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Sample records for 7sl rna gene

  1. Alu- and 7SL RNA Analogues Suppress MCF-7 Cell Viability through Modulating the Transcription of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Genes.

    PubMed

    Baryakin, D N; Semenov, D V; Savelyeva, A V; Koval, O A; Rabinov, I V; Kuligina, E V; Richter, V A

    2013-10-01

    11% of the human genome is composed of Alu-retrotransposons, whose transcription by RNA polymerase III (Pol III) leads to the accumulation of several hundreds to thousands of Alu-RNA copies in the cytoplasm. Expression of Alu-RNA Pol III is significantly increased at various levels of stress, and the increase in the Alu-RNA level is accompanied by a suppression of proliferation, a decrease in viability, and induction of apoptotic processes in human cells. However, the question about the biological functions of Pol III Alu-transcripts, as well as their mechanism of action, remains open. In this work, analogues of Alu-RNA and its evolutionary ancestor, 7SL RNA, were synthesized. Transfection of human breast adenocarcinoma MCF-7 cells with the Alu-RNA and 7SL RNA analogues is accompanied by a decrease in viability and by induction of proapoptotic changes in these cells. The analysis of the combined action of these analogues and actinomycin D or tamoxifen revealed that the decreased viability of MCF-7 cells transfected with Alu-RNA and 7SL RNA was due to the modulation of transcription. A whole transcriptome analysis of gene expression revealed that increased gene expression of the transcription regulator NUPR1 (p8), as well as the transcription factor DDIT3 (CHOP), occurs under the action of both the Alu- and 7SL RNA analogues on MCF-7 cells. It has been concluded that induction of proapoptotic changes in human cells under the influence of the Alu-RNA and 7SL RNA analogues is related to the transcriptional activation of the genes of cellular stress factors, including the endoplasmic reticulum stress response factors.

  2. Tumor FOXP3 represses the expression of long noncoding RNA 7SL.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanhui; Cheng, Jingli; Ren, Huizhu; Zhao, Hui; Gong, Wei; Shan, Chunyan

    2016-04-01

    The long noncoding RNA 7SL was over-expressed in tumor cells to promote cell growth through repressing translation of P53. However, the regulatory mechanism of 7SL remains to be defined. FOXP3 was identified as a suppressor in several tumors in addition to be a marker of regulatory T cells. In this study, we detected that over-expression of FOXP3 repressed the transcription of 7SL RNA and contributed to inhibiting tumor growth. Knock down of FOXP3 in MCF-10A normal mammary breast cells up-regulated the transcription of 7SL RNA. Chromatin Immuno-precipitation (ChIP) analysis showed that FOXP3 directly bound to the Forkhead/HNF-3 domain DNA binding sites (-789 to -795) relative to the transcription start site. Meanwhile, Luciferase analysis showed that FOXP3 repressed the full-length 7SL promoter activity, but this suppressive effect was reversed after mutation of the FOXP3 binding site. Further studies showed that FOXP3 promoted the expression of P53 at translational levels through repressing 7SL RNA. In conclusion, this study suggests that 7SL RNA is a direct target of FOXP3 and may be involved in the formation of FOXP3/P53 feedback loop. PMID:26718402

  3. Rapid Diagnosis of Old World Leishmaniasis by High-Resolution Melting Analysis of the 7SL RNA Gene▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Nasereddin, Abedelmajeed; Jaffe, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution melt analysis PCR (HRM PCR) for diagnosis of Old World Leishmania was developed using the 7SL RNA gene. Cutaneous leishmaniasis samples were analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity of HRM PCR were significantly better (P < 0.001) than those of internal transcribed spacer 1 PCR and similar to those of kinetoplast DNA PCR. PMID:20392923

  4. Identification of an essential Schizosaccharomyces pombe RNA homologous to the 7SL component of signal recognition particle

    SciTech Connect

    Brennwald, P.; Liao, X.; Holm, K.; Porter, G.; Wise, J.A.

    1988-04-01

    The authors have cloned the gene encoding a novel small cytoplasmic RNA from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Four lines of evidence support the idea that this RNA is a homolog of the 7SL RNA component of mammalian signal recognition particle (SRP), which targets presecretory proteins to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. First, it shares limited but significant primary sequence homology with previously identified 7SL RNAs and can be folded into a similar secondary structure. Second, it possesses the 5' triphosphate characteristic of unprocessed RNA polymerase III transcripts, and moreover, it is the only fission yeast RNA in this size range with such a terminus. Third, its behavior in cell fractionation experiments suggests that it is part of a small ribonucleoprotein which forms salt-labile contacts with larger structures. Fourth, the particle containing S.pombe 7SLRNA resembles mammalian SRP in both size (11S) and affinity for DEAE-Sepharose. Disruption of the single-copy gene, designated slrl/sup +/, reveals that the RNA is indispensable for growth in fission yeast. This result is not surprising, since secretion is an essential cellular process.

  5. RNA splicing and genes

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, P.A.

    1988-11-25

    The splicing of long transcripts RNA (copied from DNA in the cell nucleus) into smaller specific mRNA is an important event in the regulation of gene expression in eukaryotic cells. The splicing reaction occurs as a late step in the nuclear pathway for synthesis of mRNAs. This pathway commences with initiation of transcription by RNA polymerase II and probably involves an integrated series of steps each dependent on previous events. Splicing of precursors to mRNAs involves the formation of a spliceosome complex containing 5' and 3' splice sites. This complex contains the evolutionary highly conserved small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) Us, U4, U5, and U6. The most abundant snRNA, U1, is required to form the spliceosome and may be a part of the spliceosome. Analogues of these snRNAs have been identified in yeast. Assembly of the spliceosome probably involves the binding of a multi-snRNA complex containing U4, U5, and U6 snRNAs. Several observations suggest that the association of snRNAs in such complexes is quite dynamic. It is argued that the snRANs in the spliceosome form a catalytic RNA structure that is responsible for the cleavage and ligation steps during splicing.

  6. A New Class of SINEs with snRNA Gene-Derived Heads.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kenji K

    2015-05-27

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by various transposons including short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 5' region (head) of the majority of SINEs is derived from one of the three types of RNA genes--7SL RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), or 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)--and the internal promoter inside the head promotes the transcription of the entire SINEs. Here I report a new group of SINEs whose heads originate from either the U1 or U2 small nuclear RNA gene. These SINEs, named SINEU, are distributed among crocodilians and classified into three families. The structures of the SINEU-1 subfamilies indicate the recurrent addition of a U1- or U2-derived sequence onto the 5' end of SINEU-1 elements. SINEU-1 and SINEU-3 are ancient and shared among alligators, crocodiles, and gharials, while SINEU-2 is absent in the alligator genome. SINEU-2 is the only SINE family that was active after the split of crocodiles and gharials. All SINEU families, especially SINEU-3, are preferentially inserted into a family of Mariner DNA transposon, Mariner-N4_AMi. A group of Tx1 non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons designated Tx1-Mar also show target preference for Mariner-N4_AMi, indicating that SINEU was mobilized by Tx1-Mar.

  7. A New Class of SINEs with snRNA Gene-Derived Heads.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Kenji K

    2015-06-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by various transposons including short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 5' region (head) of the majority of SINEs is derived from one of the three types of RNA genes--7SL RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), or 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)--and the internal promoter inside the head promotes the transcription of the entire SINEs. Here I report a new group of SINEs whose heads originate from either the U1 or U2 small nuclear RNA gene. These SINEs, named SINEU, are distributed among crocodilians and classified into three families. The structures of the SINEU-1 subfamilies indicate the recurrent addition of a U1- or U2-derived sequence onto the 5' end of SINEU-1 elements. SINEU-1 and SINEU-3 are ancient and shared among alligators, crocodiles, and gharials, while SINEU-2 is absent in the alligator genome. SINEU-2 is the only SINE family that was active after the split of crocodiles and gharials. All SINEU families, especially SINEU-3, are preferentially inserted into a family of Mariner DNA transposon, Mariner-N4_AMi. A group of Tx1 non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons designated Tx1-Mar also show target preference for Mariner-N4_AMi, indicating that SINEU was mobilized by Tx1-Mar. PMID:26019167

  8. RNA-mediated gene activation

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Alan L; Slack, Frank J

    2014-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression by non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) has become a new paradigm in biology. RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways have been studied extensively, revealing diverse epigenetic and posttranscriptional mechanisms. In contrast, the roles of ncRNAs in activating gene expression remains poorly understood. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge of gene activation by small RNAs, long non-coding RNAs, and enhancer-derived RNAs, with an emphasis on epigenetic mechanisms. PMID:24185374

  9. A New Class of SINEs with snRNA Gene-Derived Heads

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Kenji K.

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by various transposons including short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 5′ region (head) of the majority of SINEs is derived from one of the three types of RNA genes—7SL RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), or 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)—and the internal promoter inside the head promotes the transcription of the entire SINEs. Here I report a new group of SINEs whose heads originate from either the U1 or U2 small nuclear RNA gene. These SINEs, named SINEU, are distributed among crocodilians and classified into three families. The structures of the SINEU-1 subfamilies indicate the recurrent addition of a U1- or U2-derived sequence onto the 5′ end of SINEU-1 elements. SINEU-1 and SINEU-3 are ancient and shared among alligators, crocodiles, and gharials, while SINEU-2 is absent in the alligator genome. SINEU-2 is the only SINE family that was active after the split of crocodiles and gharials. All SINEU families, especially SINEU-3, are preferentially inserted into a family of Mariner DNA transposon, Mariner-N4_AMi. A group of Tx1 non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons designated Tx1-Mar also show target preference for Mariner-N4_AMi, indicating that SINEU was mobilized by Tx1-Mar. PMID:26019167

  10. Chicken rRNA Gene Cluster Structure

    PubMed Central

    Dyomin, Alexander G.; Koshel, Elena I.; Kiselev, Artem M.; Saifitdinova, Alsu F.; Galkina, Svetlana A.; Fukagawa, Tatsuo; Kostareva, Anna A.

    2016-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, whose activity results in nucleolus formation, constitute an extremely important part of genome. Despite the extensive exploration into avian genomes, no complete description of avian rRNA gene primary structure has been offered so far. We publish a complete chicken rRNA gene cluster sequence here, including 5’ETS (1836 bp), 18S rRNA gene (1823 bp), ITS1 (2530 bp), 5.8S rRNA gene (157 bp), ITS2 (733 bp), 28S rRNA gene (4441 bp) and 3’ETS (343 bp). The rRNA gene cluster sequence of 11863 bp was assembled from raw reads and deposited to GenBank under KT445934 accession number. The assembly was validated through in situ fluorescent hybridization analysis on chicken metaphase chromosomes using computed and synthesized specific probes, as well as through the reference assembly against de novo assembled rRNA gene cluster sequence using sequenced fragments of BAC-clone containing chicken NOR (nucleolus organizer region). The results have confirmed the chicken rRNA gene cluster validity. PMID:27299357

  11. Mitochondrial RNA granules: Compartmentalizing mitochondrial gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, Alexis A.; Boehm, Erik; Maundrell, Kinsey

    2016-01-01

    In mitochondria, DNA replication, gene expression, and RNA degradation machineries coexist within a common nondelimited space, raising the question of how functional compartmentalization of gene expression is achieved. Here, we discuss the recently characterized “mitochondrial RNA granules,” mitochondrial subdomains with an emerging role in the regulation of gene expression. PMID:26953349

  12. The RNA gene information: retroelement-microRNA entangling as the RNA quantum code.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoichi Robertus

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) and retroelements may be a master of regulator in our life, which are evolutionally involved in the origin of species. To support the Darwinism from the aspect of molecular evolution process, it has tremendously been interested in the molecular information of naive RNA. The RNA wave model 2000 consists of four concepts that have altered from original idea of the miRNA genes for crosstalk among embryonic stem cells, their niche cells, and retroelements as a carrier vesicle of the RNA genes. (1) the miRNA gene as a mobile genetic element induces transcriptional and posttranscriptional silencing via networking-processes (no hierarchical architecture); (2) the RNA information supplied by the miRNA genes expands to intracellular, intercellular, intraorgan, interorgan, intraspecies, and interspecies under the cycle of life into the global environment; (3) the mobile miRNAs can self-proliferate; and (4) cells contain two types information as resident and genomic miRNAs. Based on RNA wave, we have developed an interest in investigation of the transformation from RNA information to quantum bits as physicochemical characters of RNA with the measurement of RNA electron spin. When it would have been given that the fundamental bases for the acquired characters in genetics can be controlled by RNA gene information, it may be available to apply for challenging against RNA gene diseases, such as stress-induced diseases.

  13. Gene expression: RNA interference in adult mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaffrey, Anton P.; Meuse, Leonard; Pham, Thu-Thao T.; Conklin, Douglas S.; Hannon, Gregory J.; Kay, Mark A.

    2002-07-01

    RNA interference is an evolutionarily conserved surveillance mechanism that responds to double-stranded RNA by sequence-specific silencing of homologous genes. Here we show that transgene expression can be suppressed in adult mice by synthetic small interfering RNAs and by small-hairpin RNAs transcribed in vivo from DNA templates. We also show the therapeutic potential of this technique by demonstrating effective targeting of a sequence from hepatitis C virus by RNA interference in vivo.

  14. Computational prediction of microRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Hertel, Jana; Langenberger, David; Stadler, Peter F

    2014-01-01

    The computational identification of novel microRNA (miRNA) genes is a challenging task in bioinformatics. Massive amounts of data describing unknown functional RNA transcripts have to be analyzed for putative miRNA candidates with automated computational pipelines. Beyond those miRNAs that meet the classical definition, high-throughput sequencing techniques have revealed additional miRNA-like molecules that are derived by alternative biogenesis pathways. Exhaustive bioinformatics analyses on such data involve statistical issues as well as precise sequence and structure inspection not only of the functional mature part but also of the whole precursor sequence of the putative miRNA. Apart from a considerable amount of species-specific miRNAs, the majority of all those genes are conserved at least among closely related organisms. Some miRNAs, however, can be traced back to very early points in the evolution of eukaryotic species. Thus, the investigation of the conservation of newly found miRNA candidates comprises an important step in the computational annotation of miRNAs.Topics covered in this chapter include a review on the obvious problem of miRNA annotation and family definition, recommended pipelines of computational miRNA annotation or detection, and an overview of current computer tools for the prediction of miRNAs and their limitations. The chapter closes discussing how those bioinformatic approaches address the problem of faithful miRNA prediction and correct annotation. PMID:24639171

  15. MIGS: miRNA-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Felippes, Felipe Fenselau de; Wang, Jia-wei; Weigel, Detlef

    2012-05-01

    Gene silencing is an important tool in the study of gene function. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and hairpin RNA interference (hpRNAi), both of which rely on small interfering RNAs, together with artificial microRNAs (amiRNA), are amongst the most popular methods for reduction of gene activity in plants. However, all three approaches have limitations. Here, we introduce miRNA-induced gene silencing (MIGS). This method exploits a special 22-nucleotide miRNA of Arabidopsis thaliana, miR173, which can trigger production of another class of small RNAs called trans-acting small interfering RNAs (tasiRNAs). We show that fusion of gene fragments to an upstream miR173 target site is sufficient for effective silencing of the corresponding endogenous gene. MIGS can be reliably used for the knockdown of a single gene or of multiple unrelated genes. In addition, we show that MIGS can be applied to other species by co-expression of miR173.

  16. Traffic at the tmRNA Gene

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kelly P.

    2003-01-01

    A partial screen for genetic elements integrated into completely sequenced bacterial genomes shows more significant bias in specificity for the tmRNA gene (ssrA) than for any type of tRNA gene. Horizontal gene transfer, a major avenue of bacterial evolution, was assessed by focusing on elements using this single attachment locus. Diverse elements use ssrA; among enterobacteria alone, at least four different integrase subfamilies have independently evolved specificity for ssrA, and almost every strain analyzed presents a unique set of integrated elements. Even elements using essentially the same integrase can be very diverse, as is a group with an ssrA-specific integrase of the P4 subfamily. This same integrase appears to promote damage routinely at attachment sites, which may be adaptive. Elements in arrays can recombine; one such event mediated by invertible DNA segments within neighboring elements likely explains the monophasic nature of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. One of a limited set of conserved sequences occurs at the attachment site of each enterobacterial element, apparently serving as a transcriptional terminator for ssrA. Elements were usually found integrated into tRNA-like sequence at the 3′ end of ssrA, at subsites corresponding to those used in tRNA genes; an exception was found at the non-tRNA-like 3′ end produced by ssrA gene permutation in cyanobacteria, suggesting that, during the evolution of new site specificity by integrases, tropism toward a conserved 3′ end of an RNA gene may be as strong as toward a tRNA-like sequence. The proximity of ssrA and smpB, which act in concert, was also surveyed. PMID:12533482

  17. RNA polymerase gene, microorganism having said gene and the production of RNA polymerase by the use of said microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Kotani, Hirokazu; Hiraoka, Nobutsugu; Obayashi, Akira

    1991-01-01

    SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase is produced by cultivating a new microorganism (particularly new strains of Escherichia coli) harboring a plasmid that carries SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase gene and recovering SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase from the culture broth. SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase gene is provided as are new microorganisms harboring a plasmid that carries SP6 bacteriophage RNA polymerase gene.

  18. Two sequence classes of kinetoplastid 5S ribosomal RNA gene revealed among bodonid spliced leader RNA gene arrays.

    PubMed

    Santana, D M; Lukes, J; Sturm, N R; Campbell, D A

    2001-11-13

    The spliced leader RNA genes of Bodo saltans, Cryptobia helicis and Dimastigella trypaniformis were analyzed as molecular markers for additional taxa within the suborder Bodonina. The non-transcribed spacer regions were distinctive for each organism, and 5S rRNA genes were present in Bodo and Dimastigella but not in C. helicis. Two sequence classes of 5S rRNA were evident from analysis of the bodonid genes. The two classes of 5S rRNA genes were found in other Kinetoplastids independent of co-localization with the spliced leader RNA gene.

  19. Methylation of miRNA genes and oncogenesis.

    PubMed

    Loginov, V I; Rykov, S V; Fridman, M V; Braga, E A

    2015-02-01

    Interaction between microRNA (miRNA) and messenger RNA of target genes at the posttranscriptional level provides fine-tuned dynamic regulation of cell signaling pathways. Each miRNA can be involved in regulating hundreds of protein-coding genes, and, conversely, a number of different miRNAs usually target a structural gene. Epigenetic gene inactivation associated with methylation of promoter CpG-islands is common to both protein-coding genes and miRNA genes. Here, data on functions of miRNAs in development of tumor-cell phenotype are reviewed. Genomic organization of promoter CpG-islands of the miRNA genes located in inter- and intragenic areas is discussed. The literature and our own results on frequency of CpG-island methylation in miRNA genes from tumors are summarized, and data regarding a link between such modification and changed activity of miRNA genes and, consequently, protein-coding target genes are presented. Moreover, the impact of miRNA gene methylation on key oncogenetic processes as well as affected signaling pathways is discussed.

  20. Gene silencing in Caenorhabditis elegans by transitive RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    ALDER, MATTHEW N.; DAMES, SHALE; GAUDET, JEFFREY; MANGO, SUSAN E.

    2003-01-01

    When a cell is exposed to double-stranded RNA (dsRNA), mRNA from the homologous gene is selectively degraded by a process called RNA interference (RNAi). Here, we provide evidence that dsRNA is amplified in Caenorhabditis elegans to ensure a robust RNAi response. Our data suggest a model in which mRNA targeted by RNAi functions as a template for 5′ to 3′ synthesis of new dsRNA (termed transitive RNAi). Strikingly, the effect is nonautonomous: dsRNA targeted to a gene expressed in one cell type can lead to transitive RNAi-mediated silencing of a second gene expressed in a distinct cell type. These data suggest dsRNA synthesized in vivo can mediate systemic RNAi. PMID:12554873

  1. Inhibitory effect of modified 5'-capped short RNA fragments on influenza virus RNA polymerase gene expression.

    PubMed

    Tado, M; Abe, T; Hatta, T; Ishikawa, M; Nakada, S; Yokota, T; Takaku, H

    2001-11-01

    We have shown previously that the 5'-capped short phosphodiester RNA fragments, Cap decoy, (Gm 12 nt) are potent inhibitors of influenza virus RNA polymerase gene expression. Here we investigate the modified capped RNA derivative containing phosphorothioate oligonucleotides (Cap decoy) as a potential influenza virus RNA polymerase inhibitor. The modified 5'-capped short phosphorothioate RNA fragments (Gms 12-15 nt) with the 5'-capped structure (m7GpppGm) were synthesized by T7 RNA polymerase. The 5'-capped short RNA fragments (Gms 12-15 nt) were encapsulated in liposome particulates and tested for their inhibitory effects on influenza virus RNA polymerase gene expression in the clone 76 cells. The 12-15 nt long Gms RNA fragments showed highly inhibitory effects. By contrast, the inhibitory effects of the 13 nt long short RNA fragments (Gm 13 nt) were considerably less in comparison with the 5'-capped short phosphorothioate RNA fragments (Gms 12-15 nt). In particular, the various Gms RNA chain lengths showed no significant differences in the inhibition of influenza virus RNA polymerase gene expression. Furthermore, the capped RNA with a phosphorothioate backbone was resistant to nuclease activity. These phosphorothioate RNA fragments exhibited higher inhibitory activity than the 5'-capped short RNA fragments (Gm 12 nt). These decoys may prove to be useful in anti-influenza virus therapeutics. PMID:12018680

  2. Evolution of small guide RNA genes in hyperthermophilic archaea.

    PubMed

    Randau, Lennart

    2015-04-01

    Profiling the RNA production in hyperthermophilic archaea revealed an abundance of small RNA-guided processes near the upper temperature limit of life. Archaea utilize the base-pairing ability of RNA guide sequences to target ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, messenger RNAs, and viral genomes. Cellular processes that are guided by small RNAs include the modification of RNA molecules, trans-splicing, gene regulation, and RNA and DNA degradation. Here, a brief overview of our knowledge on small guide RNA genes in archaeal genomes is provided and examples of their putative roles in genome evolution are described.

  3. Unmasking Upstream Gene Expression Regulators with miRNA-corrected mRNA Data.

    PubMed

    Bollmann, Stephanie; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Bionaz, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Expressed micro-RNA (miRNA) affects messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance, hindering the accuracy of upstream regulator analysis. Our objective was to provide an algorithm to correct such bias. Large mRNA and miRNA analyses were performed on RNA extracted from bovine liver and mammary tissue. Using four levels of target scores from TargetScan (all miRNA:mRNA target gene pairs or only the top 25%, 50%, or 75%). Using four levels of target scores from TargetScan (all miRNA:mRNA target gene pairs or only the top 25%, 50%, or 75%) and four levels of the magnitude of miRNA effect (ME) on mRNA expression (30%, 50%, 75%, and 83% mRNA reduction), we generated 17 different datasets (including the original dataset). For each dataset, we performed upstream regulator analysis using two bioinformatics tools. We detected an increased effect on the upstream regulator analysis with larger miRNA:mRNA pair bins and higher ME. The miRNA correction allowed identification of several upstream regulators not present in the analysis of the original dataset. Thus, the proposed algorithm improved the prediction of upstream regulators.

  4. Unmasking Upstream Gene Expression Regulators with miRNA-corrected mRNA Data

    PubMed Central

    Bollmann, Stephanie; Bu, Dengpan; Wang, Jiaqi; Bionaz, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Expressed micro-RNA (miRNA) affects messenger RNA (mRNA) abundance, hindering the accuracy of upstream regulator analysis. Our objective was to provide an algorithm to correct such bias. Large mRNA and miRNA analyses were performed on RNA extracted from bovine liver and mammary tissue. Using four levels of target scores from TargetScan (all miRNA:mRNA target gene pairs or only the top 25%, 50%, or 75%). Using four levels of target scores from TargetScan (all miRNA:mRNA target gene pairs or only the top 25%, 50%, or 75%) and four levels of the magnitude of miRNA effect (ME) on mRNA expression (30%, 50%, 75%, and 83% mRNA reduction), we generated 17 different datasets (including the original dataset). For each dataset, we performed upstream regulator analysis using two bioinformatics tools. We detected an increased effect on the upstream regulator analysis with larger miRNA:mRNA pair bins and higher ME. The miRNA correction allowed identification of several upstream regulators not present in the analysis of the original dataset. Thus, the proposed algorithm improved the prediction of upstream regulators. PMID:27279737

  5. Multisubunit RNA Polymerases IV and V: Purveyors of Non-Coding RNA for Plant Gene Silencing

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, Jeremy R.; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2011-08-01

    In all eukaryotes, nuclear DNA-dependent RNA polymerases I, II and III synthesize the myriad RNAs that are essential for life. Remarkably, plants have evolved two additional multisubunit RNA polymerases, RNA polymerases IV and V, which orchestrate non-coding RNA-mediated gene silencing processes affecting development, transposon taming, antiviral defence and allelic crosstalk. Biochemical details concerning the templates and products of RNA polymerases IV and V are lacking. However, their subunit compositions reveal that they evolved as specialized forms of RNA polymerase II, which provides the unique opportunity to study the functional diversification of a eukaryotic RNA polymerase family.

  6. Extensive tRNA gene changes in synthetic Brassica napus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Lijuan; An, Zeshan; Mason, Annaliese S; Xiao, Meili; Guo, Ying; Yin, Jiaming; Li, Jiana; Fu, Donghui

    2014-01-01

    Allopolyploidization, where two species come together to form a new species, plays a major role in speciation and genome evolution. Transfer RNAs (abbreviated tRNA) are typically 73-94 nucleotides in length, and are indispensable in protein synthesis, transferring amino acids to the cell protein synthesis machinery (ribosome). To date, the regularity and function of tRNA gene sequence variation during the process of allopolyploidization have not been well understood. In this study, the inter-tRNA gene corresponding to tRNA amplification polymorphism method was used to detect changes in tRNA gene sequences in the progeny of interspecific hybrids between Brassica rapa and B. oleracea, mimicking the original B. napus (canola) species formation event. Cluster analysis showed that tRNA gene variation during allopolyploidization did not appear to have a genotypic basis. Significant variation occurred in the early generations of synthetic B. napus (F1 and F2 generations), but fewer alterations were observed in the later generation (F3). The variation-prone tRNA genes tended to be located in AT-rich regions. BlastN analysis of novel tRNA gene variants against a Brassica genome sequence database showed that the variation of these tRNA-gene-associated sequences in allopolyploidization might result in variation of gene structure and function, e.g., metabolic process and transport.

  7. Nucleotide sequence of a human tRNA gene heterocluster

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.N.; Pirtle, I.L.; Pirtle, R.M.

    1986-05-01

    Leucine tRNA from bovine liver was used as a hybridization probe to screen a human gene library harbored in Charon-4A of bacteriophage lambda. The human DNA inserts from plaque-pure clones were characterized by restriction endonuclease mapping and Southern hybridization techniques, using both (3'-/sup 32/P)-labeled bovine liver leucine tRNA and total tRNA as hybridization probes. An 8-kb Hind III fragment of one of these ..gamma..-clones was subcloned into the Hind III site of pBR322. Subsequent fine restriction mapping and DNA sequence analysis of this plasmid DNA indicated the presence of four tRNA genes within the 8-kb DNA fragment. A leucine tRNA gene with an anticodon of AAG and a proline tRNA gene with an anticodon of AGG are in a 1.6-kb subfragment. A threonine tRNA gene with an anticodon of UGU and an as yet unidentified tRNA gene are located in a 1.1-kb subfragment. These two different subfragments are separated by 2.8 kb. The coding regions of the three sequenced genes contain characteristic internal split promoter sequences and do not have intervening sequences. The 3'-flanking region of these three genes have typical RNA polymerase III termination sites of at least four consecutive T residues.

  8. Highly repetitive tRNA(Pro)-tRNA(His) gene cluster from Photobacterium phosphoreum.

    PubMed Central

    Giroux, S; Beaudet, J; Cedergren, R

    1988-01-01

    A DNA fragment comprising the four tRNA gene sequences of the Escherichia coli argT locus hybridized with two Sau3A-generated DNA fragments from the vibrio Photobacterium phosphoreum (ATCC 11040). Detailed sequence analysis of the longer fragment shows the following gene organization: 5'-promoter-tRNA(Pro)-tRNAPro-tRNA(Pro)-tRNA(His)-tRNA(Pro)-tRNA(Pro)- tRNA(His)-tRNA(Pro)-five pseudogenes derived from the upstream tRNAPro interspersed by putative Rho-independent terminators. This sequence demonstrates the presence of highly repetitive, tandem tRNA genes in a bacterial genome. Furthermore, a stretch of 304 nucleotides from this cluster was found virtually unchanged in the other (shorter) fragment which was previously sequenced. The two clusters together contain eight tRNA(Pro) pseudogenes and eight fully intact tRNA(Pro) genes, an unusually high number for a single eubacterial isoacceptor tRNA. These results show that the organization of some tRNA operons is highly variable in eubacteria. Images PMID:3056906

  9. Studies on ribosomal RNA genes of mycobacteria including M. leprae.

    PubMed

    Katoch, V M; Shivannavar, C T; Datta, A K

    1989-01-01

    Information about specific genes specially of pathogenic mycobacteria could be used to unequivocally identify isolates of mycobacteria which are of clinical interest. Both eukaryotic and prokaryotic ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes have been shown to comprise sequences which are conserved and others which are divergent. In the present study, rRNA genes from several cultivable mycobacteria including M. tuberculosis and armadillo derived M. leprae have been investigated. rRNA was isolated, made radioactive in vitro and then used to identify restriction fragments of DNA containing rRNA gene sequences. It was observed that restriction endonuclease patterns of rRNA genes are characteristic. By probing with homologous and heterologous rRNA probes, fragments hybridizing maximum with homologous probes could be identified and it appears that sequences flanking the rRNA genes are not identical. These fragments need to be further sequenced to identify the nucleotide sequences specific to rRNA gene cluster. It would also be necessary to analyse several isolates of each species including armadillo derived M. leprae before reaching any conclusions.

  10. Transcriptional regulation of mammalian miRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Schanen, Brian C.; Li, Xiaoman

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are members of a growing family of non-coding transcripts, 21-23 nucleotides long, which regulate a diverse collection of biological processes and various diseases by RNA-mediated gene-silencing mechanisms. While currently many studies focus on defining the regulatory functions of miRNAs, few are directed towards how miRNA genes are themselves transcriptionally regulated. Recent studies of miRNA transcription have elucidated RNA polymerase II as the major polymerase of miRNAs, however, little is known of the structural features of miRNA promoters, especially those of mammalian miRNAs. Here, we review the current literature regarding features conserved among miRNA promoters useful for their detection and the current novel methodologies available to enable researchers to advance our understanding of the transcriptional regulation of miRNA genes. PMID:20977933

  11. The role of RNA structure at 5' untranslated region in microRNA-mediated gene regulation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wanjun; Xu, Yuming; Xie, Xueying; Wang, Ting; Ko, Jae-Hong; Zhou, Tong

    2014-09-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the secondary structure of the 5' untranslated region (5' UTR) of messenger RNA (mRNA) is important for microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene regulation in humans. mRNAs that are targeted by miRNA tend to have a higher degree of local secondary structure in their 5' UTR; however, the general role of the 5' UTR in miRNA-mediated gene regulation remains unknown. We systematically surveyed the secondary structure of 5' UTRs in both plant and animal species and found a universal trend of increased mRNA stability near the 5' cap in mRNAs that are regulated by miRNA in animals, but not in plants. Intra-genome comparison showed that gene expression level, GC content of the 5' UTR, number of miRNA target sites, and 5' UTR length may influence mRNA structure near the 5' cap. Our results suggest that the 5' UTR secondary structure performs multiple functions in regulating post-transcriptional processes. Although the local structure immediately upstream of the start codon is involved in translation initiation, RNA structure near the 5' cap site, rather than the structure of the full-length 5' UTR sequences, plays an important role in miRNA-mediated gene regulation.

  12. Transcription factor trapping by RNA in gene regulatory elements.

    PubMed

    Sigova, Alla A; Abraham, Brian J; Ji, Xiong; Molinie, Benoit; Hannett, Nancy M; Guo, Yang Eric; Jangi, Mohini; Giallourakis, Cosmas C; Sharp, Phillip A; Young, Richard A

    2015-11-20

    Transcription factors (TFs) bind specific sequences in promoter-proximal and -distal DNA elements to regulate gene transcription. RNA is transcribed from both of these DNA elements, and some DNA binding TFs bind RNA. Hence, RNA transcribed from regulatory elements may contribute to stable TF occupancy at these sites. We show that the ubiquitously expressed TF Yin-Yang 1 (YY1) binds to both gene regulatory elements and their associated RNA species across the entire genome. Reduced transcription of regulatory elements diminishes YY1 occupancy, whereas artificial tethering of RNA enhances YY1 occupancy at these elements. We propose that RNA makes a modest but important contribution to the maintenance of certain TFs at gene regulatory elements and suggest that transcription of regulatory elements produces a positive-feedback loop that contributes to the stability of gene expression programs.

  13. RNA-Mediated Gene Silencing in Hematopoietic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Venturini, Letizia; Eder, Matthias; Scherr, Michaela

    2006-01-01

    In the past few years, the discovery of RNA-mediated gene silencing mechanisms, like RNA interference (RNAi), has revolutionized our understanding of eukaryotic gene expression. These mechanisms are activated by double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) and mediate gene silencing either by inducing the sequence-specific degradation of complementary mRNA or by inhibiting mRNA translation. RNAi now provides a powerful experimental tool to elucidate gene function in vitro and in vivo, thereby opening new exciting perspectives in the fields of molecular analysis and eventually therapy of several diseases such as infections and cancer. In hematology, numerous studies have described the successful application of RNAi to better define the role of oncogenic fusion proteins in leukemogenesis and to explore therapeutic approaches in hematological malignancies. In this review, we highlight recent advances and caveats relating to the application of this powerful new methodology to hematopoiesis. PMID:17057372

  14. A model for the topology of active ribosomal RNA genes.

    PubMed

    Denissov, Serguei; Lessard, Frédéric; Mayer, Christine; Stefanovsky, Victor; van Driel, Marc; Grummt, Ingrid; Moss, Tom; Stunnenberg, Hendrik G

    2011-03-01

    The Christmas tree view of active ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes suggests a gene topology in which a large number of nascent rRNA transcripts are prevented from intertwining. The way in which this is achieved has remained unclear. By using a combination of chromatin immunoprecipitation and chromosome conformation capture techniques, we show that the promoter, upstream region and terminator R3 of active rRNA genes are held together spatially throughout the cell cycle, forming a stable core around which the transcribed region is organized. We suggest a new core-helix model for the topology of rRNA genes, that provides a structural basis for the productive synthesis or rRNA.

  15. Self-assembled Messenger RNA Nanoparticles (mRNA-NPs) for Efficient Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyejin; Park, Yongkuk; Lee, Jong Bum

    2015-01-01

    Although mRNA has several advantages over plasmid DNA when delivered into cells for gene expression, mRNA transfection is a very rare occurrence in gene delivery. This is mainly because of the labile nature of RNA, resulting in a low expression level of the desired protein. In this study, self-assembled mRNA nanoparticles (mRNA-NPs) packed with multiple repeats of mRNA were synthesized to achieve efficient gene expression. This approach required only a one-step process to synthesize particles with a minimal amount of plasmid DNA to produce the RNA transcripts via rolling circle transcription. Moreover, there are no concerns for cytotoxicity which can be caused by chemical condensates because mRNA-NPs are made entirely of mRNA. An examination of the cells transfected with the mRNA-NPs encoding the green fluorescence protein (GFP) confirmed that the mRNA-NPs can be used as a novel platform for effective gene delivery. PMID:26235529

  16. Methylated MicroRNA Genes of the Developing Murine Palate

    PubMed Central

    Seelan, Ratnam S.; Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Warner, Dennis R.; Appana, Savitri N.; Brock, Guy N.; Pisano, M. Michele; Greene, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors contribute to the etiology of cleft palate (CP). Environmental factors can also affect gene expression via alterations in DNA methylation suggesting a possible mechanism for the induction of CP. Identification of genes methylated during development of the secondary palate provides the basis for examination of the means by which environmental factors may adversely influence palatal ontogeny. We previously characterized the methylome of the developing murine secondary palate focusing primarily on protein-encoding genes. We now extend this study to include methylated microRNA (miRNA) genes. A total of 42 miRNA genes were found to be stably methylated in developing murine palatal tissue. Twenty eight of these were localized within host genes. Gene methylation was confirmed by pyrosequencing of selected miRNA genes. Integration of methylated miRNA gene and expression datasets identified 62 miRNAs, 69% of which were non-expressed. For a majority of genes (83%), upstream CpG islands (CGIs) were highly methylated suggesting down-regulation of CGI-associated promoters. DAVID and IPA analyses indicated that both expressed and non-expressed miRNAs target identical signaling pathways and biological processes associated with palatogenesis. Furthermore, these analyses also identified novel signaling pathways whose roles in palatogenesis remain to be elucidated. In summary, we identify methylated miRNA genes in the developing murine secondary palate, correlate miRNA gene methylation with expression of their cognate miRNA transcripts, and identify pathways and biological processes potentially mediated by these miRNAs. PMID:25642850

  17. Non-functional genes repaired at the RNA level.

    PubMed

    Burger, Gertraud

    2016-01-01

    Genomes and genes continuously evolve. Gene sequences undergo substitutions, deletions or nucleotide insertions; mobile genetic elements invade genomes and interleave in genes; chromosomes break, even within genes, and pieces reseal in reshuffled order. To maintain functional gene products and assure an organism's survival, two principal strategies are used - either repair of the gene itself or of its product. I will introduce common types of gene aberrations and how gene function is restored secondarily, and then focus on systematically fragmented genes found in a poorly studied protist group, the diplonemids. Expression of their broken genes involves restitching of pieces at the RNA-level, and substantial RNA editing, to compensate for point mutations. I will conclude with thoughts on how such a grotesquely unorthodox system may have evolved, and why this group of organisms persists and thrives since tens of millions of years.

  18. The Selenocysteine tRNA Gene in Leishmania major Is Transcribed by both RNA Polymerase II and RNA Polymerase III

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Mejía, Norma E.; Florencio-Martínez, Luis E.; Moreno-Campos, Rodrigo; Vizuet-de-Rueda, Juan C.; Cevallos, Ana M.; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Manning-Cela, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    Eukaryotic tRNAs, transcribed by RNA polymerase III (Pol III), contain boxes A and B as internal promoter elements. One exception is the selenocysteine (Sec) tRNA (tRNA-Sec), whose transcription is directed by an internal box B and three extragenic sequences in vertebrates. Here we report on the transcriptional analysis of the tRNA-Sec gene in the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. This organism has unusual mechanisms of gene expression, including Pol II polycistronic transcription and maturation of mRNAs by trans splicing, a process that attaches a 39-nucleotide miniexon to the 5′ end of all the mRNAs. In L. major, tRNA-Sec is encoded by a single gene inserted into a Pol II polycistronic unit, in contrast to most tRNAs, which are clustered at the boundaries of polycistronic units. 5′ rapid amplification of cDNA ends and reverse transcription-PCR experiments showed that some tRNA-Sec transcripts contain the miniexon at the 5′ end and a poly(A) tail at the 3′ end, indicating that the tRNA-Sec gene is polycistronically transcribed by Pol II and processed by trans splicing and polyadenylation, as was recently reported for the tRNA-Sec genes in the related parasite Trypanosoma brucei. However, nuclear run-on assays with RNA polymerase inhibitors and with cells that were previously UV irradiated showed that the tRNA-Sec gene in L. major is also transcribed by Pol III. Thus, our results indicate that RNA polymerase specificity in Leishmania is not absolute in vivo, as has recently been found in other eukaryotes. PMID:25548151

  19. Silencing structural and nonstructural genes in baculovirus by RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Flores-Jasso, C Fabian; Valdes, Victor Julian; Sampieri, Alicia; Valadez-Graham, Viviana; Recillas-Targa, Felix; Vaca, Luis

    2004-06-01

    We review several aspects of RNAi and gene silencing with baculovirus. We show that the potency of RNAi in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf21) insect cells correlates well with the efficiency of transfection of the siRNA. Using a fluorescein-labeled siRNA we found that the siRNA localized in areas surrounding the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Both long (700 nucleotides long) and small ( approximately 25 nucleotides long) interfering RNAs were equally effective in initiating RNA interference (RNAi), and the duration of the interfering effect was indistinguishable. Even though RNAi in Sf21 cells is very effective, in vitro experiments show that these cells fragment the long dsRNA into siRNA poorly, when compared to HEK cells. Finally, we show that in vivo inhibition of baculovirus infection with dsRNA homologous to genes that are essential for baculovirus infectivity depends strongly on the amount of dsRNA used in the assays. Five hundred nanogram of dsRNA directly injected into the haemolymph of insects prevent animal death to over 95%. In control experiments, over 96% of insects not injected with dsRNA or injected with an irrelevant dsRNA died within a week. These results demonstrate the efficiency of dsRNA for in vivo prevention of a viral infection by virus that is very cytotoxic and lytic in animals.

  20. An alanine tRNA gene cluster from Nephila clavipes.

    PubMed

    Luciano, E; Candelas, G C

    1996-06-01

    We report the sequence of a 2.3-kb genomic DNA fragment from the orb-web spider, Nephila clavipes (Nc). The fragment contains four regions of high homology to tRNA(Ala). The members of this irregularly spaced cluster of genes are oriented in the same direction and have the same anticodon (GCA), but their sequence differs at several positions. Initiation and termination signals, as well as consensus intragenic promoter sequences characteristic of tRNA genes, have been identified in all genes. tRNA(Ala) are involved in the regulation of the fibroin synthesis in the large ampullate Nc glands.

  1. Computational Design of Artificial RNA Molecules for Gene Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Laganà, Alessandro; Veneziano, Dario; Russo, Francesco; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Giugno, Rosalba; Croce, Carlo Maria; Ferro, Alfredo

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for the regulation of gene expression. Small exogenous noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs) such as siRNA and shRNA are the active silencing agents, intended to target and cleave complementary mRNAs in a specific way. They are widely and successfully employed in functional studies, and several ongoing and already completed siRNA-based clinical trials suggest encouraging results in the regulation of overexpressed genes in disease. siRNAs share many aspects of their biogenesis and function with miRNAs, small ncRNA molecules transcribed from endogenous genes which are able to repress the expression of target mRNAs by either inhibiting their translation or promoting their degradation. Although siRNA and artificial miRNA molecules can significantly reduce the expression of overexpressed target genes, cancer and other diseases can also be triggered or sustained by upregulated miRNAs. Thus, in the past recent years, molecular tools for miRNA silencing, such as antagomiRs and miRNA sponges, have been developed. These molecules have shown their efficacy in the derepression of genes downregulated by overexpressed miRNAs. In particular, while a single antagomiR is able to inhibit a single complementary miRNA, an artificial sponge construct usually contains one or more binding sites for one or more miRNAs and functions by competing with the natural targets of these miRNAs. As a consequence, natural miRNA targets are reexpressed at their physiological level. In this chapter we review the most successful methods for the computational design of siRNAs, antagomiRs, and miRNA sponges and describe the most popular tools that implement them. PMID:25577393

  2. Spliced synthetic genes as internal controls in RNA sequencing experiments.

    PubMed

    Hardwick, Simon A; Chen, Wendy Y; Wong, Ted; Deveson, Ira W; Blackburn, James; Andersen, Stacey B; Nielsen, Lars K; Mattick, John S; Mercer, Tim R

    2016-09-01

    RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) can be used to assemble spliced isoforms, quantify expressed genes and provide a global profile of the transcriptome. However, the size and diversity of the transcriptome, the wide dynamic range in gene expression and inherent technical biases confound RNA-seq analysis. We have developed a set of spike-in RNA standards, termed 'sequins' (sequencing spike-ins), that represent full-length spliced mRNA isoforms. Sequins have an entirely artificial sequence with no homology to natural reference genomes, but they align to gene loci encoded on an artificial in silico chromosome. The combination of multiple sequins across a range of concentrations emulates alternative splicing and differential gene expression, and it provides scaling factors for normalization between samples. We demonstrate the use of sequins in RNA-seq experiments to measure sample-specific biases and determine the limits of reliable transcript assembly and quantification in accompanying human RNA samples. In addition, we have designed a complementary set of sequins that represent fusion genes arising from rearrangements of the in silico chromosome to aid in cancer diagnosis. RNA sequins provide a qualitative and quantitative reference with which to navigate the complexity of the human transcriptome. PMID:27502218

  3. Regulation of miRNA Processing and miRNA Mediated Gene Repression in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bajan, Sarah; Hutvagner, Gyorgy

    2014-01-01

    The majority of human protein-coding genes are predicted to be targets of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation. The widespread influence of miRNAs is illustrated by their essential roles in all biological processes. Regulated miRNA expression is essential for maintaining cellular differentiation; therefore alterations in miRNA expression patterns are associated with several diseases, including various cancers. High-throughput sequencing technologies revealed low level expressing miRNA isoforms, termed isomiRs. IsomiRs may differ in sequence, length, target preference and expression patterns from their parental miRNA and can arise from differences in miRNA biosynthesis, RNA editing, or SNPs inherent to the miRNA gene. The association between isomiR expression and disease progression is largely unknown. Misregulated miRNA expression is thought to contribute to the formation and/or progression of cancer. However, due to the diversity of targeted transcripts, miRNAs can function as both tumor-suppressor genes and oncogenes as defined by cellular context. Despite this, miRNA profiling studies concluded that the differential expression of particular miRNAs in diseased tissue could aid the diagnosis and treatment of some cancers. PMID:25069508

  4. The theory of RNA-mediated gene evolution

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Kevin V

    2015-01-01

    Observations over the last decade suggest that some RNA transcripts, such as non-coding RNAs, function in regulating the transcriptional and epigenetic state of gene expression. DNA methylation appears to be operative in non-coding RNA regulation of gene expression. Interestingly, methylated cytosines undergo deamination to remove the methylation, which if not properly repaired results in the methylated cytosine being recognized by the cell as a thymine. This observation suggests that the process of non-coding RNA-directed epigenetic targeting also has the potential to alter the genomic landscape of the cell by changing cytosines to thymines and ultimately influence the evolution of the cell. This proposed theory of “RNA-mediated gene evolution” might be one possible mechanism of action whereby RNA participates in the natural selective process to drive cellular and possibly organismal evolution. PMID:25581873

  5. Upregulating endogenous genes by an RNA-programmable artificial transactivator

    PubMed Central

    Fimiani, Cristina; Goina, Elisa; Mallamaci, Antonello

    2015-01-01

    To promote expression of endogenous genes ad libitum, we developed a novel, programmable transcription factor prototype. Kept together via an MS2 coat protein/RNA interface, it includes a fixed, polypeptidic transactivating domain and a variable RNA domain that recognizes the desired gene. Thanks to this device, we specifically upregulated five genes, in cell lines and primary cultures of murine pallial precursors. Gene upregulation was small, however sufficient to robustly inhibit neuronal differentiation. The transactivator interacted with target gene chromatin via its RNA cofactor. Its activity was restricted to cells in which the target gene is normally transcribed. Our device might be useful for specific applications. However for this purpose, it will require an improvement of its transactivation power as well as a better characterization of its target specificity and mechanism of action. PMID:26152305

  6. Amber, ochre and opal suppressor tRNA genes derived from a human serine tRNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Capone, J P; Sharp, P A; RajBhandary, U L

    1985-01-01

    Amber, ochre and opal suppressor tRNA genes have been generated by using oligonucleotide directed site-specific mutagenesis to change one or two nucleotides in a human serine tRNA gene. The amber and ochre suppressor (Su+) tRNA genes are efficiently expressed in CV-1 cells when introduced as part of a SV40 recombinant. The expressed amber and ochre Su+ tRNAs are functional as suppressors as demonstrated by readthrough of the amber codon which terminates the NS1 gene of an influenza virus or the ochre codon which terminates the hexon gene of adenovirus, respectively. Interestingly, several attempts to obtain the equivalent virus stock of an SV40 recombinant containing the opal suppressor tRNA gene yielded virus lacking the opal suppressor tRNA gene. This suggests that expression of an efficient opal suppressor derived from a human serine tRNA gene is highly detrimental to either cellular or viral processes. Images Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2990894

  7. RNA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darnell, James E., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Ribonucleic acid (RNA) converts genetic information into protein and usually must be processed to serve its function. RNA types, chemical structure, protein synthesis, translation, manufacture, and processing are discussed. Concludes that the first genes might have been spliced RNA and that humans might be closer than bacteria to primitive…

  8. Integrated gene set analysis for microRNA studies

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Garcia, Francisco; Panadero, Joaquin; Dopazo, Joaquin; Montaner, David

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: Functional interpretation of miRNA expression data is currently done in a three step procedure: select differentially expressed miRNAs, find their target genes, and carry out gene set overrepresentation analysis. Nevertheless, major limitations of this approach have already been described at the gene level, while some newer arise in the miRNA scenario. Here, we propose an enhanced methodology that builds on the well-established gene set analysis paradigm. Evidence for differential expression at the miRNA level is transferred to a gene differential inhibition score which is easily interpretable in terms of gene sets or pathways. Such transferred indexes account for the additive effect of several miRNAs targeting the same gene, and also incorporate cancellation effects between cases and controls. Together, these two desirable characteristics allow for more accurate modeling of regulatory processes. Results: We analyze high-throughput sequencing data from 20 different cancer types and provide exhaustive reports of gene and Gene Ontology-term deregulation by miRNA action. Availability and Implementation: The proposed methodology was implemented in the Bioconductor library mdgsa. http://bioconductor.org/packages/mdgsa. For the purpose of reproducibility all of the scripts are available at https://github.com/dmontaner-papers/gsa4mirna Contact: david.montaner@gmail.com Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27324197

  9. Antisense RNA suppression of peroxidase gene expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lagrimini, L.M.; Bradford, S.; De Leon, F.D. )

    1989-04-01

    The 5{prime} half the anionic peroxidase cDNA of tobacco was inserted into a CaMV 35S promoter/terminator expression cassette in the antisense configuration. This was inserted into the Agrobacterium-mediated plant transformation vector pCIBIO which includes kanamycin selection, transformed into two species of tobacco (N. tabacum and M. sylvestris), and plants were subsequently regenerated on kanamycin. Transgenic plants were analyzed for peroxidase expression and found to have 3-5 fold lower levels of peroxidase than wild-type plants. Isoelectric focusing demonstrated that the antisense RNA only suppressed the anionic peroxidase. Wound-induced peroxidase expression was found not to be affected by the antisense RNA. Northern blots show a greater than 5 fold suppression of anionic peroxidase mRNA in leaf tissue, and the antisense RNA was expressed at a level 2 fold over the endogenous mRNA. Plants were self-pollinated and F1 plants showed normal segregation. N. sylvestris transgenic plants with the lowest level of peroxidase are epinastic, and preliminary results indicate elevated auxin levels. Excised pith tissue from both species of transgenic plants rapidly collapse when exposed to air, while pith tissue from wild-type plants showed little change when exposed to air. Further characterization of these phenotypes is currently being made.

  10. Comparative analysis of dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes reveals rRNA and tRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Barbrook, Adrian C; Santucci, Nicole; Plenderleith, Lindsey J; Hiller, Roger G; Howe, Christopher J

    2006-01-01

    Background Peridinin-containing dinoflagellates have a highly reduced chloroplast genome, which is unlike that found in other chloroplast containing organisms. Genome reduction appears to be the result of extensive transfer of genes to the nuclear genome. Unusually the genes believed to be remaining in the chloroplast genome are found on small DNA 'minicircles'. In this study we present a comparison of sets of minicircle sequences from three dinoflagellate species. Results PCR was used to amplify several minicircles from Amphidinium carterae so that a homologous set of gene-containing minicircles was available for Amphidinium carterae and Amphidinium operculatum, two apparently closely related peridinin-containing dinoflagellates. We compared the sequences of these minicircles to determine the content and characteristics of their chloroplast genomes. We also made comparisons with minicircles which had been obtained from Heterocapsa triquetra, another peridinin-containing dinoflagellate. These in silico comparisons have revealed several genetic features which were not apparent in single species analyses. The features include further protein coding genes, unusual rRNA genes, which we show are transcribed, and the first examples of tRNA genes from peridinin-containing dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes. Conclusion Comparative analysis of minicircle sequences has allowed us to identify previously unrecognised features of dinoflagellate chloroplast genomes, including additional protein and RNA genes. The chloroplast rRNA gene sequences are radically different from those in other organisms, and in many ways resemble the rRNA genes found in some highly reduced mitochondrial genomes. The retention of certain tRNA genes in the dinoflagellate chloroplast genome has important implications for models of chloroplast-mitochondrion interaction. PMID:17123435

  11. mRNA modifications: Dynamic regulators of gene expression?

    PubMed Central

    Hoernes, Thomas Philipp; Hüttenhofer, Alexander; Erlacher, Matthias David

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The expression of a gene is a tightly regulated process and is exerted by a myriad of different mechanisms. Recently, RNA modifications located in coding sequences of mRNAs, have been identified as potential regulators of gene expression. N6-methyladenosine (m6A), 5-methylcytosine (m5C), pseudouridine (Ψ) and N1-methyladenosine (m1A) have been found within open reading frames of mRNAs. The presence of these mRNA modifications has been implicated to modulate the fate of an mRNA, ranging from maturation to its translation and even degradation. However, many aspects concerning the biological functions of mRNA modifications remain elusive. Recently, systematic in vitro studies allowed a first glimpse of the direct interplay of mRNA modifications and the efficiency and fidelity of ribosomal translation. It thereby became evident that the effects of mRNA modifications were, astonishingly versatile, depending on the type, position or sequence context. The incorporation of a single modification could either prematurely terminate protein synthesis, reduce the peptide yield or alter the amino acid sequence identity. These results implicate that mRNA modifications are a powerful mechanism to post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. PMID:27351916

  12. Molecular mechanisms of RNA-triggered gene silencing machineries.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhonghan; Rana, Tariq M

    2012-07-17

    Gene silencing by RNA triggers is an ancient, evolutionarily conserved, and widespread phenomenon. This process, known as RNA interference (RNAi), occurs when double-stranded RNA helices induce cleavage of their complementary mRNAs. Because these RNA molecules can be introduced exogenously as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), RNAi has become an everyday experimental tool in laboratory research. In addition, the number of RNA-based therapeutics that are currently in clinical trials for a variety of human diseases demonstrate the therapeutic potential of RNAi. In this Account, we focus on our current understanding of the structure and function of various classes of RNAi triggers and how this knowledge has contributed to our understanding of the biogenesis and catalytic functions of siRNA and microRNA in mammalian cells. Mechanistic studies to understand the structure and function of small RNAs that induce RNAi have illuminated broad functions of the ancient RNAi machinery in animals and plants. In addition, such studies have provided insight to identify endogenous physiological gene silencing RNA triggers that engage functional machineries similar to siRNAs. Several endogenous small RNA species have been identified: small noncoding RNAs (microRNAs), piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), and endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs). microRNAs are the most widespread class of small RNAs in mammalian cells. Despite their importance in biology and medicine, the molecular and cellular mechanisms of microRNA biogenesis and function are not fully understood. We provide an overview of the current understanding of how these molecules are synthesized within cells and how they act on gene targets. Interesting questions remain both for understanding the effects of modifications and editing on microRNAs and the interactions between microRNAs and other cellular RNAs such as long noncoding RNAs. PMID:22304792

  13. Temperature-driven differential gene expression by RNA thermosensors.

    PubMed

    Krajewski, Stefanie Sandra; Narberhaus, Franz

    2014-10-01

    Many prokaryotic genes are organized in operons. Genes organized in such transcription units are co-transcribed into a polycistronic mRNA. Despite being clustered in a single mRNA, individual genes can be subjected to differential regulation, which is mainly achieved at the level of translation depending on initiation and elongation. Efficiency of translation initiation is primarily determined by the structural accessibility of the ribosome binding site (RBS). Structured cis-regulatory elements like RNA thermometers (RNATs) can contribute to differential regulation of individual genes within a polycistronic mRNA. RNATs are riboregulators that mediate temperature-responsive regulation of a downstream gene by modulating the accessibility of its RBS. At low temperature, the RBS is trapped by intra-molecular base pairing prohibiting translation initiation. The secondary structure melts with increasing temperature thus liberating the RBS. Here, we present an overview of different RNAT types and specifically highlight recently discovered RNATs. The main focus of this review is on RNAT-based differential control of polycistronic operons. Finally, we discuss the influence of temperature on other riboregulators and the potential of RNATs in synthetic RNA biology. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Riboswitches.

  14. Methylation of microRNA genes regulates gene expression in bisexual flower development in andromonoecious poplar.

    PubMed

    Song, Yuepeng; Tian, Min; Ci, Dong; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies showed sex-specific DNA methylation and expression of candidate genes in bisexual flowers of andromonoecious poplar, but the regulatory relationship between methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs) remains unclear. To investigate whether the methylation of miRNA genes regulates gene expression in bisexual flower development, the methylome, microRNA, and transcriptome were examined in female and male flowers of andromonoecious poplar. 27 636 methylated coding genes and 113 methylated miRNA genes were identified. In the coding genes, 64.5% of the methylated reads mapped to the gene body region; by contrast, 60.7% of methylated reads in miRNA genes mainly mapped in the 5' and 3' flanking regions. CHH methylation showed the highest methylation levels and CHG showed the lowest methylation levels. Correlation analysis showed a significant, negative, strand-specific correlation of methylation and miRNA gene expression (r=0.79, P <0.05). The methylated miRNA genes included eight long miRNAs (lmiRNAs) of 24 nucleotides and 11 miRNAs related to flower development. miRNA172b might play an important role in the regulation of bisexual flower development-related gene expression in andromonoecious poplar, via modification of methylation. Gynomonoecious, female, and male poplars were used to validate the methylation patterns of the miRNA172b gene, implying that hyper-methylation in andromonoecious and gynomonoecious poplar might function as an important regulator in bisexual flower development. Our data provide a useful resource for the study of flower development in poplar and improve our understanding of the effect of epigenetic regulation on genes other than protein-coding genes.

  15. Methylation of microRNA genes regulates gene expression in bisexual flower development in andromonoecious poplar

    PubMed Central

    Song, Yuepeng; Tian, Min; Ci, Dong; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies showed sex-specific DNA methylation and expression of candidate genes in bisexual flowers of andromonoecious poplar, but the regulatory relationship between methylation and microRNAs (miRNAs) remains unclear. To investigate whether the methylation of miRNA genes regulates gene expression in bisexual flower development, the methylome, microRNA, and transcriptome were examined in female and male flowers of andromonoecious poplar. 27 636 methylated coding genes and 113 methylated miRNA genes were identified. In the coding genes, 64.5% of the methylated reads mapped to the gene body region; by contrast, 60.7% of methylated reads in miRNA genes mainly mapped in the 5′ and 3′ flanking regions. CHH methylation showed the highest methylation levels and CHG showed the lowest methylation levels. Correlation analysis showed a significant, negative, strand-specific correlation of methylation and miRNA gene expression (r=0.79, P <0.05). The methylated miRNA genes included eight long miRNAs (lmiRNAs) of 24 nucleotides and 11 miRNAs related to flower development. miRNA172b might play an important role in the regulation of bisexual flower development-related gene expression in andromonoecious poplar, via modification of methylation. Gynomonoecious, female, and male poplars were used to validate the methylation patterns of the miRNA172b gene, implying that hyper-methylation in andromonoecious and gynomonoecious poplar might function as an important regulator in bisexual flower development. Our data provide a useful resource for the study of flower development in poplar and improve our understanding of the effect of epigenetic regulation on genes other than protein-coding genes. PMID:25617468

  16. In silico analysis of miRNA-mediated gene regulation in OCA and OA genes.

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, Balu; Gopalakrishnan, Chandrasekhar; Purohit, Rituraj

    2014-12-01

    Albinism is an autosomal recessive genetic disorder due to low secretion of melanin. The oculocutaneous albinism (OCA) and ocular albinism (OA) genes are responsible for melanin production and also act as a potential targets for miRNAs. The role of miRNA is to inhibit the protein synthesis partially or completely by binding with the 3'UTR of the mRNA thus regulating gene expression. In this analysis, we predicted the genetic variation that occurred in 3'UTR of the transcript which can be a reason for low melanin production thus causing albinism. The single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 3'UTR cause more new binding sites for miRNA which binds with mRNA which leads to inhibit the translation process either partially or completely. The SNPs in the mRNA of OCA and OA genes can create new binding sites for miRNA which may control the gene expression and lead to hypopigmentation. We have developed a computational procedure to determine the SNPs in the 3'UTR region of mRNA of OCA (TYR, OCA2, TYRP1 and SLC45A2) and OA (GPR143) genes which will be a potential cause for albinism. We identified 37 SNPs in five genes that are predicted to create 87 new binding sites on mRNA, which may lead to abrogation of the translation process. Expression analysis confirms that these genes are highly expressed in skin and eye regions. It is well supported by enrichment analysis that these genes are mainly involved in eye pigmentation and melanin biosynthesis process. The network analysis also shows how the genes are interacting and expressing in a complex network. This insight provides clue to wet-lab researches to understand the expression pattern of OCA and OA genes and binding phenomenon of mRNA and miRNA upon mutation, which is responsible for inhibition of translation process at genomic levels. PMID:25060099

  17. Subcellular distribution of small interfering RNA: directed delivery through RNA polymerase III expression cassettes and localization by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Paul, Cynthia P

    2005-01-01

    Reduction in the expression of specific genes through small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) is dependent on the colocalization of siRNAs with other components of the RNA interference (RNAi) pathways within the cell. The expression of siRNAs within cells from cassettes that are derived from genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III (pol III) and provide for selective subcellular distribution of their products can be used to direct siRNAs to the cellular pathways. Expression from the human U6 promoter, resulting in siRNA accumulation in the nucleus, is effective in reducing gene expression, whereas cytoplasmic and nucleolar localization of the siRNA when expressed from the 5S or 7 SL promoters is not effective. The distribution of siRNA within the cell is determined by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Although the long uninterrupted duplex of siRNA makes it difficult to detect with DNA oligonucleotide probes, labeled oligonucleotide probes with 2'-O-methyl RNA backbones provide the stability needed for a strong signal. These methods contribute to studies of the interconnected cellular RNAi pathways and are useful in adapting RNAi as a tool to determine gene function and develop RNA-based therapeutics. PMID:15644179

  18. Ultrasensitive DNA chip: gene expression profile analysis without RNA amplification.

    PubMed

    Nagino, Kunihisa; Nomura, Osamu; Takii, Yuki; Myomoto, Akira; Ichikawa, Makiko; Nakamura, Fumio; Higasa, Masashi; Akiyama, Hideo; Nobumasa, Hitoshi; Shiojima, Satoshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2006-04-01

    We have developed a new DNA chip whose substrate has a unique minute columnar array structure made of plastic. The DNA chip exhibits ultrahigh sensitivity, up to 100-fold higher than that of reference DNA chips, which makes it possible to monitor gene expression profiles even with very small amounts of RNA (0.1-0.01 microg of total RNA) without amplification. Differential expression ratios obtained with the new DNA chip were validated against those obtained with quantitative real-time PCR assays. This novel microarray technology would be a powerful tool for monitoring gene expression profiles, especially for clinical diagnosis.

  19. siRNA Versus miRNA as Therapeutics for Gene Silencing.

    PubMed

    Lam, Jenny K W; Chow, Michael Y T; Zhang, Yu; Leung, Susan W S

    2015-09-15

    Discovered a little over two decades ago, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs with important roles in gene regulation. They have recently been investigated as novel classes of therapeutic agents for the treatment of a wide range of disorders including cancers and infections. Clinical trials of siRNA- and miRNA-based drugs have already been initiated. siRNAs and miRNAs share many similarities, both are short duplex RNA molecules that exert gene silencing effects at the post-transcriptional level by targeting messenger RNA (mRNA), yet their mechanisms of action and clinical applications are distinct. The major difference between siRNAs and miRNAs is that the former are highly specific with only one mRNA target, whereas the latter have multiple targets. The therapeutic approaches of siRNAs and miRNAs are therefore very different. Hence, this review provides a comparison between therapeutic siRNAs and miRNAs in terms of their mechanisms of action, physicochemical properties, delivery, and clinical applications. Moreover, the challenges in developing both classes of RNA as therapeutics are also discussed.

  20. siRNA Versus miRNA as Therapeutics for Gene Silencing

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Jenny K W; Chow, Michael Y T; Zhang, Yu; Leung, Susan W S

    2015-01-01

    Discovered a little over two decades ago, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) and microRNAs (miRNAs) are noncoding RNAs with important roles in gene regulation. They have recently been investigated as novel classes of therapeutic agents for the treatment of a wide range of disorders including cancers and infections. Clinical trials of siRNA- and miRNA-based drugs have already been initiated. siRNAs and miRNAs share many similarities, both are short duplex RNA molecules that exert gene silencing effects at the post-transcriptional level by targeting messenger RNA (mRNA), yet their mechanisms of action and clinical applications are distinct. The major difference between siRNAs and miRNAs is that the former are highly specific with only one mRNA target, whereas the latter have multiple targets. The therapeutic approaches of siRNAs and miRNAs are therefore very different. Hence, this review provides a comparison between therapeutic siRNAs and miRNAs in terms of their mechanisms of action, physicochemical properties, delivery, and clinical applications. Moreover, the challenges in developing both classes of RNA as therapeutics are also discussed. PMID:26372022

  1. MicroRNA-Offset RNA Alters Gene Expression and Cell Proliferation

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jin; Schnitzler, Gavin R.; Iyer, Lakshmanan K.; Aronovitz, Mark J.; Baur, Wendy E.; Karas, Richard H.

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNA-offset RNAs (moRs) were first identified in simple chordates and subsequently in mouse and human cells by deep sequencing of short RNAs. MoRs are derived from sequences located immediately adjacent to microRNAs (miRs) in the primary miR (pri-miR). Currently moRs are considered to be simply a by-product of miR biosynthesis that lack biological activity. Here we show for the first time that a moR is biologically active. We demonstrate that endogenous or over-expressed moR-21 significantly alters gene expression and inhibits the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In addition, we find that miR-21 and moR-21 may regulate different genes in a given pathway and can oppose each other in regulating certain genes. We report that there is a “seed region” of moR-21 as well as a “seed match region” in the target gene 3’UTR that are indispensable for moR-21-mediated gene down-regulation. We further demonstrate that moR-21-mediated gene repression is Argonaute 2 (Ago2) dependent. Taken together, these findings provide the first evidence that microRNA offset RNA alters gene expression and is biologically active. PMID:27276022

  2. Posttranscriptional regulation of retroviral gene expression: primary RNA transcripts play three roles as pre-mRNA, mRNA, and genomic RNA

    PubMed Central

    LeBlanc, Jason; Weil, Jason; Beemon, Karen

    2013-01-01

    After reverse transcription of the retroviral RNA genome and integration of the DNA provirus into the host genome, host machinery is used for viral gene expression along with viral proteins and RNA regulatory elements. Here, we discuss co-transcriptional and posttranscriptional regulation of retroviral gene expression, comparing simple and complex retroviruses. Cellular RNA polymerase II synthesizes full-length viral primary RNA transcripts that are capped and polyadenylated. All retroviruses generate a singly spliced env mRNA from this primary transcript, which encodes the viral glycoproteins. In addition, complex viral RNAs are alternatively spliced to generate accessory proteins, such as Rev, which is involved in posttranscriptional regulation of HIV-1 RNA. Importantly, the splicing of all retroviruses is incomplete; they must maintain and export a fraction of their primary RNA transcripts. This unspliced RNA functions both as the major mRNA for Gag and Pol proteins and as the packaged genomic RNA. Different retroviruses export their unspliced viral RNA from the nucleus to the cytoplasm by either Tap-dependent or Rev/CRM1-dependent routes. Translation of the unspliced mRNA involves frame-shifting or termination codon suppression so that the Gag proteins, which make up the capsid, are expressed more abundantly than the Pol proteins, which are the viral enzymes. After the viral polyproteins assemble into viral particles and bud from the cell membrane, a viral encoded protease cleaves them. Some retroviruses have evolved mechanisms to protect their unspliced RNA from decay by nonsense-mediated RNA decay and to prevent genome editing by the cellular APOBEC deaminases. PMID:23754689

  3. Characterization of recombinant bacteriophages containing mosquito ribosomal RNA genes

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Y.J.

    1988-01-01

    A family of nine recombinant bacteriophages containing rRNA genes from cultured cells of the mosquito, Aedes albopictus, has been isolated by screening two different genomic DNA libraries - Charon 30 and EMBL 3 using {sup 32}P-labeled 18S and 28S rRNA as probes. These nine recombinant bacteriophages were characterized by restriction mapping, Southern blotting, and S1 nuclease analysis. The 18S rRNA coding region contains an evolutionarily conserved EcoRI site near the 3{prime}-end, and measures 1800 bp. The 28S rRNA genes were divided into {alpha} and {beta} coding regions measuring 1750 bp and 2000 bp, respectively. The gap between these two regions measures about 340 bp. No insertion sequences were found in the rRNA coding regions. The entire rDNA repeat unit had a minimum length of 15.6 kb, including a nontranscribed spacer region. The non-transcribed spacer region of cloned A. albopictus rDNA contained a common series of seven PvuI sites within a 1250 bp region upstream of the 18S rRNA coding region, and a proportion of this region also showed heterogeneity both in the length and in the restriction sites.

  4. Modification of Globin Gene Expression by RNA Targeting Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Tong-Jian; Rogers, Heather; Yu, Xiaobing; Lin, Felix; Noguchi, Constance T.; Ho, Chien

    2007-01-01

    Objective Sickle cell anemia is a genetic blood disease resulting from production of mutant β-globin (βS) and has severe clinical consequences. It is known that a higher cellular γ-globin level, e.g., higher ratio of cellular γ-globin to βS-globin (γ/βS ratio), inhibits sickle hemoglobin (HbS) polymerization tendency. Hence, therapeutic treatment of sickle cell anemia has been focused on introducing γ-globin gene into red blood cells to increase the cellular γ/βS ratio. Here, we have introduced ribozymes and small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) against βS-globin mRNA into blood cells as a means to increase the γ/βS ratio. Methods Single and multi-ribozymes against βS-globin mRNA have been tested in vitro and in human erythroleukemia K562βS cells that stably express exogenous βS-globin gene. Primary human hematopoietic progenitor cells were also transfected with multi-ribozyme and the γ/(γ+β) ratio determined and compared with cells transfected with long hairpin β-globin cDNA and synthetic siRNA genes. Results We have found that the multi-ribozyme zb21A containing two ribozyme units effectively reduces βS-globin mRNA both in vitro and in K562βS cells. The γ-globin mRNA to βS-globin mRNA ratio in the multi-ribozyme transfected cells is about a factor of 2 more than that in the control cells. We have also found that the γ/(γ+β) ratio in the transfected hematopoietic progenitor cells is increased by more than 2-fold in cells treated with multi-ribozyme zb21A or siRNA ib5. Conclusion Our results suggest that introducing multi-ribozymes or siRNAs into red blood cells are comparable in their effectiveness to increase the ratio of cellular γ-globin mRNA to β- or βS-globin mRNA, providing possible strategies to increase the effectiveness of γ-globin gene transfer as gene therapy for treatment of patients with sickle cell anemia. PMID:17662889

  5. Serum stress responsive gene EhslncRNA of Entamoeba histolytica is a novel long noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Saha, Arpita; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Non coding RNAs are known to play important roles in regulating gene expression at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels in metazoans. There is very little information available about non coding RNAs in protists such as Entamoeba histolytica. Antisense and micro RNAs have been reported in E. histolytica, however no long non coding RNAs has been reported yet. Here, we report our findings on an in vitro serum stress-inducible gene EhslncRNA, a member of B1 transmembrane kinase family of E. histolytica. EhslncRNA encodes a transcript of 2.6 kb and sequence analysis revealed that there is no ORF >150 bp within this transcript. The transcript was found to be polyadenylated and mainly associated with monosomes in the cytoplasm under serum starvation. In normal proliferating cells this RNA is mainly present in the nucleus. The promoter element was mapped between 437 to 346 nucleotides upstream of transcriptional start site and has both positive and negative regulatory elements. Deletion of the negative element converted the promoter to serum inducible type. Oxygen and heat stress also increased expression levels of EhslncRNA. These observations suggest that EhslncRNA may be a long non coding RNA and likely to help cells withstand stressful conditions in the host. PMID:27273618

  6. Serum stress responsive gene EhslncRNA of Entamoeba histolytica is a novel long noncoding RNA

    PubMed Central

    Saha, Arpita; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Non coding RNAs are known to play important roles in regulating gene expression at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels in metazoans. There is very little information available about non coding RNAs in protists such as Entamoeba histolytica. Antisense and micro RNAs have been reported in E. histolytica, however no long non coding RNAs has been reported yet. Here, we report our findings on an in vitro serum stress-inducible gene EhslncRNA, a member of B1 transmembrane kinase family of E. histolytica. EhslncRNA encodes a transcript of 2.6 kb and sequence analysis revealed that there is no ORF >150 bp within this transcript. The transcript was found to be polyadenylated and mainly associated with monosomes in the cytoplasm under serum starvation. In normal proliferating cells this RNA is mainly present in the nucleus. The promoter element was mapped between 437 to 346 nucleotides upstream of transcriptional start site and has both positive and negative regulatory elements. Deletion of the negative element converted the promoter to serum inducible type. Oxygen and heat stress also increased expression levels of EhslncRNA. These observations suggest that EhslncRNA may be a long non coding RNA and likely to help cells withstand stressful conditions in the host. PMID:27273618

  7. Serum stress responsive gene EhslncRNA of Entamoeba histolytica is a novel long noncoding RNA.

    PubMed

    Saha, Arpita; Bhattacharya, Sudha; Bhattacharya, Alok

    2016-01-01

    Non coding RNAs are known to play important roles in regulating gene expression at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels in metazoans. There is very little information available about non coding RNAs in protists such as Entamoeba histolytica. Antisense and micro RNAs have been reported in E. histolytica, however no long non coding RNAs has been reported yet. Here, we report our findings on an in vitro serum stress-inducible gene EhslncRNA, a member of B1 transmembrane kinase family of E. histolytica. EhslncRNA encodes a transcript of 2.6 kb and sequence analysis revealed that there is no ORF >150 bp within this transcript. The transcript was found to be polyadenylated and mainly associated with monosomes in the cytoplasm under serum starvation. In normal proliferating cells this RNA is mainly present in the nucleus. The promoter element was mapped between 437 to 346 nucleotides upstream of transcriptional start site and has both positive and negative regulatory elements. Deletion of the negative element converted the promoter to serum inducible type. Oxygen and heat stress also increased expression levels of EhslncRNA. These observations suggest that EhslncRNA may be a long non coding RNA and likely to help cells withstand stressful conditions in the host.

  8. Impact of Host Genes and Strand Selection on miRNA and miRNA* Expression

    PubMed Central

    Biasiolo, Marta; Sales, Gabriele; Lionetti, Marta; Agnelli, Luca; Todoerti, Katia; Bisognin, Andrea; Coppe, Alessandro; Romualdi, Chiara; Neri, Antonino; Bortoluzzi, Stefania

    2011-01-01

    Dysregulation of miRNAs expression plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of genetic, multifactorial disorders and in human cancers. We exploited sequence, genomic and expression information to investigate two main aspects of post-transcriptional regulation in miRNA biogenesis, namely strand selection regulation and expression relationships between intragenic miRNAs and host genes. We considered miRNAs expression profiles, measured in five sizeable microarray datasets, including samples from different normal cell types and tissues, as well as different tumours and disease states. First, the study of expression profiles of “sister” miRNA pairs (miRNA/miRNA*, 5′ and 3′ strands of the same hairpin precursor) showed that the strand selection is highly regulated since it shows tissue-/cell-/condition-specific modulation. We used information about the direction and the strength of the strand selection bias to perform an unsupervised cluster analysis for the sample classification evidencing that is able to distinguish among different tissues, and sometimes between normal and malignant cells. Then, considering a minimum expression threshold, in few miRNA pairs only one mature miRNA is always present in all considered cell types, whereas the majority of pairs were concurrently expressed in some cell types and alternatively in others. In a significant fraction of concurrently expressed pairs, the major and the minor forms found at comparable levels may contribute to post-transcriptional gene silencing, possibly in a coordinate way. In the second part of the study, the behaved tendency to co-expression of intragenic miRNAs and their “host” mRNA genes was confuted by expression profiles examination, suggesting that the expression profile of a given host gene can hardly be a good estimator of co-transcribed miRNA(s) for post-transcriptional regulatory networks inference. Our results point out the regulatory importance of post-transcriptional phases of mi

  9. MicroRNA-regulated viral vectors for gene therapy.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Anja; Fechner, Henry

    2016-05-20

    Safe and effective gene therapy approaches require targeted tissue-specific transfer of a therapeutic transgene. Besides traditional approaches, such as transcriptional and transductional targeting, microRNA-dependent post-transcriptional suppression of transgene expression has been emerging as powerful new technology to increase the specificity of vector-mediated transgene expression. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs and often expressed in a tissue-, lineage-, activation- or differentiation-specific pattern. They typically regulate gene expression by binding to imperfectly complementary sequences in the 3' untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA. To control exogenous transgene expression, tandem repeats of artificial microRNA target sites are usually incorporated into the 3' UTR of the transgene expression cassette, leading to subsequent degradation of transgene mRNA in cells expressing the corresponding microRNA. This targeting strategy, first shown for lentiviral vectors in antigen presenting cells, has now been used for tissue-specific expression of vector-encoded therapeutic transgenes, to reduce immune response against the transgene, to control virus tropism for oncolytic virotherapy, to increase safety of live attenuated virus vaccines and to identify and select cell subsets for pluripotent stem cell therapies, respectively. This review provides an introduction into the technical mechanism underlying microRNA-regulation, highlights new developments in this field and gives an overview of applications of microRNA-regulated viral vectors for cardiac, suicide gene cancer and hematopoietic stem cell therapy, as well as for treatment of neurological and eye diseases. PMID:27226955

  10. MicroRNA-regulated viral vectors for gene therapy

    PubMed Central

    Geisler, Anja; Fechner, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Safe and effective gene therapy approaches require targeted tissue-specific transfer of a therapeutic transgene. Besides traditional approaches, such as transcriptional and transductional targeting, microRNA-dependent post-transcriptional suppression of transgene expression has been emerging as powerful new technology to increase the specificity of vector-mediated transgene expression. MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNAs and often expressed in a tissue-, lineage-, activation- or differentiation-specific pattern. They typically regulate gene expression by binding to imperfectly complementary sequences in the 3’ untranslated region (UTR) of the mRNA. To control exogenous transgene expression, tandem repeats of artificial microRNA target sites are usually incorporated into the 3’ UTR of the transgene expression cassette, leading to subsequent degradation of transgene mRNA in cells expressing the corresponding microRNA. This targeting strategy, first shown for lentiviral vectors in antigen presenting cells, has now been used for tissue-specific expression of vector-encoded therapeutic transgenes, to reduce immune response against the transgene, to control virus tropism for oncolytic virotherapy, to increase safety of live attenuated virus vaccines and to identify and select cell subsets for pluripotent stem cell therapies, respectively. This review provides an introduction into the technical mechanism underlying microRNA-regulation, highlights new developments in this field and gives an overview of applications of microRNA-regulated viral vectors for cardiac, suicide gene cancer and hematopoietic stem cell therapy, as well as for treatment of neurological and eye diseases. PMID:27226955

  11. Riboswitch-Mediated Gene Regulation: Novel RNA Architectures Dictate Gene Expression Responses.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Anna V; Henkin, Tina M

    2016-09-01

    Riboswitches are RNA elements that act on the mRNA with which they are cotranscribed to modulate expression of that mRNA. These elements are widely found in bacteria, where they have a broad impact on gene expression. The defining feature of riboswitches is that they directly recognize a physiological signal, and the resulting shift in RNA structure affects gene regulation. The majority of riboswitches respond to cellular metabolites, often in a feedback loop to repress synthesis of the enzymes used to produce the metabolite. Related elements respond to the aminoacylation status of a specific tRNA or to a physical parameter, such as temperature or pH. Recent studies have identified new classes of riboswitches and have revealed new insights into the molecular mechanisms of signal recognition and gene regulation. Application of structural and biophysical approaches has complemented previous genetic and biochemical studies, yielding new information about how different riboswitches operate. PMID:27607554

  12. Development of a universal RNA beacon for exogenous gene detection.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yuanjian; Lu, Zhongju; Cohen, Ira Stephen; Scarlata, Suzanne

    2015-05-01

    Stem cell therapy requires a nontoxic and high-throughput method to achieve a pure cell population to prevent teratomas that can occur if even one cell in the implant has not been transformed. A promising method to detect and separate cells expressing a particular gene is RNA beacon technology. However, developing a successful, specific beacon to a particular transfected gene can take months to develop and in some cases is impossible. Here, we report on an off-the-shelf universal beacon that decreases the time and cost of applying beacon technology to select any living cell population transfected with an exogenous gene.

  13. Development of a Universal RNA Beacon for Exogenous Gene Detection

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yuanjian; Lu, Zhongju; Cohen, Ira Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell therapy requires a nontoxic and high-throughput method to achieve a pure cell population to prevent teratomas that can occur if even one cell in the implant has not been transformed. A promising method to detect and separate cells expressing a particular gene is RNA beacon technology. However, developing a successful, specific beacon to a particular transfected gene can take months to develop and in some cases is impossible. Here, we report on an off-the-shelf universal beacon that decreases the time and cost of applying beacon technology to select any living cell population transfected with an exogenous gene. PMID:25769653

  14. Reproducible, Scalable Fusion Gene Detection from RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Arsenijevic, Vladan; Davis-Dusenbery, Brandi N

    2016-01-01

    Chromosomal rearrangements resulting in the creation of novel gene products, termed fusion genes, have been identified as driving events in the development of multiple types of cancer. As these gene products typically do not exist in normal cells, they represent valuable prognostic and therapeutic targets. Advances in next-generation sequencing and computational approaches have greatly improved our ability to detect and identify fusion genes. Nevertheless, these approaches require significant computational resources. Here we describe an approach which leverages cloud computing technologies to perform fusion gene detection from RNA sequencing data at any scale. We additionally highlight methods to enhance reproducibility of bioinformatics analyses which may be applied to any next-generation sequencing experiment. PMID:26667464

  15. GeneTack database: genes with frameshifts in prokaryotic genomes and eukaryotic mRNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Antonov, Ivan; Baranov, Pavel; Borodovsky, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Database annotations of prokaryotic genomes and eukaryotic mRNA sequences pay relatively low attention to frame transitions that disrupt protein-coding genes. Frame transitions (frameshifts) could be caused by sequencing errors or indel mutations inside protein-coding regions. Other observed frameshifts are related to recoding events (that evolved to control expression of some genes). Earlier, we have developed an algorithm and software program GeneTack for ab initio frameshift finding in intronless genes. Here, we describe a database (freely available at http://topaz.gatech.edu/GeneTack/db.html) containing genes with frameshifts (fs-genes) predicted by GeneTack. The database includes 206 991 fs-genes from 1106 complete prokaryotic genomes and 45 295 frameshifts predicted in mRNA sequences from 100 eukaryotic genomes. The whole set of fs-genes was grouped into clusters based on sequence similarity between fs-proteins (conceptually translated fs-genes), conservation of the frameshift position and frameshift direction (-1, +1). The fs-genes can be retrieved by similarity search to a given query sequence via a web interface, by fs-gene cluster browsing, etc. Clusters of fs-genes are characterized with respect to their likely origin, such as pseudogenization, phase variation, etc. The largest clusters contain fs-genes with programed frameshifts (related to recoding events).

  16. Compilation of 5S rRNA and 5S rRNA gene sequences

    PubMed Central

    Specht, Thomas; Wolters, Jörn; Erdmann, Volker A.

    1990-01-01

    The BERLIN RNA DATABANK as of Dezember 31, 1989, contains a total of 667 sequences of 5S rRNAs or their genes, which is an increase of 114 new sequence entries over the last compilation (1). It covers sequences from 44 archaebacteria, 267 eubacteria, 20 plastids, 6 mitochondria, 319 eukaryotes and 11 eukaryotic pseudogenes. The hardcopy shows only the list (Table 1) of those organisms whose sequences have been determined. The BERLIN RNA DATABANK uses the format of the EMBL Nucleotide Sequence Data Library complemented by a Sequence Alignment (SA) field including secondary structure information. PMID:1692116

  17. Multiple independent insertions of 5S rRNA genes in the spliced-leader gene family of trypanosome species.

    PubMed

    Beauparlant, Marc A; Drouin, Guy

    2014-02-01

    Analyses of the 5S rRNA genes found in the spliced-leader (SL) gene repeat units of numerous trypanosome species suggest that such linkages were not inherited from a common ancestor, but were the result of independent 5S rRNA gene insertions. In trypanosomes, 5S rRNA genes are found either in the tandemly repeated units coding for SL genes or in independent tandemly repeated units. Given that trypanosome species where 5S rRNA genes are within the tandemly repeated units coding for SL genes are phylogenetically related, one might hypothesize that this arrangement is the result of an ancestral insertion of 5S rRNA genes into the tandemly repeated SL gene family of trypanosomes. Here, we use the types of 5S rRNA genes found associated with SL genes, the flanking regions of the inserted 5S rRNA genes and the position of these insertions to show that most of the 5S rRNA genes found within SL gene repeat units of trypanosome species were not acquired from a common ancestor but are the results of independent insertions. These multiple 5S rRNA genes insertion events in trypanosomes are likely the result of frequent founder events in different hosts and/or geographical locations in species having short generation times.

  18. The role of RNA structure at 5′ untranslated region in microRNA-mediated gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuming; Xie, Xueying; Wang, Ting; Ko, Jae-Hong; Zhou, Tong

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that the secondary structure of the 5′ untranslated region (5′ UTR) of messenger RNA (mRNA) is important for microRNA (miRNA)-mediated gene regulation in humans. mRNAs that are targeted by miRNA tend to have a higher degree of local secondary structure in their 5′ UTR; however, the general role of the 5′ UTR in miRNA-mediated gene regulation remains unknown. We systematically surveyed the secondary structure of 5′ UTRs in both plant and animal species and found a universal trend of increased mRNA stability near the 5′ cap in mRNAs that are regulated by miRNA in animals, but not in plants. Intra-genome comparison showed that gene expression level, GC content of the 5′ UTR, number of miRNA target sites, and 5′ UTR length may influence mRNA structure near the 5′ cap. Our results suggest that the 5′ UTR secondary structure performs multiple functions in regulating post-transcriptional processes. Although the local structure immediately upstream of the start codon is involved in translation initiation, RNA structure near the 5′ cap site, rather than the structure of the full-length 5′ UTR sequences, plays an important role in miRNA-mediated gene regulation. PMID:25002673

  19. Cloning of the RNA8 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, detection of the RNA8 protein, and demonstration that it is essential for nuclear pre-mRNA splicing.

    PubMed Central

    Jackson, S P; Lossky, M; Beggs, J D

    1988-01-01

    Strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae that bear the temperature-sensitive mutation rna8-1 are defective in nuclear pre-mRNA splicing at the restrictive temperature (36 degrees C), suggesting that the RNA8 gene encodes a component of the splicing machinery. The RNA8 gene was cloned by complementation of the temperature-sensitive growth defect of an rna8-1 mutant strain. Integrative transformation and gene disruption experiments confirmed the identity of the cloned DNA and demonstrated that the RNA8 gene encodes an essential function. The RNA8 gene was shown to be represented once per S. cerevisiae haploid genome and to encode a low-abundance transcript of approximately 7.4 kilobases. By using antisera raised against beta-galactosidase-RNA8 fusion proteins, the RNA8 gene product was identified in S. cerevisiae cell extracts as a low-abundance protein of approximately 260 kilodaltons. Immunodepletion of the RNA8 protein specifically abolished the activity of S. cerevisiae in vitro splicing extracts, confirming that RNA8 plays an essential role in splicing. Images PMID:2835658

  20. RNA-Seq Gene Profiling - A Systematic Empirical Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Nuno A.; Marioni, John; Brazma, Alvis

    2014-01-01

    Accurately quantifying gene expression levels is a key goal of experiments using RNA-sequencing to assay the transcriptome. This typically requires aligning the short reads generated to the genome or transcriptome before quantifying expression of pre-defined sets of genes. Differences in the alignment/quantification tools can have a major effect upon the expression levels found with important consequences for biological interpretation. Here we address two main issues: do different analysis pipelines affect the gene expression levels inferred from RNA-seq data? And, how close are the expression levels inferred to the “true” expression levels? We evaluate fifty gene profiling pipelines in experimental and simulated data sets with different characteristics (e.g, read length and sequencing depth). In the absence of knowledge of the ‘ground truth’ in real RNAseq data sets, we used simulated data to assess the differences between the “true” expression and those reconstructed by the analysis pipelines. Even though this approach does not take into account all known biases present in RNAseq data, it still allows to estimate the accuracy of the gene expression values inferred by different analysis pipelines. The results show that i) overall there is a high correlation between the expression levels inferred by the best pipelines and the true quantification values; ii) the error in the estimated gene expression values can vary considerably across genes; and iii) a small set of genes have expression estimates with consistently high error (across data sets and methods). Finally, although the mapping software is important, the quantification method makes a greater difference to the results. PMID:25268973

  1. DNA/RNA heteroduplex oligonucleotide for highly efficient gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Nishina, Kazutaka; Piao, Wenying; Yoshida-Tanaka, Kie; Sujino, Yumiko; Nishina, Tomoko; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Nitta, Keiko; Yoshioka, Kotaro; Kuwahara, Hiroya; Yasuhara, Hidenori; Baba, Takeshi; Ono, Fumiko; Miyata, Kanjiro; Miyake, Koichi; Seth, Punit P.; Low, Audrey; Yoshida, Masayuki; Bennett, C. Frank; Kataoka, Kazunori; Mizusawa, Hidehiro; Obika, Satoshi; Yokota, Takanori

    2015-01-01

    Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are recognized therapeutic agents for the modulation of specific genes at the post-transcriptional level. Similar to any medical drugs, there are opportunities to improve their efficacy and safety. Here we develop a short DNA/RNA heteroduplex oligonucleotide (HDO) with a structure different from double-stranded RNA used for short interfering RNA and single-stranded DNA used for ASO. A DNA/locked nucleotide acid gapmer duplex with an α-tocopherol-conjugated complementary RNA (Toc-HDO) is significantly more potent at reducing the expression of the targeted mRNA in liver compared with the parent single-stranded gapmer ASO. Toc-HDO also improves the phenotype in disease models more effectively. In addition, the high potency of Toc-HDO results in a reduction of liver dysfunction observed in the parent ASO at a similar silencing effect. HDO technology offers a novel concept of therapeutic oligonucleotides, and the development of this molecular design opens a new therapeutic field. PMID:26258894

  2. Understanding mechanisms underlying human gene expression variation with RNA sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Pickrell, Joseph K.; Marioni, John C.; Pai, Athma A.; Degner, Jacob F.; Engelhardt, Barbara E.; Nkadori, Everlyne; Veyrieras, Jean-Baptiste; Stephens, Matthew; Gilad, Yoav; Pritchard, Jonathan K.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying natural variation in gene expression is a central goal of both medical and evolutionary genetics, and studies of expression quantitative trait loci (eQTLs) have become an important tool for achieving this goal1. Although all eQTL studies so far have assayed messenger RNA levels using expression microarrays, recent advances in RNA sequencing enable the analysis of transcript variation at unprecedented resolution. We sequenced RNA from 69 lymphoblastoid cell lines derived from unrelated Nigerian individuals that have been extensively genotyped by the International HapMap Project2. By pooling data from all individuals, we generated a map of the transcriptional landscape of these cells, identifying extensive use of unannotated untranslated regions and more than 100 new putative protein-coding exons. Using the genotypes from the HapMap project, we identified more than a thousand genes at which genetic variation influences overall expression levels or splicing. We demonstrate that eQTLs near genes generally act by a mechanism involving allele-specific expression, and that variation that influences the inclusion of an exon is enriched within and near the consensus splice sites. Our results illustrate the power of high-throughput sequencing for the joint analysis of variation in transcription, splicing and allele-specific expression across individuals. PMID:20220758

  3. rrnDB: documenting the number of rRNA and tRNA genes in bacteria and archaea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Zarraz May-Ping; Bussema, Carl; Schmidt, Thomas M

    2009-01-01

    A dramatic exception to the general pattern of single-copy genes in bacterial and archaeal genomes is the presence of 1-15 copies of each ribosomal RNA encoding gene. The original version of the Ribosomal RNA Database (rrnDB) cataloged estimates of the number of 16S rRNA-encoding genes; the database now includes the number of genes encoding each of the rRNAs (5S, 16S and 23S), an internally transcribed spacer region, and the number of tRNA genes. The rrnDB has been used largely by microbiologists to predict the relative rate at which microbial populations respond to favorable growth conditions, and to interpret 16S rRNA-based surveys of microbial communities. To expand the functionality of the rrnDB (http://ribosome.mmg.msu.edu/rrndb/index.php), the search engine has been redesigned to allow database searches based on 16S rRNA gene copy number, specific organisms or taxonomic subsets of organisms. The revamped database also computes average gene copy numbers for any collection of entries selected. Curation tools now permit rapid updates, resulting in an expansion of the database to include data for 785 bacterial and 69 archaeal strains. The rrnDB continues to serve as the authoritative, curated source that documents the phylogenetic distribution of rRNA and tRNA genes in microbial genomes.

  4. Integrated microRNA-gene analysis of coronary artery disease based on miRNA and gene expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    XU, XIANGDONG; LI, HONGSONG

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the key genes and microRNAs (miRNA/miRs) associated with coronary artery disease (CAD) progression. The gene expression profile of GSE20680 and GSE12288, and the miRNA expression profile of GSE28858 were downloaded from the gene expression omnibus database. The differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in GSE20680 and GSE12288, and the differentially expressed miRNAs in GSE28858 were screened using the limma package in R software. Common DEGs between GSE20680 and GSE12288 were selected. Functions and pathways of DEGs and miRNAs were enriched using the DAVID tool from the GO and KEGG databases. The regulatory network of miRNA and selected CAD-associated DEGs was constructed. A total of 270 DEGs (167 upregulated and 103 downregulated) based on the GSE20680 dataset, and 2,268 DEGs (534 upregulated and 1,734 downregulated) based on the GSE12288 dataset, were screened. For the differentially expressed miRNAs, 214 were identified (102 upregulated and 112 downregulated) in CAD samples and were screened. Interferon regulatory factor 2 (IRF2) and cell death-inducing DFFA-like effector b (CIDEB), which are regulated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and myc-associated factor X, were identified as common DEGs for CAD. miR-455-5p, miR-455-3p and miR-1257, which are involved in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)protein assembly pathway and peptide antigen assembly with MHC class I protein complex pathway, may regulate various miRNAs and target genes, including pro-opiomelancortin (POMC), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), interleukin 10 (IL10), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and calreticulin (CALR). The current study identified IRF2 and CIDEB as crucial genes, and miRNA-455-5p, miRNA-455-3p and miR-1257 along with their target genes POMC, TLR4 and CALR, as miRNAs involved in CAD progression. Thus, the present study may provide a basis for future research into the progression mechanism of CAD. PMID:26936111

  5. Rapid intraspecific evolution of miRNA and siRNA genes in the mosquito Aedes aegypti.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Scott A; Simmons, Mark P; Olson, Ken E; Beaty, Barry J; Blair, Carol D; Black, William C

    2012-01-01

    RNA silencing, or RNA interference (RNAi) in metazoans mediates development, reduces viral infection and limits transposon mobility. RNA silencing involves 21-30 nucleotide RNAs classified into microRNA (miRNA), exogenous and endogenous small interfering RNAs (siRNA), and Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA). Knock-out, silencing and mutagenesis of genes in the exogenous siRNA (exo-siRNA) regulatory network demonstrate the importance of this RNAi pathway in antiviral immunity in Drosophila and mosquitoes. In Drosophila, genes encoding components for processing exo-siRNAs are among the fastest evolving 3% of all genes, suggesting that infection with pathogenic RNA viruses may drive diversifying selection in their host. In contrast, paralogous miRNA pathway genes do not evolve more rapidly than the genome average. Silencing of exo-siRNA pathway genes in mosquitoes orally infected with arboviruses leads to increased viral replication, but little is known about the comparative patterns of molecular evolution among the exo-siRNA and miRNA pathways genes in mosquitoes. We generated nearly complete sequences of all exons of major miRNA and siRNA pathway genes dicer-1 and dicer-2, argonaute-1 and argonaute-2, and r3d1 and r2d2 in 104 Aedes aegypti mosquitoes collected from six distinct geographic populations and analyzed their genetic diversity. The ratio of replacement to silent amino acid substitutions was 1.4 fold higher in dicer-2 than in dicer-1, 27.4 fold higher in argonaute-2 than in argonaute-1 and similar in r2d2 and r3d1. Positive selection was supported in 32% of non-synonymous sites in dicer-1, in 47% of sites in dicer-2, in 30% of sites in argonaute-1, in all sites in argonaute-2, in 22% of sites in r3d1 and in 55% of sites in r2d2. Unlike Drosophila, in Ae. aegypti, both exo-siRNA and miRNA pathway genes appear to be undergoing rapid, positive, diversifying selection. Furthermore, refractoriness of mosquitoes to infection with dengue virus was significantly

  6. Multiple Yeast Genes, Including Paf1 Complex Genes, Affect Telomere Length via Telomerase RNA Abundance▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Mozdy, Amy D.; Podell, Elaine R.; Cech, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Twofold reductions in telomerase RNA levels cause telomere shortening in both humans and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To test whether multiple genes that affect telomere length act by modulating telomerase RNA abundance, we used real-time reverse transcription-PCR to screen S. cerevisiae deletion strains reported to maintain shorter or longer telomeres to determine the levels of their telomerase RNA (TLC1) abundance. Of 290 strains screened, 5 had increased TLC1 levels; 4 of these maintained longer telomeres. Twenty strains had decreased TLC1 levels; 18 of these are known to maintain shorter telomeres. Four strains with decreased TLC1 RNA levels contained deletions of subunits of Paf1C (polymerase II-associated factor complex). While Paf1C had been implicated in the transcription of both polyadenylated and nonpolyadenylated RNAs, Paf1C had not been associated previously with the noncoding telomerase RNA. In Paf1C mutant strains, TLC1 overexpression partially rescues telomere length and cell growth defects, suggesting that telomerase RNA is a critical direct or indirect Paf1C target. Other factors newly identified as affecting TLC1 RNA levels include cyclin-dependent kinase, the mediator complex, protein phosphatase 2A, and ribosomal proteins L13B and S16A. This report establishes that a subset of telomere length genes act by modulating telomerase RNA abundance. PMID:18411302

  7. The structure of the yeast ribosomal RNA genes. I. The complete nucleotide sequence of the 18S ribosomal RNA gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Rubtsov, P M; Musakhanov, M M; Zakharyev, V M; Krayev, A S; Skryabin, K G; Bayev, A A

    1980-12-11

    The cloned 18 S ribosomal RNA gene from Saccharomyces cerevisiae have been sequenced, using the Maxam-Gilbert procedure. From this data the complete sequence of 1789 nucleotides of the 18 S RNA was deduced. Extensive homology with many eucaryotic as well as E. coli ribosomal small subunit rRNA (S-rRNA) has been observed in the 3'-end region of the rRNA molecule. Comparison of the yeast 18 S rRNA sequences with partial sequence data, available for rRNAs of the other eucaryotes provides strong evidence that a substantial portion of the 18 S RNA sequence has been conserved in evolution.

  8. Downregulation of plant genes with miRNA-induced gene silencing.

    PubMed

    de Felippes, Felipe Fenselau

    2013-01-01

    In plants, some microRNAs (miRNAs) can trigger the production of secondary small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) from their targets. miRNA-induced gene silencing (MIGS) exploits this unique feature to efficiently downregulate gene expression. The simple flanking of a sequence of interest with the target site for the miR173 (an miRNA able to trigger transitivity) is sufficient to start the production of secondary siRNAs and, consequently, silencing of the target gene. This technique can be easily adapted to promote gene silencing of more than one gene, even with those that share no sequence similarities. This chapter describes the necessary steps for designing and implementing the use of MIGS in plants.

  9. The Trypanosoma brucei protein phosphatase gene: polycistronic transcription with the RNA polymerase II largest subunit gene.

    PubMed Central

    Evers, R; Cornelissen, A W

    1990-01-01

    We have previously described the trypanosomal gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II) and found that two almost identical genes are encoded within the Trypanosoma brucei genome. Here we show by Southern analyses that the 5' breakpoint between both loci is located approximately 7.5 kb upstream of the RNAP II genes. Northern analyses revealed that the 5' duplicated segment contains at least four other genes, which are transcribed in both bloodstream and procyclic trypanosomes. The gene located immediately upstream of the RNAP II gene in both loci was characterized by sequence analyses. The deduced amino acid sequences show a high degree of similarity to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase class 1 (PP1) genes. S1 mapping provided strong evidence in support of the fact that the PP1 and RNAP II genes belong to a single transcription unit. Images PMID:2169604

  10. 5S rRNA gene arrangements in protists: a case of nonadaptive evolution.

    PubMed

    Drouin, Guy; Tsang, Corey

    2012-06-01

    Given their high copy number and high level of expression, one might expect that both the sequence and organization of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA genes would be conserved during evolution. Although the organization of 18S, 5.8S and 28S ribosomal RNA genes is indeed relatively well conserved, that of 5S rRNA genes is much more variable. Here, we review the different types of 5S rRNA gene arrangements which have been observed in protists. This includes linkages to the other ribosomal RNA genes as well as linkages to ubiquitin, splice-leader, snRNA and tRNA genes. Mapping these linkages to independently derived phylogenies shows that these diverse linkages have repeatedly been gained and lost during evolution. This argues against such linkages being the primitive condition not only in protists but also in other eukaryote species. Because the only characteristic the diverse genes with which 5S rRNA genes are found linked with is that they are tandemly repeated, these arrangements are unlikely to provide any selective advantage. Rather, the observed high variability in 5S rRNA genes arrangements is likely the result of the fact that 5S rRNA genes contain internal promoters, that these genes are often transposed by diverse recombination mechanisms and that these new gene arrangements are rapidly homogenized by unequal crossingovers and/or by gene conversions events in species with short generation times and frequent founder events.

  11. An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene in bat genomes derived from an ancient negative-strand RNA virus.

    PubMed

    Horie, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Honda, Tomoyuki; Fujino, Kan; Akasaka, Takumi; Kohl, Claudia; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Kurth, Andreas; Müller, Marcel A; Corman, Victor M; Gillich, Nadine; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Schwemmle, Martin; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous bornavirus-like L (EBLL) elements are inheritable sequences derived from ancient bornavirus L genes that encode a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) in many eukaryotic genomes. Here, we demonstrate that bats of the genus Eptesicus have preserved for more than 11.8 million years an EBLL element named eEBLL-1, which has an intact open reading frame of 1,718 codons. The eEBLL-1 coding sequence revealed that functional motifs essential for mononegaviral RdRp activity are well conserved in the EBLL-1 genes. Genetic analyses showed that natural selection operated on eEBLL-1 during the evolution of Eptesicus. Notably, we detected efficient transcription of eEBLL-1 in tissues from Eptesicus bats. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report showing that the eukaryotic genome has gained a riboviral polymerase gene from an ancient virus that has the potential to encode a functional RdRp. PMID:27174689

  12. An RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene in bat genomes derived from an ancient negative-strand RNA virus

    PubMed Central

    Horie, Masayuki; Kobayashi, Yuki; Honda, Tomoyuki; Fujino, Kan; Akasaka, Takumi; Kohl, Claudia; Wibbelt, Gudrun; Mühldorfer, Kristin; Kurth, Andreas; Müller, Marcel A.; Corman, Victor M.; Gillich, Nadine; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Schwemmle, Martin; Tomonaga, Keizo

    2016-01-01

    Endogenous bornavirus-like L (EBLL) elements are inheritable sequences derived from ancient bornavirus L genes that encode a viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) in many eukaryotic genomes. Here, we demonstrate that bats of the genus Eptesicus have preserved for more than 11.8 million years an EBLL element named eEBLL-1, which has an intact open reading frame of 1,718 codons. The eEBLL-1 coding sequence revealed that functional motifs essential for mononegaviral RdRp activity are well conserved in the EBLL-1 genes. Genetic analyses showed that natural selection operated on eEBLL-1 during the evolution of Eptesicus. Notably, we detected efficient transcription of eEBLL-1 in tissues from Eptesicus bats. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first report showing that the eukaryotic genome has gained a riboviral polymerase gene from an ancient virus that has the potential to encode a functional RdRp. PMID:27174689

  13. Identification of miRNA-Mediated Core Gene Module for Glioma Patient Prediction by Integrating High-Throughput miRNA, mRNA Expression and Pathway Structure

    PubMed Central

    Han, Junwei; Shang, Desi; Zhang, Yunpeng; Zhang, Wei; Yao, Qianlan; Han, Lei; Xu, Yanjun; Yan, Wei; Bao, Zhaoshi; You, Gan; Jiang, Tao; Kang, Chunsheng; Li, Xia

    2014-01-01

    The prognosis of glioma patients is usually poor, especially in patients with glioblastoma (World Health Organization (WHO) grade IV). The regulatory functions of microRNA (miRNA) on genes have important implications in glioma cell survival. However, there are not many studies that have investigated glioma survival by integrating miRNAs and genes while also considering pathway structure. In this study, we performed sample-matched miRNA and mRNA expression profilings to systematically analyze glioma patient survival. During this analytical process, we developed pathway-based random walk to identify a glioma core miRNA-gene module, simultaneously considering pathway structure information and multi-level involvement of miRNAs and genes. The core miRNA-gene module we identified was comprised of four apparent sub-modules; all four sub-modules displayed a significant correlation with patient survival in the testing set (P-values≤0.001). Notably, one sub-module that consisted of 6 miRNAs and 26 genes also correlated with survival time in the high-grade subgroup (WHO grade III and IV), P-value = 0.0062. Furthermore, the 26-gene expression signature from this sub-module had robust predictive power in four independent, publicly available glioma datasets. Our findings suggested that the expression signatures, which were identified by integration of miRNA and gene level, were closely associated with overall survival among the glioma patients with various grades. PMID:24809850

  14. The gene for human E2 small nucleolar RNA resides in an intron of a laminin-binding protein gene

    SciTech Connect

    Selvamurugan, N.; Eliceiri, G.L.

    1995-11-20

    Several of the known small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) species have been shown to be required for processing of ribosomal RNA precursors (pre-rRNA). The genes of most of the known vertebrate snoRNA species are located in introns of genes for messenger RNA precursors. E2 RNA is a nucleolar species that is 154 nucleotides long in human; it belongs to a new family of snoRNAs because it does not have the sequences named box C, C{prime} or D that are present in most vertebrate snoRNA species, and it does not bind fibrillarin, the nucleolar protein associated with most snoRNAs. E2 snoRNA is found in all tissues tested and in all vertebrates analyzed. E2 snoRNA is expected to have a unique function in ribosome formation, because it psoralen-photocrosslinks in vivo to a unique internal segment of the 28S rRNA sequence of pre-rRNA. Two observations are compatible with the possibility that the human E2 RNA gene may be intronic. First, the human E2 RNA gene lacks the intragenic or flanking sequences that are functional in other genes. Second, the 5{prime} end of E2 RNA is monophosphorylated, suggesting that is formed by RNA processing. Intron-encoded snoRNAs have monophosphorylated 5{prime}termini. Until now, it was not known whether the E2 RNA gene resides in an intron. This information is important for studying the biosynthesis of E2 RNA. 13 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Ribosomal RNA genes of Trypanosoma brucei. Cloning of a rRNA gene containing a mobile element.

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, G; Turner, M J; Cordingley, J S

    1982-01-01

    An ordered restriction map of the ribosomal RNA genes of Trypanosoma brucei brucei is presented. Bgl II fragments of T.b.brucei genomic DNA were cloned into pAT 153, and the clones containing rDNA identified. Restriction maps were established and the sense strands identified. One clone was shown by heteroduplex mapping to contain a 1.1 kb inserted sequence which was demonstrated to be widely distributed throughout the genomes of members of the subgenus Trypanozoon. However, in two other subgenera of Trypanosoma, Nannomonas and Schizotrypanum, the sequence is far less abundant. Analysis of the genomic DNA from two serodemes of T.b.brucei showed that the sequence was present in the rRNA of only one of them, implying that the sequence is a mobile element and that its appearance in rDNA is a comparitively recent occurrence. Images PMID:6294613

  16. Chromosomal localization of human RNA polymerase II subunit genes

    SciTech Connect

    Acker, J.; Wintzerith, M.; Vigneron, M.; Kedinger, C. ); Mattei, M.G.; Roeckel, N.; Depetris, D. )

    1994-04-01

    The eukaryotic DNA-dependent RNA polymerase II (or B) is composed of 10 to 14 polypeptides ranging from 220 to 10 kDa. To gain further insight into the molecular structure and function of these subunits, the authors have undertaken the molecular cloning of nucleotide sequences corresponding to the human enzyme. The cDNAs of five subunits (hRPB220, hRPB140, hRPB33, hRPB25, and hRPB14.5) have been isolated. Using in situ hybridization, they show that the genes of these subunits have distinct chromosomal locations (17p13, 4q12, 16q13-q21, 19p13.3, and 19q12, respectively). Thus, if assembly of active polymerase molecules requires coordinated expression from these independent genes, mechanisms that ensure tight coregulation of the corresponding promoters must exist. 20 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Horizontal gene transfer of chlamydial-like tRNA genes into early vascular plant mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Knie, Nils; Polsakiewicz, Monika; Knoop, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Mitochondrial genomes of lycophytes are surprisingly diverse, including strikingly different transfer RNA (tRNA) gene complements: No mitochondrial tRNA genes are present in the spikemoss Selaginella moellendorffii, whereas 26 tRNAs are encoded in the chondrome of the clubmoss Huperzia squarrosa. Reinvestigating the latter we found that trnL(gag) and trnS(gga) had never before been identified in any other land plant mitochondrial DNA. Sensitive sequence comparisons showed these two tRNAs as well as trnN(guu) and trnS(gcu) to be very similar to their respective counterparts in chlamydial bacteria. We identified homologs of these chlamydial-type tRNAs also in other lycophyte, fern, and gymnosperm DNAs, suggesting horizontal gene transfer (HGT) into mitochondria in the early vascular plant stem lineages. These findings extend plant mitochondrial HGT to affect individual tRNA genes, to include bacterial donors, and suggest that Chlamydiae on top of their recently proposed key role in primary chloroplast establishment may also have participated in early tracheophyte genome evolution.

  18. Human tRNA genes function as chromatin insulators.

    PubMed

    Raab, Jesse R; Chiu, Jonathan; Zhu, Jingchun; Katzman, Sol; Kurukuti, Sreenivasulu; Wade, Paul A; Haussler, David; Kamakaka, Rohinton T

    2012-01-18

    Insulators help separate active chromatin domains from silenced ones. In yeast, gene promoters act as insulators to block the spread of Sir and HP1 mediated silencing while in metazoans most insulators are multipartite autonomous entities. tDNAs are repetitive sequences dispersed throughout the human genome and we now show that some of these tDNAs can function as insulators in human cells. Using computational methods, we identified putative human tDNA insulators. Using silencer blocking, transgene protection and repressor blocking assays we show that some of these tDNA-containing fragments can function as barrier insulators in human cells. We find that these elements also have the ability to block enhancers from activating RNA pol II transcribed promoters. Characterization of a putative tDNA insulator in human cells reveals that the site possesses chromatin signatures similar to those observed at other better-characterized eukaryotic insulators. Enhanced 4C analysis demonstrates that the tDNA insulator makes long-range chromatin contacts with other tDNAs and ETC sites but not with intervening or flanking RNA pol II transcribed genes.

  19. Bacterial control of host gene expression through RNA polymerase II

    PubMed Central

    Lutay, Nataliya; Ambite, Ines; Hernandez, Jenny Grönberg; Rydström, Gustav; Ragnarsdóttir, Bryndís; Puthia, Manoj; Nadeem, Aftab; Zhang, Jingyao; Storm, Petter; Dobrindt, Ulrich; Wullt, Björn; Svanborg, Catharina

    2013-01-01

    The normal flora furnishes the host with ecological barriers that prevent pathogen attack while maintaining tissue homeostasis. Urinary tract infections (UTIs) constitute a highly relevant model of microbial adaptation in which some patients infected with Escherichia coli develop acute pyelonephritis, while other patients with bacteriuria exhibit an asymptomatic carrier state similar to bacterial commensalism. It remains unclear if the lack of destructive inflammation merely reflects low virulence or if carrier strains actively inhibit disease-associated responses in the host. Here, we identify a new mechanism of bacterial adaptation through broad suppression of RNA polymerase II–dependent (Pol II–dependent) host gene expression. Over 60% of all genes were suppressed 24 hours after human inoculation with the prototype asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) strain E. coli 83972, and inhibition was verified by infection of human cells. Specific repressors and activators of Pol II–dependent transcription were modified, Pol II phosphorylation was inhibited, and pathogen-specific signaling was suppressed in cell lines and inoculated patients. An increased frequency of strains inhibiting Pol II was epidemiologically verified in ABU and fecal strains compared with acute pyelonephritis, and a Pol II antagonist suppressed the disease-associated host response. These results suggest that by manipulating host gene expression, ABU strains promote tissue integrity while inhibiting pathology. Such bacterial modulation of host gene expression may be essential to sustain asymptomatic bacterial carriage by ensuring that potentially destructive immune activation will not occur. PMID:23728172

  20. Peptides from aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases can cure the defects due to mutations in mt tRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Francisci, Silvia; Montanari, Arianna; De Luca, Cristina; Frontali, Laura

    2011-11-01

    Recent results from several laboratories have confirmed that human and yeast leucyl- and valyl-tRNA synthetases can rescue the respiratory defects due to mutations in mitochondrial tRNA genes. In this report we show that this effect cannot be ascribed to the catalytic activity per se and that isolated domains of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases and even short peptides thereof have suppressing effects.

  1. Hypoxic stress suppresses RNA polymerase III recruitment and tRNA gene transcription in cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Ernens, Isabelle; Goodfellow, Sarah J.; Innes, Fiona; Kenneth, Niall S.; Derblay, Louise E.; White, Robert J.; Scott, Pamela H.

    2006-01-01

    RNA polymerase (pol) III transcription decreases when primary cultures of rat neonatal cardiomyocytes are exposed to low oxygen tension. Previous studies in fibroblasts have shown that the pol III-specific transcription factor IIIB (TFIIIB) is bound and regulated by the proto-oncogene product c-Myc, the mitogen-activated protein kinase ERK and the retinoblastoma tumour suppressor protein, RB. The principal function of TFIIIB is to recruit pol III to its cognate gene template, an activity that is known to be inhibited by RB and stimulated by ERK. We demonstrate by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) that c-Myc also stimulates pol III recruitment by TFIIIB. However, hypoxic conditions cause TFIIIB dissociation from c-Myc and ERK, at the same time as increasing its interaction with RB. Consistent with this, ChIP assays indicate that the occupancy of tRNA genes by pol III is significantly reduced, whereas promoter binding by TFIIIB is undiminished. The data suggest that hypoxia can inhibit pol III transcription by altering the interactions between TFIIIB and its regulators and thus compromising its ability to recruit the polymerase. These effects are independent of cell cycle changes. PMID:16407335

  2. Intervening sequences in ribosomal RNA genes and bobbed phenotype in Drosophila hydei.

    PubMed

    Franz, G; Kunz, W

    1981-08-13

    The "bobbed' (bb) mutation in Drosophila is represented phenotypically by shortened and abnormally thin scutellar bristles and by delayed development. There is a direct correlation between bristle size and ribosomal RNA (rRNA) synthesis, and the bb mutation was at first explained as a deficiency of rRNA genes (rDNA). However, the bb phenotype can occur in Drosophila melanogaster and Drosophila hydei with high rDNA content, while phenotypically wild-type flies are known with few rRNA genes, suggesting that what matters is not the number of rRNA genes but their transcriptional activity. In D. melanogaster, it has recently emerged that rRNA genes interrupted by an intervening sequence are not transcribed. We now report that in D. hydei, the length of the scutellar bristle is directly proportional to the number of rRNA genes without this intervening sequence.

  3. Brain Gene Expression Signatures From Cerebrospinal Fluid Exosome RNA Profiling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zanello, S. B.; Stevens, B.; Calvillo, E.; Tang, R.; Gutierrez Flores, B.; Hu, L.; Skog, J.; Bershad, E.

    2016-01-01

    While the Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome observations have focused on ocular symptoms, spaceflight has been also associated with a number of other performance and neurologic signs, such as headaches, cognitive changes, vertigo, nausea, sleep/circadian disruption and mood alterations, which, albeit likely multifactorial, can also result from elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP). We therefore hypothesize that these various symptoms are caused by disturbances in the neurophysiology of the brain structures and are correlated with molecular markers in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) as indicators of neurophysiological changes. Exosomes are 30-200 nm microvesicles shed into all biofluids, including blood, urine, and CSF, carrying a highly rich source of intact protein and RNA cargo. Exosomes have been identified in human CSF, and their proteome and RNA pool is a potential new reservoir for biomarker discovery in neurological disorders. The purpose of this study is to investigate changes in brain gene expression via exosome analysis in patients suffering from ICP elevation of varied severity (idiopathic intracranial hypertension -IIH), a condition which shares some of the neuroophthalmological features of VIIP, as a first step toward obtaining evidence suggesting that cognitive function and ICP levels can be correlated with biomarkers in the CSF. Our preliminary work, reported last year, validated the exosomal technology applicable to CSF analysis and demonstrated that it was possible to obtain gene expression evidence of inflammation processes in traumatic brain injury patients. We are now recruiting patients with suspected IIH requiring lumbar puncture at Baylor College of Medicine. Both CSF (5 ml) and human plasma (10 ml) are being collected in order to compare the pattern of differentially expressed genes observed in CSF and in blood. Since blood is much more accessible than CSF, we would like to determine whether plasma biomarkers for

  4. The expression of prokaryotic tRNA genes in frog oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Bossi, L; Ciampi, M S

    1983-01-01

    A tRNA gene cluster in Salmonella typhimurium includes the genes for tRNAArg, tRNAHis, tRNA1Leu and tRNAPro. DNA clones were constructed with different portions of this tRNA gene cluster. These clones were microinjected into the nuclei of Xenopus laevis oocytes and assayed for expression. Two of the bacterial tRNA genes (tRNAArg and tRNAPro) are transcribed at high rates and the primary transcripts are processed into mature tRNAs. Transcription and processing are largely independent of whether the two genes are injected individually or as part of a tRNA gene cluster. A third tRNA gene (tRNA1Leu) is expressed less efficiently. Synthesis of this tRNA is totally abolished by a deletion removing 22 bp in the first half of the tRNA1Leu coding sequence. The expression of the fourth tRNA gene (tRNAHis) is very inefficient and dependent upon the gene organization within the injected DNA. No significant tRNA synthesis is detected upon injection of a clone containing only the tRNAHis gene. Evidence is presented suggesting that the impaired expression of the tRNAHis gene is not caused by inefficient transcription, but rather by defective processing of the primary transcript. The prokaryotic tRNAs synthesized in the oocytes show a modification pattern that is specific of eukaryotic tRNAs. Overall, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that the intragenic signals for eukaryotic tRNA gene transcription have appeared early in evolution for reasons other than gene expression. Images PMID:6304627

  5. Analysis of hairpin RNA transgene-induced gene silencing in Fusarium oxysporum

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hairpin RNA (hpRNA) transgenes can be effective at inducing RNA silencing and have been exploited as a powerful tool for gene function analysis in many organisms. However, in fungi, expression of hairpin RNA transcripts can induce post-transcriptional gene silencing, but in some species can also lead to transcriptional gene silencing, suggesting a more complex interplay of the two pathways at least in some fungi. Because many fungal species are important pathogens, RNA silencing is a powerful technique to understand gene function, particularly when gene knockouts are difficult to obtain. We investigated whether the plant pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum possesses a functional gene silencing machinery and whether hairpin RNA transcripts can be employed to effectively induce gene silencing. Results Here we show that, in the phytopathogenic fungus F. oxysporum, hpRNA transgenes targeting either a β-glucuronidase (Gus) reporter transgene (hpGus) or the endogenous gene Frp1 (hpFrp) did not induce significant silencing of the target genes. Expression analysis suggested that the hpRNA transgenes are prone to transcriptional inactivation, resulting in low levels of hpRNA and siRNA production. However, the hpGus RNA can be efficiently transcribed by promoters acquired either by recombination with a pre-existing, actively transcribed Gus transgene or by fortuitous integration near an endogenous gene promoter allowing siRNA production. These siRNAs effectively induced silencing of a target Gus transgene, which in turn appeared to also induce secondary siRNA production. Furthermore, our results suggested that hpRNA transcripts without poly(A) tails are efficiently processed into siRNAs to induce gene silencing. A convergent promoter transgene, designed to express poly(A)-minus sense and antisense Gus RNAs, without an inverted-repeat DNA structure, induced consistent Gus silencing in F. oxysporum. Conclusions These results indicate that F. oxysporum possesses

  6. Initiation of transcription in yeast mitochondria: analysis of origins of replication and of genes coding for a messenger RNA and a transfer RNA.

    PubMed Central

    Osinga, K A; De Vries, E; Van der Horst, G T; Tabak, H F

    1984-01-01

    The initiation of transcription of the yeast mitochondrial genes coding for subunit I of cytochrome c oxidase (COX1) and for tRNA1Thr has been examined. COX1 messenger RNA synthesis is initiated in a conserved nonanucleotide sequence (ATATAAGTA) which we have previously found immediately upstream of ribosomal RNA genes at positions at which RNA synthesis starts. The 5'-end of the precursor of tRNA1Thr is located in a variant nonanucleotide motif (TTATAAGTA), which may be characteristic for tRNA genes. Using a partially purified fraction of mtRNA polymerase, we demonstrate that RNA synthesis is precisely initiated in vitro in nonanucleotide sequences preceding both ribosomal RNA-, tRNA- and messenger RNA-encoding genes and origins of replication. Images PMID:6322126

  7. Identification of microRNA-regulated gene networks by expression analysis of target genes

    PubMed Central

    Gennarino, Vincenzo Alessandro; D'Angelo, Giovanni; Dharmalingam, Gopuraja; Fernandez, Serena; Russolillo, Giorgio; Sanges, Remo; Mutarelli, Margherita; Belcastro, Vincenzo; Ballabio, Andrea; Verde, Pasquale; Sardiello, Marco; Banfi, Sandro

    2012-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and transcription factors control eukaryotic cell proliferation, differentiation, and metabolism through their specific gene regulatory networks. However, differently from transcription factors, our understanding of the processes regulated by miRNAs is currently limited. Here, we introduce gene network analysis as a new means for gaining insight into miRNA biology. A systematic analysis of all human miRNAs based on Co-expression Meta-analysis of miRNA Targets (CoMeTa) assigns high-resolution biological functions to miRNAs and provides a comprehensive, genome-scale analysis of human miRNA regulatory networks. Moreover, gene cotargeting analyses show that miRNAs synergistically regulate cohorts of genes that participate in similar processes. We experimentally validate the CoMeTa procedure through focusing on three poorly characterized miRNAs, miR-519d/190/340, which CoMeTa predicts to be associated with the TGFβ pathway. Using lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells as a model system, we show that miR-519d and miR-190 inhibit, while miR-340 enhances TGFβ signaling and its effects on cell proliferation, morphology, and scattering. Based on these findings, we formalize and propose co-expression analysis as a general paradigm for second-generation procedures to recognize bona fide targets and infer biological roles and network communities of miRNAs. PMID:22345618

  8. Transformation of tetrahymena thermophila with hypermethylated rRNA genes

    SciTech Connect

    Karrer, K.M.; Yao, M.C.

    1988-04-01

    The extrachromosomal rRNA genes (rDNA) of Tetrahymena thermophila contain 0.4% N/sup 6/-methyladenine. C3 strain rDNA was isolated, hypermethylated in vitro, and microinjected into B strain host cells. Clonal cell lines were established, and transformants were selected on the basis of resistance to paromomycin, conferred by the injected rDNA. The effects of methylation by three enzymes which methylate the sequence 5'-NAT-3'', the dam, EcoRI, and ClaI methylases, were tested. Hypermethylation of the injected rDNA had no effect on transformation efficiency relative to mock-methylated controls. The injected C3 strain rDNA efficiently replaced host rDNA as the major constituent of the population of rDNA molecules. Hypermethylation of the injected DNA was not maintained through 20 to 25 cell generations.

  9. [Study on the effect of Klotho gene interferred by plasmid-mediated short hairpin RNA (shRNA) on sinoatrial node pacing channel gene].

    PubMed

    Cai, Yingying; Wang, Han; Hou, Yanbin; Fang, Chenli; Tian, Peng; Wang, Guihua; Li, Lu; Deng, Juelin

    2013-06-01

    The study was aimed to assess the effect of Klotho gene and sinoatrial node pacing channel gene (HCN4 and HCN2) for studying sick sinus syndrome, with Klotho gene under the interference of Plasmid-mediated short hairpin RNA. Twenty-five C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups, i. e, plasmid shRNA 24h group, plasmid shRNA 12h group, sodium chloride 24h group and sodium chloride 12h group. Plasmid shRNA 50microL (1microg/microL) and sodium chloride 50microl were respectively injected according to mice vena caudalis into those in plasmid shRNA group and sodium chloride group. After 12h or 24h respectively, all mice were executed and their sinoatrial node tissues were cut. The mRNA of Klotho, HCN4 and HCN2 gene were detected by RT-PCR. The results of RT-PCR showed that Klotho, HCN4 and HCN2 mRNA levels were lower compared with those in sodium chloride 12h group after 12h interference interval. The results indicated that there might be the a certain relationship between Klotho gene and sinoatrial node pacing channel gene.

  10. DNA homologies of ribosomal RNA genes of Neurospora species

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, D.K.; Mimiko, R.; Dutta, S.K.

    1980-01-01

    Ribosomal RNA genes (rDNAs) of Neurospora crassa contain DNA sequences which code for 17S, 5.8S, and 26S rRNAs, in addition to internal and external spacers. As has been reported for many eukaryotes, the DNA sequences which code for 17S, 5.8S, and 26S rRNAs in Neurospora species are probably conserved while the internal and external spacer regions are probably variable sequences. Extensive electron microscopic studies of 45S precursor rRNA of several cold and warm blooded animals confirm that spacer regions vary extensively from species to species. It was desirable to know whether such differences in rDNA sequences exist between Neurospora species. Any such difference should be detectable using standard procedures for DNA homology studies rDNA sequences were isolated from N. crassa mycelial cells using the procedure described previously. The purified rDNA was /sup 3/H-labeled (by nick translation) and reassociated with total DNA isolated from the heterothallic species N. crassa and from three homothalliospecies: N. dodgei, N. lineolata, and N. africana. In addition, /sup 32/P-labeled total DNA of N. crassa was reannealed with unlabeled bulk DNA from N. crassa, N. dodgei, and N. lineolata.

  11. Altered Gene Expression Associated with microRNA Binding Site Polymorphisms

    PubMed Central

    Võsa, Urmo; Esko, Tõnu; Kasela, Silva; Annilo, Tarmo

    2015-01-01

    Allele-specific gene expression associated with genetic variation in regulatory regions can play an important role in the development of complex traits. We hypothesized that polymorphisms in microRNA (miRNA) response elements (MRE-SNPs) that either disrupt a miRNA binding site or create a new miRNA binding site can affect the allele-specific expression of target genes. By integrating public expression quantitative trait locus (eQTL) data, miRNA binding site predictions, small RNA sequencing, and Argonaute crosslinking immunoprecipitation (AGO-CLIP) datasets, we identified genetic variants that can affect gene expression by modulating miRNA binding efficiency. We also identified MRE-SNPs located in regions associated with complex traits, indicating possible causative mechanisms associated with these loci. The results of this study expand the current understanding of gene expression regulation and help to interpret the mechanisms underlying eQTL effects. PMID:26496489

  12. Identification of microRNA Genes in Three Opisthorchiids

    PubMed Central

    Ovchinnikov, Vladimir Y.; Afonnikov, Dmitry A.; Vasiliev, Gennady V.; Kashina, Elena V.; Sripa, Banchob; Mordvinov, Viacheslav A.; Katokhin, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Opisthorchis felineus, O. viverrini, and Clonorchis sinensis (family Opisthorchiidae) are parasitic flatworms that pose a serious threat to humans in some countries and cause opisthorchiasis/clonorchiasis. Chronic disease may lead to a risk of carcinogenesis in the biliary ducts. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding RNAs that control gene expression at post-transcriptional level and are implicated in the regulation of various cellular processes during the parasite- host interplay. However, to date, the miRNAs of opisthorchiid flukes, in particular those essential for maintaining their complex biology and parasitic mode of existence, have not been satisfactorily described. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a SOLiD deep sequencing-bioinformatic approach, we identified 43 novel and 18 conserved miRNAs for O. felineus (miracidia, metacercariae and adult worms), 20 novel and 16 conserved miRNAs for O. viverrini (adult worms), and 33 novel and 18 conserved miRNAs for C. sinensis (adult worms). The analysis of the data revealed differences in the expression level of conserved miRNAs among the three species and among three the developmental stages of O. felineus. Analysis of miRNA genes revealed two gene clusters, one cluster-like region and one intronic miRNA in the genome. The presence and structure of the two gene clusters were validated using a PCR-based approach in the three flukes. Conclusions This study represents a comprehensive description of miRNAs in three members of the family Opistorchiidae, significantly expands our knowledge of miRNAs in multicellular parasites and provides a basis for understanding the structural and functional evolution of miRNAs in these metazoan parasites. Results of this study also provides novel resources for deeper understanding the complex parasite biology, for further research on the pathogenesis and molecular events of disease induced by the liver flukes. The present data may also facilitate the development of novel

  13. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Davanloo, Parichehre; Rosenberg, Alan H.; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Dunn, John J.

    1997-12-02

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells.

  14. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Davanloo, P.; Rosenberg, A.H.; Moffatt, B.A.; Dunn, J.J.

    1997-12-02

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells. 10 figs.

  15. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Davanloo, P.; Rosenberg, A.H.; Moffatt, B.A.; Dunn, J.J.

    1999-02-09

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells. 10 figs.

  16. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Davanloo, Parichehre; Rosenberg, Alan H.; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Dunn, John J.

    1999-02-09

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the R7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells.

  17. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F. William; Davanloo, Parichehre; Rosenberg, Alan H.; Moffatt, Barbara A.; Dunn, John J.

    1990-01-01

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the T7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties. T7 RNA polymerase is also used in a system for selective, high-level synthesis of RNAs and proteins in suitable host cells.

  18. Intraspecific 16S rRNA gene diversity among clinical isolates of Neisseria species.

    PubMed

    Mechergui, Arij; Achour, Wafa; Hassen, Assia Ben

    2014-05-01

    In the present work, nearly the entire 16S rRNA gene sequences of 46 clinical samples of Neisseria spp. were determined, and the aligned sequences were analyzed to investigate the diversity of 16S rRNA genes in each commensal Neisseria species. Two 16S rRNA types were identified in two Neisseria sicca strains, three 16S rRNA types in five Neisseria macacae strains, fourteen 16S rRNA types in twenty Neisseria flavescens isolates, and fourteen 16S rRNA types in nineteen Neisseria mucosa isolates. The number of nucleotides that were different between 16S rRNA sequences within specie ranged from 1 to 15. We found high intraspecific sequence variation in 16S rRNA genes of Neisseria spp. strains.

  19. Regulation of Gene Expression in Plants through miRNA Inactivation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yuanji; Ziegler, Todd E.; Roberts, James K.; Heck, Gregory R.

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic organisms possess a complex RNA-directed gene expression regulatory network allowing the production of unique gene expression patterns. A recent addition to the repertoire of RNA-based gene regulation is miRNA target decoys, endogenous RNA that can negatively regulate miRNA activity. miRNA decoys have been shown to be a valuable tool for understanding the function of several miRNA families in plants and invertebrates. Engineering and precise manipulation of an endogenous RNA regulatory network through modification of miRNA activity also affords a significant opportunity to achieve a desired outcome of enhanced plant development or response to environmental stresses. Here we report that expression of miRNA decoys as single or heteromeric non-cleavable microRNA (miRNA) sites embedded in either non-protein-coding or within the 3′ untranslated region of protein-coding transcripts can regulate the expression of one or more miRNA targets. By altering the sequence of the miRNA decoy sites, we were able to attenuate miRNA inactivation, which allowed for fine regulation of native miRNA targets and the production of a desirable range of plant phenotypes. Thus, our results demonstrate miRNA decoys are a flexible and robust tool, not only for studying miRNA function, but also for targeted engineering of gene expression in plants. Computational analysis of the Arabidopsis transcriptome revealed a number of potential miRNA decoys, suggesting that endogenous decoys may have an important role in natural modulation of expression in plants. PMID:21731706

  20. Lateral transfer of eukaryotic ribosomal RNA genes: an emerging concern for molecular ecology of microbial eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Yabuki, Akinori; Toyofuku, Takashi; Takishita, Kiyotaka

    2014-07-01

    Ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are widely utilized in depicting organismal diversity and distribution in a wide range of environments. Although a few cases of lateral transfer of rRNA genes between closely related prokaryotes have been reported, it remains to be reported from eukaryotes. Here, we report the first case of lateral transfer of eukaryotic rRNA genes. Two distinct sequences of the 18S rRNA gene were detected from a clonal culture of the stramenopile, Ciliophrys infusionum. One was clearly derived from Ciliophrys, but the other gene originated from a perkinsid alveolate. Genome-walking analyses revealed that this alveolate-type rRNA gene is immediately adjacent to two protein-coding genes (ubc12 and usp39), and the origin of both genes was shown to be a stramenopile (that is, Ciliophrys) in our phylogenetic analyses. These findings indicate that the alveolate-type rRNA gene is encoded on the Ciliophrys genome and that eukaryotic rRNA genes can be transferred laterally.

  1. On the Evolution and Expression of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Nucleus-Encoded Transfer RNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Cognat, Valérie; Deragon, Jean-Marc; Vinogradova, Elizaveta; Salinas, Thalia; Remacle, Claire; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence

    2008-01-01

    In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, 259 tRNA genes were identified and classified into 49 tRNA isoaccepting families. By constructing phylogenetic trees, we determined the evolutionary history for each tRNA gene family. The majority of the tRNA sequences are more closely related to their plant counterparts than to animals ones. Northern experiments also permitted us to show that at least one member of each tRNA isoacceptor family is transcribed and correctly processed in vivo. A short stretch of T residues known to be a signal for termination of polymerase III transcription was found downstream of most tRNA genes. It allowed us to propose that the vast majority of the tRNA genes are expressed and to confirm that numerous tRNA genes separated by short spacers are indeed cotranscribed. Interestingly, in silico analyses and hybridization experiments show that the cellular tRNA abundance is correlated with the number of tRNA genes and is adjusted to the codon usage to optimize translation efficiency. Finally, we studied the origin of SINEs, short interspersed elements related to tRNAs, whose presence in Chlamydomonas is exceptional. Phylogenetic analysis strongly suggests that tRNAAsp-related SINEs originate from a prokaryotic-type tRNA either horizontally transferred from a bacterium or originally present in mitochondria or chloroplasts. PMID:18493044

  2. Combining Spinach-tagged RNA and gene localization to image gene expression in live yeast

    PubMed Central

    Guet, David; Burns, Laura T.; Maji, Suman; Boulanger, Jérôme; Hersen, Pascal; Wente, Susan R.; Salamero, Jean; Dargemont, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Although many factors required for the formation of export-competent mRNPs have been described, an integrative view of the spatiotemporal coordinated cascade leading mRNPs from their site of transcription to their site of nuclear exit, at a single cell level, is still partially missing due to technological limitations. Here we report that the RNA Spinach aptamer is a powerful tool for mRNA imaging in live S. cerevisiae with high spatial-temporal resolution and no perturbation of the mRNA biogenesis properties. Dedicated image processing workflows are developed to allow detection of very low abundance of transcripts, accurate quantitative dynamic studies, as well as to provide a localization precision close to 100 nm at consistent time scales. Combining these approaches has provided a state-of-the-art analysis of the osmotic shock response in live yeast by localizing induced transcription factors, target gene loci and corresponding transcripts. PMID:26582123

  3. RNAi Pathway Genes Are Resistant to Small RNA Mediated Gene Silencing in the Protozoan Parasite Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Pompey, Justine M.; Morf, Laura; Singh, Upinder

    2014-01-01

    The RNA interference pathway in the protist Entamoeba histolytica plays important roles in permanent gene silencing as well as in the regulation of virulence determinants. Recently, a novel RNA interference (RNAi)-based silencing technique was developed in this parasite that uses a gene endogenously silenced by small RNAs as a “trigger” to induce silencing of other genes that are fused to it. Fusion to a trigger gene induces the production of gene-specific antisense small RNAs, resulting in robust and permanent silencing of the cognate gene. This approach has silenced multiple genes including those involved in virulence and transcriptional regulation. We now demonstrate that all tested genes of the amebic RNAi pathway are unable to be silenced using the trigger approach, including Argonaute genes (Ago2-1, Ago2-2, and Ago2-3), RNaseIII, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). In all situations (except for RdRP), fusion to a trigger successfully induces production of gene-specific antisense small RNAs to the cognate gene. These small RNAs are capable of silencing a target gene in trans, indicating that they are functional; despite this, however, they cannot silence the RNAi pathway genes. Interestingly, when a trigger is fused to RdRP, small RNA induction to RdRP does not occur, a unique phenotype hinting that either RdRP is highly resistant to being a target of small RNAs or that small RNA generation may be controlled by RdRP. The inability of the small RNA pathway to silence RNAi genes in E. histolytica, despite the generation of functional small RNAs to these loci suggest that epigenetic factors may protect certain genomic loci and thus determine susceptibility to small RNA mediated silencing. PMID:25198343

  4. RNAi pathway genes are resistant to small RNA mediated gene silencing in the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Pompey, Justine M; Morf, Laura; Singh, Upinder

    2014-01-01

    The RNA interference pathway in the protist Entamoeba histolytica plays important roles in permanent gene silencing as well as in the regulation of virulence determinants. Recently, a novel RNA interference (RNAi)-based silencing technique was developed in this parasite that uses a gene endogenously silenced by small RNAs as a "trigger" to induce silencing of other genes that are fused to it. Fusion to a trigger gene induces the production of gene-specific antisense small RNAs, resulting in robust and permanent silencing of the cognate gene. This approach has silenced multiple genes including those involved in virulence and transcriptional regulation. We now demonstrate that all tested genes of the amebic RNAi pathway are unable to be silenced using the trigger approach, including Argonaute genes (Ago2-1, Ago2-2, and Ago2-3), RNaseIII, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP). In all situations (except for RdRP), fusion to a trigger successfully induces production of gene-specific antisense small RNAs to the cognate gene. These small RNAs are capable of silencing a target gene in trans, indicating that they are functional; despite this, however, they cannot silence the RNAi pathway genes. Interestingly, when a trigger is fused to RdRP, small RNA induction to RdRP does not occur, a unique phenotype hinting that either RdRP is highly resistant to being a target of small RNAs or that small RNA generation may be controlled by RdRP. The inability of the small RNA pathway to silence RNAi genes in E. histolytica, despite the generation of functional small RNAs to these loci suggest that epigenetic factors may protect certain genomic loci and thus determine susceptibility to small RNA mediated silencing.

  5. Targeted RNA Sequencing Assay to Characterize Gene Expression and Genomic Alterations.

    PubMed

    Martin, Dorrelyn P; Miya, Jharna; Reeser, Julie W; Roychowdhury, Sameek

    2016-01-01

    RNA sequencing (RNAseq) is a versatile method that can be utilized to detect and characterize gene expression, mutations, gene fusions, and noncoding RNAs. Standard RNAseq requires 30 - 100 million sequencing reads and can include multiple RNA products such as mRNA and noncoding RNAs. We demonstrate how targeted RNAseq (capture) permits a focused study on selected RNA products using a desktop sequencer. RNAseq capture can characterize unannotated, low, or transiently expressed transcripts that may otherwise be missed using traditional RNAseq methods. Here we describe the extraction of RNA from cell lines, ribosomal RNA depletion, cDNA synthesis, preparation of barcoded libraries, hybridization and capture of targeted transcripts and multiplex sequencing on a desktop sequencer. We also outline the computational analysis pipeline, which includes quality control assessment, alignment, fusion detection, gene expression quantification and identification of single nucleotide variants. This assay allows for targeted transcript sequencing to characterize gene expression, gene fusions, and mutations. PMID:27585245

  6. Diversity of human tRNA genes from the 1000-genomes project

    PubMed Central

    Parisien, Marc; Wang, Xiaoyun; Pan, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The sequence diversity of individual human genomes has been extensively analyzed for variations and phenotypic implications for mRNA, miRNA, and long non-coding RNA genes. TRNA (tRNA) also exhibits large sequence diversity in the human genome, but tRNA gene sequence variation and potential functional implications in individual human genomes have not been investigated. Here we capitalize on the sequencing data from the 1000-genomes project to examine the diversity of tRNA genes in the human population. Previous analysis of the reference human genome indicated an unexpected large number of diverse tRNA genes beyond the necessity of translation, suggesting that some tRNA transcripts may perform non-canonical functions. We found 24 new tRNA sequences in > 1% and 76 new tRNA sequences in > 0.2% of all individuals, indicating that tRNA genes are also subject to evolutionary changes in the human population. Unexpectedly, two abundant new tRNA genes contain base-pair mismatches in the anticodon stem. We experimentally determined that these two new tRNAs have altered structures in vitro; however, one new tRNA is not aminoacylated but extremely stable in HeLa cells, suggesting that this new tRNA can be used for non-canonical function. Our results show that at the scale of human population, tRNA genes are more diverse than conventionally understood, and some new tRNAs may perform non-canonical, extra-translational functions that may be linked to human health and disease. PMID:24448271

  7. Diversity of human tRNA genes from the 1000-genomes project.

    PubMed

    Parisien, Marc; Wang, Xiaoyun; Pan, Tao

    2013-12-01

    The sequence diversity of individual human genomes has been extensively analyzed for variations and phenotypic implications for mRNA, miRNA, and long non-coding RNA genes. TRNA (tRNA) also exhibits large sequence diversity in the human genome, but tRNA gene sequence variation and potential functional implications in individual human genomes have not been investigated. Here we capitalize on the sequencing data from the 1000-genomes project to examine the diversity of tRNA genes in the human population. Previous analysis of the reference human genome indicated an unexpected large number of diverse tRNA genes beyond the necessity of translation, suggesting that some tRNA transcripts may perform non-canonical functions. We found 24 new tRNA sequences in>1% and 76 new tRNA sequences in>0.2% of all individuals, indicating that tRNA genes are also subject to evolutionary changes in the human population. Unexpectedly, two abundant new tRNA genes contain base-pair mismatches in the anticodon stem. We experimentally determined that these two new tRNAs have altered structures in vitro; however, one new tRNA is not aminoacylated but extremely stable in HeLa cells, suggesting that this new tRNA can be used for non-canonical function. Our results show that at the scale of human population, tRNA genes are more diverse than conventionally understood, and some new tRNAs may perform non-canonical, extra-translational functions that may be linked to human health and disease.

  8. BayMiR: inferring evidence for endogenous miRNA-induced gene repression from mRNA expression profiles

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Popular miRNA target prediction techniques use sequence features to determine the functional miRNA target sites. These techniques commonly ignore the cellular conditions in which miRNAs interact with their targets in vivo. Gene expression data are rich resources that can complement sequence features to take into account the context dependency of miRNAs. Results We introduce BayMiR, a new computational method, that predicts the functionality of potential miRNA target sites using the activity level of the miRNAs inferred from genome-wide mRNA expression profiles. We also found that mRNA expression variation can be used as another predictor of functional miRNA targets. We benchmarked BayMiR, the expression variation, Cometa, and the TargetScan “context scores” on two tasks: predicting independently validated miRNA targets and predicting the decrease in mRNA abundance in miRNA overexpression assays. BayMiR performed better than all other methods in both benchmarks and, surprisingly, the variation index performed better than Cometa and some individual determinants of the TargetScan context scores. Furthermore, BayMiR predicted miRNA target sets are more consistently annotated with GO and KEGG terms than similar sized random subsets of genes with conserved miRNA seed regions. BayMiR gives higher scores to target sites residing near the poly(A) tail which strongly favors mRNA degradation using poly(A) shortening. Our work also suggests that modeling multiplicative interactions among miRNAs is important to predict endogenous mRNA targets. Conclusions We develop a new computational method for predicting the target mRNAs of miRNAs. BayMiR applies a large number of mRNA expression profiles and successfully identifies the mRNA targets and miRNA activities without using miRNA expression data. The BayMiR package is publicly available and can be readily applied to any mRNA expression data sets. PMID:24001276

  9. The Xist RNA gene evolved in eutherians by pseudogenization of a protein-coding gene.

    PubMed

    Duret, Laurent; Chureau, Corinne; Samain, Sylvie; Weissenbach, Jean; Avner, Philip

    2006-06-16

    The Xist noncoding RNA is the key initiator of the process of X chromosome inactivation in eutherian mammals, but its precise function and origin remain unknown. Although Xist is well conserved among eutherians, until now, no homolog has been identified in other mammals. We show here that Xist evolved, at least partly, from a protein-coding gene and that the loss of protein-coding function of the proto-Xist coincides with the four flanking protein genes becoming pseudogenes. This event occurred after the divergence between eutherians and marsupials, which suggests that mechanisms of dosage compensation have evolved independently in both lineages.

  10. A dynamic intron retention program enriched in RNA processing genes regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Harold; Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry L; Mohandas, Narla; Pachter, Lior; Conboy, John G

    2016-01-29

    Differentiating erythroblasts execute a dynamic alternative splicing program shown here to include extensive and diverse intron retention (IR) events. Cluster analysis revealed hundreds of developmentally-dynamic introns that exhibit increased IR in mature erythroblasts, and are enriched in functions related to RNA processing such as SF3B1 spliceosomal factor. Distinct, developmentally-stable IR clusters are enriched in metal-ion binding functions and include mitoferrin genes SLC25A37 and SLC25A28 that are critical for iron homeostasis. Some IR transcripts are abundant, e.g. comprising ∼50% of highly-expressed SLC25A37 and SF3B1 transcripts in late erythroblasts, and thereby limiting functional mRNA levels. IR transcripts tested were predominantly nuclear-localized. Splice site strength correlated with IR among stable but not dynamic intron clusters, indicating distinct regulation of dynamically-increased IR in late erythroblasts. Retained introns were preferentially associated with alternative exons with premature termination codons (PTCs). High IR was observed in disease-causing genes including SF3B1 and the RNA binding protein FUS. Comparative studies demonstrated that the intron retention program in erythroblasts shares features with other tissues but ultimately is unique to erythropoiesis. We conclude that IR is a multi-dimensional set of processes that post-transcriptionally regulate diverse gene groups during normal erythropoiesis, misregulation of which could be responsible for human disease.

  11. A dynamic intron retention program enriched in RNA processing genes regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis

    SciTech Connect

    Pimentel, Harold; Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry L.; Mohandas, Narla; Pachter, Lior; Conboy, John G.

    2015-11-03

    Differentiating erythroblasts execute a dynamic alternative splicing program shown here to include extensive and diverse intron retention (IR) events. Cluster analysis revealed hundreds of developmentallydynamic introns that exhibit increased IR in mature erythroblasts, and are enriched in functions related to RNA processing such as SF3B1 spliceosomal factor. Distinct, developmentally-stable IR clusters are enriched in metal-ion binding functions and include mitoferrin genes SLC25A37 and SLC25A28 that are critical for iron homeostasis. Some IR transcripts are abundant, e.g. comprising ~50% of highly-expressed SLC25A37 and SF3B1 transcripts in late erythroblasts, and thereby limiting functional mRNA levels. IR transcripts tested were predominantly nuclearlocalized. Splice site strength correlated with IR among stable but not dynamic intron clusters, indicating distinct regulation of dynamically-increased IR in late erythroblasts. Retained introns were preferentially associated with alternative exons with premature termination codons (PTCs). High IR was observed in disease-causing genes including SF3B1 and the RNA binding protein FUS. Comparative studies demonstrated that the intron retention program in erythroblasts shares features with other tissues but ultimately is unique to erythropoiesis. Finally, we conclude that IR is a multi-dimensional set of processes that post-transcriptionally regulate diverse gene groups during normal erythropoiesis, misregulation of which could be responsible for human disease.

  12. A dynamic intron retention program enriched in RNA processing genes regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Harold; Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry L.; Mohandas, Narla; Pachter, Lior; Conboy, John G.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating erythroblasts execute a dynamic alternative splicing program shown here to include extensive and diverse intron retention (IR) events. Cluster analysis revealed hundreds of developmentally-dynamic introns that exhibit increased IR in mature erythroblasts, and are enriched in functions related to RNA processing such as SF3B1 spliceosomal factor. Distinct, developmentally-stable IR clusters are enriched in metal-ion binding functions and include mitoferrin genes SLC25A37 and SLC25A28 that are critical for iron homeostasis. Some IR transcripts are abundant, e.g. comprising ∼50% of highly-expressed SLC25A37 and SF3B1 transcripts in late erythroblasts, and thereby limiting functional mRNA levels. IR transcripts tested were predominantly nuclear-localized. Splice site strength correlated with IR among stable but not dynamic intron clusters, indicating distinct regulation of dynamically-increased IR in late erythroblasts. Retained introns were preferentially associated with alternative exons with premature termination codons (PTCs). High IR was observed in disease-causing genes including SF3B1 and the RNA binding protein FUS. Comparative studies demonstrated that the intron retention program in erythroblasts shares features with other tissues but ultimately is unique to erythropoiesis. We conclude that IR is a multi-dimensional set of processes that post-transcriptionally regulate diverse gene groups during normal erythropoiesis, misregulation of which could be responsible for human disease. PMID:26531823

  13. A dynamic intron retention program enriched in RNA processing genes regulates gene expression during terminal erythropoiesis

    DOE PAGES

    Pimentel, Harold; Parra, Marilyn; Gee, Sherry L.; Mohandas, Narla; Pachter, Lior; Conboy, John G.

    2015-11-03

    Differentiating erythroblasts execute a dynamic alternative splicing program shown here to include extensive and diverse intron retention (IR) events. Cluster analysis revealed hundreds of developmentallydynamic introns that exhibit increased IR in mature erythroblasts, and are enriched in functions related to RNA processing such as SF3B1 spliceosomal factor. Distinct, developmentally-stable IR clusters are enriched in metal-ion binding functions and include mitoferrin genes SLC25A37 and SLC25A28 that are critical for iron homeostasis. Some IR transcripts are abundant, e.g. comprising ~50% of highly-expressed SLC25A37 and SF3B1 transcripts in late erythroblasts, and thereby limiting functional mRNA levels. IR transcripts tested were predominantly nuclearlocalized. Splicemore » site strength correlated with IR among stable but not dynamic intron clusters, indicating distinct regulation of dynamically-increased IR in late erythroblasts. Retained introns were preferentially associated with alternative exons with premature termination codons (PTCs). High IR was observed in disease-causing genes including SF3B1 and the RNA binding protein FUS. Comparative studies demonstrated that the intron retention program in erythroblasts shares features with other tissues but ultimately is unique to erythropoiesis. Finally, we conclude that IR is a multi-dimensional set of processes that post-transcriptionally regulate diverse gene groups during normal erythropoiesis, misregulation of which could be responsible for human disease.« less

  14. Duplicate gene divergence by changes in microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis and Brassica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sishuo; Adams, Keith L

    2015-03-01

    Gene duplication provides large numbers of new genes that can lead to the evolution of new functions. Duplicated genes can diverge by changes in sequences, expression patterns, and functions. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in many eukaryotes. After duplication, two paralogs may diverge in their microRNA binding sites, which might impact their expression and function. Little is known about conservation and divergence of microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in plants. We analyzed microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. We found that duplicates are more often targeted by microRNAs than singletons. The vast majority of duplicated genes in A. thaliana with microRNA binding sites show divergence in those sites between paralogs. Analysis of microRNA binding sites in genes derived from the ancient whole-genome triplication in B. rapa also revealed extensive divergence. Paralog pairs with divergent microRNA binding sites show more divergence in expression patterns compared with paralog pairs with the same microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis. Close to half of the cases of binding site divergence are caused by microRNAs that are specific to the Arabidopsis genus, indicating evolutionarily recent gain of binding sites after target gene duplication. We also show rapid evolution of microRNA binding sites in a jacalin gene family. Our analyses reveal a dynamic process of changes in microRNA binding sites after gene duplication in Arabidopsis and highlight the role of microRNA regulation in the divergence and contrasting evolutionary fates of duplicated genes.

  15. Duplicate gene divergence by changes in microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis and Brassica.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sishuo; Adams, Keith L

    2015-03-01

    Gene duplication provides large numbers of new genes that can lead to the evolution of new functions. Duplicated genes can diverge by changes in sequences, expression patterns, and functions. MicroRNAs play an important role in the regulation of gene expression in many eukaryotes. After duplication, two paralogs may diverge in their microRNA binding sites, which might impact their expression and function. Little is known about conservation and divergence of microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in plants. We analyzed microRNA binding sites in duplicated genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa. We found that duplicates are more often targeted by microRNAs than singletons. The vast majority of duplicated genes in A. thaliana with microRNA binding sites show divergence in those sites between paralogs. Analysis of microRNA binding sites in genes derived from the ancient whole-genome triplication in B. rapa also revealed extensive divergence. Paralog pairs with divergent microRNA binding sites show more divergence in expression patterns compared with paralog pairs with the same microRNA binding sites in Arabidopsis. Close to half of the cases of binding site divergence are caused by microRNAs that are specific to the Arabidopsis genus, indicating evolutionarily recent gain of binding sites after target gene duplication. We also show rapid evolution of microRNA binding sites in a jacalin gene family. Our analyses reveal a dynamic process of changes in microRNA binding sites after gene duplication in Arabidopsis and highlight the role of microRNA regulation in the divergence and contrasting evolutionary fates of duplicated genes. PMID:25644246

  16. Effect of ribonucleic acid (RNA) isolation methods on putative reference genes messenger RNA abundance in human spermatozoa.

    PubMed

    Barragán, M; Martínez, A; Llonch, S; Pujol, A; Vernaeve, V; Vassena, R

    2015-07-01

    Although the male gamete participates in a significant proportion of infertility cases, there are currently no proven molecular markers of sperm quality. The search for significant gene expression markers is partially hindered by the lack of a recognized set of reference genes (RGs) to normalize reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) data across studies. The aim of this study is to define a set of RGs in assisted reproduction patients undergoing different sample collection and RNA isolation methods. Twenty-two normozoospermic men were included in the study. From each man, semen was either cryopreserved by slow freezing or analyzed fresh, and, for each, RNA was extracted with either phenol-free or phenol-based methods. In two cases, both methods were used to isolate RNA. Twenty putative RGs were analyzed and their mRNA abundance across samples was estimated by RT-qPCR. To determine the genes whose steady-state mRNA abundance remains unchanged, three different algorithms (geNorm, BestKeeper and NormFinder) were applied to the qPCR data. We found that RGs such as GAPDH or ACTB, useful in other biological contexts, cannot be used as reference for human spermatozoa. It is possible to compare gene expression from fresh and cryopreserved sperm samples using the same isolation method, while the mRNA abundance of expressed genes becomes different depending on the RNA isolation technique employed. In our conditions, the most appropriate RGs for RT-qPCR analysis were RPLP1, RPL13A, and RPLP2. Published discrepancies in gene expression studies in human spermatozoa may be due in part to inappropriate RGs selection, suggesting a possible different interpretation of PCR data in several reports, which were normalized using unstable RGs.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis of oryx species using partial sequences of mitochondrial rRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Khan, H A; Arif, I A; Al Farhan, A H; Al Homaidan, A A

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a comparative evaluation of 12S rRNA and 16S rRNA genes of the mitochondrial genome for molecular differentiation among three oryx species (Oryx leucoryx, Oryx dammah and Oryx gazella) with respect to two closely related outgroups, addax and roan. Our findings showed the failure of 12S rRNA gene to differentiate between the genus Oryx and addax, whereas a 342-bp partial sequence of 16S rRNA accurately grouped all five taxa studied, suggesting the utility of 16S rRNA segment for molecular phylogeny of oryx at the genus and possibly species levels. PMID:19048493

  18. Hairpin RNA Targeting Multiple Viral Genes Confers Strong Resistance to Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fangquan; Li, Wenqi; Zhu, Jinyan; Fan, Fangjun; Wang, Jun; Zhong, Weigong; Wang, Ming-Bo; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Zhou, Tong; Lan, Ying; Zhou, Yijun; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) belongs to the genus Fijivirus in the family of Reoviridae and causes severe yield loss in rice-producing areas in Asia. RNA silencing, as a natural defence mechanism against plant viruses, has been successfully exploited for engineering virus resistance in plants, including rice. In this study, we generated transgenic rice lines harbouring a hairpin RNA (hpRNA) construct targeting four RBSDV genes, S1, S2, S6 and S10, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the putative core protein, the RNA silencing suppressor and the outer capsid protein, respectively. Both field nursery and artificial inoculation assays of three generations of the transgenic lines showed that they had strong resistance to RBSDV infection. The RBSDV resistance in the segregating transgenic populations correlated perfectly with the presence of the hpRNA transgene. Furthermore, the hpRNA transgene was expressed in the highly resistant transgenic lines, giving rise to abundant levels of 21–24 nt small interfering RNA (siRNA). By small RNA deep sequencing, the RBSDV-resistant transgenic lines detected siRNAs from all four viral gene sequences in the hpRNA transgene, indicating that the whole chimeric fusion sequence can be efficiently processed by Dicer into siRNAs. Taken together, our results suggest that long hpRNA targeting multiple viral genes can be used to generate stable and durable virus resistance in rice, as well as other plant species. PMID:27187354

  19. Hairpin RNA Targeting Multiple Viral Genes Confers Strong Resistance to Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fangquan; Li, Wenqi; Zhu, Jinyan; Fan, Fangjun; Wang, Jun; Zhong, Weigong; Wang, Ming-Bo; Liu, Qing; Zhu, Qian-Hao; Zhou, Tong; Lan, Ying; Zhou, Yijun; Yang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV) belongs to the genus Fijivirus in the family of Reoviridae and causes severe yield loss in rice-producing areas in Asia. RNA silencing, as a natural defence mechanism against plant viruses, has been successfully exploited for engineering virus resistance in plants, including rice. In this study, we generated transgenic rice lines harbouring a hairpin RNA (hpRNA) construct targeting four RBSDV genes, S1, S2, S6 and S10, encoding the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, the putative core protein, the RNA silencing suppressor and the outer capsid protein, respectively. Both field nursery and artificial inoculation assays of three generations of the transgenic lines showed that they had strong resistance to RBSDV infection. The RBSDV resistance in the segregating transgenic populations correlated perfectly with the presence of the hpRNA transgene. Furthermore, the hpRNA transgene was expressed in the highly resistant transgenic lines, giving rise to abundant levels of 21-24 nt small interfering RNA (siRNA). By small RNA deep sequencing, the RBSDV-resistant transgenic lines detected siRNAs from all four viral gene sequences in the hpRNA transgene, indicating that the whole chimeric fusion sequence can be efficiently processed by Dicer into siRNAs. Taken together, our results suggest that long hpRNA targeting multiple viral genes can be used to generate stable and durable virus resistance in rice, as well as other plant species. PMID:27187354

  20. Cloning and expression of the gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase

    DOEpatents

    Studier, F.W.; Davanloo, P.; Rosenberg, A.H.

    1984-03-30

    This application describes a means to clone a functional gene for bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. Active T7 RNA polymerase is produced from the cloned gene, and a plasmid has been constructed that can produce the active enzyme in large amounts. T7 RNA polymerase transcribes DNA very efficiently and is highly selective for a relatively long promoter sequence. This enzyme is useful for synthesizing large amounts of RNA in vivo or in vitro, and is capable of producing a single RNA selectively from a complex mixture of DNAs. The procedure used to obtain a clone of the T7 RNA polymerase gene can be applied to other T7-like phages to obtain clones that produce RNA polymerases having different promoter specificities, different bacterial hosts, or other desirable properties.

  1. Dynamic signal processing by ribozyme-mediated RNA circuits to control gene expression.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shensi; Rodrigo, Guillermo; Prakash, Satya; Majer, Eszter; Landrain, Thomas E; Kirov, Boris; Daròs, José-Antonio; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2015-05-26

    Organisms have different circuitries that allow converting signal molecule levels to changes in gene expression. An important challenge in synthetic biology involves the de novo design of RNA modules enabling dynamic signal processing in live cells. This requires a scalable methodology for sensing, transmission, and actuation, which could be assembled into larger signaling networks. Here, we present a biochemical strategy to design RNA-mediated signal transduction cascades able to sense small molecules and small RNAs. We design switchable functional RNA domains by using strand-displacement techniques. We experimentally characterize the molecular mechanism underlying our synthetic RNA signaling cascades, show the ability to regulate gene expression with transduced RNA signals, and describe the signal processing response of our systems to periodic forcing in single live cells. The engineered systems integrate RNA-RNA interaction with available ribozyme and aptamer elements, providing new ways to engineer arbitrary complex gene circuits.

  2. miR2Gene: pattern discovery of single gene, multiple genes, and pathways by enrichment analysis of their microRNA regulators

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In recent years, a number of tools have been developed to explore microRNAs (miRNAs) by analyzing their target genes. However, a reverse problem, that is, inferring patterns of protein-coding genes through their miRNA regulators, has not been explored. As various miRNA annotation data become available, exploring gene patterns by analyzing the prior knowledge of their miRNA regulators is becoming more feasible. Results In this study, we developed a tool, miR2Gene, for this purpose. Various sets of miRNAs, according to prior rules such as function, associated disease, tissue specificity, family, and cluster, were integrated with miR2Gene. For given genes, miR2Gene evaluates the enrichment of the predicted miRNAs that regulate them in each miRNA set. This tool can be used for single genes, multiple genes, and KEGG pathways. For the KEGG pathway, genes with enriched miRNA sets are highlighted according to various rules. We confirmed the usefulness of miR2Gene through case studies. Conclusions miR2Gene represents a novel and useful tool that integrates miRNA knowledge for protein-coding gene analysis. miR2Gene is freely available at http://cmbi.hsc.pku.edu.cn/mir2gene. PMID:22784580

  3. A yeast transcription system for the 5S rRNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    van Keulen, H; Thomas, D Y

    1982-01-01

    A cell-free extract of yeast nuclei that can specifically transcribe cloned yeast 5S rRNA genes has been developed. Optima for transcription of 5S rDNA were determined and conditions of extract preparation leading to reproducible activities and specificities established. The major in vitro product has the same size and oligonucleotide composition as in vivo 5S rRNA. The in vitro transcription extract does not transcribe yeast tRNA genes. The extract does increase the transcription of tRNA genes packaged in chromatin. Images PMID:7145700

  4. Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis Strain CA-1 16S rRNA gene complete sequence.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study used 1326 base pair 16S rRNA gene sequence methods to confirm the identification of a bacterium as Tetrathiobacter kashmirensis. Morphological, biochemical characteristics, and fatty acid profiles are consistent with the 16S rRNA gene sequence identification of the bacterium. The isolate...

  5. Whole transcriptome profiling reveals the RNA content of motor axons

    PubMed Central

    Briese, Michael; Saal, Lena; Appenzeller, Silke; Moradi, Mehri; Baluapuri, Apoorva; Sendtner, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Most RNAs within polarized cells such as neurons are sorted subcellularly in a coordinated manner. Despite advances in the development of methods for profiling polyadenylated RNAs from small amounts of input RNA, techniques for profiling coding and non-coding RNAs simultaneously are not well established. Here, we optimized a transcriptome profiling method based on double-random priming and applied it to serially diluted total RNA down to 10 pg. Read counts of expressed genes were robustly correlated between replicates, indicating that the method is both reproducible and scalable. Our transcriptome profiling method detected both coding and long non-coding RNAs sized >300 bases. Compared to total RNAseq using a conventional approach our protocol detected 70% more genes due to reduced capture of ribosomal RNAs. We used our method to analyze the RNA composition of compartmentalized motoneurons. The somatodendritic compartment was enriched for transcripts with post-synaptic functions as well as for certain nuclear non-coding RNAs such as 7SK. In axons, transcripts related to translation were enriched including the cytoplasmic non-coding RNA 7SL. Our profiling method can be applied to a wide range of investigations including perturbations of subcellular transcriptomes in neurodegenerative diseases and investigations of microdissected tissue samples such as anatomically defined fiber tracts. PMID:26464439

  6. Whole transcriptome profiling reveals the RNA content of motor axons.

    PubMed

    Briese, Michael; Saal, Lena; Appenzeller, Silke; Moradi, Mehri; Baluapuri, Apoorva; Sendtner, Michael

    2016-02-29

    Most RNAs within polarized cells such as neurons are sorted subcellularly in a coordinated manner. Despite advances in the development of methods for profiling polyadenylated RNAs from small amounts of input RNA, techniques for profiling coding and non-coding RNAs simultaneously are not well established. Here, we optimized a transcriptome profiling method based on double-random priming and applied it to serially diluted total RNA down to 10 pg. Read counts of expressed genes were robustly correlated between replicates, indicating that the method is both reproducible and scalable. Our transcriptome profiling method detected both coding and long non-coding RNAs sized >300 bases. Compared to total RNAseq using a conventional approach our protocol detected 70% more genes due to reduced capture of ribosomal RNAs. We used our method to analyze the RNA composition of compartmentalized motoneurons. The somatodendritic compartment was enriched for transcripts with post-synaptic functions as well as for certain nuclear non-coding RNAs such as 7SK. In axons, transcripts related to translation were enriched including the cytoplasmic non-coding RNA 7SL. Our profiling method can be applied to a wide range of investigations including perturbations of subcellular transcriptomes in neurodegenerative diseases and investigations of microdissected tissue samples such as anatomically defined fiber tracts.

  7. The Effect of Gene Overlapping on the Rate of RNA Virus Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Simon-Loriere, Etienne; Holmes, Edward C.; Pagán, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Gene overlapping is widely employed by RNA viruses to generate genetic novelty while retaining a small genome size. However, gene overlapping also increases the deleterious effect of mutations as they affect more than one gene, thereby reducing the evolutionary rate of RNA viruses and hence their adaptive capacity. Although there is general agreement on the benefits of gene overlapping as a mechanism of genomic compression for rapidly evolving organisms, its effect on the pace of RNA virus evolution remains a source of debate. To address this issue, we collected sequence data from 117 instances of gene overlapping across 19 families, 30 genera, and 55 species of RNA viruses. On these data, we analyzed how genetic distances, selective pressures, and the distribution of RNA secondary structures and conserved protein functional domains vary between overlapping (OV) and nonoverlapping (NOV) regions. We show that gene overlapping generally results in a decrease in the rate of RNA virus evolution through a reduction in the frequency of synonymous mutations. However, this effect is less pronounced in genes with a terminal rather than an internal gene overlap, which might result from a greater proportion of protein functional conserved domains in NOV than in OV regions, in turn reducing the number of nonsynonymous mutations in the former. Overall, our analyses clarify the role of gene overlapping as a modulator of the evolutionary rates exhibited by RNA viruses and shed light on the factors that shape the genetic diversity of this important group of pathogens. PMID:23686658

  8. Simple gene silencing using the trans-acting siRNA pathway.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Thomas B; Lawler, Noah J; LaFayette, Peter R; Vodkin, Lila O; Parrott, Wayne A

    2016-01-01

    In plants, particular micro-RNAs (miRNAs) induce the production of a class of small interfering RNAs (siRNA) called trans-acting siRNA (ta-siRNA) that lead to gene silencing. A single miRNA target is sufficient for the production of ta-siRNAs, which target can be incorporated into a vector to induce the production of siRNAs, and ultimately gene silencing. The term miRNA-induced gene silencing (MIGS) has been used to describe such vector systems in Arabidopsis. Several ta-siRNA loci have been identified in soybean, but, prior to this work, few of the inducing miRNAs have been experimentally validated, much less used to silence genes. Nine ta-siRNA loci and their respective miRNA targets were identified, and the abundance of the inducing miRNAs varies dramatically in different tissues. The miRNA targets were experimentally verified by silencing a transgenic GFP gene and two endogenous genes in hairy roots and transgenic plants. Small RNAs were produced in patterns consistent with the utilization of the ta-siRNA pathway. A side-by-side experiment demonstrated that MIGS is as effective at inducing gene silencing as traditional hairpin vectors in soybean hairy roots. Soybean plants transformed with MIGS vectors produced siRNAs and silencing was observed in the T1 generation. These results complement previous reports in Arabidopsis by demonstrating that MIGS is an efficient way to produce siRNAs and induce gene silencing in other species, as shown with soybean. The miRNA targets identified here are simple to incorporate into silencing vectors and offer an effective and efficient alternative to other gene silencing strategies.

  9. Oscillatory kinetics of gene expression: Protein conversion and slow mRNA transport

    SciTech Connect

    Zhdanov, V. P.

    2009-06-15

    The negative feedback between mRNA and regulatory-protein production may result in oscillations in the kinetics of gene expression if the mRNA-protein interplay includes protein conversion. Using a mean-field kinetic model, we show that such oscillations can be amplified due to limitations of the mRNA transport between the nucleus and cytoplasm. This effect may be dramatic for the mRNA population in the nucleus.

  10. A pathogenic non-coding RNA induces changes in dynamic DNA methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in host plants

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, German; Castellano, Mayte; Tortosa, Maria; Pallas, Vicente; Gomez, Gustavo

    2014-01-01

    Viroids are plant-pathogenic non-coding RNAs able to interfere with as yet poorly known host-regulatory pathways and to cause alterations recognized as diseases. The way in which these RNAs coerce the host to express symptoms remains to be totally deciphered. In recent years, diverse studies have proposed a close interplay between viroid-induced pathogenesis and RNA silencing, supporting the belief that viroid-derived small RNAs mediate the post-transcriptional cleavage of endogenous mRNAs by acting as elicitors of symptoms expression. Although the evidence supporting the role of viroid-derived small RNAs in pathogenesis is robust, the possibility that this phenomenon can be a more complex process, also involving viroid-induced alterations in plant gene expression at transcriptional levels, has been considered. Here we show that plants infected with the ‘Hop stunt viroid’ accumulate high levels of sRNAs derived from ribosomal transcripts. This effect was correlated with an increase in the transcription of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) precursors during infection. We observed that the transcriptional reactivation of rRNA genes correlates with a modification of DNA methylation in their promoter region and revealed that some rRNA genes are demethylated and transcriptionally reactivated during infection. This study reports a previously unknown mechanism associated with viroid (or any other pathogenic RNA) infection in plants providing new insights into aspects of host alterations induced by the viroid infectious cycle. PMID:24178032

  11. RNA-Seq defines novel genes, RNA processing patterns and enhancer maps for the early stages of nephrogenesis: Hox supergenes.

    PubMed

    Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S Steven

    2012-08-01

    During kidney development the cap mesenchyme progenitor cells both self renew and differentiate into nephrons. The balance between renewal and differentiation determines the final nephron count, which is of considerable medical importance. An important goal is to create a precise genetic definition of the early differentiation of cap mesenchyme progenitors. We used RNA-Seq to transcriptional profile the cap mesenchyme progenitors and their first epithelial derivative, the renal vesicles. The results provide a global view of the changing gene expression program during this key period, defining expression levels for all transcription factors, growth factors, and receptors. The RNA-Seq was performed using two different biochemistries, with one examining only polyadenylated RNA and the other total RNA. This allowed the analysis of noncanonical transcripts, which for many genes were more abundant than standard exonic RNAs. Since a large fraction of enhancers are now known to be transcribed the results also provide global maps of potential enhancers. Further, the RNA-Seq data defined hundreds of novel splice patterns and large numbers of new genes. Particularly striking was the extensive sense/antisense transcription and changing RNA processing complexities of the Hox clusters. PMID:22664176

  12. RNA-Seq defines novel genes, RNA processing patterns and enhancer maps for the early stages of nephrogenesis: Hox supergenes

    PubMed Central

    Brunskill, Eric W; Potter, S. Steven

    2012-01-01

    During kidney development the cap mesenchyme progenitor cells both self renew and differentiate into nephrons. The balance between renewal and differentiation determines the final nephron count, which is of considerable medical importance. An important goal is to create a precise genetic definition of the early differentiation of cap mesenchyme progenitors. We used RNA-Seq to transcriptional profile the cap mesenchyme progenitors and their first epithelial derivative, the renal vesicles. The results provide a global view of the changing gene expression program during this key period, defining expression levels for all transcription factors, growth factors, and receptors. The RNA-Seq was performed using two different biochemistries, with one examining only polyadenylated RNA and the other total RNA. This allowed the analysis of noncanonical transcripts, which for many genes were more abundant than standard exonic RNAs. Since a large fraction of enhancers are now known to be transcribed the results also provide global maps of potential enhancers. Further, the RNA-Seq data defined hundreds of novel splice patterns and large numbers of new genes. Particularly striking was the extensive sense/antisense transcription and changing RNA processing complexities of the Hox clusters. PMID:22664176

  13. TFIIIA binds to different domains of 5S RNA and the Xenopus borealis 5S RNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Sands, M S; Bogenhagen, D F

    1987-01-01

    We have established the conditions for the reassociation of 5S RNA and TFIIIA to form 7S particles. We tested the ability of altered 5S RNAs to bind TFIIIA, taking advantage of the slower mobility of 7S particles compared with free 5S RNA in native polyacrylamide gels. Linker substitution mutants were constructed encompassing the entire gene, including the intragenic control region. In vitro transcripts of the linker substitution mutants were tested for their ability to bind TFIIIA to form 7S ribonucleoprotein particles. Altered 5S RNAs with base changes in or around helices IV and V, which would interfere with the normal base pairing of that region, showed decreased ability to bind TFIIIA. The transcripts of some mutant genes that were efficiently transcribed (greater than 50% of wild-type efficiency) failed to bind TFIIIA in this gel assay. In contrast, the RNA synthesized from a poorly transcribed mutant, LS 86/97, in which residues 87 to 96 of the RNA were replaced in the single-stranded loop at the base of helix V, bound TFIIIA well. The data indicate that TFIIIA binds to different domains in the 5S RNA gene and 5S RNA. Images PMID:3431548

  14. Integrative analyses of RNA editing, alternative splicing, and expression of young genes in human brain transcriptome by deep RNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Ye, Ling-Qun; Li, Yan; Sun, Yan-Bo; Shao, Yi; Chen, Chunyan; Zhu, Zhu; Zhong, Li; Wang, Lu; Irwin, David M; Zhang, Yong E; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2015-08-01

    Next-generation RNA sequencing has been successfully used for identification of transcript assembly, evaluation of gene expression levels, and detection of post-transcriptional modifications. Despite these large-scale studies, additional comprehensive RNA-seq data from different subregions of the human brain are required to fully evaluate the evolutionary patterns experienced by the human brain transcriptome. Here, we provide a total of 6.5 billion RNA-seq reads from different subregions of the human brain. A significant correlation was observed between the levels of alternative splicing and RNA editing, which might be explained by a competition between the molecular machineries responsible for the splicing and editing of RNA. Young human protein-coding genes demonstrate biased expression to the neocortical and non-neocortical regions during evolution on the lineage leading to humans. We also found that a significantly greater number of young human protein-coding genes are expressed in the putamen, a tissue that was also observed to have the highest level of RNA-editing activity. The putamen, which previously received little attention, plays an important role in cognitive ability, and our data suggest a potential contribution of the putamen to human evolution.

  15. Programmable control of bacterial gene expression with the combined CRISPR and antisense RNA system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young Je; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Leong, Matthew C; Moon, Tae Seok

    2016-03-18

    A central goal of synthetic biology is to implement diverse cellular functions by predictably controlling gene expression. Though research has focused more on protein regulators than RNA regulators, recent advances in our understanding of RNA folding and functions have motivated the use of RNA regulators. RNA regulators provide an advantage because they are easier to design and engineer than protein regulators, potentially have a lower burden on the cell and are highly orthogonal. Here, we combine the CRISPR system from Streptococcus pyogenes and synthetic antisense RNAs (asRNAs) in Escherichia coli strains to repress or derepress a target gene in a programmable manner. Specifically, we demonstrate for the first time that the gene target repressed by the CRISPR system can be derepressed by expressing an asRNA that sequesters a small guide RNA (sgRNA). Furthermore, we demonstrate that tunable levels of derepression can be achieved (up to 95%) by designing asRNAs that target different regions of a sgRNA and by altering the hybridization free energy of the sgRNA-asRNA complex. This new system, which we call the combined CRISPR and asRNA system, can be used to reversibly repress or derepress multiple target genes simultaneously, allowing for rational reprogramming of cellular functions.

  16. A Novel Tryptophanyl-tRNA Synthetase Gene Confers High-Level Resistance to Indolmycin▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Vecchione, James J.; Sello, Jason K.

    2009-01-01

    Indolmycin, a potential antibacterial drug, competitively inhibits bacterial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetases. An effort to identify indolmycin resistance genes led to the discovery of a gene encoding an indolmycin-resistant isoform of tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase. Overexpression of this gene in an indolmycin-sensitive strain increased the indolmycin MIC 60-fold. Its transcription and distribution in various bacterial genera were assessed. The level of resistance conferred by this gene was compared to that of a known indolmycin resistance gene and to those of genes with resistance-conferring point mutations. PMID:19546369

  17. miRNA and miRNA target genes in copy number variations occurring in individuals with intellectual disability

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a family of short, non-coding RNAs modulating expression of human protein coding genes (miRNA target genes). Their dysfunction is associated with many human diseases, including neurodevelopmental disorders. It has been recently shown that genomic copy number variations (CNVs) can cause aberrant expression of integral miRNAs and their target genes, and contribute to intellectual disability (ID). Results To better understand the CNV-miRNA relationship in ID, we investigated the prevalence and function of miRNAs and miRNA target genes in five groups of CNVs. Three groups of CNVs were from 213 probands with ID (24 de novo CNVs, 46 familial and 216 common CNVs), one group of CNVs was from a cohort of 32 cognitively normal subjects (67 CNVs) and one group of CNVs represented 40 ID related syndromic regions listed in DECIPHER (30 CNVs) which served as positive controls for CNVs causing or predisposing to ID. Our results show that 1). The number of miRNAs is significantly higher in de novo or DECIPHER CNVs than in familial or common CNV subgroups (P < 0.01). 2). miRNAs with brain related functions are more prevalent in de novo CNV groups compared to common CNV groups. 3). More miRNA target genes are found in de novo, familial and DECIPHER CNVs than in the common CNV subgroup (P < 0.05). 4). The MAPK signaling cascade is found to be enriched among the miRNA target genes from de novo and DECIPHER CNV subgroups. Conclusions Our findings reveal an increase in miRNA and miRNA target gene content in de novo versus common CNVs in subjects with ID. Their expression profile and participation in pathways support a possible role of miRNA copy number change in cognition and/or CNV-mediated developmental delay. Systematic analysis of expression/function of miRNAs in addition to coding genes integral to CNVs could uncover new causes of ID. PMID:23937676

  18. Gene silencing in tick cell lines using small interfering or long double-stranded RNA.

    PubMed

    Barry, Gerald; Alberdi, Pilar; Schnettler, Esther; Weisheit, Sabine; Kohl, Alain; Fazakerley, John K; Bell-Sakyi, Lesley

    2013-03-01

    Gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) is an important research tool in many areas of biology. To effectively harness the power of this technique in order to explore tick functional genomics and tick-microorganism interactions, optimised parameters for RNAi-mediated gene silencing in tick cells need to be established. Ten cell lines from four economically important ixodid tick genera (Amblyomma, Hyalomma, Ixodes and Rhipicephalus including the sub-species Boophilus) were used to examine key parameters including small interfering RNA (siRNA), double stranded RNA (dsRNA), transfection reagent and incubation time for silencing virus reporter and endogenous tick genes. Transfection reagents were essential for the uptake of siRNA whereas long dsRNA alone was taken up by most tick cell lines. Significant virus reporter protein knockdown was achieved using either siRNA or dsRNA in all the cell lines tested. Optimum conditions varied according to the cell line. Consistency between replicates and duration of incubation with dsRNA were addressed for two Ixodes scapularis cell lines; IDE8 supported more consistent and effective silencing of the endogenous gene subolesin than ISE6, and highly significant knockdown of the endogenous gene 2I1F6 in IDE8 cells was achieved within 48 h incubation with dsRNA. In summary, this study shows that gene silencing by RNAi in tick cell lines is generally more efficient with dsRNA than with siRNA but results vary between cell lines and optimal parameters need to be determined for each experimental system.

  19. RNA silencing as a tool to uncover gene function and engineer novel traits in soybean

    PubMed Central

    Kasai, Megumi; Kanazawa, Akira

    2012-01-01

    RNA silencing refers collectively to diverse RNA-mediated pathways of nucleotide-sequence-specific inhibition of gene expression. It has been used to analyze gene function and engineer novel traits in various organisms. Here, we review the application of RNA silencing in soybean. To produce soybean lines, in which a particular gene is stably silenced, researchers have frequently used a transgene that transcribes inverted repeats of a target gene segment. Suppression of gene expression in developing soybean embryos has been one of the main focuses of metabolic engineering using transgene-induced silencing. Plants that have enhanced resistance against diseases caused by viruses or cyst nematode have also been produced. Meanwhile, Agrobacterium rhizogenes-mediated transformation has been used to induce RNA silencing in roots, which enabled analysis of the roles of gene products in nodulation or disease resistance. RNA silencing has also been induced using viral vectors, which is particularly useful for gene function analysis. So far, three viral vectors for virus-induced gene silencing have been developed for soybean. One of the features of the soybean genome is the presence of a large number of duplicated genes. Potential use of RNA silencing technology in combination with forward genetic approaches for analyzing duplicated genes is discussed. PMID:23136487

  20. Polyion complex stability and gene silencing efficiency with a siRNA-grafted polymer delivery system.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Hiroyasu; Ishii, Atsushi; Miyata, Kanjiro; Nakanishi, Masataka; Oba, Makoto; Ishii, Takehiko; Yamasaki, Yuichi; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Kataoka, Kazunori

    2010-11-01

    An siRNA-grafted polymer through disulfide linkage was prepared to improve the physicochemical properties and transfection efficacies of the polyion complexes (PICs) as a nanocarrier of siRNA. The siRNA-grafted polymer formed stable PICs due to its larger numbers and higher density of anionic charges compared with monomeric siRNA, leading to effective internalization by cultured cells. Following the endosomal escape of the PIC, the disulfide linkage of the siRNA-grafted polymer allowed efficient siRNA release from the PIC under intracellular reductive conditions. Consequently, the PIC from the siRNA-grafted polymer showed a potent gene silencing effect without cytotoxicity or immunogenicity, demonstrating a promising feature of the siRNA-grafted polymer to construct the PIC-based nanocarrier for in vivo siRNA delivery.

  1. Bioinformatics-Based Identification of MicroRNA-Regulated and Rheumatoid Arthritis-Associated Genes.

    PubMed

    Song, Yi-Jiang; Li, Guiling; He, Jian-Hua; Guo, Yao; Yang, Li

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) act as epigenetic markers and regulate the expression of their target genes, including those characterized as regulators in autoimmune diseases. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is one of the most common autoimmune diseases. The potential roles of miRNA-regulated genes in RA pathogenesis have greatly aroused the interest of clinicians and researchers in recent years. In the current study, RA-related miRNAs records were obtained from PubMed through conditional literature retrieval. After analyzing the selected records, miRNA targeted genes were predicted. We identified 14 RA-associated miRNAs, and their sub-analysis in 5 microarray or RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) datasets was performed. The microarray and RNA-seq data of RA were also downloaded from NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) and Sequence Read Archive (SRA), analyzed, and annotated. Using a bioinformatics approach, we identified a series of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by comparing studies on RA and the controls. The RA-related gene expression profile was thus obtained and the expression of miRNA-regulated genes was analyzed. After functional annotation analysis, we found GO molecular function (MF) terms significantly enriched in calcium ion binding (GO: 0005509). Moreover, some novel dysregulated target genes were identified in RA through integrated analysis of miRNA/mRNA expression. The result revealed that the expression of a number of genes, including ROR2, ABI3BP, SMOC2, etc., was not only affected by dysregulated miRNAs, but also altered in RA. Our findings indicate that there is a close association between negatively correlated mRNA/miRNA pairs and RA. These findings may be applied to identify genetic markers for RA diagnosis and treatment in the future.

  2. Dynamic signal processing by ribozyme-mediated RNA circuits to control gene expression

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Shensi; Rodrigo, Guillermo; Prakash, Satya; Majer, Eszter; Landrain, Thomas E.; Kirov, Boris; Daròs, José-Antonio; Jaramillo, Alfonso

    2015-01-01

    Organisms have different circuitries that allow converting signal molecule levels to changes in gene expression. An important challenge in synthetic biology involves the de novo design of RNA modules enabling dynamic signal processing in live cells. This requires a scalable methodology for sensing, transmission, and actuation, which could be assembled into larger signaling networks. Here, we present a biochemical strategy to design RNA-mediated signal transduction cascades able to sense small molecules and small RNAs. We design switchable functional RNA domains by using strand-displacement techniques. We experimentally characterize the molecular mechanism underlying our synthetic RNA signaling cascades, show the ability to regulate gene expression with transduced RNA signals, and describe the signal processing response of our systems to periodic forcing in single live cells. The engineered systems integrate RNA–RNA interaction with available ribozyme and aptamer elements, providing new ways to engineer arbitrary complex gene circuits. PMID:25916845

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of ruminant Theileria spp. from China based on 28S ribosomal RNA gene.

    PubMed

    Gou, Huitian; Guan, Guiquan; Ma, Miling; Liu, Aihong; Liu, Zhijie; Xu, Zongke; Ren, Qiaoyun; Li, Youquan; Yang, Jifei; Chen, Ze; Yin, Hong; Luo, Jianxun

    2013-10-01

    Species identification using DNA sequences is the basis for DNA taxonomy. In this study, we sequenced the ribosomal large-subunit RNA gene sequences (3,037-3,061 bp) in length of 13 Chinese Theileria stocks that were infective to cattle and sheep. The complete 28S rRNA gene is relatively difficult to amplify and its conserved region is not important for phylogenetic study. Therefore, we selected the D2-D3 region from the complete 28S rRNA sequences for phylogenetic analysis. Our analyses of 28S rRNA gene sequences showed that the 28S rRNA was useful as a phylogenetic marker for analyzing the relationships among Theileria spp. in ruminants. In addition, the D2-D3 region was a short segment that could be used instead of the whole 28S rRNA sequence during the phylogenetic analysis of Theileria, and it may be an ideal DNA barcode.

  4. Transfer RNA gene arrangement and codon usage in vertebrate mitochondrial genomes: a new insight into gene order conservation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial (mt) gene arrangement has been highly conserved among vertebrates from jawless fishes to mammals for more than 500 million years. It remains unclear, however, whether such long-term persistence is a consequence of some constraints on the gene order. Results Based on the analysis of codon usage and tRNA gene positions, we suggest that tRNA gene order of the typical vertebrate mt-genomes may be important for their translational efficiency. The vertebrate mt-genome encodes 2 rRNA, 22 tRNA, and 13 transmembrane proteins consisting mainly of hydrophobic domains. We found that the tRNA genes specifying the hydrophobic residues were positioned close to the control region (CR), where the transcription efficiency is estimated to be relatively high. Using 47 vertebrate mt-genome sequences representing jawless fishes to mammals, we further found a correlation between codon usage and tRNA gene positions, implying that highly-used tRNA genes are located close to the CR. In addition, an analysis considering the asymmetric nature of mtDNA replication suggested that the tRNA loci that remain in single-strand for a longer time tend to have more guanine and thymine not suffering deamination mutations in their anticodon sites. Conclusions Our analyses imply the existence of translational constraint acting on the vertebrate mt-gene arrangement. Such translational constraint, together with the deamination-related constraint, may have contributed to long-term maintenance of gene order. PMID:20723209

  5. Computer identification of snoRNA genes using a Mammalian Orthologous Intron Database

    PubMed Central

    Fedorov, Alexei; Stombaugh, Jesse; Harr, Michael W.; Yu, Saihua; Nasalean, Lorena; Shepelev, Valery

    2005-01-01

    Based on comparative genomics, we created a bioinformatic package for computer prediction of small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) genes in mammalian introns. The core of our approach was the use of the Mammalian Orthologous Intron Database (MOID), which contains all known introns within the human, mouse and rat genomes. Introns from orthologous genes from these three species, that have the same position relative to the reading frame, are grouped in a special orthologous intron table. Our program SNO.pl searches for conserved snoRNA motifs within MOID and reports all cases when characteristic snoRNA-like structures are present in all three orthologous introns of human, mouse and rat sequences. Here we report an example of the SNO.pl usage for searching a particular pattern of conserved C/D-box snoRNA motifs (canonical C- and D-boxes and the 6 nt long terminal stem). In this computer analysis, we detected 57 triplets of snoRNA-like structures in three mammals. Among them were 15 triplets that represented known C/D-box snoRNA genes. Six triplets represented snoRNA genes that had only been partially characterized in the mouse genome. One case represented a novel snoRNA gene, and another three cases, putative snoRNAs. Our programs are publicly available and can be easily adapted and/or modified for searching any conserved motifs within mammalian introns. PMID:16093549

  6. Comprehensive protein-based artificial microRNA screens for effective gene silencing in plants.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Feng; Chung, Hoo Sun; Niu, Yajie; Bush, Jenifer; McCormack, Matthew; Sheen, Jen

    2013-05-01

    Artificial microRNA (amiRNA) approaches offer a powerful strategy for targeted gene manipulation in any plant species. However, the current unpredictability of amiRNA efficacy has limited broad application of this promising technology. To address this, we developed epitope-tagged protein-based amiRNA (ETPamir) screens, in which target mRNAs encoding epitope-tagged proteins were constitutively or inducibly coexpressed in protoplasts with amiRNA candidates targeting single or multiple genes. This design allowed parallel quantification of target proteins and mRNAs to define amiRNA efficacy and mechanism of action, circumventing unpredictable amiRNA expression/processing and antibody unavailability. Systematic evaluation of 63 amiRNAs in 79 ETPamir screens for 16 target genes revealed a simple, effective solution for selecting optimal amiRNAs from hundreds of computational predictions, reaching ∼100% gene silencing in plant cells and null phenotypes in transgenic plants. Optimal amiRNAs predominantly mediated highly specific translational repression at 5' coding regions with limited mRNA decay or cleavage. Our screens were easily applied to diverse plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana, tobacco (Nicotiana benthamiana), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), sunflower (Helianthus annuus), Catharanthus roseus, maize (Zea mays) and rice (Oryza sativa), and effectively validated predicted natural miRNA targets. These screens could improve plant research and crop engineering by making amiRNA a more predictable and manageable genetic and functional genomic technology.

  7. Programmable control of bacterial gene expression with the combined CRISPR and antisense RNA system

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Young Je; Hoynes-O'Connor, Allison; Leong, Matthew C.; Moon, Tae Seok

    2016-01-01

    A central goal of synthetic biology is to implement diverse cellular functions by predictably controlling gene expression. Though research has focused more on protein regulators than RNA regulators, recent advances in our understanding of RNA folding and functions have motivated the use of RNA regulators. RNA regulators provide an advantage because they are easier to design and engineer than protein regulators, potentially have a lower burden on the cell and are highly orthogonal. Here, we combine the CRISPR system from Streptococcus pyogenes and synthetic antisense RNAs (asRNAs) in Escherichia coli strains to repress or derepress a target gene in a programmable manner. Specifically, we demonstrate for the first time that the gene target repressed by the CRISPR system can be derepressed by expressing an asRNA that sequesters a small guide RNA (sgRNA). Furthermore, we demonstrate that tunable levels of derepression can be achieved (up to 95%) by designing asRNAs that target different regions of a sgRNA and by altering the hybridization free energy of the sgRNA–asRNA complex. This new system, which we call the combined CRISPR and asRNA system, can be used to reversibly repress or derepress multiple target genes simultaneously, allowing for rational reprogramming of cellular functions. PMID:26837577

  8. Genome-wide identification and characterization of microRNA genes and their targets in flax (Linum usitatissimum): Characterization of flax miRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Barvkar, Vitthal T; Pardeshi, Varsha C; Kale, Sandip M; Qiu, Shuqing; Rollins, Meaghen; Datla, Raju; Gupta, Vidya S; Kadoo, Narendra Y

    2013-04-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small (20-24 nucleotide long) endogenous regulatory RNAs that play important roles in plant growth and development. They regulate gene expression at the post-transcriptional level by translational repression or target degradation and gene silencing. In this study, we identified 116 conserved miRNAs belonging to 23 families from the flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) genome using a computational approach. The precursor miRNAs varied in length; while most of the mature miRNAs were 21 nucleotide long, intergenic and showed conserved signatures of RNA polymerase II transcripts in their upstream regions. Promoter region analysis of the flax miRNA genes indicated prevalence of MYB transcription factor binding sites. Four miRNA gene clusters containing members of three phylogenetic groups were identified. Further, 142 target genes were predicted for these miRNAs and most of these represent transcriptional regulators. The miRNA encoding genes were expressed in diverse tissues as determined by digital expression analysis as well as real-time PCR. The expression of fourteen miRNAs and nine target genes was independently validated using the quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR). This study suggests that a large number of conserved plant miRNAs are also found in flax and these may play important roles in growth and development of flax.

  9. Interaction of Xenopus TFIIIC with the TFIIIA.5 S RNA gene complex.

    PubMed

    Keller, H J; Romaniuk, P J; Gottesfeld, J M

    1992-09-01

    The general transcription factor TFIIIC is necessary for transcription initiation by RNA polymerase III. TFIIIC binds predominantly to the B-Block promoter element, which is present in tRNA genes, several viral RNA genes and repetitive DNA elements, and to the TFIIIA.DNA complex on 5 S RNA genes. Here we report a characterization of Xenopus laevis TFIIIC and its interaction with the TFIIIA.5 S RNA gene complex. A polypeptide with apparent molecular mass of 85 kDa was specifically cross-linked to a B-Block oligonucleotide by UV light. This polypeptide was present in the partially purified TFIIIC fraction and in a complex with a B-Block double-stranded oligonucleotide isolated by nondenaturing gel electrophoresis. TFIIIC.TFIIIA.DNA gel mobility shift complexes were obtained using B-Block DNA affinity-purified TFIIIC and buffer conditions employing low Mg2+ (1 mM) and high dithiothreitol (7 mM) concentrations. Three TFIIIC.TFIIIA.5 S RNA gene complexes were observed by gel mobility shift analysis. One of these complexes was resistant to dissociation by the addition of competing DNA, but the formation of all three complexes was prevented by the inclusion of excess specific competitor DNA in the initial binding reactions. The apparent affinity of TFIIIC for the TFIIIA.5 S DNA complex was 5-fold higher for the somatic-type 5 S RNA gene than for the oocyte-type 5 S RNA gene. Mutations near the 5' boundary of the TFIIIA binding site alter the DNase I footprint of the TFIIIA.DNA complex and reduce the affinity of TFIIIA-mutant 5 S gene complexes for TFIIIC. Differences in TFIIIC affinity for the two classes of 5 S RNA genes may play a role in the developmental regulation of these gene families. PMID:1517247

  10. eIF4AII is dispensable for miRNA-mediated gene silencing

    PubMed Central

    Galicia-Vázquez, Gabriela; Chu, Jennifer; Pelletier, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression through partial complementary base-pairing to the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of target mRNAs. Inhibition of translation initiation has been identified as an early event of miRNA-mediated gene repression, but the underlying mechanistic details of this process are not well understood. Recently, eukaryotic initiation factor (eIF) 4AII was identified as a critical modulator of miRNA activity with depletion of this factor alleviating miRNA-mediated gene repression. Using the CRISPR/Cas9-editing system, we generated a novel cell line in which expression of eIF4AII was eliminated. The absence of eIF4AII does not affect cell viability, proliferation, or global mRNA translation. Importantly, we show that eIF4AII is dispensable for miRNA-mediated gene silencing. PMID:26286746

  11. An intron within the 16S ribosomal RNA gene of the archaeon Pyrobaculum aerophilum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burggraf, S.; Larsen, N.; Woese, C. R.; Stetter, K. O.

    1993-01-01

    The 16S rRNA genes of Pyrobaculum aerophilum and Pyrobaculum islandicum were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, and the resulting products were sequenced directly. The two organisms are closely related by this measure (over 98% similar). However, they differ in that the (lone) 16S rRNA gene of Pyrobaculum aerophilum contains a 713-bp intron not seen in the corresponding gene of Pyrobaculum islandicum. To our knowledge, this is the only intron so far reported in the small subunit rRNA gene of a prokaryote. Upon excision the intron is circularized. A secondary structure model of the intron-containing rRNA suggests a splicing mechanism of the same type as that invoked for the tRNA introns of the Archaea and Eucarya and 23S rRNAs of the Archaea. The intron contains an open reading frame whose protein translation shows no certain homology with any known protein sequence.

  12. Structure and sequence of the gene for the largest subunit of trypanosomal RNA polymerase III.

    PubMed Central

    Köck, J; Evers, R; Cornelissen, A W

    1988-01-01

    As the first step in the analysis of the transcription process in the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, we have started to characterise the trypanosomal RNA polymerases. We have previously described the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase II and found that two almost identical RNA polymerase II genes are encoded within the genome of T. brucei. Here we present the identification, cloning and sequence analysis of the gene encoding the largest subunit of RNA polymerase III. This gene contains a single open reading frame encoding a polypeptide with a Mr of 170 kD. In total, eight encoding a polypeptide with a Mr of 170 kD. In total, eight highly conserved regions with significant homology to those previously reported in other eukaryotic RNA polymerase largest subunits were identified. Some of these domains contain functional sites, which are conserved among all eukaryotic largest subunit genes analysed thus far. Since these domains make up a large part of each polypeptide, independent of the RNA polymerase class, these data strongly support the hypothesis that these domains provide a major part of the transcription machinery of the RNA polymerase complex. The additional domains which are uniquely present in the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I and II, respectively, two large hydrophylic insertions and a C-terminal extension, might be a determining factor in specific transcription of the gene classes. Images PMID:3174432

  13. EBV noncoding RNA EBER2 interacts with host RNA-binding proteins to regulate viral gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nara; Yario, Therese A; Gao, Jessica S; Steitz, Joan A

    2016-03-22

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) produces a highly abundant noncoding RNA called EBV-encoded RNA 2 (EBER2) that interacts indirectly with the host transcription factor paired box protein 5 (PAX5) to regulate viral latent membrane protein 1/2 (LMP1/2) gene expression as well as EBV lytic replication. To identify intermediary proteins, we isolated EBER2-PAX5-containing complexes and analyzed the protein components by mass spectrometry. The top candidates include three host proteins splicing factor proline and glutamine rich (SFPQ), non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO), and RNA binding motif protein 14 (RBM14), all reported to be components of nuclear bodies called paraspeckles. In vivo RNA-protein crosslinking indicates that SFPQ and RBM14 contact EBER2 directly. Binding studies using recombinant proteins demonstrate that SFPQ and NONO associate with PAX5, potentially bridging its interaction with EBER2. Similar to EBER2 or PAX5 depletion, knockdown of any of the three host RNA-binding proteins results in the up-regulation of viral LMP2A mRNA levels, supporting a physiologically relevant interaction of these newly identified factors with EBER2 and PAX5. Identification of these EBER2-interacting proteins enables the search for cellular noncoding RNAs that regulate host gene expression in a manner similar to EBER2. PMID:26951683

  14. The embryonic RNA helicase gene (ERH): a new member of the DEAD box family of RNA helicases.

    PubMed Central

    Sowden, J; Putt, W; Morrison, K; Beddington, R; Edwards, Y

    1995-01-01

    DEAD box proteins share several highly conserved motifs including the characteristic Asp-Glu-Ala-Asp (D-E-A-D in the amino acid single-letter code) motif and have established or putative ATP-dependent RNA helicase activity. These proteins are implicated in a range of cellular processes that involve regulation of RNA function, including translation initiation, RNA splicing and ribosome assembly. Here we describe the isolation and characterization of an embryonic RNA helicase gene, ERH, which maps to mouse chromosome 1 and encodes a new member of the DEAD box family of proteins. The predicted ERH protein shows high sequence similarity to the testes-specific mouse PL10 and to the maternally acting Xenopus An3 helicase proteins. The ERH expression profile is similar, to that of An3, which localizes to the animal hemisphere of oocytes and is abundantly expressed in the embryo. ERH is expressed in oocytes and is a ubiquitous mRNA in the 9 days-post-conception embryo, and at later stages of development shows a more restricted pattern of expression in brain and kidney. The similarities in sequence and in expression profile suggest that ERH is the murine equivalent of the Xenopus An3 gene, and we propose that ERH plays a role in translational activation of mRNA in the oocyte and early embryo. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8948440

  15. EBV noncoding RNA EBER2 interacts with host RNA-binding proteins to regulate viral gene expression.

    PubMed

    Lee, Nara; Yario, Therese A; Gao, Jessica S; Steitz, Joan A

    2016-03-22

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) produces a highly abundant noncoding RNA called EBV-encoded RNA 2 (EBER2) that interacts indirectly with the host transcription factor paired box protein 5 (PAX5) to regulate viral latent membrane protein 1/2 (LMP1/2) gene expression as well as EBV lytic replication. To identify intermediary proteins, we isolated EBER2-PAX5-containing complexes and analyzed the protein components by mass spectrometry. The top candidates include three host proteins splicing factor proline and glutamine rich (SFPQ), non-POU domain-containing octamer-binding protein (NONO), and RNA binding motif protein 14 (RBM14), all reported to be components of nuclear bodies called paraspeckles. In vivo RNA-protein crosslinking indicates that SFPQ and RBM14 contact EBER2 directly. Binding studies using recombinant proteins demonstrate that SFPQ and NONO associate with PAX5, potentially bridging its interaction with EBER2. Similar to EBER2 or PAX5 depletion, knockdown of any of the three host RNA-binding proteins results in the up-regulation of viral LMP2A mRNA levels, supporting a physiologically relevant interaction of these newly identified factors with EBER2 and PAX5. Identification of these EBER2-interacting proteins enables the search for cellular noncoding RNAs that regulate host gene expression in a manner similar to EBER2.

  16. Controlling mesenchymal stem cell gene expression using polymer-mediated delivery of siRNA

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Danielle S.W.; Boutin, Molly E.

    2012-01-01

    siRNA treatment has great promise to specifically control gene expression and select cell behaviors but have delivery challenges limiting their use. Particularly for applications in regenerative medicine, uniform and consistent delivery of siRNA to control gene expression and subsequent stem cell functions, such as differentiation, is paramount. Therefore, a diblock copolymer was examined for its ability to effective delivery siRNA to mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The diblock copolymers, which are composed of cationic blocks for siRNA complexation, protection, and uptake and pH-responsive blocks for endosomal escape, were shown to facilitate nearly 100% MSC uptake of siRNA, which is vastly superior to a commercially-available control, DharmaFECT, which resulted in only ~60% siRNA positive MSCs. Moreover, the diblock copolymer, at conditions that result in excellent knockdown (down to ~10% of control gene expression), is cytocompatible, causing no negative effects on MSC survivability. In contrast, DharmaFECT:siRNA treatment results in only ~60% survivability of MSCs. Longitudinal knockdown after siRNA treatment was examined and protein knockdown persists for ~6 days regardless of delivery system (diblock copolymer or DharmaFECT). Finally, MSC phenotype and differentiation capacity was examined after treatment with control siRNA. There is no statistically significant differences on cell surface markers of diblock copolymer:siRNA or DharmaFECT:siRNA treated or cells measured 2 weeks after siRNA delivery compared to untreated cells. Upon differentiation with typical media/culture conditions to adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic lineages and examination of histological staining markers, there is no discernable differences between treated and untreated cells, regardless of delivery mechanism. Thus, diblock copolymers examined herein facilitate uniform siRNA treatment of MSCs, inducing siRNA-specific gene and protein knockdown without adversely affecting MSC

  17. Multifunctional nanocarrier based on clay nanotubes for efficient intracellular siRNA delivery and gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hui; Shi, Yinfeng; Huang, Chusen; Zhang, Yang; Wu, Jiahui; Shen, Hebai; Jia, Nengqin

    2014-04-01

    RNA interference-mediated gene silencing relating to disease has recently emerged as a powerful method in gene therapy. Despite the promises, effective transport of siRNA with minimal side effects remains a challenge. Halloysites are cheap and naturally available aluminosilicate clay nanotubes with high mechanical strength and biocompatibility. In this study, a novel multifunctional nanocarrier based on functionalized halloysite nanotubes (f-HNTs) has been developed via electrostatic layer-by-layer assembling approach for loading and intracellular delivery of therapeutic antisurvivin siRNA and simultaneously tracking their intracellular transport, in which PEI-modified HNTs are used as gene vector, antisurvivin siRNA as gene therapeutic agent, and mercaptoacetic acid-capped CdSe quantum dots as fluorescent labeling probes. The successful assembly of the f-HNTs-siRNA complexes was systematically characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible spectrophotometry, Zeta potential measurement, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Confocal microscopy, biological TEM, and flow cytometry studies revealed that the complexes enabled the efficient intracellular delivery of siRNA for cell-specific gene silencing. MTT assays exhibited that the complexes can enhance antitumor activity. Furthermore, Western blot analysis showed that f-HNTs-mediated siRNA delivery effectively knocked down gene expression of survivin and thereby decreased the levels of target proteins of PANC-1 cells. Therefore, this study suggested that the synthesized f-HNTs were a new effective drug delivery system for potential application in cancer gene therapy.

  18. shRNA-Induced Gene Knockdown In Vivo to Investigate Neutrophil Function.

    PubMed

    Basit, Abdul; Tang, Wenwen; Wu, Dianqing

    2016-01-01

    To silence genes in neutrophils efficiently, we exploited the RNA interference and developed an shRNA-based gene knockdown technique. This method involves transfection of mouse bone marrow-derived hematopoietic stem cells with retroviral vector carrying shRNA directed at a specific gene. Transfected stem cells are then transplanted into irradiated wild-type mice. After engraftment of stem cells, the transplanted mice have two sets of circulating neutrophils. One set has a gene of interest knocked down while the other set has full complement of expressed genes. This efficient technique provides a unique way to directly compare the response of neutrophils with a knocked-down gene to that of neutrophils with the full complement of expressed genes in the same environment. PMID:27271902

  19. SoMART, a web server for miRNA, tasiRNA and target gene analysis in Solanaceae plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant micro(mi)RNAs and trans-acting small interfering (tasi)RNAs mediate posttranscriptional silencing of genes and play important roles in a variety of biological processes. Although bioinformatics prediction and small (s)RNA cloning are the key approaches used for identification of miRNAs, tasiRN...

  20. Knockdown of actin and caspase gene expression by RNA interference in the symbiotic anemone Aiptasia pallida.

    PubMed

    Dunn, Simon R; Phillips, Wendy S; Green, Douglas R; Weis, Virginia M

    2007-06-01

    Since the discovery of the ancient eukaryotic process of RNA-mediated gene silencing, the reverse-genetics technique RNA interference (RNAi) has increasingly been used to examine gene function in vertebrate and invertebrate systems. In this study, we report on the use of RNAi, adapted from studies on animal model systems, to manipulate gene expression in a symbiotic marine cnidarian. We describe gene knockdown of actin and of acasp--a cysteine protease, or caspase--in the symbiotic sea anemone Aiptasia pallida. Knockdown was assessed qualitatively with in situ hybridizations for both genes. Quantitative PCR and caspase activity assays were used as a quantitative measure of knockdown for acasp. PMID:17565114

  1. Rare Events of Intragenus and Intraspecies Horizontal Transfer of the 16S rRNA Gene.

    PubMed

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Cai, Lin; Zhang, Wei-Peng; Cao, Hui-Luo; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2015-07-27

    Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) of operational genes has been widely reported in prokaryotic organisms. However, informational genes such as those involved in transcription and translation processes are very difficult to be horizontally transferred, as described by Woese's complexity hypothesis. Here, we analyzed all of the completed prokaryotic genome sequences (2,143 genomes) in the NCBI (National Center for Biotechnology Information) database, scanned for genomes with high intragenomic heterogeneity of 16S rRNA gene copies, and explored potential HGT events of ribosomal RNA genes based on the phylogeny, genomic organization, and secondary structures of the ribosomal RNA genes. Our results revealed 28 genomes with relatively high intragenomic heterogeneity of multiple 16S rRNA gene copies (lowest pairwise identity <98.0%), and further analysis revealed HGT events and potential donors of the heterogeneous copies (such as HGT from Chlamydia suis to Chlamydia trachomatis) and mutation events of some heterogeneous copies (such as Streptococcus suis JS14). Interestingly, HGT of the 16S rRNA gene only occurred at intragenus or intraspecies levels, which is quite different from the HGT of operational genes. Our results improve our understanding regarding the exchange of informational genes.

  2. A subset of conserved tRNA genes in plastid DNA of nongreen plants.

    PubMed Central

    Lohan, A J; Wolfe, K H

    1998-01-01

    The plastid genome of the nonphotosynthetic parasitic plant Epifagus virginiana contains only 17 of the 30 tRNA genes normally found in angiosperm plastid DNA. Although this is insufficient for translation, the genome is functional, so import of cytosolic tRNAs into plastids has been suggested. This raises the question of whether the tRNA genes that remain in E. virginiana plastid DNA are active or have just fortuitously escaped deletion. We report the sequences of 20 plastid tRNA loci from Orobanche minor, which shares a nonphotosynthetic ancestor with E. virginiana. The two species have 9 intact tRNA genes in common, the others being defunct in one or both species. The intron-containing trnLUAA gene is absent from E. virginiana, but it is intact, transcribed, and spliced in O. minor. The shared intact genes are better conserved than intergenic sequences, which indicates that these genes are being maintained by natural selection and, therefore, must be functional. For the most part, the tRNA species conserved in nonphotosynthetic plastids are also those that have never been found to be imported in plant mitochondria, which suggests that the same rules may govern tRNA import in the two organelles. A small photosynthesis gene, psbI, is still intact in O. minor, and computer simulations show that some small nonessential genes have an appreciable chance of escaping deletion. PMID:9725858

  3. Human Nopp140, Which Interacts with RNA Polymerase I: Implications for rRNA Gene Transcription and Nucleolar Structural Organization

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Hung-Kai; Pai, Chi-Yun; Huang, Jing-Yi; Yeh, Ning-Hsing

    1999-01-01

    Nopp140 is thought to shuttle between nucleolus and cytoplasm. However, the predominant nucleolar localization of Nopp140 homologues from different species suggests that Nopp140 is also involved in events occurring within the nucleolus. In this study, we demonstrated that the largest subunit of RNA polymerase I, RPA194, was coimmunoprecipitated with the human Nopp140 (hNopp140). Such an interaction is mediated through amino acids 204 to 382 of hNopp140. By double immunofluorescence, hNopp140 was colocalized with RNA polymerase I at the rDNA (rRNA genes) transcription active foci in the nucleolus. These results suggest that Nopp140 can interact with RNA polymerase I in vivo. Transfected cells expressing the amino-terminal half of hNopp140, hNopp140N382 (amino acids 1 to 382), displayed altered nucleoli with crescent-shaped structures. This phenotype is reminiscent of the segregated nucleoli induced by actinomycin D treatment, which is known to inhibit rRNA synthesis. Consistently, the hNopp140N382 protein mislocalized the endogenous RNA polymerase I and shut off cellular rRNA gene transcription as revealed by an in situ run-on assay. These dominant negative effects of the mutant hNopp140N382 suggest that Nopp140 plays an essential role in rDNA transcription. Interestingly, ectopic expression of hNopp140 to a very high level caused the formation of a transcriptionally inactive spherical structure occupying the entire nucleolar area which trapped the RNA polymerase I, fibrillarin, and hNopp140 but excluded the nucleolin. The mislocalizations of these nucleolar proteins after hNopp140 overexpression imply that Nopp140 may also play roles in maintenance of nucleolar integrity. PMID:10567578

  4. MR VIGS: microRNA-based virus-induced gene silencing in plants.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiwei; Zhang, Qi; Kong, Junhua; Hu, Feng; Li, Bin; Wu, Chaoqun; Qin, Cheng; Zhang, Pengcheng; Shi, Nongnong; Hong, Yiguo

    2015-01-01

    In plants, microRNA (miRNA)-based virus-induced gene silencing, dubbed MR VIGS, is a powerful technique to delineate the biological functions of genes. By targeting to a specific sequence, miRNAs can knock down expression of genes with fewer off-target effects. Here, using a modified Cabbage leaf curling virus (CaLCuV) and Tobacco rattle virus (TRV) as vectors, we describe two virus-based miRNA expression systems to perform MR VIGS for plant functional genomics assays. PMID:25740363

  5. RNA silencing of genes involved in Alzheimer's disease enhances mitochondrial function and synaptic activity.

    PubMed

    Manczak, Maria; Reddy, P Hemachandra

    2013-12-01

    An age-dependent increase in mRNA levels of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), the microtubule-associated protein Tau, and voltage-dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) genes are reported to be toxic to neurons affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the underlying toxic nature of these genes is not completely understood. The purpose of our study was to determine the effects of RNA silencing of APP, Tau, and VDAC1 genes in AD pathogenesis. Using human neuroblastoma (SHSY5Y) cells, we first silenced RNA for APP, Tau, and VDAC1 genes, and then performed real-time RT-PCR analysis to measure mRNA levels of 34 genes that are involved in AD pathogenesis. Using biochemical assays, we also assessed mitochondrial function by measuring levels of H2O2 production, lipid peroxidation, cytochrome c oxidase activity, ATP production, and GTPase enzymatic activity. We found that increased mRNA expression of synaptic function and mitochondrial fission genes, and reduced levels of mitochondrial fusion genes in RNA silenced the SHSY5Y cells for APP, Tau and VDAC1 genes relative to the control SHSY5Y cells. In addition, RNA-silenced APP, Tau, and VDAC1 genes in SHSY5Y cells showed reduced levels of H2O2 production, lipid peroxidation, fission-linked GTPase activity, and increased cytochrome oxidase activity and ATP production. These findings suggest that a reduction of human APP, Tau, and VDAC1 may enhance synaptic activity, may improve mitochondrial maintenance and function, and may protect against toxicities of AD-related genes. Thus, these findings also suggest that the reduction of APP, Tau, and VDAC1 mRNA expressions may have therapeutic value for patients with AD.

  6. Repertoire and evolution of miRNA genes in four divergent nematode species

    PubMed Central

    de Wit, Elzo; Linsen, Sam E.V.; Cuppen, Edwin; Berezikov, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    miRNAs are ∼22-nt RNA molecules that play important roles in post-transcriptional regulation. We have performed small RNA sequencing in the nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans, C. briggsae, C. remanei, and Pristionchus pacificus, which have diverged up to 400 million years ago, to establish the repertoire and evolutionary dynamics of miRNAs in these species. In addition to previously known miRNA genes from C. elegans and C. briggsae we demonstrate expression of many of their homologs in C. remanei and P. pacificus, and identified in total more than 100 novel expressed miRNA genes, the majority of which belong to P. pacificus. Interestingly, more than half of all identified miRNA genes are conserved at the seed level in all four nematode species, whereas only a few miRNAs appear to be species specific. In our compendium of miRNAs we observed evidence for known mechanisms of miRNA evolution including antisense transcription and arm switching, as well as miRNA family expansion through gene duplication. In addition, we identified a novel mode of miRNA evolution, termed “hairpin shifting,” in which an alternative hairpin is formed with up- or downstream sequences, leading to shifting of the hairpin and creation of novel miRNA* species. Finally, we identified 21U-RNAs in all four nematodes, including P. pacificus, where the upstream 21U-RNA motif is more diverged. The identification and systematic analysis of small RNA repertoire in four nematode species described here provides a valuable resource for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of miRNA-mediated gene regulation. PMID:19755563

  7. Disruption of Spodoptera exigua larval development by silencing chitin synthase gene A with RNA interference.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Tian, H; Zou, L; Tang, B; Hu, J; Zhang, W

    2008-12-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a powerful tool for rapidly analyzing gene functions. However, little is known about the possible use of dsRNA/siRNA as a pest control method. Here, we demonstrate that dsRNA/siRNA can induce the silence of chitin synthase gene A (CHSA), which is an important gene for the growth and development of cuticles and trachea in beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua. Based on the in vitro RNAi experiments in an insect cell line (Trichoplusia ni High 5), in vivo RNAi was performed by injecting synthesized dsRNA/siRNA into the 4th instar larvae of S. exigua. Significantly lower levels of CHSA transcripts were detected. In addition, the cuticle of these insects was disordered and the epithelial walls of larval trachea did not expand uniformly in injected individuals. Moreover, Injections significantly increased abnormalities relative to control larvae. These results highlighted the possibility of dsRNA/siRNA for gene function studies in lepidopteran insects and future pest control. PMID:18662430

  8. Sequence arrangement of the rRNA genes of the dipteran Sarcophaga bullata.

    PubMed

    French, C K; Fouts, D L; Manning, J E

    1981-06-11

    Velocity sedimentation studies of RNA of Sarcophaga bullata show that the major rRNA species have sedimentation values of 26S and 18S. Analysis of the rRNA under denaturing conditions indicates that there is a hidden break centrally located in the 26S rRNA species. Saturation hybridization studies using total genomic DNA and rRNA show that 0.08% of the nuclear DNA is occupied by rRNA coding sequences and that the average repetition frequency of these coding sequences is approximately 144. The arrangement of the rRNA genes and their spacer sequences on long strands of purified rDNA was determined by the examination of the structure of rRNa:DNA hybrids in the electron microscope. Long DNA strands contain several gene sets (18S + 26S) with one repeat unit containing the following sequences in order given: (a) An 18S gene of length 2.12 kb, (b) an internal transcribed spacer of length 2.01 kb, which contains a short sequence that may code for a 5.8S rRNA, (c) A 26S gene of length 4.06 kb which, in 20% of the cases, contains an intron with an average length of 5.62 kb, and (d) an external spacer of average length of 9.23 kb.

  9. Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera) gut transcriptome analysis: expression of RNA interference-related genes.

    PubMed

    Swevers, L; Huvenne, H; Menschaert, G; Kontogiannatos, D; Kourti, A; Pauchet, Y; ffrench-Constant, R; Smagghe, G

    2013-12-01

    In the search for new methods of pest control, the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) is being explored. Because the gut is the first barrier for the uptake of double-stranded (ds)RNA, pyrosequencing of the gut transcriptome is a powerful tool for obtaining the necessary sequences for specific dsRNA-mediated pest control. In the present study, a dataset representing the gut transcriptome of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata) was generated and analysed for the presence of RNAi-related genes. Almost all selected genes that were implicated in silencing efficiency at different levels in the RNAi pathway (core machinery, associated intracellular factors, dsRNA uptake, antiviral RNAi, nucleases), which uses different types of small RNA (small interfering RNA, microRNA and piwi-RNA), were expressed in the CPB gut. Although the database is of lower quality, the majority of the RNAi genes are also found to be present in the gut transcriptome of the tobacco hornworm [TH; Manduca sexta (19 out of 35 genes analysed)]. The high quality of the CPB transcriptome database will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies regarding the gut and RNAi. PMID:24580832

  10. MicroRNA-mediated gene silencing modulates the UV-induced DNA-damage response

    PubMed Central

    Pothof, Joris; Verkaik, Nicole S; van IJcken, Wilfred; Wiemer, Erik A C; Ta, Van T B; van der Horst, Gijsbertus T J; Jaspers, Nicolaas G J; van Gent, Dik C; Hoeijmakers, Jan H J; Persengiev, Stephan P

    2009-01-01

    DNA damage provokes DNA repair, cell-cycle regulation and apoptosis. This DNA-damage response encompasses gene-expression regulation at the transcriptional and post-translational levels. We show that cellular responses to UV-induced DNA damage are also regulated at the post-transcriptional level by microRNAs. Survival and checkpoint response after UV damage was severely reduced on microRNA-mediated gene-silencing inhibition by knocking down essential components of the microRNA-processing pathway (Dicer and Ago2). UV damage triggered a cell-cycle-dependent relocalization of Ago2 into stress granules and various microRNA-expression changes. Ago2 relocalization required CDK activity, but was independent of ATM/ATR checkpoint signalling, whereas UV-responsive microRNA expression was only partially ATM/ATR independent. Both microRNA-expression changes and stress-granule formation were most pronounced within the first hours after genotoxic stress, suggesting that microRNA-mediated gene regulation operates earlier than most transcriptional responses. The functionality of the microRNA response is illustrated by the UV-inducible miR-16 that downregulates checkpoint-gene CDC25a and regulates cell proliferation. We conclude that microRNA-mediated gene regulation adds a new dimension to the DNA-damage response. PMID:19536137

  11. Colorado potato beetle (Coleoptera) gut transcriptome analysis: expression of RNA interference-related genes.

    PubMed

    Swevers, L; Huvenne, H; Menschaert, G; Kontogiannatos, D; Kourti, A; Pauchet, Y; ffrench-Constant, R; Smagghe, G

    2013-12-01

    In the search for new methods of pest control, the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) is being explored. Because the gut is the first barrier for the uptake of double-stranded (ds)RNA, pyrosequencing of the gut transcriptome is a powerful tool for obtaining the necessary sequences for specific dsRNA-mediated pest control. In the present study, a dataset representing the gut transcriptome of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB; Leptinotarsa decemlineata) was generated and analysed for the presence of RNAi-related genes. Almost all selected genes that were implicated in silencing efficiency at different levels in the RNAi pathway (core machinery, associated intracellular factors, dsRNA uptake, antiviral RNAi, nucleases), which uses different types of small RNA (small interfering RNA, microRNA and piwi-RNA), were expressed in the CPB gut. Although the database is of lower quality, the majority of the RNAi genes are also found to be present in the gut transcriptome of the tobacco hornworm [TH; Manduca sexta (19 out of 35 genes analysed)]. The high quality of the CPB transcriptome database will lay the foundation for future gene expression and functional studies regarding the gut and RNAi.

  12. Cooperative gene regulation by microRNA pairs and their identification using a computational workflow

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Ulf; Lai, Xin; Winter, Felix; Wolkenhauer, Olaf; Vera, Julio; Gupta, Shailendra K.

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are an integral part of gene regulation at the post-transcriptional level. Recently, it has been shown that pairs of miRNAs can repress the translation of a target mRNA in a cooperative manner, which leads to an enhanced effectiveness and specificity in target repression. However, it remains unclear which miRNA pairs can synergize and which genes are target of cooperative miRNA regulation. In this paper, we present a computational workflow for the prediction and analysis of cooperating miRNAs and their mutual target genes, which we refer to as RNA triplexes. The workflow integrates methods of miRNA target prediction; triplex structure analysis; molecular dynamics simulations and mathematical modeling for a reliable prediction of functional RNA triplexes and target repression efficiency. In a case study we analyzed the human genome and identified several thousand targets of cooperative gene regulation. Our results suggest that miRNA cooperativity is a frequent mechanism for an enhanced target repression by pairs of miRNAs facilitating distinctive and fine-tuned target gene expression patterns. Human RNA triplexes predicted and characterized in this study are organized in a web resource at www.sbi.uni-rostock.de/triplexrna/. PMID:24875477

  13. Development of hybrid baculovirus vectors for artificial MicroRNA delivery and prolonged gene suppression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiu-Ling; Luo, Wen-Yi; Lo, Wen-Hsin; Lin, Kun-Ju; Sung, Li-Yu; Shih, Yung-Shen; Chang, Yu-Han; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2011-12-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) plays essential roles in regulating gene expression, but miRNA delivery remains a hurdle, thus entailing a vector system for efficient transfer. Baculovirus emerges as a promising gene delivery vector but its inherent transient expression restricts its applications in some scenarios. Therefore, this study primarily aimed to develop baculovirus as a miRNA expression vector for prolonged gene suppression. We constructed recombinant baculoviruses carrying artificial egfp-targeting miRNA sequences within the miR155 backbone, which after expression by the cytomegalovirus promoter could knockdown the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) expression in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. By swapping the mature miRNA sequences, the baculovirus miRNA shuttle effectively repressed the overexpression of endogenous TNF-α in arthritic synoviocytes without inducing apoptosis. To prolong the baculovirus-mediated expression, we further developed a hybrid baculovirus vector that exploited the Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon for gene integration and sustained miRNA expression. The hybrid baculovirus vector that combined the miR155 scaffold and SB transposon effectively repressed the transgene expression for a prolonged period of time, hence diversifying the applications of baculovirus to indications necessitating prolonged gene regulation such as arthritis. PMID:21732325

  14. Successful transient expression of Cas9 and single guide RNA genes in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wenzhi; Brueggeman, Andrew J; Horken, Kempton M; Plucinak, Thomas M; Weeks, Donald P

    2014-11-01

    The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR)/Cas9 system has become a powerful and precise tool for targeted gene modification (e.g., gene knockout and gene replacement) in numerous eukaryotic organisms. Initial attempts to apply this technology to a model, the single-cell alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, failed to yield cells containing edited genes. To determine if the Cas9 and single guide RNA (sgRNA) genes were functional in C. reinhardtii, we tested the ability of a codon-optimized Cas9 gene along with one of four different sgRNAs to cause targeted gene disruption during a 24-h period immediately following transformation. All three exogenously supplied gene targets as well as the endogenous FKB12 (rapamycin sensitivity) gene of C. reinhardtii displayed distinct Cas9/sgRNA-mediated target site modifications as determined by DNA sequencing of cloned PCR amplicons of the target site region. Success in transient expression of Cas9 and sgRNA genes contrasted with the recovery of only a single rapamycin-resistant colony bearing an appropriately modified FKB12 target site in 16 independent transformation experiments involving >10(9) cells. Failure to recover transformants with intact or expressed Cas9 genes following transformation with the Cas9 gene alone (or even with a gene encoding a Cas9 lacking nuclease activity) provided strong suggestive evidence for Cas9 toxicity when Cas9 is produced constitutively in C. reinhardtii. The present results provide compelling evidence that Cas9 and sgRNA genes function properly in C. reinhardtii to cause targeted gene modifications and point to the need for a focus on development of methods to properly stem Cas9 production and/or activity following gene editing.

  15. Functional genomics tool: Gene silencing in Ixodes scapularis eggs and nymphs by electroporated dsRNA

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Ticks are blood-sucking arthropods responsible for transmitting a wide variety of disease-causing agents, and constitute important public health threats globally. Ixodes scapularis is the primary vector of the Lyme disease agent in the eastern and central U.S. RNAi is a mechanism by which gene-specific double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) triggers degradation of homologous mRNA transcripts. Here, we describe an optimized protocol for effectively suppressing gene expression in the egg and nymphal stages of I. scapularis by electroporation. Results The genes encoding the putative Phospholipase A2 (PLA2), cytoplasmic Cystatin, Syntaxin-5, β-Actin and Calreticulin were targeted by delivering the dsRNA encoding the specific gene coding regions in the unfed nymphs. Silencing was measured using real time qRT-PCR. Electroporation as a mode of dsRNA delivery appears to be substantially efficient and less traumatic to the tick than dsRNA microinjection in the unfed nymphs. Using Cy3-labeled dsRNA to monitor the movement, electroporated dsRNA entered the nymphs and spread to salivary glands and other tissues. The significant disruption of β-actin and cytoplasmic Cystatin transcripts in tick eggs demonstrate the applicability of this technique. The PLA2, cytoplasmic Cystatin, Syntaxin-5, β-Actin and Calreticulin genes were also significantly silenced, suggesting that this method has the potential to introduce dsRNA in eggs and unfed nymphs. Conclusions Our study demonstrates that electroporation can be used as a simple dsRNA delivery tool in assessing the functional role of tick genes in the vector-host interactions. This technique represents a novel approach for specific gene suppression in immature stages of ticks. PMID:20074328

  16. Agitation during lipoplex formation improves the gene knockdown effect of siRNA.

    PubMed

    Barichello, Jose Mario; Kizuki, Shinji; Tagami, Tatsuaki; Asai, Tomohiro; Ishida, Tatsuhiro; Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Oku, Naoto; Kiwada, Hiroshi

    2011-05-30

    The successful delivery of therapeutic siRNA to the designated target cells and their availability at the intracellular site of action are crucial requirements for successful RNAi therapy. In the present study, we focused on the siRNA-lipoplex preparation procedure and its effect on the gene-knockdown efficiency of siRNA in vitro. Agitation (vortex-mixing) during siRNA-lipoplex (vor-LTsiR) preparation and its effect on the gene-knockdown efficiency of stably expressed cell GFP was investigated, and their efficiency was compared with that of spontaneously formed lipoplex (spo-LTsiR). A dramatic difference in size between lipoplexes was observed at the N/P ratio of 7.62 (siRNA dose of 30 nM), even though both lipoplexes were positively charged. With the siRNA dose of 30 nM, vor-LTsiR accomplished a 50% gene-knockdown, while spo-LTsiR managed a similar knockdown effect at the 120 nM level, suggesting that the preparation procedure remarkably affects the gene-knockdown efficacy of siRNA. The uptake of vor-LTsiR was mainly via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, whereas that of spo-LTsiR was via membrane fusion. In addition, by inhibiting clathrin-mediated endocytosis, the gene-knockdown efficiency was significantly lowered. The size of the lipoplex, promoted by the preparation procedure, is likely to define the entry pathway, resulting in an increased amount of siRNA internalized in cells and an enhanced gene-knockdown efficacy. The results of the present study definitively show that a proper siRNA-lipoplex preparation procedure makes a significant contribution to the efficiency of cellular uptake, and thereby, to the gene-knockdown efficiency of siRNA. PMID:21392562

  17. The Regulation of rRNA Gene Transcription during Directed Differentiation of Human Embryonic Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhong; Zhao, Rui; Giles, Keith E.

    2016-01-01

    It has become increasingly clear that proper cellular control of pluripotency and differentiation is related to the regulation of rRNA synthesis. To further our understanding of the role that the regulation of rRNA synthesis has in pluripotency we monitored rRNA synthesis during the directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We discovered that the rRNA synthesis rate is reduced ~50% within 6 hours of ACTIVIN A treatment. This precedes reductions in expression of specific stem cell markers and increases in expression of specific germ layer markers. The reduction in rRNA synthesis is concomitant with dissociation of the Pol I transcription factor, UBTF, from the rRNA gene promoter and precedes any increase to heterochromatin throughout the rRNA gene. To directly investigate the role of rRNA synthesis in pluripotency, hESCs were treated with the Pol I inhibitor, CX-5461. The direct reduction of rRNA synthesis by CX-5461 induces the expression of markers for all three germ layers, reduces the expression of pluripotency markers, and is overall similar to the ACTIVIN A induced changes. This work indicates that the dissociation of UBTF from the rRNA gene, and corresponding reduction in transcription, represent early regulatory events during the directed differentiation of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:27299313

  18. Chromosome-specific NOR inactivation explains selective rRNA gene silencing and dosage control in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Chandrasekhara, Chinmayi; Mohannath, Gireesha; Blevins, Todd; Pontvianne, Frederic; Pikaard, Craig S.

    2016-01-01

    In eukaryotes, scores of excess ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes are silenced by repressive chromatin modifications. Given the near sequence identity of rRNA genes within a species, it is unclear how specific rRNA genes are reproducibly chosen for silencing. Using Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype (strain) Col-0, a systematic search identified sequence polymorphisms that differ between active and developmentally silenced rRNA gene subtypes. Recombinant inbred mapping populations derived from three different ecotype crosses were then used to map the chromosomal locations of silenced and active RNA gene subtypes. Importantly, silenced and active rRNA gene subtypes are not intermingled. All silenced rRNA gene subtypes mapped to the nucleolus organizer region (NOR) on chromosome 2 (NOR2). All active rRNA gene subtypes mapped to NOR4. Using an engineered A. thaliana line in which a portion of Col-0 chromosome 4 was replaced by sequences of another ecotype, we show that a major rRNA gene subtype silenced at NOR2 is active when introgressed into the genome at NOR4. Collectively, these results reveal that selective rRNA gene silencing is not regulated gene by gene based on mechanisms dependent on subtle gene sequence variation. Instead, we propose that a subchromosomal silencing mechanism operates on a multimegabase scale to inactivate NOR2. PMID:26744421

  19. RNA polymerase II pauses and associates with pre-mRNA processing factors at both ends of genes

    PubMed Central

    Glover-Cutter, Kira; Kim, Soojin; Espinosa, Joaquin; Bentley, David L.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated co-transcriptional recruitment of pre-mRNA processing factors to human genes. Capping factors associate with paused RNA pol II at the 5′ ends of quiescent genes. They also track throughout actively transcribed genes, and accumulate with paused polymerase in the 3′ flanking region. 3′ processing factors CstF and CPSF are maximally recruited 0.5-1.5 kb downstream of poly(A) sites where they coincide with capping factors, Spt5, and Ser2 hyperphosphorylated, paused pol II. 3′ end processing factors also localize at transcription start sites, and this early recruitment is enhanced after polymerase arrest with DRB. These results suggest that promoters may help specify recruitment of 3′ end processing factors. We propose a dual pausing model where elongation arrests near the transcription start site and in the 3′ flank to allow co-transcriptional processing by factors recruited to the pol II ternary complex. PMID:18157150

  20. Small RNA pathway genes identified by patterns of phylogenetic conservation and divergence

    PubMed Central

    Tabach, Yuval; Billi, Allison C.; Hayes, Gabriel D.; Newman, Martin A.; Zuk, Or; Gabel, Harrison; Kamath, Ravi; Yacoby, Keren; Chapman, Brad; Garcia, Susana M.; Borowsky, Mark; Kim, John K.; Ruvkun, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Genetic and biochemical analyses of RNA interference (RNAi) and microRNA (miRNA) pathways have revealed proteins such as Argonaute/PIWI and Dicer that process and present small RNAs to their targets. Well validated small RNA pathway cofactors, such as the Argonaute/PIWI proteins show distinctive patterns of conservation or divergence in particular animal, plant, fungal, and protist species. We compared 86 divergent eukaryotic genome sequences to discern sets of proteins that show similar phylogenetic profiles with known small RNA cofactors. A large set of additional candidate small RNA cofactors have emerged from functional genomic screens for defects in miRNA- or siRNA-mediated repression in C. elegans and D. melanogaster1,2 and from proteomic analyses of proteins co-purifying with validated small RNA pathway proteins3,4. The phylogenetic profiles of many of these candidate small RNA pathway proteins are similar to those of known small RNA cofactor proteins. We used a Bayesian approach to integrate the phylogenetic profile analysis with predictions from diverse transcriptional coregulation and proteome interaction datasets to assign a probability for each protein for a role in a small RNA pathway. Testing high-confidence candidates from this analysis for defects in RNAi silencing, we found that about half of the predicted small RNA cofactors are required for RNAi silencing. Many of the newly identified small RNA pathway proteins are orthologues of proteins implicated in RNA splicing. In support of a deep connection between the mechanism of RNA splicing and small RNA-mediated gene silencing, the presence of the Argonaute proteins and other small RNA components in the many species analysed strongly correlates with the number of introns in that species. PMID:23364702

  1. Systematic identification of novel, essential host genes affecting bromovirus RNA replication.

    PubMed

    Gancarz, Brandi L; Hao, Linhui; He, Qiuling; Newton, Michael A; Ahlquist, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Positive-strand RNA virus replication involves viral proteins and cellular proteins at nearly every replication step. Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a well-established model for dissecting virus-host interactions and is one of very few viruses whose RNA replication, gene expression and encapsidation have been reproduced in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previously, our laboratory identified ∼100 non-essential host genes whose loss inhibited or enhanced BMV replication at least 3-fold. However, our isolation of additional BMV-modulating host genes by classical genetics and other results underscore that genes essential for cell growth also contribute to BMV RNA replication at a frequency that may be greater than that of non-essential genes. To systematically identify novel, essential host genes affecting BMV RNA replication, we tested a collection of ∼900 yeast strains, each with a single essential gene promoter replaced by a doxycycline-repressible promoter, allowing repression of gene expression by adding doxycycline to the growth medium. Using this strain array of ∼81% of essential yeast genes, we identified 24 essential host genes whose depleted expression reproducibly inhibited or enhanced BMV RNA replication. Relevant host genes are involved in ribosome biosynthesis, cell cycle regulation and protein homeostasis, among other cellular processes. BMV 2a(Pol) levels were significantly increased in strains depleted for a heat shock protein (HSF1) or proteasome components (PRE1 and RPT6), suggesting these genes may affect BMV RNA replication by directly or indirectly modulating 2a(Pol) localization, post-translational modification or interacting partners. Investigating the diverse functions of these newly identified essential host genes should advance our understanding of BMV-host interactions and normal cellular pathways, and suggest new modes of virus control.

  2. A Caenorhabditis Elegans RNA Polymerase II Gene, Ama-1 Iv, and Nearby Essential Genes

    PubMed Central

    Rogalski, T. M.; Riddle, D. L.

    1988-01-01

    The amanitin-binding subunit of RNA polymerase II in Caenorhabditis elegans is encoded by the ama-1 gene, located approximately 0.05 map unit to the right of dpy-13 IV. Using the amanitin-resistant ama-1(m118) strain as a parent, we have isolated amanitin-sensitive mutants that carry recessive-lethal ama-1 alleles. Of the six ethyl methanesulfonate-induced mutants examined, two are arrested late in embryogenesis. One of these is a large deficiency, mDf9, but the second may be a novel point mutation. The four other mutants are hypomorphs, and presumably produce altered RNA polymerase II enzymes with some residual function. Two of these mutants develop into sterile adults at 20° but are arrested as larvae at 25°, and two others are fertile at 20° and sterile at 25°. Temperature-shift experiments performed with the adult sterile mutant, ama-1(m118m238ts), have revealed a temperature-sensitive period that begins late in gonadogenesis and is centered around the initiation of egg-laying. Postembryonic development at 25° is slowed by 30%. By contrast, the amanitin-resistant allele of ama-1 has very little effect on developmental rate or fertility. We have identified 15 essential genes in an interval of 4.5 map units surrounding ama-1, as well as four γ-ray-induced deficiencies and two duplications that include the ama-1 gene. The larger duplication, mDp1, may include the entire left arm of chromosome IV, and it recombines with the normal homologue at a low frequency. The smallest deficiency, mDf10, complements all but three identified genes: let-278, dpy-13 and ama-1, which define an interval of only 0.1 map unit. The terminal phenotype of mDf10 homozygotes is developmental arrest during the first larval stage, suggesting that there is sufficient maternal RNA polymerase II to complete embryonic development. PMID:8608933

  3. GENE SILENCING BY PARENTAL RNA INTERFERENCE IN THE GREEN RICE LEAFHOPPER, Nephotettix cincticeps (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukiko; Hattori, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely used for investigating gene function in many nonmodel insect species. Parental RNAi causes gene knockdown in the next generation through the administration of double-strand RNA (dsRNA) to the mother generation. In this study, we demonstrate that parental RNAi mediated gene silencing is effective in determining the gene function of the cuticle and the salivary glands in green rice leafhopper (GRH), Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler). Injection of dsRNA of NcLac2 (9 ng/female) to female parents caused a strong knockdown of laccase-2 gene of first instar nymphs, which eventually led to high mortality rates and depigmentation of side lines on the body. The effects of parental RNAi on the mortality of the nymphs were maintained through 12-14 days after the injections. We also confirmed the effectiveness of parental RNAi induced silencing on the gene expressed in the salivary gland, the gene product of which is passed from instar to instar. The parental RNAi method can be used to examine gene function by phenotyping many offspring nymphs with injection of dsRNA into a small number of parent females, and may be applicable to high-efficiency determination of gene functions in this species. PMID:26728387

  4. GENE SILENCING BY PARENTAL RNA INTERFERENCE IN THE GREEN RICE LEAFHOPPER, Nephotettix cincticeps (HEMIPTERA: CICADELLIDAE).

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Yukiko; Hattori, Makoto

    2016-03-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been widely used for investigating gene function in many nonmodel insect species. Parental RNAi causes gene knockdown in the next generation through the administration of double-strand RNA (dsRNA) to the mother generation. In this study, we demonstrate that parental RNAi mediated gene silencing is effective in determining the gene function of the cuticle and the salivary glands in green rice leafhopper (GRH), Nephotettix cincticeps (Uhler). Injection of dsRNA of NcLac2 (9 ng/female) to female parents caused a strong knockdown of laccase-2 gene of first instar nymphs, which eventually led to high mortality rates and depigmentation of side lines on the body. The effects of parental RNAi on the mortality of the nymphs were maintained through 12-14 days after the injections. We also confirmed the effectiveness of parental RNAi induced silencing on the gene expressed in the salivary gland, the gene product of which is passed from instar to instar. The parental RNAi method can be used to examine gene function by phenotyping many offspring nymphs with injection of dsRNA into a small number of parent females, and may be applicable to high-efficiency determination of gene functions in this species.

  5. Salicylic acid and gentisic acid induce RNA silencing-related genes and plant resistance to RNA pathogens.

    PubMed

    Campos, Laura; Granell, Pablo; Tárraga, Susana; López-Gresa, Pilar; Conejero, Vicente; Bellés, José María; Rodrigo, Ismael; Lisón, Purificación

    2014-04-01

    We have observed that treatments with salicylic acid (SA) or gentisic acid (GA) induced resistance to RNA pathogens such as ToMV and CEVd in tomato and Gynura auriantiaca, respectively. Accumulation of SA and GA has been found to occur in plants infected by these pathogens, thus pointing out a possible defence role of both molecules. To study the molecular basis of the observed induced resistance to RNA pathogens the induction of silencing-related genes by SA and GA was considered. For that purpose, we searched for tomato genes which were orthologous to those described in Arabidopsis thaliana, such as AtDCL1, AtDCL2, AtDCL4, AtRDR1, AtRDR2 and AtRDR6, and we tracked their induction in tomato along virus and viroid infections. We observed that CEVd significantly induced all these genes in tomato, with the exception of ToRDR6, being the induction of ToDCL4 the most outstanding. Regarding the ToMV asymptomatic infection, with the exception of ToRDR2, we observed a significant induction of all the indicated silencing-related genes, being ToDCL2 the most induced gene. Subsequently, we analyzed their transcriptional activation by SA and at the time when ToMV was inoculated on plants. ToDCL2, ToRDR1 and ToRDR2 were significantly induced by both SA and GA, whereas ToDCL1 was only induced by SA. Such an induction resulted more effective by SA treatment, which is in agreement with the stronger SA-induced resistance observed. Our results suggest that the observed delay in the RNA pathogen accumulation could be due to the pre-induction of RNA silencing-related genes by SA or GA.

  6. Chemical Targeting of a G-Quadruplex RNA in the Ebola Virus L Gene.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shao-Ru; Zhang, Qiu-Yan; Wang, Jia-Qi; Ge, Xing-Yi; Song, Yan-Yan; Wang, Ya-Fen; Li, Xiao-Dan; Fu, Bo-Shi; Xu, Guo-Hua; Shu, Bo; Gong, Peng; Zhang, Bo; Tian, Tian; Zhou, Xiang

    2016-09-22

    In the present study, our bioinformatics analysis first reveals the existence of a conserved guanine-rich sequence within the Zaire ebolavirus L gene. Using various methods, we show that this sequence tends to fold into G-quadruplex RNA. TMPyP4 treatment evidently inhibits L gene expression at the RNA level. Moreover, the mini-replicon assay demonstrates that TMPyP4 effectively inhibits the artificial Zaire ebolavirus mini-genome and is a more potent inhibitor than ribavirin. Although TMPyP4 treatment reduced the replication of the mutant mini-genome when G-quadruplex formation was abolished in the L gene, its inhibitory effect was significantly alleviated compared with wild-type. Our findings thus provide the first evidence that G-quadruplex RNA is present in a negative-sense RNA virus. Finally, G-quadruplex RNA stabilization may represent a new therapeutic strategy against Ebola virus disease. PMID:27617851

  7. Methylation of miRNA genes in the response to temperature stress in Populus simonii.

    PubMed

    Ci, Dong; Song, Yuepeng; Tian, Min; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation and miRNAs provide crucial regulation of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional responses to abiotic stress. In this study, we used methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphisms to identify 1066 sites that were differentially methylated in response to temperature stress in Populus simonii. Among these loci, BLAST searches of miRBase identified seven miRNA genes. Expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR suggested that the methylation pattern of these miRNA genes probably influences their expression. Annotation of these miRNA genes in the sequenced genome of Populus trichocarpa found three target genes (Potri.007G090400, Potri.014G042200, and Potri.010G176000) for the miRNAs produced from five genes (Ptc-MIR396e and g, Ptc-MIR156i and j, and Ptc-MIR390c) respectively. The products of these target genes function in lipid metabolism to deplete lipid peroxide. We also constructed a network based on the interactions between DNA methylation and miRNAs, miRNAs and target genes, and the products of target genes and the metabolic factors that they affect, including H2O2, malondialdehyde, catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase. Our results suggested that DNA methylation probably regulates the expression of miRNA genes, thus affecting expression of their target genes, likely through the gene-silencing function of miRNAs, to maintain cell survival under abiotic stress conditions. PMID:26579167

  8. Methylation of miRNA genes in the response to temperature stress in Populus simonii

    PubMed Central

    Ci, Dong; Song, Yuepeng; Tian, Min; Zhang, Deqiang

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation and miRNAs provide crucial regulation of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional responses to abiotic stress. In this study, we used methylation-sensitive amplification polymorphisms to identify 1066 sites that were differentially methylated in response to temperature stress in Populus simonii. Among these loci, BLAST searches of miRBase identified seven miRNA genes. Expression analysis by quantitative real-time PCR suggested that the methylation pattern of these miRNA genes probably influences their expression. Annotation of these miRNA genes in the sequenced genome of Populus trichocarpa found three target genes (Potri.007G090400, Potri.014G042200, and Potri.010G176000) for the miRNAs produced from five genes (Ptc-MIR396e and g, Ptc-MIR156i and j, and Ptc-MIR390c) respectively. The products of these target genes function in lipid metabolism to deplete lipid peroxide. We also constructed a network based on the interactions between DNA methylation and miRNAs, miRNAs and target genes, and the products of target genes and the metabolic factors that they affect, including H2O2, malondialdehyde, catalase (CAT), and superoxide dismutase. Our results suggested that DNA methylation probably regulates the expression of miRNA genes, thus affecting expression of their target genes, likely through the gene-silencing function of miRNAs, to maintain cell survival under abiotic stress conditions. PMID:26579167

  9. Complete nucleotide sequence of a 16S ribosomal RNA gene from Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Brosius, J; Palmer, M L; Kennedy, P J; Noller, H F

    1978-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the 16S RNA gene from the rrnB cistron of Escherichia coli has been determined by using three rapid DNA sequencing methods. Nearly all of the structure has been confirmed by two to six independent sequence determinations on both DNA strands. The length of the 16S rRNA chain inferred from the DNA sequence is 1541 nucleotides, in close agreement with previous estimates. We note discrepancies between this sequence and the most recent version of it reported from direct RNA sequencing [Ehresmann, C., Stiegler, P., Carbon, P. & Ebel, J.P. (1977) FEBS Lett. 84, 337-341]. A few of these may be explained by heterogeneity among 16S rRNA sequences from different cistrons. No nucleotide sequences were found in the 16S rRNA gene that cannot be reconciled with RNase digestion products of mature 16S rRNA. Images PMID:368799

  10. Genetic Variability of MicroRNA Genes in 15 Animal Species.

    PubMed

    Zorc, Minja; Obsteter, Jana; Dovc, Peter; Kunej, Tanja

    2015-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of non-coding RNAs important in posttranscriptional regulation of target genes. Previous studies have proven that genetic variability of miRNA genes (miR-SNP) has an impact on phenotypic variation and disease susceptibility in human, mice and some livestock species. MicroRNA gene polymorphisms could therefore represent biomarkers for phenotypic traits also in other animal species. We upgraded our previously developed tool miRNA SNiPer to the version 4.0 which enables the search of miRNA genetic variability in 15 animal genomes: http://www.integratomics-time.com/miRNA-SNiPer. Genome-wide in silico screening (GWISS) of 15 genomes revealed that based on the current database releases, miRNA genes are most polymorphic in cattle, followed by human, fruitfly, mouse, chicken, pig, horse, and sheep. The difference in the number of miRNA gene polymorphisms between species is most probably not due to a biological reason and lack of genetic variability in some species, but to different stage of sequencing projects and differences in development of genomic resource databases in different species. Genome screening revealed several interesting genomic hotspots. For instance, several multiple nucleotide polymorphisms (MNPs) are present within mature seed region in cattle. Among miR-SNPs 46 are present on commercial whole-genome SNP chips: 16 in cattle, 26 in chicken, two in sheep and two in pig. The update of the miRNA SNiPer tool and the generated catalogs will serve researchers as a starting point in designing projects dealing with the effects of genetic variability of miRNA genes.

  11. Regulation of gene expression by the RNA-binding protein Sam68 in cancer.

    PubMed

    Rajan, Prabhakar; Gaughan, Luke; Dalgliesh, Caroline; El-Sherif, Amira; Robson, Craig N; Leung, Hing Y; Elliott, David J

    2008-06-01

    Sam68 (Src-associated in mitosis 68 kDa) is the prototypical member of the STAR (signal transducer and activator of RNA) family of RNA-binding proteins. Sam68 is implicated in a number of cellular processes including signal transduction, transcription, RNA metabolism, cell cycle regulation and apoptosis. In the present review, we summarize the functions of Sam68 as a transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulator of gene expression, with particular relevance to cancer. PMID:18481990

  12. Analysis of the siRNA-Mediated Gene Silencing Process Targeting Three Homologous Genes Controlling Soybean Seed Oil Quality.

    PubMed

    Lu, Sha; Yin, Xiaoyan; Spollen, William; Zhang, Ning; Xu, Dong; Schoelz, James; Bilyeu, Kristin; Zhang, Zhanyuan J

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, RNA silencing has gained significant attention because of its success in genomic scale research and also in the genetic improvement of crop plants. However, little is known about the molecular basis of siRNA processing in association with its target transcript. To reveal this process for improving hpRNA-mediated gene silencing in crop plants, the soybean GmFAD3 gene family was chosen as a test model. We analyzed RNAi mutant soybean lines in which three members of the GmFAD3 gene family were silenced. The silencing levels of FAD3A, FAD3B and FAD3C were correlated with the degrees of sequence homology between the inverted repeat of hpRNA and the GmFAD3 transcripts in the RNAi lines. Strikingly, transgenes in two of the three RNAi lines were heavily methylated, leading to a dramatic reduction of hpRNA-derived siRNAs. Small RNAs corresponding to the loop portion of the hairpin transcript were detected while much lower levels of siRNAs were found outside of the target region. siRNAs generated from the 318-bp inverted repeat were found to be diced much more frequently at stem sequences close to the loop and associated with the inferred cleavage sites on the target transcripts, manifesting "hot spots". The top candidate hpRNA-derived siRNA share certain sequence features with mature miRNA. This is the first comprehensive and detailed study revealing the siRNA-mediated gene silencing mechanism in crop plants using gene family GmFAD3 as a test model.

  13. Applications of RNA interference in cancer therapeutics as a powerful tool for suppressing gene expression.

    PubMed

    He, Song; Zhang, Dechun; Cheng, Fang; Gong, Fanghong; Guo, Yanan

    2009-11-01

    Cancer poses a tremendous therapeutic challenge worldwide, highlighting the critical need for developing novel therapeutics. A promising cancer treatment modality is gene therapy, which is a form of molecular medicine designed to introduce into target cells genetic material with therapeutic intent. The history of RNA interference (RNAi) has only a dozen years, however, further studies have revealed that it is a potent method of gene silencing that has developed rapidly over the past few years as a result of its extensive importance in the study of genetics, molecular biology and physiology. RNAi is a natural process by which small interfering RNA (siRNA) duplex directs sequence specific post-transcriptional silencing of homologous genes by binding to its complementary mRNA and triggering its elimination. RNAi has been extensively used as a novel and effective gene silencing tool for the fundamental research of cancer therapeutics, and has displayed great potential in clinical treatment.

  14. The Euglena gracilis chloroplast rpoB gene. Novel gene organization and transcription of the RNA polymerase subunit operon.

    PubMed Central

    Yepiz-Plascencia, G M; Radebaugh, C A; Hallick, R B

    1990-01-01

    The rpoB gene coding for a beta-like subunit of the chloroplast DNA-dependent RNA polymerase has been located on the chloroplast genome of Euglena gracilis distal to the rrnC ribosomal RNA operon. We have determined 5760 base-pairs of DNA sequence, including 97 bp of the 5S rRNA gene, an intergenic spacer of 1264 bp, the rpoB gene of 4249 bp, 84 bp spacer and 67 bp of the rpoC1 gene. The rpoB gene is of the same polarity as the rRNA operons. The organization of the rpoB and rpoC genes resembles the E. coli rpoB-rpoC and higher plant chloroplast rpoB-rpoC1-rpoC2 operons. The Euglena rpoB gene (1082 codons) encodes a polypeptide with a predicted molecular weight of 124,288. The rpoB gene is interrupted by seven Group III introns of 93, 95, 94, 99, 101, 110 and 99 bp respectively and a Group II intron of 309 bp. All other known rpoB genes lack introns. All the exon-exon junctions were experimentally determined by cDNA cloning and sequencing or direct primer extension RNA sequencing. Transcripts from the rpoB locus were characterized by Northern hybridization. Fully-spliced, monocistronic rpoB mRNA, as well as rpoB-rpoC1 and rpoB1-rpoC1-rpoC2 mRNAs were identified. Images PMID:2110656

  15. Prolonged gene knockdown in the tsetse fly Glossina by feeding double stranded RNA.

    PubMed

    Walshe, D P; Lehane, S M; Lehane, M J; Haines, L R

    2009-02-01

    Reverse genetic studies based on RNA interference (RNAi) have revolutionized analysis of gene function in most insects. However the necessity of injecting double stranded RNA (dsRNA) inevitably compromises many investigations particularly those on immunity. Additionally, injection of tsetse flies often causes significant mortality. We demonstrate, at transcript and protein level, that delivering dsRNA in the bloodmeal to Glossina morsitans morsitans is as effective as injection in knockdown of the immunoresponsive midgut-expressed gene TsetseEP. However, feeding dsRNA fails to knockdown the fat body expressed transferrin gene, 2A192, previously shown to be silenced by dsRNA injection. Mortality rates of the dsRNA fed flies were significantly reduced compared to injected flies 14 days after treatment (Fed: 10.1%+/- 1.8%; injected: 37.9% +/- 3.6% (Mean +/- SEM)). This is the first demonstration in Diptera of gene knockdown by feeding and the first example of knockdown in a blood-sucking insect by including dsRNA in the bloodmeal. PMID:19016913

  16. Diverse evolutionary trajectories for small RNA biogenesis genes in the oomycete genus Phytophthora

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gene regulation by small RNA pathways is ubiquitous among eukaryotes, but little is known about small RNA pathways in the Stramenopile kingdom. Phytophthora, a genus of filamentous oomycetes, contains many devastating plant pathogens, causing multibillion-dollar damage to crops, ornamental plants, ...

  17. In Vivo Gene-Silencing in Fibrotic Liver by siRNA-Loaded Cationic Nanohydrogel Particles.

    PubMed

    Kaps, Leonard; Nuhn, Lutz; Aslam, Misbah; Brose, Alexander; Foerster, Friedrich; Rosigkeit, Sebastian; Renz, Patricia; Heck, Rosario; Kim, Yong Ook; Lieberwirth, Ingo; Schuppan, Detlef; Zentel, Rudolf

    2015-12-30

    Cationic nanohydrogel particles loaded with anti-Col1α1 siRNA suppress collagen synthesis and deposition in fibrotic mice: Systemically administered 40 nm sized nanogel particles accumulate in collagen-expressing cells in the liver. Their siRNA payload induces a sequence specific in vivo gene knockdown affording an efficient antifibrotic effect in mice with liver fibrosis.

  18. Differential accumulation of nif structural gene mRNA in Azotobacter vinelandii.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Jacobson, Marty; Ludwig, Marcus; Boyd, Eric S; Bryant, Donald A; Dean, Dennis R; Peters, John W

    2011-09-01

    Northern analysis was employed to investigate mRNA produced by mutant strains of Azotobacter vinelandii with defined deletions in the nif structural genes and in the intergenic noncoding regions. The results indicate that intergenic RNA secondary structures effect the differential accumulation of transcripts, supporting the high Fe protein-to-MoFe protein ratio required for optimal diazotrophic growth.

  19. [Selection of microRNA for providing tumor specificity of transgene expression in cancer gene therapy].

    PubMed

    Shepelev, M V; Kalinichenko, S V; Vikhreva, P N; Korobko, I V

    2016-01-01

    The use of tumor-specific microRNA loss to inhibit transgene expression in normal cells is considered as a way to increase the specificity of gene-therapeutic antitumor drugs. This method assumes the introduction of recognition sites of suppressed in tumor cells microRNAs into transgene transcipt. In the presented work, the efficiency of the strategy for providing the tumor specificity of transgene expression depending on parameters of microRNA expression in normal and tumor cells was studied. It was established that microRNA suppression in tumor cells and the determination of absolute microRNA levels in tumor and normal cells are not sufficient for the adequate estimation of the possibility of specific microRNA usage in the scheme of cancer gene therapy, and particularly do not allow to exclude a significant decrease in the efficiency of the gene-therapeutic drug upon the introduction of microRNA recognition sites. These parameters are only suitable for the preliminary selection of microRNA. The effect of introduction of microRNA recognition sites on transgene expression level in target tumor cells should be validated experimentally. It is suggested that this should be done directly in the cancer gene therapy scheme with monitoring of the therapeutic transgene activity. PMID:27239854

  20. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) Mediated siRNA Gene Silencing in the Schistosoma mansoni Snail Host, Biomphalaria glabrata

    PubMed Central

    Knight, Matty; Miller, Andre; Liu, Yijia; Scaria, Puthupparampil; Woodle, Martin; Ittiprasert, Wannaporn

    2011-01-01

    An in vivo, non-invasive technique for gene silencing by RNA interference (RNAi) in the snail, Biomphalaria glabrata, has been developed using cationic polymer polyethyleneimine (PEI) mediated delivery of long double-stranded (ds) and small interfering (si) RNA. Cellular delivery was evaluated and optimized by using a ‘mock’ fluorescent siRNA. Subsequently, we used the method to suppress expression of Cathepsin B (CathB) with either the corresponding siRNA or dsRNA of this transcript. In addition, the knockdown of peroxiredoxin (Prx) at both RNA and protein levels was achieved with the PEI-mediated soaking method. B. glabrata is an important snail host for the transmission of the parasitic digenean platyhelminth, Schistosoma mansoni that causes schistosomiasis in the neotropics. Progress is being made to realize the genome sequence of the snail and to uncover gene expression profiles and cellular pathways that enable the snail to either prevent or sustain an infection. Using PEI complexes, a convenient soaking method has been developed, enabling functional gene knockdown studies with either dsRNA or siRNA. The protocol developed offers a first whole organism method for host-parasite gene function studies needed to identify key mechanisms required for parasite development in the snail host, which ultimately are needed as points for disrupting this parasite mediated disease. PMID:21765961

  1. Widespread inference of weighted microRNA-mediated gene regulation in cancer transcriptome analysis

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Hiroshi I.; Mihira, Hajime; Watabe, Tetsuro; Sugimoto, Koichi; Miyazono, Kohei

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) comprise a gene-regulatory network through sequence complementarity with target mRNAs. Previous studies have shown that mammalian miRNAs decrease many target mRNA levels and reduce protein production predominantly by target mRNA destabilization. However, it has not yet been fully assessed whether this scheme is widely applicable to more realistic conditions with multiple miRNA fluctuations. By combining two analytical frameworks for detecting the enrichment of gene sets, Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Functional Assignment of miRNAs via Enrichment (FAME), we developed GSEA–FAME analysis (GFA), which enables the prediction of miRNA activities from mRNA expression data using rank-based enrichment analysis and weighted evaluation of miRNA–mRNA interactions. This cooperative approach delineated a better widespread correlation between miRNA expression levels and predicted miRNA activities in cancer transcriptomes, thereby providing proof-of-concept of the mRNA-destabilization scenario. In an integrative analysis of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) multidimensional data including profiles of both mRNA and miRNA, we also showed that GFA-based inference of miRNA activity could be used for the selection of prognostic miRNAs in the development of cancer survival prediction models. This approach proposes a next-generation strategy for the interpretation of miRNA function and identification of target miRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets. PMID:23275554

  2. Gene-gene interaction and RNA splicing profiles of MAP2K4 gene in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Shchetynsky, Klementy; Protsyuk, Darya; Ronninger, Marcus; Diaz-Gallo, Lina-Marcela; Klareskog, Lars; Padyukov, Leonid

    2015-05-01

    We performed gene-gene interaction analysis, with HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles for 195 SNPs within immunologically important MAP2K, MAP3K and MAP4K gene families, in 2010 rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients and 2280 healthy controls. We found a significant statistical interaction for rs10468473 with SE alleles in autoantibody-positive RA. Individuals heterozygous for rs10468473 demonstrated higher expression of total MAP2K4 mRNA in blood, compared to A-allele homozygous. We discovered a novel, putatively translated, "cassette exon" RNA splice form of MAP2K4, differentially expressed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 88 RA cases and controls. Within the group of RA patients, we observed a correlation of MAP2K4 isoform expression with carried SE alleles, autoantibody, and rheumatoid factor profiles. TNF-dependent modulation of isoform expression pattern was detected in the Jurkat cell line. Our data suggest a genetic interaction between MAP2K4 and HLA-DRB1, and the importance of rs10468473 and MAP2K4 splice variants in the development of autoantibody-positive RA.

  3. RNA splicing regulates the temporal order of TNF-induced gene expression.

    PubMed

    Hao, Shengli; Baltimore, David

    2013-07-16

    When cells are induced to express inflammatory genes by treatment with TNF, the mRNAs for the induced genes appear in three distinct waves, defining gene groups I, II, and III, or early, intermediate, and late genes. To examine the basis for these different kinetic classes, we have developed a PCR-based procedure to distinguish pre-mRNAs from mRNAs. It shows that the three groups initiate transcription virtually simultaneously but that delays in splicing characterize groups II and III. We also examined the elongation times, concluding that pre-mRNA synthesis is coordinate but splicing differences directly regulate the timing of mRNA production.

  4. Zebrafish U6 small nuclear RNA gene promoters contain a SPH element in an unusual location.

    PubMed

    Halbig, Kari M; Lekven, Arne C; Kunkel, Gary R

    2008-09-15

    Promoters for vertebrate small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes contain a relatively simple array of transcriptional control elements, divided into proximal and distal regions. Most of these genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II (e.g., U1, U2), whereas the U6 gene is transcribed by RNA polymerase III. Previously identified vertebrate U6 snRNA gene promoters consist of a proximal sequence element (PSE) and TATA element in the proximal region, plus a distal region with octamer (OCT) and SphI postoctamer homology (SPH) elements. We have found that zebrafish U6 snRNA promoters contain the SPH element in a novel proximal position immediately upstream of the TATA element. The zebrafish SPH element is recognized by SPH-binding factor/selenocysteine tRNA gene transcription activating factor/zinc finger protein 143 (SBF/Staf/ZNF143) in vitro. Furthermore, a zebrafish U6 promoter with a defective SPH element is inefficiently transcribed when injected into embryos.

  5. Efficient Gene Knockdown in Mouse Oocytes through Peptide Nanoparticle-Mediated SiRNA Transfection.

    PubMed

    Jin, Zhen; Li, Ruichao; Zhou, Chunxiang; Shi, Liya; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yang, Zhixia; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The use of mouse oocytes as a model for studying female meiosis is very important in reproductive medicine. Gene knockdown by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) is usually the first step in the study of the function of a target gene in mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. Traditionally, the only way to introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes is through microinjection, which is certainly less efficient and strenuous than siRNA transfection in somatic cells. Recently, in research using somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated siRNA transfection has been gaining popularity over liposome nanoparticle-mediated methods because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, no researchers have yet tried transfecting siRNA into mouse oocytes because of the existence of the protective zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane). We therefore tested whether peptide nanoparticles can introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes. In the present study, we showed for the first time that our optimized program can efficiently knock down a target gene with high specificity. Furthermore, we achieved the expected meiotic phenotypes after we knocked down a test unknown target gene TRIM75. We propose that peptide nanoparticles may be superior for preliminary functional studies of unknown genes in mouse oocytes. PMID:26974323

  6. Argonaute 2-dependent Regulation of Gene Expression by Single-stranded miRNA Mimics.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Masayuki; Prakash, Thazha P; Corey, David R

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small noncoding transcripts that regulate gene expression. Aberrant expression of miRNAs can affect development of cancer and other diseases. Synthetic miRNA mimics can modulate gene expression and offer an approach to therapy. Inside cells, mature miRNAs are produced as double-stranded RNAs and miRNA mimics typically retain both strands. This need for two strands has the potential to complicate drug development. Recently, synthetic chemically modified single-stranded silencing RNAs (ss-siRNA) have been shown to function through the RNAi pathway to induce gene silencing in cell culture and animals. Here, we test the hypothesis that single-stranded miRNA (ss-miRNA) can also mimic the function of miRNAs. We show that ss-miRNAs can act as miRNA mimics to silence the expression of target genes. Gene silencing requires expression of argonaute 2 (AGO2) protein and involves recruitment of AGO2 to the target transcripts. Chemically modified ss-miRNAs function effectively inside cells through endogenous RNAi pathways and broaden the options for miRNA-based oligonucleotide drug development.

  7. Efficient Gene Knockdown in Mouse Oocytes through Peptide Nanoparticle-Mediated SiRNA Transfection

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zhen; Li, Ruichao; Zhou, Chunxiang; Shi, Liya; Zhang, Xiaolan; Yang, Zhixia; Zhang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The use of mouse oocytes as a model for studying female meiosis is very important in reproductive medicine. Gene knockdown by specific small interfering RNA (siRNA) is usually the first step in the study of the function of a target gene in mouse oocytes during in vitro maturation. Traditionally, the only way to introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes is through microinjection, which is certainly less efficient and strenuous than siRNA transfection in somatic cells. Recently, in research using somatic cells, peptide nanoparticle-mediated siRNA transfection has been gaining popularity over liposome nanoparticle-mediated methods because of its high efficiency, low toxicity, good stability, and strong serum compatibility. However, no researchers have yet tried transfecting siRNA into mouse oocytes because of the existence of the protective zona pellucida surrounding the oocyte membrane (vitelline membrane). We therefore tested whether peptide nanoparticles can introduce siRNA into mouse oocytes. In the present study, we showed for the first time that our optimized program can efficiently knock down a target gene with high specificity. Furthermore, we achieved the expected meiotic phenotypes after we knocked down a test unknown target gene TRIM75. We propose that peptide nanoparticles may be superior for preliminary functional studies of unknown genes in mouse oocytes. PMID:26974323

  8. Gene Profiling of Bone around Orthodontic Mini-Implants by RNA-Sequencing Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nahm, Kyung-Yen; Heo, Jung Sun; Lee, Jae-Hyung; Lee, Dong-Yeol; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Ahn, Hyo-Won; Kim, Seong-Hun

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the genes that were expressed in the healing bones around SLA-treated titanium orthodontic mini-implants in a beagle at early (1-week) and late (4-week) stages with RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq). Samples from sites of surgical defects were used as controls. Total RNA was extracted from the tissue around the implants, and an RNA-Seq analysis was performed with Illumina TruSeq. In the 1-week group, genes in the gene ontology (GO) categories of cell growth and the extracellular matrix (ECM) were upregulated, while genes in the categories of the oxidation-reduction process, intermediate filaments, and structural molecule activity were downregulated. In the 4-week group, the genes upregulated included ECM binding, stem cell fate specification, and intramembranous ossification, while genes in the oxidation-reduction process category were downregulated. GO analysis revealed an upregulation of genes that were related to significant mechanisms, including those with roles in cell proliferation, the ECM, growth factors, and osteogenic-related pathways, which are associated with bone formation. From these results, implant-induced bone formation progressed considerably during the times examined in this study. The upregulation or downregulation of selected genes was confirmed with real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The RNA-Seq strategy was useful for defining the biological responses to orthodontic mini-implants and identifying the specific genetic networks for targeted evaluations of successful peri-implant bone remodeling. PMID:25759820

  9. Mutational analysis of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and tRNA{sup Ser(UCN)} genes in Tunisian patients with nonsyndromic hearing loss

    SciTech Connect

    Mkaouar-Rebai, Emna . E-mail: emna_mkaouar@mail2world.com; Tlili, Abdelaziz; Masmoudi, Saber; Louhichi, Nacim; Charfeddine, Ilhem; Amor, Mohamed Ben; Lahmar, Imed; Driss, Nabil; Drira, Mohamed; Ayadi, Hammadi; Fakhfakh, Faiza

    2006-02-24

    We explored the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and the tRNA{sup Ser(UCN)} genes in 100 Tunisian families affected with NSHL and in 100 control individuals. We identified the mitochondrial A1555G mutation in one out of these 100 families and not in the 100 control individuals. Members of this family harbouring the A1555G mutation showed phenotypic heterogeneity which could be explained by an eventual nuclear-mitochondrial interaction. So, we have screened three nuclear genes: GJB2, GJB3, and GJB6 but we have not found correlation between the phenotypic heterogeneity and variants detected in these genes. We explored also the entire mitochondrial 12S rRNA and the tRNA{sup Ser(UCN)} genes. We detected five novel polymorphisms: T742C, T794A, A813G, C868T, and C954T, and 12 known polymorphisms in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene. None of the 100 families or the 100 controls were found to carry mutations in the tRNA{sup Ser(UCN)} gene. We report here First mutational screening of the mitochondrial 12S rRNA and the tRNA{sup Ser(UCN)} genes in the Tunisian population which describes the second family harbouring the A1555G mutation in Africa and reveals novel polymorphisms in the mitochondrial 12S rRNA gene.

  10. Long noncoding RNA #32 contributes to antiviral responses by controlling interferon-stimulated gene expression.

    PubMed

    Nishitsuji, Hironori; Ujino, Saneyuki; Yoshio, Sachiyo; Sugiyama, Masaya; Mizokami, Masashi; Kanto, Tatsuya; Shimotohno, Kunitada

    2016-09-13

    Despite the breadth of knowledge that exists regarding the function of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in biological phenomena, the role of lncRNAs in host antiviral responses is poorly understood. Here, we report that lncRNA#32 is associated with type I IFN signaling. The silencing of lncRNA#32 dramatically reduced the level of IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression, resulting in sensitivity to encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection. In contrast, the ectopic expression of lncRNA#32 significantly suppressed EMCV replication, suggesting that lncRNA#32 positively regulates the host antiviral response. We further demonstrated the suppressive function of lncRNA#32 in hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus infection. lncRNA#32 bound to activating transcription factor 2 (ATF2) and regulated ISG expression. Our results reveal a role for lncRNA#32 in host antiviral responses. PMID:27582466

  11. Delivery of cationic polymer-siRNA nanoparticles for gene therapies in neural regeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yanran; Liu, Zhonglin; Shuai, Xintao; Wang, Weiwei; Liu, Jun; Bi, Wei; Wang, Chuanming; Jing, Xiuna; Liu, Yunyun; Tao, Enxiang

    2012-05-18

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nogo receptor can inhibit growth of injured axons, thus affecting neural regeneration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The delivery of siRNA is crucial to inhibit NgR expression in NSCs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Non-viral vector PEG-PEI condensed siRNA targeting NgR into nanoscale particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEG-PEI/siRNA at N/P = 15 displayed high transfection efficiency and low cytotoxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer PEG-PEI has great potential in carrying siRNA to diminish the gene expression in NSCs. -- Abstract: The therapeutic applications of neural stem cells (NSCs) have potential to promote recovery in many obstinate diseases in central nervous system. Regulation of certain gene expressions using siRNA may have significant influence on the fate of NSC. To achieve the optimum gene silencing effect of siRNA, non-viral vector polyethylene glycol-polyethyleneimine (PEG-PEI) was investigated in the delivery of siRNA to NSCs. The characteristics of PEG-PEI/siRNA polyplexes were detected by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of nanoparticles on cell viability were measured via CCK-8 assay. In addition, the transfection efficiency was evaluated by fluorescence microscope and flow cytometry, and real-time PCR and Western Blot were employed to detect the gene inhibition effect of siRNA delivered by PEG-PEI. The SEM micrographs showed that PEG-PEI could condense siRNA to form diffuse and spherical nanoparticles. The cytotoxicity of PEG-PEI/siRNA nanocomplexes (N/P = 15) was significantly lower when compared with that of Lipofectamine 2000/siRNA (P < 0.05). Moreover, the highest transfection efficiency of PEG-PEI/siRNA nanoparticles was obtained at an N/P ratio of 15, which was better than that achieved in the transfection using Lipofectamine 2000 (P < 0.05). Finally, the gene knockdown effect of PEG-PEI/siRNA nanoparticles was verified at the levels of mRNA and protein. These results suggest that

  12. Evaluation of tRNA Gene PCR for Identification of Mollicutes

    PubMed Central

    Stakenborg, Tim; Vicca, Jo; Verhelst, Rita; Butaye, Patrick; Maes, Dominiek; Naessens, Anne; Claeys, Geert; De Ganck, Catharine; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Vaneechoutte, Mario

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated the applicability of tRNA gene PCR in combination with fluorescent capillary electrophoresis with an ABI310 genetic analyzer (Applied Biosystems, Calif.) for the identification of different mollicute species. A total of 103 strains and DNA extracts of 30 different species belonging to the genera Acholeplasma, Mycoplasma, and Ureaplasma were studied. Reproducible peak profiles were generated for all samples, except for one M. genitalium isolate, the three M. gallisepticum isolates, and 8 of the 24 Ureaplasma cultures, where no amplification could be obtained. Clustering revealed numerous discrepancies compared to the identifications that had been previously obtained by means of biochemical and serological tests. Final identification was obtained by 16S rRNA gene amplification followed by sequence analysis and/or restriction digestion. This confirmed the identification obtained by tRNA gene PCR in all cases. Seven samples yielded an unexpected tRNA gene PCR profile. Sequence analysis of the 16S rRNA genes showed that six of these samples were mixed and that one had a unique sequence that did not match any of the published sequences, pointing to the existence of a not-yet-described species. In conclusion, we found tRNA gene PCR to be a rapid and discriminatory method to correctly identify a large collection of different species of the class of Mollicutes and to recognize not-yet-described groups. PMID:16145107

  13. A possible mechanism for the inhibition of ribosomal RNA gene transcription during mitosis.

    PubMed

    Weisenberger, D; Scheer, U

    1995-05-01

    When cells enter mitosis, RNA synthesis ceases. Yet the RNA polymerase I (pol I) transcription machinery involved in the production of pre-rRNA remains bound to the nucleolus organizing region (NOR), the chromosome site harboring the tandemly repeated rRNA genes. Here we examine whether rDNA transcription units are transiently blocked or "frozen" during mitosis. By using fluorescent in situ hybridization we were unable to detect nascent pre-rRNA chains on the NORs of mouse 3T3 and rat kangaroo PtK2 cells. Appropriate controls showed that our approach was sensitive enough to visualize, at the light microscopic level, individual transcriptionally active rRNA genes both in situ after experimental unfolding of nucleoli and in chromatin spreads ("Miller spreads"). Analysis of the cell cycle-dependent redistribution of transcript-associated components also revealed that most transcripts are released from the rDNA at mitosis. Upon disintegration of the nucleolus during mitosis, U3 small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) and the nucleolar proteins fibrillarin and nucleolin became dispersed throughout the cytoplasm and were excluded from the NORs. Together, our data rule out the presence of "frozen Christmas-trees" at the mitotic NORs but are compatible with the view that inactive pol I remains on the rDNA. We propose that expression of the rRNA genes is regulated during mitosis at the level of transcription elongation, similarly to what is known for a number of genes transcribed by pol II. Such a mechanism may explain the decondensed state of the NOR chromatin and the immediate transcriptional reactivation of the rRNA genes following mitosis.

  14. Circularly permuted tRNA genes: their expression and implications for their physiological relevance and development

    PubMed Central

    Soma, Akiko

    2014-01-01

    A number of genome analyses and searches using programs that focus on the RNA-specific bulge-helix-bulge (BHB) motif have uncovered a wide variety of disrupted tRNA genes. The results of these analyses have shown that genetic information encoding functional RNAs is described in the genome cryptically and is retrieved using various strategies. One such strategy is represented by circularly permuted tRNA genes, in which the sequences encoding the 5′-half and 3′-half of the specific tRNA are separated and inverted on the genome. Biochemical analyses have defined a processing pathway in which the termini of tRNA precursors (pre-tRNAs) are ligated to form a characteristic circular RNA intermediate, which is then cleaved at the acceptor-stem to generate the typical cloverleaf structure with functional termini. The sequences adjacent to the processing site located between the 3′-half and the 5′-half of pre-tRNAs potentially form a BHB motif, which is the dominant recognition site for the tRNA-intron splicing endonuclease, suggesting that circularization of pre-tRNAs depends on the splicing machinery. Some permuted tRNAs contain a BHB-mediated intron in their 5′- or 3′-half, meaning that removal of an intron, as well as swapping of the 5′- and 3′-halves, are required during maturation of their pre-tRNAs. To date, 34 permuted tRNA genes have been identified from six species of unicellular algae and one archaeon. Although their physiological significance and mechanism of development remain unclear, the splicing system of BHB motifs seems to have played a key role in the formation of permuted tRNA genes. In this review, current knowledge of circularly permuted tRNA genes is presented and some unanswered questions regarding these species are discussed. PMID:24744771

  15. Involvement of an intracellular vesicular transport process in naked-sgRNA-mediated TRUE gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masato; Kawano, Mitsuoki; Sato, Mari; Nashimoto, Masayuki

    2015-10-01

    tRNase ZL-utilizing efficacious gene silencing (TRUE gene silencing) is an RNA-mediated gene expression control technology with therapeutic potential. Recently, our group demonstrated that a heptamer, mh1 (Bcl‑2), targeting human Bcl-2 mRNA, can be taken up by cells without the use of any transfection reagents and can induce the apoptosis of leukemia cells. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of naked small guide (sg)RNA uptake by cultured cells. Therefore, in the present study the effects of various inhibitors on the induction of apoptosis by naked sgRNA treatment were investigated in order to identify the uptake pathway required for sgRNA function in cultured cells. Addition of the endocytosis inhibitors chlorpromazine, nystatin or methyl‑β‑cyclodextrin together with naked effective sgRNA was unable to diminish the apoptosis‑inducing effects of naked sgRNA or the reduction in target mRNA, suggesting that functional uptake of sgRNA by cells is clathrin‑, caveolae‑ and raft‑independent. Next, chloroquine, an inhibitor of lysosome acidification, and brefeldin A, an inhibitor that blocks protein transport from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum were administered. In the presence of these compounds, the apoptosis‑inducing effects of naked sgRNA were reduced. These results suggest that a vesicular transport process is involved in sgRNA‑mediated TRUE gene silencing. A greater understanding of how naked sgRNAs enter cells and how they reach their target RNAs may aid in the design of more specifically‑targeted and potent sgRNA drugs.

  16. NONCODEv4: exploring the world of long non-coding RNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Chaoyong; Yuan, Jiao; Li, Hui; Li, Ming; Zhao, Guoguang; Bu, Dechao; Zhu, Weimin; Wu, Wei; Chen, Runsheng; Zhao, Yi

    2014-01-01

    NONCODE (http://www.bioinfo.org/noncode/) is an integrated knowledge database dedicated to non-coding RNAs (excluding tRNAs and rRNAs). Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have been implied in diseases and identified to play important roles in various biological processes. Since NONCODE version 3.0 was released 2 years ago, discovery of novel ncRNAs has been promoted by high-throughput RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq). In this update of NONCODE, we expand the ncRNA data set by collection of newly identified ncRNAs from literature published in the last 2 years and integration of the latest version of RefSeq and Ensembl. Particularly, the number of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) has increased sharply from 73 327 to 210 831. Owing to similar alternative splicing pattern to mRNAs, the concept of lncRNA genes was put forward to help systematic understanding of lncRNAs. The 56 018 and 46 475 lncRNA genes were generated from 95 135 and 67 628 lncRNAs for human and mouse, respectively. Additionally, we present expression profile of lncRNA genes by graphs based on public RNA-seq data for human and mouse, as well as predict functions of these lncRNA genes. The improvements brought to the database also include an incorporation of an ID conversion tool from RefSeq or Ensembl ID to NONCODE ID and a service of lncRNA identification. NONCODE is also accessible through http://www.noncode.org/. PMID:24285305

  17. MicroRNA-373 induces expression of genes with complementary promoter sequences.

    PubMed

    Place, Robert F; Li, Long-Cheng; Pookot, Deepa; Noonan, Emily J; Dahiya, Rajvir

    2008-02-01

    Recent studies have shown that microRNA (miRNA) regulates gene expression by repressing translation or directing sequence-specific degradation of complementary mRNA. Here, we report new evidence in which miRNA may also function to induce gene expression. By scanning gene promoters in silico for sequences complementary to known miRNAs, we identified a putative miR-373 target site in the promoter of E-cadherin. Transfection of miR-373 and its precursor hairpin RNA (pre-miR-373) into PC-3 cells readily induced E-cadherin expression. Knockdown experiments confirmed that induction of E-cadherin by pre-miR-373 required the miRNA maturation protein Dicer. Further analysis revealed that cold-shock domain-containing protein C2 (CSDC2), which possesses a putative miR-373 target site within its promoter, was also readily induced in response to miR-373 and pre-miR-373. Furthermore, enrichment of RNA polymerase II was detected at both E-cadherin and CSDC2 promoters after miR-373 transfection. Mismatch mutations to miR-373 indicated that gene induction was specific to the miR-373 sequence. Transfection of promoter-specific dsRNAs revealed that the concurrent induction of E-cadherin and CSDC2 by miR-373 required the miRNA target sites in both promoters. In conclusion, we have identified a miRNA that targets promoter sequences and induces gene expression. These findings reveal a new mode by which miRNAs may regulate gene expression.

  18. De novo computational prediction of non-coding RNA genes in prokaryotic genomes

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Thao T.; Zhou, Fengfeng; Marshburn, Sarah; Stead, Mark; Kushner, Sidney R.; Xu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    Motivation: The computational identification of non-coding RNA (ncRNA) genes represents one of the most important and challenging problems in computational biology. Existing methods for ncRNA gene prediction rely mostly on homology information, thus limiting their applications to ncRNA genes with known homologues. Results: We present a novel de novo prediction algorithm for ncRNA genes using features derived from the sequences and structures of known ncRNA genes in comparison to decoys. Using these features, we have trained a neural network-based classifier and have applied it to Escherichia coli and Sulfolobus solfataricus for genome-wide prediction of ncRNAs. Our method has an average prediction sensitivity and specificity of 68% and 70%, respectively, for identifying windows with potential for ncRNA genes in E.coli. By combining windows of different sizes and using positional filtering strategies, we predicted 601 candidate ncRNAs and recovered 41% of known ncRNAs in E.coli. We experimentally investigated six novel candidates using Northern blot analysis and found expression of three candidates: one represents a potential new ncRNA, one is associated with stable mRNA decay intermediates and one is a case of either a potential riboswitch or transcription attenuator involved in the regulation of cell division. In general, our approach enables the identification of both cis- and trans-acting ncRNAs in partially or completely sequenced microbial genomes without requiring homology or structural conservation. Availability: The source code and results are available at http://csbl.bmb.uga.edu/publications/materials/tran/. Contact: xyn@bmb.uga.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:19744996

  19. Identification of recurrence-related genes by integrating microRNA and gene expression profiling of gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Zhi; Xiong, Yimin; Xu, Weitian; Li, Min; Cheng, Yi; Chen, Fang; Ding, Shifang; Xu, Hualin; Zheng, Guorong

    2012-12-01

    We previously analyzed the microRNA (miRNA) expression pattern in gastric cancer with and without recurrence and obtained 17 differentially expressed miRNAs with potential to predict recurrence risk for GC patients. In the present study, we aimed to investigate recurrence-related genes which may be regulated by the differentially expressed miRNAs identified in our prior research. Three different miRNA target gene databases (miRanda, TargetScan and PicTar) were used for searching the potential genes regulated by miRNAs. A combination was performed between miRNA target genes and recurrence-related gene expression profiling. Three bioinformatics algorithms (PAM, SVM and RF) were used to feature recurrence-related gene selection. In addition, we validated the expression levels of the genes in GC patients using real-time PCR. A total of 3,263 genes were identified as potential targets of 17 miRNAs. We identified 2,736 differential expressed genes using the SAM method based on 22K oligo microarray data which included 7 recurrence and 4 without recurrence GC samples. Combining the target genes regulated by miRNAs and the differentially expressed genes between recurrence and non-recurrence groups, we identified 228 differential genes for further study. Finally, we identified HNRPA0 and PRDM4 as risk biomarkers of GC patients, which were regulated by hsa-miR‑194 and hsa-miR-373, respectively. Our data indicated that HNRPA0 and PRDM4 may be involved in the recurrence process of GC and have potential to act as new prognostic biomarkers in predicting recurrence risk for gastric cancer patients.

  20. Structure Tuning of Cationic Oligospermine-siRNA Conjugates for Carrier-Free Gene Silencing.

    PubMed

    Nothisen, Marc; Bagilet, Jérémy; Behr, Jean-Paul; Remy, Jean-Serge; Kotera, Mitsuharu

    2016-08-01

    Oligospermine-siRNA conjugates are able to induce efficient luciferase gene silencing upon carrier-free transfection. These conjugates are readily accessible by a versatile automated chemistry that we developed using a DMT-spermine phosphoramidite reagent. In this article, we used this chemistry to study a wide range of structural modifications of the oligospermine-siRNA conjugates, i.e., variation of conjugate positions and introduction of chemical modifications to increase nuclease resistance. At first we examined gene silencing activity of a series of siRNA-tris(spermine) conjugates with and without chemical modifications in standard carrier assisted conditions. The three spermine units attached at one of the two ends of the sense strand or at the 3'-end of the antisense strand are compatible with gene silencing activity whereas attachment of spermine units at the 5'-end of the antisense strand abolished the activity. 2'-O-Methylated nucleotides introduced in the sense strand are compatible while not in the antisense strand. Thiophosphate links could be used without activity loss at the 3'-end of both strands and at the 5'-end of the sense strand to conjugate oligospermine. Consequently a series of oligospermine-siRNA conjugates containing 15 to 45 spermines units in various configurations were chosen, prepared, and examined in carrier-free conditions. Attachment of 30 spermine units singly at the 5'-end of the sense strand provides the most potent carrier-free siRNA. Longevity of luciferase gene silencing was studied using oligospermine-siRNA conjugates. Five day long efficiency with more than 80% gene expression knockdown was observed upon transfection without vector. Oligospermine-siRNA conjugates targeting cell-constitutive natural lamin A/C gene were prepared. Efficient gene silencing was observed upon carrier-free transfection of siRNA conjugates containing 20 or 30 spermine residues grafted at the 5'-end of the sense strand. PMID:27398779

  1. Gene Rearrangement Attenuates Expression and Lethality of a Nonsegmented Negative Strand RNA Virus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams Wertz, Gail; Perepelitsa, Victoria P.; Ball, L. Andrew

    1998-03-01

    The nonsegmented negative strand RNA viruses comprise hundreds of human, animal, insect, and plant pathogens. Gene expression of these viruses is controlled by the highly conserved order of genes relative to the single transcriptional promoter. We utilized this regulatory mechanism to alter gene expression levels of vesicular stomatitis virus by rearranging the gene order. This report documents that gene expression levels and the viral phenotype can be manipulated in a predictable manner. Translocation of the promoter-proximal nucleocapsid protein gene N, whose product is required stoichiometrically for genome replication, to successive positions down the genome reduced N mRNA and protein expression in a stepwise manner. The reduction in N gene expression resulted in a stepwise decrease in genomic RNA replication. Translocation of the N gene also attenuated the viruses to increasing extents for replication in cultured cells and for lethality in mice, without compromising their ability to elicit protective immunity. Because monopartite negative strand RNA viruses have not been reported to undergo homologous recombination, gene rearrangement should be irreversible and may provide a rational strategy for developing stably attenuated live vaccines against this type of virus.

  2. Mutation of genes controlling mRNA metabolism and protein synthesis predisposes to neurodevelopmental disorders.

    PubMed

    Sartor, Francesca; Anderson, Jihan; McCaig, Colin; Miedzybrodzka, Zosia; Müller, Berndt

    2015-12-01

    Brain development is a tightly controlled process that depends upon differentiation and function of neurons to allow for the formation of functional neural networks. Mutation of genes encoding structural proteins is well recognized as causal for neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Recent studies have shown that aberrant gene expression can also lead to disorders of neural development. Here we summarize recent evidence implicating in the aetiology of NDDs mutation of factors acting at the level of mRNA splicing, mRNA nuclear export, translation and mRNA degradation. This highlights the importance of these fundamental processes for human health and affords new strategies and targets for therapeutic intervention.

  3. Sequence of the PV2 gene of rice hoja blanca tenuivirus RNA-2.

    PubMed

    De Miranda, J R; Hull, R; Espinoza, A M

    1995-01-01

    Comparison of a partial sequence of rice hoja blanca tenuivirus RNA-2 with 40% similarity to rice stripe tenuivirus RNA-2 revealed regions of high local sequence homology at the 5' terminus, within the coding region (the pv2 gene), and in the intergenic region separating this gene from the other protein (pc2) encoded by this ambisense RNA. Analysis of the conserved regions of the pv2 protein identified two motifs found principally in viral membrane glycoproteins and six motifs found each in a wide variety of proteins. The possible significance of these results is discussed. PMID:8560781

  4. Sequences more than 500 base pairs upstream of the human U3 small nuclear RNA gene stimulate the synthesis of U3 RNA in frog oocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, D.; Reddy, R. ); Wright, D. )

    1991-06-04

    Small nuclear RNA (snRNA) genes contain strong promoters capable of initiating transcription once every 4 s. Studies on the human U1 snRNA gene, carried out in other laboratories, showed that sequences within 400 bp of the 5' flanking region are sufficient for maximal levels of transcription both in vivo and in frog oocytes (reviewed in Dahlberg and Lund (1988)). The authors studied the expression of a human U3 snRNA gene by injecting 5' deletion mutants into frog oocytes. The results show that sequences more than 500 bp upstream of the U3 snRNA gene have a 2-3-fold stimulatory effect on the U3 snRNA synthesis. These results indicate that the human U3 snRNA gene is different from human U1 snRNA gene in containing regulatory elements more than 500 bp upstream. The U3 snRNA gene upstream sequences contain an AluI homologous sequence in the {minus}1,200 region; these AluI sequences were transcribed in vitro and in frog oocytes but were not detectable in Hela cells.

  5. Delta sequences in the 5' non-coding region of yeast tRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Gafner, Jürg; Robertis, Eddy M.De; Philippsen, Peter

    1983-01-01

    Two so far undetected tRNA genes were found close to delta (δ) sequences at the sup4 locus on chromosome X in the genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The two genes were identified from their abundant transcription products in frog oocytes. Hybridisation experiments allowed the mapping of the transcripts in cloned DNA and DNA sequence analysis revealed the presence of one AGGtRNAArg and one GACtRNAAsp gene. tRNAAsp genes with sequences similar or identical to GACtRNAAsp exist in 14-16 copies per haploid yeast genome, whereas only one copy was detected for AGGtRNAArg. In vivo labelling of total yeast tRNA with 32P followed by hybridisation revealed that the unique AGGtRNAArg gene is transcribed in S. cerevisiae. δ sequences are present 120 bp upstream from the first coding nucleotide in the case of AGGtRNAArg, 80 bp in the case of GACtRNAAsp and 405 bp in the case of the known UACtRNATyr (sup4) gene. δ sequences, as part of Ty elements or alone, were also found by other investigators at similar distances upstream of the mRNA start in mutant alleles of protein-coding yeast genes. Although protein-coding genes are transcribed by RNA polymerase II and tRNA genes by RNA polymerase III, the 5' non-coding region of both types of genes could conceivably have a peculiar DNA or chromatin structure used as preferred landing sites by transposable elements. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 5.Fig. 6. PMID:16453444

  6. An Lnc RNA (GAS5)/SnoRNA-derived piRNA induces activation of TRAIL gene by site-specifically recruiting MLL/COMPASS-like complexes

    PubMed Central

    He, Xin; Chen, Xinxin; Zhang, Xue; Duan, Xiaobing; Pan, Ting; Hu, Qifei; Zhang, Yijun; Zhong, Fudi; Liu, Jun; Zhang, Hong; Luo, Juan; Wu, Kang; Peng, Gao; Luo, Haihua; Zhang, Lehong; Li, Xiaoxi; Zhang, Hui

    2015-01-01

    PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) silences the transposons in germlines or induces epigenetic modifications in the invertebrates. However, its function in the mammalian somatic cells remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that a piRNA derived from Growth Arrest Specific 5, a tumor-suppressive long non-coding RNA, potently upregulates the transcription of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a proapoptotic protein, by inducing H3K4 methylation/H3K27 demethylation. Interestingly, the PIWIL1/4 proteins, which bind with this piRNA, directly interact with WDR5, resulting in a site-specific recruitment of the hCOMPASS-like complexes containing at least MLL3 and UTX (KDM6A). We have indicated a novel pathway for piRNAs to specially activate gene expression. Given that MLL3 or UTX are frequently mutated in various tumors, the piRNA/MLL3/UTX complex mediates the induction of TRAIL, and consequently leads to the inhibition of tumor growth. PMID:25779046

  7. Eukaryotic mRNA decay: methodologies, pathways, and links to other stages of gene expression.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Ortín, José E; Alepuz, Paula; Chávez, Sebastián; Choder, Mordechai

    2013-10-23

    mRNA concentration depends on the balance between transcription and degradation rates. On both sides of the equilibrium, synthesis and degradation show, however, interesting differences that have conditioned the evolution of gene regulatory mechanisms. Here, we discuss recent genome-wide methods for determining mRNA half-lives in eukaryotes. We also review pre- and posttranscriptional regulons that coordinate the fate of functionally related mRNAs by using protein- or RNA-based trans factors. Some of these factors can regulate both transcription and decay rates, thereby maintaining proper mRNA homeostasis during eukaryotic cell life.

  8. In Vitro Gene Silencing of the Fish Microsporidian Heterosporis saurida by RNA Interference

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Gokhlesh; Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem; Dkhil, Mohamed A.; El-Matbouli, Mansour; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2016-01-01

    Heterosporis saurida, a microsporidian parasite of lizardfish, Saurida undosquamis, causes severe economic losses in marine aquaculture. Among the novel approaches being explored for treatment of parasitic infections in aquaculture is small interfering RNA molecules. The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficiency of using siRNA to knock down expression of specific genes of H. saurida in vitro. For this purpose, siRNAs specific for ATP/ADP antiporter 1 and methionine aminopeptidase II genes were designed and tested using a previously developed in vitro cultivation model. Silencing of H. saurida target genes was assessed and the efficacy of using siRNA for inhibition of gene expression was measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Silencing of ATP/ADP antiporter 1 or methionine aminopeptidase II by siRNA reduced H. saurida infection levels in EK-1 cells 40% and 60%, respectively, as measured by qRT-PCR and spore counts. Combined siRNA treatment of both ATP/ADP antiporter 1 and methionine aminopeptidase II siRNAs was more effective against H. saurida infection as seen by the 16S rRNA level and spore counts. Our study concluded that siRNA could be used to advance development of novel approaches to inhibit H. saurida and provide an alternative approach to combat microsporidia. PMID:27228357

  9. Depletion of REF/Aly alters gene expression and reduces RNA polymerase II occupancy

    PubMed Central

    Stubbs, Sarah H.; Conrad, Nicholas K.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA processing is mechanistically linked to transcription with RNA pol II serving as a platform to recruit RNA processing factors to nascent transcripts. The TREX complex member, REF/Aly, has been suggested to play roles in transcription and nuclear RNA stability in addition to its more broadly characterized role in mRNA export. We employed RNA-seq to identify a subset of transcripts with decreased expression in both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions upon REF/Aly knockdown, which implies that REF/Aly affects their expression upstream of its role in mRNA export. Transcription inhibition experiments and metabolic labeling assays argue that REF/Aly does not affect stability of selected candidate transcripts. Instead, ChIP assays and nuclear run-on analysis reveal that REF/Aly depletion diminishes the transcription of these candidate genes. Furthermore, we determined that REF/Aly binds directly to candidate transcripts, supporting a direct effect of REF/Aly on candidate gene transcription. Taken together, our data suggest that the importance of REF/Aly is not limited to RNA export, but that REF/Aly is also critical for gene expression at the level of transcription. Our data are consistent with the model that REF/Aly is involved in linking splicing with transcription efficiency. PMID:25477387

  10. Depletion of REF/Aly alters gene expression and reduces RNA polymerase II occupancy.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Sarah H; Conrad, Nicholas K

    2015-01-01

    Pre-mRNA processing is mechanistically linked to transcription with RNA pol II serving as a platform to recruit RNA processing factors to nascent transcripts. The TREX complex member, REF/Aly, has been suggested to play roles in transcription and nuclear RNA stability in addition to its more broadly characterized role in mRNA export. We employed RNA-seq to identify a subset of transcripts with decreased expression in both nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions upon REF/Aly knockdown, which implies that REF/Aly affects their expression upstream of its role in mRNA export. Transcription inhibition experiments and metabolic labeling assays argue that REF/Aly does not affect stability of selected candidate transcripts. Instead, ChIP assays and nuclear run-on analysis reveal that REF/Aly depletion diminishes the transcription of these candidate genes. Furthermore, we determined that REF/Aly binds directly to candidate transcripts, supporting a direct effect of REF/Aly on candidate gene transcription. Taken together, our data suggest that the importance of REF/Aly is not limited to RNA export, but that REF/Aly is also critical for gene expression at the level of transcription. Our data are consistent with the model that REF/Aly is involved in linking splicing with transcription efficiency.

  11. A new gene in E. coli RNA synthesis.

    PubMed

    Liebke, H H; Speyer, J F

    1983-01-01

    A novel spontaneous temperature sensitive mutant of Escherichia coli, which stops synthesizing stable RNA and some proteins immediately upon temperature shift from 30 degrees C to 42 degrees C, is described. Stable RNA species are not preferentially degraded in the mutant at the nonpermissive temperature. The guanine polyphosphate compounds, ppGpp (MS1) and pppGpp (MS2), are not produced at 42 degrees C. The mutant strain does not grow at 42 degrees C in either broth or defined minimal medium supplemented with any of a variety of carbon sources. The temperature sensitive mutation in this strain maps between dap A, E and pts I and defines a new locus affecting RNA synthesis in E. coli.

  12. Dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence inferred from the gene sequence: Evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Herzog, M; Maroteaux, L

    1986-11-01

    We present the complete sequence of the nuclear-encoded small-ribosomal-subunit RNA inferred from the cloned gene sequence of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans. The dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence of 1798 nucleotides is contained in a family of 200 tandemly repeated genes per haploid genome. A tentative model of the secondary structure of P. micans 17S rRNA is presented. This sequence is compared with the small-ribosomal-subunit rRNA of Xenopus laevis (Animalia), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fungi), Zea mays (Planta), Dictyostelium discoideum (Protoctista), and Halobacterium volcanii (Monera). Although the secondary structure of the dinoflagellate 17S rRNA presents most of the eukaryotic characteristics, it contains sufficient archaeobacterial-like structural features to reinforce the view that dinoflagellates branch off very early from the eukaryotic lineage.

  13. Dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence inferred from the gene sequence: Evolutionary implications

    PubMed Central

    Herzog, Michel; Maroteaux, Luc

    1986-01-01

    We present the complete sequence of the nuclear-encoded small-ribosomal-subunit RNA inferred from the cloned gene sequence of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans. The dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence of 1798 nucleotides is contained in a family of 200 tandemly repeated genes per haploid genome. A tentative model of the secondary structure of P. micans 17S rRNA is presented. This sequence is compared with the small-ribosomal-subunit rRNA of Xenopus laevis (Animalia), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fungi), Zea mays (Planta), Dictyostelium discoideum (Protoctista), and Halobacterium volcanii (Monera). Although the secondary structure of the dinoflagellate 17S rRNA presents most of the eukaryotic characteristics, it contains sufficient archaeobacterial-like structural features to reinforce the view that dinoflagellates branch off very early from the eukaryotic lineage. PMID:16578795

  14. Identification and annotation of small RNA genes using ShortStack

    PubMed Central

    Shahid, Saima; Axtell, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Highly parallel sequencing of cDNA derived from endogenous small RNAs (small RNA-seq) is a key method that has accelerated understanding of regulatory small RNAs in eukaryotes. Eukaryotic regulatory small RNAs, which include microRNAs (miRNAs), short interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and Piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs), typically derive from the processing of longer precursor RNAs. Alignment of small RNA-seq data to a reference genome allows the inference of the longer precursor and thus the annotation of small RNA producing genes. ShortStack is a program that was developed to comprehensively analyze reference-aligned small RNA-seq data, and output detailed and useful annotations of the causal small RNA-producing genes. Here, we provide a step- by-step tutorial of ShortStack usage with the goal of introducing new users to the software and pointing out some common pitfalls. PMID:24139974

  15. Dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence inferred from the gene sequence: Evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Herzog, M; Maroteaux, L

    1986-11-01

    We present the complete sequence of the nuclear-encoded small-ribosomal-subunit RNA inferred from the cloned gene sequence of the dinoflagellate Prorocentrum micans. The dinoflagellate 17S rRNA sequence of 1798 nucleotides is contained in a family of 200 tandemly repeated genes per haploid genome. A tentative model of the secondary structure of P. micans 17S rRNA is presented. This sequence is compared with the small-ribosomal-subunit rRNA of Xenopus laevis (Animalia), Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Fungi), Zea mays (Planta), Dictyostelium discoideum (Protoctista), and Halobacterium volcanii (Monera). Although the secondary structure of the dinoflagellate 17S rRNA presents most of the eukaryotic characteristics, it contains sufficient archaeobacterial-like structural features to reinforce the view that dinoflagellates branch off very early from the eukaryotic lineage. PMID:16578795

  16. RNA Polymerase Backtracking in Gene Regulation and Genome Instability

    PubMed Central

    Nudler, Evgeny

    2013-01-01

    RNA polymerase is a ratchet machine that oscillates between productive and backtracked states at numerous DNA positions. The amount of backtracking (reversible sliding of the enzyme along DNA and RNA) varies from one to many nucleotides. Since its first description 15 years ago, backtracking has been implicated in a plethora of critical processes in bacteria and eukaryotic cells. Here we review the most fundamental roles of this phenomenon in controlling transcription elongation, pausing, termination, fidelity, and genome instability. We also discuss recent progress in understanding the structural and mechanistic properties of the backtracking process. PMID:22726433

  17. Diversity of 5S rRNA genes within individual prokaryotic genomes.

    PubMed

    Pei, Anna; Li, Hongru; Oberdorf, William E; Alekseyenko, Alexander V; Parsons, Tamasha; Yang, Liying; Gerz, Erika A; Lee, Peng; Xiang, Charlie; Nossa, Carlos W; Pei, Zhiheng

    2012-10-01

    We examined intragenomic variation of paralogous 5S rRNA genes to evaluate the concept of ribosomal constraints. In a dataset containing 1161 genomes from 779 unique species, 96 species exhibited > 3% diversity. Twenty-seven species with > 10% diversity contained a total of 421 mismatches between all pairs of the most dissimilar copies of 5S rRNA genes. The large majority (401 of 421) of the diversified positions were conserved at the secondary structure level. The high diversity was associated with partial rRNA operon, split operon, or spacer length-related divergence. In total, these findings indicated that there are tight ribosomal constraints on paralogous 5S rRNA genes in a genome despite of the high degree of diversity at the primary structure level.

  18. The SILVA ribosomal RNA gene database project: improved data processing and web-based tools.

    PubMed

    Quast, Christian; Pruesse, Elmar; Yilmaz, Pelin; Gerken, Jan; Schweer, Timmy; Yarza, Pablo; Peplies, Jörg; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2013-01-01

    SILVA (from Latin silva, forest, http://www.arb-silva.de) is a comprehensive web resource for up to date, quality-controlled databases of aligned ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene sequences from the Bacteria, Archaea and Eukaryota domains and supplementary online services. The referred database release 111 (July 2012) contains 3 194 778 small subunit and 288 717 large subunit rRNA gene sequences. Since the initial description of the project, substantial new features have been introduced, including advanced quality control procedures, an improved rRNA gene aligner, online tools for probe and primer evaluation and optimized browsing, searching and downloading on the website. Furthermore, the extensively curated SILVA taxonomy and the new non-redundant SILVA datasets provide an ideal reference for high-throughput classification of data from next-generation sequencing approaches.

  19. Gene dosage and stochastic effects determine the severity and direction of uniparental ribosomal RNA gene silencing (nucleolar dominance) in Arabidopsis allopolyploids.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z J; Comai, L; Pikaard, C S

    1998-12-01

    Nucleolar dominance is an epigenetic phenomenon in which one parental set of ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes is silenced in an interspecific hybrid. In natural Arabidopsis suecica, an allotetraploid (amphidiploid) hybrid of Arabidopsis thaliana and Cardaminopsis arenosa, the A. thaliana rRNA genes are repressed. Interestingly, A. thaliana rRNA gene silencing is variable in synthetic Arabidopsis suecica F1 hybrids. Two generations are needed for A. thaliana rRNA genes to be silenced in all lines, revealing a species-biased direction but stochastic onset to nucleolar dominance. Backcrossing synthetic A. suecica to tetraploid A. thaliana yielded progeny with active A. thaliana rRNA genes and, in some cases, silenced C. arenosa rRNA genes, showing that the direction of dominance can be switched. The hypothesis that naturally dominant rRNA genes have a superior binding affinity for a limiting transcription factor is inconsistent with dominance switching. Inactivation of a species-specific transcription factor is argued against by showing that A. thaliana and C. arenosa rRNA genes can be expressed transiently in the other species. Transfected A. thaliana genes are also active in A. suecica protoplasts in which chromosomal A. thaliana genes are repressed. Collectively, these data suggest that nucleolar dominance is a chromosomal phenomenon that results in coordinate or cooperative silencing of rRNA genes.

  20. Transformation of Chloroplast Ribosomal RNA Genes in Chlamydomonas: Molecular and Genetic Characterization of Integration Events

    PubMed Central

    Newman, S. M.; Boynton, J. E.; Gillham, N. W.; Randolph-Anderson, B. L.; Johnson, A. M.; Harris, E. H.

    1990-01-01

    Transformation of chloroplast ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes in Chlamydomonas has been achieved by the biolistic process using cloned chloroplast DNA fragments carrying mutations that confer antibiotic resistance. The sites of exchange employed during the integration of the donor DNA into the recipient genome have been localized using a combination of antibiotic resistance mutations in the 16S and 23S rRNA genes and restriction fragment length polymorphisms that flank these genes. Complete or nearly complete replacement of a region of the chloroplast genome in the recipient cell by the corresponding sequence from the donor plasmid was the most common integration event. Exchange events between the homologous donor and recipient sequences occurred preferentially near the vector:insert junctions. Insertion of the donor rRNA genes and flanking sequences into one inverted repeat of the recipient genome was followed by intramolecular copy correction so that both copies of the inverted repeat acquired identical sequences. Increased frequencies of rRNA gene transformants were achieved by reducing the copy number of the chloroplast genome in the recipient cells and by decreasing the heterology between donor and recipient DNA sequences flanking the selectable markers. In addition to producing bona fide chloroplast rRNA transformants, the biolistic process induced mutants resistant to low levels of streptomycin, typical of nuclear mutations in Chlamydomonas. PMID:1981764

  1. DSIR: assessing the design of highly potent siRNA by testing a set of cancer-relevant target genes.

    PubMed

    Filhol, Odile; Ciais, Delphine; Lajaunie, Christian; Charbonnier, Peggy; Foveau, Nicolas; Vert, Jean-Philippe; Vandenbrouck, Yves

    2012-01-01

    Chemically synthesized small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a widespread molecular tool used to knock down genes in mammalian cells. However, designing potent siRNA remains challenging. Among tools predicting siRNA efficacy, very few have been validated on endogenous targets in realistic experimental conditions. We previously described a tool to assist efficient siRNA design (DSIR, Designer of siRNA), which focuses on intrinsic features of the siRNA sequence. Here, we evaluated DSIR's performance by systematically investigating the potency of the siRNA it designs to target ten cancer-related genes. mRNA knockdown was measured by quantitative RT-PCR in cell-based assays, revealing that over 60% of siRNA sequences designed by DSIR silenced their target genes by at least 70%. Silencing efficacy was sustained even when low siRNA concentrations were used. This systematic analysis revealed in particular that, for a subset of genes, the efficiency of siRNA constructs significantly increases when the sequence is located closer to the 5'-end of the target gene coding sequence, suggesting the distance to the 5'-end as a new feature for siRNA potency prediction. A new version of DSIR incorporating these new findings, as well as the list of validated siRNA against the tested cancer genes, has been made available on the web (http://biodev.extra.cea.fr/DSIR).

  2. Efficient expression of protein coding genes from the murine U1 small nuclear RNA promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Bartlett, J S; Sethna, M; Ramamurthy, L; Gowen, S A; Samulski, R J; Marzluff, W F

    1996-01-01

    Few promoters are active at high levels in all cells. Of these, the majority encode structural RNAs transcribed by RNA polymerases I or III and are not accessible for the expression of proteins. An exception are the small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) transcribed by RNA polymerase II. Although snRNA biosynthesis is unique and thought not to be compatible with synthesis of functional mRNA, we have tested these promoters for their ability to express functional mRNAs. We have used the murine U1a and U1b snRNA gene promoters to express the Escherichia coli lacZ gene and the human alpha-globin gene from either episomal or integrated templates by transfection, or infection into a variety of mammalian cell types. Equivalent expression of beta-galactosidase was obtained from < 250 nucleotides of 5'-flanking sequence containing the complete promoter of either U1 snRNA gene or from the 750-nt cytomegalovirus promoter and enhancer regions. The mRNA was accurately initiated at the U1 start site, efficiently spliced and polyadenylylated, and localized to polyribosomes. Recombinant adenovirus containing the U1b-lacZ chimeric gene transduced and expressed beta-galactosidase efficiently in human 293 cells and airway epithelial cells in culture. Viral vectors containing U1 snRNA promoters may be an attractive alternative to vectors containing viral promoters for persistent high-level expression of therapeutic genes or proteins. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:8799116

  3. RNA interference can be used to disrupt gene function in tardigrades

    PubMed Central

    Tenlen, Jennifer R.; McCaskill, Shaina; Goldstein, Bob

    2012-01-01

    How morphological diversity arises is a key question in evolutionary developmental biology. As a long-term approach to address this question, we are developing the water bear Hypsibius dujardini (Phylum Tardigrada) as a model system. We expect that using a close relative of two well-studied models, Drosophila (Phylum Arthropoda) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Phylum Nematoda), will facilitate identifying genetic pathways relevant to understanding the evolution of development. Tardigrades are also valuable research subjects for investigating how organisms and biological materials can survive extreme conditions. Methods to disrupt gene activity are essential to each of these efforts, but no such method yet exists for the Phylum Tardigrada. We developed a protocol to disrupt tardigrade gene functions by double-stranded RNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). We show that targeting tardigrade homologs of essential developmental genes by RNAi produced embryonic lethality, whereas targeting green fluorescent protein did not. Disruption of gene functions appears to be relatively specific by two criteria: targeting distinct genes resulted in distinct phenotypes that were consistent with predicted gene functions, and by RT-PCR, RNAi reduced the level of a target mRNA and not a control mRNA. These studies represent the first evidence that gene functions can be disrupted by RNAi in the phylum Tardigrada. Our results form a platform for dissecting tardigrade gene functions for understanding the evolution of developmental mechanisms and survival in extreme environments. PMID:23187800

  4. Bacterial metabarcoding by 16S rRNA gene ion torrent amplicon sequencing.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Elio; Gianese, Giulio; Giuliano, Giovanni; Fiore, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Ion Torrent is a next generation sequencing technology based on the detection of hydrogen ions produced during DNA chain elongation; this technology allows analyzing and characterizing genomes, genes, and species. Here, we describe an Ion Torrent procedure applied to the metagenomic analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to study the bacterial diversity in food and environmental samples. PMID:25343859

  5. Bacterial metabarcoding by 16S rRNA gene ion torrent amplicon sequencing.

    PubMed

    Fantini, Elio; Gianese, Giulio; Giuliano, Giovanni; Fiore, Alessia

    2015-01-01

    Ion Torrent is a next generation sequencing technology based on the detection of hydrogen ions produced during DNA chain elongation; this technology allows analyzing and characterizing genomes, genes, and species. Here, we describe an Ion Torrent procedure applied to the metagenomic analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons to study the bacterial diversity in food and environmental samples.

  6. RNA interference can be used to disrupt gene function in tardigrades.

    PubMed

    Tenlen, Jennifer R; McCaskill, Shaina; Goldstein, Bob

    2013-05-01

    How morphological diversity arises is a key question in evolutionary developmental biology. As a long-term approach to address this question, we are developing the water bear Hypsibius dujardini (Phylum Tardigrada) as a model system. We expect that using a close relative of two well-studied models, Drosophila (Phylum Arthropoda) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Phylum Nematoda), will facilitate identifying genetic pathways relevant to understanding the evolution of development. Tardigrades are also valuable research subjects for investigating how organisms and biological materials can survive extreme conditions. Methods to disrupt gene activity are essential to each of these efforts, but no such method yet exists for the Phylum Tardigrada. We developed a protocol to disrupt tardigrade gene functions by double-stranded RNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). We showed that targeting tardigrade homologs of essential developmental genes by RNAi produced embryonic lethality, whereas targeting green fluorescent protein did not. Disruption of gene functions appears to be relatively specific by two criteria: targeting distinct genes resulted in distinct phenotypes that were consistent with predicted gene functions and by RT-PCR, RNAi reduced the level of a target mRNA and not a control mRNA. These studies represent the first evidence that gene functions can be disrupted by RNAi in the phylum Tardigrada. Our results form a platform for dissecting tardigrade gene functions for understanding the evolution of developmental mechanisms and survival in extreme environments.

  7. Rearrangement of mitochondrial tRNA genes in flat bugs (Hemiptera: Aradidae)

    PubMed Central

    Song, Fan; Li, Hu; Shao, Renfu; Shi, Aimin; Bai, Xiaoshuan; Zheng, Xiaorong; Heiss, Ernst; Cai, Wanzhi

    2016-01-01

    The typical insect mitochondrial (mt) genome organization, which contains a single chromosome with 37 genes, was found in the infraorder Pentatomomorpha (suborder Heteroptera). The arrangement of mt genes in these true bugs is usually the same as the ancestral mt gene arrangement of insects. Rearrangement of transfer RNA (tRNA) genes, however, has been found in two subfamilies of flat bugs (Mezirinae and Calisiinae, family Aradidae). In this study, we sequenced the complete mt genomes of four species from three other subfamilies (Aradinae, Carventinae and Aneurinae). We found tRNA gene rearrangement in all of these four species. All of the rearranged tRNA genes are located between the mitochondrial control region and cox1, indicating this region as a hotspot for gene rearrangement in flat bugs; the rearrangement is likely caused by events of tandem duplication and random deletion of genes. Furthermore, our phylogenetic and dating analyses indicated that the swap of positions between trnQ and trnI occurred ~162 million years ago (MYA) in the most recent common ancestor of the five subfamilies of flat bugs investigated to date, whereas the swap of positions between trnC and trnW occurred later in the lineage leading to Calisiinae, and the translocation of trnC and trnY occurred later than 134 MYA in the lineage leading to Aradinae. PMID:27180804

  8. RNA interference can be used to disrupt gene function in tardigrades.

    PubMed

    Tenlen, Jennifer R; McCaskill, Shaina; Goldstein, Bob

    2013-05-01

    How morphological diversity arises is a key question in evolutionary developmental biology. As a long-term approach to address this question, we are developing the water bear Hypsibius dujardini (Phylum Tardigrada) as a model system. We expect that using a close relative of two well-studied models, Drosophila (Phylum Arthropoda) and Caenorhabditis elegans (Phylum Nematoda), will facilitate identifying genetic pathways relevant to understanding the evolution of development. Tardigrades are also valuable research subjects for investigating how organisms and biological materials can survive extreme conditions. Methods to disrupt gene activity are essential to each of these efforts, but no such method yet exists for the Phylum Tardigrada. We developed a protocol to disrupt tardigrade gene functions by double-stranded RNA-mediated RNA interference (RNAi). We showed that targeting tardigrade homologs of essential developmental genes by RNAi produced embryonic lethality, whereas targeting green fluorescent protein did not. Disruption of gene functions appears to be relatively specific by two criteria: targeting distinct genes resulted in distinct phenotypes that were consistent with predicted gene functions and by RT-PCR, RNAi reduced the level of a target mRNA and not a control mRNA. These studies represent the first evidence that gene functions can be disrupted by RNAi in the phylum Tardigrada. Our results form a platform for dissecting tardigrade gene functions for understanding the evolution of developmental mechanisms and survival in extreme environments. PMID:23187800

  9. Integrating mRNA and miRNA Weighted Gene Co-Expression Networks with eQTLs in the Nucleus Accumbens of Subjects with Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Mamdani, Mohammed; Williamson, Vernell; McMichael, Gowon O; Blevins, Tana; Aliev, Fazil; Adkins, Amy; Hack, Laura; Bigdeli, Tim; van der Vaart, Andrew D; Web, Bradley Todd; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Kalsi, Gursharan; Kendler, Kenneth S; Miles, Michael F; Dick, Danielle; Riley, Brien P; Dumur, Catherine; Vladimirov, Vladimir I

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is known to lead to gene expression changes in the brain. After performing weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA) on genome-wide mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression in Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) of subjects with alcohol dependence (AD; N = 18) and of matched controls (N = 18), six mRNA and three miRNA modules significantly correlated with AD were identified (Bonferoni-adj. p≤ 0.05). Cell-type-specific transcriptome analyses revealed two of the mRNA modules to be enriched for neuronal specific marker genes and downregulated in AD, whereas the remaining four mRNA modules were enriched for astrocyte and microglial specific marker genes and upregulated in AD. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that neuronal specific modules were enriched for genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction and MAPK signaling. Glial-specific modules were predominantly enriched for genes involved in processes related to immune functions, i.e. cytokine signaling (all adj. p≤ 0.05). In mRNA and miRNA modules, 461 and 25 candidate hub genes were identified, respectively. In contrast to the expected biological functions of miRNAs, correlation analyses between mRNA and miRNA hub genes revealed a higher number of positive than negative correlations (χ2 test p≤ 0.0001). Integration of hub gene expression with genome-wide genotypic data resulted in 591 mRNA cis-eQTLs and 62 miRNA cis-eQTLs. mRNA cis-eQTLs were significantly enriched for AD diagnosis and AD symptom counts (adj. p = 0.014 and p = 0.024, respectively) in AD GWAS signals in a large, independent genetic sample from the Collaborative Study on Genetics of Alcohol (COGA). In conclusion, our study identified putative gene network hubs coordinating mRNA and miRNA co-expression changes in the NAc of AD subjects, and our genetic (cis-eQTL) analysis provides novel insights into the etiological mechanisms of AD.

  10. Integrating mRNA and miRNA Weighted Gene Co-Expression Networks with eQTLs in the Nucleus Accumbens of Subjects with Alcohol Dependence.

    PubMed

    Mamdani, Mohammed; Williamson, Vernell; McMichael, Gowon O; Blevins, Tana; Aliev, Fazil; Adkins, Amy; Hack, Laura; Bigdeli, Tim; van der Vaart, Andrew D; Web, Bradley Todd; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Kalsi, Gursharan; Kendler, Kenneth S; Miles, Michael F; Dick, Danielle; Riley, Brien P; Dumur, Catherine; Vladimirov, Vladimir I

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is known to lead to gene expression changes in the brain. After performing weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA) on genome-wide mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression in Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) of subjects with alcohol dependence (AD; N = 18) and of matched controls (N = 18), six mRNA and three miRNA modules significantly correlated with AD were identified (Bonferoni-adj. p≤ 0.05). Cell-type-specific transcriptome analyses revealed two of the mRNA modules to be enriched for neuronal specific marker genes and downregulated in AD, whereas the remaining four mRNA modules were enriched for astrocyte and microglial specific marker genes and upregulated in AD. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that neuronal specific modules were enriched for genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction and MAPK signaling. Glial-specific modules were predominantly enriched for genes involved in processes related to immune functions, i.e. cytokine signaling (all adj. p≤ 0.05). In mRNA and miRNA modules, 461 and 25 candidate hub genes were identified, respectively. In contrast to the expected biological functions of miRNAs, correlation analyses between mRNA and miRNA hub genes revealed a higher number of positive than negative correlations (χ2 test p≤ 0.0001). Integration of hub gene expression with genome-wide genotypic data resulted in 591 mRNA cis-eQTLs and 62 miRNA cis-eQTLs. mRNA cis-eQTLs were significantly enriched for AD diagnosis and AD symptom counts (adj. p = 0.014 and p = 0.024, respectively) in AD GWAS signals in a large, independent genetic sample from the Collaborative Study on Genetics of Alcohol (COGA). In conclusion, our study identified putative gene network hubs coordinating mRNA and miRNA co-expression changes in the NAc of AD subjects, and our genetic (cis-eQTL) analysis provides novel insights into the etiological mechanisms of AD. PMID:26381263

  11. Integrating mRNA and miRNA Weighted Gene Co-Expression Networks with eQTLs in the Nucleus Accumbens of Subjects with Alcohol Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Blevins, Tana; Aliev, Fazil; Adkins, Amy; Hack, Laura; Bigdeli, Tim; D. van der Vaart, Andrew; Web, Bradley Todd; Bacanu, Silviu-Alin; Kalsi, Gursharan; Kendler, Kenneth S.; Miles, Michael F.; Dick, Danielle; Riley, Brien P.; Dumur, Catherine; Vladimirov, Vladimir I.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol consumption is known to lead to gene expression changes in the brain. After performing weighted gene co-expression network analyses (WGCNA) on genome-wide mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) expression in Nucleus Accumbens (NAc) of subjects with alcohol dependence (AD; N = 18) and of matched controls (N = 18), six mRNA and three miRNA modules significantly correlated with AD were identified (Bonferoni-adj. p≤ 0.05). Cell-type-specific transcriptome analyses revealed two of the mRNA modules to be enriched for neuronal specific marker genes and downregulated in AD, whereas the remaining four mRNA modules were enriched for astrocyte and microglial specific marker genes and upregulated in AD. Gene set enrichment analysis demonstrated that neuronal specific modules were enriched for genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial dysfunction and MAPK signaling. Glial-specific modules were predominantly enriched for genes involved in processes related to immune functions, i.e. cytokine signaling (all adj. p≤ 0.05). In mRNA and miRNA modules, 461 and 25 candidate hub genes were identified, respectively. In contrast to the expected biological functions of miRNAs, correlation analyses between mRNA and miRNA hub genes revealed a higher number of positive than negative correlations (χ2 test p≤ 0.0001). Integration of hub gene expression with genome-wide genotypic data resulted in 591 mRNA cis-eQTLs and 62 miRNA cis-eQTLs. mRNA cis-eQTLs were significantly enriched for AD diagnosis and AD symptom counts (adj. p = 0.014 and p = 0.024, respectively) in AD GWAS signals in a large, independent genetic sample from the Collaborative Study on Genetics of Alcohol (COGA). In conclusion, our study identified putative gene network hubs coordinating mRNA and miRNA co-expression changes in the NAc of AD subjects, and our genetic (cis-eQTL) analysis provides novel insights into the etiological mechanisms of AD. PMID:26381263

  12. Virus-induced gene silencing of RPC5-like subunit of RNA polymerase III caused pleiotropic effects in Nicotiana benthamiana

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In eukaryotic cells, RNA polymerase III is highly conserved, contains 17 subunits and transcribes housekeeping genes such as ribosomal 50S rRNA, tRNA and other small RNAs. Functional roles of the RPC5 are poorly characterized in the literature. In this work, we report that virus-induced gene silenci...

  13. A multiplicity of factors contributes to selective RNA polymerase III occupancy of a subset of RNA polymerase III genes in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Canella, Donatella; Bernasconi, David; Gilardi, Federica; LeMartelot, Gwendal; Migliavacca, Eugenia; Praz, Viviane; Cousin, Pascal; Delorenzi, Mauro; Hernandez, Nouria

    2012-04-01

    The genomic loci occupied by RNA polymerase (RNAP) III have been characterized in human culture cells by genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitations, followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq). These studies have shown that only ∼40% of the annotated 622 human tRNA genes and pseudogenes are occupied by RNAP-III, and that these genes are often in open chromatin regions rich in active RNAP-II transcription units. We have used ChIP-seq to characterize RNAP-III-occupied loci in a differentiated tissue, the mouse liver. Our studies define the mouse liver RNAP-III-occupied loci including a conserved mammalian interspersed repeat (MIR) as a potential regulator of an RNAP-III subunit-encoding gene. They reveal that synteny relationships can be established between a number of human and mouse RNAP-III genes, and that the expression levels of these genes are significantly linked. They establish that variations within the A and B promoter boxes, as well as the strength of the terminator sequence, can strongly affect RNAP-III occupancy of tRNA genes. They reveal correlations with various genomic features that explain the observed variation of 81% of tRNA scores. In mouse liver, loci represented in the NCBI37/mm9 genome assembly that are clearly occupied by RNAP-III comprise 50 Rn5s (5S RNA) genes, 14 known non-tRNA RNAP-III genes, nine Rn4.5s (4.5S RNA) genes, and 29 SINEs. Moreover, out of the 433 annotated tRNA genes, half are occupied by RNAP-III. Transfer RNA gene expression levels reflect both an underlying genomic organization conserved in dividing human culture cells and resting mouse liver cells, and the particular promoter and terminator strengths of individual genes.

  14. Silent no more: Endogenous small RNA pathways promote gene expression.

    PubMed

    Wedeles, Christopher J; Wu, Monica Z; Claycomb, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous small RNA pathways related to RNA interference (RNAi) play a well-documented role in protecting host genomes from the invasion of foreign nucleic acids. In C. elegans, the PIWI type Argonaute, PRG-1, through an association with 21U-RNAs, mediates a genome surveillance process by constantly scanning the genome for potentially deleterious invading elements. Upon recognition of foreign nucleic acids, PRG-1 initiates a cascade of cytoplasmic and nuclear events that results in heritable epigenetic silencing of these transcripts and their coding genomic loci. If the PRG-1/21U-RNA genome surveillance pathway has the capacity to target most of the C. elegans transcriptome, what mechanisms exist to protect endogenous transcripts from being silenced by this pathway? In this commentary, we discuss three recent publications that implicate the CSR-1 small RNA pathway in the heritable activation of germline transcripts, propose a model as to why not all epialleles behave similarly, and touch on the practical implications of these findings.

  15. Inhibition of avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) replication by RNA interference targeting nucleoprotein gene (N) in cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Helena Lage; Spilki, Fernando Rosado; de Almeida, Renata Servan; Santos, Márcia M A B; Arns, Clarice Weis

    2007-04-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (AMPV) is the primary causative agent of severe rhinotracheitis in turkeys. It is associated with swollen head syndrome in chickens and is the source of significant economic losses to animal food production. In this study, we designed specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting the AMPV nucleoprotein (N) and fusion (F) genes. Three days post-virus infection, virus titration, real time RT-PCR, and RT-PCR assays were performed to verify the effect of siRNA in AMPV replication. A marked decrease in virus titers from transfected CER cells treated with siRNA/N was observed. Also, the production of N, F, and G mRNAs in AMPV was decreased. Results indicate that N-specific siRNA can inhibit virus replication. In future studies, a combination of siRNAs targeting the RNA polymerase complex may be used as a tool to study AMPV replication and/or antiviral therapy.

  16. Identification of Survival Genes in Human Glioblastoma Cells by Small Interfering RNA Screening

    PubMed Central

    Thaker, Nikhil G.; Zhang, Fang; McDonald, Peter R.; Shun, Tong Ying; Lewen, Michael D.; Pollack, Ian F.

    2009-01-01

    Target identification and validation remain difficult steps in the drug discovery process, and uncovering the core genes and pathways that are fundamental for cancer cell survival may facilitate this process. Glioblastoma represents a challenging form of cancer for chemotherapy. Therefore, we assayed 16,560 short interfering RNA (siRNA) aimed at identifying which of the 5520 unique therapeutically targetable gene products were important for the survival of human glioblastoma. We analyzed the viability of T98G glioma cells 96 h after siRNA transfection with two orthogonal statistical methods and identified 55 survival genes that encoded proteases, kinases, and transferases. It is noteworthy that 22% (12/55) of the survival genes were constituents of the 20S and 26S proteasome subunits. An expression survey of a panel of glioma cell lines demonstrated expression of the proteasome component PSMB4, and the validity of the proteasome complex as a target for survival inhibition was confirmed in a series of glioma and nonglioma cell lines by pharmacological inhibition and RNA interference. Biological networks were built with the other survival genes using a protein-protein interaction network, which identified clusters of cellular processes, including protein ubiquitination, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, nucleotide excision repair, and NF-κB signaling. The results of this study should broaden our understanding of the core genes and pathways that regulate cell survival; through either small molecule inhibition or RNA interference, we highlight the potential significance of proteasome inhibition. PMID:19783622

  17. Transcription factors and microRNA-co-regulated genes in gastric cancer invasion in ex vivo.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yue; Wang, Jihan; Xin, Zhuoyuan; Duan, Zipeng; Wang, Guoqing; Li, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant miRNA expression abnormally modulates gene expression in cells and can contribute to tumorigenesis in humans. This study identified functionally relevant differentially expressed genes using the transcription factors and miRNA-co-regulated network analysis for gastric cancer. The TF-miRNA co-regulatory network was constructed based on data obtained from cDNA microarray and miRNA expression profiling of gastric cancer tissues. The network along with their co-regulated genes was analyzed using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Transcriptional Regulatory Element Database (TRED). We found eighteen (17 up-regulated and 1 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes that were co-regulated by transcription factors and miRNAs. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that these genes were part of the extracellular matrix-receptor interaction and focal adhesion signaling pathways. In addition, qRT- PCR and Western blot data showed an increase in COL1A1 and decrease in NCAM1 mRNA and protein levels in gastric cancer tissues. Thus, these data provided the first evidence to illustrate that altered gene network was associated with gastric cancer invasion. Further study with a large sample size and more functional experiments is needed to confirm these data and contribute to diagnostic and treatment strategies for gastric cancer.

  18. Transcription Factors and microRNA-Co-Regulated Genes in Gastric Cancer Invasion in Ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Yue; Wang, Jihan; Xin, Zhuoyuan; Duan, Zipeng; Wang, Guoqing; Li, Fan

    2015-01-01

    Aberrant miRNA expression abnormally modulates gene expression in cells and can contribute to tumorigenesis in humans. This study identified functionally relevant differentially expressed genes using the transcription factors and miRNA-co-regulated network analysis for gastric cancer. The TF-miRNA co-regulatory network was constructed based on data obtained from cDNA microarray and miRNA expression profiling of gastric cancer tissues. The network along with their co-regulated genes was analyzed using Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery (DAVID) and Transcriptional Regulatory Element Database (TRED). We found eighteen (17 up-regulated and 1 down-regulated) differentially expressed genes that were co-regulated by transcription factors and miRNAs. KEGG pathway analysis revealed that these genes were part of the extracellular matrix-receptor interaction and focal adhesion signaling pathways. In addition, qRT- PCR and Western blot data showed an increase in COL1A1 and decrease in NCAM1 mRNA and protein levels in gastric cancer tissues. Thus, these data provided the first evidence to illustrate that altered gene network was associated with gastric cancer invasion. Further study with a large sample size and more functional experiments is needed to confirm these data and contribute to diagnostic and treatment strategies for gastric cancer. PMID:25860484

  19. Bottom-up assembly of RNA nanoparticles containing phi29 motor pRNA to silence the asthma STAT5b gene.

    PubMed

    Qiu, C; Peng, W K; Shi, F; Zhang, T

    2012-09-13

    Activation of the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 5b (STAT5b) is a key event in the development of asthma. The potent ability of small interfering RNA (siRNA) to inhibit the expression of STAT5b mRNA has provided a new class of therapeutics for asthma. However, efficient delivery of siRNAs remains a key obstacle to their successful application. A targeted intracellular delivery approach for siRNA to specific cell types would be highly desirable. We used packaging RNA (pRNA), a component of the bacteriophage phi29-packaging motor, to deliver STAT5b siRNA to asthmatic spleen lymphocytes. This pRNA was able to spontaneously carry siRNA/STAT5b and aptamer/CD4, which is a ligand to CD4 molecule. Based on RT-PCR data, the pRNA dimer effectively inhibited STAT5b gene mRNA expression of asthmatic spleen lymphocytes, without the need for additional transfections. We conclude that the pRNA dimer carrying both siRNA and aptamer can deliver functional siRNA to cells; possibly, the aptamer acts as a ligand to interact with specific receptors. The pRNAs were evaluated with a CCK-8 kit and were found to have little cytotoxicity. We conclude that pRNA as a novel nanovehicle for RNA worth further study.

  20. Yersinia spp. Identification Using Copy Diversity in the Chromosomal 16S rRNA Gene Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yuhuang; Liu, Chang; Xiao, Yuchun; Li, Xu; Su, Mingming; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    API 20E strip test, the standard for Enterobacteriaceae identification, is not sufficient to discriminate some Yersinia species for some unstable biochemical reactions and the same biochemical profile presented in some species, e.g. Yersinia ferderiksenii and Yersinia intermedia, which need a variety of molecular biology methods as auxiliaries for identification. The 16S rRNA gene is considered a valuable tool for assigning bacterial strains to species. However, the resolution of the 16S rRNA gene may be insufficient for discrimination because of the high similarity of sequences between some species and heterogeneity within copies at the intra-genomic level. In this study, for each strain we randomly selected five 16S rRNA gene clones from 768 Yersinia strains, and collected 3,840 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene from 10 species, which were divided into 439 patterns. The similarity among the five clones of 16S rRNA gene is over 99% for most strains. Identical sequences were found in strains of different species. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the five 16S rRNA gene sequences for each strain where the phylogenetic classifications are consistent with biochemical tests; and species that are difficult to identify by biochemical phenotype can be differentiated. Most Yersinia strains form distinct groups within each species. However Yersinia kristensenii, a heterogeneous species, clusters with some Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia ferderiksenii/intermedia strains, while not affecting the overall efficiency of this species classification. In conclusion, through analysis derived from integrated information from multiple 16S rRNA gene sequences, the discrimination ability of Yersinia species is improved using our method. PMID:26808495

  1. Yersinia spp. Identification Using Copy Diversity in the Chromosomal 16S rRNA Gene Sequence.

    PubMed

    Hao, Huijing; Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Chen, Yuhuang; Liu, Chang; Xiao, Yuchun; Li, Xu; Su, Mingming; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    API 20E strip test, the standard for Enterobacteriaceae identification, is not sufficient to discriminate some Yersinia species for some unstable biochemical reactions and the same biochemical profile presented in some species, e.g. Yersinia ferderiksenii and Yersinia intermedia, which need a variety of molecular biology methods as auxiliaries for identification. The 16S rRNA gene is considered a valuable tool for assigning bacterial strains to species. However, the resolution of the 16S rRNA gene may be insufficient for discrimination because of the high similarity of sequences between some species and heterogeneity within copies at the intra-genomic level. In this study, for each strain we randomly selected five 16S rRNA gene clones from 768 Yersinia strains, and collected 3,840 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene from 10 species, which were divided into 439 patterns. The similarity among the five clones of 16S rRNA gene is over 99% for most strains. Identical sequences were found in strains of different species. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the five 16S rRNA gene sequences for each strain where the phylogenetic classifications are consistent with biochemical tests; and species that are difficult to identify by biochemical phenotype can be differentiated. Most Yersinia strains form distinct groups within each species. However Yersinia kristensenii, a heterogeneous species, clusters with some Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia ferderiksenii/intermedia strains, while not affecting the overall efficiency of this species classification. In conclusion, through analysis derived from integrated information from multiple 16S rRNA gene sequences, the discrimination ability of Yersinia species is improved using our method. PMID:26808495

  2. Yersinia spp. Identification Using Copy Diversity in the Chromosomal 16S rRNA Gene Sequence.

    PubMed

    Hao, Huijing; Liang, Junrong; Duan, Ran; Chen, Yuhuang; Liu, Chang; Xiao, Yuchun; Li, Xu; Su, Mingming; Jing, Huaiqi; Wang, Xin

    2016-01-01

    API 20E strip test, the standard for Enterobacteriaceae identification, is not sufficient to discriminate some Yersinia species for some unstable biochemical reactions and the same biochemical profile presented in some species, e.g. Yersinia ferderiksenii and Yersinia intermedia, which need a variety of molecular biology methods as auxiliaries for identification. The 16S rRNA gene is considered a valuable tool for assigning bacterial strains to species. However, the resolution of the 16S rRNA gene may be insufficient for discrimination because of the high similarity of sequences between some species and heterogeneity within copies at the intra-genomic level. In this study, for each strain we randomly selected five 16S rRNA gene clones from 768 Yersinia strains, and collected 3,840 sequences of the 16S rRNA gene from 10 species, which were divided into 439 patterns. The similarity among the five clones of 16S rRNA gene is over 99% for most strains. Identical sequences were found in strains of different species. A phylogenetic tree was constructed using the five 16S rRNA gene sequences for each strain where the phylogenetic classifications are consistent with biochemical tests; and species that are difficult to identify by biochemical phenotype can be differentiated. Most Yersinia strains form distinct groups within each species. However Yersinia kristensenii, a heterogeneous species, clusters with some Yersinia enterocolitica and Yersinia ferderiksenii/intermedia strains, while not affecting the overall efficiency of this species classification. In conclusion, through analysis derived from integrated information from multiple 16S rRNA gene sequences, the discrimination ability of Yersinia species is improved using our method.

  3. Cardiac Gene Expression Knockdown Using Small Inhibitory RNA-Loaded Microbubbles and Ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Kopechek, Jonathan A; Carson, Andrew R; McTiernan, Charles F; Chen, Xucai; Klein, Edwin C; Villanueva, Flordeliza S

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference has potential therapeutic value for cardiac disease, but targeted delivery of interfering RNA is a challenge. Custom designed microbubbles, in conjunction with ultrasound, can deliver small inhibitory RNA to target tissues in vivo. The efficacy of cardiac RNA interference using a microbubble-ultrasound theranostic platform has not been demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, our objective was to test the hypothesis that custom designed microbubbles and ultrasound can mediate effective delivery of small inhibitory RNA to the heart. Microbubble and ultrasound mediated cardiac RNA interference was tested in transgenic mice displaying cardiac-restricted luciferase expression. Luciferase expression was assayed in select tissues of untreated mice (n = 14). Mice received intravenous infusion of cationic microbubbles bearing small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase (n = 9) or control RNA (n = 8) during intermittent cardiac-directed ultrasound at mechanical index of 1.6. Simultaneous echocardiography in a separate group of mice (n = 3) confirmed microbubble destruction and replenishment during treatment. Three days post treatment, cardiac luciferase messenger RNA and protein levels were significantly lower in ultrasound-treated mice receiving microbubbles loaded with small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase compared to mice receiving microbubbles bearing control RNA (23±7% and 33±7% of control mice, p<0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). Passive cavitation detection focused on the heart confirmed that insonification resulted in inertial cavitation. In conclusion, small inhibitory RNA-loaded microbubbles and ultrasound directed at the heart significantly reduced the expression of a reporter gene. Ultrasound-targeted destruction of RNA-loaded microbubbles may be an effective image-guided strategy for therapeutic RNA interference in cardiac disease. PMID:27471848

  4. Cardiac Gene Expression Knockdown Using Small Inhibitory RNA-Loaded Microbubbles and Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    McTiernan, Charles F.; Chen, Xucai; Klein, Edwin C.; Villanueva, Flordeliza S.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference has potential therapeutic value for cardiac disease, but targeted delivery of interfering RNA is a challenge. Custom designed microbubbles, in conjunction with ultrasound, can deliver small inhibitory RNA to target tissues in vivo. The efficacy of cardiac RNA interference using a microbubble-ultrasound theranostic platform has not been demonstrated in vivo. Therefore, our objective was to test the hypothesis that custom designed microbubbles and ultrasound can mediate effective delivery of small inhibitory RNA to the heart. Microbubble and ultrasound mediated cardiac RNA interference was tested in transgenic mice displaying cardiac-restricted luciferase expression. Luciferase expression was assayed in select tissues of untreated mice (n = 14). Mice received intravenous infusion of cationic microbubbles bearing small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase (n = 9) or control RNA (n = 8) during intermittent cardiac-directed ultrasound at mechanical index of 1.6. Simultaneous echocardiography in a separate group of mice (n = 3) confirmed microbubble destruction and replenishment during treatment. Three days post treatment, cardiac luciferase messenger RNA and protein levels were significantly lower in ultrasound-treated mice receiving microbubbles loaded with small inhibitory RNA directed against luciferase compared to mice receiving microbubbles bearing control RNA (23±7% and 33±7% of control mice, p<0.01 and p = 0.03, respectively). Passive cavitation detection focused on the heart confirmed that insonification resulted in inertial cavitation. In conclusion, small inhibitory RNA-loaded microbubbles and ultrasound directed at the heart significantly reduced the expression of a reporter gene. Ultrasound-targeted destruction of RNA-loaded microbubbles may be an effective image-guided strategy for therapeutic RNA interference in cardiac disease. PMID:27471848

  5. Islander: A database of precisely mapped genomic islands in tRNA and tmRNA genes

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, Corey M.; Lau, Britney Y.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-11-05

    Genomic islands are mobile DNAs that are major agents of bacterial and archaeal evolution. Integration into prokaryotic chromosomes usually occurs site-specifically at tRNA or tmRNA gene (together, tDNA) targets, catalyzed by tyrosine integrases. This splits the target gene, yet sequences within the island restore the disrupted gene; the regenerated target and its displaced fragment precisely mark the endpoints of the island. We applied this principle to search for islands in genomic DNA sequences. Our algorithm identifies tDNAs, finds fragments of those tDNAs in the same replicon and removes unlikely candidate islands through a series of filters. A search for islands in 2168 whole prokaryotic genomes produced 3919 candidates. The website Islander (recently moved to http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/islander/) presents these precisely mapped candidate islands, the gene content and the island sequence. The algorithm further insists that each island encode an integrase, and attachment site sequence identity is carefully noted; therefore, the database also serves in the study of integrase site-specificity and its evolution.

  6. Islander: A database of precisely mapped genomic islands in tRNA and tmRNA genes

    DOE PAGES

    Hudson, Corey M.; Lau, Britney Y.; Williams, Kelly P.

    2014-11-05

    Genomic islands are mobile DNAs that are major agents of bacterial and archaeal evolution. Integration into prokaryotic chromosomes usually occurs site-specifically at tRNA or tmRNA gene (together, tDNA) targets, catalyzed by tyrosine integrases. This splits the target gene, yet sequences within the island restore the disrupted gene; the regenerated target and its displaced fragment precisely mark the endpoints of the island. We applied this principle to search for islands in genomic DNA sequences. Our algorithm identifies tDNAs, finds fragments of those tDNAs in the same replicon and removes unlikely candidate islands through a series of filters. A search for islandsmore » in 2168 whole prokaryotic genomes produced 3919 candidates. The website Islander (recently moved to http://bioinformatics.sandia.gov/islander/) presents these precisely mapped candidate islands, the gene content and the island sequence. The algorithm further insists that each island encode an integrase, and attachment site sequence identity is carefully noted; therefore, the database also serves in the study of integrase site-specificity and its evolution.« less

  7. Regulation of bacterial photosynthesis genes by the small noncoding RNA PcrZ.

    PubMed

    Mank, Nils N; Berghoff, Bork A; Hermanns, Yannick N; Klug, Gabriele

    2012-10-01

    The small RNA PcrZ (photosynthesis control RNA Z) of the facultative phototrophic bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides is induced upon a drop of oxygen tension with similar kinetics to those of genes for components of photosynthetic complexes. High expression of PcrZ depends on PrrA, the response regulator of the PrrB/PrrA two-component system with a central role in redox regulation in R. sphaeroides. In addition the FnrL protein, an activator of some photosynthesis genes at low oxygen tension, is involved in redox-dependent expression of this small (s)RNA. Overexpression of full-length PcrZ in R. sphaeroides affects expression of a small subset of genes, most of them with a function in photosynthesis. Some mRNAs from the photosynthetic gene cluster were predicted to be putative PcrZ targets and results from an in vivo reporter system support these predictions. Our data reveal a negative effect of PcrZ on expression of its target mRNAs. Thus, PcrZ counteracts the redox-dependent induction of photosynthesis genes, which is mediated by protein regulators. Because PrrA directly activates photosynthesis genes and at the same time PcrZ, which negatively affects photosynthesis gene expression, this is one of the rare cases of an incoherent feed-forward loop including an sRNA. Our data identified PcrZ as a trans acting sRNA with a direct regulatory function in formation of photosynthetic complexes and provide a model for the control of photosynthesis gene expression by a regulatory network consisting of proteins and a small noncoding RNA.

  8. Long Non-Coding RNA and Epigenetic Gene Regulation of KSHV

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Mel; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Izumiya, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Kaposi’s sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV/human herpesvirus 8) is a γ-herpesvirus linked to Kaposi’s sarcoma (KS) and two lymphoproliferative disorders, primary effusion lymphoma (PEL or body-cavity B-lymphoma [BCBL]) and a subset of Multicentric Castleman’s Disease. During lytic growth, pervasive viral transcription generating a variety of transcripts with uncertain protein-coding potential has been described on a genome-wide scale in β- and γ-herpesviruses. One class of such RNAs is called long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs). KSHV encodes a viral lncRNA known as polyadenylated nuclear RNA (PAN RNA), a copious early gene product. PAN RNA has been implicated in KSHV gene expression, replication, and immune modulation. PAN RNA expression is required for optimal expression of the entire KSHV lytic gene expression program. Latent KSHV episomes are coated with viral latency-associated nuclear antigen (LANA). LANA rapidly dissociates from episomes during reactivation. Here we review recent studies suggesting that PAN RNA may function as a viral lncRNA, including a role in the facilitation of LANA-episomal dissociation during lytic replication. PMID:25375882

  9. MAGIA, a web-based tool for miRNA and Genes Integrated Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sales, Gabriele; Coppe, Alessandro; Bisognin, Andrea; Biasiolo, Marta; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Romualdi, Chiara

    2010-01-01

    MAGIA (miRNA and genes integrated analysis) is a novel web tool for the integrative analysis of target predictions, miRNA and gene expression data. MAGIA is divided into two parts: the query section allows the user to retrieve and browse updated miRNA target predictions computed with a number of different algorithms (PITA, miRanda and Target Scan) and Boolean combinations thereof. The analysis section comprises a multistep procedure for (i) direct integration through different functional measures (parametric and non-parametric correlation indexes, a variational Bayesian model, mutual information and a meta-analysis approach based on P-value combination) of mRNA and miRNA expression data, (ii) construction of bipartite regulatory network of the best miRNA and mRNA putative interactions and (iii) retrieval of information available in several public databases of genes, miRNAs and diseases and via scientific literature text-mining. MAGIA is freely available for Academic users at http://gencomp.bio.unipd.it/magia. PMID:20484379

  10. MAGIA, a web-based tool for miRNA and Genes Integrated Analysis.

    PubMed

    Sales, Gabriele; Coppe, Alessandro; Bisognin, Andrea; Biasiolo, Marta; Bortoluzzi, Stefania; Romualdi, Chiara

    2010-07-01

    MAGIA (miRNA and genes integrated analysis) is a novel web tool for the integrative analysis of target predictions, miRNA and gene expression data. MAGIA is divided into two parts: the query section allows the user to retrieve and browse updated miRNA target predictions computed with a number of different algorithms (PITA, miRanda and Target Scan) and Boolean combinations thereof. The analysis section comprises a multistep procedure for (i) direct integration through different functional measures (parametric and non-parametric correlation indexes, a variational Bayesian model, mutual information and a meta-analysis approach based on P-value combination) of mRNA and miRNA expression data, (ii) construction of bipartite regulatory network of the best miRNA and mRNA putative interactions and (iii) retrieval of information available in several public databases of genes, miRNAs and diseases and via scientific literature text-mining. MAGIA is freely available for Academic users at http://gencomp.bio.unipd.it/magia.

  11. New class of gene-termini-associated human RNAs suggests a novel RNA copying mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kapranov, Philipp; Ozsolak, Fatih; Kim, Sang Woo; Foissac, Sylvain; Lipson, Doron; Hart, Chris; Roels, Steve; Borel, Christelle; Antonarakis, Stylianos E; Monaghan, A Paula; John, Bino; Milos, Patrice M

    2010-07-29

    Small (<200 nucleotide) RNA (sRNA) profiling of human cells using various technologies demonstrates unexpected complexity of sRNAs with hundreds of thousands of sRNA species present. Genetic and in vitro studies show that these RNAs are not merely degradation products of longer transcripts but could indeed have a function. Furthermore, profiling of RNAs, including the sRNAs, can reveal not only novel transcripts, but also make clear predictions about the existence and properties of novel biochemical pathways operating in a cell. For example, sRNA profiling in human cells indicated the existence of an unknown capping mechanism operating on cleaved RNA, a biochemical component of which was later identified. Here we show that human cells contain a novel type of sRNA that has non-genomically encoded 5' poly(U) tails. The presence of these RNAs at the termini of genes, specifically at the very 3' ends of known mRNAs, strongly argues for the presence of a yet uncharacterized endogenous biochemical pathway in cells that can copy RNA. We show that this pathway can operate on multiple genes, with specific enrichment towards transcript-encoding components of the translational machinery. Finally, we show that genes are also flanked by sense, 3' polyadenylated sRNAs that are likely to be capped. PMID:20671709

  12. Origin and evolution of group I introns in cyanobacterial tRNA genes.

    PubMed Central

    Paquin, B; Kathe, S D; Nierzwicki-Bauer, S A; Shub, D A

    1997-01-01

    Many tRNA(Leu)UAA genes from plastids contain a group I intron. An intron is also inserted in the same gene at the same position in cyanobacteria, the bacterial progenitors of plastids, suggesting an ancient bacterial origin for this intron. A group I intron has also been found in the tRNA(fMet) gene of some cyanobacteria but not in plastids, suggesting a more recent origin for this intron. In this study, we investigate the phylogenetic distributions of the two introns among cyanobacteria, from the earliest branching to the more derived species. The phylogenetic distribution of the tRNA(Leu)UAA intron follows the clustering of rRNA sequences, being either absent or present in clades of closely related species, with only one exception in the Pseudanabaena group. Our data support the notion that the tRNA(Leu)UAA intron was inherited by cyanobacteria and plastids through a common ancestor. Conversely, the tRNA(fMet) intron has a sporadic distribution, implying that many gains and losses occurred during cyanobacterial evolution. Interestingly, a phylogenetic tree inferred from intronic sequences clearly separates the different tRNA introns, suggesting that each family has its own evolutionary history. PMID:9352932

  13. Major role for mRNA stability in shaping the kinetics of gene induction

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background mRNA levels in cells are determined by the relative rates of RNA production and degradation. Yet, to date, most analyses of gene expression profiles were focused on mechanisms which regulate transcription, while the role of mRNA stability in modulating transcriptional networks was to a large extent overlooked. In particular, kinetic waves in transcriptional responses are usually interpreted as resulting from sequential activation of transcription factors. Results In this study, we examined on a global scale the role of mRNA stability in shaping the kinetics of gene response. Analyzing numerous expression datasets we revealed a striking global anti-correlation between rapidity of induction and mRNA stability, fitting the prediction of a kinetic mathematical model. In contrast, the relationship between kinetics and stability was less significant when gene suppression was analyzed. Frequently, mRNAs that are stable under standard conditions were very rapidly down-regulated following stimulation. Such effect cannot be explained even by a complete shut-off of transcription, and therefore indicates intense modulation of RNA stability. Conclusion Taken together, our results demonstrate the key role of mRNA stability in determining induction kinetics in mammalian transcriptional networks. PMID:20409322

  14. Construction and identification of recombinant adenovirus carrying human TIMP-1shRNA gene.

    PubMed

    Sun, Y L; Xie, H; Lin, H L; Feng, Q; Liu, Y

    2015-01-16

    The aim of this study was to construct the recombinant adenovirus carrying human TIMP-1shRNA gene expression system for preliminary identification to lay the foundation for the further study of gene therapy. Using the Adeno-X system, the recombinant adenovirus plasmid pAdeno-X green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tissue inhibitor of metalloprotease (TIMP)-1 small hairpin (1shRNA) was constructed by including the target gene fragment of the TIMP-1shRNA shuttle plasmid pShuttle2-GFP-TIMP-1shRNA and the backbone plasmid pAdeno-X by homologous recombination in Escherichia coli. Recombinant plasmids were transfected into HEK293A cells to package the recombinant adenovirus rvAdeno-XGFP-TIMP-1shRNA. The recombinant adenovirus was identified by polymerase chain reaction, and the viral titer and infection efficiency were detected using GFP. Polymerase chain reaction and restriction endonuclease digestion demonstrated that rvAdeno-XGFP-TIMP-1shRNA had been successfully constructed, which has a strong ability to infect the kidney. The TIMP-1shRNA adenovirus expression vector was successfully constructed using homologous recombination methods.

  15. Characterizing Milk Production Related Genes in Holstein Using RNA-seq

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Minseok; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Jeong, Jin Young; Park, Sungkwon; Oh, Young Kyun; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Although the chemical, physical, and nutritional properties of bovine milk have been extensively studied, only a few studies have attempted to characterize milk-synthesizing genes using RNA-seq data. RNA-seq data was collected from 21 Holstein samples, along with group information about milk production ability; milk yield; and protein, fat, and solid contents. Meta-analysis was employed in order to generally characterize genes related to milk production. In addition, we attempted to investigate the relationship between milk related traits, parity, and lactation period. We observed that milk fat is highly correlated with lactation period; this result indicates that this effect should be considered in the model in order to accurately detect milk production related genes. By employing our developed model, 271 genes were significantly (false discovery rate [FDR] adjusted p-value<0.1) detected as milk production related differentially expressed genes. Of these genes, five (albumin, nitric oxide synthase 3, RNA-binding region (RNP1, RRM) containing 3, secreted and transmembrane 1, and serine palmitoyltransferase, small subunit B) were technically validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in order to check the accuracy of RNA-seq analysis. Finally, 83 gene ontology biological processes including several blood vessel and mammary gland development related terms, were significantly detected using DAVID gene-set enrichment analysis. From these results, we observed that detected milk production related genes are highly enriched in the circulation system process and mammary gland related biological functions. In addition, we observed that detected genes including caveolin 1, mammary serum amyloid A3.2, lingual antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin 4 (CATHL4), cathelicidin 6 (CATHL6) have been reported in other species as milk production related gene. For this reason, we concluded that our detected 271 genes would be strong candidates for

  16. Integrative Analysis of miRNA and Inflammatory Gene Expression After Acute Particulate Matter Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Motta, Valeria

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are environmentally sensitive inhibitors of gene expression that may mediate the effects of metal-rich particulate matter (PM) and toxic metals on human individuals. Previous environmental miRNA studies have investigated a limited number of candidate miRNAs and have not yet evaluated the functional effects on gene expression. In this study, we wanted to identify PM-sensitive miRNAs using microarray profiling on matched baseline and postexposure RNA from foundry workers with well-characterized exposure to metal-rich PM and to characterize miRNA relations with expression of candidate inflammatory genes. We applied microarray analysis of 847 human miRNAs and real-time PCR analysis of 18 candidate inflammatory genes on matched blood samples collected from foundry workers at baseline and after 3 days of work (postexposure). We identified differentially expressed miRNAs (fold change [FC] > 2 and p < 0.05) and correlated their expression with the inflammatory associated genes. We performed in silico network analysis in MetaCore v6.9 to characterize the biological pathways connecting miRNA-mRNA pairs. Microarray analysis identified four miRNAs that were differentially expressed in postexposure compared with baseline samples, including miR-421 (FC = 2.81, p < 0.001), miR-146a (FC = 2.62, p = 0.007), miR-29a (FC = 2.91, p < 0.001), and let-7g (FC = 2.73, p = 0.019). Using false discovery date adjustment for multiple comparisons, we found 11 miRNA-mRNA correlated pairs involving the 4 differentially expressed miRNAs and candidate inflammatory genes. In silico network analysis with MetaCore database identified biological interactions for all the 11 miRNA-mRNA pairs, which ranged from direct mRNA targeting to complex interactions with multiple intermediates. Acute PM exposure may affect gene regulation through PM-responsive miRNAs that directly or indirectly control inflammatory gene expression. PMID:23358196

  17. From single-cell to cell-pool transcriptomes: stochasticity in gene expression and RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; McCue, Ken; Schroth, Gary P; Gertz, Jason; Myers, Richard M; Wold, Barbara J

    2014-03-01

    Single-cell RNA-seq mammalian transcriptome studies are at an early stage in uncovering cell-to-cell variation in gene expression, transcript processing and editing, and regulatory module activity. Despite great progress recently, substantial challenges remain, including discriminating biological variation from technical noise. Here we apply the SMART-seq single-cell RNA-seq protocol to study the reference lymphoblastoid cell line GM12878. By using spike-in quantification standards, we estimate the absolute number of RNA molecules per cell for each gene and find significant variation in total mRNA content: between 50,000 and 300,000 transcripts per cell. We directly measure technical stochasticity by a pool/split design and find that there are significant differences in expression between individual cells, over and above technical variation. Specific gene coexpression modules were preferentially expressed in subsets of individual cells, including one enriched for mRNA processing and splicing factors. We assess cell-to-cell variation in alternative splicing and allelic bias and report evidence of significant differences in splice site usage that exceed splice variation in the pool/split comparison. Finally, we show that transcriptomes from small pools of 30-100 cells approach the information content and reproducibility of contemporary RNA-seq from large amounts of input material. Together, our results define an experimental and computational path forward for analyzing gene expression in rare cell types and cell states.

  18. From single-cell to cell-pool transcriptomes: stochasticity in gene expression and RNA splicing.

    PubMed

    Marinov, Georgi K; Williams, Brian A; McCue, Ken; Schroth, Gary P; Gertz, Jason; Myers, Richard M; Wold, Barbara J

    2014-03-01

    Single-cell RNA-seq mammalian transcriptome studies are at an early stage in uncovering cell-to-cell variation in gene expression, transcript processing and editing, and regulatory module activity. Despite great progress recently, substantial challenges remain, including discriminating biological variation from technical noise. Here we apply the SMART-seq single-cell RNA-seq protocol to study the reference lymphoblastoid cell line GM12878. By using spike-in quantification standards, we estimate the absolute number of RNA molecules per cell for each gene and find significant variation in total mRNA content: between 50,000 and 300,000 transcripts per cell. We directly measure technical stochasticity by a pool/split design and find that there are significant differences in expression between individual cells, over and above technical variation. Specific gene coexpression modules were preferentially expressed in subsets of individual cells, including one enriched for mRNA processing and splicing factors. We assess cell-to-cell variation in alternative splicing and allelic bias and report evidence of significant differences in splice site usage that exceed splice variation in the pool/split comparison. Finally, we show that transcriptomes from small pools of 30-100 cells approach the information content and reproducibility of contemporary RNA-seq from large amounts of input material. Together, our results define an experimental and computational path forward for analyzing gene expression in rare cell types and cell states. PMID:24299736

  19. Efficient shRNA-mediated inhibition of gene expression in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    De Rienzo, Gianluca; Gutzman, Jennifer H; Sive, Hazel

    2012-09-01

    Despite the broad repertoire of loss of function (LOF) tools available for use in the zebrafish, there remains a need for a simple and rapid method that can inhibit expression of genes at later stages. RNAi would fulfill that role, and a previous report (Dong et al. 2009) provided encouraging data. The goal of this study was to further address the ability of expressed shRNAs to inhibit gene expression. This included quantifying RNA knockdown, testing specificity of shRNA effects, and determining whether tissue-specific LOF could be achieved. Using an F0 transgenic approach, this report demonstrates that for two genes, wnt5b and zDisc1, each with described mutant and morphant phenotypes, shRNAs efficiently decrease endogenous RNA levels. Phenotypes elicited by shRNA resemble those of mutants and morphants, and are reversed by expression of cognate RNA, further demonstrating specificity. Tissue-specific expression of zDisc1 shRNAs in F0 transgenics demonstrates that conditional LOF can be readily obtained. These results suggest that shRNA expression presents a viable approach for rapid inhibition of zebrafish gene expression.

  20. RNA-based, transient modulation of gene expression in human haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells

    PubMed Central

    Diener, Yvonne; Jurk, Marion; Kandil, Britta; Choi, Yeong-Hoon; Wild, Stefan; Bissels, Ute; Bosio, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Modulation of gene expression is a useful tool to study the biology of haematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) and might also be instrumental to expand these cells for therapeutic approaches. Most of the studies so far have employed stable gene modification by viral vectors that are burdensome when translating protocols into clinical settings. Our study aimed at exploring new ways to transiently modify HSPC gene expression using non-integrating, RNA-based molecules. First, we tested different methods to deliver these molecules into HSPCs. The delivery of siRNAs with chemical transfection methods such as lipofection or cationic polymers did not lead to target knockdown, although we observed more than 90% fluorescent cells using a fluorochrome-coupled siRNA. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that despite extensive washing, siRNA stuck to or in the cell surface, thereby mimicking a transfection event. In contrast, electroporation resulted in efficient, siRNA-mediated protein knockdown. For transient overexpression of proteins, we used optimised mRNA molecules with modified 5′- and 3′-UTRs. Electroporation of mRNA encoding GFP resulted in fast, efficient and persistent protein expression for at least seven days. Our data provide a broad-ranging comparison of transfection methods for hard-to-transfect cells and offer new opportunities for DNA-free, non-integrating gene modulation in HSPCs. PMID:26599627

  1. The Riia Gene of Bacteriophage T4. II. Regulation of Its Messenger RNA Synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Daegelen, P.; Brody, E.

    1990-01-01

    When the rII genes are first introduced into cells which had been previously infected by T4 phage deleted for these genes, the kinetics of synthesis of rIIA and rIIB RNA are rapid and identical. We show that this rapid synthesis depends on a functional motA gene for rIIB, but not for rIIA, RNA synthesis. By primer-extension mapping of T4 messenger RNA, we find three promoters close to the rIIA gene. One of them is an early promoter just before the rIIA.1 gene; it is used under all conditions tested. Another is in the coding portion of the rIIA.1 gene; it is weak, primarily because of a 19-bp spacing between the -10 and -35 elements, and its use is stimulated by T4 functions. The third is a motA-dependent (middle) promoter which has an unusual CCCGCTT box at -33. We present results which suggest that none of these promoters is likely to be the site at which the motB and motC gene products exercise their major influence on rIIA RNA synthesis. PMID:2379818

  2. Widespread horizontal gene transfer from double-stranded RNA viruses to eukaryotic nuclear genomes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huiquan; Fu, Yanping; Jiang, Daohong; Li, Guoqing; Xie, Jiatao; Cheng, Jiasen; Peng, Youliang; Ghabrial, Said A; Yi, Xianhong

    2010-11-01

    Horizontal gene transfer commonly occurs from cells to viruses but rarely occurs from viruses to their host cells, with the exception of retroviruses and some DNA viruses. However, extensive sequence similarity searches in public genome databases for various organisms showed that the capsid protein and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes from totiviruses and partitiviruses have widespread homologs in the nuclear genomes of eukaryotic organisms, including plants, arthropods, fungi, nematodes, and protozoa. PCR amplification and sequencing as well as comparative evidence of junction coverage between virus and host sequences support the conclusion that these viral homologs are real and occur in eukaryotic genomes. Sequence comparison and phylogenetic analysis suggest that these genes were likely transferred horizontally from viruses to eukaryotic genomes. Furthermore, we present evidence showing that some of the transferred genes are conserved and expressed in eukaryotic organisms and suggesting that these viral genes are also functional in the recipient genomes. Our findings imply that horizontal transfer of double-stranded RNA viral genes is widespread among eukaryotes and may give rise to functionally important new genes, thus entailing that RNA viruses may play significant roles in the evolution of eukaryotes.

  3. Tissue- and Time-Specific Expression of Otherwise Identical tRNA Genes.

    PubMed

    Sagi, Dror; Rak, Roni; Gingold, Hila; Adir, Idan; Maayan, Gadi; Dahan, Orna; Broday, Limor; Pilpel, Yitzhak; Rechavi, Oded

    2016-08-01

    Codon usage bias affects protein translation because tRNAs that recognize synonymous codons differ in their abundance. Although the current dogma states that tRNA expression is exclusively regulated by intrinsic control elements (A- and B-box sequences), we revealed, using a reporter that monitors the levels of individual tRNA genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, that eight tryptophan tRNA genes, 100% identical in sequence, are expressed in different tissues and change their expression dynamically. Furthermore, the expression levels of the sup-7 tRNA gene at day 6 were found to predict the animal's lifespan. We discovered that the expression of tRNAs that reside within introns of protein-coding genes is affected by the host gene's promoter. Pairing between specific Pol II genes and the tRNAs that are contained in their introns is most likely adaptive, since a genome-wide analysis revealed that the presence of specific intronic tRNAs within specific orthologous genes is conserved across Caenorhabditis species. PMID:27560950

  4. An efficient RNA isolation procedure and identification of reference genes for normalization of gene expression in blueberry.

    PubMed

    Vashisth, Tripti; Johnson, Lisa Klima; Malladi, Anish

    2011-12-01

    Application of transcriptomics approaches can greatly enhance our understanding of blueberry physiology. The success of transcriptomics approaches is dependent on the extraction of high-quality RNA which is complicated by the abundance of polyphenolics and polysaccharides in blueberry. Additionally, transcriptomics requires the accurate quantification of transcript abundance. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) is a robust method to determine transcript abundance. Normalization of gene expression using stably expressed reference genes is essential in qRT-PCR. An evaluation of the stability of expression of reference genes has not yet been reported in blueberry. The objectives of this study were to develop an effective procedure for extracting RNA from different organs and to evaluate potential reference genes for qRT-PCR analyses in blueberry. RNA of high quality and yield was extracted from eight and six organs of rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberry, respectively, using a modified cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide-based method. The expression stability of 12 reference genes was evaluated. UBIQUITIN-CONJUGATING ENZYME (UBC28), RNA HELICASE-LIKE (RH8), CLATHRIN ADAPTER COMPLEXES MEDIUM SUBUNIT FAMILY PROTEIN (CACSa), and POLYUBIQUITIN (UBQ3b) were the most stably expressed genes across multiple organs in both blueberry species. Further, the expression stability of the reference genes in the branch abscission zone following treatment with fruit abscission-inducing compounds was analyzed. CACSa, RH8, and UBC28 were the most stably expressed genes in the abscission zone under abscission-inducing conditions. We suggest a preliminary evaluation of UBC28, CACSa, RH8, and UBQ3b to identify the most suitable reference genes for the experimental conditions under consideration in blueberry.

  5. Reference gene selection and RNA preservation protocol in the cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, for gene expression studies.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Catriona H; Baird, John; Zinser, Erich; Woods, Debra J; Campbell, Ewan M; Bowman, Alan S

    2016-10-01

    The cat flea, Ctenocephalides felis, is a major pest species on companion animals thus of significant importance to the animal health industry. The aim of this study was to develop sampling and storage protocols and identify stable reference genes for gene expression studies to fully utilize the growing body of molecular knowledge of C. felis. RNA integrity was assessed in adult and larvae samples, which were either pierced or not pierced and stored in RNAlater at ambient temperature. RNA quality was maintained best in pierced samples, with negligible degradation evident after 10 days. RNA quality from non-pierced samples was poor within 3 days. Ten candidate reference genes were evaluated for their stability across four group comparisons (developmental stages, genders, feeding statuses and insecticide-treatment statuses). Glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), 60S ribosomal protein L19 (RPL19) and elongation factor-1α (Ef) were ranked highly in all stability comparisons, thus are recommended as reference genes under similar conditions. Employing just two of these three stable reference genes was sufficient for accurate normalization. Our results make a significant contribution to the future of gene expression studies in C. felis, describing validated sample preparation procedures and reference genes for use in this common pest.

  6. Discovery of putative capsaicin biosynthetic genes by RNA-Seq and digital gene expression analysis of pepper

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zi-Xin; Zhao, Shu-Niu; Liu, Gao-Feng; Huang, Zu-Mei; Cao, Zhen-Mu; Cheng, Shan-Han; Lin, Shi-Sen

    2016-01-01

    The Indian pepper ‘Guijiangwang’ (Capsicum frutescens L.), one of the world’s hottest chili peppers, is rich in capsaicinoids. The accumulation of the alkaloid capsaicin and its analogs in the epidermal cells of the placenta contribute to the pungency of Capsicum fruits. To identify putative genes involved in capsaicin biosynthesis, RNA-Seq was used to analyze the pepper’s expression profiles over five developmental stages. Five cDNA libraries were constructed from the total RNA of placental tissue and sequenced using an Illumina HiSeq 2000. More than 19 million clean reads were obtained from each library, and greater than 50% of the reads were assignable to reference genes. Digital gene expression (DGE) profile analysis using Solexa sequencing was performed at five fruit developmental stages and resulted in the identification of 135 genes of known function; their expression patterns were compared to the capsaicin accumulation pattern. Ten genes of known function were identified as most likely to be involved in regulating capsaicin synthesis. Additionally, 20 new candidate genes were identified related to capsaicin synthesis. We use a combination of RNA-Seq and DGE analyses to contribute to the understanding of the biosynthetic regulatory mechanism(s) of secondary metabolites in a nonmodel plant and to identify candidate enzyme-encoding genes. PMID:27756914

  7. Predicting miRNA Targets by Integrating Gene Regulatory Knowledge with Expression Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Weijia; Le, Thuc Duy; Liu, Lin; Zhou, Zhi-Hua; Li, Jiuyong

    2016-01-01

    Motivation microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in post-transcriptional gene regulation of both plants and mammals, and dysfunctions of miRNAs are often associated with tumorigenesis and development through the effects on their target messenger RNAs (mRNAs). Identifying miRNA functions is critical for understanding cancer mechanisms and determining the efficacy of drugs. Computational methods analyzing high-throughput data offer great assistance in understanding the diverse and complex relationships between miRNAs and mRNAs. However, most of the existing methods do not fully utilise the available knowledge in biology to reduce the uncertainty in the modeling process. Therefore it is desirable to develop a method that can seamlessly integrate existing biological knowledge and high-throughput data into the process of discovering miRNA regulation mechanisms. Results In this article we present an integrative framework, CIDER (Causal miRNA target Discovery with Expression profile and Regulatory knowledge), to predict miRNA targets. CIDER is able to utilise a variety of gene regulation knowledge, including transcriptional and post-transcriptional knowledge, and to exploit gene expression data for the discovery of miRNA-mRNA regulatory relationships. The benefits of our framework is demonstrated by both simulation study and the analysis of the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and the breast cancer (BRCA) datasets. Our results reveal that even a limited amount of either Transcription Factor (TF)-miRNA or miRNA-mRNA regulatory knowledge improves the performance of miRNA target prediction, and the combination of the two types of knowledge enhances the improvement further. Another useful property of the framework is that its performance increases monotonically with the increase of regulatory knowledge. PMID:27064982

  8. Two modified RNA extraction methods compatible with transcript profiling and gene expression analysis for cotton roots.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chengjian; Wang, Chunyan; Wang, Xiaokun; Yang, Xingyong

    2013-01-01

    Efficient isolation of high-quality RNA is of prime importance for optimal transcript profiling results and further gene expression analysis. However, it is difficult for cotton roots because of lower-than-average RNA content and high content of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and other secondary metabolites. To develop simple and reliable protocols for high-quality RNA extraction from cotton roots for transcript profiling and gene expression analysis, some modifications were introduced to a reported plant RNA isolation protocol and a reagent kit method. Using method A, we successfully extracted high-quality RNA for transcript profiling from cotton roots. Gel electrophoresis analysis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay indicated that RNA had good integrity without protein and genomic DNA contamination. Furthermore, the A260/280 (1.9) and A260/230 (1.6) ratios indicated that the isolated RNA was of high purity. Using method B, about 7 µg total RNA of high quality could be obtained from 0.1 g samples from cotton roots, which can be used for reverse-transcription (RT)-PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR. The two RNA extraction methods were used to investigate different gene expression of cotton roots (Gossypium hirsutum) infected by weak pathogenic Verticillium dahliae and the results showed they can satisfy the transcript profiling and quantitative real-time RT-PCR requirements for RNA. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Preparative Biochemistry and Biotechnology to view the supplemental file.

  9. Grouped False-Discovery Rate for Removing the Gene-Set-Level Bias of RNA-seq.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tae Young; Jeong, Seongmun

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, RNA-seq has become a very competitive alternative to microarrays. In RNA-seq experiments, the expected read count for a gene is proportional to its expression level multiplied by its transcript length. Even when two genes are expressed at the same level, differences in length will yield differing numbers of total reads. The characteristics of these RNA-seq experiments create a gene-level bias such that the proportion of significantly differentially expressed genes increases with the transcript length, whereas such bias is not present in microarray data. Gene-set analysis seeks to identify the gene sets that are enriched in the list of the identified significant genes. In the gene-set analysis of RNA-seq, the gene-level bias subsequently yields the gene-set-level bias that a gene set with genes of long length will be more likely to show up as enriched than will a gene set with genes of shorter length. Because gene expression is not related to its transcript length, any gene set containing long genes is not of biologically greater interest than gene sets with shorter genes. Accordingly the gene-set-level bias should be removed to accurately calculate the statistical significance of each gene-set enrichment in the RNA-seq. We present a new gene set analysis method of RNA-seq, called FDRseq, which can accurately calculate the statistical significance of a gene-set enrichment score by the grouped false-discovery rate. Numerical examples indicated that FDRseq is appropriate for controlling the transcript length bias in the gene-set analysis of RNA-seq data. To implement FDRseq, we developed the R program, which can be downloaded at no cost from http://home.mju.ac.kr/home/index.action?siteId=tyang.

  10. Endosymbiotic evolution: RNA intermediates in endosymbiotic gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Timmis, Jeremy N

    2012-05-01

    More than a billion years of endosymbiotic evolution has resulted in extensive gene relocation between the genetic compartments of eukaryotic cells. A new study uses chloroplast genome transformation to shed light on the mechanisms involved.

  11. Identification, molecular cloning and expression analysis of five RNA-dependent RNA polymerase genes in Salvia miltiorrhiza.

    PubMed

    Shao, Fenjuan; Lu, Shanfa

    2014-01-01

    RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RDRs) act as key components of the small RNA biogenesis pathways and play significant roles in post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and antiviral defense. However, there is no information about the RDR gene family in Salvia miltiorrhiza, an emerging model medicinal plant with great economic value. Through genome-wide predication and subsequent molecular cloning, five full-length S. miltiorrhiza RDR genes, termed SmRDR1-SmRDR5, were identified. The length of SmRDR cDNAs varies between 3,262 (SmRDR5) and 4,130 bp (SmRDR3). The intron number of SmRDR genes varies from 3 (SmRDR1, SmRDR3 and SmRDR4) to 17 (SmRDR5). All of the deduced SmRDR protein sequences contain the conserved RdRp domain. Moreover, SmRDR2 and SmRDR4 have an additional RRM domain. Based on the phylogenetic tree constructed with sixteen RDRs from Arabidopsis, rice and S. miltiorrhiza, plant RDRs may be divided into four groups (RDR1-RDR4). The RDR1 group contains an AtRDR and an OsRDR, while includes two SmRDRs. On the contrary, the RDR3 group contains three AtRDRs and two OsRDRs, but has only one SmRDR. SmRDRs were differentially expressed in flowers, leaves, stems and roots of S. miltiorrhiza and responsive to methyl jasmonate treatment and cucumber mosaic virus infection. The results suggest the involvement of RDRs in S. miltiorrhiza development and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. It provides a foundation for further studying the regulation and biological functions of SmRDRs and the biogenesis pathways of small RNAs in S. miltiorrhiza.

  12. Discovery of midgut genes for the RNA interference control of corn rootworm.

    PubMed

    Hu, Xu; Richtman, Nina M; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Duncan, Keith E; Niu, Xiping; Procyk, Lisa A; Oneal, Meghan A; Kernodle, Bliss M; Steimel, Joseph P; Crane, Virginia C; Sandahl, Gary; Ritland, Julie L; Howard, Richard J; Presnail, James K; Lu, Albert L; Wu, Gusui

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new technology for corn rootworm control. This paper presents the discovery of new gene targets - dvssj1 and dvssj2, in western corn rootworm (WCR). Dvssj1 and dvssj2 are orthologs of the Drosophila genes snakeskin (ssk) and mesh, respectively. These genes encode membrane proteins associated with smooth septate junctions (SSJ) which are required for intestinal barrier function. Based on bioinformatics analysis, dvssj1 appears to be an arthropod-specific gene. Diet based insect feeding assays using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting dvssj1 and dvssj2 demonstrate targeted mRNA suppression, larval growth inhibition, and mortality. In RNAi treated WCR, injury to the midgut was manifested by "blebbing" of the midgut epithelium into the gut lumen. Ultrastructural examination of midgut epithelial cells revealed apoptosis and regenerative activities. Transgenic plants expressing dsRNA targeting dvssj1 show insecticidal activity and significant plant protection from WCR damage. The data indicate that dvssj1 and dvssj2 are effective gene targets for the control of WCR using RNAi technology, by apparent suppression of production of their respective smooth septate junction membrane proteins located within the intestinal lining, leading to growth inhibition and mortality. PMID:27464714

  13. Discovery of midgut genes for the RNA interference control of corn rootworm

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Xu; Richtman, Nina M.; Zhao, Jian-Zhou; Duncan, Keith E.; Niu, Xiping; Procyk, Lisa A.; Oneal, Meghan A.; Kernodle, Bliss M.; Steimel, Joseph P.; Crane, Virginia C.; Sandahl, Gary; Ritland, Julie L.; Howard, Richard J.; Presnail, James K.; Lu, Albert L.; Wu, Gusui

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is a promising new technology for corn rootworm control. This paper presents the discovery of new gene targets - dvssj1 and dvssj2, in western corn rootworm (WCR). Dvssj1 and dvssj2 are orthologs of the Drosophila genes snakeskin (ssk) and mesh, respectively. These genes encode membrane proteins associated with smooth septate junctions (SSJ) which are required for intestinal barrier function. Based on bioinformatics analysis, dvssj1 appears to be an arthropod-specific gene. Diet based insect feeding assays using double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) targeting dvssj1 and dvssj2 demonstrate targeted mRNA suppression, larval growth inhibition, and mortality. In RNAi treated WCR, injury to the midgut was manifested by “blebbing” of the midgut epithelium into the gut lumen. Ultrastructural examination of midgut epithelial cells revealed apoptosis and regenerative activities. Transgenic plants expressing dsRNA targeting dvssj1 show insecticidal activity and significant plant protection from WCR damage. The data indicate that dvssj1 and dvssj2 are effective gene targets for the control of WCR using RNAi technology, by apparent suppression of production of their respective smooth septate junction membrane proteins located within the intestinal lining, leading to growth inhibition and mortality. PMID:27464714

  14. UV light-induced DNA lesions cause dissociation of yeast RNA polymerases-I and establishment of a specialized chromatin structure at rRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Maxime; Charton, Romain; Wittner, Manuel; Levasseur, Geneviève; Griesenbeck, Joachim; Conconi, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The cytotoxicity of UV light-induced DNA lesions results from their interference with transcription and replication. DNA lesions arrest elongating RNA polymerases, an event that triggers transcription-coupled nucleotide excision repair. Since arrested RNA polymerases reduce the accessibility of repair factors to DNA lesions, they might be displaced. The fate of arrested RNA polymerases-II at DNA lesions has been extensively studied, yielding partially contradictory results. Considerably less is known about RNA polymerases-I that transcribe nucleosomes-depleted rRNA genes at very high rate. To investigate the fate of arrested RNA polymerases-I at DNA lesions, chromatin-immunoprecipitation, electron microscopy, transcription run-on, psoralen-cross-linking and chromatin-endogenous cleavage were employed. We found that RNA polymerases-I density increased at the 5′-end of the gene, likely due to continued transcription initiation followed by elongation and pausing/release at the first DNA lesion. Most RNA polymerases-I dissociated downstream of the first DNA lesion, concomitant with chromatin closing that resulted from deposition of nucleosomes. Although nucleosomes were deposited, the high mobility group-box Hmo1 (component of actively transcribed rRNA genes) remained associated. After repair of DNA lesions, Hmo1 containing chromatin might help to restore transcription elongation and reopening of rRNA genes chromatin. PMID:24097442

  15. Isolation, expression and functional analysis of a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase gene from maize (Zea mays L.).

    PubMed

    He, Junguang; Dong, Zhigang; Jia, Zhiwei; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Guoying

    2010-02-01

    RNA-dependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) in plants have been reported to be involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing (PTGS) and antiviral defense. In this report, an RdRP gene from maize (ZmRdRP1) was obtained by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE) and RT-PCR. The mRNA of ZmRdRP1 was composed of 3785 nucleotides, including a 167 nt 5' untranslated region (UTR), a 291 nt 3'UTR and a 3327 nt open reading frame (ORF), which encodes a putative protein of 1108 amino acids with an estimated molecular mass of 126.9 kDa and a predicated isoelectric point (pI) of 8.37. Real-time quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that ZmRdRP1 was elicited by salicylic acid (SA) treatment, methyl jasmonate (MeJA) treatment and sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) infection. We silenced ZmRdRP1 by constitutively expressing an inverted-repeat fragment of ZmRdRP1 (ir-RdRP1) in transgenic maize plants. Further studies revealed that the ir-RdRP1 transgenic plants were more susceptible to SCMV infection than wild type plants. Virus-infected transgenic maize plants developed more serious disease symptoms and accumulated more virus than wild type plants. These findings suggested that ZmRdRP1 was involved in antiviral defense in maize.

  16. [Characterization of Black and Dichothrix Cyanobacteria Based on the 16S Ribosomal RNA Gene Sequence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ortega, Maya

    2010-01-01

    My project focuses on characterizing different cyanobacteria in thrombolitic mats found on the island of Highborn Cay, Bahamas. Thrombolites are interesting ecosystems because of the ability of bacteria in these mats to remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and mineralize it as calcium carbonate. In the future they may be used as models to develop carbon sequestration technologies, which could be used as part of regenerative life systems in space. These thrombolitic communities are also significant because of their similarities to early communities of life on Earth. I targeted two cyanobacteria in my research, Dichothrix spp. and whatever black is, since they are believed to be important to carbon sequestration in these thrombolitic mats. The goal of my summer research project was to molecularly identify these two cyanobacteria. DNA was isolated from each organism through mat dissections and DNA extractions. I ran Polymerase Chain Reactions (PCR) to amplify the 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene in each cyanobacteria. This specific gene is found in almost all bacteria and is highly conserved, meaning any changes in the sequence are most likely due to evolution. As a result, the 16S rRNA gene can be used for bacterial identification of different species based on the sequence of their 16S rRNA gene. Since the exact sequence of the Dichothrix gene was unknown, I designed different primers that flanked the gene based on the known sequences from other taxonomically similar cyanobacteria. Once the 16S rRNA gene was amplified, I cloned the gene into specialized Escherichia coli cells and sent the gene products for sequencing. Once the sequence is obtained, it will be added to a genetic database for future reference to and classification of other Dichothrix sp.

  17. A Comparison of Target Gene Silencing using Synthetically Modified siRNA and shRNA That Express Recombinant Lentiviral Vectors.

    PubMed

    Spirin, P V; Baskaran, D; Rubtsov, P M; Zenkova, M A; Vlassov, V V; Chernolovskaya, E L; Prassolov, V S

    2009-07-01

    RNA-interference is an effective natural mechanism of post-transcriptional modulation of gene expression. RNA-interference mechanism exist as in high eukaryotes both animals and plants as well in lower eukaryotes and viruses. RNA-interference is now used as a powerful tool in study of functional gene activity and many essential for fundamental biology results was obtained with this approach. Also it's widely believed that RNA-interference could be used in working out of new therapeutic medicine against malignant, infectious and hereditary diseases. One of the main problems of these developments is search of effective methods of siRNA transfer into the target cells. At present time for these purpose different sorts of transfect ions or viral transduction are used. At present article the results of comparison of inhibition of expression of oncogene AML-ET O by synthetic siRNA and by recombinant lentiviruses coding for corresponding shRNA are presented.

  18. A Comparison of Target Gene Silencing using Synthetically Modified siRNA and shRNA That Express Recombinant Lentiviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Spirin, P.V.; Baskaran, D.; Rubtsov, P.M.; Zenkova, M.A.; Vlassov, V.V.; Chernolovskaya, E.L.

    2009-01-01

    RNA-interference is an effective natural mechanism of post-transcriptional modulation of gene expression. RNA-interference mechanism exist as in high eukaryotes both animals and plants as well in lower eukaryotes and viruses. RNA-interference is now used as a powerful tool in study of functional gene activity and many essential for fundamental biology results was obtained with this approach. Also it's widely believed that RNA-interference could be used in working out of new therapeutic medicine against malignant, infectious and hereditary diseases. One of the main problems of these developments is search of effective methods of siRNA transfer into the target cells. At present time for these purpose different sorts of transfect ions or viral transduction are used. At present article the results of comparison of inhibition of expression of oncogene AML-ET O by synthetic siRNA and by recombinant lentiviruses coding for corresponding shRNA are presented. PMID:22649608

  19. RNA-Seq Quantification of Hepatic Drug Processing Genes in Germ-Free Mice.

    PubMed

    Selwyn, Felcy Pavithra; Cui, Julia Yue; Klaassen, Curtis D

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal bacteria have been shown to be important in regulating host intermediary metabolism and contributing to obesity. However, relatively less is known about the effect of intestinal bacteria on the expression of hepatic drug-processing genes in the host. This study characterizes the expression of hepatic drug-processing genes in germ-free (GF) mice using RNA-Seq. Total RNA were isolated from the livers of adult male conventional and GF C57BL/6J mice (n = 3 per group). In the livers of GF mice, the mRNA of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor target gene Cyp1a2 was increased 51%, and the mRNA of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) target gene Cyp4a14 was increased 202%. Conversely, the mRNA of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) target gene Cyp2b10 was decreased 57%, and the mRNA of the pregnane X receptor target gene Cyp3a11 was decreased 87% in GF mice. Although other non-Cyp phase-1 enzymes in the livers of GF mice were only moderately affected, there was a marked down-regulation in the phase-2 enzymes glutathione S-transferases p1 and p2, as well as a marked up-regulation in the major bile acid transporters Na(+)-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1b2, and the cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter Abcg5/Abcg8. This study demonstrates that intestinal bacteria regulate the expression of a large number of drug-processing genes, which suggests that intestinal bacteria are responsible for some individual differences in drug responses.

  20. RNA-Seq Quantification of Hepatic Drug Processing Genes in Germ-Free Mice

    PubMed Central

    Selwyn, Felcy Pavithra; Cui, Julia Yue

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal bacteria have been shown to be important in regulating host intermediary metabolism and contributing to obesity. However, relatively less is known about the effect of intestinal bacteria on the expression of hepatic drug-processing genes in the host. This study characterizes the expression of hepatic drug-processing genes in germ-free (GF) mice using RNA-Seq. Total RNA were isolated from the livers of adult male conventional and GF C57BL/6J mice (n = 3 per group). In the livers of GF mice, the mRNA of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor target gene Cyp1a2 was increased 51%, and the mRNA of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα) target gene Cyp4a14 was increased 202%. Conversely, the mRNA of the constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) target gene Cyp2b10 was decreased 57%, and the mRNA of the pregnane X receptor target gene Cyp3a11 was decreased 87% in GF mice. Although other non-Cyp phase-1 enzymes in the livers of GF mice were only moderately affected, there was a marked down-regulation in the phase-2 enzymes glutathione S-transferases p1 and p2, as well as a marked up-regulation in the major bile acid transporters Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1b2, and the cholesterol transporter ATP-binding cassette transporter Abcg5/Abcg8. This study demonstrates that intestinal bacteria regulate the expression of a large number of drug-processing genes, which suggests that intestinal bacteria are responsible for some individual differences in drug responses. PMID:25956306

  1. Avatar pre-tRNAs help elucidate the properties of tRNA-splicing endonucleases that produce tRNA from permuted genes.

    PubMed

    Tocchini-Valentini, Giuseppe D; Tocchini-Valentini, Glauco P

    2012-12-26

    Unusual tRNA genes, found in some algae, have their mature terminal 3' portion in front of their 5' portion in the genome. The transcripts from such genes must be cleaved by a pre-tRNA endonuclease to form a functional tRNA. We present a mechanism for the generation of "corrected" tRNAs from such a "permuted" pre-tRNA configuration. We used two avatar (av) or model pre-tRNAs and two splicing endonucleases with distinct mechanisms of recognition of the pre-tRNA. The splicing results are compatible with an evolutionary route in which permuted genes result from a duplication event followed by DNA rearrangement. The model pre-tRNAs permit description of the features that a transcript, derived from a rearranged duplicated gene, must have to give rise to functional tRNA. The two tRNA endonucleases are a eukaryal enzyme that normally acts in a mature domain-dependent mode and an archaeal enzyme that acts in a mature domain-independent mode. Both av pre-tRNAs are able to fold into two conformations: 1 and 2. We find that only conformation 2 can yield a corrected functional tRNA. This result is consistent with contemporary algae representing snapshots of different evolutionary stages, with duplicated genes preceding recombinatorial events generating a permutated gene. In a scenario elucidated by the use of the av pre-tRNAs, algal permuted tRNA genes could have further lost one of two mature domains, eliminating steric problems for the algal tRNA endonuclease, which remains a typical eukaryal enzyme capable of correcting the permuted transcript to a functional tRNA.

  2. Knockdown of RNA Interference Pathway Genes in Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) Demonstrates a Possible Mechanism of Resistance to Lethal dsRNA.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Ana María; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Narva, Kenneth E; Siegfried, Blair D

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is being developed as a potential tool for insect pest management. Increased understanding of the RNAi pathway in target insect pests will provide information to use this technology effectively and to inform decisions related to resistant management strategies for RNAi based traits. Dicer 2 (Dcr2), an endonuclease responsible for formation of small interfering RNA's and Argonaute 2 (Ago2), an essential catalytic component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) have both been associated with the RNAi pathway in a number of different insect species including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We identified both genes from a transcriptome library generated from different tissues and developmental stages of the western corn rootworm, an important target pest for transgenic plants expressing dsRNA targeting essential genes. The expression of these genes was suppressed by more than 90% after injecting gene specific dsRNA into adult rootworms. The injected beetles were then fed vATPase A dsRNA which has previously been demonstrated to cause mortality in western corn rootworm adults. The suppression of both RNAi pathway genes resulted in reduced mortality after subsequent exposure to lethal concentrations of vATPase A dsRNA as well as increased vATPase A expression relative to control treatments. Injections with dsRNA for a non-lethal target sequence (Laccase 2) did not affect mortality or expression caused by vATPase A dsRNA indicating that the results observed with Argo and Dicer dsRNA were not caused by simple competition among different dsRNA's. These results confirm that both genes play an important role in the RNAi pathway for western corn rootworms and indicate that selection pressures that potentially affect the expression of these genes may provide a basis for future studies to understand potential mechanisms of resistance. PMID:27310918

  3. The evolution and functional diversification of animal microRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Na; Okamura, Katsutomo; Tyler, David M; Phillips, Michael D; Chung, Wei-Jen; Lai, Eric C

    2008-10-01

    microRNAs (miRNAs) are an abundant class of approximately 22 nucleotide (nt) regulatory RNAs that are pervasive in higher eukaryotic genomes. In order to fully understand their prominence in genomes, it is necessary to elucidate the molecular mechanisms that can diversify miRNA activities. In this review, we describe some of the many strategies that allow novel miRNA functions to emerge, with particular emphasis on how miRNA genes evolve in animals. These mechanisms include changes in their sequence, processing, or expression pattern; acquisition of miRNA* functionality or antisense processing; and de novo gene birth. The facility and versatility of miRNAs to evolve and change likely underlies how they have become dominant constituents of higher genomes.

  4. Unusual transcription termination of the ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaris lumbricoides.

    PubMed Central

    Müller, E; Neuhaus, H; Tobler, H; Müller, F

    1990-01-01

    We studied termination of transcription of the ribosomal RNA genes in Ascaris lumbricoides, the first representative in the phylum of nemathelminthes analysed so far. RNase protection experiments in vivo reveal that the 3' end of the precursor rRNA coincides with the end of mature 26S rRNA. Promoter-containing miniplasmids are able to direct unique 3' end formation in vitro at a site identical to that observed in vivo, whereas deletion of these sequences abolishes 3' end formation throughout the entire spacer. A nuclear run-on experiment in vitro confirms the drop of polymerase I concentration down-stream of this site. The termination site for polymerase I transcription of the rDNA operon in A. lumbricoides is therefore unique, and located at the very end of the 26S rRNA gene. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2390973

  5. Highly efficient gene knockout in mice and zebrafish with RNA-guided endonucleases.

    PubMed

    Sung, Young Hoon; Kim, Jong Min; Kim, Hyun-Taek; Lee, Jaehoon; Jeon, Jisun; Jin, Young; Choi, Jung-Hwa; Ban, Young Ho; Ha, Sang-Jun; Kim, Cheol-Hee; Lee, Han-Woong; Kim, Jin-Soo

    2014-01-01

    RNA-guided endonucleases (RGENs), derived from the prokaryotic Type II CRISPR-Cas system, enable targeted genome modification in cells and organisms. Here we describe the establishment of gene-knockout mice and zebrafish by the injection of RGENs as Cas9 protein:guide RNA complexes or Cas9 mRNA plus guide RNA into one-cell-stage embryos of both species. RGENs efficiently generated germline transmittable mutations in up to 93% of newborn mice with minimal toxicity. RGEN-induced mutations in the mouse Prkdc gene that encodes an enzyme critical for DNA double-strand break repair resulted in immunodeficiency both in F₀ and F₁ mice. We propose that RGEN-mediated mutagenesis in animals will greatly expedite the creation of genetically engineered model organisms, accelerating functional genomic research.

  6. A custom microarray platform for analysis of microRNA gene expression.

    PubMed

    Thomson, J Michael; Parker, Joel; Perou, Charles M; Hammond, Scott M

    2004-10-01

    MicroRNAs are short, noncoding RNA transcripts that post-transcriptionally regulate gene expression. Several hundred microRNA genes have been identified in Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila, plants and mammals. MicroRNAs have been linked to developmental processes in C. elegans, plants and humans and to cell growth and apoptosis in Drosophila. A major impediment in the study of microRNA function is the lack of quantitative expression profiling methods. To close this technological gap, we have designed dual-channel microarrays that monitor expression levels of 124 mammalian microRNAs. Using these tools, we observed distinct patterns of expression among adult mouse tissues and embryonic stem cells. Expression profiles of staged embryos demonstrate temporal regulation of a large class of microRNAs, including members of the let-7 family. This microarray technology enables comprehensive investigation of microRNA expression, and furthers our understanding of this class of recently discovered noncoding RNAs.

  7. Disruption of largest subunit RNA polymerase II genes in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Chung, H M; Lee, M G; Dietrich, P; Huang, J; Van der Ploeg, L H

    1993-01-01

    Two types of largest subunit RNA polymerase II (pol II) genes (pol IIA and pol IIB), differing in 3 amino acid substitutions, are encoded in the Trypanosoma brucei (stock 427-60) genome. As a result, the alpha-amanitin-resistant transcription of the procyclic acidic repetitive protein (PARP) and variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes was proposed to involve a modified, alpha-amanitin-resistant form of the largest subunit of pol II. Alternatively, pol I could transcribe the PARP and VSG genes. To discriminate between these two models, we deleted the N-terminal domain (about one-third of the polypeptide), which encodes the amino acid substitutions which discriminated the pol IIA and pol IIB genes, at both pol IIB alleles. The pol IIB- trypanosomes still transcribe the PARP genes and the VSG gene promoter region in insect-form trypanosomes by alpha-amanitin-resistant RNA polymerases, while control housekeeping genes are transcribed in an alpha-amanitin-sensitive manner, presumably by pol IIA. We conclude that the alpha-amanitin-resistant transcription of protein coding genes in T. brucei is not mediated by a diverged form of the largest subunit of pol II and that the presence of both the pol IIA and pol IIB genes is not essential for trypanosome viability. This conclusion was further supported by the finding that individual trypanosome variants exhibited allelic heterogeneity for the previously identified amino acid substitutions and that various permutations of the polymorphic amino acids generate at least four different types of largest subunit pol II genes. The expression of the PARP genes and the VSG gene promoter region by alpha-amanitin-resistant RNA polymerases in the pol IIB- trypanosomes provides evidence for transcription of these genes by pol I. Images PMID:8497277

  8. Tissue- and Time-Specific Expression of Otherwise Identical tRNA Genes

    PubMed Central

    Adir, Idan; Dahan, Orna; Broday, Limor; Pilpel, Yitzhak; Rechavi, Oded

    2016-01-01

    Codon usage bias affects protein translation because tRNAs that recognize synonymous codons differ in their abundance. Although the current dogma states that tRNA expression is exclusively regulated by intrinsic control elements (A- and B-box sequences), we revealed, using a reporter that monitors the levels of individual tRNA genes in Caenorhabditis elegans, that eight tryptophan tRNA genes, 100% identical in sequence, are expressed in different tissues and change their expression dynamically. Furthermore, the expression levels of the sup-7 tRNA gene at day 6 were found to predict the animal’s lifespan. We discovered that the expression of tRNAs that reside within introns of protein-coding genes is affected by the host gene’s promoter. Pairing between specific Pol II genes and the tRNAs that are contained in their introns is most likely adaptive, since a genome-wide analysis revealed that the presence of specific intronic tRNAs within specific orthologous genes is conserved across Caenorhabditis species. PMID:27560950

  9. Differentially expressed protein-coding genes and long noncoding RNA in early-stage lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Qiu, Mantang; Xu, Youtao; Mao, Qixing; Wang, Jie; Dong, Gaochao; Xia, Wenjia; Yin, Rong; Xu, Lin

    2015-12-01

    Due to the application of low-dose computed tomography screening, more and more early-stage lung cancers have been diagnosed. Thus, it is essential to characterize the gene expression profile of early-stage lung cancer to develop potential biomarkers for early diagnosis and therapeutic targets. Here, we analyzed microarray data of 181 early-stage lung cancer patients. By comparing gene expression between different tumor and lymph node metastasis stages, we identified various differentially expressed protein-coding genes and long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) in the comparisons of T2 vs. T2 and N1- vs. N0-stage lung cancer. Functional analyses revealed that these differentially expressed genes were enriched in various tumorigenesis or metastasis-related pathways. Survival analysis indicated that two protein-coding genes, C7 and SCN7A, were significantly associated survival of lung cancer. Notably, a novel lncRNA, LINC00313, was highly expressed in both T2- and N1-stage lung cancers. On the other hand, LINC00313 was also upregulated in lung cancer and metastasized lung cancer tissues, compared with adjacent lung tissues and primary lung cancer tissues. Additionally, higher expression level of LINC00313 indicated poor prognosis of lung cancer (hazard ratio = 0.658). Overall, we characterized the expression profiles of protein-coding genes and lncRNA in early-stage lung cancer and found that LINC00313 could be a biomarker for lung cancer.

  10. A Concise Protocol for siRNA-Mediated Gene Suppression in Human Embryonic Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Renz, Peter F; Beyer, Tobias A

    2016-01-01

    Human embryonic stem cells hold great promise for future biomedical applications such as disease modeling and regenerative medicine. However, these cells are notoriously difficult to culture and are refractory to common means of genetic manipulation, thereby limiting their range of applications. In this protocol, we present an easy and robust method of gene repression in human embryonic stem cells using lipofection of small interfering RNA (siRNA).

  11. Whole blood mRNA in prostate cancer reveals a four-gene androgen regulated panel.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Benjamin C; Kay, Jonathan D; Menon, Suraj; Vowler, Sarah L; Dawson, Sarah N; Bucklow, Laura J; Luxton, Hayley J; Johnston, Thomas; Massie, Charlie E; Pugh, Michelle; Warren, Anne Y; Barker, Peter; Burling, Keith; Lynch, Andy G; George, Anne; Burge, Johanna; Corcoran, Marie; Stearn, Sara; Lamb, Alastair D; Sharma, Naomi L; Shaw, Greg L; Neal, David E; Whitaker, Hayley C

    2016-10-01

    Due to increased sensitivity, the expression of circulating nucleotides is rapidly gaining popularity in cancer diagnosis. Whole blood mRNA has been used in studies on a number of cancers, most notably two separate studies that used whole blood mRNA to define non-overlapping signatures of prostate cancer that has become castration independent. Prostate cancer is known to rely on androgens for initial growth, and there is increasing evidence on the importance of the androgen axis in advanced disease. Using whole blood mRNA samples from patients with prostate cancer, we have identified the four-gene panel of FAM129A, MME, KRT7 and SOD2 in circulating mRNA that are differentially expressed in a discovery cohort of metastatic samples. Validation of these genes at the mRNA and protein level was undertaken in additional cohorts defined by risk of relapse following surgery and hormone status. All the four genes were downregulated at the mRNA level in the circulation and in primary tissue, but this was not always reflected in tissue protein expression. MME demonstrated significant differences in the hormone cohorts, whereas FAM129A is downregulated at the mRNA level but is raised at the protein level in tumours. Using published ChIP-seq data, we have demonstrated that this may be due to AR binding at the FAM129A and MME loci in multiple cell lines. These data suggest that whole blood mRNA of androgen-regulated genes has the potential to be used for diagnosis and monitoring of prostate cancer. PMID:27578825

  12. Targeted Gene Activation Using RNA-Guided Nucleases.

    PubMed

    Brown, Alexander; Woods, Wendy S; Perez-Pinera, Pablo

    2017-01-01

    The discovery of the prokaryotic CRISPR-Cas (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats-CRISPR-associated) system and its adaptation for targeted manipulation of DNA in diverse species has revolutionized the field of genome engineering. In particular, the fusion of catalytically inactive Cas9 to any number of transcriptional activator domains has resulted in an array of easily customizable synthetic transcription factors that are capable of achieving robust, specific, and tunable activation of target gene expression within a wide variety of tissues and cells. This chapter describes key experimental design considerations, methods for plasmid construction, gene delivery protocols, and procedures for analysis of targeted gene activation in mammalian cell lines using CRISPR-Cas transcription factors. PMID:27662880

  13. Quantitative RT-PCR Gene Evaluation and RNA Interference in the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Raman; Mittapelly, Priyanka; Chen, Yuting; Mamidala, Praveen; Zhao, Chaoyang; Michel, Andy

    2016-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) has emerged as one of the most important invasive insect pests in the United States. Functional genomics in H. halys remains unexplored as molecular resources in this insect have recently been developed. To facilitate functional genomics research, we evaluated ten common insect housekeeping genes (RPS26, EF1A, FAU, UBE4A, ARL2, ARP8, GUS, TBP, TIF6 and RPL9) for their stability across various treatments in H. halys. Our treatments included two biotic factors (tissues and developmental stages) and two stress treatments (RNAi injection and starvation). Reference gene stability was determined using three software algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper) and a web-based tool (RefFinder). The qRT-PCR results indicated ARP8 and UBE4A exhibit the most stable expression across tissues and developmental stages, ARL2 and FAU for dsRNA treatment and TBP and UBE4A for starvation treatment. Following the dsRNA treatment, all genes except GUS showed relatively stable expression. To demonstrate the utility of validated reference genes in accurate gene expression analysis and to explore gene silencing in H. halys, we performed RNAi by administering dsRNA of target gene (catalase) through microinjection. A successful RNAi response with over 90% reduction in expression of target gene was observed. PMID:27144586

  14. Meta-Analysis of Multiple Sclerosis Microarray Data Reveals Dysregulation in RNA Splicing Regulatory Genes.

    PubMed

    Paraboschi, Elvezia Maria; Cardamone, Giulia; Rimoldi, Valeria; Gemmati, Donato; Spreafico, Marta; Duga, Stefano; Soldà, Giulia; Asselta, Rosanna

    2015-09-30

    Abnormalities in RNA metabolism and alternative splicing (AS) are emerging as important players in complex disease phenotypes. In particular, accumulating evidence suggests the existence of pathogenic links between multiple sclerosis (MS) and altered AS, including functional studies showing that an imbalance in alternatively-spliced isoforms may contribute to disease etiology. Here, we tested whether the altered expression of AS-related genes represents a MS-specific signature. A comprehensive comparative analysis of gene expression profiles of publicly-available microarray datasets (190 MS cases, 182 controls), followed by gene-ontology enrichment analysis, highlighted a significant enrichment for differentially-expressed genes involved in RNA metabolism/AS. In detail, a total of 17 genes were found to be differentially expressed in MS in multiple datasets, with CELF1 being dysregulated in five out of seven studies. We confirmed CELF1 downregulation in MS (p=0.0015) by real-time RT-PCRs on RNA extracted from blood cells of 30 cases and 30 controls. As a proof of concept, we experimentally verified the unbalance in alternatively-spliced isoforms in MS of the NFAT5 gene, a putative CELF1 target. In conclusion, for the first time we provide evidence of a consistent dysregulation of splicing-related genes in MS and we discuss its possible implications in modulating specific AS events in MS susceptibility genes.

  15. Quantitative RT-PCR Gene Evaluation and RNA Interference in the Brown Marmorated Stink Bug

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Raman; Mittapelly, Priyanka; Chen, Yuting; Mamidala, Praveen; Zhao, Chaoyang; Michel, Andy

    2016-01-01

    The brown marmorated stink bug (Halyomorpha halys) has emerged as one of the most important invasive insect pests in the United States. Functional genomics in H. halys remains unexplored as molecular resources in this insect have recently been developed. To facilitate functional genomics research, we evaluated ten common insect housekeeping genes (RPS26, EF1A, FAU, UBE4A, ARL2, ARP8, GUS, TBP, TIF6 and RPL9) for their stability across various treatments in H. halys. Our treatments included two biotic factors (tissues and developmental stages) and two stress treatments (RNAi injection and starvation). Reference gene stability was determined using three software algorithms (geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper) and a web-based tool (RefFinder). The qRT-PCR results indicated ARP8 and UBE4A exhibit the most stable expression across tissues and developmental stages, ARL2 and FAU for dsRNA treatment and TBP and UBE4A for starvation treatment. Following the dsRNA treatment, all genes except GUS showed relatively stable expression. To demonstrate the utility of validated reference genes in accurate gene expression analysis and to explore gene silencing in H. halys, we performed RNAi by administering dsRNA of target gene (catalase) through microinjection. A successful RNAi response with over 90% reduction in expression of target gene was observed. PMID:27144586

  16. Global correlation analysis for microRNA and gene expression profiles in human obesity.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiayu; Zhou, Changyu; Li, Jiarui; Su, Ziyuan; Sang, Haiyan; Jia, Erna; Si, Daoyuan

    2015-05-01

    Obesity is an increasing health problem associated with major adverse consequences for human health. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small endogenous non-coding RNAs, regulate the expression of genes that play roles in human body via posttranscriptional inhibition. To identify the miRNAs and their target genes involved in obesity, we downloaded the miRNA and gene expression profiles from gene expression omnibus (GEO) database and analyzed the differentially expressed miRNAs (DEMs) and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in adipose tissues from obese subjects compared to those from non-obese subjects. Then, we constructed the miRNA-target interaction network and conducted functional enrichment analysis of DEGs, and the targets negatively correlated with DEMs. We identified a total of 16 miRNAs and 192 genes that showed a significantly different expression and 3002 miRNA-target interaction pairs, including 182 regulatory pairs in obesity. Target genes of DEMs were found mainly enriched in several functions, such as collagen fibril organization, extracellular matrix part, and extracellular matrix structural constituent. Moreover, hsa-miR-425 and hsa-miR-126 had a significant number of target genes and hsa-miR-16/COL12A1 and hsa-miR-634/SLC4A4 interaction pairs are significantly co-expressed, suggesting that they might play important roles in the pathogenesis of obesity. Our study provides a bioinformatic basis for further research of molecular mechanism in obesity.

  17. Analysing the relationship between lncRNA and protein-coding gene and the role of lncRNA as ceRNA in pulmonary fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Song, Xiaodong; Cao, Guohong; Jing, Lili; Lin, Shengcui; Wang, Xiaozhi; Zhang, Jinjin; Wang, Meirong; Liu, Weili; Lv, Changjun

    2014-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in various pathophysiologic processes and human diseases. However, their dynamics and corresponding functions in pulmonary fibrosis remain poorly understood. In this study, portions of lncRNAs adjacent or homologous to protein-coding genes were determined by searching the UCSC genome bioinformatics database. This was found to be potentially useful for exploring lncRNA functions in disease progression. Previous studies showed that competing endogenous RNA (ceRNA) hypothesis is another method to predict lncRNA function. However, little is known about the function of ceRNA in pulmonary fibrosis. In this study, we selected two differentially expressed lncRNAs MRAK088388 and MRAK081523 to explore their regulatory mechanisms. MRAK088388 and MRAK081523 were analysed as long-intergenic non-coding RNAs (lincRNAs), and identified as orthologues of mouse lncRNAs AK088388 and AK081523, respectively. qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH) showed that they were significantly up-regulated, and located in the cytoplasm of interstitial lung cells. We also showed that MRAK088388 and N4bp2 had the same miRNA response elements (MREs) for miR-200, miR-429, miR-29, and miR-30, whereas MRAK081523 and Plxna4 had the same MREs for miR-218, miR-141, miR-98, and let-7. Moreover, the expression levels of N4bp2 and Plxna4 significantly increased in fibrotic rats, and were highly correlated with those of MRAK088388 and MRAK081523, respectively. Among their shared miRNAs, miR-29b-3p and let-7i-5p decreased in the model group, and were negatively correlated with the expression of MRAK088388 and MRAK081523, respectively. MRAK088388 and MRAK081523 could regulate N4bp2 and Plxna4 expression by sponging miR-29b-3p and let-7i-5p, respectively, and possessed regulatory functions as ceRNAs. Thus, our study may provide insights into the functional interactions of lncRNA, miRNA and mRNA, and lead to new theories for the pathogenesis and treatment of pulmonary

  18. funRNA: a fungi-centered genomics platform for genes encoding key components of RNAi

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background RNA interference (RNAi) is involved in genome defense as well as diverse cellular, developmental, and physiological processes. Key components of RNAi are Argonaute, Dicer, and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), which have been functionally characterized mainly in model organisms. The key components are believed to exist throughout eukaryotes; however, there is no systematic platform for archiving and dissecting these important gene families. In addition, few fungi have been studied to date, limiting our understanding of RNAi in fungi. Here we present funRNA http://funrna.riceblast.snu.ac.kr/, a fungal kingdom-wide comparative genomics platform for putative genes encoding Argonaute, Dicer, and RdRP. Description To identify and archive genes encoding the abovementioned key components, protein domain profiles were determined from reference sequences obtained from UniProtKB/SwissProt. The domain profiles were searched using fungal, metazoan, and plant genomes, as well as bacterial and archaeal genomes. 1,163, 442, and 678 genes encoding Argonaute, Dicer, and RdRP, respectively, were predicted. Based on the identification results, active site variation of Argonaute, diversification of Dicer, and sequence analysis of RdRP were discussed in a fungus-oriented manner. funRNA provides results from diverse bioinformatics programs and job submission forms for BLAST, BLASTMatrix, and ClustalW. Furthermore, sequence collections created in funRNA are synced with several gene family analysis portals and databases, offering further analysis opportunities. Conclusions funRNA provides identification results from a broad taxonomic range and diverse analysis functions, and could be used in diverse comparative and evolutionary studies. It could serve as a versatile genomics workbench for key components of RNAi. PMID:25522231

  19. Integrative microRNA-gene expression network analysis in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming rat kidney

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yuchao; Qin, Baolong; Hu, Henglong; Zhang, Jiaqiao; Wang, Yufeng; Wang, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Background. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) influence a variety of biological functions by regulating gene expression post-transcriptionally. Aberrant miRNA expression has been associated with many human diseases. Urolithiasis is a common disease, and idiopathic hypercalciuria (IH) is an important risk factor for calcium urolithiasis. However, miRNA expression patterns and their biological functions in urolithiasis remain unknown. Methods and Results. A multi-step approach combining microarray miRNA and mRNA expression profile and bioinformatics analysis was adopted to analyze dysregulated miRNAs and genes in genetic hypercalciuric stone-forming (GHS) rat kidneys, using normal Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats as controls. We identified 2418 mRNAs and 19 miRNAs as significantly differentially expressed, over 700 gene ontology (GO) terms and 83 KEGG pathways that were significantly enriched in GHS rats. In addition, we constructed an miRNA-gene network that suggested that rno-miR-674-5p, rno-miR-672-5p, rno-miR-138-5p and rno-miR-21-3p may play important roles in the regulatory network. Furthermore, signal-net analysis suggested that NF-kappa B likely plays a crucial role in hypercalciuria urolithiasis. Conclusions. This study presents a global view of mRNA and miRNA expression in GHS rat kidneys, and suggests that miRNAs may be important in the regulation of hypercalciuria. The data provide valuable insights for future research, which should aim at validating the role of the genes featured here in the pathophysiology of hypercalciuria. PMID:27069814

  20. A group-I intron in the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA gene of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    PubMed

    Carbone, I; Anderson, J B; Kohn, L M

    1995-01-01

    A 1,380-bp intervening sequence within the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA (mt SSU rRNA) gene of the fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum has been sequenced and identified as a group-I intron. This is the first report of an intron in the mt SSU rRNA gene. The intron shows close similarity in secondary structure to the subgroup-IC2 introns from Podospora (ND3i1, ND5i2, and COIi5) and Neurospora (ND5i1). The intron has an open reading frame (ORF) that encodes a putative protein of 420 amino acids which contains two copies of the LAGLI-DADG motif. The ORF belongs to a family of ORFs identified in Podospora (ND3i1, ND4Li1, ND4Li2, ND5i2, and COIi5) and Neurospora (ND5i1). The putative 420-aa polypeptide is also similar to a site-specific endonuclease in the chloroplast large subunit ribosomal RNA (LSU rRNA) gene of the green alga Chlamydomonas eugametos. In each clone of S. sclerotiorum examined, including several clones which were sampled over a 3-year period from geographically separated sites, all isolates either had the intron or lacked the intron within the mt SSU rRNA gene. Screening by means of Southern hybridization and PCR amplification detected the intron in the mt SSU rRNA genes of S. minor, S. trifoliorum and Sclerotium cepivorum, but not in other members of the Sclerotiniaceae, such as Botrytis anamorphs of Botryotinia spp., or in other ascomycetous and basidiomycetous fungi. PMID:7788720

  1. Highly effective inhibition of Akabane virus replication by siRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Levin, Aviad; Kutznetova, Larisa; Kahana, Ronen; Rubinstein-Guini, Marisol; Stram, Yehuda

    2006-09-01

    Since 2002 there has been a rise in arthrogryposis/hydranencephaly (AGH) incidence in Israel, caused by Akabane (AKA) and, possibly, Aino viruses. To test the ability to control the disease, three siRNA genes targeted to the S genome segment were designed and prepared in the form of siRNA cassettes. For the design all published S segment were aligned and two conserved target sequences with 100% homology were chosen. A third conserved target that was found exhibited only one base change found in the two Australian isolates and was also designed and tested. It was demonstrated that cells transfected with single siRNA genes showed 99% inhibition, as measured by real-time RT-PCR, virus titration and immunofluorescence. When cells were transfected with all three genes together the inhibition levels were increased and reached almost 100%.

  2. Highly transcribed RNA polymerase II genes are impediments to replication fork progression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Azvolinsky, Anna; Giresi, Paul G.; Lieb, Jason D.; Zakian, Virginia A.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Replication forks face multiple obstacles that slow their progression. By two-dimensional gel analysis, yeast forks pause at stable DNA protein complexes, and this pausing is greatly increased in the absence of the Rrm3 helicase. We used a genome wide approach to identify 96 sites of very high DNA polymerase binding in wild type cells. Most of these binding sites were not previously identified pause sites. Rather, the most highly represented genomic category among high DNA polymerase binding sites was the open reading frames (ORFs) of highly transcribed RNA polymerase II genes. Twice as many pause sites were identified in rrm3 compared to wild type cells as pausing in this strain occurred at both highly transcribed RNA polymerase II genes and the previously identified protein DNA complexes. ORFs of highly transcribed RNA polymerase II genes are the first class of natural pause sites that are not exacerbated in rrm3 cells. PMID:19560424

  3. Diagnostic assay for Helicobacter hepaticus based on nucleotide sequence of its 16S rRNA gene.

    PubMed Central

    Battles, J K; Williamson, J C; Pike, K M; Gorelick, P L; Ward, J M; Gonda, M A

    1995-01-01

    Conserved primers were used to PCR amplify 95% of the Helicobacter hepaticus 16S rRNA gene. Its sequence was determined and aligned to those of related bacteria, enabling the selection of primers to highly diverged regions of the 16S rRNA gene and an oligonucleotide probe for the development of a PCR-liquid hybridization assay. This assay was shown to be both sensitive and specific for H. hepaticus 16S rRNA gene sequences. PMID:7542270

  4. Complex organisation and structure of the ghrelin antisense strand gene GHRLOS, a candidate non-coding RNA gene

    PubMed Central

    Seim, Inge; Carter, Shea L; Herington, Adrian C; Chopin, Lisa K

    2008-01-01

    Background The peptide hormone ghrelin has many important physiological and pathophysiological roles, including the stimulation of growth hormone (GH) release, appetite regulation, gut motility and proliferation of cancer cells. We previously identified a gene on the opposite strand of the ghrelin gene, ghrelinOS (GHRLOS), which spans the promoter and untranslated regions of the ghrelin gene (GHRL). Here we further characterise GHRLOS. Results We have described GHRLOS mRNA isoforms that extend over 1.4 kb of the promoter region and 106 nucleotides of exon 4 of the ghrelin gene, GHRL. These GHRLOS transcripts initiate 4.8 kb downstream of the terminal exon 4 of GHRL and are present in the 3' untranslated exon of the adjacent gene TATDN2 (TatD DNase domain containing 2). Interestingly, we have also identified a putative non-coding TATDN2-GHRLOS chimaeric transcript, indicating that GHRLOS RNA biogenesis is extremely complex. Moreover, we have discovered that the 3' region of GHRLOS is also antisense, in a tail-to-tail fashion to a novel terminal exon of the neighbouring SEC13 gene, which is important in protein transport. Sequence analyses revealed that GHRLOS is riddled with stop codons, and that there is little nucleotide and amino-acid sequence conservation of the GHRLOS gene between vertebrates. The gene spans 44 kb on 3p25.3, is extensively spliced and harbours multiple variable exons. We have also investigated the expression of GHRLOS and found evidence of differential tissue expression. It is highly expressed in tissues which are emerging as major sites of non-coding RNA expression (the thymus, brain, and testis), as well as in the ovary and uterus. In contrast, very low levels were found in the stomach where sense, GHRL derived RNAs are highly expressed. Conclusion GHRLOS RNA transcripts display several distinctive features of non-coding (ncRNA) genes, including 5' capping, polyadenylation, extensive splicing and short open reading frames. The gene is also

  5. Designing and using synthetic RNA thermometers for temperature-controlled gene expression in bacteria.

    PubMed

    Neupert, Juliane; Bock, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    Many techniques have been developed for studying inducible gene expression, but all of them are multicomponent systems consisting of cis-acting elements at the DNA or RNA level, trans-acting regulator proteins and/or small molecules as inducers. RNA thermometers are the only known single-component regulators of gene expression. They consist of a temperature-sensitive secondary structure in the 5' untranslated region of the mRNA, which contains the ribosome-binding site. The ribosome-binding site can be masked or unmasked by a simple temperature shift, thereby repressing or inducing translation. Recently, we and others have designed synthetic RNA thermometers that are considerably simpler than naturally occurring thermometers and can be exploited as convenient on/off switches of gene expression. In this protocol, we describe the construction and use of synthetic RNA thermometers. We provide guidelines for the in silico design of thermometer-controlled mRNA leaders and for their experimental testing and optimization; the entire procedure can be completed in 2-3 weeks.

  6. RNomics and Modomics in the halophilic archaea Haloferax volcanii: identification of RNA modification genes

    PubMed Central

    Grosjean, Henri; Gaspin, Christine; Marck, Christian; Decatur, Wayne A; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie

    2008-01-01

    Background Naturally occurring RNAs contain numerous enzymatically altered nucleosides. Differences in RNA populations (RNomics) and pattern of RNA modifications (Modomics) depends on the organism analyzed and are two of the criteria that distinguish the three kingdoms of life. If the genomic sequences of the RNA molecules can be derived from whole genome sequence information, the modification profile cannot and requires or direct sequencing of the RNAs or predictive methods base on the presence or absence of the modifications genes. Results By employing a comparative genomics approach, we predicted almost all of the genes coding for the t+rRNA modification enzymes in the mesophilic moderate halophile Haloferax volcanii. These encode both guide RNAs and enzymes. Some are orthologous to previously identified genes in Archaea, Bacteria or in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, but several are original predictions. Conclusion The number of modifications in t+rRNAs in the halophilic archaeon is surprisingly low when compared with other Archaea or Bacteria, particularly the hyperthermophilic organisms. This may result from the specific lifestyle of halophiles that require high intracellular salt concentration for survival. This salt content could allow RNA to maintain its functional structural integrity with fewer modifications. We predict that the few modifications present must be particularly important for decoding, accuracy of translation or are modifications that cannot be functionally replaced by the electrostatic interactions provided by the surrounding salt-ions. This analysis also guides future experimental validation work aiming to complete the understanding of the function of RNA modifications in Archaeal translation. PMID:18844986

  7. RNA-seq analysis for detecting quantitative trait-associated genes

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Minseok; Kim, Kwondo; Yoon, Joon; Jeong, Jin Young; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Many recent RNA-seq studies were focused mainly on detecting the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between two or more conditions. In contrast, only a few attempts have been made to detect genes associated with quantitative traits, such as obesity index and milk yield, on RNA-seq experiment with large number of biological replicates. This study illustrates the linear model application on trait associated genes (TAGs) detection in two real RNA-seq datasets: 89 replicated human obesity related data and 21 replicated Holsteins’ milk production related RNA-seq data. Based on these two datasets, the performance between suggesting methods, such as ordinary regression and robust regression, and existing methods: DESeq2 and Voom, were compared. The results indicate that suggesting methods have much lower false discoveries compared to the precedent two group comparisons based approaches in our simulation study and qRT-PCR experiment. In particular, the robust regression outperforms existing DEG finding method as well as ordinary regression in terms of precision. Given the current trend in RNA-seq pricing, we expect our methods to be successfully applied in various RNA-seq studies with numerous biological replicates that handle continuous response traits. PMID:27071914

  8. Chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticle mediated gene silencing in disease vector mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin; Mysore, Keshava; Flannery, Ellen; Michel, Kristin; Severson, David W; Zhu, Kun Yan; Duman-Scheel, Molly

    2015-03-25

    Vector mosquitoes inflict more human suffering than any other organism-and kill more than one million people each year. The mosquito genome projects facilitated research in new facets of mosquito biology, including functional genetic studies in the primary African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae and the dengue and yellow fever vector Aedes aegypti. RNA interference- (RNAi-) mediated gene silencing has been used to target genes of interest in both of these disease vector mosquito species. Here, we describe a procedure for preparation of chitosan/interfering RNA nanoparticles that are combined with food and ingested by larvae. This technically straightforward, high-throughput, and relatively inexpensive methodology, which is compatible with long double stranded RNA (dsRNA) or small interfering RNA (siRNA) molecules, has been used for the successful knockdown of a number of different genes in A. gambiae and A. aegypti larvae. Following larval feedings, knockdown, which is verified through qRT-PCR or in situ hybridization, can persist at least through the late pupal stage. This methodology may be applicable to a wide variety of mosquito and other insect species, including agricultural pests, as well as other non-model organisms. In addition to its utility in the research laboratory, in the future, chitosan, an inexpensive, non-toxic and biodegradable polymer, could potentially be utilized in the field.

  9. Comprehensive high-resolution analysis of the role of an Arabidopsis gene family in RNA editing.

    PubMed

    Bentolila, Stéphane; Oh, Julyun; Hanson, Maureen R; Bukowski, Robert

    2013-06-01

    In flowering plants, mitochondrial and chloroplast mRNAs are edited by C-to-U base modification. In plant organelles, RNA editing appears to be generally a correcting mechanism that restores the proper function of the encoded product. Members of the Arabidopsis RNA editing-Interacting Protein (RIP) family have been recently shown to be essential components of the plant editing machinery. We report the use of a strand- and transcript-specific RNA-seq method (STS-PCRseq) to explore the effect of mutation or silencing of every RIP gene on plant organelle editing. We confirm RIP1 to be a major editing factor that controls the editing extent of 75% of the mitochondrial sites and 20% of the plastid C targets of editing. The quantitative nature of RNA sequencing allows the precise determination of overlapping effects of RIP factors on RNA editing. Over 85% of the sites under the influence of RIP3 and RIP8, two moderately important mitochondrial factors, are also controlled by RIP1. Previously uncharacterized RIP family members were found to have only a slight effect on RNA editing. The preferential location of editing sites controlled by RIP7 on some transcripts suggests an RNA metabolism function for this factor other than editing. In addition to a complete characterization of the RIP factors for their effect on RNA editing, our study highlights the potential of RNA-seq for studying plant organelle editing. Unlike previous attempts to use RNA-seq to analyze RNA editing extent, our methodology focuses on sequencing of organelle cDNAs corresponding to known transcripts. As a result, the depth of coverage of each editing site reaches unprecedented values, assuring a reliable measurement of editing extent and the detection of numerous new sites. This strategy can be applied to the study of RNA editing in any organism.

  10. Establishment of cells to monitor Microprocessor through fusion genes of microRNA and GFP.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Motomu; Hasegawa, Hitoki; Adachi, Koichi; Miyata, Maiko; Huang, Peng; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hamaguchi, Michinari; Iwamoto, Takashi

    2008-08-01

    Microprocessor, the complex of Drosha and DGCR8, promotes the processing of primary microRNA to precursor microRNA, which is a crucial step for microRNA maturation. So far, no convenient assay systems have been developed for observing this step in vivo. Here we report the establishment of highly sensitive cellular systems where we can visually monitor the function of Microprocessor. During a series of screening of transfectants with fusion genes of the EGFP cDNA and primary microRNA genes, we have obtained certain cell lines where introduction of siRNA against DGCR8 or Drosha strikingly augments GFP signals. In contrast, these cells have not responded to Dicer siRNA; thus they have a unique character that GFP signals should be negatively and specifically correlated to the action of Microprocessor among biogenesis of microRNA. These cell lines can be useful tools for real-time analysis of Microprocessor action in vivo and identifying its novel modulators.

  11. Nonsense mutations in the human. beta. -globin gene affect mRNA metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Baserga, S.J.; Benz, E.J. Jr. )

    1988-04-01

    A number of premature translation termination mutations (nonsense mutations) have been described in the human {alpha}- and {beta}-globin genes. Studies on mRNA isolated from patients with {beta}{sup 0}-thalassemia have shown that for both the {beta}-17 and the {beta}-39 mutations less than normal levels of {beta}-globin mRNA accumulate in peripheral blood cells. (The codon at which the mutation occurs designates the name of the mutation; there are 146 codons in human {beta}-globin mRNA). In vitro studies using the cloned {beta}-39 gene have reproduced this effect in a heterologous transfection system and have suggested that the defect resides in intranuclear metabolism. The authors have asked if this phenomenon of decreased mRNA accumulation is a general property of nonsense mutations and if the effect depends on the location or the type of mutation. Toward this end, they have studied the effect of five nonsense mutations and two missense mutations on the expression of human {beta}-globin mRNA in a heterologous transfection system. In all cases studied, the presence of a translation termination codon correlates with a decrease in the steady-state level of mRNA. The data suggest that the metabolism of a mammalian mRNA is affected by the presence of a mutation that affects translation.

  12. Establishment of cells to monitor Microprocessor through fusion genes of microRNA and GFP

    SciTech Connect

    Tsutsui, Motomu; Hasegawa, Hitoki; Adachi, Koichi; Miyata, Maiko; Huang, Peng; Ishiguro, Naoki; Hamaguchi, Michinari; Iwamoto, Takashi

    2008-08-08

    Microprocessor, the complex of Drosha and DGCR8, promotes the processing of primary microRNA to precursor microRNA, which is a crucial step for microRNA maturation. So far, no convenient assay systems have been developed for observing this step in vivo. Here we report the establishment of highly sensitive cellular systems where we can visually monitor the function of Microprocessor. During a series of screening of transfectants with fusion genes of the EGFP cDNA and primary microRNA genes, we have obtained certain cell lines where introduction of siRNA against DGCR8 or Drosha strikingly augments GFP signals. In contrast, these cells have not responded to Dicer siRNA; thus they have a unique character that GFP signals should be negatively and specifically correlated to the action of Microprocessor among biogenesis of microRNA. These cell lines can be useful tools for real-time analysis of Microprocessor action in vivo and identifying its novel modulators.

  13. mRNA trans-splicing in gene therapy for genetic diseases.

    PubMed

    Berger, Adeline; Maire, Séverine; Gaillard, Marie-Claude; Sahel, José-Alain; Hantraye, Philippe; Bemelmans, Alexis-Pierre

    2016-07-01

    Spliceosome-mediated RNA trans-splicing, or SMaRT, is a promising strategy to design innovative gene therapy solutions for currently intractable genetic diseases. SMaRT relies on the correction of mutations at the post-transcriptional level by modifying the mRNA sequence. To achieve this, an exogenous RNA is introduced into the target cell, usually by means of gene transfer, to induce a splice event in trans between the exogenous RNA and the target endogenous pre-mRNA. This produces a chimeric mRNA composed partly of exons of the latter, and partly of exons of the former, encoding a sequence free of mutations. The principal challenge of SMaRT technology is to achieve a reaction as complete as possible, i.e., resulting in 100% repairing of the endogenous mRNA target. The proof of concept of SMaRT feasibility has already been established in several models of genetic diseases caused by recessive mutations. In such cases, in fact, the repair of only a portion of the mutant mRNA pool may be sufficient to obtain a significant therapeutic effect. However in the case of dominant mutations, the target cell must be freed from the majority of mutant mRNA copies, requiring a highly efficient trans-splicing reaction. This likely explains why only a few examples of SMaRT approaches targeting dominant mutations are reported in the literature. In this review, we explain in details the mechanism of trans-splicing, review the different strategies that are under evaluation to lead to efficient trans-splicing, and discuss the advantages and limitations of SMaRT. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:487-498. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1347 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27018401

  14. mRNA trans‐splicing in gene therapy for genetic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Berger, Adeline; Maire, Séverine; Gaillard, Marie‐Claude; Sahel, José‐Alain; Hantraye, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Spliceosome‐mediated RNA trans‐splicing, or SMaRT, is a promising strategy to design innovative gene therapy solutions for currently intractable genetic diseases. SMaRT relies on the correction of mutations at the post‐transcriptional level by modifying the mRNA sequence. To achieve this, an exogenous RNA is introduced into the target cell, usually by means of gene transfer, to induce a splice event in trans between the exogenous RNA and the target endogenous pre‐mRNA. This produces a chimeric mRNA composed partly of exons of the latter, and partly of exons of the former, encoding a sequence free of mutations. The principal challenge of SMaRT technology is to achieve a reaction as complete as possible, i.e., resulting in 100% repairing of the endogenous mRNA target. The proof of concept of SMaRT feasibility has already been established in several models of genetic diseases caused by recessive mutations. In such cases, in fact, the repair of only a portion of the mutant mRNA pool may be sufficient to obtain a significant therapeutic effect. However in the case of dominant mutations, the target cell must be freed from the majority of mutant mRNA copies, requiring a highly efficient trans‐splicing reaction. This likely explains why only a few examples of SMaRT approaches targeting dominant mutations are reported in the literature. In this review, we explain in details the mechanism of trans‐splicing, review the different strategies that are under evaluation to lead to efficient trans‐splicing, and discuss the advantages and limitations of SMaRT. WIREs RNA 2016, 7:487–498. doi: 10.1002/wrna.1347 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27018401

  15. Transient gene and microRNA expression profile changes of confluent human fibroblast cells in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Honglu; Story, Michael; Karouia, Fathi; Stodieck, Louis; Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao

    2016-07-01

    Microgravity, or an altered gravity environment from the Earth1g, has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies conducted in space or using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of these cells. Whether non-proliferating cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space has not been specifically addressed. In an experiment conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS), confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 days, respectively, for investigations of gene and miRNA expression profile changes in these cells. Results of the experiment showed that on Day 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly, as measured by the percentage of Ki-67 positive cells. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NFkB and other growth related pathways involving HGF and Vegf along with down regulation of the Let-7 miRNA family. On Day 14 when the cells were mostly non-proliferating, the gene and miRNA expression profiles between the flight and ground samples were indistinguishable. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the Day 3 samples with respect to Day 14 revealed that most of the changes observed on Day 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeletal changes via immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for αa-tubulin and fibronectin showed no difference between flown and ground samples. Taken together, our study suggests that in true non-dividing human fibroblast cells in culture, microgravity experienced in space has little effect on the gene and miRNA expression profiles.

  16. Taxonomic Resolutions Based on 18S rRNA Genes: A Case Study of Subclass Copepoda

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shu; Xiong, Jie; Yu, Yuhe

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1–9) within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1) 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%); and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2) nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9) of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%); 3) compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%); and 4) V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy. PMID:26107258

  17. Transient Gene and MicroRNA Expression Profile Changes of Confluent Human Fibroblast Cells in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Wang, Xiaoyu; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Story, Michael; Wu, Honglu

    2016-01-01

    Microgravity, or an altered gravity environment from the Earth1g, has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies conducted in space or using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of these cells. Whether non-proliferating cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space has not been specifically addressed. In an experiment conducted onboard the International Space Station (ISS), confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 days, respectively, for investigations of gene and miRNA expression profile changes in these cells. Results of the experiment showed that on Day 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly, as measured by the percentage of Ki-67 positive cells. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF(kappa)B and other growth related pathways involving HGF and Vegf along with down regulation of the Let-7 miRNA family. On Day 14 when the cells were mostly non-proliferating, the gene and miRNA expression profiles between the flight and ground samples were indistinguishable. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the Day 3 samples with respect to Day 14 revealed that most of the changes observed on Day 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeletal changes via immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for alpha-tubulin and fibronectin showed no difference between flown and ground samples. Taken together, our study suggests that in true non-dividing human fibroblast cells in culture, microgravity experienced in space has little effect on the gene and miRNA expression profiles.

  18. Taxonomic resolutions based on 18S rRNA genes: a case study of subclass copepoda.

    PubMed

    Wu, Shu; Xiong, Jie; Yu, Yuhe

    2015-01-01

    Biodiversity studies are commonly conducted using 18S rRNA genes. In this study, we compared the inter-species divergence of variable regions (V1-9) within the copepod 18S rRNA gene, and tested their taxonomic resolutions at different taxonomic levels. Our results indicate that the 18S rRNA gene is a good molecular marker for the study of copepod biodiversity, and our conclusions are as follows: 1) 18S rRNA genes are highly conserved intra-species (intra-species similarities are close to 100%); and could aid in species-level analyses, but with some limitations; 2) nearly-whole-length sequences and some partial regions (around V2, V4, and V9) of the 18S rRNA gene can be used to discriminate between samples at both the family and order levels (with a success rate of about 80%); 3) compared with other regions, V9 has a higher resolution at the genus level (with an identification success rate of about 80%); and 4) V7 is most divergent in length, and would be a good candidate marker for the phylogenetic study of Acartia species. This study also evaluated the correlation between similarity thresholds and the accuracy of using nuclear 18S rRNA genes for the classification of organisms in the subclass Copepoda. We suggest that sample identification accuracy should be considered when a molecular sequence divergence threshold is used for taxonomic identification, and that the lowest similarity threshold should be determined based on a pre-designated level of acceptable accuracy.

  19. RNA Editing of Androgen Receptor Gene Transcripts in Prostate Cancer Cells*S⃞

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Harryl D.; Jasavala, Rohini J.; Hinkson, Izumi; Fitzgerald, Latricia D.; Trimmer, James S.; Kung, Hsing-Jien; Wright, Michael E.

    2008-01-01

    Reactivation of the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway represents a critical step in the growth and survival of androgen-independent (AI) prostate cancer (CaP). In this study we show the DU145 and PC3 AI human CaP cell lines respond to androgens and require AR expression for optimal proliferation in vitro. Interestingly, AR gene transcripts in DU145 and PC3 cells harbored a large number of single base pair nucleotide transitions that resulted in missense mutations in selected AR codons. The most notable lesion detected in AR gene transcripts included the oncogenic codon 877T→A gain-of-function mutation. Surprisingly, AR gene transcript nucleotide transitions were not genome-encoded substitutions, but instead the mutations co-localized to putative A-to-I, U-to-C, C-to-U, and G-to-A RNA editing sites, suggesting the lesions were mediated through RNA editing mechanisms. Higher levels of mRNA encoding the A-to-I RNA editing enzymes ADAR1 and ADARB1 were observed in DU145 and PC3 cells relative to the androgen-responsive LNCaP and 22Rv1 human CaP cell lines, which correlated with higher levels of AR gene transcript A-to-I editing detected in DU145 and PC3 cells. Our results suggest that AR gene transcripts are targeted by different RNA editing enzymes in DU145 and PC3 cells. Thus RNA editing of AR gene transcripts may contribute to the etiology of hormone-refractory phenotypes in advanced stage AI CaP. PMID:18708348

  20. Ribosomal RNA gene diversity, effective population size, and evolutionary longevity in asexual glomeromycota.

    PubMed

    Vankuren, Nicholas W; den Bakker, Henk C; Morton, Joseph B; Pawlowska, Teresa E

    2013-01-01

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (phylum Glomeromycota) are among the oldest and most successful symbionts of land plants. With no evidence of sexual reproduction, their evolutionary success is inconsistent with the prediction that asexual taxa are vulnerable to extinction due to accumulation of deleterious mutations. To explore why Glomeromycota defy this prediction, we studied ribosomal RNA (rRNA) gene evolution in the Claroideoglomus lineage and estimated effective population size, N(e) , in C. etunicatum. We found that rRNA genes of these fungi exhibit unusual and complex patterns of molecular evolution. In C. etunicatum, these patterns can be collectively explained by an unexpectedly large N(e) combined with imperfect genome-wide and population-level rRNA gene repeat homogenization. The mutations accumulated in rRNA gene sequences indicate that natural selection is effective at purging deleterious mutations in the Claroideoglomus lineage, which is also consistent with the large N(e) of C. etunicatum. We propose that in the near absence of recombination, asexual reproduction involving massively multinucleate spores typical for Glomeromycota is responsible for the improved efficacy of selection relative to drift. We postulate that large effective population sizes contribute to the evolutionary longevity of Glomeromycota.

  1. An siRNA-based method for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Isidor, Marie S; Winther, Sally; Basse, Astrid L; Petersen, M Christine H; Cannon, Barbara; Nedergaard, Jan; Hansen, Jacob B

    2016-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue is a promising therapeutic target for opposing obesity, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance. The ability to modulate gene expression in mature brown adipocytes is important to understand brown adipocyte function and delineate novel regulatory mechanisms of non-shivering thermogenesis. The aim of this study was to optimize a lipofection-based small interfering RNA (siRNA) transfection protocol for efficient silencing of gene expression in mature brown adipocytes. We determined that a critical parameter was to deliver the siRNA to mature adipocytes by reverse transfection, i.e. transfection of non-adherent cells. Using this protocol, we effectively knocked down both high- and low-abundance transcripts in a model of mature brown adipocytes (WT-1) as well as in primary mature mouse brown adipocytes. A functional consequence of the knockdown was confirmed by an attenuated increase in uncoupled respiration (thermogenesis) in response to β-adrenergic stimulation of mature WT-1 brown adipocytes transfected with uncoupling protein 1 siRNA. Efficient gene silencing was also obtained in various mouse and human white adipocyte models (3T3-L1, primary mouse white adipocytes, hMADS) with the ability to undergo "browning." In summary, we report an easy and versatile reverse siRNA transfection protocol to achieve specific silencing of gene expression in various models of mature brown and browning-competent white adipocytes, including primary cells. PMID:27386153

  2. Construction and identification of multiple genes Co silence of plasmid shRNA.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jin; Wang, Liang; Dong, Ming-Min; Cao, Hua; Tian, Xiu-Fen

    2015-01-01

    Objective To construct and identify the eukaryotic vector expressing shRNA (Plasmid-1), which expressed the VEGF, C-myc, Survivin and hTERT gene at the same time. To detect its interference effects on the nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (CNE-2Z) compared with single gene plasmid VEFG (Plasmid-2). Methods According to the sequence of VEGF, C-myc, Survivin and hTERT gene, we designed 2 oligonucleotide sequences and synthesized a complementary DNA chain, then inserted it into the eukaryotic vector expressing pGenesil 1. The cell proliferation activity was detected by MTT method. The interference efficacy on human nasopharyngeal carcinoma cell line (CNE-2Z) in the level of mRNA and protein were detected by RT-PCR and Western-bolt. The inhibitory effect of plasmid on tumor in nude mice was also observed in vivo. Results The restriction enzyme digestion and sequencing technologies confirmed the construction of recombinant eukaryotic vector expressing was correct. The plasmid was transfected into CNE-2Z cells, green fluorescence can be seen clearly in the single gene and multi gene transfected cells under fluorescent microscope. MTT showed that the proliferation of cell was inhibited, the invasive ability was decreased in vitro, and the inhibition effects of single gene plasmid on the growth and proliferation of cells were lower than multi gene. Real-time-PCR and Western-bolt confirmed that the expression of target gene was decreased in the level of mRNA and protein, and the interference effect of multi gene was better than the single gene. The nude mice experiment showed that the interference effect of shRNA plasmid on the growth of tumor cell was better than single gene plasmid Conclusion We constructed a shRNA plasmid encoded four different genes successfully. After transfected with nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells, it can interfere the expression of VEGF, C-myc, Survivin and hTERT gene at the same time. And the interference effect was better than silence VEGF alone

  3. The anticodon of the maize chloroplast gene for tRNA Leu UAA is split by a large intron.

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, A; Gubbins, E J; Bogorad, L

    1982-01-01

    The maize chloroplast gene encoding tRNA Leu UAA has been sequenced. It contains a 458 base pair intron between the first and second bases of the anticodon. The tRNA is 88 nucleotides long (the 3'-terminal CCA sequence included which, however, is not encoded by the gene) and differs in only four nucleotides (modified nucleotides are not considered) from the corresponding isoacceptor from bean chloroplasts. The unusual position of the intron in this maize chloroplast tRNA gene suggests a splicing model different from that generally accepted for eukaryotic split tRNA genes. Images PMID:6285285

  4. Nucleolin Is Required for DNA Methylation State and the Expression of rRNA Gene Variants in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Pontvianne, Frédéric; Abou-Ellail, Mohamed; Douet, Julien; Comella, Pascale; Matia, Isabel; Chandrasekhara, Chinmayi; DeBures, Anne; Blevins, Todd; Cooke, Richard; Medina, Francisco J.; Tourmente, Sylvette; Pikaard, Craig S.; Sáez-Vásquez, Julio

    2010-01-01

    In eukaryotes, 45S rRNA genes are arranged in tandem arrays in copy numbers ranging from several hundred to several thousand in plants. Although it is clear that not all copies are transcribed under normal growth conditions, the molecular basis controlling the expression of specific sets of rRNA genes remains unclear. Here, we report four major rRNA gene variants in Arabidopsis thaliana. Interestingly, while transcription of one of these rRNA variants is induced, the others are either repressed or remain unaltered in A. thaliana plants with a disrupted nucleolin-like protein gene (Atnuc-L1). Remarkably, the most highly represented rRNA gene variant, which is inactive in WT plants, is reactivated in Atnuc-L1 mutants. We show that accumulated pre–rRNAs originate from RNA Pol I transcription and are processed accurately. Moreover, we show that disruption of the AtNUC-L1 gene induces loss of symmetrical DNA methylation without affecting histone epigenetic marks at rRNA genes. Collectively, these data reveal a novel mechanism for rRNA gene transcriptional regulation in which the nucleolin protein plays a major role in controlling active and repressed rRNA gene variants in Arabidopsis. PMID:21124873

  5. Knockdown of PU.1 mRNA and AS lncRNA regulates expression of immune-related genes in zebrafish Danio rerio.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ning; Pang, Weijun; Wang, Yu; Xiong, Yan; Xu, Ruxiang; Wu, Wenjing; Zhao, Cunzhen; Yang, Gongshe

    2014-06-01

    The transcription factor PU.1 plays a key role in the development of immune system. Recent evidence demonstrated bidirectional transcription and a sense/antisense transcriptional regulatory manner in PU.1 locus. However, the effect of PU.1 mRNA and its antisense long non-coding RNA (AS lncRNA) on adaptive immunity in vivo is still not clear. In this study, we first confirmed the expression of PU.1 AS lncRNA by strand-specific RT-PCR in zebrafish. Additionally, we found that GFP was detected in zebrafish kidney using tissue smears after zebrafish was intraperitoneally injected with pLentiHI-PU.1 shRNA or pLentiHI-PU.1 AS shRNA for 2 days. Moreover, on day 0, 2 and 4, the levels of PU.1 and immune-related genes including TCRAC, Rag2, AID, IgLC-1, mIg, and sIg mRNAs were detected using real-time qPCR. The results showed that the levels of PU.1 and above 6 immune-related gene mRNAs were significantly downregulated on day 2 (P<0.05) and day 4 (P<0.01) by the treatment with the pLentiHI-PU.1 shRNA, whereas these genes were markedly upregulated by the treatment with the pLentiHI-PU.1 AS shRNA. Based on our results, we suggested that the effects of PU.1 transcripts including mRNA and AS lncRNA on immune-related gene expression in zebrafish were opposite. To our knowledge, this was the first report that a novel functional AS lncRNA in adaptive immunity was transcribed from the zebrafish PU.1 locus. Our findings provided novel insight into further exploration on modulating adaptive immunity by regulating PU.1 mRNA and AS lncRNA.

  6. Computational and in vitro Investigation of miRNA-Gene Regulations in Retinoblastoma Pathogenesis: miRNA Mimics Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Venkatesan, Nalini; Deepa, Perinkulam Ravi; Khetan, Vikas; Krishnakumar, Subramanian

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE Retinoblastoma (RB), a primary pediatric intraocular tumor, arises from primitive retinal layers. Several novel molecular strategies are being developed for the clinical management of RB. miRNAs are known to regulate cancer-relevant biological processes. Here, the role of selected miRNAs, namely, miR-532-5p and miR-486-3p, has been analyzed for potential therapeutic targeting in RB. METHODS A comprehensive bioinformatic analysis was performed to predict the posttranscriptional regulators (miRNAs) of the select panel of genes [Group 1: oncogenes (HMGA2, MYCN, SYK, FASN); Group 2: cancer stem cell markers (TACSTD, ABCG2, CD133, CD44, CD24) and Group 3: cell cycle regulatory proteins (p53, MDM2)] using Microcosm, DIANALAB, miRBase v 18, and REFSEQ database, and RNA hybrid. The expressions of five miRNAs, namely, miR-146b-5p, miR-532-5p, miR-142-5p, miR-328, and miR-486-3p, were analyzed by qRT–PCR on primary RB tumor samples (n = 30; including 17 invasive RB tumors and 13 noninvasive RB tumors). Detailed complementary alignment between 5’ seed sequence of differentially expressed miRNAs and the sequence of target genes was determined. Based on minimum energy level and piCTAR scores, the gene targets were selected. Functional roles of these miRNA clusters were studied by using mimics in cultured RB (Y79, Weri Rb-1) cells in vitro. The gene targets (SYK and FASN) of the studied miRNAs were confirmed by qRT-PCR and western blot analysis. Cell proliferation and apoptotic studies were performed. RESULTS Nearly 1948 miRNAs were identified in the in silico analysis, From this list, only 9 upregulated miRNAs (miR-146b-5p, miR-305, miR-663b, miR-299, miR-532-5p, miR-892b, miR-501, miR-142-5p, and miR-513b) and 10 downregulated miRNAs (miR-1254, miR-328, miR-133a, miR-1287, miR-1299, miR-375, miR-486-3p, miR-720, miR-98, and miR-122*) were found to be common with the RB serum miRNA profile. Downregulation of five miRNAs (miR-146b-5p, miR-532-5p, miR-142-5p, miR-328

  7. A tandem array of 5S ribosomal RNA genes in Pythium irregulare.

    PubMed

    Belkhiri, A; Intengan, H; Klassen, G R

    1997-02-28

    The 5S ribosomal RNA genes of the oomycete Pythium irregulare exist in tandem arrays unlinked to the rDNA repeat unit. A clone with a 9.2-kb insert containing an array of 5S genes was identified in a lambda genomic library and was characterized by restriction mapping and partial sequencing. The array consisted of 9 apparently identical 5S genes and their spacers in tandem, followed by a diverged 5S-like sequence that is likely to be a pseudogene. This gene arrangement, although almost universal in plants and animals, is rare in fungi and protists.

  8. Insect small nuclear RNA gene promoters evolve rapidly yet retain conserved features involved in determining promoter activity and RNA polymerase specificity.

    PubMed

    Hernandez, Genaro; Valafar, Faramarz; Stumph, William E

    2007-01-01

    In animals, most small nuclear RNAs (snRNAs) are synthesized by RNA polymerase II (Pol II), but U6 snRNA is synthesized by RNA polymerase III (Pol III). In Drosophila melanogaster, the promoters for the Pol II-transcribed snRNA genes consist of approximately 21 bp PSEA and approximately 8 bp PSEB. U6 genes utilize a PSEA but have a TATA box instead of the PSEB. The PSEAs of the two classes of genes bind the same protein complex, DmSNAPc. However, the PSEAs that recruit Pol II and Pol III differ in sequence at a few nucleotide positions that play an important role in determining RNA polymerase specificity. We have now performed a bioinformatic analysis to examine the conservation and divergence of the snRNA gene promoter elements in other species of insects. The 5' half of the PSEA is well-conserved, but the 3' half is divergent. Moreover, within each species positions exist where the PSEAs of the Pol III-transcribed genes differ from those of the Pol II-transcribed genes. Interestingly, the specific positions vary among species. Nevertheless, we speculate that these nucleotide differences within the 3' half of the PSEA act similarly to induce conformational alterations in DNA-bound SNAPc that result in RNA polymerase specificity.

  9. Apoptosis and the target genes of microRNA-21

    PubMed Central

    Buscaglia, Lindsey E. Becker; Li, Yong

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA-21 (miR-21) is frequently up-regulated in cancer and the majority of its reported targets are tumor suppressors. Through functional suppression, miR-21 is implicated in practically every walk of oncogenic life: the promotion of cell proliferation, invasion and metastasis, genome instability and mutation, inflammation, replicative immortalization, abnormal metabolism, angiogenesis, and evading apoptosis, immune destruction, and growth suppressors. In particular, miR-21 is strongly involved in apoptosis. In this article, we reviewed the experimentally validated targets of miR-21 and found that two thirds are linked to intrinsic and/or extrinsic pathways of cellular apoptosis. This suggests that miR-21 is an Oncogene which plays a key role in resisting programmed cell death in cancer cells and that targeting apoptosis is a viable therapeutic option against cancers expressing miR-21. PMID:21627859

  10. [Construction and tobacco transformation of COR and BBE genes hairpin RNA vector of Papaver somniferum].

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan-Mei; Zhang, Jin-Wen; Wei, Yu-Jie; Wei, Gui-Min; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Gao, Yi-Feng

    2013-07-01

    The gene expressions of codeinone reductase (COR) and berberine bridge enzyme (BBE) in Papaver somniferum were blocked by RNA hairpin of RNA interference (RNAi). The complete sequences of COR and BBE genes were cloned by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the results of homology comparison revealed that the cloned COR and BBE genes had high homology with the other gene family members reported in the GenBank. The target sequences of COR and BBE genes were screened in accordance with the design principle of RNAi, a 643 bp fusion gene was obtained by the method of overlapping PCR, then plant expression vector ihpRNA was constructed based on intermediate vector pHANNIBAL and plant expression vector pCEPSPS. With that 78 transgenic plants were obtained through Agrobacterium-mediated and 17 positive plants were screened by PCR, that could initially indicate that the target fragments of COR and BBE gene had been integrated into tobacco genome.

  11. MicroRNA-10 modulates Hox genes expression during Nile tilapia embryonic development.

    PubMed

    Giusti, Juliana; Pinhal, Danillo; Moxon, Simon; Campos, Camila Lovaglio; Münsterberg, Andrea; Martins, Cesar

    2016-05-01

    Hox gene clusters encode a family of transcription factors that govern anterior-posterior axis patterning during embryogenesis in all bilaterian animals. The time and place of Hox gene expression are largely determined by the relative position of each gene within its cluster. Furthermore, Hox genes were shown to have their expression fine-tuned by regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs). However, the mechanisms of miRNA-mediated regulation of these transcription factors during fish early development remain largely unknown. Here we have profiled three highly expressed miR-10 family members of Nile tilapia at early embryonic development, determined their genomic organization as well as performed functional experiments for validation of target genes. Quantitative analysis during developmental stages showed miR-10 family expression negatively correlates with the expression of HoxA3a, HoxB3a and HoxD10a genes, as expected for bona fide miRNA-mRNA interactions. Moreover, luciferase assays demonstrated that HoxB3a and HoxD10a are targeted by miR-10b-5p. Overall, our data indicate that the miR-10 family directly regulates members of the Hox gene family during Nile tilapia embryogenesis. PMID:26980108

  12. RNA-mediated gene silencing in the cereal fungal pathogen Cochliobolus sativus.

    PubMed

    Leng, Yueqiang; Wu, Chengxiang; Liu, Zhaohui; Friesen, Timothy L; Rasmussen, Jack B; Zhong, Shaobin

    2011-04-01

    A high-throughput RNA-mediated gene silencing system was developed for Cochliobolus sativus (anamorph: Bipolaris sorokiniana), the causal agent of spot blotch, common root rot and black point in barley and wheat. The green fluorescent protein gene (GFP) and the proteinaceous host-selective toxin gene (ToxA) were first introduced into C. sativus via the polyethylene glycol (PEG)-mediated transformation method. Transformants with a high level of expression of GFP or ToxA were generated. A silencing vector (pSGate1) based on the Gateway cloning system was developed and used to construct RNA interference (RNAi) vectors. Silencing of GFP and ToxA in the transformants was demonstrated by transformation with the RNAi construct expressing hairpin RNA (hpRNA) of the target gene. The polyketide synthase gene (CsPKS1), involved in melanin biosynthesis pathways in C. sativus, was also targeted by transformation with the RNAi vector (pSGate1-CsPKS1) encoding hpRNA of the CsPKS1 gene. The transformants with pSGate1-CsPKS1 exhibited an albino phenotype or reduced melanization, suggesting effective silencing of the endogenous CsPKS1 in C. sativus. Sectors exhibiting the wild-type phenotype of the fungus appeared in some of the CsPKS1-silenced transformants after subcultures as a result of inactivation or deletions of the RNAi transgene. The gene silencing system established provides a useful tool for functional genomics studies in C. sativus and other filamentous fungi.

  13. A rapid and scalable system for studying gene function in mice using conditional RNA interference

    PubMed Central

    Premsrirut, Prem K.; Dow, Lukas E.; Kim, Sang Yong; Camiolo, Matthew; Malone, Colin D.; Miething, Cornelius; Scuoppo, Claudio; Zuber, Johannes; Dickins, Ross A.; Kogan, Scott C.; Shroyer, Kenneth R.; Sordella, Raffaella; Hannon, Gregory J.; Lowe, Scott W.

    2011-01-01

    Summary RNA interference is a powerful tool for studying gene function, however, the reproducible generation of RNAi transgenic mice remains a significant limitation. By combining optimized fluorescence-coupled miR30-based shRNAs with high efficiency ES cell targeting, we developed a fast, scalable pipeline for the production of shRNA transgenic mice. Using this system, we generated eight tet-regulated shRNA transgenic lines targeting Firefly and Renilla luciferases, Oct4 and tumor suppressors p53, p16INK4a, p19ARF and APC and demonstrate potent gene silencing and GFP-tracked knockdown in a broad range of tissues in vivo. Further, using an shRNA targeting APC, we illustrate how this approach can identify predicted phenotypes and also unknown functions for a well-studied gene. In addition, through regulated gene silencing we validate APC/Wnt and p19ARF as potential therapeutic targets in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma and lung adenocarcinoma, respectively. This system provides a cost-effective and scalable platform for the production of RNAi transgenic mice targeting any mammalian gene. PMID:21458673

  14. MicroRNA in Control of Gene Expression: An Overview of Nuclear Functions

    PubMed Central

    Catalanotto, Caterina; Cogoni, Carlo; Zardo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    The finding that small non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are able to control gene expression in a sequence specific manner has had a massive impact on biology. Recent improvements in high throughput sequencing and computational prediction methods have allowed the discovery and classification of several types of ncRNAs. Based on their precursor structures, biogenesis pathways and modes of action, ncRNAs are classified as small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), microRNAs (miRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), endogenous small interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs or esiRNAs), promoter associate RNAs (pRNAs), small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) and sno-derived RNAs. Among these, miRNAs appear as important cytoplasmic regulators of gene expression. miRNAs act as post-transcriptional regulators of their messenger RNA (mRNA) targets via mRNA degradation and/or translational repression. However, it is becoming evident that miRNAs also have specific nuclear functions. Among these, the most studied and debated activity is the miRNA-guided transcriptional control of gene expression. Although available data detail quite precisely the effectors of this activity, the mechanisms by which miRNAs identify their gene targets to control transcription are still a matter of debate. Here, we focus on nuclear functions of miRNAs and on alternative mechanisms of target recognition, at the promoter lavel, by miRNAs in carrying out transcriptional gene silencing. PMID:27754357

  15. Oxidative Stress Alters miRNA and Gene Expression Profiles in Villous First Trimester Trophoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Courtney E.; Tolba, Mai F.; Rondelli, Catherine M.; Xu, Meixiang; Abdel-Rahman, Sherif Z.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and miRNA changes in placenta as a potential mechanism involved in preeclampsia (PE) is not fully elucidated. We investigated the impact of oxidative stress on miRNAs and mRNA expression profiles of genes associated with PE in villous 3A first trimester trophoblast cells exposed to H2O2 at 12 different concentrations (0-1 mM) for 0.5, 4, 24, and 48 h. Cytotoxicity, determined using the SRB assay, was used to calculate the IC50 of H2O2. RNA was extracted after 4 h exposure to H2O2 for miRNA and gene expression profiling. H2O2 exerted a concentration- and time-dependent cytotoxicity on 3A trophoblast cells. Short-term exposure of 3A cells to low concentration of H2O2 (5% of IC50) significantly altered miRNA profile as evidenced by significant changes in 195 out of 595 evaluable miRNAs. Tool for annotations of microRNAs (TAM) analysis indicated that these altered miRNAs fall into 43 clusters and 34 families, with 41 functions identified. Exposure to H2O2 altered mRNA expression of 22 out of 84 key genes involved in dysregulation of placental development. In conclusion, short-term exposure of villous first trimester trophoblasts to low concentrations of H2O2 significantly alters miRNA profile and expression of genes implicated in placental development. PMID:26339600

  16. Microprocessor dynamics and interactions at endogenous imprinted C19MC microRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Bellemer, Clément; Bortolin-Cavaillé, Marie-Line; Schmidt, Ute; Jensen, Stig Mølgaard Rask; Kjems, Jørgen; Bertrand, Edouard; Cavaillé, Jérôme

    2012-06-01

    Nuclear primary microRNA (pri-miRNA) processing catalyzed by the DGCR8-Drosha (Microprocessor) complex is highly regulated. Little is known, however, about how microRNA biogenesis is spatially organized within the mammalian nucleus. Here, we image for the first time, in living cells and at the level of a single microRNA cluster, the intranuclear distribution of untagged, endogenously-expressed pri-miRNAs generated at the human imprinted chromosome 19 microRNA cluster (C19MC), from the environment of transcription sites to single molecules of fully released DGCR8-bound pri-miRNAs dispersed throughout the nucleoplasm. We report that a large fraction of Microprocessor concentrates onto unspliced C19MC pri-miRNA deposited in close proximity to their genes. Our live-cell imaging studies provide direct visual evidence that DGCR8 and Drosha are targeted post-transcriptionally to C19MC pri-miRNAs as a preformed complex but dissociate separately. These dynamics support the view that, upon pri-miRNA loading and most probably concomitantly with Drosha-mediated cleavages, Microprocessor undergoes conformational changes that trigger the release of Drosha while DGCR8 remains stably bound to pri-miRNA.

  17. Probing the Limits to MicroRNA-Mediated Control of Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Martirosyan, Araks; Figliuzzi, Matteo; Marinari, Enzo; De Martino, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    According to the 'ceRNA hypothesis', microRNAs (miRNAs) may act as mediators of an effective positive interaction between long coding or non-coding RNA molecules, carrying significant potential implications for a variety of biological processes. Here, inspired by recent work providing a quantitative description of small regulatory elements as information-conveying channels, we characterize the effectiveness of miRNA-mediated regulation in terms of the optimal information flow achievable between modulator (transcription factors) and target nodes (long RNAs). Our findings show that, while a sufficiently large degree of target derepression is needed to activate miRNA-mediated transmission, (a) in case of differential mechanisms of complex processing and/or transcriptional capabilities, regulation by a post-transcriptional miRNA-channel can outperform that achieved through direct transcriptional control; moreover, (b) in the presence of large populations of weakly interacting miRNA molecules the extra noise coming from titration disappears, allowing the miRNA-channel to process information as effectively as the direct channel. These observations establish the limits of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional cross-talk and suggest that, besides providing a degree of noise buffering, this type of control may be effectively employed in cells both as a failsafe mechanism and as a preferential fine tuner of gene expression, pointing to the specific situations in which each of these functionalities is maximized. PMID:26812364

  18. Probing the Limits to MicroRNA-Mediated Control of Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Martirosyan, Araks; Figliuzzi, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    According to the ‘ceRNA hypothesis’, microRNAs (miRNAs) may act as mediators of an effective positive interaction between long coding or non-coding RNA molecules, carrying significant potential implications for a variety of biological processes. Here, inspired by recent work providing a quantitative description of small regulatory elements as information-conveying channels, we characterize the effectiveness of miRNA-mediated regulation in terms of the optimal information flow achievable between modulator (transcription factors) and target nodes (long RNAs). Our findings show that, while a sufficiently large degree of target derepression is needed to activate miRNA-mediated transmission, (a) in case of differential mechanisms of complex processing and/or transcriptional capabilities, regulation by a post-transcriptional miRNA-channel can outperform that achieved through direct transcriptional control; moreover, (b) in the presence of large populations of weakly interacting miRNA molecules the extra noise coming from titration disappears, allowing the miRNA-channel to process information as effectively as the direct channel. These observations establish the limits of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional cross-talk and suggest that, besides providing a degree of noise buffering, this type of control may be effectively employed in cells both as a failsafe mechanism and as a preferential fine tuner of gene expression, pointing to the specific situations in which each of these functionalities is maximized. PMID:26812364

  19. High-resolution gene expression profiling for simultaneous kinetic parameter analysis of RNA synthesis and decay.

    PubMed

    Dölken, Lars; Ruzsics, Zsolt; Rädle, Bernd; Friedel, Caroline C; Zimmer, Ralf; Mages, Jörg; Hoffmann, Reinhard; Dickinson, Paul; Forster, Thorsten; Ghazal, Peter; Koszinowski, Ulrich H

    2008-09-01

    RNA levels in a cell are determined by the relative rates of RNA synthesis and decay. State-of-the-art transcriptional analyses only employ total cellular RNA. Therefore, changes in RNA levels cannot be attributed to RNA synthesis or decay, and temporal resolution is poor. Recently, it was reported that newly transcribed RNA can be biosynthetically labeled for 1-2 h using thiolated nucleosides, purified from total cellular RNA and subjected to microarray analysis. However, in order to study signaling events at molecular level, analysis of changes occurring within minutes is required. We developed an improved approach to separate total cellular RNA into newly transcribed and preexisting RNA following 10-15 min of metabolic labeling. Employing new computational tools for array normalization and half-life determination we simultaneously study short-term RNA synthesis and decay as well as their impact on cellular transcript levels. As an example we studied the response of fibroblasts to type I and II interferons (IFN). Analysis of RNA transcribed within 15-30 min at different times during the first three hours of interferon-receptor activation resulted in a >10-fold increase in microarray sensitivity and provided a comprehensive profile of the kinetics of IFN-mediated changes in gene expression. We identify a previously undisclosed highly connected network of short-lived transcripts selectively down-regulated by IFNgamma in between 30 and 60 min after IFN treatment showing strong associations with cell cycle and apoptosis, indicating novel mechanisms by which IFNgamma affects these pathways.

  20. Racial differences in microRNA and gene expression in hypertensive women

    PubMed Central

    Dluzen, Douglas F.; Noren Hooten, Nicole; Zhang, Yongqing; Kim, Yoonseo; Glover, Frank E.; Tajuddin, Salman M.; Jacob, Kimberly D.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Evans, Michele K.

    2016-01-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension is an important cause of cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. African Americans are disproportionately affected by hypertension, in fact the incidence, prevalence, and severity of hypertension is highest among African American (AA) women. Previous data suggests that differential gene expression influences individual susceptibility to selected diseases and we hypothesized that this phenomena may affect health disparities in hypertension. Transcriptional profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from AA or white, normotensive or hypertensive females identified thousands of mRNAs differentially-expressed by race and/or hypertension. Predominant gene expression differences were observed in AA hypertensive females compared to AA normotensives or white hypertensives. Since microRNAs play important roles in regulating gene expression, we profiled global microRNA expression and observed differentially-expressed microRNAs by race and/or hypertension. We identified novel mRNA-microRNA pairs potentially involved in hypertension-related pathways and differently-expressed, including MCL1/miR-20a-5p, APOL3/miR-4763-5p, PLD1/miR-4717-3p, and PLD1/miR-4709-3p. We validated gene expression levels via RT-qPCR and microRNA target validation was performed in primary endothelial cells. Altogether, we identified significant gene expression differences between AA and white female hypertensives and pinpointed novel mRNA-microRNA pairs differentially-expressed by hypertension and race. These differences may contribute to the known disparities in hypertension and may be potential targets for intervention. PMID:27779208

  1. Designing siRNA that distinguish between genes that differ by a single nucleotide.

    PubMed

    Schwarz, Dianne S; Ding, Hongliu; Kennington, Lori; Moore, Jessica T; Schelter, Janell; Burchard, Julja; Linsley, Peter S; Aronin, Neil; Xu, Zuoshang; Zamore, Phillip D

    2006-09-01

    Small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), the guides that direct RNA interference (RNAi), provide a powerful tool to reduce the expression of a single gene in human cells. Ideally, dominant, gain-of-function human diseases could be treated using siRNAs that specifically silence the mutant disease allele, while leaving expression of the wild-type allele unperturbed. Previous reports suggest that siRNAs can be designed with single nucleotide specificity, but no rational basis for the design of siRNAs with single nucleotide discrimination has been proposed. We systematically identified siRNAs that discriminate between the wild-type and mutant alleles of two disease genes: the human Cu, Zn superoxide dismutase (SOD1) gene, which contributes to the progression of hereditary amyotrophic lateral sclerosis through the gain of a toxic property, and the huntingtin (HTT) gene, which causes Huntington disease when its CAG-repeat region expands beyond approximately 35 repeats. Using cell-free RNAi reactions in Drosophila embryo lysate and reporter assays and microarray analysis of off-target effects in cultured human cells, we identified positions within an siRNA that are most sensitive to mismatches. We also show that purine:purine mismatches imbue an siRNA with greater discriminatory power than other types of base mismatches. siRNAs in which either a G:U wobble or a mismatch is located in the "seed" sequence, the specialized siRNA guide region responsible for target binding, displayed lower levels of selectivity than those in which the mismatch was located 3' to the seed; this region of an siRNA is critical for target cleavage but not siRNA binding. Our data suggest that siRNAs can be designed to discriminate between the wild-type and mutant alleles of many genes that differ by just a single nucleotide.

  2. Low-level lasers and mRNA levels of reference genes used in Escherichia coli

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teixeira, A. F.; Machado, Y. L. R. C.; Fonseca, A. S.; Mencalha, A. L.

    2016-11-01

    Low-level lasers are widely used for the treatment of diseases and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is widely used to evaluate mRNA levels and output data from a target gene are commonly relative to a reference mRNA that cannot vary according to treatment. In this study, the level of reference genes from Escherichia coli exposed to red or infrared lasers at different fluences was evaluated. E. coli AB1157 cultures were exposed to red (660 nm) and infrared (808 nm) lasers, incubated (20 min, 37 °C), the total RNA was extracted, and cDNA synthesis was performed to evaluate mRNA levels from arcA, gyrA and rpoA genes by RT-qPCR. Melting curves and agarose gel electrophoresis were carried out to evaluate specific amplification. Data were analyzed by geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. The melting curve and agarose gel electrophoresis showed specific amplification. Although mRNA levels from arcA, gyrA or rpoA genes presented no significant variations trough a traditional statistical analysis, Excel-based tools revealed that these reference genes are not suitable for E. coli cultures exposed to lasers. Our data showed that exposure to low-level red and infrared lasers at different fluences alter the mRNA levels from arcA, gyrA and rpoA in E. coli cells.

  3. Clusterin is a Gene Specific Target of MicroRNA-21 in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Mydlarz, Wojciech; Uemura, Mamoru; Ahn, Sun; Hennessey, Patrick; Chang, Steven; Demokan, Semra; Sun, Wenyue; Shao, Chunbo; Bishop, Justin; Krosting, Julie; Mambo, Elizabeth; Westra, William; Ha, Patrick; Sidransky, David; Califano, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: MicroRNA-21 (miRNA-21) has proto-oncogenic properties, though no miRNA-21 specific targets have been found in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Further study of miRNA-21 and its specific targets is essential to understanding HNSCC biology. Experimental Design: miRNA expression profiles of 10 HNSCC and 10 normal mucosa samples were investigated using a custom miRNA microarray. 13 HNSCC and 5 normal mucosa primary tissue specimens underwent mRNA expression microarray analysis. To identify miRNA-21 downstream targets, oral keratinocyte cells were subjected to microarray analysis after miRNA-21 transient transfection. miRNA and mRNA expression were validated by RT-qPCR in a separate cohort of 16 HNSCC and 15 normal mucosal samples. Microarray and bioinformatics analyses were integrated to identify potential gene targets. In vitro assays looked at the function and interaction of miRNA-21 and its specific gene targets. Results: miRNA-21 was upregulated in HNSCC and stimulated cell growth. Integrated analyses identified Clusterin (CLU) as a potential miRNA-21 gene target. CLU was downregulated after forced expression of miRNA-21 in normal and HNSCC cell lines. The activity of a luciferase construct containing the 3’UTR of CLU was repressed by the ectopic expression of miRNA-21. CLU was also downregulated in primary HNSCC and correlated with miRNA-21 over-expression. CLU variant 1 (CLU-1) was the predominant splice variant in HNSCC, and showed growth suppression function that was reversed by miRNA-21 over-expression. Conclusions: CLU is a specific, functional target of oncogenic miRNA-21 in HNSCC. CLU-1 isoform is the predominant growth suppressive variant targeted by miRNA-21. PMID:24327270

  4. The emerging role of RNA in the regulation of gene transcription in human cells

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Kevin V.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that particular species of non-coding RNAs can modulate gene transcription in human cells. While such observations were in the past relegated to imprinted genes, it is now becoming apparent that several different genes in differentiated cells may be under some form of RNA based regulatory control. Studies carried out to date have begun to discern the mechanism of action whereby non-coding RNAs modulate gene transcription by the targeted recruitment of epigenetic silencing complexes to homology containing loci in the genome. The results of these studies will be considered in detail as well as the implications that a vast array of non-coding RNA based regulatory networks may be operative in human cells. PMID:21333746

  5. Acetylation of RNA Polymerase II Regulates Growth-Factor-Induced Gene Transcription in Mammalian Cells

    PubMed Central

    Schröder, Sebastian; Herker, Eva; Itzen, Friederike; He, Daniel; Thomas, Sean; Gilchrist, Daniel A.; Kaehlcke, Katrin; Cho, Sungyoo; Pollard, Katherine S.; Capra, John A.; Schnölzer, Martina; Cole, Philip A.; Geyer, Matthias; Bruneau, Benoit G.; Adelman, Karen; Ott, Melanie

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Lysine acetylation regulates transcription by targeting histones and nonhistone proteins. Here we report that the central regulator of transcription, RNA polymerase II, is subject to acetylation in mammalian cells. Acetylation occurs at eight lysines within the C-terminal domain (CTD) of the largest polymerase subunit and is mediated by p300/KAT3B. CTD acetylation is specifically enriched downstream of the transcription start sites of polymerase-occupied genes genome-wide, indicating a role in early stages of transcription initiation or elongation. Mutation of lysines or p300 inhibitor treatment causes the loss of epidermal growth-factor-induced expression of c-Fos and Egr2, immediate-early genes with promoter-proximally paused polymerases, but does not affect expression or polymerase occupancy at housekeeping genes. Our studies identify acetylation as a new modification of the mammalian RNA polymerase II required for the induction of growth factor response genes. PMID:24207025

  6. Transient gene and microRNA expression profile changes of confluent human fibroblast cells in spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Wang, Xiaoyu; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Story, Michael; Wu, Honglu

    2016-06-01

    Microgravity, or an altered gravity environment different from the 1 g of the Earth, has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies that have been conducted in space or by using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of these cells. It has not been specifically addressed whether nonproliferating cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space. In an experiment conducted onboard the International Space Station, confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 d, respectively, to investigate changes in gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in these cells. Results of the experiment showed that on d 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly, as measured by the percentage of Ki-67(+) cells. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF-κB and other growth-related pathways that involve hepatocyte growth factor and VEGF as well as the down-regulation of the Let-7 miRNA family. On d 14, when the cells were mostly nonproliferating, the gene and miRNA expression profile of the flight sample was indistinguishable from that of the ground sample. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the d 3 samples, with respect to d 14, revealed that most of the changes observed on d 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeletal changes via immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for α-tubulin and fibronectin showed no difference between the flown and ground samples. Taken together, our study suggests that in true nondividing human fibroblast cells in culture, microgravity experienced in space has little effect on gene and miRNA expression profiles.-Zhang, Y., Lu, T., Wong, M., Wang, X., Stodieck, L., Karouia, F., Story, M., Wu, H. Transient gene and microRNA expression profile changes of

  7. Transient gene and microRNA expression profile changes of confluent human fibroblast cells in spaceflight.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Wang, Xiaoyu; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Story, Michael; Wu, Honglu

    2016-06-01

    Microgravity, or an altered gravity environment different from the 1 g of the Earth, has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies that have been conducted in space or by using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of these cells. It has not been specifically addressed whether nonproliferating cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space. In an experiment conducted onboard the International Space Station, confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 d, respectively, to investigate changes in gene and microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles in these cells. Results of the experiment showed that on d 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly, as measured by the percentage of Ki-67(+) cells. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF-κB and other growth-related pathways that involve hepatocyte growth factor and VEGF as well as the down-regulation of the Let-7 miRNA family. On d 14, when the cells were mostly nonproliferating, the gene and miRNA expression profile of the flight sample was indistinguishable from that of the ground sample. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the d 3 samples, with respect to d 14, revealed that most of the changes observed on d 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeletal changes via immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for α-tubulin and fibronectin showed no difference between the flown and ground samples. Taken together, our study suggests that in true nondividing human fibroblast cells in culture, microgravity experienced in space has little effect on gene and miRNA expression profiles.-Zhang, Y., Lu, T., Wong, M., Wang, X., Stodieck, L., Karouia, F., Story, M., Wu, H. Transient gene and microRNA expression profile changes of

  8. GtRNAdb 2.0: an expanded database of transfer RNA genes identified in complete and draft genomes.

    PubMed

    Chan, Patricia P; Lowe, Todd M

    2016-01-01

    Transfer RNAs represent the largest, most ubiquitous class of non-protein coding RNA genes found in all living organisms. The tRNAscan-SE search tool has become the de facto standard for annotating tRNA genes in genomes, and the Genomic tRNA Database (GtRNAdb) was created as a portal for interactive exploration of these gene predictions. Since its published description in 2009, the GtRNAdb has steadily grown in content, and remains the most commonly cited web-based source of tRNA gene information. In this update, we describe not only a major increase in the number of tRNA predictions (>367000) and genomes analyzed (>4370), but more importantly, the integration of new analytic and functional data to improve the quality and biological context of tRNA gene predictions. New information drawn from other sources includes tRNA modification data, epigenetic data, single nucleotide polymorphisms, gene expression and evolutionary conservation. A richer set of analytic data is also presented, including better tRNA functional prediction, non-canonical features, predicted structural impacts from sequence variants and minimum free energy structural predictions. Views of tRNA genes in genomic context are provided via direct links to the UCSC genome browsers. The database can be searched by sequence or gene features, and is available at http://gtrnadb.ucsc.edu/.

  9. Disruption of amylase genes by RNA interference affects reproduction in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    PubMed

    Huvet, Arnaud; Béguel, Jean-Philippe; Cavaleiro, Nathalia Pereira; Thomas, Yoann; Quillien, Virgile; Boudry, Pierre; Alunno-Bruscia, Marianne; Fabioux, Caroline

    2015-06-01

    Feeding strategies and digestive capacities can have important implications for variation in energetic pathways associated with ecological and economically important traits, such as growth or reproduction in bivalve species. Here, we investigated the role of amylase in the digestive processes of Crassostrea gigas, using in vivo RNA interference. This approach also allowed us to investigate the relationship between energy intake by feeding and gametogenesis in oysters. Double-stranded (ds)RNA designed to target the two α-amylase genes A and B was injected in vivo into the visceral mass of oysters at two doses. These treatments caused significant reductions in mean mRNA levels of the amylase genes: -50.7% and -59% mRNA A, and -71.9% and -70.6% mRNA B in 15 and 75 µg dsRNA-injected oysters, respectively, relative to controls. Interestingly, reproductive knock-down phenotypes were observed for both sexes at 48 days post-injection, with a significant reduction of the gonad area (-22.5% relative to controls) and germ cell under-proliferation revealed by histology. In response to the higher dose of dsRNA, we also observed reductions in amylase activity (-53%) and absorption efficiency (-5%). Based on these data, dynamic energy budget modeling showed that the limitation of energy intake by feeding that was induced by injection of amylase dsRNA was insufficient to affect gonadic development at the level observed in the present study. This finding suggests that other driving mechanisms, such as endogenous hormonal modulation, might significantly change energy allocation to reproduction, and increase the maintenance rate in oysters in response to dsRNA injection.

  10. Analysis of 23S rRNA genes in metagenomes - a case study from the Global Ocean Sampling Expedition.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Pelin; Kottmann, Renzo; Pruesse, Elmar; Quast, Christian; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2011-09-01

    As an evolutionary marker, 23S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) offers more diagnostic sequence stretches and greater sequence variation than 16S rRNA. However, 23S rRNA is still not as widely used. Based on 80 metagenome samples from the Global Ocean Sampling (GOS) Expedition, the usefulness and taxonomic resolution of 23S rRNA were compared to those of 16S rRNA. Since 23S rRNA is approximately twice as large as 16S rRNA, twice as many 23S rRNA gene fragments were retrieved from the GOS reads than 16S rRNA gene fragments, with 23S rRNA gene fragments being generally about 100bp longer. Datasets for 16S and 23S rRNA sequences revealed similar relative abundances for major marine bacterial and archaeal taxa. However, 16S rRNA sequences had a better taxonomic resolution due to their significantly larger reference database. Reevaluation of the specificity of previously published PCR amplification primers and group specific fluorescence in situ hybridization probes on this metagenomic set of non-amplified 23S rRNA sequences revealed that out of 16 primers investigated, only two had more than 90% target group coverage. Evaluations of two probes, BET42a and GAM42a, were in accordance with previous evaluations, with a discrepancy in the target group coverage of the GAM42a probe when evaluated against the GOS metagenomic dataset.

  11. An Efficient Method for Identifying Gene Fusions by Targeted RNA Sequencing from Fresh Frozen and FFPE Samples.

    PubMed

    Scolnick, Jonathan A; Dimon, Michelle; Wang, I-Ching; Huelga, Stephanie C; Amorese, Douglas A

    2015-01-01

    Fusion genes are known to be key drivers of tumor growth in several types of cancer. Traditionally, detecting fusion genes has been a difficult task based on fluorescent in situ hybridization to detect chromosomal abnormalities. More recently, RNA sequencing has enabled an increased pace of fusion gene identification. However, RNA-Seq is inefficient for the identification of fusion genes due to the high number of sequencing reads needed to detect the small number of fusion transcripts present in cells of interest. Here we describe a method, Single Primer Enrichment Technology (SPET), for targeted RNA sequencing that is customizable to any target genes, is simple to use, and efficiently detects gene fusions. Using SPET to target 5701 exons of 401 known cancer fusion genes for sequencing, we were able to identify known and previously unreported gene fusions from both fresh-frozen and formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue RNA in both normal tissue and cancer cells. PMID:26132974

  12. MicroRNA GENE EXPRESSION SIGNATURES IN THE DEVELOPING NEURAL TUBE

    PubMed Central

    Mukhopadhyay, Partha; Brock, Guy; Appana, Savitri; Webb, Cynthia; Greene, Robert M.; Pisano, M. Michele

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND Neurulation requires precise, spatio-temporal expression of numerous genes and coordinated interaction of signal transduction and gene regulatory networks, disruption of which may contribute to the etiology of neural tube (NT) defects. MicroRNAs are key modulators of cell and tissue differentiation. In order to define potential roles of miRNAs in development of the murine NT, miRNA microarray analysis was conducted to establish expression profiles, and identify miRNA target genes and functional gene networks. METHODS miRNA expression profiles in murine embryonic NTs derived from gestational days 8.5, 9.0 and 9.5 were defined and compared utilizing miRXplore™ microarrays from Miltenyi Biotech GmbH. Gene expression changes were verified by TaqMan™ quantitative Real-Time PCR. clValid R package and the UPGMA (hierarchical) clustering method were utilized for cluster analysis of the microarray data. Functional associations among selected miRNAs were examined via Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. RESULTS miRXplore™ chips enabled examination of 609 murine miRNAs. Expression of approximately 12% of these was detected in murine embryonic NTs. Clustering analysis revealed several developmentally regulated expression clusters among these expressed genes. Target analysis of differentially expressed miRNAs enabled identification of numerous target genes associated with cellular processes essential for normal NT development. Utilization of Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed interactive biological networks which connected differentially expressed miRNAs with their target genes, and highlighted functional relationships. CONCLUSIONS The present study defined unique gene expression signatures of a range of miRNAs in the developing NT during the critical period of NT morphogenesis. Analysis of miRNA target genes and gene interaction pathways revealed that specific miRNAs may direct expression of numerous genes encoding proteins which have been shown to be indispensable

  13. Long noncoding RNA EWSAT1-mediated gene repression facilitates Ewing sarcoma oncogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Marques Howarth, Michelle; Simpson, David; Ngok, Siu P.; Nieves, Bethsaida; Chen, Ron; Siprashvili, Zurab; Vaka, Dedeepya; Breese, Marcus R.; Crompton, Brian D.; Alexe, Gabriela; Hawkins, Doug S.; Jacobson, Damon; Brunner, Alayne L.; West, Robert; Mora, Jaume; Stegmaier, Kimberly; Khavari, Paul; Sweet-Cordero, E. Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    Chromosomal translocation that results in fusion of the genes encoding RNA-binding protein EWS and transcription factor FLI1 (EWS-FLI1) is pathognomonic for Ewing sarcoma. EWS-FLI1 alters gene expression through mechanisms that are not completely understood. We performed RNA sequencing (RNAseq) analysis on primary pediatric human mesenchymal progenitor cells (pMPCs) expressing EWS-FLI1 in order to identify gene targets of this oncoprotein. We determined that long noncoding RNA-277 (Ewing sarcoma–associated transcript 1 [EWSAT1]) is upregulated by EWS-FLI1 in pMPCs. Inhibition of EWSAT1 expression diminished the ability of Ewing sarcoma cell lines to proliferate and form colonies in soft agar, whereas EWSAT1 inhibition had no effect on other cell types tested. Expression of EWS-FLI1 and EWSAT1 repressed gene expression, and a substantial fraction of targets that were repressed by EWS-FLI1 were also repressed by EWSAT1. Analysis of RNAseq data from primary human Ewing sarcoma further supported a role for EWSAT1 in mediating gene repression. We identified heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein (HNRNPK) as an RNA-binding protein that interacts with EWSAT1 and found a marked overlap in HNRNPK-repressed genes and those repressed by EWS-FLI1 and EWSAT1, suggesting that HNRNPK participates in EWSAT1-mediated gene repression. Together, our data reveal that EWSAT1 is a downstream target of EWS-FLI1 that facilitates the development of Ewing sarcoma via the repression of target genes. PMID:25401475

  14. Knockdown of RNA Interference Pathway Genes in Western Corn Rootworms (Diabrotica virgifera virgifera Le Conte) Demonstrates a Possible Mechanism of Resistance to Lethal dsRNA

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Ana María; Khajuria, Chitvan; Wang, Haichuan; Narva, Kenneth E.; Siegfried, Blair D.

    2016-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) is being developed as a potential tool for insect pest management. Increased understanding of the RNAi pathway in target insect pests will provide information to use this technology effectively and to inform decisions related to resistant management strategies for RNAi based traits. Dicer 2 (Dcr2), an endonuclease responsible for formation of small interfering RNA’s and Argonaute 2 (Ago2), an essential catalytic component of the RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) have both been associated with the RNAi pathway in a number of different insect species including the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae). We identified both genes from a transcriptome library generated from different tissues and developmental stages of the western corn rootworm, an important target pest for transgenic plants expressing dsRNA targeting essential genes. The expression of these genes was suppressed by more than 90% after injecting gene specific dsRNA into adult rootworms. The injected beetles were then fed vATPase A dsRNA which has previously been demonstrated to cause mortality in western corn rootworm adults. The suppression of both RNAi pathway genes resulted in reduced mortality after subsequent exposure to lethal concentrations of vATPase A dsRNA as well as increased vATPase A expression relative to control treatments. Injections with dsRNA for a non-lethal target sequence (Laccase 2) did not affect mortality or expression caused by vATPase A dsRNA indicating that the results observed with Argo and Dicer dsRNA were not caused by simple competition among different dsRNA’s. These results confirm that both genes play an important role in the RNAi pathway for western corn rootworms and indicate that selection pressures that potentially affect the expression of these genes may provide a basis for future studies to understand potential mechanisms of resistance. PMID:27310918

  15. Intron gain by tandem genomic duplication: a novel case in a potato gene encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Ming-Yue; Lan, Xin-Ran

    2016-01-01

    The origin and subsequent accumulation of spliceosomal introns are prominent events in the evolution of eukaryotic gene structure. However, the mechanisms underlying intron gain remain unclear because there are few proven cases of recently gained introns. In an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, we found that a tandem duplication occurred after the divergence of potato and its wild relatives among other Solanum plants. The duplicated sequence crosses the intron-exon boundary of the first intron and the second exon. A new intron was detected at this duplicated region, and it includes a small previously exonic segment of the upstream copy of the duplicated sequence and the intronic segment of the downstream copy of the duplicated sequence. The donor site of this new intron was directly obtained from the small previously exonic segment. Most of the splicing signals were inherited directly from the parental intron/exon structure, including a putative branch site, the polypyrimidine tract, the 3′ splicing site, two putative exonic splicing enhancers, and the GC contents differed between the intron and exon. In the widely cited model of intron gain by tandem genomic duplication, the duplication of an AGGT-containing exonic segment provides the GT and AG splicing sites for the new intron. Our results illustrate that the tandem duplication model of intron gain should be diverse in terms of obtaining the proper splicing signals. PMID:27547574

  16. Intron gain by tandem genomic duplication: a novel case in a potato gene encoding RNA-dependent RNA polymerase.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ming-Yue; Lan, Xin-Ran; Niu, Deng-Ke

    2016-01-01

    The origin and subsequent accumulation of spliceosomal introns are prominent events in the evolution of eukaryotic gene structure. However, the mechanisms underlying intron gain remain unclear because there are few proven cases of recently gained introns. In an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene, we found that a tandem duplication occurred after the divergence of potato and its wild relatives among other Solanum plants. The duplicated sequence crosses the intron-exon boundary of the first intron and the second exon. A new intron was detected at this duplicated region, and it includes a small previously exonic segment of the upstream copy of the duplicated sequence and the intronic segment of the downstream copy of the duplicated sequence. The donor site of this new intron was directly obtained from the small previously exonic segment. Most of the splicing signals were inherited directly from the parental intron/exon structure, including a putative branch site, the polypyrimidine tract, the 3' splicing site, two putative exonic splicing enhancers, and the GC contents differed between the intron and exon. In the widely cited model of intron gain by tandem genomic duplication, the duplication of an AGGT-containing exonic segment provides the GT and AG splicing sites for the new intron. Our results illustrate that the tandem duplication model of intron gain should be diverse in terms of obtaining the proper splicing signals. PMID:27547574

  17. RNA Binding Proteins RZ-1B and RZ-1C Play Critical Roles in Regulating Pre-mRNA Splicing and Gene Expression during Development in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhe; Zhu, Danling; Lin, Xiaoya; Miao, Jin; Gu, Lianfeng; Deng, Xian; Yang, Qian; Sun, Kangtai; Zhu, Danmeng; Cao, Xiaofeng; Tsuge, Tomohiko; Dean, Caroline; Aoyama, Takashi; Gu, Hongya; Qu, Li-Jia

    2016-01-01

    Nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins are involved in various aspects of RNA metabolism, which in turn modulates gene expression. However, the functions of nuclear-localized RNA binding proteins in plants are poorly understood. Here, we report the functions of two proteins containing RNA recognition motifs, RZ-1B and RZ-1C, in Arabidopsis thaliana. RZ-1B and RZ-1C were localized to nuclear speckles and interacted with a spectrum of serine/arginine-rich (SR) proteins through their C termini. RZ-1C preferentially bound to purine-rich RNA sequences in vitro through its N-terminal RNA recognition motif. Disrupting the RNA binding activity of RZ-1C with SR proteins through overexpression of the C terminus of RZ-1C conferred defective phenotypes similar to those observed in rz-1b rz-1c double mutants, including delayed seed germination, reduced stature, and serrated leaves. Loss of function of RZ-1B and RZ-1C was accompanied by defective splicing of many genes and global perturbation of gene expression. In addition, we found that RZ-1C directly targeted FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), promoting efficient splicing of FLC introns and likely also repressing FLC transcription. Our findings highlight the critical role of RZ-1B/1C in regulating RNA splicing, gene expression, and many key aspects of plant development via interaction with proteins including SR proteins.

  18. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from RNA and DNA extracted from twelve water samples collected in three different months (June, August, and September of 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of 1234 and 1117 ...

  19. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development - Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    We examined the bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from RNA and DNA extracted from twelve water samples collected in three different months (June, August, and September of 2007). Phylogenetic analysis of 1234 and 1117 ...

  20. 16S rRNA Gene Sequence Analysis of Drinking Water Using RNA and DNA Extracts as Targets for Clone Library Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    The bacterial composition of chlorinated drinking water was analyzed using 16S rRNA gene clone libraries derived from DNA extracts of 12 samples and compared to clone libraries previously generated using RNA extracts from the same samples. Phylogenetic analysis of 761 DNA-based ...

  1. Model-driven engineering of gene expression from RNA replicons.

    PubMed

    Beal, Jacob; Wagner, Tyler E; Kitada, Tasuku; Azizgolshani, Odisse; Parker, Jordan Moberg; Densmore, Douglas; Weiss, Ron

    2015-01-16

    RNA replicons are an emerging platform for engineering synthetic biological systems. Replicons self-amplify, can provide persistent high-level expression of proteins even from a small initial dose, and, unlike DNA vectors, pose minimal risk of chromosomal integration. However, no quantitative model sufficient for engineering levels of protein expression from such replicon systems currently exists. Here, we aim to enable the engineering of multigene expression from more than one species of replicon by creating a computational model based on our experimental observations of the expression dynamics in single- and multireplicon systems. To this end, we studied fluorescent protein expression in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells using a replicon derived from Sindbis virus (SINV). We characterized expression dynamics for this platform based on the dose-response of a single species of replicon over 50 h and on a titration of two cotransfected replicons expressing different fluorescent proteins. From this data, we derive a quantitative model of multireplicon expression and validate it by designing a variety of three-replicon systems, with profiles that match desired expression levels. We achieved a mean error of 1.7-fold on a 1000-fold range, thus demonstrating how our model can be applied to precisely control expression levels of each Sindbis replicon species in a system.

  2. Model-driven engineering of gene expression from RNA replicons.

    PubMed

    Beal, Jacob; Wagner, Tyler E; Kitada, Tasuku; Azizgolshani, Odisse; Parker, Jordan Moberg; Densmore, Douglas; Weiss, Ron

    2015-01-16

    RNA replicons are an emerging platform for engineering synthetic biological systems. Replicons self-amplify, can provide persistent high-level expression of proteins even from a small initial dose, and, unlike DNA vectors, pose minimal risk of chromosomal integration. However, no quantitative model sufficient for engineering levels of protein expression from such replicon systems currently exists. Here, we aim to enable the engineering of multigene expression from more than one species of replicon by creating a computational model based on our experimental observations of the expression dynamics in single- and multireplicon systems. To this end, we studied fluorescent protein expression in baby hamster kidney (BHK-21) cells using a replicon derived from Sindbis virus (SINV). We characterized expression dynamics for this platform based on the dose-response of a single species of replicon over 50 h and on a titration of two cotransfected replicons expressing different fluorescent proteins. From this data, we derive a quantitative model of multireplicon expression and validate it by designing a variety of three-replicon systems, with profiles that match desired expression levels. We achieved a mean error of 1.7-fold on a 1000-fold range, thus demonstrating how our model can be applied to precisely control expression levels of each Sindbis replicon species in a system. PMID:24877739

  3. Systematic, genome-wide identification of host genes affecting replication of a positive-strand RNA virus.

    PubMed

    Kushner, David B; Lindenbach, Brett D; Grdzelishvili, Valery Z; Noueiry, Amine O; Paul, Scott M; Ahlquist, Paul

    2003-12-23

    Positive-strand RNA viruses are the largest virus class and include many pathogens such as hepatitis C virus and the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS). Brome mosaic virus (BMV) is a representative positive-strand RNA virus whose RNA replication, gene expression, and encapsidation have been reproduced in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. By using traditional yeast genetics, host genes have been identified that function in controlling BMV translation, selecting BMV RNAs as replication templates, activating the replication complex, maintaining a lipid composition required for membrane-associated RNA replication, and other steps. To more globally and systematically identify such host factors, we used engineered BMV derivatives to assay viral RNA replication in each strain of an ordered, genome-wide set of yeast single-gene deletion mutants. Each deletion strain was transformed to express BMV replicase proteins and a BMV RNA replication template with the capsid gene replaced by a luciferase reporter. Luciferase expression, which is dependent on viral RNA replication and RNA-dependent mRNA synthesis, was measured in intact yeast cells. Approximately 4500 yeast deletion strains ( approximately 80% of yeast genes) were screened in duplicate and selected strains analyzed further. This functional genomics approach revealed nearly 100 genes whose absence inhibited or stimulated BMV RNA replication and/or gene expression by 3- to >25-fold. Several of these genes were shown previously to function in BMV replication, validating the approach. Newly identified genes include some in RNA, protein, or membrane modification pathways and genes of unknown function. The results further illuminate virus and cell pathways. Further refinement of virus screening likely will reveal contributions from additional host genes.

  4. Gene set analysis approaches for RNA-seq data: performance evaluation and application guideline

    PubMed Central

    Rahmatallah, Yasir; Emmert-Streib, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Transcriptome sequencing (RNA-seq) is gradually replacing microarrays for high-throughput studies of gene expression. The main challenge of analyzing microarray data is not in finding differentially expressed genes, but in gaining insights into the biological processes underlying phenotypic differences. To interpret experimental results from microarrays, gene set analysis (GSA) has become the method of choice, in particular because it incorporates pre-existing biological knowledge (in a form of functionally related gene sets) into the analysis. Here we provide a brief review of several statistically different GSA approaches (competitive and self-contained) that can be adapted from microarrays practice as well as those specifically designed for RNA-seq. We evaluate their performance (in terms of Type I error rate, power, robustness to the sample size and heterogeneity, as well as the sensitivity to different types of selection biases) on simulated and real RNA-seq data. Not surprisingly, the performance of various GSA approaches depends only on the statistical hypothesis they test and does not depend on whether the test was developed for microarrays or RNA-seq data. Interestingly, we found that competitive methods have lower power as well as robustness to the samples heterogeneity than self-contained methods, leading to poor results reproducibility. We also found that the power of unsupervised competitive methods depends on the balance between up- and down-regulated genes in tested gene sets. These properties of competitive methods have been overlooked before. Our evaluation provides a concise guideline for selecting GSA approaches, best performing under particular experimental settings in the context of RNA-seq. PMID:26342128

  5. A third member of the RNA-specific adenosine deaminase gene family, ADAR3, contains both single- and double-stranded RNA binding domains.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, C X; Cho, D S; Wang, Q; Lai, F; Carter, K C; Nishikura, K

    2000-01-01

    Members of the double-stranded RNA- (dsRNA) specific adenosine deaminase gene family convert adenosine residues into inosines in dsRNA and are involved in A-to-I RNA editing of transcripts of glutamate receptor (GluR) subunits and serotonin receptor subtype 2C (5-HT(2C)R). We have isolated hADAR3, the third member of this class of human enzyme and investigated its editing site selectivity using in vitro RNA editing assay systems. As originally reported for rat ADAR3 or RED2, purified ADAR3 proteins could not edit GluR-B RNA at the "Q/R" site, the "R/G" site, and the intronic "hot spot" site. In addition, ADAR3 did not edit any of five sites discovered recently within the intracellular loop II region of 5-HT(2C)R RNAs, confirming its total lack of editing activity for currently known substrate RNAs. Filter-binding analyses revealed that ADAR3 is capable of binding not only to dsRNA but also to single-stranded RNA (ssRNA). Deletion mutagenesis identified a region rich in arginine residues located in the N-terminus that is responsible for binding of ADAR3 to ssRNA. The presence of this ssRNA-binding domain as well as its expression in restricted brain regions and postmitotic neurons make ADAR3 distinct from the other two ADAR gene family members, editing competent ADAR1 and ADAR2. ADAR3 inhibited in vitro the activities of RNA editing enzymes of the ADAR gene family, raising the possibility of a regulatory role in RNA editing. PMID:10836796

  6. Mitochondrial 16S ribosomal RNA gene for forensic identification of crocodile species.

    PubMed

    Naga Jogayya, K; Meganathan, P R; Dubey, Bhawna; Haque, I

    2013-05-01

    All crocodilians are under various threats due to over exploitation and these species have been listed in Appendix I or II of CITES. Lack of molecular techniques for the forensic identification of confiscated samples makes it difficult to enforce the law. Therefore, we herein present a molecular method developed on the basis on 16S rRNA gene of mitochondrial DNA for identification of crocodile species. We have developed a set of 16S rRNA primers for PCR based identification of crocodilian species. These novel primers amplify partial 16S rRNA sequences of six crocodile species which can be later combined to obtain a larger region (1290 bp) of 16S rRNA gene. This 16S rRNA gene could be used as an effective tool for forensic authentication of crocodiles. The described primers hold great promise in forensic identification of crocodile species, which can aid in the effective enforcement of law and conservation of these species.

  7. SR proteins in vertical integration of gene expression from transcription to RNA processing to translation.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Xiang-Yang; Wang, Pingping; Han, Joonhee; Rosenfeld, Michael G; Fu, Xiang-Dong

    2009-07-10

    SR proteins have been studied extensively as a family of RNA-binding proteins that participate in both constitutive and regulated pre-mRNA splicing in mammalian cells. However, SR proteins were first discovered as factors that interact with transcriptionally active chromatin. Recent studies have now uncovered properties that connect these once apparently disparate functions, showing that a subset of SR proteins seem to bind directly to the histone 3 tail, play an active role in transcriptional elongation, and colocalize with genes that are engaged in specific intra- and interchromosome interactions for coordinated regulation of gene expression in the nucleus. These transcription-related activities are also coupled with a further expansion of putative functions of specific SR protein family members in RNA metabolism downstream of mRNA splicing, from RNA export to stability control to translation. These findings, therefore, highlight the broader roles of SR proteins in vertical integration of gene expression and provide mechanistic insights into their contributions to genome stability and proper cell-cycle progression in higher eukaryotic cells.

  8. Inhibition of influenza A virus matrix and nonstructural gene expression using RNA interference.

    PubMed

    McMillen, Cynthia M; Beezhold, Donald H; Blachere, Francoise M; Othumpangat, Sreekumar; Kashon, Michael L; Noti, John D

    2016-10-01

    Influenza antiviral drugs that use protein inhibitors can lose their efficacy as resistant strains emerge. As an alternative strategy, we investigated the use of small interfering RNA molecules (siRNAs) by characterizing three siRNAs (M747, M776 and M832) targeting the influenza matrix 2 gene and three (NS570, NS595 and NS615) targeting the nonstructural protein 1 and 2 genes. We also re-examined two previously reported siRNAs, M331 and M950, which target the matrix 1 and 2 genes. Treatment with M331-, M776-, M832-, and M950-siRNAs attenuated influenza titer. M776-siRNA treated cells had 29.8% less infectious virus than cells treated with the previously characterized siRNA, M950. NS570-, NS595- and NS615-siRNAs reduced nonstructural protein 1 and 2 expression and enhanced type I interferon expression by 50%. Combination siRNA treatment attenuated 20.9% more infectious virus than single siRNA treatment. Our results suggest a potential use for these siRNAs as an effective anti-influenza virus therapy.

  9. Screening and identification of microRNA involved in unstable angina using gene-chip analysis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Si; Sun, Ya-Nan; Zhou, Yun-Tao; Zhang, Chun-Lai; Lu, Feng; Liu, Jia; Shang, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested that microRNA (miRNA) may play a role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, which has led to a greater understanding of the complex pathophysiological processes underlying unstable angina (UA). The present study aimed to investigate changes in the miRNA expression profiles of patients with UA using gene-chip analysis, in order to further elucidate the pathogenesis of UA. Total RNA was extracted and purified from plasma samples collected from patients with UA and healthy controls. The samples underwent microarray analysis using an Exiqon miRCURY LNA™ microRNA Array. Differentially expressed miRNAs were identified by volcano plot filtering, and were validated using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). In addition, functional annotation of the differentially expressed miRNAs involved gene ontology analyses. Among the 212 miRNAs differentially expressed between the two groups, 82 were upregulated and 130 were downregulated. Notably, the results of the RT-qPCR were consistent with the gene-chip results. The miRNAs identified in the present study may be potential novel biomarkers for the prevention and early diagnosis of UA. Furthermore, the results of the present study suggested that UA occurs as a result of complex and dynamic processes regulated by numerous factors, including multiple miRNAs. PMID:27703515

  10. Single-gene dual-color reporter cell line to analyze RNA synthesis in vivo.

    PubMed

    Palangat, Murali; Larson, Daniel R

    2016-07-01

    RNA synthesis occurs through the multi-step process of transcription which consists of initiation, elongation, termination, and cleavage of the nascent RNA. In recent years, post-initiation events have attracted considerable attention as regulatory steps in gene expression. In particular, changes in elongation rate have been proposed to alter RNA fate either through changes in RNA secondary structure or recruitment of trans-acting factors, but systematic approaches for perturbing and measuring elongation rate are currently lacking. Here, we describe a system for precisely measuring elongation dynamics for single nascent transcripts at a single gene locus in human cell lines. The system is based on observing the production of fluorescently labeled RNA stem loops which flank a region of interest. The region of interest can be altered using flp recombinases, thus allowing one to study the effects of cis-acting sequences on transcription rate. The dual-color RNAs which are made during this process are exported and translated, thus enabling visualization of each step in gene expression.

  11. Contributions of transcription and mRNA decay to gene expression dynamics of fission yeast in response to oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Marguerat, Samuel; Lawler, Katherine; Brazma, Alvis; Bähler, Jürg

    2014-01-01

    The cooperation of transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels of control to shape gene regulation is only partially understood. Here we show that a combination of two simple and non-invasive genomic techniques, coupled with kinetic mathematical modeling, affords insight into the intricate dynamics of RNA regulation in response to oxidative stress in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. This study reveals a dominant role of transcriptional regulation in response to stress, but also points to the first minutes after stress induction as a critical time when the coordinated control of mRNA turnover can support the control of transcription for rapid gene regulation. In addition, we uncover specialized gene expression strategies associated with distinct functional gene groups, such as simultaneous transcriptional repression and mRNA destabilization for genes encoding ribosomal proteins, delayed mRNA destabilization with varying contribution of transcription for ribosome biogenesis genes, dominant roles of mRNA stabilization for genes functioning in protein degradation, and adjustment of both transcription and mRNA turnover during the adaptation to stress. We also show that genes regulated independently of the bZIP transcription factor Atf1p are predominantly controlled by mRNA turnover, and identify putative cis-regulatory sequences that are associated with different gene expression strategies during the stress response. This study highlights the intricate and multi-faceted interplay between transcription and RNA turnover during the dynamic regulatory response to stress. PMID:25007214

  12. Identification of androgenic gland microRNA and their target genes to discover sex-related microRNA in the oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense.

    PubMed

    Jin, S B; Fu, H T; Jiang, S F; Xiong, Y W; Qiao, H; Zhang, W Y; Gong, Y S; Wu, Y

    2015-01-01

    The oriental river prawn, Macrobrachium nipponense, is an important aquaculture species in China. The androgenic gland produces hormones that play crucial roles in the differentiation of crustaceans to the male sex. MicroRNA (miRNA) post-transcriptionally regulates many protein-coding genes, influencing important biological and metabolic processes. However, currently, there is no published data identifying miRNA in M. nipponense. In this study, we identified novel miRNA in the androgenic gland of M. nipponense. Using the high-throughput Illumina Solexa system, 1077 miRNA were identified from small RNA libraries by aligning with the de novo androgenic gland transcriptome of M. nipponense (obtained from RNA-Seq) and the sequences in the miRBase21 database. A total of 8,248, 76,011, and 78,307 target genes were predicted in the EST and SRA sequences provided in the NCBI database, and the androgenic gland transcriptome of M. nipponense, respectively. Some potential sex-related miRNA were identified based on the function of the predicted target genes. The results of our study provide new information regarding the miRNA expression in M. nipponense, which could be the basis for further genetic studies on decapod crustaceans. PMID:26782487

  13. Large-Scale Screens of miRNA-mRNA Interactions Unveiled That the 3′UTR of a Gene Is Targeted by Multiple miRNAs

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Peng; Xu, Weiyi; Peng, Xueling; Luo, Zhenhua; Xing, Qinghe; Chen, Xulin; Hou, Chengqian; Liang, Weihong; Zhou, Jianwen; Wu, Xiaoyan; Songyang, Zhou; Jiang, Songshan

    2013-01-01

    Animal microRNA (miRNA) target prediction is still a challenge, although many prediction programs have been exploited. MiRNAs exert their function through partially binding the messenger RNAs (mRNAs; likely at 3′ untranslated regions [3′UTRs]), which makes it possible to detect the miRNA-mRNA interactions in vitro by co-transfection of miRNA and a luciferase reporter gene containing the target mRNA fragment into mammalian cells under a dual-luciferase assay system. Here, we constructed a human miRNA expression library and used a dual-luciferase assay system to perform large-scale screens of interactions between miRNAs and the 3′UTRs of seven genes, which included more than 3,000 interactions with triplicate experiments for each interaction. The screening results showed that the 3′UTR of one gene can be targeted by multiple miRNAs. Among the prediction algorithms, a Bayesian phylogenetic miRNA target identification algorithm and a support vector machine (SVM) presented a relatively better performance (27% for EIMMo and 24.7% for miRDB) against the average precision (17.3%) of the nine prediction programs used here. Additionally, we noticed that a relatively high conservation level was shown at the miRNA 3′ end targeted regions, as well as the 5′ end (seed region) binding sites. PMID:23874542

  14. Temperature regulates splicing efficiency of the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein gene Cirbp

    PubMed Central

    Gotic, Ivana; Omidi, Saeed; Fleury-Olela, Fabienne; Molina, Nacho; Naef, Felix; Schibler, Ueli

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, body temperature fluctuates diurnally around a mean value of 36°C–37°C. Despite the small differences between minimal and maximal values, body temperature rhythms can drive robust cycles in gene expression in cultured cells and, likely, animals. Here we studied the mechanisms responsible for the temperature-dependent expression of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRBP). In NIH3T3 fibroblasts exposed to simulated mouse body temperature cycles, Cirbp mRNA oscillates about threefold in abundance, as it does in mouse livers. This daily mRNA accumulation cycle is directly controlled by temperature oscillations and does not depend on the cells’ circadian clocks. Here we show that the temperature-dependent accumulation of Cirbp mRNA is controlled primarily by the regulation of splicing efficiency, defined as the fraction of Cirbp pre-mRNA processed into mature mRNA. As revealed by genome-wide “approach to steady-state” kinetics, this post-transcriptional mechanism is widespread in the temperature-dependent control of gene expression. PMID:27633015

  15. MicroRNA-mediated gene regulation: potential applications for plant genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Man; Luo, Hong

    2013-09-01

    Food security is one of the most important issues challenging the world today. Any strategies to solve this problem must include increasing crop yields and quality. MicroRNA-based genetic modification technology (miRNA-based GM tech) can be one of the most promising solutions that contribute to agricultural productivity directly by developing superior crop cultivars with enhanced biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and increased biomass yields. Indirectly, the technology may increase usage of marginal soils and decrease pesticide use, among other benefits. This review highlights the most recent progress of transgenic studies utilizing various miRNAs and their targets for plant trait modifications, and analyzes the potential of miRNA-mediated gene regulation for use in crop improvement. Strategies for manipulating miRNAs and their targets in transgenic plants including constitutive, stress-induced, or tissue-specific expression of miRNAs or their targets, RNA interference, expressing miRNA-resistant target genes, artificial target mimic and artificial miRNAs were discussed. We also discussed potential risks of utilizing miRNA-based GM tech. In general, miRNAs and their targets not only provide an invaluable source of novel transgenes, but also inspire the development of several new GM strategies, allowing advances in breeding novel crop cultivars with agronomically useful characteristics. PMID:23771582

  16. Temperature regulates splicing efficiency of the cold-inducible RNA-binding protein gene Cirbp.

    PubMed

    Gotic, Ivana; Omidi, Saeed; Fleury-Olela, Fabienne; Molina, Nacho; Naef, Felix; Schibler, Ueli

    2016-09-01

    In mammals, body temperature fluctuates diurnally around a mean value of 36°C-37°C. Despite the small differences between minimal and maximal values, body temperature rhythms can drive robust cycles in gene expression in cultured cells and, likely, animals. Here we studied the mechanisms responsible for the temperature-dependent expression of cold-inducible RNA-binding protein (CIRBP). In NIH3T3 fibroblasts exposed to simulated mouse body temperature cycles, Cirbp mRNA oscillates about threefold in abundance, as it does in mouse livers. This daily mRNA accumulation cycle is directly controlled by temperature oscillations and does not depend on the cells' circadian clocks. Here we show that the temperature-dependent accumulation of Cirbp mRNA is controlled primarily by the regulation of splicing efficiency, defined as the fraction of Cirbp pre-mRNA processed into mature mRNA. As revealed by genome-wide "approach to steady-state" kinetics, this post-transcriptional mechanism is widespread in the temperature-dependent control of gene expression. PMID:27633015

  17. MicroRNA-mediated gene regulation: potential applications for plant genetic engineering.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Man; Luo, Hong

    2013-09-01

    Food security is one of the most important issues challenging the world today. Any strategies to solve this problem must include increasing crop yields and quality. MicroRNA-based genetic modification technology (miRNA-based GM tech) can be one of the most promising solutions that contribute to agricultural productivity directly by developing superior crop cultivars with enhanced biotic and abiotic stress tolerance and increased biomass yields. Indirectly, the technology may increase usage of marginal soils and decrease pesticide use, among other benefits. This review highlights the most recent progress of transgenic studies utilizing various miRNAs and their targets for plant trait modifications, and analyzes the potential of miRNA-mediated gene regulation for use in crop improvement. Strategies for manipulating miRNAs and their targets in transgenic plants including constitutive, stress-induced, or tissue-specific expression of miRNAs or their targets, RNA interference, expressing miRNA-resistant target genes, artificial target mimic and artificial miRNAs were discussed. We also discussed potential risks of utilizing miRNA-based GM tech. In general, miRNAs and their targets not only provide an invaluable source of novel transgenes, but also inspire the development of several new GM strategies, allowing advances in breeding novel crop cultivars with agronomically useful characteristics.

  18. RNA-seq analyses of gene expression in the microsclerotia of Verticillium dahliae

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The soilborne fungus, Verticillium dahliae, causes Verticillium wilt disease in plants. Verticillium wilt is difficult to control since V. dahliae is capable of persisting in the soil for 10 to 15 years as melanized microsclerotia, rendering crop rotation strategies for disease control ineffective. Microsclerotia of V. dahliae overwinter and germinate to produce infectious hyphae that give rise to primary infections. Consequently, microsclerotia formation, maintenance, and germination are critically important processes in the disease cycle of V. dahliae. Results To shed additional light on the molecular processes that contribute to microsclerotia biogenesis and melanin synthesis in V. dahliae, three replicate RNA-seq libraries were prepared from 10 day-old microsclerotia (MS)-producing cultures of V. dahliae, strain VdLs.17 (average = 52.23 million reads), and those not producing microsclerotia (NoMS, average = 50.58 million reads). Analyses of these libraries for differential gene expression revealed over 200 differentially expressed genes, including up-regulation of melanogenesis-associated genes tetrahydroxynaphthalene reductase (344-fold increase) and scytalone dehydratase (231-fold increase), and additional genes located in a 48.8 kilobase melanin biosynthetic gene cluster of strain VdLs.17. Nearly 50% of the genes identified as differentially expressed in the MS library encode hypothetical proteins. Additional comparative analyses of gene expression in V. dahliae, under growth conditions that promote or preclude microsclerotial development, were conducted using a microarray approach with RNA derived from V. dahliae strain Dvd-T5, and from the amicrosclerotial vdh1 strain. Differential expression of selected genes observed by RNA-seq or microarray analysis was confirmed using RT-qPCR or Northern hybridizations. Conclusion Collectively, the data acquired from these investigations provide additional insight into gene expression and molecular

  19. Mitochondrial genomes of praying mantises (Dictyoptera, Mantodea): rearrangement, duplication, and reassignment of tRNA genes

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Fei; Lan, Xu-e; Zhu, Wen-bo; You, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) contain a conserved set of 37 genes for an extensive diversity of lineages. Previously reported dictyopteran mitogenomes share this conserved mitochondrial gene arrangement, although surprisingly little is known about the mitogenome of Mantodea. We sequenced eight mantodean mitogenomes including the first representatives of two families: Hymenopodidae and Liturgusidae. Only two of these genomes retain the typical insect gene arrangement. In three Liturgusidae species, the trnM genes have translocated. Four species of mantis (Creobroter gemmata, Mantis religiosa, Statilia sp., and Theopompa sp.-HN) have multiple identical tandem duplication of trnR, and Statilia sp. additionally includes five extra duplicate trnW. These extra trnR and trnW in Statilia sp. are erratically arranged and form another novel gene order. Interestingly, the extra trnW is converted from trnR by the process of point mutation at anticodon, which is the first case of tRNA reassignment for an insect. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed amongst mantodean mitogenomes with variable copies of tRNA according to comparative analysis of codon usage. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the characteristics of tRNA only possess limited phylogenetic information in this research. Nevertheless, these features of gene rearrangement, duplication, and reassignment provide valuable information toward understanding mitogenome evolution in insects. PMID:27157299

  20. Mitochondrial genomes of praying mantises (Dictyoptera, Mantodea): rearrangement, duplication, and reassignment of tRNA genes.

    PubMed

    Ye, Fei; Lan, Xu-E; Zhu, Wen-Bo; You, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Insect mitochondrial genomes (mitogenomes) contain a conserved set of 37 genes for an extensive diversity of lineages. Previously reported dictyopteran mitogenomes share this conserved mitochondrial gene arrangement, although surprisingly little is known about the mitogenome of Mantodea. We sequenced eight mantodean mitogenomes including the first representatives of two families: Hymenopodidae and Liturgusidae. Only two of these genomes retain the typical insect gene arrangement. In three Liturgusidae species, the trnM genes have translocated. Four species of mantis (Creobroter gemmata, Mantis religiosa, Statilia sp., and Theopompa sp.-HN) have multiple identical tandem duplication of trnR, and Statilia sp. additionally includes five extra duplicate trnW. These extra trnR and trnW in Statilia sp. are erratically arranged and form another novel gene order. Interestingly, the extra trnW is converted from trnR by the process of point mutation at anticodon, which is the first case of tRNA reassignment for an insect. Furthermore, no significant differences were observed amongst mantodean mitogenomes with variable copies of tRNA according to comparative analysis of codon usage. Combined with phylogenetic analysis, the characteristics of tRNA only possess limited phylogenetic information in this research. Nevertheless, these features of gene rearrangement, duplication, and reassignment provide valuable information toward understanding mitogenome evolution in insects. PMID:27157299

  1. Phage-mediated Delivery of Targeted sRNA Constructs to Knock Down Gene Expression in E. coli.

    PubMed

    Bernheim, Aude G; Libis, Vincent K; Lindner, Ariel B; Wintermute, Edwin H

    2016-01-01

    RNA-mediated knockdowns are widely used to control gene expression. This versatile family of techniques makes use of short RNA (sRNA) that can be synthesized with any sequence and designed to complement any gene targeted for silencing. Because sRNA constructs can be introduced to many cell types directly or using a variety of vectors, gene expression can be repressed in living cells without laborious genetic modification. The most common RNA knockdown technology, RNA interference (RNAi), makes use of the endogenous RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to mediate sequence recognition and cleavage of the target mRNA. Applications of this technique are therefore limited to RISC-expressing organisms, primarily eukaryotes. Recently, a new generation of RNA biotechnologists have developed alternative mechanisms for controlling gene expression through RNA, and so made possible RNA-mediated gene knockdowns in bacteria. Here we describe a method for silencing gene expression in E. coli that functionally resembles RNAi. In this system a synthetic phagemid is designed to express sRNA, which may designed to target any sequence. The expression construct is delivered to a population of E. coli cells with non-lytic M13 phage, after which it is able to stably replicate as a plasmid. Antisense recognition and silencing of the target mRNA is mediated by the Hfq protein, endogenous to E. coli. This protocol includes methods for designing the antisense sRNA, constructing the phagemid vector, packaging the phagemid into M13 bacteriophage, preparing a live cell population for infection, and performing the infection itself. The fluorescent protein mKate2 and the antibiotic resistance gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) are targeted to generate representative data and to quantify knockdown effectiveness. PMID:27023729

  2. Phage-mediated Delivery of Targeted sRNA Constructs to Knock Down Gene Expression in E. coli

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Ariel B.; Wintermute, Edwin H.

    2016-01-01

    RNA-mediated knockdowns are widely used to control gene expression. This versatile family of techniques makes use of short RNA (sRNA) that can be synthesized with any sequence and designed to complement any gene targeted for silencing. Because sRNA constructs can be introduced to many cell types directly or using a variety of vectors, gene expression can be repressed in living cells without laborious genetic modification. The most common RNA knockdown technology, RNA interference (RNAi), makes use of the endogenous RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) to mediate sequence recognition and cleavage of the target mRNA. Applications of this technique are therefore limited to RISC-expressing organisms, primarily eukaryotes. Recently, a new generation of RNA biotechnologists have developed alternative mechanisms for controlling gene expression through RNA, and so made possible RNA-mediated gene knockdowns in bacteria. Here we describe a method for silencing gene expression in E. coli that functionally resembles RNAi. In this system a synthetic phagemid is designed to express sRNA, which may designed to target any sequence. The expression construct is delivered to a population of E. coli cells with non-lytic M13 phage, after which it is able to stably replicate as a plasmid. Antisense recognition and silencing of the target mRNA is mediated by the Hfq protein, endogenous to E. coli. This protocol includes methods for designing the antisense sRNA, constructing the phagemid vector, packaging the phagemid into M13 bacteriophage, preparing a live cell population for infection, and performing the infection itself. The fluorescent protein mKate2 and the antibiotic resistance gene chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (CAT) are targeted to generate representative data and to quantify knockdown effectiveness. PMID:27023729

  3. TAP1, a yeast gene that activates the expression of a tRNA gene with a defective internal promoter.

    PubMed Central

    Di Segni, G; McConaughy, B L; Shapiro, R A; Aldrich, T L; Hall, B D

    1993-01-01

    We developed a genetic selection system based on nonsense suppression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify mutations in proteins involved in transcription initiation by RNA polymerase III. A SUP4 tRNA(Tyr) internal promoter mutation (A53T61) that was unable to suppress ochre mutations in vivo and was incapable of binding TFIIIC in vitro was used as the target for selection of trans-acting compensatory mutations. We identified two such mutations in the same gene, which we named TAP1 (for transcription activation protein). The level of the SUP4A53T61 transcript was threefold higher in the tap1-1 mutant than in the wild type. The tap1-1 mutant strain was also temperature sensitive for growth. The thermosensitive character cosegregated with the restorer of suppression activity, as shown by meiotic linkage analysis and coreversion of the two traits. At 1 to 2 h after a shift to the restrictive temperature, RNA synthesis was strongly inhibited in the tap1-1 mutant, preceding any effect upon protein synthesis or growth. A marked decrease in tRNA and 5S rRNA synthesis was seen, and shortly after that, rRNA synthesis was inhibited. By complementation of the ts- growth defect, we cloned the wild-type TAP1 gene. It is essential for yeast growth. We show in the accompanying report (T. L. Aldrich, G. Di Segni, B. L. McConaughy, N. J. Keen, S. Whelen, and B. D. Hall, Mol. Cell. Biol. 13:3434-3444, 1993) that TAP1 is identical to RAT1, a yeast gene implicated in poly(A)+ RNA export and that the TAP1/RAT1 gene product has extensive sequence similarity to the protein encoded by another yeast gene (variously named DST2, KEM1, RAR5, SEP1, or XRN1) having exonuclease and DNA strand transfer activity (reviewed by Kearsey and Kipling [Trends Cell Biol. 1:110-112, 1991]). Images PMID:8497259

  4. Analysis and interpretation of RNA splicing alterations in genes involved in genetic disorders.

    PubMed

    Vreeswijk, Maaike P G; van der Klift, Heleen M

    2012-01-01

    Germ line mutations in genes involved in hereditary cancer syndromes, such as BRCA1 and BRCA2 in breast cancer and MSH2, MSH6, MLH1, and PSM2 in hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC, more recently indicated as Lynch syndrome), confer a high risk to develop cancer. Mutation analysis in these genes has resulted in the identification of a large number of sequence variants, of which mutations causing frame shifts and nonsense codons are considered undoubtedly to be pathogenic. Many variants, however, cannot be classified as either disease-causing mutations or neutral variants and are therefore called unclassified variants (UVs). A subset of these variants may have an effect on RNA splicing. Appropriate RNA analysis will enable the characterization of the exact molecular nature of this effect and hence, is essential to determine the clinical relevance of the genomic variant. This chapter describes the design and implementation of RNA analysis as an indispensible tool in today's clinical diagnostic setting.

  5. A Simple Laboratory Practical to Illustrate RNA Mediated Gene Interference Using Drosophila Cell Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buluwela, Laki; Kamalati, Tahereh; Photiou, Andy; Heathcote, Dean A.; Jones, Michael D.; Ali, Simak

    2010-01-01

    RNA mediated gene interference (RNAi) is now a key tool in eukaryotic cell and molecular biology research. This article describes a five session laboratory practical, spread over a seven day period, to introduce and illustrate the technique. During the exercise, students working in small groups purify PCR products that encode "in vitro"…

  6. Targeting Human MicroRNA Genes Using Engineered Tal-Effector Nucleases (TALENs)

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Ruozhen; Wallace, Jared; Dahlem, Timothy J.; Grunwald, David Jonah; O'Connell, Ryan M.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have quickly emerged as important regulators of mammalian physiology owing to their precise control over the expression of critical protein coding genes. Despite significant progress in our understanding of how miRNAs function in mice, there remains a fundamental need to be able to target and edit miRNA genes in the human genome. Here, we report a novel approach to disrupting human miRNA genes ex vivo using engineered TAL-effector (TALE) proteins to function as nucleases (TALENs) that specifically target and disrupt human miRNA genes. We demonstrate that functional TALEN pairs can be designed to enable disruption of miRNA seed regions, or removal of entire hairpin sequences, and use this approach to successfully target several physiologically relevant human miRNAs including miR-155*, miR-155, miR-146a and miR-125b. This technology will allow for a substantially improved capacity to study the regulation and function of miRNAs in human cells, and could be developed into a strategic means by which miRNAs can be targeted therapeutically during human disease. PMID:23667577

  7. Prosthetic joint infection due to Lysobacter thermophilus diagnosed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

    PubMed

    Dhawan, B; Sebastian, S; Malhotra, R; Kapil, A; Gautam, D

    2016-01-01

    We report the first case of prosthetic joint infection caused by Lysobacter thermophilus which was identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Removal of prosthesis followed by antibiotic treatment resulted in good clinical outcome. This case illustrates the use of molecular diagnostics to detect uncommon organisms in suspected prosthetic infections.

  8. Opportunities in the design and application of RNA for gene expression control

    PubMed Central

    McKeague, Maureen; Wong, Remus S.; Smolke, Christina D.

    2016-01-01

    The past decade of synthetic biology research has witnessed numerous advances in the development of tools and frameworks for the design and characterization of biological systems. Researchers have focused on the use of RNA for gene expression control due to its versatility in sensing molecular ligands and the relative ease by which RNA can be modeled and designed compared to proteins. We review the recent progress in the field with respect to RNA-based genetic devices that are controlled through small molecule and protein interactions. We discuss new approaches for generating and characterizing these devices and their underlying components. We also highlight immediate challenges, future directions and recent applications of synthetic RNA devices in engineered biological systems. PMID:26969733

  9. Nucleotide sequence of the SrRNA gene and phylogenetic analysis of Trichomonas tenax.

    PubMed

    Fukura, K; Yamamoto, A; Hashimoto, T; Goto, N

    1996-01-01

    The small subunit ribosomal RNA (SrRNA) gene of Trichomonas tenax ATCC30207 was amplified by PCR and the 1.55-kb product was cloned into plasmid vector pUC18. Four clones were isolated and sequenced. The insert DNAs were 1,552 bp long and their G+C contents were 48.1%; three of them had exactly the same DNA sequences and one had only one nucleotide change. A representative SrRNA sequence was analyzed and a phylogenetic tree was estimated by the neighbor-joining (NJ) method. Among the protists examined, T. tenax was placed as the closest relative of Tritrichomonas foetus, as expected from the traditional taxonomy. The total homology between the two SrRNA sequences was 89.2%.

  10. The genes and mRNA coding for the heavy chains of chick embryonic skeletal myosin.

    PubMed

    Patrinou-Georgoulas, M; John, H A

    1977-10-01

    A size class of polysomes was isolated from chick embryonic leg skeletal muscle which synthesized almost exclusively a polypeptide chain with a molecular weight identical to the myosin heavy chain. The mRNA purified from these polysomes was shown to synthesize the 200,000 dalton polypeptide in the wheat germ cell-free translation system. At least 90% of the polypeptide had properties similar to the myosin heavy chain. Isoelectric focusing indicated that the myosin heavy chain synthesized in vitro contained two chains in equal amounts, as did purified embryonic leg skeletal muscle myosin. The kinetics of hybridization of the complementary DNA with an excess of the myosin heavy chain mRNA (MHC mRNA) indicated the presence of two different mRNA sequences. Reassociation of the cDNA to an excess of the DNA of the genome suggest that there is little, if any, reiteration of the myosin heavy chain genes.

  11. Analysis of a 5S rRNA gene cloned from Euplotes eurstomus

    SciTech Connect

    Roberson, A.E.; Wolffe, A.; Olins, D.E.

    1987-05-01

    The macronucleus of the hypotrichous ciliated protozoan Euplotes eurystomus lends itself to the study of eukaryotic gene and chromatin structure because native macronuclear DNA exists as linear, gene-sized fragments between 400 and 20,000 bp in length. The macronuclear chromatin, while arranged in a typical nucleosomal structure, is freely soluble in low ionic strength buffers without treatment by nucleases. Thus, specific genes may be enriched as native, intact chromatin molecules. The 5S rRNA gene from Euplotes has been cloned to facilitate investigation of 5S gene-chromatin following characterization of the gene at the DNA level. It has been demonstrated that the gene, while in circular or linear form, can be transcribed in vitro by a Xenopus oocyte nuclear extract. The transcript generated in vitro is 120 nucleotides in length and is synthesized by RNA polymerase III. Anti-Xenopus TFIIIA antibodies recognize a Euplotes macronuclear chromatin-associated protein which is approx. 80 KD in size. It has been established that the sequence of the telomere flanking the 5S gene in Euplotes eurystomus is the same telomeric sequence published for Euplotes aediculatus.

  12. Gene structure, chromosomal location, and basis for alternative mRNA splicing of the human VCAM1 gene

    SciTech Connect

    Cybulsky, M.I.; Fries, J.W.U.; Williams, A.J.; Sultan, P.; Gimbrone, M.A. Jr.; Collins, T. ); Eddy, R.; Byers, M.; Shows, T. )

    1991-09-01

    Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) is a cell surface glycoprotein adhesive for certain blood leukocytes and tumor cells, which is expressed by activated endothelium in a variety of pathologic conditions including atherosclerosis. Genomic clones encoding the VCAM1 gene were isolated and the organization of the gene was determined. The gene, which is present in a single copy in the human genome, contains 9 exons spanning {approx}25 kilobases of DNA. Exons 2-8 contain C2 or H-type immunoglobulin domains. At least two different VCAM-1 precursors can be generated from the human gene as a result of alternative mRNA splicing events, which include or exclude exon 5. A consensus TATAA element is located upstream of the transcriptional start site. The VCAM1 promoter contains consensus binding sites for NF-{kappa}B, the GATA family of transcription factors, as well as an AP1 site. The VCAM1 gene was assigned to the 1p31-32 region of chromosome 1 based on the analysis of human-mouse hybrid cell lines and in situ hybridization. Structural analysis of the human VCAM1 gene provides the basis for alternative mRNA splicing and an initial approach to elucidating the regulation of VCAM-1 expression.

  13. Identification of a novel miRNA-target gene regulatory network in osteosarcoma by integrating transcriptome analysis

    PubMed Central

    He, Chunlei; Gao, Hui; Fan, Xiaona; Wang, Maoyuan; Liu, Wuyang; Huang, Weiming; Yang, Yadong

    2015-01-01

    Osteosarcoma remains a leading cause of cancer death in children and young adolescents. Although the introduction of multiagent chemotherapy, survival rates have not improved in two decades. Therefore, it is urgently needed to know the details regarding molecular etiology to driving therapeutic inroads for this disease. In this study we performed an integrated analysis of miRNA and mRNA expression data to explore the dysregulation of miRNA and miRNA-target gene regulatory network underlying OS. 59 differentially expressed miRNAs were identified, with 28 up-regulated and 31 down-regulated miRNAs by integrating OS miRNA expression data sets available. Using miRWalk databases prediction, we performed an anticorrelated analysis of miRNA and genes expression identified by a integrated analysis of gene expression data to identify 109 differently expressed miRNA target genes. A novel miRNA-target gene regulatory network was constructed with the miRNA-target gene pairs. miR-19b-3p, miR-20a-5p, miR-124-3p and their common target CCND2, the nodal points of regulatory network, may play important roles in OS. Bioinformatics analysis of biological functions and pathways demonstrated that target genes of miRNAs are highly correlated with carcinogenesis. Our findings may help to understand the molecular mechanisms of OS and identify targets of effective targeted therapies for OS. PMID:26339404

  14. Transient Gene and miRNA Expression Profile Changes of Confluent Human Fibroblast Cells in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Lu, Tao; Wong, Michael; Feiveson, Alan; Stodieck, Louis; Karouia, Fathi; Wang, Xiaoyu; Wu, Honglu

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity or an altered gravity environment from the static 1 gravitational constant has been shown to influence global gene expression patterns and protein levels in cultured cells. However, most of the reported studies conducted in space or using simulated microgravity on the ground have focused on the growth or differentiation of the cells. Whether non-dividing cultured cells will sense the presence of microgravity in space has not been specifically addressed. In an experiment conducted on the International Space Station, confluent human fibroblast cells were fixed after being cultured in space for 3 and 14 days for investigations of gene and miRNA (microRNA) expression profile changes in these cells. A fibroblast is a type of cell that synthesizes the extracellular matrix and collagen, the structural framework for tissues, and plays a critical role in wound healing and other functions. Results of the experiment showed that on Day 3, both the flown and ground cells were still proliferating slowly even though they were confluent, as measured by the expression of the protein Ki-67 positive cells, and the cells in space grew slightly faster. Gene and miRNA expression data indicated activation of NF(sub kappa)B (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells) and other growth related pathways involving HGF and VEGF in the flown cells. On Day 14 when the cells were mostly non-dividing, the gene and miRNA expression profiles between the flight and ground samples were indistinguishable. Comparison of gene and miRNA expressions in the Day 3 samples in respect to Day 14 revealed that most of the changes observed on Day 3 were related to cell growth for both the flown and ground cells. Analysis of cytoskeleton changes by immunohistochemistry staining of the cells with antibodies for alpha-tubulin showed no difference between the flight and ground samples. Results of our study suggest that in true non-dividing human fibroblast cells, microgravity in

  15. Regulation of transcription of genes of ribosomal rna during amphibian oogenesis. A biochemical and morphological study

    PubMed Central

    1976-01-01

    Natural changes in the transcription of rRNA genes were studied in nucleoli from three oogenic stages of the newt Triturus alpestris with electron microscope, auto-radiographic, and biochemical techniques. From determinations of the uridine triphosphate pool sizes and [3H]uridine uptake, phosphorylation, and incorporation into 28S and 18S rRNAs in vivo it was estimated that the rate of rRNA synthesis was about 0.01% in previtellogenic oocytes and 13% in mature oocytes when compared to midvitellogenesis. Spread preparations of nucleoli showed significant morphological changes in the transcriptional complexes. The total number of lateral fibrils, i.e., ribonucleoproteins containing the nascent rRNA precursor, were drastically decreased in stages of reduced synthetic activity. This indicates that rRNA synthesis is regulated primarily at the level of transcription. The resulting patterns of fibril coverage of the nucleolar chromatin axes revealed a marked heterogeneity. On the same nucleolar axis occurred matrix units that were completely devoid of lateral fibrils, matrix units that were almost fully covered with lateral fibrils, and various forms of matrix units with a range of lateral fibril densities intermediate between the two extremes. Granular particles that were tentatively identified as RNA polymerase molecules were not restricted to the transciptional complexes. They were observed, although less regularly and separated by greater distances, in untranscribed spacer regions as well as in untranscribed gene intercepts. The results show that the pattern of transcriptional control of rRNA genes differs widely in different genes, even in the same genetic unit. PMID:1262400

  16. Diverse Evolutionary Trajectories for Small RNA Biogenesis Genes in the Oomycete Genus Phytophthora

    PubMed Central

    Bollmann, Stephanie R.; Fang, Yufeng; Press, Caroline M.; Tyler, Brett M.; Grünwald, Niklaus J.

    2016-01-01

    Gene regulation by small RNA pathways is ubiquitous among eukaryotes, but little is known about small RNA pathways in the Stramenopile kingdom. Phytophthora, a genus of filamentous oomycetes, contains many devastating plant pathogens, causing multibillion-dollar damage to crops, ornamental plants, and natural environments. The genomes of several oomycetes including Phytophthora species such as the soybean pathogen P. sojae, have been sequenced, allowing evolutionary analysis of small RNA-processing enzymes. This study examined the evolutionary origins of the oomycete small RNA-related genes Dicer-like (DCL), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) through broad phylogenetic analyses of the key domains. Two Dicer gene homologs, DCL1 and DCL2, and one RDR homolog were cloned and analyzed from P. sojae. Gene expression analysis revealed only minor changes in transcript levels among different life stages. Oomycete DCL1 homologs clustered with animal and plant Dicer homologs in evolutionary trees, whereas oomycete DCL2 homologs clustered basally to the tree along with Drosha homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of the RDR homologs confirmed a previous study that suggested the last common eukaryote ancestor possessed three RDR homologs, which were selectively retained or lost in later lineages. Our analysis clarifies the position of some Unikont and Chromalveolate RDR lineages within the tree, including oomycete homologs. Finally, we analyzed alterations in the domain structure of oomycete Dicer and RDR homologs, specifically focusing on the proposed domain transfer of the DEAD-box helicase domain from Dicer to RDR. Implications of the oomycete domain structure are discussed, and possible roles of the two oomycete Dicer homologs are proposed. PMID:27014308

  17. Diverse Evolutionary Trajectories for Small RNA Biogenesis Genes in the Oomycete Genus Phytophthora.

    PubMed

    Bollmann, Stephanie R; Fang, Yufeng; Press, Caroline M; Tyler, Brett M; Grünwald, Niklaus J

    2016-01-01

    Gene regulation by small RNA pathways is ubiquitous among eukaryotes, but little is known about small RNA pathways in the Stramenopile kingdom. Phytophthora, a genus of filamentous oomycetes, contains many devastating plant pathogens, causing multibillion-dollar damage to crops, ornamental plants, and natural environments. The genomes of several oomycetes including Phytophthora species such as the soybean pathogen P. sojae, have been sequenced, allowing evolutionary analysis of small RNA-processing enzymes. This study examined the evolutionary origins of the oomycete small RNA-related genes Dicer-like (DCL), and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) through broad phylogenetic analyses of the key domains. Two Dicer gene homologs, DCL1 and DCL2, and one RDR homolog were cloned and analyzed from P. sojae. Gene expression analysis revealed only minor changes in transcript levels among different life stages. Oomycete DCL1 homologs clustered with animal and plant Dicer homologs in evolutionary trees, whereas oomycete DCL2 homologs clustered basally to the tree along with Drosha homologs. Phylogenetic analysis of the RDR homologs confirmed a previous study that suggested the last common eukaryote ancestor possessed three RDR homologs, which were selectively retained or lost in later lineages. Our analysis clarifies the position of some Unikont and Chromalveolate RDR lineages within the tree, including oomycete homologs. Finally, we analyzed alterations in the domain structure of oomycete Dicer and RDR homologs, specifically focusing on the proposed domain transfer of the DEAD-box helicase domain from Dicer to RDR. Implications of the oomycete domain structure are discussed, and possible roles of the two oomycete Dicer homologs are proposed. PMID:27014308

  18. Composition and Expression of Conserved MicroRNA Genes in Diploid Cotton (Gossypium) Species

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Lei; Kakrana, Atul; Arikit, Siwaret; Meyers, Blake C.; Wendel, Jonathan F.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs are ubiquitous in plant genomes but vary greatly in their abundance within and conservation among plant lineages. To gain insight into the evolutionary birth/death dynamics of microRNA families, we sequenced small RNA and 5′-end PARE libraries generated from two closely related species of Gossypium. Here, we demonstrate that 33 microRNA families, with similar copy numbers and average evolutionary rates, are conserved in the two congeneric cottons. Analysis of the presence/absence of these microRNA families in other land plants sheds light on their depth of phylogenetic origin and lineage-specific loss/gain. Conserved microRNA families in Gossypium exhibit a striking interspecific asymmetry in expression, potentially connected to relative proximity to neighboring transposable elements. A complex correlated expression pattern of microRNA target genes with their controlling microRNAs indicates that possible functional divergence of conserved microRNA families can also exist even within a single plant genus. PMID:24281048

  19. Tiny giants of gene regulation: experimental strategies for microRNA functional studies.

    PubMed

    Steinkraus, Bruno R; Toegel, Markus; Fulga, Tudor A

    2016-01-01

    The discovery over two decades ago of short regulatory microRNAs (miRNAs) has led to the inception of a vast biomedical research field dedicated to understanding these powerful orchestrators of gene expression. Here we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of the methods and techniques underpinning the experimental pipeline employed for exploratory miRNA studies in animals. Some of the greatest challenges in this field have been uncovering the identity of miRNA-target interactions and deciphering their significance with regard to particular physiological or pathological processes. These endeavors relied almost exclusively on the development of powerful research tools encompassing novel bioinformatics pipelines, high-throughput target identification platforms, and functional target validation methodologies. Thus, in an unparalleled manner, the biomedical technology revolution unceasingly enhanced and refined our ability to dissect miRNA regulatory networks and understand their roles in vivo in the context of cells and organisms. Recurring motifs of target recognition have led to the creation of a large number of multifactorial bioinformatics analysis platforms, which have proved instrumental in guiding experimental miRNA studies. Subsequently, the need for discovery of miRNA-target binding events in vivo drove the emergence of a slew of high-throughput multiplex strategies, which now provide a viable prospect for elucidating genome-wide miRNA-target binding maps in a variety of cell types and tissues. Finally, deciphering the functional relevance of miRNA post-transcriptional gene silencing under physiological conditions, prompted the evolution of a host of technologies enabling systemic manipulation of miRNA homeostasis as well as high-precision interference with their direct, endogenous targets. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26950183

  20. Complex feedback regulations govern the expression of miRNA396 and its GRF target genes.

    PubMed

    Hewezi, Tarek; Baum, Thomas J

    2012-07-01

    The beet cyst nematode, Heterodera schachtii, is a sedentary root parasite that induces the formation of a specialized root feeding structure, the syncytium. We previously have shown that coordinated regulation of miR396 and its target genes GRF1 and GRF3 in the syncytium is required for proper formation. To gain a better understanding of this coordinated regulation, we used quantitative real-time PCR to assess the abundance of primary (pri)-miRNA396a, pri-miRNA396b and mature miRNA396 in transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing either wild-type variants of the GRF1 or GRF3 coding sequences or miR396-resistant variants. We also included a grf1/grf2/grf3 triple mutant in these analyses. We observed significant decreases in the abundance of pri-miRNA396a, pri-miRNA396b and mature miR396 in the transgenic plants overexpressing GRF1 or GRF3, particularly with the miRNA396-resistant variants. In contrast, the primary transcripts and mature miRNA396 abundance were significantly increased in the grf1/grf2/grf3 triple knockout mutant. These results demonstrate that homeostasis between miR396 and the target genes GRF1 and GRF3 is established through reciprocal feedback regulation, in which GRF1/GRF3 and miR396 negatively regulate each other's expression. In addition, we found that constitutive expression of GRF1 or GRF3 decreases the mRNA abundance of other GRFs, even those that are not targeted by miR396, as well as their own endogenous transcripts, which documents further regulatory facets of this equilibrium. PMID:22751317

  1. How Many Genes Are Expressed in a Transcriptome? Estimation and Results for RNA-Seq

    PubMed Central

    García-Ortega, Luis Fernando; Martínez, Octavio

    2015-01-01

    RNA-seq experiments estimate the number of genes expressed in a transcriptome as well as their relative frequencies. However, an undetermined number of genes can remain undetected due to their low expression relative to the sample size (sequence depth). Estimation of the true number of genes expressed in a transcriptome is essential in order to determine which genes are exclusively expressed in specific tissues or under particular conditions. A reliable estimate of the true number of expressed genes is also required to accurately measure transcriptome changes and to predict the sequencing depth needed to increase the proportion of detected genes. This problem is analogous to ecological sampling problems such as estimating the number of species at a given site. Here we present a non-parametric estimator for the number of undetected genes as well as for the extra sample size needed to detect a given proportion of the undetected genes. Our estimators are superior to ones already published by having smaller standard errors and biases. We applied our method to a set of 32 publicly available RNA-seq experiments, including the evaluation of 311 individually sequenced libraries. We found that in the majority of the cases more than one thousand genes are undetected, and that on average approximately 6% of the expressed genes per accession remain undetected. This figure increases to approximately 10% if individual sequencing libraries are analyzed. Our method is also applicable to metagenomic experiments. Using our method, the number of undetected genes as well as the sample size needed to detect them can be calculated, leading to more accurate and complete gene expression studies. PMID:26107654

  2. Interactions between the Influenza A Virus RNA Polymerase Components and Retinoic Acid-Inducible Gene I

    PubMed Central

    Li, Weizhong; Chen, Hongjun; Sutton, Troy; Obadan, Adebimpe

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT The influenza A virus genome possesses eight negative-strand RNA segments in the form of viral ribonucleoprotein particles (vRNPs) in association with the three viral RNA polymerase subunits (PB2, PB1, and PA) and the nucleoprotein (NP). Through interactions with multiple host factors, the RNP subunits play vital roles in replication, host adaptation, interspecies transmission, and pathogenicity. In order to gain insight into the potential roles of RNP subunits in the modulation of the host's innate immune response, the interactions of each RNP subunit with retinoic acid-inducible gene I protein (RIG-I) from mammalian and avian species were investigated. Studies using coimmunoprecipitation (co-IP), bimolecular fluorescence complementation (BiFc), and colocalization using confocal microscopy provided direct evidence for the RNA-independent binding of PB2, PB1, and PA with RIG-I from various hosts (human, swine, mouse, and duck). In contrast, the binding of NP with RIG-I was found to be RNA dependent. Expression of the viral NS1 protein, which interacts with RIG-I, did not interfere with the association of RNA polymerase subunits with RIG-I. The association of each individual virus polymerase component with RIG-I failed to significantly affect the interferon (IFN) induction elicited by RIG-I and 5′ triphosphate (5′ppp) RNA in reporter assays, quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), and IRF3 phosphorylation tests. Taken together, these findings indicate that viral RNA polymerase components PB2, PB1, and PA directly target RIG-I, but the exact biological significance of these interactions in the replication and pathogenicity of influenza A virus needs to be further clarified. IMPORTANCE RIG-I is an important RNA sensor to elicit the innate immune response in mammals and some bird species (such as duck) upon influenza A virus infection. Although the 5′-triphosphate double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) panhandle structure at the end of viral genome RNA is

  3. Gene Expression in Archaea: Studies of Transcriptional Promoters, Messenger RNA Processing, and Five Prime Untranslated Regions in "Methanocaldococcus Jannashchii"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Jian

    2009-01-01

    Gene expression in Archaea is less understood than those in Bacteria and Eucarya. In general, three steps are involved in gene expression--transcription, RNA processing, and translation. To expand our knowledge of these processes in Archaea, I have studied transcriptional promoters, messenger RNA processing, and 5'-untranslated regions in…

  4. An intron-encoded protein assists RNA splicing of multiple similar introns of different bacterial genes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qing; Wang, Yanfei; Liu, Xiang-Qin

    2005-10-21

    Four group II introns were found in an unusually intron-rich dnaN gene (encoding the beta subunit of DNA polymerase III) of the cyanobacterium Trichodesmium erythraeum, and they have strong similarities to two introns of the RIR gene (encoding ribonucleotide reductase) of the same organism. Of these six introns, only the RIR-3 intron encodes a maturase protein and showed efficient RNA splicing when expressed in Escherichia coli cells. The other five introns do not encode a maturase protein and did not show RNA splicing in E. coli. But these maturase-less introns showed efficient RNA splicing when the RIR-3 intron-encoded maturase protein was co-expressed from a freestanding gene in the same cell. These findings demonstrated that an intron-encoded protein could function as a general maturase for multiple introns of different genes. Major implications may include an intron-mediated co-regulation of the different genes and a resemblance of the evolutionary origin of spliceosomal introns.

  5. Topoisomerase I deficiency causes RNA polymerase II accumulation and increases AID abundance in immunoglobulin variable genes.

    PubMed

    Maul, Robert W; Saribasak, Huseyin; Cao, Zheng; Gearhart, Patricia J

    2015-06-01

    Activation-induced deaminase (AID) is a DNA cytosine deaminase that diversifies immunoglobulin genes in B cells. Recent work has shown that RNA polymerase II (Pol II) accumulation correlates with AID recruitment. However, a direct link between Pol II and AID abundance has not been tested. We used the DT40 B-cell line to manipulate levels of Pol II by decreasing topoisomerase I (Top1), which relaxes DNA supercoiling in front of the transcription complex. Top1 was decreased by stable transfection of a short hairpin RNA against Top1, which produced an accumulation of Pol II in transcribed genes, compared to cells transfected with sh-control RNA. The increased Pol II density enhanced AID recruitment to variable genes in the λ light chain locus, and resulted in higher levels of somatic hypermutation and gene conversion. It has been proposed by another lab that AID itself might directly suppress Top1 to increase somatic hypermutation. However, we found that in both AID(+/+) and AID(-/-) B cells from DT40 and mice, Top1 protein levels were identical, indicating that the presence or absence of AID did not decrease Top1 expression. Rather, our results suggest that the mechanism for increased diversity when Top1 is reduced is that Pol II accumulates and recruits AID to variable genes.

  6. Myocardial alternative RNA splicing and gene expression profiling in early stage hypoplastic left heart syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Marco; Xu, Yanji; Hammond, Harriet L; Willoughby, David A; Nathanson, Lubov; Rodriguez, Maria M; Vatta, Matteo; Lipshultz, Steven E; Lincoln, Joy

    2012-01-01

    Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome (HLHS) is a congenital defect characterized by underdevelopment of the left ventricle and pathological compensation of the right ventricle. If untreated, HLHS is invariably lethal due to the extensive increase in right ventricular workload and eventual failure. Despite the clinical significance, little is known about the molecular pathobiological state of HLHS. Splicing of mRNA transcripts is an important regulatory mechanism of gene expression. Tissue specific alterations of this process have been associated with several cardiac diseases, however, transcriptional signature profiles related to HLHS are unknown. In this study, we performed genome-wide exon array analysis to determine differentially expressed genes and alternatively spliced transcripts in the right ventricle (RV) of six neonates with HLHS, compared to the RV and left ventricle (LV) from non-diseased control subjects. In HLHS, over 180 genes were differentially expressed and 1800 were differentially spliced, leading to changes in a variety of biological processes involving cell metabolism, cytoskeleton, and cell adherence. Additional hierarchical clustering analysis revealed that differential gene expression and mRNA splicing patterns identified in HLHS are unique compared to non-diseased tissue. Our findings suggest that gene expression and mRNA splicing are broadly dysregulated in the RV myocardium of HLHS neonates. In addition, our analysis identified transcriptome profiles representative of molecular biomarkers of HLHS that could be used in the future for diagnostic and prognostic stratification to improve patient outcome.

  7. Evolution of the Division of Labor between Genes and Enzymes in the RNA World

    PubMed Central

    Boza, Gergely; Szilágyi, András; Kun, Ádám; Santos, Mauro; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2014-01-01

    The RNA world is a very likely interim stage of the evolution after the first replicators and before the advent of the genetic code and translated proteins. Ribozymes are known to be able to catalyze many reaction types, including cofactor-aided metabolic transformations. In a metabolically complex RNA world, early division of labor between genes and enzymes could have evolved, where the ribozymes would have been transcribed from the genes more often than the other way round, benefiting the encapsulating cells through this dosage effect. Here we show, by computer simulations of protocells harboring unlinked RNA replicators, that the origin of replicational asymmetry producing more ribozymes from a gene template than gene strands from a ribozyme template is feasible and robust. Enzymatic activities of the two modeled ribozymes are in trade-off with their replication rates, and the relative replication rates compared to those of complementary strands are evolvable traits of the ribozymes. The degree of trade-off is shown to have the strongest effect in favor of the division of labor. Although some asymmetry between gene and enzymatic strands could have evolved even in earlier, surface-bound systems, the shown mechanism in protocells seems inevitable and under strong positive selection. This could have preadapted the genetic system for transcription after the subsequent origin of chromosomes and DNA. PMID:25474573

  8. Evolution of the division of labor between genes and enzymes in the RNA world.

    PubMed

    Boza, Gergely; Szilágyi, András; Kun, Ádám; Santos, Mauro; Szathmáry, Eörs

    2014-12-01

    The RNA world is a very likely interim stage of the evolution after the first replicators and before the advent of the genetic code and translated proteins. Ribozymes are known to be able to catalyze many reaction types, including cofactor-aided metabolic transformations. In a metabolically complex RNA world, early division of labor between genes and enzymes could have evolved, where the ribozymes would have been transcribed from the genes more often than the other way round, benefiting the encapsulating cells through this dosage effect. Here we show, by computer simulations of protocells harboring unlinked RNA replicators, that the origin of replicational asymmetry producing more ribozymes from a gene template than gene strands from a ribozyme template is feasible and robust. Enzymatic activities of the two modeled ribozymes are in trade-off with their replication rates, and the relative replication rates compared to those of complementary strands are evolvable traits of the ribozymes. The degree of trade-off is shown to have the strongest effect in favor of the division of labor. Although some asymmetry between gene and enzymatic strands could have evolved even in earlier, surface-bound systems, the shown mechanism in protocells seems inevitable and under strong positive selection. This could have preadapted the genetic system for transcription after the subsequent origin of chromosomes and DNA.

  9. Detection of bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA genes for forensic identification of vaginal fluid.

    PubMed

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Motani, Hisako; Watanabe, Ken; Iwase, Hirotaro; Sakurada, Koichi

    2012-05-01

    To preliminarily evaluate the applicability of bacterial DNA as a marker for the forensic identification of vaginal fluid, we developed and performed PCR-based detection of 16S ribosomal RNA genes of Lactobacillus spp. dominating the vagina and of bacterial vaginosis-related bacteria from DNA extracted from body fluids and stains. As a result, 16S ribosomal RNA genes of Lactobacillus crispatus, Lactobacillus jensenii and Atopobium vaginae were specifically detected in vaginal fluid and female urine samples. Bacterial genes detected in female urine might have originated from contaminated vaginal fluid. In addition, those of Lactobacillus iners, Lactobacillus gasseri and Gardnerella vaginalis were also detected in non-vaginal body fluids such as semen. Because bacterial genes were successfully amplified in DNA samples extracted by using the general procedure for animal tissues without any optional treatments, DNA samples prepared for the identification of vaginal fluid can also be used for personal identification. In conclusion, 16S ribosomal RNA genes of L. crispatus, L. jensenii and A. vaginae could be effective markers for forensic identification of vaginal fluid.

  10. RNA-Seq Mapping and Detection of Gene Fusions with a Suffix Array Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Sakarya, Onur; Breu, Heinz; Radovich, Milan; Chen, Yongzhi; Wang, Yulei N.; Barbacioru, Catalin; Utiramerur, Sowmi; Whitley, Penn P.; Brockman, Joel P.; Vatta, Paolo; Zhang, Zheng; Popescu, Liviu; Muller, Matthew W.; Kudlingar, Vidya; Garg, Nriti; Li, Chieh-Yuan; Kong, Benjamin S.; Bodeau, John P.; Nutter, Robert C.; Gu, Jian; Bramlett, Kelli S.; Ichikawa, Jeffrey K.; Hyland, Fiona C.; Siddiqui, Asim S.

    2012-01-01

    High-throughput RNA sequencing enables quantification of transcripts (both known and novel), exon/exon junctions and fusions of exons from different genes. Discovery of gene fusions–particularly those expressed with low abundance– is a challenge with short- and medium-length sequencing reads. To address this challenge, we implemented an RNA-Seq mapping pipeline within the LifeScope software. We introduced new features including filter and junction mapping, annotation-aided pairing rescue and accurate mapping quality values. We combined this pipeline with a Suffix Array Spliced Read (SASR) aligner to detect chimeric transcripts. Performing paired-end RNA-Seq of the breast cancer cell line MCF-7 using the SOLiD system, we called 40 gene fusions among over 120,000 splicing junctions. We validated 36 of these 40 fusions with TaqMan assays, of which 25 were expressed in MCF-7 but not the Human Brain Reference. An intra-chromosomal gene fusion involving the estrogen receptor alpha gene ESR1, and another involving the RPS6KB1 (Ribosomal protein S6 kinase beta-1) were recurrently expressed in a number of breast tumor cell lines and a clinical tumor sample. PMID:22496636

  11. RNA-DNA differences are rarer in proto-oncogenes than in tumor suppressor genes.

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Lin, Yan; Zhang, Randy Ren

    2012-01-01

    It has long been assumed that DNA sequences and corresponding RNA transcripts are almost identical; a recent discovery, however, revealed widespread RNA-DNA differences (RDDs), which represent a largely unexplored aspect of human genome variation. It has been speculated that RDDs can affect disease susceptibility and manifestations; however, almost nothing is known about how RDDs are related to disease. Here, we show that RDDs are rarer in proto-oncogenes than in tumor suppressor genes; the number of RDDs in coding exons, but not in 3'UTR and 5'UTR, is significantly lower in the former than th