryavtsev, V.; Kurek, K.; Kvaratskheliya, T.; La Thi, V. N.; Lacarrere, D.; Lafferty, G.; Lai, A.; Lambert, D.; Lambert, R. W.; Lanfranchi, G.; Langenbruch, C.; Langhans, B.; Latham, T.; Lazzeroni, C.; Le Gac, R.; van Leerdam, J.; Lees, J.-P.; Lefèvre, R.; Leflat, A.; Lefrançois, J.; Leroy, O.; Lesiak, T.; Leverington, B.; Li, Y.; Likhomanenko, T.; Liles, M.; Lindner, R.; Linn, C.; Lionetto, F.; Liu, B.; Lohn, S.; Longstaff, I.; Lopes, J. H.; Lucchesi, D.; Lucio Martinez, M.; Luo, H.; Lupato, A.; Luppi, E.; Lupton, O.; Machefert, F.; Maciuc, F.; Maev, O.; Malde, S.; Malinin, A.; Manca, G.; Mancinelli, G.; Manning, P.; Mapelli, A.; Maratas, J.; Marchand, J. F.; Marconi, U.; Marin Benito, C.; Marino, P.; Märki, R.; Marks, J.; Martellotti, G.; Martinelli, M.; Martinez Santos, D.; Martinez Vidal, F.; Martins Tostes, D.; Massafferri, A.; Matev, R.; Mathad, A.; Mathe, Z.; Matteuzzi, C.; Matthieu, K.; Mauri, A.; Maurin, B.; Mazurov, A.; McCann, M.; McCarthy, J.; McNab, A.; McNulty, R.; Meadows, B.; Meier, F.; Meissner, M.; Merk, M.; Milanes, D. A.; Minard, M.-N.; Mitzel, D. S.; Molina Rodriguez, J.; Monteil, S.; Morandin, M.; Morawski, P.; Mordà, A.; Morello, M. J.; Moron, J.; Morris, A. B.; Mountain, R.; Muheim, F.; Müller, J.; Müller, K.; Müller, V.; Mussini, M.; Muster, B.; Naik, P.; Nakada, T.; Nandakumar, R.; Nasteva, I.; Needham, M.; Neri, N.; Neubert, S.; Neufeld, N.; Neuner, M.; Nguyen, A. D.; Nguyen, T. D.; Nguyen-Mau, C.; Niess, V.; Niet, R.; Nikitin, N.; Nikodem, T.; Ninci, D.; Novoselov, A.; O'Hanlon, D. P.; Oblakowska-Mucha, A.; Obraztsov, V.; Ogilvy, S.; Okhrimenko, O.; Oldeman, R.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Osorio Rodrigues, B.; Otalora Goicochea, J. M.; Otto, A.; Owen, P.; Oyanguren, A.; Palano, A.; Palombo, F.; Palutan, M.; Panman, J.; Papanestis, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pappalardo, L. L.; Parkes, C.; Passaleva, G.; Patel, G. D.; Patel, M.; Patrignani, C.; Pearce, A.; Pellegrino, A.; Penso, G.; Pepe Altarelli, M.; Perazzini, S.; Perret, P.; Pescatore, L.; Petridis, K.; Petrolini, A.; Petruzzo, M.; Picatoste Olloqui, E.; Pietrzyk, B.; Pilař, T.; Pinci, D.; Pistone, A.; Playfer, S.; Plo Casasus, M.; Poikela, T.; Polci, F.; Poluektov, A.; Polyakov, I.; Polycarpo, E.; Popov, A.; Popov, D.; Popovici, B.; Potterat, C.; Price, E.; Price, J. D.; Prisciandaro, J.; Pritchard, A.; Prouve, C.; Pugatch, V.; Puig Navarro, A.; Punzi, G.; Qian, W.; Quagliani, R.; Rachwal, B.; Rademacker, J. H.; Rakotomiaramanana, B.; Rama, M.; Rangel, M. S.; Raniuk, I.; Rauschmayr, N.; Raven, G.; Redi, F.; Reichert, S.; Reid, M. M.; dos Reis, A. C.; Ricciardi, S.; Richards, S.; Rihl, M.; Rinnert, K.; Rives Molina, V.; Robbe, P.; Rodrigues, A. B.; Rodrigues, E.; Rodriguez Lopez, J. A.; Rodriguez Perez, P.; Roiser, S.; Romanovsky, V.; Romero Vidal, A.; Rotondo, M.; Rouvinet, J.; Ruf, T.; Ruiz, H.; Ruiz Valls, P.; Saborido Silva, J. J.; Sagidova, N.; Sail, P.; Saitta, B.; Salustino Guimaraes, V.; Sanchez Mayordomo, C.; Sanmartin Sedes, B.; Santacesaria, R.; Santamarina Rios, C.; Santovetti, E.; Sarti, A.; Satriano, C.; Satta, A.; Saunders, D. M.; Savrina, D.; Schiller, M.; Schindler, H.; Schlupp, M.; Schmelling, M.; Schmelzer, T.; Schmidt, B.; Schneider, O.; Schopper, A.; Schune, M.-H.; Schwemmer, R.; Sciascia, B.; Sciubba, A.; Semennikov, A.; Sepp, I.; Serra, N.; Serrano, J.; Sestini, L.; Seyfert, P.; Shapkin, M.; Shapoval, I.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shears, T.; Shekhtman, L.; Shevchenko, V.; Shires, A.; Silva Coutinho, R.; Simi, G.; Sirendi, M.; Skidmore, N.; Skillicorn, I.; Skwarnicki, T.; Smith, E.; Smith, E.; Smith, J.; Smith, M.; Snoek, H.; Sokoloff, M. D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Soomro, F.; Souza, D.; Souza De Paula, B.; Spaan, B.; Spradlin, P.; Sridharan, S.; Stagni, F.; Stahl, M.; Stahl, S.; Steinkamp, O.; Stenyakin, O.; Sterpka, F.; Stevenson, S.; Stoica, S.; Stone, S.; Storaci, B.; Stracka, S.; Straticiuc, M.; Straumann, U.; Stroili, R.; Sun, L.; Sutcliffe, W.; Swientek, K.; Swientek, S.; Syropoulos, V.; Szczekowski, M.; Szczypka, P.; Szumlak, T.; T'Jampens, S.; Tekampe, T.; Teklishyn, M.; Tellarini, G.; Teubert, F.; Thomas, C.; Thomas, E.; van Tilburg, J.; Tisserand, V.; Tobin, M.; Todd, J.; Tolk, S.; Tomassetti, L.; Tonelli, D.; Topp-Joergensen, S.; Torr, N.; Tournefier, E.; Tourneur, S.; Trabelsi, K.; Tran, M. T.; Tresch, M.; Trisovic, A.; Tsaregorodtsev, A.; Tsopelas, P.; Tuning, N.; Ukleja, A.; Ustyuzhanin, A.; Uwer, U.; Vacca, C.; Vagnoni, V.; Valenti, G.; Vallier, A.; Vazquez Gomez, R.; Vazquez Regueiro, P.; Vázquez Sierra, C.; Vecchi, S.; Velthuis, J. J.; Veltri, M.; Veneziano, G.; Vesterinen, M.; Viaud, B.; Vieira, D.; Vieites Diaz, M.; Vilasis-Cardona, X.; Vollhardt, A.; Volyanskyy, D.; Voong, D.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, V.; Voß, C.; de Vries, J. A.; Waldi, R.; Wallace, C.; Wallace, R.; Walsh, J.; Wandernoth, S.; Wang, J.; Ward, D. R.; Watson, N. K.; Websdale, D.; Weiden, A.; Whitehead, M.; Wiedner, D.; Wilkinson, G.; Wilkinson, M.; Williams, M.; Williams, M. P.; Williams, M.; Wilson, F. F.; Wimberley, J.; Wishahi, J.; Wislicki, W.; Witek, M.; Wormser, G.; Wotton, S. A.; Wright, S.; Wyllie, K.; Xie, Y.; Xu, Z.; Yang, Z.; Yuan, X.; Yushchenko, O.; Zangoli, M.; Zavertyaev, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, Y.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokhov, A.; Zhong, L.

    2015-08-01

    A search for decays is performed using 3 .0 fb1- of pp collision data recorded by the LHCb experiment during 2011 and 2012. The f 0(980) meson is reconstructed through its decay to the π + π - final state in the mass window 900 MeV /c 2 < m( π + π -) < 1080 MeV /c 2. No significant signal is observed. The first upper limits on the branching fraction of are set at 90 % (95 %) confidence level. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. The COBRA Double Beta Decay Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Dawson, J. V.

    2007-03-28

    The progress of the COBRA neutrinoless double beta decay experiment is discussed. Potential backgrounds are described. Estimates on the contamination levels of 214Bi in the detectors have been made using previously acquired low background data. New crystals with a different passivation material show an improved background count rate of approximately one order of magnitude.

  10. Scalar Mesons in B-decays

    SciTech Connect

    Minkowski, Peter; Ochs, Wolfgang

    2006-02-11

    We summarize some persistent problems in scalar spectroscopy and discuss what could be learned here from charmless B-decays. Recent experimental results are discussed in comparison with theoretical expectations: a simple model based on penguin dominance leads to various symmetry relations in good agreement with recent data; a factorisation approach yields absolute predictions of rates.

  11. Decay of Influenza a Viruses of Human and Avian Origin

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Chas. A.; Guerin, L. F.; Robillard, John

    1968-01-01

    The decay rate of six strains of Influenza virus Type A of human origin and eight strains of avian origin were examined in aerosol form under fixed conditions of temperature and humidity. Strains of avian origin were demonstrated to have greater resistance to decay of viability. PMID:4234786

  12. Analysis of the elastic scattering measured with a 23.7 MeV {sup 7}Be beam on a {sup 9}Be target

    SciTech Connect

    Pires, K. C. C.; Mukha, I.; Moro, A. M.; Gomez-Camacho, J.; Huyse, M.; Ivanov, O.; Leash, S.; Pauwels, D.; Raabe, R.; Smirnov, D.; Stefanescu, I.; Van Duppen, P.; Angulo, C.; Casarejos, E.; Loiselet, M.; Ryckwaert, G.; Martel, I.; Sanchez-Benitez, A. M

    2009-06-03

    We present new data for the reaction {sup 7}Be+{sup 9}Be measured at E{sub lab} = 23.7 MeV. The elastic scattering angular distribution has been analyzed using the phenomenological optical model and the coupled-channels method. In the latter approach, we assumed a two-cluster model of the {sup 7}Be nucleus, and we included explicitly the ground state and first excited state of this nucleus. The contribution of the inelastic excitation of the {sup 7}Be nucleus to the quasielastic cross sections has been investigated.

  13. Experimental study of the p+{sup 6}Li{yields}{eta}+{sup 7}Be reaction 11.3 MeV above threshold

    SciTech Connect

    Budzanowski, A.; Kliczewski, S.; Siudak, R.; Chatterjee, A.; Jha, V.; Roy, B. J.; Hawranek, P.; Magiera, A.; Jahn, R.; Kilian, K.; Maier, R.; Protic, D.; Ritman, J.; Rossen, P. von; Kirillov, Da.; Machner, H.; Kirillov, Di.; Piskunov, N.; Sitnik, I.; Kolev, D.

    2010-10-15

    The cross section for the reaction p+{sup 6}Li{yields}{eta}+{sup 7}Be was measured at an excess energy of 11.28 MeV above threshold by detecting the recoiling {sup 7}Be nuclei. A dedicated set of focal plane detectors was built for the magnetic spectrograph Big Karl and was used for identification and four-momentum measurement of {sup 7}Be. A differential cross section of nb/(d{sigma}/d{Omega})=[0.69{+-}0.20(stat.){+-}0.20(syst.)] sr for the ground state plus 1/2{sup -} was measured. The result is compared to model calculations.

  14. BABAR B Decay Results

    SciTech Connect

    MacFarlane, David B

    2002-03-14

    Data from the first run of the BABAR detector at the PEP II accelerator are presented. Measurements of many rare B decay modes are now possible using the large data sets currently being collected by BABAR. An overview of analysis techniques and results on data collected in 2000 are described.

  15. Cosmology with decaying particles

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.S.

    1984-09-01

    We consider a cosmological model in which an unstable massive relic particle species (denoted by X) has an initial mass density relative to baryons ..beta../sup -1/ identically equal rho/sub X//rho/sub B/ >> 1, and then decays recently (redshift z less than or equal to 1000) into particles which are still relativistic today (denoted by R). We write down and solve the coupled equations for the cosmic scale factor a(t), the energy density in the various components (rho/sub X/, rho/sub R/, rho/sub B/), and the growth of linear density perturbations (delta rho/rho). The solutions form a one parameter (..beta..) family of solutions; physically ..beta../sup -1/ approx. = (..cap omega../sub R//..cap omega../sub NR/) x (1 + z/sub D/) = (ratio today of energy density of relativistic to nonrelativistic particles) x (1 + redshift of (decay)). We discuss the observational implications of such a cosmological model and compare our results to earlier results computed in the simultaneous decay approximation. In an appendix we briefly consider the case where one of the decay products of the X is massive and becomes nonrelativistic by the present epoch. 21 references.

  16. Decay Time of Cathodoluminescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2009-01-01

    Simple measurements of the decay time of cathodoluminescence are described. Cathodoluminescence is used in many devices, including computer monitors, oscilloscopes, radar displays and television tubes. The experimental setup is simple and easy to build. Two oscilloscopes, a function generator, and a fast photodiode are needed for the experiments.…

  17. Tooth decay - early childhood

    MedlinePlus

    Bottle mouth; Bottle carries; Baby bottle tooth decay; Early childhood caries (ECC) ... Your child needs strong, healthy baby teeth to chew food and to talk. Baby teeth also make space in children's jaws for their adult teeth to grow in straight. ...

  18. Anatomy of decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bel, Lennaert; De Bruyn, Kristof; Fleischer, Robert; Mulder, Mick; Tuning, Niels

    2015-07-01

    The decays B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +} and B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/s +} probe the CP-violating mixing phases ϕ d and ϕ s , respectively. The theoretical uncertainty of the corresponding determinations is limited by contributions from penguin topologies, which can be included with the help of the U-spin symmetry of the strong interaction. We analyse the currently available data for B {/d, s 0} → D {/d, s -} D {/d, s +} decays and those with similar dynamics to constrain the involved non-perturbative parameters. Using further information from semileptonic B {/d 0} → D {/d -} ℓ + ν ℓ decays, we perform a test of the factorisation approximation and take non-factorisable SU(3)-breaking corrections into account. The branching ratios of the B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +}, B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/d +} and B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/s +}, B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/s +} decays show an interesting pattern which can be accommodated through significantly enhanced exchange and penguin annihilation topologies. This feature is also supported by data for the B {/s 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +} channel. Moreover, there are indications of potentially enhanced penguin contributions in the B {/d 0} → D {/d -} D {/d +} and B {/s 0} → D {/s -} D {/s +} decays, which would make it mandatory to control these effects in the future measurements of ϕ d and ϕ s . We discuss scenarios for high-precision measurements in the era of Belle II and the LHCb upgrade.

  19. Duality and decay of macroscopic F strings.

    PubMed

    Skliros, Dimitri P; Copeland, Edmund J; Saffin, Paul M

    2013-07-26

    We study the decay of fundamental string loops of arbitrary size L/min(n,m)≫sqrt[α'], labeled by (n, m; λn, λ[over ¯]m), where n, m correspond to left- and right-mover harmonics and λn, λ[over ¯]m to polarization tensors, and find that a description in terms of the recent coherent vertex operator construction of Hindmarsh and Skliros is computationally very efficient. We primarily show that the decay rates and mass shifts of vertex operators (n, m; λn, λ[over ¯]m) and their "duals" (n, m; λn, λ[over ¯]m*) are equal to leading order in the string coupling, implying, for instance, that decay rates of epicycloids equal those of hypocycloids. We then compute the power and decay rates associated with massless IR radiation for the trajectory (1, 1; λ1, λ[over ¯]1), and find that it is precisely reproduced by the low energy effective theory of Dabholkar and Harvey. Guided by this correspondence, we conjecture the result for arbitrary trajectories (n, m; λn, λ[over ¯]m) and discover a curious relation between gravitational and axion plus dilaton radiation. It is now possible to start exploring string evolution in regimes where a low energy effective description is less useful, such as in the vicinity of cusps. PMID:23931354

  20. Duality and decay of macroscopic F strings.

    PubMed

    Skliros, Dimitri P; Copeland, Edmund J; Saffin, Paul M

    2013-07-26

    We study the decay of fundamental string loops of arbitrary size L/min(n,m)≫sqrt[α'], labeled by (n, m; λn, λ[over ¯]m), where n, m correspond to left- and right-mover harmonics and λn, λ[over ¯]m to polarization tensors, and find that a description in terms of the recent coherent vertex operator construction of Hindmarsh and Skliros is computationally very efficient. We primarily show that the decay rates and mass shifts of vertex operators (n, m; λn, λ[over ¯]m) and their "duals" (n, m; λn, λ[over ¯]m*) are equal to leading order in the string coupling, implying, for instance, that decay rates of epicycloids equal those of hypocycloids. We then compute the power and decay rates associated with massless IR radiation for the trajectory (1, 1; λ1, λ[over ¯]1), and find that it is precisely reproduced by the low energy effective theory of Dabholkar and Harvey. Guided by this correspondence, we conjecture the result for arbitrary trajectories (n, m; λn, λ[over ¯]m) and discover a curious relation between gravitational and axion plus dilaton radiation. It is now possible to start exploring string evolution in regimes where a low energy effective description is less useful, such as in the vicinity of cusps.

  1. Duality and Decay of Macroscopic F Strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skliros, Dimitri P.; Copeland, Edmund J.; Saffin, Paul M.

    2013-07-01

    We study the decay of fundamental string loops of arbitrary size L/min⁡(n,m)≫α', labeled by (n, m; λn, λ¯m), where n, m correspond to left- and right-mover harmonics and λn, λ¯m to polarization tensors, and find that a description in terms of the recent coherent vertex operator construction of Hindmarsh and Skliros is computationally very efficient. We primarily show that the decay rates and mass shifts of vertex operators (n, m; λn, λ¯m) and their “duals” (n, m; λn, λ¯m*) are equal to leading order in the string coupling, implying, for instance, that decay rates of epicycloids equal those of hypocycloids. We then compute the power and decay rates associated with massless IR radiation for the trajectory (1, 1; λ1, λ¯1), and find that it is precisely reproduced by the low energy effective theory of Dabholkar and Harvey. Guided by this correspondence, we conjecture the result for arbitrary trajectories (n, m; λn, λ¯m) and discover a curious relation between gravitational and axion plus dilaton radiation. It is now possible to start exploring string evolution in regimes where a low energy effective description is less useful, such as in the vicinity of cusps.

  2. Direct and indirect searches for anomalous beta decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nistor, Jonathan M.

    We present a treatment of time-varying nuclear transition rates intended to guide future experimental searches, focusing primarily on the concept of "self-induce decay.'' This investigation stems from a series of recent reports that suggest that the decay rates of several isotopes may have been influenced by solar activity (perhaps by solar neutrinos). A mechanism in which (anti)neutrinos can influence the decay process suggests that a sample of decaying nuclei emitting neutrinos could affect its own rate of decay. Past experiments have searched for this "self-induced decay" (SID) effect by measuring deviations from the expected decay rate for highly active samples of varying geometries. Here, we further develop a SID formalism which takes into account the activation process. In the course of the treatment, the observation is made that the SID behavior closely resembles the behavior of rate-related losses due to dead-time, and hence that standard dead-time corrections can result in the removal of possible SID-related behavior. Additionally, we discuss a long-running dark matter (DM) experiment which observes an annual signal predicted by standard DM models. Here, we consider the possibility that the annual signal seen by the DAMA collaboration, and interpreted by them as evidence for dark matter, may in fact be due to the radioactive contaminant 40K, which is known to be present in their detector. We also consider the possibility that part of the DAMA signal may arise from relic big-bang neutrinos.

  3. Production and decay of charmed baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosaka, Atsushi; Hiyama, Emiko; Kim, SangHo; Kim, Hyun-Chul; Nagahiro, Hideko; Noumi, Hiroyuki; Oka, Makoto; Shirotori, Kotaro; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Yasui, Shigehiro

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we discuss reactions involving charmed baryons to explore their unique features. A well known phenomenon, the separation of the two internal motions of the ρ and λ types of a three-quark system is revisited. First we discuss the mass spectrum of low lying excitations as function of the heavy quark mass, smoothly connecting the SU (3) and heavy quark limits. The properties of these modes can be tested in the production and decay reactions of the baryons. For production, we consider a one step process which excites dominantly λ modes. We find abundant production rates for some of the excited states. For decay, we study a pion emission process which provides a clean tool to test the structure of heavy quark systems due to the well controlled low energy dynamics of pions and quarks. Both production and decay of charmed baryons are issues for future experiments at J-PARC.

  4. Short-term variability of 7Be atmospheric deposition and watershed response in a Pacific coastal stream, Monterey Bay, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conaway, Christopher H.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Draut, Amy E.; Swarzenski, Peter W.

    2013-01-01

    Beryllium-7 is a powerful and commonly used tracer for environmental processes such as watershed sediment provenance, soil erosion, fluvial and nearshore sediment cycling, and atmospheric fallout. However, few studies have quantified temporal or spatial variability of 7Be accumulation from atmospheric fallout, and parameters that would better define the uses and limitations of this geochemical tracer. We investigated the abundance and variability of 7Be in atmospheric deposition in both rain events and dry periods, and in stream surface-water samples collected over a ten-month interval at sites near northern Monterey Bay (37°N, 122°W) on the central California coast, a region characterized by a rainy winters, dry summers, and small mountainous streams with flashy hydrology. The range of 7Be activity in rainwater samples from the main sampling site was 1.3–4.4 Bq L−1, with a mean (±standard deviation) of 2.2 ± 0.9 Bq L−1, and a volume-weighted average of 2.0 Bq L−1. The range of wet atmospheric deposition was 18–188 Bq m−2 per rain event, with a mean of 72 ± 53 Bq m−2. Dry deposition fluxes of 7Be ranged from less than 0.01 up to 0.45 Bq m−2 d−1, with an estimated dry season deposition of 7 Bq m−2 month−1. Annualized 7Be atmospheric deposition was approximately 1900 Bq m−2 yr−1, with most deposition via rainwater (>95%) and little via dry deposition. Overall, these activities and deposition fluxes are similar to values found in other coastal locations with comparable latitude and Mediterranean-type climate. Particulate 7Be values in the surface water of the San Lorenzo River in Santa Cruz, California, ranged from −1 to 0.6 Bq g−1, with a median activity of 0.26 Bq g−1. A large storm event in January 2010 characterized by prolonged flooding resulted in the entrainment of 7Be-depleted sediment, presumably from substantial erosion in the watershed. There were too few particulate 7Be data over the storm to accurately model a 7Be load

  5. Charmless 3-BODY B Decays:. Resonant and Nonresonant Contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Hai-Yang

    Charmless 3-body decays of B mesons are studied using a simple model based on the framework of the factorization approach. We have identified a large source of the nonresonant signal in the matrix elements of scalar densities, e.g. < K/line{K}∣ /line{s}s ∣ 0 >. This explains the dominance of the nonresonant background in B → KKK decays, the sizable nonresonant fraction of order (35 40)% in K-π+π- and /line{K}0π +π - modes and the smallness of nonresonant rates in B → πππ decays. We have computed the resonant and nonresonant contributions to charmless 3-body decays and determined the rates for the quasi-two-body decays B → VP and B → SP. Time-dependent CP asymmetries sin 2βeff and ACP in K+K-KS, KSKSKS, KSπ+π- and KSπ0π0 modes are estimated.

  6. AN HISTORICAL OVERVIEW OF THE IMPORTANCE OF THE WEAK DECAY OF HYPERNUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    B. F. GIBSON

    2001-01-09

    Weak decay of hypernuclei, first cousin to the {beta}-decay of conventional, nonstrange nuclei, was initially observed in the 1950s. Pionic decay rates have proven a challenge--to reconcile nuclear decay rates with that of free {lambda} decay. Pauli blocking of the decay nucleon plays an important role. Nonmesonic decay provides our only practical means of exploring the four-fermion, strangeness-changing N{Lambda} {yields} NN weak interaction. The N{Lambda}{rho} vertex can be investigated in no other way. The large momentum transfer in the nonmesonic decay process suggests a means to probe short distance aspects of the interaction, possibly revealing baryon substructure effects. Whether the {Delta}I = 1/2 rule, which governs free {Lambda} decay, also applies to the nonmesonic decay process remains an open question. The free {Lambda} does not decay by emission of a {pi}{sup +}; the {pi}{sup +} decay of {sup 4}He is a puzzle. Finally, the weak decay of strangeness -2 hypernuclei is an important topic, because the pionic decay process is central to current efforts to seek and identify {Lambda}{Lambda} hypernuclei.

  7. B Decays Involving Light Mesons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eschrich, Ivo Gough

    Recent BABAR results for decays of B-mesons to combinations of non-charm mesons are presented. This includes B decays to two vector mesons, B → η‧(π, K, ρ) modes, and a comprehensive Dalitz Plot analysis of B → KKK decays.

  8. B Decays Involving Light Mesons

    SciTech Connect

    Eschrich, Ivo Gough; /UC, Irvine

    2007-01-09

    Recent BABAR results for decays of B-mesons to combinations of non-charm mesons are presented. This includes B decays to two vector mesons, B {yields} {eta}{prime}({pi}, K, {rho}) modes, and a comprehensive Dalitz Plot analysis of B {yields} KKK decays.

  9. Effects of Zn and substituents(methyl and p-tolyl) on the decay of electron transfer rates in porphyrin-benzene-(bicyclo[2.2.2]octane) n-quinone ( n=0,1,2) systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    do Monte, Silmar A.

    2001-03-01

    The electronic factor ( Δ) for photoinduced electron transfer (PET) in porphyrin-benzene-(bicyclo[2.2.2]octane) n-quinone ( n=0,1,2) systems (P-B-Q) is calculated by using the CI-CNDO/S method. An artificial potential is employed in order to bring the systems to the avoided crossing region. The effects of Zn coordination on the porphyrin ring and peripheral substitution are studied. We found that, without Zn, methyl substitution on meso positions diminishes significantly the decay coefficient of Δ with P-Q distance ( α). P-tolyl substituents, on positions (β,γ,δ), have a lower effect on α. Zn coordination is effective only in the case of methylated P ring, where α is lowered.

  10. Fitting the luminosity decay in the Tevatron

    SciTech Connect

    McCrory, E.; Shiltsev, V.; Slaughter, A.J.; Xiao, A.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    This paper explores how to fit the decay of the luminosity in the Tevatron. The standard assumptions of a fixed-lifetime exponential decay are only appropriate for very short time intervals. A ''1/time'' functional form fits well, and is supported by analytical derivations. A more complex form, assuming a time-varying lifetime-like term, also produces good results. Changes in the luminosity can be factored into two phenomena: The luminosity burn-off rate, and the burn-off rate from non-luminosity effects. This is particularly relevant for the antiprotons in the Tevatron. The luminous and the non-luminous burn rate of the antiprotons are shown for Tevatron stores.

  11. Note on QCD corrections to hadronic Higgs decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drees, Manuel; Hikasa, Ken-ichi

    1990-04-01

    The O( αs) QCD correction to the hadronic decay of a scalar Higgs boson, for which contradicting results have been reported, is calculated. Our result is in agreement with that of Braaten and Leveille but disagrees with that of Janot. The possible origin of the discrepancy is discussed. The total hadronic decay rate and the differential rate to qq¯g of a pseudoscalar Higgs boson are also presented.

  12. Rare {Lambda}{sub b} decays in a quark model

    SciTech Connect

    Mott, L.; Roberts, W.

    2010-08-05

    Hadronic form factors for the rare weak transitions {Lambda}{sub b{yields}{Lambda}}{sup (*)} are calculated using a nonrelativistic quark model. The form factors obtained in this way are found to satisfy the relationships expecetd from the heavy quark effective theory. Differential decay rates and branching ratios are calculated for the dileptonic decays {Lambda}{sub b{yields}{Lambda}}{sup (*)}l{sup +}l{sup -}, for both ground state and excited daughter baryons. Inclusion of the long distance contributions from charmonium resonances significantly enhances the decay rates. Future work is outlined.

  13. Radioactive decay data tables

    SciTech Connect

    Kocher, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    The estimation of radiation dose to man from either external or internal exposure to radionuclides requires a knowledge of the energies and intensities of the atomic and nuclear radiations emitted during the radioactive decay process. The availability of evaluated decay data for the large number of radionuclides of interest is thus of fundamental importance for radiation dosimetry. This handbook contains a compilation of decay data for approximately 500 radionuclides. These data constitute an evaluated data file constructed for use in the radiological assessment activities of the Technology Assessments Section of the Health and Safety Research Division at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The radionuclides selected for this handbook include those occurring naturally in the environment, those of potential importance in routine or accidental releases from the nuclear fuel cycle, those of current interest in nuclear medicine and fusion reactor technology, and some of those of interest to Committee 2 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection for the estimation of annual limits on intake via inhalation and ingestion for occupationally exposed individuals.

  14. RADIATIVE PENGUIN DECAYS FROM BABAR

    SciTech Connect

    Eigen, Gerald

    2003-08-28

    Electroweak penguin decays provide a promising hunting ground for Physics beyond the Standard Model (SM). The decay B {yields} X{sub s}{gamma}, which proceeds through an electromagnetic penguin loop, already provides stringent constraints on the supersymmetric (SUSY) parameter space. The present data samples of {approx}1 x 10{sup 8} B{bar B} events allow to explore radiative penguin decays with branching fractions of the order of 10{sup -6} or less. In this brief report they discuss a study of B {yields} K*{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -} decay modes and a search for B {yields} {rho}({omega}){gamma} decays.

  15. Charmless b decays at CDF

    SciTech Connect

    Donega, Mauro; /Geneva U.

    2005-07-01

    The authors report on the charmless B decays measurements performed on 180 pb{sup -1} of data collected with the CDF II detector at the Fermilab Tevatron collider. This paper describes: the first observation of the decay mode B{sub s} {yields} K{sup +}K{sup -} and the measurement of the direct Cp asymmetry in the ({bar B}){sub d} {yields} K{sup {+-}}{pi}{sup {-+}} decay; the first evidence of the decay mode B{sub s} {yields} {phi}{phi} and the branching ratio and Cp asymmetry for the B{sup {+-}} {yields} {phi}K{sup {+-}} decay.

  16. Sound decay of notes from acoustic guitars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galazen, Erika; Nordberg, Joni; Huber, Thomas M.

    2005-09-01

    The acoustic guitar produces tones by transferring energy from the strings, through the bridge to the top plate, back, and air cavity of the guitar. The vibrations are ultimately radiated into the air as sound. The air-cavity and body resonances of the guitar play an important role in both the tone and the sustain (the time it takes notes to decay) produced by the guitar. To study the relationship between resonances of the guitar and the sustain of notes, the resonance frequencies were measured using a mechanical shaker attached to the body of the guitar and laser Doppler vibrometer to measure its vibration. A string was tuned to different frequencies and plucked. The decay of the note was measured with an electromagnetic pickup that measured the vibration of the string, a vibrometer to measure vibration of the top plate, and microphones located inside and outside the guitar. As expected, when the fundamental frequency of the string was near one of the resonances of the guitar, the decay rate was faster (shorter sustain) than when the string was between resonances. The relationship between the decay rates of the different parts of the system will also be discussed.

  17. Constraining decaying dark matter with neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-García, M. Ángeles; Silk, Joseph

    2015-05-01

    The amount of decaying dark matter, accumulated in the central regions in neutron stars together with the energy deposition rate from decays, may set a limit on the neutron star survival rate against transitions to more compact objects provided nuclear matter is not the ultimate stable state of matter and that dark matter indeed is unstable. More generally, this limit sets constraints on the dark matter particle decay time, τχ. We find that in the range of uncertainties intrinsic to such a scenario, masses (mχ /TeV) ≳ 9 ×10-4 or (mχ /TeV) ≳ 5 ×10-2 and lifetimes τχ ≲1055 s and τχ ≲1053 s can be excluded in the bosonic or fermionic decay cases, respectively, in an optimistic estimate, while more conservatively, it decreases τχ by a factor ≳1020. We discuss the validity under which these results may improve with other current constraints.

  18. Decay of Bogoliubov excitations in one-dimensional Bose gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ristivojevic, Zoran; Matveev, K. A.

    2016-07-01

    We study the decay of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in one-dimensional Bose gases. Starting from the hydrodynamic Hamiltonian, we develop a microscopic theory that enables one to systematically study both the excitations and their decay. At zero temperature, the leading mechanism of decay of a quasiparticle is disintegration into three others. We find that low-energy quasiparticles (phonons) decay with the rate that scales with the seventh power of momentum, whereas the rate of decay of the high-energy quasiparticles does not depend on momentum. In addition, our approach allows us to study analytically the quasiparticle decay in the whole crossover region between the two limiting cases. When applied to integrable models, including the Lieb-Liniger model of bosons with contact repulsion, our theory confirms the absence of the decay of quasiparticle excitations. We account for two types of integrability-breaking perturbations that enable finite decay: three-body interaction between the bosons and two-body interaction of finite range.

  19. Constraints from 210Pb and 7Be on wet deposition and transport in a global three-dimensional chemical tracer model driven by assimilated meteorological fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongyu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Bey, Isabelle; Yantosca, Robert M.

    2001-06-01

    The atmospheric distributions of the aerosol tracers 210Pb and 7Be are simulated with a global three-dimensional model driven by assimilated meteorological observations for 1991-1996 from the NASA Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS1). The combination of terrigenic 210Pb and cosmogenic 7Be provides a sensitive test of wet deposition and vertical transport in the model. Our simulation of moist transport and removal includes scavenging in wet convective updrafts (40% scavenging efficiency per kilometer of updraft), midlevel entrainment and detrainment, first-order rainout and washout from both convective anvils and large-scale precipitation, and cirrus precipitation. Observations from surface sites in specific years are compared to model results for the corresponding meteorological years, and observations from aircraft missions over the Pacific are compared to model results for the days of the flights. Initial simulation of 7Be showed that cross-tropopause transport in the GEOS1 meteorological fields is too fast by a factor of 3-4. We adjusted the stratospheric 7Be source to correct the tropospheric simulation. Including this correction, we find that the model gives a good simulation of observed 210Pb and 7Be concentrations and deposition fluxes at surface sites worldwide, with no significant global bias and with significant success in reproducing the observed latitudinal and seasonal distributions. We achieve several improvements over previous models; in particular, we reproduce the observed 7Be minimum in the tropics and show that its simulation is sensitive to rainout from convective anvils. Comparisons with aircraft observations up to 12-km altitude suggest that cirrus precipitation could be important for explaining the low concentrations in the middle and upper troposphere.

  20. Evaluation of the characteristics of boron-dose enhancer (BDE) materials for BNCT using near threshold 7Li(p,n)7Be direct neutrons.

    PubMed

    Bengua, Gerard; Kobayashi, Tooru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Nakagawa, Yoshinobu

    2004-03-01

    The characteristics of a number of candidate boron-dose enhancer (BDE) materials for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) using near threshold 7Li(p,n)7Be direct neutrons were evaluated based on the treatable protocol depth (TPD), defined in this paper. Simulation calculations were carried out by means of MCNP-4B transport code for candidate BDE materials, namely, (C2H4)n, (C2H3F)n, (C2H2F2)n, (C2HF3)n, (C2D4)n, (C2F4)n, beryllium metal, graphite, D2O and 7LiF. Dose protocols applied were those used for intra-operative BNCT treatment for brain tumour currently used in Japan. The maximum TPD (TPDmax) for each BDE material was found to be between 4 cm and 5 cm in the order of (C2H4)n < (C2H3F)n < (C2H2F2)n < (C2HF3)n < beryllium metal < (C2D4)n < graphite < (C2F4)n < D2O < 7LiF. Based on the small and arbitrary variations in the TPDmax for these materials, an explicit advantage of a candidate BDE material could not be established from the TPDmax alone. The dependence of TPD on BDE thickness was found to be influenced by the type of BDE material. For materials with hydrogen, sharp variations in TPD were observed, while those without hydrogen exhibited more moderate fluctuations in TPD as the BDE thickness was varied. The BDE thickness corresponding to TPDmax (BDE(TPDmax)) was also found to depend on the type of BDE material used. Thicker BDE(TPDmax), obtained mostly for BDE materials without hydrogen, significantly reduced the dose rates within the phantom. The TPDmax, the dependence of TPD on BDE thickness and the BDE (TPDmax) were ascertained as appropriate optimization criteria in choosing suitable BDE materials for BNCT. Among the candidate BDE materials considered in this study. (C2H4)n was judged as the suitable material for near-surface tumours and beryllium metal for deeper tumours based on these optimization criteria and other practical considerations.

  1. 7Be (n ,α )4He Reaction and the Cosmological Lithium Problem: Measurement of the Cross Section in a Wide Energy Range at n_TOF at CERN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbagallo, M.; Musumarra, A.; Cosentino, L.; Maugeri, E.; Heinitz, S.; Mengoni, A.; Dressler, R.; Schumann, D.; Käppeler, F.; Colonna, N.; Finocchiaro, P.; Ayranov, M.; Damone, L.; Kivel, N.; Aberle, O.; Altstadt, S.; Andrzejewski, J.; Audouin, L.; Bacak, M.; Balibrea-Correa, J.; Barros, S.; Bécares, V.; Bečvář, F.; Beinrucker, C.; Berthoumieux, E.; Billowes, J.; Bosnar, D.; Brugger, M.; Caamaño, M.; Calviani, M.; Calviño, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Cardella, R.; Casanovas, A.; Castelluccio, D. M.; Cerutti, F.; Chen, Y. H.; Chiaveri, E.; Cortés, G.; Cortés-Giraldo, M. A.; Cristallo, S.; Diakaki, M.; Domingo-Pardo, C.; Dupont, E.; Duran, I.; Fernandez-Dominguez, B.; Ferrari, A.; Ferreira, P.; Furman, W.; Ganesan, S.; García-Rios, A.; Gawlik, A.; Glodariu, T.; Göbel, K.; Gonçalves, I. F.; González-Romero, E.; Griesmayer, E.; Guerrero, C.; Gunsing, F.; Harada, H.; Heftrich, T.; Heyse, J.; Jenkins, D. G.; Jericha, E.; Katabuchi, T.; Kavrigin, P.; Kimura, A.; Kokkoris, M.; Krtička, M.; Leal-Cidoncha, E.; Lerendegui, J.; Lederer, C.; Leeb, H.; Lo Meo, S.; Lonsdale, S. J.; Losito, R.; Macina, D.; Marganiec, J.; Martínez, T.; Massimi, C.; Mastinu, P.; Mastromarco, M.; Mazzone, A.; Mendoza, E.; Milazzo, P. M.; Mingrone, F.; Mirea, M.; Montesano, S.; Nolte, R.; Oprea, A.; Pappalardo, A.; Patronis, N.; Pavlik, A.; Perkowski, J.; Piscopo, M.; Plompen, A.; Porras, I.; Praena, J.; Quesada, J.; Rajeev, K.; Rauscher, T.; Reifarth, R.; Riego-Perez, A.; Rout, P.; Rubbia, C.; Ryan, J.; Sabate-Gilarte, M.; Saxena, A.; Schillebeeckx, P.; Schmidt, S.; Sedyshev, P.; Smith, A. G.; Stamatopoulos, A.; Tagliente, G.; Tain, J. L.; Tarifeño-Saldivia, A.; Tassan-Got, L.; Tsinganis, A.; Valenta, S.; Vannini, G.; Variale, V.; Vaz, P.; Ventura, A.; Vlachoudis, V.; Vlastou, R.; Vollaire, J.; Wallner, A.; Warren, S.; Weigand, M.; Weiß, C.; Wolf, C.; Woods, P. J.; Wright, T.; Žugec, P.; n TOF Collaboration

    2016-10-01

    The energy-dependent cross section of the 7Be (n ,α )4He reaction, of interest for the so-called cosmological lithium problem in big bang nucleosynthesis, has been measured for the first time from 10 meV to 10 keV neutron energy. The challenges posed by the short half-life of 7Be and by the low reaction cross section have been overcome at n_TOF thanks to an unprecedented combination of the extremely high luminosity and good resolution of the neutron beam in the new experimental area (EAR2) of the n_TOF facility at CERN, the availability of a sufficient amount of chemically pure 7Be, and a specifically designed experimental setup. Coincidences between the two alpha particles have been recorded in two Si -7Be -Si arrays placed directly in the neutron beam. The present results are consistent, at thermal neutron energy, with the only previous measurement performed in the 1960s at a nuclear reactor. The energy dependence reported here clearly indicates the inadequacy of the cross section estimates currently used in BBN calculations. Although new measurements at higher neutron energy may still be needed, the n_TOF results hint at a minor role of this reaction in BBN, leaving the long-standing cosmological lithium problem unsolved.

  2. {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B S factor from ab initio no-core shell model wave functions

    SciTech Connect

    Navratil, P.; Bertulani, C.A.; Caurier, E.

    2006-06-15

    Nuclear structure of {sup 7}Be, {sup 8}B, and {sup 7,8}Li is studied within the ab initio no-core shell model (NCSM). Starting from high-precision nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions, wave functions of {sup 7}Be and {sup 8}B bound states are obtained in basis spaces up to 10({Dirac_h}/2{pi}){omega} and used to calculate channel cluster form factors (overlap integrals) of the {sup 8}B ground state with {sup 7}Be+p. Due to the use of the harmonic oscillator (HO) basis, the overlap integrals have incorrect asymptotic properties. We fix this problem in two alternative ways. First, by a Woods-Saxon potential solution fit to the interior of the NCSM overlap integrals. Second, by a direct matching with the Whittaker function. The corrected overlap integrals are then used for the {sup 7}Be(p,{gamma}){sup 8}B S-factor calculation. We study the convergence of the S factor with respect to the NCSM HO frequency and the model space size. Our S factor results agree with recent direct measurement data. We also test the spectroscopic factors and the corrected overlap integrals from the NCSM in describing the momentum distributions in knockout reactions with {sup 8}B projectiles. A good agreement with the available experimental data is also found, attesting to the overall consistency of the calculations.

  3. Study of the 3He(α,γ)7Be and 3H(α,γ)7Li reactions at astrophysical energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadeghi, H.; Ghasemi, R.

    2014-06-01

    We have studied the important astrophysical 3He(α,γ)7Be and 3H(α,γ)7Li reactions in the framework of a potential model. 3He(α,γ)7Be and 3H(α,γ)7Li processes are key reactions in both bigbang nucleosynthesis and the p-p chain of hydrogen-burning in stars. The stellar 3He(α,γ)7Be and 3H(α,γ)7Li reactions were analyzed at low energies on the basis of a direct radiative capture mechanism. The astrophysical S-factors near zero energy were calculated without using the effective expansion of the S-factor or the asymptotic wave functions. In this paper, 3He(α,γ)7Be and 3H(α,γ)7Li radiative capture reactions at very low energies are taken as a case study. Using the M3Y potential, we have calculated the astrophysical S-factors for the E1 transition. In comparison with other theoretical methods and available experimental data, excellent agreement is achieved for the astrophysical S-factors of these processes.

  4. Spatial and temporal variability of (7)Be and (210)Pb wet deposition during four successive monsoon storms in a catchment of northern Laos.

    PubMed

    Gourdin, E; Evrard, O; Huon, S; Reyss, J-L; Ribolzi, O; Bariac, T; Sengtaheuanghoung, O; Ayrault, S

    2014-10-01

    Fallout radionuclides (7)Be and (210)Pb have been identified as potentially relevant temporal tracers for studying soil particles dynamics (surface vs. subsurface sources contribution; remobilization of in-channel sediment) during erosive events in river catchments. An increasing number of studies compared (7)Be: (210)Pb activity ratio in rainwater and sediment to estimate percentages of freshly eroded particles. However, the lack of data regarding the spatial and temporal variability of radionuclide wet deposition during individual storms has been identified as one of the main gaps in these estimates. In order to determine these key parameters, rainwater samples were collected at three stations during four storms that occurred at the beginning of the monsoon (June 2013) in the Houay Xon mountainous catchment in northern Laos. Rainwater (7)Be and (210)Pb activities measured using very low background hyperpure Germanium detectors ranged from 0.05 to 1.72 Bq L(-1) and 0.02 to 0.26 Bq L(-1), respectively. Water δ(18)O were determined on the same samples. Total rainfall amount of the four sampled storms ranged from 4.8 to 26.4 mm (51 mm in total) at the time-fractionated collection point. Corresponding cumulative (7)Be and (210)Pb wet depositions during the sampling period were 17.6 and 2.9 Bq m(-2), respectively. The (7)Be: (210)Pb activity ratio varied (1) in space from 6 to 9 for daily deposition and (2) in time from 3 to 12 for samples successively collected. Intra-event evolution of rainwater (7)Be and (210)Pb activities as well as δ(18)O highlighted the progressive depletion of local infra-cloud atmosphere radionuclide stock with time (washout), which remains consistent with a Raleigh-type distillation process for water vapour. Intra-storm ratio increasing with time showed the increasing contribution of rainout scavenging. Implications of such variability for soil particle labelling and erosion studies are briefly discussed and recommendations are formulated

  5. Partitioning and Fractionation of 210Pb, 210Po and 7Be During Their Interactions With Inorganic and Organic Nanoparticles in Seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, L.; Yang, W.; Chuang, C.; Santschi, P. H.; Schumann, D.; Ayranov, M.

    2012-12-01

    Controlled laboratory experiments were carried out to examine the role of natural organic matter in regulating the partitioning and fractionation of particle-reactive radionuclides 210Pb(II), 210Po(-II, II, IV) and 7Be(II) during their interactions with colloidal or nanoparticles in seawater. Selected nanoparticles with similar sizes (20 nm), including SiO2, CaCO3, Al2O3, TiO2, and Fe2O3, and macromolecular organic matter including humic acids (HA), acid polysaccharides (APS, carrageenan type V), proteins (bovine serum albumin, BSA), and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were used to examine the partition coefficients (Kd) of 210Pb, 210Po and 7Be between dissolved and colloidal phases in the <1 kDa seawater. Similar Kd values were observed for 210Pb, 210Po and 7Be during their interactions with either HA or BSA, showing no significant fractionation between these isotopes. However, there was a significant fractionation between nuclides in the APS or EPS treatment, with 1-2 orders of magnitude difference in Kd values following the order of Po > Pb > Be. For inorganic nanoparticles, SiO2 and CaCO3 had lower affinity for both 210Po and 210Pb, while TiO2 or Fe2O3 had the highest affinity for 210Pb with an overall high Kd value. Fe2O3 also had the highest affinity for 7Be with a Kd value 400 times higher than that of CaCO3. In binary systems with both inorganic and organic nanoparticles, except for Fe2O3, the Kd values for 210Pb, 210Po and 7Be all increased by varying degrees compared to pure inorganic sorbents, implying that the interactions between organic and inorganic particles in most cases promote stronger sorption of these nuclides on nanoparticles. In contrast, experimental treatments with Fe2O3 and model organic compounds decreased the Kd values for 210Pb and 7Be, suggesting the coating of organic matter on high affinity sorbents would depress the sorption of trace elements on nanoparticle surfaces. These results highlight the importance of chemical

  6. Spatial and temporal variability of (7)Be and (210)Pb wet deposition during four successive monsoon storms in a catchment of northern Laos.

    PubMed

    Gourdin, E; Evrard, O; Huon, S; Reyss, J-L; Ribolzi, O; Bariac, T; Sengtaheuanghoung, O; Ayrault, S

    2014-10-01

    Fallout radionuclides (7)Be and (210)Pb have been identified as potentially relevant temporal tracers for studying soil particles dynamics (surface vs. subsurface sources contribution; remobilization of in-channel sediment) during erosive events in river catchments. An increasing number of studies compared (7)Be: (210)Pb activity ratio in rainwater and sediment to estimate percentages of freshly eroded particles. However, the lack of data regarding the spatial and temporal variability of radionuclide wet deposition during individual storms has been identified as one of the main gaps in these estimates. In order to determine these key parameters, rainwater samples were collected at three stations during four storms that occurred at the beginning of the monsoon (June 2013) in the Houay Xon mountainous catchment in northern Laos. Rainwater (7)Be and (210)Pb activities measured using very low background hyperpure Germanium detectors ranged from 0.05 to 1.72 Bq L(-1) and 0.02 to 0.26 Bq L(-1), respectively. Water δ(18)O were determined on the same samples. Total rainfall amount of the four sampled storms ranged from 4.8 to 26.4 mm (51 mm in total) at the time-fractionated collection point. Corresponding cumulative (7)Be and (210)Pb wet depositions during the sampling period were 17.6 and 2.9 Bq m(-2), respectively. The (7)Be: (210)Pb activity ratio varied (1) in space from 6 to 9 for daily deposition and (2) in time from 3 to 12 for samples successively collected. Intra-event evolution of rainwater (7)Be and (210)Pb activities as well as δ(18)O highlighted the progressive depletion of local infra-cloud atmosphere radionuclide stock with time (washout), which remains consistent with a Raleigh-type distillation process for water vapour. Intra-storm ratio increasing with time showed the increasing contribution of rainout scavenging. Implications of such variability for soil particle labelling and erosion studies are briefly discussed and recommendations are formulated

  7. Semileptonic Decays and Sides of the Unitarity Triangle

    SciTech Connect

    Ligeti, Zoltan; Bauer, C.; Bernard, C.; Bigi, I.; Datta, M.; del Re, D.; Grinstein, B.; Hashimoto, S.; Langenegger, U.; Ligeti, Z.; Luke, M.; Lunghi, E.; Mackenzie, P.; Manohar, A.; Moore, T.; Pirjol, D.; Robertson, S.; Rothstein, I.; Stewart, I.; Voloshin, M.

    2003-05-01

    The elements of the CKM matrix enter the expressions for the decay rates and mixing amplitudes of hadrons. In some cases, the theoretical expressions are free of strong interaction effects, for example the CP asymmetry in B {yields} J/{psi} K{sub S}{sup 0}, so that measuring the CP asymmetry directly gives the value of sin 2{beta}, with the error in the result given by the experimental error in the measurement. In most cases, however, the experimentally measured quantities depend on strong interactions physics, and it is absolutely essential to have accurate model-free theoretical calculations to compare with experiment. A number of theoretical tools have been developed over the years which now allow us to compute B decays with great accuracy, sometimes at the level of a few percent or better. These calculations are done using effective theory methods applied to QCD, and do not rely on model assumptions. Inclusive decays can be treated using the operator product expansion (OPE). The total decay rate is given by twice the imaginary part of the forward scattering amplitude, using the optical theorem. In heavy hadron decays, the intermediate states in the forward scattering amplitude can be integrated out, so that the decay rate can be written as an expansion in local operators. The expansion parameter is 1/m{sub B}, the mass of the decaying hadron. OPE techniques have been well-studied in the context of deep-inelastic scattering, where the expansion in powers of 1/Q{sup 2} is called the twist expansion. In inclusive B decays, the leading term in the 1/m{sub B} expansion gives the parton decay rate, and nonperturbative effects enter at higher orders in 1/m{sub B}.

  8. Influence of organic matter on the adsorption of 210Pb, 210Po and 7Be and their fractionation on nanoparticles in seawater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Weifeng; Guo, Laodong; Chuang, Chia-Ying; Santschi, Peter H.; Schumann, Dorothea; Ayranov, Marin

    2015-08-01

    Improved applications of 210Po, 210Pb and 7Be as geochemical proxies require more detailed understanding of their interactions with particles. Here, laboratory sorption experiments were carried out to examine the adsorption of 210Po, 210Pb and 7Be and their fractionation on inorganic nanoparticles, including SiO2, CaCO3, Al2O3, TiO2 and Fe2O3, in the presence or absence of macromolecular organic compounds (MOCs) that include humic acids (HA), acid polysaccharides (APS) and proteins (BSA), in natural seawater. Results showed that nanoparticle sorption was not greatly enhanced over that of microparticles as would be expected from their much higher specific surface areas, likely indicating their aggregation in seawater. It was found that synergistic interactions between inorganic nanoparticles, MOCs, and radionuclides determined the sorption, although their adsorption was particle composition-dependent. MOCs enhanced the sorption of selected nuclides on most nanoparticles. On average, in the presence of MOCs, partition coefficients (Kc) of 210Po, 210Pb, and 7Be on nanoparticles increased 2.9-, 5.0- and 5.9-fold, respectively. The effect of MOCs could be explained for 210Po and 210Pb from their different log ⁡Kc values on inorganic nanoparticles. In addition, fractionation effects between 210Po and 210Pb (or between 210Pb and 7Be) could be quantified from their relative log ⁡Kc values on end-member sorbent components. Applications of both 210Po-210Pb and 7Be-210Pb pairs as particle dynamics tracers could be more quantitative when the nature of the organic coatings is taken into account.

  9. Behavior of ambient concentrations of natural radionuclides (7)Be, (210)Pb, (40)K in the Mediterranean coastal city of Málaga (Spain).

    PubMed

    Gordo, E; Dueñas, C; Fernández, M C; Liger, E; Cañete, S

    2015-05-01

    During a 4-year period (January 2009-December 2012), the (7)Be, (210)Pb, and (40)K activity concentrations in airborne particulate matter were weekly determined at the Málaga (Spain) located in the southern Iberian Peninsula. Totally 209 polypropylene filters were analyzed in the mentioned period. In 100% of the filters, (7)Be and (40)K activity concentrations were detected while (210)Pb activity concentration was detected in 96% of the filters. The results from individual measurements of (7)Be, (210)Pb, and (40)K concentrations were analyzed to derive the statistical estimates characterizing the distributions. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the datasets and the results of the study reveal that aerosol behavior is represented by two principal components which explain 73.2% of total variance. Components PC1 and PC2 respectively explain 46.0 and 27.2% of total variance. PC1 was related positively to dust content, (7)Be and (40)K concentrations and negatively to sunspot numbers. In contrast, PC2 was related positively to temperature and (210)Pb activity and negatively to precipitation and relative humidity. The (7)Be levels showed a significant correlation with sunspot numbers due to the cosmogenic origin. (40)K activities showed a good correlation with dust deposition in filters mainly because it was transported to the air as resuspended particle from the soil. An inverse relationship was observed between the (210)Pb concentrations and monthly rainfall, indicating washout of atmospheric aerosols carrying these radionuclides and a pronounced positive correlation with the average monthly temperature of air.

  10. Activity size distribution of 7Be in association with trace metals in the urban area of the city of Thessaloniki, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannidou, Alexandra

    2011-02-01

    The activity size distributions of the natural radionuclide tracer 7Be and associated trace metals in different inhalable fractions (<0.39 μm, 0.391-0.69 μm, 0.69-1.3 μm, 1.3-2.1 μm, 2.1-4.2 μm, 4.2-10.2 μm and >10.2 μm) were determined in a typical traffic-affected urban site in the center of the city of Thessaloniki, Greece, over a seven month period (June'09-January'10). The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) ranged from 0.58 to 1.22 μm (avg 0.80 μm), indicating post-condensation growth either in the upper atmosphere or after mixing in the boundary layer. It was shown that more than 80% of the 7Be activity was associated with particles smaller than 1.3 μm. The AMAD values are anticorrelated with 7Be activities, while they are correlated with RH% with high confidence ( R = 0.92, p < 0.00813). The composition of the associated particles is basically Ca, Si and S. Among the heavy metals determined, Fe is the most abundant, followed by Cu. Minor amounts of Pb, Cr, Ni are presented in coarse size ranges. The amount of Fe increased with decreasing particle size, displaying positive correlation with AMAD of 7Be in case of strong wind from NW direction and indicating the transport of pollutted air from the industrial area of the city of Thessaloniki. The measured distributions are believed to result from a combination of processes including local anthropogenic and natural sources, such as traffic, industrial emissions and resuspension of road dust. However, the local meteorological conditions seem to affect the final activity size distribution of 7Be and their associated trace element distributions.

  11. The bound β-decay of the free neutron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schön, J.; Paul, S.; Emmerich, R.; Engels, R.; Faestermann, T.; Fierlinger, P.; Gabriel, M.; Gutsmied, E.; Hartmann, F. J.; Hertenberger, R.; McAndrew, J.; Röhrmoser, A.; Ruschel, S.; Schott, W.; Schubert, U.; Trautner, A.; Udem, T.; Ulrich, A.

    2012-09-01

    An experiment to measure the bound β-decay of the neutron into a hydrogen atom and an electron anti-neutrino is described. Observation of such a decay would open an alternative pathway to physics beyond the Standard Model, in particular right-handed current admixtures in the weak interaction as well as the handedness of the neutrino. The experiment is planned at the through-going beam tube SR6 at the FRM2 high-flux reactor in Garching. Although the branching ratio of this decay is expected to be only 4 . 10-6 of the normal neutron β-decay [1], a sufficient decay rate due to the high flux of neutrons available for the experiment is expected. Simulations have shown that the measurement is feasible, with proper shielding being the critical factor. The experimental setup is currently being studied, testing different detection techniques for H(2s) at the TUM.

  12. Investigation of Periodic Nuclear Decay Data with Spectral Analysis Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javorsek, D.; Sturrock, P.; Buncher, J.; Fischbach, E.; Gruenwald, T.; Hoft, A.; Horan, T.; Jenkins, J.; Kerford, J.; Lee, R.; Mattes, J.; Morris, D.; Mudry, R.; Newport, J.; Petrelli, M.; Silver, M.; Stewart, C.; Terry, B.; Willenberg, H.

    2009-12-01

    We provide the results from a spectral analysis of nuclear decay experiments displaying unexplained periodic fluctuations. The analyzed data was from 56Mn decay reported by the Children's Nutrition Research Center in Houston, 32Si decay reported by an experiment performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory, and 226Ra decay reported by an experiment performed at the Physikalisch-Technische-Bundesanstalt in Germany. All three data sets possess the same primary frequency mode consisting of an annual period. Additionally a spectral comparison of the local ambient temperature, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, Earth-Sun distance, and the plasma speed and latitude of the heliospheric current sheet (HCS) was performed. Following analysis of these six possible causal factors, their reciprocals, and their linear combinations, a possible link between nuclear decay rate fluctuations and the linear combination of the HCS latitude and 1/R motivates searching for a possible mechanism with such properties.

  13. E6 Gamma Decay

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, B. Alex; Rae, W. D. M.

    2011-05-06

    Rare electric hexacontatetrapole (E6) transitions are studied in the full (f{sub 7/2},f{sub 5/2},p{sub 3/2},p{sub 1/2}) shell-model basis. Comparison of theory to the results from the gamma decay in {sup 53}Fe and from inelastic electron scattering on {sup 52}Cr provides unique and interesting tests of the valence wavefunctions, the models used for energy density functionals and into the origin of effective charge.

  14. The observation of decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudbery, A.

    1984-10-01

    It is argued that the usual formulation of quantum mechanics does not satisfactorily describe physical change: the standard formula for a transition probability does not follow from the postulates. Instead, these yield the paradox that a watched pot never bolls (sometimes called "Zeno's paradox"). The paradox is reviewed and the possibility of avoiding it is discussed. A simple model of a decaying system is analysed; the system is then considered in continuous interaction with an apparatus designed to observe the time development of the system. In the light of this analysis, the possibility is considered of replacing the usual (diserete) projection postulate by a continuous projection postulate.

  15. Rare B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.D.; /Victoria U.

    2006-02-24

    Recent results from Belle and BaBar on rare B decays involving flavor-changing neutral currents or purely leptonic final states are presented. Measurements of the CP asymmetries in B {yields} K*{gamma} and b {yields} s{gamma} are reported. Also reported are updated limits on B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}, B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}, B{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{nu} and the recent measurement of B {yields} X{sub s}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  16. Biomedical applications of radiative decay engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lakowicz, Joseph R.; Gryczynski, Ignacy; Malicka, Joanna; Shen, Yibing; Gryczynski, Zygmunt

    2002-06-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy is a widely used research tool in biochemistry and has also become the dominant method enabling the revolution in medical diagnostics, DNA sequencing and genomics. In this forward-looking article we describe a new opportunity in fluorescence, radiative decay engineering (RDE). By RDE we mean modifying the emission of fluorophores or chromophores by a nearby metallic surface, the most important effect being an increase in the radiative decay rate. We describe the usual effects expected form increase in the radiative rates with reference to the biomedical applications of immunoassay and DNA hybridization. We also present experiments which show that metallic particles can increase the quantum yield of low quantum yield fluorophores, increase fluorophore photostability and increase the distance for resonance energy transfer. And finally we show that proximity to silver particles can increase the intensity of the intrinsic fluorescence from DNA.

  17. Linear decay of charge in electrets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Małecki, J. A.

    1999-04-01

    The processes leading to very long lifetimes of implanted electric charge are discussed. A model assuming a competition between the rate of current carrier generation in activation processes, and the rate of carrier annihilation on electrodes and by free, implanted charge was considered. The discussed processes lead to a very pronounced decrease in electric conductivity, and in consequence to long lifetimes of implanted charge, in agreement with experimental data. The important feature of our model is that exponential decay of charge takes place only for short times-hours or days for polymers. For the longer periods-hundreds or thousands of years in the case of Teflon films-a linear decay is predicted. The importance of the shape of a dielectric plate and the unusual stability of thin electrets are also discussed.

  18. Observation of the competitive double-gamma nuclear decay.

    PubMed

    Walz, C; Scheit, H; Pietralla, N; Aumann, T; Lefol, R; Ponomarev, V Yu

    2015-10-15

    The double-gamma (γγ)-decay of a quantum system in an excited state is a fundamental second-order process of quantum electrodynamics. In contrast to the well-known single-gamma (γ)-decay, the γγ-decay is characterized by the simultaneous emission of two γ quanta, each with a continuous energy spectrum. In nuclear physics, this exotic decay mode has only been observed for transitions between states with spin-parity quantum numbers J(π) = 0(+) (refs 1-3). Single-gamma decays-the main experimental obstacle to observing the γγ-decay-are strictly forbidden for these 0(+) → 0(+) transitions. Here we report the observation of the γγ-decay of an excited nuclear state (J(π) = 11/2(-)) that is directly competing with an allowed γ-decay (to ground state J(π) = 3/2(+)). The branching ratio of the competitive γγ-decay of the 11/2(-) isomer of (137)Ba to the ground state relative to its single γ-decay was determined to be (2.05 ± 0.37) × 10(-6). From the measured angular correlation and the shape of the energy spectra of the individual γ-rays, the contributing combinations of multipolarities of the γ radiation were determined. Transition matrix elements calculated using the quasiparticle-phonon model reproduce our measurements well. The γγ-decay rate gives access to so far unexplored important nuclear structure information, such as the generalized (off-diagonal) nuclear electric polarizabilities and magnetic susceptibilities.

  19. Observation of the competitive double-gamma nuclear decay.

    PubMed

    Walz, C; Scheit, H; Pietralla, N; Aumann, T; Lefol, R; Ponomarev, V Yu

    2015-10-15

    The double-gamma (γγ)-decay of a quantum system in an excited state is a fundamental second-order process of quantum electrodynamics. In contrast to the well-known single-gamma (γ)-decay, the γγ-decay is characterized by the simultaneous emission of two γ quanta, each with a continuous energy spectrum. In nuclear physics, this exotic decay mode has only been observed for transitions between states with spin-parity quantum numbers J(π) = 0(+) (refs 1-3). Single-gamma decays-the main experimental obstacle to observing the γγ-decay-are strictly forbidden for these 0(+) → 0(+) transitions. Here we report the observation of the γγ-decay of an excited nuclear state (J(π) = 11/2(-)) that is directly competing with an allowed γ-decay (to ground state J(π) = 3/2(+)). The branching ratio of the competitive γγ-decay of the 11/2(-) isomer of (137)Ba to the ground state relative to its single γ-decay was determined to be (2.05 ± 0.37) × 10(-6). From the measured angular correlation and the shape of the energy spectra of the individual γ-rays, the contributing combinations of multipolarities of the γ radiation were determined. Transition matrix elements calculated using the quasiparticle-phonon model reproduce our measurements well. The γγ-decay rate gives access to so far unexplored important nuclear structure information, such as the generalized (off-diagonal) nuclear electric polarizabilities and magnetic susceptibilities. PMID:26469051

  20. Phonon mechanisms of nonlinear decay and dephasing of mesoscopic vibrational systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atalaya, Juan; Kenny, Thomas W.; Dykman, Mark I.

    2015-03-01

    The frequencies and the decay rates of mesoscopic oscillators depend on vibration amplitudes. Nonlinear decay has been seen recently in various nano- and micro-mechanical systems. Here we consider a microscopic mechanism of nonlinear decay, the nonlinear coupling of the vibrational mode of interest, for example, a flexural mode, to other vibrations. Typically, the modes of interest have low eigenfrequencies ω0. Their decay comes from the coupling to acoustic-phonon type vibrations with much higher frequency and density of states. Thus, nonlinear