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Sample records for 7li18o 17o8li ta

  1. TA Collaborations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diefendorf, Martha

    2010-01-01

    This paper highlights several current collaborative activities of the National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC). There are many specific examples of TA (Technical Assistance) collaborations that take place on a regular basis; the seven examples presented here were selected to represent different types of collaboration. The…

  2. TA489A calibrator: SANDUS

    SciTech Connect

    LeBlanc, R.

    1987-08-01

    The TA489A Calibrator, designed to operate in the MA164 Digital Data Acquisition System, is used to calibrate up to 128 analog-to-digital recording channels. The TA489A calibrates using a dc Voltage Source or any of several special calibration modes. Calibration schemes are stored in the TA489A memory and are initiated locally or remotely through a Command Link.

  3. INRAD work at TA-55

    SciTech Connect

    Kleinschmidt, Phillip D; Lacy, Keith A; Hahn, Wendy K; Shonrock, Clinton O

    2011-01-18

    The INRAD Facility at TA-55 is described. Safety considerations in operating the facility are described in the Detailed Operating Procedure (DOP) format. Other considerations on the future operation of the facility are discussed.

  4. TaVRT2 represses transcription of the wheat vernalization gene TaVRN1.

    PubMed

    Kane, Ndjido Ardo; Agharbaoui, Zahra; Diallo, Amadou Oury; Adam, Hélène; Tominaga, Yoko; Ouellet, François; Sarhan, Fathey

    2007-08-01

    In wheat, VRN1/TaVRN1 and VRN2/TaVRN2 determine the growth habit and flowering time. In addition, the MADS box transcription factor VEGETATIVE TO REPRODUCTIVE TRANSITION 2 (TaVRT2) is also associated with the vernalization response in a manner similar to TaVRN2. However, the molecular relationship between these three genes and their products is unknown. Using transient expression assays in Nicotiana benthamiana, we show that TaVRT2 acts as a repressor of TaVRN1 transcription. TaVRT2 binds the CArG motif in the TaVRN1 promoter and represses its activity in vivo. In contrast, TaVRN2 does not bind the TaVRN1 promoter and has no direct effect on its activity, but it can enhance the repression effect of TaVRT2. This suggests that a repressor complex regulates the expression of TaVRN1. In winter wheat, TaVRT2, TaVRN2 and TaVRN1 transcripts accumulate in the shoot apical meristem and young leaves, and temporal expression is consistent with TaVRT2 and TaVRN2 being repressors of floral transition, whereas TaVRN1 is an activator. Non-vernalized spring wheat grown under a short-day photoperiod accumulates TaVRT2 and shows a delay in flowering, suggesting that TaVRT2 is regulated independently by photoperiod and low temperature. The data presented suggest that TaVRT2, in association with TaVRN2, represses the transcription of TaVRN1.

  5. TA-55 change control manual

    SciTech Connect

    Blum, T.W.; Selvage, R.D.; Courtney, K.H.

    1997-11-01

    This manual is the guide for initiating change at the Plutonium Facility, which handles the processing of plutonium as well as research on plutonium metallurgy. It describes the change and work control processes employed at TA-55 to ensure that all proposed changes are properly identified, reviewed, approved, implemented, tested, and documented so that operations are maintained within the approved safety envelope. All Laboratory groups, their contractors, and subcontractors doing work at TA-55 follow requirements set forth herein. This manual applies to all new and modified processes and experiments inside the TA-55 Plutonium Facility; general plant project (GPP) and line item funded construction projects at TA-55; temporary and permanent changes that directly or indirectly affect structures, systems, or components (SSCs) as described in the safety analysis, including Facility Control System (FCS) software; and major modifications to procedures. This manual does not apply to maintenance performed on process equipment or facility SSCs or the replacement of SSCs or equipment with documented approved equivalents.

  6. B-Fe-Ta (147)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from B-Be-Fe to Co-W-Zr' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'B-Fe-Ta (147)' with the content:

  7. Resistance of Ta/PtMn/Ta thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boekelheide, Z. A.; Checkelsky, J. G.; Eckert, J. C.; Sparks, P. D.; Carey, M. J.

    2004-03-01

    Anomalous electrical resistance as a function of temperature has been observed for IrMn exchange-biased spin valves and Ti/IrMn/Ti trilayers (1). We have followed up with a study of Pt_50Mn_50 thin films with structure Ta/PtMn/Ta. In the past, resistance of PtMn alloys has been studied by Sarkissian (2) and Kastner (3) with Mn concentration ranging from 0.05-18%. These studies have found resistance minima, which vary depending on Mn concentration. We have found similar resistance curves for the PtMn structures, which depend on the thickness of the film and whether the film has been annealed. This work was supported by the Parsons Foundation, The Office of Naval Research, and the Harvey Mudd College Faculty Research Committee. References: (1) J. C. Eckert, N. P. Stern, D. S. Snowden, and P. D. Sparks, J. Appl. Phys. 93, 6608 (2003) (2) B. V. B. Sarkissian and R. H. Taylor, J. Phys. F 4, L243 (1974) (3) J. Kastner, E. F. Wassermann, K. Matho, and J. L. Tholence, J. Phys. F 8, 103 (1974)

  8. TiTaN Reconsidered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natland, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    Strongly positive TiO2, Ta, and Nb (TiTaN) anomalies (1) in a Samoan ankaramite from Ofu Island have been attributed to the presence of refractory yet titanian eclogite in the mantle source. From chemical compositions, however, the anomalies could instead result from concentration of phenocrysts in magmas produced by mixing between a highly differentiated alkalic basalt and a crystal sludge carrying abundant olivine, clinopyroxene and especially titanomagnetite phenocrysts, the latter producing much of the TiTaN anomalies, and behaving much like rutile in eclogite. This is consistent with petrography. The distinctive effects of addition of each mineral are well illustrated on major-oxide variation diagrams. Separation of these minerals from liquids (to concentrate in ankaramites and dunite-wehrlite-pyroxenite cumulates) beginning at about 0.15 GPa in the mantle produces residual felsic differentiates (hawaiites, mugearites) with low TiTan anomalies (<1), exemplified by samples dredged elsewhere in Samoa from Savai'i (2). The Ofu samples have a low EMII signature (high 3He/4He), whereas the Savai'i samples have a high EMII signature (low 3He/4He), the extremes at Samoa. This gives a coincidental positive correlation at Samoa overall between TiTan anomalies and 3He/4He, TiTan anomalies being accentuated at the two places by the contrasting effects of phenocryst addition and subtraction during differentiation. High 3He/4He beneath several eastern Samoan volcanoes appears to be an attribute of near-FOZO mantle sources with minimal EM2 signature. (1) Jackson, M., et al., 2008. G-Cubed 9: doi:1029/2007GC001876 (2) Jackson, M., et al., 2007, Nature 448: 684-687, doi:10.1038/nature060488

  9. Design and fabrication of ultrathin and highly thermal-stable α-Ta/graded Ta(N)/TaN multilayer as diffusion barrier for Cu interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, C. H.; Wang, Y.; Liu, B.; An, Z.; Song, Z. X.; Xu, K. W.

    2011-02-01

    A one-step strategy of magnetron sputtering deposition with dynamic regulation of sputtering atmosphere was developed to prepare α-Ta/graded Ta(N)/TaN multilayer films on the Si substrate. The evolution of Ta clusters shows a significant effect on the crystal structure of the Ta film. The experimental results validate that the formation of α-Ta was attributed to the nucleation of larger Ta clusters. After being annealed at 600 °C, the α-Ta/graded Ta(N)/TaN multilayer film can still effectively block the diffusion of Cu. The mechanisms of the forming of the α-Ta and the thermal stability of the film stacks are characterized in detail.

  10. TA-55 and Sigma Overview

    SciTech Connect

    Spearing, Dane Robert

    2016-11-29

    These are slides from a facility overview presentation for visiting agencies to Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The TA-55 Plutonium Facility (PF-4) is discussed in detail. PF-4 is a unique resource for US plutonium programs. The basic design is flexible and has adapted to changing national needs. It is a robust facility with strong safety and security implementation. It supports a variety of national programs. It will continue for many years into the future. Sigma is then discussed in detail, which handles everything from hydrogen to uranium. It has been in long term service to the Nation (nearly 60 years). It has a flexible authorization basis to handle almost the entire periodic table. It has a wide breadth of prototyping and characterization capabilities. It has integrated program and line management.

  11. Project Ta-Kos Outreach. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Linda; Husted, Tony; Faris, Cindy

    This final report describes activities and accomplishments of Project Ta-Kos Outreach, a 3-year program to provide consultation and site-specific training for families, educators, and health care providers. Project Ta-kos, through its curriculum and training approach, was designed to increase the probability that children, ages birth through eight…

  12. Safety assessment for TA-48 radiochemical operations

    SciTech Connect

    1994-08-01

    The purpose of this report is to document an assessment performed to evaluate the safety of the radiochemical operations conducted at the Los Alamos National Laboratory operations area designated as TA-48. This Safety Assessment for the TA-48 radiochemical operations was prepared to fulfill the requirements of US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5481.1B, ``Safety Analysis and Review System.`` The area designated as TA-48 is operated by the Chemical Science and Technology (CST) Division and is involved with radiochemical operations associated with nuclear weapons testing, evaluation of samples collected from a variety of environmental sources, and nuclear medicine activities. This report documents a systematic evaluation of the hazards associated with the radiochemical operations that are conducted at TA-48. The accident analyses are limited to evaluation of the expected consequences associated with a few bounding accident scenarios that are selected as part of the hazard analysis. Section 2 of this report presents an executive summary and conclusions, Section 3 presents pertinent information concerning the TA-48 site and surrounding area, Section 4 presents a description of the TA-48 radiochemical operations, and Section 5 presents a description of the individual facilities. Section 6 of the report presents an evaluation of the hazards that are associated with the TA-48 operations and Section 7 presents a detailed analysis of selected accident scenarios.

  13. Evolutionary Optimization of a Charge Transfer Ionic Potential Model for Ta/Ta-Oxide Heterointerfaces

    DOE PAGES

    Sasikumar, Kiran; Narayanan, Badri; Cherukara, Mathew; ...

    2017-03-19

    Heterostructures of tantalum and its oxide are of tremendous technological interest for a myriad of technological applications, including electronics, thermal management, catalysis and biochemistry. In particular, local oxygen stoichiometry variation in TaOx memristors comprising of thermodynamically stable metallic (Ta) and insulating oxide (Ta2O5) have been shown to result in fast switching on the subnanosecond timescale over a billion cycles. This rapid switching opens up the potential for advanced functional platforms such as stateful logic operations and neuromorphic computation. Despite its broad importance, an atomistic scale understanding of oxygen stoichiometry variation across Ta/TaOx heterointerfaces, such as during early stages of oxidationmore » and oxide growth, is not well understood. This is mainly due to the lack of a unified interatomic potential model for tantalum oxides that can accurately describe metallic (Ta), ionic (TaOx) as well as mixed (Ta/TaOx interfaces) bonding environments simultaneously. To address this challenge, we introduce a Charge Transfer Ionic Potential (CTIP) model for Ta/Ta-oxide system by training against lattice parameters, cohesive energies, equations of state (EOS), elastic properties, and surface energies of the various experimentally observed Ta2O5 polymorphs (hexagonal, orthorhombic and monoclinic) obtained from density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The best CTIP parameters are determined by employing a global optimization scheme driven by genetic algorithms followed by local Simplex optimization. Our newly developed CTIP potential accurately predicts structure, thermodynamics, energetic ordering of polymorphs, as well as elastic and surface properties of both Ta and Ta2O5, in excellent agreement with DFT calculations and experiments. We employ our newly parameterized CTIP potential to investigate the early stages of oxidation and atomic scale mechanisms associated with oxide growth on Ta surface at various

  14. {Ta12}/{Ta16} cluster-containing polytantalotungstates with remarkable photocatalytic H2 evolution activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Shujun; Liu, Shumei; Liu, Shuxia; Liu, Yiwei; Tang, Qun; Shi, Zhan; Ouyang, Shuxin; Ye, Jinhua

    2012-12-05

    Four novel polytantalotungstates K(5)Na(4)[P(2)W(15)O(59)(TaO(2))(3)]·17H(2)O (1), K(8)Na(8)H(4)[P(8)W(60)Ta(12)(H(2)O)(4)(OH)(8)O(236)]·42H(2)O (2), Cs(3)K(3.5)H(0.5)[SiW(9)(TaO(2))(3)O(37)]·9H(2)O (3), and Cs(10.5)K(4)H(5.5)[Ta(4)O(6)(SiW(9)Ta(3)O(40))(4)]·30H(2)O (4) were synthesized. Compounds 1 and 3 are tris-(peroxotantalum)-substituted Dawson- and Keggin-type derivatives, whereas 2 and 4 are tetrameric oligomers containing respectively an unprecedented {Ta(12)} and {Ta(16)} cluster core. The photocatalytic activities of 2 and 4 for H(2) evolution from water were evaluated. The significantly enhanced performance against the control K(6)[P(2)W(18)O(62)] can be attributed to the modulation of the electronic structures of these novel POMs by Ta incorporation. The highest activity observed so far with the use of 2 can be further rationalized by the presence of distorted heptacoordinate Ta atoms in the form of TaO(7) pentagonal bipyramid.

  15. Field investigations of soils at TA-19, TA-26, TA-73 and TA-0, SWMU aggregate 0-D and 016

    SciTech Connect

    McFadden, L.D.

    1995-03-01

    Field based investigations of the general soil-geomorphic characteristics were carried out at TA-19, -26, -73, -0, Aggregate 0-D and -016 in order to provide information for utilization in ongoing and anticipated LANL ERP (Environmental Restoration Project) activities at these sites. These investigations show that soils exhibiting diverse morphologic character, varying ages, and relations to landforms characterize these sites. A review of recent and ongoing soils studies also shows that soil textural, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics may profoundly influence the migration and/or retardation of a variety of potential contaminants initially placed in direct contact with soils, or that encounter soils during subsurface percolation or discharge. Soil-geomorphic relations also provide important insights into recent site erosion, deposition or other surficial processes that must, be considered as part of environmental assessment of a given site and remediation; and, the planned geomorphic mapping activities at each site, as well as other associated activities (e.g, geophysical survey, site sampling) are accordingly appropriate and necessary with respect to identification of significant soil relations at each site. Specific and general recommendations in consideration of important findings regarding the possible impacts of soil development of the nature of contaminant behavior at various sites are provided to help guide sampling and analysis activities during ERP investigations outlined in the RFI Work Plan for Operational Unit-1071.

  16. Resonances in odd-odd 182Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brits, C. P.; Wiedeking, M.; Bello Garrote, F. L.; Bleuel, D. L.; Giacoppo, F.; Görgen, A.; Guttormsen, M.; Hadynska-Klek, K.; Hagen, T. W.; Ingeberg, V. W.; Kheswa, B. V.; Klintefjord, M.; Larsen, A. C.; Malatji, K. L.; Nyhus, H. T.; Papka, P.; Renstrøm, T.; Rose, S.; Sahin, E.; Siem, S.; Tveten, G. M.; Zeiser, F.

    2017-09-01

    Enhanced γ-decay on the tail of the giant electric dipole resonance, such as the scissors or pygmy resonances, can have significant impact on (n,γ) reaction rates. These rates are important input for modeling processes that take place in astrophysical environments and nuclear reactors. Recent results from the University of Oslo indicate the existence of a significant enhancement in the photon strength function for nuclei in the actinide region due to the scissors resonance. Further, the M1 strength distribution of the scissors resonances in rare earth nuclei has been studied extensively over the years. To investigate the evolution and persistence of the scissor resonance in other mass regions, an experiment was performed utilizing the NaI(Tl) γ-ray detector array (CACTUS) and silicon particle telescopes (SiRi) at the University of Oslo Cyclotron laboratory. Particle-γ coincidences from the 181Ta(d,p)182Ta and 181Ta(d,d')181Ta reactions were used to measure the nuclear level density and photon strength function of the well-deformed 181Ta and 182Ta systems, to investigate the existence of resonances below the neutron separation energy. Note to the reader: the title of this article has been corrected on September 19, 2017.

  17. Characterization of Rh films on Ta(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, L.Q.; Ruckman, M.W.; Strongin, M.

    1989-01-01

    The surface and electronic structure of Rh films on Ta(110) up to several monolayers thick on Ta(110) are characterized by photoemission, Auger emission, low energy electron diffraction and low energy ion scattering. From the variation of the Rh Auger peak-to-peak intensity as a function of evaporation time, Rh/Ta(110) appears to grow in the Stranski-Krastanov mode at room temperature. However, the LEIS data show that the Rh adatoms begin to cluster on Ta(110) before growth of the monolayer is completed. Diffuse LEED scattering suggests that the Rh films are disordered. Photoemission shows that Rh chemisorption on Ta(110) generates two peaks located at 1.2 and 2. 5 eV binding energy during the initial phase of thin film growth (0 < {Theta} < 0.5 ML). By 0.75 ML Rh coverage, those states merge into a broad structure centered near 2 eV binding energy. Photoemission peaks typical of a Rh(111) surface are seen at higher coverages ({Theta} > 3.7 ML). Photoemission data for CO covered surfaces show that CO dissociates on the Rh/Ta(110) surface for Rh coverages less than 2.5 ML and also show that the Rh clusters develop at least one site capable of molecular CO adsorption above 0.3 ML Rh coverage. 38 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Mössbauer investigation of FeTaN/TaN multilayer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, M. S.; Amado, M. M.; Sousa, J. B.; Freitas, P. P.

    1999-05-01

    The microstructure of the [FeTaN(3200 Å)/TaN(50 Å)] n multilayer system, prepared by DC reactive magnetron sputtering, is studied by transmission and conversion electron Mössbauer spectroscopy, that indicate a predominant α-Fe texture and the presence of iron nitrides. Comparative phase analysis reveals formation of the paramagnetic nitride ɛ-Fe xN(2 < x < 3) in the interfacial region between the FeTaN and TaN spacer layers. This phase, whose relative fraction increases in proportion to the square of N 2 partial pressure during deposition, may account for the relatively large magnetostriction of the multilayer system.

  19. Photodisintegration of 181Ta leading to the isomeric state 180mTa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goko, S.; Utsunomiya, H.; Makinaga, A.; Kaihori, T.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Hohara, S.; Goriely, S.; Koning, A. J.; Hilaire, S.; Toyokawa, H.; Lui, Y.-W.

    Partial photoneutron cross sections for 181 Ta(γ, n)180 Tam (9- ) were measured with laser Compton scattering γ rays. The partial cross section, which reflects selective γ transitions in 180 Ta leading to the isomeric state, cast new light into the spin- and parity-dependent nuclear level density of 180 Ta. Essentially the same selective γ transition is expected in neutron capture on 179 Ta leading to 180 Tam (9- ). The weak s-process branching to the only naturally occurring isomer 180 Tam is discussed.

  20. Potential energy surfaces for the insertion of Ta and Ta sup + into H sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, D.G.; Cheng, W.; Balasubramanian, K. )

    1991-12-15

    We compute the bending potential energy surfaces of 12 electronic states of TaH{sub 2} and TaH{sup +}{sub 2} using the complete active space multiconfiguration self-consistent field (CAS-MCSCF) followed by multireference singles+doubles configuration interaction (MRSDCI) calculations. Spin--orbit effects are also included using the relativistic configuration interaction (RCI) approach. We find that the {sup 4}{ital F} ground state of Ta atom requires a barrier of {similar to}24 kcal/mol for insertion into H{sub 2} while the {sup 5}{ital F} ground state of Ta{sup +} does not insert into H{sub 2}. The low-spin excited states of Ta and Ta{sup +} are considerably more reactive with H{sub 2}. We find three nearly-degenerate bent electronic states of {sup 4}{ital B}{sub 1}, {sup 4}{ital A}{sub 2}, and {sup 4}{ital B}{sub 2} symmetries as the candidates for the ground state of TaH{sub 2}. Likewise {sup 3}{ital B}{sub 1} and {sup 3}{ital A}{sub 1} electronic states of TaH{sup +}{sub 2} are nearly-degenerate candidates for the ground state. The spin--orbit coupling strongly mixes some of these states leading to bond angle changes of up to 10{degree}.

  1. Conditions for Ta(IV)-Ta(IV) bonding in trirutile Li(x)MTa2O6.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Asha; Singh, Preetam; Celio, Hugo; Mullins, C Buddie; Goodenough, John B

    2015-02-16

    Stabilization of Ta-Ta bonding in an oxide across a shared octahedral-site edge of a Ta2 dimer is not known. Investigation of Li insertion into the trirutile structure of MTa2O6 with M = Mg, Cr, Fe, Co, and Ni indicates that Ta-Ta bonding across the shared octahedral-site edge of the dimer can be stabilized by a reversible electrochemical reduction of Ta(V) to Ta(IV) for M = Cr, Fe, Co, and Ni but not for M = Mg. Chemical reduction of MTa2O6 by n-butyl lithium only reduced NiTa2O6 to any significant extent. With M = Fe, Co, or Ni, electrochemical formation of the Ta-Ta bonds is accompanied by a partial reduction of the Fe(II), Co(II), or Ni(II) to Fe(0), Co(0), or Ni(0). For M = Cr, two Li per formula unit can be inserted reversibly with no displacement of Cr(0). For M = Mg, no Mg(II) are displaced by Li insertion, but a solid-electrolyte interphase (SEI) layer is formed on the oxide with no evidence of Ta-Ta bonding. Stabilization of Ta-Ta bonding across a shared octahedral-site edge in a dimer appears to require significant hybridization of the Ta(V) 5d(0) and M 4s(0) states.

  2. 78 FR 28627 - TA-W-80,340; TA-W-80,340A; TA-W-80,340B

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-15

    ... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-80,340; TA-W-80,340A; TA-W-80,340B] Bush Industries, Inc., Mason..., applicable to workers and former workers of Bush Industries, Inc., Mason Drive Facility, Jamestown, New York... issued as follows: All workers of Bush Industries, Inc., Mason Drive Facility, including on-site...

  3. Towards diluted magnetism in TaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yu; Li, Zhilin; Guo, Liwei; Chen, Xiaolong; Yuan, Ye; Xu, Chi; Hübner, René; Akhmadaliev, Shavkat; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V.; N'Diaye, Alpha T.; Arenholz, Elke; Helm, Manfred; Zhou, Shengqiang

    2017-09-01

    Magnetism in Weyl semimetals is desired to investigate the interaction between the magnetic moments and Weyl fermions, e.g., to explore anomalous quantum Hall phenomena. Here we demonstrate that proton irradiation is an effective tool to induce ferromagnetism in the Weyl semimetal TaAs. The intrinsic magnetism is observed with a transition temperature above room temperature. The magnetic moments from d states are found to be localized around Ta atoms. Further, the first-principles calculations indicate that the d states localized on the nearest-neighbor Ta atoms of As vacancy sites are responsible for the observed magnetic moments and the long-ranged magnetic order. The results show the feasibility of inducing ferromagnetism in Weyl semimetals so that they may facilitate the applications of this material in spintronics.

  4. Thermally stable perpendicular magnetic anisotropy features of Ta/TaO{sub x}/Ta/CoFeB/MgO/W stacks via TaO{sub x} underlayer insertion

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, SeungMo; Lee, JaBin; An, GwangGuk; Kim, JaeHong; Chung, WooSeong; Hong, JinPyo

    2014-09-21

    We report that a TaO{sub x} underlayer enhances the stability of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) in TaO{sub x}/Ta/CoFeB/MgO stacks during annealing; control of oxygen content in the TaO{sub x} layer is critical. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations revealed clear suppression of Ta atom diffusion towards the CoFeB/MgO interface or MgO regions. The TaO{sub x} underlayer possibly served as a diffusion sponge, permitting some thermally activated Ta atoms to impregnate the TaO{sub x} underlayer via a diffusion path, such as grain boundaries. We propose a possible mechanism for enhanced PMA stability based on diffusion of thermally activated Ta atoms.

  5. Solid Collection Efforts: Ta Collimator Evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Gostic, J M

    2011-11-21

    Ta collimator sets that were part of the gated x-ray detector diagnostic (GXD) at NIF were analyzed for debris distribution and damage in 2011. These disks (ranging in thickness from 250 to 750 {mu}m) were fielded approximately 10 cm from target chamber center (TCC) on various symcap, THD and re-emit shots. The nose cone holder and forward Ta collimator (facing target chamber center, TCC) from all shots show evidence of surface melt. Non-destructive analysis techniques such as optical microscopy, surface profilometry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and x-ray fluorescence (XRF) were used to determine debris composition and degree of deformation associated with each Ta disk. Molten debris from the stainless steel nose cone contaminated the surface of the collimators along with other debris associated with the target assembly (Al, Si, Cu, Au and In). Surface elemental analysis of the forward collimator Ta disks indicates that Au hohlraum debris is less concentrated on these samples versus those fielded 50 cm from TCC in the wedge range filter (WRF) assembly. It is possible that the Au is distributed below or within the stainless steel melt layer covering the disk, as most of the foreign debris is captured in the melted coating. The other disks (fielded directly behind the forward collimator in a sandwiched configuration) have visible forms of deformation and warping. The degree of warping increases as the shock wave penetrates the assembly with the most damage sustained on the back collimator. In terms of developing a solid collection capability, the collimator analyses suggests that close proximity may cause more interference with capsule debris collection and more damage to the surface of the collector diagnostic. The analyses of the Ta collimators were presented to the Target and Laser Interaction Sphere (TaLIS) group; a representative presentation is attached to this document.

  6. HiRes and TA Composition measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tameda, Yuichiro

    2013-06-01

    In order to clarify the origin of ultra high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs), it is very important to determine the mass composition. The most effective strategy to determine the mass composition is Xmax technique. Xmax is the atmospheric depth of air shower maximum measured by fluorescence detectors (FDs). HiRes has reported Xmax measurement by FDs which indicated proton dominated mass composition. Now, Telescope Array (TA) experiment has also measured UHECRs with FDs. In this presentation, the detail of mass composition analysis and result of TA experiment will be reported and compared with HiRes experiment.

  7. First-principles studies of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou Yi; Wen Bin; Ma Yunqing; Melnik, Roderick; Liu Xingjun

    2012-03-15

    The structural properties, heats of formation, elastic properties, and electronic structures of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are investigated in detail based on density functional theory. Our results indicate that all Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds calculated here are mechanically stable except for P21/m-Ni{sub 3}Ta and hc-NiTa{sub 2}. Furthermore, we found that Pmmn-Ni{sub 3}Ta is the ground state stable phase of Ni{sub 3}Ta polymorphs. The polycrystalline elastic modulus has been deduced by using the Voigt-Reuss-Hill approximation. All Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds in our study, except for NiTa, are ductile materials by corresponding G/K values and poisson's ratio. The calculated heats of formation demonstrated that Ni{sub 2}Ta are thermodynamically unstable. Our results also indicated that all Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds analyzed here are conductors. The density of state demonstrated the structure stability increases with the Ta concentration. - Graphical abstract: Mechanical properties and formation heats of Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are discussed in detail in this paper. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are investigated by first principle calculations. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer P21/m-Ni{sub 3}Ta and hc-NiTa{sub 2} are mechanically unstable phases. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pmmn-Ni{sub 3}Ta is ground stable phase of Ni{sub 3}Ta polymorphs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer All Ni-Ta intermetallic compounds are conducting materials.

  8. TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 associate with TaHsp90 to function in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling growth and stripe rust resistance.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guan-Feng; Fan, Renchun; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2015-04-01

    RAR1 and SGT1 are important co-chaperones of Hsp90. We previously showed that TaHsp90.1 is required for wheat seedling growth, and that TaHsp90.2 and TaHsp90.3 are essential for resistance (R) gene mediated resistance to stripe rust fungus. Here, we report the characterization of TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 genes in bread wheat. TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 each had three homoeologs, which were located on wheat groups 2 and 3 chromosomes, respectively. Strong inhibition of seedling growth was observed after silencing TaSGT1 but not TaRAR1. In contrast, decreasing the expression of TaRAR1 or TaSGT1 could all compromise R gene mediated resistance to stripe rust fungus infection. Protein-protein interactions were found among TaRAR1, TaSGT1 and TaHsp90. The N-terminus of TaHsp90, the CHORD-I and CHORD-II domains of TaRAR1 and the CS domain of TaSGT1 may be instrumental for the interactions among the three proteins. Based on this work and our previous study on TaHsp90, we speculate that the TaSGT1-TaHsp90.1 interaction is important for maintaining bread wheat seedling growth. The TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90.2 and TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90.3 interactions are involved in controlling the resistance to stripe rust disease. The new information obtained here should aid further functional investigations of TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90 complexes in regulating bread wheat growth and disease resistance.

  9. Engineering Mathematics Assessment Using "MapleTA"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ian S.

    2008-01-01

    The assessment of degree level engineering mathematics students using the computer-aided assessment package MapleTA is discussed. Experience of academic and practical issues for both online coursework and examination assessments is presented, hopefully benefiting other academics in this novel area of activity. (Contains 6 figures and 1 table.)

  10. Project Ta-kos Outreach. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Linda; And Others

    The Project Ta-kos Outreach program is an inservice training model designed to increase the probability that children (ages birth to 8) at risk for or with special needs and their families can access and receive appropriate services in order to remain an integral part of the community in which they reside. The program reflects an ecological…

  11. Understanding the enhanced photoelectrochemical activity of Ta doped hematite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Huicheng; Niu, Dongfang; Liu, Deying; Huang, Wenjiao; Zhang, Xinsheng

    2017-07-01

    The improved photoactivity of Ta doped hematite, which was reported in our previous research, was studied by density functional theory (DFT) calculation and electrochemical measurement. The doping of Ta was calculated to produce slight changes in the local geometry of hematite crystal structure and have a low defect formation energy, indicating that the doping of Ta is energetically favorable and Ta impurity can be stably doped in hematite lattice to replace the Fe site (TaFe). The analysis of the electronic structure of Ta doped hematite indicates that the transition level of corresponding TaFe2+ defect (1.99 eV) lies below the conduction band minimum (CBM), meaning that the doping defect acts as shallow donor to provide more electron carrier, and thus improving the conductivity of hematite. The increased shallow donor density and the energy level induced by the doping of Ta were also confirmed by Mott-Schottky measurement.

  12. Enhanced Biocompatibility in Anodic TaO x Nanotube Arrays.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu-Jin; Twan, Sheng-Chen; Wang, Kuan-Wen; Huang, Her-Hsiung; Hsu, Yen-Bin; Wang, Chien-Ying; Lan, Ming-Ying; Lee, Sheng-Wei

    2017-10-03

    This study first investigates the biocompatibility of self-organized TaO x nanotube arrays with different nanotube diameters fabricated by electrochemical anodization. All as-anodized TaO x nanotubes were identified to be an amorphous phase. The transition in surface wettability with TaO x nanotube diameters can be explained based on Wenzel's model in terms of geometric roughness. In vitro biocompatibility evaluation further indicates that fibroblast cells exhibit an obvious wettability-dependent behavior on the TaO x nanotubes. The 35-nm-diameter TaO x nanotube arrays reveal the highest biocompatibility among all samples. This enhancement could be attributed to highly dense focal points provided by TaO x nanotubes due to higher surface hydrophilicity. This work demonstrates that the biocompatibility in Ta can be improved by forming TaO x nanotube arrays on the surface with appropriate nanotube diameter and geometric roughness.

  13. Atomically engineering Cu/Ta interfaces.

    SciTech Connect

    Webb, Edmund Blackburn, III; Zhou, Xiao Wang

    2007-09-01

    This report summarizes the major research and development accomplishments for the late start LDRD project (investment area: Enable Predictive Simulation) entitled 'Atomically Engineering Cu/Ta Interfaces'. Two ultimate goals of the project are: (a) use atomistic simulation to explore important atomistic assembly mechanisms during growth of Cu/Ta multilayers; and (b) develop a non-continuum model that has sufficient fidelity and computational efficiency for use as a design tool. Chapters 2 and 3 are essentially two papers that address respectively these two goals. In chapter 2, molecular dynamics simulations were used to study the growth of Cu films on (010) bcc Ta and Cu{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x} alloy films on (111) fcc Cu. The results indicated that fcc crystalline Cu films with a (111) texture are always formed when Cu is grown on Ta. The Cu films are always polycrystalline even when the Ta substrate is single crystalline. These polycrystalline films are composed of grains with only two different orientations, which are separated by either orientational grain boundaries or misfit dislocations. Periodic misfit dislocations and stacking fault bands are observed. The Cu film surface roughness was found to decrease with increasing adatom energy. Due to a Cu surface segregation effect, the Cu{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x} films deposited on Cu always have a higher Cu composition than that used in the vapor mixture. When Cu and Ta compositions in the films are comparable, amorphous structures may form. The fundamental origins for all these phenomena have been studied in terms of crystallography and interatomic interactions. In chapter 3, a simplified computational method, diffusional Monte Carlo (dMC) method, was developed to address long time kinetic processes of materials. Long time kinetic processes usually involve material transport by diffusion. The corresponding microstructural evolution of materials can be analyzed by kinetic Monte Carlo simulation methods, which essentially

  14. TA in brief psychotherapy with college students.

    PubMed

    Jensen, S M; Baker, M S; Koepp, A H

    1980-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Transactional Analysis with university students in brief psychotherapy. In the clinical setting of a large university, Transactional Analysis was introduced as an alternative to crisis intervention and other mental health strategies. When Transactional Analysis was introduced as a treatment modality, it was also introduced to all the staff clinicians as an alternative therapeutic model and they were instructed in its basic theories. References are made to TA as a technique and a model which is advantageous for teaching adolescents and young adults in learning about themselves. The emphasis is away from the medical model with its focus on disease and placed instead on the learning model with its focus on solving problems in living. TA lends itself well to the developmental issues especially relevant to adolecents and young adults, i.e., autonomy, identity, and independence. In summary, the authors report results of a survey from the students treated within this framework which seem to support their thesis that TA in brief psychotherapy with university students is an effective learning and therapeutic tool.

  15. Direct Electrolytic Reduction of Solid Ta2O5 to Ta with SOM Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaoyi; Yang, Xiaqiong; Li, Junqi; Lu, Xionggang; Yang, Shufeng

    2016-06-01

    A process that uses the solid-oxide-oxygen-ion conducting membrane has been investigated to produce tantalum directly from solid Ta2O5 in molten CaCl2 or a molten mixture of 55.5MgF2-44.5CaF2 (in wt pct). The sintered porous Ta2O5 pellet was employed as the cathode, while the liquid copper alloy, saturated with graphite powder and encased in a one-end-closed yttria-stabilized-zirconia (YSZ) tube, acted as the anode. The electrolysis potential in this method is higher than that of the Fray-Farthing-Chen Cambridge process because the YSZ membrane tube blocks the melts to electrolyze, and only Ta2O5 is will be electrolyzed. The microstructures of reduced pellets and a cyclic voltammogram of solid Ta2O5 in molten CaCl2 were analyzed. In addition, the influence of particle size and porosity of the cathode pellets on metal-oxide-electrolyte, three-phase interlines was also discussed. The results demonstrate that the sintering temperature of cathode pellets and electrolytic temperature play important roles in the electrochemical process. Furthermore, this process can be used to produce Ta metal efficiently without the expensive cost of pre-electrolysis and generation of harmful by-products.

  16. Enhanced interface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Ta|CoFeB|MgO using nitrogen doped Ta underlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Jaivardhan; Hayashi, Masamitsu; Kellock, Andrew J.; Fukami, Shunsuke; Yamanouchi, Michihiko; Sato, Hideo; Ikeda, Shoji; Mitani, Seiji; Yang, See-hun; Parkin, Stuart S. P.; Ohno, Hideo

    2013-06-01

    We show that the magnetic characteristics of Ta|CoFeB|MgO magnetic heterostructures are strongly influenced by doping the Ta underlayer with nitrogen. In particular, the saturation magnetization drops upon doping the Ta underlayer, suggesting that the doped underlayer acts as a boron diffusion barrier. In addition, the thickness of the magnetic dead layer decreases with increasing nitrogen doping. Surprisingly, the interface magnetic anisotropy increases to ˜1.8 erg/cm2 when an optimum amount of nitrogen is introduced into the Ta underlayer. These results show that nitrogen doped Ta serves as a good underlayer for spintronic applications including magnetic tunnel junctions and domain wall devices.

  17. Synthesis of nano-crystalline TaC-TaB2 by microwave-assisted combustion synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminikia, Behzad

    2013-12-01

    In present study, TaC-TaB2 nanocrystalline powder was produced by microwave synthesis. 3Ta and B4C Al as starting materials were milled for 1, 3, 6 and 9 h then pressed to form pellets. Green compacts were placed in a microwave oven with powder equal 1100W and argon atmosphere, for synthesis. The final products were studied by XRD and SEM analytical techniques. The results showed increasing of the milling time to 9 h the synthesis of desired phases (TaC and TaB2) was associated with greater success and the amount of the side products and intermediate compounds reach to minimum in the product. Also, with increasing of milling time from 1 to 9 h the required time for synthesis of samples reduces from 3 min to 35 sec. This method is an economical method for the preparation TaC-TaB2 powder with respect to energy, time and simplicity.

  18. Pressure-induced ferroelectric to paraelectric transition in LiTaO3 and (Li,Mg)TaO3

    DOE PAGES

    Yamanaka, Takamitsu; Nakamoto, Yuki; Takei, Fumihiko; ...

    2016-02-16

    X-ray powder diffraction and Raman scattering of LiTaO3 (LT) and (Li,Mg)TaO3 (LMT) have been measured under pressure up to 46 GPa. Above 30 GPa, the ferroelectric rhombohedral phase (R3c, Z – 6) of LiTaO3 transforms to a paraelectric orthorhombic phase (Pnma with Z – 4) with a large hysteresis. Rietveld profile fitting analysis shows that the Li-O bond is compressed and approaches that of Ta-O with pressure. The cation distribution analysis of the orthorhombic perovskite structure shows that Li and Ta are located in the octahedral 8-fold coordination sites. Difference Fourier |Fobs(hkl)| - |Fcal(hkl)| maps of LiTaO3 and (Li,Mg)TaO3 indicatemore » polarization in the c axis direction and a more distinct electron density distribution around the Ta position for (Li,Mg)TaO3 compared to LiTaO3. The observed effective charges indicate that for (Li,Mg)TaO3 without vacancies Ta5+ becomes less ionized as a function of Mg substitution. Considering both site occupancy and effective charge analysis, Ta5+ is reduced to Ta4.13+. Mg2+ and O2- change to Mg1.643+ and O1.732 -, respectively. The space- and time-averaged structures of the dynamical vibration of atoms can be elucidated from the electron density analysis by difference Fourier and temperature factors T(hkl) in the structure refinement. The refinement of the temperature factor is consistent with the cation distribution assuming full stoichiometry. The residual electron density induced from the excess electron in (Li,Mg)TaO3 indicates more electrons around the Ta site, as confirmed by the effective charge analysis. Raman spectra of LiTaO3 and (Li,Mg)TaO3 show notable changes over the measured pressure range. Raman peaks centered at 250 cm–1 and 350 cm–1 at ambient pressure merge above 8 GPa, which we associate with the diminishing of difference in distances between Li-O and Ta-O bonds with pressure in both materials. Finally, Raman spectra show significant changes at 28 GPa and 33 GPa for LT and LMT

  19. Magnetic characteristics of possible hydrothermal vents in TA 25 and TA26 seamounts, the Lau Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chang Hwan; Choi, Soon Young; Park, Chan Hong

    2014-05-01

    The deep sea three component magnetic survey was conducted in the western (site A) and eastern (site B) slopes of the caldera of TA25 seamount and the summit area of TA26 seamount, the Lau Basin, the southwestern Pacific, at Jan. 2012, using German R/V SONNE and ROV (Remotely Operated Vehicle) of ROPOS Co. The magnetic survey lines were the 29 N-S lines (TA25-East : 12 lines, TA25-West : 11 lines, TA26 : 6 lines) with about 100 m spacing and about 50 m above seafloor. For the magnetic survey, the magnetometer sensor was attached with the line frame of ROV and the data logger and motion sensor in ROV. A motion sensor (Octans) provided us the data of pitch, roll, yaw for the correction of the magnetic data to the motion of ROV. The data of the magnetometer and motion sensors and the USBL(Ultra Short Base Line) data of the position of ROV were recorded on a notebook through the optical cable of ROV. Hydrothermal fluids over Curie temperature can quickly alter or replace the iron-rich magnetic minerals, reducing the magnetic remanence of the crustal rocks, in some cases to near 0 A/m magnetization. The magnetic anomaly map of TA25 site A shows high anomalies in the central part and low anomalies in the northern part, ranging from about -500 to 500 nT. The magnetization map, calculated by the inversion of the bathymetry and the magnetic anomaly, represents low anomalous zones over the south-western part and the northern part of the area. The magnetic anomaly map of TA25 site B displays high anomalies in the southeastern part and low anomalies in the central and eastern parts, ranging from about -700 to 800 nT. The low magnetization zones occur over the western part and central part of the area. The high magnetic anomalies of the survey area of TA26 are located in the north and northeastern parts and low anomalies in the southeastern part, with the magnetic anomaly range from about -2000 to 1600 nT. The magnetization map shows east-west trend low anomalous zones in the

  20. Paleoclimate from Tree Rings of Picea morrisonicola in Ta-Ta-Chia Area of Central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, T.; Wright, W. E.; Wei, K.; Cook, E. R.

    2009-12-01

    Almost no dendrochronology has been reported internationally from Taiwan, despite the existence of many dendrochronologically appropriate tree species. In this study, we reconstruct the regional paleoclimate using a multi-century tree ring-width chronology developed from Picea morrisonicola ( the endemic Taiwan Spruce), a subtropical species growing in the Ta-Ta-Chia subalpine mountain areas of central Taiwan. Picea morrisonicola in Taiwan is the only member of the Picea genus whose distribution crosses the Tropic of Cancer. Statistical analysis of the climate signal demonstrates that both the temperature and precipitation have significant effects on tree growth.

  1. Failure mechanism of Ta diffusion barrier between Cu and Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurila, Tomi; Zeng, Kejun; Kivilahti, Jorma K.; Molarius, Jyrki; Suni, Ilkka

    2000-09-01

    The reaction mechanisms in the Si/Ta/Cu metallization system and their relation to the microstructure of thin films are discussed on the basis of experimental results and the assessment of the ternary Si-Ta-Cu phase diagram at 700 °C. With the help of sheet resistance measurements, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction, a scanning electron microscope, and a transmission electron microscope, the Ta barrier layer was observed to fail at temperatures above 650 °C due to the formation of TaSi2, the diffusion of Cu through the silicide layer, and the resulting formation of Cu3Si precipitates. However, in order for the TaSi2 phase to form first, the Ta diffusion barrier layer must be thick enough (e.g., 50-100 nm) to prevent Cu diffusion into the Si substrate up to the temperature of TaSi2 formation (˜650 °C). Independent of the Ta layer thickness, Cu3Si was present as large nodules, whereas the TaSi2 existed as a uniform layer. The resulting reaction structure was found to be in local equilibrium on the basis of the assessed Si-Ta-Cu phase diagram at 700 °C, and therefore no further reactions were expected. The role of oxygen was also found to be important in the reactions and it seems to have a strong effect on the thermal stability of the barrier layer.

  2. A comparative study of the sensitivities of Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 to hospital waste waters.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Preeti; Mathur, P; Mathur, N; Aarya, B

    2014-07-01

    Hospitals are a release source of many chemical compounds in their wastewaters. In the present study Salmonella typhimurium strains TA 98, TA 100 and TA 102 were analyzed for their sensitivity to hospital waste waters. The results of the study showed that hospital waste waters consists of mutagens causing frame shift mutations and base pair substitutions and amongst the three strains used in this study, TA 102 was most effective which along with TA 98 can be used for quick assessment of genotoxicity of hospital waste waters prior to its discharge. Genotoxic potential of hospital waste waters from five major hospitals located in Jaipur and Delhi was studied. Such waste waters should be treated prior to their discharge. The results of this study call for further detailed study in this area of research.

  3. Development of W-Ta generator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    This research program was used to further develop the existing W-Ta generator and to evaluate alternative adsorbents, preferably inorganic materials, as supports for the generator. During the first half year, combinations of non-complexing eluents and a variety of adsorbents, both inorganic and organic, were evaluated. Some of these adsorbents were synthetic, such as chelate resins that could be specific for tungsten. In the second half of the year, the stress was mainly on the use of complexing eluents because of the high affinity of hydrous oxides for tantalum, on the synthesis of chelate resins and on the use novel techniques (electrolytic) to solve the tantalum-adsorption problem.

  4. Characteristic variation of spark plasma-sintered Ta compacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Gue-Serb; Lim, Jung-Kyu; Choe, Kyeong-Hwan; Shin, Seung-Yong

    2010-05-01

    In the present study, we applied the SPS process to obtain a tantalum (Ta) compact for a sputtering target. Sintered Ta compacts were characterized with respect to microstructure, relative density, Vickers hardness and phase composition of the inside and the surface. By radio frequency (RF) thermal plasma treatment, a spherical ultra-fine Ta powder was obtained; however, the oxygen content increased due to severe passivation during powder handling. Higher sintering temperature and the RF plasma treatment increased the densification of the sintered compact and also the Vickers hardness. From XRD analysis, only Ta was identified in the cross section of compacts, and TaC formed by the reaction between Ta and the graphite mould was found in the surface of the compacts. The evacuation of the chamber and the reduction by the graphite mould promote the purification of the compact.

  5. Enhanced soft magnetic properties in stress free amorphous FeTaC/Ta multilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kr.; Perumal, A.

    2013-02-01

    We report the enhanced soft magnetic properties of FeTaC film at higher thicknesses (200 nm) using [FeTaC(y)/Ta(x)]n = 2/FeTaC(y) multilayer structured films prepared on thermally oxidized Si substrates. As-made films and post annealed films at 250 °C exhibited amorphous structure. The room temperature coercivity decreased from 10 Oe for the as-made film to 0.03 Oe for the post annealed film. Also, the field necessary to saturate the M-H loop decreased largely with annealing. Interestingly, the temperature dependent magnetic data of the annealed films showed not only a narrow M-H loop as compared to the as-made films, but also exhibited a multi-step magnetization reversal process at T<60 K. The observed results are discussed on the basis of release of stress accumulated during the deposition process, with the post annealing process and the topological coupling between the magnetic layers.

  6. The Ta-You Wu Lectures at the University of Michigan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, A. Chi-Tai

    The following sections are included: * Brochure Profile on Ta -You Wu Lecturers * 1992 Ta-You Wu Lecturer: Chen Ning Yang * 1993 Ta-You Wu Lecturer: Abraham Pais * 1994 Ta-You Wu Lecturer: Joseph H. Taylor * 1995 Ta-You Wu Lecturer: T. D. Lee * 1996 Ta-You Wu Lecturer: Pierre-Gilles de Gennes * 1997 Ta-You Wu Lecturer: Paul Ching-Wu Chu * Concluding Remark * Footnotes & References

  7. (Ln = Pr, Nd, M = Nb, Ta)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noked, O.; Melchior, A.; Shuker, R.; Steininger, R.; Kennedy, B. J.; Sterer, E.

    2014-06-01

    High-pressure X-ray diffraction measurements have demonstrated that the cation-deficient perovskites Pr1/3NbO3, Pr1/3TaO3, Nd1/3NbO3, and Nd1/3TaO3 undergo irreversible pressure-induced amorphization (PIA). This occurs near 14.5 GPa for the niobates and 18.5 GPa for the tantalates. The unit cell volumes of the four oxides show an almost linear decrease as the pressure is increased. It is concluded that the PIA transition occurs at higher pressures in the tantalates due to the lower MO6 initial tilting at ambient conditions, which is associated with the larger atomic mass of the tantalum. The behavior of these oxides is compared to that of CaTiO3, and the role of both the weakening of the M-O-M π-bonding and the cation vacancies on the observed structural changes is discussed.

  8. Partial splenic resection using the TA-stapler.

    PubMed

    Uranüs, S; Kronberger, L; Kraft-Kine, J

    1994-07-01

    Since 1987, we have used the TA-stapler for 15 partial resections of the spleen. The cases included 5 second- to third-degree traumatic ruptures, 4 splenic cysts, 3 injuries resulting from accidents during upper-abdominal surgery, 2 diagnostic resections, and 1 intralienal pancreatic cyst. The TA-55 stapler was used 14 times and the TA-90 once. No patient developed postoperative bleeding or required further surgery. Postoperative laboratory chemistry and scintigraphy findings were within the limits indicative of normal function in all cases. The TA-stapler expands the technical possibilities for organ-conserving splenic surgery.

  9. Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves for TaH

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, W.; Balasubramanian, K.

    1991-09-01

    Spectroscopic constants and potential energy curves of 21 electronic states of the diatomic TaH are computed using complete active space multiconfiguration self-consistent field (CASSCF) followed by second-order configuration interaction (SOCI) calculations. In addition spin-orbit effects were included using the relativistic configuration interaction method (RCI). The ground state of TaH was found to be a 0 + state, which is a mixture of 5Δ(0 +), 5Π(0 +), 3Σ -(0 +), and 3Π(0 +). The spin-orbit effects were found to be significant for TaH. Several spectroscopic transitions are predicted for TaH none of which is observed.

  10. Ab initio derived Cl-Ta potential and its application to Cl/Cl2 scattering off Ta 110 surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jing; Boercker, David B.; Wu, Christine J.

    1996-03-01

    Transition metal surface scattering and/or etching by halogen gases have both fundamental and industrial interests. In this report, we describe an attempt to simulate Cl2 scattering off Ta(110) using an ab initio derived interatomic potential. Our richly parametrized potential not only has the correct experimental adsorption energy for Cl atoms on Ta surfaces but also describes all the essential features of the Cl atom interacting with Ta (110) surface obtained from ab initio calculations. Furthermore, our potential properly describes the change of bonding characteristics from covalent bonding to ionic repulsion between the two Cl atoms when a Cl molecule approaches the Ta surface. Our preliminary results for Cl molecules scattering off Ta (110) surface using this potential will be described and its implication for Cl etching of Ta surface will also be discussed. Work performed under the auspices of the U.S. DOE by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract No. W--7405--ENG--48.

  11. A theoretical study of the potential energy curves and spectroscopic constants of TaC and TaC +

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumdar, D.; Balasubramanian, K.

    1998-02-01

    Potential energy curves for the various low-lying electronic states of TaC and TaC + have been studied using the complete active space multiconfiguration self-consistent field method (CASMCSCF) followed by first-order and restricted second-order configuration (FOCI, SOCI) interaction calculations. The effect of spin-orbit interactions has been studied using the relativistic configuration interaction method. The ground state of TaC has been found to be 2Σ + whereas two nearly degenerate states ( 1Σ +, 3Σ +) are found as candidates for the ground state of TaC +. Inclusion of spin-orbit effect yields a state 1/2 as the ground state of TaC, while in case of TaC + 1 and 0 - states are very close in energy.

  12. Ferroelectric properties of multi-layer LiTaO 3 thin films with Ta IIO 5 buffer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, De-Yin; Peng, Wei-Dong; Li, Jin-Hua; Li, Kun; Huang, Da-Gui

    2007-12-01

    The new sol-gel derived multi-layer LiTaO 3 thin films with Ta IIO 5 buffer layer were prepared on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrate using lithium ethoxide and tantalum ethoxide as starting materials. The sol of Ta IIO 5 was firstly covered on the substrate by spin coating at 6500rpm for 50s and then a rapid annealing at 650°C for 2min to form an about 20nm thick Ta IIO 5 buffer layer. Multi-layer LiTaO 3 thin films were made over Ta IIO 5 buffer by repeated spin coating at 4000rpm for 30s and then a rapid annealing process at 700°C for 3min. The spectrum of XRD show the crystalline orientation of thin film type Ta IIO 5 is different compared to powder type Ta IIO 5. The SEM micrograph of the cross section shows the prepared sample is uniform, smooth and crack-free on the surface and the thickness of LiTaO 3 thin film is 0.341μm. The ferroelectric hysteresis loop and leakage current of the prepared sample have been measured using Al/LiTaO 3/Ta IIO 5/Pt structure electrode by a ferroelectric material analyzer PLC-100. The remanent polarization and coercive field of the prepared sample polarized at 13V were 3.4μC/cm2 and 185kV/cm respectively. The leakage current of the prepared sample was 2.66x10 -7A at 71.43kV/cm .Experimental results show the prepared sample of LiTaO 3 thin film with Ta IIO 5 buffer has good ferroelectric properties. Ta IIO 5 buffer introduction between LiTaO 3 thin film and Pt substrate can effectively decrease the leakage current and improve the properties of uncooled LiTaO 3 infrared device.

  13. The ``tilted wobbler'' in ^167Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartley, D. J.; Seyfried, E. P.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Frauendorf, S.; Garg, U.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Chiara, C. J.; Kondev, F. G.; Lauritsen, T.; McCutchan, E. A.; Stefanescu, I.; Zhu, S.; Riedinger, L. L.; Darby, I. G.; Riley, M. A.; Aguilar, A.; Wang, X.; Chowdhury, P.; Lakshmi, S.; Tandel, S. K.; Tandel, U.; Ijaz, Q. A.; Ma, W. C.

    2010-11-01

    The exotic wobbling mode (which is direct experimental confirmation of asymmetric nuclear shapes) has now been observed in ^163,165,167Lu and ^167Ta. Particle-rotor model calculations have successfully described the transition strength ratios between the wobbling band and the πi13/2 sequence upon which it is based [1]. However, assumptions made in this model suggest that the wobbling band should increase in energy (with respect to the πi13/2 band) with spin. This is in direct contrast to what is systematically observed in experiments. Using a different set of assumptions within the particle-rotor model, the transition strength ratios can be reproduced while also predicting correctly the reduction in the energy splitting between the bands with increasing spin.[4pt] [1] I. Hamamoto and G.B. Hagemann, Phys. Rev. C 67, 014319 (2003).

  14. TaOx-based resistive switching memories: prospective and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Resistive switching memories (RRAMs) are attractive for replacement of conventional flash in the future. Although different switching materials have been reported; however, low-current operated devices (<100 μA) are necessary for productive RRAM applications. Therefore, TaOx is one of the prospective switching materials because of two stable phases of TaO2 and Ta2O5, which can also control the stable low- and high-resistance states. Long program/erase endurance and data retention at high temperature under low-current operation are also reported in published literature. So far, bilayered TaOx with inert electrodes (Pt and/or Ir) or single layer TaOx with semi-reactive electrodes (W and Ti/W or Ta/Pt) is proposed for real RRAM applications. It is found that the memory characteristics at current compliance (CC) of 80 μA is acceptable for real application; however, data are becoming worst at CC of 10 μA. Therefore, it is very challenging to reduce the operation current (few microampere) of the RRAM devices. This study investigates the switching mode, mechanism, and performance of low-current operated TaOx-based devices as compared to other RRAM devices. This topical review will not only help for application of TaOx-based nanoscale RRAM devices but also encourage researcher to overcome the challenges in the future production. PMID:24107610

  15. TA-59 North Parking Lot and Pajarito Road Corridor Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide traffic engineering services for the TA-59 North Parking Lot/Pajarito Road corridor Analysis at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The following tasks were accomplished to assess the development of the north parking lot and Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59: conducted turning-movement counts from 7 AM to 9 AM and from 4 PM to 6 PM at the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection; conducted a parking supply and demand survey for all the parking lots within TA-59 on half-hour intervals between 0600--1800 (6 AM to 6 PM); conducted mid-day directional speed study along Pajarito Road, just east or south of the TA-59/Pajarito Road intersection; conducted peak hour gap study on Pajarito Road in the vicinity of TA-59; reviewed the TA-59 Parking Lot North of Pajarito Road, FY-94 Weapons GPP Short List Candidate {number_sign}9 report and other documents pertaining to past transportation studies; reassigned current turning-movement volumes with a 100 space parking lot being built on the north side of Pajarito Road; prepared traffic projections for the Pajarito Road/TA-59 intersection according to the proposed development on the north side of Pajarito Road that would employee 246 people; and assigned pedestrian crossing volumes between the northern lot/future development site and areas south of Pajarito Road.

  16. Optically transparent and electrically conducting epitaxial Ta2O films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanarajan, S.; Lam, S. K. H.; Foley, C. P.

    2007-03-01

    An optically transparent and electrically conducting oxide Ta2O epitaxial thin film has been fabricated and characterized. In our experiments, we grew epitaxial Ta films on r-cut sapphire crystal substrates, which were subsequently oxidized into Ta2O films. The x-ray θ-2θ scan peaks match the American Society for Testing and Materials x-ray powder data card for Ta2O (18-1302) with a cubic structure. The x-ray photoelectron spectroscopic measurements indicated Ta 4f peak energy values between those for Ta and TaO whereas the O /Ta atomic ratio is between 0.5 and 1. Resistivity-temperature measurements showed a metallic behavior with resistivity values in the range of (1.5-3.3)×10-4Ωcm at 293K. Optical measurements on 25-100nm thick films indicated that they are transparent in the range of 400-2000nm and have an energy band gap between 2.04 and 2.17eV. The Hall mobility and carrier density of the films were in the range of 62-110cm2V-1s-1 and (1.9-3.0)×1020cm-3, respectively.

  17. Lecture Discourse of a Foreign TA: A Preliminary Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Susan

    1982-01-01

    A study of the communication skill needs of the foreign teaching associate (TA) in American universities focused on two questions: (1) What does a foreign TA do to communicate information in an American classroom in terms of comunication strategies and devices for cohesion and coherence of discourse? and (2) How does this compare with the way an…

  18. Lecture Discourse of a Foreign TA: A Preliminary Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillette, Susan

    1982-01-01

    A study of the communication skill needs of the foreign teaching associate (TA) in American universities focused on two questions: (1) What does a foreign TA do to communicate information in an American classroom in terms of comunication strategies and devices for cohesion and coherence of discourse? and (2) How does this compare with the way an…

  19. Characterization and Modeling of Nonfilamentary Ta/TaOx/TiO2/Ti Analog Synaptic Device

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Fen; Lin, Yen-Chuan; Wang, I-Ting; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hou, Tuo-Hung

    2015-01-01

    A two-terminal analog synaptic device that precisely emulates biological synaptic features is expected to be a critical component for future hardware-based neuromorphic computing. Typical synaptic devices based on filamentary resistive switching face severe limitations on the implementation of concurrent inhibitory and excitatory synapses with low conductance and state fluctuation. For overcoming these limitations, we propose a Ta/TaOx/TiO2/Ti device with superior analog synaptic features. A physical simulation based on the homogeneous (nonfilamentary) barrier modulation induced by oxygen ion migration accurately reproduces various DC and AC evolutions of synaptic states, including the spike-timing-dependent plasticity and paired-pulse facilitation. Furthermore, a physics-based compact model for facilitating circuit-level design is proposed on the basis of the general definition of memristor devices. This comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the promising electronic synapse can facilitate realizing large-scale neuromorphic systems. PMID:25955658

  20. Microstructural and weldability evaluation of 310TaN

    SciTech Connect

    Lundin, C.D.; Qiao, C.Y.P.; Swindeman, R.W.

    1996-08-01

    Excellent weldability and good microstructural stability of 310TaN, in terms of the formation and growth of secondary phases at elevated temperature, was revealed in this investigation. The interganular stress corrosion resistance of 310TaN is superior to modified 800H and 310HCbN evaluated previously due to the fact that TaC, TaN and Ta(C,N) particles are more stable compared to Nb-rich or Ti-rich carbides, nitrides and carbonitrides presented in the other advanced alloys. Using resistance spot welding technique for which extremely fast cooling is a characteristic, it was found that a very minor amount of gain boundary liquation takes place during welding thermal cycling. The limited grain boundary liquation is of the eutectic type i.e., a low tendency to weld HAZ hot cracking.

  1. Biocompatibility of nanotube formed Ti-30Nb-7Ta alloys.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Sil; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility of Ti-30Nb-7Ta alloy surface decorated with TiO2 nanotubes by anodization in an electrolyte containing 1 M H3PO4 and 0.8 wt.% NaF with an applied voltage of 10 V for 2 h. The anodization was carried out using a scanning potentiostat. The microstructures of alloys and morphology of the nanotubes were investigated by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. In comparison to the Ti-30Nb-3Ta alloy, the Ti-30Nb-7Ta alloy contained a lower amount of α" phase, while the β phase was higher. In this study, we observed the formation of a spongy porous layer on the Ti-30Nb-7Ta alloy, while the Ti-30Nb and Ti-30Nb-3Ta alloys showed an absence of such a spongy layer.

  2. Current-driven perpendicular magnetization switching in Ta/CoFeB/[TaOx or MgO/TaOx] films with lateral structural asymmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Guoqiang; Chang, Li-Te; Akyol, Mustafa; Upadhyaya, Pramey; He, Congli; Li, Xiang; Wong, Kin L.; Amiri, Pedram Khalili; Wang, Kang L.

    2014-09-01

    We study the current-driven perpendicular magnetization switching in Ta/CoFeB(wedge)/[TaOx or MgO/TaOx] devices with a lateral structural asymmetry introduced by a varying CoFeB thickness. In these devices, an in-plane current can generate a field-like torque and its corresponding effective magnetic field ( H z F L) is out-of-plane, which can deterministically switch perpendicular magnetization at zero magnetic field. Experimental results indicate that the method used for breaking lateral structural symmetry greatly affects the resulting field-like torque, and that the gradient of perpendicular anisotropy, resulting from the CoFeB thickness variation, is not by itself sufficient to give rise to the current-induced H z F L. Analysis of the oxidation gradient at the CoFeB/TaOx interface indicates that the oxidation gradient may play a more important role than the gradient of magnetic anisotropy for the generation of H z F L. For practical applications, the demonstration of perpendicular magnetization switching in Ta/CoFeB(wedge)/MgO/TaOx devices potentially allows for using MgO-based magnetic tunnel junctions for readout in three-terminal memory devices without the need for external magnetic fields.

  3. Sequence and structural relationships of leucocins A-, B- and C-TA33a from Leuconostoc mesenteroides TA33a.

    PubMed

    Papathanasopoulos, M A; Dykes, G A; Revol-Junelles, A M; Delfour, A; von Holy, A; Hastings, J W

    1998-05-01

    Amino acid sequences of two of the three bacteriocins from Leuconostoc mesenteroides TA33a were determined and their sequence-structure relationships investigated. Leucocin B-TA33a consists of 31 amino acid residues, with a molecular mass of 3466 Da. Leucocin B-TA33a does not belong to the pediocin family of bacteriocins, but shares 62% homology with mesenterocin 52B. A partial sequence of 36 amino acids of leucocin C-TA33a (4598 Da) was determined. Leucocin C-TA33a belongs to the class II bacteriocins having the consensus YGNGV motif. The third bacteriocin, leucocin A-TA33a, is identical to leucocin A-UAL 187. Circular dichroism spectra of the leucocins in aqueous solution and micellar SDS indicated that they undergo a structural transition when in a membrane-mimicking environment. Theoretical predictions from circular dichroism data suggest that leucocins A-, B- and C-TA33a adopt a beta-structure (48%) in membrane-mimicking environments. Sequence alignments and secondary structure predictions for the N-terminus of leucocins A- and C-TA33a predicted that Cys-9 and Cys-14 are connected by a disulfide bridge and form two beta-strands.

  4. 77 FR 64827 - Investigation Nos. 701-TA-402 and 731-TA-892 (Second Review); Honey From Argentina; Termination...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Investigation Nos. 701-TA-402 and 731-TA-892 (Second Review); Honey From Argentina; Termination of... countervailing duty order and antidumping duty order on imports of honey from Argentina would be likely to lead...

  5. O-GlcNAc-mediated interaction between VER2 and TaGRP2 elicits TaVRN1 mRNA accumulation during vernalization in winter wheat

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jun; Xu, Shujuan; Li, Chunhua; Xu, Yunyuan; Xing, Lijing; Niu, Yuda; Huan, Qing; Tang, Yimiao; Zhao, Changping; Wagner, Doris; Gao, Caixia; Chong, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Vernalization, sensing of prolonged cold, is important for seasonal flowering in eudicots and monocots. While vernalization silences a repressor (FLC, MADS-box transcription factor) in eudicots, it induces an activator (TaVRN1, an AP1 clade MADS-box transcription factor) in monocots. The mechanism for TaVRN1 induction during vernalization is not well understood. Here we reveal a novel mechanism for controlling TaVRN1 mRNA accumulation in response to prolonged cold sensing in wheat. The carbohydrate-binding protein VER2, a jacalin lectin, promotes TaVRN1 upregulation by physically interacting with the RNA-binding protein TaGRP2. TaGRP2 binds to TaVRN1 pre-mRNA and inhibits TaVRN1 mRNA accumulation. The physical interaction between VER2 and TaGRP2 is controlled by TaGRP2 O-GlcNAc modification, which gradually increases during vernalization. The interaction between VER2 and O-GlcNAc-TaGRP2 reduces TaGRP2 protein accumulation in the nucleus and/or promotes TaGRP2 dissociation from TaVRN1, leading to TaVRN1 mRNA accumulation. Our data reveal a new mechanism for sensing prolonged cold in temperate cereals. PMID:25091017

  6. Silver delafossite nitride, AgTaN 2?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura, Akira; Lowe, Michael; Leonard, Brian M.; Subban, Chinmayee V.; Masubuchi, Yuji; Kikkawa, Shinichi; Dronskowski, Richard; Hennig, Richard G.; Abruña, Héctor D.; DiSalvo, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    A new silver nitride, AgTaN 2, was synthesized from NaTaN 2 by a cation-exchange reaction, using a AgNO 3-NH 4NO 3 flux at 175 °C. Its crystal structure type is delafossite (R3¯m) with hexagonal lattice parameters of a=3.141(3) Å, c=18.81(2) Å, in which silver is linearly coordinated to nitrogen. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis and combustion nitrogen/oxygen analysis gave a composition with atomic ratios of Ag:Ta:N:O as 1.0:1.2(1):2.1(1):0.77(4), which is somewhat Ta rich and indicates some oxide formation. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed a Ta- and O-rich surface and transmission electron microscope observation exhibited aggregates of ca. 4-5 nm-sized particles on the surface, which are probably related to the composition deviation from a AgTaN 2. The lattice parameters of stoichiometric AgTaN 2 calculated by density functional theory agree with the experimental ones, but the possibility of some oxygen incorporation and/or silver deficiency is not precluded.

  7. Silver delafossite nitride, AgTaN{sub 2}?

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Akira; Lowe, Michael; Leonard, Brian M.; Subban, Chinmayee V.; Masubuchi, Yuji; Kikkawa, Shinichi; Dronskowski, Richard; Hennig, Richard G.; Abruna, Hector D.; DiSalvo, Francis J.

    2011-01-15

    A new silver nitride, AgTaN{sub 2}, was synthesized from NaTaN{sub 2} by a cation-exchange reaction, using a AgNO{sub 3}-NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} flux at 175 {sup o}C. Its crystal structure type is delafossite (R3-bar m) with hexagonal lattice parameters of a=3.141(3) A, c=18.81(2) A, in which silver is linearly coordinated to nitrogen. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis and combustion nitrogen/oxygen analysis gave a composition with atomic ratios of Ag:Ta:N:O as 1.0:1.2(1):2.1(1):0.77(4), which is somewhat Ta rich and indicates some oxide formation. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis showed a Ta- and O-rich surface and transmission electron microscope observation exhibited aggregates of ca. 4-5 nm-sized particles on the surface, which are probably related to the composition deviation from a AgTaN{sub 2}. The lattice parameters of stoichiometric AgTaN{sub 2} calculated by density functional theory agree with the experimental ones, but the possibility of some oxygen incorporation and/or silver deficiency is not precluded. -- Graphical abstract: A delafossite silver nitride, AgTaN{sub 2}, was synthesized from NaTaN{sub 2} by a cation-exchange reaction using a AgNO{sub 3}-NH{sub 4}NO{sub 3} flux. It contains N-Ag-N linear bonding. Display Omitted

  8. Structure of vacuum Cu–Ta condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubkov, A. I.; Zubarev, E. N.; Sobol', O. V.; Hlushchenko, M. A.; Lutsenko, E. V.

    2017-02-01

    The structure of vacuum condensate foils (separated from substrates) of the binary Cu-Ta system has been investigated both in the initial condensed state and after annealings at temperatures of up to 1000°C. It has been shown that the alloying of a vapor flow of the matrix metal (copper) with tantalum to 0.5 at % makes it possible to reduce the grain size from 3 μm to 50 nm. Depending on the tantalum concentration, condensates exhibit a broad spectrum of structural states, i.e., single- and two-phase, a supersaturated solution of tantalum in the fcc lattice of copper, etc. The structure of the objects possesses a high thermal stability. The temperature of the start of grain growth in the copper matrix depends on the tantalum content and can reach 900°C. The dispersion of the structure of copper condensates and its thermal stability is due to the formation of segregates of tantalum atoms at the boundaries of grains of the copper matrix both in the process of condensation and upon subsequent annealing.

  9. First-principles study of the charge transfer and evolution of Si doping 2N2Ta islands adsorption on TaN (001) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Yuan; Zhang, Honglv; Zhang, Chao; Zeng, Haiqing; Liu, Xuejie

    2017-01-01

    The separation and aggregation of Si atoms around TaN grains during deposition of Ta-Si-N nanocomposite films were studied, and the adsorption energies, charge transfer and atomic partial density of state of Si-2N2Ta islands on the TaN (001) surface and diffusion energy of the islands during their evolution were evaluated using the first-principles method based on density functional theory (DFT). In the lowest total energy stable configuration, N and Ta atoms tended to combine to form 2N2Ta islands, whereas Si atoms tended to stay at a position diagonal to the Ta atom outside of the island. Si atoms entered the position of the missing N atom of the TaN island and formed a substitute solid solution during Ta-Si-N growth. The Si atoms of the solid solution in the island could be easily extruded by Ta- or N-rich island during the deposition process. The process of Si atom extrusion by a N atom which was the configuration of N-by-2Ta1N1Si island evolved into Si-by-2N2Ta island in rich N-atom. The process of Si atom was extruded by the Ta atom which was the configuration of Ta-by-2N1Ta1Si island evolved into Si-of-2Ta2N island, that reduced the total energy of island. The diffusion energies of these evolutions were 0.974 and 1.712 eV, respectively. The Si atoms and TaN grain phase tended to separate during the deposition process. Si atoms could give way to Ta and N atoms during the Ta-Si-N nanocomposite film deposition process.

  10. Magnetism of Ta dichalcogenide monolayers tuned by strain and hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Manchanda, Priyanka; Sellmyer, D. J.; Skomski, Ralph; Sharma, Vinit; Yu, Hongbin

    2015-07-20

    The effects of strain and hydrogenation on the electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of monolayers of Ta based dichalcogenides (TaX{sub 2}; X = S, Se, and Te) are investigated using density-functional theory. We predict a complex scenario of strain-dependent magnetic phase transitions involving paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and modulated antiferromagnetic states. Covering one of the two chalcogenide surfaces with hydrogen switches the antiferromagnetic/nonmagnetic TaX{sub 2} monolayers to a semiconductor, and the optical behavior strongly depends on strain and hydrogenation. Our research opens pathways towards the manipulation of magnetic as well as optical properties for future spintronics and optoelectronics applications.

  11. Magnetism of Ta dichalcogenide monolayers tuned by strain and hydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchanda, Priyanka; Sharma, Vinit; Yu, Hongbin; Sellmyer, D. J.; Skomski, Ralph

    2015-07-01

    The effects of strain and hydrogenation on the electronic, magnetic, and optical properties of monolayers of Ta based dichalcogenides (TaX2; X = S, Se, and Te) are investigated using density-functional theory. We predict a complex scenario of strain-dependent magnetic phase transitions involving paramagnetic, ferromagnetic, and modulated antiferromagnetic states. Covering one of the two chalcogenide surfaces with hydrogen switches the antiferromagnetic/nonmagnetic TaX2 monolayers to a semiconductor, and the optical behavior strongly depends on strain and hydrogenation. Our research opens pathways towards the manipulation of magnetic as well as optical properties for future spintronics and optoelectronics applications.

  12. Zr-Hf-Ta fractionation during lunar evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, S. S.; Schmitt, R. A.

    1985-01-01

    Zr/Hf ratios and other elemental data in 68 samples of various mare basalts, KREEP units, and lunar glasses have been determined using instrumental neutron activation analysis coupled with coincidence-anticoincidence counting for greater precision. The data are presented in order to quantify further the amount of Zr/Hf fractionation that has occurred during primordial crystallization and cumulate remelting or by any other process. Models of Zr-Hf evolution are developed to place additional constraints on the bulk lunar composition and on the effects of minor phases that may be responsible for the observed fractionations. The Hf-Ta fractionation in lunar compositions is also reviewed in order to characterize normal Hf(4+) versus Ta(4+) behavior and to delineate possible effects due to the oxidation of Ta(4+) to Ta(5+) during late-stage ilmenite crystallization.

  13. Diffusion of 6Li in Ta and W

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vacik, J.; Hnatowicz, V.; Köster, U.; Cervena, J.; Havranek, V.; Pasold, G.

    2006-08-01

    The objective of this work was the study of 6Li diffusion in the Ta and W refractory metals. The samples were prepared by ion implantation of 380 keV 6Li+ ions into W and Ta thin foils (up to the fluence of 1016 ions/cm2) and annealed up to the temperature 1940 °C. The depth profiles of 6Li were determined using the Thermal Neutron Depth Profiling (TNDP) technique. The results showed that diffusion of 6Li in both W and Ta foils is very complex and cannot be described by simple Fick's laws. Trapping centers (in the subsurface layers of both W and Ta metals) were supposed in a trial to explain the 6Li diffusion behaviour. However, the 6Li depth profiles were only partly explained. Other aspects are necessary to take into account for more proper quantification; such as spatially dependent diffusion coefficients, etc.

  14. Enhanced Superconductivity in Restacked TaS2 Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jie; Guo, Chenguang; Song, Changsheng; Lai, Xiaofang; Li, Hui; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Hui; Mu, Gang; Bu, Kejun; Lin, Tianquan; Xie, Xiaoming; Chen, Mingwei; Huang, Fuqiang

    2017-04-05

    Since interface superconductivity was discovered at the interface between two insulating layers LaAlO3 and SrTiO3, such interface-induced superconducting systems have been a research hotspot in superconductivity. Here, we report homogeneous interfaces formed by stacking chemically exfoliated monolayer TaS2 nanosheets randomly. Enhanced superconductivity of Tc = 3 K is observed, compared with 0.8 K of parent 2H-TaS2. The measurement of heat capacity shows the increase of electronic specific-heat coefficient γ of restacked TaS2 nanosheets compared to parent 2H-TaS2 crystals. Density functional theory calculations indicate that increase and delocalization of electron states near the Fermi surface due to the homogeneous interfaces effects could account for the enhanced superconductivity.

  15. Electrostatic model of the LiTaO3 ferroelectric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatsenko, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Possible combinations of the electronic polarizability tensor components for oxygen and tantalum ions have been established based on the analysis of the refraction coefficients of LiTaO3 crystal in the far-IR region. The local electric field on structurally nonequivalent ions in the LiTaO3 unit cell was calculated within the modified point-multipole model. A combination of the electronic polarizability tensor components for oxygen and tantalum ions and their effective charges is established, which provides a good correspondence of the calculation results with the experimental data on LiTaO3 crystals obtained by 7Li nuclear magnetic resonance and 181Ta nuclear quadrupole resonance and with the known value of the crystal spontaneous polarization.

  16. Oxygen enhancement ratio for d(800) + (Be + Ta) and d(800) + (Ta + Be) neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, G.H.; Balcer-Kubiczek, E.K.

    1980-07-01

    Specialized experiments were performed to determine whether the neutron oxygen enhancement ratio (OER) changes significantly as the mean energy increases above 25 MeV. The experimental design called for OER measurements at two energies in the same experiment. The neutron production reaction d(80) + (Be + Ta) generated a beam with mean energy 38 MeV; upon rotation of the target, d(80) + (Ta + Be) neutrons were generated with mean energy 25 MeV. Suspensions of the bacterium Serratia marcesens were irradiated in oxic-hypoxic pairs, alternately with high- and lower-energy neutrons. Replicate experiments yielded OER values and 95% confidence limits of 2.25 (2.05, 2.50) at 25 MeV and 1.67 (1.57, 1.79) at 38 MeV. The x-ray OER was 3.3 (3.1, 3.5). The significant decrease in OER supports our results with Vicia faba showing OER values of 1.7, 1.4, and 2.6 for 25- and 38-MeV neutrons and for x rays, respectively. The yield of spallation products with mass number 6, 7, 9, 10, and 11 arising from neutrons interacting in tissue was analyzed. The tissue kerma from such product contribute kerma equal to 15 to 30% of the recoil proton kerma and thus may provide the physical basis for the observed OER reduction at high neutron energies.

  17. Predicting Texture Evolution in Ta and Ta-10W Alloys Using Polycrystal Plasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knezevic, Marko; Zecevic, Miroslav; Beyerlein, Irene J.; Bhattacharyya, Abhishek; McCabe, Rodney J.

    2015-11-01

    We present results of texture characterization and predictions of a multiscale physically based constitutive law developed to predict the mechanical response and texture evolution of body-centered cubic metals. The model is unique in the sense that single crystal deformation results not only from the resolved shear stress along the direction of slip (Schmid law) but also from shear stresses resolved along directions orthogonal to the slip direction as well as the three normal stress components (non-Schmid effects). The single crystal model is implemented into a visco-plastic self-consistent homogenization scheme containing a hardening law for crystallographic slip. The polycrystal model is calibrated using a set of mechanical test data collected on a tantalum-tungsten alloy, Ta-10W, in tension and compression and pure tantalum, Ta, in tension, compression, and cross-rolling. We demonstrate that the model effectively captures the texture evolution in all cases. We show that alloying has the effect of increasing the dislocation friction stress, the trapping rate of dislocations, and activation barrier for recovery.

  18. Effect of Ta additions on the magnetic structure of permalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadam, Nassrin Y.; Stocks, G. Malcolm; Kowalewski, M.; Butler, W. H.

    2000-03-01

    Tantalum is widely used in magnetic devices as a buffer layer. However, Ta has deleterious effects on the magnetic properties. Our earlier studies of Ni-rich Ni-Ta alloys using the KKR-CPA method (H. Winter and G. M. Stocks, Phys. Rev.) 27 882 (1983), B. L. Gyorffy, D. D. Johnson, F. J. Pinski, D. M. Nicholson, and G. M. Stocks in Alloy Phase Stability Vol. 163 of NATO ASI Series E: Applied Sciences edited by G. M. Stocks and A. Gonis (Kluwer, Dordrecht) show that, in the ideal random alloy limit, the average magnetic moment vanishes at 12% Ta. Additional studies of a Ta impurity embedded in pure Ni indicate increased supression of the moments on neighboring Ni atoms. Here we present studies of the effect of Ta on moment formation in permalloy (Ni_.8Fe_.2 solid solution) using the KKR-CPA method. We also study the magnetic structure of Ta impurities embedded in permalloy using large supercell models. The calculations are performed using the locally-self-consistent multiple-scattering method (Y. Wang, G. M. Stocks, W. A. Shelton and D. M. C. Nicholson, Phys. Rev. Lett.) 75 2867 (1995).

  19. Effect of Ta concentration on the refractive index of TiO{sub 2}:Ta studied by spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    Nurfani, Eka Kurniawan, Robi; Muhammady, Shibghatullah; Marlina, Resti; Sutjahja, Inge M.; Winata, Toto; Rusydi, Andrivo; Darma, Yudi

    2016-04-19

    We have investigated optical properties of Ta-doped TiO{sub 2} thin film on LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) substrate using Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE) at room temperature. Amplitude ratio Ψ and phase difference L1 between p- and s- polarized light waves are obtained by multiple incident angles measurement (60°, 70°, and 80°) at energy range of 0.5 – 6.5 eV. In order to obtain optical properties for every Ta concentrations (0.01, 0.4, and 5 at. %), multilayer modelling was performed simultaneously by using Drude-Lorentz model. Refractive index and optical dispersion parameters were determined by Wemple-DiDomenico relation. In general, refractive index at zero photon energy n(0) increases by increasing Ta concentration. Furthermore, optical band gap shows a significant increasing due to presence of Ta dopant. In addition, other optical constants are discussed as well.

  20. Crystallization and atomic diffusion behavior of high coercive Ta/Nd-Fe-B/Ta-based permanent magnetic thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Na; Zhang, Xiao; You, Caiyin; Fu, Huarui; Shen, Qianlong

    2017-06-01

    A high coercivity of about 20.4 kOe was obtained through post-annealing the sputtered Ta/Nd-Fe-B/Ta-based permanent magnetic thin films. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses were performed to investigate the crystallization and atomic diffusion behaviors during post-annealing. The results show that the buffer and capping Ta layers prefered to intermix with Fe and B atoms, and Nd tends to be combined with O atoms. The preferred atomic combination caused the appearance of the soft magnetic phase of Fe-Ta-B, resulting in a kink of the second quadratic magnetic hysteresis loop. The preferred atomic diffusion and phase formation of the thin films were well explained in terms of the formation enthalpy of the various compounds.

  1. Pre-Test Analysis Predictions for the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor Checkout Tests - TA01 and TA02

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornburgh, Robert P.; Hilburger, Mark W.

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the pre-test analysis predictions for the SBKF-P2-CYL-TA01 and SBKF-P2-CYL-TA02 shell buckling tests conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in support of the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project, NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) Assessment. The test article (TA) is an 8-foot-diameter aluminum-lithium (Al-Li) orthogrid cylindrical shell with similar design features as that of the proposed Ares-I and Ares-V barrel structures. In support of the testing effort, detailed structural analyses were conducted and the results were used to monitor the behavior of the TA during the testing. A summary of predicted results for each of the five load sequences is presented herein.

  2. Scaling of anomalous Hall effect in Ta/CoFeB/MgAl2O4/Ta multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Yong; Zhang, Qimeng; Meng, Kangkang; Chen, Jikun; Xu, Xiaoguang; Miao, Jun; Jiang, Yong

    2017-06-01

    The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is studied in Ta/CoFeB/MgAl2O4/Ta multilayers with different thicknesses of MgAl2O4 (t), which causes in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA) for t = 1.0 nm and perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) for t ≥ 1.2 nm. Conventional scaling was demonstrated to be not inadequate in our case. The origin of the AHE in Ta/CoFeB/MgAl2O4/Ta multilayers is mainly an extrinsic mechanism. The contribution of skew scattering (SS) is unneglectable, and both the SS and side jump are enhanced when the magnetic anisotropy changes from IMA to PMA, indicating that the oxidation at the interface of CoFeB/MgAl2O4 has a dominant influence on the AHE.

  3. Resistive switching of a TaO{sub x}/TaON double layer via ionic control of carrier tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Jeon, Heeyoung; Park, Jingyu; Kim, Hyunjung; Jang, Woochool; Song, Hyoseok; Kang, Chunho; Seo, Hyungtak; Jeon, Hyeongtag

    2014-04-14

    Resistance random access memory (RRAM) is an attractive candidate for future non-volatile memory due to its superior features. As the oxide thickness is scaled down, the charge transport mechanism is also subject to the transition from hopping to tunneling dominant process, which is critically related to the interfacial electronic band structure. A TaO{sub x}/TaON double layer-based RRAM is fabricated and characterized in this work. Upon TaON insertion at the lower interface, the improved switching behavior is observed. The TaON at the bottom electrode interface blocks oxygen vacancy percolation due to strong N-O bonds and also modifies interfacial band alignment to lower the injected electron energy from bottom electrode due to higher tunneling barrier height than that of TaO{sub x}/Pt. This study suggested that a defect-minimized insertion layer like TaON with a proper interfacial band alignment is pivotal in RRAM for the effective ionic control of carrier tunneling resulting in non-linear I-V behavior with improved properties.

  4. First principles calculation of phase diagrams of V-Nb, V-Ta and Nb-Ta alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi, C.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Valsakumar, M. C.; Walle, A. Van de

    2012-06-05

    We report the solid state phase diagram of V-Nb, V-Ta and Nb-Ta alloys computed by combining the density functional theory total energies with the cluster expansion and Monte Carlo techniques. From the computed phase diagrams, we find that V-Nb and Nb-Ta alloys form continuous series of solid solutions and the solid solution phase is stable down to ambient temperatures, consistent with experiments. The calculated bcc V-Ta phase diagram exhibits complete miscibility. Since the current cluster expansion ignore V{sub 2}Ta phase, the chemical interaction due to relatively large electronegativity difference, which cause the ordering of V{sub 2}Ta phase from the bcc solid solution, appears to manifest by making the solid solution phase remain stable for the complete concentration range, down to ambient temperatures, perhaps with some short-range-order. This work further demonstrates the dominant role of constituent strains in the accurate calculation of phase diagram of alloys of constituents with significant size mismatches.

  5. Electrodeposition of Al-Ta alloys in NaCl-KCl-AlCl3 molten salt containing TaCl5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Kazuki; Matsushima, Hisayoshi; Ueda, Mikito

    2016-12-01

    To form Al-Ta alloys for high temperature oxidation resistance components, molten salt electrolysis was carried out in an AlCl3-NaCl-KCl melt containing TaCl5 at 423 K. The voltammogram showed two cathodic waves at 0.45 V and 0.7 V vs. Al/Al(III), which may correspond to reduction from Ta(V) to Ta(III) and from Ta(III) to tantalum metal, respectively. Electrodeposits of Al and Ta were obtained in the range from -0.05 to 0.3 V and the highest concentration of Ta in the electrodeposit was 72 at% at 0.3 V. With increasing Ta content in the alloy, the morphology of the electrodeposits became powdery and the particle size smaller.

  6. A new RHQT Nb3Al superconducting wire with a Ta/Cu/Ta three-layer filament-barrier structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Takao; Tsuchiya, Kiyosumi; Nakagawa, Kazuhiko; Nimori, Shigeki; Banno, Nobuya; Iijima, Yasuo; Kikuchi, Akihiro; Nakamoto, Tatsushi

    2012-06-01

    To suppress the low-magnetic-field instability (flux jumps in low magnetic fields) of a rapid-heating, quenching and transformation (RHQT) processed Nb3Al superconductor, we had previously modified the cross-sectional design of an RHQT Nb3Al by adopting a Ta filament-barrier structure. Unlike Nb barriers, Ta barriers are not superconducting in magnetic fields at 4.2 K so that they electromagnetically decouple filaments. However, small flux jumps still occurred at 1.8 K, which is a typical operating temperature for the magnets used in high-energy particle accelerators. Furthermore, poor bonding at the Ta/Ta interface between neighboring Ta-coated jelly-roll (JR) filaments frequently caused precursor wires to break during drawing. To overcome these problems, we fabricated a new RHQT Nb3Al wire with a Ta/Cu/Ta three-layer filament-barrier structure for which an internal stabilization technique (Cu rods encased in Ta are dispersed in the wire cross section) was extended. Removing the Ta/Ta interface in the interfilamentary barrier (JR filament/Ta/Cu/Ta/JR filament) allowed precursor wires to be drawn without breaking. Furthermore, the Cu filament barrier electromagnetically decoupled filaments to suppress flux jumps at 1.8 K. The ductile Cu layer also improved the bending strain tolerance of RHQT Nb3Al.

  7. Pd/Ta2O5/SiC Schottky-diode hydrogen sensors formed by using rapid thermal oxidation of Ta thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Sung-Jae; Choi, Je Hoon; Kim, Seong Jeen; Kim, Sang-Cheol

    2013-11-01

    Pd/Ta2O5/SiC Schottky-diode hydrogen sensors were fabricated, and their hydrogen gas sensing performance was investigated at 573 K and 773 K. Interfacial Ta2O5 films of 120 nm in thickness were formed by using rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) of the sputtered Ta films on SiC. The crystallinity of the Ta and the Ta2O5 films were characterized by using X-ray diffraction (XRD). As-sputtered Ta films on 4H-SiC are composed of α-Ta (body-centered-cubic) and β-Ta (tetragonal), and α-Ta (110) is the dominant orientation. After RTO at 573 K, the Ta films are converted to β-Ta2O5 (orthorhombic). The diode sensors show high sensitivity to H2 even at the low H2 concentration of 500 ppm, and the voltage change of the sensor upon H2 exposure is proportional to the H2 concentration in the range of 500 ˜ 2000 ppm at 573 K. The response voltage ΔV is shown to arise mostly from the change in the series resistance component of the sensor upon H2 exposure; the main origin of that change is believed to be the Ta2O5 interfacial layer. The response time t90 of the sensor at 573 K was estimated to be approximately 8 s.

  8. First-principles calculation of phase equilibrium of V-Nb, V-Ta, and Nb-Ta alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravi, C.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Valsakumar, M. C.; van de Walle, Axel

    2012-02-01

    In this paper, we report the calculated phase diagrams of V-Nb, V-Ta, and Nb-Ta alloys computed by combining the total energies of 40-50 configurations for each system (obtained using density functional theory) with the cluster expansion and Monte Carlo techniques. For V-Nb alloys, the phase diagram computed with conventional cluster expansion shows a miscibility gap with consolute temperature Tc=1250 K. Including the constituent strain to the cluster expansion Hamiltonian does not alter the consolute temperature significantly, although it appears to influence the solubility of V- and Nb-rich alloys. The phonon contribution to the free energy lowers Tc to 950 K (about 25%). Our calculations thus predicts an appreciable miscibility gap for V-Nb alloys. For bcc V-Ta alloy, this calculation predicts a miscibility gap with Tc=1100 K. For this alloy, both the constituent strain and phonon contributions are found to be significant. The constituent strain increases the miscibility gap while the phonon entropy counteracts the effect of the constituent strain. In V-Ta alloys, an ordering transition occurs at 1583 K from bcc solid solution phase to the V2Ta Laves phase due to the dominant chemical interaction associated with the relatively large electronegativity difference. Since the current cluster expansion ignores the V2Ta phase, the associated chemical interaction appears to manifest in making the solid solution phase remain stable down to 1100 K. For the size-matched Nb-Ta alloys, our calculation predicts complete miscibility in agreement with experiment.

  9. Cloning and Functional Analysis of MADS-box Genes, TaAG-A and TaAG-B, from a Wheat K-type Cytoplasmic Male Sterile Line.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wenlong; Lou, Xueyuan; Li, Juan; Pu, Mingyu; Mirbahar, Ameer A; Liu, Dongcheng; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhan, Kehui; He, Lixiong; Zhang, Aimin

    2017-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a major crop worldwide. The utilization of heterosis is a promising approach to improve the yield and quality of wheat. Although there have been many studies on wheat cytoplasmic male sterility, its mechanism remains unclear. In this study, we identified two MADS-box genes from a wheat K-type cytoplasmic male sterile (CMS) line using homology-based cloning. These genes were localized on wheat chromosomes 3A and 3B and named TaAG-A and TaAG-B, respectively. Analysis of TaAG-A and TaAG-B expression patterns in leaves, spikes, roots, and stems of Chinese Spring wheat determined using quantitative RT-PCR revealed different expression levels in different tissues. TaAG-A had relatively high expression levels in leaves and spikes, but low levels in roots, while TaAG-B had relatively high expression levels in spikes and lower expression in roots, stems, and leaves. Both genes showed downregulation during the mononucleate to trinucleate stages of pollen development in the maintainer line. In contrast, upregulation of TaAG-B was observed in the CMS line. The transcript levels of the two genes were clearly higher in the CMS line compared to the maintainer line at the trinucleate stage. Overexpression of TaAG-A and TaAG-B in Arabidopsis resulted in phenotypes with earlier reproductive development, premature mortality, and abnormal buds, stamens, and stigmas. Overexpression of TaAG-A and TaAG-B gives rise to mutants with many deformities. Silencing TaAG-A and TaAG-B in a fertile wheat line using the virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) method resulted in plants with green and yellow striped leaves, emaciated spikes, and decreased selfing seed set rates. These results demonstrate that TaAG-A and TaAG-B may play a role in male sterility in the wheat CMS line.

  10. Optical spectroscopy of the Weyl semimetal TaAs

    DOE PAGES

    Xu, B.; Dai, Y. M.; Zhao, L. X.; ...

    2016-03-24

    Here, we present a systematic study of both the temperature and frequency dependence of the optical response in TaAs, a material that has recently been realized to host the Weyl semimetal state. Our study reveals that the optical conductivity of TaAs features a narrow Drude response alongside a conspicuous linear dependence on frequency. The weight of the Drude peak decreases upon cooling, following a T2 temperature dependence, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Two linear components with distinct slopes dominate the low-temperature optical conductivity. A comparison between our experimental results and theoretical calculations suggests that the linear conductivity below ~230more » cm–1 arises purely from interband transitions near the Weyl points, providing rich information about the Weyl semimetal state in TaAs.« less

  11. Optical spectroscopy of the Weyl semimetal TaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, B.; Dai, Y. M.; Zhao, L. X.; Wang, K.; Yang, R.; Zhang, W.; Liu, J. Y.; Xiao, H.; Chen, G. F.; Taylor, A. J.; Yarotski, D. A.; Prasankumar, R. P.; Qiu, X. G.

    2016-03-24

    Here, we present a systematic study of both the temperature and frequency dependence of the optical response in TaAs, a material that has recently been realized to host the Weyl semimetal state. Our study reveals that the optical conductivity of TaAs features a narrow Drude response alongside a conspicuous linear dependence on frequency. The weight of the Drude peak decreases upon cooling, following a T2 temperature dependence, in good agreement with theoretical predictions. Two linear components with distinct slopes dominate the low-temperature optical conductivity. A comparison between our experimental results and theoretical calculations suggests that the linear conductivity below ~230 cm–1 arises purely from interband transitions near the Weyl points, providing rich information about the Weyl semimetal state in TaAs.

  12. Advancement of online systems in engineering by Expert TA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Jeremy

    This dissertation introduces a new online system called Expert TA. The system was developed based on the hypothesis that expressions are key elements in engineering problems and that the treatment of expressions is critical to the advancement of online systems. This dissertation identifies ergonomic problems with expression entry that Expert TA overcomes through the use of a problem-customize integrated expression editor, called a palate. Then the dissertation shows, using an expression analyzer that operates in the background of Expert TA, that specific mathematical mistakes within an entered expression can now be located. Emulating standard instructional practices, detailed feedback pertaining to specific mistakes and grading on the basis of specific mistakes is now possible.

  13. Low temperature CVD of TaB/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Randich, E.

    1980-01-01

    Crystalline TaB/sub 2/ has been deposited using the CVD reaction of TaCl/sub 5/ and B/sub 2/H/sub 6/ in the temperature range of 773-1200/sup 0/K. Thermodynamic calculations have been made which compare the use of both B/sub 2/H/sub 6/ and BCl/sub 3/ as B source gases. The deposits obtained with B/sub 2/H/sub 6/ exhibited extremely small crystal size and contained amorphous B when the deposition temperature was below approx. 873/sup 0/K but were substoichiometric in B above this temperature. Carbon analysis indicated that C may substitute for B and thereby stabilize the diboride structure at high deposition temperatures. Microhardness of the coatings decreased with increasing B/Ta ratio and decreasing crystal size.

  14. Role of Hf and Zr in the hydrogen embrittlement of Ta and Cb alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Investigation of the hydrogen embrittlement of aged Ta alloy T-111 (Ta-8W-2Hf) and similar Ta and Cb alloys. It is found that aging ternary Ta alloys such as T-111 near 1040 C for 1000 hr or longer increases their sensitivity to low-temperature hydrogen embrittlement. Segregation of Hf to grain boundaries during aging causes embrittlement upon testing at -196 C and is responsible for the observed hydrogen embrittlement. Binary Ta and Cb alloys, Ta-2Hf and Cb-1Zr, are not susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement under the conditions of this study and did not exhibit grain boundary segregation of Hf or Zr. Ternary alloys Ta-8W-.5Hf, Ta-8W-1Hf, and Ta-4W-2Hf are superior to T-111 for containment of alkali metals in that they do not exhibit aging embrittlement. However, these alloys in the aged condition are susceptible to hydrogen embrittlement.

  15. EDITORIAL: TaCoNa-Photonics 2008 TaCoNa-Photonics 2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigrin, Dmitry N.; Busch, Kurt; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2009-11-01

    This special section on theoretical and computational nano-photonics features papers presented at the first International Workshop on Theoretical and Computational Nano-Photonics (TaCoNa-Photonics 2008) held in Bad Honnef, Germany, 3-5 December 2008. The workshop covered a broad range of topics related to current developments and achievements in this interdisciplinary area of research. Since the late 1960s, the word `photonics' has been understood as the science of generating, controlling, and detecting light. Nowadays, a routine fabrication of complex structures with micro- and nano-scale dimensions opens up many new and exciting possibilities in photonics. The science of generating, routing and detecting light in micro- and nano-structured matter, `nano-photonics', is becoming more important both in research and technology and offers many promising applications. The inherently sub-wavelength character of the structures that nano-photonics deals with challenges modern theoretical and computational physics and engineering with many nontrivial questions: Up to what length-scale can one use a macroscopic phenomenological description of matter? Where is the interface between the classical and quantum description of light in nano-scale structures? How can one combine different physical systems, different time- and length-scales in a single computational model? How can one engineer nano-structured materials in order to achieve the desired optical properties for particular applications? Any attempt at answering these kinds of questions is impossible without the joint efforts of physicists, engineers, applied mathematicians and programmers. This is the reason why the major goal of the TaCoNa-Photonics workshops is to provide a forum where theoreticians and specialists in numerical methods from all branches of physics, engineering sciences and mathematics can compare their results, report on novel results and breakthroughs, and discuss new challenges ahead. In order to

  16. Vector optical activity in the Weyl semimetal TaAs

    DOE PAGES

    Norman, M. R.

    2015-12-15

    Here, it is shown that the Weyl semimetal TaAs can have a significant polar vector contribution to its optical activity. This is quantified by ab initio calculations of the resonant x-ray diffraction at the Ta L1 edge. For the Bragg vector (400), this polar vector contribution to the circular intensity differential between left and right polarized x-rays is predicted to be comparable to that arising from linear dichroism. Implications this result has in regards to optical effects predicted for topological Weyl semimetals are discussed.

  17. Evaluation of airflow patterns in 2706-T and 2706-TA

    SciTech Connect

    DEROSA, D.C.

    1999-08-26

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the adequacy of the current placement of fixed head air samplers and continuous air monitors (CAMs) in the 2706-T and 2706-TA Complex. The airflow study consisted of 6 configurations of facility HVAC and HEPA filtration equipment to determine impacts on CAM location. The results of this study provide recommendations based on guidance in DOE G 411.1-8 and NUREG-1400 for placement of fixed head air samplers or CAMS within 2706-T and 2706-TA.

  18. Electrochemical formation and optimization of Ta-based nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horwood, Corie A.

    The primary focus of this research has been to develop simple and precise methods for the formation of novel Ta-based nanostructures, including Ta oxide nanotubes (NTs) and Ta-supported Au nanoparticle (NP) arrays. These nanomaterials are very useful for applications in sensing, electrocatalysis/catalysis, spectroscopy, and more. The Ta oxide NTs are formed by the electrochemical anodization of Ta, a process which can be modified to produce ordered nanoscale dimples that cover the Ta surface. These dimples can then be used as templates for the formation of ordered Au nanoparticle arrays. An in-depth study of the anodization variables showed that NT growth can be slowed down by decreasing the anodization time and HF concentration in the solution, allowing the controlled formation of short (50--1000 nm) NTs in under one minute. The charge passed during anodization was found to be directly proportional to the length of the NTs formed, making cross-sectional imaging unnecessary. A novel two-step anodization method, interspersed with a thermal annealing or negative polarization step, produced stable and well-ordered NTs free of a problematic thin surface oxide layer. These vertically oriented arrays of short NTs were found to have interesting optical properties, with visible structural colours that depend on NT length. The colour of the NT arrays was also found to depend on the medium inside the NTs (air, water, other solids), used for the first time to monitor NT filling, and to determine the refractive index and porosity of the Ta oxide nanotubular array, properties that are otherwise very difficult to obtain. Dimpled Ta was used to create ordered Au NP arrays using two thin film dewetting methods, thermal annealing and pulsed laser-induced dewetting. These methods yield Au NPs of predictable size, shape, spacing, and surface density, with these parameters varying predictably with the initial thickness of the Au thin film and the technique used for dewetting. The Au

  19. Quantitative expression analysis of TaSOS1 and TaSOS4 genes in cultivated and wild wheat plants under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Ramezani, Amin; Niazi, Ali; Abolimoghadam, Ali Asghar; Zamani Babgohari, Mahboobeh; Deihimi, Tahereh; Ebrahimi, Mahmod; Akhtardanesh, Hosein; Ebrahimie, Esmail

    2013-02-01

    Salt stress is a mixture of ionic, osmotic, and oxidative stresses. The expression of TaSOS1 (a transmembrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter) and TaSOS4 [a cytoplasmic pyridoxal (PL) kinase] genes were measured in four different salinity levels and different time courses of salinity exposure using qRT-PCR technique. Mahuti (salt tolerant) and Alamut (salt sensitive) cultivars were used as cultivated wheat, and T. boeticum and Aegilops crassa as wild wheat plants. Salt-induced expression of TaSOS1 in these wild wheat plants indicates the presence of active TaSOS1 gene on the genomes A and D. The TaSOS1 and TaSOS4 transcript levels were found to be downregulated after salt treatment in all cultivars except in A. crassa, which was in contrast with its expression pattern in roots that was being upregulated from a very low-basal expression, after salt treatments. Duncan's Multiple Range Test showed a significant difference between expression in the 200-mM NaCl concentration with the 50 and 100 mM for the TaSOS1 gene, and no significant difference for TaSOS4. Lack of significant correlation between the TaSOS1 and TaSOS4 gene expressions confirms the theory that PLP has no significant effect on the expression of the TaSOS1 gene in wheat leaves.

  20. Fabrication of highly ordered Ta2O5 and Ta3N5 nanorod arrays by nanoimprinting and through-mask anodization.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbo; Nagato, Keisuke; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2014-01-10

    Using highly ordered porous anodic alumina membrane fabricated with the aid of nanoimprinting as a mask, Ta2O5 nanorod array with uniform diameter, length, and distribution is grown in situ on a Ta substrate by through-mask anodization. The Ta2O5 nanorod array is further transformed into Ta3N5 nanorod array without damaging the nanorod structure by nitridation. Solar-driven photoelectrochemical water splitting with a maximum solar energy conversion efficiency of 0.36% is demonstrated with the Ta3N5 nanorod array after modifying the surface with cobalt-phosphate as a co-catalyst. The Ta2O5 and Ta3N5 nanorod arrays have potential applications in catalysis, photonics, UV photodetection and solar energy conversion.

  1. A new synthesis route of perovskite-related Sr2TaO3N oxynitride via Sr2Ta6O10.188

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarda, Narendra G.; Hayashi, Takanori; Takeuchi, Yuta; Harada, Kyosuke; Murai, Kei-Ichiro; Moriga, Toshihiro

    2016-12-01

    Formation process of the new layered perovskite Sr2TaO3N oxynitride having a K2NiF4-type structure from oxide precursor of Sr6Ta2O10.188 was examined under an ammonia flow. Using the oxide precursor, it is possible to make a Sr2TaO3N phase within a shorter period of the nitridation than the previous paper reported by Marchant et al. (J. Solid State Chem., 146: 390-393(1999)). Excess amount of strontium deviated from the stoichiometric composition of Sr/Ta=2 also seemed to promote the formation of Sr2TaO3N under the ammonia flow. The synthesized Sr2TaO3N after two cycles of 24h-nitridation of the oxide precursors showed brighter reddish-orange color than SrTaO2N.

  2. Analysis of NiAlTa precipitates in beta-NiAl + 2 at. pct Ta alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pathare, V.; Michal, G. M.; Vedula, K.; Nathal, M. V.

    1987-01-01

    Results are reported from experiments performed to identify the precipitates, and their orientation in the matrix, in a beta-NiAl alloy containing 2 at. pct. Ta after undergoing creep test at 1300 K. Test specimens formed by extruding hot powders were compressed at 1300 K for about 50 hr at a strain rate averaging 6/1 million per sec. The specimens were then thinned and examined under an electron microscope and by X-ray diffractometry. An intermetallic NiAlTa compound with a hexagonal Cl4 structure appeared as second phase precipitates in the samples, exhibiting plate-like shapes and a habit plane close to (012). The prism planes of the hexagonal NiAlTa precipitates paralleled the closest packed planes in the cubic beta-NiAl matrix.

  3. Different spin relaxation mechanisms between epitaxial and polycrystalline Ta thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamou, Hiromu; Ryu, Jeongchun; Kohda, Makoto; Nitta, Junsaku

    2017-02-01

    We demonstrate that spin relaxation mechanisms are different between epitaxial Ta and disordered polycrystalline Ta thin films by determining the relationship between spin relaxation time and diffusion constant. To control the diffusion constant, epitaxial Ta and polycrystalline Ta thin films are prepared by sputtering on different substrates and at different growth temperatures. The spin relaxation time is extracted from the results of weak antilocalization analysis including the superconducting fluctuation effect. The dominant spin relaxation mechanism for polycrystalline Ta thin films is the Elliot–Yafet mechanism, as is expected for centrosymmetric metal films. In contrast, the D’yakonov–Perel’ mechanism plays a role in epitaxial Ta thin films.

  4. Ta2O5-based redox memory formed by neutral beam oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, Takeo; Samukawa, Seiji

    2016-06-01

    A room temperature neutral beam oxidation process using a tantalum (Ta) metal film was used to obtain a high quality Ta oxide (Ta2O5) film. After irradiation of a Ta metal film with a neutral oxygen beam, a nanometer-thick Ta2O5 film with a film density of 7.5 g/cm3 was obtained. We also confirmed that the fabricated Cu/Ta2O5/Pt redox memory structure shows a bipolar resistive switching characteristic. This result demonstrates the great potential of neutral beam metal oxidation for the development of redox-based memory devices.

  5. Preparation, characterization, and catalytic performance of Ta-HMS mesoporous molecular sieve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xuefeng; Zhang, Like; Gao, Huanxin; Chen, Qingling

    2016-08-01

    Various Ta-HMS (hexagonal mesoporous silica) samples with different Ta content were hydrothermally prepared and characterized by XRD, N2-adsorption, ICP-AES, FTIR, and UV-Vis spectroscopy. The catalytic performance of the samples was also evaluated in the epoxidation of cyclohexene with cumene hydroperoxide as oxidant. The regularity of mesoporous structure decreases while more extraframe Ta ions are formed with increasing the Ta content. Ta-HMS with Ta/Si ratio of 0.015 shows the highest conversion and selectivity in the studied epoxidation reaction. The catalyst can be used for three times without significant activity loss.

  6. Phase relationships in the BaO-Ga2O3-Ta2O5 system and the structure of Ba6Ga21TaO40.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jiang; Yu, Xiaodi; Kuang, Xiaojun; Su, Qiang

    2012-07-16

    Phase relationships in the BaO-Ga(2)O(3)-Ta(2)O(5) ternary system at 1200 °C were determined. The A(6)B(10)O(30) tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) related solution in the BaO-Ta(2)O(5) subsystem dissolved up to ~11 mol % Ga(2)O(3), forming a ternary trapezoid-shaped TTB-related solid solution region defined by the BaTa(2)O(6), Ba(1.1)Ta(5)O(13.6), Ba(1.58)Ga(0.92)Ta(4.08)O(13.16), and Ba(6)GaTa(9)O(30) compositions in the BaO-Ga(2)O(3)-Ta(2)O(5) system. Two ternary phases Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) and eight-layer twinned hexagonal perovskite solid solution Ba(8)Ga(4-x)Ta(4+0.6x)O(24) were confirmed in the BaO-Ga(2)O(3)-Ta(2)O(5) system. Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) crystallized in a monoclinic cell of a = 15.9130(2) Å, b = 11.7309(1) Å, c = 5.13593(6) Å, β = 107.7893(9)°, and Z = 1 in space group C2/m. The structure of Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) was solved by the charge flipping method, and it represents a three-dimensional (3D) mixed GaO(4) tetrahedral and GaO(6)/TaO(6) octahedral framework, forming mixed 1D 5/6-fold tunnels that accommodate the Ba cations along the c axis. The electrical property of Ba(6)Ga(21)TaO(40) was characterized by using ac impedance spectroscopy.

  7. Preparation and visible light induced photocatalytic activity of C-NaTaO3 and C-NaTaO3-Cl-TiO2 composite.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiaoyong; Yin, Shu; Dong, Qiang; Sato, Tsugio

    2013-12-21

    A nice visible light responsive C-doped NaTaO3 (C-NaTaO3) particle has been successfully prepared by a facile solvothermal method using water-ethylene glycol mixed solutions as solvent. The results presented that the carbon could be easily incorporated in NaTaO3 from ethylene glycol during a solvothermal reaction, finally leading to excellent visible light absorption. The as-synthesized C-NaTaO3 showed excellent visible light induced photocatalytic activity superior to those of pure NaTaO3 and commercial P25. In addition, in order to further improve the visible light driven photocatalytic performance of C-NaTaO3, a new C-doped NaTaO3-Cl-doped TiO2 (C-NaTaO3-Cl-TiO2) core-shell type of composite was also fabricated. After coupling C-NaTaO3 with Cl-TiO2, the visible light induced NOx gas destruction ability of C-NaTaO3-Cl-TiO2 composite was significantly enhanced as compared to those of sole C-NaTaO3 and Cl-TiO2, probably due to the hindrance of the recombination rate of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. The C-NaTaO3 particle and C-NaTaO3-Cl-TiO2 composite prepared in this work would probably provide a new way to prepare high performance of visible light induced perovskite-type NaTaO3 based photocatalysts.

  8. Processing and Microstructures of Cr-Ta and Cr-Ta-Mo Composites Reinforced by the Cr2Ta Laves Phase

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D-F.; Liaw, P.K.; Liu, C.T.; George, E.P.

    2003-04-22

    The Cr-Ta alloy with an eutectic structure has a good combination of high strength and oxidation resistance at elevated temperatures up to 1,200 C. It is an ideal candidate for ultrahigh-temperature applications. However, the material shows low ductility and fracture toughness at room temperature. An effective way to improve the ductility and fracture toughness is to obtain an aligned microstructure of eutectic Cr-based alloys, using a directional-solidification (DS) process, in which the feed materials with eutectic compositions are preferred. In the present work, a quantitative technique was employed to assist in monitoring and controlling the composition of the Cr-based alloys throughout the processing stages at elevated temperatures. A colony structure related to the instable liquid/solid interface was observed in a DS Cr-Ta sample. A possible eutectic area was probed in the Cr-Mo-Ta system, which could facilitate the development of well-aligned lamellar structures by DS.

  9. Drought-Up-Regulated TaNAC69-1 is a Transcriptional Repressor of TaSHY2 and TaIAA7, and Enhances Root Length and Biomass in Wheat.

    PubMed

    Chen, Dandan; Richardson, Terese; Chai, Shoucheng; Lynne McIntyre, C; Rae, Anne L; Xue, Gang-Ping

    2016-10-01

    A well-known physiological adaptation process of plants encountering drying soil is to achieve water balance by reducing shoot growth and maintaining or promoting root elongation, but little is known about the molecular basis of this process. This study investigated the role of a drought-up-regulated Triticum aestivum NAC69-1 (TaNAC69-1) in the modulation of root growth in wheat. TaNAC69-1 was predominantly expressed in wheat roots at the early vegetative stage. Overexpression of TaNAC69-1 in wheat roots using OsRSP3 (essentially root-specific) and OsPIP2;3 (root-predominant) promoters resulted in enhanced primary seminal root length and a marked increase in maturity root biomass. Competitive growth analysis under water-limited conditions showed that OsRSP3 promoter-driven TaNAC69-1 transgenic lines produced 32% and 35% more above-ground biomass and grains than wild-type plants, respectively. TaNAC69-1 overexpression in the roots down-regulated the expression of TaSHY2 and TaIAA7, which are from the auxin/IAA (Aux/IAA) transcriptional repressor gene family and are the homologs of negative root growth regulators SHY2/IAA3 and IAA7 in Arabidopsis. The expression of TaSHY2 and TaIAA7 in roots was down-regulated by drought stress and up-regulated by cytokinin treatment, which inhibited root growth. DNA binding and transient expression analyses revealed that TaNAC69-1 bound to the promoters of TaSHY2 and TaIAA7, acted as a transcriptional repressor and repressed the expression of reporter genes driven by the TaSHY2 or TaIAA7 promoter. These data suggest that TaNAC69-1 is a transcriptional repressor of TaSHY2 and TaIAA7 homologous to Arabidopsis negative root growth regulators and is likely to be involved in promoting root elongation in drying soil. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Ta2O5 nanobars and their composites: synthesis and characterization.

    PubMed

    George, P P; Gedanken, A

    2008-11-01

    Novel Ta2O5 nanobars anchored on micron-sized carbon spheres were synthesized by the thermal decomposition of pentaethoxy tantalate, Ta(OEt)5. This one-step reaction was carried out using the RAPET (Reaction Under Autogenic Pressure at Elevated Temperature) method by dissociating Ta(OEt)5 at 800 degrees C for 3 h. The as-prepared Ta2O5/C nanobar-composite was annealed under air at 500 degrees C for 3 h (eliminating the carbon spheres), resulting in neat Ta2O5 nanobars. The products, Ta2O5/C and Ta2O5 nanobars, were characterized using methods such as electron microscopy (SEM, TEM, HRTEM, SAEDS, EA, EDX) and Powder-XRD. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) images indicated the particle size of the Ta2O5 nanobars coated on 40-60 nm carbon spheres. The optical properties of the Ta2O5/C nanobar-composite and the neat Ta2O5 nanobars were determined by UV-vis absorption spectrometry and their band gaps were found at 265 (4.7 eV) and 260 nm (4.8 eV), respectively. A PL band was also observed for a Ta2O5/C nanobar-composite and Ta2O5 nanobars. The above results indicate that Ta2O5 nanobars have a promising application in optical devices.

  11. T.A. Barron: Glowing Like a Crystal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Library Media Activities Monthly, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Presents an interview with T.A. Barron, an author of a trilogy of novels about a 12-year-old girl. Topics include character development, adult/child relationships, themes, writing processes, the influence of children on the writing, adult science fiction and young-adult classification of the books, and research and rewrites. (AEF)

  12. Internal oxidation of laminated ternary Ru-Ta-Zr coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yung-I.; Lu, Tso-Shen

    2015-10-01

    Researchers have observed the internal oxidation phenomenon in binary alloy coatings when developing refractory alloy coatings for protective purposes by conducting annealing at high temperatures and in oxygen-containing atmospheres. The coatings were assembled using cyclical gradient concentration deposition during cosputtering by employing a substrate holder rotating at a slow speed. The internally oxidized zone demonstrated a laminated structure, comprising alternating oxygen-rich and oxygen-deficient layers stacked in a general orientation. In the current study, Ru-Ta-Zr coatings were prepared with various stacking sequences during cosputtering. The Ru-Ta-Zr coatings were annealed at 600 °C in an atmosphere continuously purged with 1% O2-99% Ar mixed gas for 30 min. A transmission electron microscope was used to examine the periods of the laminated layers and crystallinity of the annealed coatings. Depth profiles produced using an Auger electron spectroscope and X-ray photoelectron spectroscope were used to certify the periodic variation of the related constituents and chemical states of the elements, respectively. The results indicate that the internally oxidized ternary coatings are stacked of Ru-, Ta2O5-, and ZrO2-dominant sublayers and that the stacking sequences of the sublayers affect the crystalline structure of the coatings. Zr is oxidized preferentially in the Ru-Ta-Zr coatings, increasing the surface hardness of the oxidized coatings.

  13. Excitation of Nb, Ta, and W atoms in sputtering processes

    SciTech Connect

    Vasil`eva, E.K.; Morozov, S.N.

    1995-12-01

    Optical emission spectra of sputtered atoms that arise under the bombardment of Nb, Ta, and W surfaces by xenon ions with an energy of 40 keV are studied in the wavelength range of 380 - 600 nm. The properties and mechanisms of the formation of excited atomic states in sputtering processes are discussed. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Ta Keo Temple Reconstruction Based on Terrestrial Laser Scanning Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, X.; Wang, C.; Wan, Y. P.; Khuon, K. N.

    2015-08-01

    Ta Keo temple is one of the very famous temple complex of Angkor Wat in northwestern Cambodia. It has been suffering massive collapse and other serious damages in recent years. Nowadays, Terrestrial Laser Scanning(TLS) technology is considered as a wellestablished resource for heritage documentation and protection (Lerma et al, 2008; Reshetyuk, 2009). This paper used TLS to reconstruct Ta Keo Temple. Firstly, we acquired 71 scanning stations of points cloud data with high density and high accuracy, and over one thousand images with high spatial resolution about the temple. Secondly, the raw points cloud data were denoised, reduced and managed efficiently, and registrated using an adjusted ICP algorithm. Thirdly, a triangulation method was used to model most objects. At last, we mapped the texture data into the digital model and a 3-D model of Ta Keo with high accuracy was achieved. The authors focus on large object reconstruction by TLS technology, and pay much attention to the scanning design, multi-station data and the whole project's data registration, and texture mapping and so on. The research result will be useful for Ta Keo restoration, reconstruction and protection. Also, it is a good reference source for large complex buildings reconstruction when using terrestrial laser scanning technology.

  15. Helping Teaching Artists Fly!: Organizations Dedicated to TA Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Kristen

    2005-01-01

    The mission of this article is to introduce just a few of the organizations that are expanding the teaching artist field by addressing the artistic, educational, and business needs of today's TA head on. For some organizations, supporting TAs is a facet of what they do; for others, it is all they do. Staying true to their creative nature, each…

  16. Compositional depth profiling of TaCN thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Adelmann, Christoph; Conard, Thierry; Franquet, Alexis; Brijs, Bert; Munnik, Frans; Burgess, Simon; Witters, Thomas; Meersschaut, Johan; Kittl, Jorge A.; Vandervorst, Wilfried; Van Elshocht, Sven

    2012-07-15

    The composition profiling of thin TaCN films was studied. For the composition profile determination using x-ray photoemission spectrometry (XPS) in combination with Ar sputtering, preferential sputtering effects of N with respect to Ta and C were found to lead to inaccurate elemental concentrations. Sputter yield calculations for the given experimental conditions allowed for the correction of a part of the error, leading to fair accuracy by reference-free measurements. Further improvement of the accuracy was demonstrated by the calibration of the XPS compositions against elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA) results. For Auger electron spectrometry (AES) in combination with Ar sputtering, accurate results required the calibration against ERDA. Both XPS and AES allowed for a reliable and accurate determination of the compositional profiles of TaCN-based thin films after calibration. Time-of-flight secondary-ion mass spectrometry was also used to assess the composition of the TaCN films. However, the analysis was hampered by large matrix effects due to small unintentional oxygen contents in the films. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry is also discussed, and it is shown that an accurate reference-free measurement of the average film concentration can be achieved.

  17. Microstructural Investigations On Ni-Ta-Al Ternary Alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Negache, M.; Souami, N.

    2010-01-05

    The Ni-Al-Ta ternary alloys in the Ni-rich part present complex microstructures. They are composed of multiple phases that are formed according to the nominal composition of the alloy, primary Ni(gamma), Ni{sub 3}Al(gamma'), Ni{sub 6}AlTa(tau{sub 3}), Ni{sub 3}Ta(delta) or in equilibrium: two solid phases (gamma'-tau{sub 3}), (tau{sub 3}-delta), (tau{sub 3}-gamma), (gamma-delta) or three solid phases (gamma'-tau{sub 3}-delta). The nature and the volume fraction of these phases give these alloys very interesting properties at high temperature, and this makes them attractive for specific applications. We have developed a series of ternary alloys in electric arc furnace, determining their solidification sequences using Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), characterized by SEM-EDS, X-ray diffraction and by a microhardness tests. The follow-up results made it possible to make a correlation between the nature of the formed phases and their solidifying way into the Ni{sub 75}Al{sub x}Ta{sub y} (x+y = 25at.%) system, which are varied and complex. In addition to the solid solution Ni (gamma), the formed intermetallics compounds (gamma', tau{sub 3} and delta) has been identified and correlated with a complex balance between phases.We noticed that the hardness increases with the tantalum which has a hardening effect and though the compound Ni{sub 3}Ta(delta) is the hardest. The below results provide a better understanding of the complex microstructure of these alloys.

  18. First-principles study of electronic and magnetic structures of CoFeB|Ta and CoFe|TaB heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Tomoyuki; Ohno, Takahisa; Maekawa, Sadamichi

    2015-02-01

    The electronic and magnetic structures of the CoFeB|Ta and CoFe|TaB heterostructures were investigated from first principles in an attempt to clarify the effect of the Ta layer on the energetic stability and magnetisation of the heterostructures, which are used in magnetic random access memory devices. The electronic structures of these heterostructures were calculated by using the density functional pseudopotential method in the generalised gradient approximation. Calculation clarified that the Ta layer of the CoFeB|Ta heterostructure energetically stabilised the heterostructure, chemically absorbing the B atoms present in its CoFeB layer, and intensified the magnetisation of the heterostructure. The result is consistent with the conventional understanding that the Ta layer works as a getter of B atoms. The d electronic states of the heterostructures were investigated by calculating d electron numbers of metal atoms of the heterostructure. Interestingly, it was found that the Ta layer of both the heterostructures was spin polarised and the spin- polarisation direction reversed by the B atom absorption by the Ta layer. The results suggest that the Ta layer actively participates in the magnetisation of the heterostructure, contrary to the conventional understanding that the Ta layer is irrelevant to the magnetisation of the heterostructure.

  19. Drought-responsive WRKY transcription factor genes TaWRKY1 and TaWRKY33 from wheat confer drought and/or heat resistance in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    He, Guan-Hua; Xu, Ji-Yuan; Wang, Yan-Xia; Liu, Jia-Ming; Li, Pan-Song; Chen, Ming; Ma, You-Zhi; Xu, Zhao-Shi

    2016-05-23

    Drought stress is one of the major causes of crop loss. WRKY transcription factors, as one of the largest transcription factor families, play important roles in regulation of many plant processes, including drought stress response. However, far less information is available on drought-responsive WRKY genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the three staple food crops. Forty eight putative drought-induced WRKY genes were identified from a comparison between de novo transcriptome sequencing data of wheat without or with drought treatment. TaWRKY1 and TaWRKY33 from WRKY Groups III and II, respectively, were selected for further investigation. Subcellular localization assays revealed that TaWRKY1 and TaWRKY33 were localized in the nuclei in wheat mesophyll protoplasts. Various abiotic stress-related cis-acting elements were observed in the promoters of TaWRKY1 and TaWRKY33. Quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that TaWRKY1 was slightly up-regulated by high-temperature and abscisic acid (ABA), and down-regulated by low-temperature. TaWRKY33 was involved in high responses to high-temperature, low-temperature, ABA and jasmonic acid methylester (MeJA). Overexpression of TaWRKY1 and TaWRKY33 activated several stress-related downstream genes, increased germination rates, and promoted root growth in Arabidopsis under various stresses. TaWRKY33 transgenic Arabidopsis lines showed lower rates of water loss than TaWRKY1 transgenic Arabidopsis lines and wild type plants during dehydration. Most importantly, TaWRKY33 transgenic lines exhibited enhanced tolerance to heat stress. The functional roles highlight the importance of WRKYs in stress response.

  20. [Mutagenicity of mixtures of halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the Ames test with TA98 and TA100].

    PubMed

    Kevekordes, S; Porzig, J; Gebel, T; Dunkelberg, H

    1998-02-01

    Within the framework of the assessment of the genotoxic potential of environment samples the Salmonella-microsome-test (Ames-test) is often used as a screening-test. It is one of the most applied biotest systems and possesses a large scientific acceptance. Because most environment samples are mixtures of various substances, possible effects resulting from the combination should be taken into account with regard to the mutagenic potential. In this context we investigated eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons each combined with six halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons as to their mutagenicity in the Salmonella-microsome-test with TA98 and TA100. For an exogenous metabolizing system, Arochlor 1254 induced rat liver S9-mix was used. Benz-a-pyrene in combination with bromodichloromethane (Ames neg. in TA98 and TA100 +S9) showed an increase in the number of the revertants up to 25% in TA98 and TA100 (+S9). Carbon tetrachloride (Ames neg. in TA98 and TA100 +S9) showed in TA100 (+S9) an increase in the number of the revertants of 18% at most. In the combination 3-methylcholanthrene with dichloromethane the number of revertants in TA98 (+S9) increased by 25% and in TA100 (+S9) by 18%. Hexachloroethane (weakly mutagenic in TA98 +S9) in combination showed in TA98 (+S9) a slightly increased number of revertants with benz-a-pyrene as well with 3-methylcholanthrene. All the other substances tested (chrysene, phenanthrene, anthanthrene, dibenz-a, i-pyrene, triphenylene, fluoranthene) in combination with either tetrachloroethylene or trichloroethene did not cause an increase in mutagenicity.

  1. The Wheat Mediator Subunit TaMED25 Interacts with the Transcription Factor TaEIL1 to Negatively Regulate Disease Resistance against Powdery Mildew1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Tianren; Jia, Jizeng; Sun, Jiaqiang

    2016-01-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is a major limitation for the production of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, to date, the transcriptional regulation of bread wheat defense against powdery mildew remains largely unknown. Here, we report the function and molecular mechanism of the bread wheat Mediator subunit 25 (TaMED25) in regulating the bread wheat immune response signaling pathway. Three homoalleles of TaMED25 from bread wheat were identified and mapped to chromosomes 5A, 5B, and 5D, respectively. We show that knockdown of TaMED25 by barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing reduced bread wheat susceptibility to the powdery mildew fungus during the compatible plant-pathogen interaction. Moreover, our results indicate that MED25 may play a conserved role in regulating bread wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare) susceptibility to powdery mildew. Similarly, bread wheat ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (TaEIL1), an ortholog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3, negatively regulates bread wheat resistance against powdery mildew. Using various approaches, we demonstrate that the conserved activator-interacting domain of TaMED25 interacts physically with the separate amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions of TaEIL1, contributing to the transcriptional activation activity of TaEIL1. Furthermore, we show that TaMED25 and TaEIL1 synergistically activate ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (TaERF1) transcription to modulate bread wheat basal disease resistance to B. graminis f. sp. tritici by repressing the expression of pathogenesis-related genes and deterring the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Collectively, we identify the TaMED25-TaEIL1-TaERF1 signaling module as a negative regulator of bread wheat resistance to powdery mildew. PMID:26813794

  2. The Wheat Mediator Subunit TaMED25 Interacts with the Transcription Factor TaEIL1 to Negatively Regulate Disease Resistance against Powdery Mildew.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Tianren; Jia, Jizeng; Sun, Jiaqiang

    2016-03-01

    Powdery mildew, caused by the biotrophic fungal pathogen Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, is a major limitation for the production of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, to date, the transcriptional regulation of bread wheat defense against powdery mildew remains largely unknown. Here, we report the function and molecular mechanism of the bread wheat Mediator subunit 25 (TaMED25) in regulating the bread wheat immune response signaling pathway. Three homoalleles of TaMED25 from bread wheat were identified and mapped to chromosomes 5A, 5B, and 5D, respectively. We show that knockdown of TaMED25 by barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing reduced bread wheat susceptibility to the powdery mildew fungus during the compatible plant-pathogen interaction. Moreover, our results indicate that MED25 may play a conserved role in regulating bread wheat and barley (Hordeum vulgare) susceptibility to powdery mildew. Similarly, bread wheat ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3-LIKE1 (TaEIL1), an ortholog of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE3, negatively regulates bread wheat resistance against powdery mildew. Using various approaches, we demonstrate that the conserved activator-interacting domain of TaMED25 interacts physically with the separate amino- and carboxyl-terminal regions of TaEIL1, contributing to the transcriptional activation activity of TaEIL1. Furthermore, we show that TaMED25 and TaEIL1 synergistically activate ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (TaERF1) transcription to modulate bread wheat basal disease resistance to B. graminis f. sp. tritici by repressing the expression of pathogenesis-related genes and deterring the accumulation of reactive oxygen species. Collectively, we identify the TaMED25-TaEIL1-TaERF1 signaling module as a negative regulator of bread wheat resistance to powdery mildew.

  3. Diffusion barrier properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline Ta films for Cu interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Z. H.; Hu, K.; Meng, X. K.

    2009-12-01

    In the present paper, the diffusion barrier properties of amorphous and nanocrystalline (NC) Ta films, and the interface microstructure of Ta/Cu were investigated as a function of annealing temperature. X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive spectrometer line scans were employed to study the microstructure evolution and diffusion behavior. It was found that an amorphous layer with a thickness of ˜5 nm formed at the interface of NC Ta/Cu at 450 °C annealing, while the interface of amorphous-Ta/Cu was still abrupt. Moreover, amorphous-Ta film acts as an effective diffusion barrier up to temperatures of 650 °C, which is higher than that for NC-Ta film. The fast diffusion along grain boundaries inside NC-Ta films is suggested to be responsible for the main failure of NC-Ta film.

  4. Emergent Weyl Fermion Excitations in TaP Explored by Ta 181 Quadrupole Resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasuoka, H.; Kubo, T.; Kishimoto, Y.; Kasinathan, D.; Schmidt, M.; Yan, B.; Zhang, Y.; Tou, H.; Felser, C.; Mackenzie, A. P.; Baenitz, M.

    2017-06-01

    The Ta 181 quadrupole resonance [nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR)] technique is utilized to investigate the microscopic magnetic properties of the Weyl semimetal TaP. We find three zero-field NQR signals associated with the transition between the quadrupole split levels for Ta with I =7 /2 nuclear spin. A quadrupole coupling constant, νQ=19.250 MHz , and an asymmetric parameter of the electric field gradient, η =0.423 , are extracted, in good agreement with band structure calculations. In order to examine the magnetic excitations, the temperature dependence of the spin-lattice relaxation rate (1 /T1T ) is measured for the f2 line (±5 /2 ↔±3 /2 transition). We find that there exist two regimes with quite different relaxation processes. Above T*≈30 K , a pronounced (1 /T1T )∝T2 behavior is found, which is attributed to the magnetic excitations at the Weyl nodes with temperature-dependent orbital hyperfine coupling. Below T*, the relaxation is mainly governed by a Korringa process with 1 /T1T =const , accompanied by an additional T-1 /2-type dependence to fit our experimental data. We show that Ta NQR is a novel probe for the bulk Weyl fermions and their excitations.

  5. Characterization of leucocin B-Ta11a: a bacteriocin from Leuconostoc carnosum Ta11a isolated from meat.

    PubMed

    Felix, J V; Papathanasopoulos, M A; Smith, A A; von Holy, A; Hastings, J W

    1994-10-01

    Leuconostoc (Lc.) carnosum Ta11a, isolated from vacuum-packaged processed meats, produced a bacteriocin designated leucocin B-Ta11a. The crude bacteriocin was heat stable and sensitive to proteolytic enzymes, but not to catalase, lysozyme, or chloroform. It was active against Listeria monocytogenes and several lactic acid bacteria. Leucocin B-Ta11a was optimally produced at 25 degrees C in MRS broth at an initial pH of 6.0 or 6.5. An 8.9-MDa plasmid in Leuconostoc carnosum Ta11a hybridized to a 36-mer oligonucleotide probe (JF-1) that was homologous to leucocin A-UAL187. A 4.9-kb Sau3A fragment from a partial digest of the 8.9-MDa plasmid was cloned into pUC118. The 8.1-kb recombinant plasmid (pJF8.1) was used for sequencing and revealed the presence of two open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 codes for a protein of 61 amino acids comprising a 37-amino-acid bacteriocin that was determined to be the leucocin B-Ta11a structural gene by virtue of its homology to leucocin A-UAL 187 (Hastings et al. 1991. J. Bacteriol 173:7491-7500). The 24-amino-acid N-terminal extension, however, differs from that of leucocin A-UAL187 by seven residues. The predicted protein of the ORF2 has 113 amino acids and is identical with the amino acid sequence of the cognate ORF of the leucocin A-UAL 187 operon.

  6. Functional study of a salt-inducible TaSR gene in Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Li; Cui, Wei-Na; Zhao, Qian; Zhao, Jing; Hou, Xiao-Na; Li, Dong-Yan; Chen, Zhao-Liang; Shen, Yin-Zhu; Huang, Zhan-Jing

    2016-01-01

    The gene expression chip of a salt-tolerant wheat mutant under salt stress was used to clone a salt-induced gene with unknown functions. This gene was designated as TaSR (Triticum aestivum salt-response gene) and submitted to GenBank under accession number EF580107. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis showed that gene expression was induced by salt stress. Arabidopsis and rice (Oryza sativa) plants expressing TaSR presented higher salt tolerance than the controls, whereas AtSR mutant and RNA interference rice plants were more sensitive to salt. Under salt stress, TaSR reduced Na(+) concentration and improved cellular K(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations; this gene was also localized on the cell membrane. β-Glucuronidase (GUS) staining and GUS fluorescence quantitative determination were conducted through fragmentation cloning of the TaSR promoter. Salt stress-responsive elements were detected at 588-1074 bp upstream of the start codon. GUS quantitative tests of the full-length promoter in different tissues indicated that promoter activity was highest in the leaf under salt stress. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation and yeast two-hybrid screening further showed the correlation of TaSR with TaPRK and TaKPP. In vitro phosphorylation of TaSR and TaPRK2697 showed that TaPRK2697 did not phosphorylate TaSR. This study revealed that the novel TaSR may be used to improve plant tolerance to salt stress.

  7. Wheat Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (TaBRI1) Interacts with Members of TaSERK Gene Family and Cause Early Flowering and Seed Yield Enhancement in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akanksha; Breja, Priyanka; Khurana, Jitendra P.; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) hormones are important for plant growth, development and immune responses. They are sensed by the transmembrane receptor kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive 1 (BRI1) when they bind to its extracellular Leu-rich repeat (LRR) domain. We cloned and characterized the TaBRI1 from T. aestivum and raised overexpression transgenics in Arabidopsis to decipher its functional role. TaBRI1 protein consists of a putative signal peptide followed by 25 leucine rich repeats (LRR), a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal kinase domain. The analysis determined the interaction of TaBRI1 with five members of the wheat Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (TaSERKs) gene family (TaSERK1, TaSERK2, TaSERK3, TaSERK4 and TaSERK5), at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of TaBRI1 in Arabidopsis leads to the early flowering, increased silique size and seed yield. Root growth analysis of TaBRI1 overexpressing transgenic plants showed hypersensitivity to epi-brassinolide (epi-BL) hormone in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants show thermotolerance phenotype at the seedling stages as revealed by chlorophyll content, photosystem II activity and membrane stability. The transcriptome profiling on the basis of microarray analysis indicates up-regulation of several genes related to brassinosteroid signaling pathway, abiotic stress response, defense response and transcription factors. These studies predict the possible role of TaBRI1 gene in plant growth and development imparting tolerance to thermal stress. PMID:27322749

  8. Wheat Brassinosteroid-Insensitive1 (TaBRI1) Interacts with Members of TaSERK Gene Family and Cause Early Flowering and Seed Yield Enhancement in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Akanksha; Breja, Priyanka; Khurana, Jitendra P; Khurana, Paramjit

    2016-01-01

    Brassinosteroids (BRs) hormones are important for plant growth, development and immune responses. They are sensed by the transmembrane receptor kinase Brassinosteroid-Insensitive 1 (BRI1) when they bind to its extracellular Leu-rich repeat (LRR) domain. We cloned and characterized the TaBRI1 from T. aestivum and raised overexpression transgenics in Arabidopsis to decipher its functional role. TaBRI1 protein consists of a putative signal peptide followed by 25 leucine rich repeats (LRR), a transmembrane domain and a C-terminal kinase domain. The analysis determined the interaction of TaBRI1 with five members of the wheat Somatic Embryogenesis Receptor Kinase (TaSERKs) gene family (TaSERK1, TaSERK2, TaSERK3, TaSERK4 and TaSERK5), at the plasma membrane. Furthermore, overexpression of TaBRI1 in Arabidopsis leads to the early flowering, increased silique size and seed yield. Root growth analysis of TaBRI1 overexpressing transgenic plants showed hypersensitivity to epi-brassinolide (epi-BL) hormone in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, transgenic Arabidopsis plants show thermotolerance phenotype at the seedling stages as revealed by chlorophyll content, photosystem II activity and membrane stability. The transcriptome profiling on the basis of microarray analysis indicates up-regulation of several genes related to brassinosteroid signaling pathway, abiotic stress response, defense response and transcription factors. These studies predict the possible role of TaBRI1 gene in plant growth and development imparting tolerance to thermal stress.

  9. Combined experimental and theoretical assessments of the lattice dynamics and optoelectronics of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Nurlaela, Ela; Harb, Moussab; Gobbo, Silvano del; Vashishta, Manish; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-09-15

    Presented herein is a detailed discussion of the properties of the lattice dynamic and optoelectronic properties of tantalum(V) oxynitride (TaON) and tantalum(V) nitride (Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}), from experimental and theoretical standpoint. The active Raman and infra red (IR) frequencies of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} were measured using confocal Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopies (FTIR) and calculated using the linear response method within the density functional perturbation theory (DFPT). The detailed study leads to an exhaustive description of the spectra, including the symmetry of the vibrational modes. Electronic structures of these materials were computed using DFT within the range-separated hybrid HSE06 exchange–correlation formalism. Electronic and ionic contributions to the dielectric constant tensors of these materials were obtained from DFPT within the linear response method using the PBE functional. Furthermore, effective mass of photogenerated holes and electrons at the band edges of these compounds were computed from the electronic band structure obtained at the DFT/HSE06 level of theory. The results suggest that anisotropic nature in TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} is present in terms of dielectric constant and effective masses. - Graphical abstract: Detailed investigation has been conducted from combined experimental and theoretical approaches on Raman and IR spectroscopies, electronic structures, dielectric constants and effective masses of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}. - Highlights: • Crystal structures of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} are discussed based on XRD and DFT calculation. • Raman and IR spectra of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} materials are measured and computed by DFPT method. • Optoelectronic properties of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} are discussed. • Dielectric constant and effective masses of TaON and Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} are calculated.

  10. TA-2 water boiler reactor decommissioning (Phase 1)

    SciTech Connect

    Elder, J.C.; Knoell, C.L.

    1986-12-01

    Removal of external structures and underground piping associated with the gaseous effluent (stack) line from the TA-2 Water Boiler Reactor was performed as Phase I of reactor decommissioning. Six concrete structures were dismantled and 435 ft of contaminated underground piping was removed. Extensive soil contamination by /sup 137/Cs was encountered around structure TA-2-48 and in a suspected leach field near the stream flowing through Los Alamos Canyon. Efforts to remove all contaminated soil were hampered by infiltrating ground water and heavy rains. Methods, cleanup guidelines, and ALARA decisions used to successfully restore the area are described. The cost of the project was approximately $320K; 970 m/sup 3/ of low-level solid radioactive waste resulted from the cleanup operations.

  11. Ordering Effects in NbC and TaC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Venables, J. D.; Meyerhoff, M. H.

    1972-01-01

    By means of transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, evidence has been obtained for the existence of long range carbon atom ordering in single-crystal niobium carbide that has a carbon-to-metal ratio close to the integral composition Nb6C5. The ordering, which gives rise to superlattice and domain structures similar to those observed in V6C5, appears, however, only in samples that have been cooled slowly through the order-disorder temperature of 1025 C. In TaC of similar composition, the ordering, although present, remains very imperfect even after the crystals are subjected to the same thermal treatment. The results are interpreted in terms of the electronic structure of the transition metal carbides as it is currently understood, and their relevance to the mechanical properties of NbC and TaC are discussed.

  12. Anomalous electronic structure and magnetoresistance in TaAs2

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yongkang; McDonald, R. D.; Rosa, P. F. S.; Scott, B.; Wakeham, N.; Ghimire, N. J.; Bauer, E. D.; Thompson, J. D.; Ronning, F.

    2016-01-01

    The change in resistance of a material in a magnetic field reflects its electronic state. In metals with weakly- or non-interacting electrons, the resistance typically increases upon the application of a magnetic field. In contrast, negative magnetoresistance may appear under some circumstances, e.g., in metals with anisotropic Fermi surfaces or with spin-disorder scattering and semimetals with Dirac or Weyl electronic structures. Here we show that the non-magnetic semimetal TaAs2 possesses a very large negative magnetoresistance, with an unknown scattering mechanism. Density functional calculations find that TaAs2 is a new topological semimetal [ℤ2 invariant (0;111)] without Dirac dispersion, demonstrating that a negative magnetoresistance in non-magnetic semimetals cannot be attributed uniquely to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw chiral anomaly of bulk Dirac/Weyl fermions. PMID:27271852

  13. Anomalous electronic structure and magnetoresistance in TaAs2

    DOE PAGES

    Luo, Yongkang; McDonald, R. D.; Rosa, P. F. S.; ...

    2016-01-01

    We report that the change in resistance of a material in a magnetic field reflects its electronic state. In metals with weakly- or non-interacting electrons, the resistance typically increases upon the application of a magnetic field. In contrast, negative magnetoresistance may appear under some circumstances, e.g., in metals with anisotropic Fermi surfaces or with spin-disorder scattering and semimetals with Dirac or Weyl electronic structures. Here we show that the non-magnetic semimetal TaAs2 possesses a very large negative magnetoresistance, with an unknown scattering mechanism. In conclusion, density functional calculations find that TaAs2 is a new topological semimetal [Z2 invariant (0;111)] withoutmore » Dirac dispersion, demonstrating that a negative magnetoresistance in non-magnetic semimetals cannot be attributed uniquely to the Adler-Bell-Jackiw chiral anomaly of bulk Dirac/Weyl fermions.« less

  14. Experimental Discovery of Weyl Semimetal TaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, B. Q.; Weng, H. M.; Fu, B. B.; Wang, X. P.; Miao, H.; Ma, J.; Richard, P.; Huang, X. C.; Zhao, L. X.; Chen, G. F.; Fang, Z.; Dai, X.; Qian, T.; Ding, H.

    2015-07-01

    Weyl semimetals are a class of materials that can be regarded as three-dimensional analogs of graphene upon breaking time-reversal or inversion symmetry. Electrons in a Weyl semimetal behave as Weyl fermions, which have many exotic properties, such as chiral anomaly and magnetic monopoles in the crystal momentum space. The surface state of a Weyl semimetal displays pairs of entangled Fermi arcs at two opposite surfaces. However, the existence of Weyl semimetals has not yet been proved experimentally. Here, we report the experimental realization of a Weyl semimetal in TaAs by observing Fermi arcs formed by its surface states using angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Our first-principles calculations, which match remarkably well with the experimental results, further confirm that TaAs is a Weyl semimetal.

  15. TA-DA: A TOOL FOR ASTROPHYSICAL DATA ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Da Rio, Nicola; Robberto, Massimo

    2012-12-01

    We present the Tool for Astrophysical Data Analysis (TA-DA), a new software aimed to greatly simplify and improve the analysis of stellar photometric data in comparison with theoretical models, and allow the derivation of stellar parameters from multi-band photometry. Its flexibility allows one to address a number of such problems: from the interpolation of stellar models, or sets of stellar physical parameters in general, to the computation of synthetic photometry in arbitrary filters or units; from the analysis of observed color-magnitude diagrams to a Bayesian derivation of stellar parameters (and extinction) based on multi-band data. TA-DA is available as a pre-compiled Interactive Data Language widget-based application; its graphical user interface makes it considerably user-friendly. In this paper, we describe the software and its functionalities.

  16. Optimal filling fraction of Ta2O5 inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tubio, C. R.; Guitian, F.; Gil, A.

    2013-12-01

    Tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) inverse opals were prepared by combining the self-assembly process and sol-gel chemistry-based opal infiltration. The inverse opal was made by the infiltration of a tantalum(V) ethoxide solution in the interstices of the polystyrene colloidal crystal template, and then removing the original opal template by calcination. The infiltration process as well as the optimal precursor concentration has been investigated in order to obtain Ta2O5 inverse opals with the optimal filling fraction. The effects of processing, template sphere size, morphology, structural properties, filling fraction and composition of the inverse opal are provided by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis (EDS) and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results correlate the concentration of the precursor with the filling fraction of the template.

  17. Rotational structures and the wobbling mode in {sup 167}Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Hartley, D. J.; Ludington, A.; Pifer, R.; Seyfried, E. P.; Vanhoy, J. R.; Janssens, R. V. F.; Carpenter, M. P.; Lauritsen, T.; McCutchan, E. A.; Zhu, S.; Riedinger, L. L.; Darby, I. G.; Riley, M. A.; Wang, X.; Aguilar, A.; Chiara, C. J.; Chowdhury, P.; Lakshmi, S.; Shirwadkar, U.; Tandel, S. K.

    2011-06-15

    Excited states in the neutron-deficient nucleus {sup 167}Ta were studied through the {sup 120}Sn({sup 51}V,4n) reaction. Twelve rotational bands have been observed and the relative excitation energy of each sequence is now known owing to the multiple interband connections. Several quasineutron alignments were observed that aided in the quasiparticle assignments of these bands. The resulting interpretation is in line with observations in neighboring nuclei. Trends in the wobbling phonon energy seen in {sup 161,163,165,167}Lu and {sup 167}Ta are also discussed and particle-rotor model calculations (assuming constant moments of inertia) are found to be inconsistent with the experimental data.

  18. The wheat WRKY transcription factors TaWRKY49 and TaWRKY62 confer differential high-temperature seedling-plant resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici.

    PubMed

    Wang, Junjuan; Tao, Fei; Tian, Wei; Guo, Zhongfeng; Chen, Xianming; Xu, Xiangming; Shang, Hongsheng; Hu, Xiaoping

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in plant resistance responses to pathogens. Wheat stripe rust, caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. In this study, the two WRKY genes TaWRKY49 and TaWRKY62 were originally identified in association with high-temperature seedling-plant resistance to Pst (HTSP) resistance in wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 by RNA-seq. Interestingly, the expression levels of TaWRKY49 and TaWRKY62 were down- and up-regulated, respectively, during HTSP resistance in response to Pst. Silencing of TaWRKY49 enhanced whereas silencing TaWRKY62 reduced HTSP resistance. The enhanced resistance observed on leaves following the silencing of TaWRKY49 was coupled with increased expression of salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes TaPR1.1 and TaAOS, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated genes TaCAT and TaPOD; whereas the ethylene (ET)-responsive gene TaPIE1 was suppressed. The decreased resistance observed on leaves following TaWRKY62 silencing was associated with increased expression of TaPR1.1 and TaPOD, and suppression of TaAOS and TaPIE1. Furthermore, SA, ET, MeJA (methyl jasmonate), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments increased TaWRKY62 expression. On the other hand, MeJA did not affect the expression of TaWRKY49, and H2O2 reduced TaWRKY49 expression. In conclusion, TaWRKY49 negatively regulates while TaWRKY62 positively regulates wheat HTSP resistance to Pst by differential regulation of SA-, JA-, ET and ROS-mediated signaling.

  19. The wheat WRKY transcription factors TaWRKY49 and TaWRKY62 confer differential high-temperature seedling-plant resistance to Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Junjuan; Tao, Fei; Tian, Wei; Guo, Zhongfeng; Chen, Xianming; Xu, Xiangming; Shang, Hongsheng

    2017-01-01

    WRKY transcription factors (TFs) play crucial roles in plant resistance responses to pathogens. Wheat stripe rust, caused by the fungal pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst), is a destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. In this study, the two WRKY genes TaWRKY49 and TaWRKY62 were originally identified in association with high-temperature seedling-plant resistance to Pst (HTSP) resistance in wheat cultivar Xiaoyan 6 by RNA-seq. Interestingly, the expression levels of TaWRKY49 and TaWRKY62 were down- and up-regulated, respectively, during HTSP resistance in response to Pst. Silencing of TaWRKY49 enhanced whereas silencing TaWRKY62 reduced HTSP resistance. The enhanced resistance observed on leaves following the silencing of TaWRKY49 was coupled with increased expression of salicylic acid (SA)- and jasmonic acid (JA)-responsive genes TaPR1.1 and TaAOS, as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS)-associated genes TaCAT and TaPOD; whereas the ethylene (ET)-responsive gene TaPIE1 was suppressed. The decreased resistance observed on leaves following TaWRKY62 silencing was associated with increased expression of TaPR1.1 and TaPOD, and suppression of TaAOS and TaPIE1. Furthermore, SA, ET, MeJA (methyl jasmonate), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and abscisic acid (ABA) treatments increased TaWRKY62 expression. On the other hand, MeJA did not affect the expression of TaWRKY49, and H2O2 reduced TaWRKY49 expression. In conclusion, TaWRKY49 negatively regulates while TaWRKY62 positively regulates wheat HTSP resistance to Pst by differential regulation of SA-, JA-, ET and ROS-mediated signaling. PMID:28742872

  20. 75 FR 43556 - TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings, MT; TA-W-73,381B, Laurel...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-26

    ... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-73,381, MT Rail Link, Inc., Missoula, MT; TA-W-73,381A, Billings... facilities (yards) in Billings, Laurel, Livingston, Helena and Missoula, Montana. The Billings, Laurel... Rail Link, Inc. at facilities in Billings, Laurel, Livingston, and Helena, Montana. The amended...

  1. Issues for reuse of gloveboxes at LANL TA-55

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.; Pinson, P.A.; Miller, C.F.

    1998-08-01

    This report is a summary of issues that face plutonium glovebox designers and users at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) Technical Area 55 (TA-55). Characterizing the issues is a step in the task of enhancing the next generation glovebox design to minimize waste streams while providing the other design functions. This report gives an initial assessment of eight important design and operation issues that can benefit from waste minimization.

  2. TA53:19 Reverb Chamber Quick-Look

    SciTech Connect

    Bishofberger, Kip A.

    2016-05-19

    Within Building 19 of TA-53, a screen room has been evaluated for use as a reverb chamber (with deep gratitude to Dale Dalmas and Greg Dale for their assistance). With minimal additional sealing of the chamber, we expect the Q to increase even more, and thus field levels for the same RF source power. Future studies need to determine leakage field levels, which will define maximum achievable field levels.

  3. The Crystallization Clinic-A TA Orientation Exercise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandel, Marjorie

    1999-01-01

    Our orientation exercise for TAs in the organic laboratories is a Crystallization Clinic, and the main feature is a contest. Each TA has a different unknown solid to recrystallize. The products are judged by the students in the organic lab courses. Beauty of the crystals is the single criterion. The contest serves to refresh the TAs' technique and to give them empathy with the beginning students.

  4. TaN resistor process development and integration.

    SciTech Connect

    Romero, Kathleen; Martinez, Marino John; Clevenger, Jascinda; Austin, Franklin H., IV; Sullivan, Charles Thomas; Wolfley, Steven L.; Patrizi, Gary A.; Vigil, Pablita S.; Grine, Alejandro J.

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes the development and implementation of an integrated resistor process based on reactively sputtered tantalum nitride. Image reversal lithography was shown to be a superior method for liftoff patterning of these films. The results of a response surface DOE for the sputter deposition of the films are discussed. Several approaches to stabilization baking were examined and the advantages of the hot plate method are shown. In support of a new capability to produce special-purpose HBT-based Small-Scale Integrated Circuits (SSICs), we developed our existing TaN resistor process, designed for research prototyping, into one with greater maturity and robustness. Included in this work was the migration of our TaN deposition process from a research-oriented tool to a tool more suitable for production. Also included was implementation and optimization of a liftoff process for the sputtered TaN to avoid the complicating effects of subtractive etching over potentially sensitive surfaces. Finally, the method and conditions for stabilization baking of the resistors was experimentally determined to complete the full implementation of the resistor module. Much of the work to be described involves the migration between sputter deposition tools - from a Kurt J. Lesker CMS-18 to a Denton Discovery 550. Though they use nominally the same deposition technique (reactive sputtering of Ta with N{sup +} in a RF-excited Ar plasma), they differ substantially in their design and produce clearly different results in terms of resistivity, conformity of the film and the difference between as-deposited and stabilized films. We will describe the design of and results from the design of experiments (DOE)-based method of process optimization on the new tool and compare this to what had been used on the old tool.

  5. Influence of a Ta spacer on the magnetic and transport properties of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuchet, Léa; Rodmacq, Bernard; Auffret, Stéphane; Sousa, Ricardo C.; Ducruet, Clarisse; Dieny, Bernard

    2013-07-01

    Ultrathin Ta layers were inserted in the bottom hard (Co/Pt)/Ta/CoFeB/MgO magnetic electrode of perpendicular magnetic tunnel junctions. The magnetization of the top part of this electrode abruptly falls in-plane when the Ta thickness exceeds 0.45 nm. This results from the balance between the various energy terms acting on this layer (exchange-like coupling through Ta, demagnetizing energy, and perpendicular anisotropy at the CoFeB/MgO interface). For small Ta thicknesses, this insertion leads to a strong improvement of the tunnel magnetoresistance, as long as the magnetization of all layers remains perpendicular-to-plane.

  6. Current Thermal Emission from Photonic Nanostructures Composed of TA, W, GE, and HFO2 Thin Films

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    tungsten-germanium-tungsten (W-Ge-W), tungsten-hafnium oxide-tungsten (W-HfO2-W), tantalum -germanium- tantalum (Ta-Ge- Ta), and tantalum -hafnium oxide... tantalum (Ta-HfO2-Ta), with layer thicknesses of 10- 760-145 nanometers (nm), 10-701-145 nm, 9.6-728-169 nm, and 9.6-301-169 nm, respectively. The...Ag) [blue], Tungsten (W) [red dash], Tantalum (Ta) [black dash-dot], and Gold (Au) [green]. Properties from [46, 51, 58

  7. Vibrational properties of TaW alloy using modified embedded atom method potential

    SciTech Connect

    Chand, Manesh Uniyal, Shweta; Joshi, Subodh; Semalty, P. D.

    2016-05-06

    Force-constants up to second neighbours of pure transition metal Ta and TaW alloy are determined using the modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential. The obtained force-constants are used to calculate the phonon dispersion of pure Ta and TaW alloy. As a further application of MEAM potential, the force-constants are used to calculate the local vibrational density of states and mean square thermal displacements of pure Ta and W impurity atoms with Green’s function method. The calculated results are found to be in agreement with the experimental measurements.

  8. Seismic assessment of Technical Area V (TA-V).

    SciTech Connect

    Medrano, Carlos S.

    2014-03-01

    The Technical Area V (TA-V) Seismic Assessment Report was commissioned as part of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Self Assessment Requirement per DOE O 414.1, Quality Assurance, for seismic impact on existing facilities at Technical Area-V (TA-V). SNL TA-V facilities are located on an existing Uniform Building Code (UBC) Seismic Zone IIB Site within the physical boundary of the Kirtland Air Force Base (KAFB). The document delineates a summary of the existing facilities with their safety-significant structure, system and components, identifies DOE Guidance, conceptual framework, past assessments and the present Geological and Seismic conditions. Building upon the past information and the evolution of the new seismic design criteria, the document discusses the potential impact of the new standards and provides recommendations based upon the current International Building Code (IBC) per DOE O 420.1B, Facility Safety and DOE G 420.1-2, Guide for the Mitigation of Natural Phenomena Hazards for DOE Nuclear Facilities and Non-Nuclear Facilities.

  9. Emission Spectroscopy and Ab Initio Calculations for TaN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ram, R. S.; Liévin, J.; Bernath, P. F.

    2002-10-01

    The emission spectra of TaN have been investigated in the region 3000-35 000 cm -1 using a Fourier transform spectrometer. The spectra were observed in a tantalum hollow-cathode lamp by discharging a mixture of 1.5 Torr of Ne and about 6 mTorr of N 2. In addition to previously known bands, numerous additional bands were observed and assigned to a number of new transitions. The spectroscopic properties of the low-lying electronic states of TaN were also predicted by ab initio calculations. A 1Σ + state, with equilibrium constants of Be=0.457 852 1(48) cm -1, α e=0.002 235 9(67) cm -1, and Re=1.683 099 9(88) Å, has been identified as the ground state of TaN based on our experimental observations supported by the ab initio results. The first excited state has been identified as the a3Δ 1 spin component at 2827 cm -1 above the ground state. To higher energies, the states become difficult to assign because of their Hund's case (c) behavior and extensive interactions between the spin components of the electronic terms.

  10. Branched Ta nanocolumns grown by glancing angle deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, C.M.; Gall, D.

    2006-05-15

    Periodic arrays of Ta nanocolumns, 200 nm wide and 600 nm tall, were grown by glancing angle sputter deposition onto self-assembled close-packed arrays of 260-nm-diameter silica spheres. Each sphere leads to the development of a single Ta column. As growth progresses, roughening of the column top surfaces causes branching of some columns into subcolumns. The measured fraction of branched columns f{sub b} decreases with increasing growth temperature, from 30% at 200 deg. C to 4% at 700 deg. C. This is attributed to the increased adatom mobility at elevated temperatures, leading to a larger average separation of growth mounds and, in turn, lower nucleation probabilities for subcolumns. Branching into 3 and 4 subcolumns exhibits probabilities proportional to f{sub b}{sup 2} and f{sub b}{sup 3}, respectively. A fit of the data with a simple nucleation model provides an effective activation energy for Ta surface diffusion of 2.0 eV.

  11. Reaction of Ta thin film with single crystalline (001) beta-SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. S.; Kolawa, E.; Nicolet, M.-A.; Ruiz, R. P.; Baud, L.; Jaussaud, C.; Madar, R.

    1994-01-01

    The reaction between a sputtered-deposited Ta film (320 nm thick) and a single crystalline (001) beta-SiC substrate induced by vacuum annealing at temperatures of 600-1200 C for 1 h (30 min at 1100 C) is investigated by 3 MeV He(+2) backscattering spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and transmission and scanning electron microscopies. No significant reaction is observed at 800 C or at lower tempertures. At 900 C, the main product phases are Ta2C and carbon-stabilized Ta5Si3. A minor amount of unreacted Ta is also present. After annealing at 1000 C, all the tantalum has reacted; the reaction zone possesses a multilayered structure of beta-SiC/TaC/carbon-stabilized Ta5Si3/alpha-Ta5Si3/Ta2C. The diffusion path at 1000 C is plotted on the isothermal section of the Ta-Si-C phase diagram. At 1100 C, the reacted layer has an interface with the SiC substrate that is still quite flat but has a rough surface due to the formation of macroscopic voids within the reacted layer. The equilibrium products predicted by the phase diagram are TaC and TaSi2. This final state is reached by annealing at 1200 C for 1 h. At that point, the reacted layer has a latterally very uneven structure and morphology.

  12. Technical Area V (TA-V) transformation project close-out report.

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-07-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) Technical Area V (TA-V) has provided unique nuclear experimental environments for decades. The technologies tested in TA-V facilities have furthered the United States Nuclear Weapons program and has contributed to the national energy and homeland security mission. The importance of TA-V working efficiently to produce an attractive and effective platform for experiments should not be underestimated. Throughout its brief history, TA-V has evolved to address multiple and diverse sets of requirements. These requirements evolved over many years; however, the requirements had not been managed nor communicated comprehensively or effectively. A series of programmatic findings over several years of external audits was evidence of this downfall. Today, these same requirements flow down through a new TA-V management system that produces consistently applied and reproducible approaches to work practices. In 2008, the TA-V department managers assessed the state of TA-V services and work activities to understand how to improve customer interfaces, stakeholders perceptions, and workforce efficiencies. The TA-V management team initiated the TA-V Transformation Project after they deemed the pre-June 2008 operational model to be ineffective in managing work and in providing integrated, continuous improvement to TA-V processes. This report summarizes the TA-V Transformation Project goals, activities, and accomplishments.

  13. Reaction of Ta thin film with single crystalline (001) beta-SiC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. S.; Kolawa, E.; Nicolet, M.-A.; Ruiz, R. P.; Baud, L.; Jaussaud, C.; Madar, R.

    1994-01-01

    The reaction between a sputtered-deposited Ta film (320 nm thick) and a single crystalline (001) beta-SiC substrate induced by vacuum annealing at temperatures of 600-1200 C for 1 h (30 min at 1100 C) is investigated by 3 MeV He(+2) backscattering spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, secondary ion mass spectrometry, and transmission and scanning electron microscopies. No significant reaction is observed at 800 C or at lower tempertures. At 900 C, the main product phases are Ta2C and carbon-stabilized Ta5Si3. A minor amount of unreacted Ta is also present. After annealing at 1000 C, all the tantalum has reacted; the reaction zone possesses a multilayered structure of beta-SiC/TaC/carbon-stabilized Ta5Si3/alpha-Ta5Si3/Ta2C. The diffusion path at 1000 C is plotted on the isothermal section of the Ta-Si-C phase diagram. At 1100 C, the reacted layer has an interface with the SiC substrate that is still quite flat but has a rough surface due to the formation of macroscopic voids within the reacted layer. The equilibrium products predicted by the phase diagram are TaC and TaSi2. This final state is reached by annealing at 1200 C for 1 h. At that point, the reacted layer has a latterally very uneven structure and morphology.

  14. Boron site preference in ternary Ta and Nb boron silicides

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, Atta U.; Nunes, Carlos A.; Coelho, Gilberto C.; Suzuki, Paulo A.; Grytsiv, Andriy; Bourree, Francoise; Rogl, Peter F.

    2012-06-15

    X-ray single crystal (XSC) and neutron powder diffraction data (NPD) were used to elucidate boron site preference for five ternary phases. Ta{sub 3}Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x} (x=0.112(4)) crystallizes with the Ti{sub 3}P-type (space group P4{sub 2}/n) with B-atoms sharing the 8g site with Si atoms. Ta{sub 5}Si{sub 3-x} (x=0.03(1); Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}- type) crystallizes with space group I4/mcm, exhibiting a small amount of vacancies on the 4a site. Both, Ta{sub 5}(Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x}){sub 3}, x=0.568(3), and Nb{sub 5}(Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x}){sub 3}, x=0.59(2), are part of solid solutions of M{sub 5}Si{sub 3} with Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3}-type into the ternary M-Si-B systems (M=Nb or Ta) with B replacing Si on the 8h site. The D8{sub 8}-phase in the Nb-Si-B system crystallizes with the Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4}-type revealing the formula Nb{sub 5}Si{sub 3}B{sub 1-x} (x=0.292(3)) with B partially filling the voids in the 2b site of the Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} parent type. - Graphical abstract: The crystal structures of a series of compounds have been solved from X-ray single crystal diffractometry revealing details on the boron incorporation. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of a series of compounds have been solved by X-ray single crystal diffractometry. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ta{sub 3}(Si{sub 1-x}B{sub x}) (x=0.112) crystallizes with the Ti{sub 3}P-type, B and Si atoms randomly share the 8g site. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Structure of Nb{sub 5}Si{sub 3}B{sub 1-x} (x=0.292; Ti{sub 5}Ga{sub 4}-type) was solved from NPD.

  15. Superelastic and shape memory properties of TixNb3Zr2Ta alloys.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yongfeng; Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Minmin; Liu, Zhongtang; Qin, Jining; Zhang, Di; Lu, Weijie

    2012-08-01

    The microstructure and phase constitutions of TixNb3Zr2Ta alloys (x=35, 31, 27, 23) (wt%) were studied. With a lower niobium content the grain size of β phase in TixNb3Zr2Ta alloys increased significantly, and the TixNb3Zr2Ta system was more likely to form α″ phase and even α phase. Tensile tests showed that UTS of TixNb3Zr2Ta alloys improved as the Nb content was decreased. Cyclic loading-unloading tensile tests were carried on TixNb3Zr2Ta alloys. Ti23Nb3Zr2Ta and Ti27Nb3Zr2Ta alloys featured the best superelasticity among the alloys studied. The pseudoelastic strain ratio of Ti35Nb3Zr2Ta alloy decreased a lot as the cycle number increased. Ti31Nb3Zr2Ta alloy showed only minimum superelasticity. This is because Ti23Nb3Zr2Ta and Ti27Nb3Zr2Ta alloys had higher yield strength than Ti31Nb3Zr2Ta did, which allowed martensite phase to be induced. On the contrary, Ti31Nb3Zr2Ta alloy exhibited better shape memory property than Ti27Nb3Zr2Ta, Ti23Nb3Zr2Ta and Ti35Nb3Zr2Ta titanium alloys. β phase, α phase and α″ phase were found in Ti23Nb3Zr2Ta alloy by TEM observation. The dislocation density of α phase was much lower than that of β phase due to their crystal structure difference. This may explained why Ti23Nb3Zr2Ta with α phase possessed higher tensile strength. The incomplete shape recovery of Ti23Nb3Zr2Ta alloy after unloading resulted from two sources. Plastic deformation occurred in β phase, α phase and even α″ phase under dislocation slip mechanism, and incomplete decomposition of α″ martensitic phase resulted in unrecovered strain as well.

  16. From Ba3Ta5O14N to LaBa2Ta5O13N2: Decreasing the optical band gap of a photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anke, B.; Bredow, T.; Pilarski, M.; Wark, M.; Lerch, M.

    2017-02-01

    Yellow LaBa2Ta5O13N2 was successfully synthesized as phase-pure material crystallizing isostructurally to previously reported Ba3Ta5O14N and mixed-valence Ba3TaV4TaIVO15. The electronic structure of LaBa2Ta5O13N2 was studied theoretically with the range-separated hybrid method HSE06. The most stable structure was obtained when lanthanum was placed on 2a and nitrogen on 4h sites confirming Pauling's second rule. By incorporating nitrogen, the measured band gap decreases from ∼3.8 eV for the oxide via 2.74 eV for Ba3Ta5O14N to 2.63 eV for the new oxide nitride, giving rise to an absorption band well in the visible-light region. Calculated fundamental band gaps confirm the experimental trend. The atom-projected density of states has large contributions from N2p orbitals close to the valence band edge. These are responsible for the observed band gap reduction. Photocatalytic hydrogen formation was investigated and compared with that of Ba3Ta5O14N revealing significantly higher activity for LaBa2Ta5O13N2 under UV-light.

  17. Retention Model of TaO/HfO x and TaO/AlO x RRAM with Self-Rectifying Switch Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yu-De; Chen, Pang-Shiu; Lee, Heng-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Rahaman, Sk Ziaur; Tsai, Kan-Hsueh; Hsu, Chien-Hua; Chen, Wei-Su; Wang, Pei-Hua; King, Ya-Chin; Lin, Chrong Jung

    2017-12-01

    A retention behavior model for self-rectifying TaO/HfO x - and TaO/AlO x -based resistive random-access memory (RRAM) is proposed. Trapping-type RRAM can have a high resistance state (HRS) and a low resistance state (LRS); the degradation in a LRS is usually more severe than that in a HRS, because the LRS during the SET process is limited by the internal resistor layer. However, if TaO/AlO x elements are stacked in layers, the LRS retention can be improved. The LRS retention time estimated by extrapolation method is more than 5 years at room temperature. Both TaO/HfO x - and TaO/AlO x -based RRAM structures have the same capping layer of TaO, and the activation energy levels of both types of structures are 0.38 eV. Moreover, the additional AlO x switching layer of a TaO/AlO x structure creates a higher O diffusion barrier that can substantially enhance retention, and the TaO/AlO x structure also shows a quite stable LRS under biased conditions.

  18. Retention Model of TaO/HfO x and TaO/AlO x RRAM with Self-Rectifying Switch Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-De; Chen, Pang-Shiu; Lee, Heng-Yuan; Chen, Yu-Sheng; Rahaman, Sk. Ziaur; Tsai, Kan-Hsueh; Hsu, Chien-Hua; Chen, Wei-Su; Wang, Pei-Hua; King, Ya-Chin; Lin, Chrong Jung

    2017-06-01

    A retention behavior model for self-rectifying TaO/HfO x - and TaO/AlO x -based resistive random-access memory (RRAM) is proposed. Trapping-type RRAM can have a high resistance state (HRS) and a low resistance state (LRS); the degradation in a LRS is usually more severe than that in a HRS, because the LRS during the SET process is limited by the internal resistor layer. However, if TaO/AlO x elements are stacked in layers, the LRS retention can be improved. The LRS retention time estimated by extrapolation method is more than 5 years at room temperature. Both TaO/HfO x - and TaO/AlO x -based RRAM structures have the same capping layer of TaO, and the activation energy levels of both types of structures are 0.38 eV. Moreover, the additional AlO x switching layer of a TaO/AlO x structure creates a higher O diffusion barrier that can substantially enhance retention, and the TaO/AlO x structure also shows a quite stable LRS under biased conditions.

  19. Electronic structure and optical properties of Ta-doped and (Ta, N)-codoped SrTiO3 from hybrid functional calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yanyu; Zhou, Wei; Wu, Ping

    2017-02-01

    A systematic study has been carried out to research the effect of Ta monodoping and (Ta, N)-codoping on the electronic structure and optical properties of SrTiO3. The results indicate that the incorporation of N into the SrTiO3 lattice is in favor of the substitution of Ta at a Ti site, which is the most favorable structure with respect to both the energetic stability and high photocatalytic activity. Furthermore, the carrier recombination centers induced by Ta monodoping are passivated in the (Ta, N)-codoped SrTiO3 system with Ta at a Ti site. Simultaneous incorporation of N and Ta results in a band gap decreasing about 0.7 eV due to the appearance of the new states hybridized by N-p states with the O-p states above the valence band. The band alignment verifies that the (Ta, N)-codoped SrTiO3 simultaneously meets the criteria of band-edge energetic positions and band gap for the overall water splitting under visible light.

  20. 75 FR 66794 - Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration: TA-W-71,572...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-29

    ..., 2010 (75 FR 21363). The subject workers produce galvanized coil (TA-W-71,572), cold rolled coils and back plate coils (TA-W-71,572A), hot rolled coils (TA- W-71,572B), and cold rolled coils (TA-W-71,572C...

  1. Processing and characterization of zeta-Ta4C 3-x: A high toughness tantalum carbide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sygnatowicz, Michael M.

    Tantalum carbides are commonly processed by hot-pressing, canned hot-isostatic-pressing, or spark-plasma sintering because of their high melting temperatures and low diffusivities. This study reports processing of dense ζ-Ta4C 3-x by reaction sintering of a Ta and TaC powder mixture (C/Ta atomic ratio = 0.66). ζ-Ta4C3-x is of interest due to its rhombohedral (trigonal) crystal structure that may be characterized as a polytype with both face-centered-cubic (fcc) and hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) Ta stacking sequences interrupted by stacking faults and missing carbon layers. This structure leads to easy cleaving on the basal planes and high fracture toughness. A key step in processing is the hydrogenation of the Ta powder to produce beta-TaH x, a hard and brittle phase that enables efficient comminution during milling and production of small, equiaxed Ta particles that can be packed to high green density with the TaC powder. Studies of phase evolution by quantitative X-ray diffraction during sintering revealed several intermediate reactions: (a) decomposition of beta-TaHx to Ta, (b) diffusion of C from gamma-TaC to Ta leading to the formation of α-Ta2Cy' with the kinetics described by the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov (JMAK) equation with an exponent, n = 0.5, and an activation energy of 221 kJ/mole, (c) equilibration of α-Ta2Cy' and gamma-TaC 0.78 phases, and (d) formation of ζ-Ta4C2.56 from the equilibrated α-Ta2C and gamma-TaC0.78 phases with the kinetics characterized by a higher JMAK exponent ( n ≈ 3) and higher activation energy (1089 kJ/mole). The microstructure showed evidence of nucleation and growth of the ζ-Ta4C 2.56 phase in both the α-Ta2C and gamma-TaC0.78 parent phases with distinct difference in the morphology due to the different number of variants of the habit plane. A hot-pressed and hot-isostatic-pressed (HIPed) material (C/Ta atomic ratio = 0.66), having formed 95 w% ζ-phase, attained a fracture toughness of 15.6 +/- 0.5 MPa√m and a

  2. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A. J.; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01), transpiration rate (P<0.05) and CID (P<0.01), while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01), A (P<0.05), WUEi (P<0.05), BYPP (P<0.01) and GYPP (P<0.01), with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate

  3. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A J; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01), transpiration rate (P<0.05) and CID (P<0.01), while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01), A (P<0.05), WUEi (P<0.05), BYPP (P<0.01) and GYPP (P<0.01), with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate

  4. Preliminary study of the biomechanical behavior and physical characteristics of tantalum (Ta)-coated prostheses.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yonghong; Liu, Lie; Wang, Ling; Guo, Fei; Li, Haoping; Shi, Lei; Li, Mao; Yin, Dayu; Jiang, Chi; Zhu, Qingsheng

    2012-03-01

    Use of Ta biomaterials in medicine started in the middle of the last century. The good biocompatibility and chemical stability, and the unique physical characteristics of Ta metal have resulted in many possible developments of Ta biomaterials. In this study, histopathological observation, histomorphometric analysis, scanning electron microscope (SEM) observation, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) analysis, biomechanical testing, and examination of the coating's mechanical strength have been used to evaluate the value of clinical application of Ta-coated prostheses prepared by a plasma-spraying process. Histopathological observation has demonstrated that the periprosthetic new bone tissues tightly and stably adhere to the Ta coating after the implantation, with no signs of loosening. Early after implantation, there is no significant difference in periprosthetic bone volume and ultimate shear strength between Ta-coated and Ti-coated prostheses (P > 0.05). EDX analysis suggests that the ultimate shear stress does not damage Ta coating. Mechanical strength testing shows that the adhesive strength and Vicker's surface hardness (HV) of the Ta coating are significantly higher than those of the Ti coating (P < 0.01). Ta coating has good stability and bone biocompatibility; the extraordinary physical characteristics of Ta coating have great significance in maintaining prosthetic stability and surface porosity after implantation.

  5. Immunotherapy of malignant disease with tumor antigen (TA)-specific monoclonal antibodies: does its therapeutic efficacy require cooperation with TA-specific CTL?

    PubMed Central

    Campoli, Michael; Ferris, Robert; Ferrone, Soldano; Wang, Xinhui

    2009-01-01

    A few tumor antigen (TA)-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAb) have been approved by FDA for the treatment of several major malignant diseases and are commercially available. Once in the clinic, mAb have an average success rate of ~30% and are well tolerated. These results have changed the face of cancer therapy, bringing us closer to more specific and more effective biologic therapy of cancer. The challenge facing tumor immunologists at present is represented by the identification of the mechanism(s) underlying patients’ differential clinical response to mAb-based immunotherapy. This information is expected to lead to the development of criteria to select patients to be treated with mAb-based immunotherapy. In the past in vitro and in vivo evidence has shown that TA-specific mAb can mediate their therapeutic effect by inducing tumor cell apoptosis, inhibiting the targeted antigen function, blocking tumor cell signaling and/or mediating complement-or cell-dependent lysis of tumor cells. More recent evidence suggests that TA-specific mAb can induce TA-specific cytotoxic T cell responses by enhancing TA uptake by dendritic cells (DC) and cross-priming of T cells. In this manuscript, we briefly summarize the TA-specific mAb that have received FDA approval. Next we review the potential mechanisms underlying the therapeutic efficacy of TA-specific mAb with emphasis on the induction of TA-specific cellular immune responses and their potential to contribute to the clinical efficacy of TA-specific mAb-based immunotherapy. Lastly, we discuss the potential negative impact of immune escape mechanisms on the clinical efficacy of TA-specific mAb-based immunotherapy. PMID:20028761

  6. A time-resolved diffraction study of the Ta--C solid combustion system

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, E.M.; Wong, J.; Holt, J.B.; Waide, P.A.; Nutt, G.; Rupp, B.; Terminello, L.J. )

    1993-07-01

    The formation of TaC and Ta[sub 2]C by combustion synthesis from their elemental constituents has been studied by time-resolved x-ray diffraction (TRXRD) using synchrotron radiation. The reactions have been followed with a time resolution down to 50 ms. Since the adiabatic temperatures for both reactions are well below any liquidus temperature in the Ta--C phase diagram, no melting occurs and these combustion reactions occur purely in the solid state. The phase transformations associated with these reactions are followed by monitoring the disappearance of reactant and appearance of product powder diffraction peaks in real time as the reaction front propagates through the combusting specimen. In the synthesis of TaC, the results show the formation of the subcarbide (Ta[sub 2]C) phase as an intermediate. In the synthesis of Ta[sub 2]C, the reaction proceeds directly to the product with no discernable intermediate Ta--C phase within a 50 ms time frame. The chemical dynamics associated with the combustion synthesis of TaC may be described by an initial phase transformation to hexagonal Ta[sub 2]C arising from carbon diffusion into the Ta metal lattice. As more carbon is available this intermediate subcarbide phase, which has one-half of its octahedral interstices occupied by the carbon, further transforms to the cubic TaC final product, in which all octahedral sites are now occupied. The time-resolved data indicate that the rate of formation of Ta[sub 2]C is a factor of two faster than that of TaC.

  7. Magnetic field strength influence on the reactive magnetron sputter deposition of Ta2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollerweger, R.; Holec, D.; Paulitsch, J.; Rachbauer, R.; Polcik, P.; Mayrhofer, P. H.

    2013-08-01

    Reactive magnetron sputtering enables the deposition of various thin films to be used for protective as well as optical and electronic applications. However, progressing target erosion during sputtering results in increased magnetic field strengths at the target surface. Consequently, the glow discharge, the target poisoning, and hence the morphology, crystal structure and stoichiometry of the prepared thin films are influenced. Therefore, these effects were investigated by varying the cathode current Im between 0.50 and 1.00 A, the magnetic field strength B between 45 and 90 mT, and the O2/(Ar + O2) flow rate ratio Γ between 0% and 100%. With increasing oxygen flow ratio a substoichiometric TaOx oxide forms at the metallic Ta target surface which further transfers to a non-conductive tantalum pentoxide Ta2O5, impeding a stable dc glow discharge. These two transition zones (from Ta to TaOx and from TaOx to Ta2O5) shift to higher oxygen flow rates for increasing target currents. In contrast, increasing the magnetic field strength (e.g., due to sputter erosion) mainly shifts the TaOx to Ta2O5 transition to lower oxygen flow rates while marginally influencing the Ta to TaOx transition. To allow for a stable dc glow discharge (and to suppress the formation of non-conductive Ta2O5 at the target) even at Γ = 100% either a high target current (Im ⩾ 1 A) or a low magnetic field strength (B ⩽ 60 mT) is necessary. These conditions are required to prepare stoichiometric and fully crystalline Ta2O5 films.

  8. Africa OR / TA Project II supporting studies in several countries.

    PubMed

    1994-12-01

    During the first 6 months, the Africa OR/TA (Operations Research and Technical Assistance) Project II has helped in generating OR country strategic workplans in various sub-Saharan African countries. Project staff has spent much time collaborating with the Navrongo Health Research Centre (NHRC) in the rural Kassena Nankana district in Ghana in designing the Navrongo Community Health and Family Planning (FP) Project. This area has high fertility and mortality rates. The people hold strong pronatal beliefs. Contraceptive use is low among the mostly unschooled women. If this FP/community health project can effectively deliver FP here, it can be successful elsewhere in Africa. Africa OR/TA Project staff are helping design a FP OR experimental field station. They aim to help the Government of Kenya and USAID Nairobi to lower national fertility levels and the incidence of sexually transmitted HIV in some target groups. The Family Planning Association of Kenya will collaborate with the Project on OR/TA activities which include a national situation analysis study, a study examining the impact of quality of services, and community based distribution (CBD) studies. Project staff would like to see integration of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) and FP services. OR activities strengthen the clinic- and community-based portions of the FP program in Tanzania. Staff will help with the evaluation of the effectiveness of the CBD models. The FP program aims to meet the reproductive health needs of men and young adults and to integrate STD/AIDS and FP. Project staff will also help the Botswana Population Assistance Project document and monitor the integration of FP, STD management, and AIDS prevention procedures.

  9. Pressure-induced ferroelectric to paraelectric transition in LiTaO3 and (Li,Mg)TaO3

    SciTech Connect

    Yamanaka, Takamitsu; Nakamoto, Yuki; Takei, Fumihiko; Ahart, Muhtar; Mao, Ho-kwang; Hemley, Russell J.

    2016-02-16

    X-ray powder diffraction and Raman scattering of LiTaO3 (LT) and (Li,Mg)TaO3 (LMT) have been measured under pressure up to 46 GPa. Above 30 GPa, the ferroelectric rhombohedral phase (R3c, Z – 6) of LiTaO3 transforms to a paraelectric orthorhombic phase (Pnma with Z – 4) with a large hysteresis. Rietveld profile fitting analysis shows that the Li-O bond is compressed and approaches that of Ta-O with pressure. The cation distribution analysis of the orthorhombic perovskite structure shows that Li and Ta are located in the octahedral 8-fold coordination sites. Difference Fourier |Fobs(hkl)| - |Fcal(hkl)| maps of LiTaO3 and (Li,Mg)TaO3 indicate polarization in the c axis direction and a more distinct electron density distribution around the Ta position for (Li,Mg)TaO3 compared to LiTaO3. The observed effective charges indicate that for (Li,Mg)TaO3 without vacancies Ta5+ becomes less ionized as a function of Mg substitution. Considering both site occupancy and effective charge analysis, Ta5+ is reduced to Ta4.13+. Mg2+ and O2- change to Mg1.643+ and O1.732 -, respectively. The space- and time-averaged structures of the dynamical vibration of atoms can be elucidated from the electron density analysis by difference Fourier and temperature factors T(hkl) in the structure refinement. The refinement of the temperature factor is consistent with the cation distribution assuming full stoichiometry. The residual electron density induced from the excess electron in (Li,Mg)TaO3 indicates more electrons around the Ta site, as confirmed by the effective charge analysis. Raman spectra of LiTaO3 and (Li,Mg)TaO3 show notable changes over the measured pressure range. Raman peaks centered at 250 cm–1 and 350 cm–1 at ambient pressure merge

  10. Low-temperature shear compliance of TaS3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, X.; Brill, J. W.

    1996-11-01

    We have measured the low-frequency (13 Hz) and quasistatic shear compliance (J) of orthorhombic TaS3 as a function of applied electric field (E) at 4.2 K. In contrast to liquid-nitrogen temperatures, where J increases by 25-30 % when the electric field depins the charge-density wave, at 4.2 K the compliance is field independent for E up to 270 ENL, the field where nonlinear current is first observed, and well into the regime where the conductance is proportional to E2. A few possible reasons for the lack of an elastic anomaly at low temperature are suggested.

  11. TA-54 (Area G) Risk Assessment from Extreme Wildfire Scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Linn, Rodman Ray; Koo, Eunmo; Honig, Kristen Ann; White, Judith; Funk, David John

    2016-08-10

    Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and surrounding areas have been exposed to at least four significant wildfires since 1977 and there have been numerous others within 50 miles of LANL. Based on this history, wildfires are considered a risk to LANL facilities and their contents. While many LANL facilities are at risk to wildfire to some degree, they are found in a wide variety of conditions, thus they have varying sensitivities to wildfires. Additionally, LANL facilities have various functions and different assets, so they have a wide range of values or consequences if compromised. Therefore, determining the risks and precautions that are warranted to mitigate these risks must be done on a case-by-case basis. In an effort to assess possible wildfire risks to sensitive materials stored in a Perma-Con® in dome TA-54-0375, a conventional fire risk analysis was performed. This conventional risk analysis is documented in Engineering Evaluation Form AP-FIRE-001-FM1, which is dated 9/28/2015 and was titled ‘Wildland Fire Exposure Evaluation for Building TA-54-0375’ (Hall 2015). This analysis acknowledged that there was significant chance of wildfire in the vicinity of TA-54-0375, but the amount of combustible material surrounding the building was deemed low. The wildland fuels that were closest to the building were largely fine fuels and were not expected to have significant duration of heat release. The prevailing winds at this location are from the south and southwest and the nearest significant upwind fuels (tree crowns or unmown grasses) are at least 300 feet away. Based on these factors the conventional wildland fire risk to TA-54-0375 was deemed minimal, “Acceptable As Is, No Action Required.” This risk evaluation was based on a combined assessment of low probability of wildfires arriving at the site from other directions (where higher fuel loadings might be present) as well as the effective setback of fuels in the direction that fire is

  12. TaC Studios New Construction Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Kim, E.; Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2013-03-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA in the mixed humid climate zone. This home will serve as a model home for the builder partner and addresses Building America energy savings targets through the planning and implementation of a design package will serve as a basis of design for the builder partner's future homes. As a BA test house, this home will be evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and HVAC and hot water efficiency.

  13. Nucleation of fcc Ta when heating thin films

    DOE PAGES

    Janish, Matthew T.; Mook, William M.; Carter, C. Barry

    2014-10-25

    Thin tantalum films have been studied during in-situ heating in a transmission electron microscope. Diffraction patterns from the as-deposited films were typical of amorphous materials. Crystalline grains were observed to form when the specimen was annealed in-situ at 450°C. Particular attention was addressed to the formation and growth of grains with the face-centered cubic (fcc) crystal structure. As a result, these observations are discussed in relation to prior work on the formation of fcc Ta by deformation and during thin film deposition.

  14. Characterization of Ta-B-C nanostructured hard coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buršík, J.; Buršíková, V.; Souček, P.; Zábranský, L.; Vašina, P.

    2017-02-01

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of Ta-B-C nanocrystalline layers prepared by magnetron sputtering were studied. DC magnetron sputtering was used to prepare thin layers on rotated substrates. Various deposition parameters were tested. Microstructure of layers was studied by means of scanning and transmission electron microscopy on thin lamellar cross sections prepared using a focussed ion beam. Both undisturbed layers and the volume under relatively large indentation prints (load of 1 N) were observed. The microstructure observations were correlated with mechanical properties characterized by means of nanoindentation experiments in both the static and the dynamic loading regime. Elastic modulus, indentation hardness and fracture resistance of prepared nanostructured coatings were evaluated and discussed.

  15. TaC Studios New Construction Test House

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, T.; Curtis, O.; Kim, E.; Roberts, S.; Stephenson, R.

    2013-03-01

    As part of the NAHB Research Center Industry Partnership, Southface partnered with TaC Studios, an Atlanta based architecture firm specializing in residential and light commercial design, on the construction of a new test home in Atlanta, GA, in the mixed humid climate zone. This home will serve as a model home for the builder partner and addresses Building America energy savings targets through the planning and implementation of a design package will serve as a basis of design for the builder partner’s future homes. As a BA test house, this home will be evaluated to detail whole house energy use, end use loads, and HVAC and hot water efficiency.

  16. Adventures in transformations: TG, TA, oh my! (Poster abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciocca, M.

    2015-12-01

    (Abstract only) AAVSO made available, through the great volunteer work of Gordon Myers and George Silvis, two very useful tools, Transform Generator and Transform Applier (TG and TA) for transforming instrumental magnitudes to the standard system. I will juxtapose the steps necessary to obtain transformation parameters "the old fashion way" and how can the same result be achieved with these two tools. I will present transformation parameters for the Eastern Kentucky University (EKU) telescope and obtained with the standard field M67. These parameters were applied to photometric results for AE Uma, a short-period, high-amplitude delta Scuti star (Period ~ 0.086 d).

  17. The system Ta-V-Si: Crystal structure and phase equilibria

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, A.U.; Broz, P.; Bursik, J.; Grytsiv, A.; Chen, X.-Q.; Giester, G.; Rogl, P.

    2012-03-15

    Phase relations have been evaluated for the Ta-V-Si system at 1500 and 1200 Degree-Sign C. Three ternary phases were found: {tau}{sub 1}-(Ta,V){sub 5}Si{sub 3} (Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type), {tau}{sub 2}-Ta(Ta,V,Si){sub 2} (MgZn{sub 2}-type) and {tau}{sub 3}-Ta(Ta,V,Si){sub 2} (MgCu{sub 2}-type). The crystal structure of {tau}{sub 2}-Ta(Ta,V,Si){sub 2} was solved by X-ray single crystal diffraction (space group P6{sub 3}/mmc). Atom order in the crystal structures of {tau}{sub 1}-(Ta,V){sub 5}Si{sub 3} (Mn{sub 5}Si{sub 3} type) and {tau}{sub 3}-Ta(Ta,V,Si){sub 2} was derived from X-ray powder diffraction data. A large homogeneity range was found for {tau}{sub 1}-(Ta{sub x}V{sub 1-x}){sub 5}Si{sub 3} revealing random exchange of Ta and V at a constant Si content. At 1500 Degree-Sign C, the end points of the {tau}{sub 1}-phase solution (0.082{<=}x{<=}0.624) are in equilibrium with the solutions (Ta{sub 1-x}V{sub x}){sub 5}Si{sub 3} (Cr{sub 5}B{sub 3} type, 0{<=}x{<=}0.128) and (Ta{sub x}V{sub 1-x}){sub 5}Si{sub 3} (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3} type, 0{<=}x{<=}0.048). - Graphical abstract: Phase relations have been evaluated for the Ta-V-Si system at 1500 and 1200 Degree-Sign C. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Phase relations have been evaluated for the Ta-V-Si system at 1500 and 1200 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three ternary phases were found at 1500 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer At 1500 Degree-Sign C, {tau}{sub 1}-phase has large homogeneity region (0.064{<=}x{<=}0.624).

  18. Identification of a New Locus, Ptr(t), Required for Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-ta-Mediated Resistance

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Yulin; Martin, Rodger Carl

    2008-01-01

    Resistance to the blast pathogen Magnaporthe oryzae is proposed to be initiated by physical binding of a putative cytoplasmic receptor encoded by a NBS type resistance gene Pi-ta to the processed elicitor encoded by the corresponding avirulence gene AVR-Pita. Here we report the identification of a new locus Ptr(t) that is required for Pi-ta-mediated signal recognition. A Pi-ta expressing susceptible mutant was identified using a genetic screen. Putative mutations at Ptr(t) does not alter recognition specificity to another resistance gene Pi-ks in the Pi-ta homozygote indicate that Ptr(t) is more likely specific to Pi-ta-mediated signal recognition. Genetic crosses of Pi-ta Ptr(t) and Pi-ta ptr(t) homozygotes suggest that Ptr(t) segregate at single dominant nuclear gene. A ratio of 1 resistant: 1 susceptible of a BC1 using Pi-ta Ptr(t) with pi-ta ptr(t) homozygotes indicates that Pi-ta and Ptr(t) are linked and co-segregated. Genotyping of mutants of pi-ta ptr(t) and Pi-ta Ptr(t) homozygotes using ten simple sequence repeat markers spanning 9 megabase of Pi-ta determines that Pi-ta and Ptr(t) are of indica origin. Identification of Ptr(t) is a significant advancement in studying Pi-ta-mediated signal recognition and transduction.

  19. High-density formation of Ta nanodot induced by remote hydrogen plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yaping; Takeuchi, Daichi; Ohta, Akio; Ikeda, Mitsuhisa; Makihara, Katsunori; Miyazaki, Seiichi

    2017-01-01

    We have studied the formation of Ta nanodots (NDs) on thermally grown SiO2/Si by exposing a thin metal layer to a remote H2 plasma (H2-RP) without external heating. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) analyses show that a combination of a Ge (˜30.0 nm)/Ta (˜2.0 nm) bilayer stack with subsequent H2-RP exposure is effective for forming electrically isolated Ta NDs with an areal dot density as high as ˜1011 cm-2, where the Ge layer plays an important role as a barrier layer against the oxidation of the ultrathin Ta layer surface. The change in the chemical structure of the Ge/Ta bilayer stack on SiO2/Si upon Ta ND formation by H2-RP exposure is investigated by hard X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (HAXPES) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  20. Carrier dynamics of a visible-light-responsive Ta3N5 photoanode for water oxidation.

    PubMed

    Ziani, Ahmed; Nurlaela, Ela; Dhawale, Dattatray S; Silva, Diego Alves; Alarousu, Erkki; Mohammed, Omar F; Takanabe, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-28

    The physicochemical properties of a tantalum nitride (Ta3N5) photoanode were investigated in detail to understand the fundamental aspects associated with the photoelectrochemical (PEC) water oxidation. The Ta3N5 thin films were synthesized using DC magnetron sputtering followed by annealing in air and nitridation under ammonia (NH3). A polycrystalline structure with a dense morphology of the monoclinic Ta3N5 films was obtained. A relatively low absorption coefficient (10(4) to 10(5) cm(-1)) in the visible light range was measured for Ta3N5, consistent with the nature of the indirect band-gap. Ultra-fast spectroscopic measurements revealed that the Ta3N5 with different thicknesses films possess low transport properties and fast carrier recombination (<10 ps). These critical kinetic properties of Ta3N5 as a photoanode may necessitate high overpotentials to achieve appreciable photocurrents for water oxidation (onset ∼0.6 V vs. RHE).

  1. Vapor phase synthesis of TaS2 nanocrystals with iodine as transport agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Gangtae; Kim, Chaeeun; Jo, Hyunjin; Kwon, Se-Hun; Jeong, Seong-Jun; Lee, Han-Bo-Ram; Ahn, Ji-Hoon

    2017-04-01

    TaS2 is a transition metal dichalcogenide material with a layered two-dimensional crystal structure and physically interesting behavior. 1T-TaS2 in particular exhibits a complex interaction between electron–electron and electron–lattice, as well as unique two-dimensional charge density wave characteristics with varying phase transitions depending on the temperature range. However, few reports exist on the synthesis of TaS2 crystals, and a relatively long time is required for the synthesis of TaS2 nanostructures. Here, we present an efficient method for 1T-TaS2 synthesis by chemical vapor deposition using iodine as a transport agent. We successfully synthesized 1T-TaS2 nanocrystals or thin films in a short processing time of a few hours, and their structural and chemical properties were characterized.

  2. Supporting data for senary refractory high-entropy alloy Cr x MoNbTaVW.

    PubMed

    Zhang, B; Gao, M C; Zhang, Y; Guo, S M

    2015-12-01

    This data article is related to the research paper entitled "senary refractory high-entropy alloy Cr x MoNbTaVW [1]". In this data article, the pseudo-binary Cr-MoNbTaVW phase diagram is presented to show the impact of Cr content to the senary Cr-MoNbTaVW alloy system; the sub-lattice site fractions are presented to show the disordered property of the Cr-MoNbTaVW BCC structures; the equilibrium and Scheil solidification results with the actual sample elemental compositions are presented to show the thermodynamic information of the melted/solidified Cr x MoNbTaVW samples; and the raw EDS scan data of the arc-melted Cr x MoNbTaVW samples are also provided.

  3. Low emissivity Ag/Ta/glass multilayer thin films deposited by sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sun Ho; Lee, Kee Sun; Sivasankar Reddy, A.

    2011-09-15

    Ta is deposited on a glass substrate as an interlayer for the two-dimensional growth of Ag thin films because Ta has good thermal stability and can induce a negative surface-energy change in Ag/glass. From the transmission electron microscopy results, we concluded that the Ag crystals in the bottom layer (seemingly on Ag/Ta) were flattened; this was rarely observed in the three-dimensional growth mode. Comparing Ag/Ta/glass with Ag/glass, we found that the Ta interlayer was effective in reducing both the resistance and the emissivity, accompanied by the relatively high transmittance in the visible region. In particular, Ag(9 nm)/Ta(1 nm)/glass film showed 0.08 of the emissivity, including {approx}61% of the transmittance in the visible region (wavelength: 550 nm).

  4. Supporting data for senary refractory high-entropy alloy CrxMoNbTaVW

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, B.; Gao, M.C.; Zhang, Y.; Guo, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This data article is related to the research paper entitled “senary refractory high-entropy alloy CrxMoNbTaVW [1]”. In this data article, the pseudo-binary Cr-MoNbTaVW phase diagram is presented to show the impact of Cr content to the senary Cr-MoNbTaVW alloy system; the sub-lattice site fractions are presented to show the disordered property of the Cr-MoNbTaVW BCC structures; the equilibrium and Scheil solidification results with the actual sample elemental compositions are presented to show the thermodynamic information of the melted/solidified CrxMoNbTaVW samples; and the raw EDS scan data of the arc-melted CrxMoNbTaVW samples are also provided. PMID:26693172

  5. Partial Photoneutron Cross Sections for the Isomeric State {sup 180}Ta{sup m}

    SciTech Connect

    Goko, S.; Utsunomiya, H.; Makinaga, A.; Kaihori, T.; Hohara, S.; Akimune, H.; Yamagata, T.; Goriely, S.; Lui, Y.-W.; Toyokawa, H.; Koning, A.J.; Hilaire, S.

    2006-05-19

    Photoneutron cross sections for {sup 181}Ta({gamma},n){sup 180}Ta{sup m} were determined from simultaneous measurements of total cross sections ({sigma}{sup tot}) and ground-state cross sections ({sigma}{sup gs}) for {sup 180}Ta in photodisintegration of {sup 181}Ta with laser Compton-backscattered {gamma} rays. Techniques of direct neutron counting and photoactivation were used for the measurement of {sigma}{sup tot} and {sigma}{sup gs}, respectively. The partial cross sections for the isomeric state serves as a novel probe of the nuclear level density of {sup 180}Ta. Implications for the p- and s-process nucleosynthesis of {sup 180}Ta{sup m} are given.

  6. Influence of intermixing at the Ta/CoFeB interface on spin Hall angle in Ta/CoFeB/MgO heterostructures.

    PubMed

    Cecot, Monika; Karwacki, Łukasz; Skowroński, Witold; Kanak, Jarosław; Wrona, Jerzy; Żywczak, Antoni; Yao, Lide; Dijken, Sebastiaan; Barnaś, Józef; Stobiecki, Tomasz

    2017-04-20

    When a current is passed through a non-magnetic metal with strong spin-orbit coupling, an orthogonal spin current is generated. This spin current can be used to switch the magnetization of an adjacent ferromagnetic layer or drive its magnetization into continuous precession. The interface, which is not necessarily sharp, and the crystallographic structure of the nonmagnetic metal can both affect the strength of current-induced spin-orbit torques. Here, we investigate the effects of interface intermixing and film microstructure on spin-orbit torques in perpendicularly magnetized Ta/Co40Fe40B20/MgO trilayers with different Ta layer thickness (5 nm, 10 nm, 15 nm), greater than the spin diffusion length. Effective spin-orbit torques are determined from harmonic Hall voltage measurements performed at temperatures ranging from 20 K to 300 K. We account for the temperature dependence of damping-like and field-like torques by including an additional contribution from the Ta/CoFeB interface in the spin diffusion model. Using this approach, the temperature variations of the spin Hall angle in the Ta underlayer and at the Ta/CoFeB interface are determined separately. Our results indicate an almost temperature-independent spin Hall angle of [Formula: see text] in Ta and a strongly temperature-dependent [Formula: see text] for the intermixed Ta/CoFeB interface.

  7. Comparison between Pt/TiO2/Pt and Pt/TaO X /TaO Y /Pt based bipolar resistive switching devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Patrick W. C.; Odai Hatem, Firas; Almurib, Haider Abbas F.; Nandha Kumar, T.

    2016-06-01

    Nonvolatile memories have emerged in recent years and have become a leading candidate towards replacing dynamic and static random-access memory devices. In this article, the performances of TiO2 and TaO2 nonvolatile memristive devices were compared and the factors that make TaO2 memristive devices better than TiO2 memristive devices were studied. TaO2 memristive devices have shown better endurance performances (108 times more switching cycles) and faster switching speed (5 times) than TiO2 memristive devices. Electroforming of TaO2 memristive devices requires ∼4.5 times less energy than TiO2 memristive devices of a similar size. The retention period of TaO2 memristive devices is expected to exceed 10 years with sufficient experimental evidence. In addition to comparing device performances, this article also explains the differences in physical device structure, switching mechanism, and resistance switching performances of TiO2 and TaO2 memristive devices. This article summarizes the reasons that give TaO2 memristive devices the advantage over TiO2 memristive devices, in terms of electroformation, switching speed, and endurance.

  8. Magnetotransport measurements of current induced effective fields in Ta/CoFeB/MgO

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Chaoliang; Yamanouchi, Michihiko Ikeda, Shoji; Sato, Hideo; Fukami, Shunsuke; Matsukura, Fumihiro; Ohno, Hideo

    2013-12-23

    We evaluate current-induced effective magnetic fields in perpendicularly magnetized Ta/CoFeB/MgO structures from the external magnetic field angle dependence of the Hall resistance. We confirm the presence of two components of effective fields. The dependence of their magnitudes on Ta thickness implies that both components are related to the spin current in Ta layer generated by the spin Hall effect.

  9. TaC as a diffusion barrier between Si and Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laurila, Tomi; Zeng, Kejun; Kivilahti, Jorma K.; Molarius, Jyrki; Suni, Iikka

    2002-04-01

    The reaction mechanisms and related microstructures in the Si/TaC/Cu metallization system have been studied experimentally and theoretically by utilizing ternary Si-Ta-C and Ta-C-Cu phase diagrams as well as activity diagrams calculated at 800 °C. With the help of sheet resistance measurements, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy, the metallization structure with the 70 nm thick TaC barrier layer was observed to fail completely at temperatures above 725 °C because of the formation of large Cu3Si protrusions. However, the formation of amorphous Ta layer containing significant amounts of carbon and oxygen was already observed at the TaC/Cu interface at 600 °C. This layer also constituted an additional barrier layer for Cu diffusion, which occurred only after the crystallization of the amorphous layer. The formation of Ta2O5 was observed at 725 °C with x-ray diffraction, indicating that the oxygen rich amorphous layer had started to crystallize. The formation of SiC and TaSi2 occurred almost simultaneously at 800 °C. The observed reaction structure was consistent with the thermodynamics of the ternary system. The metallization structures with 7 nm and 35 nm TaC barrier layers failed above 550 °C and 650 °C, respectively, similarly because of the formation of Cu3Si. The high formation temperature of TaSi2 and SiC implies high stability of Si/TaC interface, thus making TaC layer a potential candidate to be used as a diffusion barrier for Cu metallization.

  10. Geology of the Western Part of Los Alamos National Laboratory (TA-3 to TA-16), Rio Grande Rift, New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    C.J.Lewis; A.Lavine; S.L.Reneau; J.N.Gardner; R.Channell; C.W.Criswell

    2002-12-01

    We present data that elucidate the stratigraphy, geomorphology, and structure in the western part of Los Alamos National Laboratory between Technical Areas 3 and 16 (TA-3 and TA-16). Data include those gathered by geologic mapping of surficial, post-Bandelier Tuff strata, conventional and high-precision geologic mapping and geochemical analysis of cooling units within the Bandelier Tuff, logging of boreholes and a gas pipeline trench, and structural analysis using profiles, cross sections, structure contour maps, and stereographic projections. This work contributes to an improved understanding of the paleoseismic and geomorphic history of the area, which will aid in future seismic hazard evaluations and other investigations. The study area lies at the base of the main, 120-m (400-ft) high escarpment formed by the Pajarito fault, an active fault of the Rio Grande rift that bounds Los Alamos National Laboratory on the west. Subsidiary fracturing, faulting, and folding associated with the Pajarito fault zone extends at least 1,500 m (5,000 ft) to the east of the main Pajarito fault escarpment. Stratigraphic units in the study area include upper units of the Tshirege Member of the early Pleistocene Bandelier Tuff, early Pleistocene alluvial fan deposits that predate incision of canyons on this part of the Pajarito Plateau, and younger Pleistocene and Holocene alluvium and colluvium that postdate drainage incision. We discriminate four sets of structures in the area between TA-3 and TA-16: (a) north-striking faults and folds that mark the main zone of deformation, including a graben in the central part of the study area; (b) north-northwest-striking fractures and rare faults that bound the eastern side of the principal zone of deformation and may be the surface expression of deep-seated faulting; (c) rare northeast-striking structures near the northern limit of the area associated with the southern end of the Rendija Canyon fault; and (d) several small east

  11. Electron capture Q value of {sup 179}Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Hindi, M.M.; Faircloth, B.O.; Kozub, R.L.

    1995-10-01

    There is a discrepancy in the measured electron capture Q value of {sup 179}Ta; from the EC(L)/EC(K) capture ratio of Bisi et al.one obtains Q = 103{plus_minus}6 keV, while the ratio measured by Jopson et al. gives Q = 121 {plus_minus} 7 keV. To resolve this discrepancy we have remeasured the L to K capture ratio. A {sup 179}Ta source was produced by bombarding a natural Hf target with 20-MeV protons from LBL`s 88-inch cyclotron, and, after a suitable delay, extracted radiochemically from the Hf. The L x rays were counted in a planar Ge detector (FWHM = 280 eV at 8 keV) and the K x rays in a well-type NaI detector. From the ratio of L x rays in anti-coincidence with K x rays to those in coincidence with them we deduce a Q value of 111.2 {plus_minus} 1.9 keV. This value is in agreement with the recommended value of 110 {plus_minus} 5 keV found in the latest Evaluated Nuclear Structure Data File.

  12. Corrosion behaviour of welds and Ta in liquid lead

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinzel, A.; Müller, G.; Weisenburger, A.

    2016-02-01

    Four specimens, P91 welded by friction stir welding with and without post heat treatment, P91 electromagnetic pulse welded (EMP) and 14Cr ODS (explosive welding) were exposed at 550 °C for up to 2131 h to Pb containing 10-6 wt% oxygen. After the exposure none of the samples showed dissolution attack, all were protected by an oxide layer at the surface. Nearly no effect on the oxidation due to welding was found in both friction stir welded specimens. Severe deformation and partial melting during explosive welding result in a slower oxide layer growth within the welding zone. The EMP sample was tested as delivered without post-heat treatment. No Pb penetrated into the tiny gap between the welded parts. After the test, the gap is filled up with oxides. Additionally, Ta, discussed as a pump impeller material, was exposed to Pb and PbBi at different temperatures (400-900 °C) and oxygen concentrations in liquid metal (saturated, 10-6 wt%, 10-8 wt% and reduced (<<10-8 wt%). Only the Ta specimens exposed to Pb with highly reduced oxygen content showed nearly no attack. All the others exhibited oxide scale formation that becomes severe above 400 °C test temperature.

  13. Spectroscopy of TaN in Support of Fundamental Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawhorter, Richard; Sharfi, David; Kim, Yongrak; Kokkin, Damian; Bouchard, Jacob; Steimle, Timothy

    2016-05-01

    Tantalum nitride, TaN, has been recently identified as a leading candidate for extending the study of T, P-odd effects in the nuclear realm to include proton, neutron, and quark electric dipole moments (EDM) and beyond. This is primarily due to enhancements in the interaction of electrons with the nuclear magnetic quadrupole moment (MQM) and the resulting parity-violating effects. Study of the dispersed laser induced fluorescence resulting from the excitation of the 17570.80 (Ω = 0+) , 18427.38 (Ω = 0+) , 19216.80 (Ω = 1), and 19396.78 (Ω = 1) bands above the X1Σ+ (v = 0) ground state of TaN near 569 nm, 543 nm, 520 nm, and 515 nm has enabled a determination of the branching ratios and transition dipole moments of all 4 states. Radiative lifetimes of 454(32) ns, 479(12) ns, 333(4) ns, and 480(17) ns respectively were measured from an analysis of the fluorescence decay curves, and potential optical pumping approaches for both populating and detecting the parity-violation sensitive 3Δ1 state are proposed. Further experiments using CW laser excitation have enabled the observation of the hyperfine structure of several bands in the gateway 18427.38 (Ω = 0+) to X1Σ+ (v = 0) transition, and analysis of these complex spectra is underway. DK, JB, and TS acknowledge support from NSF CHE-1265885, as do RM, DS, and YK from Pomona College.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Ti-Ta-Nb-Mn foams.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, C; Guerra, C; Lascano, S; Guzman, D; Rojas, P A; Thirumurugan, M; Bejar, L; Medina, A

    2016-01-01

    The unprecedented increase in human life expectancy have produced profound changes in the prevailing patterns of disease, like the observed increased in degenerative disc diseases, which cause degradation of the bones. Ti-Nb-Ta alloys are promising materials to replace the damaged bone due to their excellent mechanical and corrosion resistance properties. In general metallic foams are widely used for medical application due to their lower elastic moduli compare to bulk materials. In this work we studied the synthesis of 34Nb-29Ta-xMn (x: 2, 4 and 6 wt.% Mn) alloy foams (50% v/v) using ammonium hydrogen carbonate as a space holder. Alloys were produced through mechanical alloying in a planetary mill for 50h. Green compacts were obtained by applying 430 MPa pressure. To remove the space holder from the matrix the green compacts were heated to 180 °C for 1.5h and after sintered at 1300 °C for 3h. Foams were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning, transmission electron microscopy and optical microscopy. The elastic modulus of the foam was measured as ~30 GPa, and the values are almost equal to the values predicted using various theoretical models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Reconnaissance of the Hydrogeology of Ta'u, American Samoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Izuka, Scot K.

    2005-01-01

    Analysis of existing data and information collected on a reconnaissance field visit supports a conceptual model of ground-water occurrence in Ta'u, American Samoa, in which a thin freshwater lens exists in a predominantly high-permeability aquifer that receives high rates of recharge. Because the freshwater lens is thin throughout most of the island, the productivity of wells, especially those near the coast where the lens is the thinnest, is likely to be limited by saltwater intrusion. The landfill in northwestern Ta'u is closer to the north coast of the island than to any of the existing or proposed well sites. Although this may indicate that ground water beneath the landfill would flow away from the existing and proposed well sites, this interpretation may change depending on the hydraulic properties of a fault and rift zone in the area. Of four plausible scenarios tested with a numerical ground-water flow model, only one scenario indicated that ground water from beneath the landfill would flow toward the existing and proposed well sites; the analysis does not, however, assess which of the four scenarios is most plausible. The analysis also does not consider the change in flow paths that will result from ground-water withdrawals, dispersion of contaminants during transport by ground water, other plausible hydrogeologic scenarios, transport of contaminants by surface-water flow, or that sources of contamination other than the landfill may exist. Accuracy of the hydrologic interpretations in this study is limited by the relatively sparse data available for Ta'u. Understanding water resources on Ta'u can be advanced by monitoring rainfall, stream-flow, evaporation, ground-water withdrawals, and water quality, and with accurate surveys of measuring point elevations for all wells and careful testing of well-performance. Assessing the potential for contaminants in the landfill to reach existing and proposed well sites can be improved with additional information on the

  16. Electrochemical oxide nanotube formation on the Ti-35Ta-xHf alloys for dental materials.

    PubMed

    Moon, Byung-Hak; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2011-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the electrochemical oxide nanotube formation on the Ti-35Ta-xHf alloys for dental materials. The Ti-35Ta-xHf alloys contained from 3 wt.% to 15 wt.% Hf were manufactured by arc melting furnace. The nanotube oxide layers were formed on Ti-35Ta-xHf alloy by anodic oxidation method in 1 M H3PO4 electrolytes containing 0.5 wt.% NaF and 0.8 wt.% NaF at room temperature. The surface characteristics of Ti-35Ta-xHf alloy and nanotube morphology were determined by FE-SEM, STEM, and XRD. The nano-porous surface of Ti-35Ta-xHf alloys showed in 0.5 wt% NaF solution and nanotubular surface showed in 0.8 wt% NaF solution, respectively. The highly ordered nanotube layer without regular knots was formed on the Ti-35Ta-15Hf alloy in the 0.5 wt% NaF solution compared to on Ti-35Ta-3Hf and Ti-35Ta-7Hf alloys in 0.8 wt% NaF solution. Also, the nanotube length of Ti-35Ta-xHf alloys increased as Hf content increased.

  17. Electrochemical and Electrochromic Properties of Nanoworm-shaped Ta2O5-Pt Thin-Films

    SciTech Connect

    Park, K

    2004-05-18

    A Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Pt nanostructure electrode was fabricated by means of cosputtering. Worm-like Pt nanoparticles were produced in Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} matrix as observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and small angle x-ray scattering (SAXS). The electrochemical and electrochromic properties of nanoworm-shaped Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-Pt electrode are compared with those of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} thin-film electrode without Pt nanoparticles.

  18. Wheat TaSP gene improves salt tolerance in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaoli; Cui, Weina; Liang, Wenji; Huang, Zhanjing

    2015-12-01

    A novel salt-induced gene with unknown functions was cloned through analysis of gene expression profile of a salt-tolerant wheat mutant RH8706-49 under salt stress. The gene was named Triticum aestivum salt-related protein (TaSP) and deposited in GenBank (Accession No. KF307326). Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) results showed that TaSP expression was induced under salt, abscisic acid (ABA), and polyethylene glycol (PEG) stresses. Subcellular localization revealed that TaSP was mainly localized in cell membrane. Overexpression of TaSP in Arabidopsis could improve salt tolerance of 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis. 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis lines after salt stress presented better physiological indexes than the control group. In the non-invasive micro-test (NMT), an evident Na(+) excretion was observed at the root tip of salt-stressed 35S::TaSP transgenic Arabidopsis. TaSP promoter was cloned, and its beta-glucuronidase (GUS) activities before and after ABA, salt, cold, heat, and salicylic acid (SA) stresses were determined. Full-length TaSP promoter contained ABA and salt response elements.

  19. Ultra-High Strength and Ductile Lamellar-Structured Powder Metallurgy Binary Ti-Ta Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yong; Xu, Shenghang; Wang, Xin; Li, Kaiyang; Liu, Bin; Wu, Hong; Tang, Huiping

    2016-03-01

    Ultra-high strength and ductile powder metallurgy (PM) binary Ti-20at.%Ta alloy has been fabricated via sintering from elemental Ti and Ta powders and subsequent hot swaging and annealing. The microstructural evolution and mechanical properties in each stage were evaluated. Results show that inhomogeneous microstructures with Ti-rich and Ta-rich areas formed in the as-sintered Ti-Ta alloys due to limited diffusion of Ta. In addition, Kirkendall porosity was observed as a result of the insufficient diffusion of Ta. Annealing at 1000°C for up to 24 h failed to eliminate the pores. Hot swaging eliminated the residual sintering porosity and created a lamellar microstructure, consisting of aligned Ta-enriched and Ti-enriched phases. The hot-swaged and annealed PM Ti-20Ta alloy achieved an ultimate tensile strength of 1600 MPa and tensile elongation of more than 25%, due to its unique lamellar microstructure including the high toughness of Ta-enriched phases, the formation of α phase in the β matrix and the refined lamellae.

  20. Tandem Core–Shell Si–Ta3N5 Photoanodes for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting

    DOE PAGES

    Narkeviciute, Ieva; Chakthranont, Pongkarn; Mackus, Adriaan J. M.; ...

    2016-11-22

    Here, nanostructured core–shell Si–Ta3N5 photoanodes were designed and synthesized to overcome charge transport limitations of Ta3N5 for photoelectrochemical water splitting. The core–shell devices were fabricated by atomic layer deposition of amorphous Ta2O5 onto nanostructured Si and subsequent nitridation to crystalline Ta3N5. Nanostructuring with a thin shell of Ta3N5 results in a 10-fold improvement in photocurrent compared to a planar device of the same thickness. In examining thickness dependence of the Ta3N5 shell from 10 to 70 nm, superior photocurrent and absorbed-photon-to-current efficiencies are obtained from the thinner Ta3N5 shells, indicating minority carrier diffusion lengths on the order of tens ofmore » nanometers. The fabrication of a heterostructure based on a semiconducting, n-type Si core produced a tandem photoanode with a photocurrent onset shifted to lower potentials by 200 mV. CoTiOx and NiOx water oxidation cocatalysts were deposited onto the Si–Ta3N5 to yield active photoanodes that with NiOx retained 50–60% of their maximum photocurrent after 24 h chronoamperometry experiments and are thus among the most stable Ta3N5 photoanodes reported to date.« less

  1. Overexpression of a Triticum aestivum Calreticulin gene (TaCRT1) Improves Salinity Tolerance in Tobacco

    PubMed Central

    Song, Min; Wang, Yun; Xu, Wenqi; Wu, Lintao; Wang, Hancheng; Ma, Zhengqiang

    2015-01-01

    Calreticulin (CRT) is a highly conserved and abundant multifunctional protein that is encoded by a small gene family and is often associated with abiotic/biotic stress responses in plants. However, the roles played by this protein in salt stress responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain obscure. In this study, three TaCRT genes were identified in wheat and named TaCRT1, TaCRT2 and TaCRT3-1 based on their sequence characteristics and their high homology to other known CRT genes. Quantitative real-time PCR expression data revealed that these three genes exhibit different expression patterns in different tissues and are strongly induced under salt stress in wheat. The calcium-binding properties of the purified recombinant TaCRT1 protein were determined using a PIPES/Arsenazo III analysis. TaCRT1 gene overexpression in Nicotiana tabacum decreased salt stress damage in transgenic tobacco plants. Physiological measurements indicated that transgenic tobacco plants showed higher activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) than non-transgenic tobacco under normal growth conditions. Interestingly, overexpression of the entire TaCRT1 gene or of partial TaCRT1 segments resulted in significantly higher tolerance to salt stress in transgenic plants compared with their WT counterparts, thus revealing the essential role of the C-domain of TaCRT1 in countering salt stress in plants. PMID:26469859

  2. Morphological instability of Ag films caused by phase transition in the underlying Ta barrier layer

    SciTech Connect

    Mardani, Shabnam Vallin, Örjan; Wätjen, Jörn Timo; Norström, Hans; Olsson, Jörgen; Zhang, Shi-Li

    2014-08-18

    Wide-bandgap (WBG) semiconductor technologies are maturing and may provide increased device performance in many fields of applications, such as high-temperature electronics. However, there are still issues regarding the stability and reliability of WBG devices. Of particular importance is the high-temperature stability of interconnects for electronic systems based on WBG-semiconductors. For metallization without proper encapsulation, morphological degradation can occur at elevated temperatures. Sandwiching Ag films between Ta and/or TaN layers in this study is found to be electrically and morphologically stabilize the Ag metallization up to 800 °C, compared to 600 °C for uncapped films. However, the barrier layer plays a key role and TaN is found to be superior to Ta, resulting in the best achieved stability, whereas the difference between Ta and TaN caps is negligible. The β-to-α phase transition in the underlying Ta barrier layer is identified as the major cause responsible for the morphological instability observed above 600 °C. It is shown that this phase transition can be avoided using a stacked Ta/TaN barrier.

  3. (Ag,Cu)-Ta-O ternaries as high-temperature solid-lubricant coatings.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hongyu; Otero-de-la-Roza, Alberto; Gu, Jingjing; Stone, D'Arcy; Aouadi, Samir M; Johnson, Erin R; Martini, Ashlie

    2015-07-22

    Ternary oxides have gained increasing attention due to their potential use as solid lubricants at elevated temperatures. In this work, the tribological properties of three ternary oxides-AgTaO3, CuTaO3, and CuTa2O6-were studied using a combination of density-functional theory (DFT), molecular dynamics (MD) simulations with newly developed empirical potential parameters, and experimental measurements (AgTaO3 and CuTa2O6 only). Our results show that the MD-predicted friction force follows the trend AgTaO3 < CuTaO3 < CuTa2O6, which is consistent with the experimentally measured coefficients of friction. The wear performance from both MD and experiment exhibits the opposite trend, with CuTa2O6 providing the best resistance to wear. The sliding mechanisms are investigated using experimental characterization of the film composition after sliding, quantification of Ag or Cu cluster formation at the interface during the evolution of the film in MD, and DFT energy barriers for atom migration on the material surface. All our observations are consistent with the hypothesis that the formation of metal (or metal oxide) clusters on the surface are responsible for the friction and wear behavior of these materials.

  4. Tandem Core-Shell Si-Ta3N5 Photoanodes for Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting.

    PubMed

    Narkeviciute, Ieva; Chakthranont, Pongkarn; Mackus, Adriaan J M; Hahn, Christopher; Pinaud, Blaise A; Bent, Stacey F; Jaramillo, Thomas F

    2016-12-14

    Nanostructured core-shell Si-Ta3N5 photoanodes were designed and synthesized to overcome charge transport limitations of Ta3N5 for photoelectrochemical water splitting. The core-shell devices were fabricated by atomic layer deposition of amorphous Ta2O5 onto nanostructured Si and subsequent nitridation to crystalline Ta3N5. Nanostructuring with a thin shell of Ta3N5 results in a 10-fold improvement in photocurrent compared to a planar device of the same thickness. In examining thickness dependence of the Ta3N5 shell from 10 to 70 nm, superior photocurrent and absorbed-photon-to-current efficiencies are obtained from the thinner Ta3N5 shells, indicating minority carrier diffusion lengths on the order of tens of nanometers. The fabrication of a heterostructure based on a semiconducting, n-type Si core produced a tandem photoanode with a photocurrent onset shifted to lower potentials by 200 mV. CoTiOx and NiOx water oxidation cocatalysts were deposited onto the Si-Ta3N5 to yield active photoanodes that with NiOx retained 50-60% of their maximum photocurrent after 24 h chronoamperometry experiments and are thus among the most stable Ta3N5 photoanodes reported to date.

  5. Elevated-temperature Deformation Mechanisms in Ta2C: An Experimental Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    continuously rotated during the ion milling. 2.4. Electron microscopy Electron backscattered diffraction ( EBSD ) SEM images were collected using an Oxford...HKL Nordlys platform attached to a JEOL 7000F field emission microscope. The EBSD patterns were collected at 30 keV with a 90 lA emis- sion current...1930 C and compared to Ref. [13]. (c) SEM- EBSD showing the average grain sizes of Ta2C and TaC. (d) Mid-point deflection for Ta2C and TaC at 1930 C. N

  6. Electronic structure of the bcc transition metals: Thermoreflectance studies of bulk V, Nb, Ta, and. cap alpha. TaH/sub x/

    SciTech Connect

    Rosei, R.; Colavita, E.; Franciosi, A.; Weaver, J.H.; Peterson, D.T.

    1980-04-15

    Thermoreflectance studies of bulk samples of V, Nb, Ta, and ..cap alpha..-phase TaH/sub x/ are reported and the results interpreted in terms of recent band calculations. The first interband transition is identified as a transition involving the ..sigma.. band at E/sub F/. An M/sub 3/ critical-point transition is attributed to states at N. Significant changes induced by interstitial hydrogen in solid solution ..cap alpha..-TaH/sub x/ are observed and interpreted as due to hybridization and lowering of the N/sup prime//sub 1/ eigenenergy.

  7. Interfacial electronic structure-modulated magnetic anisotropy in Ta/CoFeB/MgO/Ta multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Xi; Jiang, Shao Long; Yang, Guang; Liu, Yang; Teng, Jiao; Yu, Guang Hua; Wang, Kai You; Wu, Zheng Long

    2014-09-01

    We have observed several unexpected phenomena when a trace amount of Fe atoms is deposited onto the CoFeB/MgO interface in Ta/CoFeB/MgO/Ta multilayers. With the nominal thickness of the introduced Fe atoms (t{sub Fe}) varying from 0 to 0.1 Å, the effective magnetic anisotropy energy (K{sub eff}) of annealed multilayers is remarkably enhanced from 1.28 × 10{sup 6 }erg/cm{sup 3} to 2.14 × 10{sup 6 }erg/cm{sup 3}. As t{sub Fe} further increasing, the K{sub eff} decreases and even becomes negative when t{sub Fe} > 1 Å, indicating the change from perpendicular magnetic anisotropy to in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The analysis by X-ray photoelectron spectrometer reveals that the Fe atoms at annealed CoFeB/MgO interface show different electronic structures as t{sub Fe} increasing, which combine with O atoms to form FeO{sub x} (x < 1), Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}, respectively, leading to modulation of Fe 3d-O 2p orbital hybridization and thus the K{sub eff}. On the other hand, we find that the introduction of Fe atoms also helps to reduce the multilayers' magnetic damping.

  8. Comparison of the annealing behavior of thin Ta films deposited onto Si and SiO2 substrates.

    PubMed

    Hübner, R; Hecker, M; Mattern, N; Hoffmann, V; Wetzig, K; Engelmann, H-J; Zschech, E

    2004-06-01

    Structural changes at annealing temperatures (T(an)) of 500-1,100 degrees C were investigated for thin Ta films which were sputter-deposited onto pure Si substrates and onto thermally oxidized Si. In the as-deposited state, the Ta layers predominantly consist of metastable tetragonal beta-Ta, whereby the [001] texture is independent of the substrate material. At lower annealing temperatures, the microstructural evolution is essentially the same for both Ta films. Incorporation of O atoms causes an increase of the intrinsic compressive stress, and diffusion of C atoms into the Ta layer leads to the formation of Ta(2)C. Additionally, a partial transformation of the original beta-Ta phase into a second phase with tetragonal unit cell (denoted as beta'-Ta) occurs. For the Ta/Si system, the formation of a Ta-Si intermixing layer is initiated at T(an)=550 degrees C, and nucleation of crystalline TaSi(2) occurs at T(an)=620 degrees C. The formation of a second Ta silicide was not detected up to T(an)=900 degrees C. In the case of the Ta film deposited onto the SiO(2) substrate, the metastable beta-Ta and the beta'-Ta transform completely into the thermodynamically stable cubic alpha-Ta at T(an)=750 degrees C. A marked reaction with the substrate indicated by the formation of Ta(2)O(5) and Ta(5)Si(3) occurs at T(an)=1,000 degrees C.

  9. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of Ta2N Nanoceramic Coating in Simulated Body Fluid

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jian; Xu, Jiang; Liu, Lin Lin; Jiang, Shuyun

    2016-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion and wear resistance of biomedical Ti-6Al-4V implants, a Ta2N nanoceramic coating was synthesized on a Ti-6Al-4V substrate by the double glow discharge plasma process. The Ta2N coating, composed of fine nanocrystals, with an average grain size of 12.8 nm, improved the surface hardness of Ti-6Al-4V and showed good contact damage tolerance and good adhesion strength to the substrate. The corrosion resistance of the Ta2N coating in Ringer’s physiological solution at 37 °C was evaluated by different electrochemical techniques: potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), potentiostatic polarization and capacitance measurements (Mott-Schottky approach). The evolution of the surface composition of the passive films at different applied potentials was determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results indicated that the Ta2N coating showed higher corrosion resistance than both commercially pure Ta and uncoated Ti-6Al-4V in this solution, because of the formed oxide film on the Ta2N coating having a smaller carrier density (Nd) and diffusivity (Do) of point defects. The composition of the surface passive film formed on the Ta2N coating changed with the applied potential. At low applied potentials, the oxidation of the Ta2N coating led to the formation of tantalum oxynitride (TaOxNy) but, subsequently, the tantalum oxynitride (TaOxNy) could be chemically converted to Ta2O5 at higher applied potentials. PMID:28773893

  10. TaCYP78A5 regulates seed size in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    PubMed

    Ma, Meng; Zhao, Huixian; Li, Zhaojie; Hu, Shengwu; Song, Weining; Liu, Xiangli

    2016-03-01

    Seed size is an important agronomic trait and a major component of seed yield in wheat. However, little is known about the genes and mechanisms that determine the final seed size in wheat. Here, we isolated TaCYP78A5, the orthologous gene of Arabidopsis CYP78A5/KLUH in wheat, from wheat cv. Shaan 512 and demonstrated that the expression of TaCYP78A5 affects seed size. TaCYP78A5 encodes the cytochrome P450 (CYP) 78A5 protein in wheat and rescued the phenotype of the Arabidopsis deletion mutant cyp78a5. By affecting the extent of integument cell proliferation in the developing ovule and seed, TaCYP78A5 influenced the growth of the seed coat, which appears to limit seed growth. TaCYP78A5 silencing caused a 10% reduction in cell numbers in the seed coat, resulting in a 10% reduction in seed size in wheat cv. Shaan 512. By contrast, the overexpression of TaCYP78A5 increased the number of cells in the seed coat, resulting in seed enlargement of ~11-35% in Arabidopsis. TaCYP78A5 activity was positively correlated with the final seed size. However, TaCYP78A5 overexpression significantly reduced seed set in Arabidopsis, possibly due to an ovule development defect. TaCYP78A5 also influenced embryo development by promoting embryo integument cell proliferation during seed development. Accordingly, a working model of the influence of TaCYP7A5 on seed size was proposed. This study provides direct evidence that TaCYP78A5 affects seed size and is a potential target for crop improvement.

  11. Displacement of Ta-O bonds near polymorphic phase transition in Li-, Ta-, and Sb-modified (K, Na)NbO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Yu; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Longtu

    2014-06-01

    Excellent piezoelectric properties can be obtained near the polymorphic phase transition (PPT) region in (K, Na)NbO3 based piezoceramics. The enhanced piezoelectric properties resulted from the 18-fold spontaneous polarization directions caused by the coexistence of orthorhombic and tetragonal phases. In this study, the various polarization directions derived from frequently changing Ta-O bonds in Li-, Ta-, and Sb-modified (K, Na)NbO3 ceramic were directly observed by extended X-ray absorption fine structure. More than three peaks were observed and represented the nearest neighbor Ta-O bonds because of the coexistence of tetragonal and orthorhombic phases as well as Ta displacements along the [001]c and [110]c directions. Hence, the domains rotated easily and responded actively to an external electric or force field. Large Pr and optimized piezoelectric properties were obtained near the PPT region.

  12. Strong enhancement of superconductivity at high pressures within the charge-density-wave states of 2 H -TaS2 and 2 H -TaSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, D. C.; Rodière, P.; Osorio, M. R.; Navarro-Moratalla, E.; Nemes, N. M.; Tissen, V. G.; Cario, L.; Coronado, E.; García-Hernández, M.; Vieira, S.; Núñez-Regueiro, M.; Suderow, H.

    2016-05-01

    We present measurements of the superconducting and charge-density-wave (CDW) critical temperatures (Tc and TCDW) as a function of pressure in the transition metal dichalchogenides 2 H -TaSe2 and 2 H -TaS2 . Resistance and susceptibility measurements show that Tc increases from temperatures below 1 K up to 8.5 K at 9.5 GPa in 2 H -TaS2 and 8.2 K at 23 GPa in 2 H -TaSe2 . We observe a kink in the pressure dependence of TCDW at about 4 GPa that we attribute to the lock-in transition from incommensurate CDW to commensurate CDW. Above this pressure, the commensurate TCDW slowly decreases, coexisting with superconductivity within our full pressure range.

  13. Role of Ta-spacer layer on tuning the tilt angle magnetic anisotropy of L11-CoPt/Ta/NiFe exchange springs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, P.; Talapatra, A.; Mohanty, J.; Hsu, Jen-Hwa; Kamat, S. V.

    2017-06-01

    L11-CoPt/Ta/NiFe trilayers are chosen as model films for probing the role of spacer layer on tuning the tilt angle magnetization (θM) in such exchange springs. For this purpose, a non-magnetic layer (Ta) with varying thickness (tTa) from 0 to 2.5 nm was inserted between 10-nm thick CoPt film exhibiting strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) and 4-nm thick NiFe film having in-plane magnetic anisotropy (IMA). With the insertion of Ta-spacer, the magnetic hysteresis loops become more and more tilted as tTa increases. Upon increasing the tTa from 0 to 2.5 nm, the estimated SQR⊥ (=Mr⊥/Ms⊥) from the M-H loops is found to decrease moderately; while the θM increases significantly from 43° to 77°. MFM images revealed maze-like domain patterns and the domain size tends to increase at the expense of magnetic phase contrast with increasing tTa. Micro-magnetic simulation of tilt in the anisotropy axis with respect to the bare CoPt-layer showed a trend similar to that of those observed with the M-H loops obtained by VSM measurements. The results of present study suggest that the insertion of Ta-spacer is not only beneficial in terms of preserving the competing anisotropies such as PMA and IMA of CoPt and NiFe-layers respectively through weakened exchange coupling; but also, act as an appropriate means for realizing tunable tilted magnetic anisotropy in the L11-CoPt/NiFe exchange springs.

  14. Effects of thickness and annealing condition on magnetic properties and thermal stabilities of Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta sandwiched films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Min-Gang; Zhang, Ke-Wei; Zhang, Hai-Jie; Xu, Xiao-Hong; Chai, Yue-Sheng

    2016-11-01

    Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta sandwiched films are deposited by magnetron sputtering on Si (100) substrates, and subsequently annealed in vacuum at different temperatures for different time. It is found that both the thickness of NdFeB and Nd layer and the annealing condition can affect the magnetic properties of Ta/Nd/NdFeB/Nd/Ta films. Interestingly, the thickness and annealing temperature show the relevant behaviors that can affect the magnetic properties of the film. The high coercivity of 24.1 kOe (1 Oe = 79.5775 A/m) and remanence ratio (remanent magnetization/saturation magnetization) of 0.94 can be obtained in a Ta/Nd(250 nm)/NdFeB(600 nm)/Nd(250 nm)/Ta film annealed for 3 min at 1023 K. In addition, the thermal stability of the film is also linked to the thickness of NdFeB and Nd layer and the annealing temperature as well. The excellent thermal stability can be achieved in a Ta/Nd(250 nm)/NdFeB(600 nm)/Nd(250 nm)/Ta film annealed at 1023 K. Program supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 51305290), the Higher Education Technical Innovation Project of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013133), the Fund Program for the Scientific Activities of Selected Returned Overseas Professionals of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2015003), and the Program for the Key Team of Scientific and Technological Innovation of Shanxi Province, China (Grant No. 2013131009).

  15. Atomistic simulation of shocks in single crystal and polycrystalline Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bringa, E. M.; Higginbotham, A.; Park, N.; Tang, Y.; Suggit, M.; Mogni, G.; Ruestes, C. J.; Hawreliak, J.; Erhart, P.; Meyers, M. A.; Wark, J. S.

    2011-06-01

    Non-equilibrium molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of shocks in Ta single crystals and polycrystals were carried out using up to 360 million atoms. Several EAM and FS type potentials were tested up to 150 GPa, with varying success reproducing the Hugoniot and the behavior of elastic constants under pressure. Phonon modes were studied to exclude possible plasticity nucleation by soft-phonon modes, as observed in MD simulations of Cu crystals. The effect of loading rise time in the resulting microstructure was studied for ramps up to 0.2 ns long. Dislocation activity was not observed in single crystals, unless there were defects acting as dislocation sources above a certain pressure. E.M.B. was funded by CONICET, Agencia Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnología (PICT2008-1325), and a Royal Society International Joint Project award.

  16. Electron Cloud at Low Emittance in CesrTA

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, Mark; Alexander, James; Billing, Michael; Calvey, Joseph; Conolly, Christopher; Crittenden, James; Dobbins, John; Dugan, Gerald; Eggert, Nicholas; Fontes, Ernest; Forster, Michael; Gallagher, Richard; Gray, Steven; Greenwald, Shlomo; Hartill, Donald; Hopkins, Walter; Kreinick, David; Kreis, Benjamin; Leong, Zhidong; Li, Yulin; Liu, Xianghong; /more authors..

    2012-07-06

    The Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) has been reconfigured as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for a program of electron cloud (EC) research at ultra low emittance. The instrumentation in the ring has been upgraded with local diagnostics for measurement of cloud density and with improved beam diagnostics for the characterization of both the low emittance performance and the beam dynamics of high intensity bunch trains interacting with the cloud. A range of EC mitigation methods have been deployed and tested and their effectiveness is discussed. Measurements of the electron cloud's effect on the beam under a range of conditions are discussed along with the simulations being used to quantitatively understand these results.

  17. Electron Cloud at Low Emittance in CesrTA

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, J. P.; Billing, M. G.; Calvey, J.; Crittenden, J. A.; Dugan, G.; Eggert, N.; Forster, M.; Greenwald, S.; Hartill, D. L.; Hopkins, W. H.; Kreinick, D. L.; Li, Y.; Liu, X.; Livezey, J. A.; Meller, R.; Peck, S.; Peterson, D. P.; Rice, D.; Rider, N.; Rubin, D.; Sagan, D.; Schwartz, R.; Shanks, J. P.; Sikora, J.; Harkay, K. C.; Antoniou, F.; Calatroni, S.; Gasior, M.; Papaphilippou, Y.; Pfingstner, J.; Rumolo, G.; Schmickler, H.; Taborelli, M.; Holtzapple, R.; Jones, J.; Wolski, A.; Tan, C.Y.; Zwaska, R. M; Flanagan, J. W.; Kanazawa, K.I.; Sakai, H.; Shibata, K.; Suetsugu, Y.; Byrd, J.; Corlett, J.; De Santis, S.; Furman, M.; Kraft, R.; Munson, D. V.; Penn, G.; Plate, D.; Venturini, M.; Pivi, M. T. F.; Wang, L.; Schachter, L.

    2010-05-23

    The Cornell Electron Storage Ring (CESR) has been reconfigured as a test accelerator (CesrTA) for a program of electron cloud (EC) research at ultra low emittance. The instrumentation in the ring has been upgraded with local diagnostics for measurement of cloud density and with improved beam diagnostics for the characterization of both the low emittance performance and the beam dynamics of high intensity bunch trains interacting with the cloud. A range of EC mitigation methods have been deployed and tested and their effectiveness is discussed. Measurements of the electron cloud's effect on the beam under a range of conditions are discussed along with the simulations being used to quantitatively understand these results.

  18. Charge fluctuations and nodeless superconductivity in quasi-one-dimensional Ta4Pd3Te16 revealed by 125Te-NMR and 181Ta-NQR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Jiao, W. H.; Cao, G. H.; Zheng, Guo-qing

    2016-11-01

    We report 125Te nuclear magnetic resonance and 181Ta nuclear quadrupole resonance studies on single-crystal Ta4Pd3Te16 , which has a quasi-one-dimensional structure and superconducts below Tc=4.3 K. 181Ta with spin I =7 /2 is sensitive to quadrupole interactions, while 125Te with spin I =1 /2 can only relax by magnetic interactions. By comparing the spin-lattice relaxation rate (1 /T1 ) of 181Ta and 125Te, we found that electric-field-gradient (EFG) fluctuations develop below 80 K. The EFG fluctuations are enhanced with decreasing temperature due to the fluctuations of a charge density wave that sets in at TCDW=20 K, below which the spectra are broadened and 1 /T1T drops sharply. In the superconducting state, 1 /T1 shows a Hebel-Slichter coherence peak just below Tc for 125Te, indicating that Ta4Pd3Te16 is a full-gap superconductor without nodes in the gap function. The coherence peak is absent in the 1 /T1 of 181Ta due to the strong EFG fluctuations.

  19. A View from the Cocoon--Space Categorization in the Korean Verb [na-ka-ta].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Alan Hyun-Oak

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of the Korean verb "na-ka-ta" ("to get out, exit") focuses on why an expression such as "kyengkicang-ey na-ka-ta" ("someone goes out/in to the sports arena") is acceptable only in the context that the person's entering the arena is for the purpose of a contest, while it becomes semantically…

  20. On the ex situ and in situ doping of refractory Ta by pulsed laser ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y. L.; Lin, S. S.; Shen, P.; Chen, S.

    2017-06-01

    Ex situ and in situ doping processes of refractory Ta were accomplished by pulsed laser ablation of bulk Ta in vacuum with C-O-H supply from C-coated collodion film and within tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS), respectively. Analytical electron microscopic observations of the resultant particulates and condensates indicated that the former process involved interdiffusion in the condensed state to form two kinds of core-shell structures, i.e., C-O-H doped Ta with α-type (bcc) core and lamellar shell and O-H doped γ-TaC1- x with amorphous Ta-C-O-H surrounding, respectively, for potential wear and lubrication applications at high temperatures. In situ TEOS mediation, however, enhanced solute trapping to form Si-C-O-H overdoped α-Ta with significant tetragonality ( c/ a ratio up to 1.27) and Si-O-H doped γ-TaC1- x with {111}γ twin/fault and occasional epitaxial relationship [ \\overline{1} 23]α//[ \\overline{1} 12]γ; (121)α//( \\overline{1} 1 \\overline{1} )γ due to particle coalescence. Such Si-C-O-H mediated Ta particles may have potential optocatalytic applications.

  1. Alternatively spliced transcripts of Pi-ta blast resistance gene in Oryza sativa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Pi-ta gene in rice (Oryza sativa L.) confers resistance to races of Magnaporthe oryzae containing its cognate avirulence gene AVR-Pita. Pi-ta is a single-copy gene belonging to the nucleotide-binding site leucine-rich repeat (NBS-LRR) class of plant resistance (R) genes. In the present study, w...

  2. The wheat TaGI1, involved in photoperiodic flowering, encodes an Arabidopsis GI ortholog.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiang Yu; Liu, Mao Sen; Li, Jia Rui; Guan, Chun Mei; Zhang, Xian Sheng

    2005-05-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important crop and requires long day and short night to flower. To study the molecular mechanism of photoperiodic regulation of flowering in this species, we isolated a wheat TaGI1 gene, an ortholog of GIGANTEA (GI) in Arabidopsis. RNA blot hybridization revealed that TaGI1 is expressed in leaves in a rhythmic manner under long day and short day conditions and its rhythmic expression is regulated by photoperiods and circadian clocks. Further study demonstrated that the TaGI1 rhythmic expression in the leaves of seedlings is initiated by photoperiods, implying that TaGI1 does not show circadian regulation until after being entrained in a light/dark cycle. Interestingly, TaGI1 mRNA was detected in adaxial epidermal cells right above the vascular bundles of leaves, suggesting that the localization of TaGI1 transcripts in leaves may function to regulate flowering in response to photoperiods. Since overexpression of TaGI1 altered flowering time in wild type and complemented the gi mutant in Arabidopsis, it confirmed that TaGI1 is an ortholog of GI in Arabidopsis.

  3. Confronting passive behavior through outdoor experience: a TA approach to experiential learning

    Treesearch

    Frederick W. Medrick

    1977-01-01

    The concepts and techniques of transactional analysis (TA) can usefully be applied to outdoor challenge programs aimed at facilitating personal growth, developing responsibility, and teaching cooperative behavior. Passive behavior results from discounting of the self and others; four levels of it have been identified, and TA offers various means of preventing or...

  4. Statistical inference of selection and divergence of rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The resistance gene Pi-ta has been effectively used to control rice blast disease worldwide. A few recent studies have described the possible evolution of Pi-ta in cultivated and weedy rice. However, evolutionary statistics used for the studies are too limited to precisely understand selection and d...

  5. Diffusion barrier performance of novel Ti/TaN double layers for Cu metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y. M.; He, M. Z.; Xie, Z.

    2014-10-01

    Novel Ti/TaN double layers offering good stability as a barrier against Cu metallization have been made achievable by annealing in vacuum better than 1 × 10-3 Pa. Ti/TaN double layers were formed on SiO2/Si substrates by DC magnetron sputtering and then the properties of Cu/Ti/TaN/SiO2/Si film stacks were studied. It was found that the Ti/TaN double layers provide good diffusion barrier between Cu and SiO2/Si up to 750 °C for 30 min. The XRD, Auger and EDS results show that the Cu-Si compounds like Cu3Si were formed by Cu diffusion through Ti/TaN barrier for the 800 °C annealed samples. It seems that the improved diffusion barrier property of Cu/Ti/TaN/SiO2/Si stack is due to the diffusion of nitrogen along the grain boundaries in Ti layer, which would decrease the defects in Ti film and block the diffusion path for Cu diffusion with increasing annealing temperature. The failure mechanism of Ti/TaN bi-layer is similar to the Cu/TaN/Si metallization system in which Cu atoms diffuse through the grain boundary of barrier and react with silicon to form Cu3Si.

  6. "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." Supreme Court Case: Implications for School Psychology Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Shauna G.; Eusebio, Eleazar C.; Turton, William J.; Wright, Peter W. D.; Hale, James B.

    2011-01-01

    The 2009 "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." United States Supreme Court case could have significant implications for school psychology practice. The Court ruled that the parents of a student with a disability were entitled to private school tuition reimbursement even though T.A. had not been identified with a disability or previously…

  7. Along the Ta Diffusion Path Through a Boron and Oxygen Containing Tri-layer Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ying, Ji-Feng; Ji, Rong; Wang, Chen Chen; Ter Lim, Sze; Xie, Huiqing; Gerard, Ernult F.

    2014-08-01

    Diffusion and migration of elements are commonly observed in the fabrication of multilayer thin-film devices, including those of STT-RAM. The CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB tri-layer thin-film stack has been widely used in the design of STT-RAM devices as the functional magnetic-tunnel-junction (MTJ) structure. Such issues faced in the fabrication of these devices have been extensively researched from the stand point of engineering the materials property and structure to achieve the best MTJ performance. In this work, we conducted a detailed examination of the chemical-state change of the Ta and B in a CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB/Ta film stack by using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. We showed that the chemical-state change of Ta and B is a result of the Ta diffusion phenomena through the CoFeB/MgO/CoFeB tri-layer structure. In particular, we report the evidences of the formation of TaB x O y compound at some considerable depth away from the Ta layer. Also of value to XPS spectroscopy, the Ta binding energy for such TaB x O y compound is reported for the first time.

  8. Surgeons’ assessment of internal anal sphincter nerve supply during TaTME - inbetween expectations and reality

    PubMed Central

    Kneist, Werner; Hanke, Laura; Kauff, Daniel W.; Lang, Hauke

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intraoperative identification of nerve fibers heading from the inferior rectal plexus (IRP) to the internal anal sphincter (IAS) is challenging. The transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) is said to better preserve pelvic autonomic nerves. The aim of this study was to investigate the nerve identification rates during TaTME by transanal visual and electrophysiological assessment. Material and methods: A total of 52 patients underwent TaTME for malignant conditions. The IRP with its posterior branches to the IAS and the pelvic splanchnic nerves (PSN) were visually assessed in 20 patients (v-TaTME). Electrophysiological nerve identification was performed in 32 patients using electric stimulation under processed electromyography of IAS (e-TaTME). Results: The indication profile for TaTME was comparable between the v-TaTME and the e-TaTME group. The identification of IRP was more meaningful under electrophysiological assessment than under visual assessment for the left pelvic side (81% vs. 45%, p = 0.008) as well as the right pelvic side (78% vs. 45%, p = 0.016). The identification rates for PSN did not significantly differ between both groups, respectively (81% vs. 75%, p = 0.420 and 84% vs. 70%, p = 0.187). Conclusions: The transanal approach facilitated visual identification of IAS nerve supply. In combination with electrophysiological nerve assessment the identification rate almost doubled. For further insights functional data are needed. PMID:27333465

  9. Methane Activation by Tantalum Carbide Cluster Anions Ta2C4().

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Fang; Zhao, Yan-Xia; Yuan, Zhen; Liu, Qing-Yu; Li, Zi-Yu; Li, Xiao-Na; Ning, Chuan-Gang; He, Sheng-Gui

    2017-02-02

    Methane activation by transition metals is of fundamental interest and practical importance, as this process is extensively involved in the natural gas conversion to fuels and value-added chemicals. While single-metal centers have been well recognized as active sites for methane activation, the active center composed of two or more metal atoms is rarely addressed and the detailed reaction mechanism remains unclear. Here, by using state-of-the-art time-of-flight mass spectrometry, cryogenic anion photoelectron imaging spectroscopy, and quantum-chemical calculations, the cooperation of the two Ta atoms in a dinuclear carbide cluster Ta2C4(-) for methane activation has been identified. The C-H bond activation takes place predominantly around one Ta atom in the initial stage of the reaction and the second Ta atom accepts the delivered H atom from the C-H bond cleavage. The well-resolved vibrational spectra of the cryogenically cooled anions agree well with theoretical simulations, allowing the clear characterization of the structure of Ta2C4(-) cluster. The reactivity comparison between Ta2C4(-) cluster and the carbon-less analogues (Ta2C3(-) and Ta2C2(-)) demonstrated that the cooperative effect of the two metal atoms can be well tuned by the carbon ligands in terms of methane activation and transformation.

  10. Using the TA to Prepare Graduate Students for Research and Employment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heller, Kenneth

    One of the most underused components of the physics graduate program is the time spent being a teaching assistant (TA). Often the TA duties consist of grading and trying to help undergraduates survive a physics course. How those duties are accomplished is left to each TA. The most common TA preparation, if it exists, has a narrow focus on the class being taught. Preparation consists of describing, or perhaps practicing, specific teaching skills and gaining familiarity with the equipment used in the laboratory portion of the class. Instead TAs can be integrated into the entire course in which they function so that they learn the course as a system. This means treating a course in the same way one approaches a research project with the TAs as members of the research team headed by a faculty advisor. TA preparation is broadened and support includes the management, teamwork, and communication skills necessary. This makes the TAs more efficient and effective teachers while explicitly connecting the TA experience to the ``soft'' skills they need in their own research careers whether in industry, national laboratories, or academia. This talk describes such a program, functioning for over 20 years at the University of Minnesota, that takes no more time than the usual TA but results in graduate students that are more satisfied with their TA experience, are better prepared to function in research groups, and provide a better classroom experience for their undergraduate students.

  11. Worldwide distribution and origin of rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pi-ta is a single resistance (R) gene encoding a putative NBS type receptor with single amino acid alanine at position 918 (G at 6640) determining the resistance specificity. The distribution and origin of the Pi-ta gene were investigated in a germplasm core collection consisting of 1790 accessions ...

  12. Preparing the Professoriate of Tomorrow to Teach. Selected Readings in TA Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyquist, Jody D., Ed.; And Others

    The 56 papers in this volume address issues central to the preparation of graduate teaching assistants (TA) as both scholars and future professors. It is noted that the majority of TA programs are infrequent workshops with either limited or no follow-up, and that the task of preparing the next generation of professors appears to be more complex…

  13. Suboxide/subnitride formation on Ta masks during magnetic material etching by reactive plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Hu; Muraki, Yu; Karahashi, Kazuhiro; Hamaguchi, Satoshi

    2015-07-15

    Etching characteristics of tantalum (Ta) masks used in magnetoresistive random-access memory etching processes by carbon monoxide and ammonium (CO/NH{sub 3}) or methanol (CH{sub 3}OH) plasmas have been examined by mass-selected ion beam experiments with in-situ surface analyses. It has been suggested in earlier studies that etching of magnetic materials, i.e., Fe, Ni, Co, and their alloys, by such plasmas is mostly due to physical sputtering and etch selectivity of the process arises from etch resistance (i.e., low-sputtering yield) of the hard mask materials such as Ta. In this study, it is shown that, during Ta etching by energetic CO{sup +} or N{sup +} ions, suboxides or subnitrides are formed on the Ta surface, which reduces the apparent sputtering yield of Ta. It is also shown that the sputtering yield of Ta by energetic CO{sup +} or N{sup +} ions has a strong dependence on the angle of ion incidence, which suggests a correlation between the sputtering yield and the oxidation states of Ta in the suboxide or subnitride; the higher the oxidation state of Ta, the lower is the sputtering yield. These data account for the observed etch selectivity by CO/NH{sub 3} and CH{sub 3}OH plasmas.

  14. Successive superconducting transitions and Anderson localization effect in Ta2 S2 C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Jürgen; Suzuki, Itsuko S.; Suzuki, Masatsugu

    2004-08-01

    A complex carbide Ta2S2C consists of van der Waals (vdw)-bonded layers with a stacking sequence along the c axis: ⋯C-Ta-S-vdw-S-Ta-C-⋯ . The magnetic properties of this compound have been studied from dc and ac magnetic susceptibility. Ta2S2C undergoes successive superconducting transitions of a hierachical nature at Tcl=3.61±0.01K [ Hc1(l)(0)=28±2Oe and Hc2(l)(0)=7.7±0.2kOe ] and Tcu=8.9±0.1K [ Hc2(u)(0)=14.0±0.5kOe ]. The intermediate phase between Tcu and Tcl is an intragrain superconductive state occurring in the Ta-C layers in Ta2S2C . The low temperature phase below Tcl is an intergrain superconductive state. The magnetic susceptibility at H well above 10kOe is described by a sum of a diamagnetic susceptibility and a Curie-type behavior. The latter is due to the localized magnetic moments of conduction electrons associated with the Anderson localization effect, occurring in the 1T-TaS2 type structure in Ta2S2C .

  15. Surgeons' assessment of internal anal sphincter nerve supply during TaTME - inbetween expectations and reality.

    PubMed

    Kneist, Werner; Hanke, Laura; Kauff, Daniel W; Lang, Hauke

    2016-10-01

    Intraoperative identification of nerve fibers heading from the inferior rectal plexus (IRP) to the internal anal sphincter (IAS) is challenging. The transanal total mesorectal excision (TaTME) is said to better preserve pelvic autonomic nerves. The aim of this study was to investigate the nerve identification rates during TaTME by transanal visual and electrophysiological assessment. A total of 52 patients underwent TaTME for malignant conditions. The IRP with its posterior branches to the IAS and the pelvic splanchnic nerves (PSN) were visually assessed in 20 patients (v-TaTME). Electrophysiological nerve identification was performed in 32 patients using electric stimulation under processed electromyography of IAS (e-TaTME). The indication profile for TaTME was comparable between the v-TaTME and the e-TaTME group. The identification of IRP was more meaningful under electrophysiological assessment than under visual assessment for the left pelvic side (81% vs. 45%, p = 0.008) as well as the right pelvic side (78% vs. 45%, p = 0.016). The identification rates for PSN did not significantly differ between both groups, respectively (81% vs. 75%, p = 0.420 and 84% vs. 70%, p = 0.187). The transanal approach facilitated visual identification of IAS nerve supply. In combination with electrophysiological nerve assessment the identification rate almost doubled. For further insights functional data are needed.

  16. Single crystal studies of binary compounds Ta/Ga - A system with experimental and crystallographic peculiarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koffi, Agbelenko; Ade, Martin; Hillebrecht, Harald

    2016-06-01

    We report on single crystal growth and characterisation of binary intermetallics TaxGay. Single crystals were obtained from mixtures of the elements which were handled under various conditions. Several new compounds were identified. The highest Ga-content is found for the new binary phases Ta6Ga31 and Ta8Ga41. Both compounds evolve as intergrown crystals. Ta8Ga41 belongs to the V8Ga41 type (R 3 bar , Z=3, a=14.311 Å, c=15.344 Å), Ta6Ga31 to the triclinic Mo6Ga31-type (P 1 bar , Z=2, a=9.697 Å, b=9.698 Å, c=14.879 Å, α=87.18°, β=80.83°, γ=85.18°). TaGa3 bases on the tetragonal TiAl3-type (I4/mmm, Z=2, a=3.769 Å, c=8.718 Å) but shows stacking faults leading to an increased Ta content Ta1+xGa3-x. This interpretation is supported by the structure model of an orthorhombic superstructure with an idealized composition Ta2Ga5 (Cmcm, Z=4, a=3.769, b=31.37, c=3.770 Å). Ta2-xGa5+x (x≈0.38) is a representative of the Mn2Hg5-type (P4/mbm, Z=2, a=9.3213(13), c=2.7572(6) Å). Ta4Ga5 represents a new compound with a novel crystal structure (P4/mbm, Z=16, a=11.793(2), c=16.967(3) Å). The complex structure contains polyhedra with coordination numbers between 11 and 14. Ta3Ga2 (P42/mnm, Z=2, a=6.8382(4), c=3.4963(2) Å) belongs to the U3Si2 type. For the composition Ta5Ga3 three different structure types were confirmed but with some differences. The tetragonal W5Si3 type (I4/mcm, Z=4, a=10.2199(7), c=5.1121(4) Å) is a stoichiometric binary compound, the hexagonal Mn5Si3-type (P63/mcm, Z=2, a=7.7023(4), c=5.3062(3) Å) contains a small amount of oxygen (Ta5Ga3O0.4) and in the tetragonal Cr5B3-type (I4/mcm, Z=4, a=6.5986(9), c=11.931(2)Å) one of the Ga-sites shows a significant underoccupation of 40% ("Ta2.2Ga"). Compositions were confirmed by EDX measurements.

  17. Structure, electrophysical, and mechanical properties of Ta-B-N films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncharov, A. A.; Petukhov, V. V.; Dub, S. N.; Konovalov, V. A.

    2008-04-01

    Ta-B-N coatings were produced by radio-frequency magnetron reactive sputtering of a TaB2 target in a nitrogen + argon gas mixture. The effect of nitrogen content in the gas mixture on the growth kinetics, structure, and electrophysical and mechanical properties of films was studied. A decrease in the growth rate that is observed with increasing nitrogen content in the working mixture is shown to be caused by the nitriding of the target. Under the deposition conditions used, thin amorphous-crystalline films consisting of a TaB2 nanocrystalline phase in the BN amorphous matrix were found to be formed. The formation of the structure causes a decrease in the nanohardness, modulus of elasticity, and internal microstresses and an increase in the plasticity of the Ta-B-N films as compared to those of the TaB2 films.

  18. Superconducting proximity effect in inverted InAs/GaSb quantum well structures with Ta electrodes

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Wenlong; Jiang, Yuxuan; Huan, Chao; Chen, Xunchi; Jiang, Zhigang; Hawkins, Samuel D.; Klem, John F.; Pan, Wei

    2014-11-10

    We present our recent electronic transport results in top-gated InAs/GaSb quantum well hybrid structures with superconducting Ta electrodes. We show that the transport across the InAs−Ta junction depends largely on the interfacial transparency, exhibiting distinct zero-bias behavior. For a relatively resistive interface, a broad conductance peak is observed at zero bias. When a transparent InAs−Ta interface is achieved, a zero-bias conductance dip appears with two coherent-peak-like features forming at bias voltages corresponding to the superconducting gap of Ta. The conductance spectra of the transparent InAs−Ta junction at different gate voltages can be fit well using the standard Blonder-Tinkham-Klapwijk theory.

  19. Evaluation of the potential for surface faulting at TA-63. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kolbe, T.; Sawyer, J.; Springer, J.; Olig, S.; Hemphill-Haley, M.; Wong, I.; Reneau, S.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes an investigation of the potential for surface faulting at the proposed sites for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RL)WF) and the Hazardous Waste Treatment Facility at TA-63 and TA-52 (hereafter TA-63), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). This study was performed by Woodward-Clyde Federal Services (WCFS) at the request of the LANL. The projections of both the Guaje Mountain and Rendija Canyon faults are mapped in the vicinity of TA-63. Based on results obtained in the ongoing Seismic Hazard Evaluation Program of the LANL, displacement may have occurred on both the Guaje Mountain and Rendija Canyon faults in the past 11,000 years (Holocene time). Thus, in accordance with US Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and Standards for seismic hazards evaluations and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Regulations for seismic standard requirements, a geologic study of the proposed TA-63 site was conducted.

  20. Washing powders and the environment: has TAED any influence on the complexing behaviour of phosphonic acids?

    PubMed

    Deluchat, Véronique; Lacour, Stella; Serpaud, Bernard; Bollinger, Jean-Claude

    2002-10-01

    Complexation properties of two phosphonic acids: nitrilotris (methylenephosphonic acid) and 1-hydroxyethane-1,1'-diphosphonic acid, with Cu(II) and Ca(II) have been previously determined by pH and ionic selective electrode titrations. These phosphonic acids are commonly added to washing powders as polyphosphate substitutes and are here studied in the presence of another detergent compound: tetraacetylethylenediamine (TAED), a bleaching activator. Product concentrations were chosen in order to correspond to component concentration ratios encountered in washing powders. Potentiometric titrations were carried out to determine the possible TAED interferences; they indicate that TAED and its by-products have no action on phosphonic acid complexing behaviour. Under our experimental conditions, the action of TAED was modelled with acetic acid and ethylenediamine, the final by-products of TAED hydrolysis. If we take into account both phosphonic and acetic acids, speciation diagrams corresponding to representative fresh water systems showed that the acetic acid does not influence cation speciation.

  1. Synthesis, crystal structure, and photocatalytical properties of Ba3Ta5O14N

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anke, B.; Bredow, T.; Soldat, J.; Wark, M.; Lerch, M.

    2016-01-01

    Light yellow Ba3TaV5O14N was successfully synthesized as phase-pure material crystallizing isostructurally to well-known mixed-valence Ba3TaV4TaIVO15. The electronic structure of Ba3Ta5O14N was studied theoretically with a hybrid Hartree-Fock-DFT method. The most stable structure was obtained when nitrogen atoms were placed at 4 h sites having fourfold coordination. By incorporating nitrogen, the band gap decreases from ∼3.8 eV commonly known for barium tantalum(V) oxides to 2.8 eV for the oxide nitride, giving rise to an absorption band well in the visible-light region. Ba3Ta5O14N was also tested for photocatalytic hydrogen formation.

  2. Gray Ta2O5 Nanowires with Greatly Enhanced Photocatalytic Performance.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guilian; Lin, Tianquan; Cui, Houlei; Zhao, Wenli; Zhang, Hui; Huang, Fuqiang

    2016-01-13

    Black TiO2, with enhanced solar absorption and photocatalytic activity, has gained extensive attention, inspiring us to investigate the reduction of other wide-bandgap semiconductors for improved performance. Herein, we report the preparation of gray Ta2O5 nanowires with disordered shells and abundant defects via aluminum reduction. Its water decontamination is 2.5 times faster and hydrogen production is 2.3-fold higher over pristine Ta2O5. The reduced Ta2O5 also delivers significantly enhanced photoelectrochemical performance compared with the pristine Ta2O5 nanowires, including much higher carrier concentration, easier electron-hole separation and 11 times larger photocurrent. Our results demonstrate that Ta2O5 will have great potentials in photocatalysis and solar energy utilization after proper modification.

  3. Study of CoTa alloy as barrier layer for Cu/low-k interconnects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu; Liu, Lin-Tao; He, Peng; Qu, Xin-Ping; Zhang, Jing; Wei, Shuhua; Mankelevich, Yuri A.; Baklanov, Mikhail R.

    2017-10-01

    CoTa alloy films as diffusion barriers for Cu/low-k interconnects are studied. Crystalline structure, thermal stability, barrier and sealing properties on low-k dielectric of CoTa alloys with different atomic ratios between Co and Ta are studied using different techniques. It is demonstrated that CoTa alloys with proper content and thickness can be considered as candidates to act as a barrier layer for Cu/low-k interconnects with acceptable thermal stability and resistivity. However, ultralow-k organosilicate based dielectrics with k  =  2.25 and pore size about 2 nm can be sealed by this barrier against penetration of neutral molecules only when the CoTa alloy thickness is larger than 3 nm. Correlation of the barrier performance with low-k pore size is demonstrated.

  4. Growth and optical properties of Mg, Fe Co-doped LiTaO3 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Shuangquan; Ma, Decai; Zhang, Tao; Ling, Furi; Wang, Biao

    2006-02-01

    Mg, Fe double-doped LiTaO3 and LiNbO3 crystals have been grown by Czochralski method. The optical properties were measured by two-beam coupling experiments and transmitted facula distortion method. The results showed that the photorefractive response speed of Mg:Fe:LiTaO3 was about three times faster than that of Fe:LiTaO3, whereas the photo-damage resistance was two orders of magnitude higher than that of Fe:LiTaO3. In this paper, site occupation mechanism of impurities was also discussed to explain the high photo-damage resistance and fast response speed in Mg:Fe:LiTaO3 crystal.

  5. "Engineered dual NbTa barriers for higher Jc Nb3Sn superconductors"

    SciTech Connect

    Robert E. Barber; Karl T. Hartwig

    2012-07-07

    The tantalum (Ta) diffusion barrier in advanced Nb3Sn superconductors often develops a failure mode during wire drawing where the Nb and Ta layers deform non-uniformly leading to a rough interface with adjacent copper. The non-uniform deformation of these layers can lead to premature wire breakage and breaches in the barrier, and contamination of the copper stabilizer by tin (Sn). The objective of the proposed work was to demonstrate that a dual NbTa layer made from severely deformed Nb and Ta exhibits improved co-deformation behavior with pure Cu in advanced Nb3Sn superconductors. This phase I project demonstrated improved microstructural uniformity and superior mechanical property characteristics of equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) processed and rolled Nb and Ta sheets. The results of this work point to a method for fabrication of higher field and lower cost superconducting magnets for high energy physics applications.

  6. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Identifies an Important Role of the TaRSR1 Transcription Factor in Starch Synthesis in Bread Wheat.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guoyu; Wu, Yufang; Xu, Mengjun; Gao, Tian; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Lina; Guo, Tiancai; Kang, Guozhang

    2016-09-23

    The function of a wheat starch regulator 1 (TaRSR1) in regulating the synthesis of grain storage starch was determined using the barley stripe mosaic virus-virus induced gene-silencing (BSMV-VIGS) method in field experiments. Chlorotic stripes appeared on the wheat spikes infected with barley stripe mosaic virus-virus induced gene-silencing- wheat starch regulator 1 (BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1) at 15 days after anthesis, at which time the transcription levels of the TaRSR1 gene significantly decreased. Quantitative real-time PCR was also used to measure the transcription levels of 26 starch synthesis-related enzyme genes in the grains of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-silenced wheat plants at 20, 27, and 31 days after anthesis. The results showed that the transcription levels of some starch synthesis-related enzyme genes were markedly induced at different sampling time points: TaSSI, TaSSIV, TaBEIII, TaISA1, TaISA3, TaPHOL, and TaDPE1 genes were induced at each of the three sampling time points and TaAGPS1-b, TaAGPL1, TaAGPL2, TaSSIIb, TaSSIIc, TaSSIIIb, TaBEI, TaBEIIa, TaBEIIb, TaISA2, TaPHOH, and TaDPE2 genes were induced at one sampling time point. Moreover, both the grain starch contents, one thousand kernel weights, grain length and width of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-infected wheat plants significantly increased. These results suggest that TaRSR1 acts as a negative regulator and plays an important role in starch synthesis in wheat grains by temporally regulating the expression of specific starch synthesis-related enzyme genes.

  7. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Identifies an Important Role of the TaRSR1 Transcription Factor in Starch Synthesis in Bread Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Guoyu; Wu, Yufang; Xu, Mengjun; Gao, Tian; Wang, Pengfei; Wang, Lina; Guo, Tiancai; Kang, Guozhang

    2016-01-01

    The function of a wheat starch regulator 1 (TaRSR1) in regulating the synthesis of grain storage starch was determined using the barley stripe mosaic virus—virus induced gene-silencing (BSMV-VIGS) method in field experiments. Chlorotic stripes appeared on the wheat spikes infected with barley stripe mosaic virus-virus induced gene-silencing- wheat starch regulator 1 (BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1) at 15 days after anthesis, at which time the transcription levels of the TaRSR1 gene significantly decreased. Quantitative real-time PCR was also used to measure the transcription levels of 26 starch synthesis-related enzyme genes in the grains of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-silenced wheat plants at 20, 27, and 31 days after anthesis. The results showed that the transcription levels of some starch synthesis-related enzyme genes were markedly induced at different sampling time points: TaSSI, TaSSIV, TaBEIII, TaISA1, TaISA3, TaPHOL, and TaDPE1 genes were induced at each of the three sampling time points and TaAGPS1-b, TaAGPL1, TaAGPL2, TaSSIIb, TaSSIIc, TaSSIIIb, TaBEI, TaBEIIa, TaBEIIb, TaISA2, TaPHOH, and TaDPE2 genes were induced at one sampling time point. Moreover, both the grain starch contents, one thousand kernel weights, grain length and width of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-infected wheat plants significantly increased. These results suggest that TaRSR1 acts as a negative regulator and plays an important role in starch synthesis in wheat grains by temporally regulating the expression of specific starch synthesis-related enzyme genes. PMID:27669224

  8. Extreme Nb/Ta fractionation in metamorphic titanite from ultrahigh-pressure metagranite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Xiang; Zheng, Yong-Fei

    2015-02-01

    Extremely high Nb/Ta ratios (up to 239) occur in metamorphic titanite from ultrahigh-pressure metagranite in the Sulu orogen. This indicates significant Nb/Ta fractionation in subduction-zone fluids. By means of U-Pb dating and trace element analysis of titanite, we distinguish the metamorphic domains from the anatectic domains. Titanite U-Pb dating yields lower intercept ages of 215 ± 12 Ma to 222 ± 27 Ma for the metagranite samples, with regardless of the compositional differences between the two types of titanite domains. This indicates the two generations of titanite growth during exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust. The metamorphic titanite shows significantly elevated Nb but decreased Ta and thus higher Nb/Ta ratios than the anatectic titanite. The increase of Nb/Ta ratios for the metamorphic titanite is associated more with a decrease of Ta than an increase of Nb, suggesting the control of fluid composition on the titanite Nb/Ta ratios. Because the metamorphic titanite grew during the exhumation of deeply subducted continental crust, its unusually high Nb/Ta ratios are ascribed to the breakdown of hydrous minerals such as phengite and biotite that host much more Nb than Ta. This implies that the composition of subduction-zone fluids is primarily dictated by the geochemical property of hydrous minerals that break down during dehydration reaction at high-pressure to ultrahigh-pressure conditions. Therefore, significant Nb/Ta fractionation in Ti-rich accessory minerals such as titanite and rutile, at least on the mineral scale, during subduction-zone processes is possibly much more common than previously thought.

  9. The Antibacterial Activity of Ta-doped ZnO Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Guo, Bing-Lei; Han, Ping; Guo, Li-Chuan; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Li, Ai-Dong; Kong, Ji-Zhou; Zhai, Hai-Fa; Wu, Di

    2015-12-01

    A novel photocatalyst of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles was prepared by a modified Pechini-type method. The antimicrobial study of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles on several bacteria of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis (B. subtilis) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) were performed using a standard microbial method. The Ta-doping concentration effect on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of various bacteria under dark ambient has been evaluated. The photocatalytical inactivation of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible light irradiation was examined. The MIC results indicate that the incorporation of Ta(5+) ions into ZnO significantly improve the bacteriostasis effect of ZnO nanoparticles on E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis in the absence of light. Compared to MIC results without light irradiation, Ta-doped ZnO and pure ZnO nanoparticles show much stronger bactericidal efficacy on P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus under visible light illumination. The possible antimicrobial mechanisms in Ta-doped ZnO systems under visible light and dark conditions were also proposed. Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit more effective bactericidal efficacy than pure ZnO in dark ambient, which can be attributed to the synergistic effect of enhanced surface bioactivity and increased electrostatic force due to the incorporation of Ta(5+) ions into ZnO. Based on the antibacterial tests, 5 % Ta-doped ZnO is a more effective antimicrobial agent than pure ZnO.

  10. The Antibacterial Activity of Ta-doped ZnO Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bing-Lei; Han, Ping; Guo, Li-Chuan; Cao, Yan-Qiang; Li, Ai-Dong; Kong, Ji-Zhou; Zhai, Hai-Fa; Wu, Di

    2015-08-01

    A novel photocatalyst of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles was prepared by a modified Pechini-type method. The antimicrobial study of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles on several bacteria of Gram-positive Bacillus subtilis ( B. subtilis) and Staphylococcus aureus ( S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli ( E. coli) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) were performed using a standard microbial method. The Ta-doping concentration effect on the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of various bacteria under dark ambient has been evaluated. The photocatalytical inactivation of Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles under visible light irradiation was examined. The MIC results indicate that the incorporation of Ta5+ ions into ZnO significantly improve the bacteriostasis effect of ZnO nanoparticles on E. coli, S. aureus, and B. subtilis in the absence of light. Compared to MIC results without light irradiation, Ta-doped ZnO and pure ZnO nanoparticles show much stronger bactericidal efficacy on P. aeruginosa, E. coli, and S. aureus under visible light illumination. The possible antimicrobial mechanisms in Ta-doped ZnO systems under visible light and dark conditions were also proposed. Ta-doped ZnO nanoparticles exhibit more effective bactericidal efficacy than pure ZnO in dark ambient, which can be attributed to the synergistic effect of enhanced surface bioactivity and increased electrostatic force due to the incorporation of Ta5+ ions into ZnO. Based on the antibacterial tests, 5 % Ta-doped ZnO is a more effective antimicrobial agent than pure ZnO.

  11. Evolutionary dynamics and structure of the rice blast resistance locus Pi-ta in wild, cultivated, and US weedy rice

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been used to control rice blast pathogen, Magnaporthe oryza, in rice growing areas worldwide for decades. To understand the evolutionary process and natural selection of Pi-ta during rice domestication, we first examined sequences of the genomic region of Pi-ta in geograph...

  12. Evolutionary dynamics of the genomic region around the blast resistance gene Pi-ta in AA genome Oryza species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been predicted to directly detect the pathogen signaling molecule in preventing blast disease. The resistance Pi-ta allale (alanine at 918) has been introgressed between cultivated rice to confer blast resistance. To understand the evolutionary dynamics present of Pi-ta, w...

  13. Chromatin modification contributes to the expression divergence of three TaGS2 homoeologs in hexaploid wheat

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaoli; Gao, Yingjie; Liu, Lei; Sun, Lijing; Su, Qiannan; Han, Jie; Zhang, Na; Cui, Fa; Ji, Jun; Tong, Yiping; Li, Junming

    2017-01-01

    Plastic glutamine synthetase (GS2) is responsible for ammonium assimilation. The reason that TaGS2 homoeologs in hexaploid wheat experience different selection pressures in the breeding process remains unclear. TaGS2 were minimally expressed in roots but predominantly expressed in leaves, and TaGS2-B had higher expression than TaGS2-A and TaGS2-D. ChIP assays revealed that the activation of TaGS2-B expression in leaves was correlated with increased H3K4 trimethylation. The transcriptional silencing of TaGS2 in roots was correlated with greater cytosine methylation and less H3K4 trimethylation. Micrococcal nuclease and DNase I accessibility experiments indicated that the promoter region was more resistant to digestion in roots than leaves, which indicated that the closed nucleosome conformation of the promoter region was important to the transcription initiation for the spatial-temporal expression of TaGS2. In contrast, the transcribed regions possess different nuclease accessibilities of three TaGS2 homoeologs in the same tissue, suggesting that nucleosome conformation of the transcribed region was part of the fine adjustment of TaGS2 homoeologs. This study provides evidence that histone modification, DNA methylation and nuclease accessibility coordinated the control of the transcription of TaGS2 homoeologs. Our results provided important evidence that TaGS2-B experienced the strongest selection pressures during the breeding process. PMID:28300215

  14. Overexpression of wheat gene TaMOR improves root system architecture and grain yield in Oryza sativa

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Liu, Dan; Li, Qiaoru; Mao, Xinguo; Li, Ang; Wang, Jingyi; Chang, Xiaoping; Jing, Ruilian

    2016-01-01

    Improved root architecture is an effective strategy to increase crop yield. We demonstrate that overexpression of transcription factor gene MORE ROOT (TaMOR) from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) results in more roots and higher grain yield in rice (Oryza sativa). TaMOR, encoding a plant-specific transcription factor belonging to the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (AS2/LOB) protein family, is highly conserved in wheat and its wild relatives. In this study, tissue expression patterns indicated that TaMOR mainly localizes to root initiation sites. The consistent gene expression pattern suggests that TaMOR is involved in root initiation. Exogenous auxin treatment induced TaMOR expression without de novo protein biosynthesis. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments demonstrated that TaMOR interacts with TaMOR-related protein TaMRRP, which contains a four-tandem-pentatricopeptide repeat motif. Overexpression of TaMOR led to more lateral roots in Arabidopsis thaliana, and TaMOR-overexpressing rice plants had more crown roots, a longer main panicle, a higher number of primary branches on the main panicle, a higher grain number per plant, and higher yield per plant than the plants of wild type. In general, TaMOR-D-overexpressing lines had larger root systems in Arabidopsis and rice, and produce a higher grain yield per plant. TaMOR therefore offers an opportunity to improve root architecture and increase yield in crop plants. PMID:27229732

  15. Chromatin modification contributes to the expression divergence of three TaGS2 homoeologs in hexaploid wheat.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Fan, Xiaoli; Gao, Yingjie; Liu, Lei; Sun, Lijing; Su, Qiannan; Han, Jie; Zhang, Na; Cui, Fa; Ji, Jun; Tong, Yiping; Li, Junming

    2017-03-16

    Plastic glutamine synthetase (GS2) is responsible for ammonium assimilation. The reason that TaGS2 homoeologs in hexaploid wheat experience different selection pressures in the breeding process remains unclear. TaGS2 were minimally expressed in roots but predominantly expressed in leaves, and TaGS2-B had higher expression than TaGS2-A and TaGS2-D. ChIP assays revealed that the activation of TaGS2-B expression in leaves was correlated with increased H3K4 trimethylation. The transcriptional silencing of TaGS2 in roots was correlated with greater cytosine methylation and less H3K4 trimethylation. Micrococcal nuclease and DNase I accessibility experiments indicated that the promoter region was more resistant to digestion in roots than leaves, which indicated that the closed nucleosome conformation of the promoter region was important to the transcription initiation for the spatial-temporal expression of TaGS2. In contrast, the transcribed regions possess different nuclease accessibilities of three TaGS2 homoeologs in the same tissue, suggesting that nucleosome conformation of the transcribed region was part of the fine adjustment of TaGS2 homoeologs. This study provides evidence that histone modification, DNA methylation and nuclease accessibility coordinated the control of the transcription of TaGS2 homoeologs. Our results provided important evidence that TaGS2-B experienced the strongest selection pressures during the breeding process.

  16. Theoretical study of water adsorption and dissociation on Ta3N5(100) surfaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiajia; Luo, Wenjun; Feng, Jianyong; Zhang, Li; Li, Zhaosheng; Zou, Zhigang

    2013-10-14

    Water adsorption and dissociation on the perfect, oxygen containing and nitrogen vacancy containing Ta3N5(100) surfaces are systematically studied by density functional theory calculations. The results show that the perfect Ta3N5(100) surface is very active for water dissociation because of the dangling bonds formed on the perfect Ta3N5(100) surface. The presence of oxygen on the surface is able to stabilize the Ta3N5(100) surface but not to facilitate water dissociation, which may be ascribed to the saturation of surface dangling bonds by oxygen. The presence of a nitrogen vacancy on the surface is able to facilitate water dissociation, but Ta3N5(100) surfaces with nitrogen vacancies are not stable. We found that keeping the impurity oxygen as less as possible is one effective approach to enhance the water splitting ability of Ta3N5. We propose that doping with foreign elements is one potential method to obtain a clean Ta3N5(100) surface, since the oxygen concentration may be adjusted by competition between oxygen and foreign elements.

  17. Phase transformation and negative thermal expansion in TaVO5.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaowei; Huang, Qingzhen; Deng, Jinxia; Yu, Ranbo; Chen, Jun; Xing, Xianran

    2011-03-21

    Two phase transformations of TaVO(5) were observed by DSC and/or dilatometry measurements in the studied temperature range. X-ray diffraction and neutron powder diffraction structure refinements indicated a phase transformation at -14 °C from a monoclinic symmetry with space group P2(1)/c to an orthorhombic symmetry with space group Pnma above this temperature. The rigid TaO(6) octahedron in orthorhombic phase becomes nonregular at -14 °C, which results in the transition from Pnma to P2(1)/c. TaVO(5) was found to be a negative thermal expansion material above room temperature. The calculated volumetric thermal expansion coefficients (TECs) are -8.92 × 10(-6) °C(-1) in the range of 20-600 °C, and -2.19 × 10(-5) °C(-1) above 600 °C, respectively. The negative thermal expansion behavior is accounted for by the tilt of the TaO(6) and VO(4) polyhedra, where the shrinkage of the VO(4) tetrahedra result in the increase of Ta-O-V angles on heating, while the angle of Ta-O1-Ta maintains at 180° in the framework.

  18. Giant exciton Fano resonance in quasi-one-dimensional Ta2NiSe5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larkin, T. I.; Yaresko, A. N.; Pröpper, D.; Kikoin, K. A.; Lu, Y. F.; Takayama, T.; Mathis, Y.-L.; Rost, A. W.; Takagi, H.; Keimer, B.; Boris, A. V.

    2017-05-01

    We report the complex dielectric function of the quasi-one-dimensional chalcogenide Ta2NiSe5 , which undergoes a structural phase transition presumably associated with exciton condensation below Tc=326 K [Y. Wakisaka et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 026402 (2009), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.103.026402; Y. F. Lu et al., Nat. Commun. 8, 14408 (2017), 10.1038/ncomms14408], and of the isostructural Ta2NiS5 , which does not exhibit such a transition. Using spectroscopic ellipsometry, we have detected exciton doublets with pronounced Fano line shapes in both the compounds. The exciton Fano resonances in Ta2NiSe5 display an order-of-magnitude higher intensity than those in Ta2NiS5 . In conjunction with prior theoretical work [E. Rashba, Sov. Phys. Semicond. 8, 807 (1975)], we attribute this observation to the giant oscillator strength of spatially extended exciton-phonon bound states in Ta2NiSe5 . The formation of exciton-phonon complexes in Ta2NiS5 and Ta2NiSe5 is confirmed by the pronounced temperature dependence of sharp interband transitions in the optical spectra, the peak energies and widths of which scale with the thermal population of optical phonon modes. The description of the optically excited states in terms of strongly overlapping exciton complexes is in good agreement with the hypothesis of an exciton insulator ground state.

  19. Electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer and bilayer TaSe2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dela Cruz, Mack Adrian; Yan, Jia-An

    2015-03-01

    Distinct from MoS2, two-dimensional atomic crystal of tantalum diselenide (TaSe2) is metallic and exhibits charge-density wave (CDW) transitions. Using density-functional theory, we present a first-principles study of the electronic and vibrational properties of monolayer and bilayer TaSe2 without including the CDW-induced structural distortions. For monolayer 1T-TaSe2, the frequencies of the Raman active modes are 159 cm-1 (Eg) and 226 cm-1 (A1 g), while the Raman-active modes for monolayer 2H-TaSe2 are at 138 cm-1 (E''), 214 cm-1 (E'), and 241 cm-1 (A1'). For bilayer TaSe2, different stackings of monolayer 2H-TaSe2 and 1T-TaSe2 phases have been calculated. Electronic band structures and vibrational properties of four energetically favorable configurations will be presented. Finally, the spin-orbit coupling on the structural and electronic properties will also be discussed. We thank the Towson University Faculty Development and Research Committee (Grant OSPR # 140269), the Fisher College of Science and Mathematics Fisher General Endowment as well as the Undergraduate Research Committee for the support.

  20. Structures, Phase Transformations, and Dielectric Properties of BiTaO4 Ceramics.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Di; Fan, Xiao-Qin; Jin, Xiao-Wei; He, Duan-Wei; Chen, Guo-Hua

    2016-11-21

    Low (α)- and high-temperature (β) forms of BiTaO4 have attracted much attention due to their dielectric and photocatalytic properties. In the present work, a third form, the so-called HP-BiTaO4, was synthesized at high temperature and pressure. The phase evolution, phase transformations, and dielectric properties of α- and β-BiTaO4 and HP-BiTaO4 ceramics are studied in detail. β-BiTaO4 ceramics densified at 1300 °C with the microwave permittivity εr ≈ 53, the microwave quality factor Qf ≈ 12070 GHz, and the temperature coefficient of resonant frequency τf ≈ -200 ppm/°C. HP-BiTaO4 ceramics were synthesized at 5 GPa and 1300 °C followed by annealing at 600 °C. In contrast with the α phase, HP-BiTaO4 exhibited εr ≈ 195 at 1 kHz to 10 MHz, accompanied by a low dielectric loss of ∼0.004. The relation between structure and dielectric properties is discussed in the context of Shannon's additive rule and bond theory.

  1. Nb-Ta mobility and fractionation during exhumation of UHP eclogite from southwestern Tianshan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Lifei; Lü, Zeng; Bader, Thomas; Chen, Zhenyu

    2016-05-01

    In order to study the behavior of high field strength elements (HFSE) during retrograde overprint of ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogites, analysis of Nb and Ta concentrations was carried out on bulk rock, rutile (in both veins and host rocks) and titanite in the host eclogite. The studied samples were collected from the UHP metamorphic belt of southwestern Tianshan, China. Petrographic observation and phase equilibria modeling show that the host eclogites have experienced UHP metamorphism and the rutile-bearing veins are thought to be originated from an internal fluid source, probably by lawsonite dehydration during exhumation. The presence of vein rutile indicates HFSE could be mobilized from host eclogites to veins, which is probably facilitated by complexation with dissolved Na-Al silicates and fluorine-rich fluids. Changes in fluid composition (e.g., F-1, X(CO2)) may trigger the precipitation of rutile. Rutile/fluid partitioning may be the key to fractionating Nb and Ta, with preference for Ta in the fluid, resulting in Nb/Ta ratio of rutile in the veins lower than that in the host eclogite. Besides, the transformation of rutile into titanite also might be an effective mechanism for fractionating Nb from Ta, resulting in the intra-grain Nb-Ta zonations in vein rutile. The Nb-Ta mobility and fractionation can happen during exhumation of the UHP eclogite, which should be very important for understanding the behavior of HFSE in subduction zone metamorphism.

  2. Epitaxial growth of AlN films on single-crystalline Ta substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Hirata, S.; Okamoto, K.; Inoue, S. Kim, T-W.; Ohta, J.; Fujioka, H.; Oshima, M.

    2007-08-15

    We have demonstrated the first epitaxial growth of AlN films on single-crystalline Ta substrates by the use of a low-temperature growth technique based on pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Although previous AlN films grown on Ta(100) and (111) substrates have exhibited quite poor crystallinity, an epitaxial AlN(0001) film with an in-plane epitaxial relationship of AlN[112-bar 0]//Ta[001] has been obtained on a Ta(110) substrate at a growth temperature of 450 deg. C. We found that the full-width at half-maximum values for the crystal orientation distribution in the tilt and twist directions of the AlN film were 0.37{sup o} and 0.41{sup o}, respectively. Grazing-incidence X-ray reflection (GIXR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements have revealed that the AlN/Ta heterointerface is quite abrupt, and that its abruptness remains unchanged even after annealing at 1000 deg. C. - Graphical abstract: An epitaxial AlN(0001) film with an in-plane epitaxial relationship of AlN[112-bar 0]//Ta[001] has been obtained for the first time on a Ta(110) substrate by the use of a PLD low-temperature growth technique.

  3. Submicron Co(TaC) line array produced by electron-beam direct writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhou, T. J.; Wang, J. P.; Thong, J. T. L.; Yao, X. F.; Chong, T. C.

    2003-05-01

    (Co60C40)97Ta3 and Co60C40 films with thickness 30 nm were prepared by cosputtering Co, Ta, and C onto C-buffered glass substrates. The as-deposited (Co60C40)97Ta3 and Co60C40 films were amorphous and nonferromagnetic. These films became magnetic upon annealing and the magnetic performance of annealed (Co60C40)97Ta3 films are better than that of annealed Co60C40 films at the same annealing condition. Magnetic patterning (line array) of the as-deposited (Co60C40)97Ta3 films was realized by subjecting it to electron-beam radiation using a focused 30 keV beam with a current of 7.1 nA and a dwell time per line of 0.75 s and longer. By increasing the dwell time, the whole region where an electron beam was scanned became magnetic with clear domain structures because of thermally activated diffusion. The required dwell time of magnetically patterning nonmagnetic (Co60C40)97Ta3 thin films (0.75 s) is much shorter than that of Co60C40 films (3.8 s). The magnetic measurements show that the lines [(Co60C40)97Ta3] and dots (Co60C40) are magnetically soft. The present method of magnetically patterning a nonmagnetic film has potential application for nanoscale solid magnetic devices.

  4. The mutagenic assessment of an electronic-cigarette and reference cigarette smoke using the Ames assay in strains TA98 and TA100.

    PubMed

    Thorne, D; Crooks, I; Hollings, M; Seymour, A; Meredith, C; Gaca, M

    2016-12-01

    Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98 and TA100 were used to assess the mutagenic potential of the aerosol from a commercially available, rechargeable, closed system electronic-cigarette. Results obtained were compared to those for the mainstream smoke from a Kentucky reference (3R4F) cigarette. Two different test matrices were assessed. Aerosol generated from the e-cigarette was trapped on a Cambridge filter pad, eluted in DMSO and compared to cigarette smoke total particulate matter (TPM), which was generated in the same manner for mutagenicity assessment in the Salmonella assay. Fresh e-cigarette and cigarette smoke aerosols were generated on the Vitrocell(®) VC 10 smoking robot and compared using a modified scaled-down 35mm air agar interface (AAI) methodology. E-cigarette aerosol collected matter (ACM) was found to be non-mutagenic in the 85mm plate incorporation Ames assay in strains TA98 and TA100 conducted in accordance with OECD 471, when tested up to 2400μg/plate. Freshly generated e-cigarette aerosol was also found to be negative in both strains after an AAI aerosol exposure, when tested up to a 1L/min dilution for up to 3h. Positive control responses were observed in both strains, using benzo[a]pyrene, 2-nitrofluorene, sodium azide and 2-aminoanthracene in TA98 and TA100 in the presence and absence of metabolic activation respectively. In contrast, cigarette smoke TPM and aerosol from 3R4F reference cigarettes were found to be mutagenic in both tester strains, under comparable test conditions to that of e-cigarette exposure. Limited information exists on the mutagenic activity of captured e-cigarette particulates and whole aerosol AAI approaches. With the lower toxicant burden of e-cigarette aerosols compared to cigarette smoke, it is clear that a more comprehensive Ames package of data should be generated when assessing e-cigarettes, consisting of the standard OECD-five, TA98, TA100, TA1535, TA1537 (or TA97) and E. coli (or TA102). In addition, TA104

  5. Study of XANES near Ta-L edges in LiTaO3 through thermal wave, fluorescence and first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kane, S. R.; Kumar, Shailendra; Ghosh, Haranath; Singh, Ajit Kumar; Tiwari, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    X-ray absorption near-edge spectra (XANES) of Ta-L2 and L3 edges in LiTaO3 (LTO) crystals are measured by measuring amplitude and phase of thermal waves generated within the LTO crystal, using pyroelectric property of LTO. Thus, LTO crystal is used both as a sample as well as sensor material. XANES of Ta-L edges in LTO are also measured by fluorescence. XANES spectra from fluorescence and first-principles simulations agree excellently well. The onset of the pre-edge region of XANES, measured by both techniques, extends below the edge by about 50 eV. This pre-edge onset of absorption is explained in terms of the core-hole lifetime effect on near-edge absorption using density functional theory. However, detailed nature of XANES peaks near Ta-L3 and Ta-L2 absorption edges, measured by thermal waves and fluorescence, differ. Possible origins of these differences are discussed.

  6. The Joint Strength and Fracture Mechanisms of TC4/TC4 and TA0/TA0 Brazed with Ti-25Cu-15Ni Braze Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Zhihuan; Zeng, Fanhao; Wu, Haobo; Liu, Jian; Li, Yi; Gu, Yi; Yuan, Tiechui; Zhang, Fuqin

    2017-05-01

    In this paper, Ti-25Cu-15Ni (mass ratio) braze alloys were prepared by vacuum arc melting. Additionally, the TA0 pure titanium and TC4 titanium alloy were brazed with the Ti-25Cu-15Ni braze alloy at 960, 980, 1000, 1020, and 1040 °C. The effects of the braze temperature on the tensile strength of the TA0 and TC4 joints and their fracture mechanisms were studied. The maximum tensile strength of the TA0 joints of 219.9 ± 0.1 MPa was achieved at a brazing temperature of 980 °C, and the maximum tensile strength of the TC4 joints of 832.9 ± 0.1 MPa was achieved at the same brazing temperature. These results indicate that their ideal joint strength is comparable. According to the fractography results of the TA0 joints, a mixed fracture morphology is indicated. The TA0 fracture surface is dominated by cleavage fracture with a small contribution from ductile fracture. The TC4 joint fracture arises from cleavage.

  7. Chemical Concentrations in Field Mice from Open-Detonation Firing Sites TA-36 Minie and TA-39 Point 6 at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Fresquez, Philip R.

    2011-01-01

    Field mice (mostly Peromyscus spp.) were collected at two open-detonation (high explosive) firing sites - Minie at Technical Area (TA) 36 and Point 6 at TA-39 - at Los Alamos National Laboratory in August of 2010 and in February of 2011 for chemical analysis. Samples of whole body field mice from both sites were analyzed for target analyte list elements (mostly metals), dioxin/furans, polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, high explosives, and perchlorate. In addition, uranium isotopes were analyzed in a composite sample collected from TA-36 Minie. In general, all constituents, with the exception of lead at TA-39 Point 6, in whole body field mice samples collected from these two open-detonation firing sites were either not detected or they were detected below regional statistical reference levels (99% confidence level), biota dose screening levels, and/or soil ecological chemical screening levels. The amount of lead in field mice tissue collected from TA-39 Point 6 was higher than regional background, and some lead levels in the soil were higher than the ecological screening level for the field mouse; however, these levels are not expected to affect the viability of the populations over the site as a whole.

  8. Improved interface properties of Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitor with TaTiO gate dielectric by using in situ TaON passivation interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, F.; Xu, J. P.; Liu, J. G.; Li, C. X.; Lai, P. T.

    2011-05-01

    TaON is in situ formed as a passivating interlayer in Ge metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors with high-k TaTiO gate dielectric fabricated simply by alternate sputtering of Ta and Ti. Also, postdeposition annealing is performed in wet N2 to suppress the growth of unstable GeOx at the Ge surface. As a result, excellent electrical properties of the Ge MOS devices are demonstrated, such as high equivalent dielectric constant (22.1), low interface-state density (7.3×1011 cm-2 eV), small gate leakage current (8.6×10-4 A cm-2 at Vg-Vfb=1 V), and high device reliability. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy support that all these should be attributed to the fact that the nitrogen barrier in the TaON interlayer can effectively block the interdiffusions of Ge and Ta, and the wet-N2 anneal can significantly suppress the growth of unstable low-k GeOx.

  9. Excitation functions for some W, Ta and Hf radionuclides obtained by deuteron irradiation of 181Ta up to 40 MeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermanne, A.; Daraban, L.; Tárkányi, F.; Takács, S.; Ditrói, F.; Ignatyuk, A.; Rebeles, R. Adam; Baba, M.

    2009-10-01

    Experimental excitation functions for deuteron induced reactions up to 40 MeV on mono-isotopic Ta ( 181Ta) were measured with the activation method using a stacked foil irradiation technique. From high resolution gamma spectrometry and X-ray analysis cross-section data for the production of 181W, 177,178g,180g,182m+gTa, and 179m2,180mHf were determined. Comparison with the scarce earlier published data are presented and results for values predicted by different theoretical codes, adapted for more reliable calculations for d-induced reactions, are included. Thick target yields for 182m+g,180g,178gTa and 181W were calculated from a fit to our experimental excitation curves. Using dose conversion factors and irradiation scenarios, possible occupational doses to maintenance or scientific personnel around high power accelerators where Ta based structural elements (collimators, beam stoppers, shielding) are present could be derived.

  10. Novel refractory phase, Ta7Si2(Si(x)B(1-x))2.

    PubMed

    Romaka, V; Fosodeder, V; Rogl, P F; Ramos, É C T; Nunes, C A; Coelho, G C; Giester, G

    2013-10-07

    X-ray single crystal (XSC) and powder diffraction data (XPD) were used to elucidate the crystal structure of a new refractory silicon boride Ta7Si2(Si(x)B(1-x))2 (x = 0.12). Tetragonal Ta7Si2(Si(x)B(1-x))2 (space group P4/mbm; a = 0.62219(2) nm, c = 0.83283(3) nm) with B atoms randomly sharing the 4g site with Si atoms is isotypic with the boride structure of (Re,Co)7B4. The architecture of the structure of Ta7Si2(Si(x)B(1-x))2 combines layers of three-capped triangular metal prisms (Si,B)[Ta(6+2)(Si,B)] alternating with double layers of two-capped Si[Ta(8+1)Si] Archimedian metal antiprisms. Consequently, the metal framework contains (B/Si) pairs and Si-Si dumbbells. These two types of coordination figures around the nonmetal atoms are typical for the system-inherent structures of Ta2B (or Ta2Si) and Ta3B2. DFT calculations showed strong B(Si)-B(Si) and Si-Si bonding and represent Ta7Si2(Si(x)B(1-x))2 as a covalent-ionic compound. This bonding behavior is reflected in the high hardness value of 1750 HV. The Sommerfeld constant, γ = 7.58 mJ/mol K(2), as derived from the electronic density of states, calculated at the Fermi level, suggests typical metallic behavior.

  11. Anomalous anti-damping in sputtered β-Ta/Py bilayer system

    PubMed Central

    Behera, Nilamani; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K.

    2016-01-01

    Anomalous decrease in effective damping parameter αeff in sputtered Ni81Fe19 (Py) thin films in contact with a very thin β-Ta layer without necessitating the flow of DC-current is observed. This reduction in αeff, which is also referred to as anti-damping effect, is found to be critically dependent on the thickness of β-Ta layer; αeff being highest, i.e., 0.0093 ± 0.0003 for bare Ni81Fe19(18 nm)/SiO2/Si compared to the smallest value of 0.0077 ± 0.0001 for β-Ta(6 nm)/Py(18 nm)/SiO2/Si. This anomalous anti-damping effect is understood in terms of interfacial Rashba effect associated with the formation of a thin protective Ta2O5 barrier layer and also the spin pumping induced non-equilibrium diffusive spin-accumulation effect in β-Ta layer near the Ta/Py interface which induces additional spin orbit torque (SOT) on the moments in Py leading to reduction in . The fitting of (tTa) revealed an anomalous negative interfacial spin mixing conductance, and spin diffusion length,. The increase in αeff observed above tTa = 6 nm is attributed to the weakening of SOT at higher tTa. The study highlights the potential of employing β-Ta based nanostructures in developing low power spintronic devices having tunable as well as low value of α. PMID:26782952

  12. Synthesis of Ti-Ta alloys with dual structure by incomplete diffusion between elemental powders.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yong; Li, Kaiyang; Wu, Hong; Song, Min; Wang, Wen; Li, Nianfeng; Tang, Huiping

    2015-11-01

    In this work, powder metallurgical (PM) Ti-Ta alloys were sintered using blended elemental powders. A dual structure, consisting of Ti-rich and Ta-rich zones, was formed due to the insufficient diffusion between Ti and Ta powders. The microstructure, mechanical properties and in vitro biological properties of the alloys were studied. Results indicated that the alloys have inhomogenous microstructures and compositions, but the grain structures were continuous from the Ti-rich zone to the Ta-rich zone. The Ta-rich zone exhibited a much finer grain size than the Ti-rich zone. The alloys had a high relative density in the range of 95-98%, with the porosity increasing with the content of Ta due to the increased difficulty in sintering and the formation of Kirkendall pores. The alloys had a good combination of low elastic modulus and high tensile strength. The strength of alloys was almost doubled compared to that of the ingot metallurgy alloys with the same compositions. The low elastic modulus was due to the residual pores and the alloying effect of Ta, while the high tensile strength resulted from the strengthening effects of solid solution, fine grain size and α phase. The alloys had a high biocompatibility due to the addition of Ta, and were suitable for the attachment of cells due to the surface porosity. It was also indicated that PM Ti-(20-30)Ta alloys are promising for biomedical applications after the evaluations of both the mechanical and the biological properties.

  13. SEMICONDUCTOR TECHNOLOGY: TaN wet etch for application in dual-metal-gate integration technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yongliang, Li; Qiuxia, Xu

    2009-12-01

    Wet-etch etchants and the TaN film method for dual-metal-gate integration are investigated. Both HF/HN O3/H2O and NH4OH/H2O2 solutions can etch TaN effectively, but poor selectivity to the gate dielectric for the HF/HNO3/H2O solution due to HF being included in HF/HNO3/H2O, and the fact that TaN is difficult to etch in the NH4OH/H2O2 solution at the first stage due to the thin TaOxNy layer on the TaN surface, mean that they are difficult to individually apply to dual-metal-gate integration. A two-step wet etching strategy using the HF/HNO3/H2O solution first and the NH4OH/H2O2 solution later can fully remove thin TaN film with a photo-resist mask and has high selectivity to the HfSiON dielectric film underneath. High-k dielectric film surfaces are smooth after wet etching of the TaN metal gate and MOSCAPs show well-behaved C-V and Jg-Vg characteristics, which all prove that the wet etching of TaN has little impact on electrical performance and can be applied to dual-metal-gate integration technology for removing the first TaN metal gate in the PMOS region.

  14. Structure and electronic properties of conducting, ternary TixTa1-xN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matenoglou, G. M.; Lekka, Ch. E.; Koutsokeras, L. E.; Karras, G.; Kosmidis, C.; Evangelakis, G. A.; Patsalas, P.

    2009-05-01

    We report on the electronic structure and optical properties of conducting ternary transition metal nitrides consisting of metals of different groups of the periodic table of elements. For the study of the bonding, electronic structure, and optical properties of conducting TixTa1-xN film growth, optical spectroscopy and ab initio calculations were used. Despite the different valence electron configuration of the constituent elements, Ta(d3s2) and Ti(d2s2), we show that TiN and TaN are completely soluble due to the hybridization of the d and sp electrons of the metals and N, respectively, that stabilizes the ternary TixTa1-xN systems to the rocksalt structure. The optical properties of TixTa1-xN have been studied using spectroscopic methods and detailed electronic structure calculations, revealing that the plasma energy of the fully dense TixTa1-xN is varying between 7.8 and 9.45 eV. Additional optical absorption bands are manifested due to the N p →Ti/Ta d interband transition the t2g→eg transition due to splitting of the metals' d band, with the major exception of the Ti0.50Ta0.50N, where the eg unoccupied states are not manifested due to the local structure of the ternary system; this finding is observed for the first time and proves previous assignments of optical transitions in TaN.

  15. TaADF3, an Actin-Depolymerizing Factor, Negatively Modulates Wheat Resistance Against Puccinia striiformis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Chunlei; Deng, Lin; Chang, Dan; Chen, Shuntao; Wang, Xiaojie; Kang, Zhensheng

    2016-01-01

    The actin cytoskeleton has been implicated in plant defense against pathogenic fungi, oomycetes, and bacteria. Actin depolymerizing factors (ADFs) are stimulus responsive actin cytoskeleton modulators. However, there is limited evidence linking ADFs with plant defense against pathogens. In this study, we have isolated and functionally characterized a stress-responsive ADF gene (TaADF3) from wheat, which was detectable in all examined wheat tissues. TaADF3 is a three-copy gene located on chromosomes 5AL, 5BL, and 5DL. A particle bombardment assay in onion epidermal cells revealed the cytoplasmic and nuclear localization of TaADF3. The expression of TaADF3 was inducible by abscisic acid (ABA), as well as various abiotic stresses (drought and cold) and virulent Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) but was down regulated in response to avirulent Pst. Virus-induced silencing of TaADF3 copies enhanced wheat resistance to avirulent Pst, with decreased reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation and hypersensitive response (HR). Upon treatment with virulent Pst, TaADF3-knockdown plants exhibited reduced susceptibility, which was accompanied by increased ROS production and HR. Interestingly, the silencing of TaADF3 resulted in hindered pathogen penetration and haustoria formation for both avirulent and virulent Pst. Moreover, the array and distribution of actin filaments was transformed in TaADF3-knockdown epidermal cells, which possibly facilitated attenuating the fungus penetration. Thus, our findings suggest that TaADF3 positively regulates wheat tolerance to abiotic stresses and negatively regulates wheat resistance to Pst in an ROS-dependent manner, possibly underlying the mechanism of impeding fungal penetration dependent on the actin architecture dynamics. PMID:26834758

  16. Phase relations and crystal structures in the system Ta-V-Ge.

    PubMed

    Khan, Atta U; Bursik, J; Rogl, P

    2012-05-28

    Phase equilibria have been derived for the isothermal section of the Ta-V-Ge system at 1500 °C (for concentrations <45 at% Ge) on the basis of X-ray powder diffraction, EPMA and TEM analyses of argon arc melted alloys annealed in high vacuum at 1500 °C up to 200 hours. Four ternary phases have been identified within the isothermal section, out of which three were characterized by Rietveld refinement of X-ray powder diffraction data. τ(1)-(Ta(1-x)V(x))(5)Ge(3) (0.21 ≤ x ≤ 0.63) adopts the Mn(5)Si(3)-type and τ(2)-Ta(Ta(x)V(1-x-y)Ge(y))(2), x = 0.02, y = 0.12 was found to be a MgZn(2)-type Laves phase. Detailed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in several crystallographic directions confirmed lattice parameters and crystal symmetry of this phase and rejected the presence of any superstructure. τ(3)-Ta(9-x+y)V(4+x-y-z)Ge(1+z), x = 0.32, y = 0.51, z = 0.98 crystallizes with the Nb(9)Co(4)Ge-type, whereas the structure of τ(4) is not yet known. Although a MgCu(2)-type cubic Laves phase is not present in the Ta-V binary at this temperature, additions of Ge stabilize this phase in the ternary system: C15-Ta(Ta(x)V(1-x-y)Ge(y))(2), x = 0.04, y = 0.05. V(11)Ge(8) (Cr(11)Ge(8) type) shows a large solubility up to (Ta(x)V(1-x))(11)Ge(8), x = 0.64 at 1500 °C.

  17. Anomalous anti-damping in sputtered β-Ta/Py bilayer system.

    PubMed

    Behera, Nilamani; Chaudhary, Sujeet; Pandya, Dinesh K

    2016-01-19

    Anomalous decrease in effective damping parameter αeff in sputtered Ni81Fe19 (Py) thin films in contact with a very thin β-Ta layer without necessitating the flow of DC-current is observed. This reduction in αeff, which is also referred to as anti-damping effect, is found to be critically dependent on the thickness of β-Ta layer; αeff being highest, i.e., 0.0093 ± 0.0003 for bare Ni81Fe19(18 nm)/SiO2/Si compared to the smallest value of 0.0077 ± 0.0001 for β-Ta(6 nm)/Py(18 nm)/SiO2/Si. This anomalous anti-damping effect is understood in terms of interfacial Rashba effect associated with the formation of a thin protective Ta2O5 barrier layer and also the spin pumping induced non-equilibrium diffusive spin-accumulation effect in β-Ta layer near the Ta/Py interface which induces additional spin orbit torque (SOT) on the moments in Py leading to reduction in αeff. The fitting of αeff (tTa) revealed an anomalous negative interfacial spin mixing conductance, g(↑↓) = -1.13  ± .05 × 10(18) m(-2) and spin diffusion length, λSD = 2.47 ± 0.47 nm. The increase in αeff observed above tTa = 6 nm is attributed to the weakening of SOT at higher tTa. The study highlights the potential of employing β-Ta based nanostructures in developing low power spintronic devices having tunable as well as low value of α.

  18. Laser-deposited Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta orthopedic alloys.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, R; Nag, S; Samuel, S; Fraser, H L

    2006-08-01

    The complex quaternary Ti-35Nb-7Zr-5Ta orthopedic alloy has been successfully deposited from a powder feedstock consisting of a blend of elemental titanium, niobium, zirconium, and tantalum powders, using the laser engineered net-shaping (LENStrade mark) process. In the as laser-deposited form, these alloys exhibit a substantially higher tensile strength as compared with more conventionally processed counterparts of similar composition, while maintaining excellent ductility and a low modulus. Furthermore, the as-deposited alloys appear to exhibit a <001> texture, with a substantially large number of grains of the beta phase aligning one of their <001> axes nearly normal to the substrate or parallel to the growth direction. The microstructure of the as-deposited as well as tensile-tested alloys have been characterized in detail using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), orientation microscopy (OM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Formation of a high density of shear bands, possibly arising from slip localization due to precipitates of the omega phase in the beta matrix, is clearly evident in the tensile-tested sample. The enhanced tensile strength and low modulus in these laser-deposited alloys coupled with the ability to form near-net shape components makes LENS an attractive processing technology for orthopedic implants.

  19. Trace metals in the Góta river estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danielsson, Lars-Göran; Magnusson, Bertil; Westerlund, Stig; Zhang, Kerong

    1983-07-01

    The concentrations of the trace metals Cd, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn in the Göta River estuary have been investigated. The following metal fractions have been determined: acid-leachable, dissolved, labile and particulate. The estuary represents a salt wedge type estuary and is situated in a densely populated region of Sweden. The metal concentrations found for the dissolved fraction is in the range of what can be considered as background levels for freshwater. It is difficult to evaluate any estuarine processes other than conservative mixing for Cd, Cu, Ni and Zn. The dissolved levels in the freshwater end member are Cd, 9-25 ngl -1; Cu, 1·1-1·4 μgl -1; Fe, 20-75 μg l -1: Ni, 0·7-0·9 μg l -1: Pb 0·09-0·2 μg l -1; and Zn, 6-7 μg l -1: The results from the acid-leachable fraction show that at high suspended load the particles sediment in the river mouth. The trace metal levels in this fraction are subject to large variations.

  20. Seismic Vulnerability Assessment Rest House Building TA-16-41

    SciTech Connect

    Cuesta, Isabel; Salmon, Michael W.

    2003-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to present the results of the evaluation completed on the Rest House Facility (TA-16-4111) in support of hazard analysis for a Documented Safety Assessment (DSA). The Rest House facility has been evaluated to verify the structural response to seismic, wind, and snow loads in support of the DynEx DSA. The structural analyses consider the structure and the following systems and/or components inside the facility as requested by facility management: cranes, lighting protection system, and fire protection system. The facility has been assigned to Natural Phenomena Hazards (NPH) Performance Category (PC) –3. The facility structure was evaluated to PC-3 criteria because it serves to confine hazardous material, and in the event of an accident, the facility cannot fail or collapse. Seismicinduced failure of the cranes, lighting, and fire-protection systems according to DOE-STD-1021-93 (Ref. 1) “may result in adverse release consequences greater than safety-class Structures, Systems, and Components (SSC) Evaluation Guideline limits but much less than those associated with PC-4 SSC.” Therefore, these items will be evaluated to PC-3 criteria as well. This report presents the results of those analyses and suggests recommendations to improve the seismic capacity of the systems and components cited above.

  1. Biocompatibility of new Ti-Nb-Ta base alloys.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Abdelrahman H; Gepreel, Mohamed A-H; Gouda, Mohamed K; Hefnawy, Ahmad M; Kandil, Sherif H

    2016-04-01

    β-type titanium alloys are promising materials in the field of medical implants. The effect of β-phase stability on the mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and cytotoxicity of a newly designed β-type (Ti77Nb17Ta6) biocompatible alloys are studied. The β-phase stability was controlled by the addition of small quantities of Fe and O. X-ray diffraction and microstructural analysis showed that the addition of O and Fe stabilized the β-phase in the treated solution condition. The strength and hardness have increased with the increase in β-phase stability while ductility and Young's modulus have decreased. The potentio-dynamic polarization tests showed that the corrosion resistance of the new alloys is better than Ti-6Al-4V alloy by at least ten times. Neutral red uptake assay cytotoxicity test showed cell viability of at least 95%. The new alloys are promising candidates for biomedical applications due to their high mechanical properties, corrosion resistance, and reduced cytotoxicity.

  2. Dynamic surface tension of surfactant TA: experiments and theory.

    PubMed

    Otis, D R; Ingenito, E P; Kamm, R D; Johnson, M

    1994-12-01

    A bubble surfactometer was used to measure the surface tension of an aqueous suspension of surfactant TA as a function of bubble area over a range of cycling rates and surfactant bulk concentrations. Results of the surface tension-interfacial area loops exhibited a rich variety of phenomena, the character of which varied systematically with frequency and bulk concentration. A model was developed to interpret and explain these data and for use in describing the dynamics of surface layers under more general circumstances. Surfactant was modeled as a single component with surface tension taken to depend on only the interfacial surfactant concentration. Two distinct mechanisms were considered for the exchange of surfactant between the bulk phase and interface. The first is described by a simple kinetic relationship for adsorption and desorption that pertains only when the interfacial concentration is below its maximum equilibrium value. The second mechanism is "squeeze-out" by which surfactant molecules are expelled from an interface compressed past a maximum packing state. The model provided good agreement with experimental measurements for cycling rates from 1 to 100 cycles/min and for bulk concentrations between 0.0073 and 7.3 mg/ml.

  3. Influence of shockwave obliquity on deformation twin formation in Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, George T., III; Livescu, V; Cerreta, E K; Mason, T A; Maudlin, P J; Bingert, J F

    2009-02-18

    Energetic loading subjects a material to a 'Taylor wave' (triangular wave) loading profile that experiences an evolving balance of hydrostatic (spherical) and deviatoric stresses. While much has been learned over the past five decades concerning the propensity of deformation twinning in samples shockloaded using 'square-topped' profiles as a function of peak stress, achieved most commonly via flyer plate loading, less is known concerning twinning propensity during non-I-dimensional sweeping detonation wave loading. Systematic small-scale energetically-driven shock loading experiments were conducted on Ta samples shock loaded with PEFN that was edge detonated. Deformation twinning was quantified in post-mortem samples as a function of detonation geometry and radial position. In the edge detonated loading geometry examined in this paper, the average volume fraction of deformation twins was observed to drastically increase with increasing shock obliquity. The results of this study are discussed in light of the formation mechanisms of deformation twins, previous literature studies of twinning in shocked materials, and modeling of the effects of shock obliquity on the evolution of the stress tensor during shock loading.

  4. Ta-doped Anatase TiO2 Epitaxial Film as Transparent Conducting Oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hitosugi, Taro; Furubayashi, Yutaka; Ueda, Atsuki; Itabashi, Kinnosuke; Inaba, Kazuhisa; Hirose, Yasushi; Kinoda, Go; Yamamoto, Yukio; Shimada, Toshihiro; Hasegawa, Tetsuya

    2005-08-01

    We present electrical transport and optical properties of Ta-doped TiO2 epitaxial thin films with varying Ta concentration grown by the pulsed laser deposition method. The Ti0.95Ta0.05O2 film exhibited a resistivity of 2.5× 10-4 Ω cm at room temperature, and an internal transmittance of 95% in the visible light region. These values are comparable to those of a widely used transparent conducting oxide (TCO), indium tin oxide. Furthermore, this new material falls into a new category of TCOs that utilizes d electrons.

  5. Search for the radioactivity of 180mTa using an underground HPGe sandwich spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Hult, Mikael; Wieslander, J S Elisabeth; Marissens, Gerd; Gasparro, Joël; Wätjen, Uwe; Misiaszek, Marcin

    2009-05-01

    The radioactivity of (180m)Ta has never been detected. The present attempt to detect it was carried out using a newly developed HPGe sandwich spectrometer installed 500m water equivalent underground in the HADES laboratory. The sample consisted of 6 discs of tantalum of natural isotopic composition with a total mass of 1500 g and a total mass for (180)Ta of 180 mg. The sample was measured for 68 days and the resulting lower bound for the half-life of (180m)Ta was 2.0 x 10(16)y, which is a factor of 2.8 higher than the previous highest value.

  6. Structural studies of the metal-rich region in the ternary Ta-Nb-S system

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, Xiaoqiang.

    1991-10-07

    Six new solid solution type compounds have been prepared using high temperature techniques and characterized by means of single crystal x-ray techniques during a study of the metal-rich region of the ternary Ta-Nb-S system. The structures of Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 11-x}S{sub 4} are reminiscent of niobium-rich sulfides, rather than of tantalum-rich sulfides. The coordinations of sulfur are capped trigonal prismatic while the metal coordinations are capped distorted cubic prismatic for Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 11-x}S{sub 4}, and capped distorted cubic prismatic and pentagonal prismatic for Nb{sub 12-x}Ta{sub x}S{sub 4}. The structures of Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 5-x}S{sub 2} contain homoatomic layers sequenced S-M3-M2-M1-M2-M3-S (M is mixed Nb, Ta) generating six-layer sheets, respectively. Weak S-S interactions at 3.26 and 3.19{Angstrom} between sheets contrast with the M-M binding within and between the sheets in these two novel layered compounds. The former are presumably responsible for the observed graphitic slippage of the samples. Nb{sub 21-x}Ta{sub x}S{sub 8} and Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 2-x}S are isostructural with Nb{sub 21}S{sub 8} and Ta{sub 2}S, respectively. Extended Hueckel band calculations were carried out for two layered compounds, Nb{sub x}Ta{sub 5-x}S{sub 2} (x {approx} 1.72) and Nb{sub x}ta{sub 2-x}S (x {approx} 0.95). Based upon band calculations metallic properties can be expected for these two layered compounds. The relative preference of the metal sites for the two metal elements (Ta, Nb) in two layered compounds is explained by the results of the band calculations. 17 figs., 31 tabs., 80 refs.

  7. New Developments of the Therapeutic Alliance (TA): Good News for Psychodynamic Psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Auchincloss, Elizabeth L

    2016-03-01

    Clinicians have long known that successful psychotherapy, including successful psychodynamic psychotherapy, depends upon the interaction between therapist and patient. In other words, it is important to have a strong therapeutic alliance. This article presents the history of the concept of the therapeutic alliance (TA). It also explores three areas of research that have bearing on the TA. The importance of the TA and the extensive research work that pertains to it hold promise for psychodynamic psychiatry, both in terms of understanding, and in the treatment of mental suffering.

  8. Nanostructured Ti-Ta thin films synthesized by combinatorial glancing angle sputter deposition.

    PubMed

    Motemani, Yahya; Khare, Chinmay; Savan, Alan; Hans, Michael; Paulsen, Alexander; Frenzel, Jan; Somsen, Christoph; Mücklich, Frank; Eggeler, Gunther; Ludwig, Alfred

    2016-12-09

    Ti-Ta alloys are attractive materials for applications in actuators as well as biomedical implants. When fabricated as thin films, these alloys can potentially be employed as microactuators, components for micro-implantable devices and coatings on surgical implants. In this study, Ti100-x Ta x (x = 21, 30) nanocolumnar thin films are fabricated by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) at room temperature using Ti73Ta27 and Ta sputter targets. Crystal structure, morphology and microstructure of the nanostructured thin films are systematically investigated by XRD, SEM and TEM, respectively. Nanocolumns of ∼150-160 nm in width are oriented perpendicular to the substrate for both Ti79Ta21 and Ti70Ta30 compositions. The disordered α″ martensite phase with orthorhombic structure is formed in room temperature as-deposited thin films. The columns are found to be elongated small single crystals which are aligned perpendicular to the [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] planes of α″ martensite, indicating that the films' growth orientation is mainly dominated by these crystallographic planes. Laser pre-patterned substrates are utilized to obtain periodic nanocolumnar arrays. The differences in seed pattern, and inter-seed distances lead to growth of multi-level porous nanostructures. Using a unique sputter deposition geometry consisting of Ti73Ta27 and Ta sputter sources, a nanocolumnar Ti-Ta materials library was fabricated on a static substrate by a co-deposition process (combinatorial-GLAD approach). In this library, a composition spread developed between Ti72.8Ta27.2 and Ti64.4Ta35.6, as confirmed by high-throughput EDX analysis. The morphology over the materials library varies from well-isolated nanocolumns to fan-like nanocolumnar structures. The influence of two sputter sources is investigated by studying the resulting column angle on the materials library. The presented nanostructuring methods including the use of the GLAD technique along with pre

  9. Dynamic Consolidation of TaC and Nano-YSZ Powders (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-07

    fracture resistant TaC. TaC powders of size less than 3μm, and grain size ranging from 0.5 to 1μm, were packed in double-tube steel vessels and subjected...TaC powders of size less than 3μm, and grain size ranging from 0.5 to 1μm, were packed in double-tube steel vessels and subjected to explosive...material also has a ductile to brittle transition temperature ( DBTT ) of 1750 - 2000°C [3], allowing it to be shaped above DBTT . However, one drawback

  10. Effect of Ta doped on microstructure of sodium potassium niobate single crystal grown by flux method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saravanan, R.; Rajesh, D.; Rajasekaran, S. V.; Perumal, R.; Chitra, M.; Jayavel, R.

    2013-06-01

    Single crystals of sodium potassium niobate (K0.5Na0.5)NbO3 (KNN) and 0.5mol%, 1mol% and 1.5 mol% tantalum oxide Ta2O5 doped KNN were grown by flux method. The formation of microstructure and domain structure was investigated for both pure and Ta doped KNN single crystals. The partial substitution of the B-site ion Nb5+ by the Ta5+ ion in the KNN single crystal results show that the decrease in the domain size and increase in the surface roughness with increasing concentration of dopants.

  11. Nanostructured Ti-Ta thin films synthesized by combinatorial glancing angle sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motemani, Yahya; Khare, Chinmay; Savan, Alan; Hans, Michael; Paulsen, Alexander; Frenzel, Jan; Somsen, Christoph; Mücklich, Frank; Eggeler, Gunther; Ludwig, Alfred

    2016-12-01

    Ti-Ta alloys are attractive materials for applications in actuators as well as biomedical implants. When fabricated as thin films, these alloys can potentially be employed as microactuators, components for micro-implantable devices and coatings on surgical implants. In this study, Ti100-x Ta x (x = 21, 30) nanocolumnar thin films are fabricated by glancing angle deposition (GLAD) at room temperature using Ti73Ta27 and Ta sputter targets. Crystal structure, morphology and microstructure of the nanostructured thin films are systematically investigated by XRD, SEM and TEM, respectively. Nanocolumns of ˜150-160 nm in width are oriented perpendicular to the substrate for both Ti79Ta21 and Ti70Ta30 compositions. The disordered α″ martensite phase with orthorhombic structure is formed in room temperature as-deposited thin films. The columns are found to be elongated small single crystals which are aligned perpendicular to the (20\\bar{4}) and (204) planes of α″ martensite, indicating that the films’ growth orientation is mainly dominated by these crystallographic planes. Laser pre-patterned substrates are utilized to obtain periodic nanocolumnar arrays. The differences in seed pattern, and inter-seed distances lead to growth of multi-level porous nanostructures. Using a unique sputter deposition geometry consisting of Ti73Ta27 and Ta sputter sources, a nanocolumnar Ti-Ta materials library was fabricated on a static substrate by a co-deposition process (combinatorial-GLAD approach). In this library, a composition spread developed between Ti72.8Ta27.2 and Ti64.4Ta35.6, as confirmed by high-throughput EDX analysis. The morphology over the materials library varies from well-isolated nanocolumns to fan-like nanocolumnar structures. The influence of two sputter sources is investigated by studying the resulting column angle on the materials library. The presented nanostructuring methods including the use of the GLAD technique along with pre-patterning and a

  12. Study on quasiperiodic Ta/Al multilayer films by x-ray diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, R.W.; Hu, A.; Jiang, S.S. )

    1991-11-11

    Quasiperiodic (Fibonacci) Ta/Al multilayer films with Ta(110) and Al(111) textures were fabricated by magnetron sputtering. The structure of the multilayers was characterized in detail by x-ray diffraction. The diffraction peaks at low and high angles can be indexed by the projection method from the high-dimension periodic structure. The experimental results were in good agreement with the numerical calculation using the model for the compositionally modulated multilayers. The diffraction spectrum of the quasiperiodic Ta/Al multilayers is totally different from that of periodic structure, and the possible application of Fibonacci films as optical elements in a soft x-ray region is discussed.

  13. Molecular evolution of the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta in invasive weedy rice in the USA.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seonghee; Jia, Yulin; Jia, Melissa; Gealy, David R; Olsen, Kenneth M; Caicedo, Ana L

    2011-01-01

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been effectively used to control rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae worldwide. Despite a number of studies that reported the Pi-ta gene in domesticated rice and wild species, little is known about how the Pi-ta gene has evolved in US weedy rice, a major weed of rice. To investigate the genome organization of the Pi-ta gene in weedy rice and its relationship to gene flow between cultivated and weedy rice in the US, we analyzed nucleotide sequence variation at the Pi-ta gene and its surrounding 2 Mb region in 156 weedy, domesticated and wild rice relatives. We found that the region at and around the Pi-ta gene shows very low genetic diversity in US weedy rice. The patterns of molecular diversity in weeds are more similar to cultivated rice (indica and aus), which have never been cultivated in the US, rather than the wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon. In addition, the resistant Pi-ta allele (Pi-ta) found in the majority of US weedy rice belongs to the weedy group strawhull awnless (SH), suggesting a single source of origin for Pi-ta. Weeds with Pi-ta were resistant to two M. oryzae races, IC17 and IB49, except for three accessions, suggesting that component(s) required for the Pi-ta mediated resistance may be missing in these accessions. Signatures of flanking sequences of the Pi-ta gene and SSR markers on chromosome 12 suggest that the susceptible pi-ta allele (pi-ta), not Pi-ta, has been introgressed from cultivated to weedy rice by out-crossing.

  14. Molecular Evolution of the Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-ta in Invasive Weedy Rice in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seonghee; Jia, Yulin; Jia, Melissa; Gealy, David R.; Olsen, Kenneth M.; Caicedo, Ana L.

    2011-01-01

    The Pi-ta gene in rice has been effectively used to control rice blast disease caused by Magnaporthe oryzae worldwide. Despite a number of studies that reported the Pi-ta gene in domesticated rice and wild species, little is known about how the Pi-ta gene has evolved in US weedy rice, a major weed of rice. To investigate the genome organization of the Pi-ta gene in weedy rice and its relationship to gene flow between cultivated and weedy rice in the US, we analyzed nucleotide sequence variation at the Pi-ta gene and its surrounding 2 Mb region in 156 weedy, domesticated and wild rice relatives. We found that the region at and around the Pi-ta gene shows very low genetic diversity in US weedy rice. The patterns of molecular diversity in weeds are more similar to cultivated rice (indica and aus), which have never been cultivated in the US, rather than the wild rice species, Oryza rufipogon. In addition, the resistant Pi-ta allele (Pi-ta) found in the majority of US weedy rice belongs to the weedy group strawhull awnless (SH), suggesting a single source of origin for Pi-ta. Weeds with Pi-ta were resistant to two M. oryzae races, IC17 and IB49, except for three accessions, suggesting that component(s) required for the Pi-ta mediated resistance may be missing in these accessions. Signatures of flanking sequences of the Pi-ta gene and SSR markers on chromosome 12 suggest that the susceptible pi-ta allele (pi-ta), not Pi-ta, has been introgressed from cultivated to weedy rice by out-crossing. PMID:22043312

  15. Ground-based tests of JEM-EUSO components at the Telescope Array site, "EUSO-TA"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adams, J. H.; Ahmad, S.; Albert, J.-N.; Allard, D.; Anchordoqui, L.; Andreev, V.; Anzalone, A.; Arai, Y.; Asano, K.; Ave Pernas, M.; Baragatti, P.; Barrillon, P.; Batsch, T.; Bayer, J.; Bechini, R.; Belenguer, T.; Bellotti, R.; Belov, K.; Berlind, A. A.; Bertaina, M.; Biermann, P. L.; Biktemerova, S.; Blaksley, C.; Blanc, N.; Błȩcki, J.; Blin-Bondil, S.; Blümer, J.; Bobik, P.; Bogomilov, M.; Bonamente, M.; Briggs, M. S.; Briz, S.; Bruno, A.; Cafagna, F.; Campana, D.; Capdevielle, J.-N.; Caruso, R.; Casolino, M.; Cassardo, C.; Castellinic, G.; Catalano, C.; Catalano, G.; Cellino, A.; Chikawa, M.; Christl, M. J.; Cline, D.; Connaughton, V.; Conti, L.; Cordero, G.; Crawford, H. J.; Cremonini, R.; Csorna, S.; Dagoret-Campagne, S.; de Castro, A. J.; De Donato, C.; de la Taille, C.; De Santis, C.; del Peral, L.; Dell'Oro, A.; De Simone, N.; Di Martino, M.; Distratis, G.; Dulucq, F.; Dupieux, M.; Ebersoldt, A.; Ebisuzaki, T.; Engel, R.; Falk, S.; Fang, K.; Fenu, F.; Fernández-Gómez, I.; Ferrarese, S.; Finco, D.; Flamini, M.; Fornaro, C.; Franceschi, A.; Fujimoto, J.; Fukushima, M.; Galeotti, P.; Garipov, G.; Geary, J.; Gelmini, G.; Giraudo, G.; Gonchar, M.; González Alvarado, C.; Gorodetzky, P.; Guarino, F.; Guzmán, A.; Hachisu, Y.; Harlov, B.; Haungs, A.; Hernández Carretero, J.; Higashide, K.; Ikeda, D.; Ikeda, H.; Inoue, N.; Inoue, S.; Insolia, A.; Isgrò, F.; Itow, Y.; Joven, E.; Judd, E. G.; Jung, A.; Kajino, F.; Kajino, T.; Kaneko, I.; Karadzhov, Y.; Karczmarczyk, J.; Karus, M.; Katahira, K.; Kawai, K.; Kawasaki, Y.; Keilhauer, B.; Khrenov, B. A.; Kim, J.-S.; Kim, S.-W.; Kim, S.-W.; Kleifges, M.; Klimov, P. A.; Kolev, D.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kudela, K.; Kurihara, Y.; Kusenko, A.; Kuznetsov, E.; Lacombe, M.; Lachaud, C.; Lee, J.; Licandro, J.; Lim, H.; López, F.; Maccarone, M. C.; Mannheim, K.; Maravilla, D.; Marcelli, L.; Marini, A.; Martinez, O.; Masciantonio, G.; Mase, K.; Matev, R.; Medina-Tanco, G.; Mernik, T.; Miyamoto, H.; Miyazaki, Y.; Mizumoto, Y.; Modestino, G.; Monaco, A.; Monnier-Ragaigne, D.; Morales de los Ríos, J. A.; Moretto, C.; Morozenko, V. S.; Mot, B.; Murakami, T.; Murakami, M. Nagano; Nagata, M.; Nagataki, S.; Nakamura, T.; Napolitano, T.; Naumov, D.; Nava, R.; Neronov, A.; Nomoto, K.; Nonaka, T.; Ogawa, T.; Ogio, S.; Ohmori, H.; Olinto, A. V.; Orleański, P.; Osteria, G.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Parizot, E.; Park, I. H.; Park, H. W.; Pastircak, B.; Patzak, T.; Paul, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Perez Cano, S.; Peter, T.; Picozza, P.; Pierog, T.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Piraino, S.; Plebaniak, Z.; Pollini, A.; Prat, P.; Prévôt, G.; Prieto, H.; Putis, M.; Reardon, P.; Reyes, M.; Ricci, M.; Rodríguez, I.; Rodríguez Frías, M. D.; Ronga, F.; Roth, M.; Rothkaehl, H.; Roudil, G.; Rusinov, I.; Rybczyński, M.; Sabau, M. D.; Sáez-Cano, G.; Sagawa, H.; Saito, A.; Sakaki, N.; Sakata, M.; Salazar, H.; Sánchez, S.; Santangelo, A.; Santiago Crúz, L.; Sanz Palomino, M.; Saprykin, O.; Sarazin, F.; Sato, H.; Sato, M.; Schanz, T.; Schieler, H.; Scotti, V.; Segreto, A.; Selmane, S.; Semikoz, D.; Serra, M.; Sharakin, S.; Shibata, T.; Shimizu, H. M.; Shinozaki, K.; Shirahama, T.; Siemieniec-Oziȩbło, G.; Silva López, H. H.; Sledd, J.; Słomińska, K.; Sobey, A.; Sugiyama, T.; Supanitsky, D.; Suzuki, M.; Szabelska, B.; Szabelski, J.; Tajima, F.; Tajima, N.; Tajima, T.; Takahashi, Y.; Takami, H.; Takeda, M.; Takizawa, Y.; Tenzer, C.; Tibolla, O.; Tkachev, L.; Tokuno, H.; Tomida, T.; Tone, N.; Toscano, S.; Trillaud, F.; Tsenov, R.; Tsunesada, Y.; Tsuno, K.; Tymieniecka, T.; Uchihori, Y.; Unger, M.; Vaduvescu, O.; Valdés-Galicia, J. F.; Vallania, P.; Valore, L.; Vankova, G.; Vigorito, C.; Villaseñor, L.; von Ballmoos, P.; Wada, S.; Watanabe, J.; Watanabe, S.; Watts, J.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T. J.; Wibig, T.; Wiencke, L.; Wille, M.; Wilms, J.; Włodarczyk, Z.; Yamamoto, T.; Yamamoto, Y.; Yang, J.; Yano, H.; Yashin, I. V.; Yonetoku, D.; Yoshida, K.; Yoshida, S.; Young, R.; Zotov, M. Yu.; Zuccaro Marchi, A.

    2015-11-01

    We are conducting tests of optical and electronics components of JEMEUSO at the Telescope Array site in Utah with a ground-based "EUSO-TA" detector. The tests will include an engineering validation of the detector, cross-calibration of EUSO-TA with the TA fluorescence detector and observations of air shower events. Also, the proximity of the TA's Electron Light Source will allow for convenient use of this calibration device. In this paper, we report initial results obtained with the EUSO-TA telescope.

  16. New ternary tantalum borides containing boron dumbbells: Experimental and theoretical studies of Ta2OsB2 and TaRuB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mbarki, Mohammed; Touzani, Rachid St.; Rehorn, Christian W. G.; Gladisch, Fabian C.; Fokwa, Boniface P. T.

    2016-10-01

    The new ternary transition metal-rich borides Ta2OsB2 and TaRuB have been successfully synthesized by arc-melting the elements in a water-cooled crucible under an argon atmosphere. The crystal structures of both compounds were solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and their metal compositions were confirmed by EDX analysis. It was found that Ta2OsB2 and TaRuB crystallize in the tetragonal Nb2OsB2 (space group P4/mnc, no. 128) and the orthorhombic NbRuB (space group Pmma, no. 51) structure types with lattice parameters a=5.878(2) Å, c=6.857(2) Å and a=10.806(2) Å, b=3.196(1) Å, c=6.312(2) Å, respectively. Furthermore, crystallographic, electronic and bonding characteristics have been studied by density functional theory (DFT). Electronic structure relaxation has confirmed the crystallographic parameters while COHP bonding analysis indicates that B2-dummbells are the strongest bonds in both compounds. Moreover, the formation of osmium dumbbells in Ta2OsB2 through a Peierls distortion along the c-axis, is found to be the origin of superstructure formation. Magnetic susceptibility measurements reveal that the two phases are Pauli paramagnets, thus confirming the theoretical DOS prediction of metallic character. Also hints of superconductivity are found in the two phases, however lack of single phase samples has prevented confirmation. Furthermore, the thermodynamic stability of the two modifications of AMB (A=Nb, Ta; M =Ru, Os) are studied using DFT, as new possible phases containing either B4- or B2-units are predicted, the former being the most thermodynamically stable modification.

  17. Reaction mechanisms of atomic layer deposition of TaN{sub x} from Ta(NMe{sub 2}){sub 5} precursor and H{sub 2}-based plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Knoops, H. C. M.; Langereis, E.; Sanden, M. C. M. van de; Kessels, W. M. M.

    2012-01-15

    The reaction mechanisms of plasma-assisted atomic layer deposition (ALD) of TaN{sub x} using Ta(NMe{sub 2}){sub 5} were studied using quadrupole mass spectrometry (QMS). The fact that molecule dissociation and formation in the plasma have to be considered for such ALD processes was illustrated by the observation of 4% NH{sub 3} in a H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} (1:1) plasma. Using QMS measurements the reaction products during growth of conductive TaN{sub x} using a H{sub 2} plasma were determined. During the Ta(NMe{sub 2}){sub 5} exposure the reaction product HNMe{sub 2} was detected. The amount of adsorbed Ta(NMe{sub 2}){sub 5} and the amount of HNMe{sub 2} released were found to depend on the number of surface groups generated during the plasma step. At the beginning of the plasma exposure step the molecules HNMe{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, HCN, and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} were measured. After an extended period of plasma exposure, the reaction products CH{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 2} were still present in the plasma. This change in the composition of the reaction products can be explained by an interplay of aspects including the plasma-surface interaction, the ALD surface reactions, and the reactions of products within the plasma. The species formed in the plasma (e.g., CH{sub x} radicals) can re-deposit on the surface and influence to a large extent the TaN{sub x} material composition and properties.

  18. Transgenic barley lines prove the involvement of TaCBF14 and TaCBF15 in the cold acclimation process and in frost tolerance.

    PubMed

    Soltész, Alexandra; Smedley, Mark; Vashegyi, Ildikó; Galiba, Gábor; Harwood, Wendy; Vágújfalvi, Attila

    2013-04-01

    The enhancement of winter hardiness is one of the most important tasks facing breeders of winter cereals. For this reason, the examination of those regulatory genes involved in the cold acclimation processes is of central importance. The aim of the present work was the functional analysis of two wheat CBF transcription factors, namely TaCBF14 and TaCBF15, shown by previous experiments to play a role in the development of frost tolerance. These genes were isolated from winter wheat and then transformed into spring barley, after which the effect of the transgenes on low temperature stress tolerance was examined. Two different types of frost tests were applied; plants were hardened at low temperature before freezing, or plants were subjected to frost without a hardening period. The analysis showed that TaCBF14 and TaCBF15 transgenes improve the frost tolerance to such an extent that the transgenic lines were able to survive freezing temperatures several degrees lower than that which proved lethal for the wild-type spring barley. After freezing, lower ion leakage was measured in transgenic leaves, showing that these plants were less damaged by the frost. Additionally, a higher Fv/Fm parameter was determined, indicating that photosystem II worked more efficiently in the transgenics. Gene expression studies showed that HvCOR14b, HvDHN5, and HvDHN8 genes were up-regulated by TaCBF14 and TaCBF15. Beyond that, transgenic lines exhibited moderate retarded development, slower growth, and minor late flowering compared with the wild type, with enhanced transcript level of the gibberellin catabolic HvGA2ox5 gene.

  19. Transgenic expression of TaMYB2A confers enhanced tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Mao, Xinguo; Jia, Dongsheng; Li, Ang; Zhang, Hongying; Tian, Shanjun; Zhang, Xiaoke; Jia, Jizeng; Jing, Ruilian

    2011-09-01

    Osmotic stresses such as drought, salinity, and cold are major environmental factors that limit agricultural productivity. Transcription factors play essential roles in abiotic stress signaling in plants. Three TaMYB2 members were identified and designated TaMYB2A, TaMYB2B, and TaMYB2D based on their genomic origins. The cis-regulatory elements in the promoter regions were compared, and their diverse expression patterns under different abiotic stress conditions were identified. TaMYB2A was further characterized because of its earlier response to stresses. Subcellular localization revealed that TaMYB2A localized in the nucleus. To examine the role of TaMYB2A under various environmental stresses, transgenic Arabidopsis plants carrying TaMYB2A controlled by the CaMV 35S promoter were generated and subjected to severe abiotic stress. TaMYB2A transgenics had enhanced tolerance to drought, salt, and freezing stresses, which were confirmed by the enhanced expressions of abiotic stress-responsive genes and several physiological indices, including decreased rate of water loss, enhanced cell membrane stability, improved photosynthetic potential, and reduced osmotic potential. TaMYB2A is a multifunctional regulatory factor. Its overexpression confers enhanced tolerance to multiple abiotic stresses while having no obvious negative effects on phenotype under well-watered and stressed conditions; thus, TaMYB2A has the potential for utilization in transgenic breeding to improve abiotic stress tolerances in crops.

  20. Stability of Ru- and Ta-based metal gate electrodes in contact with dielectrics for Si-CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Misra, Veena; Haggerty, Ryan P.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2004-08-01

    The Ru-Ta-Si-O, Ta-Si-N-O, and Ru-Ta-Zr-O phase diagrams are important for predicting reactions at interfaces between SiO2 and ZrO2 gate dielectrics and novel Ru and Ta-based metal gate electrodes. Simplified quaternary phase diagrams of the Ru-Ta-Si-O, Ta-Si-N-O, and Ru-Ta-Zr-O systems at 900 °C were constructed from known and estimated Gibbs free energy data, respectively. Ru is predicted to be stable in contact with ZrO2 and SiO2, whereas Ta is not stable in contact with SiO2 at temperatures around 900 °C. Stoichiometric RuTa and TaN compounds were estimated to be stable in contact with both dielectrics at 900 °C. Experimental observations of gate electrode/dielectric interfaces are discussed. They are consistent with the thermodynamic predictions within the limitations of these phase diagrams. Metastable phases, often found in TaNx films, and diffusion of species from the vapor (e.g., oxygen), in particular along grain boundaries in columnar gate electrodes, may lead to reactions not predicted by the equilibrium phase diagrams.

  1. Mechanical Properties of Nb25Mo25Ta25W25 and V20Nb20Mo20Ta20W20 Refractory High Entropy Alloys (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-01

    temper ature from 548 MPa at 1000 C to 405 MPa at 1600 C (Table 2).ublic release; distribution unlimited. Table 4 Composition (in wt.%) of Inconel 718 ...values of the refractory HEAs are much higher than those of Haynes 230 at all studied temperatures and higher than those of Inconel 718 at...than twice (for the Nb25Mo25 Ta25W25 alloy) or four times (for the V20Nb20Mo20Ta20W20 alloy) higher than for Inconel 718 or Haynes 230 at 1000 C. The

  2. Atomic layer deposition and properties of mixed Ta2O5 and ZrO2 films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukli, Kaupo; Kemell, Marianna; Vehkamäki, Marko; Heikkilä, Mikko J.; Mizohata, Kenichiro; Kalam, Kristjan; Ritala, Mikko; Leskelä, Markku; Kundrata, Ivan; Fröhlich, Karol

    2017-02-01

    Thin solid films consisting of ZrO2 and Ta2O5 were grown by atomic layer deposition at 300 °C. Ta2O5 films doped with ZrO2, TaZr2.75O8 ternary phase, or ZrO2 doped with Ta2O5 were grown to thickness and composition depending on the number and ratio of alternating ZrO2 and Ta2O5 deposition cycles. All the films grown exhibited resistive switching characteristics between TiN and Pt electrodes, expressed by repetitive current-voltage loops. The most reliable windows between high and low resistive states were observed in Ta2O5 films mixed with relatively low amounts of ZrO2, providing Zr to Ta cation ratio of 0.2.

  3. Evolution of planetary cores and the Earth-Moon system from Nb/Ta systematics.

    PubMed

    Münker, Carsten; Pfänder, Jörg A; Weyer, Stefan; Büchl, Anette; Kleine, Thorsten; Mezger, Klaus

    2003-07-04

    It has been assumed that Nb and Ta are not fractionated during differentiation processes on terrestrial planets and that both elements are lithophile. High-precision measurements of Nb/Ta and Zr/Hf reveal that Nb is moderately siderophile at high pressures. Nb/Ta values in the bulk silicate Earth (14.0 +/- 0.3) and the Moon (17.0 +/- 0.8) are below the chondritic ratio of 19.9 +/- 0.6, in contrast to Mars and asteroids. The lunar Nb/Ta constrains the mass fraction of impactor material in the Moon to less than 65%. Moreover, the Moon-forming impact can be linked in time with the final core-mantle equilibration on Earth 4.533 billion years ago.

  4. Resonant optical absorption and defect control in Ta3N5 photoanodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dabirian, A.; van de Krol, R.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explore resonance-enhanced optical absorption in Ta3N5 photoanodes for water splitting. By using a reflecting Pt back-contact and appropriate Ta3N5 film thickness, the resonance frequency can be tuned to energies just above the bandgap, where the optical absorption is normally weak. The resonance results in a significant improvement in the photoanode's incident photon-to-current efficiency. The Ta3N5 films are made by high-temperature nitridation of Ta2O5. The nitridation time is found to be critical, as extended nitridation result in the formation of nitrogen vacancies through thermal reduction. These insights give important clues for the development of efficient (oxy)nitride-based photoelectrodes.

  5. Pressure-induced amorphization in orthorhombic Ta2O5: An intrinsic character of crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Quanjun; Zhang, Huafang; Cheng, Benyuan; Liu, Ran; Liu, Bo; Liu, Jing; Chen, Zhiqiang; Zou, Bo; Cui, Tian; Liu, Bingbing

    2014-05-01

    The phase transition of orthorhombic Ta2O5 was investigated by in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The orthorhombic phase transforms into an amorphous form completely at 24.7 GPa. A bulk modulus B0 = 139 (9) GPa for the orthorhombic Ta2O5 is derived from the P-V data. We suggest that the pressure-induced amorphization (PIA) in Ta2O5 can be attributed to the unstability of the a axis under high pressure leads to the connections of polyhedral breaking down and even triggers disorder of the whole crystal frame. These results demonstrate that the PIA is an intrinsic character of Ta2O5 which depends on its orthorhombic crystal structure rather than nanosize effects. This study provides a new kind of bulk material for investigating PIA in metal oxides.

  6. Barrier properties and failure mechanism of Ta-Si-N thin films for Cu interconnection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yoon-Jik; Suh, Bong-Seok; Kwon, Myoung Seok; Park, Chong-Ook

    1999-02-01

    Cosputtered Ta-Si-N amorphous films of ten different compositions were investigated as a barrier material for Cu interconnection. The films of relatively low nitrogen content (<47 at. %) undergo an abrupt failure with the formation of tantalum silicides and copper silicide between Si and Cu during annealing. Ta43Si4N53 thin film is readily crystallized into TaNx in spite of a remarkable chemical stability with Cu. The films containing nitrogen more than 51 at. % are sacrificial barriers which show the formation of Cu3Si phase at Ta-Si-N/Cu interface even before the films crystallize to form tantalum silicide. According to electrical tests, the barriers which show the sacrificial characteristics are most effective and show no electrical degradation even after annealing at 500 °C for an hour in Si/Cu and 525 °C for an hour in SiO2/Cu metallization.

  7. [Inspection of gas cylinders in storage at TA-54, Area L]. Volume 2, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-23

    ERC sampled, analyzed, and rcontainerized when necessary gas cylinders containing various chemicals in storage at LANL TA-54 Area L. This report summarizes the operation. This is Volume 2 of five volumes.

  8. Sputtered Ta-Si-N diffusion barriers in Cu metallizations for Si

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolawa, E.; Pokela, P. J.; Reid, J. S.; Chen, J. S.; Nicolet, Marc A.; Ruiz, R. P.

    1991-01-01

    Electrical measurements on shallow Si n+-p junction diodes with a 30-nm TiSi2 contacting layer demonstrate that an 80-nm-thick amorphous Ta36Si14N50 film prepared by reactive RF sputtering of a Ta5Si3 target in an Ar/N2 plasma very effectively prevents the interaction between the Si substrate with the TiSi2 contacting layer and a 500-nm Cu overlayer. The Ta36Si14N50 diffusion barrier maintains the integrity of the I-V characteristics up to 900 C for 30-min annealing in vacuum. It is concluded that the amorphous Ta36Si14N50 alloy is not only a material with a very low reactivity for copper, titanium, and silicon, but must have a small diffusivity for copper as well.

  9. Fast ultradense GdTa1-xNbxO4 scintillator crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voloshyna, Olesia; Gerasymov, Iaroslav; Sidletskiy, Oleg; Kurtsev, Daniil; Gorbacheva, Tatyana; Hubenko, Kateryna; Boiaryntseva, Ianina; Ivanov, Alexey; Spassky, Dmitry; Omelkov, Sergey; Belsky, Andrei

    2017-04-01

    Single crystals of GdTaO4 and GdTa0.8Nb0.2O4 were grown by the Czochralski technique, and their luminescent and scintillation properties were studied. Both crystals demonstrate fast emission with decay time around 10-8 s. Meanwhile, in GdTaO4 the fast decay is accompanied by a huge build-up with the decay time around 1 μs, while in the mixed crystal the contribution of slow components is negligible. UV- and X-ray excited luminescence, curves of thermostimulated luminescence and absolute light yields of crystals are presented as well. GdTa0.8Nb0.2O4 crystal is shown to be an ultradense (8.37 g/cm3) and fast (shortest component decay time 17 ns) scintillator with a high stopping power.

  10. Dose-enhancement effects in TaSi/Al- and Al-gate MOS devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fleetwood, D.M.; Beutler, D.E.; Draper, B.L.; Knott, D.; Brown, D.B.; Rosenstock, H.

    1988-01-01

    The response of MOS capacitors with TaSi/Al and Al electrodes to medium- and low-energy x-irradiation is investigated. Experimentally measured dose-enhancement effects are compared with computer simulations for these structures.

  11. Electrical and optical properties of Ta-Si-N thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Oezer, D.; Sanjines, R.; Ramirez, G.; Rodil, S. E.

    2012-12-01

    The electrical and optical properties of Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} thin films deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering from individual Ta and Si targets were studied in order to investigate the effects of nitrogen and silicon contents on both properties and their correlation to the film microstructure. Three sets of fcc-Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} thin films were prepared: sub-stoichiometric Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub 0.44}, nearly stoichiometric Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub 0.5}, and over-stoichiometric Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub 0.56}. The optical properties were investigated by near-normal-incidence reflectivity and ellipsometric measurements in the optical energy range from 0.375 eV to 6.8 eV, while the d.c. electrical resistivity was measured in the van der Pauw configuration from 20 K to 300 K. The optical and electrical measurements were interpreted using the standard Drude-Lorentz model and the so-called grain boundary scattering model, respectively. The electronic properties were closely correlated with the compositional and structural modifications of the Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} films due to variations in the stoichiometry of the fcc-TaN{sub z} system and the addition of Si atoms. According to the nitrogen and silicon contents, fcc-Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} films can exhibit room temperature resistivity values ranging from 10{sup 2} {mu}{Omega} cm to about 6 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4} {mu}{Omega} cm. The interpretation of the experimental temperature-dependent resistivity data within the Grain Boundary Scattering model, combined with the results from optical investigations, showed that the mean electron transmission probability G and the free carriers concentration, N, are the main parameters that control the transport properties of these films. The results indicated that the correlation between electrical and optical measurements with the chemical composition and the nanostructure of the Ta{sub x}Si{sub y}N{sub z} thin films provides a pertinent and

  12. Visible Light Assisted Photocatalytic Hydrogen Generation by Ta2O5/Bi2O3, TaON/Bi2O3, and Ta3N5/Bi2O3 Composites

    DOE PAGES

    Adhikari, Shiba; Hood, Zachary D.; More, Karren Leslie; ...

    2015-06-15

    Composites comprised of two semiconducting materials with suitable band gaps and band positions have been reported to be effective at enhancing photocatalytic activity in the visible light region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Here, we report the synthesis, complete structural and physical characterizations, and photocatalytic performance of a series of semiconducting oxide composites. UV light active tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) and visible light active tantalum oxynitride (TaON) and tantalum nitride (Ta3N5) were synthesized, and their composites with Bi2O3 were prepared in situ using benzyl alcohol as solvent. The composite prepared using equimolar amounts of Bi2O3 and Ta2O5 leads to the formation ofmore » the ternary oxide, bismuth tantalate (BiTaO4) upon calcination at 1000 °C. The composites and single phase bismuth tantalate formed were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) surface area measurement, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. The photocatalytic activities of the catalysts were evaluated for generation of hydrogen using aqueous methanol solution under visible light irradiation (λ ≥ 420 nm). The results show that as-prepared composite photocatalysts extend the light absorption range and restrict photogenerated charge-carrier recombination, resulting in enhanced photocatalytic activity compared to individual phases. The mechanism for the enhanced photocatalytic activity for the heterostructured composites is elucidated based on observed activity, band positions calculations, and photoluminescence data.« less

  13. Minor gene effect of leptin receptor variant on the body weight in KK/Ta mice.

    PubMed

    Gohda, T; Tanimoto, M; Kaneko, S; Shibata, T; Funabiki, K; Horikoshi, S; Tomino, Y

    2006-09-01

    Leptin is an adipocyte-derived hormone involved in body weight regulation that acts through the leptin receptor. Previous studies exploring potential association between the leptin receptor (Lepr) variant and obesity have reported conflicting results. The objectives of the present study are to evaluate (1) whether the Lepr variant contributes to type 2 diabetes and its related disorders such as obesity and (2) whether the gene interaction between Lepr and Zn-alpha(2) glycoprotein1 (Azgp1) genes is recognized using genetically homogeneous type 2 diabetic KK/Ta mice. The levels of leptin (Lep) and Lepr mRNA in adipose tissues and brain were measured by relative quantitative RT-PCR. The levels of leptin protein in sera were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Genotyping of backcross mice was performed using a mismatch primer. Leptin protein and its mRNA levels were increased in KK/Ta mice. Lepr mRNA levels of KK/Ta mice did not differ from those of BALB/c mice. Sequence analysis revealed that the coding region of Lep in KK/Ta mice was identical to that in BALB/c mice. Six nucleotide polymorphisms were observed in the coding region of Lepr. In KK/Ta x (BALB/c x KK/Ta) F1 backcross mice, the Lepr variant of KK/Ta mice failed to alter any of the variables of obesity except for body weight at 20 weeks of age. However, it enhanced the effect of Azgp1 on body weight. It is concluded that the Lepr variant contributes to obesity to some degree in KK/Ta mice.

  14. Copper diffusion barrier performance of amorphous Ta-Ni thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Hua; Tay, Yee Yan; Jiang, Yueyue; Yantara, Natalia; Pan, Jisheng; Liang, Meng Heng; Chen, Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Amorphous Ta-Ni thin films were deposited on Si substrate by magnetron sputtering. The oxygen concentration was adjusted by controlling the substrate bias during the sputtering deposition. Two types of Ta-Ni films, namely Ta67.34Ni27.06O5.60 and Ta73.25Ni26.10O0.65 were employed in the current study. To assess the diffusion barrier performance, Cu/Ta-Ni/Si stacks were fabricated in sequence without breaking the vacuum. The samples were then annealed in vacuum for 30 min at temperatures ranging from 500 °C to 800 °C. SEM, 4-point probe, SIMS and TEM have been used to study the film properties to assess the barrier performance. The films were found to remain stable up to 600 °C without significant Cu diffusion. At 700 °C, Cu diffusion through the barrier film was detected in both types of samples, but with different degree of severity. For the Ta67.34Ni27.06O5.6 barrier film, there was no Cu-Si reaction at 700 °C, while Cu3Si was observed at the Ta73.25Ni26.10O0.65/Si interface. At 800 °C, Cu3Si crystalline phase was found in both samples, and the barrier films have completely lost integrity. This study shows that sputter deposited Ta-Ni amorphous thin films can be used as an effective copper diffusion barrier for microelectronic device fabrication. Incorporation of a few percent of oxygen into the film can retard copper diffusion and interface reaction, which enhances the barrier performance.

  15. Atomic-Sized Pores Enhanced Electrocatalysis of TaS2 Nanosheets for Hydrogen Evolution.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Tan, Yongwen; Liu, Pan; Guo, Chenguang; Luo, Min; Han, Jiuhui; Lin, Tianquan; Huang, Fuqiang; Chen, Mingwei

    2016-10-01

    A plasma oxidation method is developed to fabricate atomic-scale pores in the basal planes of electrochemically inert TaS2 nanosheets to functionalize the 2D crystals with high electrocatalysis for hydrogen evolution reaction. Quantitative measurements of under-coordinated atoms at edges of the pores by aberration-corrected transmission electron microscopy reveal the intrinsic correlation between the defective atomic sites and electrocatalytic activities of 2D TaS2 .

  16. Amorphization of Ta2O5 under swift heavy ion irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusick, Alex B.; Lang, Maik; Zhang, Fuxiang; Sun, Kai; Li, Weixing; Kluth, Patrick; Trautmann, Christina; Ewing, Rodney C.

    2017-09-01

    Crystalline Ta2O5 powder is shown to amorphize under 2.2 GeV 197Au ion irradiation. Synchrotron X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used to characterize the structural transition from crystalline to fully-amorphous. Based on Rietveld refinement of XRD data, the initial structure is orthorhombic (P2mm) with a very large unit cell (a = 6.20, b = 40.29, c = 3.89 Å; V = 971.7 Å3), ideally containing 22 Ta and 55 O atoms. At a fluence of approximately 3 × 1011 ions/cm2, a diffuse amorphous background becomes evident, increasing in intensity relative to diffraction maxima until full amorphization is achieved at approximately 3 × 1012 ions/cm2. An anisotropic distortion of the orthorhombic structure occurred during the amorphization process, with an approximately constant unit cell volume. The amorphous phase fraction as a function of fluence was determined, yielding a trend that is consistent with a direct-impact model for amorphization. SAXS and TEM data indicate that ion tracks exhibit a core-shell morphology. Raman data show that the amorphous phase is comprised of TaO6 and TaO5 coordination-polyhedra in contrast to the TaO6 and TaO7 units that exist in crystalline Ta2O5. Analysis of Raman data shows that oxygen-deficiency increases with fluence, indicating a loss of oxygen that leads to an estimated final stoichiometry of Ta2O4.2 at a fluence of 1 × 1013 ions/cm2.

  17. [The electrochemical behavior of TiTa30 and TiNb30 alloys for implantology].

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, H F; Ralison, A; Traisnel, M; Breme, J

    1997-11-01

    The electrochemical behavior in artificial saliva of TiNb30 and TiTa30 alloys were compared with that of commercial pure titanium. The anodic potential, the current density, the passivation potential and the galvanic corrosion vs. Au were determined. Both alloys have a similar behavior to that of pure titanium. Crevace corrosion, which is very weak in pure Ti, is completely inhibited by the addition of Nb or Ta.

  18. Magnetic properties of ultrathin Ni81Fe19 films with Ta and Ru capping layers.

    PubMed

    Kezilebieke, S; Ali, M; Shadeke, B; Gunnella, R

    2013-11-27

    Magnetic properties of Ni81Fe19 (permalloy) ultrathin films with Ru and Ta capping layers (CLs) were investigated for applications to magnetic random access memory units (MRAM). The sample structure, which simulated an MRAM free layer, is Si- sub./SiO2/Ni81Fe19/Ru(Ta). The Ni81Fe19 thin films less than 3 nm thick with Ru CL show low coercive fields compared with the Ta capping layer. Both systems showed loss of momentum equivalent to magnetically dead layers of thickness (δ) ~0.6 nm for Ru cap layer and ~1.4 nm for Ta cap layer, respectively. Moreover, after annealing the thicknesses are slightly increased to an equivalent magnetic dead layer thickness of δ ~0:84 nm and ~1.80 nm for Ru and Ta CL, respectively. Our calculations showed that the presence of only 11% Ta concentration at the interface reduced the Ni momentum to zero, with the Ni–Ta coupling being anti-ferromagnetic; while 50% Ru intermixing at the interface reduced the Ni momentum to zero with the coupling between Ru and Ni being ferromagnetic. To find out more about the intermixing at the interface, the composition and chemical states were characterized by the x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and peak decomposition technique. The result showed that the peak positions were different from the pure metallic case at the interface region, mainly because of the intermixing between two layers. In conclusion, the Ru capping layer might be important for MRAM use in terms of low coercive field and small δ layer thickness if compared with the Ta capping layer.

  19. Helium and deuterium irradiation effects in W-Ta composites produced by pulse plasma compaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dias, M.; Catarino, N.; Nunes, D.; Fortunato, E.; Nogueira, I.; Rosinki, M.; Correia, J. B.; Carvalho, P. A.; Alves, E.

    2017-08-01

    Tungsten-tantalum composites have been envisaged for first-wall components of nuclear fusion reactors; however, changes in their microstructure are expected from severe irradiation with helium and hydrogenic plasma species. In this study, composites were produced from ball milled W powder mixed with 10 at.% Ta fibers through consolidation by pulse plasma compaction. Implantation was carried out at room temperature with He+ (30 keV) or D+ (15 keV) or sequentially with He+ and D+ using ion beams with fluences of 5 × 1021 at/m2. Microstructural changes and deuterium retention in the implanted composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, coupled with focused ion beam and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Rutherford backscattering spectrometry and nuclear reaction analysis. The composite materials consisted of Ta fibers dispersed in a nanostructured W matrix, with Ta2O5 layers at the interfacial regions. The Ta and Ta2O5 surfaces exhibited blisters after He+ implantation and subsequent D+ implantation worsened the blistering behavior of Ta2O5. Swelling was also pronounced in Ta2O5 where large blisters exhibited an internal nanometer-sized fuzz structure. Transmission electron microscopy revealed an extensive presence of dislocations in the metallic phases after the sequential implantation, while a relatively low density of defects was detected in Ta2O5. This behavior may be partially justified by a shielding effect from the blisters and fuzz structure developed progressively during implantation. The tungsten peaks in the X-ray diffractograms were markedly shifted after He+ implantation, and even more so after the sequential implantation, which is in agreement with the increased D retention inferred from nuclear reaction analysis.

  20. Oxygen related recombination defects in Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} water splitting photoanode

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Gao; Yu, Tao E-mail: yutao@nju.edu.cn; Zou, Zhigang; Yan, Shicheng E-mail: yutao@nju.edu.cn

    2015-10-26

    A key route to improving the performance of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} photoelectrochemical film devices in solar driving water splitting to hydrogen is to understand the nature of the serious recombination of photo-generated carriers. Here, by using the temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL) spectrum, we confirmed that for the Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} films prepared by nitriding Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} precursor, one PL peak at 561 nm originates from deep-level defects recombination of the oxygen-enriched Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} phases, and another one at 580 nm can be assigned to band recombination of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} itself. Both of the two bulk recombination processes may decrease the photoelectrochemical performance of Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5}. It was difficult to remove the oxygen-enriched impurities in Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} films by increasing the nitriding temperatures due to their high thermodynamically stability. In addition, a broadening PL peak between 600 and 850 nm resulting from oxygen related surface defects was observed by the low-temperature PL measurement, which may induce the surface recombination of photo-generated carriers and can be removed by increasing the nitridation temperature. Our results provided direct experimental evidence to understand the effect of oxygen-related crystal defects in Ta{sub 3}N{sub 5} films on its photoelectric performance.

  1. Glass formation and cluster evolution in the rapidly solidified monatomic metallic liquid Ta under high pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Dejun; Wen, Dadong; Tian, Zean; Liu, Rangsu

    2016-12-01

    Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations have been performed to examine the glass formation and cluster evolution during the rapid solidification of monatomic metallic liquid Ta under high pressure. The atomic structures in the systems are characterized by the radical distribution function (RDF), Honeycutt-Anderson (H-A) bond-type index method and cluster-type index method (CTIM). It is observed that the defective icosahedra play the critical role in the formation of Ta monatomic metallic glasses (MGs) rather than (12 0 12 0) perfect icosahedra, which have been identified as the basic local atomic units in many multi-component MGs. With the increase of pressure P, the fraction of icosahedral type clusters decreases remarkably in Ta MGs, while the fraction of bcc type clusters rises evidently. The evolution of vitrification degree (DSRO or DMRO) of the rapidly cooled metal Ta system further reveals that a higher pressure P is disadvantageous to the formation of Ta monatomic MGs. The weaker glass forming ability (GFA) of liquid metal Ta obtained under higher pressure P can be contributed to the decrease of DSRO or DMRO which is induced by increasing high pressure P to some extent.

  2. Electrical and structural properties of the Ta/Ag thin films prepared by DC magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghri Moazzen, M. A.; Taiebyzadeh, P.; Borghei, S. M.

    2017-07-01

    Tantalum on silver (Ta/Ag) thin films have quickly increased into high research for applied science with the promise of suitable for high temperatures environments and microsystems for electronics applications. Ag and Ta/Ag thin films were deposited on silicon substrates by dc magnetron sputtering method. We choose the dc magnetron sputtering method because it has many advantages, such as high growth rate, the possibility of large area deposition, and low cost. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis and four point probe (FPP) were used for determining the prepared samples. For Ag thin film deposited in room temperature, there are no peaks corresponding to Ag in the XRD pattern which demonstrates amorphous structure. Also, the XRD pattern of Ta/Ag thin film illustrates that the peak of Ta has grown to the crystal direction (002), which shows that the structure of deposited Ta layer on Ag thin film becomes a crystalline state from amorphous state. The relationship between thin film resistivity and Ta/Ag film thicknesses are investigated in this paper.

  3. Evaluation of TA10 Broth for Recovery of Listeria monocytogenes from Ground Beef.

    PubMed

    Kamisaki-Horikoshi, Naoko; Okada, Yukio; Takeshita, Kazuko; Takada, Makoto; Kawamoto, Shinichi; Kawasaki, Susumu

    2017-03-01

    In 2009, the enrichment broth TA10 was released for simultaneous recovery of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Escherichia coli O157:H7. This medium was compared with other Salmonella enrichment broths [lactose (LAC) broth, buffered peptone water (BPW), and universal pre-enrichment (UP) broth] for the recovery of heat- and freeze-injured Salmonella spp. in beef by the conventional culture method. There was a significant difference between TA10 and LAC enrichment broths for detecting injured Salmonella spp. In this study, the International Organization for Standardization Listeria pre-enrichment broth (Half-Fraser/Fraser) was compared with TA10 broth for the recovery of L. monocytogenes from ground beef. Ground beef samples were contaminated with single Listeria serovars at levels of 0.096 to 0.001 most probable number/g. Twenty 25 g test portions of the contaminated ground beef were pre-enriched in each broth, and the ISO-11290-1 Listeria official isolation protocol was used thereafter. There was a significant difference between TA10 broth (48 h) and Half-Fraser/Fraser broth (72 h) in the recovery of L. monocytogenes. In addition, the incubation time for TA10 broth was shorter than for Half-Fraser/Fraser broth. The results indicate that TA10 broth should be used instead of Half-Fraser/Fraser broth for analysis of beef that may be contaminated with very low levels of L. monocytogenes.

  4. Extraordinary high strength Ti-Zr-Ta alloys through nanoscaled, dual-cubic spinodal reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Biesiekierski, Arne; Ping, Dehai; Li, Yuncang; Lin, Jixing; Munir, Khurram S; Yamabe-Mitarai, Yoko; Wen, Cuie

    2017-02-02

    While titanium alloys represent the current state-of-the-art for orthopedic biomaterials, concerns still remain over their modulus. Circumventing this via increased porosity requires high elastic admissible strains, yet also limits traditional thermomechanical strengthening techniques. To this end, a novel β-type Ti-Zr-Ta alloy system, comprised of Ti-45Zr-10Ta, Ti-40Zr-14Ta, Ti-35Zr-18Ta and Ti-30Zr-22Ta, was designed and characterized mechanically and microstructurally. As-cast, this system displayed extremely high yield strengths and elastic admissible strains, up to 1.4GPa and potentially 1.48%, respectively. This strength was attributed to a nanoscaled, cuboidal structure of semi-coherent, dual body-centered cubic (BCC) phases, arising from the thermodynamics of interaction between Ta and Zr; this morphology occurring with dual BCC-phases is heretofore unreported in Ti-based alloys. Further, cell proliferation investigated by MTS assay suggests this was achieved without sacrificing biocompatibility, with no significant difference to either empty-well or commercially-pure Ti controls noted.

  5. Characteristics of sputtered TaX absorbers for x-ray mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheu, Jeng Tzong; Chu, A.; Ding, J. H.; Su, Shyang

    1999-06-01

    The materials of x-ray absorbers for x-ray mask have been changed from gold and tungsten-based alloys to tantalum (Ta) and Ta-based compounds in x-ray lithography. Different candidates of x-ray absorber, especially Ta-based compounds, were sputtered and evaluated in this study. By incorporating silicon or germanium into tantalum, amorphous TaSi-based and TaGe-based compounds were formed and qualified as the absorber materials. Because the reproducibility of as- deposited stress by tuning the sputtering parameters is not so well for these compounds right after sputtering, we utilized the step annealing by RTA to control the stress such that within +/- MPa is obtainable. Furthermore, with N2 plasma treatment in PECVD chamber the slope of stress with respect to annealing temperature is smaller and posses good stability after long-time exposure to the air. Finally, the etching properties of TaX compounds were compared with and without tri-layer structure of oxide/absorber/oxide. And, 0.35 micrometers patterns are etched successfully with vertical sidewall by Cl2 etchant.

  6. TaGW2, a Good Reflection of Wheat Polyploidization and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Lin; Zhao, Junjie; Li, Tian; Hou, Jian; Zhang, Xueyong; Hao, Chenyang

    2017-01-01

    Hexaploid wheat consists of three subgenomes, namely, A, B, and D. These well-characterized ancestral genomes also exist at the diploid and tetraploid levels, thereby rendering wheat as a good model species for studying polyploidization. Here, we performed intra- and inter-species comparative analyses of wheat and its relatives to dissect polymorphism and differentiation of the TaGW2 genes. Our results showed that genetic diversity of TaGW2 decreased with progression from the diploids to tetraploids and hexaploids. The strongest selection occurred in the promoter regions of TaGW2-6A and TaGW2-6B. Phylogenetic trees clearly indicated that Triticum urartu and Ae. speltoides were the donors of the A and B genomes in tetraploid and hexaploid wheats. Haplotypes detected among hexaploid genotypes traced back to the tetraploid level. Fst and π values revealed that the strongest selection on TaGW2 occurred at the tetraploid level rather than in hexaploid wheat. This infers that grain size enlargement, especially increased kernel width, mainly occurred in tetraploid genotypes. In addition, relative expression levels of TaGW2s significantly declined from the diploid level to tetraploids and hexaploids, further indicating that these genes negatively regulate kernel size. Our results also revealed that the polyploidization events possibly caused much stronger differentiation than domestication and breeding. PMID:28326096

  7. Optoelectronic properties of Ta3N5: A joint theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbec, Juliana; Narkeviciute, Ieva; Jaramillo, Thomas; Galli, Giulia

    2015-03-01

    A joint theoretical and experimental study of the optoelectronic properties of Ta3N5 was conducted by means of ab initio calculations and ellipsometry measurements. Previous experimental work on Ta3N5 has not been conclusive regarding the direct or indirect nature of light absorption. Our work found excellent agreement between the optical spectrum computed using the Bethe-Salpeter equation and the measured one, with two prominent features occurring at 2.1 and 2.5 eV assigned to direct transitions between N and Ta states. The computed optical gap, obtained from the G0W0 direct photoemission gap, including spin-orbit coupling, electron-phonon interaction, and exciton binding energy, was found to be in excellent agreement with measurements. Our results also showed that Ta3N5 is a highly anisotropic material with heavy holes in several directions, suggesting low hole mobilities, consistent with low measured photocurrents in the Ta3N5 literature. Work is in progress to compute polaronic contributions to the hole and electron mobilities and to investigate the effect of substitutional doping on the electronic structure of Ta3N5. Work supported by NSF (NSF Center CHE-1305124 for CCI Solar Fuels). Computing resources provided by NERSC.

  8. Evaluation of DC-sputtered Glassy TaCoN Thin Film for Copper Metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jau-Shiung; Ke, Min-Li; Chen, Hui-Chien

    2007-11-01

    The failure mechanism of the TaCoN barrier for copper metallization was examined using films by direct current (dc) magnetron reactive sputtering at various nitrogen flow rates. The as-deposited TaCoN films had a glassy structure and were free from intermetallic compounds. Optimizing the nitrogen flow rate during sputtering maximized the thermal stability of the Si/Ta66.8Co11.4N21.8/Cu metallization system up to an annealing temperature of 750°C when the film was deposited using a nitrogen flow rate of 1 sccm, as revealed by using X-ray diffraction, a scanning electron microscope, a four-point probe and a transmission electron microscope. Structural analysis indicated that the failure mechanisms of the studied Si/TaCoN/Cu stacked films involved the initial dissociation of the barrier layer that was annealed at a specific temperature, and the subsequent formation of diffusion paths along which the copper penetrates through the TaCoN barrier layer to react with underlying Si. The high formation temperature of the Cu3Si phase demonstrated that the studied film was highly stable, indicating that the TaCoN thin film is highly promising for use as a diffusion barrier for Cu metallization.

  9. Metal ferroelectric insulator Si devices using HfTaO buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Xu-bing; Maruyama, Kenji; Ishiwara, Hiroshi

    2008-04-01

    Metal-ferroelectric-insulator-Si (MFIS) diodes and transistors using Pt/Sr0.8Bi2.2Ta2O9 (SBT)/HfTaO/Si gate structures were fabricated. HfTaO films were deposited at room temperature by electron beam evaporation under a background vacuum of ~1.5 × 10-9 Torr. By process optimization of post-deposition annealing, a small effective oxide thickness of 1.6 nm, a small leakage current of 2.4 × 10-4 A cm-2 at a voltage shifted from the flat band voltage by 1 V and a negligible hysteresis loop were obtained for Al/HfTaO (4 nm)/Si diodes. The MFIS diodes were fabricated by the deposition of SBT films on the HfTaO (4 nm)/Si substrate using chemical solution deposition. A memory window of 0.62 V was obtained for Pt/SBT (300 nm)/HfTaO (4 nm)/Si diodes for a voltage sweep between +4 V and -4 V. P-channel ferroelectric-gate transistors were fabricated using the same gate structure, which showed a memory window of 0.6 V and good long-term retention characteristics. A drain current ON/OFF ratio as high as 103 was attained at a fixed reading voltage of -0.7 V even after over 104 s has elapsed.

  10. Structure and physical properties of EuTa2O6 tungsten bronze polymorph

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolodiazhnyi, T.; Sakurai, H.; Vasylkiv, O.; Borodianska, H.; Forbes, S.; Mozharivskyj, Y.

    2014-08-01

    A tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB) polymorph of EuTa2O6 was prepared and analyzed. EuTa2O6 crystallizes in the centrosymmetric Pnam space group (with unit cell: a = 12.3693, b = 12.4254, and c = 7.7228 Å) isomorphous with orthorhombic β-SrTa2O6. In contrast to early reports, we see no evidence of deviation from paramagnetic Curie-Weiss behavior among the Eu2+ 4f7spins in EuTa2O6 down to 2 K. Dielectric constant shows a broad peak at ca. 50 K with dielectric dispersion resembling diffuse phase transition. The relaxation time, however, follows a simple (non-freezing) thermally activated process with an activation energy of 92 meV and an attempt frequency of f0 = 5.79 × 1012 Hz. A thermal conductivity of EuTa2O6 shows a low-temperature (T ≈ 30 K) "plateau" region reminiscent of a glass-like behaviour in Nb-based TTB compounds. This behaviour can be attributed to the loosely bound Eu2+ ions occupying large tricapped trigonal prismatic sites in the EuTa2O6 structure.

  11. Interatomic potential for the Cu-Ta system and its application to surface wetting and dewetting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashibon, Adham; Lozovoi, Alexander Y.; Mishin, Yuri; Elsässer, Christian; Gumbsch, Peter

    2008-03-01

    An angle-dependent interatomic potential has been developed for the Cu-Ta system by crossing two existing potentials for pure Cu and Ta. The cross-interaction functions have been fitted to first-principles data generated in this work. The potential has been extensively tested against first-principles energies not included in the fitting database and applied to molecular dynamics simulations of wetting and dewetting of Cu on Ta. We find that a Cu film placed on a Ta (110) surface dewets from it, forming a Cu droplet on top of a stable Cu monolayer. We also observe that a drop of liquid Cu placed on a clean Ta (110) surface spreads over it as a stable monolayer, while the extra Cu atoms remain in the drop. The stability of a Cu monolayer and instability of thicker Cu films are consistent with recent experiments and first-principles calculations. This agreement demonstrates the utility of the potential for atomistic simulations of Cu-Ta interfaces.

  12. Nanotube nucleation phenomena on Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys for implants using ATO technique.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Yong-Hoon; Brantley, William A; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate nanotube nucleation phenomena on the Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys for implant materials, using an anodic titanium oxide (ATO) technique. Ti-25Ta-(0 wt.%-15 wt.%) Zr alloys were prepared using a vacuum arc-melting furnace. The Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys were then homogenized for 12 hr at 1000 degrees C, followed by water quenching. Formation of the nanotubular oxide surface structure was achieved initially on the Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys by anodization in a 1 M H3PO4 electrolyte containing 0.8 wt.% NaF at room temperature, using a potentiostat. After the first formation of the nanotubes was achieved, this initial nanotube layer was eliminated, and further anodization was carried out repeatedly. The microstructure, phase transformation, and morphology of nanotubular Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys and the process of nanotube growth using this ATO method were analyzed by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Microstructures of the Ti-25Ta-xZr alloys changed from α" phase to β phase. Nanotubes formed with the ATO technique had pit-like top holes, with thinner walls and lower contact angle, compared to the initially formed nanotubes.

  13. Overexpression of wheat ubiquitin gene, Ta-Ub2, improves abiotic stress tolerance of Brachypodium distachyon.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hanhan; Zhang, Meng; Zhou, Shumei; Guo, Qifang; Chen, Fengjuan; Wu, Jiajie; Wang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    Ubiquitination plays an important role in regulating plant's development and adaptability to abiotic stress. To investigate the possible functions of a wheat monoubiquitin gene Ta-Ub2 in abiotic stress in monocot and compare it with that in dicot, we generated transgenic Brachypodium plants overexpressing Ta-Ub2 under the control of CaMV35s and stress-inducible RD29A promoters. The constitutive expression of Ta-Ub2 displayed slight growth inhibition in the growth of transgenic Brachypodium distachyon under the control conditions. However, this inhibition was minimized by expression of Ta-Ub2 under the control of stress-inducible RD29A promoter. Compared with WT, the transgenic plants preserved more water and showed higher enzymatic antioxidants under drought stress, which might be related to the change in the expression of some antioxidant genes. The expression of C-repeat binding factors transcription factor genes in the transgenic B. distachyon lines were upregulated under water stress. Salt and cold tolerances of transgenic B. distachyon were also improved. Although the phenotypic changes in the transgenic plants were different, overexpression of Ta-Ub2 improved the abiotic stress tolerance in both dicot and monocot plants. The improvement in Ta-Ub2 transgenic plants in abiotic stress tolerance might be, at least partly, through regulating the gene expression and increasing the enzymatic antioxidants.

  14. Optical signature of Weyl electronic structures in tantalum pnictides Ta P n (P n = P, As)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimura, Shin-ichi; Yokoyama, Hiroko; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Sichelschmidt, Jörg; Süß, Vicky; Schmidt, Marcus; Felser, Claudia

    2017-08-01

    To investigate the electronic structure of Weyl semimetals Ta P n (P n = P, As), optical conductivity [σ (ω )] spectra are measured over a wide range of photon energies and temperatures, and these measured values are compared with band calculations. Two significant structures can be observed: a bending structure at ℏ ω ˜85 meV in TaAs, and peaks at ℏ ω ˜ 50 meV (TaP) and ˜30 meV (TaAs). The bending structure can be explained by the interband transition between saddle points connecting a set of W2 Weyl points. The temperature dependence of the peak intensity can be fitted by assuming the interband transition between saddle points connecting a set of W1 Weyl points. Owing to the different temperature dependence of the Drude weight in both materials, it is found that the Weyl points of TaAs are located near the Fermi level, whereas those of TaP are further away.

  15. Electrochemical behavior of nanocrystalline Ta/TaN multilayer on 316L stainless steel: Novel bipolar plates for proton exchange membrane fuel-cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alishahi, M.; Mahboubi, F.; Mousavi Khoie, S. M.; Aparicio, M.; Hübner, R.; Soldera, F.; Gago, R.

    2016-08-01

    Insufficient corrosion resistance and surface conductivity are two main issues that plague large-scale application of stainless steel (SS) bipolar plates in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). This study explores the use of nanocrystalline Ta/TaN multilayer coatings to improve the electrical and electrochemical performance of polished 316L SS bipolar plates. The multilayer coatings have been deposited by (reactive) magnetron sputtering and characterized by X-ray diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The electrochemical behavior of bare and coated substrates has been evaluated in simulated PEMFC working environments by potentiodynamic and potentiostatic polarization tests at ambient temperature and 80 °C. The results show that the Ta/TaN multilayer coating increases the polarization resistance of 316L SS by about 30 and 104 times at ambient and elevated temperatures, respectively. The interfacial contact resistance (ICR) shows a low value of 12 mΩ × cm2 before the potentiostatic test. This ICR is significantly lower than for the bare substrate and remains mostly unchanged after potentiostatic polarization for 14 h. In addition, the high contact angle (92°) with water for coated substrates indicates a hydrophobic character, which can improve the water management within the cell in PEMFC stacks.

  16. The Triple Salt Sr14[Ta4N13][TaN4]O-A Nitridotantalate Oxide with 19-fold Rock Salt Superstructure.

    PubMed

    Wörsching, Matthias; Daiger, Martin; Hoch, Constantin

    2017-03-06

    A new structure motif in nitridometalate chemistry is the tetracatena-nitridotantalate anion [Ta4N13](19-). It occurs in the crystal structure of the triple salt Sr14[Ta4N13][TaN4]O (monoclinic, space group P21/c with a = 15.062(2) Å, b = 7.2484(6) Å, c = 24.266(3) Å, and β = 97.280(10)(o)) together with ortho-tantalate and isolated oxide anions. Synthesis followed a new approach with employment of Sr surplus and reductive conditions aimed at the preparation of subvalent compounds. The new structure type was established on the basis of single-crystal X-ray diffraction data and also Rietveld refinement. It is a complex superstructure of the rock salt structure type with Ta and Sr atoms forming the face-centered cubic packing and N and O atoms occupying 18/19 of the octahedral voids. We discuss structure and stability of the triple salt with respect to other known nitridometalates and the use of this triple salt for preparative access toward new metal-rich compounds in this field.

  17. Fluoride (F) is not taken up by Salmonella typhimurium TA98 (TA98), used for Ames mutagenicity test, unless aluminum (Al) is present

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, H.W.; Jeffery, E.H. )

    1991-03-11

    TA98 is commonly used for the Ames test to detect frame-shift mutations. Ames test results for fluoride mutagenicity are controversial. Since Al and F, both present in finished drinking water, form a stable complex, the authors determined the effect of Al on F uptake by TA98 to evaluate any Al effect on Ames test results for F. A known number of TA98 in 0.1M potassium phosphate buffer was incubated with various concentrations of Al, F or aluminum fluoride for 1 hr at 37C in a shaking incubator. The cells were washed twice in potassium phosphate buffer and then resuspended in water. After breaking the cells open by sonication, the resulting supernatant was analyzed for Al by graphite furnace atomic absorption and for F using a F ion-selective electrode. Al accumulated in a concentration-dependent manner to 4.5 ppm then decreased rapidly as the Al was increased to 9 ppm. Intracellular F was below the limit of detection even when the medium contained 590 ppm F. However, F was taken up from media containing greater than 200 ppm F, providing that aluminum was also present. The authors conclude that the Ames test, using TA98, is not suitable for the detection of F mutagenicity.

  18. Growth of GaN films on PLD-deposited TaC substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, K. W.; Derenge, M. A.; Zheleva, T. S.; Vispute, R. D.; Jones, K. A.

    2010-09-01

    GaN films were grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition on TaC substrates that were created by pulsed laser deposition of TaC onto (0 0 0 1) SiC substrates at ˜1000 °C. This was done to determine if good quality TaC films could be grown, and if good quality GaN films could be grown on this closely lattice matched to GaN, conductive material. This was done by depositing the TaC on on-axis and 3° or 8° off-axis (0 0 0 1) SiC at temperatures ranging from 950 to 1200 °C, and examining them using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The GaN films were grown on as-deposited TaC films, and films annealed at 1200, 1400, or 1600 °C, and examined using the same techniques. The TaC films were polycrystalline with a slight (1 1 1) texture, and the grains were ˜200 nm in diameter. Films grown on-axis were found to be of higher quality than those grown on off-axis substrates, but the latter could be improved to a comparable quality by annealing them at 1200-1600 °C for 30 min. TaC films deposited at temperatures above 1000 °C were found to react with the SiC. GaN films could be deposited onto the TaC when the surface was nitrided with NH 3 for 3 min at 1100 °C and the low temperature buffer layer was AlN. However, the GaN did not nucleate easily on the TaC film, and the crystallites did not have the desired (0 0 0 1) preferred orientation. They were ˜10 times larger than those typically seen in films grown on SiC or sapphire. Also the etch pit concentration in the GaN films grown on the TaC was more than 2 orders of magnitude less than it was for growth on the SiC.

  19. TaMCA1, a regulator of cell death, is important for the interaction between wheat and Puccinia striiformis

    PubMed Central

    Hao, Yingbin; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Kang; Li, Huayi; Duan, Xiaoyuan; Tang, Chunlei; Kang, Zhensheng

    2016-01-01

    Metacaspase orthologs are conserved in fungi, protozoa and plants, however, their roles in plant disease resistance are largely unknown. In this study, we identified a Triticum aestivum metacaspase gene, TaMCA1, with three copies located on chromosomes 1A, 1B and 1D. The TaMCA1 protein contained typical structural features of type I metacaspases domains, including an N-terminal pro-domain. Transient expression analyses indicated that TaMCA1 was localized in cytosol and mitochondria. TaMCA1 exhibited no caspase-1 activity in vitro, but was able to inhibit cell death in tobacco and wheat leaves induced by the mouse Bax gene. In addition, the expression level of TaMCA1 was up-regulated following challenge with the Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). Knockdown of TaMCA1 via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) enhanced plant disease resistance to Pst, and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Further study showed that TaMCA1 decreased yeast cell resistance similar to the function of yeast metacaspase, and there was no interaction between TaMCA1 and TaLSD1. Based on these combined results, we speculate that TaMCA1, a regulator of cell death, is important during the compatible interaction of wheat and Pst. PMID:27230563

  20. TaMCA1, a regulator of cell death, is important for the interaction between wheat and Puccinia striiformis.

    PubMed

    Hao, Yingbin; Wang, Xiaojie; Wang, Kang; Li, Huayi; Duan, Xiaoyuan; Tang, Chunlei; Kang, Zhensheng

    2016-05-27

    Metacaspase orthologs are conserved in fungi, protozoa and plants, however, their roles in plant disease resistance are largely unknown. In this study, we identified a Triticum aestivum metacaspase gene, TaMCA1, with three copies located on chromosomes 1A, 1B and 1D. The TaMCA1 protein contained typical structural features of type I metacaspases domains, including an N-terminal pro-domain. Transient expression analyses indicated that TaMCA1 was localized in cytosol and mitochondria. TaMCA1 exhibited no caspase-1 activity in vitro, but was able to inhibit cell death in tobacco and wheat leaves induced by the mouse Bax gene. In addition, the expression level of TaMCA1 was up-regulated following challenge with the Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst). Knockdown of TaMCA1 via virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) enhanced plant disease resistance to Pst, and the accumulation of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Further study showed that TaMCA1 decreased yeast cell resistance similar to the function of yeast metacaspase, and there was no interaction between TaMCA1 and TaLSD1. Based on these combined results, we speculate that TaMCA1, a regulator of cell death, is important during the compatible interaction of wheat and Pst.

  1. The ERF transcription factor TaERF3 promotes tolerance to salt and drought stresses in wheat.

    PubMed

    Rong, Wei; Qi, Lin; Wang, Aiyun; Ye, Xingguo; Du, Lipu; Liang, Hongxia; Xin, Zhiyong; Zhang, Zengyan

    2014-05-01

    Salinity and drought are major limiting factors of wheat (Triticum aestivum) productivity worldwide. Here, we report the function of a wheat ERF transcription factor TaERF3 in salt and drought responses and the underlying mechanism of TaERF3 function. Upon treatment with 250 mM NaCl or 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG), transcript levels of TaERF3 were rapidly induced in wheat. Using wheat cultivar Yangmai 12 as the transformation recipient, four TaERF3-overexpressing transgenic lines were generated and functionally characterized. The seedlings of the TaERF3-overexpressing transgenic lines exhibited significantly enhanced tolerance to both salt and drought stresses as compared to untransformed wheat. In the leaves of TaERF3-overexpressing lines, accumulation levels of both proline and chlorophyll were significantly increased, whereas H₂O₂ content and stomatal conductance were significantly reduced. Conversely, TaERF3-silencing wheat plants that were generated through virus-induced gene silencing method displayed more sensitivity to salt and drought stresses compared with the control plants. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that transcript levels of ten stress-related genes were increased in TaERF3-overexpressing lines, but compromised in TaERF3-silencing wheat plants. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays showed that the TaERF3 protein could interact with the GCC-box cis-element present in the promoters of seven TaERF3-activated stress-related genes. These results indicate that TaERF3 positively regulates wheat adaptation responses to salt and drought stresses through the activation of stress-related genes and that TaERF3 is an attractive engineering target in applied efforts to improve abiotic stress tolerances in wheat and other cereals.

  2. A Wheat Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase TaCAD12 Contributes to Host Resistance to the Sharp Eyespot Disease.

    PubMed

    Rong, Wei; Luo, Meiying; Shan, Tianlei; Wei, Xuening; Du, Lipu; Xu, Huijun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs) have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies toward both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis, whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, and Chitinase1) and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes (TaCAD1, TaCCR, and TaCOMT1) were up-regulated in the TaCAD12-overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12-silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat.

  3. A Wheat Cinnamyl Alcohol Dehydrogenase TaCAD12 Contributes to Host Resistance to the Sharp Eyespot Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rong, Wei; Luo, Meiying; Shan, Tianlei; Wei, Xuening; Du, Lipu; Xu, Huijun; Zhang, Zengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sharp eyespot, caused mainly by the necrotrophic fungus Rhizoctonia cerealis, is a destructive disease in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). In Arabidopsis, certain cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenases (CADs) have been implicated in monolignol biosynthesis and in defense response to bacterial pathogen infection. However, little is known about CADs in wheat defense responses to necrotrophic or soil-borne pathogens. In this study, we isolate a wheat CAD gene TaCAD12 in response to R. cerealis infection through microarray-based comparative transcriptomics, and study the enzyme activity and defense role of TaCAD12 in wheat. The transcriptional levels of TaCAD12 in sharp eyespot-resistant wheat lines were significantly higher compared with those in susceptible wheat lines. The sequence and phylogenetic analyses revealed that TaCAD12 belongs to IV group in CAD family. The biochemical assay proved that TaCAD12 protein is an authentic CAD enzyme and possesses catalytic efficiencies toward both coniferyl aldehyde and sinapyl aldehyde. Knock-down of TaCAD12 transcript significantly repressed resistance of the gene-silenced wheat plants to sharp eyespot caused by R. cerealis, whereas TaCAD12 overexpression markedly enhanced resistance of the transgenic wheat lines to sharp eyespot. Furthermore, certain defense genes (Defensin, PR10, PR17c, and Chitinase1) and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes (TaCAD1, TaCCR, and TaCOMT1) were up-regulated in the TaCAD12-overexpressing wheat plants but down-regulated in TaCAD12-silencing plants. These results suggest that TaCAD12 positively contributes to resistance against sharp eyespot through regulation of the expression of certain defense genes and monolignol biosynthesis-related genes in wheat. PMID:27899932

  4. Improvement of Li ion conductivity of Li5La3Ta2O12 solid electrolyte by substitution of Ge for Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotobuki, Masashi; Song, Shufeng; Takahashi, Rika; Yanagiya, Shunichi; Lu, Li

    2017-05-01

    Li5La3Ta2O12 (LLTa) is a promising solid electrolyte for all-solid-state batteries due to its high stability in contact with Li metal, however, low Li ion conductivity of LLTa has restricted its application. In this study, improvement of the Li ion conductivity of LLTa solid electrolyte by substitution of Ge4+ for Ta5+ is studied because the improvement is thought to be achieved by increase of charge carrier concentration caused by the substitution of low valence Ge4+ for high valence Ta5+. The Ge substitution shrinks a lattice of cubic LLTa due to small ion radius of Ge4+ (0.530 Å) compared with Ta5+ (0.640 Å). The Li ion conductivity of LLTa is improved by the Ge substitution. The highest bulk and total Li ion conductivities are obtained in Li5.25La3Ta1.75Ge0.25O12 prepared by spark plasma sintering at 1100 °C and the values are 1.3 × 10-4 and 8.4 × 10-5 S cm-1 at 28 °C, respectively. The lithium transference number of the Ge-substituted LLTa determined by Hebb-Wagner (HW) polarization method is ≈ 1. Also, it is verified that the new solid electrolyte is stable in a potential range of 0-10 V vs. Li/Li+, indicating that the Ge-substituted LLTa is a promising solid electrolyte for all-solid-state battery application.

  5. Electrical and Electrochemical Properties of Nitrogen-Containing Tetrahedral Amorphous Carbon (ta-C) Thin Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xingyi

    Tetrahedral amorphous carbon (ta-C) is a diamond-like carbon (DLC) material comprised of a mixture of sp2 (˜40%) and sp3-bonded (˜60%) carbon domains. The physicochemical structure and electrochemical properties depend strongly on the sp2/sp3 bonding ratio as well as the incorporation of impurities, such as hydrogen or nitrogen. The ability to grow ta-C films at lower temperatures (25-100 °C) on a wider variety of substrates is a potential advantage of these materials as compared with diamond films. In this project, the basic structural and electrochemical properties of nitrogen-incorporated ta-C thin films will be discussed. The major goal of this work was to determine if the ta-C:N films exhibit electrochemical properties more closely aligned with those of boron-doped diamond (sp 3 carbon) or glassy carbon (amorphous sp2 carbon). Much like diamond, ta-C:N thin-film electrodes are characterized by a low background voltammetric current, a wide working potential window, relatively rapid electron-transfer kinetics for aqueous redox systems, such as Fe(CN) 6-3/-4 and Ru(NH3)6+3/+2 , and weak adsorption of polar molecules from solution. For example, negligible adsorption of methylene blue was found on the ta-C:N films in contrast to glassy carbon; a surface on which this molecule strongly adsorbs. The film microstructure was studied with x-ray photoelectron microscopy (XPS), visible Raman spectroscopy and electron-energy loss spectroscopy (EELS); all of which revealed the sp2-bonded carbon content increased with increasing nitrogen. The electrical properties of ta-C:N films were studied by four-point probe resistance measurement and conductive-probe AFM (CP-AFM). The incorporation of nitrogen into ta-C films increased the electrical conductivity primarily by increasing the sp2-bonded carbon content. CP-AFM showed the distribution of the conductive sp2-carbon on the film surface was not uniform. These films have potential to be used in field emission area. The

  6. Structural Stability of Diffusion Barriers in Cu/Ru/MgO/Ta/Si.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Shu-Huei; Chen, Wen Jauh; Chien, Chu-Mo

    2015-11-03

    Various structures of Cu (50 nm)/Ru (2 nm)/MgO (0.5-3 nm)/Ta (2 nm)/Si were prepared by sputtering and electroplating techniques, in which the ultra-thin trilayer of Ru (2 nm)/MgO (0.5-3 nm)/Ta (2 nm) is used as the diffusion barrier against the interdiffusion between Cu film and Si substrate. The various structures of Cu/Ru/MgO/Ta/Si were characterized by four-point probes for their sheet resistances, by X-ray diffractometers for their crystal structures, by scanning electron microscopes for their surface morphologies, and by transmission electron microscopes for their cross-section and high resolution views. The results showed that the ultra-thin tri-layer of Ru (2 nm)/MgO (0.5-3 nm)/Ta (2 nm) is an effective diffusion barrier against the interdiffusion between Cu film and Si substrate. The MgO, and Ta layers as deposited are amorphous. The mechanism for the failure of the diffusion barrier is that the Ru layer first became discontinuous at a high temperature and the Ta layer sequentially become discontinuous at a higher temperature, the Cu atoms then diffuse through the MgO layer and to the substrate at the discontinuities, and the Cu₃Si phases finally form. The maximum temperature at which the structures of Cu (50 nm)/Ru (2 nm)/MgO (0.5-3 nm)/Ta (2 nm)/Si are annealed and still have low sheet resistance is from 550 to 750 °C for the annealing time of 5 min and from 500 to 700 °C for the annealing time of 30 min.

  7. Structural Stability of Diffusion Barriers in Cu/Ru/MgO/Ta/Si

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Shu-Huei; Chen, Wen Jauh; Chien, Chu-Mo

    2015-01-01

    Various structures of Cu (50 nm)/Ru (2 nm)/MgO (0.5–3 nm)/Ta (2 nm)/Si were prepared by sputtering and electroplating techniques, in which the ultra-thin trilayer of Ru (2 nm)/MgO (0.5–3 nm)/Ta (2 nm) is used as the diffusion barrier against the interdiffusion between Cu film and Si substrate. The various structures of Cu/Ru/MgO/Ta/Si were characterized by four-point probes for their sheet resistances, by X-ray diffractometers for their crystal structures, by scanning electron microscopes for their surface morphologies, and by transmission electron microscopes for their cross-section and high resolution views. The results showed that the ultra-thin tri-layer of Ru (2 nm)/MgO (0.5–3 nm)/Ta (2 nm) is an effective diffusion barrier against the interdiffusion between Cu film and Si substrate. The MgO, and Ta layers as deposited are amorphous. The mechanism for the failure of the diffusion barrier is that the Ru layer first became discontinuous at a high temperature and the Ta layer sequentially become discontinuous at a higher temperature, the Cu atoms then diffuse through the MgO layer and to the substrate at the discontinuities, and the Cu3Si phases finally form. The maximum temperature at which the structures of Cu (50 nm)/Ru (2 nm)/MgO (0.5–3 nm)/Ta (2 nm)/Si are annealed and still have low sheet resistance is from 550 to 750 °C for the annealing time of 5 min and from 500 to 700 °C for the annealing time of 30 min. PMID:28347099

  8. Atypical molecular pharmacology of a new long-acting beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, TA 2005.

    PubMed

    Voss, H P; Donnell, D; Bast, A

    1992-12-01

    The molecular pharmacology of a new putative long-acting bronchodilator TA 2005 (8-hydroxy-5-[(1R)-1-hydroxy-2-[N-[(1R)-2-(p-methoxy-phenyl)- 1-methylethyl]amino]ethyl]carbostyril hydrochloride) has been compared with that of the reference compounds isoprenaline and salbutamol in both methacholine (3 x 10(-6) M) precontracted guinea pig tracheal smooth muscle relaxation and in bovine trapezium muscle binding experiments. TA 2005 appeared very potent compared with isoprenaline and salbutamol (pD2 values of 9.29 vs. 7.65 and 7.10 respectively). For isoprenaline and salbutamol a shallow displacement curve was observed and addition of the non-hydrolysable GTP analogue guanylyl-imidodiphosphate (GppNHp) gave a rightward shift (pKd,high and pKd,low values of 7.3 and 6.1 vs. 7.0 and 5.4 respectively). For TA 2005 a steep displacement curve was found with only one binding state even without GppNHp (pKd,high value of 8.2). The long duration of action of TA 2005 might be explained by tight binding of this compound to the beta 2-adrenoceptor. The extent of tight binding for TA 2005 was extremely large. The molecular basis of the tight agonist binding phenomenon for TA 2005 seems to be of different origin than for isoprenaline. It is hypothesized that a different mechanism of activation of the beta 2-adrenoceptor may be involved for TA 2005.

  9. Bixbyite- and anatase-type phases in the system Sc-Ta-O-N

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, A.; Schilling, H.; Wessel, C.; Wolff, H.; Boerger, A.; Baehtz, C.; Becker, K.-D.; Dronskowski, R.; Lerch, M.

    2010-09-15

    The aim of our study was to modify the basis compound ss-TaON, which crystallizes in the monoclinic baddeleyite-type, by incorporation of appropriate dopant ions, in order to obtain anion-deficient cubic fluorite-type phases, which are of interest as solids with mobile nitrogen ions. For this purpose, scandium-doped tantalum oxide nitrides were prepared by ammonolysis of amorphous oxide precursors. An unexpected variety of phases with different structural features was observed: bixbyite-type phases of general composition Sc{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}(O,N){sub y} with 0.33{<=}x{<=}1 and 1.7{<=}y{<=}1.9, yellow colored metastable anatase-type phases such as Sc{sub 0.1}Ta{sub 0.9}O{sub 1.2}N{sub 0.8} or Sc{sub 0.15}Ta{sub 0.85}O{sub 1.3}N{sub 0.7} and, additionally, anosovite-type phases Sc{sub x}Ta{sub 3-x}O{sub 2x}N{sub 5-2x} with 0{<=}x{<=}1.05. Selected phases were investigated by UV/vis spectroscopy. Anatase- and anosovite-type compounds show brilliant colors. In the anatase-type phase, a possible anion ordering was examined by theoretical methods. Additionally, energy calculations on phase stability were performed for Sc{sub x}Ta{sub 1-x}O{sub 1+2x}N{sub 1-2x} in the baddeleyite, rutile, and anatase structure types with varying amounts of dopants. - Graphical abstract: New anatase- and bixbyite-type phases obtained as single-phase samples in the system Sc-Ta-O-N.

  10. A strongly robust type II Weyl fermion semimetal state in Ta3S2

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Guoqing; Xu, Su-Yang; Sanchez, Daniel S.; Huang, Shin-Ming; Lee, Chi-Cheng; Chang, Tay-Rong; Bian, Guang; Zheng, Hao; Belopolski, Ilya; Alidoust, Nasser; Jeng, Horng-Tay; Bansil, Arun; Lin, Hsin; Hasan, M. Zahid

    2016-01-01

    Weyl semimetals are of great interest because they provide the first realization of the Weyl fermion, exhibit exotic quantum anomalies, and host Fermi arc surface states. The separation between Weyl nodes of opposite chirality gives a measure of the robustness of the Weyl semimetal state. To exploit the novel phenomena that arise from Weyl fermions in applications, it is crucially important to find robust separated Weyl nodes. We propose a methodology to design robust Weyl semimetals with well-separated Weyl nodes. Using this methodology as a guideline, we search among the material parameter space and identify by far the most robust and ideal Weyl semimetal candidate in the single-crystalline compound tantalum sulfide (Ta3S2) with new and novel properties beyond TaAs. Crucially, our results show that Ta3S2 has the largest k-space separation between Weyl nodes among known Weyl semimetal candidates, which is about twice larger than the measured value in TaAs and 20 times larger than the predicted value in WTe2. Moreover, all Weyl nodes in Ta3S2 are of type II. Therefore, Ta3S2 is a type II Weyl semimetal. Furthermore, we predict that increasing the lattice by <4% can annihilate all Weyl nodes, driving a novel topological metal-to-insulator transition from a Weyl semimetal state to a topological insulator state. The robust type II Weyl semimetal state and the topological metal-to-insulator transition in Ta3S2 are potentially useful in device applications. Our methodology can be generally applied to search for new Weyl semimetals. PMID:28861470

  11. Generation and characterization of a Tet-On (rtTA-M2) transgenic rat

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The tetracycline-inducible gene regulation system is a powerful tool that allows temporal and dose-dependent regulation of target transgene expression in vitro and in vivo. Several tetracycline-inducible transgenic mouse models have been described with ubiquitous or tissue-specific expression of tetracycline-transactivator (tTA), reverse tetracycline-transactivator (rtTA) or Tet repressor (TetR). Here we describe a Tet-On transgenic rat that ubiquitously expresses rtTA-M2 driven by the murine ROSA 26 promoter. Results The homozygous rat line (ROSA-rtTA-M2) generated by lentiviral vector injection, has a single integration site and was derived from the offspring of a genetic mosaic founder with multiple transgene integrations. The rtTA-M2 transgene integrated into an intron of a putative gene on chromosome 2 and does not appear to affect the tissue-specificity or expression of that gene. Fibroblasts from the ROSA-rtTA-M2 rats were transduced with a TetO7/CMV-EGFP lentivirus and exhibited doxycycline dose-dependent expression of the EGFP reporter transgene, in vitro. In addition, doxycycline-inducible EGFP expression was observed, in vivo, when the TetO7/CMV-EGFP lentivirus was injected into testis, kidney and muscle tissues of ROSA-rtTA-M2 rats. Conclusions This conditional expression rat model may have application for transgenic overexpression or knockdown studies of gene function in development, disease and gene therapy. PMID:20158911

  12. Strengthening effect of nano-scaled precipitates in Ta alloying layer induced by high current pulsed electron beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Guangze; Luo, Dian; Fan, Guohua; Ma, Xinxin; Wang, Liqin

    2017-05-01

    In this study, the combination of magnetron sputtering and high current pulsed electron beam are used for surface alloying treatment of Ta film on high speed steel. And the Ta alloying layer is about 6 μm. After tempering treatment, TaC phase forms in Ta alloying layer when the treated temperature is over 823 K. Through the TEM and HRTEM observation, a large amount of nano-scaled precipitates (mean diameter 5-8 nm) form within the δ-Fe grain in Ta alloying layer after tempering treatment and these nano-scaled precipitates are confirmed as TaC particles, which contribute to the strengthening effect of the surface alloying layer. The hardness of tempered alloying layer can reach to 18.1 GPa when the treated temperature is 823 K which increase by 50% comparing with the untreated steel sample before surface alloying treatment.

  13. Nanodiamond embedded ta-C composite film by pulsed filtered vacuum arc deposition from a single target

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iyer, Ajai; Etula, Jarkko; Ge, Yanling; Liu, Xuwen; Koskinen, Jari

    2016-11-01

    Detonation Nanodiamonds (DNDs) are known to have sp3 core, sp2 shell, small size (few nm) and are gaining importance as multi-functional nanoparticles. Diverse methods have been used to form composites, containing detonation nanodiamonds (DNDs) embedded in conductive and dielectric matrices for various applications. Here we show a method, wherein DND-ta-C composite film, consisting of DNDs embedded in ta-C matrix have been co-deposited from the same cathode by pulsed filtered cathodic vacuum arc method. Transmission Electron Microscope analysis of these films revel the presence of DNDs embedded in the matrix of amorphous carbon. Raman spectroscopy indicates that the presence of DNDs does not adversely affect the sp3 content of DND-ta-C composite film compared to ta-C film of same thickness. Nanoindentation and nanowear tests indicate that DND-ta-C composite films possess improved mechanical properties in comparison to ta-C films of similar thickness.

  14. Oxygen migration induced resistive switching effect and its thermal stability in W/TaOx/Pt structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, C.; Song, C.; Yang, J.; Zeng, F.; Pan, F.

    2012-06-01

    We investigate the resistive switching mechanism and the thermal stability in room temperature-fabricated nonvolatile memory consisting of W/TaOx/Pt. By comparing the chemical bonding of Ta 4f between high and low resistance states at W/TaOx and TaOx/Pt interfaces, the switching mechanism is confirmed to be dominated by the oxygen ions drift in the TaOx film. Besides, it is demonstrated that the resistive switching behavior is still dynamic and the resistance can be maintained at temperature as high as 510 K. We found that the resistive switching behavior of TaOx film exhibits little degradation even after annealed at 1273 K.

  15. Mechanisms of Low-Temperature Nitridation Technology on a TaN Thin Film Resistor for Temperature Sensor Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Huey-Ru; Chen, Ying-Chung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chu, Tian-Jian; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Wang, Kao-Yuan

    2016-06-01

    In this letter, we propose a novel low-temperature nitridation technology on a tantalum nitride (TaN) thin film resistor (TFR) through supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatment for temperature sensor applications. We also found that the sensitivity of temperature of the TaN TFR was improved about 10.2 %, which can be demonstrated from measurement of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). In order to understand the mechanism of SCCO2 nitridation on the TaN TFR, the carrier conduction mechanism of the device was analyzed through current fitting. The current conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to a Schottky emission after the low-temperature SCCO2 nitridation treatment. A model of vacancy passivation in TaN grains with nitrogen and by SCCO2 nitridation treatment is eventually proposed to increase the isolation ability in TaN TFR, which causes the transfer of current conduction mechanisms.

  16. Study on the Friction and Wear Behavior of a TA15 Alloy and Its Ni-SiC Composite Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Bao-hui; Wang, Zhen-ya; Li, Hai-long

    2016-05-01

    Ni-SiC composite coatings were prepared on TA15 alloy by composite electroplating technology. The friction and wear behavior of TA15 alloy, and the coating were comparatively studied at both room temperature and 600 °C using GCr15 as the counterparts. The results show that the obtained coating is relatively dense and compact, and possesses higher micro-hardness than TA15 alloy. The coating has significant friction reduction effect sliding at 600 °C, but has no obvious friction reduction effect sliding at room temperature. The coating possesses superior wear resistance than TA15 alloy, evidenced by its much lower mass losses than those of TA15 alloy sliding at both room temperature and 600 °C. The TA15 alloy and the coating showed different wear mechanisms under the given sliding conditions.

  17. Mechanisms of Low-Temperature Nitridation Technology on a TaN Thin Film Resistor for Temperature Sensor Applications.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huey-Ru; Chen, Ying-Chung; Chang, Ting-Chang; Chang, Kuan-Chang; Tsai, Tsung-Ming; Chu, Tian-Jian; Shih, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Nai-Chuan; Wang, Kao-Yuan

    2016-12-01

    In this letter, we propose a novel low-temperature nitridation technology on a tantalum nitride (TaN) thin film resistor (TFR) through supercritical carbon dioxide (SCCO2) treatment for temperature sensor applications. We also found that the sensitivity of temperature of the TaN TFR was improved about 10.2 %, which can be demonstrated from measurement of temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). In order to understand the mechanism of SCCO2 nitridation on the TaN TFR, the carrier conduction mechanism of the device was analyzed through current fitting. The current conduction mechanism of the TaN TFR changes from hopping to a Schottky emission after the low-temperature SCCO2 nitridation treatment. A model of vacancy passivation in TaN grains with nitrogen and by SCCO2 nitridation treatment is eventually proposed to increase the isolation ability in TaN TFR, which causes the transfer of current conduction mechanisms.

  18. Mechanical properties and fracture behaviors of C/C composites with PyC/TaC/PyC, PyC/SiC/TaC/PyC multi-interlayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Xiang; Wang, Ya-lei; Chen, Zhao-ke; Li, Guo-dong

    2009-08-01

    Carbon/carbon (C/C) composites with PyC/TaC/PyC or PyC/SiC/TaC/PyC multi-interlayers were prepared by isothermal chemical vapor infiltration, followed by Furan resin impregnation and carbonization. Microstructures, mechanical properties including flexural strength, ductile displacement, and fracture behaviors of composites were studied. Furthermore, composites were heat treated at 2000 °C to study the effects of heat treatment on mechanical properties and fracture behaviors. PyC/TaC/PyC and PyC/SiC/TaC/PyC multi-interlayers have been deposited uniformly in C/C composites. With the introduction of PyC/TaC/PyC multi-interlayers in C/C composites, the flexural strength decreases; however, the ductile displacement increases. The fracture behavior changes from brittleness (0% TaC) to pseudo-ductility (5% TaC) and high toughness (10% TaC). When PyC/SiC/TaC/PyC multi-interlayers are introduced in C/C composites, the flexural strength is improved remarkably from 270 MPa to 522 MPa, but the ductile displacement decreases obviously from 0.49 mm to 0.24 mm, and the fracture behavior becomes brittle again. After heat treatment at 2000 °C, the flexural strength decreases, but the ductile displacement increases and pseudo-ductility or high toughness can be obtained.

  19. Transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) for rectal cancer: a training pathway.

    PubMed

    McLemore, Elisabeth C; Harnsberger, Christina R; Broderick, Ryan C; Leland, Hyuma; Sylla, Patricia; Coker, Alisa M; Fuchs, Hans F; Jacobsen, Garth R; Sandler, Bryan; Attaluri, Vikram; Tsay, Anna T; Wexner, Steven D; Talamini, Mark A; Horgan, Santiago

    2016-09-01

    With increasing interest in natural orifice surgery, there has been a dramatic evolution of transanal and endoluminal surgical techniques. These techniques began with transanal endoluminal surgical removal of rectal masses and have progressed to transanal radical proctectomy for rectal cancer. The first transanal total mesorectal excision (taTME) was performed in 2009 by Sylla, Rattner, Delgado, and Lacy. The improved visibility and working space associated with the taTME technique is intriguing. This video manuscript outlines the training pathway followed by pioneers in the taTME technique, the process of implementation into clinical practice, and initial case report. A double board-certified colorectal surgeon with expertise in rectal cancer, minimally invasive total mesorectal excision, transanal endoscopic surgery (TES), and intersphincteric dissection, underwent taTME training in male cadaver models. Institutional review board (IRB) approval for a phase I clinical trial was achieved. The entire operative team including surgeons, nurses, and operative staff underwent taTME cadaver training the day prior to the first clinical case. The case was proctored by an expert in taTME. A 66-year-old male with uT3N1M0 rectal cancer located in the posterior distal rectum, underwent taTME with laparoscopic abdominal assistance, hand sewn coloanal anastomosis, and diverting loop ileostomy. The majority of the TME was performed transanally with laparoscopic assistance for exposure, splenic flexure mobilization, and high ligation of the vascular pedicles. Operative time was 359 min. There were no intraoperative complications. Pathology revealed a ypT2N1 moderately differentiated invasive adenocarcinoma, grade I TME, 1 cm circumferential radial margin, and 2/13 positive lymph nodes. Implementation of taTME into practice can be achieved by surgeons with expertise in minimally invasive TME, TES, pre-clinical taTME training in cadavers, case observation, proctoring, and ongoing

  20. Temperature dependent magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic FeTaC layers in multilayer thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Akhilesh Kumar; Hsu, Jen-Hwa; Perumal, Alagarsamy

    2016-11-01

    We report systematic investigations on temperature dependent magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic FeTaC layers and resulting magnetic properties of multilayer structured [FeTaC (~67 nm)/Ta(x nm)]2/FeTaC(~67 nm)] thin films, which are fabricated directly on thermally oxidized Si substrate. As-deposited amorphous films are post annealed at different annealing temperatures (TA=200, 300 and 400 °C). Structural analyzes reveal that the films annealed at TA≤200 °C exhibit amorphous nature, while the films annealed above 200 °C show nucleation of nanocrystals at TA=300 °C and well-defined α-Fe nanocrystals with size of about 9 nm in amorphous matrix for 400 °C annealed films. Room temperature and temperature dependent magnetic hysteresis (M-H) loops reveal that magnetization reversal behaviors and magnetic properties are strongly depending on spacer layer thickness (x), TA and temperature. A large reduction in coercivity (HC) was observed for the films annealed at 200 °C and correlated to relaxation of stress quenched in during the film deposition. On the other hand, the films annealed at 300 °C exhibit unusual variation of HC(T), i.e., a broad minimum in HC(T) vs T curve. This is caused by change in magnetic coupling between ferromagnetic layers having different microstructure. In addition, the broad minimum in the HC(T) curve shifts from 150 K for x=1 film to 80 K for x=4 film. High-temperature thermomagnetization data show a strong (significant) variation of Curie temperature (TC) with TA (x). The multilayer films annealed at 200 °C exhibit low value of TC with a minimum of 350 K for x=4 film. But, the films annealed at 400 °C show largest TC with a maximum of 869 K for x=1 film. The observed results are discussed on the basis of variations in magnetic couplings between FeTaC layers, which are majorly driven by temperature, spacer layer thickness, annealing temperature and nature of interfaces.

  1. Multiple bacteriocin production by Leuconostoc mesenteroides TA33a and other Leuconostoc/Weissella strains.

    PubMed

    Papathanasopoulos, M A; Krier, F; Revol-Junelles, A M; Lefebvre, G; Le Caer, J P; von Holy, A; Hastings, J W

    1997-12-01

    Leuconostoc (Lc.) mesenteroides TA33a produced three bacteriocins with different inhibitory activity spectra. Bacteriocins were purified by adsorption/desorption from producer cells and reverse phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Leucocin C-TA33a, a novel bacteriocin with a predicted molecular mass of 4598 Da, inhibited Listeria and other lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Leucocin B-TA33a has a predicted molecular mass of 3466 Da, with activity against Leuconostoc/Weissella (W.) strains, and appears similar to mesenterocin 52B and dextranicin 24, while leucocin A-TA33a, which also inhibited Listeria and other LAB strains, is identical to leucocin A-UAL 187. A survey of other known bacteriocin-producing Leuconostoc/Weissella strains for the presence of the three different bacteriocins revealed that production of leucocin A-, B- and C-type bacteriocins was widespread. Lc. carnosum LA54a, W. paramesenteroides LA7a, and Lc. gelidum UAL 187-22 produced all three bacteriocins, whereas W. paramesenteroides OX and Lc. carnosum TA11a produced only leucocin A- and B-type bacteriocins.

  2. MHC2TA and FCRL3 genes are not associated with rheumatoid arthritis in Mexican patients.

    PubMed

    Mendoza Rincón, J F; Rodríguez Elias, A K; Fragoso, J M; Vargas Alarcón, G; Maldonado Murillo, K; Rivas Jiménez, M L; Barbosa Cobos, R E; Jimenez Morales, S; Lugo Zamudio, G; Tovilla Zárate, C; Ramírez Bello, J

    2016-02-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial disease. A combination of genetic and environmental risk factors contributes to its etiology. Several genes have been reported to be associated with susceptibility to the development of RA. The MHC2TA and FCRL3 genes have been associated previously with RA in Swedish and Japanese populations, respectively. In two recent reports, we show an association between FCRL3 and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA), and MHC2TA and acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in Mexican population. We assessed the association between three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the MHC2TA (-168G/A; rs3087456, and +16G/C; rs4774) and FCRL3 (-169T/C; rs7528684) genes and rheumatoid arthritis in Mexican population through a genotyping method using allelic discrimination assays with TaqMan probes. Our case-control study included 249 patients with RA and 314 controls. We found no evidence of an association between the MHC2TA -168G/A and +1614G/C or FCRL3 -169T/C polymorphisms and RA in this Mexican population. In this cohort of Mexican patients with RA, we observed no association between the MHC2TA or FCRL3 genes and this autoimmune disease.

  3. CO oxidation on Ta-Modified SnO2 solid solution catalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Xue; Xu, Xianglan; Liu, Wenming; Wang, Xiang; Zhang, Rongbin

    2013-06-01

    Co-precipitation method was adopted to prepare Sn-Ta mixed oxide catalysts with different Sn/Ta molar ratios and used for CO oxidation. The catalysts were investigated by N2-Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (N2-BET), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), H2-temperature programmed reduction (H2-TPR), Thermal Gravity Analysis - Differential Scanning Calorimetry (TGA-DSC) techniques. It is revealed that a small amount of Ta cations can be doped into SnO2 lattice to form solid solution by co-precipitation method, which resulted in samples having higher surface areas, improved thermal stability and more deficient oxygen species on the surface of SnO2. As a result, those Sn rich Sn-Ta solid solution catalysts with an Sn/Ta molar ratio higher than 4/2 showed significantly enhanced activity as well as good resistance to water deactivation. It is noted here that if tantala disperses onto SnO2 surface instead of doping into its lattice, it will then have negative effect on its activity.

  4. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in composite MgO/CoFeB/Ta/[Co/Pd]n structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Vazquez, Valentin; Chang, Yao-Jen; Canizo-Cabrera, A.; Garzon-Roman, Abel; Wu, Te-ho

    2016-02-01

    The impact of a non-magnetic Ta spacer layer on the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA) of composite magnetic structures constituted by ultra-thin Co/Pd multilayers (MLs) and MgO/CoFeB was studied. Composite structures lacking a Ta layer present in-plane magnetic anisotropy. The strong perpendicular anisotropy observed in sole Co/Pd MLs is not sufficient to pull the magnetic moment out of the film plane, not even after annealing at 300 or 350 °C. PMA with squareness values close to unity and annealing stability up to 350 °C is observed after the insertion of an ultra-thin Ta layer. Our study demonstrates that Ta layer is essential for obtaining perpendicular magnetic axis in MgO/CoFeB/Ta/[Co/Pd]6. The exchange coupling between the MgO/CoFeB bilayer and the Co/Pd MLs is ferromagnetic with sharp switching characteristics. Perpendicular composite structures with sharp magnetization reversal and annealing stability are relevant in perpendicular CoFeB-based magnetic tunnel junctions for the development of gigabit-scale nonvolatile memory.

  5. Effect of composition on the matrix transformation of the Co-Re-Cr-Ta-C alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beran, Přemysl; Mukherji, Debashis; Strunz, Pavel; Gilles, Ralph; Hofmann, Michael; Karge, Lukas; Dolotko, Oleksandr; Rösler, Joachim

    2016-07-01

    Neutron diffraction measurement was performed in-situ at high temperatures on Co-Re-Ta-C alloys with and without Cr addition. This included alloys containing different C content with the C/Ta ratio varying between 0.5 and 1.0. The Co-Re-solid solution matrix of the experimental alloys is polymorphic (like in pure cobalt) and transformed from low temperature hexagonal ɛ phase to high temperature cubic γ phase on heating. This transformation is reversible and show hysteresis. The main alloying addition, Re, stabilizes the ɛ Co-phase and increases the transformation temperature to above 1273 K. The onset of the ɛ rightleftharpoons γ transformation during heating and cooling was found to differ depending on the alloy composition. In alloys without Cr addition the transformation was not completed on cooling and the high temperature γ phase was partly retained at room temperature in metastable state with the amount depending on the cooling rate from high temperature. The diffraction and microstructural results showed that Cr is ɛ stabilizer (similar as Re) but the role of Ta is not clear. The C/Ta ratio has no direct effect on the matrix phase transformation. Nevertheless, it influences indirectly by determining the amount of Ta which is freely available in the matrix.

  6. Structural, electronic and optical properties of hexagonal TaN compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhongjun; Yan, Jungan; Kuang, Zhong; Chen, Taihong; Li, Dehua

    2016-01-01

    Structural and electronic properties of hexagonal Tantalum nitride (TaN) in CoSn and WC structures are studied using the first-principle calculations. Lattice constants and electronic band structures are in an excellent agreement with the available experimental and other theoretical values. TaN in both structures studied has a metallic nature and a strong hybridization of Ta 5d and N 2p are found from the spin density of states (DOS). Meanwhile, our LSDA+U calculations predicted a strong ferromagnetic state for CoSn-type structure and an obvious paramagnetic nature for WC-type structure. No phase transition are observed within cubic and hexagonal CoSn and WC structures under high pressures. Our results show WC-type TaN is the calculated ground-state structure among the three crystallographic structures studied under 120 GPa. Optical properties show that TaN in CoSn-type structure is a better dielectric material.

  7. Optoelectronic properties of Ta3N5: A joint theoretical and experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morbec, Juliana M.; Narkeviciute, Ieva; Jaramillo, Thomas F.; Galli, Giulia

    2014-10-01

    A joint theoretical and experimental study of the optoelectronic properties of Ta3N5 was conducted by means of ab initio calculations and ellipsometry measurements. Previous experimental work on Ta3N5 has not been conclusive regarding the direct or indirect nature of light absorption. Our work found excellent agreement between the optical spectrum computed using the Bethe-Salpeter equation and the measured one, with two prominent features occurring at 2.1 and 2.5 eV assigned to direct transitions between N and Ta states. The computed optical gap, obtained from the G0W0 direct photoemission gap, including spin-orbit coupling, electron-phonon renormalization of the conduction band, and exciton binding energy, was found to be in excellent agreement with measurements. Our results also showed that Ta3N5 is a highly anisotropic material with heavy holes in several directions, suggesting low hole mobilities, consistent with low measured photocurrents in the Ta3N5 literature.

  8. Statistical inference of selection and divergence of the rice blast resistance gene Pi-ta.

    PubMed

    Amei, Amei; Lee, Seonghee; Mysore, Kirankumar S; Jia, Yulin

    2014-10-21

    The resistance gene Pi-ta has been effectively used to control rice blast disease, but some populations of cultivated and wild rice have evolved resistance. Insights into the evolutionary processes that led to this resistance during crop domestication may be inferred from the population history of domesticated and wild rice strains. In this study, we applied a recently developed statistical method, time-dependent Poisson random field model, to examine the evolution of the Pi-ta gene in cultivated and weedy rice. Our study suggests that the Pi-ta gene may have more recently introgressed into cultivated rice, indica and japonica, and U.S. weedy rice from the wild species, O. rufipogon. In addition, the Pi-ta gene is under positive selection in japonica, tropical japonica, U.S. cultivars and U.S. weedy rice. We also found that sequences of two domains of the Pi-ta gene, the nucleotide binding site and leucine-rich repeat domain, are highly conserved among all rice accessions examined. Our results provide a valuable analytical tool for understanding the evolution of disease resistance genes in crop plants.

  9. Effects of annealing on antiwear and antibacteria behaviors of TaN-Cu nanocomposite thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, J. H.; Cheng, M. K.; Chang, Y. K.; Li, C.; Chang, C. L.; Liu, P. C.

    2008-07-15

    TaN-Cu nanocomposite films were deposited by reactive cosputtering on Si and tool steel substrates. The films were then annealed using rapid thermal annealing (RTA) at 400 deg. C for 2, 4, and 8 min, respectively, to induce the nucleation and growth of Cu particles in TaN matrix and on film surface. Field emission scanning electron microscopy was applied to characterize Cu nanoparticles emerged on the surface of TaN-Cu thin films. The effects of annealing on the antiwear and antibacterial properties of these films were studied. The results reveal that annealing by RTA can cause Cu nanoparticles to form on the TaN surface. Consequently, the tribological behaviors, as well as the antibacterial behavior may vary depending on particle size, particle distribution, and total exposed Cu amount. For the samples with large Cu particles, the reduction of averaged friction and wear rate is obvious. Apparently, it is due to the smeared Cu particles adhered onto the wear tracks. This Cu layer may act as a solid lubricant. From the antibacterial testing results, it is found that both Cu particle size and total exposed Cu amount are critical in making short-term antibacterial effect. Overall, all the annealed TaN-Cu samples can reach >99% antibacterial efficiency in 24 h, with respect to uncoated Si substrate.

  10. Asymmetric interaction of point defects and heterophase interfaces in ZrN/TaN multilayered nanofilms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lao, Yuanxia; Hu, Shuanglin; Shi, Yunlong; Deng, Yu; Wang, Fei; Du, Hao; Zhang, Haibing; Wang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Materials with a high density of heterophase interfaces, which are capable of absorbing and annihilating radiation-induced point defects, can exhibit a superior radiation tolerance. In this paper, we investigated the interaction behaviors of point defects and heterophase interfaces by implanting helium atoms into the ZrN/TaN multilayered nanofilms. It was found that the point defect-interface interaction on the two sides of the ZrN/TaN interface was asymmetric, likely due to the difference in the vacancy formation energies of ZrN and TaN. The helium bubbles could migrate from the ZrN layers into the TaN layers through the heterophase interfaces, resulting in a better crystallinity of the ZrN layers and a complete amorphization of the TaN layers. The findings provided some clues to the fundamental behaviors of point defects near the heterophase interfaces, which make us re-examine the design rules of advanced radiation-tolerant materials.

  11. Layer-Confined Excitonic Insulating Phase in Ultrathin Ta2NiSe5 Crystals.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Young; Kim, Youngwook; Kang, Chang-Jong; An, Eun-Su; Kim, Hyoung Kug; Eom, Man Jin; Lee, Minkyung; Park, Chibeom; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Choi, Hee Cheul; Min, Byung Il; Kim, Jun Sung

    2016-09-27

    Atomically thin nanosheets, as recently realized using van der Waals layered materials, offer a versatile platform for studying the stability and tunability of the correlated electron phases in the reduced dimension. Here, we investigate a thickness-dependent excitonic insulating (EI) phase on a layered ternary chalcogenide Ta2NiSe5. Using Raman spectroscopy, scanning tunneling spectroscopy, and in-plane transport measurements, we found no significant changes in crystalline and electronic structures as well as disorder strength in ultrathin Ta2NiSe5 crystals with a thickness down to five layers. The transition temperature, Tc, of ultrathin Ta2NiSe5 is reduced from its bulk value by ΔTc/Tc(bulk) ≈ -9%, which strongly contrasts the case of 1T-TiSe2, another excitonic insulator candidate, showing an increase of Tc by ΔTc/Tc(bulk) ≈ +30%. This difference is attributed to the dominance of interband Coulomb interaction over electron-phonon interaction and its zero-ordering wave vector due to the direct band gap structure of Ta2NiSe5. The out-of-plane correlating length of the EI phase is estimated to have monolayer thickness, suggesting that the EI phase in Ta2NiSe5 is highly layer-confined and in the strong coupling limit.

  12. Intrinsic p-type W-based transition metal dichalcogenide by substitutional Ta-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yajun; Long, Mingsheng; Gao, Anyuan; Wang, Yu; Pan, Chen; Liu, Xiaowei; Zeng, Junwen; Xu, Kang; Zhang, Lili; Liu, Erfu; Hu, Weida; Wang, Xiaomu; Miao, Feng

    2017-07-01

    Two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have recently emerged as promising candidates for future electronics and optoelectronics. While most of TMDs are intrinsic n-type semiconductors due to electron donating which originates from chalcogen vacancies, obtaining intrinsic high-quality p-type semiconducting TMDs has been challenging. Here, we report an experimental approach to obtain intrinsic p-type Tungsten (W)-based TMDs by substitutional Ta-doping. The obtained few-layer Ta-doped WSe2 (Ta0.01W0.99Se2) field-effect transistor devices exhibit competitive p-type performances, including ˜106 current on/off at room temperature. We also demonstrate high quality van der Waals (vdW) p-n heterojunctions based on Ta0.01W0.99Se2/MoS2 structure, which exhibit nearly ideal diode characteristics (with an ideality factor approaching 1 and a rectification ratio up to 1 × 105) and excellent photodetecting performance. Our study suggests that substitutional Ta-doping holds great promise to realize intrinsic p-type W-based TMDs for future electronic and photonic applications.

  13. Recovery of soft magnetic properties of FeNiSm films by Ta interlayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xi, L.; Sun, Q. J.; Li, X. Y.; Zhou, J. J.; Du, J. H.; Ma, J. H.; Wang, Z.; Shi, X. N.; Zuo, Y. L.; Xue, D. S.

    2011-08-01

    The magnetic properties of FeNiSm thin films with different thicknesses, different Ta interlayer thicknesses and different numbers of Ta interlayers were investigated. The single layer FeNiSm shows in-plane uniaxial anisotropy at a thickness below critical value, but shows weak perpendicular anisotropy with a stripe domain structure at thickness above the critical value. Experiments indicate that one or more Ta interlayers inserted into thick FeNiSm films with weak perpendicular anisotropy were effective not only in canceling the perpendicular anisotropy, but also in recovering the in-plane uniaxial anisotropy. Blocking of the columnar growth of FeNi grains by the Ta interlayer is considered to be responsible for this spin reorientation phenomenon. Moreover, the magnetization reversal mechanism in FeNiSm films with uniaxial anisotropy can be ascribed to coherent rotation when the applied field is close to the hard axis and to domain-wall unpinning when the applied field is close to the easy axis. The dynamic magnetic properties of FeNiSm films with uniaxial anisotropy were investigated in the frequency range 0.1-5 GHz. The degradation of the soft magnetic properties of magnetic thin films due to the growth of columnar grains can be avoided by insertion of a Ta interlayer.

  14. Polymorphism of IFN-γ (+874 T/A) in Syrian patients with chronic hepatitis B

    PubMed Central

    Al Kadi, Mohamad; Monem, Fawza

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the association of IFN- γ +874 (T/A) polymorphism with susceptibility to chronic HBV infection in the Syrian population. Background: Accumulating evidence indicate that the inadequate immune responses are responsible for HBV persistency. Therefore, polymorphisms in genes encoding the cytokines, which are responsible for regulation of the immune response, can affect the course and outcome of the infection. The IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphism affects the expression of IFN-γ, which has been shown to be crucial to HBV clearance. Methods: In this case-control study, 140 samples were collected (70 healthy individuals, 70 chronic HBV patients), and genomic DNA was isolated. Sequencing and ARMS-PCR were performed to genotype the IFN-γ +874 T/A polymorphism. Results: Results of this study showed an association between IFN- γ +874 T/A polymorphism and the susceptibility to chronic HBV infection (P < 0.05). In addition, results showed that the AA genotype increased the risk of chronicity (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.35 – 6.89), whereas the AT and TT genotypes reduced the risk of chronicity (OR = 0.33, 95% CI = 0.150 – 0.753). Conclusion: Results of this study conclude that the IFN- γ +874 T/A polymorphism may be associated with the chronic HBV infection, according to the genetic model AA vs. AT&TT. PMID:28331562

  15. Asymmetric interaction of point defects and heterophase interfaces in ZrN/TaN multilayered nanofilms

    PubMed Central

    Lao, Yuanxia; Hu, Shuanglin; Shi, Yunlong; Deng, Yu; Wang, Fei; Du, Hao; Zhang, Haibing; Wang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Materials with a high density of heterophase interfaces, which are capable of absorbing and annihilating radiation-induced point defects, can exhibit a superior radiation tolerance. In this paper, we investigated the interaction behaviors of point defects and heterophase interfaces by implanting helium atoms into the ZrN/TaN multilayered nanofilms. It was found that the point defect-interface interaction on the two sides of the ZrN/TaN interface was asymmetric, likely due to the difference in the vacancy formation energies of ZrN and TaN. The helium bubbles could migrate from the ZrN layers into the TaN layers through the heterophase interfaces, resulting in a better crystallinity of the ZrN layers and a complete amorphization of the TaN layers. The findings provided some clues to the fundamental behaviors of point defects near the heterophase interfaces, which make us re-examine the design rules of advanced radiation-tolerant materials. PMID:28053307

  16. Photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical performance of Ta3N5 microcolumn films fabricated using facile reactive sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Der-Hwa; Chang, Kao-Shuo

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the photocatalytic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of Ta3N5 microcolumn films. The highlights include (1) overcoming the fundamental barrier of standard reactive sputtering for fabricating microcolumns; (2) preventing unnecessary complexity from complicating facile sputtering; (3) an alternative but effective approach for fabricating Ta3N5 without using caustic NH3 gases; (4) investigating morphology tuning for favorable photocatalysis and PEC reactions; and (5) elucidating the relationships of the structures, morphologies, and properties of Ta3N5 microcolumns. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy and selective-area electron diffraction verified the polycrystallinity of Ta3N5 microcolumns, of which the elemental compositions and stoichiometry were measured using electron-probe energy dispersive spectroscopy, Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The corresponding band gap was determined to be approximately 2.1 eV. The sample exhibited a superior photodegradation capability; the photodegradation rate constant k was determined to be approximately 1.4 times higher than that of P25 under UV irradiation. A photocatalytic and PEC cycling test indicated the photodegradation reusability and photostability of the Ta3N5 microcolumns. The incident photon-to-current efficiency performance reached 6%, suggesting that these microcolumns hold potential for application in PEC devices.

  17. Enhanced solar photocurrent of LaTaON2 photoanodes via electrochemical treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Huiting; Li, Zhaosheng

    2017-03-01

    Having a theoretical 18.5% solar-to-hydrogen efficiency, LaTaON2 has emerged as a promising photoanode material. However, its performance is crucially limited by low photocurrent in the past reports. To improve its solar photocurrent, a negative electrochemical treatment was applied for the LaTaON2 photoanode. The sample powder was successfully synthesized by a flux assisted-nitridation with precursor derived from solid state sintering. And the LaTaON2 photoanodes were fabricated by electrophoretic deposition with a post-necking procedure. The solar photocurrent of as-fabricated LaTaON2 photoanode has increased to 1.2 mA cm-2 at 1.6 VRHE after the negative electrochemical treatment in the dark. The photoanodes with and without the electrochemical treatment were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Mott–Schottky test, transient photocurrent and open-circuit photovoltage. The results showed that the enhancement maybe ascribed to the soared carrier density and elimination of surface recombination centre. Therefore it is proposed that the electrochemical treatment eliminates the surface recombination centre of the oxynitrides leading to increased solar photocurrent. It was also found that the SrTaO2N photoanode had increased photocurrent after the electrochemical treatment. This study provides a facile and general way to improve the solar water-splitting current of photoanodes.

  18. Asymmetric interaction of point defects and heterophase interfaces in ZrN/TaN multilayered nanofilms.

    PubMed

    Lao, Yuanxia; Hu, Shuanglin; Shi, Yunlong; Deng, Yu; Wang, Fei; Du, Hao; Zhang, Haibing; Wang, Yuan

    2017-01-05

    Materials with a high density of heterophase interfaces, which are capable of absorbing and annihilating radiation-induced point defects, can exhibit a superior radiation tolerance. In this paper, we investigated the interaction behaviors of point defects and heterophase interfaces by implanting helium atoms into the ZrN/TaN multilayered nanofilms. It was found that the point defect-interface interaction on the two sides of the ZrN/TaN interface was asymmetric, likely due to the difference in the vacancy formation energies of ZrN and TaN. The helium bubbles could migrate from the ZrN layers into the TaN layers through the heterophase interfaces, resulting in a better crystallinity of the ZrN layers and a complete amorphization of the TaN layers. The findings provided some clues to the fundamental behaviors of point defects near the heterophase interfaces, which make us re-examine the design rules of advanced radiation-tolerant materials.

  19. Study on electrical defects level in single layer two-dimensional Ta2O5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahai, Li; Xiongfei, Song; Linfeng, Hu; Ziyi, Wang; Rongjun, Zhang; Liangyao, Chen; David, Wei Zhang; Peng, Zhou

    2016-04-01

    Two-dimensional atomic-layered material is a recent research focus, and single layer Ta2O5 used as gate dielectric in field-effect transistors is obtained via assemblies of Ta2O5 nanosheets. However, the electrical performance is seriously affected by electronic defects existing in Ta2O5. Therefore, spectroscopic ellipsometry is used to calculate the transition energies and corresponding probabilities for two different charged oxygen vacancies, whose existence is revealed by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis. Spectroscopic ellipsometry fitting also calculates the thickness of single layer Ta2O5, exhibiting good agreement with atomic force microscopy measurement. Nondestructive and noncontact spectroscopic ellipsometry is appropriate for detecting the electrical defects level of single layer Ta2O5. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11174058 and 61376093), the Fund from Shanghai Municipal Science and Technology Commission (Grant No. 13QA1400400), the National Science and Technology Major Project, China (Grant No. 2011ZX02707), and the Innovation Program of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (Grant No. 12ZZ010).

  20. Precessional magnetization induced spin current from CoFeB into Ta

    SciTech Connect

    Jamali, Mahdi; Klemm, Angeline; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2013-12-16

    The spin dynamics at the interface between the CoFeB and Ta layer has been studied using spin pumping and spin wave characterizations. The spin pumping driven by the ferromagnetic resonance in the CoFeB layer injects a spin current into Ta layer which results in an electromotive force across the Ta layer due to the inverse spin Hall effect. Upon changing the polarity of the bias magnetic field, the polarity of the output voltage inverts and the output voltage increases linearly in respect to the microwave signal power which are consistent with the spin pumping characteristics. The effect of the in-plane magnetization angle on the output voltage has been studied. Furthermore, it is found that the frequency spectrum of the spin Hall voltage is modified by the annealing temperature and the full width at half maximum of the spin pumping increases by more than 40% with the increase of the annealing temperature from 200 °C to 300 °C. The spin Hall angle at the Ta-CoFeB interface is determined to be 0.014, and the damping constant of the CoFeB increases from 0.006 in pure CoFeB to 0.015 in Ta/CoFeB film.

  1. Superconducting order from disorder in 2H-TaSe2-xSx

    DOE PAGES

    Li, Lijun; Deng, Xiaoyu; Wang, Zhen; ...

    2017-02-24

    Here, we report on the emergence of robust superconducting order in single crystal alloys of TaSe2$ -$x Sx (0 ≤ × ≤2). The critical temperature of the alloy is surprisingly higher than that of the two end compounds TaSe2 and TaS2. The evolution of superconducting critical temperature Tc(x) correlates with the full width at half maximum of the Bragg peaks and with the linear term of the high-temperature resistivity. The conductivity of the crystals near the middle of the alloy series is higher or similar than that of either one of the end members 2H-TaSe2 and/or 2H-TaS2. It is knownmore » that in these materials superconductivity is in close competition with charge density wave order. We interpret our experimental findings in a picture where disorder tilts this balance in favor of superconductivity by destroying the charge density wave order.« less

  2. The ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, TaU4 regulates wheat defence against the phytopathogen Zymoseptoria tritici

    PubMed Central

    Millyard, Linda; Lee, Jack; Zhang, Cunjin; Yates, Gary; Sadanandom, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Mycosphaerella graminicola (Zymoseptoria tritici commonly known as Septoria), the causal agent of Septoria Leaf Blotch (STB), is considered one of the major threats to European wheat production. Previous studies have shown the importance of ubiquitination in plant defence against a multitude of pathogens. However the ubiquitination machinery in wheat is under studied, particularly E2 enzymes that have the ability to control the ubiquitination and thereby the fate of many different target proteins. In this study we identify an E2 enzyme, Triticum aestivum Ubiquitin conjugating enzyme 4 (TaU4) that functions in wheat defence against Septoria. We demonstrate TaU4 to be a bona fide E2 enzyme through an E2 charging assay. TaU4 localises in both the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore potentially interacting with E3 ligases and substrate proteins in multiple compartments. Virus Induced Gene Silencing of TaU4 in wheat leaves resulted in delayed development of disease symptoms, reduced Septoria growth and reproduction. We conclude that TaU4 is a novel negative regulator of defence against Septoria. PMID:27759089

  3. Oral tranexamic acid (TA) in the treatment of melasma: A retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwee Chyen; Thng, Tien Guan Steven; Goh, Chee Leok

    2016-08-01

    Melasma is a common pigmentary disorder among Asians and treatment is challenging. Oral tranexamic acid (TA) has emerged as a potential treatment for refractory melasma. Large-scale studies on its use, outcomes, and safety are limited. We sought to evaluate treatment outcomes and adverse effects of oral TA in melasma in an Asian population. We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who received oral TA for melasma in a tertiary dermatologic center from January 2010 to June 2014. In all, 561 patients (91.4% female, 8.6% male) were enrolled. Median duration of treatment was 4 months. The majority (503 [89.7%]) improved, 56 (10.0%) had no improvement, and 2 (0.4%) worsened. Patients without family history of melasma had better response rates than those with family history (90.6% vs 60.0%, P = .01). Of the 503 who improved, response was seen within 2 months of TA initiation, with a relapse rate of 27.2%. Adverse events occurred in 40 (7.1%). Most were transient, but 1 developed deep vein thrombosis requiring prompt discontinuation. She was later given the diagnosis of familial protein S deficiency. This was a retrospective study. Oral TA may be an effective adjunct for refractory melasma. Careful screening for personal and familial risk factors for thromboembolism should be done before initiation. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Ammonium fluoride-activated synthesis of cubic δ-TaN nanoparticles at low temperatures

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Cubic delta-tantalum nitride (δ-TaN) nanoparticles were selectively prepared using a K2TaF7 + (5 + k) NaN3 + kNH4F reactive mixture (k being the number of moles of NH4F) via a combustion process under a nitrogen pressure of 2.0 MPa. The combustion temperature, when plotted as a function of the number of moles of NH4F used, was in the range of 850°C to 1,170°C. X-ray diffraction patterns revealed the formation of cubic δ-TaN nanoparticles at 850°C to 950°C when NH4F is used in an amount of 2.0 mol (or greater) in the combustion experiment. Phase pure cubic δ-TaN synthesized at k = 4 exhibited a specific surface area of 30.59 m2/g and grain size of 5 to 10 nm, as estimated from the transmission electron microscopy micrograph. The role of NH4F in the formation process of δ-TaN is discussed with regard to a hypothetical reaction mechanism. PMID:23497396

  5. Low temperature synthesis of monolithic transparent Ta2O5 gels from hydrolysis of metal alkoxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bansal, Narottam P.

    1993-01-01

    Tantalum oxide gels in the form of transparent monoliths and powder were prepared from hydrolysis of tantalum pentaethoxide under controlled conditions using different mole ratios of Ta(OC2H5)5:C2H50H:H20:HCl. Alcohol acts as the mutual solvent and HCl as the deflocculating agent. For a fixed alkoxide:water:HCl ratio, time of gel formation increased with the alcohol to alkoxide mole ratio. Thermal evolution of the physical and structural changes in the gel was monitored by differential thermal analysis, thermogravimetric analysis, x-ray diffraction, and infrared spectroscopy. On heating to approximately 400 C, the amorphous gel crystallized into the low temperature orthorhombic phase Beta-Ta2O5, which transformed into the high temperature tetragonal phase Alpha-Ta2O5 when further heated to approximately 1450 C. The volume fraction of the crystalline phase increased with the firing temperature. The Alpha-Ta205 converted back into the low temperature phase, Beta-Ta2O5, on slow cooling through the transformation temperature of 1360 C indicating a slow but reversible transformation.

  6. Oxygen release of tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED) and sodium perborate combination.

    PubMed

    Celik, E U; Türkün, M; Yapar, A G D

    2008-07-01

    To evaluate the effect of tetra acetyl ethylene diamine (TAED) on oxygen release from sodium perborate and to compare it with sodium perborate-hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and sodium perborate-distilled water mixtures. Six groups were evaluated: control groups (groups I-III), sodium perborate was mixed with distilled water or 3% or 30% H(2)O(2); experimental groups (groups IV-VI), sodium perborate was mixed with TAED in different ratios and then distilled water was added to these mixtures. The amount of oxygen released from the samples was measured with a digital oxygen meter at room temperature (25 degrees C) and body temperature (37 degrees C) after 1 min, 1-6 h and 12 h and on each day up to 1 week. The results were statistically evaluated by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey's tests. The TAED groups demonstrated significantly higher amounts of released oxygen after 1 min and 1 h at 25 degrees C and 1 min at 37 degrees C (P < 0.05). At all other measurement times, the amount of TAED in each mixture did not alter the amount or speed of oxygen release (P > 0.05). Tetra acetyl ethylene diamine groups achieved their maximum oxygen release 2 h earlier at 25 degrees C and 1 h earlier at 37 degrees C than the other groups. Thus, TAED accelerated oxygen release from sodium perborate-distilled water mixtures regardless of its proportions up to 24 h.

  7. Materials and processing aspects of CoCrTa/Cr longitudinal recording media. 2: Microstructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Y.; Wong, B. Y.; Laughlin, D. E.

    1994-12-01

    In the CoCrTa/Cr system, it has been postulated that segregation of nonmagnetic constituents to grain boundaries is responsible for the low noise and high coercivity. However, direct experimental evidence is still lacking. In this investigation, we have carried out microstructural studies using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic resolution transmission electron microscopy (ARTEM) of CoCrTa/Cr films produced under varying processing conditions. We found that the stacking fault density and the degree of crystalline perfection between the faults is most important in increasing the coercivity and improving signal-noise properties as indicated by Delta M measurement. High substrate temperatures and high Cr and Ta concentrations promote the occurrence of the stacking faults in the films. In conjunction with ARTEM results, we propose that these faults provide possible sites for elemental segregation which is partially responsible for reducing the magnetic coupling among the unfaulted hcp regions in the CoCrTa films. We also provide microstructural evidence supporting the picture that the high-frequency mechanical texture lines break the intergranular coupling normal to the texture lines resulting in circumferential anisotropy. Grains are crystallographically correlated to form clusters between the texture lines but such correlation is broken up by the texture lines. This gives rise to an effective shape-induced anisotropy. We believe that the cluster size plays a more important role than does the grain size in determining the magnetic properties of CoCrTa/Cr media.

  8. Decreased locomotor activity in mice expressing tTA under control of the CaMKII alpha promoter.

    PubMed

    McKinney, B C; Schneider, J S; Schafer, G L; Lowing, J L; Mohan, S; Zhao, M X; Heng, M Y; Albin, R L; Seasholtz, A F; Akil, H; Murphy, G G

    2008-03-01

    Transgenic mice in which the tetracycline transactivator (tTA) is driven by the forebrain-specific calcium-calmodulin-dependent kinase II alpha promoter (CaMKII alpha-tTA mice) are used to study the molecular genetics of many behaviors. These mice can be crossed with other transgenic mice carrying a transgene of interest coupled to the tetracycline-responsive promoter element to produce mice with forebrain-specific expression of the transgene under investigation. The value of using CaMKII alpha-tTA mice to study behavior, however, is dependent on the CaMKII alpha-tTA mice themselves lacking a behavioral phenotype with respect to the behaviors being studied. Here we present data that suggest CaMKII alpha-tTA mice have a behavioral phenotype distinct from that of their wild-type (WT) littermates. Most strikingly, we find that CaMKII alpha-tTA mice, both those with a C57BL/6NTac genetic background (B6-tTA) and those with a 129S6B6F1/Tac hybrid genetic background (F1-tTA), exhibit decreased locomotor activity compared with WT littermates that could be misinterpreted as altered anxiety-like behavior. Despite this impairment, neither B6-tTA nor F1-tTA mice perform differently than their WT littermates in two commonly used learning and memory paradigms - Pavlovian fear conditioning and Morris water maze. Additionally, we find data regarding motor coordination and balance to be mixed: B6-tTA mice, but not F1-tTA mice, exhibit impaired performance on the accelerating rotarod and both perform as well as their WT littermates on the balance beam.

  9. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Bulk Nanostructured Cu-Ta Alloys Consolidated by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-01

    Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Bulk Nanostructured Cu–Ta Alloys Consolidated by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion by KA Darling...Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Bulk Nanostructured Cu–Ta Alloys Consolidated by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion KA Darling, MA...Ta Alloys Consolidated by Equal Channel Angular Extrusion 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) KA

  10. TaSYP71, a Qc-SNARE, Contributes to Wheat Resistance against Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Minjie; Peng, Yan; Li, Huayi; Deng, Lin; Wang, Xiaojie; Kang, Zhensheng

    2016-01-01

    N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors (SNAREs) are involved in plant resistance; however, the role of SYP71 in the regulation of plant–pathogen interactions is not well known. In this study, we characterized a plant-specific SNARE in wheat, TaSYP71, which contains a Qc-SNARE domain. Three homologs are localized on chromosome 1AL, 1BL, and 1DL. Using Agrobacterium-mediated transient expression, TaSYP71 was localized to the plasma membrane in Nicotiana benthamiana. Quantitative real-time PCR assays revealed that TaSYP71 homologs was induced by NaCl, H2O2 stress and infection by virulent and avirulent Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici (Pst) isolates. Heterologous expression of TaSYP71 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe elevated tolerance to H2O2. Meanwhile, H2O2 scavenging gene (TaCAT) was downregulated in TaSYP71 silenced plants treated by H2O2 compared to that in control, which indicated that TaSYP71 enhanced tolerance to H2O2 stress possibly by influencing the expression of TaCAT to remove the excessive H2O2 accumulation. When TaSYP71 homologs were all silenced in wheat by the virus-induced gene silencing system, wheat plants were more susceptible to Pst, with larger infection area and more haustoria number, but the necrotic area of wheat mesophyll cells were larger, one possible explanation that minor contribution of resistance to Pst was insufficient to hinder pathogen extension when TaSYP71 were silenced, and the necrotic area was enlarged accompanied with the pathogen growth. Of course, later cell death could not be excluded. In addition, the expression of pathogenesis-related genes were down-regulated in TaSYP71 silenced wheat plants. These results together suggest that TaSYP71 play a positive role in wheat defense against Pst. PMID:27148348

  11. Cell response to a newly developed Ti-10Ta-10Nb alloy and its sputtered nanoscale coating

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Min; Vang, Mong-Sook; Yang, Hong-So; Lim, Hyun-Pil

    2009-01-01

    STATEMENT OF PROBLEM The success of titanium implants is due to osseointegration or the direct contact of the implant surface and bone without a fibrous connective tissue interface. PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate the osteoblast precursor response to titanium - 10 tantalum - 10 niobium (Ti-Ta-Nb) alloy and its sputtered coating. MATERIAL AND METHODS Ti-Ta-Nb coatings were sputtered onto the Ti-Ta-Nb disks. Ti6-Al-4V alloy disks were used as controls. An osteoblast precursor cell line, were used to evaluate the cell responses to the 3 groups. Cell attachment was measured using coulter counter and the cell morphology during attachment period was observed using fluorescent microscopy. Cell culture was performed at 4, 8, 12 and 16 days. RESULTS The sputtered Ti-Ta-Nb coatings consisted of dense nanoscale grains in the range of 30 to 100 nm with alpha-Ti crystal structure. The Ti-Ta-Nb disks and its sputtered nanoscale coatings exhibited greater hydrophilicity and rougher surfaces compared to the Ti-6Al-4V disks. The sputtered nanoscale Ti-Ta-Nb coatings exhibited significantly greater cell attachment compared to Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-Ta-Nb disks. Nanoscale Ti-Ta-Nb coatings exhibited significantly greater ALP specific activity and total protein production compared to the other 2 groups. CONCLUSIONS It was concluded that nanoscale Ti-Ta-Nb coatings enhance cell adhesion. In addition, Ti-Ta-Nb alloy and its nanoscale coatings enhanced osteoblast differentiation, but did not support osteoblast precursor proliferation compared to Ti-6Al-4V. These results indicate that the new developed Ti-Ta-Nb alloy and its nanoscale Ti-Ta-Nb coatings may be useful as an implant material. PMID:21165256

  12. Spin–orbit torque induced magnetization switching in Pt/Co/Ta structures with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Jijun; Li, Dong; Cui, Baoshan; Guo, Xiaobin; Wu, Kai; Zhang, Xu; Wang, Yupei; Zuo, Yalu; Xi, Li

    2017-10-01

    Spin–orbit torque (SOT) induced magnetization switching is investigated in Pt/Co/Ta stacks with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy with the variation of the thickness of Ta layer (t Ta). SOT is characterized by an effective spin Hall angle θ SH, which is determined by an anomalous Hall resistance measurements method based on a macrospin model. A high charge current induced magnetization switching efficiency is achieved by the enhanced injection efficiency of spin currents from bottom Pt and top Ta with opposite signs of θ SH. When t Ta  =  4 nm, the enhanced effective θ SH for Pt/Co/Ta shows a maximum value around 0.356, which is larger than the sum of |θ SH| for Pt and Ta and is ascribed to an additional interfacial SOT at Co/Ta interface. θ SH gradually decreases with increasing Ta layer thickness beyond 4 nm, which can be explained by the improved crystallinity of Ta layer. Our results confirm a way to decrease the switching current density in SOT-based spintronic devices.

  13. Effects of the process parameters on the microstructure and magnetic properties of nanocrystalline FeTaCN films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, C. Y.; Kuo, P. C.; Yao, Y. D.; Chen, S. C.; Lie, C. T.; Sun, A. C.

    2004-05-01

    FeTaCN films were prepared by DC-magnetron reactive co-sputtering of Fe target and TaC composite target with Ar+N 2 sputtering gas. Effects of annealing temperature and sputtering power density of the Fe target on the magnetic properties and microstructure of the FeTaCN film were investigated. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicated that the FeTaCN film was nanocrystalline structure. The in-plane coercivity Hc || is about 1 -3 Oe and saturation magnetization 4 πMs is about 12 -15 kG for the as-deposited film.

  14. Underground search for the decay of {sup 180}Ta{sup m}

    SciTech Connect

    Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, Joeel; Marissens, Gerd; Lindahl, Patric; Waetjen, Uwe; Johnston, Peter N.; Wagemans, Cyriel; Koehler, Matthias

    2006-11-15

    Tantalum-180m is a very rare primordial isotope and is not in its nuclear ground state. The radioactivity of {sup 180}Ta{sup m} has not yet been observed. Previous attempts to measure the half-life of {sup 180}Ta{sup m} have been performed using various detectors located above ground. In this work a 606 g Ta disk of natural isotopic composition was measured for 170 d in the 225 m deep underground laboratory HADES. The new lower bound for the half-life is 1.7x10{sup 16} y for electron capture decay and 1.2x10{sup 16} y for {beta}{sup -} decay. This gives a total lower bound for the half-life of 7.1x10{sup 15} y, which is a factor of 6 higher than the previous lower bound.

  15. Thermal, optical, and dielectric properties of fluoride Rb2TaF7

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorel'tsev, E. I.; Mel'nikova, S. V.; Kartashev, A. V.; Gorev, M. V.; Flerov, I. N.; Laptash, N. M.

    2017-05-01

    The thermal, optical, and dielectric properties of fluoride Rb2TaF7 were investigated. It was observed that the variation in chemical pressure in fluorides A 2 +TaF7 caused by the cation substitution of rubidium for ammonium does not affect the ferroelastic nature of structural distortions, but leads to stabilization of the high- and low-temperature phases and enhancement of birefringence. The entropy of the phase transition P4/nmm ↔ Cmma is typical of the shift transformations, which is consistent with a model of the initial and distorted phase structures. The anisotropy of chemical pressure causes the change of signs of the anomalous strain and baric coefficient dT/ dp of Rb2TaF7 as compared with the values for its ammonium analog.

  16. Defect and dopant properties of MgTa{sub 2}O{sub 6}

    SciTech Connect

    Tealdi, Cristina; Saiful Islam, M.; Malavasi, Lorenzo . E-mail: lorenzo.malavasi@unipv.it; Flor, Giorgio

    2004-11-01

    Atomistic computer simulation techniques have been used, for the first time, to reproduce the crystal structure of MgTa{sub 2}O{sub 6} and to investigate the defect chemistry and dopant properties of this material. The calculated defect energetics suggest that the concentration of intrinsic atomic defects in this phase is insignificant and that the system is probably stable to both oxidation and reduction. Dopant solution energy versus ion size trends are found for both isovalent and aliovalent dopant incorporation at Mg and Ta sites. Divalent dopants (e.g. Ca, Cu) preferentially occupy the Mg site whereas dopants with higher charge (e.g. Sc, Zr, Nb) are more favorable on the Ta site. High migration activation energies (>2eV) predict limited ionic conductivity in this material.

  17. Functional and operational requirements for TA-18 relocation to the NTS/DAF Site.

    SciTech Connect

    Malenfant, R. E.; Bedsun, D. A.; Paternoster, Richard R.,

    2002-01-01

    Technical Area 18 (TA-18), or Pajarito Site, of the Los Alamos National Laboratory has been operational as a nuclear facility since 1945. The original complement of a dozen part-time researchers with a single mission in one building at the end of a dirt road has evolved to a complex, multimission facility with a staff of 125 occupying 25 major buildings adjacent to a heavily traveled road with public access. In the year 2000, the Secretary of Energy determined that the mission of TA-18 was essential to support national security, but that consideration had to be given to improving safety and physical security. It is presently proposed to relocate most of the TA-18 operations to the Device Assembly Facility (DAF) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The purpose of this paper is to identify the functional and operational requirements and to demonstrate how they can be met at the DAF.

  18. Processing of crack-free high density polycrystalline LiTaO3 ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Ching-Fong; Brennecka, Geoff L.; King, Graham; Tegtmeier, Eric L.; Holesinger, Terry; Ivy, Jacob; Yang, Pin

    2016-11-04

    Our work achieved high density (99.9%) polycrystalline LiTaO3. The keys to the high density without cracking were the use of LiF-assisted densification to maintain fine grain size as well as the presence of secondary lithium aluminate phases as grain growth inhibitors. The average grain size of the hot pressed polycrystalline LiTaO3 is less than 5 μm, limiting residual stresses caused by the anisotropic thermal expansion. Dilatometry results clearly indicate liquid phase sintering via the added LiF sintering aid. Efficient liquid phase sintering allows densification during low temperature hot pressing. Electron microscopy confirmed the high-density microstructure. Furthermore, Rietveld analysis of neutron diffraction data revealed the presence of LiAlO2 and LiAl5O8 minority phases and negligible substitutional defect incorporation in LiTaO3.

  19. Processing of crack-free high density polycrystalline LiTaO3 ceramics

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Ching-Fong; Brennecka, Geoff L.; King, Graham; ...

    2016-11-04

    Our work achieved high density (99.9%) polycrystalline LiTaO3. The keys to the high density without cracking were the use of LiF-assisted densification to maintain fine grain size as well as the presence of secondary lithium aluminate phases as grain growth inhibitors. The average grain size of the hot pressed polycrystalline LiTaO3 is less than 5 μm, limiting residual stresses caused by the anisotropic thermal expansion. Dilatometry results clearly indicate liquid phase sintering via the added LiF sintering aid. Efficient liquid phase sintering allows densification during low temperature hot pressing. Electron microscopy confirmed the high-density microstructure. Furthermore, Rietveld analysis of neutronmore » diffraction data revealed the presence of LiAlO2 and LiAl5O8 minority phases and negligible substitutional defect incorporation in LiTaO3.« less

  20. Quantized conductance in Ta2O5 based resistive random access memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahu, V. K.; Misra, P.; Das, A. K.; Ajimsha, R. S.; Singh, B.

    2017-05-01

    We report quantised conductance in Au/Ta2O5/Pt structures grown by pulsed laser deposition. Quantum conduction phenomenon was observed during reset switching event of resistive switching in tantalum oxide (Ta2O5) thin films. Nonvolatile and repeatable electric field controlled unipolar resistive switching was clearly seen in Au/Ta2O5/Pt structures with good endurance. The quantum conduction phenomenon has been attributed to formation of nanometer scale conducting filaments which constraints the motion of electron in transverse direction resulting in quantisation of device conductance in half integer multiple of fundamental unit of conductance G0 (2e2/h). These quantised conductance results in well separated resistance states, suitable for realising futuristic multi-bit resistance switching memory.

  1. Evaluation of bi-layer TaSix absorber on buffer for EUV mask

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanayama, Koichiro; Tamura, Shinpei; Nishiyama, Yasushi; Kawashita, Masashi; Matsuo, Tadashi; Tamura, Akira; Nagashige, Susumu; Hiruma, Kenji; Goo, Doohoon; Nishiyama, Iwao

    2006-10-01

    We evaluated TaSix-based bi-layer absorber on ZrSi-based buffer for EUV mask, especially considering the possibility of ZrSi-based film as a combined buffer and capping layer. Since ZrSi-based film has both high dry-etching resistance and EUV transparency, it has potentiality to work as a combined capping and buffer layer. AFM machining repair of bi-layer TaSix absorber on ZrSi-based buffer can be performed to good profile. Printing evaluation showed that over-repair into buffer layer did not affect significantly to wafer CD. FIB (10keV) repair of bi-layer TaSix absorber on ZrSi-based buffer needs improvement for side-wall profile and distinguishable evaluation from implanted Ga + effect in more detail. Effect of FIB (10keV) scan with ordinary repair process seems to be at least smaller than 10%.

  2. TaSi2 nanowires: A potential field emitter and interconnect.

    PubMed

    Chueh, Yu-Lun; Ko, Mong-Tzong; Chou, Li-Jen; Chen, Lih-Juann; Wu, Cen-Shawn; Chen, Chii-Dong

    2006-08-01

    TaSi2 nanowires have been synthesized on a Si substrate by annealing NiSi2 films at 950 degrees C in an ambient containing Ta vapor. The nanowires could be grown up to 13 microm in length. Field-emission measurements show that the turn-on field is low at 4-4.5 V/microm and the threshold field is down to 6 V/microm with the field enhancement factor as high as 1800. The metallic TaSi2 nanowires exhibit excellent electrical properties with a remarkable high failure current density of 3 x 10(8) A cm(-2). In addition, effects of annealing temperatures and capability of metal silicide mediation layer on the growth of nanowires are addressed. This simple approach promises future applications in nanoelectronics and nano-optoelectronics.

  3. Ta2O5 nanowires: a novel synthetic method and their solar energy utilization.

    PubMed

    Lü, Xujie; Ding, Shangjun; Lin, Tianquan; Mou, Xinliang; Hong, Zhanglian; Huang, Fuqiang

    2012-01-14

    Single-crystalline uniform Ta(2)O(5) nanowires are prepared by a novel synthetic route. The formation of the nanowires involves an oriented attachment process caused by the reduction of surface energy. The nanowires are successfully applied to photocatalytic H(2) evolution, contaminant degradation, and dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs). The Ta(2)O(5)-based DSCs reveal a significant photovoltaic response, which has not been reported. As a photocatalyst, the Ta(2)O(5) nanowires possess high H(2) evolution efficiency under Xe lamp irradiation, nearly 27-fold higher than the commercial powders. A better performance of photocatalytic contaminant degradation is also observed. Such improvements are ascribed to better charge transport ability for the single-crystalline wire and a higher potential energy of the conduction band. This new synthetic approach using a water-soluble precursor provides a versatile way to prepare nanostructured metal oxides.

  4. Crystal growth, VTE treatment, and characterizations of Nd-doped LiTaO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. C.; Hsu, W. T.; Chen, Z. B.; Choubey, R. K.; Lan, C. W.

    2011-03-01

    Congruent 0.2 and 0.5 mol% Nd-doped LiTaO3 single crystals were grown by the conventional Czochralski technique. Near-stoichiometric lithium-tantalate wafers were also produced from these crystals by the vapor-transport equilibration (VTE) process. The crystals were characterized by the measurements of composition (by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)), UV absorption edge, Curie temperature, and thermal diffusivity. From the ICP-AES study, we found that Li/Ta ratio increased by the VTE treatment, while Nd/Ta ratio was found to decrease with crystal length. Blue-shift in the absorption edge was observed in the VTE treated crystals as compared with the congruent ones. The Curie temperature decreased with increasing Nd concentration, while thermal diffusivity was found to increase after the VTE treatment.

  5. Band alignment between Ta2O5 and metals for resistive random access memory electrodes engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, V. Y.-Q.; Jiang, Y.; Li, M. H.; Chua, E. K.; Zhang, Z.; Pan, J. S.; Zhao, R.; Shi, L. P.; Chong, T. C.; Robertson, J.

    2013-02-01

    Band alignment of resistive random access memory (RRAM) switching material Ta2O5 and different metal electrode materials was examined using high-resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Schottky and hole barrier heights at the interface between electrode and Ta2O5 were obtained, where the electrodes consist of materials with low to high work function (Φm ,vac from 4.06 to 5.93 eV). Effective metal work functions were extracted to study the Fermi level pinning effect and to discuss the dominant conduction mechanism. An accurate band alignment between electrodes and Ta2O5 is obtained and can be used for RRAM electrode engineering and conduction mechanism study.

  6. Multiband superconductivity in Ta4Pd3Te16 with anisotropic gap structure.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Wen-He; Liu, Yi; Li, Yu-Ke; Xu, Xiao-Feng; Bao, Jin-Ke; Feng, Chun-Mu; Li, S Y; Xu, Zhu-An; Cao, Guang-Han

    2015-08-19

    We carried out measurements of the magnetoresistance, magnetic susceptibility and specific heat on crystals of the low-dimensional transition metal telluride Ta4Pd3Te16. Our results indicate that Ta4Pd3Te16 is an anisotropic type-II superconductor in the clean limit with the extracted Ginzburg-Landau parameter KGL = 84. The upper critical field Hc2(T) shows an anomalous temperature dependence at low temperatures and the anisotropy of Hc2(T) is strongly T-dependent, both of which indicate a multiband scenario. The electronic specific heat Cel(T) can be consistently described by a two-gap (s   +   d waves) model from the base temperature T/Tc ~ 0.12 up to Tc. Our results suggest nodal and multiband superconductivity in Ta4Pd3Te16.

  7. Formation of a superatom monolayer using gas-phase-synthesized Ta@Si16 nanocluster ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaya, Masato; Iwasa, Takeshi; Tsunoyama, Hironori; Eguchi, Toyoaki; Nakajima, Atsushi

    2014-11-01

    The controlled assembly of superatomic nanocluster ions synthesized in the gas phase is a key technology for constructing a novel series of functional nanomaterials. However, it is generally difficult to immobilize them onto a conductive surface while maintaining their original properties owing to undesirable modifications of their geometry and charge state. In this study, it has been shown that this difficulty can be overcome by controlling the donor-acceptor interaction between nanoclusters and surfaces. Cations of Ta-atom-encapsulated Si16 cage nanoclusters (Ta@Si16) behaving as rare-gas-like superatoms are synthesized in the gas phase and deposited on conductive surfaces terminated with acceptor-like C60 and donor-like α-sexithiophene (6T) molecules. Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy have demonstrated that Ta@Si16 cations can be densely immobilized onto C60-terminated surfaces while retaining their cage shape and positive charge, which is realized by creating binary charge transfer complexes (Ta@Si16+-C60-) on the surfaces. The Ta@Si16 nanoclusters exhibit excellent thermal stability on C60-teminated surfaces similar to those in the gas phase, whereas the nanoclusters destabilize at room temperature on 6T-terminated surfaces owing to the loss of electronic closure via a change in the charge state.The controlled assembly of superatomic nanocluster ions synthesized in the gas phase is a key technology for constructing a novel series of functional nanomaterials. However, it is generally difficult to immobilize them onto a conductive surface while maintaining their original properties owing to undesirable modifications of their geometry and charge state. In this study, it has been shown that this difficulty can be overcome by controlling the donor-acceptor interaction between nanoclusters and surfaces. Cations of Ta-atom-encapsulated Si16 cage nanoclusters (Ta@Si16) behaving as rare-gas-like superatoms are synthesized in the gas phase and deposited on

  8. Large magnetoresistance in compensated semimetals TaAs2 and NbAs2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Zhujun; Lu, Hong; Liu, Yongjie; Wang, Junfeng; Jia, Shuang

    2016-05-01

    We report large magnetoresistance (MR) at low temperatures in single-crystalline nonmagnetic compounds TaAs2 and NbAs2. Both compounds exhibit parabolic-field-dependent MR larger than 5 ×103 in a magnetic field of 9 Tesla at 2 K. The MR starts to deviate from parabolic dependence above 10 T and intends to be saturated in 45 T for TaAs2 at 4.2 K. The Hall resistance measurements and band structure calculations reveal their compensated semimetal characteristics. Their large MR at low temperatures is ascribed to an effect for compensation of electrons and holes with large mobilities. After discussing the MR for different samples of TaAs2 and other semimetals, we found that the magnitudes of MR are strongly dependent on the samples' quality for different compounds.

  9. Mechanical properties of Cu/Ta multilayers prepared by magnetron sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Nguyen, T.D.; Barbee, T.W., Jr.

    1998-04-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of sputtered Cu/Ta multilayers were studied. X- ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy characterization indicate that both the Ta and Cu in the 2 nm period multilayer are predominantly amorphous, while in longer period samples, the layers are crystalline, with the metastable tetragonal {beta}-Ta observed. No observable microstructure changes upon annealing at 300{degrees}C were found. An average Vickers micro- hardness value of about 5.5 GPa was measured, which increases about 5% upon annealing at 300{degrees}C. Residual stress in the multilayers and its dependence on thermal annealing are reported. The relationships between microstructure and mechanical properties in the multilayers are discussed.

  10. The effect of Ta interface on the crystallization of amorphous phase change material thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ghezzi, G. E.; Noé, P. Marra, M.; Sabbione, C.; Fillot, F.; Bernier, N.; Ferrand, J.; Maîtrejean, S.; Hippert, F.

    2014-06-02

    The crystallization of amorphous GeTe and Ge{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}Te{sub 5} phase change material films, with thickness between 10 and 100 nm, sandwiched between either Ta or SiO{sub 2} layers, was investigated by optical reflectivity. Ta cladding layers were found to increase the crystallization temperature, even for films as thick as 100 nm. X-Ray diffraction investigations of crystallized GeTe films showed a very weak texture in Ta cladded films, in contrast with the strong texture observed for SiO{sub 2} cladding layers. This study shows that crystallization mechanism of phase change materials can be highly impacted by interface effects, even for relatively thick films.

  11. Microstructure, mechanical behavior and biocompatibility of powder metallurgy Nb-Ti-Ta alloys as biomedical material.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jue; Chang, Lin; Liu, Hairong; Li, Yongsheng; Yang, Hailin; Ruan, Jianming

    2017-02-01

    Microstructures, mechanical properties, apatite-forming ability and in vitro experiments were studied for Nb-25Ti-xTa (x=10, 15, 20, 25, 35at.%) alloys fabricated by powder metallurgy. It is confirmed that the alloys could achieve a relative density over 80%. Meanwhile, the increase in Ta content enhances the tensile strength, elastic modulus and hardness of the as-sintered alloys. When increasing the sintering temperatures, the microstructure became more homogeneous for β phase, resulting in a decrease in the modulus and strength. Moreover, the alloys showed a good biocompatibility due to the absence of cytotoxic elements, and were suitable for apatite formation and cell adhesion. In conclusion, Nb-25Ti-xTa alloys are potentially useful in biomedical applications with their mechanical and biological properties being evaluated in this work.

  12. Ultrathin ta-C films on heads depositied by twist-filteredcathodic arc carbon plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Andre; Ryan, Francis W.

    2000-07-14

    It is known that filtered cathodic-arc-deposited ta-C films have outstanding properties even within the family of diamondlike materials. However, filtering of macroparticles is usually incomplete or accompanied by significant plasma losses. Ongoing research effort is directed towards the following goals: (1) complete elimination of macro- and nanoparticles from the vacuum arc plasma, (2) increase of plasma utilization in the cathodic-arc and macroparticle-filter system, (3) precise control and reproducibility of film deposition, and (4) synthesis of ultrathin films (< 5 nm) that meet requirements of the magnetic storage industry. The development of new filters, in particular the ''Twist Filter'', enables cathodic arc plasma deposition to synthesize ultrathin ta-C films of 3 nm on heads that pass corrosion and other relevant tests. We describe the Twist Filter system and report about recent ta-C tests results. In light of these results, even thinner films seem to be possible.

  13. Effect of Nitrogen Doping on the Electronic and Optical Properties of TaON

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Aqtash, Nabil; Apostol, Florin; Sabirianov, Renat

    2012-02-01

    TaON is considered as a potential candidate as a visible-light responsive photocatalyst. We report the results of ab initio studies of electronic structure of TaON in monoclinic and hypothetical cubic phases using VASP code. Specifically, we show that the position of conduction and valence band can be modified by varying the nitrogen (N) concentration in TaO1+xN1-x. The bandgap decreases monotonically with the increase of N concentration from near 2.7eV to just over 1.1eV (i.e. by 230%) when N concentration is reduced from x=0.5 to 1.5. The bandgap reduction is mostly associated with the change in the position of the valence band, while the conduction band is not sensitive to nitrogen content. We calculated the optical absorption spectra and discuss the effect of nitrogen doping on the photocatalytic activity of oxinitrides.

  14. Genome sequence of the clover-nodulating Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain TA1.

    PubMed

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; De Meyer, Sofie; Melino, Vanessa; Terpolilli, Jason; Ardley, Julie; Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ronald; O'Hara, Graham; Ninawi, Mohamed; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-12-20

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain TA1 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that is an effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont on the perennial clovers originating from Europe and the Mediterranean basin. TA1 however is ineffective with many annual and perennial clovers originating from Africa and America. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain TA1, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 8,618,824 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in a 6 scaffold of 32 contigs, contains 8,493 protein-coding genes and 83 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program.

  15. Genome sequence of the clover-nodulating Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain TA1

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Wayne; Tian, Rui; De Meyer, Sofie; Melino, Vanessa; Terpolilli, Jason; Ardley, Julie; Tiwari, Ravi; Howieson, John; Yates, Ronald; O’Hara, Graham; Ninawi, Mohamed; Teshima, Hazuki; Bruce, David; Detter, Chris; Tapia, Roxanne; Han, Cliff; Wei, Chia-Lin; Huntemann, Marcel; Han, James; Chen, I-Min; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Markowitz, Victor; Ivanova, Natalia; Ovchinnikova, Galina; Pagani, Ioanna; Pati, Amrita; Goodwin, Lynne; Pitluck, Sam; Woyke, Tanja; Kyrpides, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain TA1 is an aerobic, motile, Gram-negative, non-spore-forming rod that is an effective nitrogen fixing microsymbiont on the perennial clovers originating from Europe and the Mediterranean basin. TA1 however is ineffective with many annual and perennial clovers originating from Africa and America. Here we describe the features of R. leguminosarum bv. trifolii strain TA1, together with genome sequence information and annotation. The 8,618,824 bp high-quality-draft genome is arranged in a 6 scaffold of 32 contigs, contains 8,493 protein-coding genes and 83 RNA-only encoding genes, and is one of 20 rhizobial genomes sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute 2010 Community Sequencing Program. PMID:24976881

  16. Enhanced spin-orbit torques in Pt/Co/Ta heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Woo, Seonghoon; Mann, Maxwell; Tan, Aik Jun; Caretta, Lucas; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2014-11-24

    Spin-orbit torques (SOTs) are studied in perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin Co films sandwiched between two heavy metals, Pt and Ta. A significant enhancement of the Slonczewski-like torque is achieved by placing dissimilar metals with opposite spin Hall angles on opposite sides of the ferromagnet. SOTs were characterized through harmonic measurements and the contribution by the Ta overlayer was isolated by systematically varying its thickness. An effective spin Hall angle of up to 34% is observed, along with a sizable field-like torque that increases with increasing Ta layer thickness. Current-induced switching measurements reveal a corresponding increase in switching efficiency, suggesting that by engineering both interfaces in trilayer structures, the SOTs can be significantly improved.

  17. Enhanced spin-orbit torques in Pt/Co/Ta heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, Seonghoon; Mann, Maxwell; Tan, Aik Jun; Caretta, Lucas; Beach, Geoffrey S. D.

    2014-11-01

    Spin-orbit torques (SOTs) are studied in perpendicularly magnetized ultrathin Co films sandwiched between two heavy metals, Pt and Ta. A significant enhancement of the Slonczewski-like torque is achieved by placing dissimilar metals with opposite spin Hall angles on opposite sides of the ferromagnet. SOTs were characterized through harmonic measurements and the contribution by the Ta overlayer was isolated by systematically varying its thickness. An effective spin Hall angle of up to 34% is observed, along with a sizable field-like torque that increases with increasing Ta layer thickness. Current-induced switching measurements reveal a corresponding increase in switching efficiency, suggesting that by engineering both interfaces in trilayer structures, the SOTs can be significantly improved.

  18. Interpreting Medieval Inter-tidal Features at Weelie's Taing on Papa Westray, Orkney, NE Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pollard, Edward; Gibson, Julie; Littlewood, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Investigation of the inter-tidal heritage of the Orkney Islands is used to interpret a previously perplexing complex at Weelie's Taing on Papa Westray. The study revealed a previously unknown type of harbour since identified in several locations around Orkney. Situated in exposed environmental situations, shelter is formed by an `ayre', a type of spit that encloses a loch, and which has been used historically as a landing place or crossing of the inter-tidal zone. A complex landing area, pier, tower and ship-blockage suggest Weelie's Taing was used as a harbour. Important fishing grounds exploited since the Neolithic are nearby, and Papa Westray was the site of water-focussed religious communities. It is suggested that Weelie's Taing was in use in the medieval period when Papa Westray was less isolated than today with the presence of ecclesiastical communities and situation on the Orkney-Shetland route.

  19. Mechanical Failure of Thin Ta and Cu/Ta Layers on Polyimide Substrates: A Synchrotron-Based Technique for In Situ Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Frank, Stephan; Olliges, Sven; Spolenak, Ralph; Handge, Ulrich A.

    2009-06-18

    In situ synchrotron radiation diffraction and confocal light microscopy is used to study fragmentation and buckling of thin brittle Ta layers with thicknesses of 50 nm, 100 nm and 200 nm on polyimide substrates. Synchrotron-based stress measurements confirm that cracking leads to relaxation of tensile stress. Simultaneously, compressive stress arises in transverse direction, which finally leads to buckling. This behavior can be explained quantitatively by a two-dimensional shear lag model. It is well established that the properties of the coating-substrate interface determine the processes of coating fragmentation and delamination. A possible approach for influencing and controlling these processes is given by the incorporation of a ductile interlayer. It can be observed that the presence of Cu interlayers with thicknesses of 5 nm, 20 nm and 50 nm reduces the fracture strength of brittle Ta coatings on polyimide substrates, whereas the resistance to buckling is increased significantly.

  20. Water photolysis by the K2Ln2/3Ta2O7 and K2LnTa3O10 (Ln =La, Pr, Nd) tantalates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia-Sanchez, Hoover; Negron-Mendoza, Alicia; Acosta-Najarro, Dwight; de La Mora, Pablo; Tavizon, Gustavo

    2014-03-01

    Six compounds of the hydrated phase of K2Ln2/3Ta2O7 and K2LnTa3O10 were prepared by the polymerizable complex method; these compounds were characterized in crystal structure, specific surface area (BET), optical band gap (DRS) and reactivity for water photolysis using a 300 W Hg-lamp. Tantalates containing La, Pr and Nd show a shift in the band gap value, from 3.8, 2.6 and 2.07 eV, respectively. Hydrogen production without co-catalyst has been observed, and no noticeable difference appears when NiOx was impregnated to powders. The hydrogen production notably increases when a sacrificial agent as methanol was used. In this work we compare the hydrogen production efficiencies for the bi-octahedral and three-octahedral tantalum hydrated compounds. This work is partially supported by grants from PAPIIT; IN 214313 and IN 113913.

  1. (dme)MCl3(NNPh2) (dme = dimethoxyethane; M = Nb, Ta): a versatile synthon for [Ta=NNPh2] hydrazido(2-) complexes.

    PubMed

    Tonks, Ian A; Bercaw, John E

    2010-05-17

    Complexes (dme)TaCl(3)(NNPh(2)) (1) and (dme)NbCl(3)(NNPh(2)) (2) (dme =1,2-dimethoxyethane) were synthesized from MCl(5) and diphenylhydrazine via a Lewis-acid assisted dehydrohalogenation reaction. Monomeric 1 has been characterized by X-ray, IR, UV-vis, (1)H NMR, and (13)C NMR spectroscopy and contains a kappa(1)-bound hydrazido(2-) moiety. Unlike the corresponding imido derivatives, 1 is dark blue because of an LMCT that has been lowered in energy as a result of an N(alpha)-N(beta) antibonding interaction that raises the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO). Reaction of 1 with a variety of neutral, mono- and dianionic ligands generates the corresponding ligated complexes retaining the kappa(1)-bound [Ta-NNPh(2)] moiety.

  2. Probing electronic states of TaC and observation of a stable excited state of TaC- by anion-photoelectron spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aravind, G.; Nrisimhamurty, M.; Mane, Rupali G.; Gupta, A. K.; Krishnakumar, E.

    2015-10-01

    We report the experimental value of electron affinity for TaC to be 1.928(0.056) eV by performing photodetachment of its anion at 355 nm. An excited-electronic state of the anion, stable against autodetachment, is observed lying 0.828 eV above the ground-electronic state. Five low-lying electronic states of TaC are observed and identified by comparison with restricted second-order configuration interaction (SOCI) calculations. Vibrational frequencies for the electronic states are obtained from the analysis of the measured data. We also present the results of density functional theory (DFT) calculations performed on the adiabatic electron affinity, yielding a value of 1.9236 eV and vertical detachment energy value of 1.924 eV.

  3. 3D Ta/TaO x /TiO2/Ti synaptic array and linearity tuning of weight update for hardware neural network applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, I.-Ting; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Chiu, Li-Wen; Chou, Teyuh; Hou, Tuo-Hung

    2016-09-01

    The implementation of highly anticipated hardware neural networks (HNNs) hinges largely on the successful development of a low-power, high-density, and reliable analog electronic synaptic array. In this study, we demonstrate a two-layer Ta/TaO x /TiO2/Ti cross-point synaptic array that emulates the high-density three-dimensional network architecture of human brains. Excellent uniformity and reproducibility among intralayer and interlayer cells were realized. Moreover, at least 50 analog synaptic weight states could be precisely controlled with minimal drifting during a cycling endurance test of 5000 training pulses at an operating voltage of 3 V. We also propose a new state-independent bipolar-pulse-training scheme to improve the linearity of weight updates. The improved linearity considerably enhances the fault tolerance of HNNs, thus improving the training accuracy.

  4. Impact of total ionizing dose irradiation on Pt/SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9}/HfTaO/Si memory capacitors

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, S. A.; Tang, M. H. E-mail: lizheng@xtu.edu.cn; Xiao, Y. G.; Zhang, W. L.; Zhao, W.; Guo, H. X.; Xiong, Y.; Li, Z. E-mail: lizheng@xtu.edu.cn; Ding, H.; Chen, J. W.; Zhou, Y. C.

    2015-01-05

    In this work, metal-ferroelectric-insulator-semiconductor (MFIS) structure capacitors with SrBi{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 9} (300 nm) as ferroelectric thin film and HfTaO (6 nm, 8 nm, 10 nm, and 12 nm) as insulating buffer layer were proposed and investigated. The prepared capacitors were fabricated and characterized before radiation and then subjected to {sup 60}Co gamma irradiation in steps of two dose levels. Significant irradiation-induced degradation of the electrical characteristics was observed. The radiation experimental results indicated that stability and reliability of as-fabricated MFIS capacitors for nonvolatile memory applications could become uncontrollable under strong irradiation dose and/or long irradiation time.

  5. A new type of Cu-Al-Ta shape memory alloy with high martensitic transformation temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C. P.; Su, Y.; Y Yang, S.; Shi, Z.; Liu, X. J.

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a new type of Cu-Al-Ta (Cu86Al12Ta2 wt%) shape memory alloy with high martensitic transformation temperature is explored. The microstructure, reversible martensitic transformation and shape memory properties are investigated by means of optical microscopy, back-scattered electron, electron probe microanalysis, x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry and tensile tests. It is proposed that Cu86Al12Ta2 alloy consists of a mixture of primarily {\\beta }_{1}^{\\prime} martensite and a little {\\gamma }_{1}^{\\prime} martensite and some different precipitates. The tiny thin-striped Ta2(Al,Cu)3 precipitate is predominant in the as-quenched condition, whereas the particle-shaped Cu(Al, Ta) precipitate is dominant after hot-rolling. Additionally, the dendritic-shaped γ1(Cu9Al4) phase begins to appear after hot-rolling, but it disappears when the sample is re-quenched. All studied samples have reversible martensitic transformation temperatures higher than 450 ° C. The results show that two-step martensitic transformation behavior is observed for Cu86Al12Ta2 alloy in all three different conditions due to the transformations between ({\\beta }_{1}^{\\prime}+{\\gamma }_{1}^{\\prime}) martensites and the austenite parent phase. The results further show that the recovery ratios are almost 100% when the pre-strains are ≤2.5%, then they gradually decrease with further increase of the pre-strains. The shape memory effects clearly increase as a result of increase of the pre-strains, up to a maximum value of 3.2%.

  6. Intersectional Gene Expression in Zebrafish Using the Split KalTA4 System.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Rafael Gois; Lyons, David Anthony

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we describe the adaptation of the split Gal4 system for zebrafish. The Gal4-UAS system is widely used for expression of genes-of-interest by crossing driver lines expressing the transcription factor Gal4 (under the control of the promoter of interest) with reporter lines where upstream activating sequence (UAS) repeats (recognized by Gal4) drive expression of the genes-of-interest. In the Split Gal4 system, hemi-drivers separately encode the DNA-binding domain (DBD) and the activation domain (AD) of Gal4. When encoded under two different promoters, only those cells in the intersection of the promoters' expression pattern and in which both promoters are active reconstitute a functional Gal4 and activate expression from a UAS-driven transgene. We split the zebrafish-optimized version of Gal4, KalTA4, and generated a hemi-driver encoding the KalTA4 DBD and a hemi-driver encoding KalTA4's AD. We show that split KalTA4 domains can assemble in vivo and transactivate a UAS reporter transgene and that each hemi-driver alone cannot transactivate the reporter. Also, transactivation can happen in several cell types, with similar efficiency to intact KalTA4. Finally, in transient mosaic expression assays, we show that when hemi-drivers are preceded by two distinct promoters, they restrict the expression of an UAS-driven reporter from a broader pattern (sox10) to its constituent smaller neuronal pattern. The Split KalTA4 system should be useful for expression of genes-of-interest in an intersectional manner, allowing for more refined manipulations of cell populations in zebrafish.

  7. The Relationship Between Anaphor Features and Antecedent Retrieval: Comparing Mandarin Ziji and Ta-Ziji

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Brian; Chow, Wing-Yee; Xiang, Ming

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we report two self-paced reading experiments that investigate antecedent retrieval processes in sentence comprehension by contrasting the real-time processing behavior of two different reflexive anaphors in Mandarin Chinese. Previous work has suggested that comprehenders initially evaluate the fit between the morphologically simple long-distance reflexive “ziji” and the closest available subject position, only subsequently considering more structurally distant antecedents (Gao et al., 2005; Liu, 2009; Li and Zhou, 2010; Dillon et al., 2014; cf. Chen et al., 2012). In this paper, we investigate whether this locality bias effect obtains for other reflexive anaphors in Mandarin Chinese, or if it is associated specifically with the morphologically simple reflexive ziji. We do this by comparing the processing of ziji to the processing of the morphologically complex reflexive ta-ziji (lit. s/he-self). In Experiment 1, we investigate the processing of ziji, and replicate the finding of a strong locality bias effect for ziji in self-paced reading measures. In Experiment 2, we investigate the processing of the morphologically complex reflexive ta-ziji in the same structural configurations as Experiment 1. A comparison of our experiments reveals that ta-ziji shows a significantly weaker locality bias effect than ziji does. We propose that this results from the difference in the number of morphological and semantic features on the anaphor ta-ziji relative to ziji. Specifically, we propose that the additional retrieval cues associated with ta-ziji reduce interference from irrelevant representations in memory, allowing it to more reliably access an antecedent regardless its linear or structural distance. This reduced interference in turn leads to a diminished locality bias effect for the morphologically complex anaphor ta-ziji. PMID:26779079

  8. Second order incommensurate phase transition in 25L-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Audier, M.; Chenevier, B.; Roussel, H.; Lintanf Salauen, A.

    2010-09-15

    A new structural state 25L-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, obtained from sintering and annealing treatments of a Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} powder, is identified both by electron diffraction and high resolution imaging on a transmission electron microscope (TEM). According to general rules for the different L-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} structures proposed by Grey et al. (J. Solid State Chem. 178 (2005) 3308), a structural model is derived from their crystallographic data on 19L-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. This model yields simulated images in agreement with high resolution TEM observations of the structure oriented along its [001] zone axis, but only for a very thin crystal thickness of less than 1.2 nm. Such a limitation is shown to be due to a modulation of the structure along its [001] axis. Actually, from an analysis of a diffuse scattering and of its evolution into satellites reflections as a function of the cooling rate, a second order incommensurate phase transition can be assumed to occur in this compound. The property of single phase samples observed by TEM is also verified by X-ray powder diffraction. In a discussion about studies performed by different authors on incommensurate structures in the system Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}-WO{sub 3}, it is noticed that TEM results, similar to ours, indicate that phase transitions could be expected in these structures. - Graphical Abstract: Electron diffraction patterns of [100] zone axis, showing a structural change of the 25L-Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} phase through a variation of the cooling rate from 1000 {sup o}C.

  9. Interleukin-8 gene polymorphism –251T>A contributes to Alzheimer's disease susceptibility

    PubMed Central

    Qin, Biyong; Li, Li; Wang, Shanshan; Wu, Jun; Huang, Yulan; Zhou, Ping; Bai, Jiao; Zheng, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Published association studies have investigated the correlation between interleukin-8 (IL-8) gene polymorphism –251T>A and susceptibility to Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, the results are conflicting. Thus, we conducted the meta-analysis to reassess the effect of IL-8 gene –251T>A variant on the risk of AD. Methods: Relevant studies regarding this association were electronically searched and identified from the PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and the Chinese Biomedicine Database. The odds ratios (ORs) with the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were pooled to calculate the strength of this association. Results: Nine studies with a total of 1406 cases and 2152 controls were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, a significant association of IL-8 gene –251T>A polymorphism with increased risk of AD was observed in several genetic models (allele, A vs T: OR=1.32, 95%CI=1.16-1.50; homozygous, AA vs TT: OR=1.70, 95%CI=1.21–2.21; heterozygous, TA vs TT: OR=1.37, 95%CI=1.12–1.69; recessive, AA vs TA+TT: OR=1.40, 95%CI=1.12–1.75). Similarly, such association was also revealed both in Asian and European populations in the subgroup analysis by ethnicity. Conclusion: The current study suggested that IL-8 gene polymorphism –251T>A may contribute to the susceptibility to AD. PMID:27684880

  10. Antimutagenic and anticlastogenic effects of Turkish Black Tea on TA98 and TA100 strains of Salmonella typhimurium (in vitro) and mice (in vivo).

    PubMed

    Charehsaz, Mohammad; Sipahi, Hande; Giri, Ashok Kumar; Aydin, Ahmet

    2017-12-01

    Black tea has been reported to have significant antimutagenic and anticarcinogenic properties associated with its polyphenols theaflavins (TF) and thearubigins (TR). Similarly, Turkish black tea (TBT) also contains a considerable amount of TF and TR. This study investigated the mutagenic, antimutagenic and anticlastogenic properties of TBT. The mutagenic and antimutagenic effects of TBT (10 to 40000 μg/plate) were investigated in vitro on Salmonella strains TA98 and TA100 with and without S9 fraction. Anticlastogenic effect was studied at concentrations of 300-1200 mg/kg TBT extract by chromosomal aberrations (CA) assay from bone marrow of mice. The results of this study did not reveal any mutagenic properties of TBT. On the contrary, TBT extract exhibited antimutagenic activity at >1000 μg/plate concentrations in TA98 strain with and without S9 activation (40% inhibition with S9 and 27% without S9). In TA100 strain, the antimutagenic activity was observed at >20,000 μg/plate TBT extracts without S9 activation (28% inhibition) and at >1000 μg/plate with S9 activation (59% inhibition). A significant decrease in the percentage of aberrant cells (12.33% ± 1.27) was observed in dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) plus highest concentration (1200 mg/kg) of TBT extract-treated group when compared to only DMBA-treated group (17.00% ± 2.28). Results indicated that TBT can be considered as genotoxically safe, because it did not exert any mutagenic and clastogenic effects. As a result, TBT exhibited antimutagenic effects more apparently after metabolic activation in bacterial test system and had an anticlastogenic effect in mice.

  11. Topological surface states and Fermi arcs of the noncentrosymmetric Weyl semimetals TaAs, TaP, NbAs, and NbP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yan; Wu, Shu-Chun; Yan, Binghai

    2015-09-01

    Very recently the topological Weyl semimetal (WSM) state was predicted in the noncentrosymmetric compounds NbP, NbAs, TaP, and TaAs and soon led to photoemission and transport experiments to verify the presumed topological properties such as Fermi arcs (unclosed Fermi surfaces) and the chiral anomaly. In this work we have performed fully ab initio calculations of the surface band structures of these four WSM materials and revealed the Fermi arcs with spin-momentum-locked spin texture. On the (001) polar surface, the shape of the Fermi surface depends sensitively on the surface terminations (cations or anions), although they exhibit the same topology with arcs. The anion (P or As) terminated surfaces are found to fit recent photoemission measurements well. Such surface potential dependence indicates that the shape of the Fermi surface can be sensitively manipulated by depositing guest species (such as K atoms), as we demonstrate. On the polar surface of a WSM without inversion symmetry, Rashba-type spin polarization naturally exists in the surface states and leads to strong spin texture. By tracing the spin polarization of the Fermi surface, one can distinguish Fermi arcs from trivial Fermi circles. The four compounds NbP, NbAs, TaP, and TaAs present an increasing amplitude of spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in band structures. By comparing their surface states, we reveal the evolution of topological Fermi arcs from the spin-degenerate Fermi circle to spin-split arcs when the SOC increases from zero to a finite value. Our work presents a comprehensive understanding of the topological surface states of WSMs, which will especially be helpful for future spin-revolved photoemission and transport experiments.

  12. Characterization of multi-principal-element (TiZrNbHfTa)N and (TiZrNbHfTa)C coatings for biomedical applications.

    PubMed

    Braic, V; Balaceanu, M; Braic, M; Vladescu, A; Panseri, S; Russo, A

    2012-06-01

    Multi-principal-element (TiZrNbHfTa)N and (TiZrNbHfTa)C coatings were deposited on Ti6Al4V alloy by co-sputtering of Ti, Zr, Nb, Hf and Ta metallic targets in reactive atmosphere. The coatings were analyzed for elemental and phase compositions, crystalline structure, morphology, residual stress, hardness, friction performance, wear-corrosion resistance and cell viability. For all the films, only simple fcc solid solutions with (111) preferred orientations were found, with crystallite sizes in the range 7.2-13.5 nm. The coatings were subjected to compressive stress, with values ranging from 0.8 to 1.6 GPa. The carbide coating with the highest carbon content (carbon/metal ≈1.3) exhibited the highest hardness of about 31 GPa, the best friction behavior (μ = 0.12) and the highest wear resistance (wear rate K=0.2×10(-6)mm(3)N(-1)m(-1)), when testing in simulated body fluids (SBFs). Cell viability tests proved that the osteoblast cells were adherent to the coated substrates, and a very high percentage of live cells were observed on sample surfaces, after 72 h incubation time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Influence of Ta and Ti Doping on the High Field Performance of (Nb, Ta, Ti)3Sn Multifilamentary Wires based on Osprey Bronze with High Tin Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abächerli, V.; Uglietti, D.; Lezza, P.; Seeber, B.; Flükiger, R.; Cantoni, M.; Buffat, P.-A.

    2006-06-01

    Ta and Ti are the most widely used additions for technical Nb3Sn multifilamentary superconductors. These elements are known to influence grain growth, grain morphology and chemical composition in the A15 layer, hence the current carrying properties of the wires over a wide magnetic field range. So far only few studies tried to compare systematically Ta and Ti doped and undoped Nb3Sn wires in the frame of the same work, down to a nanometric scale. We present an investigation on several multifilamentary (Nb, Ta, Ti)3Sn bronze route wires, fabricated at a laboratory scale, with various amounts of additives. The wires consist of fine filaments embedded in a Cu-Sn or Cu-Sn-Ti Osprey bronze with > 15 wt.% Sn and an external Cu stabilization. Microstructural observations are compared with the results of Jc and n values measured up to 21 T at 4.2 and 2.2 K, and for longitudinal strains up to 0.5%. Non-Cu Jc values up to 300 Amm-2 and n values up to 50 at 17 T and 4.2 K show clearly that wires with Ti addition to the bronze have a better performance with respect to wires with Ti additions to the filaments.

  14. Photoelectron Spectroscopy Study of [Ta2B6]-: a Hexagonal Bipyramdial Cluster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jian, Tian; Li, Weili; Romanescu, Constantin; Wang, Lai-Sheng

    2014-06-01

    It has been a long-sought goal in cluster science to discover stable atomic clusters as building blocks for cluster-assembled nanomaterials, as exemplified by the fullerenes and their subsequent bulk syntheses.[1,2] Clusters have also been considered as models to understand bulk properties, providing a bridge between molecular and solid-state chemistry.[3] Herein we report a joint photoelectron spectroscopy and theoretical study on the [Ta2B6]- and [Ta2B6] clusters.[4] The photoelectron spectrum of [Ta2B6]- displays a simple spectral pattern and a large HOMO-LUMO gap, suggesting its high symmetry. Theoretical calculations show that both the neutral and anion are D6h pyramidal. The chemical bonding analyses for [Ta2B6] revealed the nature of the B6 and Ta interactions and uncovered strong covalent bonding between B6 and Ta. The D6h-[TaB6Ta] gaseous cluster is reminiscent of the structural pattern in the ReB6X6Re core in the [(Cp*Re)2B6H4Cl2] and the TiB6Ti motif in the newly synthesized Ti7Rh4Ir2B8 solid-state compound.[5,6] The current work provides an intrinsic link between a gaseous cluster and motifs for solid materials. Continued investigations of the transition-metal boron clusters may lead to the discovery of new structural motifs involving pure boron clusters for the design of novel boride materials. Reference [1] H.W. Kroto, J. R. Heath, S. C. OBrien, R. F. Curl, R. E. Smalley, Nature 1985, 318, 162 - 163. [2] W. Krtschmer, L. D. Lamb, K. Fostiropoulos, D. R. Huffman, Nature 1990, 347, 354 - 358. [3] T. P. Fehlner, J.-F. Halet, J.-Y. Saillard, Molecular Clusters: A Bridge to Solid-State Chemitry, Cambridge University Press, UK, 2007. [4] W. L. Li, L. Xie, T. Jian, C. Romanescu, X. Huang, L.-S. Wang, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 126, 1312 - 1316. [5] B. Le Guennic, H. Jiao, S. Kahlal, J.-Y. Saillard, J.-F. Halet, S. Ghosh, M. Shang, A. M. Beatty, A. L. Rheingold, T. P. Fehlner, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2004, 126, 3203 - 3217. [6] B. P. T. Fokwa, M. Hermus, Angew

  15. Spin-Selective Thermal Activation of Methane by Closed-Shell [TaO3 ](.).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shaodong; Li, Jilai; Schlangen, Maria; Schwarz, Helmut

    2016-06-13

    Thermal reactions of the closed-shell metal-oxide cluster [TaO3 ](+) with methane were investigated by using FTICR mass spectrometry complemented by high-level quantum chemical calculations. While the generation of methanol and formaldehyde is somewhat expected, [TaO3 ](+) remarkably also has the ability to abstract two hydrogen atoms from methane with the elimination of CH2 . Mechanistically, the generation of CH2 O and CH3 OH occurs on the singlet-ground-state surface, while for the liberation of (3) CH2 , a two-state reactivity scenario prevails.

  16. Preparation and investigation of the quaternary alloy CuTaInSe{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Grima-Gallardo, P. Munoz, M.; Duran, S.; Delgado, G.E.; Quintero, M.; Ruiz, J.

    2007-12-04

    Polycrystalline samples of the quaternary alloy CuTaInSe{sub 3} were prepared by the usual melt and anneal technique. The analysis of the diffraction pattern indicates a single phase which indexes as a tetragonal chalcopyrite-like structure with lattice parameters a = 5.7837 {+-} 0.0002 A; c = 11.6208 {+-} 0.0007 A and V = 389 {+-} 1 A{sup 3}. Differential thermal analysis shows that the melting transition of CuTaInSe{sub 3} is incongruent with large liquid + solids regions.

  17. Prediction of novel alloy phases of Al with Sc or Ta

    PubMed Central

    Bilić, Ante; Gale, Julian D.; Gibson, Mark A.; Wilson, Nick; McGregor, Kathie

    2015-01-01

    Using the evolutionary optimization algorithm, as implemented in the USPEX crystal predictor program, and first principles total energy calculations, the compositional phase diagrams for Al-Sc and Al-Ta alloy systems at zero temperature and pressure have been calculated. In addition to the known binary intermetallic phases, new potentially stable alloys, AlSc3 and AlTa7, have been identified in the Al-poor region of the phase diagram. The dynamic and thermal stability of their lattices has been confirmed from the calculated vibrational normal mode spectra in the harmonic approximation. PMID:25950915

  18. Metal-insulator transition in 1 T-TaS 2- xSe x

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiino, O.; Watanabe, T.; Endo, T.; Hanaguri, T.; Kitazawa, K.; Nohara, M.; Takagi, H.; Murayama, C.; Takeshita, N.; Môri, N.; Hasegawa, T.; Yamaguchi, W.

    2000-07-01

    The transition metal dichalcogenide, 1 T-TaS 2, shows metal-insulator transition (MIT) accompanying the nearly commensurate (NC)-commensurate (C) charge density wave (CDW) phase transition at 180 K. It has been proposed that the low-temperature C-CDW phase is a Mott insulator. However, our specific heat and magnetic susceptibility measurements in the 1 T-TaS 2- xSe x system revealed no indications of effective mass enhancement or intrinsic localized spins in the insulating phase. So we propose a new model for the MIT in which the interlayer coupling of the CDW superstructure plays an important role.

  19. Vertically aligned Ta3N5 nanorod arrays for solar-driven photoelectrochemical water splitting.

    PubMed

    Li, Yanbo; Takata, Tsuyoshi; Cha, Dongkyu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Minegishi, Tsutomu; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2013-01-04

    A vertically aligned Ta(3)N(5) nanorod photoelectrode is fabricated by through-mask anodization and nitridation for water splitting. The Ta(3)N(5) nanorods, working as photoanodes of a photoelectrochemical cell, yield a high photocurrent density of 3.8 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus a reversible hydrogen electrode under AM 1.5G simulated sunlight and an incident photon-to-current conversion efficiency of 41.3% at 440 nm, one of the highest activities reported for photoanodes so far.

  20. Resonant two-photon ionization spectroscopy of jet-cooled tantalum carbide, TaC.

    PubMed

    Krechkivska, Olha; Morse, Michael D

    2010-08-07

    The optical spectrum of diatomic TaC has been investigated for the first time, with transitions recorded in the range from 17,850 to 20,000 cm(-1). Six bands were rotationally resolved and analyzed to obtain ground and excited state parameters, including band origins, upper and lower state rotational constants and bond lengths, Fermi contact parameter b(F) for the ground state, and lambda doubling parameters for the excited states. The ground state of TaC was found to be X (2)Sigma(+), originating from the 1sigma(2)2sigma(2)1pi(4)3sigma(1) electronic configuration, in which only the valence orbitals arising from the Ta(5d+6s) and C(2s+2p) orbitals are listed. All of the rotationally resolved and analyzed bands were found to originate from the ground state, giving B(0)"=0.489 683(83) cm(-1), r(0)"=1.749 01(15) A, and b(F)"=0.131 20(36) cm(-1) (1sigma error limits) for (181)Ta (12)C. Comparison of the Fermi contact parameter to the atomic value shows that the 3sigma orbital is approximately 75% Ta 6s in character. The other group 5 transition metal carbides, VC and NbC, have long been known to have 1sigma(2)2sigma(2)1pi(4)1delta(1), (2)Delta ground states, with low-lying 1sigma(2)2sigma(2)1pi(4)3sigma(1), (2)Sigma(+) excited states. The emergence of a different ground state in TaC, as compared to VC and NbC, is due to the relativistic stabilization of the 6s orbital in Ta. This lowers the energy of the 6s-like 3sigma orbital in TaC, causing the 1sigma(2)2sigma(2)1pi(4)3sigma(1), (2)Sigma(+) state to fall below the 1sigma(2)2sigma(2)1pi(4)1delta(1), (2)Delta state.

  1. Stratigraphic framework of the upper Fort Union Formation, TA Hills, Western Powder River basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weaver, Jean N.; Flores, Romeo M.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to interpret a relationship between the stratigraphy and the environment of deposition of the upper part of the Fort Union Formation in the TA Hills in the western part of the Powder River Basin, Johnson County, Wyoming.  This framework was used to map and correlate coal beds with those mapped by Hose (1955) and Mapel (1959) in the southern and northern parts of the study area, respectively.  More specifically, the established stratigraphic and environmental relationships of the coal beds and associated rocks contribute to a depositional model for the upper part of the Fort Union Formation in the TA Hills.

  2. Corrosion behavior of niobium and Nb-25 wt% Ta alloy in sulfuric acid solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Robin, A.; Nunes, C.A. ); de Almeida, M.E. )

    1991-06-01

    In this paper the corrosion behavior of niobium and Nb-25 wt% Ta alloy in H{sub 2} SO{sub 4} solutions has been studied. Using mass-loss techniques, the influences of H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} concentration, temperature, and exposure time have been examined. The Nb-Ta alloy is more corrosion resistant than pure niobium. The obtained corrosion data allowed the construction of iso-corrosion curves of both materials in sulfuric acid below and above the boiling point.

  3. Direct observation of {beta}-TaH phase precipitation in tantalum{endash}hydrogen solid solution

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, C.L.; Zhou, D.S.; Mitchell, T.E.; Ye, H.Q.

    1996-07-01

    An ordered {beta}-Ta{sub 2}H tantalum hydride precipitate and a disordered {alpha}-Ta{endash}H solid solution matrix have been observed directly by field ion microscopy and analyzed by atom probe analysis. The ordered and disordered field ion images have been explained by the electronic transition rate in the theory of field ionization. On the other hand, we found surprisingly that the field evaporation voltage dramatically decreased to approximately one half of its original evaporation voltage as the evaporation of the precipitate moves toward the phase boundary, which may due to the effects of the interface energy. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Vacuum Society}

  4. Voltage divider effect for the improvement of variability and endurance of TaOx memristor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kyung Min; Yang, J. Joshua; Strachan, John Paul; Grafals, Emmanuelle Merced; Ge, Ning; Melendez, Noraica Davila; Li, Zhiyong; Williams, R. Stanley

    2016-02-01

    The impact of a series resistor (RS) on the variability and endurance performance of memristor was studied in the TaOx memristive system. A dynamic voltage divider between the RS and memristor during both the set and the reset switching cycles can suppress the inherent irregularity of the voltage dropped on the memristor, resulting in a greatly reduced switching variability. By selecting the proper resistance value of RS for the set and reset cycles respectively, we observed a dramatically improved endurance of the TaOx memristor. Such a voltage divider effect can thus be critical for the memristor applications that require low variability, high endurance and fast speed.

  5. Continuous Tuning of Electronic Correlations by Alkali Adsorption on Layered 1T-TaS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossnagel, K.; Rotenberg, Eli; Koh, H.; Smith, N. V.; Kipp, L.

    2005-09-01

    Angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy shows that a Mott-Hubbard type metal-insulator transition occurs at the Rb adsorbed surface of the layered charge-density-wave compound 1T-TaS2. The transition is driven by adsorption induced modifications of the charge-density wave and of the interlayer coupling, leading to an increase of the on-site Coulomb correlation energy and a narrowing of the Ta 5d band perpendicular to the layers, respectively. The continuous rearrangement of spectral weight is measured live during the deposition process.

  6. Heat transport study of the spin liquid candidate 1 T -TaS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Y. J.; Xu, Y.; He, L. P.; Kratochvilova, M.; Huang, Y. Y.; Ni, J. M.; Wang, Lihai; Cheong, Sang-Wook; Park, Je-Geun; Li, S. Y.

    2017-08-01

    We present ultralow-temperature thermal conductivity measurements on single crystals of the prototypical charge-density-wave material 1 T -TaS2 , which was recently argued to be a candidate for a quantum spin liquid. Our experiments show that the residual linear term of thermal conductivity at zero field is essentially zero, within experimental accuracy. Furthermore, the thermal conductivity is found to be insensitive to the magnetic field up to 9 T. These results clearly demonstrate the absence of itinerant magnetic excitations with fermionic statistics in bulk 1 T -TaS2 , and thus put a strong constraint on the theories of the ground state of this material.

  7. Dynamic Consolidation of TaC and Nano-YSZ Powders (POSTPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-01-01

    more fracture resistant TaC. TaC powders of size less than 3μm, and grain size ranging from 0.5 to 1μm, were packed in double-tube steel vessels and...ranging from 0.5 to 1μm, were packed in double-tube steel vessels and subjected to explosive consolidation. The double-tube configuration was selected...temperature ( DBTT ) of 1750 - 2000°C [3], allowing it to be shaped above DBTT . However, one drawback in processing is that conventional techniques such as

  8. Excitonic Bose-Einstein condensation in Ta2NiSe5 above room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seki, K.; Wakisaka, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Toriyama, T.; Konishi, T.; Sudayama, T.; Saini, N. L.; Arita, M.; Namatame, H.; Taniguchi, M.; Katayama, N.; Nohara, M.; Takagi, H.; Mizokawa, T.; Ohta, Y.

    2014-10-01

    We show that finite temperature variational cluster approximation (VCA) calculations on an extended Falicov-Kimball model can reproduce angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) results on Ta2NiSe5 across a semiconductor-to-semiconductor structural phase transition at 325 K. We demonstrate that the characteristic temperature dependence of the flat-top valence band observed by ARPES is reproduced by the VCA calculation on the realistic model for an excitonic insulator only when the strong excitonic fluctuation is taken into account. The present calculations indicate that Ta2NiSe5 falls in the Bose-Einstein condensation regime of the excitonic insulator state.

  9. Processing and Mechanical Properties of Directionally Solidified NiAl/NiAlTa Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1994-01-01

    Promising creep strengths were found for a directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloy when compared to other NiAl based intermetallics. The directionally solidified alloy had an off-eutectic composition that resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The room temperature toughness of the two phase alloy was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa. Alloying additions that may improve the room temperature toughness by producing multiphase alloys are discussed.

  10. Design information for the 4/3 SNOS test chip TA716

    SciTech Connect

    Green, J.M.

    1988-07-01

    The TA716 is a 4/3 SNOS test chip, and a redesign of the SA2999 test chip. This redesign was for the purpose of adding large area capacitors to address the gate oxide rupture problem. Modules 1, 2, 3, 6, 9, and 13 from the old test chip were retained and relocated to the upper middle section of the TA716. The remaining modules were deleted and additional test structures were added. This increased the size of the test chip to 244 /times/ 227. 13 figs.

  11. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic property of nanosized K-Ta mixed oxides via a sol-gel method

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Gaoke; Jiang, Wei; Yu, Shujie

    2010-11-15

    Pyrochlore-type K{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} compound cannot be obtained by a conventional solid-state reaction. Here, we report the synthesis of K{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} and tetragonal tungsten bronze (TTB)-type K{sub 6}Ta{sub 10.8}O{sub 30} nanopowders using a facile and low-cost sol-gel method at low temperature. The as-prepared samples were characterized by XRD, TG-DSC, FESEM, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectrum and XPS. The compound K{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} was formed at 700 {sup o}C and reached complete crystallization at 750 {sup o}C, and decomposed into pure K{sub 6}Ta{sub 10.8}O{sub 30} with the volatilization of K{sub 2}O at 900 {sup o}C. The transformation of K{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} to K{sub 6}Ta{sub 10.8}O{sub 30} is reported for the first time. The band gap of the pure K{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} and K{sub 6}Ta{sub 10.8}O{sub 30} samples was found to be about 4.16 and 3.63 eV, respectively. The as-prepared K{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} sample exhibited an efficient photocatalytic activity for the decomposition of azo dye acid red G (ARG) and 4-nitrophenol (4-NP, a typical persistent organic pollutant) solution under UV irradiation. According to the experimental results, the mechanism of the photocatalytic reaction over K{sub 2}Ta{sub 2}O{sub 6} was discussed.

  12. Proposed long-range empirical potential to study the metallic glasses in the Ni-Nb-Ta system.

    PubMed

    Dai, Y; Li, J H; Che, X L; Liu, B X

    2009-05-21

    An n-body potential is constructed for the Ni-Nb-Ta ternary metal system in the newly proposed form of long-range empirical potential. The constructed Ni-Nb-Ta potential can well reproduce the lattice constants, cohesive energies, and elastic modulus of the metals and some compounds as well as the equations of state of the system. Applying the constructed Ni-Nb-Ta potential, molecular dynamics simulations and Voronoi tessellations are carried out to study the issues related to the Ni-Nb-Ta metallic glasses. It is found that increasing the Ni content can obviously improve the glass-forming ability of the binary Nb-Ta system, which features a isomorphous phase diagram unfavoring for forming glass, indicating that the Ni solute plays a decisive role in forming the Nb-based or Ta-based Ni-Nb-Ta metallic glasses. Concerning the atomic structure, the Voronoi cell volume and coordination number (CN) of Ta are generally larger than those of Ni in the binary Ni-Ta metallic glasses. With increasing the Ni concentration, the fraction of icosidihedron (CN=13) increases, while the fractions of icosihexahedron (CN=15) and icosioctahedron (CN=16) decrease. Meanwhile, with increasing the Ni concentration, the dominating coordination numbers of Ta atoms increase. Interestingly, similar feature in the atomic structure with variation of Ni concentration is also observed in the Ni-Nb metallic glasses. For the ternary Ni-Nb-Ta alloys, it is observed from the CN distributions that the structure of the metallic glasses is mostly affected by the Ni concentration.

  13. Oxidation of TaSi2-Containing ZrB2-SiC Ultra-High Temperature Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Smith, Jim; Levine, Stanley R.; Lorincz, Jonathan; Reigel, Marissa

    2010-01-01

    Hot pressed coupons of composition ZrB2-20 v% SiC-5 v% TaSi2 and ZrB2-20 v% SiC-20 v% TaSi2 were oxidized in stagnant air at temperatures of 1627 and 1927C for one, five and ten 10-minute cycles. The oxidation reactions were characterized by weight change kinetics, x-ray diffraction, and SEM/EDS. Detailed WDS/microprobe quantitative analyses of the oxidation products were conducted for the ZrB2-20 v% SiC-20 v% TaSi2 sample oxidized for five 10-minute cycles at 1927C. Oxidation kinetics and product formation were compared to ZrB2-20 v% SiC with no TaSi2 additions. It was found that the 20 v% TaSi2 composition exhibited improved oxidation resistance relative to the material with no TaSi2 additions at 1627C. However, for exposures at 1927C less oxidation resistance and extensive liquid phase formation were observed compared to the material with no TaSi2 additions. Attempts to limit the liquid phase formation by reducing the TaSi2 content to 5 v% were unsuccessful. In addition, the enhanced oxidation resistance at 1627C due to 20 v% TaSi2 additions was not achieved at the 5 v% addition level. The observed oxidation product evolution is discussed in terms of thermodynamics and phase equilibria for the TaSi2-containing ZrB2-SiC material system. TaSi2-additions to ZrB2-SiC at any level are not recommended for ultra-high temperature (>1900C) applications due to excessive liquid phase formation.

  14. Coevolutionary Dynamics of Rice Blast Resistance Gene Pi-ta and Magnaporthe oryzae Avirulence Gene AVR-Pita 1.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yulin; Zhou, Erxun; Lee, Seonghee; Bianco, Tracy

    2016-07-01

    The Pi-ta gene in rice is effective in preventing infections by Magnaporthe oryzae strains that contain the corresponding avirulence gene, AVR-Pita1. Diverse haplotypes of AVR-Pita1 have been identified from isolates of M. oryzae from rice production areas in the United States and worldwide. DNA sequencing and mapping studies have revealed that AVR-Pita1 is highly unstable, while expression analysis and quantitative resistance loci mapping of the Pi-ta locus revealed complex evolutionary mechanisms of Pi-ta-mediated resistance. Among these studies, several Pi-ta transcripts were identified, most of which are probably derived from alternative splicing and exon skipping, which could produce functional resistance proteins that support a new concept of coevolution of Pi-ta and AVR-Pita1. User-friendly DNA markers for Pi-ta have been developed to support marker-assisted selection, and development of new rice varieties with the Pi-ta markers. Genome-wide association studies revealed a link between Pi-ta-mediated resistance and yield components suggesting that rice has evolved a complicated defense mechanism against the blast fungus. In this review, we detail the current understanding of Pi-ta allelic variation, its linkage with rice productivity, AVR-Pita allelic variation, and the coevolution of Pi-ta and AVR-Pita in Oryza species and M. oryzae populations, respectively. We also review the genetic and molecular basis of Pi-ta and AVR-Pita interaction, and its value in marker-assisted selection and engineering resistance.

  15. Effects of a Ta interlayer on the phase transition of TiSi2 on Si(111)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Hyeongtag; Jung, Bokhee; Kim, Young Do; Yang, Woochul; Nemanich, R. J.

    2000-09-01

    This study examines the effects of a thin Ta interlayer on the formation of TiSi2 on Si(111) substrate. The Ta interlayer was introduced by depositing Ta and Ti films sequentially on an atomically clean Si(111) substrate in an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) system. Samples of 100 Å Ti with 5 and 10 Å Ta interlayers were compared to similar structures without an interlayer. After deposition, the substrates were annealed for 10 min, in situ, at temperatures between 500 and 750 °C in 50 °C increments. The TiSi2 formation with and without the Ta interlayer was analyzed with an X-ray diffractometer, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and a four-point probe. The AES analysis data showed a 1:2 ratio of Ti:Si in the Ti-silicide layer and indicated that the Ta layer remained at the interface between TiSi2 and the Si(111) substrate. The C 49-C 54 TiSi2 phase transition temperature was lowered by ˜200 °C. The C 49-C 54 TiSi2 phase transition temperature was 550 °C for the samples with a Ta interlayer and was 750 °C for the samples with no Ta interlayer. The sheet resistance of the Ta interlayered Ti silicide showed lower values of resistivity at low temperatures which indicated the change in phase transition temperature. The C 54 TiSi2 displayed different crystal orientation when the Ta interlayer was employed. The SEM and TEM micrographs showed that the TiSi2 with a Ta interlayer significantly suppressed the tendency to islanding and surface agglomeration.

  16. Interface structure in Cu/Ta2O5/Pt resistance switch: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Bo; Watanabe, Satoshi

    2015-01-14

    The interface structures of a Cu/Ta2O5/Pt resistance switch under various oxidation conditions have been examined from first-principles. The O-rich Cu/Ta2O5 interface is found to be stable within a wide range of O chemical potentials. In this interface structure, a considerable number of interface Cu atoms tend to migrate to the amorphous Ta2O5 (a-Ta2O5) layer, which causes the formation of the Cu2O layer. The interface Cu atoms become more ionized with an increase in the interface O concentration and/or temperature. These ionized Cu(+) ions could function as one of the main sources for the formation of conduction filaments in the Cu/a-Ta2O5/Pt resistance switch. In contrast, the ionization of the interface Cu atoms is not observed in the Cu/crystal-Ta2O5 interface primarily due to the much lower Cu ionic conductivity in crystal-Ta2O5 than that in amorphous state. In addition, the Pt electrode could not be ionized, irrespective of the interface O concentration and temperature. The formation of interface O vacancies in Pt/Ta2O5 is always energetically more stable than that in Cu/Ta2O5, which may be partly responsible for the cone shape of conduction filament formed in the Cu/a-Ta2O5/Pt resistance switch, where the base of the cone lies on the Pt/Ta2O5 interface.

  17. Efficient Visible-Light-Driven Z-Scheme Overall Water Splitting Using a MgTa2O(6-x)N(y)/TaON Heterostructure Photocatalyst for H2 Evolution.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanshan; Qi, Yu; Hisatomi, Takashi; Ding, Qian; Asai, Tomohiro; Li, Zheng; Ma, Su Su Khine; Zhang, Fuxiang; Domen, Kazunari; Li, Can

    2015-07-13

    An (oxy)nitride-based heterostructure for powdered Z-scheme overall water splitting is presented. Compared with the single MgTa2O(6-x)N(y) or TaON photocatalyst, a MgTa2O(6-x)N(y)/TaON heterostructure fabricated by a simple one-pot nitridation route was demonstrated to effectively suppress the recombination of carriers by efficient spatial charge separation and decreased defect density. By employing Pt-loaded MgTa2O(6-x)N(y)/TaON as a H2-evolving photocatalyst, a Z-scheme overall water splitting system with an apparent quantum efficiency (AQE) of 6.8% at 420 nm was constructed (PtO(x)-WO3 and IO3(-)/I(-) pairs were used as an O2-evolving photocatalyst and a redox mediator, respectively), the activity of which is circa 7 or 360 times of that using Pt-TaON or Pt-MgTa2O(6-x)N)y) as a H2-evolving photocatalyst, respectively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest AQE among the powdered Z-scheme overall water splitting systems ever reported.

  18. 77 FR 47671 - TA-W-81,520, T-Mobile USA, Inc., Call Center, Allentown, PA; TA-W-81,520G, T-Mobile USA, Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... Employment and Training Administration TA-W-81,520, T-Mobile USA, Inc., Call Center, Allentown, PA; TA- W-81,520G, T-Mobile USA, Inc., Headquarters Office, Bellevue, WA; Amended Certification Regarding... to Apply for Worker Adjustment Assistance on July 11, 2012, applicable to workers of T-Mobile...

  19. Numerical study of the structural and vibrational properties of amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and TiO{sub 2}-doped Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}

    SciTech Connect

    Damart, T.; Coillet, E.; Rodney, D.; Tanguy, A.

    2016-05-07

    Using classical molecular dynamics simulations, we synthesized amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} and amorphous TiO{sub 2}-doped Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. We show that Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} is composed primarily of six-folded Ta atoms forming octahedra that are either organized in chain-like structures or share edges or faces. When Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} is doped with TiO{sub 2}, Ti atoms form equally five- and six-folded polyhedra that perturb but do not break the network structure of the glass. Performing a vibrational eigenmode analysis and projecting the eigenmodes on the rocking, stretching, and bending motions of the Ta-2O and Ta-3O bonds, we provide an atomic-scale analysis that substantiates the interpretations of Raman spectra of amorphous Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. This eigenmode analysis also reveals the key role played by Ti atoms in the 5 to 12 THz range.

  20. Low Nb/Ta in the Archean Mantle: Ancient Missing Niobium in the Silicate Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jochum, K. P.; Polat, A.; Stoll, B.; Hofmann, A. W.

    2001-12-01

    Recent investigations of oceanic basalts (MORB, OIB) and samples of the continental crust show that the continental crust and the sources of MORB and OIB all have Nb/Ta ratios that are significantly lower than the CI-chondritic value of 17.4. The missing, complementary high-Nb/Ta reservoir has been suggested to exist in the form of Nb-rich, high-Nb/Ta refractory eclogites deep in the mantle (McDonough, 1991; Rudnick et al., 2000). Alternatively, Wade and Wood (2001) recently showed that at high pressure Nb may fractionate into the core, and thus no hidden reservoir would be required within the silicate portion of the Earth. To get further insight of the missing Nb in the silicate portion of the Earth and to test the two hypotheses, we used spark source and ICP mass spectrometry to investigate the geochemically very similar element pairs Nb-Ta and Zr-Hf in komatiitic basalts from 6 Archean greenstone belts. Samples include 3.8 Ga old rocks from Isua (Greenland), 3.4 Ga old rocks from the Onverwacht Group (South Africa) and the Pilbara Craton (Australia), and 2.7 Ga old rocks from the Abitibi (Canada) and the Norseman-Wiluna belts (Australia). Our results show that the mean Zr/Hf ratio of 37 for the Archean samples is identical within error limits with the values found in modern oceanic basalts and in chondritic meteorites. This means that Zr and Hf have not been fractionated in the Earth's mantle since at least 3.8 Ga and that the primitive mantle has a chondritic Zr/Hf ratio. In contrast, Nb and Ta behave differently. The mean Nb/Ta ratios are about 13 for the 3.8 Ga old samples from Isua, and 14 for the 3.4 Ga and 2.7 Ga old samples. These ratios are similar to those of MORB (15), OIB (about 15) (Jochum et al., 1997), and upper crustal material (13; Barth et al., 2000), but are significantly lower than the CI chondritic Nb/Ta of 17.4. This implies that there was no significant fractionation of Nb and Ta in the major reservoirs since 3.8 Ga, not even during

  1. Structural and dielectric properties of Sr3(MgTa2)O9 and Sr3(ZnTa2)O9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoque, Md. M.; Dutta, Alo; Kumar, S.; Sinha, T. P.

    2015-07-01

    Herein, we report the crystal structures and morphological properties of Sr3(MgTa2)O9 (SMT) and Sr3(ZnTa2)O9 (SZT) synthesized by solid state ceramic method along with the results of alternating current impedance spectroscopic (ACIS) study in a frequency range from 50 Hz to 1 MHz at selective temperatures between 393 and 573 K. The crystal structures of SMT and SZT have been determined by Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction pattern using an initial structural model developed on the basis of literature survey. The results indicate that both the samples possess hexagonal structure of trigonal P 3 bar m 1 space group. The lattice parameters of SMT are a=b=5.65162 Å, c=6.94440 Å, α=β=90° and γ=120° and those of SZT are a=b=5.65832 Å, c=6.95911 Å and α=β=90° and γ=120°. SMT and SZT are isostructural and they exhibit 2:1 B site ordering with the staking sequence of {-Ta-Ta-Mg (Zn)-} (Mg for SMT and Zn for SZT) layer repeat on (111) plane of the pseudocells. The characteristic vibrational bands due to Ta-O, Mg-O and Zn-O bonds have been observed in the FTIR spectra of the samples. The FESEM micrographs of the samples show that the grains size ranges between 0.40 and 3.65 μm and 0.9 to 4.2 μm for SMT and SZT, respectively. To account for the polydispersive nature of the dielectric relaxation mechanism along with the effects of dc conductivity and localized space charges the variation of real (ε‧) and imaginary (ε″) parts of dielectric constant with frequency has been analytically interpreted in the framework of modified Cole-Cole model. SMT and SZT having the activation energies of 0.35 eV and 0.33 eV, respectively (obtained from the Arrhenius plot of dc conductivity), are semiconducting in nature. The electrical current conduction in the samples occurs by polaron hopping process. Further, we have shown that chemical property of A site cations has significant role in determining the dielectric properties of A3B‧B″2O9 type perovskites

  2. 78 FR 41954 - TA-W-82,634, Prudential Global Business Technology Solutions Central Security Services Dresher...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Central Security Services Iselin, New Jersey; TA-W-82,634B, Prudential Global Business Technology... Technology Solutions Central Security Services Roseland, New Jersey; TA-W-82,634E, Prudential Global Business... Business Technology Solutions Central Security Services New York, New York; Amended Certification Regarding...

  3. Particle size dependence on oxygen reduction reaction activity of electrodeposited TaO(x) catalysts in acidic media.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeongsuk; Cha, Dongkyu; Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Kubota, Jun; Domen, Kazunari

    2014-01-21

    The size dependence of the oxygen reduction reaction activity was studied for TaO(x) nanoparticles electrodeposited on carbon black for application to polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFCs). Compared with a commercial Ta2O5 material, the ultrafine oxide nanoparticles exhibited a distinctively high onset potential different from that of the bulky oxide particles.

  4. Effect of high-flux, low-energy He(+) ion irradiation on Ta as a plasma-facing material.

    PubMed

    Novakowski, T J; Tripathi, J K; Hassanein, A

    2016-12-23

    The goal of this work is to assess Ta as a potential plasma-facing material for future fusion reactors in terms of its response to high-flux, low-energy He(+) ion irradiation. Ta samples were irradiated with 100 eV He(+) ions at various fluences up to 3.5 × 10(25) ions m(-2) while simultaneously heated at constant temperatures in the range 823-1223 K. SEM studies show that irradiated Ta surfaces undergo significant morphology changes that have a strong dependence on both ion fluence and sample temperature. Optical reflectivity complements SEM and demonstrates a vertical growth of surface structures with increasing fluence. Ex situ XPS and XRD both show significant oxidation of the irradiated Ta surfaces, giving further qualitative information on the extent of surface modification. Overall, these irradiation-induced structures on Ta are similar to early-stage "fuzz" structures observed in W. However, Ta exhibits a higher fluence threshold for structure formation. While Ta may have less desirable bulk properties (e.g., thermal conductivity) when compared to W, its higher resilience to He(+) ion-induced surface modification suggests that surface thermal and mechanical properties may not degrade as quickly in extreme fusion environments; this quality may be a redeeming factor for Ta as a plasma-facing material.

  5. Effect of high-flux, low-energy He+ ion irradiation on Ta as a plasma-facing material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novakowski, T. J.; Tripathi, J. K.; Hassanein, A.

    2016-12-01

    The goal of this work is to assess Ta as a potential plasma-facing material for future fusion reactors in terms of its response to high-flux, low-energy He+ ion irradiation. Ta samples were irradiated with 100 eV He+ ions at various fluences up to 3.5 × 1025 ions m‑2 while simultaneously heated at constant temperatures in the range 823–1223 K. SEM studies show that irradiated Ta surfaces undergo significant morphology changes that have a strong dependence on both ion fluence and sample temperature. Optical reflectivity complements SEM and demonstrates a vertical growth of surface structures with increasing fluence. Ex situ XPS and XRD both show significant oxidation of the irradiated Ta surfaces, giving further qualitative information on the extent of surface modification. Overall, these irradiation-induced structures on Ta are similar to early-stage “fuzz” structures observed in W. However, Ta exhibits a higher fluence threshold for structure formation. While Ta may have less desirable bulk properties (e.g., thermal conductivity) when compared to W, its higher resilience to He+ ion-induced surface modification suggests that surface thermal and mechanical properties may not degrade as quickly in extreme fusion environments; this quality may be a redeeming factor for Ta as a plasma-facing material.

  6. A wheat aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase gene, TaACO1, negatively regulates salinity stress in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Chen, Donghua; Ma, Xiaoyan; Li, Chunlong; Zhang, Wei; Xia, Guangmin; Wang, Mei

    2014-11-01

    TaACO1 could catalyze ACC into ethylene in vitro. Constitutive expression of TaACO1 in Arabidopsis conferred salt sensitivity, and TaACO1 regulates salt stress mainly via the DREB1/CBF signal transduction pathway. Ethylene signaling plays essential roles in mediating plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses, besides regulating plant growth and development. The roles of ethylene biosynthesis in abiotic stress, however, remain elusive. In this study, an aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate oxidase gene, TaACO1, affecting the terminal step in ethylene biosynthesis, was isolated from a salt-tolerant bread wheat introgression line Shanrong No. 3 (SR3) and its effect on salt-stress response was examined. Purified recombinant protein of TaACO1 heterogenously expressed in Escherchia coli could catalyze ACC into ethylene in vitro. TaACO1 transcripts were down-regulated by salt, drought, oxidative stress and ABA. TaACO1-transgenic plants conferred salt sensitivity as judged from the seed germination, cotyledon greening and the relative root growth under salt stress. Constitutive expression of TaACO1 in Arabidopsis increased AtMYB15 expression and suppressed the expression of stress-responsive genes AtRAB18, AtCBF1 and AtCBF3. These findings are helpful in understanding the roles of ethylene biosynthesis in plant salt-stress response.

  7. Nano suboxide layer generated in Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} by Ar{sup +} ion irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Song, W. D. E-mail: ying-ji-feng@dsi.a-star.edu.sg; Ying, J. F. E-mail: ying-ji-feng@dsi.a-star.edu.sg; He, W.; Zhuo, V. Y.-Q.; Ji, R.; Xie, H. Q.; Ng, S. K.; Ng, Serene L. G.; Jiang, Y.

    2015-01-19

    Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TaO{sub x} heterostructure has become a leading oxide layer in memory cells and/or a bidirectional selector for resistive random access memory (RRAM). Although atomic layer deposition (ALD) was found to be uniquely suitable for depositing uniform and conformal films on complex topographies, it is hard to use ALD to grow suboxide TaO{sub x} layer. In this study, tantalum oxide films with a composition of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} were grown by ALD. Using Ar{sup +} ion irradiation, the suboxide was formed in the top layer of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} films by observing the Ta core level shift toward lower binding energy with angle-resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. By controlling the energy and irradiation time of an Ar{sup +} ion beam, Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/TaO{sub x} heterostructure can be reliably produced on ALD films, which provides a way to fabricate the critical switching layers of RRAM.

  8. Effect of high-flux, low-energy He+ ion irradiation on Ta as a plasma-facing material

    PubMed Central

    Novakowski, T. J.; Tripathi, J. K.; Hassanein, A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work is to assess Ta as a potential plasma-facing material for future fusion reactors in terms of its response to high-flux, low-energy He+ ion irradiation. Ta samples were irradiated with 100 eV He+ ions at various fluences up to 3.5 × 1025 ions m−2 while simultaneously heated at constant temperatures in the range 823–1223 K. SEM studies show that irradiated Ta surfaces undergo significant morphology changes that have a strong dependence on both ion fluence and sample temperature. Optical reflectivity complements SEM and demonstrates a vertical growth of surface structures with increasing fluence. Ex situ XPS and XRD both show significant oxidation of the irradiated Ta surfaces, giving further qualitative information on the extent of surface modification. Overall, these irradiation-induced structures on Ta are similar to early-stage “fuzz” structures observed in W. However, Ta exhibits a higher fluence threshold for structure formation. While Ta may have less desirable bulk properties (e.g., thermal conductivity) when compared to W, its higher resilience to He+ ion-induced surface modification suggests that surface thermal and mechanical properties may not degrade as quickly in extreme fusion environments; this quality may be a redeeming factor for Ta as a plasma-facing material. PMID:28008976

  9. Nanospherical composite of WO3 wrapped NaTaO3: Improved photodegradation of tetracycline under visible light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Lingnan; Lang, Junyu; Wang, Shuwei; Chai, Zhanli; Su, Yiguo; Wang, Xiaojing

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, WO3-wrapped NaTaO3 nanospheres photocatalysts with different W/Ta molar ratios were successfully prepared via a facile hydrothermal method. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission and scan electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, FT-IR spectrum, UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and Barrett-Emmett-Teller technique. The photocatalytic activities for degrading tetracycline hydrochloride under visible light irradiation were examined. The results indicated that the as-prepared NaTaO3@WO3 photocatalysts showed the obvious enhancement in the tetracycline hydrochloride degradation ratio, compared with the pure NaTaO3 and WO3 under visible light irradiation. The optimum percentage of NaTaO3@WO3 composites with a 60.88% degradation rate was W:Ta = 0.3:1 in mole, which was mainly attributed to the effective separation of the photo-generated electron and hole as well as the expanding of the absorption edge to the visible region due to the spherical heterojunction by wrapping WO3 on the surface of NaTaO3. The radicals trapping experiments demonstrated that there were multiple active species during the degrading process of TC. The possible mechanism of tetracycline hydrochloride degradation by NaTaO3@WO3 composite was also proposed.

  10. Interchanges: Solidarity Forever--Why TA Unions Are Good for Writing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard-Donals, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, the author explains how teaching assistant (TA) unions work to the benefit not only of the graduate students who are their members but also of the writing programs that employ them. While university administrations understand unions to be bothersome at best and forces of evil at their worst, unions are essential to the maintenance…

  11. [Cloning and analysis of a new aliphatic amidase gene from Rhodococcus erythropolis TA37].

    PubMed

    Lavrov, K V; Karpova, I Yu; Epremyan, A S; Yanenko, A S

    2014-10-01

    A new aliphatic amidase gene (ami), having a level of similarity with the nearest homologs of no more than 77%, was identified in the Rhodococcus erythropolis TA37 strain, which is able to hydrolyze a wide range of amides. The amidase gene was cloned within a 3.7 kb chromosomal locus, which also contains putative acetyl-CoA ligase and ABC-type transportergenes. The structure of this locus in the R. erythropolis TA37 strain differs from the structure of loci in other Rhodococcus strains. The amidase gene is expressed in Escherichia coli cells. It was demonstrated that amidase (generated in the recombinant strain) efficiently hydrolyzes acetamide (aliphatic anmide) and does not use 4'-nitroacetanilide (N-substituted amide) as a substrate. Insertional inactivation of the amidase gene in the R. erythropolis TA37 strain results in a considerable decrease (by at least 6-7 times) in basal amidase activity, indicating functional amidase activity in the R. erythropolis TA37 strain.

  12. High-pressure shock behavior of WC and Ta2O5 powders.

    SciTech Connect

    Knudson, Marcus D.; Reinhart, William Dodd; Vogler, Tracy John; Root, Seth

    2011-10-01

    Planar shock experiments were conducted on granular tungsten carbide (WC) and tantalum oxide (Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}) using the Z machine and a 2-stage gas gun. Additional shock experiments were also conducted on a nearly fully dense form of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}. The experiments on WC yield some of the highest pressure results for granular materials obtained to date. Because of the high distention of Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}, the pressures obtained were significantly lower, but the very high temperatures generated led to large contributions of thermal energy to the material response. These experiments demonstrate that the Z machine can be used to obtain accurate shock data on granular materials. The data on Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5} were utilized in making improvements to the P-{lambda} model for high pressures; the model is found to capture the results not only of the Z and gas gun experiments but also those from laser experiments on low density aerogels. The results are also used to illustrate an approach for generating an equation of state using only the limited data coming from nanoindentation. Although the EOS generated in this manner is rather simplistic, for this material it gives reasonably good results.

  13. Interaction of He with Cu, V, and Ta in bcc Fe: A first-principles study

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, J. X.; Tian, Z. X.; Xiao, W.; Geng, W. T.

    2011-07-01

    Precipitates often play key roles in improving the mechanical performance of structural materials. Using first-principles density functional theory method, we have calculated the geometry and energetics of small X{sub n} and X{sub n}He (X = Cu, V, and Ta) clusters in bcc Fe matrix to investigate the effect of He on X precipitation on the initial stage in neutron-irradiated Fe alloys. Both substitutional and interstitial He attract solute atoms. The attraction of a substitutional He and a Cu atom is as strong as 0.30 eV (nearest neighbor) or 0.25 eV (next-nearest neighbor), even stronger than the vacancy-Cu pair. Such an attraction facilitates the clustering of Cu atoms. By comparison, the attraction of He to V (0.02 eV) or Ta (0.22 eV) is weaker than that of a vacancy. We find that one He can bind up to four Ta atoms to form a tetrahedron, despite the fact that in the absence of He, Ta atoms prefer to stay away from each other. The effect of He on the solute-solute and solute-matrix interactions can be understood from the facts that He behaves both as a free-volume filler and as a bonding insulator.

  14. Oxygen vacancies in amorphous-Ta2O5 from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jihang; Kioupakis, Emmanouil; Lu, Wei

    Oxygen vacancies are thought to play a crucial role in the electrical and optical properties of tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) devices. Even though numerous experimental studies on oxygen vacancies in Ta2O5 exist, experimentally detected defects are ambiguously identified due to the absence of an accurate and conclusive theoretical analysis. We investigate oxygen vacancies in amorphous Ta2O5 with first-principles calculations based on hybrid density functional theory. The calculated thermodynamic and optical transition levels of stable oxygen vacancies are in good agreement with measured values from a variety of experimental methods, providing conclusive clues for the identification of the defect states observed in experiments. We determine the concentration of oxygen vacancies and their dominant oxidation state as a function of growth conditions. We analyze the characteristics of extra electrons introduced by donor-like oxygen vacancies, which include the formation of polarons. Our results provide insight into the fundamental properties of oxygen vacancies in Ta2O5, which is essential to controlling the properties of films and optimize the performance of devices. This research was supported by the AFOSR through MURI grant FA9550-12-1-0038 and the National Science Foundation CAREER award through Grant No. DMR-1254314. Computational resources were provided by the DOE NERSC facility.

  15. Evaluation of TA10 Broth for Recovery of Heat- and Freeze-Injured Salmonella from Beef

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Bacteriological Analytical Manual (BAM) Salmonella pre-enrichment broth (lactose [LAC] broth), buffered peptone water (BPW), and universal preenrichment (UP) broth were compared with TA10 broth, developed in our laboratory, for recovery of heat- and freeze-injured Salmonella (55ºC for 2-20 min a...

  16. Characterization of Toxin-Antitoxin (TA) Systems in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Clinical Isolates in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Savari, Mohammad; Rostami, Soodabeh; Ekrami, Alireza; Bahador, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is among the most problematic hospital and community-acquired pathogens. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are maintenance regulatory systems in bacteria and have recently been considered new targets for antimicrobial therapy. The prevalence and transcription of these systems in clinical isolates are still unknown. Objectives: The aim of this study was to characterize three types of TA systems (parDE, relBE, and higBA) among P. aeruginosa clinical isolates. Materials and Methods: We typed our clinical isolates by ERIC-PCR (enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus sequence-based polymerase chain reaction) and BOX-PCR. We then investigated 174 P. aeruginosa clinical isolates from three hospitals in Ahvaz, Iran, for the presence of TA system genes, and determined whether these systems were encoded on chromosomes or plasmids by amplification of the flanking regions. Results: Our results showed that in the 174 P. aeruginosa isolates, relBE and higBA were universal, but parDE was less prevalent. Both of the flanking regions of the parDE genes in all positive isolates were amplified. The flanking regions of nearly all relBE genes were amplified. Amplification was observed for the downstream sequence of every higBA locus, as well as for the region upstream of higBA, except in 14 strains. Conclusions: Based on the presence of TA systems in the majority of P. aeruginosa isolates, these could be used as a novel target for antimicrobial therapy. PMID:27099681

  17. Induction of Abasic Sites by the Drinking-Water Mutagen MX in Salmonella TA100

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mutagen X (MX) is a chlorinated furanone that accounts for more of the mutagenic activity of drinking water than any other disinfection by-product. It is one of the most potent base-substitution mutagens in the Salmonella (Ames) mutagenicity assay, producing primarily GC to TA mu...

  18. "Forest Grove School District v. T.A.": The Supreme Court and Unilateral Private Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Collins, Terri S.

    2010-01-01

    On June 22, 2009, the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in the case "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." (hereafter "Forest Grove"). In "Forest Grove," the High Court answered the question of whether the parents of students with disabilities are entitled to reimbursement for the costs associated with placing…

  19. Effectiveness and durability of the rice Pi-ta gene in Yunnan province of China

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rice blast is one of the most damaging diseases of rice worldwide. In the present study, we analyzed DNA sequence variation of avirulence genes of AVR-Pita1 in field isolates of M. oryzae in order to understand the effectiveness of the resistance gene Pi-ta in China. Genomic DNA of 366 isolates of M...

  20. "Chalepa Ta Kala," "Fine Things Are Difficult": Socrates' Insights into the Psychology of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Avi I.

    2010-01-01

    The proverb "chalepa ta kala" ("fine things are difficult") is invoked in three dialogues in the Platonic corpus: "Hippias Major," "Cratylus" and "Republic." In this paper, I argue that the context in which the proverb arises reveals Socrates' considerable pedagogical dexterity as he uses the proverb to rebuke his interlocutor in one dialogue but…

  1. Interchanges: Solidarity Forever--Why TA Unions Are Good for Writing Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernard-Donals, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, the author explains how teaching assistant (TA) unions work to the benefit not only of the graduate students who are their members but also of the writing programs that employ them. While university administrations understand unions to be bothersome at best and forces of evil at their worst, unions are essential to the maintenance…

  2. Computer-Aided Assessment Questions in Engineering Mathematics Using "MapleTA"[R

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, I. S.

    2008-01-01

    The use of "MapleTA"[R] in the assessment of engineering mathematics at Liverpool John Moores University (JMU) is discussed with particular reference to the design of questions. Key aspects in the formulation and coding of questions are considered. Problems associated with the submission of symbolic answers, the use of randomly generated numbers…

  3. Isomer residual ratio of odd-odd isotope {sup 180}Ta in supernova nucleosynthsis

    SciTech Connect

    Hayakawa, Takehito; Kajino, Toshitaka; Chiba, Satoshi; Mathews, Grant

    2010-06-01

    The nucleosynthesis of {sup 180}Ta has remained an unsolved problem and as its origin many nucleosynthesis mechanisms have been proposed. This isotope has the unique feature that the naturally occurring abundance of {sup 180}Ta is actually a meta-stable isomer (half-life of >=10{sup 15} yr), while the ground state is a 1{sup +} unstable state which beta-decays with a half-life of only 8.15 hr. We have made a new time-dependent calculation of {sup 180}Ta meta-stable isomer residual ratio after supernova neutrino-induced reactions. This residual isomer ratio is crucial for understanding the production and survival of this naturally occurring rare isotope. We have constructed a new model under temperature evolution after type II supernova explosion. We include the explicit linking between the isomer and all known excited states and found that the residual ratio is insensitive to astrophysical parameters such as neutrino energy spectrum, explosion energy, decay time constant. We find that the explicit time evolution of the synthesis of {sup 180}Ta avoids the overproduction relative to {sup 138}La for a neutrino process neutrino temperature of 4 MeV.

  4. Influence of additions of nanoparticles TaC on a microstructure laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murzakov, M. A.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Polski, V. I.; Mironov, V. D.; Prokopova, N. M.; Tret'yakov, E. V.

    2015-03-01

    The features of a laser cladding of nickel-based powders with TaC nanopowder additives have been experimentally investigated. The minimum depth of pro-melting of a basis, microhardness distribution over the cross section of the substrate, and the saturation of the metal of the cladding with basis components has been determined in the experiments.

  5. Photo-Induced depopulation of the 180mTa isomer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhike, Megha; Krishichayan, Fnu; Tornow, W.

    2015-10-01

    The 180mTa nucleus is the rarest isotope in the universe, existing only in an isomeric state at 77.2 keV (Jπ = 9-) with half-life of greater than 7.1 ×1015 years. The stellar production of this high-spin isomer has been a challenging astrophysical problem. Cross-section measurements for the depopulation of the 180mTa isomer with monoenergetic photon beams of energies 2.5 and 3.1 MeV have been carried out at the HI γS facility. The activated Ta foils of natural abundance and containing 14.4 mg of 180mTa were γ-ray counted at TUNL's low background facility using a 13% planar HPGe detector. A 8'' ×12'' NaI detector in combination with the standard HI γS scintillator paddle system was employed for absolute photon-flux determination. Preliminary results will be discussed, and measurements at lower energies are planned. This work was supported by the U.S. DOE under Grant NO. DE-FG02-97ER41033.

  6. Interaction of interstitial atoms and configurational contribution to their thermodynamic activity in V, Nb, and Ta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanter, M. S.; Dmitriev, V. V.; Mogutnov, B. M.; Ruban, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    The pairwise interaction energies of O-O and N-N in bcc metals of group VB, which were calculated earlier using first-principles methods, have been employed to analyze the effect of the interatomic interactions on the configurational contribution to the thermodynamic activity. The strong effect of interstitial- interstitial interaction has been shown. The configurational contribution grows in the row (Nb-N) → (V-N) → (Ta-N) → (Nb-O) → (V-O) → (Ta-O), which is caused by a weakening of the mutual attraction of interstitial atoms in these solid solutions. The strong repulsion that characterizes the majority of coordination shells only weakly affects the thermodynamic activity. The character of the temperature dependence of the configurational contribution is defined by the strength of the mutual attraction of the interstitial atoms, i.e., upon strong attraction, the contribution increases with increasing temperature (Nb-N, V-N, Ta-N, and Nb-O) and, upon weak attraction, it decreases (V-O and Ta-O).

  7. Evaluation of Piezoelectric Ta2O5 Thin Films Deposited on Sapphire Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwamoto, Shunsuke; Saigusa, Ryosuke; Kakio, Shoji

    2013-07-01

    X-axis-oriented tantalum pentoxide (Ta2O5) piezoelectric thin films were deposited on sapphire (Al2O3) substrates, from which single crystallization due to epitaxial growth can be expected, using an RF magnetron sputtering system. The crystallinity and Rayleigh-type surface acoustic wave (R-SAW) propagation properties of the thin films were evaluated. From the measured diffraction (X-ray diffraction) patterns and the spotted pattern in the measured pole figures, in which poles were arranged to form the vertices of a hexagon, the possibility of the crystallization of hexagonal Ta2O5 with a (203)-plane oriented in the c-Al2O3 substrate plane due to epitaxial growth was shown. For the first mode of the R-SAW on the Ta2O5/R-plane Al2O3 sample, a coupling factor of 1.65% and a phase velocity of 5,120 m/s were obtained for a normalized thickness of 0.175. Unfortunately, no increase in coupling factor and no major improvement in propagation loss were observed upon the crystallization of hexagonal Ta2O5.

  8. Directional Solidification and Mechanical Properties of NiAl-NiAlTa Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, D. R.; Chen, X. F.; Oliver, B. F.; Noebe, R. D.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1995-01-01

    Directional solidification of eutectic alloys is a promising technique for producing in-situ composite materials exhibiting a balance of properties. Consequently, the microstructure, creep strength and fracture toughness of directionally solidified NiAl-NiAlTa alloys were investigated. Directional solidification was performed by containerless processing techniques to minimize alloy contamination. The eutectic composition was found to be NiAl-15.5 at% Ta and well-aligned microstructures were produced at this composition. A near-eutectic alloy of NiAl-14.5Ta was also investigated. Directional solidification of the near-eutectic composition resulted in microstructures consisting of NiAl dendrites surrounded by aligned eutectic regions. The off-eutectic alloy exhibited promising compressive creep strengths compared to other NiAl-based intermetallics, while preliminary testing indicated that the eutectic alloy was competitive with Ni-base single crystal superalloys. The room temperature toughness of these two-phase alloys was similar to that of polycrystalline NiAl even with the presence of the brittle Laves phase NiAlTa.

  9. Structure and high photocatalytic activity of (N, Ta)-doped TiO2 nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, N. T. H.; Thanh, T. D.; Pham, V.-T.; Phan, T. L.; Lam, V. D.; Manh, D. H.; Anh, T. X.; Le, T. K. C.; Thammajak, N.; Hong, L. V.; Yu, S. C.

    2016-10-01

    A hydrothermal method was used to prepare three nano-crystalline samples of TiO2 (S1), N-doped TiO2 (S2), and (N, Ta)-codoped TiO2 (S3) with average crystallite sizes (D) of 13-25 nm. X-ray diffraction studies confirmed a single phase of the samples with a tetragonal/anatase structure. A slight increase in the lattice parameters was observed when N and/or Ta dopants were doped into the TiO2 host lattice. Detailed analyses of extended X-ray absorption spectra indicated that N- and/or Ta-doping into TiO2 nanoparticles influenced the co-ordination number and radial distance (R) of Ti ions in the anatase structure. Concerning their absorption spectra, (N, Ta)-doping narrowed the band gap (Eg) of TiO2 from 3.03 eV for S1 through 2.94 eV for S2 to 2.85 eV for S3. Such results revealed the applicability of these nanoparticles in the photocatalytic field working in the ultraviolet (UV)-visible region. Among these, photocatalytic activity of S3 was the strongest. By using S3 as a catalyst powder, the degradation efficiency of methylene blue solution was about 99% and 93% after irradiation of UV-visible light for 75 min and visible-light for 180 min, respectively.

  10. Ta3N5 nanotube arrays for visible light water photoelectrolysis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xinjian; Latempa, Thomas J; Basham, James I; Mor, Gopal K; Varghese, Oomman K; Grimes, Craig A

    2010-03-10

    Tantalum nitride (Ta3N5) has a band gap of approximately 2.07 eV, suitable for collecting more than 45% of the incident solar spectrum energy. We describe a simple method for scale fabrication of highly oriented Ta3N5 nanotube array films, by anodization of tantalum foil to achieve vertically oriented tantalum oxide nanotube arrays followed by a 700 degrees C ammonia anneal for sample crystallization and nitridation. The thin walled amorphous nanotube array structure enables transformation from tantalum oxide to Ta3N5 to occur at relatively low temperatures, while high-temperature annealing related structural aggregation that commonly occurs in particle films is avoided. In 1 M KOH solution, under AM 1.5 illumination with 0.5 V dc bias typical sample (nanotube length approximately 240 nm, wall thickness approximately 7 nm) visible light incident photon conversion efficiencies (IPCE) as high as 5.3% were obtained. The enhanced visible light activity in combination with the ordered one-dimensional nanoarchitecture makes Ta3N5 nanotube arrays films a promising candidate for visible light water photoelectrolysis.

  11. Strengthening mechanisms in Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta and Ti-Mo-Zr-Fe orthopaedic alloys.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rajarshi; Nag, Soumya; Stechschulte, John; Fraser, Hamish L

    2004-08-01

    The microstructural evolution and attendant strengthening mechanisms in two novel orthopaedic alloy systems, Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta and Ti-Mo-Zr-Fe, have been compared and contrasted in this paper. Specifically, the alloy compositions considered are Ti-34Nb-9Zr-8Ta and Ti-13Mo-7Zr-3Fe. In the homogenized condition, both alloys exhibited a microstructure consisting primarily of a beta matrix with grain boundary alpha precipitates and a low-volume fraction of intra-granular alpha precipitates. On ageing the homogenized alloys at 600 degrees C for 4 hr, both alloys exhibited the precipitation of refined scale secondary alpha precipitates homogeneously in the beta matrix. However, while the hardness of the Ti-Mo-Zr-Fe alloy marginally increased, that of the Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloy decreased substantially as a result of the ageing treatment. In order to understand this difference in the mechanical properties after ageing, TEM studies have been carried out on both alloys prior to and post the ageing treatment. The results indicate the existence of a metastable B2 ordering in the Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloy in the homogenized condition which is destroyed by the ageing treatment, consequently leading to a decrease in the hardness.

  12. "Forest Grove School District v. T.A.": The Supreme Court and Unilateral Private Placements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yell, Mitchell L.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Collins, Terri S.

    2010-01-01

    On June 22, 2009, the U.S. Supreme Court issued its decision in the case "Forest Grove School District v. T.A." (hereafter "Forest Grove"). In "Forest Grove," the High Court answered the question of whether the parents of students with disabilities are entitled to reimbursement for the costs associated with placing…

  13. Mentoring and the Faculty-TA Relationship: Faculty Perceptions and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calkins, Susanna; Kelley, Matthew R.

    2005-01-01

    The current investigation was designed to examine faculty perceptions and practices of mentoring in the faculty-TA (teaching assistant) relationship. A survey of faculty members at a large Midwestern research institution revealed that most faculty members considered themselves to be, or wished to be, mentors to their teaching assistants. The…

  14. Can We Reconcile the TA Excess and Hotspot with Auger Observations?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Globus, Noemie; Allard, Denis; Parizot, Etienne; Lachaud, Cyril; Piran, Tsvi

    2017-02-01

    The Telescope Array (TA) shows a 20° hotspot as well as an excess of ultra-high-energy cosmic-rays (UHECRs) above 50 EeV when compared with the Auger spectrum. We consider the possibility that both the TA excess and hotspot are due to a dominant source in the northern sky. We carry out detailed simulations of UHECR propagation in both the intergalactic medium and the Galaxy, using different values for the intergalactic magnetic field. We consider two general classes of sources: transients and steady, adopting a mixed UHECR composition that is consistent with the one found by Auger. The spatial location of the sources is drawn randomly. We generate Auger-like and TA-like data sets from which we determine the spectrum, the sky maps, and the level of anisotropy. We find that, while steady sources are favored over transients, it is unlikely to account for all the currently available observational data. While we reproduce fairly well the Auger spectrum for the vast majority of the simulated data sets, most of the simulated data sets with a spectrum compatible with that of TA (at most a few percent depending on density model tested) show a much stronger anisotropy than the one observed. We find that the rare cases in which both the spectrum and the anisotropy are consistent require a steady source within ∼10 Mpc, to account for the flux excess, and a strong extragalactic magnetic field ∼10 nG, to reduce the excessive anisotropy.

  15. Natural variation of rice blast resistant gene Pi-ta in Oryza species

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Pi-ta gene in rice is a putative NBS type cytoplasmic receptor conferring resistance to races of Magnaporthe oryzae in a gene-for-gene manner. A Functional Nucleotide Polymorphism (FNP) change resulting in an amino acid substitution of Alanine to Serine at position 918 (nucleotide G to T at posi...

  16. "Chalepa Ta Kala," "Fine Things Are Difficult": Socrates' Insights into the Psychology of Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintz, Avi I.

    2010-01-01

    The proverb "chalepa ta kala" ("fine things are difficult") is invoked in three dialogues in the Platonic corpus: "Hippias Major," "Cratylus" and "Republic." In this paper, I argue that the context in which the proverb arises reveals Socrates' considerable pedagogical dexterity as he uses the proverb to rebuke his interlocutor in one dialogue but…

  17. A New One-dimensional Quantum Material - Ta2Pd3Se8 Atomic Chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xue; Liu, Jinyu; Hu, Jin; Yue, Chunlei; Mao, Zhiqiang; Wei, Jiang; Antipina, Liubov; Sorokin, Pavel; Sanchez, Ana

    Since the discovery of carbon nanotube, there has been a persistent effort to search for other one dimensional (1D) quantum systems. However, only a few examples have been found. We report a new 1D example - semiconducting Ta2Pd3Se8. We demonstrate that the Ta2Pd3Se8 nanowire as thin as 1.3nm can be easily obtained by applying simple mechanical exfoliation from its bulk counterpart. High resolution TEM shows an intrinsic 1D chain-like crystalline morphology on these nano wires, indicating weak bonding between these atomic chains. Theoretical calculation shows a direct bandgap structure, which evolves from 0.53eV in the bulk to 1.04eV in single atomic chain. The field effect transistor based on Ta2Pd3Se8 nanowire achieved a promising performance with 104On/Off ratio and 80 cm2V-1s-1 mobility. Low temperature transport study reflects two different mechanisms, variable range hopping and thermal activation, which dominate the transport properties at different temperature regimes. Ta2Pd3Se8 nanowire provides an intrinsic 1D material system for the study low dimensional condensed matter physics.

  18. MRI compatible Nb-Ta-Zr alloys used for vascular stents: optimization for mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui-Zhe; Xu, Jian

    2014-04-01

    With the increased usage of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a diagnostic tool in clinic, the currently-used metals for vascular stents, such as 316L stainless steel (SS), Co-Cr alloys and Ni-Ti alloys, are challenged by their unsatisfactory MRI compatibility, due to their constituents containing ferromagnetic elements. To provide more MRI compatible vascular stents, the Nb-xTa-2Zr (30≤x≤70) series alloys were selected in the current work. Several key properties of these alloys were optimized in terms of stent requirements, including magnetic susceptibility, elastic modulus and tensile properties. In the as-cast state, a single-phase solid solution with bcc structure was formed in the alloys. The volume magnetic susceptibility (χv) and Young's modulus (E) of the alloys scaled linearly with the Ta content. Increasing the Ta content gave rise to the decreased χv and the increased E, together with the elevated yield strength but less-changed elongation. From multiple requirements for the stents, the Nb-60Ta-2Zr alloy exhibits an optimal properties, including the χv of about 3% of the 316L SS, the E of 142GPa superior to pure niobium, high mass density of 12.03g/cm(3) favored to the X-ray visibility, yield strength of ~330MPa comparable to the 316L SS and a elongation of ~24%. These remarkable advantages make it quite promising as a new candidate of stent metals.

  19. Surface modification of single crystal LiTaO3 by H and He implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Changdong; Lu, Fei; Jin, Lei; Xu, Bo; Fan, Ranran

    2017-02-01

    Defects production and evolution in H and He ions co-implanted LiTaO3 under different implantation order (H + He and He + H) are investigated. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) are used to study the lattice damage, composition and structure change in the buried damage region. Obvious differences of ions aggregation mechanism are found in H and He implanted LiTaO3. Blistering or splitting of LiTaO3 is more easily achieved in the case where He is implanted first compared to the reverses case. Significant damage enhancement and micro-fractures are observed in samples with He preimplant. The dispersed damage in H-first sample is due to the destruction by He post-bombardment of H-clusters. This order effect indicates the strong aggregation and trapping ability of He ions and He bubbles. The effect of coimplantation parameters on the cleaving of LiTaO3 is discussed.

  20. Characterization by Small RNA Sequencing of Taro Bacilliform CH Virus (TaBCHV), a Novel Badnavirus.

    PubMed

    Kazmi, Syeda Amber; Yang, Zuokun; Hong, Ni; Wang, Guoping; Wang, Yanfen

    2015-01-01

    RNA silencing is an antiviral immunity that regulates gene expression through the production of small RNAs (sRNAs). In this study, deep sequencing of small RNAs was used to identify viruses infecting two taro plants. Blast searching identified five and nine contigs assembled from small RNAs of samples T1 and T2 matched onto the genome sequences of badnaviruses in the family Caulimoviridae. Complete genome sequences of two isolates of the badnavirus determined by sequence specific amplification comprised of 7,641 nucleotides and shared overall nucleotide similarities of 44.1%‒55.8% with other badnaviruses. Six open reading frames (ORFs) were identified on the plus strand, showed amino acid similarities ranging from 59.8% (ORF3) to 10.2% (ORF6) to the corresponding proteins encoded by other badnaviruses. Phylogenetic analysis also supports that the virus is a new member in the genus Badnavirus. The virus is tentatively named as Taro bacilliform CH virus (TaBCHV), and it is the second badnavirus infecting taro plants, following Taro bacilliform virus (TaBV). In addition, analyzes of viral derived small RNAs (vsRNAs) from TaBCHV showed that almost equivalent number of vsRNAs were generated from both strands and the most abundant vsRNAs were 21 nt, with uracil bias at 5' terminal. Furthermore, TaBCHV vsRNAs were asymmetrically distributed on its entire circular genome at both orientations with the hotspots mainly generated in the ORF5 region.