Science.gov

Sample records for 8-10 hz discontinuities

  1. 15 CFR 8.10 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Investigations. 8.10 Section 8.10... Compliance § 8.10 Investigations. (a) Making the investigation. The responsible Department official or his designee will make a prompt investigation whenever a compliance review, report, complaint, or any...

  2. 15 CFR 8.10 - Investigations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Investigations. 8.10 Section 8.10... Compliance § 8.10 Investigations. (a) Making the investigation. The responsible Department official or his designee will make a prompt investigation whenever a compliance review, report, complaint, or any...

  3. 41 CFR 51-8.10 - Appeals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Appeals. 51-8.10 Section 51-8.10 Public Contracts and Property Management Other Provisions Relating to Public Contracts... MATERIALS § 51-8.10 Appeals. (a) An appeal to the Chairperson of any denial, in whole or in part, of...

  4. 7 CFR 319.8-10 - Covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Covers. 319.8-10 Section 319.8-10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Conditions of Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-10 Covers....

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-10 - Covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Covers. 319.8-10 Section 319.8-10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Conditions of Importation...

  6. 7 CFR 319.8-10 - Covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Covers. 319.8-10 Section 319.8-10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Conditions of Importation...

  7. 7 CFR 319.8-10 - Covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Covers. 319.8-10 Section 319.8-10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Conditions of Importation...

  8. 7 CFR 319.8-10 - Covers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Covers. 319.8-10 Section 319.8-10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE FOREIGN QUARANTINE NOTICES Foreign Cotton and Covers Conditions of Importation...

  9. 28 CFR 8.10 - Claims.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... § 8.10 Claims. (a) Filing. In order to contest the forfeiture of seized property in federal court, any...) Availability of claim forms. The claim need not be made in any particular form. However, each seizing agency conducting forfeitures under the regulations in this part must make claim forms generally available...

  10. 40 CFR 8.10 - Cases of emergency.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cases of emergency. 8.10 Section 8.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT ASSESSMENT OF NONGOVERNMENTAL ACTIVITIES IN ANTARCTICA § 8.10 Cases of emergency. This part shall not apply to activities...

  11. 24 CFR 8.10 - General prohibitions against employment discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false General prohibitions against employment discrimination. 8.10 Section 8.10 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY...

  12. 24 CFR 8.10 - General prohibitions against employment discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false General prohibitions against employment discrimination. 8.10 Section 8.10 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY...

  13. 24 CFR 8.10 - General prohibitions against employment discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false General prohibitions against employment discrimination. 8.10 Section 8.10 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY...

  14. 24 CFR 8.10 - General prohibitions against employment discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false General prohibitions against employment discrimination. 8.10 Section 8.10 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY...

  15. 24 CFR 8.10 - General prohibitions against employment discrimination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false General prohibitions against employment discrimination. 8.10 Section 8.10 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban Development NONDISCRIMINATION BASED ON HANDICAP IN FEDERALLY...

  16. Coping Strategies at the Ages 8, 10 and 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zsolnai, Aniko; Kasik, Laszlo; Braunitzer, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to reveal what coping strategies 8, 10- and 12-year-old Hungarian students (N?=?167) use in situations that are frustrating, either for themselves or their peers. The coping strategies in school situations were assessed by our own questionnaires. The instrument enables the investigation of the following…

  17. The Math Master Level 3. Ages 8-10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Barbara W.

    This booklet, designed for ages 8-10, is the third in a series designed to help teachers develop a more positive and creative approach to giving work on mathematics skills to children. It is based on objectives concerning creativity, fostering independent thinking, using experiences, using mastery, reinforcing previously learned skills,…

  18. Cultural Discontinuities and Schooling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogbu, John U.

    1982-01-01

    Attempts to define the cultural discontinuity (between schools and students) hypothesis by distinguishing between universal, primary, and secondary discontinuities. Suggests that each of these is associated with a distinct type of school problem, and that secondary cultural discontinuities commonly affect minority students in the United States.…

  19. On discontinuing dialysis.

    PubMed

    Wight, J

    1993-06-01

    Ethical issues relating to the withdrawal of dialysis are discussed, comparing dialysis with other life-support systems, particularly artificial ventilation. It is argued that there is no ethical difference between discontinuing treatment in each case. One practical difference between the two is that patients with chronic renal failure are less likely to have reduced autonomy, and so can engage in discussions with their doctors regarding the situations in which their life-supporting treatment might be discontinued. It is argued that doctors caring for patients on dialysis have an ethical duty to discuss with these patients the circumstances in which they may wish to discontinue dialysis. PMID:8331641

  20. Discontinuing benzodiazepines: best practices.

    PubMed

    Guaiana, G; Barbui, C

    2016-06-01

    In July 2015, the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) released a Rapid Response report summary, with a critical appraisal, on discontinuation strategies for patients with long-term benzodiazepines (BDZ) use. The CADTH document is a review of the literature. It includes studies whose intervention is BDZ discontinuation. Also, clinical guidelines, systematic reviews and meta-analyses are included. What emerges from the CADTH guidelines is that the best strategy remains gradual tapering of BDZ with little evidence for the use of adjunctive medications. The results show that simple interventions such as discontinuation letters from clinicians, self-help information and support in general, added to gradual tapering may be associated with a two- to three-fold higher chance of successful withdrawal, compared with treatment as usual. We suggest possible implications for day-to-day clinical practice. PMID:26818890

  1. Explosive synchronization is discontinuous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlasov, Vladimir; Zou, Yong; Pereira, Tiago

    2015-07-01

    Spontaneous explosive is an abrupt transition to collective behavior taking place in heterogeneous networks when the frequencies of the nodes are positively correlated with the node degree. This explosive transition was conjectured to be discontinuous. Indeed, numerical investigations reveal a hysteresis behavior associated with the transition. Here, we analyze explosive synchronization in star graphs. We show that in the thermodynamic limit the transition to (and out of) collective behavior is indeed discontinuous. The discontinuous nature of the transition is related to the nonlinear behavior of the order parameter, which in the thermodynamic limit exhibits multiple fixed points. Moreover, we unravel the hysteresis behavior in terms of the graph parameters. Our numerical results show that finite-size graphs are well described by our predictions.

  2. Modern Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloom, Howard S.

    2012-01-01

    This article provides a detailed discussion of the theory and practice of modern regression discontinuity (RD) analysis for estimating the effects of interventions or treatments. Part 1 briefly chronicles the history of RD analysis and summarizes its past applications. Part 2 explains how in theory an RD analysis can identify an average effect of…

  3. Substrate specificity of papain dynamic structures for peptides consisting of 8-10 GLY residues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishiyama, Katsuhiko

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the substrate specificity of papain dynamic structures for peptides of 8-10 glycine residues (8-10GLY) via molecular dynamics and docking simulations. The substrate specificity of papain for 8-10GLY fluctuated considerably with time. There were several residues that were different among those that had a significant impact on binding (RESIDUES_IMPACT) with 10GLY, 9GLY, and 8GLY. Modification of these different residues should allow for control of substrate specificity, providing a framework for modifying substrate specificity in papain and other enzymes.

  4. Influence of pacer continuity on continuous and discontinuous visuo-motor synchronisation.

    PubMed

    Zelic, Gregory; Varlet, Manuel; Kim, Jeesun; Davis, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Previous research has reported that synchronising movements with an external pacer, known as sensorimotor synchronisation (SMS), is more stable when the movements are discrete/discontinuous rather than continuous. A standard explanation considers that more efficient mechanisms are involved for regulating synchronisation when producing discontinuous movements. To date, however, only discontinuous pacers (e.g., metronomes) have been investigated to compare discontinuous and continuous SMS. We propose an alternative explanation whereby the discontinuous SMS has benefited from the matching between the (dis)continuous nature of the pacer and the (dis)continuous nature of the movements of synchronisation. The present experiment tested this explanation by examining the relative stability of discontinuous and continuous SMS when synchronising with a continuous pacer. Twelve participants finger tapped (discontinuous SMS) or continuously oscillated their forearm (continuous SMS) in synchrony with an oscillatory visual target. The continuity of the pacer was manipulated by varying the kinematic (harmonic to Rayleigh-like oscillations) and the frequency (0.5 and 1Hz) of the target oscillations. Overall, the results showed a more stable continuous than discontinuous SMS. Furthermore, the stability of the discontinuous SMS improved when increasing the discontinuity of the target displacements (high nonlinear kinematic and low frequency), showing an interaction between movement type and pacer continuity in SMS. PMID:27232554

  5. Mingus Discontinuous Multiphysics

    2014-05-13

    Mingus provides hybrid coupled local/non-local mechanics analysis capabilities that extend several traditional methods to applications with inherent discontinuities. Its primary features include adaptations of solid mechanics, fluid dynamics and digital image correlation that naturally accommodate dijointed data or irregular solution fields by assimilating a variety of discretizations (such as control volume finite elements, peridynamics and meshless control point clouds). The goal of this software is to provide an analysis framework form multiphysics engineering problems withmore » an integrated image correlation capability that can be used for experimental validation and model« less

  6. Mingus Discontinuous Multiphysics

    SciTech Connect

    Pat Notz, Dan Turner

    2014-05-13

    Mingus provides hybrid coupled local/non-local mechanics analysis capabilities that extend several traditional methods to applications with inherent discontinuities. Its primary features include adaptations of solid mechanics, fluid dynamics and digital image correlation that naturally accommodate dijointed data or irregular solution fields by assimilating a variety of discretizations (such as control volume finite elements, peridynamics and meshless control point clouds). The goal of this software is to provide an analysis framework form multiphysics engineering problems with an integrated image correlation capability that can be used for experimental validation and model

  7. Kinematics of Strong Discontinuities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, K.; Nguyen, G.; Sulsky, D.

    2006-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) provides a detailed view of the Arctic ice cover. When processed with the RADARSAT Geophysical Processor System (RGPS), it provides estimates of sea ice motion and deformation over large regions of the Arctic for extended periods of time. The deformation is dominated by the appearance of linear kinematic features that have been associated with the presence of leads. The RGPS deformation products are based on the assumption that the displacement and velocity are smooth functions of the spatial coordinates. However, if the dominant deformation of multiyear ice results from the opening, closing and shearing of leads, then the displacement and velocity can be discontinuous. This presentation discusses the kinematics associated with strong discontinuities that describe possible jumps in displacement or velocity. Ice motion from SAR data are analyzed using this framework. It is assumed that RGPS cells deform due to the presence of a lead. The lead orientation is calculated to optimally account for the observed deformation. It is shown that almost all observed deformation can be represented by lead opening and shearing. The procedure used to reprocess motion data to account for leads will be described and applied to regions of the Beaufort Sea. The procedure not only provides a new view of ice deformation, it can be used to obtain information about the presence of leads for initialization and/or validation of numerical simulations.

  8. CD44 Splice Variant v8-10 as a Marker of Serous Ovarian Cancer Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Sosulski, Amanda; Horn, Heiko; Zhang, Lihua; Coletti, Caroline; Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Castro, Cesar M; Birrer, Michael J; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Lage, Kasper; Donahoe, Patricia K; Pépin, David

    2016-01-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane hyaluronic acid receptor gene that encodes over 100 different tissue-specific protein isoforms. The most ubiquitous, CD44 standard, has been used as a cancer stem cell marker in ovarian and other cancers. Expression of the epithelial CD44 variant containing exons v8-10 (CD44v8-10) has been associated with more chemoresistant and metastatic tumors in gastrointestinal and breast cancers, but its role in ovarian cancer is unknown; we therefore investigated its use as a prognostic marker in this disease. The gene expression profiles of 254 tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas RNAseqV2 were analyzed for the presence of CD44 isoforms. A trend for longer survival was observed in patients with high expression of CD44 isoforms that include exons v8-10. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of tumors for presence of CD44v8-10 was performed on an independent cohort of 210 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer using a tumor tissue microarray. Patient stratification based on software analysis of staining revealed a statistically significant increase in survival in patients with the highest levels of transmembrane protein expression (top 10 or 20%) compared to those with the lowest expression (bottom 10 and 20%) (p = 0.0181, p = 0.0262 respectively). Expression of CD44v8-10 in primary ovarian cancer cell lines was correlated with a predominantly epithelial phenotype characterized by high expression of epithelial markers and low expression of mesenchymal markers by qPCR, Western blot, and IHC. Conversely, detection of proteolytically cleaved and soluble extracellular domain of CD44v8-10 in patient ascites samples was correlated with significantly worse prognosis (p<0.05). Therefore, presence of transmembrane CD44v8-10 on the surface of primary tumor cells may be a marker of a highly epithelial tumor with better prognosis while enzymatic cleavage of CD44v8-10, as detected by presence of the soluble extracellular domain in ascites fluid, may be

  9. CD44 Splice Variant v8-10 as a Marker of Serous Ovarian Cancer Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lihua; Coletti, Caroline; Vathipadiekal, Vinod; Castro, Cesar M.; Birrer, Michael J.; Nagano, Osamu; Saya, Hideyuki; Lage, Kasper; Donahoe, Patricia K.; Pépin, David

    2016-01-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane hyaluronic acid receptor gene that encodes over 100 different tissue-specific protein isoforms. The most ubiquitous, CD44 standard, has been used as a cancer stem cell marker in ovarian and other cancers. Expression of the epithelial CD44 variant containing exons v8-10 (CD44v8-10) has been associated with more chemoresistant and metastatic tumors in gastrointestinal and breast cancers, but its role in ovarian cancer is unknown; we therefore investigated its use as a prognostic marker in this disease. The gene expression profiles of 254 tumor samples from The Cancer Genome Atlas RNAseqV2 were analyzed for the presence of CD44 isoforms. A trend for longer survival was observed in patients with high expression of CD44 isoforms that include exons v8-10. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of tumors for presence of CD44v8-10 was performed on an independent cohort of 210 patients with high-grade serous ovarian cancer using a tumor tissue microarray. Patient stratification based on software analysis of staining revealed a statistically significant increase in survival in patients with the highest levels of transmembrane protein expression (top 10 or 20%) compared to those with the lowest expression (bottom 10 and 20%) (p = 0.0181, p = 0.0262 respectively). Expression of CD44v8-10 in primary ovarian cancer cell lines was correlated with a predominantly epithelial phenotype characterized by high expression of epithelial markers and low expression of mesenchymal markers by qPCR, Western blot, and IHC. Conversely, detection of proteolytically cleaved and soluble extracellular domain of CD44v8-10 in patient ascites samples was correlated with significantly worse prognosis (p<0.05). Therefore, presence of transmembrane CD44v8-10 on the surface of primary tumor cells may be a marker of a highly epithelial tumor with better prognosis while enzymatic cleavage of CD44v8-10, as detected by presence of the soluble extracellular domain in ascites fluid, may be

  10. Biotransformation of 2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-Hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) by Denitrifying Pseudomonas sp. Strain FA1

    PubMed Central

    Bhushan, Bharat; Paquet, Louise; Spain, Jim C.; Hawari, Jalal

    2003-01-01

    The microbial and enzymatic degradation of a new energetic compound, 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20), is not well understood. Fundamental knowledge about the mechanism of microbial degradation of CL-20 is essential to allow the prediction of its fate in the environment. In the present study, a CL-20-degrading denitrifying strain capable of utilizing CL-20 as the sole nitrogen source, Pseudomonas sp. strain FA1, was isolated from a garden soil. Studies with intact cells showed that aerobic conditions were required for bacterial growth and that anaerobic conditions enhanced CL-20 biotransformation. An enzyme(s) involved in the initial biotransformation of CL-20 was shown to be membrane associated and NADH dependent, and its expression was up-regulated about 2.2-fold in CL-20-induced cells. The rates of CL-20 biotransformation by the resting cells and the membrane-enzyme preparation were 3.2 ± 0.1 nmol h−1 mg of cell biomass−1 and 11.5 ± 0.4 nmol h−1 mg of protein−1, respectively, under anaerobic conditions. In the membrane-enzyme-catalyzed reactions, 2.3 nitrite ions (NO2−), 1.5 molecules of nitrous oxide (N2O), and 1.7 molecules of formic acid (HCOOH) were produced per reacted CL-20 molecule. The membrane-enzyme preparation reduced nitrite to nitrous oxide under anaerobic conditions. A comparative study of native enzymes, deflavoenzymes, and a reconstituted enzyme(s) and their subsequent inhibition by diphenyliodonium revealed that biotransformation of CL-20 is catalyzed by a membrane-associated flavoenzyme. The latter catalyzed an oxygen-sensitive one-electron transfer reaction that caused initial N denitration of CL-20. PMID:12957905

  11. Synthesis of 2,4,8,10-tetroxaspiro5,5undecane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poshkus, A. C. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Pentaerythritol is converted to its diformal, 2,4,8,10-tetroxaspirol5.5undecane, by heating it to a temperature within the range of about 110 to 150 C, for a period of up to 10 minutes, in the presence of a slight excess of paraformaldehyde and of a catalytic quantity of an acid catalyst such as sulfuric acid. The reaction may be carried out in two steps, by forming first the monoformal, then the diformal. In any case, total reaction time is about 10 minutes, and yield of diformal are greater than 90%. Previous processes require hours or days, and often, tedious operating procedures.

  12. Mixing of discontinuously deforming media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. D.; Rudman, M.; Lester, D. R.; Metcalfe, G.

    2016-02-01

    Mixing of materials is fundamental to many natural phenomena and engineering applications. The presence of discontinuous deformations—such as shear banding or wall slip—creates new mechanisms for mixing and transport beyond those predicted by classical dynamical systems theory. Here, we show how a novel mixing mechanism combining stretching with cutting and shuffling yields exponential mixing rates, quantified by a positive Lyapunov exponent, an impossibility for systems with cutting and shuffling alone or bounded systems with stretching alone, and demonstrate it in a fluid flow. While dynamical systems theory provides a framework for understanding mixing in smoothly deforming media, a theory of discontinuous mixing is yet to be fully developed. New methods are needed to systematize, explain, and extrapolate measurements on systems with discontinuous deformations. Here, we investigate "webs" of Lagrangian discontinuities and show that they provide a template for the overall transport dynamics. Considering slip deformations as the asymptotic limit of increasingly localised smooth shear, we also demonstrate exactly how some of the new structures introduced by discontinuous deformations are analogous to structures in smoothly deforming systems.

  13. Unstable supercritical discontinuous percolation transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Cheng, Xueqi; Zheng, Zhiming; Chung, Ning Ning; D'Souza, Raissa M.; Nagler, Jan

    2013-10-01

    The location and nature of the percolation transition in random networks is a subject of intense interest. Recently, a series of graph evolution processes have been introduced that lead to discontinuous percolation transitions where the addition of a single edge causes the size of the largest component to exhibit a significant macroscopic jump in the thermodynamic limit. These processes can have additional exotic behaviors, such as displaying a “Devil's staircase” of discrete jumps in the supercritical regime. Here we investigate whether the location of the largest jump coincides with the percolation threshold for a range of processes, such as Erdős-Rényipercolation, percolation via edge competition and via growth by overtaking. We find that the largest jump asymptotically occurs at the percolation transition for Erdős-Rényiand other processes exhibiting global continuity, including models exhibiting an “explosive” transition. However, for percolation processes exhibiting genuine discontinuities, the behavior is substantially richer. In percolation models where the order parameter exhibits a staircase, the largest discontinuity generically does not coincide with the percolation transition. For the generalized Bohman-Frieze-Wormald model, it depends on the model parameter. Distinct parameter regimes well in the supercritical regime feature unstable discontinuous transitions—a novel and unexpected phenomenon in percolation. We thus demonstrate that seemingly and genuinely discontinuous percolation transitions can involve a rich behavior in supercriticality, a regime that has been largely ignored in percolation.

  14. Mixing of discontinuously deforming media.

    PubMed

    Smith, L D; Rudman, M; Lester, D R; Metcalfe, G

    2016-02-01

    Mixing of materials is fundamental to many natural phenomena and engineering applications. The presence of discontinuous deformations-such as shear banding or wall slip-creates new mechanisms for mixing and transport beyond those predicted by classical dynamical systems theory. Here, we show how a novel mixing mechanism combining stretching with cutting and shuffling yields exponential mixing rates, quantified by a positive Lyapunov exponent, an impossibility for systems with cutting and shuffling alone or bounded systems with stretching alone, and demonstrate it in a fluid flow. While dynamical systems theory provides a framework for understanding mixing in smoothly deforming media, a theory of discontinuous mixing is yet to be fully developed. New methods are needed to systematize, explain, and extrapolate measurements on systems with discontinuous deformations. Here, we investigate "webs" of Lagrangian discontinuities and show that they provide a template for the overall transport dynamics. Considering slip deformations as the asymptotic limit of increasingly localised smooth shear, we also demonstrate exactly how some of the new structures introduced by discontinuous deformations are analogous to structures in smoothly deforming systems. PMID:26931594

  15. A Triad of Highly Reduced, Linear Iron Nitrosyl Complexes: {FeNO}(8-10).

    PubMed

    Chalkley, Matthew J; Peters, Jonas C

    2016-09-19

    Given the importance of Fe-NO complexes in both human biology and the global nitrogen cycle, there has been interest in understanding their diverse electronic structures. Herein a redox series of isolable iron nitrosyl complexes stabilized by a tris(phosphine)borane (TPB) ligand is described. These structurally characterized iron nitrosyl complexes reside in the following highly reduced Enemark-Feltham numbers: {FeNO}(8) , {FeNO}(9) , and {FeNO}(10) . These {FeNO}(8-10) compounds are each low-spin, and feature linear yet strongly activated nitric oxide ligands. Use of Mössbauer, EPR, NMR, UV/Vis, and IR spectroscopy, in conjunction with DFT calculations, provides insight into the electronic structures of this uncommon redox series of iron nitrosyl complexes. In particular, the data collectively suggest that {TPBFeNO}(8-10) are all remarkably covalent. This covalency is likely responsible for the stability of this system across three highly reduced redox states that correlate with unusually high Enemark-Feltham numbers. PMID:27560776

  16. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T.; Pierce, R.

    2012-02-21

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.1-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a 'standard' 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of {approx}11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The maximum KF concentration is dictated by a potential room-temperature Pu-Gd-F precipitation issue at low Pu concentrations. The purpose of the experimental work described in this report was two-fold. Initially a series of screening experiments was performed to measure the dissolution rate of Pu metal as functions of the HNO{sub 3}, KF, and Gd or B concentrations. The objective of the screening tests was to propose optimized conditions for subsequent flowsheet demonstration tests. Based on the rate measurements, this study found that optimal dissolution conditions in solutions containing 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd occurred in 8-10

  17. Phase unwrapping using discontinuity optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Flynn, T.J.

    1998-03-01

    In SAR interferometry, the periodicity of the phase must be removed using two-dimensional phase unwrapping. The goal of the procedure is to find a smooth surface in which large spatial phase differences, called discontinuities, are restricted to places where their presence is reasonable. The pioneering work of Goldstein et al. identified points of local unwrap inconsistency called residues, which must be connected by discontinuities. This paper presents an overview of recent work that treats phase unwrapping as a discrete optimization problem with the constraint that residues must be connected. Several algorithms use heuristic methods to reduce the total number of discontinuities. Constantini has introduced the weighted sum of discontinuity magnitudes as a criterion of unwrap error and shown how algorithms from optimization theory are used to minimize it. Pixels of low quality are given low weight to guide discontinuities away from smooth, high-quality regions. This method is generally robust, but if noise is severe it underestimates the steepness of slopes and the heights of peaks. This problem is mitigated by subtracting (modulo 2{pi}) a smooth estimate of the unwrapped phase from the data, then unwrapping the resulting residual phase. The unwrapped residual is added to the smooth estimate to produce the final unwrapped phase. The estimate can be computed by lowpass filtering of an existing unwrapped phase; this makes possible an iterative algorithm in which the result of each iteration provides the estimate for the next. An example illustrates the results of optimal discontinuity placement and the improvement from unwrapping of the residual phase.

  18. Nonperiodic optical flickering in HZ Herculis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moffett, T. J.; Nather, R. E.; Vanden Bout, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    High-speed simultaneous dual-channel photometry of HZ Her and a nearby comparison star reveal nonperiodic optical flickering in the HZ Her system on a time scale of 15 to 300 sec. The amplitude of the flickering appears to be correlated with orbital phase. Optical emission from a hot spot in a disk of material around the X-ray source cannot account for the flickering.

  19. Audiogram of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus) from 2 Hz to 9 kHz.

    PubMed

    Hill, Evan M; Koay, Gimseong; Heffner, Rickye S; Heffner, Henry E

    2014-10-01

    The pure-tone thresholds of four domestic female chickens were determined from 2 Hz to 9 kHz using the method of conditioned suppression/avoidance. At a level of 60 dB sound pressure level (re 20 μN/m(2)), their hearing range extends from 9.1 Hz to 7.2 kHz, with a best sensitivity of 2.6 dB at 2 kHz. Chickens have better sensitivity than humans for frequencies below 64 Hz; indeed, their sensitivity to infrasound exceeds that of the homing pigeon. However, when threshold testing moved to the lower frequencies, the animals required additional training before their final thresholds were obtained, suggesting that they may perceive frequencies below 64 Hz differently than higher frequencies. PMID:25092127

  20. Technological Discontinuities and Organizational Environments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tushman, Michael L.; Anderson, Philip

    1986-01-01

    Technological effects on environmental conditions are analyzed using longitudinal data from the minicomputer, cement, and airline industries. Technology evolves through periods of incremental change punctuated by breakthroughs that enhance or destroy the competence of firms. Competence-destroying discontinuities increase environmental turbulence;…

  1. The Morphosyntax of Discontinuous Exponence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Amy Melissa

    2012-01-01

    This thesis offers a systematic treatment of discontinuous exponence, a pattern of inflection in which a single feature or a set of features bundled in syntax is expressed by multiple, distinct morphemes. This pattern is interesting and theoretically relevant because it represents a deviation from the expected one-to-one relationship between…

  2. Spatiotemporal path discontinuities of wavepackets propagating across a meta-atom

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Insang; Han, Chung Kyu; Shin, Dong-Soo; Lee, K. J. B.; Wu, J. W.; Moon, Han Seb; Wright, Oliver B.; Lee, Sam H.

    2014-01-01

    The realization of phase discontinuities across metasurfaces has led to a new class of reflection and refraction. Here we present theory and experiment on the discontinuous propagation of wavepackets across subwavelength-thickness meta-atoms. Using acoustic waves, we observe the process of wavepackets traversing a meta-atom with abrupt displacements, which appear as path discontinuities on a space-time diagram. We construct a tunable meta-atom from two coupled resonators at ~500 Hz, map the spatiotemporal trajectories of individual sonic pulses, and reveal discontinuities at the meta-atom where the pulses exit at a time ~50 ms ahead or behind their arrivals. Applications include thin acoustic metasurface lenses. PMID:24728015

  3. 38 CFR 21.7635 - Discontinuance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....S.C. 3680(e)) (b) Course discontinued—course interrupted—course terminated—course not satisfactorily...) (e) Discontinued by VA. If VA discontinues payment to a reservist following the procedures stated...

  4. Bursts in discontinuous Aeolian saltation.

    PubMed

    Carneiro, M V; Rasmussen, K R; Herrmann, H J

    2015-01-01

    Close to the onset of Aeolian particle transport through saltation we find in wind tunnel experiments a regime of discontinuous flux characterized by bursts of activity. Scaling laws are observed in the time delay between each burst and in the measurements of the wind fluctuations at the fluid threshold Shields number θc. The time delay between each burst decreases on average with the increase of the Shields number until sand flux becomes continuous. A numerical model for saltation including the wind-entrainment from the turbulent fluctuations can reproduce these observations and gives insight about their origin. We present here also for the first time measurements showing that with feeding it becomes possible to sustain discontinuous flux even below the fluid threshold. PMID:26073305

  5. Discontinuities in Jovian sulphur plasma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mekler, Y.; Eviatar, A.; Siscoe, G. L.

    1979-01-01

    The radial distribution of the Jovian sulfur plasma is discussed. Spectra of the ionized sulfur in the Jovian magnetosphere indicate a sharp discontinuity in visible sulfur emission at a radial distance of six Jupiter radii (Io orbit), outside of which emission is greatly reduced and the plasma is observed not to be in corotation with the planet. Possible explanations of this phenomenon include an effect of Io on the electron temperature outside its orbit, leading to the suppression of S II emission by second ionization, and a current system in Jupiter's ionosphere which prevents plasma from diffusing outward and decouples it from the corotation field. This discontinuity also requires reconciliation with Pioneer observations of the radial and pitch-angle diffusion of energetic charged particles.

  6. Bursts in discontinuous Aeolian saltation

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, M. V.; Rasmussen, K. R.; Herrmann, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Close to the onset of Aeolian particle transport through saltation we find in wind tunnel experiments a regime of discontinuous flux characterized by bursts of activity. Scaling laws are observed in the time delay between each burst and in the measurements of the wind fluctuations at the fluid threshold Shields number θc. The time delay between each burst decreases on average with the increase of the Shields number until sand flux becomes continuous. A numerical model for saltation including the wind-entrainment from the turbulent fluctuations can reproduce these observations and gives insight about their origin. We present here also for the first time measurements showing that with feeding it becomes possible to sustain discontinuous flux even below the fluid threshold. PMID:26073305

  7. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 346: Areas 8, 10 Housekeeping Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2003-08-01

    This Closure Report documents the closure activities conducted for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 346: Areas 8, 10 Housekeeping Sites. CAU 346 is listed in Appendix III of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) and consists of the following 14 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8 and 10 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS): (1) CAS 08-22-04: Drums (2); (2) CAS 08-22-11: Drums; Bucket; (3) CAS 08-24-02: Battery; (4) CAS 10-14-01: Transformer; (5) CAS 10-22-06: Drum (Gas Block); (6) CAS 10-22-10: Drum (Gas Block); (7) CAS 10-22-12: Drum (Gas Block); (8) CAS 10-22-13: Drum (Gas Block); (9) CAS 10-22-16: Drum (Gas Block); (10) CAS 10-22-22: Drum; (11) CAS 10-22-25: Drum; (12) CAS 10-22-36: Paint Can; (13) CAS 10-22-37: Gas Block; and (14) CAS 10-24-11: Battery. Closure activities consisted of closing each CAS by removing debris and/or material, disposing of the generated waste, and verifying that each site was clean-closed by visual inspection and/or laboratory analysis of soil verification samples.

  8. Reinforced ceramics employing discontinuous phases

    SciTech Connect

    Becher, P.F.

    1990-01-01

    The fracture toughness of ceramics can be improved by the incorporation of a variety of discontinuous reinforcing phases and microstructures. Observations of crack paths in these systems indicate that these reinforcing phases bridge the crack tip wake region. Recent developments in micromechanics toughening models applicable to such systems are discussed and compared with experimental observations. Because material parameters and microstructural characteristics are considered, the crack bridging models provide a means to optimize the toughening effects. 18 refs., 2 figs.

  9. Discontinuous gas exchange in insects.

    PubMed

    Quinlan, Michael C; Gibbs, Allen G

    2006-11-01

    Insect respiratory physiology has been studied for many years, and interest in this area of insect biology has become revitalized recently for a number of reasons. Technical advances have greatly improved the precision, accuracy and ease with which gas exchange can be measured in insects. This has made it possible to go beyond classic models such as lepidopteran pupae and examine a far greater diversity of species. One striking result of recent work is the realization that insect gas exchange patterns are much more diverse than formerly recognized. Current work has also benefited from the inclusion of comparative methods that rigorously incorporate phylogenetic, ecological and life history information. We discuss these advances in the context of the classic respiratory pattern of insects, discontinuous gas exchange. This mode of gas exchange was exhaustively described in moth pupae in the 1950s and 1960s. Early workers concluded that discontinuous gas exchange was an adaptation to reduce respiratory water loss. This idea is no longer universally accepted, and several competing hypotheses have been proposed. We discuss the genesis of these alternative hypotheses, and we identify some of the predictions that might be used to test them. We are pleased to report that what was once a mature discipline, in which the broad parameters and adaptive significance of discontinuous gas exchange were thought to be well understood, is now a thriving and vigorous field of research. PMID:16870512

  10. 77 FR 33314 - POSTNET Barcode Discontinuation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-06

    ... 111 POSTNET Barcode Discontinuation AGENCY: Postal Service. TM ACTION: Final rule; correction. SUMMARY..., Domestic Mail Manual (DMM ) which discontinued price eligibility based on the use of POSTNET TM barcodes on... Postal Service published a final rule in the Federal Register (77 FR 26185-26191) to discontinue...

  11. Discontinuous Mixed Covolume Methods for Parabolic Problems

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Ailing

    2014-01-01

    We present the semidiscrete and the backward Euler fully discrete discontinuous mixed covolume schemes for parabolic problems on triangular meshes. We give the error analysis of the discontinuous mixed covolume schemes and obtain optimal order error estimates in discontinuous H(div) and first-order error estimate in L2. PMID:24983008

  12. 40 CFR 159.167 - Discontinued studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discontinued studies. 159.167 Section... Discontinued studies. The fact that a study has been discontinued before the planned termination must be reported to EPA, with the reason for termination, if submission of information concerning the study is,...

  13. 40 CFR 159.167 - Discontinued studies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discontinued studies. 159.167 Section... Discontinued studies. The fact that a study has been discontinued before the planned termination must be reported to EPA, with the reason for termination, if submission of information concerning the study is,...

  14. 38 CFR 21.9635 - Discontinuance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... individual is enrolled in an institution of higher learning on the date of expiration of his or her period of... Discontinuance dates. The effective date of a reduction or discontinuance of educational assistance will be as... payment, the discontinuance date of educational assistance for the purpose of that lump sum payment...

  15. 38 CFR 21.9635 - Discontinuance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... individual is enrolled in an institution of higher learning on the date of expiration of his or her period of... Discontinuance dates. The effective date of a reduction or discontinuance of educational assistance will be as... payment, the discontinuance date of educational assistance for the purpose of that lump sum payment...

  16. 38 CFR 21.9635 - Discontinuance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... individual is enrolled in an institution of higher learning on the date of expiration of his or her period of... Discontinuance dates. The effective date of a reduction or discontinuance of educational assistance will be as... payment, the discontinuance date of educational assistance for the purpose of that lump sum payment...

  17. Miniature pulse tube cooler at 100HZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Houlei; Xu, Nana; Yin, Chuanlin; Cai, Jinghui; Liang, Jingtao

    2012-06-01

    Miniature pulse tube coolers operating at 100Hz have been designed and manufactured. The regenerator is designed by REGEN 3.2, and the inertance tube is simulated by DeltaE. An in-line prototype is manufactured according to the theoretical design parameters initially. On that basis, a coaxial cooler is developed and with double inlet it gains higher cooling performance.

  18. Thomson Scattering at 250 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, William; den Hartog, D. J.; Morton, L. A.; MST Team

    2015-11-01

    The fast Thomson scattering diagnostic on the MST Reversed-Field Pinch experiment now measures electron temperature at rates of up to 250 kHz, allowing for single shot analysis of phenomena that previously required ensembles of measurements from many shots. Recent laser upgrades include the addition of a second Nd:glass amplifier (giving a total of six amplifiers including four Nd:YAG stages) and optimization of neodymium doping levels within the glass amplifier stages to reduce thermal defocusing. The master-oscillator power-amplifier laser system operates in a pulse-burst mode where the laser generates multiple pulses per flashlamp firing and these bursts of laser pulses are repeated multiple times. When optimizing for the largest number of laser pulses, the laser produces up to 30 pulses at a rate of 100 kHz per burst repeated up to 4 times every 2 ms for a total of 120 temperature measurements per MST discharge. When optimizing for fastest pulsing rate, the laser can produce 8 pulses at 250 kHz within a single burst. A laser system upgrade currently underway is replacement of the diode-pumped pulsed Nd:YVO4 master oscillator with a CW laser chopped by an acoustic-optic modulator; this upgrade may enable pulsing rates faster than 250 kHz. This work is supported by the US DOE and NSF.

  19. Premature discontinuation of contraception in Australia.

    PubMed

    Bracher, M; Santow, G

    1992-01-01

    Life-history data from a nationally representative survey of Australian women were used to examine discontinuation of contraceptive methods because of accidental pregnancy, side effects or dissatisfaction. The pill was the most successfully used method, with a first-year discontinuation rate of 10% for all three reasons. Side effects dominated the reasons for the premature discontinuation of both the pill and the IUD, while the reasons for discontinuing the condom stemmed equally from pregnancy and dissatisfaction with the method. Discontinuation of the diaphragm resulted largely from accidental pregnancy. Hazards models were used to identify the correlates of discontinuation of each method. Predictors of premature discontinuation reflect the availability of methods, physiological reactions to them and the social characteristics of their users. Discontinuation of the pill because of side effects or dissatisfaction was more likely among poorly educated women, non-Protestants and recent users, and less likely among teenagers. Discontinuation of the IUD was related entirely to physiological factors: Nulliparous women and users of unmedicated devices were at a greater risk than other women of accidental pregnancy, and nulliparous women were at greater risk of discontinuation associated with side effects. Nulliparous women were also more likely to discontinue the condom because of pregnancy, as were non-Protestants and the Australian-born. PMID:1612144

  20. 100-Hz Electroacupuncture but not 2-Hz Electroacupuncture is Preemptive Against Postincision Pain in Rats.

    PubMed

    Silva, Marcelo Lourenço; Silva, Josie Resende Torres; Prado, Wiliam Alves

    2016-08-01

    Preemptive analgesia involves introducing an analgesic before noxious stimulation. Electroacupuncture (EA) activates descending mechanisms that modulate nociceptive inputs into the spinal dorsal horn. This study evaluated whether preoperative EA is more effective than postoperative EA in reducing incision pain in rats. The nociceptive threshold to mechanical stimulation was utilized to examine the effects of an intraperitoneal injection of saline (0.1 mL/kg) or naloxone (1 mg/kg) on antinociception induced by a 20-minute period of 2-Hz or 100-Hz EA applied to the Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) acupoints before surgical incision, or 10 minutes after or 100 minutes after surgical incision of the hind paw. The extent of mechanical hyperalgesia after the incision was significantly attenuated by the application of 100-Hz EA preoperatively, but not by its application at 10 minutes or 100 minutes postoperatively. By contrast, 2-Hz EA was effective against postoperative hyperalgesia when applied 10 minutes or 100 minutes after surgery but not when it was applied preoperatively. Only the effect of 2-Hz EA applied 10 minutes after surgery was sensitive to naloxone. The present study showed for the first time that 100-Hz EA, but not 2-Hz EA, exerts a nonopioidergic preemptive effect against postincision pain in rats. PMID:27555225

  1. DISSOLUTION OF PLUTONIUM METAL IN 8-10 M NITRIC ACID

    SciTech Connect

    Rudisill, T. S.; Pierce, R. A.

    2012-07-02

    The H-Canyon facility will be used to dissolve Pu metal for subsequent purification and conversion to plutonium dioxide (PuO{sub 2}) using Phase II of HB-Line. To support the new mission, the development of a Pu metal dissolution flowsheet which utilizes concentrated (8-10 M) nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}) solutions containing potassium fluoride (KF) is required. Dissolution of Pu metal in concentrated HNO{sub 3} is desired to eliminate the need to adjust the solution acidity prior to purification by anion exchange. The preferred flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.015-0.07 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd to dissolve the Pu up to 6.75 g/L. An alternate flowsheet would use 8-10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.05-0.2 M KF, and 1-2 g/L B to dissolve the Pu. The targeted average Pu metal dissolution rate is 20 mg/min-cm{sup 2}, which is sufficient to dissolve a “standard” 2250-g Pu metal button in 24 h. Plutonium metal dissolution rate measurements showed that if Gd is used as the nuclear poison, the optimum dissolution conditions occur in 10 M HNO{sub 3}, 0.04-0.05 M KF, and 0.5-1.0 g/L Gd at 112 to 116 °C (boiling). These conditions will result in an estimated Pu metal dissolution rate of ~11-15 mg/min-cm{sup 2} and will result in dissolution times of 36-48 h for standard buttons. The recommended minimum and maximum KF concentrations are 0.03 M and 0.07 M, respectively. The data also indicate that lower KF concentrations would yield dissolution rates for B comparable to those observed with Gd at the same HNO{sub 3} concentration and dissolution temperature. To confirm that the optimal conditions identified by the dissolution rate measurements can be used to dissolve Pu metal up to 6.75 g/L in the presence of representative concentrations of Fe and Gd or B, a series of experiments was performed to demonstrate the flowsheets. In three of the five experiments, the offgas generation rate during the dissolution was measured and samples were analyzed for hydrogen gas (H{sub 2}). The use of

  2. Flame front as hydrodynamic discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukumoto, Yasuhide; Abarzhi, Snezhana

    2012-11-01

    We applied generalized Rankine-Hugoniot conditions to study the dynamics of unsteady and curved fronts as a hydrodynamic discontinuity. It is shown that the front is unstable and Landau-Darrieus instability develops only if three conditions are satisfied (1) large-scale vorticity is generated in the fluid bulk; (2) energy flux across the front is imbalanced; (3) the energy imbalance is large. The structure of the solution is studied in details. Flows with and without gravity and thermal diffusion are analyzed. Stabilization mechanisms are identified. NSF 1004330.

  3. Discontinuous dynamics with grazing points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmet, M. U.; Kıvılcım, A.

    2016-09-01

    Discontinuous dynamical systems with grazing solutions are discussed. The group property, continuation of solutions, continuity and smoothness of solutions are thoroughly analyzed. A variational system around a grazing solution which depends on near solutions is constructed. Orbital stability of grazing cycles is examined by linearization. Small parameter method is extended for analysis of grazing orbits, and bifurcation of cycles is observed in an example. Linearization around an equilibrium grazing point is discussed. The results can be extended on functional differential equations, partial differential equations and others. Appropriate illustrations are depicted to support the theoretical results.

  4. RHIC 10 Hz global orbit feedback system

    SciTech Connect

    Michnoff, R.; Arnold, L.; Carboni, L.; Cerniglia, P; Curcio, A.; DeSanto, L.; Folz, C.; Ho, C.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.; Karl, R.; Luo, Y.; Liu, C.; MacKay, W.; Mahler, G.; Meng, W.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Olsen, R.; Piacentino, J.; Popken, P.; Przybylinski, R.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ritter, J.; Schoenfeld, R.; Thieberger, P.; Tuozzolo, J.; Weston, A.; White, J.; Ziminski, P.; Zimmerman, P.

    2011-03-28

    Vibrations of the cryogenic triplet magnets at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are suspected to be causing the horizontal beam perturbations observed at frequencies around 10 Hz. Several solutions to counteract the effect have been considered in the past, including a local beam feedback system at each of the two experimental areas, reinforcing the magnet base support assembly, and a mechanical servo feedback system. However, the local feedback system was insufficient because perturbation amplitudes outside the experimental areas were still problematic, and the mechanical solutions are very expensive. A global 10 Hz orbit feedback system consisting of 36 beam position monitors (BPMs) and 12 small dedicated dipole corrector magnets in each of the two 3.8 km circumference counter-rotating rings has been developed and commissioned in February 2011. A description of the system architecture and results with beam will be discussed.

  5. Photometry of the old nova HZ Pup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassanelli, Tomas; Abbott, Tim

    2016-01-01

    This study of the old nova HZ Pup involved obtaining image data, removing the instrumental signature, performing photometry on the stellar images present, and generating light curves. Relative photometry between the target star and other stars in the image was used to remove atmospheric effects. A periodogram of this light curve shows the historically known periodicity close to 20 minutes. However, other periodicities are also present and it is not clear from the data which are real and which are artifacts of the sampling. These data will be combined with data from other telescopes collected contemporaneously in order to resolve this ambiguity.

  6. A Taste of China: A Series of Lessons for the Gifted/Talented 8-10 Year Old Student.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Bruce M.; And Others

    The document provides three lesson plans designed to introduce gifted children (8-10 years old) to a study of China. The plans are built around three stories which portray specific conditions of the Country; the plans are designed to develop specific understandings related to economic conditions caused by floods and droughts, the potential menaces…

  7. BACKGROUND MATERIALS FOR WATERSHED CENTRAL DEVELOPMENT WORKSHOP HELD JANUARY 8-10, 2007, IN ATLANTA, GEORGIA (CD)

    EPA Science Inventory

    A development workshop for Watershed Central was held in Atlanta, Georgia, January 8-10, 2007. Participants in the workshop included representatives of EPA’s Office of Water, Office of Environmental Information, Office of Research and Development, and several Regional Offices. ...

  8. Blueprints for the 2003 California History-Social Science Standards Tests for Grades 8, 10, and 11.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Dept. of Education, Sacramento.

    Beginning in 2003, there will be no standardized or norm-referenced test in history-social science for California students. That test is being replaced by assessments at grades 8, 10, and 11 based on California History-Social Science (H-SS) Content Standards. The H-SS standards tests at grades 10 and 11 count for 20% of the Academic Performance…

  9. 10 Hz flicker improves recognition memory in older people

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Jonathan; Ramaswamy, Deepa; Oulhaj, Abderrahim

    2006-01-01

    Background 10 Hz electroencephalographic (EEG) alpha rhythms correlate with memory performance. Alpha and memory decline in older people. We wished to test if alpha-like EEG activity contributes to memory formation. Flicker can elicit alpha-like EEG activity. We tested if alpha-frequency flicker enhances memory in older people. Pariticpants aged 67–92 identified short words that followed 1 s of flicker at 9.0 Hz, 9.5 Hz, 10.0 Hz, 10.2 Hz, 10.5 Hz, 11.0 Hz, 11.5 Hz or 500 Hz. A few minutes later, we tested participants' recognition of the words (without flicker). Results Flicker frequencies close to 10 Hz (9.5–11.0 Hz) facilitated the identification of the test words in older participants. The same flicker frequencies increased recognition of the words more than other frequencies (9.0 Hz, 11.5 Hz and 500 Hz), irrespective of age. Conclusion The frequency-specificity of flicker's effects in our participants paralleled the power spectrum of EEG alpha in the general population. This indicates that alpha-like EEG activity may subserve memory processes. Flicker may be able to help memory problems in older people. PMID:16515710

  10. Primary calibration system for vibration transducers from 0.4 Hz to 160 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, C. D.; Ripper, G. P.; Dias, R. S.; Teixeira, D. B.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a system developed at the Vibration Laboratory of Inmetro, which is used for primary calibration of vibration transducers by the fringe counting method. This system includes a vibration exciter, a Michelson interferometer, a data acquisition board, a band-pass filter, a universal counter and a software for measurement automation. It allows the laboratory to perform calibrations in accordance with the international standard ISO 16063-11 in the frequency range from 0.4 Hz to 160 Hz. Some experimental results are presented herein.

  11. Student Discontinuations: Is the System Failing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McSherry, Wilfred; Marland, Glenn R.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses factors associated with fairness and equity in relation to student discontinuation in nursing education. Shows how discontinuation is an integral part of higher education quality reviews. Promotes pre-exit counseling, monitoring of attrition, and review of academic and professional standards. (SK)

  12. A Practical Guide to Regression Discontinuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacob, Robin; Zhu, Pei; Somers, Marie-Andrée; Bloom, Howard

    2012-01-01

    Regression discontinuity (RD) analysis is a rigorous nonexperimental approach that can be used to estimate program impacts in situations in which candidates are selected for treatment based on whether their value for a numeric rating exceeds a designated threshold or cut-point. Over the last two decades, the regression discontinuity approach has…

  13. Discontinuous Galerkin Methods: Theory, Computation and Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cockburn, B.; Karniadakis, G. E.; Shu, C-W

    2000-12-31

    This volume contains a survey article for Discontinuous Galerkin Methods (DGM) by the editors as well as 16 papers by invited speakers and 32 papers by contributed speakers of the First International Symposium on Discontinuous Galerkin Methods. It covers theory, applications, and implementation aspects of DGM.

  14. 38 CFR 21.7135 - Discontinuance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) Eligibility expires. If the veteran is pursuing a course on the date of expiration of eligibility as... Bill-Active Duty) Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.7135 Discontinuance dates. The effective date of... dependent. If more than one type of reduction or discontinuance is involved, the earliest date will...

  15. 38 CFR 21.7135 - Discontinuance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) Eligibility expires. If the veteran is pursuing a course on the date of expiration of eligibility as... Bill-Active Duty) Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.7135 Discontinuance dates. The effective date of... dependent. If more than one type of reduction or discontinuance is involved, the earliest date will...

  16. 38 CFR 21.7135 - Discontinuance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) Eligibility expires. If the veteran is pursuing a course on the date of expiration of eligibility as... Bill-Active Duty) Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.7135 Discontinuance dates. The effective date of... dependent. If more than one type of reduction or discontinuance is involved, the earliest date will...

  17. 27 CFR 11.38 - Discontinued products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discontinued products. 11.38 Section 11.38 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... products. When a producer or importer discontinues the production or importation of a product, a...

  18. Evidence for coronavirus discontinuous transcription.

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Y S; Makino, S

    1994-01-01

    Coronavirus subgenomic mRNA possesses a 5'-end leader sequence which is derived from the 5' end of genomic RNA and is linked to the mRNA body sequence. This study examined whether coronavirus transcription involves a discontinuous transcription step; the possibility that a leader sequence from mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) genomic RNA could be used for MHV subgenomic defective interfering (DI) RNA transcription was examined. This was tested by using helper viruses and DI RNAs that were easily distinguishable. MHV JHM variant JHM(2), which synthesizes a subgenomic mRNA encoding the HE gene, and variant JHM(3-9), which does not synthesize this mRNA, were used. An MHV DI RNA, DI(J3-9), was constructed to contain a JHM(3-9)-derived leader sequence and an inserted intergenic region derived from the region preceding the MHV JHM HE gene. DI(J3-9) replicated efficiently in JHM(2)- or JHM(3-9)-infected cells, whereas synthesis of subgenomic DI RNAs was observed only in JHM(2)-infected cells. Sequence analyses demonstrated that the 5' regions of both helper virus genomic RNAs and genomic DI RNAs maintained their original sequences in DI RNA-replicating cells, indicating that the genomic leader sequences derived from JHM(2) functioned for subgenomic DI RNA transcription. Replication and transcription of DI(J3-9) were observed in cells infected with an MHV A59 strain whose leader sequence was similar to that of JHM(2), except for one nucleotide substitution within the leader sequence. The 5' region of the helper virus genomic RNA and that of the DI RNA were the same as their original structures in virus-infected cells, and the leader sequence of DI(J3-9) subgenomic DI RNA contained the MHV A59-derived leader sequence. The leader sequence of subgenomic DI RNA was derived from that of helper virus; therefore, the genomic leader sequence had a trans-acting property indicative of a discontinuous step in coronavirus transcription. Images PMID:8139040

  19. Adsorption of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) on a soil organic matter. A DFT M05 computational study.

    PubMed

    Sviatenko, Liudmyla K; Gorb, Leonid; Shukla, Manoj K; Seiter, Jennifer M; Leszczynska, Danuta; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2016-04-01

    Adsorption of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) by soil organic matter considering the Leonardite Humic Acid (LHA) model at the M05/tzvp level of Density Functional Theory (DFT) applying cluster approximation has been investigated. Different orientations of CL-20 toward LHA surface were examined. It was found that deprotonation of LHA is required to obtain stable complexes with CL-20. Hydrogen bonds between CL-20 and deprotonated LHA were analyzed applying the atoms in molecules (AIM) theory. An attachment or removal of an electron with respect to the complex does not have significant effect on mutual orientation of the adsorbent in complexes. It was shown that adsorbed CL-20 does not undergo redox transformation and, therefore, adsorption on soil organic matter may be responsible for decrease of the degradation rate of CL-20 in soil. PMID:26814703

  20. [Prospective evaluation of antidepressant discontinuation].

    PubMed

    Mourad, I; Lejoyeux, M; Adès, J

    1998-01-01

    The authors prospectively assessed symptoms induced by the interruption of antidepressants in 16 patients (11 women and 5 men), aged from 33 to 85 years (mean = 52.4 +/- 16.4), treated with antidepressants since at least two weeks. All patients were free of alcohol abuse or dependence disorder and of other dependence to psychoactive substances. None of them presented medical illness. Diagnosis were made by separate evaluations by two authors and confirmed with a semistructered assessment instrument: the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (Lifetime Version). All patients were submitted to a brutal discontinuation of their antidepressant agent. Patients were assessed twice, before the interruption of the antidepressant, and 72 hours later. Effects of antidepressant interruption were assessed by several means. Modification of anxiety and depression were evaluated using the Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) and the Hamilton Anxiety Scale. Symptoms of withdrawal were assessed with Cassano and al.'s scale SESSH including an evaluation of anxiety, agitation, irritability, anergy, difficulty on concentrating, depersonalization, sleep and appetite disorders, muscle pains, nausea, tremor, sweating, altered taste, hyperosmia, paresthesias, photophobia, motor incoordination, dizziness, hyperacousia pain, delirium. Fourteen of the 16 patients (87.5%) presented modifications of their somatic or psychic state 3 days after the interruption of the antidepressant treatment. Most frequent symptoms were: increase in anxiety (31%), increase in irritability (25%), sleep disorders (19%), decrease of anergia and fatigue (19%). Mean scores of anxiety and depression were not significantly modified by the withdrawal. Following TCAs interruption (7 patients) most frequent symptoms were sleep disorders; increase in anxiety, nausea. Among patients withdrawn from SSRIs (6 patients), most frequent symptoms were increase in anxiety, increase in irritability

  1. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  2. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  3. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  4. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  5. 47 CFR 80.882 - 2182 kHz watch.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false 2182 kHz watch. 80.882 Section 80.882 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... kHz watch. Ships subject to this subpart must maintain a watch on the frequency 2182 kHz pursuant...

  6. Thomson scattering at 250 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, W. C.; Den Hartog, D. J.

    2015-12-01

    Several upgrades have been applied to the high-repetition-rate Thomson scattering diagnostic on the MST experiment, having increased the rate and number of electron temperature measurements. The detector portion of the Thomson scattering system requires 1.5-2.0 J, 10-20 ns laser pulses at 1064 nm. A high-repetition-rate laser produces suitable pulses for short 3-4 pulse bursts with only 3 μs pulse spacing. Alternatively, the laser timing can be optimized to maximize the number of pulses in a single burst, producing up to 44 pulses at a rate of 100 kHz. The laser follows a master oscillator, power amplifier architecture. Upgrades to the laser include: a new acousto-optic modulator chopped CW laser based master oscillator, a sixth power amplifier, optimized Nd doping within Nd:glass amplifiers via optical modeling of the pump chamber, and a yet to be installed new cavity reflector. Additionally, a new long wavelength filter has been added to the Thomson scattering diagnostic's polychromator based detector, allowing possible detection of net electron drift.

  7. Signal integrity analysis on discontinuous microstrip line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Qingyang; Dai, Yawen; Chen, Zipeng

    2013-03-01

    In high speed PCB design, microstirp lines were used to control the impedance, however, the discontinuous microstrip line can cause signal integrity problems. In this paper, we use the transmission line theory to study the characteristics of microstrip lines. Research results indicate that the discontinuity such as truncation, gap and size change result in the problems such as radiation, reflection, delay and ground bounce. We change the discontinuities to distributed parameter circuits, analysed the steady-state response and transient response and the phase delay. The transient response cause radiation and voltage jump.

  8. Solving ordinary differential equations with discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Gear, C.W.; Osterby, O.

    1981-09-01

    An algorithm is described that can detect and locate some discontinuities and provide information about their size, order and position. However, the success of the algorithm is strongly dependent on the location of the discontinuity with respect to the steps that straddle it. The major advantage of the scheme appears to be that a more reliable error estimate can be used when a discontinuity is present so that codes will be more robust. In some cases significant savings may accrue but it appears that a better restarting procedure than the one used will be necessary to realize most of those benefits.

  9. Discontinuation of Statins: What Are the Risks?

    PubMed

    Marrs, Joel C; Kostoff, Matthew D

    2016-07-01

    The key benefits of statin therapy have been well established in both primary and secondary prevention cardiovascular patients. Many studies have shown a significant statin discontinuation rate within the first year of initiation whether for primary or secondary prevention. National guidelines for the management of dyslipidemia highlight the lack of benefit seen with statin therapy in patients with chronic kidney disease receiving dialysis, heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, and patients greater than 75 years of age without atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Available data outside of these patient populations do not support discontinuation of statin therapy. Recent studies support an association with statin discontinuation and increased risk of myocardial infarction and cardiovascular death. Based on the available data, discontinuation of statin therapy should be carefully considered. PMID:27221503

  10. Discontinuity stresses in metallic pressure vessels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    The state of the art, criteria, and recommended practices for the theoretical and experimental analyses of discontinuity stresses and their distribution in metallic pressure vessels for space vehicles are outlined. The applicable types of pressure vessels include propellant tanks ranging from main load-carrying integral tank structure to small auxiliary tanks, storage tanks, solid propellant motor cases, high pressure gas bottles, and pressurized cabins. The major sources of discontinuity stresses are discussed, including deviations in geometry, material properties, loads, and temperature. The advantages, limitations, and disadvantages of various theoretical and experimental discontinuity analysis methods are summarized. Guides are presented for evaluating discontinuity stresses so that pressure vessel performance will not fall below acceptable levels.

  11. Discontinuous Spirals of Stable Periodic Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Achim; Freire, Joana G.; Lindberg, Erik; Pöschel, Thorsten; Gallas, Jason A. C.

    2013-01-01

    We report the experimental discovery of a remarkable organization of the set of self-generated periodic oscillations in the parameter space of a nonlinear electronic circuit. When control parameters are suitably tuned, the wave pattern complexity of the periodic oscillations is found to increase orderly without bound. Such complex patterns emerge forming self-similar discontinuous phases that combine in an artful way to produce large discontinuous spirals of stability. This unanticipated discrete accumulation of stability phases was detected experimentally and numerically in a Duffing-like proxy specially designed to bypass noisy spectra conspicuously present in driven oscillators. Discontinuous spirals organize the dynamics over extended parameter intervals around a focal point. They are useful to optimize locking into desired oscillatory modes and to control complex systems. The organization of oscillations into discontinuous spirals is expected to be generic for a class of nonlinear oscillators. PMID:24284508

  12. Discontinuity Detection for Analysis of Telerobot Trajectories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeom, Kiwon; Ellis, Stephen R.; Adelstein, Bernard D.

    2013-01-01

    To identify spatial and temporal discontinuities in telerobot movement in order to describe the shift in operators control and error correction strategies from continuous control to move-and-wait strategies. This shift was studied under conditions of simulated increasingly time-delayed teleoperation. The ultimate goal is to determine if the time delay associated with the shift is invariant with independently imposed control difficulty. We expect this shift to manifest itself as changes in the number of discontinuity of movement path. We proposed an approach to spatial and temporal discontinuity detection algorithm for analysis of teleoperated trajectory in three dimensional space. The algorithm provides a simple and potentially objective method for detecting the discontinuity during telerobot operation and evaluating the difficulty of rotational coordinate condition in teleoperation.

  13. Reducing discontinuation in family planning programs.

    PubMed

    Roberts, D; Panitchpakdi, P; Loevinsohn, B

    1993-01-01

    Management strategies for reducing discontinuation in family planning programs are summarized; the strategies are practical and show how to analyze data for women who stop using contraception. Common factors that are associated with high levels of discontinuation are identified. Recommendations are made for how program managers can change service delivery in order to improve client continuation. Understanding the size and nature of discontinuation is an important precursor to a solution. Data collection on discontinuation could be combined with a system for tracking and follow-up of individual clients. The reasons that women stop using contraception are identified as those which clinics can or cannot control. A clinic discontinues is one who is a "no show" within a reasonable period of time. Decisions need to be made about the type of discontinues to be tracked, e.g. all new acceptors or pill users only. How to identify no shows, how to use the daily register tracking system, and how to calculate discontinuation rates are described. A special daily record tracking system can be used to track clients over years and does not replace the client medical and reproductive history record. The advantages are that client forms to not have to be redesigned and staff training is simple. The disadvantages apply to large clinics and the need for ample filing areas and proper management. An example is given of a working solution in Kenya for a community-based distribution program. Discontinuation rates may be calculated in various ways; a more exact measure tends to be the most useful. Recalculating discontinuation rates at regular intervals can provide an effective way to check standards of care. A tally sheet can be used to track characteristics of discontinues; a sample is given and analyzed to show interpretations which point the way to program changes. Comparisons may be made by age, method type, length of use. An example is given of the Rwanda service delivery system and

  14. Origins of the 520-km discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinnik, Lev

    2016-04-01

    The 520-km discontinuity is often explained by the phase transition from wadsleyite to ringwoodite, although the theoretical impedance of this transition is so small that the related converted and reflected seismic phases could hardly be seen in the seismograms. At the same time there are numerous reports on observations of a large discontinuity at this depth, especially in the data on SS precursors and P-wave wide-angle reflections. Revenaugh and Jordan (1991) argued that this discontinuity is related to the garnet/post-garnet transformation. Gu et al. (1998) preferred very deep continental roots extending into the transition zone. Deuss and Woodhouse proposed splitting of the 520-km discontinuity into two discontinuities, whilst Bock (1994) denied evidence of the 520-km discontinuity in the SS precursors. Our approach to this problem is based on the analysis of S and P receiver functions. Most of our data are related to hot-spots in and around the Atlantic where the appropriate converted phases are often comparable in amplitude with P410s and S410p. Both S and P receiver functions provide strong evidence of a low S velocity in a depth range from 450 km to 510 km at some locations. The 520-km discontinuity appears to be the base of this low-velocity layer. Our observations of the low S velocity in the upper transition zone are very consistent with the indications of a drop in the solidus temperature of carbonated peridotite in the same pressure range (Keshav et al. 2011), and this phenomenon provides a viable alternative to the other explanations of the 520-km discontinuity.

  15. Discontinuities of multi-Regge amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. S.

    2015-04-01

    In the BFKL approach, discontinuities of multiple production amplitudes in invariant masses of produced particles are discussed. It turns out that they are in evident contradiction with the BDS ansatz for n-gluon amplitudes in the planar N = 4 SYM at n ≥ 6. An explicit expression for the NLO discontinuity of the two-to-four amplitude in the invariant mass of two produced gluons is is presented.

  16. The crystal structure and morphology of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) p-xylene solvate: a joint experimental and simulation study.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fanfan; Lv, Penghao; Sun, Chenghui; Zhang, Rubo; Pang, Siping

    2014-01-01

    The crystal structure of 2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitro-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexaazaiso-wurtzitane (CL-20) p-xylene solvate, and the solvent effects on the crystal faces of CL-20 were studied through a combined experimental and theoretical method. The properties were analyzed by thermogravimetry-differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD).The growth morphology of CL-20p-xylene solvate crystal was predicted with a modified attachment energy model. The crystal structure of CL-20p-xylene solvate belonged to the Pbca space group with the unit cell parameters, a=8.0704(12) Å, b=13.4095(20) Å, c=33.0817(49) Å, and Z=4, which indicated that the p-xylene solvent molecules could enter the crystal lattice of CL-20 and thus the CL-20 p-xylene solvate is formed. According to the solvent-effected attachment energy calculations, (002) and (11-1) faces should not be visible at all, while the percentage area of the (011) face could be increased from 7.81% in vacuum to 12.51% in p-xylene solution. The predicted results from the modified attachment energy model agreed very well with the observed morphology of crystals grown from p-xylene solution. PMID:25401400

  17. Multiscale magnetosheath turbulence model from mHz to kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dwivedi, Navin; Narita, Yasuhito

    2015-04-01

    We construct a nonlinear whistler wave model under the influence of the ponderomotive force to explain the energy spectra and the waveforms observed in loin roar waves in Earth's magnetosheath region. We use the two-fluid approach to derive the model equations governing the dynamics of ion-acoustic and whistler waves propagating along the ambient magnetic field. On the account of ponderomotive force, nonlinearity arises in the dynamics of ion-acoustic wave which modify the background number density under the steady state condition. Whistler wave nonlinearly interacts with the ion-acoustic wave while propagating through the density inhomogeneity created by the ponderomotive force, and gets modulated and forms localized structures in the magnetic field. Furthermore, we develop a semi-analytical numerical method to compute the magnetic energy spectrum of whistler wave and investigate the spectral features of the spectrum. The magnetic field spectrum shows a spectral break accompanied by the steepening of the spectrum with a spectral index -3.2 at higher wave numbers. In the recent past, the magnetic field fluctuations with the occurrence of lion roar waves are widely investigated in the frequency range from 20 to 1000 Hz in Earth's magnetosheath. The observed lion roar waves show a broadband turbulence spectrum with the spectral slope about -4.5. The present model develop a concept on multiscale magnetosheath turbulence in which turbulence at low frequencies (mHz) is dominated by mirror mode, however at high frequencies (kHz) it is mainly due to the nonlinear whistler waves and the whistler turbulence is embedded inside the mirror mode.

  18. 27 CFR 17.187 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... PRODUCTS Miscellaneous Provisions § 17.187 Discontinuance of business. The manufacturer shall notify TTB when business is to be discontinued. Upon discontinuance of business, a manufacturer's entire stock...

  19. 27 CFR 478.57 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Licenses § 478.57 Discontinuance of business. (a) Where a firearm or ammunition business is either discontinued or succeeded by a new owner, the owner of the business discontinued or succeeded shall within...

  20. 27 CFR 478.57 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Licenses § 478.57 Discontinuance of business. (a) Where a firearm or ammunition business is either discontinued or succeeded by a new owner, the owner of the business discontinued or succeeded shall within...

  1. 27 CFR 478.127 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Records § 478.127 Discontinuance of business. Where a licensed business is discontinued and succeeded by a... be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business is absolute, the records shall...

  2. 27 CFR 478.127 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Records § 478.127 Discontinuance of business. Where a licensed business is discontinued and succeeded by a... be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business is absolute, the records shall...

  3. 27 CFR 555.128 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Discontinuance of business. Where an explosive materials business or operations is discontinued and succeeded by... such facts and shall be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business or...

  4. 27 CFR 555.128 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Discontinuance of business. Where an explosive materials business or operations is discontinued and succeeded by... such facts and shall be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business or...

  5. 27 CFR 478.127 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Discontinuance of business... Records § 478.127 Discontinuance of business. Where a licensed business is discontinued and succeeded by a... be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business is absolute, the records shall...

  6. 27 CFR 555.128 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Discontinuance of business... Discontinuance of business. Where an explosive materials business or operations is discontinued and succeeded by... such facts and shall be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business or...

  7. 27 CFR 555.128 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Discontinuance of business. Where an explosive materials business or operations is discontinued and succeeded by... such facts and shall be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business or...

  8. 27 CFR 478.127 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Records § 478.127 Discontinuance of business. Where a licensed business is discontinued and succeeded by a... be delivered to the successor. Where discontinuance of the business is absolute, the records shall...

  9. 27 CFR 478.57 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... Licenses § 478.57 Discontinuance of business. (a) Where a firearm or ammunition business is either discontinued or succeeded by a new owner, the owner of the business discontinued or succeeded shall within...

  10. Identifying the Factors Underlying Discontinuation of Triptans

    PubMed Central

    Wells, Rebecca E.; Markowitz, Shira Y.; Baron, Eric P.; Hentz, Joseph G.; Kalidas, Kavita; Mathew, Paul G.; Halker, Rashmi; Dodick, David W.; Schwedt, Todd J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify factors associated with triptan discontinuation among migraine patients. Background It is unclear why many migraine patients who are prescribed triptans discontinue this treatment. This study investigated correlates of triptan discontinuation with a focus on potentially modifiable factors to improve compliance. Methods This multi-center cross-sectional survey (n=276) was performed at U.S. tertiary care headache clinics. Headache fellows who were members of the American Headache Society Headache Fellows Research Consortium recruited episodic and chronic migraine patients who were current triptan users (use within prior 3 months and for ≥ 1 year) or past triptan users (no use within 6 months; prior use within 2 years). Univariate analyses were first completed to compare current triptan users to past users for: migraine characteristics, other migraine treatments, triptan education, triptan efficacy, triptan side effects, type of prescribing provider, Migraine Disability Assessment (MIDAS) scores and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) scores. Then, a multivariable logistic regression model was selected from all possible combinations of predictor variables to determine the factors that best correlated with triptan discontinuation. Results Compared to those still using triptans (n=207), those who had discontinued use (n=69) had higher rates of medication overuse (30 vs. 18%, p=0.04), were more likely to have ever used opioids for migraine treatment (57 vs. 38%, p=0.006) as well as higher MIDAS (mean 63 vs. 37, p=0.001) and BDI scores (mean 10.4 vs. 7.4, p=0.009). Compared to discontinued users, current triptan users were more likely to have had their triptan prescribed by a specialist (neurologist, headache specialist, or pain specialist) (74 vs. 54%, p=0.002) and were more likely to report headache resolution (53 vs. 14%, p<0.001) or a reduction in pain intensity (71 vs. 28%, p<0.001) most of the time from their triptan. On a 1-5 scale (1=disagree

  11. Design studies for the LCLS 120 Hz RF gun

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, X.J.; Babzien, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Chang, X.Y.; Pjerov, S.; Woodle, M.

    2000-11-01

    A preliminary design studies were carried out at Brookhaven National Laboratory for a photocathode RF gun injection system for LCLS 120 Hz operation. The starting point for the design is 50 Hz BNL Gun IV developed by a BNL/KEK/SHI collaboration. The basic parameters of the 120 Hz gun is discussed in this report. The complete photocathode RF gun injection system is described for a 120 Hz operation. The injector system includes photocathode RF gun, emittance compensation solenoid magnet, laser system and laser beam delivery system, and electron beam diagnostics. The basic design parameters, mechanical modification and the performance will be presented in this report.

  12. Method for simulating discontinuous physical systems

    DOEpatents

    Baty, Roy S.; Vaughn, Mark R.

    2001-01-01

    The mathematical foundations of conventional numerical simulation of physical systems provide no consistent description of the behavior of such systems when subjected to discontinuous physical influences. As a result, the numerical simulation of such problems requires ad hoc encoding of specific experimental results in order to address the behavior of such discontinuous physical systems. In the present invention, these foundations are replaced by a new combination of generalized function theory and nonstandard analysis. The result is a class of new approaches to the numerical simulation of physical systems which allows the accurate and well-behaved simulation of discontinuous and other difficult physical systems, as well as simpler physical systems. Applications of this new class of numerical simulation techniques to process control, robotics, and apparatus design are outlined.

  13. Morphological analysis on the coherence of kHz QPOs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.; Chang, H. K.; Zhang, C. M.; Wang, D. H.; Chen, L.; Qu, J. L.; Song, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    We take the recently published data of twin kHz quasi-period oscillations (QPOs) in neutron star (NS) low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs) as the samples, and investigate the morphology of the samples, which focuses on the quality factor, peak frequency of kHz QPOs, and try to infer their physical mechanism. We notice that: (1) The quality factors of upper kHz QPOs are low (2˜20 in general) and increase with the kHz QPO peak frequencies for both Z and Atoll sources. (2) The distribution of quality factor versus frequency for the lower kHz QPOs are quite different between Z and Atoll sources. For most Z source samples, the quality factors of lower kHz QPOs are low (usually lower than 15) and rise steadily with the peak frequencies except for Sco X-1, which drop abruptly at the frequency of about 750 Hz. While for most Atoll sources, the quality factors of lower kHz QPOs are very high (from 2 to 200) and usually have a rising part, a maximum and an abrupt drop. (3) There are three Atoll sources (4U 1728-34, 4U 1636-53 and 4U 1608-52) of displaying very high quality factors for lower kHz QPOs. These three sources have been detected with the spin frequencies and sidebands, in which the source with higher spin frequency presents higher quality factor of lower kHz QPOs and lower difference between sideband frequency and lower kHz QPO frequency.

  14. Global climate change and international security. Report on a conference held at Argonne National Laboratory, May 8--10, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, M.

    1991-12-31

    On May 8--10, 1991, the Midwest Consortium of International Security Studies (MCISS) and Argonne National Laboratory cosponsored a conference on Global Climate Change and International Security. The aim was to bring together natural and social scientists to examine the economic, sociopolitical, and security implications of the climate changes predicted by the general circulation models developed by natural scientists. Five themes emerged from the papers and discussions: (1) general circulation models and predicted climate change; (2) the effects of climate change on agriculture, especially in the Third World; (3) economic implications of policies to reduce greenhouse gas emissions; (4) the sociopolitical consequences of climate change; and (5) the effect of climate change on global security.

  15. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor discontinuation during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Resham; Leibson, Tom; Koren, Gideon

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Question I have a patient who discontinued her selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor in pregnancy against my advice owing to fears it might affect the baby. She eventually attempted suicide. How can we deal effectively with this situation? Answer The “cold turkey” discontinuation of needed antidepressants is a serious public health issue strengthened by fears and misinformation. It is very important for physicians to ensure that evidence-based information is given to women in a way that is easy to understand. The risks of untreated moderate to severe depression far outweigh the theoretical risks of taking selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. PMID:25642484

  16. Current discontinuities on superconducting cosmic strings

    SciTech Connect

    Troyan, E. Vlasov, Yu. V.

    2011-07-15

    The propagation of current perturbations on superconducting cosmic strings is considered. The conditions for the existence of discontinuities similar to shock waves have been found. The formulas relating the string parameters and the discontinuity propagation speed are derived. The current growth law in a shock wave is deduced. The propagation speeds of shock waves with arbitrary amplitudes are calculated. The reason why there are no shock waves in the case of time-like currents (in the 'electric' regime) is explained; this is attributable to the shock wave instability with respect to perturbations of the string world sheet.

  17. Prognostic Significance of Neuroendocrine Differentiation in Patients With Gleason Score 8-10 Prostate Cancer Treated With Primary Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Daniel J.; Hayek, Sylvia; Amin, Mitual; Ye Hong; Kestin, Larry L.; Zadora, Steven; Vicini, Frank A.; Cotant, Matthew; Brabbins, Donald S.; Ghilezan, Michel I.; Gustafson, Gary S.; Martinez, Alvaro A.

    2011-11-01

    Purpose: To determine the prognostic significance of neuroendocrine differentiation (NED) in Gleason score 8-10 prostate cancer treated with primary radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: Chromogranin A (CgA) staining was performed and overseen by a single pathologist on core biopsies from 176 patients from the William Beaumont prostate cancer database. A total of 143 had evaluable biopsy material. Staining was quantified as 0%, <1%, 1-10%, or >10% of tumor cells. Patients received external beam RT alone or together with high-dose-rate brachytherapy. Cox regression and Kaplan-Meier estimates determined if the presence/frequency of neuroendocrine cells correlated with clinical endpoints. Results: Median follow-up was 5.5 years. Forty patients (28%) had at least focal positive CgA staining (<1% n = 21, 1-10% n = 11, >10% n = 8). No significant differences existed between patients with or without staining in terms of age, pretreatment prostate-specific antigen, tumor stage, hormone therapy administration, % biopsy core involvement, mean Gleason score, or RT dose/modality. CgA staining concentration independently predicted for biochemical and clinical failure, distant metastases (DM), and cause-specific survival (CSS). For patients with <1% vs. >1% staining, 10-year DM rates were 13.4% vs. 55.3%, respectively (p = 0.001), and CSS was 91.7% vs. 58.9% (p < 0.001). As a continuous variable, increasing CgA staining concentration predicted for inferior rates of DM, CSS, biochemical control, and any clinical failure. No differences in outcomes were appreciated for patients with 0% vs. <1% NED. Conclusions: For Gleason score 8-10 prostate cancer, >1% NED is associated with inferior clinical outcomes for patients treated with radiotherapy. This relates most directly to an increase in distant disease failure.

  18. Characterization of Asymmetric Coplanar Waveguide Discontinuities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dib, Nihad I.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Gupta, Minoo; Ponchak, George E.

    1993-01-01

    A general technique to characterize asymmetric coplanar waveguide (CPW) discontinuities with air bridges where both the fundamental coplanar and slotline modes may be excited together is presented. First, the CPW discontinuity without air bridges is analyzed using the space-domain integral equation (SDIE) approach. Second, the parameters (phase, amplitude, and wavelength) of the coplanar and slotline modes are extracted from an amplitude modulated-like standing wave existing in the CPW feeding lines. Then a 2n x 2n generalized scattering matrix of the n-port discontinuity without air bridges is derived which includes the occurring mode conversion. Finally, this generalized scattering matrix is reduced to an n x n matrix by enforcing suitable conditions at the ports which correspond to the excited slotline mode. For the purpose of illustration, the method is applied to a shielded asymmetric short-end CPW shunt stub, the scattering parameters of which are compared with those of a symmetric one. Experiments are performed on both discontinuities and the results are in good agreement with theoretical data. The advantages of using air bridges in CPW circuits as opposed to bond wires are also discussed.

  19. 38 CFR 21.4135 - Discontinuance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....4135, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding Aids section of the printed...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Administration of Educational Assistance Programs Payments... veteran or eligible person dies while pursuing a program of education, the discontinuance date...

  20. 38 CFR 21.7635 - Discontinuance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Educational Assistance for Members of the Selected Reserve Payments...) In all other cases if the reservist dies while pursuing a program of education, the discontinuance...) (k) Incarceration in prison or penal institution for conviction of a felony. (1) The provisions...

  1. Stability of Conservation Laws with Discontinuous Coefficients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klausen, Runhild Aae; Risebro, Nils Henrik

    1999-09-01

    We prove L1 contractivity of weak solutions to a conservation law with a flux function that may depend discontinuously on the space variable. Furthermore, we show that the L1 difference between solutions to conservation laws with different flux functions is bounded by the total variation with respect to the space variable, of the difference between the flux functions.

  2. 38 CFR 21.9635 - Discontinuance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.9635... individual dies while pursuing a program of education, the discontinuance date of educational assistance will... effective the last date of attendance; and (ii) Independent study or distance learning effective on...

  3. 38 CFR 21.9635 - Discontinuance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.9635... individual dies while pursuing a program of education, the discontinuance date of educational assistance will... effective the last date of attendance; and (ii) Independent study or distance learning effective on...

  4. Nonrenewable resource extraction under discontinuous price policy

    SciTech Connect

    Kalt, J.P.; Otten, A.L.

    1985-01-01

    Temporal discontinuities in public policy with respect to nonrenewable resource pricing can have significant impacts on the time patterns of resource extraction. These impacts arise from the effect of price discontinuities on the relative values of Hotelling rents across time periods. Whether faced with intertemporal price continuity or price discontinuity, the planning task of the wealth-maximizing producer is to equate the present value of each period's marginal contribution to the stream of net revenues from production across time. This rule for extraction provides the key to understanding the response to a price jump such as occurs upon the removal of price controls. The rational producer holds back at least some output until the price jump occurs. At the moment, the producer pushes output up sharply, raising marginal extraction cost by the absolute amount of the price jump and, thereby, maintaining the value of the Hotelling rent given by the gap between price and marginal extraction cost. US natural gas policy options, as well as plausible alternatives, are simulated to illustrate the effects of discontinuous regulatory regimes. 15 references, 1 table.

  5. Life and Literature: Continuities and Discontinuities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Mark

    2007-01-01

    This essay calls attention, first, to some of the significant discontinuities between life and literature, living and telling. Perhaps foremost among them is the fact that while living takes place now, in the present moment, telling must await the passage of time. This element of delay, it is argued, underscores the potential importance of…

  6. General practitioners' decisions about discontinuation of medication: an explorative study.

    PubMed

    Nixon, Michael Simon; Vendelø, Morten Thanning

    2016-06-20

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to investigate how general practitioners' (GPs) decisions about discontinuation of medication are influenced by their institutional context. Design/methodology/approach - In total, 24 GPs were interviewed, three practices were observed and documents were collected. The Gioia methodology was used to analyse data, drawing on a theoretical framework that integrate the sensemaking perspective and institutional theory. Findings - Most GPs, who actively consider discontinuation, are reluctant to discontinue medication, because the safest course of action for GPs is to continue prescriptions, rather than discontinue them. The authors conclude that this is in part due to the ambiguity about the appropriateness of discontinuing medication, experienced by the GPs, and in part because the clinical guidelines do not encourage discontinuation of medication, as they offer GPs a weak frame for discontinuation. Three reasons for this are identified: the guidelines provide dominating triggers for prescribing, they provide weak priming for discontinuation as an option, and they underscore a cognitive constraint against discontinuation. Originality/value - The analysis offers new insights about decision making when discontinuing medication. It also offers one of the first examinations of how the institutional context embedding GPs influences their decisions about discontinuation. For policymakers interested in the discontinuation of medication, the findings suggest that de-stigmatising discontinuation on an institutional level may be beneficial, allowing GPs to better justify discontinuation in light of the ambiguity they experience. PMID:27296879

  7. Auditory filter shapes at 8 and 10 kHz.

    PubMed

    Shailer, M J; Moore, B C; Glasberg, B R; Watson, N; Harris, S

    1990-07-01

    Auditory filter shapes were derived from notched-noise masking data at center frequencies of 8 kHz (for three spectrum levels, N0 = 20, 35, and 50 dB) and 10 kHz (N0 = 50 dB). In order to minimize variability due to earphone placement, insert earphones (Etymotic Research ER2) were used and individual earmolds were made for each subject. These earphones were designed to give a flat frequency response at the eardrum for frequencies up to 14 kHz. The filter shapes were derived under the assumption that a frequency-dependent attenuation was applied to all stimuli before reaching the filter; this attenuation function was estimated from the variation of absolute threshold with frequency for the three youngest normally hearing subjects in our experiments. At 8 kHz, the mean equivalent rectangular bandwidths (ERBs) of the filters derived from the individual data for three subjects were 677, 637, and 1011 Hz for N0 = 20, 35, and 50 dB, respectively. The filters at N0 = 50 dB were roughly symmetrical, while, at the lower spectrum levels, the low-frequency skirt was steeper than the high-frequency skirt. The mean ERB at 10 kHz was 957 Hz. At this frequency, the filters for two subjects were steeper on the high-frequency side than the low-frequency side, while the third subject showed a slight asymmetry in the opposite direction. PMID:2380442

  8. Lehmann discontinuity due to dehydration of phengite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, S.

    2007-12-01

    It is known that the Lehmann discontinuity has several unique features. The depth of this seismic discontinuity is around 220 km depth. However, this discontinuity has not been detected everywhere at around 220 km depth. It is observed under continents more than as often as under oceans. An increase in the compressional or shear wave velocity and in seismic reflections has been reported. A regionally varying negative seismological Clapeyron slope has been estimated. A seismic transition from anisotropic to a more isotropic state occurs at depths corresponding to the Lehmann discontinuity. Although several models have been proposed to explain these features of this discontinuity, previous models failed to clear these unique features. Here, we propose a new model to explain the origin of the Lehmann discontinuity. We conducted experiments with hydrous sediment. The temperature was varied between 1073 and 1673 K, while a pressure of 6-15 GPa was applied using the multi-anvil press. The typical pelite composition was used as the sediment [1]. Garnet, clinopyroxene, and silica phases were present in all of the experiments. Three hydrous phases were observed at temperatures below 1573 K. The stable crystalline hydrous minerals consisted of phengite below 8 GPa, topaz-OH from 9-12 GPa, and phase egg above 12 GPa. The breakdown boundaries of topaz-OH and phase egg show a positive Clapeyron slope. In contrast, the breakdown reaction of phengite gave a negative slope at about 7 GPa corresponding to 220 km depth. The upper temperature limit for phengite is greater than 1473 K. This phase is thus likely to be stable within average adiabatic mantle conditions [1]. Above ~220 km depth the deformation mechanism of olivine is dislocation creep, which gives a preferred orientation to the crystals. The seismic anisotropies are likely to result from the preferred orientation of olivine. As pressure increases, the diffusion creep becomes dominant. If sediments migrate by the

  9. Lithospheric Discontinuities Beneath North America (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, K. M.; Abt, D. L.; Yuan, H.; Romanowicz, B. A.

    2009-12-01

    The goal of this study is to compare lithospheric discontinuities between the stable cratonic core of North America and surrounding regions that have experienced more recent tectonic activity. Are the properties of the cratonic lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) fundamentally different from the LAB in regions with thinner lithosphere? Do significant discontinuities exist within the cratonic lithosphere? Sp and Ps converted seismic waves from 93 permanent seismic stations spanning North America, including stations of the EarthScope Reference Array, were used to image the discontinuity structure of the upper mantle. Receiver functions were calculated with frequency-domain deconvolution and migrated to depth with 1D models that account for variations in crustal structure and mantle velocities between stations. Prominent Sp phases from a negative velocity contrast were found at depths of 50-120 km. To interpret these Sp phases as either the LAB or a mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD), we compared their depth to the transition from the low-velocity asthenosphere to the high velocity lithospheric lid in the absolute shear velocity model from surface wave tomography that was used to migrate the receiver functions. In the tectonically active western U.S., the negative Sp phases were interpreted as the LAB at depths of 50-105 km. On average, the amplitudes of these Sp phases are the largest in North America. They are consistent with a large and rapid LAB velocity gradient and an anomalously hot and shallow asthenosphere that is very rich in water or contains partial melt. In the regions of the southern and eastern U.S where the Sp phases were interpreted as the LAB, the discontinuity lies at depths of 75-110 km and also implies the presence of water or melt in the asthenosphere. In contrast, no Sp phases were observed at depths comparable to the base of the thick high velocity lithosphere that lies beneath cratonic North America and portions of the Phanerozoic

  10. Parallel Implementation of the Discontinuous Galerkin Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baggag, Abdalkader; Atkins, Harold; Keyes, David

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes a parallel implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin method. Discontinuous Galerkin is a spatially compact method that retains its accuracy and robustness on non-smooth unstructured grids and is well suited for time dependent simulations. Several parallelization approaches are studied and evaluated. The most natural and symmetric of the approaches has been implemented in all object-oriented code used to simulate aeroacoustic scattering. The parallel implementation is MPI-based and has been tested on various parallel platforms such as the SGI Origin, IBM SP2, and clusters of SGI and Sun workstations. The scalability results presented for the SGI Origin show slightly superlinear speedup on a fixed-size problem due to cache effects.

  11. An adaptive pseudospectral method for discontinuous problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Augenbaum, Jeffrey M.

    1988-01-01

    The accuracy of adaptively chosen, mapped polynomial approximations is studied for functions with steep gradients or discontinuities. It is shown that, for steep gradient functions, one can obtain spectral accuracy in the original coordinate system by using polynomial approximations in a transformed coordinate system with substantially fewer collocation points than are necessary using polynomial expansion directly in the original, physical, coordinate system. It is also shown that one can avoid the usual Gibbs oscillation associated with steep gradient solutions of hyperbolic pde's by approximation in suitably chosen coordinate systems. Continuous, high gradient solutions are computed with spectral accuracy (as measured in the physical coordinate system). Discontinuous solutions associated with nonlinear hyperbolic equations can be accurately computed by using an artificial viscosity chosen to smooth out the solution in the mapped, computational domain. Thus, shocks can be effectively resolved on a scale that is subgrid to the resolution available with collocation only in the physical domain. Examples with Fourier and Chebyshev collocation are given.

  12. Archetypal oscillator for smooth and discontinuous dynamics.

    PubMed

    Cao, Qingjie; Wiercigroch, Marian; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina E; Grebogi, Celso; Thompson, J Michael T

    2006-10-01

    We propose an archetypal system to investigate transitions from smooth to discontinuous dynamics. In the smooth regime, the system bears significant similarities to the Duffing oscillator, exhibiting the standard dynamics governed by the hyperbolic structure associated with the stationary state of the double well. At the discontinuous limit, however, there is a substantial departure in the dynamics from the standard one. In particular, the velocity flow suffers a jump in crossing from one well to another, caused by the loss of local hyperbolicity due to the collapse of the stable and unstable manifolds of the stationary state. In the presence of damping and external excitation, the system has coexisting attractors and also a chaotic saddle which becomes a chaotic attractor when a smoothness parameter drops to zero. This attractor can bifurcate to a high-period periodic attractor or a chaotic sea with islands of quasiperiodic attractors depending on the strength of damping. PMID:17155164

  13. Archetypal oscillator for smooth and discontinuous dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Qingjie; Wiercigroch, Marian; Pavlovskaia, Ekaterina E.; Grebogi, Celso; T. Thompson, J. Michael

    2006-10-01

    We propose an archetypal system to investigate transitions from smooth to discontinuous dynamics. In the smooth regime, the system bears significant similarities to the Duffing oscillator, exhibiting the standard dynamics governed by the hyperbolic structure associated with the stationary state of the double well. At the discontinuous limit, however, there is a substantial departure in the dynamics from the standard one. In particular, the velocity flow suffers a jump in crossing from one well to another, caused by the loss of local hyperbolicity due to the collapse of the stable and unstable manifolds of the stationary state. In the presence of damping and external excitation, the system has coexisting attractors and also a chaotic saddle which becomes a chaotic attractor when a smoothness parameter drops to zero. This attractor can bifurcate to a high-period periodic attractor or a chaotic sea with islands of quasiperiodic attractors depending on the strength of damping.

  14. Bounded extremum seeking with discontinuous dithers

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Scheinker, Alexander; Scheinker, David

    2016-03-21

    The analysis of discontinuous extremum seeking (ES) controllers, e.g. those applicable to digital systems, has historically been more complicated than that of continuous controllers. We establish a simple and general extension of a recently developed bounded form of ES to a general class of oscillatory functions, including functions discontinuous with respect to time, such as triangle or square waves with dead time. We establish our main results by combining a novel idea for oscillatory control with an extension of functional analytic techniques originally utilized by Kurzweil, Jarnik, Sussmann, and Liu in the late 80s and early 90s and recently studiedmore » by Durr et al. Lastly, we demonstrate the value of the result with an application to inverter switching control.« less

  15. Discontinuous Growth of Onion Structure under Shear

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Shuji

    Discontinuous growth process of the Multilamellar vesicle (so called Onion) driven by shear quench was investigated by viscometry and microscopy in detail. Discontinuous Onion growth was observed when the final shear rate corresponded to the intermediate shear rate domain where the shear-thickening and shear-thinning viscosity appeared. In this process, large Onion transformed back into the lamellae and then formed large Onion. Small Onion to lamellae degradation process might be achieved by two modes, first the disruption of the configurational order of densely packed Onions followed by the rupture of Onion as second process. The second process would be characterized by the shear-banding flow pattern composed of the Onion-Lα coexisting state. We suggest that the appearance of the shear-band structure and the Onion reformation developed from the shear-band might be scaled by considering the mechanical energy balance with the bending elastic energy of bilayers.

  16. Panic anxiety after abrupt discontinuation of mianserin.

    PubMed

    Kuniyoshi, M; Arikawa, K; Miura, C; Inanaga, K

    1989-06-01

    We observed a case of withdrawal after abrupt discontinuation of mianserin. A 41-year-old woman was treated according to a diagnosis of depression, which was her 6th episode. Mianserin 30 mg/day, etizolam 1 mg/day and flunitrazepam 1 mg/day were administered. When the patient discontinued taking the drugs by herself because of subsiding of these symptoms, severe panic anxiety appeared. This panic anxiety was not relieved by taking etizolam and flunitrazepam again, but subsided rapidly by the re-administration of mianserin 30 mg/day, and because of that the depressive symptom also disappeared. From these experiences panic anxiety seemed to be a withdrawal symptom, and involvement of the noradrenergic system in panic anxiety as well as serotonergic system was suggested. PMID:2796025

  17. Constant-force approach to discontinuous potentials.

    PubMed

    Orea, Pedro; Odriozola, Gerardo

    2013-06-01

    Aiming to approach the thermodynamical properties of hard-core systems by standard molecular dynamics simulation, we propose setting a repulsive constant-force for overlapping particles. That is, the discontinuity of the pair potential is replaced by a linear function with a large negative slope. Hence, the core-core repulsion, usually modeled with a power function of distance, yields a large force as soon as the cores slightly overlap. This leads to a quasi-hardcore behavior. The idea is tested for a triangle potential of short range. The results obtained by replica exchange molecular dynamics for several repulsive forces are contrasted with the ones obtained for the discontinuous potential and by means of replica exchange Monte Carlo. We found remarkable agreements for the vapor-liquid coexistence densities as well as for the surface tension. PMID:23758356

  18. Discontinuous envelope function in semiconductor heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouhin, Henri-Jean; Bottegoni, Federico; Nguyen, T. L. Hoai; Wegrowe, Jean-Eric; Fishman, Guy

    2013-09-01

    Based on a proper definition of the current operators for non-quadratic Hamiltonians, we derive the expression for the transport current which involves the derivative of the imaginary part of the free-electron current, highlighting peculiarities of the extra terms. The expression of the probability current, when Spin-Orbit Interaction (SOI) is taken into account, requires a reformulation of the boudary conditions. This is especially important for tunnel heterojunctions made of non-centrosymmetric semiconductors. Therefore, we consider a model case: tunneling of conduction electrons through a [110]-oriented GaAs barrier. The new boundary conditions are reduced to two set of equations: the first one expresses the discontinuity of the envelope function at the interface while the other one expresses the discontinuity of the derivative of the envelope function.

  19. Discontinuous percolation transitions in real physical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Y. S.; Kahng, B.

    2011-11-01

    We study discontinuous percolation transitions (PTs) in the diffusion-limited cluster aggregation model of the sol-gel transition as an example of real physical systems, in which the number of aggregation events is regarded as the number of bonds occupied in the system. When particles are Brownian, in which cluster velocity depends on cluster size as vs˜sη with η=-0.5, a larger cluster has less probability to collide with other clusters because of its smaller mobility. Thus, the cluster is effectively more suppressed in growth of its size. Then the giant cluster size increases drastically by merging those suppressed clusters near the percolation threshold, exhibiting a discontinuous PT. We also study the tricritical behavior by controlling the parameter η, and the tricritical point is determined by introducing an asymmetric Smoluchowski equation.

  20. High Power SiGe X-Band (8-10 GHz) Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors and Amplifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Zhenqiang; Jiang, Ningyue; Ponchak, George E.; Alterovitz, Samuel A.

    2005-01-01

    Limited by increased parasitics and thermal effects as the device size becomes large, current commercial SiGe power HBTs are difficult to operate at X-band (8-12 GHz) with adequate power added efficiencies at high power levels. We found that, by changing the heterostructure and doping profile of SiGe HBTs, their power gain can be significantly improved without resorting to substantial lateral scaling. Furthermore, employing a common-base configuration with proper doping profile instead of a common-emitter configuration improves the power gain characteristics of SiGe HBTs, which thus permits these devices to be efficiently operated at X-band. In this paper, we report the results of SiGe power HBTs and MMIC power amplifiers operating at 8-10 GHz. At 10 GHz, 22.5 dBm (178 mW) RF output power with concurrent gain of 7.32 dB is measured at the peak power-added efficiency of 20.0% and the maximum RF output power of 24.0 dBm (250 mW) is achieved from a 20 emitter finger SiGe power HBT. Demonstration of single-stage X-band medium-power linear MMIC power amplifier is also realized at 8 GHz. Employing a 10-emitter finger SiGe HBT and on-chip input and output matching passive components, a linear gain of 9.7 dB, a maximum output power of 23.4 dBm and peak power added efficiency of 16% is achieved from the power amplifier. The MMIC exhibits very low distortion with third order intermodulation (IM) suppression C/I of -13 dBc at output power of 21.2 dBm and over 20dBm third order output intercept point (OIP3).

  1. Discontinuation of Antidepressants During Attempts to Conceive

    PubMed Central

    Psaros, Christina; Freeman, Marlene; Safren, Steven A.; Barsky, Maria; Cohen, Lee S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Many women discontinue antidepressants (ADs) when trying to conceive, although risk of depressive relapse is high. We examined the feasibility and potential clinical effect of cognitive behavioral therapy for the prevention of recurrence (CBT-PR) for women with a history of recurrent major depressive disorder (MDD) who planned to discontinue maintenance AD treatment for pregnancy. Methods This was an open preliminary study of CBT-PR in women (N = 12) planning or early in pregnancy with remitted MDD on maintenance ADs with a plan to discontinue ADs for pregnancy. Participants received 12 sessions of CBT-PR during the acute phase and optional monthly booster sessions during follow-up. Participants were assessed monthly during the acute phase and then twice additionally during follow-up by an independent rater using mood scales (depression module of the Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview and Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale); pregnancy status was also assessed. Results Over the 24 weeks of the trial, 75% (n = 9) of participants did not restart ADs and did not relapse to depression. Of the 3 who reintroduced AD, 2 experienced a depressive relapse, whereas one did not meet full criteria for MDD. Adherence to the intervention was very good with all participants completing all therapy sessions and assessments. Conclusions Cognitive behavioral therapy for the prevention of recurrence seems feasible and may provide protection for women with recurrent depression on ADs who discontinue their medication while trying to conceive. The extent to which euthymia is sustainable with CBT-PR requires further study; the results of which may broaden treatment choices for women in anticipation of and during pregnancy. PMID:24911438

  2. Extrapolation discontinuous Galerkin method for ultraparabolic equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcozzi, Michael D.

    2009-02-01

    Ultraparabolic equations arise from the characterization of the performance index of stochastic optimal control relative to ultradiffusion processes; they evidence multiple temporal variables and may be regarded as parabolic along characteristic directions. We consider theoretical and approximation aspects of a temporally order and step size adaptive extrapolation discontinuous Galerkin method coupled with a spatial Lagrange second-order finite element approximation for a prototype ultraparabolic problem. As an application, we value a so-called Asian option from mathematical finance.

  3. 14 CFR 221.300 - Discontinuation of electronic tariff system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Discontinuation of electronic tariff system... of electronic tariff system. In the event that the electronic tariff system is discontinued, or the source of the data is changed, or a filer discontinues its business, all electronic data records prior...

  4. 14 CFR 221.300 - Discontinuation of electronic tariff system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Discontinuation of electronic tariff system... of electronic tariff system. In the event that the electronic tariff system is discontinued, or the source of the data is changed, or a filer discontinues its business, all electronic data records prior...

  5. 14 CFR 221.300 - Discontinuation of electronic tariff system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discontinuation of electronic tariff system... of electronic tariff system. In the event that the electronic tariff system is discontinued, or the source of the data is changed, or a filer discontinues its business, all electronic data records prior...

  6. 14 CFR 221.300 - Discontinuation of electronic tariff system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Discontinuation of electronic tariff system... of electronic tariff system. In the event that the electronic tariff system is discontinued, or the source of the data is changed, or a filer discontinues its business, all electronic data records prior...

  7. 27 CFR 31.162 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discontinuance of business... and Reports § 31.162 Discontinuance of business. When a wholesale dealer in liquors who is required, under § 31.160, to file a monthly summary report discontinues business, a monthly summary report...

  8. 27 CFR 46.138 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Discontinuance of business. 46.138 Section 46.138 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....138 Discontinuance of business. A dealer who for any reason discontinues business is not entitled to...

  9. 27 CFR 46.138 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discontinuance of business. 46.138 Section 46.138 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....138 Discontinuance of business. A dealer who for any reason discontinues business is not entitled to...

  10. 39 CFR 241.3 - Discontinuance of post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discontinuance of post offices. 241.3 Section 241.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION ESTABLISHMENT CLASSIFICATION, AND DISCONTINUANCE § 241.3 Discontinuance of post offices. (a) Introduction—(1) Coverage. This section establishes the rules governing...

  11. 39 CFR 241.3 - Discontinuance of post offices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discontinuance of post offices. 241.3 Section 241.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION ESTABLISHMENT CLASSIFICATION, AND DISCONTINUANCE § 241.3 Discontinuance of post offices. (a) Introduction—(1) Coverage. This section establishes the rules governing...

  12. Program Discontinuance: A Faculty Perspective Revisited. Adopted Fall 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Senate for California Community Colleges, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The 1998 Academic Senate for California Community Colleges paper Program Discontinuance: A Faculty Perspective presented issues of program discontinuance and addressed principles and key factors for effective faculty participation in the development of fair and equitable program discontinuance processes. In 2009, an Academic Senate resolution…

  13. 47 CFR 5.81 - Discontinuance of station operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discontinuance of station operation. 5.81 Section 5.81 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EXPERIMENTAL RADIO SERVICE (OTHER THAN BROADCAST) Applications and Licenses § 5.81 Discontinuance of station operation. In case of permanent discontinuance of operation of a fixed...

  14. Contraceptive discontinuation among married women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Grady, W R; Hayward, M D; Florey, F A

    1988-01-01

    Using data from the 1982 National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG), this analysis reports differentials in contraceptive discontinuation among married women aged 15-44 years in the United States. The total discontinuation rate is broken down into change to no method (termination) or to a different method (a method switch), and rates are obtained for specific methods. In addition, sociodemographic differences in risks associated with each type of discontinuation are shown. Discontinuation rates are compared to use-failure rates to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the implications of discontinuation for contraceptive efficacy. PMID:3176095

  15. Visualization, Extraction and Quantification of Discontinuities in Compressible Flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samtaney, Ravi; Morris, R. D.; Cheeseman, P.; Sunelyansky, V.; Maluf, D.; Wolf, D.

    2000-01-01

    Scientific visualizations of two-dimensional compressible flow of a gas with discontinuities are presented. The numerical analogue to experimental techniques such as schlieren imaging, shadowgraphs, and interferograms are discussed. Edge detection techniques are utilized to identify the discontinuities. In particular, the zero crossing of the Laplacian of a field (usually density) is recommended for extracting the discontinuities. An algorithm to extract and quantify the discontinuities is presented. To illustrate the methods developed in the report, the example chosen is that of an unsteady interaction of a shock wave with a contact discontinuity.

  16. Coherent 40-Hz Oscillation Characterizes Dream State in Humans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llinas, Rodolfo; Ribary, Urs

    1993-03-01

    Magnetic recording from five normal human adults demonstrates large 40-Hz coherent magnetic activity in the awake and in rapid-eye-movement (REM) sleep states that is very reduced during delta sleep (deep sleep characterized by delta waves in the electroencephalogram). This 40-Hz magnetic oscillation has been shown to be reset by sensory stimuli in the awake state. Such resetting is not observed during REM or delta sleep. The 40 Hz in REM sleep is characterized, as is that in the awake state, by a fronto-occiptal phase shift over the head. This phase shift has a maximum duration of thickapprox12-13 msec. Because 40-Hz oscillation is seen in wakefulness and in dreaming, we propose it to be a correlate of cognition, probably resultant from coherent 40-Hz resonance between thalamocortical-specific and nonspecific loops. Moreover, we proposed that the specific loops give the content of cognition, and a nonspecific loop gives the temporal binding required for the unity of cognitive experience.

  17. NASA Rat Acoustic Tolerance Test 1994-1995: 8 kHz, 16 kHz, 32 kHz Experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mele, Gary D.; Holley, Daniel C.; Naidu, Sujata

    1996-01-01

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to chronic applied sound (74 to 79 dB, SPL) with octave band center frequencies of either 8, 16 or 32 kHz for up to 60 days. Control cages had ambient sound levels of about 62 dB (SPL). Groups of rats (test vs. control; N=9 per group) were euthanized after 0. 5. 14, 30, and 60 days. On each euthanasia day, objective evaluation of their physiology and behavior was performed using a Stress Assessment Battery (SAB) of measures. In addition, rat hearing was assessed using the brain stem auditory evoked potential (BAER) method after 60 days of exposure. No statistically significant differences in mean daily food use could be attributed to the presence of the applied test sound. Test rats used 5% more water than control rats. In the 8 kHz and 32 kHz tests this amount was statistically significant(P less than .05). This is a minor difference of questionable physiological significance. However, it may be an indication of a small reaction to the constant applied sound. Across all test frequencies, day 5 test rats had 6% larger spleens than control rats. No other body or organ weight differences were found to be statistically significant with respect to the application of sound. This spleen effect may be a transient adaptive process related to adaptation to the constant applied noise. No significant test effect on differential white blood cell counts could be demonstrated. One group demonstrated a low eosinophil count (16 kHz experiment, day 14 test group). However this was highly suspect. Across all test frequencies studied, day 5 test rats had 17% fewer total leukocytes than day 5 control rats. Sound exposed test rats exhibited 44% lower plasma corticosterone concentrations than did control rats. Note that the plasma corticosterone concentration was lower in the sound exposed test animals than the control animals in every instance (frequency exposure and number of days exposed).

  18. Depressed mantle discontinuities beneath Iceland: Evidence of a garnet controlled 660 km discontinuity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, J.; Cottaar, S.; White, R. S.; Deuss, A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of a mantle plume beneath Iceland has long been hypothesised to explain its high volumes of crustal volcanism. Practical constraints in seismic tomography mean that thin, slow velocity anomalies representative of a mantle plume signature are difficult to image. However it is possible to infer the presence of temperature anomalies at depth from the effect they have on phase transitions in surrounding mantle material. Phase changes in the olivine component of mantle rocks are thought to be responsible for global mantle seismic discontinuities at 410 and 660 km depth, though exact depths are dependent on surrounding temperature conditions. This study uses P to S seismic wave conversions at mantle discontinuities to investigate variation in topography allowing inference of temperature anomalies within the transition zone. We employ a large data set from a wide range of seismic stations across the North Atlantic region and a dense network in Iceland, including over 100 stations run by the University of Cambridge. Data are used to create over 6000 receiver functions. These are converted from time to depth including 3D corrections for variations in crustal thickness and upper mantle velocity heterogeneities, and then stacked based on common conversion points. We find that both the 410 and 660 km discontinuities are depressed under Iceland compared to normal depths in the surrounding region. The depression of 30 km observed on the 410 km discontinuity could be artificially deepened by un-modelled slow anomalies in the correcting velocity model. Adding a slow velocity conduit of -1.44% reduces the depression to 18 km; in this scenario both the velocity reduction and discontinuity topography reflect a temperature anomaly of 210 K. We find that much larger velocity reductions would be required to remove all depression on the 660 km discontinuity, and therefore correlated discontinuity depressions appear to be a robust feature of the data. While it is not possible

  19. General spline filters for discontinuous Galerkin solutions

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Jörg

    2015-01-01

    The discontinuous Galerkin (dG) method outputs a sequence of polynomial pieces. Post-processing the sequence by Smoothness-Increasing Accuracy-Conserving (SIAC) convolution not only increases the smoothness of the sequence but can also improve its accuracy and yield superconvergence. SIAC convolution is considered optimal if the SIAC kernels, in the form of a linear combination of B-splines of degree d, reproduce polynomials of degree 2d. This paper derives simple formulas for computing the optimal SIAC spline coefficients for the general case including non-uniform knots. PMID:26594090

  20. Continuous-Discontinuous Model for Ductile Fracture

    SciTech Connect

    Seabra, Mariana R. R.; Cesar de Sa, Jose M. A.

    2010-06-15

    In this contribution, a continuum-dicontinuum model for ductile failure is presented. The degradation of material properties trough deformation is described by Continuum Damage Mechanics in a non-local integral formulation to avoid mesh dependence. In the final stage of failure, the damaged zone is replaced by a cohesive macro crack and subsequent traction-free macro crack for a more realistic representation of the phenomenon. The inclusion of the discontinuity surfaces is performed by the XFEM and Level Set Method and avoids the spurious damage growth typical of this class of models.

  1. On the 300km discontinuity with Conversion Phases SdP in the Tonga-Fiji Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Y.; Sui, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Conversion phases SdP are powerful for retrieving information of velocity interfaces of deep structure of Earth's interior. The high sensitivity seismograph network Japan (Hi-net) has about 800 seismometers which can provide digital waveform data from since 2004 through internet. The difference between the focal depths and the depth of 300 km discontinuity determines the sizes of Fresnel zones at the discontinuity for the waveform data from the seismic network, so seismic waveform of six earthquakes with depths from 145 to 220km between 2004 and 2011 beneath Tonga-Fiji region are retrieved from Hi-net (www.hinet.bosai.go.jp). The magnitudes of the events used are Mb 5.0-5.7 which means there are good signal-noise ratios and relatively simple source time functions. In this study, the focal depths determined with pP phases are provided by EHB database for those before 2006 and www.globalcmt.org for those after that year. After filtering with 0.2-1.0Hz (e.g. Castle and Creager, JGR, 2000) and manually selection, waveform data are divided to 5-8 groups related to the regional locations of seismometers and proceeded with N-th root slant-stack method, then we can get the related vespegram in differential time vs slowness. There are 38 vespegrams for 6 events. From the vespegrams, the conversion phases are picked according to the references of the theoretical values of the differential times and slownesses. The parameters read from vespegrams are inverted with IASP91 model to the depths and locations of conversion points. The conversion points related to 300 km discontinuity are distributed from 302 to 328km in the Fuji-Tonga region. For the vespegrams from one certain event but sub-networks, the depth variation are less than 20 km, mostly are less than 11km. Especially, the depth variation of the event 6 are just 8 km. So in the square region with 200 * 300 km, the lateral variation of the depth of the 300 km discontinuity is relatively small. Comparing with the former

  2. Lithospheric discontinuities beneath Australia: interaction of large-scale and fine scale structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennett, Brian L. N.; Yoshizawa, Kazunori

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the complex heterogeneity of the continental lithosphere involves a wide variety of spatial scales and the synthesis of multiple classes of information. Seismic surface waves and multiply reflected body waves provide the main information on broad-scale structure, and bounds on the extent of the lithosphere-asthenosphere transition (LAT) can be found from the vertical gradients of S wavespeed. Information on finer scale structures comes though body wave studies, including detailed seismic tomography and P wave reflectivity extracted from stacked autocorrelograms of continuous component records. With the inclusion of deterministic large-scale structure and realistic medium-scale stochastic features there is not a need for strong fine-scale variations. The resulting multi-scale heterogeneity model for the Australian region gives a good representation of the character of observed seismograms and their geographic variations and matches the observations of P wave reflectivity. The presence of reflections in the 0.5-3.0 Hz band in the uppermost mantle suggests variations on vertical scales of a few hundred metres with amplitudes of the order of 1%. There are some indications of a change of reflection character in the lower part of the lithosphere in the transition to the asthenosphere. In some parts of central Australia there is a reasonable tie between a change in reflectivity and other information on mid-lithospheric discontinuities. Individual seismic probes illuminate different aspects of the heterogeneity, but the full spectrum has to be taken into account to understand the properties of apparent discontinuities and their geodynamic implications. Once fine-scale structure is taken into consideration it becomes apparent that wave interference plays a very important role in determining the nature of apparent discontinuities seen with lower frequency probes such as S wave receiver functions. Changes in the character of fine-scale heterogeneity can

  3. Formation of magnetic discontinuities through viscous relaxation

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Sanjay; Bhattacharyya, R.; Smolarkiewicz, P. K.

    2014-05-15

    According to Parker's magnetostatic theorem, tangential discontinuities in magnetic field, or current sheets (CSs), are generally unavoidable in an equilibrium magnetofluid with infinite electrical conductivity and complex magnetic topology. These CSs are due to a failure of a magnetic field in achieving force-balance everywhere and preserving its topology while remaining in a spatially continuous state. A recent work [Kumar, Bhattacharyya, and Smolarkiewicz, Phys. Plasmas 20, 112903 (2013)] demonstrated this CS formation utilizing numerical simulations in terms of the vector magnetic field. The magnetohydrodynamic simulations presented here complement the above work by demonstrating CS formation by employing a novel approach of describing the magnetofluid evolution in terms of magnetic flux surfaces instead of the vector magnetic field. The magnetic flux surfaces being the possible sites on which CSs develop, this approach provides a direct visualization of the CS formation, helpful in understanding the governing dynamics. The simulations confirm development of tangential discontinuities through a favorable contortion of magnetic flux surfaces, as the magnetofluid undergoes a topology-preserving viscous relaxation from an initial non-equilibrium state with twisted magnetic field. A crucial finding of this work is in its demonstration of CS formation at spatial locations away from the magnetic nulls.

  4. Discontinuous precipitation in cobalt-tungsten alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zieba, P.; Cliff, G.; Lorimer, G.W.

    1997-05-01

    Discontinuous precipitation in a Co32 wt% W alloy aged in the temperature range from 875 K to 1025 K has been investigated. Philips EM 430 STEM has been used to characterize the microstructure and to measure the composition profiles across individual lamellae of {epsilon}{sub Co} and Co{sub 3} W phases in partially transformed specimens. Two kinds of cellular precipitates have been found in the alloy. The initial transformation product, identified as primary lamellae with spacing of a few nanometers is replaced during prolonged ageing by secondary lamellae with a much larger interlamellar spacing, typically a few tens of nm. Line scans across cell boundaries of the primary lamellae revealed that, just behind the advancing cell boundary, the solute content is far from the equilibrium state. This solute excess within the cells is quickly removed at the ageing temperature. Calculations show that the diffusion process was too rapid to be identified as ordinary volume diffusion. Investigation of the kinetics showed that discontinuous precipitation is controlled by diffusion processes at the advancing cell boundary. This proposal has been confirmed by STEM analysis of tungsten profiles in the depleted {epsilon}{sub Co} lamellae.

  5. Subcell resolution in simplex stochastic collocation for spatial discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witteveen, Jeroen A. S.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-10-01

    Subcell resolution has been used in the Finite Volume Method (FVM) to obtain accurate approximations of discontinuities in the physical space. Stochastic methods are usually based on local adaptivity for resolving discontinuities in the stochastic dimensions. However, the adaptive refinement in the probability space is ineffective in the non-intrusive uncertainty quantification framework, if the stochastic discontinuity is caused by a discontinuity in the physical space with a random location. The dependence of the discontinuity location in the probability space on the spatial coordinates then results in a staircase approximation of the statistics, which leads to first-order error convergence and an underprediction of the maximum standard deviation. To avoid these problems, we introduce subcell resolution into the Simplex Stochastic Collocation (SSC) method for obtaining a truly discontinuous representation of random spatial discontinuities in the interior of the cells discretizing the probability space. The presented SSC-SR method is based on resolving the discontinuity location in the probability space explicitly as function of the spatial coordinates and extending the stochastic response surface approximations up to the predicted discontinuity location. The applications to a linear advection problem, the inviscid Burgers' equation, a shock tube problem, and the transonic flow over the RAE 2822 airfoil show that SSC-SR resolves random spatial discontinuities with multiple stochastic and spatial dimensions accurately using a minimal number of samples.

  6. Subcell resolution in simplex stochastic collocation for spatial discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Witteveen, Jeroen A.S.; Iaccarino, Gianluca

    2013-10-15

    Subcell resolution has been used in the Finite Volume Method (FVM) to obtain accurate approximations of discontinuities in the physical space. Stochastic methods are usually based on local adaptivity for resolving discontinuities in the stochastic dimensions. However, the adaptive refinement in the probability space is ineffective in the non-intrusive uncertainty quantification framework, if the stochastic discontinuity is caused by a discontinuity in the physical space with a random location. The dependence of the discontinuity location in the probability space on the spatial coordinates then results in a staircase approximation of the statistics, which leads to first-order error convergence and an underprediction of the maximum standard deviation. To avoid these problems, we introduce subcell resolution into the Simplex Stochastic Collocation (SSC) method for obtaining a truly discontinuous representation of random spatial discontinuities in the interior of the cells discretizing the probability space. The presented SSC–SR method is based on resolving the discontinuity location in the probability space explicitly as function of the spatial coordinates and extending the stochastic response surface approximations up to the predicted discontinuity location. The applications to a linear advection problem, the inviscid Burgers’ equation, a shock tube problem, and the transonic flow over the RAE 2822 airfoil show that SSC–SR resolves random spatial discontinuities with multiple stochastic and spatial dimensions accurately using a minimal number of samples.

  7. LAB and other lithospheric discontinuities below Cratons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sodoudi, Forough

    2013-04-01

    Cratons are extremely stable continental areas of the Earth's crust, which have been formed and remained largely unchanged since Precambrian. However, their formation and how they survived destruction over billions of years remains a subject of debate. Seismic properties of the cratonic lithosphere reflect its composition and physical state and obtain basic constraints on processes of the formation and evolution of continents. Insight on these issues may be gained by determining the depth and the nature of the Lithosphere-Asthenosphere Boundary (LAB), which is a necessary element of the plate tectonic theory. However, It has proved quite "elusive" beneath the oldest continental areas. What is missing to date is a consensus on the feature that would correspond to the LAB and whether such a feature exists everywhere beneath cratons. The relatively recently developed S receiver function technique employing S-to-P conversions appears promising for detecting the LAB with a sufficiently high resolution and density. A growing number of regional observations obtained from S receiver function studies has detected discontinuities characterized by a significant negative velocity contrast in the upper mantle. However, challenges still remain in detecting the S-to-P conversions from the LAB beneath the Precambrian cratons. Some recent SRF studies observed a deep (> 160 km) negative velocity contrast beneath cratons and interpreted it as the LAB. For example, a deep LAB at about 250 km was reported beneath the Kalahari craton by different authors. Similar results were also obtained beneath some parts of the Canadian shield, East European Craton, Australia, the Arabian Shield and Tanzania craton. In contrast, other SRF studies found no evidence for negative discontinuities at these depths in the North American craton, in Kalahari craton or in Australia. Instead they revealed a very sharp negative velocity gradient at much shallower depth (60-150 km), leading some authors to infer

  8. Behavioral and prenatal effects of 60-Hz fields

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-08-01

    Purpose was to determine possible neural, behavioral, and reproductive effects of low-intensity 60-Hz electric fields on mammals (rats) exposed in-utero. The tests used shortly after birth included negative geotaxis, the acoustic startle response, surface righting, in-air righting, cliff avoidance, emotionality, and swimming endurance. Variations between the exposed and control groups are discussed. 9 tables. (DLC)

  9. A 40-Hz Auditory Potential Recorded from the Human Scalp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galambos, Robert; Makeig, Scott; Talmachoff, Peter J.

    1981-04-01

    Computer techniques readily extract from the brainwaves an orderly sequence of brain potentials locked in time to sound stimuli. The potentials that appear 8 to 80 msec after the stimulus resemble 3 or 4 cycles of a 40-Hz sine wave; we show here that these waves combine to form a single, stable, composite wave when the sounds are repeated at rates around 40 per sec. This phenomenon, the 40-Hz event-related potential (ERP), displays several properties of theoretical and practical interest. First, it reportedly disappears with surgical anesthesia, and it resembles similar phenomena in the visual and olfactory system, facts which suggest that adequate processing of sensory information may require cyclical brain events in the 30- to 50-Hz range. Second, latency and amplitude measurements on the 40-Hz ERP indicate it may contain useful information on the number and basilar membrane location of the auditory nerve fibers a given tone excites. Third, the response is present at sound intensities very close to normal adult thresholds for the audiometric frequencies, a fact that could have application in clinical hearing testing.

  10. Circuit measures hysteresis loop areas at 30 Hz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, C.; Spilo, D.

    1967-01-01

    Analog circuit measures hysteresis loop areas as a function of time during fatigue testing of specimens subjected to sinusoidal tension-compression stresses at a frequency of Hz. When the sinusoidal stress signal is multiplied by the strain signal, the dc signal is proportional to hysteresis loop area.

  11. EFFECTS OF 60-HZ FIELDS ON HUMAN HEALTH PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Specific results of research on the effects of exposure to 60-Hz electric and magnetic fields have often been contradictory and difficult to replicate. The study reported here used quantitative exercise testing techniques to evaluate whether increases in metabolism, caused by mod...

  12. Evaluation of the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection

    PubMed Central

    Panatto, Donatella; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi; Rizzitelli, Emanuela; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara; Icardi, Giancarlo; Gasparini, Roberto; Amicizia, Daniela

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this systematic review was to evaluate the economic burden of Herpes Zoster (HZ) infection. The review was conducted in accordance with the standards of the “Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses” guidelines. The following databases were accessed: ISI/Web of Knowledge (WoS), MEDLINE/PubMed, Scopus, ProQuest, the Cochrane Library and EconLit. Specific literature on health economics was also manually inspected. Thirty-three studies were included. The quality of the studies assessed in accordance with the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards checklist was good. All studies evaluated direct costs, apart from one which dealt only with indirect costs. Indirect costs were evaluated by 12 studies. The economic burden of HZ has increased over time. HZ management and drug prescriptions generate the highest direct costs. While increasing age, co-morbidities and drug treatment were found to predict higher direct costs, being employed was correlated with higher indirect costs, and thus with the onset age of the disease. Despite some differences among the selected studies, particularly with regard to indirect costs, all concur that HZ is a widespread disease which has a heavy social and economic burden. PMID:25483704

  13. [Discontinuation of depression treatment from the perspective of suicide prevention].

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoshinori

    2012-01-01

    It is assumed that discontinuation of treatment for depression may increase the risk of suicide. A population-based register study in Denmark did not find a lower risk among people over age 50 who followed treatment in comparison with those who discontinued treatment with antidepressants at an early stage. This result, however, does not allow us to think superficially that early discontinuation of treatment does not increase the risk of suicide. It is because the study has limitations without information of such as psychiatric diagnoses, severity of the depressed state, and reasons of discontinuation. It is safe for clinicians to aim at preventing discontinuation of treatment. Particularly, in Japan and South Korea where there is a sociocultural climate of tolerability for suicide, suicide can occur in milder depressed state and discontinuation of treatment should be taken more seriously than in Western countries. PMID:22897025

  14. Precursors to the shear failure of rock discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayat, Ahmadreza; Pyrak-Nolte, Laura J.; Bobet, Antonio

    2014-08-01

    Active geophysical monitoring of potential failure along mechanical discontinuities in rock requires identification of precursory signatures to failure in geophysical signals. Active ultrasonic monitoring of shear failure along frictional discontinuities was performed to determine the signatures of potential failure. An instrumented direct shear apparatus was used to apply a constant shearing rate to a discontinuity that was held under a constant normal stress. Transmitted and reflected compressional and shear waves were recorded during the shearing process. Ultrasonic precursors were identified as distinct maxima in the amplitude of transmitted shear waves as well as minima in the amplitude of reflected shear waves that occurred well before the peak shear strength of a frictional discontinuity. The precursors are linked to changes in the local shear specific stiffness along the discontinuity, while the discontinuity's macroscopic shear strength continues to increase prior to failure.

  15. The harang discontinuity in auroral belt ionospheric currents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herpner, J. P.

    1971-01-01

    Observations are compared to the Harang discontinuity to illustrate the reality and form of the discontinuity near midnight. High latitude magnetic disturbances and auroral displays were not found to be completely identical on any two days. The typical diurnal behavior during the night hours between 60 and 70 deg magnetic latitude was illustrated, using two patterns. Convection, time variablity, and current continuity of the Harang discontinuity are considered.

  16. Weld stresses beyond elastic limit: Materials discontinuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Verderaime, V.

    1989-01-01

    When welded structures depend on properties beyond the elastic limit to qualify their ultimate safety factor, and weld-parent materials abruptly change at the interface, then stress discontinuity is inevitable. The stress concentration is mildly sensitive to material relative strain hardening and acutely sensitive to applied stress fields. Peak stresses occur on the weld surface, at the interface, and dissipate within a 0.01-inch band. When the stress is intense, the weld will always fracture at the interface. The analysis incorporates a classical mechanics model to more sharply define stress spikes within the bandwidth, and suggests a relative material index and Poisson's ratio related to strain hardening. Implications are discussed which are applicable to industries of high performance structures.

  17. Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Turbulence Simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collis, S. Scott

    2002-01-01

    A discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is formulated, implemented, and tested for simulation of compressible turbulent flows. The method is applied to turbulent channel flow at low Reynolds number, where it is found to successfully predict low-order statistics with fewer degrees of freedom than traditional numerical methods. This reduction is achieved by utilizing local hp-refinement such that the computational grid is refined simultaneously in all three spatial coordinates with decreasing distance from the wall. Another advantage of DG is that Dirichlet boundary conditions can be enforced weakly through integrals of the numerical fluxes. Both for a model advection-diffusion problem and for turbulent channel flow, weak enforcement of wall boundaries is found to improve results at low resolution. Such weak boundary conditions may play a pivotal role in wall modeling for large-eddy simulation.

  18. From weak discontinuities to nondissipative shock waves

    SciTech Connect

    Garifullin, R. N. Suleimanov, B. I.

    2010-01-15

    An analysis is presented of the effect of weak dispersion on transitions from weak to strong discontinuities in inviscid fluid dynamics. In the neighborhoods of transition points, this effect is described by simultaneous solutions to the Korteweg-de Vries equation u{sub t}'+ uu{sub x}' + u{sub xxx}' = 0 and fifth-order nonautonomous ordinary differential equations. As x{sup 2} + t{sup 2} {yields}{infinity}, the asymptotic behavior of these simultaneous solutions in the zone of undamped oscillations is given by quasi-simple wave solutions to Whitham equations of the form r{sub i}(t, x) = tl{sub i} x/t{sup 2}.

  19. Universal quantum computation by discontinuous quantum walk

    SciTech Connect

    Underwood, Michael S.; Feder, David L.

    2010-10-15

    Quantum walks are the quantum-mechanical analog of random walks, in which a quantum ''walker'' evolves between initial and final states by traversing the edges of a graph, either in discrete steps from node to node or via continuous evolution under the Hamiltonian furnished by the adjacency matrix of the graph. We present a hybrid scheme for universal quantum computation in which a quantum walker takes discrete steps of continuous evolution. This ''discontinuous'' quantum walk employs perfect quantum-state transfer between two nodes of specific subgraphs chosen to implement a universal gate set, thereby ensuring unitary evolution without requiring the introduction of an ancillary coin space. The run time is linear in the number of simulated qubits and gates. The scheme allows multiple runs of the algorithm to be executed almost simultaneously by starting walkers one time step apart.

  20. Statistical strength models for composites with discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ming-Chih.

    1991-01-01

    This thesis investigates the microfracture process in laminated composites based on a problematic approach. Two probabilistic fracture models, a statistical model and a stochastic model, were developed for predicting the failure stress in composites containing geometric discontinuities such as holes and cracks. A two-parameter Weibull distribution of fiber strength and the elastic properties of matrix materials are used in the analysis. The results show that the fracture stress is related to notch size by a power law similar to that proposed by Mar and Lin. Experiments were conducted to verify the probabilistic fracture models developed. The strength reduction factors for boron/epoxy (0/-45/0/45)s laminates were obtained and the fiber damage near the hole edge was studied. The experimental data agree well with the predictions from the probabilistic fracture models.

  1. PROCEEDINGS: NATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON RECENT ADVANCES IN POLLUTANT MONITORING OF AMBIENT AIR AND STATIONARY SOURCES, HELD AT RADISON PLAZA RALEIGH HOTEL, ON MAY 8-10, 1984

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fourth annual national symposium sponsored by EPA's Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory was held May 8-10, 1984 in Raleigh, North Carolina. In seven sessions over three days, papers and discussions focused on state-of-the-art systems for monitoring source emissions, a...

  2. A Study in Reading Development: A Comparison of the Ability of 8, 10 and 13 Year Old Children to Perceive Cohesion in Their School Texts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, L. John

    A longitudinal survey that was part of a larger British research project on the perception of textual cohesion has yielded some insights into the reading problems of students on both sides of the primary/secondary school line. Subjects were 1,355 children, ages 8, 10, and 13. Two booklets for junior school and two for secondary school students…

  3. PROCEEDINGS AND SUMMARY REPORT: WORKSHOP ON THE FATE, TRANSPORT, AND TRANSFORMATION OF MERCURY IN AQUATIC AND TERRESTRIAL ENVIRONMENTS, MAY 8-10, 2001, WEST PALM BEACH, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Workshop on the Fate, Transport, and Transformation of Mercury in Aquatic and Terrestrial Environments was held on May 8-10, 2001 in West Palm Beach, Florida. The workshop was conducted by the USEPA's Office of Research and Development and cosponsored by the U.S. Geological S...

  4. PROCEEDINGS OF THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN (SAN FRANCISCO, MARCH 8-10, 1965).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CLARK, LESLIE L.; AND OTHERS

    THESE PROCEEDINGS WERE PREPARED FROM THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN HELD MARCH 8-10, 1965. SURVEY RESULTS WERE PRESENTED WHICH INDICATED THE NUMBER OF BLIND, SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED, AND MULTIPLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA AND THE INCIDENCE OF BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN…

  5. Outcomes of a School-Based Intervention (RESCATE) to Improve Physical Activity Patterns in Mexican Children Aged 8-10 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colin-Ramirez, E.; Castillo-Martinez, L.; Orea-Tejeda, A.; Vergara-Castaneda, A.; Keirns-Davis, C.; Villa-Romero, A.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an intervention program on the patterns of physical activity in 8- to 10-year-old Mexican children from lower socioeconomic status. This study performed a randomized controlled field trial in 498 children aged 8-10 years from 10 public schools of low socioeconomic status in Mexico City. Schools…

  6. 40 CFR 180.1126 - Codlure, (E,E)-8,10-Dodecadien-1-ol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Codlure, (E,E)-8,10-Dodecadien-1-ol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1126 Section 180.1126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...

  7. 40 CFR 180.1126 - Codlure, (E,E)-8,10-Dodecadien-1-ol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Codlure, (E,E)-8,10-Dodecadien-1-ol; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. 180.1126 Section 180.1126 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions...

  8. A Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Study Investigating the Effects of Omega-3 Supplementation in Children Aged 8-10 Years from a Mainstream School Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, A.; Woodward, A.; Jackson, S.; Wang, Y.; Crawford, M. A.

    2010-01-01

    Despite the increased interest in the effects of omega-3 supplementation on childrens' learning and behaviour, there are a lack of controlled studies of this kind that have utilised a typically developing population. This study investigated the effects of omega-3 supplementation in 450 children aged 8-10 years old from a mainstream school…

  9. Analysis of Waveguide Junction Discontinuities Using Finite Element Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deshpande, Manohar D.

    1997-01-01

    A Finite Element Method (FEM) is presented to determine reflection and transmission coefficients of rectangular waveguide junction discontinuities. An H-plane discontinuity, an E-plane ridge discontinuity, and a step discontinuity in a concentric rectangular waveguide junction are analyzed using the FEM procedure. Also, reflection and transmission coefficients due to presence of a gap between two sections of a rectangular waveguide are determined using the FEM. The numerical results obtained by the present method are in excellent agreement with the earlier published results. The numerical results obtained by the FEM are compared with the numerical results obtained using the Mode Matching Method (MMM) and also with the measured data.

  10. MHD discontinuities in solar flares: Continuous transitions and plasma heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ledentsov, L. S.; Somov, B. V.

    2015-12-01

    The boundary conditions for the ideal MHD equations on a plane discontinuity surface are investigated. It is shown that, for a given mass flux through a discontinuity, its type depends only on the relation between inclination angles of a magnetic field. Moreover, the conservation laws on a surface of discontinuity allow changing a discontinuity type with gradual (continuous) changes in the conditions of plasma flow. Then there are the so-called transition solutions that satisfy simultaneously two types of discontinuities. We obtain all transition solutions on the basis of the complete system of boundary conditions for the MHD equations. We also found the expression describing a jump of internal energy of the plasma flowing through the discontinuity. Firstly, this allows constructing a generalized scheme of possible continuous transitions between MHD discontinuities. Secondly, it enables the examination of the dependence of plasma heating by plasma density and configuration of the magnetic field near the discontinuity surface, i.e., by the type of the MHD discontinuity. It is shown that the best conditions for heating are carried out in the vicinity of a reconnecting current layer near the areas of reverse currents. The result can be helpful in explaining the temperature distributions inside the active regions in the solar corona during flares observed by modern space observatories in soft and hard X-rays.

  11. DISCONTINUED OR LITTLE USED LARGE GATE VALVE AND VALVE ASSEMBLY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DISCONTINUED OR LITTLE USED LARGE GATE VALVE AND VALVE ASSEMBLY PATTERNS, PATTERN STORAGE BUILDING. - Stockham Pipe & Fittings Company, Pattern Storage, 4000 Tenth Avenue North, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  12. Bayesian methods for discontinuity detection in climate model predictions.

    SciTech Connect

    Safta, Cosmin; Debusschere, Bert J.; Najm, Habib N.; Sargsyan, Khachik

    2010-06-01

    Discontinuity detection is an important component in many fields: Image recognition, Digital signal processing, and Climate change research. Current methods shortcomings are: Restricted to one- or two-dimensional setting, Require uniformly spaced and/or dense input data, and Give deterministic answers without quantifying the uncertainty. Spectral methods for Uncertainty Quantification with global, smooth bases are challenged by discontinuities in model simulation results. Domain decomposition reduces the impact of nonlinearities and discontinuities. However, while gaining more smoothness in each subdomain, the current domain refinement methods require prohibitively many simulations. Therefore, detecting discontinuities up front and refining accordingly provides huge improvement to the current methodologies.

  13. Experiencing antipsychotic discontinuation: results from a survey of Australian consumers.

    PubMed

    Salomon, C; Hamilton, B; Elsom, S

    2014-12-01

    Despite high reported rates of antipsychotic non-adherence, little is known about consumer experiences during discontinuation. This study was designed to increase understanding of antipsychotic discontinuation from consumer perspectives. In 2011-2012, 98 Australian consumers involved with participating organizations completed an anonymous survey detailing past antipsychotic discontinuation attempts. Of the 88 participants who reported at least one discontinuation attempt, over half (n = 47, 54.7%) reported stopping without clinician knowledge or support. This group was 35% (confidence interval 15.4-54.6%) more likely to stop abruptly than those (n = 41, 45.3%) stopping with clinician support (P = 0.002). Only 10 participants (23.3%) recalled being given information about discontinuation symptoms other than relapse; however, 68 participants (78.2%) reported experiencing a range of discontinuation symptoms including physical, cognitive, emotional, psychotic or sleep-related disturbances. Findings cannot be readily generalized because of sampling constraints. However, the significant number of participants who reported discontinuation symptoms, in addition to psychosis, is consistent with previous research. This study provides new insight into consumer motivations for discontinuation and possible problems in clinical communication that may contribute to frequent non-collaborative discontinuation attempts. Mental health nurses, who play a pivotal role in medication communication events, may benefit from increased awareness of consumer perspectives on this topic. PMID:25298092

  14. Discontinuities detection using transmission electrical resistivity imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesparre, Nolwenn; Cabrera, Justo; Boyle, Alistair; Grychtol, Bartłomiej; Adler, Andy

    2015-04-01

    In the context of nuclear waste storage, low permeability clays are investigated as potential geological barrier. Discontinuities in such formations might facilitate the radionuclide transport to the environment. The underground platform of Tournemire (Aveyron, France) presents the opportunity to perform in-situ experiments to evaluate the potential of geophysical methods to detect and characterize the presence of discontinuities in the sub-surface. In this work, we apply transmission electrical resistivity tomography to image the medium surrounding a regional fault. A specific array of electrodes were set up, adapted for the characterization of the fault. Electrodes were placed along the tunnel as well as at the surface above the tunnel on both sides of the fault. The objective of a such geometry is to acquire data in transmission across the massif in addition to classical protocol such as Schlumberger or dipole-dipole in order to better cover the sounded medium. 3D models considering the gallery geometry, the topography and the injection of current in transmission through the massif were developed for the analysis of such particular data sets. For the reconstruction of the medium electrical resistivity, the parametrization of the inverse problem was adapted to the geometry of the experience in a scope to reduce the inversion under-determination. The resulting image obtained with classical protocols and transmission current injection is compared to an image obtained using only classical protocols to better highlight the interest of a transmission experiment in terms of resolution and penetration depth. The addition of protocols in transmission allows a better coverage of the sounded medium so the resulting image presents a better resolution at higher depths than the image resulting from a single profile of electrodes. The proposed configuration of electrical resistivity measurements in transmission is then promising for hydrogeophysical studies, in particular for

  15. Sounds in the Ocean at 1-100 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcock, William S. D.; Stafford, Kathleen M.; Andrew, Rex K.; Odom, Robert I.

    2014-01-01

    Very-low-frequency sounds between 1 and 100 Hz propagate large distances in the ocean sound channel. Weather conditions, earthquakes, marine mammals, and anthropogenic activities influence sound levels in this band. Weather-related sounds result from interactions between waves, bubbles entrained by breaking waves, and the deformation of sea ice. Earthquakes generate sound in geologically active regions, and earthquake T waves propagate throughout the oceans. Blue and fin whales generate long bouts of sounds near 20 Hz that can dominate regional ambient noise levels seasonally. Anthropogenic sound sources include ship propellers, energy extraction, and seismic air guns and have been growing steadily. The increasing availability of long-term records of ocean sound will provide new opportunities for a deeper understanding of natural and anthropogenic sound sources and potential interactions between them.

  16. Null polarimetry near shot noise limit at 1 Hz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Dechao; Xie, Boya; Feng, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    We describe the principle and report on the realization of a null polarimeter with two demonstrated features: (1) the sensitivity of the system is near shot noise limit and (2) quasi-stationary signals at 1 Hz can be measured without signal modulation. The achieved single-pass sensitivity is 7 × 10-9 rad/ √{ Hz } with a pair of Glan-Taylor polarizers, which should be of great interest for experiments such as observation of vacuum magnetic birefringence and search for new particles. The system is brought near its shot noise limit by appropriate polarization control and coherent heterodyne detection of light, resulting in a sensitivity improvement by two orders of magnitude in comparison with the case of no control on light polarization.

  17. 10-Hz kilowatt-class dye laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klimek, Daniel E.; Aldag, Henry R.

    1993-06-01

    Textron Defense Systems (Formerly Avco Research Laboratory) has developed a kilowatt class dye laser. The device is a transverse flow, flashlamp pumped laser that operates at greater than 100 Joules per pulse, and at a repetition rate up to 10 Hz. Operating at 10 Hz, an average power of 1.04 kW was obtained at 585 nm using rhodamine 590 in a methanol/water solvent mixture. The output power was increased to 1.4 kW by adding the triplet quencher cyclooctatetraene to the solution. Under these conditions, the measured efficiency (average laser pulse energy/energy stored in flashlamp capacitors) was 1.8%. A limited series of experiments using alternative dyes was also carried out. Comparable energies and average powers were obtained at 610 nm using rhodamine 610, and 660 nm using sulforhodamine 640.

  18. Null polarimetry near shot noise limit at 1 Hz.

    PubMed

    He, Dechao; Xie, Boya; Feng, Sheng

    2016-04-01

    We describe the principle and report on the realization of a null polarimeter with two demonstrated features: (1) the sensitivity of the system is near shot noise limit and (2) quasi-stationary signals at 1 Hz can be measured without signal modulation. The achieved single-pass sensitivity is 7 × 10(-9) rad/Hz with a pair of Glan-Taylor polarizers, which should be of great interest for experiments such as observation of vacuum magnetic birefringence and search for new particles. The system is brought near its shot noise limit by appropriate polarization control and coherent heterodyne detection of light, resulting in a sensitivity improvement by two orders of magnitude in comparison with the case of no control on light polarization. PMID:27131649

  19. Sounds in the ocean at 1-100 Hz.

    PubMed

    Wilcock, William S D; Stafford, Kathleen M; Andrew, Rex K; Odom, Robert I

    2014-01-01

    Very-low-frequency sounds between 1 and 100 Hz propagate large distances in the ocean sound channel. Weather conditions, earthquakes, marine mammals, and anthropogenic activities influence sound levels in this band. Weather-related sounds result from interactions between waves, bubbles entrained by breaking waves, and the deformation of sea ice. Earthquakes generate sound in geologically active regions, and earthquake T waves propagate throughout the oceans. Blue and fin whales generate long bouts of sounds near 20 Hz that can dominate regional ambient noise levels seasonally. Anthropogenic sound sources include ship propellers, energy extraction, and seismic air guns and have been growing steadily. The increasing availability of long-term records of ocean sound will provide new opportunities for a deeper understanding of natural and anthropogenic sound sources and potential interactions between them. PMID:23876176

  20. Further observations of nonperiodic optical flickering in HZ Herculis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanden Bout, P. A.; Moffett, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    High-speed photometric observations of the HZ Her/Her X-1 system show that nonperiodic optical flickering is present during both the ON and OFF portions of the 35-day cycle. The optical flickering is broad band and not confined to emission lines. There is a weak correlation between the amplitude of the flickering and orbital phase but efforts to identify the source of the flickering were unsuccessful.

  1. Magnetic resonance imaging at frequencies below 1 kHz.

    PubMed

    Hilschenz, Ingo; Körber, Rainer; Scheer, Hans-Jürgen; Fedele, Tommaso; Albrecht, Hans-Helge; Mario Cassará, Antonino; Hartwig, Stefan; Trahms, Lutz; Haase, Jürgen; Burghoff, Martin

    2013-02-01

    Within the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) community the trend is going to higher and higher magnetic fields, ranging from 1.5 T to 7 T, corresponding to Larmor frequencies of 63.8-298 MHz. Since for high-field MRI the magnetization increases with the applied magnetic field, the signal-to-noise-ratio increases as well, thus enabling higher image resolutions. On the other hand, MRI is possible also at ultra-low magnetic fields, as was shown by different groups. The goal of our development was to reach a Larmor frequency range of the low-field MRI system corresponding to the frequency range of human brain activities ranging from near zero-frequency (near-DC) to over 1 kHz. Here, first 2D MRI images of phantoms taken at Larmor frequencies of 100 Hz and 731 Hz will be shown and discussed. These frequencies are examples of brain activity triggered by electrostimulation of the median nerve. The method will allow the magnetic fields of the brain currents to influence the magnetic resonance image, and thus lead to a direct functional imaging modality of neuronal currents. PMID:22898690

  2. The 10 Hz Frequency: A Fulcrum For Transitional Brain States

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rill, E.; D’Onofrio, S.; Luster, B.; Mahaffey, S.; Urbano, F. J.; Phillips, C.

    2016-01-01

    A 10 Hz rhythm is present in the occipital cortex when the eyes are closed (alpha waves), in the precentral cortex at rest (mu rhythm), in the superior and middle temporal lobe (tau rhythm), in the inferior olive (projection to cerebellar cortex), and in physiological tremor (underlying all voluntary movement). These are all considered resting rhythms in the waking brain which are “replaced” by higher frequency activity with sensorimotor stimulation. That is, the 10 Hz frequency fulcrum is replaced on the one hand by lower frequencies during sleep, or on the other hand by higher frequencies during volition and cognition. The 10 Hz frequency fulcrum is proposed as the natural frequency of the brain during quiet waking, but is replaced by higher frequencies capable of permitting more complex functions, or by lower frequencies during sleep and inactivity. At the center of the transition shifts to and from the resting rhythm is the reticular activating system, a phylogenetically preserved area of the brain essential for preconscious awareness.

  3. Discontinuation of Buprenorphine Maintenance Therapy: Perspectives and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Bentzley, Brandon S.; Barth, Kelly S.; Back, Sudie E.; Book, Sarah W.

    2015-01-01

    Buprenorphine maintenance therapy (BMT) is increasingly the preferred opioid maintenance agent due to its reduced toxicity and availability in an office-based setting in the United States. Although BMT has been shown to be highly efficacious, it is often discontinued soon after initiation. No current systematic review has yet investigated providers’ or patients’ reasons for BMT discontinuation or the outcomes that follow. Hence, provider and patient perspectives associated with BMT discontinuation after a period of stable buprenorphine maintenance and the resultant outcomes were systematically reviewed with specific emphasis on pre-buprenorphine-taper parameters predictive of relapse following BMT discontinuation. Few identified studies address provider or patient perspectives associated with buprenorphine discontinuation. Within the studies reviewed providers with residency training in BMT were more likely to favor long term BMT instead of detoxification, and providers were likely to consider BMT discontinuation in the face of medication misuse. Patients often desired to remain on BMT because of fear of relapse to illicit opioid use if they were to discontinue BMT. The majority of patients who discontinued BMT did so involuntarily, often due to failure to follow strict program requirements, and 1 month following discontinuation, rates of relapse to illicit opioid use exceeded 50% in every study reviewed. Only lower buprenorphine maintenance dose, which may be a marker for attenuated addiction severity, predicted better outcomes across studies. Relaxed BMT program requirements and frequent counsel on the high probability of relapse if BMT is discontinued may improve retention in treatment and prevent the relapse to illicit opioid use that is likely to follow BMT discontinuation. PMID:25601365

  4. Discontinuous deformation analysis of particulate media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Patricia Ann

    Many geotechnical engineering problems involve the localization of deformations along distinct shear planes, such as the response of a layer of soil to displacement along an underlying bedrock fault. Understanding the process of deformation localization and the propagation of shear zones to the surface would aid in the siting of structures near faults, and in developing mitigation techniques. Discrete numerical methods are especially suited to this type of problem, because the discontinuous nature of soil and the kinematics of soil deformation are modeled directly. This research involves the development and validation of Discontinuous Deformation Analysis (DDA), a type of discrete numerical method, as a tool capable of modeling realistic soil behavior, thus providing the foundation for its application to complex soil mechanics problems, such as earthquake fault rupture propagation. First, a review of the two primary types of discrete numerical modeling, the Distinct Element Method (DEM) and DDA is presented along with a discussion of the key aspects of modeling particulate materials with these methods. Next, several extensions to the numerical program Discontinuous Deformation Analysis for Disks (DDAD), implemented during the process of developing DDAD as a tool for modeling particulate materials, were implemented. A flexible, stress-controlled boundary was incorporated, allows simulation of geotechnical biaxial shear tests that are commonly performed on specimens of granular soils. Using this boundary, the stress-strain and volumetric responses of simulated assemblies of particles were investigated. A new type of particle, the disk cluster, was developed and implemented. A disk cluster is a group of circular disks permanently attached to form a single particle. Disk clusters more accurately represent the nonspherical shape of particulate materials, minimize the problem of excessive rotation that occurs with perfectly circular elements, and retain the simplicity of

  5. 7 CFR 247.17 - Notification of discontinuance of participant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Notification of discontinuance of participant. 247.17 Section 247.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.17 Notification of discontinuance...

  6. 7 CFR 247.17 - Notification of discontinuance of participant.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notification of discontinuance of participant. 247.17 Section 247.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE CHILD NUTRITION PROGRAMS COMMODITY SUPPLEMENTAL FOOD PROGRAM § 247.17 Notification of discontinuance...

  7. 27 CFR 31.138 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discontinuance of business. 31.138 Section 31.138 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU... § 31.138 Discontinuance of business. A dealer going out of business must register that event within...

  8. 27 CFR 21.3 - Stocks of discontinued formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Stocks of discontinued..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM General Provisions § 21.3 Stocks of discontinued formulas. Denaturers, or specially denatured spirits dealers or users, having on hand stocks...

  9. 27 CFR 31.162 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discontinuance of business. 31.162 Section 31.162 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Records and Reports Wholesale Dealers' Records and Reports § 31.162 Discontinuance...

  10. 20 CFR 658.501 - Basis for discontinuation of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Basis for discontinuation of services. 658.501 Section 658.501 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE JOB SERVICE SYSTEM Discontinuation of Services...

  11. 47 CFR 90.157 - Discontinuance of station operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Discontinuance of station operation. 90.157 Section 90.157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.157 Discontinuance...

  12. 47 CFR 90.157 - Discontinuance of station operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Discontinuance of station operation. 90.157 Section 90.157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.157 Discontinuance...

  13. 47 CFR 90.157 - Discontinuance of station operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Discontinuance of station operation. 90.157 Section 90.157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.157 Discontinuance...

  14. 47 CFR 90.157 - Discontinuance of station operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Discontinuance of station operation. 90.157 Section 90.157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.157 Discontinuance...

  15. 47 CFR 90.157 - Discontinuance of station operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Discontinuance of station operation. 90.157 Section 90.157 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES PRIVATE LAND MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Applications and Authorizations § 90.157 Discontinuance...

  16. Discontinuities in Early Development of the Understanding of Physical Causality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aschersleben, Gisa; Henning, Anne; Daum, Moritz M.

    2013-01-01

    Research on early physical reasoning has shown surprising discontinuities in developmental trajectories. Infants possess some skills that seem to disappear and then re-emerge in childhood. It has been suggested that prediction skills required in search tasks might cause these discontinuities (Keen, 2003). We tested 3.5- to 5-year-olds'…

  17. Transition density of one-dimensional diffusion with discontinuous drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Weijian

    1990-01-01

    The transition density of a one-dimensional diffusion process with a discontinuous drift coefficient is studied. A probabilistic representation of the transition density is given, illustrating the close connections between discontinuities of the drift and Brownian local times. In addition, some explicit results are obtained based on the trivariate density of Brownian motion, its occupation, and local times.

  18. 38 CFR 8.17 - Discontinuance of premium waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discontinuance of premium... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.17 Discontinuance of premium waiver. (a... premiums shall cease as of the date of such finding, and the insurance may be continued by payment...

  19. 38 CFR 8.17 - Discontinuance of premium waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Discontinuance of premium... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.17 Discontinuance of premium waiver. (a... premiums shall cease as of the date of such finding, and the insurance may be continued by payment...

  20. 38 CFR 8.17 - Discontinuance of premium waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Discontinuance of premium... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.17 Discontinuance of premium waiver. (a... premiums shall cease as of the date of such finding, and the insurance may be continued by payment...

  1. 24 CFR 203.288 - Discontinuance of adjusted premium charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discontinuance of adjusted premium... Premium § 203.288 Discontinuance of adjusted premium charge. Notwithstanding any provision in the mortgage instrument, there shall be no adjusted mortgage insurance premium due the Commissioner on account of...

  2. 24 CFR 203.288 - Discontinuance of adjusted premium charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discontinuance of adjusted premium... Premium § 203.288 Discontinuance of adjusted premium charge. Notwithstanding any provision in the mortgage instrument, there shall be no adjusted mortgage insurance premium due the Commissioner on account of...

  3. 24 CFR 203.288 - Discontinuance of adjusted premium charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discontinuance of adjusted premium... Premium § 203.288 Discontinuance of adjusted premium charge. Notwithstanding any provision in the mortgage instrument, there shall be no adjusted mortgage insurance premium due the Commissioner on account of...

  4. 24 CFR 203.288 - Discontinuance of adjusted premium charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Discontinuance of adjusted premium... Premium § 203.288 Discontinuance of adjusted premium charge. Notwithstanding any provision in the mortgage instrument, there shall be no adjusted mortgage insurance premium due the Commissioner on account of...

  5. 38 CFR 8.17 - Discontinuance of premium waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discontinuance of premium... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.17 Discontinuance of premium waiver. (a... premiums shall cease as of the date of such finding, and the insurance may be continued by payment...

  6. 38 CFR 8.17 - Discontinuance of premium waiver.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discontinuance of premium... SERVICE LIFE INSURANCE Premium Waivers and Total Disability § 8.17 Discontinuance of premium waiver. (a... premiums shall cease as of the date of such finding, and the insurance may be continued by payment...

  7. 24 CFR 203.288 - Discontinuance of adjusted premium charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Discontinuance of adjusted premium... Premium § 203.288 Discontinuance of adjusted premium charge. Notwithstanding any provision in the mortgage instrument, there shall be no adjusted mortgage insurance premium due the Commissioner on account of...

  8. 27 CFR 19.211 - Notice of permanent discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of permanent discontinuance. 19.211 Section 19.211 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Qualification of Distilled Spirits Plants Permanent Discontinuance...

  9. EVALUATING DISCONTINUITIES IN COMPLEX SYSTEMS: TOWARD QUANTITATIVE MEASURE OF RESILIENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The textural discontinuity hypothesis (TDH) is based on the observation that animal body mass distributions exhibit discontinuities that may reflect the texture of the landscape available for exploitation. This idea has been extended to other complex systems, hinting that the ide...

  10. 27 CFR 25.85 - Notice of permanent discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Notice of permanent discontinuance. 25.85 Section 25.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Qualification of a Brewery Discontinuance of...

  11. 27 CFR 25.85 - Notice of permanent discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Notice of permanent discontinuance. 25.85 Section 25.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Qualification of a Brewery Discontinuance of...

  12. 27 CFR 25.85 - Notice of permanent discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Notice of permanent discontinuance. 25.85 Section 25.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Qualification of a Brewery Discontinuance of...

  13. 27 CFR 25.85 - Notice of permanent discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Notice of permanent discontinuance. 25.85 Section 25.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Qualification of a Brewery Discontinuance of...

  14. 27 CFR 25.85 - Notice of permanent discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Notice of permanent discontinuance. 25.85 Section 25.85 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Qualification of a Brewery Discontinuance of...

  15. 25 CFR 175.21 - Discontinuance of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discontinuance of service. 175.21 Section 175.21 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN ELECTRIC POWER UTILITIES Utility Service Administration § 175.21 Discontinuance of service. Failure of customer(s) to comply...

  16. 27 CFR 72.37 - Discontinuance of administrative proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discontinuance of administrative proceedings. 72.37 Section 72.37 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... to effect such sale or retention will be discontinued....

  17. An analysis of the personal reasons for discontinuing IUD use.

    PubMed

    Petta, C A; Amatya, R; Farr, G; Chi, I

    1994-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate possible factors associated with discontinuing use of TCu 380A IUDs due to personal reasons among 2748 users. Overall, a total of 88 subjects discontinued using the TCu 380A IUD within 12 months postinsertion for personal reasons. The most common reasons were planned pregnancy (32%) and husband or family opinion against IUD use (26%). The gross cumulative 12-month life table discontinuation rate for all personal reasons was 4.0 per 100 women. Having no education and/or living in a rural area were the sociodemographic characteristics associated with an increased risk of discontinuation for personal reasons. Effective and regular counseling about IUD use, especially among illiterate women, may help prevent IUD discontinuations related to personal reasons. PMID:7813222

  18. Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Neutrino Radiation Transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endeve, Eirik; Hauck, Cory; Xing, Yulong; Mezzacappa, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    We are developing new computational methods for simulation of neutrino transport in core-collapse supernovae, which is challenging since neutrinos evolve from being diffusive in the proto-neutron star to nearly free streaming in the critical neutrino heating region. To this end, we consider conservative formulations of the Boltzmann equation, and aim to develop robust, high-order accurate methods. Runge-Kutta discontinuous Galerkin (DG) methods, offer several attractive properties, including (i) high-order accuracy on a compact stencil and (ii) correct asymptotic behavior in the diffusion limit. We have recently developed a new DG method for the advection part for the transport solve, which is high-order accurate and strictly preserves the physical bounds of the distribution function; i.e., f ∈ [ 0 , 1 ] . We summarize the main ingredients of our bound-preserving DG method and discuss ongoing work to include neutrino-matter interactions in the scheme. Research sponsored in part by Oak Ridge National Laboratory, managed by UT-Battelle, LLC for the U. S. Department of Energy

  19. Airborne electromagnetic imaging of discontinuous permafrost

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minsley, B.J.; Abraham, J.D.; Smith, B.D.; Cannia, J.C.; Voss, C.I.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Walvoord, M.A.; Wylie, B.K.; Anderson, L.; Ball, L.B.; Deszcz-Pan, M.; Wellman, T.P.; Ager, T.A.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of permafrost in cold regions is inextricably connected to hydrogeologic processes, climate, and ecosystems. Permafrost thawing has been linked to changes in wetland and lake areas, alteration of the groundwater contribution to streamflow, carbon release, and increased fire frequency. But detailed knowledge about the dynamic state of permafrost in relation to surface and groundwater systems remains an enigma. Here, we present the results of a pioneering ???1,800 line-kilometer airborne electromagnetic survey that shows sediments deposited over the past ???4 million years and the configuration of permafrost to depths of ???100 meters in the Yukon Flats area near Fort Yukon, Alaska. The Yukon Flats is near the boundary between continuous permafrost to the north and discontinuous permafrost to the south, making it an important location for examining permafrost dynamics. Our results not only provide a detailed snapshot of the present-day configuration of permafrost, but they also expose previously unseen details about potential surface-groundwater connections and the thermal legacy of surface water features that has been recorded in the permafrost over the past ???1,000 years. This work will be a critical baseline for future permafrost studies aimed at exploring the connections between hydrogeologic, climatic, and ecological processes, and has significant implications for the stewardship of Arctic environments. ?? 2012 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Stability of Dynamical Systems with Discontinuous Motions:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, Anthony N.; Hou, Ling

    In this paper we present a stability theory for discontinuous dynamical systems (DDS): continuous-time systems whose motions are not necessarily continuous with respect to time. We show that this theory is not only applicable in the analysis of DDS, but also in the analysis of continuous dynamical systems (continuous-time systems whose motions are continuous with respect to time), discrete-time dynamical systems (systems whose motions are defined at discrete points in time) and hybrid dynamical systems (HDS) (systems whose descriptions involve simultaneously continuous-time and discrete-time). We show that the stability results for DDS are in general less conservative than the corresponding well-known classical Lyapunov results for continuous dynamical systems and discrete-time dynamical systems. Although the DDS stability results are applicable to general dynamical systems defined on metric spaces (divorced from any kind of description by differential equations, or any other kinds of equations), we confine ourselves to finite-dimensional dynamical systems defined by ordinary differential equations and difference equations, to make this paper as widely accessible as possible. We present only sample results, namely, results for uniform asymptotic stability in the large.

  1. Capillary surface discontinuities above reentrant corners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korevaar, H. J.

    1982-01-01

    A particular configuration of a vertical capillary tube for which S is the equilibrium interface between two fluids in the presence of a downward pointing gravitational field was investigated. S is the graph a function u whose domain is the (horizontal) cross section gamma of the tube. The mean curvature of S is proportional to its height above a fixed reference plane and lambda is a prescribed constant and may be taken between zero and pi/2. Domains gamma for which us is a bounded function but does not extend continuously to d gamma are sought. Simple domains are found and the behavior of u in those domains is studied. An important comparison principle that has been used in the literature to derive many of the results in capillarity is reviewed. It allows one to deduce the approximate shape of a capillary surface by constructing comparison surfaces with mean curvature and contact angle close to those of the (unknown) solution surface. In the context of nonparametric problems the comparison principle leads to height estimates above and below for the function u. An example from the literature where these height estimates have been used successfully is described. The promised domains for which the bounded u does not extend continuously to the boundary are constructed. The point on the boundary at which u has a jump discontinuity will be the vertext of a re-entrant corner having any interior angle theta pi. Using the comparison principle the behavior of u near this point is studied.

  2. Thermal classification of lithospheric discontinuities beneath USArray

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Steven M.; Dueker, Ken; Schmandt, Brandon

    2015-12-01

    Broadband seismic data from the United States were processed into Ps and Sp receiver function image volumes for the purpose of constraining negative velocity gradients (NVG) at depths between the Moho and 200 km. Moho depth picks from the two independent datasets are in good agreement, however, large discrepancies in NVG picks occur and are attributed to free-surface multiples which obscure deep NVG arrivals in the Ps data. From the Sp data, shallow NVG are found west of the Rockies and in the central US while deep and sporadic NVG are observed beneath the Great Plains and northern Rockies. To aid the interpretation of the observed NVG arrivals, the mantle thermal field is estimated by mapping surface wave tomography velocities to temperature assuming an anelastic olivine model. The distribution of temperature versus NVG depth is bi-modal and displays two distinct thermal populations that are interpreted to represent both the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) and mid-lithosphere discontinuities (MLD). LAB arrivals occur in the western US at 60-85 km and 1200-1400 °C depth suggesting that they manifest partial melt near the base of the thermal plate. MLD arrivals primarily occur at 70-110 km depth and 700-900 °C and we hypothesize that these arrivals are caused by a low-velocity metasomatic layer containing phlogopite resulting from magma crystallization products that accumulate within long-lived thick lithosphere.

  3. Active metasurface terahertz deflector with phase discontinuities.

    PubMed

    Su, Xiaoqiang; Ouyang, Chunmei; Xu, Ningning; Cao, Wei; Wei, Xin; Song, Guofeng; Gu, Jianqiang; Tian, Zhen; O'Hara, John F; Han, Jiaguang; Zhang, Weili

    2015-10-19

    Metasurfaces provide great flexibility in tailoring light beams and reveal unprecedented prospects on novel functional components. However, techniques to dynamically control and manipulate the properties of metasurfaces are lagging behind. Here, for the first time to our knowledge, we present an active wave deflector made from a metasurface with phase discontinuities. The active metasurface is capable of delivering efficient real-time control and amplitude manipulation of broadband anomalous diffraction in the terahertz regime. The device consists of complementary C-shape split-ring resonator elements fabricated on a doped semiconductor substrate. Due to the Schottky diode effect formed by the hybrid metal-semiconductor, the real-time conductivity of the doped semiconductor substrate is modified by applying an external voltage bias, thereby effectively manipulating the intensity of the anomalous deflected terahertz wave. A modulation depth of up to 46% was achieved, while the characteristics of broadband frequency responses and constant deflected angles were well maintained during the modulation process. The modulation speed of diffraction amplitude reaches several kilohertz, limited by the capacitance and resistance of the depletion region. The scheme proposed here opens up a novel approach to develop tunable metasurfaces. PMID:26480376

  4. Initiator RNA in Discontinuous Polyoma DNA Synthesis*

    PubMed Central

    Reichard, Peter; Eliasson, Rolf; Söderman, Gunilla

    1974-01-01

    During replication of polyoma DNA in isolated nuclei, RNA was found attached to the 5′ ends of growing progeny strands. This RNA starts with either ATP or GTP and can be labeled at its 5′ end with 32P from β-labeled nucleotides. Digestion of progeny strands with pancreatic DNase released 32P-labeled RNA that, on gel electrophoresis, gave a distinct peak in the position expected for a decanucleotide. We believe that this short RNA is involved in the initiation of the discontinuous synthesis of DNA and propose the name “initiator RNA” for it. The covalent linkage of initiator RNA to 5′ ends of growing DNA chains was substantiated by the finding that 32P was transferred to ribonucleotides by alkaline hydrolysis of purified initiator RNA obtained by DNase digestion of polyoma progeny strands synthesized from [α-32P]dTTP. While initiator RNA was quite homogeneous in size, it had no unique base sequence since digestion with pancreatic RNase of initiator RNA labeled at its 5′ end with 32P released a variety of different [32P]oligonucleotides. The switch from RNA to DNA synthesis during strand elongation may thus depend on the size of initiator RNA rather than on a specific base sequence. PMID:4373733

  5. Megawatt, 1kHz PRF tunable gyrotron experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Cross, A.W.; Phelps, A.D.R.; Ronald, K.; Spark, S.N.; Turnbull, S.M.

    1995-12-31

    Repetitively pulsed and cw gyrotrons have hitherto used thermionic cathodes whereas cold cathode gyrotrons have normally operated as {open_quote} single shot{close_quote} or low pulse repetition frequency (PRF) devices. The novel results presented here demonstrate that a stacked Blumlein pulse generator driven cold cathode gyrotron developing > 1 MW per pulse (f=90 GHz) may be run with a repetition frequency of 1 kHz over timescales of >30 seconds. A short burst PRF of 2 kHz was also observed. The PRF of the system was limited to 2 kHz by the High Voltage (HV) DC power supply. The gyrotron was based on a two-electrode configuration comprising of a field-immersed, field emission cold cathode and a shaped anode cavity. A superconducting magnet was used to produce the homogeneous intra-cavity magnetic field and a stacked Blumlein pulse generator was used to drive the electron beam. This pulse generator was capable of producing an output voltage up to 300 kV with a 20ns rise time, a 100ns flat top, and a 20ns fall time. The output impedance was 200{Omega} and the energy stored in the generator at a charging voltage of 60 kV was 5.4J. No degradation effects on the mm-wave output was evident due to diode recovery time throughout this series of results. A subsequent conclusion is that the recovery time in the cold cathode gyrotron is less than 500{mu}s.

  6. The 2.2 Hz oscillations in auroral electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepine, D. R.; Hall, D. S.; Bryant, D. A.; Johnstone, A. D.; Christiansen, P. J.; Gough, M. P.

    1980-06-01

    A Petrel rocket was launched from Kiruna on 25 January 1979 to compare electron intensities measured at auroral altitudes with related parameters measured at geostationary altitude by the satellite GEOS 2. A sequence of quasi-periodic oscillations in electron intensities were investigated, which appear to originate in the equatorial region, probably in the neighborhood of GEOS 2 was investigated. A similar frequency oscillation in the intensity of 500-Hz VLF emissions was observed at about the same time by the S300 wave experiment located on the satellite.

  7. Design and performance of a 250 Hz alexandrite laser

    SciTech Connect

    Sam, R.C.; Yeh, J.J.; Leslie, K.R.; Rapoport, W.R.

    1988-06-01

    The design, analysis, and performance of a 250 Hz alexandrite laser are described. Built as the wavelength selective laser for a molecular laser isotope separation program, the laser has to satisfy specifications on its tuning band, linewidth, output energy, temporal behavior, and repetition rate required by the process. The key design feature is the use of a tandem rod oscillator with concave curvature on rod ends for thermal lensing compensation. A model was developed to project the stability range and beam quality relative to repetition rate. The performance results of a delivered system are presented and future developments are discussed.

  8. 1-kHz-repetition-rate femtosecond Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenko, N. V.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Kostryukov, P. V.; Losev, L. L.; Pazyuk, V. S.; Tenyakov, S. Yu

    2016-07-01

    A femtosecond Raman laser utilising compressed hydrogen is experimentally investigated under pumping by radiation from a 1-kHz-repetition-rate Ti : sapphire laser. In the regime of double-pulse pumping, the conditions are determined, which correspond to the minimal energy dispersion of Stokes pulses. The optical scheme is realised, which is capable of ensuring the long-term stability of the average power of the first Stokes component with a variation of less than 2%. The Stokes pulses are produced with a pulse duration of 60 fs and energy of 0.26 mJ at a conversion efficiency of 14%.

  9. Residential 60-Hz magnetic fields and temporal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banks, Robert Stephen

    1998-06-01

    The basic question addressed by this research is: How well can data from a single measurement visit estimate longer-term ambient residential 60-Hz magnetic field levels? We undertook repeat 60-Hz magnetic field measurements every two months for one year, plus one additional visit for 14 days of measurement. The study sample consisted of 51 single-family homes, 24 in Minneapolis-St. Paul and 27 in Detroit. Homes were selected by random-digit dialing; each was home to a child eligible to serve a control subject in the National Cancer Institute-Children's Cancer Group Electromagnetic Fields and Radon Study. Trained survey interviewers obtained all measurement data, using an expanded measurement protocol from the main study: (1) spot 60-Hz magnetic field measurements at the centers of three rooms and at the front door; (2) 24- hour (or 14 day) 60-Hz magnetic field measurement in the subject child's bedroom; and (3) geomagnetic field at the centers of two rooms and on the child's bed. The data set available for analysis consists of 349 out of 357 (97.8%) possible sets of spot measurements and 1060 out of 1071 (99.0%) possible days of 24-hour and two-week measurements. A Long-Term Estimate, Child's Bedroom, or LTECB, the geometric mean of the 24-hour measurement geometric means, was used as the reference for analysis. The LTECB was analyzed for house-level main effects and for repeated-measures (temporal) main effects. House-level main effects account for only 41% of the variability in the LTECB. The statistically significant main effects are study area, wire code and population density. A clear trend of increasing LTECB with population density is evident. The seasonal effect is small, but statistically significant. There is no evidence for a day-of-week effect, but a statistically significant diurnal effect is present. Correlation coefficients relating the LTECB to any of three primary single-visit measurement and exposure metric surrogates are >.9. However, when

  10. Involvement of Glutamate NMDA Receptors in the Acute, Long-Term, and Conditioned Effects of Amphetamine on Rat 50kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Giulia; Morelli, Micaela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rats emit 50kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs) in response to either natural or pharmacological pleasurable stimuli, and these USVs have emerged as a new behavioral measure for investigating the motivational properties of drugs. Earlier studies have indicated that activation of the dopaminergic system is critically involved in 50kHz USV emissions. However, evidence also exists that non-dopaminergic neurotransmitters participate in this behavioral response. Methods: To ascertain whether glutamate transmission plays a role in 50kHz USV emissions stimulated by amphetamine, rats received five amphetamine (1–2mg/kg, i.p.) administrations on alternate days in a test cage, either alone or combined with the glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist MK-801 (0.1–0.5mg/kg, i.p.). Seven days after treatment discontinuation, rats were re-exposed to the test cage to assess drug conditioning, and afterwards received a drug challenge. USVs and locomotor activity were evaluated, along with immunofluorescence for Zif-268 in various brain regions and spontaneous alternation in a Y maze. Results: Amphetamine-treated rats displayed higher 50kHz USV emissions and locomotor activity than vehicle-treated rats, and emitted conditioned vocalizations on test cage re-exposure. Rats co-administered amphetamine and MK-801 displayed lower and dose-dependent 50kHz USV emissions, but not lower locomotor activity, during repeated treatment and challenge, and scarce conditioned vocalization compared with amphetamine-treated rats. These effects were associated with lower levels of Zif-268 after amphetamine challenge and spontaneous alternation deficits. Conclusions: These results indicate that glutamate transmission participates in the acute, long-term, and conditioned effects of amphetamine on 50kHz USVs, possibly by influencing amphetamine-induced long-term neuronal changes and/or amphetamine-associated memories. PMID:25991653

  11. Endocrinological effects of strong 60-Hz electric fields on rats

    SciTech Connect

    Free, M.J.; Kaune, W.T.; Phillips, R.D.; Cheng, H.C.

    1981-01-01

    Adult male rats were exposed or sham-exposed to 60-Hz electric fields without spark discharges, ozone, or significant levels or other secondary variables. No effects were discharges, ozone, or significant levels of other secondary variables. No effects were observed on body weights or plasma hormone levels after 30 days of exposure at an effective field strength of 68 kV/m. After 120 days of exposure (effective field strength = 64 kV/m), effects were inconsistent, with signficant reductions in body weight and plasma levels of follicle-stimulating hormone and corticosterone occurring in one replicate experiment but not in the other. Plasma testosterone levels were significantly reduced after 120 days of exposure in one experiment, with a similar but not statistically significant reduction in a replicate experiment. Weanling rats, exposed or sham-exposed in electric fields with an effective field strength of 80 kV/m from 20 to 56 days of age, exhibited identical or closely similar growth trends in body and organ weights. Hormone levels in exposed and sham-exposed groups were also similar. However, there was an apparent phase shift between the two groups in the cyclic variations of concentrations of hormones at different stages of development, particularly with respect to follicle-stimulating hormone and corticosterone. We concluded that 60-Hz electric fields may bring about subtle changes in the endocrine system of rats, and that these changes may be related to alterations in episodic rhythms.

  12. Slip-stacking Dynamics and the 20 Hz Booster

    SciTech Connect

    Eldred, Jeffery; Zwaska, Robert

    2015-03-01

    Slip-stacking is an accumulation technique used at Fermilab since 2004 which nearly doubles the proton intensity. The Proton Improvement Plan II intensity upgrades require a reduction in slip-stacking losses by approximately a factor of 2. We study the single-particle dynamics that determine the stability of slip-stacking particles. We introduce universal area factors to calculate the available phase space area for any set of beam parameters without individual simulation. We show the particle loss as a function of time. We calculate the injection efficiency as a function of longitudinal emittance and aspect-ratio. We demonstrate that the losses from RF single particle dynamics can be reduced by a factor of 4-10 (depending on beam parameters) by upgrading the Fermilab Booster from a 15-Hz cycle-rate to a 20-Hz cycle-rate. We recommend a change in injection scheme to eliminate the need for a greater momentum aperture in the Fermilab Recycler.

  13. Perceptual discontinuities and categorization: Implications for speech perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, Lori L.; Lotto, Andrew J.; Diehl, Randy L.

    2003-04-01

    Behavioral experiments with infants, adults and nonhuman animals converge with neurophysiological findings to suggest that there is a discontinuity in auditory processing of stimulus components differing in onset time by about 20 ms. This discontinuity has been implicated as a basis for boundaries between speech categories distinguished by VOT. Here, we investigate how this discontinuity interacts with the learning of novel perceptual categories. Adult listeners were trained to categorize a nonspeech acoustic cue that mimics the temporal distinction of VOT. One group of listeners learned categories with a boundary coincident with the perceptual discontinuity. Another group learned categories defined such that the perceptual discontinuity fell within a category. Listeners in the latter group required significantly more experience to reach criterion categorization performance. The evidence of interactions between the perceptual discontinuity and the learned categories extended to generalization tests as well. It has been hypothesized that languages make use of perceptual discontinuities to promote perceptual distinctiveness among sounds within a language inventory. The present data suggest that these influences interact with category learning. As such, learnability may play a predictive role in selection of language sound inventories. Moreover, it may be possible to observe predictable learning effects in infant speech perception.

  14. Magnetic discontinuities in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence and in the solar wind.

    PubMed

    Zhdankin, Vladimir; Boldyrev, Stanislav; Mason, Joanne; Perez, Jean Carlos

    2012-04-27

    Recent measurements of solar wind turbulence report the presence of intermittent, exponentially distributed angular discontinuities in the magnetic field. In this Letter, we study whether such discontinuities can be produced by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence. We detect the discontinuities by measuring the fluctuations of the magnetic field direction, Δθ, across fixed spatial increments Δx in direct numerical simulations of MHD turbulence with an imposed uniform guide field B(0). A large region of the probability density function (pdf) for Δθ is found to follow an exponential decay, proportional to exp(-Δθ/θ(*)), with characteristic angle θ(*)≈(14°)(b(rms)/B(0))(0.65) for a broad range of guide-field strengths. We find that discontinuities observed in the solar wind can be reproduced by MHD turbulence with reasonable ratios of b(rms)/B(0). We also observe an excess of small angular discontinuities when Δx becomes small, possibly indicating an increasing statistical significance of dissipation-scale structures. The structure of the pdf in this case closely resembles the two-population pdf seen in the solar wind. We thus propose that strong discontinuities are associated with inertial-range MHD turbulence, while weak discontinuities emerge from dissipation-range turbulence. In addition, we find that the structure functions of the magnetic field direction exhibit anomalous scaling exponents, which indicates the existence of intermittent structures. PMID:22680875

  15. Thermodynamical and Hydrological Discontinuities in Polythermal Glaciers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, A.; Kirner, P.; Rappaz, J.; Blatter, H.

    2006-12-01

    Polythermal glaciers exhibit various thermodynamical and hydrological discontinuities. In this work, two discontinuities are investigated in more detail: the cold-temperate transition surface (CTS), which separates cold ice from temperate ice, and (2) the basal thermal transition (BTT) from sliding in the temperate ice to non- sliding in the cold ice. Ice is defined as temperate if a change in heat content leads to a change in water content alone, and is considered cold if a change in heat content leads to a temperature change alone. The dynamics of the CTS are mainly controlled by the flow field of the glacier and the amount of liquid water in the temperate ice. The two most significant sources contributing to the content of liquid water at the CTS are water entrapped in the firn of the accumulation area and englacial melting due to strain heating. {Pettersson2004a} measured an absolute liquid water of about 7 grams of water per kilogram ice in the upper part of the CTS. Less than 10% of this water can be explained by englacial melting due to strain heating {AschwandenBlatter2005}. The difference can thus be attributed to water entrapment, which is an important boundary condition for the modeling of the dynamics of the CTS. The modeling is performed using a finite element software. To obtain better energy conservation in the scheme, the enthalpy equation (instead of the Fourier equation) is solved together with the constitutive equations for enthalpy in temperate ice (ice water mixture). The mathematical singularity is avoided by a novel regularization scheme applying a brine pocket scheme with a ternary mixture of ice, water and salt. The salt content is assumed to be large enough to regularize the scheme but small enough to influence the results negligibly. This opens the possibility to predict the reaction of the CTS to changes in the amount of trapped water and changes in the flow field due to a changing climate. For a precise modeling of the dynamics of the

  16. Stress relaxation in discontinuously reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, N.; Arsenault, R.J.

    1995-05-01

    It has been observed that in discontinuously-reinforced Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}/NiAl composites that as the reinforcement size increases the average density of dislocations generated from the relaxation of the thermal stresses increases, and the corresponding thermal residual stresses slightly decrease. Similar changes result when the reinforcement morphology changes from spheres to short fibers to continuous filaments. The changes of dislocation density and thermal residual stresses with respect to particle size are in contrast to those observed in the SiC/Al counterpart A previously developed simple model used to explain the SiC/Al data, which was based on prismatic dislocation punching, suggested that the density of the misfit dislocations decreases when the reinforcement size increases. In this investigation, a simple model is proposed to explain the anomaly in the development of thermal residual stresses and the generation of misfit dislocations as a function of the particle size and shape in Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}/NiAl composites. As a result of a lack of sufficient independent-slip-systems in low symmetry materials such as NiAl, plastic relaxation of the thermal stresses is severely constrained as compared to fcc Al. As such, plastic relaxation requires collaborative slips in an aggregate of grains. This only occurs when the length scale of the varying misfit thermal stress field is much larger than the average grain size. That is, the mechanism of plastic relaxation becomes operative when the reinforcement size increases.

  17. Discontinuity of cortical gradients reflects sensory impairment.

    PubMed

    Saadon-Grosman, Noam; Tal, Zohar; Itshayek, Eyal; Amedi, Amir; Arzy, Shahar

    2015-12-29

    Topographic maps and their continuity constitute a fundamental principle of brain organization. In the somatosensory system, whole-body sensory impairment may be reflected either in cortical signal reduction or disorganization of the somatotopic map, such as disturbed continuity. Here we investigated the role of continuity in pathological states. We studied whole-body cortical representations in response to continuous sensory stimulation under functional MRI (fMRI) in two unique patient populations-patients with cervical sensory Brown-Séquard syndrome (injury to one side of the spinal cord) and patients before and after surgical repair of cervical disk protrusion-enabling us to compare whole-body representations in the same study subjects. We quantified the spatial gradient of cortical activation and evaluated the divergence from a continuous pattern. Gradient continuity was found to be disturbed at the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA), in both patient populations: contralateral to the disturbed body side in the Brown-Séquard group and before repair in the surgical group, which was further improved after intervention. Results corresponding to the nondisturbed body side and after surgical repair were comparable with control subjects. No difference was found in the fMRI signal power between the different conditions in the two groups, as well as with respect to control subjects. These results suggest that decreased sensation in our patients is related to gradient discontinuity rather than signal reduction. Gradient continuity may be crucial for somatotopic and other topographical organization, and its disruption may characterize pathological processing. PMID:26655739

  18. Discontinuity of cortical gradients reflects sensory impairment

    PubMed Central

    Saadon-Grosman, Noam; Tal, Zohar; Itshayek, Eyal; Amedi, Amir; Arzy, Shahar

    2015-01-01

    Topographic maps and their continuity constitute a fundamental principle of brain organization. In the somatosensory system, whole-body sensory impairment may be reflected either in cortical signal reduction or disorganization of the somatotopic map, such as disturbed continuity. Here we investigated the role of continuity in pathological states. We studied whole-body cortical representations in response to continuous sensory stimulation under functional MRI (fMRI) in two unique patient populations—patients with cervical sensory Brown-Séquard syndrome (injury to one side of the spinal cord) and patients before and after surgical repair of cervical disk protrusion—enabling us to compare whole-body representations in the same study subjects. We quantified the spatial gradient of cortical activation and evaluated the divergence from a continuous pattern. Gradient continuity was found to be disturbed at the primary somatosensory cortex (S1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA), in both patient populations: contralateral to the disturbed body side in the Brown-Séquard group and before repair in the surgical group, which was further improved after intervention. Results corresponding to the nondisturbed body side and after surgical repair were comparable with control subjects. No difference was found in the fMRI signal power between the different conditions in the two groups, as well as with respect to control subjects. These results suggest that decreased sensation in our patients is related to gradient discontinuity rather than signal reduction. Gradient continuity may be crucial for somatotopic and other topographical organization, and its disruption may characterize pathological processing. PMID:26655739

  19. Discontinuous Spectral Difference Method for Conservation Laws on Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel; Wang, Z. J.

    2004-01-01

    A new, high-order, conservative, and efficient method for conservation laws on unstructured grids is developed. The concept of discontinuous and high-order local representations to achieve conservation and high accuracy is utilized in a manner similar to the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and the Spectral Volume (SV) methods, but while these methods are based on the integrated forms of the equations, the new method is based on the differential form to attain a simpler formulation and higher efficiency. A discussion on the Discontinuous Spectral Difference (SD) Method, locations of the unknowns and flux points and numerical results are also presented.

  20. Accountability Accentuates Interindividual-Intergroup Discontinuity by Enforcing Parochialism

    PubMed Central

    Wildschut, Tim; van Horen, Femke; Hart, Claire

    2015-01-01

    Interindividual-intergroup discontinuity is the tendency for relations between groups to be more competitive than relations between individuals. We examined whether the discontinuity effect arises in part because group members experience normative pressure to favor the ingroup (parochialism). Building on the notion that accountability enhances normative pressure, we hypothesized that the discontinuity effect would be larger when accountability is present (compared to absent). A prisoner’s dilemma game experiment supported this prediction. Specifically, intergroup (compared to interindividual) interaction activated an injunctive ingroup-favoring norm, and accountability enhanced the influence of this norm on competitive behavior. PMID:26635691

  1. Risk of discontinuation of Advanced Therapy Medicinal Products clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Hanna, Eve; Rémuzat, Cecile; Auquier, Pascal; Toumi, Mondher

    2016-01-01

    Objective Advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMPs) constitute a class of innovative products that encompasses gene therapy, somatic cell therapy, and tissue-engineered products (TEP). There is an increased investment of commercial and non-commercial sponsors in this field and a growing number of ATMPs randomized clinical trials (RCT) and patients enrolled in such trials. RCT generate data to prove the efficacy of a new therapy, but the discontinuation of RCTs wastes scarce resources. Our objective is to identify the number and characteristics of discontinued ATMPs trials in order to evaluate the rate of discontinuation. Methods We searched for ATMPs trials conducted between 1999 to June 2015 using three databases, which are Clinicaltrials.gov, the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP), and the EU Drug Regulating Authorities Clinical Trials (EudraCT). We selected the ATMPs trials after elimination of the duplicates. We identified the disease areas and the sponsors as commercial or non-commercial organizations. We classified ATMPs by type and trial status, that is, ongoing, completed, terminated, discontinued, and prematurely ended. Then, we calculated the rate of discontinuation. Results Between 1999 and June 2015, 143 withdrawn, terminated, or prematurely ended ATMPs clinical trials were identified. Between 1999 and June 2013, 474 ongoing and completed clinical trials were identified. Therefore, the rate of discontinuation of ATMPs trials is 23.18%, similar to that for non-ATMPs drugs in development. The probability of discontinuation is, respectively, 27.35, 16.28, and 16.34% for cell therapies, gene therapies, and TEP. The highest discontinuation rate is for oncology (43%), followed by cardiology (19.2%). It is almost the same for commercial and non-commercial sponsors; therefore, the discontinuation reason may not be financially driven. Conclusion No failure risk rate per development phase is available for ATMPs. The discontinuation rate may

  2. Dissipation mechanisms in a pair of solar-wind discontinuities.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Unti, T. W. J.; Neugebauer, M.; Atkinson, G.; Wu, C.-S.

    1972-01-01

    A pair of sharp closely spaced discontinuities in the solar wind was recorded by the high time resolution instruments aboard Ogo 5 on Mar. 14, 1968. There is plasma turbulence within the double structure, and there appear to be small-amplitude hydromagnetic waves radiating from the discontinuities. The generation of the plasma turbulence is discussed in terms of magnetic drift waves. Although it seems probable that the surfaces are tangential discontinuities, arguments are also advanced that the double structure may represent the Petschek mechanism in which rapid field-line merging occurs between standing waves.

  3. The global distribution of natural and man-made ionospheric electric fields at 200 kHz and 540 kHz as observed by Ogo 6

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laaspere, T.; Semprebon, L. C.

    1974-01-01

    An experiment on the polar-orbiting Ogo 6 spacecraft yielded real-time analog data in several broadband channels and essentially continuous tape-recorded data from two narrow-band (200-Hz) receivers operating at 200 and 540 kHz. The results show that the worldwide distributions of signals at 200 and 540 kHz falls into a number of different categories: (1) naturally generated broadband (auroral) hiss at polar latitudes with typical 200-kHz intensities of around 0.1 microvolt per meter per Hz to the 1/2 power, maximum intensities of up to several microvolt per meter per Hz to the 1/2 power, and generally lower intensities at 540 kHz; (2) nighttime midlatitude enhancements of a few microvolts per meter, which probably result either from a superposition of signals from a number of 200- and 540-kHz stations or from interference from intense signals of much higher frequencies; (3) well-defined signal peaks associated with individual ground stations operating at 200 kHz; (4) striking signal enhancements in the conjugate region of a low-latitude 200-kHz station (Ashkhabad), suggesting propagation in the whistler mode to the opposite hemisphere; and (5) occasional signal enhancements at the magnetic equator.

  4. EV drivetrain inverter with V/HZ optimization

    DOEpatents

    Gritter, David J.; O'Neil, Walter K.

    1986-01-01

    An inverter (34) which provides power to an A.C. machine (28) is controlled by a circuit (36) employing PWM control strategy whereby A.C. power is supplied to the machine at a preselectable frequency and preselectable voltage. This is accomplished by the technique of waveform notching in which the shapes of the notches are varied to determine the average energy content of the overall waveform. Through this arrangement, the operational efficiency of the A.C. machine is optimized. The control circuit includes a micro-computer which calculates optimized machine control data signals from various parametric inputs and during steady state load conditions, seeks a best V/HZ ratio to minimize battery current drawn (system losses) from a D.C. power source (32). In the preferred embodiment, the present invention is incorporated within an electric vehicle (10) employing a 144 VDC battery pack and a three-phase induction motor (18).

  5. Influence of 60-Hz magnetic fields on sea urchin development

    SciTech Connect

    Zimmerman, S.; Zimmerman, A.M.; Winters, W.D.; Cameron, I.L. )

    1990-01-01

    Continuous exposure of sea urchin (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) embryos at 18 degrees C to a cyclic 60-Hz magnetic field at 0.1 mT rms beginning 4 min after insemination caused a significant developmental delay during the subsequent 23 hours. No delay in development was recorded for periods up to 18 hours after fertilization. At 18 h, most embryos were in the mesenchyme blastula stage. At 23 h, most control embryos were in mid-gastrula whereas most magnetic-field-exposed embryos were in the early gastrula stage. Thus an estimated 1-h delay occurred between these developmental stages. The results are discussed in terms of possible magnetic-field modification of transcription as well as interference with cell migration during gastrulation. The present study extends and supports the growing body of information about potential effects of exposures to extremely-low-frequency (ELF) magnetic fields on developing organisms.

  6. Investigation on Two-Stage 300 HZ Pulse Tube Cryocooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, H. K.; Yang, L. W.; Hong, G. T.; Luo, E. C.; Zhou, Y.

    2010-04-01

    In the past few years, ultra-high frequency pulse tube cryocoolers are becoming a research hotspot for their portability and compactness in aerospace and aviation applications. For preliminary research, a two-stage pulse tube cryocooler working at 300 Hz driven by a thermoacoustic engine is established to investigate the problems due to ultra high frequency, and several results have been derived in our early reports. In order to study the effect of thermal penetration depth, this paper presents the cooler adopting copper mesh as the regenerator, and comparison with stainless steel mesh is given. In addition, the influence of inertance tube on the lowest possible cooler temperature is also tested. Finally, we discuss the improvement for getting a lower temperature.

  7. Discontinuities, cross-scale patterns, and the organization of ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nash, Kirsty L.; Allen, Craig R.; Angeler, David G.; Barichievy, Chris; Eason, Tarsha; Garmestani, Ahjond S.; Graham, Nicholas A.J.; Granholm, Dean; Knutson, Melinda; Nelson, R. John; Nystrom, Magnus; Stow, Craig A.; Sandstrom, Shana M.

    2014-01-01

    Ecological structures and processes occur at specific spatiotemporal scales, and interactions that occur across multiple scales mediate scale-specific (e.g., individual, community, local, or regional) responses to disturbance. Despite the importance of scale, explicitly incorporating a multi-scale perspective into research and management actions remains a challenge. The discontinuity hypothesis provides a fertile avenue for addressing this problem by linking measureable proxies to inherent scales of structure within ecosystems. Here we outline the conceptual framework underlying discontinuities and review the evidence supporting the discontinuity hypothesis in ecological systems. Next we explore the utility of this approach for understanding cross-scale patterns and the organization of ecosystems by describing recent advances for examining nonlinear responses to disturbance and phenomena such as extinctions, invasions, and resilience. To stimulate new research, we present methods for performing discontinuity analysis, detail outstanding knowledge gaps, and discuss potential approaches for addressing these gaps.

  8. PML-IRIS during Fingolimod Diagnosed after Natalizumab Discontinuation

    PubMed Central

    Killestein, J.; Vennegoor, A.; van Golde, A. E. L.; Bourez, R. L. J. H.; Wijlens, M. L. B.; Wattjes, M. P.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Natalizumab treatment is frequently discontinued and replaced by alternative medication in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients having a high risk of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML). Case Presentation. We report a PML case that was missed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at the time Natalizumab treatment was discontinued. The patient subsequently developed a PML-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after the initiation of Fingolimod treatment, suggesting that immune reconstitution may occur even during Fingolimod induced lymphopenia. Conclusion. This report highlights the need for strict drug surveillance using MRI of Natalizumab-associated MS patients at the time of drug discontinuation and beyond. This is important with respect to pharmacovigilance purposes not only for Natalizumab, but also for alternative drugs used after Natalizumab discontinuation. PMID:25506447

  9. 48 CFR 49.302 - Discontinuance of vouchers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... proposal for fee to the TCO within 1 year from the effective date of termination, unless the period is extended by the TCO. When the use of vouchers is discontinued, the contractor shall submit all...

  10. 48 CFR 49.302 - Discontinuance of vouchers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... proposal for fee to the TCO within 1 year from the effective date of termination, unless the period is extended by the TCO. When the use of vouchers is discontinued, the contractor shall submit all...

  11. Entropy-bounded discontinuous Galerkin scheme for Euler equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yu; Ihme, Matthias

    2015-08-01

    An entropy-bounded Discontinuous Galerkin (EBDG) scheme is proposed in which the solution is regularized by constraining the entropy. The resulting scheme is able to stabilize the solution in the vicinity of discontinuities and retains the optimal accuracy for smooth solutions. The properties of the limiting operator according to the entropy-minimum principle are proofed, and an optimal CFL-criterion is derived. We provide a rigorous description for locally imposing entropy constraints to capture multiple discontinuities. Significant advantages of the EBDG-scheme are the general applicability to arbitrary high-order elements and its simple implementation for multi-dimensional configurations. Numerical tests confirm the properties of the scheme, and particular focus is attributed to the robustness in treating discontinuities on arbitrary meshes.

  12. 27 CFR 40.525 - Discontinuance of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS... to discontinue operations and close a factory must dispose of all processed tobacco on hand, make...

  13. 27 CFR 40.525 - Discontinuance of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS... to discontinue operations and close a factory must dispose of all processed tobacco on hand, make...

  14. 27 CFR 40.525 - Discontinuance of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS... to discontinue operations and close a factory must dispose of all processed tobacco on hand, make...

  15. 27 CFR 40.525 - Discontinuance of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS... to discontinue operations and close a factory must dispose of all processed tobacco on hand, make...

  16. Propagating plasma discontinuity in a tube immersed in distilled water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Jian; Tang, Jingfeng; Wei, Liqiu; Zhang, Nan; Wang, Youyin; Yu, Daren

    2016-04-01

    In a dielectric tube partially surrounded by distilled water, a propagating discontinuity is observed in a cold argon plasma jet at atmospheric pressure in both the laminar and turbulent flow regimes. Through electrical and optical diagnostics, the mechanism of formation for this phenomenon is investigated. Results show that the strong polarization of the distilled water, the constraint from the electric field (or a sufficiently high electric field), and the transport of the active species are in combination responsible for the propagating plasma discontinuity. Indeed, smaller surface areas of the tube surrounded by distilled water, shorter distances between the distilled water and the ground electrodes, as well as larger gas flow rates can together make the discontinuous discharge channel appear more readily. In particular, when the flow switches from laminar to turbulent, the plasma behavior of the discontinuity no longer depends on the gas flow rate. This is mostly attributed to the extreme instability of turbulence which further suppresses the transport of active species.

  17. 14 CFR Section 16 - Objective Classification-Discontinued Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Objective Classification-Discontinued... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR LARGE CERTIFICATED AIR CARRIERS Profit and Loss Classification Section 16 Objective...

  18. 38 CFR 21.5835 - Specific discontinuance dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... due to physical or mental incapacity, VA will discontinue the dependent child's award of educational... his or her dependent child is not incapable of self support due to physical or mental incapacity,...

  19. Method and device for detection of surface discontinuities or defects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leger, L. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    Surface discontinuities of defects such as cracks and orifices are detected by applying a penetrating fluid, preferably a liquid, to a test surface so as to cause the liquid to penetrate any minute cracks or opening in the surface, removing the excess liquid from the surface, and leaving a residual in the discontinuities, cavities, or in the subsurface materials. A sheet of porous material impregnated with a sensitizing medium which will react with vapors of the residual liquid to form a visible pattern is applied to the test surface. The residual liquid trapped in the discontinuities, cavities, or subsurface material is vaporized, and, as the vapors contact the sensitizing medium on the sheet, a pattern corresponding to the discontinuity is formed on the sheet material and the penetrant completely removed from the sample.

  20. On cell entropy inequality for discontinuous Galerkin methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Guangshan; Shu, Chi-Wang

    1993-01-01

    We prove a cell entropy inequality for a class of high order discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods approximating conservation laws, which implies convergence for the one dimensional scalar convex case.

  1. 38 CFR 21.4278 - Reentrance after discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Administration of Educational Assistance Programs Assessment and Pursuit of Courses § 21.4278 Reentrance after discontinuance. (a) Conditions permitting... institution in the same program of education and the educational institution has— (i) Approved the...

  2. Toward a comprehensive understanding of transition zone seismic discontinuities: A new constraint near the stagnant slab region beneath China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, T. R. A.; Shen, X.; Stixrude, L. P.; Lithgow-Bertelloni, C. R.

    2015-12-01

    Plate tectonics and subduction operating over much of the Earth's history can induce mantle mixing, chemical heterogeneities and recycle volatiles into the mantle. Some slabs are penetrating into the deep lower mantle, but others are stagnated near the transition zone (TZ). Presumably, the thermochemical state of the TZ is a consequence of delicate balance and feedback between the short-term and long-term mixing. Near the stagnant slab, what's the thermochemical state of the TZ? what's the degree of hydration in the TZ? TZ seismic discontinuities hold the key to resolve the mystery of mass and heat transport in the Earth's mantle as well as the composition of the Earth's interior. But deciphering discontinuity properties are not trivial. Data were typically limited to either mantle triplications, converted waves (P-to-S or S-to-P) or mantle reflections (e.g. SS precursors, ScS reverberations). These observations place constraints on the velocity gradient near the discontinuity as well as discontinuity reflectivity, but hardly offer independent information on the density jump or/and density gradient. In few cases where multiple datasets are jointly analysed to resolve the density jump, the region of sensitivity (or the fresnel zone) of different dataset does not necessarily coincide. Finally, the use of short period (~1 Hz) data (e.g., P'P' precursors) or long period (~> 0.1 Hz) data (e.g., SS precursors) does not allow us to simultaneously address the transition width and the gradient near the discontinuity. We advocate a simple and effective strategy. Specifically, we involve broadband direct converted waves (e.g., P410s, P660s) and the topside reflections (the multiples, e.g., PpP410s, PpP660s) in the context of P wave receiver function technique. Such a tactic not only minimizes tradeoffs between velocity and density jumps, but allows self-consistent estimates of the shear velocity jump, the density jump, the transition width and the velocity/density gradient

  3. 41 CFR 109-39.105 - Discontinuance or curtailment of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 109-39.105 Discontinuance...

  4. Determining the Locations and Discontinuities in the Derivatives of Functions

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, Richard K; Gelb, Anne; Yoon, Jungho

    2007-01-01

    We introduce a method for detecting discontinuities in piecewise smooth functions and in their derivatives. The method is constructed from a local stencil of grid point values and is based on a polynomial annihilation technique. By varying the order of the method and the arrangement of the corresponding stencils, the jump discontinuities of a function and its derivatives can be identified with high order accuracy. The method is efficient and robust and can be applied to non-uniform distributions in one dimension.

  5. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2001-04-17

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

  6. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David G.

    1993-01-01

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

  7. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, D.G.

    1993-11-09

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices. 11 figures.

  8. Heat exchanger containing a component capable of discontinuous movement

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, David Gordon

    2002-01-01

    Regenerative heat exchangers are described for transferring heat between hot and cold fluids. The heat exchangers have seal-leakage rates significantly less than those of conventional regenerative heat exchangers because the matrix is discontinuously moved and is releasably sealed while in a stationary position. Both rotary and modular heat exchangers are described. Also described are methods for transferring heat between a hot and cold fluid using the discontinuous movement of matrices.

  9. Severe spontaneous vertebral fractures after denosumab discontinuation: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Aubry-Rozier, B; Gonzalez-Rodriguez, E; Stoll, D; Lamy, O

    2016-05-01

    Osteoporosis treatments are usually given for a limited period of time in order to balance benefits and risks. We report three cases of postmenopausal women without any previous fragility fracture who presented severe spontaneous vertebral fractures after denosumab discontinuation. We think that the occurrence of these fractures could be explained by the severe rebound effect observed after denosumab discontinuation and that a consensus regarding the end of treatment with denosumab has to be defined. PMID:26510845

  10. Factors Associated with Successful Discontinuation of Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Susan D.; Nekhyludov, Larissa; Grothaus, Louis C.; Ludman, Evette J.; Ehrlich, Kelly; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Careful management of symptoms, particularly sleep and mood disturbances, may assist women in discontinuing hormone therapy (HT). We sought to describe characteristics associated with successful HT cessation in women who attempted to discontinue estrogen pills/patches with or without progestin. Methods: We invited 2,328 women, aged 45–70, enrolled January 1, 2005, to May 31, 2006, at Group Health in Washington State and Harvard Vanguard Medical Associates in Massachusetts, to participate in a telephone survey about HT practices. For the sample, we selected 2,090 women with estrogen dispensings (pharmacy data) during the study period, 200 women without HT dispensing after January 2005, and 240 women with no estrogen dispensings; 1,358 (58.3%) completed the survey. These analyses are based on survey responses. Results: Among 802 women who attempted HT discontinuation, the mean age was 50 years, 93% were postmenopausal, 90% were white, 30% had had a hysterectomy, and 75% experienced hot flashes after discontinuation. Those who did not succeed had greater trouble sleeping (74% vs. 57%) and mood disturbances (51% vs. 34%) than those who succeeded. In multivariable analyses, factors associated with successful discontinuation included doctor advice (odds ratio [OR] 2.62, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.68–4.08), lack of symptom improvement (OR 4.21, CI 1.50–12.17), vaginal bleeding (OR 5.96, CI 1.44–24.6), and learning to cope with symptoms (OR 3.36, CI 2.21–5.11). Factors associated with unsuccessful HT discontinuation included trouble sleeping (OR 0.40, CI 0.26–0.61) and mood swings or depression (OR 0.63, CI 0.42–0.92). Conclusions: Doctor advice is strongly associated with successful HT discontinuation. Symptom management, particularly sleep and mood disturbances, may help women discontinue HT. PMID:24443881

  11. Minimizers with discontinuous velocities for the electromagnetic variational method

    SciTech Connect

    De Luca, Jayme

    2010-08-15

    The electromagnetic two-body problem has neutral differential delay equations of motion that, for generic boundary data, can have solutions with discontinuous derivatives. If one wants to use these neutral differential delay equations with arbitrary boundary data, solutions with discontinuous derivatives must be expected and allowed. Surprisingly, Wheeler-Feynman electrodynamics has a boundary value variational method for which minimizer trajectories with discontinuous derivatives are also expected, as we show here. The variational method defines continuous trajectories with piecewise defined velocities and accelerations, and electromagnetic fields defined by the Euler-Lagrange equations on trajectory points. Here we use the piecewise defined minimizers with the Lienard-Wierchert formulas to define generalized electromagnetic fields almost everywhere (but on sets of points of zero measure where the advanced/retarded velocities and/or accelerations are discontinuous). Along with this generalization we formulate the generalized absorber hypothesis that the far fields vanish asymptotically almost everywhere and show that localized orbits with far fields vanishing almost everywhere must have discontinuous velocities on sewing chains of breaking points. We give the general solution for localized orbits with vanishing far fields by solving a (linear) neutral differential delay equation for these far fields. We discuss the physics of orbits with discontinuous derivatives stressing the differences to the variational methods of classical mechanics and the existence of a spinorial four-current associated with the generalized variational electrodynamics.

  12. Bifurcation and chaotic threshold of Duffing system with jump discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Ruilan; Zhou, Yufeng; Wang, Qiubao; Zhang, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Like for the smooth system, it is important to determine a criteria for bifurcation of the non-smooth system with jump discontinuities. Previously, the criteria have been constructed in some non-smooth systems with jump discontinuities which are the endpoints of interval. The research on bifurcation for non-smooth system with jump discontinuities, which are the interior points of interval, seems to be a new area. We construct the Duffing system with jump discontinuities in open interval. Bifurcation diagram of the unperturbed system is detected and Hamilton phase diagrams are simulated using Matlab. The jump discontinuities for the non-smooth Homoclinic orbit lead to a barrier for conventional nonlinear techniques to obtain the criteria for chaotic motion. Traditionally, these non-smooth factors were considered term by term. We will give a reasonable compromise based on all of characteristics of the non-smooth homoclinic orbits with the jump discontinuities. The extended Melnikov function is explicitly detected to judge the stable and unstable manifolds whether intersect transversally at any position of trajectory under the perturbation of damping and external forcing. It is worthwhile noting that the result reveals the effects of the non-smooth restoring force on the behaviors of nonlinear dynamical systems. The efficiency of the theoretical results is verified by the phase portraits, Poincaré surface of section, Largest Lyapnnov exponents diagram and bifurcation diagram.

  13. Immunolocalization of FGF8/10 in the Apical Epidermal Peg and Blastema of the regenerating tail in lizard marks this apical growing area.

    PubMed

    Alibardi, Lorenzo

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that Fibroblast Growth Factors are present in the regenerating tail tissues of lizards where they may stimulate the process of regeneration. The present study is focused on the immunolocalization of FGF8 and FGF10 in the regenerating lizard tail, two signaling proteins of the apical epidermal cup/ridge and mesenchymal blastema sustaining tail and limb regeneration in amphibians and the development of the tail and limbs in vertebrate embryos. Main immunoreactive protein bands at 15-18kDa for FGF8/10 are detected in the regenerating epidermis and only a band at 30 or 35kDa in the underlying connective tissues. FGF8 appears particularly localized in cells and nuclei of the apical epidermal peg and of the ependymal ampulla present at the tip of the regenerating tail. FGF10 is also immuno-localized in the apical epidermis but is particularly intensely localized in the mesenchyme of the apical blastema. In accordance with previous studies, the present observations supports the hypothesis that the apical epidermal peg and the ependymal tube with the few regenerated neurons present within it, release FGF8/10 that may contribute to maintenance of cell proliferation in the apical front of the mesenchyme for the growth of the regenerating tail. PMID:27113329

  14. 40 CFR 721.10004 - 2-Butenoic acid, 4,4′-[(dibutylstannylene)bis(oxy)]bis[4-oxo-, (2Z,2′Z)-, di-C8-10-isoalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-, (2Z,2â²Z)-, di-C8-10-isoalkyl esters, C9-rich. 721.10004 Section 721.10004 Protection of Environment...-, (2Z,2′Z)-, di-C8-10-isoalkyl esters, C9-rich. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...)-, di-C8-10-isoalkyl esters, C9-rich (PMN P-98-1181; CAS No. 247041-56-1) is subject to reporting...

  15. 40 CFR 721.10004 - 2-Butenoic acid, 4,4′-[(dibutylstannylene)bis(oxy)]bis[4-oxo-, (2Z,2′Z)-, di-C8-10-isoalkyl...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-, (2Z,2â²Z)-, di-C8-10-isoalkyl esters, C9-rich. 721.10004 Section 721.10004 Protection of Environment...-, (2Z,2′Z)-, di-C8-10-isoalkyl esters, C9-rich. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject...)-, di-C8-10-isoalkyl esters, C9-rich (PMN P-98-1181; CAS No. 247041-56-1) is subject to reporting...

  16. development of a medium repetition rate (10 Hz - 500 Hz) diode pumped laser transmitter for airborne scanning altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coyle, D. Barry; Lindauer, Steven J., II; Kay, Richard B.

    1998-01-01

    Since the late 1980's, NASA has developed several small, all-solid state lasers of low repetition rates for use as transmitters in prototype LIDAR and raster scanned altimetry retrieval systems. Our early laser transmitters were developed for high resolution airborne altimetry which employed cavity dumping techniques to produce a pulse shape with a 1 ns rise time. The first such laser was the SUMR (Sub-millimeter resolution) transmitter which used a side pumped, D-shaped half-rod of Nd:YAG for the oscillator active media and produced approximately 3 ns pulses of 100 micro-J energy at a 40 Hz repetition rate. (Coyle and Blair, 1993; Coyle et al., 1995) After several upgrades to improve rep rate and pulse energy, the final version produced 1.2 mJ pulses at 120 Hz with a 3.7 ns pulse width. The laser has become known as SPLT (Sharp Pulsed Laser Transmitter), and has flown successfully on a variety of airborne altimetry missions. (Coyle and Blair, 1995; Blair et al., 1994) From building these systems, we have accrued valuable experience in delivering field-deployable lasers and have become aware of the advantages and disadvantages of employing new technologies. For example, even though the laser's main operating environment is in a "cold" aircraft during flight, the laser must still operate in very warm temperatures. This is important if the mission is based in the desert or a tropical climate since ground calibration data from stationary targets must be gathered before and after each data flight. Because conductive cooling is much more convenient than closed loop water flow, achieving the highest possible laser efficiency is becoming a high priority when designing a flight laser. This is especially true for lasers with higher pulse energies and repetition rates which are needed for high altitude scanning altimeters and LIDARs.

  17. A Discontinuous Galerkin Chimera Overset Solver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galbraith, Marshall Christopher

    This work summarizes the development of an accurate, efficient, and flexible Computational Fluid Dynamics computer code that is an improvement relative to the state of the art. The improved accuracy and efficiency is obtained by using a high-order discontinuous Galerkin (DG) discretization scheme. In order to maximize the computational efficiency, quadrature-free integration and numerical integration optimized as matrix-vector multiplications is employed and implemented through a pre-processor (PyDG). Using the PyDG pre-processor, a C++ polynomial library has been developed that uses overloaded operators to design an efficient Domain Specific Language (DSL) that allows expressions involving polynomials to be written as if they are scalars. The DSL, which makes the syntax of computer code legible and intuitive, promotes maintainability of the software and simplifies the development of additional capabilities. The flexibility of the code is achieved by combining the DG scheme with the Chimera overset method. The Chimera overset method produces solutions on a set of overlapping grids that communicate through an exchange of data on grid boundaries (known as artificial boundaries). Finite volume and finite difference discretizations use fringe points, which are layers of points on the artificial boundaries, to maintain the interior stencil on artificial boundaries. The fringe points receive solution values interpolated from overset grids. Proper interpolation requires fringe points to be contained in overset grids. Insufficient overlap must be corrected by modifying the grid system. The Chimera scheme can also exclude regions of grids that lie outside the computational domain; a process commonly known as hole cutting. The Chimera overset method has traditionally enabled the use of high-order finite difference and finite volume approaches such as WENO and compact differencing schemes, which require structured meshes, for modeling fluid flow associated with complex

  18. 47 CFR 15.219 - Operation in the band 510-1705 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation in the band 510-1705 kHz. 15.219... kHz. (a) The total input power to the final radio frequency stage (exclusive of filament or heater... ground lead (if used) shall not exceed 3 meters. (c) All emissions below 510 kHz or above 1705 kHz...

  19. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  20. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  1. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  2. 47 CFR 90.253 - Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz. 90.253 Section 90.253 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... frequency 5167.5 kHz. The frequency 5167.5 kHz may be used by any station authorized under this part...

  3. 47 CFR 90.253 - Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz. 90.253 Section 90.253 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... frequency 5167.5 kHz. The frequency 5167.5 kHz may be used by any station authorized under this part...

  4. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  5. CELL CULTURE STUDIES WITH THE IMC-HZ-1 NONOCCLUDED VIRUS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were conducted on an adventitious agent (Hz-lv) isolated from the IMC-Hz-1 cell line. It appeared identical to the virus first obtained by Granados et al. from a persistent infection of this cell line. Restriction endonuclease digestion of Hz-lv DNA indicated the agent wa...

  6. 47 CFR 90.253 - Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Use of frequency 5167.5 kHz. 90.253 Section 90.253 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES... frequency 5167.5 kHz. The frequency 5167.5 kHz may be used by any station authorized under this part...

  7. 47 CFR 15.221 - Operation in the band 525-1705 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation in the band 525-1705 kHz. 15.221... kHz. (a) Carrier current systems and transmitters employing a leaky coaxial cable as the radiating antenna may operate in the band 525-1705 kHz provided the field strength levels of the radiated...

  8. 47 CFR 80.147 - Watch on 2182 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Watch on 2182 kHz. 80.147 Section 80.147 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES STATIONS IN THE... 2182 kHz. Ship stations must maintain a watch on 2182 kHz as prescribed by § 80.304....

  9. The Effect of the 226-Hz Probe Level on Contralateral Acoustic Stapedius Reflex Thresholds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Jessica E.; Feeney, M. Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the 226-Hz probe level on the acoustic stapedius reflex threshold. Method: Contralateral reflex thresholds for a 1000-Hz pure-tone stimulus were obtained from 40 young adults with normal hearing using an experimental system at four 226-Hz probe levels (70, 75, 80, and 85 dB SPL) with…

  10. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE DNA OF A NONOCCLUDED BACULOVIRUS, HZ-1V

    EPA Science Inventory

    The DNA of the nonoccluded baculovirus (Hz-1V) obtained from the IMC-Hz-1 cell line was characterized by physicochemical and restriction endonuclease techniques. Hz-1V DNA isolated from purified virus had buoyant densities of 1.58 and 1.54 g/ml in CsC1-ethidium bromide density gr...

  11. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor discontinuation syndrome: proposed diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed Central

    Black, K; Shea, C; Dursun, S; Kutcher, S

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To establish specific criteria by which selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) discontinuation syndrome may be identified. DATA SOURCES: MEDLINE and PSYCHLIT databases were searched for case reports published from 1986 to 1997 inclusive, and references of relevant articles were also searched. STUDY SELECTION: Forty-six case reports of symptoms following the discontinuation of fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, paroxetine or sertraline were selected. Three studies of SSRI discontinuation were also reviewed. DATA EXTRACTION: Demographic and treatment information, as well as the timing, duration, number, nature and frequency of dicontinuation symptoms. DATA SYNTHESIS: Paroxetine was most frequently implicated. The drug had been tapered in half of the cases. In some cases, symptom onset began during taper, whereas, in most cases, symptoms began within 1 to 3 days of drug discontinuation. Fifty-three different symptoms were reported, with dizziness being the most common. Other common symptoms were nausea or emesis, fatigue, headache, gait instability and insomnia. Shock-like sensations, paresthesia and visual disturbances were the most rare. Without intervention, symptoms persisted for more than a week in half of the cases. In cases in which the SSRI was restarted, symptoms resolved within 72 hours. In some cases, withdrawal symptoms recurred when the same SSRI was again discontinued. CONCLUSIONS: Findings were used to construct diagnostic criteria for the SSRI discontinuation syndrome. These criteria are 2 or more of the following symptoms developing within 1 to 7 days of discontinuation or reduction in dosage of an SSRI after at least 1 month's use, when these symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment and are not due to a general medical condition or recurrence of a mental disorder: dizziness, light-headedness, vertigo or feeling faint; shock-like sensations or paresthesia; anxiety; diarrhea; fatigue; gait instability; headache; insomnia

  12. SMARTer Discontinuation Trial Designs for Developing an Adaptive Treatment Strategy

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Scott N.; Rynn, Moira A.; Walkup, John T.; Murphy, Susan A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objective Developing evidenced-based practices for the management of childhood psychiatric disorders requires research studies that address how to treat children during both the acute phase of the disorder and beyond. Given the selection of a medication for acute treatment, discontinuation trials are used to evaluate the effects of treatment duration (e.g., time on medication) and/or maintenance strategies following successful acute-phase treatment. Recently, sequential multiple assignment randomized trials (SMART) have been proposed for use in informing sequences of critical clinical decisions such as those mentioned. The objective of this article is to illustrate how a SMART study is related to the standard discontinuation trial design, while addressing additional clinically important questions with similar trial resources. Method The recently completed Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), a randomized trial that examined the relative efficacy of three acute-phase treatments for pediatric anxiety disorders, along with a next logical step, a standard discontinuation trial design, is used to clarify the ideas. This example is used to compare the discontinuation trial design relative to the SMART design. Results We find that the standard discontinuation trial can be modified slightly using a SMART design to yield high-quality data that can be used to address a wider variety of questions in addition to the impact of treatment duration. We discuss how this innovative trial design is ultimately more efficient and less costly than the standard discontinuation trial, and may result in more representative comparisons between treatments. Conclusions Mental health researchers who are interested in addressing questions concerning the effects of continued treatment (for different durations) following successful acute-phase treatment should consider SMART designs in place of discontinuation trial designs in their research. SMART designs can be used to

  13. Cardiovascular response of rats exposed to 60-Hz electric fields

    SciTech Connect

    Hilton, D.I.; Phillips, R.D.

    1980-01-01

    Recently, it has been reported that exposure to high-strength electric fields can influence electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns, heart rates, and blood pressures in various species of animals. Our studies were designed to evaluate these reported effects and to help clarify some of the disagreement present in the literature. Various cardiovascular variables were measured in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed or sham-exposed to 60-Hz electric fields at 80 to 100 kV/m for periods up to four months. No significant differences in heart rates, ECG patterns, blood pressures, or vascular reactivity were observed between exposed and sham-exposed rats after 8 hours, 40 hours, 1 month, or 4 months of exposure. Our studies cannot be directly compared to the work of other investigators because of differences in animal species and electric-field characteristics. However, our failure to detect any cardiovascular changes may have been the result of (1) eliminating secondary field effects such as shocks, audible noise, corona, and ozone; (2) minimizing steady-state microcurrents between the mouth of the animal and watering devices; and (3) minimizing electric-field-induced vibration of the electrodes and animal cages.

  14. Electroacupuncture at 2/100 Hz Activates Antinociceptive Spinal Mechanisms Different from Those Activated by Electroacupuncture at 2 and 100 Hz in Responder Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Josie Resende Torres; da Silva, Marcelo Lourenço; Prado, Wiliam Alves

    2013-01-01

    We examined the effects of intrathecal injection of desipramine and fluoxetine (selective inhibitors of norepinephrine and 5-HT uptake, resp.), thiorphan and neostigmine (inhibitors of enkephalinase and acetylcholinesterase, resp.), gabapentin (a GABA releaser), and vigabatrin (an inhibitor of GABA-transaminase) on the antinociception induced by 2 Hz, 100 Hz, or 2/100 Hz electroacupuncture (EA) applied bilaterally to the Zusanli (ST36) and Sanyinjiao (SP6) acupoints using the rat tail-flick test. We show that 2 Hz EA antinociception lasts longer after the administration of drugs that increase the spinal availability of norepinephrine, acetylcholine, or GABA; 100 Hz EA antinociception lasts longer after drug that increases the spinal availability of norepinephrine; 2/100 Hz EA antinociception lasts longer after drugs that increase the spinal availability of endogenous opioids or GABA. We conclude that the antinociceptive effect of 2/100 Hz EA is different from the synergistic effect of alternate stimulation at 2 and 100 Hz because the effect of the former is not changed by increasing the spinal availability of serotonin and lasts longer after the administration of vigabatrin. The combination of EA with drugs that increase the availability of spinal neurotransmitters involved in the modulation of nociceptive inputs may result in a synergistic antinociceptive effect in the rat tail-flick test. PMID:24159340

  15. The Dielectric Properties of Martian Soil Simulant JSC Mars-1 in the Range from 20Hz to 10kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, F.; Trautner, R.; Grard, R.; Hamelin, M.

    2004-03-01

    A laboratory facility has been setup to measure the complex permittivity of soil mixtures as a function of porosity, humidity, and temperature in the range 20 Hz 10 kHz. The influence of porosity and temperature are discussed, and a measurable gravimetric water content threshold is evaluated.

  16. Critical behavior and its correlation with magnetocaloric effect in amorphous Fe80-xVxB12Si8 (x=8, 10 and 13.7) alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boutahar, A.; Lassri, H.; Hlil, E. K.; Fruchart, D.

    2016-01-01

    The critical exponents in Fe80-xVxB12Si8 (x=8, 10 and 13.7) amorphous alloys were investigated near ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition temperature. All amorphous alloys exhibit a second order ferromagnetic to paramagnetic phase transition (SOMT). The critical exponents (β, γ and δ) were estimated using the modified Arrott plot technique (MAP), the Widom scaling relation (WSR), and the critical isotherm analysis (CIA). In addition, an independent analysis of the critical behavior is presented in terms of the magnetocaloric effect (MCE). It shows in accordance with conclusion from magnetization data analysis. The estimated critical exponent values are found to be consistent and comparable to those predicted by the mean field model. This result points out to the ferromagnetic exchange interaction of long-range type.

  17. Evidence for a High-Pressure Phase Transition of ε-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtzitane (CL-20) Using Vibrational Spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Ciezak, J.; Jenkins, T; Liu, Z

    2007-01-01

    The high-pressure response of {epsilon}-2,4,6,8,10,12-hexanitrohexaazaisowurtizane (CL-20) has been examined to 27 GPa in diamond anvil cells using vibrational spectroscopy. The results reveal evidence of an {epsilon}{yields}{Upsilon} pressure-induced phase transition between 4.1 and 6.4 GPa and suggest the existence of a {Upsilon}{yields}{zeta} transition near 18.7 GPa. Several Raman and infrared frequencies were found to decrease in intensity as the phase boundaries are approached. An anomalous intensity increase was noted in the C-N-C infrared mode that is believed to result from an increase in the Raman cross-section due to a stronger interlayer coupling under pressure.

  18. The effect of mechanical discontinuities on the growth of faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonini, Lorenzo; Basili, Roberto; Bonanno, Emanuele; Toscani, Giovanni; Burrato, Pierfrancesco; Seno, Silvio; Valensise, Gianluca

    2016-04-01

    The growth of natural faults is controlled by several factors, including the nature of host rocks, the strain rate, the temperature, and the presence of fluids. In this work we focus on the mechanical characteristics of host rocks, and in particular on the role played by thin mechanical discontinuities on the upward propagation of faults and on associated secondary effects such as folding and fracturing. Our approach uses scaled, analogue models where natural rocks are simulated by wet clay (kaolin). A clay cake is placed above two rigid blocks in a hanging wall/footwall configuration on either side of a planar fault. Fault activity is simulated by motor-controlled movements of the hanging wall. We reproduce three types of faults: a 45°-dipping normal fault, a 45°-dipping reverse fault and a 30°-dipping reverse fault. These angles are selected as representative of most natural dip-slip faults. The analogues of the mechanical discontinuities are obtained by precutting the wet clay cake before starting the hanging wall movement. We monitor the experiments with high-resolution cameras and then obtain most of the data through the Digital Image Correlation method (D.I.C.). This technique accurately tracks the trajectories of the particles of the analogue material during the deformation process: this allows us to extract displacement field vectors plus the strain and shear rate distributions on the lateral side of the clay block, where the growth of new faults is best seen. Initially we run a series of isotropic experiments, i.e. experiments without discontinuities, to generate a reference model: then we introduce the discontinuities. For the extensional models they are cut at different dip angles, from horizontal to 45°-dipping, both synthetic and antithetic with respect to the master fault, whereas only horizontal discontinuities are introduced in the contractional models. Our experiments show that such discontinuities control: 1) the propagation rate of faults

  19. Children's judgements about pain at age 8-10 years: do extremely low birthweight (< or = 1000 g) children differ from full birthweight peers?

    PubMed

    Grunau, R E; Whitfield, M F; Petrie, J

    1998-05-01

    Children's judgements about pain at age 8-10 years were examined comparing two groups of children who had experienced different exposure to nociceptive procedures in the neonatal period: extremely low birthweight (ELBW) < or = 1000 g (N = 47) and full birthweight (FBW) > or = 2500 g (N = 37). The 24 pictures that comprise the Pediatric Pain Inventory, depicting events in four settings: medical, recreational, daily living, and psychosocial, were used as the pain stimuli. The subjects rated pain intensity using the Color Analog Scale and pain affect using the Facial Affective Scale. Child IQ and maternal education were statistically adjusted in group comparisons. Pain intensity and pain affect related to activities of daily living and recreation were significantly higher than psychosocial and medically related pain on both scales in both groups of children. Although the two groups of children did not differ overall in their perceptions of pain intensity or affect, the ELBW children rated medical pain intensity significantly higher than psychosocial pain, unlike the FBW group. Also, duration of neonatal intensive care unit stay for the ELBW children was related to increased pain affect ratings in recreational and daily living settings. Despite altered response to pain in the early years reported by parents, on the whole at 8-10 years of age ELBW children judged pain in pictures similarly to their term peers. However, differences were evident, which suggests that studies are needed of biobehavioural reactivity to pain beyond infancy, as well as research into beliefs, attitudes, and perceptions about pain during the course of childhood in formerly ELBW children. PMID:9599786

  20. Patterning poly(maleic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane) copolymer bioconjugates for controlled release of drugs.

    PubMed

    Nita, Loredana E; Chiriac, Aurica P; Mititelu-Tartau, Liliana; Stoleru, Elena; Doroftei, Florica; Diaconu, Alina

    2015-09-30

    Owing to the special characteristics and abilities polymeric networks have received special interest for a range of biomedical applications especially for drug delivery systems. This study was devoted to preparation of new polymeric compounds based on maleic anhydride and 3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane copolymer (poly maleic anhydride-co-3,9-divinyl-2,4,8,10-tetraoxaspiro (5.5) undecane) (PMAU) patterned as a network for bioconjugation and tested as drug carrier systems. The PMAU copolymer was improved in its functionality by opening the maleic anhydride ring with different amounts of erythritol, which is free of side effects in regular use and a multifunctional compound, and also confers antioxidant character for the new compounds. The new polymeric matrices were loaded with acetaminophen, codeine and their fixed dose combinations. The investigation demonstrated the capability of the new structures to be used as polymer networks for linking bioactive compounds and to perform controlled delivery. The physico-chemical investigations--Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) spectra, contact angle, zeta potential (ZP - z, PMAU and its derivatives samples loaded with medicines present decreased values of zeta potential attesting the bioconjugate formation and as well their stability), and hydrodynamic radius, near infrared chemical imaging evaluation (new specific bands being registered for bio-conjugate with acetaminophen around of 1150-1200 nm and 1700 nm, and also between 1150 and 1200 nm in case of the codeine bio-conjugate), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies, X-ray diffraction analysis--evidenced the formation of the bioconjugates in relation to the chemical composition of the polymer matrices, while in vitro release study and in vivo tests confirm the capacity for drug delivery of the prepared bioactive systems. PMID:26220652

  1. Imaging Resolution of the 410-km and 660-km Discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, K.; Zhou, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Structure of seismic discontinuities at depths of about 410 km and 660 km provides important constraints on mantle convection as the associated phase transformations in the transition zone are sensitive to thermal perturbations. Teleseismic P-to-S receiver functions have been widely used to map the depths of the two discontinuities. In this study, we investigate the resolution of receiver functions in imaging topographic variations of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities based on wave propagation simulations using the Spectral Element Method (SEM). We investigate finite-frequency effects of direct P waves as well as P-to-S converted waves by varying the length scale of discontinuity topography in the transition zone. We show that wavefront healing effects are significant in broadband receiver functions. For example, at a period of 10 to 20 seconds, the arrival anomaly in P-to-S converted waves is about 50% of what predicted by ray theory when the topography length scale is in the order of 400 km. The observed arrival anomaly further reduces to 10-20% when the topography length scale reduces to about 200 km. We calculate 2-D boundary sensitivity kernels for direct P waves as well as receiver functions based on surface wave mode summation and confirm that finite frequency-effects can be properly accounted for. Three-dimensional wavespeed structure beneath seismic stations can also introduce significant artifacts in transition zone discontinuity topography if time corrections are not applied, and, the effects are dependent on frequency.

  2. Discontinuous dual-primal mixed finite elements for elliptic problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bottasso, Carlo L.; Micheletti, Stefano; Sacco, Riccardo

    2000-01-01

    We propose a novel discontinuous mixed finite element formulation for the solution of second-order elliptic problems. Fully discontinuous piecewise polynomial finite element spaces are used for the trial and test functions. The discontinuous nature of the test functions at the element interfaces allows to introduce new boundary unknowns that, on the one hand enforce the weak continuity of the trial functions, and on the other avoid the need to define a priori algorithmic fluxes as in standard discontinuous Galerkin methods. Static condensation is performed at the element level, leading to a solution procedure based on the sole interface unknowns. The resulting family of discontinuous dual-primal mixed finite element methods is presented in the one and two-dimensional cases. In the one-dimensional case, we show the equivalence of the method with implicit Runge-Kutta schemes of the collocation type exhibiting optimal behavior. Numerical experiments in one and two dimensions demonstrate the order accuracy of the new method, confirming the results of the analysis.

  3. Solving the cardiac bidomain equations for discontinuous conductivities.

    PubMed

    Austin, Travis M; Trew, Mark L; Pullan, Andrew J

    2006-07-01

    Fast simulations of cardiac electrical phenomena demand fast matrix solvers for both the elliptic and parabolic parts of the bidomain equations. It is well known that fast matrix solvers for the elliptic part must address multiple physical scales in order to show robust behavior. Recent research on finding the proper solution method for the bidomain equations has addressed this issue whereby multigrid preconditioned conjugate gradients has been used as a solver. In this paper, a more robust multigrid method, called Black Box Multigrid, is presented as an alternative to conventional geometric multigrid, and the effect of discontinuities on solver performance for the elliptic and parabolic part is investigated. Test problems with discontinuities arising from inserted plunge electrodes and naturally occurring myocardial discontinuities are considered. For these problems, we explore the advantages to using a more advanced multigrid method like Black Box Multigrid over conventional geometric multigrid. Results will indicate that for certain discontinuous bidomain problems Black Box Multigrid provides 60% faster simulations than using conventional geometric multigrid. Also, for the problems examined, it will be shown that a direct usage of conventional multigrid leads to faster simulations than an indirect usage of conventional multigrid as a preconditioner unless there are sharp discontinuities. PMID:16830931

  4. Midcrustal discontinuities and the assembly of the Himalayan midcrust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Kyle P.; Cottle, John M.

    2014-05-01

    Detailed quartz lattice preferred orientation (LPO) data define two structural discontinuities in the exhumed high-grade metamorphic core of the Himalaya exposed in the upper Tama Kosi region of east central Nepal. The structures are marked by abrupt breaks in a general trend of up structural section increasing quartz LPO-defined deformation temperatures. Deformation associated with the upper structural discontinuity, which occurs within sillimanite grade rocks, is postpeak metamorphism in both the hanging wall and the footwall. New geochronologic data constrain the timing of metamorphism in the hanging wall of the upper discontinuity to between 24 and 16 Ma, indistinguishable from previously published ages for the footwall. Movement across this structure represents Early Miocene strain localization and thickening in the Himalayan midcrust. Movement across the lower discontinuity, which occurs between staurolite and kyanite grade rocks, appears to be synmetamorphic with material in its footwall at approximately 10 Ma, but postpeak metamorphism for material in its hanging wall. This movement is interpreted to reflect the underplating and incorporation of material into the metamorphic core. The recognition of two thrust-sense discontinuities in the exhumed Himalayan core in the Tama Kosi region is consistent with other similar structures recognized along the Himalaya. The widespread nature of these structures reinforces that they are important to our understanding of the evolution of the kinematics of large, hot orogens.

  5. Dual frequency (20.0-19.9 kHz) VLF data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looney, C. H.

    1968-01-01

    Data are presented from 24 months of operation of radio station WWVL. Daily measurements of the 20.0 kHz and 20.0/19.9 kHz signal phase angles corrected in accordance with the NBS measurements are presented in tabular form. The 20.0/19.9 kHz data is a function of the phase angle of the 100 Hz information inherent in the 20.0/19.9 transmissions. This data can be used to resolve the 50 microsecond ambiguity inherent in 20.0 kHz single frequency transmissions.

  6. 40-Hz steady state response in Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    van Deursen, J A; Vuurman, E F P M; van Kranen-Mastenbroek, V H J M; Verhey, F R J; Riedel, W J

    2011-01-01

    The 40-Hz steady state response (SSR) reflects early sensory processing and can be measured with electroencephalography (EEG). The current study compared the 40-Hz SSR in groups consisting of mild Alzheimer's disease patients (AD) (n=15), subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) (n=20) and healthy elderly control subjects (n=20). All participants were naïve for psychoactive drugs. Auditory click trains at a frequency of 40-Hz evoked the 40-Hz SSR. To evaluate test-retest reliability (TRR), subjects underwent a similar assessment 1 week after the first. The results showed a high TRR and a significant increase of 40-Hz SSR power in the AD group compared to MCI and controls. Furthermore a moderate correlation between 40-Hz SSR power and cognitive performance as measured by ADAS-cog was shown. The results suggest that 40-Hz SSR might be an interesting candidate marker of disease progression. PMID:19237225

  7. Discontinuous automorphisms of the proper Galilei and Euclidean groups

    SciTech Connect

    Adeleke, S.A. )

    1989-04-01

    The author shows that there are numerous discontinuous automorphisms of the three-dimensional Euclidean group and thus of the Galilei group, as numerous as the subsets of the real numbers, 2{sup aleph-null}, to be exact. These automorphisms arise from the derivations of the field of real numbers. Tits gave an example of a discontinuous automorphism for the semidirect product of the general linear group GL{sub n}(K) in n dimensions with the additive group of n {times} n matrices. He observes that if one uses the quaternion representation of the rotations and the form of Tits example, one obtains discontinuous automorphisms of the Euclidean group in three dimensions. He shows that all automorphisms of the Euclidean group in higher dimensions are continuous.

  8. On the structure of contact binaries. I - The contact discontinuity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shu, F. H.; Lubow, S. H.; Anderson, L.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of the interior structure of contact binaries is reviewed, and a simple resolution of the difficulties which plague the theory is suggested. It is proposed that contact binaries contain a contact discontinuity between the lower surface of the common envelope and the Roche lobe of the cooler star. This discontinuity is maintained against thermal diffusion by fluid flow, and the transition layer is thin to the extent that the dynamical time scale is short in comparison with the thermal time scale. The idealization that the transition layer has infinitesimal thickness allows a simple formulation of the structure equations which are closed by appropriate jump conditions across the discontinuity. The further imposition of the standard boundary conditions suffices to define a unique model for the system once the chemical composition, the masses of the two stars, and the orbital separation are specified.

  9. Discontinuous phase transition in a dimer lattice gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dickman, Ronald

    2012-05-01

    I study a dimer model on the square lattice with nearest neighbor exclusion as the only interaction. Detailed simulations using tomographic entropic sampling show that as the chemical potential is varied, there is a strongly discontinuous phase transition, at which the particle density jumps by about 18% of its maximum value, 1/4. The transition is accompanied by the onset of orientational order, to an arrangement corresponding to the {1/2, 0, 1/2} structure identified by Phares et al. [Physica B 409, 1096 (2011)] in a dimer model with finite repulsion at fixed density. Using finite-size scaling and Binder's cumulant, the expected scaling behavior at a discontinuous transition is verified in detail. The discontinuous transition can be understood qualitatively given that the model possesses eight equivalent maximum-density configurations, so that its coarse-grained description corresponds to that of the q = 8 Potts model.

  10. Final Technical Report ''Double discontinuities in space plasma''

    SciTech Connect

    Yun Chow Whang

    2004-05-13

    This research used high-resolution magnetic field data to examine the interior structures of MHD shocks in interplanetary space and in the magnetotail; we discovered that a slow-mode shock is often followed by an adjoining rotational discontinuity layer on the postshock side. The thickness of each layer is of the order of a few ion inertial lengths. Such a compound structure is known as a double discontinuity. When the magnetic field rotates by several degrees per ion inertial length inside a thin layer, the Hall current term becomes important in the generalized Ohm's law. Steady state solutions based on the Hall-MHD theory have been obtained to show the merging of a rotational layer and a slow shock layer to form a compound structure like the observed double discontinuities.

  11. Discontinuities of BFKL amplitudes and the BDS ansatz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadin, V. S.; Fiore, R.

    2015-12-01

    We perform an examination of discontinuities of multiple production amplitudes, which are required for further development of the BFKL approach. It turns out that the discontinuities of 2 → 2 + n amplitudes obtained in the BFKL approach contradict to the BDS ansatz for amplitudes with maximal helicity violation in N = 4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory with large number of colors starting with n = 2. Explicit expressions for the discontinuities of the 2 → 3 and 2 → 4 amplitudes in the invariant mass of pairs of produced gluons are obtained in the planar N = 4 SYM in the next-to-leading logarithmic approximation. These expressions can be used for checking the conjectured duality between the light-like Wilson loops and the MHV amplitudes.

  12. Efficient Displacement Discontinuity Method Using Fast Multipole Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, J.P.; Blair, S.C.

    2000-02-18

    The Displacement Discontinuity method has been widely used in geomechanics because it accurately captures the behavior of fractures within a rock mass by explicitly accounting for discontinuities. Unfortunately, boundary element techniques require the interactions between all pairs of elements to be evaluated and traditional approaches to the Displacement Discontinuity method are computationally expensive for large problem sizes. Approximate summation techniques, such as the Fast Multipole Method (FMM), calculate the interactions between N entities in time proportional to N. We have implemented a modified Fast Multipole approach which performs the necessary calculations in optimal time and with reduced memory usage. Furthermore, the FMM introduces parameters which can be selected to give the desired trade-off between efficiency and accuracy. The FMM approach permits much larger problems to be solved using desktop computers, opening up a range of applications. We present results demonstrating the speed of the code and several test cases involving rock fracture in compression.

  13. Disparities in Discontinuing Rosiglitazone Following the 2007 FDA Safety Alert

    PubMed Central

    Qato, Danya M.; Trivedi, Amal N.; Mor, Vincent; Dore, David D.

    2016-01-01

    Background Responsiveness to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) rosiglitazone safety alert, issued on May 21, 2007, has not been examined among vulnerable subpopulations of the elderly. Objective To compare time to discontinuation of rosiglitazone after the safety alert between black and white elderly persons, and across sociodemographic and economic subgroups. Research Design A cohort study. Subjects Medicare fee-for-service enrollees in 2007 who were established users of rosiglitazone identified from a 20% national sample of pharmacy claims. Measures Outcome of interest was time to discontinuation of rosiglitazone after the May alert. We modeled the number of days following the warning to the end of the days’ supply for the last rosiglitazone claim during the study period (May 21, 2007–December 31, 2007) using multivariable proportional hazards models. Results More than 67% of enrollees discontinued rosiglitazone within six months of the advisory. In adjusted analysis, white enrollees (hazard ratio = 0.90; 95% confidence interval, 0.86–0.94) discontinued rosiglitazone later than the comparison group of black enrollees. Enrollees with a history of low personal income also discontinued later than their comparison group (hazard ratio = 0.84; 95% confidence interval, 0.81–0.87). There were no observed differences across quintiles of area-level socioeconomic status. Conclusions White race and a history of low personal income modestly predicted later discontinuation of rosiglitazone after the FDA’s safety advisory in 2007. The impact of FDA advisories can vary among sociodemographic groups. Policymakers should continue to monitor whether risk management policies reach their intended populations. PMID:26978569

  14. Factors affecting medication discontinuation in patients with overactive bladder symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Eun-Jung; Kim, Young-Mi; Kim, Donguk

    2015-01-01

    Objective To find out the factors affecting medication discontinuation in patients with overactive bladder (OAB) symptoms. Methods The clinical data of 125 patients with OAB symptoms who had taken antimuscarinics and behavioral therapy were retrospectively reviewed. Antimuscarinics related outcomes were evaluated by an independent observer with telephone interview. All patients were asked about duration of medication and reason of continuation or discontinuation of antimuscarinics. To determine pre-treatment factors predicting self-report discontinuation of antimuscarinics, variables of only those with P-values <0.25 on the univariate analysis were included in the Cox proportional hazard modeling. Results Mean follow-up was 39.6 months and the proportion of discontinuation of antimuscarinics was 60.0% (75/125). The mean duration of medication was 21.2 months in the continuation group and 3.3 months in the discontinuation group. The reasons of discontinuation of antimuscarinics were improved OAB symptoms (46.7%), tolerable OAB symptoms (33.3%), no change of OAB symptoms (1.3%), side-effects (8.0%) and no desire to take long-term medication (10.7%). The variables affecting remaining cumulative probability of antimuscarinics were age, history of anti-incontinence surgery or vaginal surgery, and having stress predominant urinary incontinence on urodynamic study. Conclusion The lower rate of cumulative continuation of antimuscarinics encourages us to give a more detailed counseling and education to the patients with OAB symptoms before prescription. And explorations about newer agent and non-pharmacologic treatment with good efficacy and lower side-effects are needed. PMID:26623416

  15. A comparative study between shielded and open coplanar waveguide discontinuities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dib, Nihad I.; Harokopus, W. P., Jr.; Ponchak, G. E.; Katehi, L. P. B.

    1993-01-01

    A comparative study between open and shielded coplanar waveguide (CPW) discontinuities is presented. The space domain integral equation method is used to characterize several discontinuities such as the open-end CPW and CPW series stubs. Two different geometries of CPW series stubs (straight and bent stubs) are compared with respect to resonant frequency and radiation loss. In addition, the encountered radiation loss due to different CPW shunt stubs is evaluated experimentally. The notion of forced radiation simulation is presented, and the results of such a simulation are compared to the actual radiation loss obtained rigorously. It is shown that such a simulation cannot give reliable results concerning radiation loss from printed circuits.

  16. Midnight velocity shear zone and the concept of Harang discontinuity

    SciTech Connect

    Koskinen, H.E.J.; Pulkkinen, T.I.

    1995-06-01

    The authors address the question of the origin and meaning of the Harang discontinuity. They consider mappings of the ionosphere, auroral zones, and magnetosphere. They argue for a relation between the velocity shear zone in the auroral ionosphere and the Harang discontinuity. However because of the upward directed field-aligned currents it is very hard to trace field lines well enough to show mappings of these zones. They argue however for the behavior of auroral arcs in relation to the appearance of substorm events to provide strong support for this relationship.

  17. Exploring the Use of Discontinuous Galerkin Methods for Numerical Relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Francois; Kidder, Lawrence; Teukolsky, Saul; SXS Collaboration

    2015-04-01

    The limited accuracy of relativistic hydrodynamic simulations constrains our insight into several important research problems, including among others our ability to generate accurate template waveforms for black hole-neutron star mergers, or our understanding of supernova explosion mechanisms. In many codes the algorithms used to evolve the matter, based on the finite volume method, struggle to reach the desired accuracy. We aim to show improved accuracy by using a discontinuous Galerkin method. This method's attractiveness comes from its combination of spectral convergence properties for smooth solutions and robust stability properties for shocks. We present the status of our work implementing a testbed GR-hydro code using discontinuous Galerkin.

  18. Limiters for high-order discontinuous Galerkin methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivodonova, Lilia

    2007-09-01

    We describe a limiter for the discontinuous Galerkin method that retains as high an order as possible, and does not automatically reduce to first order. The limiter is a generalization of the limiter introduced in [R. Biswas, K. Devine, J.E. Flaherty, Parallel adaptive finite element methods for conservation laws, Applied Numerical Mathematics 14 (1994) 255-284]. We present the one-dimensional case and extend it to two-dimensional problems on tensor-product meshes. Computational results for examples with both smooth and discontinuous solutions are shown.

  19. Discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods for gradient plasticity.

    SciTech Connect

    Garikipati, Krishna.; Ostien, Jakob T.

    2010-10-01

    In this report we apply discontinuous Galerkin finite element methods to the equations of an incompatibility based formulation of gradient plasticity. The presentation is motivated with a brief overview of the description of dislocations within a crystal lattice. A tensor representing a measure of the incompatibility with the lattice is used in the formulation of a gradient plasticity model. This model is cast in a variational formulation, and discontinuous Galerkin machinery is employed to implement the formulation into a finite element code. Finally numerical examples of the model are shown.

  20. 100 kHz axial scan rate swept-wavelength OCT using sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Shane; Bernacil, Michael A.; DeKelaita, Andrew; Maher, Ben; Derickson, Dennis

    2009-02-01

    Fast wavelength tunable sampled grating distributed Bragg reflector (SG-DBR) lasers are used to generate fast, linear, continuous wavelength sweeps. High resolution wavelength sweeps in excess of 45 nm are demonstrated at a 100 kHz repetition rate. The front mirror, back mirror and phase segment tuning segments can be modulated at very fast rates, which allows for very fast wavelength ramp rates. This sweep is generated through three time synchronized current versus time waveforms applied to the back mirror, front mirror and phase sections of the laser. The sweep consists of fifty separate mode-hop-free tuning segments which are stitched together to form a near continuous wavelength ramp. The stitching points require a maximum of 60 ns for amplitude, wavelength, and thermal settling time to allow the laser to equilibrate. Wavelength tuning non-linearities, output power wavelength dependency, and wavelength discontinuities are defects in the wavelength sweep that result from properties of the wavelength tuning mechanism as well as limitations of the signal generators that produce the time varying bias currents. A Michelson Interferometer is used to examine the effects of these defects for optical coherence tomography (OCT). The OCT measurements demonstrate spectral broadening of the source and interference signal reduction as the penetration depth increases. However, these effects are not very severe for delay differences less than 2 mm even without correction for sweep nonlinearities.

  1. HELIOSPHERIC ASYMMETRIES AND 2-3 kHz RADIO EMISSION UNDER STRONG INTERSTELLAR MAGNETIC FIELD CONDITIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelov, Nikolai V.; Heerikhuisen, Jacob; Zank, Gary P.; Mitchell, Jeremy J.; Cairns, Iver H.

    2009-04-10

    We discuss the asymmetry of the major heliospheric discontinuities obtained from the analysis of three-dimensional modeling of the solar wind interaction with the local interstellar medium (LISM). The flow of charged particles is governed by the ideal MHD equations and the transport of neutral particles is described by the Boltzmann equation. The emphasis is on the asymmetries of the termination shock (TS) and the heliopause under the combined action of the interstellar and interplanetary magnetic fields (ISMF and IMF) in the presence of neutral hydrogen atoms. It is shown that an ISMF of a strength greater than 4 {mu}G can account for the 10 AU difference in the TS heliocentric distances observed by the Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 spacecraft. We analyze the deflection of neutral hydrogen flow from its original direction in the unperturbed LISM and conclude that it remains within the range measured in the SOHO SWAN experiment. The impact is analyzed of a strong ISMF on the 2-3 kHz radio emission observed by the Voyager spacecraft, using new estimates of the radio emission conditions.

  2. The effect of discontinuous airlift mixing in outdoor flat panel photobioreactors on growth of Scenedesmus obliquus.

    PubMed

    Leupold, Marco; Hindersin, Stefan; Kerner, Martin; Hanelt, Dieter

    2013-11-01

    Discontinuous airlift mixing was realized by injecting pressured air at time intervals with a frequency between 0.033 and 0.25 Hz (at 80 kPa; i.e., every 4-30 s; valve opening time 800 ms) into outdoor flat panel photobioreactors ([Formula: see text]). This caused a flow velocity between 2 and 20 cm s(-1) of the culture medium within the photobioreactor and the mixing time was between 38 and 103.5 s, requiring 0.175-1.340 L(gas volume) L(photobioreactor volume)(-1) min(-1) pressured air. In order to detect the effect on growth of Scenedesmus obliquus during outdoor experiments and to be able to compare obtained results, a batch run with an airlift frequency of 0.25 Hz was simultaneously used as control. Growth at different airlift frequencies was measured by the increase of cell dry weight (CDW) during 3-5 days and biomass yield on light energy was calculated. With increasing airlift frequencies, growth increased from 52 to 91 % compared to the control. When CDW was at around 1.0-1.5 g L(-1), airlift frequency had no effect on growth, indicating that mass transfer gradients of nutrients and gas were not the limiting factors of growth. Above 1.5 g CDW L(-1), growth increased with increasing airlift frequency and light limitation for a single cell occurred. This effect was observed during low and high irradiance and it is concluded that a higher mean flow causes a better light distribution, resulting in an enhanced growth. Biomass productivity and demand of pressured air are correlated logarithmically, which enables to save mixing energy during cultivation. PMID:23494400

  3. Outcomes of a school-based intervention (RESCATE) to improve physical activity patterns in Mexican children aged 8-10 years.

    PubMed

    Colín-Ramírez, E; Castillo-Martínez, L; Orea-Tejeda, A; Vergara-Castañeda, A; Keirns-Davis, C; Villa-Romero, A

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of an intervention program on the patterns of physical activity in 8- to 10-year-old Mexican children from lower socioeconomic status. This study performed a randomized controlled field trial in 498 children aged 8-10 years from 10 public schools of low socioeconomic status in Mexico City. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 5) or control (n = 5) groups and followed up during 12 months. Physical and sedentary activities were assessed at the beginning of the program and after 6 and 12 months. At the end of follow-up, there was a significant increase in the performance of moderate physical activity (MPA) among children in intervention group who had not performed MPA at baseline any day of the week (40%, P = 0.04) but not in the control group (8%, P = not significant). The intervention group also showed a significant reduction in the proportion of children who spent more than 3 hours a day playing video games (from 23 to 13%, P = 0.01), while control group did not show significant changes. Given these findings, we conclude that intervention was able to modify positively physical activity and reduce time spent on such sedentary activities as video games among those at highest risk studied children. PMID:20884847

  4. Dissociation of molecular chlorine in a Coulomb explosion: Potential curves, bound states, and deviation from Coulombic behavior for Cln+2 (n=2,3,4,6,8,10)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, J. S.; Dilabio, G. A.; Matusek, D. R.; Corkum, P. B.; Ivanov, M. Yu.; Ellert, Ch.; Buenker, R. J.; Alekseyev, A. B.; Hirsch, G.

    1999-06-01

    Highly charged molecular ions are generated in Coulomb explosion experiments involving multielectron dissociative ionization, but little is known about the precise mechanisms involved in their formation. To help improve the understanding of such experiments, potential energy curves are calculated in this paper for diatomic chlorine (Cl2) and its ions Cln+2, where n=1,2,3,4,6,8,10. Bound vibrational states are obtained in three low-lying electronic states for Cl2+2 and one state for Cl3+2. Vertical excitation energies are given for stepwise excitations up to Cl10+2. For all the ions examined there is a significant energy defect (Δ) from the corresponding Coulomb potential, in one case reaching magnitudes of over 20 eV. We analyze the origin of these energy defects in terms of residual chemical bonding, and discuss the contribution of strongly bonding configurations at short internuclear distance. Finally, we present a simple physical model which describes the qualitative behavior of Δ(R,Q).

  5. Plasmid profiles of drug resistant Shigella boydii types 1-5, 8, 10, 12-14 from Ethiopia (1974-85).

    PubMed Central

    Gebre-Yohannes, A.; Drasar, B. S.

    1997-01-01

    Plasmid profile analysis by agarose gel electrophoresis was performed on 42 drug resistant strains of Shigella boydii serotypes 1-5, 8, 10, 12-14, collected between 1974 and 1985 from endemic cases of shigellosis in Ethiopia, and their Escherichia coli K12 transconjugants. Resistance factors (R factors) were further characterized by incompatibility testing. Patterns of small plasmids, less than 15 kb, were similar within each of the individual S. boydii serotypes. Plasmids of about 3.3-3.7 kb were found in all strains of serotypes 2 and 4. Plasmids of about 4.3-4.6 kb were found in about 86% of strains. Serotypes 1, 2 and 3 were characterized by plasmids of about 5.6-5.7 kb. The 6.4-6.7 kb plasmid was found consistently in serotypes 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12 and 13 which were resistant to SSu or had an SSu resistance component in their phenotypes. Large plasmids (155-186 kb) were found in most S. boydii strains. Conjugative drug resistance plasmids, most often coding for three or less drugs, were found in about 26% of drug resistant strains. R-factors, coding for AT resistance (in types 2 and 8), and ASSuT resistance (in type 4), were compatible with all reference plasmids tested. Plasmids belonging to incompatibility groups X and N were found in serotypes 5 and 10, respectively. PMID:9440431

  6. Discontinuous behavior near excavations in a bedded salt formation

    SciTech Connect

    Stormont, J.C.

    1990-10-01

    Discontinuous behavior is being observed and measured in the vicinity of excavations constructed in a bedded salt formation 650 m below ground surface for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Facility. The 2 m thick salt layer in the immediate roof acts as a beam, shearing along a thin overlying anhydrite/clay seam. The floor of the excavations is comprised of a 1 m thick salt layer underlain by a 1 m thick predominately anhydrite layer (referred to as MB139). In the ribs, there is limited fracturing within the first meter of most larger excavations. Vertical fractures develop in pillars at most intersections. The discontinuous behavior is qualitatively consistent with analyses of the formation behaving as a layered medium (elastic beam analysis) and limited tensile and compressive failure of the rock salt. The significance of the discontinuous behavior is that can dominate the effective fluid transport properties of the formation near the excavation, and therefore requires considerations in the design of repository seals. Furthermore, the discontinuous behavior must be monitored and is a very important consideration in the maintenance program designed to assume a safe underground environment. 22 refs., 17 figs.

  7. 27 CFR 21.3 - Stocks of discontinued formulas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... formulas. 21.3 Section 21.3 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM General Provisions § 21.3 Stocks of discontinued formulas. Denaturers, or specially denatured spirits dealers or users, having on hand stocks...

  8. Reciprocity principle for scattered fields from discontinuities in waveguides.

    PubMed

    Pau, Annamaria; Capecchi, Danilo; Vestroni, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the scattering of guided waves from a discontinuity exploiting the principle of reciprocity in elastodynamics, written in a form that applies to waveguides. The coefficients of reflection and transmission for an arbitrary mode can be derived as long as the principle of reciprocity is satisfied at the discontinuity. Two elastodynamic states are related by the reciprocity. One is the response of the waveguide in the presence of the discontinuity, with the scattered fields expressed as a superposition of wave modes. The other state is the response of the waveguide in the absence of the discontinuity oscillating according to an arbitrary mode. The semi-analytical finite element method is applied to derive the needed dispersion relation and wave mode shapes. An application to a solid cylinder with a symmetric double change of cross-section is presented. This model is assumed to be representative of a damaged rod. The coefficients of reflection and transmission of longitudinal waves are investigated for selected values of notch length and varying depth. PMID:25172113

  9. Reversible brain inactivation induces discontinuous gas exchange in cockroaches.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Philip G D; White, Craig R

    2013-06-01

    Many insects at rest breathe discontinuously, alternating between brief bouts of gas exchange and extended periods of breath-holding. The association between discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs) and inactivity has long been recognised, leading to speculation that DGCs lie at one end of a continuum of gas exchange patterns, from continuous to discontinuous, linked to metabolic rate (MR). However, the neural hypothesis posits that it is the downregulation of brain activity and a change in the neural control of gas exchange, rather than low MR per se, which is responsible for the emergence of DGCs during inactivity. To test this, Nauphoeta cinerea cockroaches had their brains inactivated by applying a Peltier-chilled cold probe to the head. Once brain temperature fell to 8°C, cockroaches switched from a continuous to a discontinuous breathing pattern. Re-warming the brain abolished the DGC and re-established a continuous breathing pattern. Chilling the brain did not significantly reduce the cockroaches' MR and there was no association between the gas exchange pattern displayed by the insect and its MR. This demonstrates that DGCs can arise due to a decrease in brain activity and a change in the underlying regulation of gas exchange, and are not necessarily a simple consequence of low respiratory demand. PMID:23430991

  10. The Nature and Determinants of Intranet Discontinuance after Mandatory Adoption

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cho, Inho

    2008-01-01

    This research examines post-adoption behavior (discontinuance versus continuance) with the context of Intranet use. Multiple theories are used as theoretical frameworks to extend information communication technology research to the case of post-adoption behavior. Three research questions and six sets of hypotheses are formulated to distinguish…

  11. Effect of motion discontinuities on discrimination of periodic trajectories.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Hugh R; Fung, Jeffrey

    2016-01-01

    Many biologically important motions are described by periodic trajectories. Radial frequency (RF) trajectories are one example, in which the motion of a difference of Gaussians (DOG) target moves along a path described by a sinusoidal deviation of the radius from a perfect circle (Or, Thabet, Wilkinson, & Wilson, 2011). Here we explore the hypothesis that visual processing of RF trajectories involves global spatio-temporal processes that are disrupted by motion discontinuity. To test this hypothesis, RF trajectories were used that interspersed smooth, continuous motion with three or four discontinuous jumps to other portions of the trajectory. These jumps were arranged so that the entire trajectory was traversed in the same amount of time as in the continuous motion control condition. The motion discontinuities increased thresholds by a factor of approximately 2.1 relative to continuous motion. This result provides support for global spatio-temporal processing of RF motion trajectories. Comparison with previous results suggests that motion discontinuities erase memory for earlier parts of the trajectory, thereby causing thresholds to be based on only the final segment viewed. Finally, it is shown that RF trajectories obey the 1/3 power law characteristic of biological motion. PMID:26891831

  12. Derivative discontinuity with localized Hartree-Fock potential

    SciTech Connect

    Nazarov, V. U.; Vignale, G.

    2015-08-14

    The localized Hartree-Fock potential has proven to be a computationally efficient alternative to the optimized effective potential, preserving the numerical accuracy of the latter and respecting the exact properties of being self-interaction free and having the correct −1/r asymptotics. In this paper we extend the localized Hartree-Fock potential to fractional particle numbers and observe that it yields derivative discontinuities in the energy as required by the exact theory. The discontinuities are numerically close to those of the computationally more demanding Hartree-Fock method. Our potential enjoys a “direct-energy” property, whereby the energy of the system is given by the sum of the single-particle eigenvalues multiplied by the corresponding occupation numbers. The discontinuities c{sub ↑} and c{sub ↓} of the spin-components of the potential at integer particle numbers N{sub ↑} and N{sub ↓} satisfy the condition c{sub ↑}N{sub ↑} + c{sub ↓}N{sub ↓} = 0. Thus, joining the family of effective potentials which support a derivative discontinuity, but being considerably easier to implement, the localized Hartree-Fock potential becomes a powerful tool in the broad area of applications in which the fundamental gap is an issue.

  13. Dialogic Reverberations: Police, Domestic Abuse, and the Discontinuance of Cases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lea, Susan J.; Lynn, Nick

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the social construction of domestic abuse by police officers, specifically in the context of arguments presented to the prosecutor for a decision on whether to proceed with or discontinue the case. Nineteen police files were examined with a particular focus on the MG3, the "Report to Crown Prosecutors for Charging…

  14. 20 CFR 658.503 - Discontinuation of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Discontinuation of services. 658.503 Section 658.503 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... response in accordance with § 658.502, within 20 working days, or has not requested a hearing, the...

  15. 77 FR 20988 - Discontinuance of Form CO in Registration Practices

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office LIBRARY OF CONGRESS Copyright Office 37 CFR Parts 201 and 202 Discontinuance of Form CO in Registration Practices Correction In rule document 2012-7429 appearing on pages 18705-18707 in the issue of March 28, 2012, make...

  16. Regression Discontinuity Designs with Multiple Rating-Score Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reardon, Sean F.; Robinson, Joseph P.

    2012-01-01

    In the absence of a randomized control trial, regression discontinuity (RD) designs can produce plausible estimates of the treatment effect on an outcome for individuals near a cutoff score. In the standard RD design, individuals with rating scores higher than some exogenously determined cutoff score are assigned to one treatment condition; those…

  17. 14 CFR 16 - Objective Classification-Discontinued Operations

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Objective Classification-Discontinued Operations Section 16 Section Section 16 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS UNIFORM SYSTEM OF ACCOUNTS AND REPORTS FOR...

  18. 27 CFR 40.461 - Discontinuance of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... discontinue operations and close out a factory shall dispose of all cigarette papers and tubes on hand, in... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Operations by...

  19. 27 CFR 40.461 - Discontinuance of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... discontinue operations and close out a factory shall dispose of all cigarette papers and tubes on hand, in... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Operations by...

  20. 27 CFR 40.461 - Discontinuance of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... discontinue operations and close out a factory shall dispose of all cigarette papers and tubes on hand, in... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Operations by...

  1. 27 CFR 40.525 - Discontinuance of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discontinuance of operations. 40.525 Section 40.525 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO...

  2. 27 CFR 40.461 - Discontinuance of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Discontinuance of operations. 40.461 Section 40.461 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO...

  3. 27 CFR 40.461 - Discontinuance of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... discontinue operations and close out a factory shall dispose of all cigarette papers and tubes on hand, in... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, AND PROCESSED TOBACCO Manufacture of Cigarette Papers and Tubes Operations by...

  4. Effects of discontinuous magnetic permeability on magnetodynamic problems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guermond, J.-L.; Léorat, J.; Luddens, F.; Nore, C.; Ribeiro, A.

    2011-07-01

    A novel approximation technique using Lagrange finite elements is proposed to solve magneto-dynamics problems involving discontinuous magnetic permeability and non-smooth interfaces. The algorithm is validated on benchmark problems and is used for kinematic studies of the Cadarache von Kármán Sodium 2 (VKS2) experimental fluid dynamo.

  5. 47 CFR 87.111 - Suspension or discontinuance of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Suspension or discontinuance of operation. 87.111 Section 87.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures §...

  6. 47 CFR 87.111 - Suspension or discontinuance of operation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Suspension or discontinuance of operation. 87.111 Section 87.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AVIATION SERVICES Operating Requirements and Procedures Operating Procedures §...

  7. Premature Discontinuation in Adult Psychotherapy: A Meta-Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swift, Joshua K.; Greenberg, Roger P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Premature discontinuation from therapy is a widespread problem that impedes the delivery of otherwise effective psychological interventions. The most recent comprehensive review found an average dropout rate of 47% across 125 studies (Wierzbicki & Pekarik, 1993); however, given a number of changes in the field over the past 2 decades,…

  8. 78 FR 64065 - Discontinuance of Annual Financial Assessments

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... AFFAIRS Discontinuance of Annual Financial Assessments AGENCY: Department of Veterans Affairs. ACTION... requesting that veterans submit an annual financial assessment following initial enrollment. FOR FURTHER... requires a veteran to submit a financial assessment (38 CFR 17.36(d)(3)(iv)) using the Application...

  9. Bilateral filter regularized accelerated Demons for improved discontinuity preserving registration.

    PubMed

    Demirović, D; Šerifović-Trbalić, A; Prljača, N; Cattin, Ph C

    2015-03-01

    The classical accelerated Demons algorithm uses Gaussian smoothing to penalize oscillatory motion in the displacement fields during registration. This well known method uses the L2 norm for regularization. Whereas the L2 norm is known for producing well behaving smooth deformation fields it cannot properly deal with discontinuities often seen in the deformation field as the regularizer cannot differentiate between discontinuities and smooth part of motion field. In this paper we propose replacement the Gaussian filter of the accelerated Demons with a bilateral filter. In contrast the bilateral filter not only uses information from displacement field but also from the image intensities. In this way we can smooth the motion field depending on image content as opposed to the classical Gaussian filtering. By proper adjustment of two tunable parameters one can obtain more realistic deformations in a case of discontinuity. The proposed approach was tested on 2D and 3D datasets and showed significant improvements in the Target Registration Error (TRE) for the well known POPI dataset. Despite the increased computational complexity, the improved registration result is justified in particular abdominal data sets where discontinuities often appear due to sliding organ motion. PMID:25541494

  10. Continuities and Discontinuities in Psychopathology between Childhood and Adult Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutter, Michael; Kim-Cohen, Julia; Maughan, Barbara

    2006-01-01

    The possible mechanisms involved in continuities and discontinuities in psychopathology between childhood and adult life are considered in relation to the findings from systematic, prospective, long-term longitudinal studies. Findings on schizophrenia, neurodevelopmental disorders, emotional disturbances, antisocial behaviour and substance abuse…

  11. Where Words Collide: Social Class, Schools and Linguistic Discontinuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruairc, Gerry Mac

    2011-01-01

    The prestige accorded to standard language varieties, particularly within the field of education, together with language management role of schools with respect to the variety and the extent to which linguistic differences construct discontinuous relationships between the school and specific social groups provide the rationale for this paper. This…

  12. 27 CFR 478.57 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... transfer or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon, except as provided in the law, any licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, or licensed dealer intending to discontinue business shall, prior to going out of business, transfer in compliance with the provisions of this part any semiautomatic assault...

  13. 27 CFR 478.57 - Discontinuance of business.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... transfer or possess a semiautomatic assault weapon, except as provided in the law, any licensed manufacturer, licensed importer, or licensed dealer intending to discontinue business shall, prior to going out of business, transfer in compliance with the provisions of this part any semiautomatic assault...

  14. 38 CFR 21.9630 - Suspension or discontinuance of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Suspension or discontinuance of payments. 21.9630 Section 21.9630 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill...

  15. 38 CFR 21.9630 - Suspension or discontinuance of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Suspension or discontinuance of payments. 21.9630 Section 21.9630 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill...

  16. 38 CFR 21.9630 - Suspension or discontinuance of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Suspension or discontinuance of payments. 21.9630 Section 21.9630 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill Payments-Educational Assistance § 21.9630 Suspension...

  17. 38 CFR 21.9630 - Suspension or discontinuance of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Suspension or discontinuance of payments. 21.9630 Section 21.9630 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill...

  18. 38 CFR 21.9630 - Suspension or discontinuance of payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Suspension or discontinuance of payments. 21.9630 Section 21.9630 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-9/11 GI Bill...

  19. Grades, Gender, and Encouragement: A Regression Discontinuity Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Ann L.

    2010-01-01

    The author employs a regression discontinuity design to provide direct evidence on the effects of grades earned in economics principles classes on the decision to major in economics and finds a differential effect for male and female students. Specifically, for female students, receiving an A for a final grade in the first economics class is…

  20. 27 CFR 19.695 - Notice of permanent discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use... a proprietor permanently discontinues operations as an alcohol fuel plant, the proprietor must file... of the alcohol fuel plant permit and the proprietor's request that the permit be cancelled; (b)...

  1. 27 CFR 19.695 - Notice of permanent discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... a proprietor permanently discontinues operations as an alcohol fuel plant, the proprietor must file... of the alcohol fuel plant permit and the proprietor's request that the permit be cancelled; (b) A written statement disclosing whether or not all spirits, including fuel alcohol, have been...

  2. 27 CFR 19.695 - Notice of permanent discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits for Fuel Use... a proprietor permanently discontinues operations as an alcohol fuel plant, the proprietor must file... of the alcohol fuel plant permit and the proprietor's request that the permit be cancelled; (b)...

  3. 27 CFR 19.945 - Notice of permanent discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... permanently discontinues operations as an alcohol fuel plant shall, after completion of the operations, file a letterhead notice with the appropriate TTB officer. The notice shall be accompanied— (a) By the alcohol fuel... disclosing, as applicable, whether (1) all spirits (including fuel alcohol) have been lawfully disposed...

  4. 27 CFR 19.695 - Notice of permanent discontinuance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a proprietor permanently discontinues operations as an alcohol fuel plant, the proprietor must file... of the alcohol fuel plant permit and the proprietor's request that the permit be cancelled; (b) A written statement disclosing whether or not all spirits, including fuel alcohol, have been...

  5. Fracture criteria for discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rack, H. J.; Goree, J. G.; Albritton, J.; Ratnaparkhi, P.

    1988-01-01

    Summarized is the progress achieved during the period September 16, 1987 to August 15, l988 on NASA Grant NAG1-724, Fracture Criteria for Discontinuously Reinforced Metal Matrix Composites. Appended are copies of three manuscripts prepared under NASA funding during the performance period.

  6. Fracture criteria for discontinuously reinforced metal matrix composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rack, H. J.; Goree, J. G.; Albritton, J.; Ratnarparkhi, P.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of sample configuration on the details of initial crack propagation in discontinuously whisker reinforced aluminum metal matrix composites was investigated. Care was taken to allow direct comparison of fracture toughness values utilizing differing sample configurations and orientations, holding all materials variables constant, e.g., extrusion ration, heat treatment, and chemistry.

  7. 27 CFR 44.161 - Discontinuance of operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Discontinuance of operations. 44.161 Section 44.161 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO EXPORTATION OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS AND CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES, WITHOUT PAYMENT OF TAX, OR...

  8. How Can Comparison Groups Strengthen Regression Discontinuity Designs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Coady; Cook, Thomas D.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the authors examine some of the ways that different types of non-equivalent comparison groups can be used to strengthen causal inferences based on regression discontinuity design (RDD). First, they consider a design that incorporates pre-test data on assignment scores and outcomes that were collected either before the treatment…

  9. A Bayesian Nonparametric Causal Model for Regression Discontinuity Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karabatsos, George; Walker, Stephen G.

    2013-01-01

    The regression discontinuity (RD) design (Thistlewaite & Campbell, 1960; Cook, 2008) provides a framework to identify and estimate causal effects from a non-randomized design. Each subject of a RD design is assigned to the treatment (versus assignment to a non-treatment) whenever her/his observed value of the assignment variable equals or…

  10. Can eculizumab be discontinued in aHUS?

    PubMed Central

    Sahutoglu, Tuncay; Basturk, Taner; Sakaci, Tamer; Koc, Yener; Ahbap, Elbis; Sevinc, Mustafa; Kara, Ekrem; Akgol, Cuneyt; Caglayan, Feyza Bayraktar; Unsal, Abdulkadir; Daha, Mohamed R.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The management of atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS) has evolved into better control of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) and recovery of renal functions since the recent introduction of the terminal complement cascade blocker, eculizumab, into clinical use. Better characterization of genotype–phenotype relations has become possible with genetic and clinical studies. However, these advances brought up some important issues, such as the possibility and timing of discontinuation of eculizumab and strategy of follow-up that need to be enlightened. Case Summary: One of our aHUS cases with a novel complement factor H mutation, who developed unusual laboratory findings (thrombocytopenia and mild creatinine elevation without other features of TMA) following discontinuation of eculizumab was presented. Literature and case reports relevant to discontinuation of eculizumab in aHUS patients were reviewed. Conclusion: Limited experience suggests that the risk of recurrence of TMA following discontinuation of eculizumab is relatively low for patients with MCP mutations, homozygous CFHR3/R1 deletions, anti-CFH antibodies, CFI mutations, and no identifiable mutations, whereas there is a major risk for patients with CFH mutations. Early detection of TMA recurrence and prompt retreatment with eculizumab seem to be efficient in controlling of TMA and restoration of kidney functions. PMID:27495036

  11. The Age of Discontinuity; Guidelines to Our Changing Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drucker, Peter F.

    Concentrating on the social dimension of human experience and existence, this book probes certain profound changes occurring in contemporary technology, economy, society, politics, and education. The author discusses four major discontinuities: (1) the impact of the new technology on the industrial structure; (2) the shift from an "international…

  12. Kinetic theory and turbulent discontinuities. [shock tube flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, J. A., III; I, L.; Li, Y.; Ramaian, R.; Santigo, J. P.

    1981-01-01

    Shock tube discontinuities were used to test and extend a kinetic theory of turbulence. In shock wave and contact surface fluctuations, coherent phenomena were found which provide new support for the microscopic nonempirical approach to turbulent systems, especially those with boundary layer-like instabilities.

  13. Pseudo-discontinuities in the isomer shift near magnetic transitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolk, B.; Hall, D. B.; Zheng, Y.; Lumetta, J. T.

    1983-12-01

    It is shown that a relatively small non-linear behavior of the velocity drive system used in Mössbauer effect studies yields pseudo-discontinuities in the isomer shift near the critical temperature T c of a magnetic-paramagnetic transition. The anomaly of the57Fe isomer shift in iron is attributed to this effect.

  14. Seismic Structure of the Mantle Discontinuities beneath Northeast Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, J.; WANG, X.; Guo, G.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic structure of the upper mantle discontinuities is important for understanding the thermal structure, composition of the mantle, and scales of mantle circulation as well. Northeast Asia is located at the front edge of the subducting Pacific slab, which is an ideal place to study the interaction between the upper mantle discontinuities and the subducting slab. Seismic tomography images have revealed different morphologies of slabs in the deep mantle. A prominent stagnant slab is trapped in the MTZ beneath Japan Sea and southern Kuril trench; while the slabs penetrate into the lower mantle directly beneath the northern Kuril and southern Izu-Bonin trench. Due to the sparse distribution of seismic stations in the sea, investigation of the deep mantle structure beneath the broad sea regions is very limited. In this study, we applied the multiple-ScS reverberations analysis to waveforms recorded by the Chinese Regional Seismic Network and F-net. We took advantage of the dense distribution of stations and spatial clusters of intermediate and deep earthquakes occurred beneath Okhotsk Sea, Russia and Northeast China, and conducted a common-reflection-point (CRP) stacking to the data, that allows us to map the topography of the 410-km and 660-km discontinuities beneath Japan Sea, Kuril, and adjacent regions in detail. We also compiled previous results obtained from the high frequency receiver function and S-to-P converted wave analyzes, and compared the results in the overlapping island or continental margin regions. The comparison shows that the array stacking technique to long-period signals is effective in extracting the robust features of the upper mantle discontinuities. It can be used not only as a complimentary method to short-period waveform analysis, but also as an independent way which can be applied to regions with limited station coverage. This is the first time to show systematically a complete view of the topography of the 410-km and 660-km

  15. Stability of discontinuity structures described by a generalized KdV-Burgers equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chugainova, A. P.; Shargatov, V. A.

    2016-02-01

    The stability of discontinuities representing solutions of a model generalized KdV-Burgers equation with a nonmonotone potential of the form φ( u) = u 4- u 2 is analyzed. Among these solutions, there are ones corresponding to special discontinuities. A discontinuity is called special if its structure represents a heteroclinic phase curve joining two saddle-type special points (of which one is the state ahead of the discontinuity and the other is the state behind the discontinuity).The spectral (linear) stability of the structure of special discontinuities was previously studied. It was shown that only a special discontinuity with a monotone structure is stable, whereas special discontinuities with a nonmonotone structure are unstable. In this paper, the spectral stability of nonspecial discontinuities is investigated. The structure of a nonspecial discontinuity represents a phase curve joining two special points: a saddle (the state ahead of the discontinuity) and a focus or node (the state behind the discontinuity). The set of nonspecial discontinuities is examined depending on the dispersion and dissipation parameters. A set of stable nonspecial discontinuities is found.

  16. Hearing thresholds of a harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena) for sweeps (1-2 kHz and 6-7 kHz bands) mimicking naval sonar signals.

    PubMed

    Kastelein, Ronald A; Hoek, Lean; de Jong, Christ A F

    2011-05-01

    The distance at which active naval sonar signals can be heard by harbor porpoises depends, among other factors, on the hearing thresholds of the species for those signals. Therefore the hearing sensitivity of a harbor porpoise was determined for 1 s up-sweep and down-sweep signals, mimicking mid-frequency and low-frequency active sonar sweeps (MFAS, 6-7 kHz band; LFAS, 1-2 kHz band). The 1-2 kHz sweeps were also tested with harmonics, as sonars sometimes produce these as byproducts of the fundamental signal. The hearing thresholds for up-sweeps and down-sweeps within each sweep pair were similar. The 50% detection threshold sound pressure levels (broadband, averaged over the signal duration) of the 1-2 kHz and 6-7 kHz sweeps were 75 and 67 dB re 1 μPa(2), respectively. Harmonic deformation of the 1-2 kHz sweeps reduced the threshold to 59 dB re 1 μPa(2). This study shows that the presence of harmonics in sonar signals can increase the detectability of a signal by harbor porpoises, and that tonal audiograms may not accurately predict the audibility of sweeps. LFAS systems, when designed to produce signals without harmonics, can operate at higher source levels than MFAS systems, at similar audibility distances for porpoises. PMID:21568440

  17. Coils performances of superconducting cables for 50/60 Hz applications

    SciTech Connect

    Lacaze, A.; Laumond, Y. ); Tavergnier, J.P.; Fevrier, A.; Verhaege, T. ); Dalle, B.; Ansart, A. )

    1991-03-01

    Multifilamentary superconducting wires with a greatly reduced level of losses have been produced with unit lengths of several tens of kilometers by AISA (GEC ALSTHOM - IGC). With the reduction of the filament diameter, proximity effects are avoided and the authors take a maximum advantage of the reversible motion of flux lines, so that the hysteretic and matrix losses are lower. In this paper the authors report on 50 Hz and DC quench currents, 50 Hz AC losses, 50 Hz electromagnetic stability results.

  18. 47 CFR 15.217 - Operation in the band 160-190 kHz.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Operation in the band 160-190 kHz. 15.217... Intentional Radiators Radiated Emission Limits, Additional Provisions § 15.217 Operation in the band 160-190 k... lead (if used) shall not exceed 15 meters. (c) All emissions below 160 kHz or above 190 kHz shall...

  19. A review of the management of antidepressant discontinuation symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Emma; Lader, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    Strong evidence supports the existence of a discontinuation syndrome following the withdrawal of antidepressant medication, particularly second-generation antidepressants. The syndrome is a common phenomenon and guidance as to best avoid the symptoms is essential for both practitioners and patients. The current study reviewed the available literature on the best methods of discontinuation for antidepressants in order to avoid or prevent the occurrence of any unpleasant side effects associated with antidepressant withdrawal. Accordingly, an electronic search of the PubMed/MedLine database and Google Scholar was conducted to find relevant literature published within the last 10 years. From this, 18 related articles were identified; five clinical studies, one case series, one consensus panel’s recommendations and 11 literature reviews. Of the articles reviewed there is a general consensus as to tapering the drug slowly over a period of weeks or months. Also, in those patients who experience severe symptoms the drug should be reinstated and discontinued more gradually. The discontinuation syndrome does not occur as frequently or severely with longer-acting agents such as fluoxetine and therefore it is recommended that switching to this drug prior to withdrawal may be advisable. The articles reviewed also emphasize the need for patient education and reassurance throughout the discontinuation process. One in particular adds that cognitive behavioural therapy may be a useful tool in easing the patients’ distress. However, this review highlights the lack of controlled data to support the available guidelines. Furthermore, the guidance which is available is somewhat conflicting. Research approaches should address this issue as well as develop appropriate methods of withdrawal for specific drugs. PMID:26834969

  20. Introduction to the special issue on discontinuity of fluvial systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burchsted, Denise; Daniels, Melinda; Wohl, Ellen E.

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial systems include natural and human-created barriers that modify local base level; as such, these discontinuities alter the longitudinal flux of water and sediment by storing, releasing, or changing the flow path of those materials. Even in the absence of distinct barriers, fluvial systems are typically discontinuous and patchy. The size of fluvial discontinuities ranges across scales from 100 m, such as riffles, to 104 m, such as lava dams or major landslides. The frequency of occurrence appears to be inversely related to size, with creation and failure of the small features, such as beaver dams, occurring on a time scale of 100 to 101 years and a frequency of occurrence at scales as low as 101 m. In contrast, larger scale discontinuities, such as lava dams, can last for time scales up to 105 years and have a frequency of occurrence of approximately 104 m. The heterogeneity generated by features is an essential part of river networks and should be considered as part of river management. Therefore, we suggest that "natural" dams are a useful analog for human dams when evaluating options for river restoration. This collection of papers on the studies of natural dams includes bedrock barriers, log jams and beaver dams. The collection also addresses the discontinuity generated by a floodplain — in the absence of an obvious barrier in the channel — and tools for evaluation of riverbed heterogeneity. It is completed with a study of impact of human dams on floodplain sedimentation. These papers will help geomorphologists and river managers understand the factors that control river heterogeneity across scales and around the world.

  1. Breeding for 50-kHz positive affective vocalization in rats.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Panksepp, Jaak; Brudzynski, Stefan M; Kroes, Roger; Moskal, Joseph R

    2005-01-01

    Adolescent and adult rats exhibit at least two distinct ultrasonic vocalizations that reflect distinct emotional states. Rats exhibit 22-kHz calls during social defeat, drug withdrawal, as well as in anticipation of aversive events. In contrast, 50-kHz calls are exhibited in high rates during play behavior, mating, as well as in anticipation of rewarding events. The neurochemistry of 22-kHz and 50-kHz calls closely matches that of negative and positive emotional systems in humans, respectively. The aim of this study was to replicate and further evaluate selective breeding for 50-kHz vocalization, in preparation for the analysis of the genetic underpinnings of the 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalization (USV). Isolate housed adolescent rats (23-26 days old) received experimenter administered tactile stimulation (dubbed "tickling"), which mimicked the rat rough-and-tumble play behavior. This stimulation has previously been shown to elicit high levels of 50-kHz USVs and to be highly rewarding in isolate-housed animals. Each tickling session consisted of 4 cycles of 15 seconds stimulation followed by 15 seconds no stimulation for a total of 2 min, and was repeated once per day across 4 successive days. Rats were then selected for either High or Low levels of sonographically verified 50-kHz USVs in response to the stimulation, and a randomly selected line served as a control (Random group). Animals emitted both 22-kHz and 50-kHz types of calls. After 5 generations, animals in the High Line exhibited significantly more 50-kHz and fewer 22-kHz USVs than animals in the Low Line. Animals selected for low levels of 50-kHz calls showed marginally more 22-kHz USVs then randomly selected animals but did not differ in the rate of 50-kHz calls. These results extend our previous findings that laboratory rats could be bred for differential rates of sonographically verified 50-kHz USVs. PMID:15674533

  2. Alarm pheromone does not modulate 22-kHz calls in male rats.

    PubMed

    Muyama, Hiromi; Kiyokawa, Yasushi; Inagaki, Hideaki; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji

    2016-03-15

    Rats are known to emit a series of ultrasonic vocalizations, termed 22-kHz calls, when exposed to distressing stimuli. Pharmacological studies have indicated that anxiety mediates 22-kHz calls in distressed rats. We previously found that exposure to the rat alarm pheromone increases anxiety in rats. Therefore, we hypothesized that the alarm pheromone would increase 22-kHz calls in pheromone-exposed rats. Accordingly, we tested whether exposure to the alarm pheromone induced 22-kHz calls, as well as whether the alarm pheromone increased 22-kHz calls in response to an aversive conditioned stimulus (CS). Rats were first fear-conditioned to an auditory and contextual CS. On the following day, the rats were either exposed to the alarm pheromone or a control odor that was released from the neck region of odor-donor rats. Then, the rats were re-exposed to the aversive CS. The alarm pheromone neither induced 22-kHz calls nor increased 22-kHz calls in response to the aversive CS. In contrast, the control odor unexpectedly reduced the total number and duration of 22-kHz calls elicited by the aversive CS, as well as the duration of freezing. These results suggest that the alarm pheromone does not affect 22-kHz calls in rats. However, we may have found evidence for an appeasing olfactory signal, released from the neck region of odor-donor rats. PMID:26796788

  3. Detection of the structure near the 410 km and 660 km discontinuities in Japan subduction zone from the waveform triplication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, H.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Slab subduction plays an important role in the mantle material circulation [Stern, 2002], and can also affect the feature of the 410 km and 660 km seismic discontinuities (410 and 660) [Lebedev et al., 2002]. Japan subduction zone is a natural laboratory for studying the mantle composition and velocity structure associated with the deep subduction of the Pacific plate. In this study, triplicated waveforms of an intermediate-depth earthquake at the Hokkaido of Japan (2011/10/21, 08:02:37.62, 142.5315°E, 43.8729°N, Mb6.0, relocated depth: 188 km) are retrieved from the dense Chinese Digital Seismic Network (CDSN). P and S waveforms are filtered with the band of 0.05-1.0 Hz and 0.02-0.5 Hz, respectively, and then integrated into the displacement data. The relative traveltime and synthetic waveform fitting is applied to mapping the deep structure. The best fitting models are obtained through the trial and error tests. We find a 15 km uplift of the 410 and a 25 km depression of the 660, indicating the cold environment caused by the subduction slab; both the 410 and 660 show the sharp discontinuity, but a smaller velocity contrast than the IASP91 model [Kennett and Engdahl, 1991]. Atop the 410 and 660, there are high-velocity layers associated with the subduction (or stagnant) slab. We also find a low-velocity anomaly with the thickness of ~65 km below the 660, which may relate to the slab dehydration or the hot upwelling at the top of the lower mantle. The seismic velocity ratio (VP/VS) shows a lower zone at the depth of ~210-395 km, showing the consistency with the low Poisson's ratio signature of the oceanic plate; a higher zone at the depth of ~560-685 km, implying the hydrous mantle transition zone.

  4. Theoretical study of the structures and first hyperpolarizabilities of C60Cl n and Li@C60Cl n (n = 4, 6, 8, 10).

    PubMed

    Song, Yao-Dong; Wang, Liang; Wu, Li-Ming

    2016-06-01

    We recently reported (Song Y-D et al., 2016, J Mol Model 22:50) that doping with Li greatly affects the static first hyperpolarizability of C60Cl2. In this work, with a view to creating nonlinear optical materials with high thermodynamic stability and wide transparent regions, a series of Li@C60Cl n (n = 4, 6, 8, 10) were designed. The structures, electrostatic potentials, electronic structures, absorption spectra, and linear and nonlinear optical properties of C60Cl n and Li@C60Cl n were systematically investigated using density functional theory (DFT) methods. The results of our calculations indicated that the stability of these molecules decreases in the order Li@C60Cl10 > Li@C60Cl8 > Li@C60Cl6 > Li@C60Cl4. It is clear that the number of Cl atoms greatly influences the stability of Li@C60Cl n . Li@C60Cl n showed greater thermodynamic stability than Li@C60Cl2. We also investigated the first hyperpolarizabilities of Li@C60Cl n and found them to be 2973, 3640, 4307, and 2627 au for n = 4, 6, 8, and 10, respectively-higher than that of Li@C60Cl2. Finally, we noted that the transparent region could be modulated by increasing the number of Cl atoms: Li@C60Cl n possess wider transparent regions than that of Li@C60Cl2. We therefore believe that this study has highlighted an effective method for designing nonlinear optical materials with high thermodynamic stability and wide transparent regions. PMID:27188724

  5. Thermally stable compositions including 2,4,8,10-tetranitro-5H-pyrido[3',2':4,5][1,2,3]triazolo[1,2-a]benzotriazo- l-6-ium, inner salt

    DOEpatents

    Hiskey, Michael A.; Huynh, My Hang

    2010-01-26

    An explosive formulation including 2,4,8,10-tetranitro-5H-pyrido[3',2':4,5][1,2,3]triazolo[1,2-a]benzotriazo- l-6-ium, inner salt and a high temperature binder is disclosed together with a process of preparing 2,4,8,10-tetranitro-5H-pyrido[3',2':4,5][1,2,3]triazolo[1,2-a]benzotriazo- l-6-ium, inner salt.

  6. Environmental and Pharmacological Modulation of Amphetamine-Induced 50-kHz Ultrasonic Vocalizations in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rippberger, Henrike; van Gaalen, Marcel M.; Schwarting, Rainer K.W.; WÖhr, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Rats emit high-frequency 50-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) in appetitive situations like social interactions. Drugs of abuse are probably the most potent non-social elicitors of 50-kHz USV, possibly reflecting their euphorigenic properties. Psychostimulants induce the strongest elevation in 50-kHz USV emission, particularly amphetamine (AMPH), either when applied systemically or locally into the nucleus accumbens (Nacc). Emission of AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV depends on test context, such as the presence of conspecifics, and can be manipulated pharmacologically by targeting major neurotransmitter systems, including dopamine (DA), noradrenaline (NA), and serotonin (5-HT), but also protein kinase C (PKC) signaling. Several D1 and D2 receptor antagonists, as well as typical and atypical antipsychotics block the AMPH-induced elevation in 50-kHz USV. Inhibiting D1 and D2 receptors in the Nacc abolishes AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV, indicating a key role for this brain area. NA neurotransmission also regulates AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV emission given that α1 receptor antagonists and α2 receptor agonists exert attenuating effects. Supporting the involvement of the 5-HT system, AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV are attenuated by 5-HT2C receptor activation, whereas 5-HT2C receptor antagonism leads to the opposite effect. Finally, treatment with lithium, tamoxifen, and myricitrin was all found to result in a complete abolishment of the AMPH-induced increase in 50-kHz USV, suggesting the involvement of PKC signaling. Neurotransmitter systems involved in AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV emission only partially overlap with other AMPH-induced behaviors like hyperlocomotion. The validity of AMPH-induced 50-kHz USV as a preclinical model for neuropsychiatric disorders is discussed, particularly with relevance to altered drive and mood seen in bipolar disorder. PMID:26411764

  7. Times to Discontinue Antidepressants Over 6 Months in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo-Young; Jang, Sae-Heon; Jae, Young-Myo; Kong, Bo-Geum; Kim, Ho-Chan; Choe, Byeong-Moo; Kim, Jeong-Gee; Kim, Choong-Rak

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in discontinuation time among antidepressants and total antidepressant discontinuation rate of patients with depression over a 6 month period in a naturalistic treatment setting. Methods We reviewed the medical records of 900 patients with major depressive disorder who were initially prescribed only one kind of antidepressant. The prescribed antidepressants and the reasons for discontinuation were surveyed at baseline and every 4 weeks during the 24 week study. We investigated the discontinuation rate and the mean time to discontinuation among six antidepressants groups. Results Mean and median overall discontinuation times were 13.8 and 12 weeks, respectively. Sertraline and escitalopram had longer discontinuation times than that of fluoxetine, and patients who used sertraline discontinued use significantly later than those taking mirtazapine. No differences in discontinuation rate were observed after 24 weeks among these antidepressants. About 73% of patients discontinued antidepressant treatment after 24 weeks. Conclusion Sertraline and escitalopram tended to have longer mean times to discontinuation, although no difference in discontinuation rate was detected between antidepressants after 24 weeks. About three-quarters of patients discontinued antidepressant maintenance therapy after 24 weeks. PMID:27482246

  8. Unintentional Discontinuation of Chronic Medications for Seniors in Nursing Homes

    PubMed Central

    Stall, Nathan M.; Fischer, Hadas D.; Wu, C. Fangyun; Bierman, Arlene S.; Brener, Stacey; Bronskill, Susan; Etchells, Edward; Fernandes, Olavo; Lau, Davina; Mamdani, Muhammad M.; Rochon, Paula; Urbach, David R.; Bell, Chaim M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Transitions of care leave patients vulnerable to the unintentional discontinuation of medications with proven efficacy for treating chronic diseases. Older adults residing in nursing homes may be especially susceptible to this preventable adverse event. The effect of large-scale policy changes on improving this practice is unknown. The objective of this study was to analyze the effect of a national medication reconciliation accreditation requirement for nursing homes on rates of unintentional medication discontinuation after hospital discharge. It was a population-based retrospective cohort study that used linked administrative records between 2003 and 2012 of all hospitalizations in Ontario, Canada. We identified nursing home residents aged ≥66 years who had continuous use of ≥1 of the 3 selected medications for chronic disease: levothyroxine, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins), and proton pump inhibitors (PPIs). In 2008 medication reconciliation became a required practice for accreditation of Canadian nursing homes. The main outcome measures included the proportion of patients who restarted the medication of interest after hospital discharge at 7 days. We also performed a time series analysis to examine the impact of the accreditation requirement on rates of unintentional medication discontinuation. The study included 113,088 adults aged ≥66 years who were nursing home residents, had an acute hospitalization, and were discharged alive to the same nursing home. Overall rates of discontinuation at 7-days after hospital discharge were highest in 2003–2004 for all nursing homes: 23.9% for thyroxine, 26.4% for statins, and 23.9% for PPIs. In most of the cases, these overall rates decreased annually and were lowest in 2011–2012: 4.0% for thyroxine, 10.6% for statins, and 8.3% for PPIs. The time series analysis found that nursing home accreditation did not significantly lower medication discontinuation rates for any of the 3 drug groups. From 2003

  9. COOMET.AUV.W-S1 supplementary comparison of free-field hydrophone calibrations in the frequency range 250 Hz to 8 kHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isaev, A. E.; Yi, Chen; Matveev, A. N.; Zihong, Ping

    2015-01-01

    A description is given of COOMET.AUV.W-S1 supplementary comparison of free-field hydrophone calibrations in the frequency range 250 Hz to 8 kHz between Hangzhou Applied Acoustics Research Institute—a pilot and Russian National Research Institute for Physicotechnical and Radio Engineering Measurements. Two standard hydrophones of TC 4033 and GI 55 were calibrated in this comparison. Reciprocity method, comparison methods, and their facilities were used to assess the current state of free-field hydrophone calibration in the frequency range 250 Hz to 8 kHz of China and Russia. The consistency of calibration results between two participants was confirmed, and the maximum deviation observed was 0.59 dB at frequency 400 Hz. Main text. To reach the main text of this paper, click on Final Report. Note that this text is that which appears in Appendix B of the BIPM key comparison database kcdb.bipm.org/. The final report has been peer-reviewed and approved for publication by the CCAUV, according to the provisions of the CIPM Mutual Recognition Arrangement (CIPM MRA).

  10. In Vitro Host Range of the Hz-1 Non-Occluded Virus in Arthropod Cell Lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A total of 13 insect cell lines spanning 4 Orders and including Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Diptera and Homoptera were tested for their ability to replicate the non-occluded virus Hz-1. Only the Lepidpteran cell lines were able to support replication of the virus with TN-CL1 and BCIRL-HZ-AM1 producing ...

  11. Sub-kHz Linewidth GaSb Semiconductor Diode Lasers Operating Near 2 Micrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagheri, Mahmood; Briggs, Ryan M.; Frez, Clifford; Ksendzov, Alexander; Forouhar, Siamak

    2012-01-01

    We report on the phase noise properties of DFB lasers operating near 2.0 microns. Measured noise spectra indicate intrinsic laser linewidths below 1 kHz. An effective linewidth of less than 200 kHz for 5 ms measurement times is estimated.

  12. The 1983-84 Connecticut 45-Hz-band field-strength measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bannister, P. R.

    1986-03-01

    Extremely low frequency (ELF) measurements are made of the transverse horizontal magnetic field strength received in Connecticut. The AN/BSR-1 receiver consists of an AN/UYK-20 minicomputer, a signal timing and interface unit (STIU), a rubidium frequency time standard, two magnetic tape recorders, and a preamplifier. The transmission source of these farfield (1.6-Mm range) measurements is the U.S. Navy's ELF Wisconsin Test Facility (WTF), located in the Chequamegon National Forest in north central Wisconsin, about 8 km south of the village of Clam Lake. The WTF consists of two 22.5-km antennas; one of which is situated approximately in the north-south (NS) direction and the other approximately in the east-west (EW) direction. Each antenna is grounded at both ends. The electrical axis of the WTF EW antenna is 11 deg east of north at 45 Hz and 14 deg east of north at 75Hz. The electrical axis of the WTF NS antenna is 11 deg east of north at 45 Hz and 14 deg east of north at 75 Hz. The WTF array can be steered electrically. Its radiated power is approximately 0.5 W at 45 Hz and 1 W at 75 Hz. This report will compare results of 45 Hz band data taken during 1983 to 1984 with previous 45 Hz band measurements.

  13. 41 CFR 101-39.105 - Discontinuance or curtailment of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 101-39.105 Discontinuance or curtailment of service....

  14. Metric-discontinuous zonal grid calculations using the Osher scheme

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rai, M. M.; Hessenius, K. A.; Chakravarthy, S. R.

    1984-01-01

    Computations on zonal grids - in particular, grids with metric discontinuities resulting from the interspersion of highly clustered regions with coarse regions - are possible using a fully conservative form of the Osher upwind scheme. These zonal grids can result from an abrupt clustering of points near solution discontinuities or near other flow features that require improved resolution. The zonal approach is shown to capture shocks with almost 'shock-fitting' quality but with minimal effort. Results for inviscid flow, including quasi-one-dimensional nozzle flow, supersonic flow over a cylinder, and blast-wave diffraction by a ramp, are presented. These calculations demonstrate the powerful capabilities of the Osher scheme used in conjunction with zonal grids in simulating flow fields with complex shock patterns.

  15. Hybrid simulations of rotational discontinuities. [Alfven wave propagation in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, C. C.; Cargill, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    1D hybrid simulations of rotational discontinuities (RDs) are presented. When the angle between the discontinuity normal and the magnetic field (theta-BN) is 30 deg, the RD broadens into a quasi-steady state of width 60-80 c/omega-i. The hodogram has a characteristic S-shape. When theta-BN = 60 deg, the RD is much narrower (10 c/omega-i). For right handed rotations, the results are similar to theta-BN = 30 deg. For left handed rotations, the RD does not evolve much from its initial conditions and the S-shape in the hodogram is much less visible. The results can be understood in terms of matching a fast mode wavelike structure upstream of the RD with an intermediate mode one downstream.

  16. A novel smooth and discontinuous oscillator with strong irrational nonlinearities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, YanWei; Cao, QingJie; Chen, YuShu; Wiercigroch, Marian

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel nonlinear oscillator with strong irrational nonlinearities having smooth and discontinuous characteristics depending on the values of a smoothness parameter. The oscillator is similar to the SD oscillator, originally introduced in Phys Rev E 69(2006). The equilibrium stability and the complex bifurcations of the unperturbed system are investigated. The bifurcation sets of the equilibria in parameter space are constructed to demonstrate transitions in the multiple well dynamics for both smooth and discontinuous regimes. The Melnikov method is employed to obtain the analytical criteria of chaotic thresholds for the singular closed orbits of homoclinic, homo-heteroclinic, cuspidal heteroclinic and tangent homoclinic orbits of the perturbed system.

  17. Examining the spring discontinuity in daily temperature ranges

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, M.D.

    1996-04-01

    The atmosphere and biosphere both change rapidly throughout midlatitude spring. Many weather variables are modified during this season, including the diurnal temperature range (DTR). The mean DTR trend displays a discontinuity at the onset of spring characterized by a rapid increase for several weeks, followed by an abrupt leveling off. The trend then remains essentially flat throughout the remainder of the warm season. These DTR changes reflect the interactive role many weather variables play with surface-layer processes. Thus, diagnosing the causes of these variations may provide background information for numerous global change analyses, as daily temperature data become increasingly available worldwide. The results of this study suggest that several factors (snow cover loss, more frequent southerly winds, and increased ceiling heights) are responsible for the initial rapid increase in the DTR. The second half of the discontinuity (subsequent leveling off) is connected with increased atmospheric moisture and coincides with the onset of plant transpiration. 14 refs., 5 figs, 2 tabs.

  18. Neutron star evolutions using the discontinuous Galerkin method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hebert, Francois; SXS Collaboration Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    Relativistic hydrodynamic simulations enable us, for instance, to generate templates used for gravitational-wave detections of black hole-neutron star mergers, or to understand supernova explosion mechanisms. But the limited accuracy of the simulation algorithms used, often based on the finite volume method, constrains the insight we can obtain into these problems. We aim to improve the accuracy of our simulations by using a discontinuous Galerkin method. This method's attractiveness arises from its combination of spectral convergence properties for smooth solutions with robust stability properties for shocks. We present our work implementing a testbed discontinuous Galerkin GR-hydro code, and show our results for test evolutions of an isolated neutron star.

  19. Numerically Tracking Contact Discontinuities with an Introduction for GPU Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Sean L

    2012-08-17

    We review some of the classic numerical techniques used to analyze contact discontinuities and compare their effectiveness. Several finite difference methods (the Lax-Wendroff method, a Multidimensional Positive Definite Advection Transport Algorithm (MPDATA) method and a Monotone Upstream Scheme for Conservation Laws (MUSCL) scheme with an Artificial Compression Method (ACM)) as well as the finite element Streamlined Upwind Petrov-Galerkin (SUPG) method were considered. These methods were applied to solve the 2D advection equation. Based on our results we concluded that the MUSCL scheme produces the sharpest interfaces but can inappropriately steepen the solution. The SUPG method seems to represent a good balance between stability and interface sharpness without any inappropriate steepening. However, for solutions with discontinuities, the MUSCL scheme is superior. In addition, a preliminary implementation in a GPU program is discussed.

  20. Sharp monotonic resolution of discontinuities without clipping of narrow extrema

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, B. P.; Niknafs, H. S.

    1991-01-01

    A strategy is presented for accurately simulating highly convective flows containing discontinuities such as density fronts or shock waves, without distorting smooth profiles or clipping narrow local extrema. The convection algorithm is based on non-artificially-diffusive third-order upwinding in smooth regions, with automatic adaptive stencil expansion to (in principle, arbitrarily) higher order upwinding locally, in regions of rapidly changing gradients. This is highly cost-effective because the wider stencil is used only where needed - in isolated narrow regions. A recently developed universal limiter assures sharp monotonic resolution of discontinuities without introducing artificial diffusion or numerical compression. An adaptive discriminator is constructed to distinguish between spurious overshoots and physical peaks; this automatically relaxes the limiter near local turning points, thereby avoiding loss of resolution in narrow extrema. Examples are given for one-dimensional pure convection of scalar profiles at constant velocity.

  1. Reconciling Himalayan midcrustal discontinuities: The Main Central thrust system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Larson, Kyle P.; Ambrose, Tyler K.; Webb, A. Alexander G.; Cottle, John M.; Shrestha, Sudip

    2015-11-01

    The occurrence of thrust-sense tectonometamorphic discontinuities within the exhumed Himalayan metamorphic core can be explained as part of the Main Central thrust system. This imbricate thrust structure, which significantly thickened the orogenic midcrustal core, comprises a series of thrust-sense faults that all merge into a single detachment. The existence of these various structures, and their potential for complex overprinting along the main detachment, may help explain the contention surrounding the definition, mapping, and interpretation of the Main Central thrust. The unique evolution of specific segments of the Main Central thrust system along the orogen is interpreted to be a reflection of the inherent basement structure and ramp position, and structural level of exposure of the mid-crust. This helps explain the variation in the timing and structural position of tectonometamorphic discontinuities along the length of the mountain belt.

  2. Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects

    PubMed Central

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S.; Hetz, Stefan K.; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS production, although minima are elevated above normoxic levels. Furthermore, a negative relationship between mean and mean ROS production indicates that higher ROS production is generally associated with lower . Our results, therefore, suggest a possible signalling role for ROS in DGC, rather than supporting the idea that DGC acts to reduce oxidative damage by regulating ROS production. PMID:21865257

  3. The impact of discontinuing methylphenidate on weight and eating behavior.

    PubMed

    Benard, Victoire; Cottencin, Olivier; Guardia, Dewi; Vaiva, Guillaume; Rolland, Benjamin

    2015-04-01

    Chronic administration of the amphetamine-derivative methylphenidate (MPH) may induce appetite reduction and weight loss. By contrast, the effects that stopping chronic MPH may exert on eating behavior and body weight are poorly known. We report the case of a male patient with childhood attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), who discontinued MPH treatment at the age of 11 years and was lost to follow-up until the age of 16. The patient's body mass index increased by five points within 1 year of MPH cessation while the symptoms of ADHD were re-emerging. The patient secondarily developed DSM-5 criteria for eating disorders. Discontinuing chronic MPH can significantly affect weight and eating behavior. Such risks should warrant further studies, as they could be particularly increased in patients with ADHD, who share common vulnerability factors with both obesity and eating disorders. PMID:24849706

  4. Exclusion-Zone Formation From Discontinuous Nafion Surfaces.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Xavier A; Pollack, Gerald H

    2011-11-30

    Many hydrophilic materials in aqueous solution show near-surface zones that exclude suspended colloids and dissolved molecules. These exclusion zones (EZs) can extend for tens to hundreds of micrometers from the hydrophilic surface, and show physicochemical properties that differ from bulk water. So far, only continuous surfaces of polymers, gels, or biological specimens have been studied. In this report, we explore the interactions between exclusion zones generated by discontinuous, regularly spaced EZ-generating surfaces, namely strips of Nafion on a glass surface. Various inter-strip spacings were studied. When Nafion surfaces are separated by 100 micrometers or less, EZs merged with one another, forming a single, continuous, stable EZ. Separations larger than 100 micrometers produced discontinuous EZs that did not merge. This result has implication for the mechanism by which independent EZs can merge with one another. PMID:24826197

  5. Exclusion-Zone Formation From Discontinuous Nafion Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa, Xavier A.; Pollack, Gerald H.

    2012-01-01

    Many hydrophilic materials in aqueous solution show near-surface zones that exclude suspended colloids and dissolved molecules. These exclusion zones (EZs) can extend for tens to hundreds of micrometers from the hydrophilic surface, and show physicochemical properties that differ from bulk water. So far, only continuous surfaces of polymers, gels, or biological specimens have been studied. In this report, we explore the interactions between exclusion zones generated by discontinuous, regularly spaced EZ-generating surfaces, namely strips of Nafion on a glass surface. Various inter-strip spacings were studied. When Nafion surfaces are separated by 100 micrometers or less, EZs merged with one another, forming a single, continuous, stable EZ. Separations larger than 100 micrometers produced discontinuous EZs that did not merge. This result has implication for the mechanism by which independent EZs can merge with one another. PMID:24826197

  6. Discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites via XD synthesis. [exothermal dispersion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kumar, K. S.; Whittenberger, J. D.

    1992-01-01

    A review is given of recent results obtained for discontinuously reinforced intermetallic matrix composites produced using the XD process. Intermetallic matrices investigated include NiAl, multiphase NiAl + Ni2AlTi, CoAl, near-gamma titanium aluminides, and Ll2 trialuminides containing minor amounts of second phase. Such mechanical properties as low and high temperature strength, compressive and tensile creep, elastic modulus, ambient ductility, and fracture toughness are discussed as functions of reinforcement size, shape, and volume fraction. Microstructures before and after deformation are examined and correlated with measured properties. An observation of interest in many of the systems examined is 'dispersion weakening' at high temperatures and high strain rates. This behavior is not specific to the XD process; rather similar observations have been reported in other discontinuous composites. Proposed mechanisms for this behavior are presented.

  7. Transformative Personal Development: Helping Teachers to Thrive on Discontinuous Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldane, Maureen

    Many professional development opportunities offered to serving teachers address potential performance improvements or responses to change that are essentially incremental in nature. However, some challenges and opportunities particularly those relating to new technologies, involve addressing a more discontinuous change process. The Transformative Personal Development (TPD) model is derived from in-depth evaluations of one such change process, the introduction of digital interactive whiteboards in schools. This provided an opportunity to examine in some detail how teachers who had successfully adopted the technology, had acquired the capability so to do. The paper also refers to work in progress that will assess the applicability of the TPD model to other contexts where the change process also has a significant element of discontinuity, such as the introduction of hand-held devices in the classroom, the design and implementation of new learning spaces and the possible uses of “Second Life” in Higher Education.

  8. Dynamical formation of stable irregular transients in discontinuous map systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hailin; Guan, Shuguang; Lai, C.-H.

    2009-10-01

    Stable chaos refers to the long irregular transients, with a negative largest Lyapunov exponent, which is usually observed in certain high-dimensional dynamical systems. The mechanism underlying this phenomenon has not been well studied so far. In this paper, we investigate the dynamical formation of stable irregular transients in coupled discontinuous map systems. Interestingly, it is found that the transient dynamics has a hidden pattern in the phase space: it repeatedly approaches a basin boundary and then jumps from the boundary to a remote region in the phase space. This pattern can be clearly visualized by measuring the distance sequences between the trajectory and the basin boundary. The dynamical formation of stable chaos originates from the intersection points of the discontinuous boundaries and their images. We carry out numerical experiments to verify this mechanism.

  9. The Gutenberg discontinuity: melt at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary.

    PubMed

    Schmerr, Nicholas

    2012-03-23

    The lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) beneath ocean basins separates the upper thermal boundary layer of rigid, conductively cooling plates from the underlying ductile, convecting mantle. The origin of a seismic discontinuity associated with this interface, known as the Gutenberg discontinuity (G), remains enigmatic. High-frequency SS precursors sampling below the Pacific plate intermittently detect the G as a sharp, negative velocity contrast at 40- to 75-kilometer depth. These observations lie near the depth of the LAB in regions associated with recent surface volcanism and mantle melt production and are consistent with an intermittent layer of asthenospheric partial melt residing at the lithospheric base. I propose that the G reflectivity is regionally enhanced by dynamical processes that produce melt, including hot mantle upwellings, small-scale convection, and fluid release during subduction. PMID:22442480

  10. A Streaming Language Implementation of the Discontinuous Galerkin Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barth, Timothy; Knight, Timothy

    2005-01-01

    We present a Brook streaming language implementation of the 3-D discontinuous Galerkin method for compressible fluid flow on tetrahedral meshes. Efficient implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin method using the streaming model of computation introduces several algorithmic design challenges. Using a cycle-accurate simulator, performance characteristics have been obtained for the Stanford Merrimac stream processor. The current Merrimac design achieves 128 Gflops per chip and the desktop board is populated with 16 chips yielding a peak performance of 2 Teraflops. Total parts cost for the desktop board is less than $20K. Current cycle-accurate simulations for discretizations of the 3-D compressible flow equations yield approximately 40-50% of the peak performance of the Merrimac streaming processor chip. Ongoing work includes the assessment of the performance of the same algorithm on the 2 Teraflop desktop board with a target goal of achieving 1 Teraflop performance.

  11. Discontinuous transition in a boundary driven contact process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, A.; Blythe, R. A.; Evans, M. R.

    2010-09-01

    The contact process is a stochastic process which exhibits a continuous, absorbing state phase transition in the directed percolation (DP) universality class. In this work, we consider a contact process with a bias in conjunction with an active wall. This model exhibits waves of activity emanating from the active wall and, when the system is supercritical, propagating indefinitely as travelling (Fisher) waves. In the subcritical phase the activity is localized near the wall. We study the phase transition numerically and show that certain properties of the system, notably the wave velocity, are discontinuous across the transition. Using a modified Fisher equation to model the system we elucidate the mechanism by which the discontinuity arises. Furthermore we establish relations between properties of the travelling wave and DP critical exponents.

  12. Reactive oxygen species production and discontinuous gas exchange in insects.

    PubMed

    Boardman, Leigh; Terblanche, John S; Hetz, Stefan K; Marais, Elrike; Chown, Steven L

    2012-03-01

    While biochemical mechanisms are typically used by animals to reduce oxidative damage, insects are suspected to employ a higher organizational level, discontinuous gas exchange mechanism to do so. Using a combination of real-time, flow-through respirometry and live-cell fluorescence microscopy, we show that spiracular control associated with the discontinuous gas exchange cycle (DGC) in Samia cynthia pupae is related to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Hyperoxia fails to increase mean ROS production, although minima are elevated above normoxic levels. Furthermore, a negative relationship between mean and mean ROS production indicates that higher ROS production is generally associated with lower . Our results, therefore, suggest a possible signalling role for ROS in DGC, rather than supporting the idea that DGC acts to reduce oxidative damage by regulating ROS production. PMID:21865257

  13. Development and testing of a 20-kHz component test bed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Brush, Andrew S.; Sundberg, Richard C.

    1989-01-01

    A history of the General Dynamics Space Systems Division 20 kHz Breadboard is presented including its current configuration and its role in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) program. Highlights and results are presented on a series of tests conducted on the 20 kHz Breadboard. The first test presented is the 20 kHz Breadboard Acceptance test. This test verified the operation of the delivered Breadboard and also characterized the main components of the system. Next, an indepth efficiency testing effort is presented. The tests attempted to apportion all the power losses in the 20 kHz Breadboard Main Invert Units. Distortion test data is presented showing the distortion characteristics of a Mapham inverter. Lastly, current work on the 20 kHz Breadboard is presented including Main Inverter Unit paralleling tests. Conclusions are summarized and references given.

  14. Barkhausen discontinuities and hysteresis of ferromagnetics: New stochastic approach

    SciTech Connect

    Vengrinovich, Valeriy

    2014-02-18

    The magnetization of ferromagnetic material is considered as periodically inhomogeneous Markov process. The theory assumes both statistically independent and correlated Barkhausen discontinuities. The model, based on the chain evolution-type process theory, assumes that the domain structure of a ferromagnet passes successively the steps of: linear growing, exponential acceleration and domains annihilation to zero density at magnetic saturation. The solution of stochastic differential Kolmogorov equation enables the hysteresis loop calculus.

  15. Discontinuous Galerkin Finite Element Method for Parabolic Problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaneko, Hideaki; Bey, Kim S.; Hou, Gene J. W.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we develop a time and its corresponding spatial discretization scheme, based upon the assumption of a certain weak singularity of parallel ut(t) parallel Lz(omega) = parallel ut parallel2, for the discontinuous Galerkin finite element method for one-dimensional parabolic problems. Optimal convergence rates in both time and spatial variables are obtained. A discussion of automatic time-step control method is also included.

  16. The processing and properties of discontinuously reinforced aluminum composites

    SciTech Connect

    Geiger, A.L.; Walker, J.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Discontinuously-reinforced aluminum (DRA) SiC whisker or particle-reinforced Al-alloy matrix composites produced by P/M methods have progressed toward commercial applications, supported by growing data bases and large-scale production facilities. Attention is presently given to the elastic modulus, plastic, ductile, and toughness characteristics of representative DRA formulations, as well as to the DRAs commercially available in the forms of sheets, extrusions, and optical and instrument grade structures able to supplant beryllium. 36 refs.

  17. Fracture behavior of laminated discontinuously reinforced aluminum material

    SciTech Connect

    Osman, T.M. |; Lewandowski, J.J.; Lesuer, D.R.; Syn, C.K.; Hunt, W.H. Jr

    1994-05-01

    Laminated metallic composites are being developed for applications which require high specific stiffness and fracture resistance. Recent work with laminated discontinuously reinforced aluminum (DRA) materials has demonstrated the potential for marked improvements in stable crack growth resistance via extrinsic toughening. The purpose of this work is to compare the fracture mechanisms and fracture resistance of laminated DRA materials to unlaminated DRA materials. In particular, the production of extensive stable crack growth and the associated improvement in damage tolerance in DRA laminates is documented.

  18. Priapism Followed by Discontinuation of Methadone: A rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Seyed-Ali; Bidaki, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Priapism is defined by persistent, painful penile erection which occurs without sexual stimulation. Methadone is used as an analgesic and is also used in detoxification and maintenance protocol for opioid dependence treatment. Here we will report a case of a male with priapism after rapid discontinuation doses of methadone. Case presentation: The case was a young married male who referred to a psychiatry clinic due to long-time spontaneous erections. The patient had no history of mental disorders, trauma or sickle cell anemia. He used to smoke opium for five years and used methadone for four years at a dose of 17 cc daily, which he abruptly discontinued. Then he often experienced spontaneous and painful erections without physical or mental stimulation that caused him shame and embarrassment. Conclusion: In this case, chronology indicates that rapid discontinuation of methadone was possibly responsible for the occurrence of priapism. This may have happened due to a compensatory reaction to methadone side effect of erectile dysfunction, followed by its rapid withdrawal. PMID:26884791

  19. Local error estimates for discontinuous solutions of nonlinear hyperbolic equations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tadmor, Eitan

    1989-01-01

    Let u(x,t) be the possibly discontinuous entropy solution of a nonlinear scalar conservation law with smooth initial data. Suppose u sub epsilon(x,t) is the solution of an approximate viscosity regularization, where epsilon greater than 0 is the small viscosity amplitude. It is shown that by post-processing the small viscosity approximation u sub epsilon, pointwise values of u and its derivatives can be recovered with an error as close to epsilon as desired. The analysis relies on the adjoint problem of the forward error equation, which in this case amounts to a backward linear transport with discontinuous coefficients. The novelty of this approach is to use a (generalized) E-condition of the forward problem in order to deduce a W(exp 1,infinity) energy estimate for the discontinuous backward transport equation; this, in turn, leads one to an epsilon-uniform estimate on moments of the error u(sub epsilon) - u. This approach does not follow the characteristics and, therefore, applies mutatis mutandis to other approximate solutions such as E-difference schemes.

  20. Phase discontinuity predictions using a machine-learning trained kernel.

    PubMed

    Sawaf, Firas; Groves, Roger M

    2014-08-20

    Phase unwrapping is one of the key steps of interferogram analysis, and its accuracy relies primarily on the correct identification of phase discontinuities. This can be especially challenging for inherently noisy phase fields, such as those produced through shearography and other speckle-based interferometry techniques. We showed in a recent work how a relatively small 10×10 pixel kernel was trained, through machine learning methods, for predicting the locations of phase discontinuities within noisy wrapped phase maps. We describe here how this kernel can be applied in a sliding-window fashion, such that each pixel undergoes 100 phase-discontinuity examinations--one test for each of its possible positions relative to its neighbors within the kernel's extent. We explore how the resulting predictions can be accumulated, and aggregated through a voting system, and demonstrate that the reliability of this method outperforms processing the image by segmenting it into more conventional 10×10 nonoverlapping tiles. When used in this way, we demonstrate that our 10×10 pixel kernel is large enough for effective processing of full-field interferograms. Avoiding, thus, the need for substantially more formidable computational resources which otherwise would have been necessary for training a kernel of a significantly larger size. PMID:25321117

  1. Embedded discontinuous Galerkin transport schemes with localised limiters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotter, C. J.; Kuzmin, D.

    2016-04-01

    Motivated by finite element spaces used for representation of temperature in the compatible finite element approach for numerical weather prediction, we introduce locally bounded transport schemes for (partially-)continuous finite element spaces. The underlying high-order transport scheme is constructed by injecting the partially-continuous field into an embedding discontinuous finite element space, applying a stable upwind discontinuous Galerkin (DG) scheme, and projecting back into the partially-continuous space; we call this an embedded DG transport scheme. We prove that this scheme is stable in L2 provided that the underlying upwind DG scheme is. We then provide a framework for applying limiters for embedded DG transport schemes. Standard DG limiters are applied during the underlying DG scheme. We introduce a new localised form of element-based flux-correction which we apply to limiting the projection back into the partially-continuous space, so that the whole transport scheme is bounded. We provide details in the specific case of tensor-product finite element spaces on wedge elements that are discontinuous P1/Q1 in the horizontal and continuous P2 in the vertical. The framework is illustrated with numerical tests.

  2. Support vector classifiers via gradient systems with discontinuous righthand sides.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Leonardo V; Kaszkurewicz, Eugenius; Bhaya, Amit

    2006-12-01

    Gradient dynamical systems with discontinuous righthand sides are designed using Persidskii-type nonsmooth Lyapunov functions to work as support vector machines (SVMs) for the discrimination of nonseparable classes. The gradient systems are obtained from an exact penalty method applied to the constrained quadratic optimization problems, which are formulations of two well known SVMs. Global convergence of the trajectories of the gradient dynamical systems to the solution of the corresponding constrained problems is shown to be independent of the penalty parameters and of the parameters of the SVMs. The proposed gradient systems can be implemented as simple analog circuits as well as using standard software for integration of ODEs, and in order to use efficient integration methods with adaptive stepsize selection, the discontinuous terms are smoothed around a neighborhood of the discontinuity surface by means of the boundary layer technique. The scalability of the proposed gradient systems is also shown by means of an implementation using parallel computers, resulting in smaller processing times when compared with traditional SVM packages. PMID:17011165

  3. Tracking discontinuities in hyperbolic conservation laws with spectral accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Touil, H.; Hussaini, M. Y.; Sussman, M.

    2007-08-01

    It is well known that the spectral solutions of conservation laws have the attractive distinguishing property of infinite-order convergence (also called spectral accuracy) when they are smooth (e.g., [C. Canuto, M.Y. Hussaini, A. Quarteroni, T.A. Zang, Spectral Methods for Fluid Dynamics, Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg, 1988; J.P. Boyd, Chebyshev and Fourier Spectral Methods, second ed., Dover, New York, 2001; C. Canuto, M.Y. Hussaini, A. Quarteroni, T.A. Zang, Spectral Methods: Fundamentals in Single Domains, Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, 2006]). If a discontinuity or a shock is present in the solution, this advantage is lost. There have been attempts to recover exponential convergence in such cases with rather limited success. The aim of this paper is to propose a discontinuous spectral element method coupled with a level set procedure, which tracks discontinuities in the solution of nonlinear hyperbolic conservation laws with spectral convergence in space. Spectral convergence is demonstrated in the case of the inviscid Burgers equation and the one-dimensional Euler equations.

  4. Why do couples discontinue unlimited free IVF treatments?

    PubMed

    Lande, Yechezkel; Seidman, Daniel S; Maman, Ettie; Baum, Micha; Hourvitz, Ariel

    2015-03-01

    Worldwide, IVF is often discontinued before a live birth is achieved due to high costs. Even when partial financial coverage is provided, often medical providers advise treatment discontinuation. In Israel, unlimited IVF is offered free of charge for a couples' first two children. Our objective was to assess the reasons couples discontinue IVF treatments before achieving two children in a completely unlimited cost-free environment. This cohort study included all primary infertile women, <35 years, referred for their first IVF cycle to Sheba IVF unit between 2001 and 2002. Patients were followed until February 2012. Those who ceased treatments for 12 months were interviewed to assess the main reason they ceased treatments. Of the 134 couples included, only 46 ceased IVF treatments without achieving two children, after performing an average of 6.2 IVF cycles to achieve their first birth. The reasons given were: lost hope of success (13), psychological burden (18), divorce (6), medical staff recommendation (5), bureaucratic difficulties (3) and general medical condition (1). The main reasons for "drop out" in our cost-free environment were as follows: psychological burden and lost hope of success. Due to high availability of treatments, medical staff recommendation was a less significant factor in our study. PMID:25414079

  5. Upper Mantle Discontinuities Underneath Central and Southern Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez-Campos, X.; Clayton, R. W.

    2011-12-01

    Central and southern Mexico are affected by the subduction of Cocos plate beneath North American plate. The MesoAmerican Subduction Experiment (MASE) and the Veracruz-Oaxaca (VEOX) project have mapped the geometry of the Cocos slab. It is characterized in central Mexico by a shallow horizontal geometry up to ~300 km from the trench, then it dives steeply (70°) into the mantle, to its apparent end at 500 km depth. In contrast, some 400 km to the south, the slab subducts smoothly, with a dip angle of ~26° to a depth of 150 km. We use receiver functions from teleseismic events, recorded at stations from MASE, VEOX, and the Servicio Sismológico Nacional (SSN, Mexican National Seismological Service) to map the upper mantle discontinuities and properties of the transition zone in central and southern Mexico. We also use data from the Mapping the Rivera Subduction Zone (MARS) Experiment to get a complete picture of the subduction regime in central Mexico and compare the mantle transition zone in a slab tear regime. The 410 discontinuity shows significant variation in topography in central Mexico, particularly where the slab is expected to reach such depth. The 660 discontinuity shows a smoother topography, indicating that the slab does not penetrate this far down. The results will be compared with a ridge regime in the Gulf of California.

  6. An Application of the Quadrature-Free Discontinuous Galerkin Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockard, David P.; Atkins, Harold L.

    2000-01-01

    The process of generating a block-structured mesh with the smoothness required for high-accuracy schemes is still a time-consuming process often measured in weeks or months. Unstructured grids about complex geometries are more easily generated, and for this reason, methods using unstructured grids have gained favor for aerodynamic analyses. The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method is a compact finite-element projection method that provides a practical framework for the development of a high-order method using unstructured grids. Higher-order accuracy is obtained by representing the solution as a high-degree polynomial whose time evolution is governed by a local Galerkin projection. The traditional implementation of the discontinuous Galerkin uses quadrature for the evaluation of the integral projections and is prohibitively expensive. Atkins and Shu introduced the quadrature-free formulation in which the integrals are evaluated a-priori and exactly for a similarity element. The approach has been demonstrated to possess the accuracy required for acoustics even in cases where the grid is not smooth. Other issues such as boundary conditions and the treatment of non-linear fluxes have also been studied in earlier work This paper describes the application of the quadrature-free discontinuous Galerkin method to a two-dimensional shear layer problem. First, a brief description of the method is given. Next, the problem is described and the solution is presented. Finally, the resources required to perform the calculations are given.

  7. Extended digital image correlation method for analysis of discrete discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deb, Debasis; Bhattacharjee, Sudipta

    2015-11-01

    Finite element based multilevel extended digital image correlation (X-DIC) method is applied to obtain displacement distribution of an object having a discrete discontinuity. The principle of multilevel X-DIC method is described in the paper and results are verified using numerically generated images. The deformed images are developed with a pre-existing discontinuity surface across the image for tensile or shear displacements or rotations. Several cubical rock samples are also compressed under uniaxial loading conditions until fractures are developed in the post-failure region. Images of a speckled face of this experiment are analyzed using the proposed X-DIC method with increment of loading for determination of displacement before and after cracks are developed in the sample. The results of this study show that X-DIC technique is capable of capturing damaged zone(s) and displacement jump across the discontinuity plane as well as indicating the onset of failure of rock sample. This method demonstrates the applicability to investigate object failure mechanism for the entire surface of the sample in a non-contact manner.

  8. Human exposure standards in the frequency range 1 Hz To 100 kHz: the case for adoption of the IEEE standard.

    PubMed

    Patrick Reilly, J

    2014-10-01

    Differences between IEEE C95 Standards (C95.6-2002 and C95.1-2005) in the low-frequency (1 Hz-100 kHz) and the ICNIRP-2010 guidelines appear across the frequency spectrum. Factors accounting for lack of convergence include: differences between the IEEE standards and the ICNIRP guidelines with respect to biological induction models, stated objectives, data trail from experimentally derived thresholds through physical and biological principles, selection and justification of safety/reduction factors, use of probability models, compliance standards for the limbs as distinct from the whole body, defined population categories, strategies for central nervous system protection below 20 Hz, and correspondence of environmental electric field limits with contact currents. This paper discusses these factors and makes the case for adoption of the limits in the IEEE standards. PMID:25162425

  9. Acute effect of carbamazepine on corticothalamic 5-9-Hz and thalamocortical spindle (10-16-Hz) oscillations in the rat.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Thomas W; O'Brien, Terence J; Kulikova, Sofya P; Reid, Christopher A; Morris, Margaret J; Pinault, Didier

    2014-03-01

    A major side effect of carbamazepine (CBZ), a drug used to treat neurological and neuropsychiatric disorders, is drowsiness, a state characterized by increased slow-wave oscillations with the emergence of sleep spindles in the electroencephalogram (EEG). We conducted cortical EEG and thalamic cellular recordings in freely moving or lightly anesthetized rats to explore the impact of CBZ within the intact corticothalamic (CT)-thalamocortical (TC) network, more specifically on CT 5-9-Hz and TC spindle (10-16-Hz) oscillations. Two to three successive 5-9-Hz waves were followed by a spindle in the cortical EEG. A single systemic injection of CBZ (20 mg/kg) induced a significant increase in the power of EEG 5-9-Hz oscillations and spindles. Intracellular recordings of glutamatergic TC neurons revealed 5-9-Hz depolarizing wave-hyperpolarizing wave sequences prolonged by robust, rhythmic spindle-frequency hyperpolarizing waves. This hybrid sequence occurred during a slow hyperpolarizing trough, and was at least 10 times more frequent under the CBZ condition than under the control condition. The hyperpolarizing waves reversed at approximately -70 mV, and became depolarizing when recorded with KCl-filled intracellular micropipettes, indicating that they were GABAA receptor-mediated potentials. In neurons of the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus, the principal source of TC GABAergic inputs, CBZ augmented both the number and the duration of sequences of rhythmic spindle-frequency bursts of action potentials. This indicates that these GABAergic neurons are responsible for the generation of at least the spindle-frequency hyperpolarizing waves in TC neurons. In conclusion, CBZ potentiates GABAA receptor-mediated TC spindle oscillations. Furthermore, we propose that CT 5-9-Hz waves can trigger TC spindles. PMID:24308357

  10. 39 CFR 241.3 - Discontinuance of USPS-operated retail facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Discontinuance of USPS-operated retail facilities. 241.3 Section 241.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION ESTABLISHMENT CLASSIFICATION, AND DISCONTINUANCE § 241.3 Discontinuance of USPS-operated retail facilities. (a) Introduction—(1) Coverage. (i)...

  11. 39 CFR 241.3 - Discontinuance of USPS-operated retail facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discontinuance of USPS-operated retail facilities. 241.3 Section 241.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION ESTABLISHMENT CLASSIFICATION, AND DISCONTINUANCE § 241.3 Discontinuance of USPS-operated retail facilities. (a) Introduction—(1) Coverage. (i)...

  12. 39 CFR 241.3 - Discontinuance of USPS-operated retail facilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Discontinuance of USPS-operated retail facilities. 241.3 Section 241.3 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION ESTABLISHMENT CLASSIFICATION, AND DISCONTINUANCE § 241.3 Discontinuance of USPS-operated retail facilities. (a) Introduction—(1) Coverage. (i)...

  13. 41 CFR 109-39.105 - Discontinuance or curtailment of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 109-39.105 Discontinuance or... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Discontinuance...

  14. 41 CFR 109-39.105 - Discontinuance or curtailment of service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AVIATION, TRANSPORTATION, AND MOTOR VEHICLES 39-INTERAGENCY FLEET MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.1-Establishment, Modification, and Discontinuance of Interagency Fleet Management Systems § 109-39.105 Discontinuance or... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Discontinuance...

  15. Physico-chemical constraints on cratonic lithosphere discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulbach, Sonja; Rondenay, Stéphane; Huismans, Ritske

    2014-05-01

    The origins of the mid-lithospheric discontinuity (MLD) and lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary (LAB) have received much attention over the recent years. Peculiarities of cratonic lithosphere construction - compositional and rheological stratification due to thickening in collisional settings or by plume subcretion, multiple metasomatic overprints due to longevity - offer a variety of possibilities for the generation of discontinuities. Interconnected small degrees of conductive partial melt (carbonate-rich melts, such as carbonatites and kimberlites, or highly alkaline melts) at the cratonic LAB, which produce seismic discontinuities, may be generated in the presence of volatiles. These depress the peridotite solidus sufficiently to intersect the mantle adiabat at depths near the cratonic LAB at ~160-220 km, i.e. above the depth of metal saturation where carbonatite becomes unstable. The absence of agreement between the different seismic and magnetotelluric estimates for the depth of the LAB beneath Kaapvaal may be due to impingement of a plume, leading to a pervasively, but heterogeneously metasomatised ('asthenospherised') hot and deep root. Such a root and hot sublithosphere may yield conflicting seismic-thermal-geochemical depths for the LAB. The question arises whether the chemical boundary layer should be defined as above or below the asthenospherised part of the SCLM, which has preserved isotopic, compositional (non-primitive olivine forsterite content) and physical evidence (e.g. from teleseismic tomography and receiver functions) for a cratonic heritage and which therefore is still distinguishable from the asthenospheric mantle. If cratonic lithosphere overlies anomalously hot mantle for extended periods of time, the LAB may be significantly thinned, aided by penetration of relatively high-degree Fe-rich partial melts, as has occurred beneath the Tanzanian craton. Xenoliths from the deep Slave craton show little evidence for 'asthenospherisation'. Its root

  16. The effect of 10 Hz transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) on corticomuscular coherence

    PubMed Central

    Wach, Claudia; Krause, Vanessa; Moliadze, Vera; Paulus, Walter; Schnitzler, Alfons; Pollok, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Synchronous oscillatory activity at alpha (8–12 Hz), beta (13–30 Hz), and gamma (30–90 Hz) frequencies is assumed to play a key role for motor control. Corticomuscular coherence (CMC) represents an established measure of the pyramidal system's integrity. Transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) offers the possibility to modulate ongoing oscillatory activity. Behaviorally, 20 Hz tACS in healthy subjects has been shown to result in movement slowing. However, the neurophysiological changes underlying these effects are not entirely understood yet. The present study aimed at ascertaining the effects of tACS at 10 and 20 Hz in healthy subjects on CMC and local power of the primary sensorimotor cortex. Neuromagnetic activity was recorded during isometric contraction before and at two time points (2–10 min and 30–38 min) after tACS of the left primary motor cortex (M1), using a 306 channel whole head magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. Additionally, electromyography (EMG) of the right extensor digitorum communis (EDC) muscle was measured. TACS was applied at 10 and 20 Hz, respectively, for 10 min at 1 mA. Sham stimulation served as control condition. The data suggest that 10 Hz tACS significantly reduced low gamma band CMC during isometric contraction. This implies that tACS does not necessarily cause effects at stimulation frequency. Rather, the findings suggest cross-frequency interplay between alpha and low gamma band activity modulating functional interaction between motor cortex and muscle. PMID:24009573

  17. Interferometric readout of a monolithic accelerometer, towards the fm /√{ Hz } resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heijningen, J. V.; Bertolini, A.; van den Brand, J. F. J.

    2016-07-01

    The European Gravitational wave Observatory Virgo is undergoing an upgrade to increase its strain sensitivity to about 3 ×10-24 1 /√{ Hz } in the detection band of 10 Hz-10 kHz. The upgrade for this detector necessitates seismically isolating sensing optics in a vacuum environment that were on an optical bench outside vacuum in previous Virgo configurations. For this purpose, Nikhef has designed and built the five compact isolators, called MultiSAS. To measure the residual motion of the optical components and the transfer function of the isolator in full assembly, no (commercial) sensor is available that has sufficient sensitivity. A novel vibration sensor has been built at Nikhef that features an interferometric readout for a horizontal monolithic accelerometer. It will be able to measure in the vicinity of the fm/Hz regime from 10 Hz onwards. Current results show unprecedented (self) noise levels around 35 fm/Hz from 25 Hz onwards. In spite of these excellent results, it is still higher than the modeled noises. Several possible unmodeled noise sources and possible solutions have been identified.

  18. Air puff-induced 22-kHz calls in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Sato, Jun

    2016-03-01

    Air puff-induced ultrasonic vocalizations in adult rats, termed "22-kHz calls," have been applied as a useful animal model to develop psychoneurological and psychopharmacological studies focusing on human aversive affective disorders. To date, all previous studies on air puff-induced 22-kHz calls have used outbred rats. Furthermore, newly developed gene targeting technologies, which are essential for further advancement of biomedical experiments using air puff-induced 22-kHz calls, have enabled the production of genetically modified rats using inbred rat strains. Therefore, we considered it necessary to assess air puff-induced 22-kHz calls in inbred rats. In this study, we assessed differences in air puff-induced 22-kHz calls between inbred F344 rats and outbred Wistar rats. Male F344 rats displayed similar total (summed) duration of air puff-induced 22 kHz vocalizations to that of male Wistar rats, however, Wistar rats emitted fewer calls of longer duration, while F344 rats emitted higher number of vocalizations of shorter duration. Additionally, female F344 rats emitted fewer air puff-induced 22-kHz calls than did males, thus confirming the existence of a sex difference that was previously reported for outbred Wistar rats. The results of this study could confirm the reliability of air puff stimulus for induction of a similar amount of emissions of 22-kHz calls in different rat strains, enabling the use of air puff-induced 22-kHz calls in inbred F344 rats and derived genetically modified animals in future studies concerning human aversive affective disorders. PMID:26723270

  19. Magnetic field directional discontinuities. I - Minimum variance errors. [of interplanetary magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lepping, R. P.; Behannon, K. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper deals with a statistical analysis of the errors associated with a minimum variance analysis of directional discontinuities by use of an idealized model of these discontinuities and various simulations, and also by an examination of actual Mariner 10 interplanetary magnetic field data. An empirical expression is derived for the magnitude of the error in an estimated discontinuity normal component, relative to the total field across the directional discontinuity. The analysis was performed primarily to aid in differentiating between interplanetary tangential and rotational discontinuities observed by Mariner 10.

  20. Discontinuity interaction and anomalous source models in through transmission eddy current testing

    SciTech Connect

    Mergelas, B.J.; Atherton, D.L.

    1996-01-01

    Growing interest in the detection of external, axially aligned stress corrosion cracks in ferromagnetic oil and gas transmission pipelines, has prompted a detailed investigation of discontinuity interactions in remote field eddy current (RFEC) testing. Experimental measurements and numerical modeling were undertaken to study discontinuity interactions in a single through-wall transmission geometry for ferromagnetic and nonferromagnetic pipes. Anomalous source models have been introduced in order to explain the responses of axial discontinuities to circumferential eddy currents or circumferential AC magnetic fields. In nonferromagnetic material, discontinuity responses may be modeled by two types of anomalous eddy current sources. In ferromagnetic materials, an anomalous magnetization source is useful for explaining discontinuity response.

  1. 4-Hz oscillations synchronize prefrontal-amygdala circuits during fear behavior.

    PubMed

    Karalis, Nikolaos; Dejean, Cyril; Chaudun, Fabrice; Khoder, Suzana; Rozeske, Robert R; Wurtz, Hélène; Bagur, Sophie; Benchenane, Karim; Sirota, Anton; Courtin, Julien; Herry, Cyril

    2016-04-01

    Fear expression relies on the coordinated activity of prefrontal and amygdala circuits, yet the mechanisms allowing long-range network synchronization during fear remain unknown. Using a combination of extracellular recordings, pharmacological and optogenetic manipulations, we found that freezing, a behavioral expression of fear, temporally coincided with the development of sustained, internally generated 4-Hz oscillations in prefrontal-amygdala circuits. 4-Hz oscillations predict freezing onset and offset and synchronize prefrontal-amygdala circuits. Optogenetic induction of prefrontal 4-Hz oscillations coordinates prefrontal-amygdala activity and elicits fear behavior. These results unravel a sustained oscillatory mechanism mediating prefrontal-amygdala coupling during fear behavior. PMID:26878674

  2. Long-term underwater sound measurements in the shipping noise indicator bands 63Hz and 125Hz from the port of Falmouth Bay, UK.

    PubMed

    Garrett, J K; Blondel, Ph; Godley, B J; Pikesley, S K; Witt, M J; Johanning, L

    2016-09-15

    Chronic low-frequency anthropogenic sound, such as shipping noise, may be negatively affecting marine life. The EU's Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) includes a specific indicator focused on this noise. This indicator is the yearly average sound level in third-octave bands with centre frequencies at 63Hz and 125Hz. These levels are described for Falmouth Bay, UK, an active port at the entrance to the English Channel. Underwater sound was recorded for 30min h(-1) over the period June 2012 to November 2013 for a total of 435days. Mean third-octave levels were louder in the 125-Hz band (annual mean level of 96.0dB re 1μPa) than in the 63-Hz band (92.6dB re 1 μPa). These levels and variations are assessed as a function of seasons, shipping activity and wave height, providing comparison points for future monitoring activities, including the MSFD and emerging international regulation. PMID:27393210

  3. The Effect of Levothyroxine Discontinuation Timing on Postoperative Hypothyroidism after Hemithyroidectomy for Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Tae Kwun; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Baek, Jin Wook; Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Young Mi; Kim, Do Hun; Jung, Soo Jin; Ahn, Ki Jung

    2016-01-01

    Objective. No previous studies regarding the appropriate timing of thyroid hormone discontinuation after hemithyroidectomy have been published. This study aimed to identify the appropriate timing for levothyroxine discontinuation after hemithyroidectomy among patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). Methods. This study retrospectively evaluated 304 patients who underwent ≥1 attempt to discontinue levothyroxine after hemithyroidectomy for treating PTMC between January 2008 and December 2013. Fifty-three patients were excluded because of preoperative hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, a history of thyroid hormone or antithyroid therapy, no available serological data, or a postoperative follow-up of <24 months. We evaluated the associations of successful levothyroxine discontinuation with patient age, sex, preoperative serological data, underlying thyroid gland histopathology, anteroposterior diameter of the residual thyroid gland, number of discontinuation attempts, and initial discontinuation timing. Results. Among the 251 included patients, 125 patients (49.8%) achieved successful levothyroxine discontinuation during the follow-up period after hemithyroidectomy. There was a significant difference in the outcomes for patients who underwent an initial discontinuation attempt at ≤3 months and ≥4 months after hemithyroidectomy (p < 0.001). There were significant differences in the discontinuation outcomes according to underlying thyroid histopathology (p = 0.001), preoperative thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (p < 0.001), and number of discontinuation attempts (p < 0.001). Conclusions. Among patients with PTMC, the initial levothyroxine discontinuation attempt is recommended at ≥4 months after hemithyroidectomy. PMID:27293432

  4. The Effect of Levothyroxine Discontinuation Timing on Postoperative Hypothyroidism after Hemithyroidectomy for Papillary Thyroid Microcarcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ha, Tae Kwun; Kim, Dong Wook; Park, Ha Kyoung; Baek, Jin Wook; Lee, Yoo Jin; Park, Young Mi; Kim, Do Hun; Jung, Soo Jin; Ahn, Ki Jung

    2016-01-01

    Objective. No previous studies regarding the appropriate timing of thyroid hormone discontinuation after hemithyroidectomy have been published. This study aimed to identify the appropriate timing for levothyroxine discontinuation after hemithyroidectomy among patients with papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). Methods. This study retrospectively evaluated 304 patients who underwent ≥1 attempt to discontinue levothyroxine after hemithyroidectomy for treating PTMC between January 2008 and December 2013. Fifty-three patients were excluded because of preoperative hypothyroidism or hyperthyroidism, a history of thyroid hormone or antithyroid therapy, no available serological data, or a postoperative follow-up of <24 months. We evaluated the associations of successful levothyroxine discontinuation with patient age, sex, preoperative serological data, underlying thyroid gland histopathology, anteroposterior diameter of the residual thyroid gland, number of discontinuation attempts, and initial discontinuation timing. Results. Among the 251 included patients, 125 patients (49.8%) achieved successful levothyroxine discontinuation during the follow-up period after hemithyroidectomy. There was a significant difference in the outcomes for patients who underwent an initial discontinuation attempt at ≤3 months and ≥4 months after hemithyroidectomy (p < 0.001). There were significant differences in the discontinuation outcomes according to underlying thyroid histopathology (p = 0.001), preoperative thyroid-stimulating hormone levels (p < 0.001), and number of discontinuation attempts (p < 0.001). Conclusions. Among patients with PTMC, the initial levothyroxine discontinuation attempt is recommended at ≥4 months after hemithyroidectomy. PMID:27293432

  5. Self-consistent gyroviscous fluid model of rotational discontinuities

    SciTech Connect

    Hau, L.N.; Sonnerup, B.U.O. )

    1991-09-01

    One-dimensional steady state equilibrium structures of rotational discontinuities (RDs) have been constructed by use of a nondissipative gyroviscous two-fluid model in which electron inertia is neglected. The gyroviscous two-fluid RDs presented in this paper satisfy the MHD jump conditions for RDs exactly, i.e., all plasma properties as well as the magnetic field magnitude are identical and uniform on both sides of the layer, and v{sub x}, the normal flow speed there, is equal to the Alfven speed based on the normal magnetic field component B{sub x}. A necessary condition for the existence of RD solutions is derived by performing fixed-point analysis at the possible upstream and downstream states of RDs. This analysis shows that in the B{sub y}B{sub z} plane the magnetic structure near the fixed point is either a center or a saddle point. For those upstream conditions that give rise to a center point, no RD structure exists; when the fixed point examined is a saddle point, numerical integration of the one-dimension, steady state, nonlinear gyroviscous two-fluid equations indicates that self-consistent complete RD structures may sometimes (but not always) exist. These structures involve a rotation of the tangential magnetic field by an angle {phi} that is determined by the angle {theta} between the upstream (or downstream) magnetic field and the vector normal to the discontinuity, by the plasma beta value, {beta} = 2{mu}{sub o}p/B{sup 2}, and by the electron to ion temperature ratio T{sub e}/T{sub i}. Only electron-polarized structures have been found to date: within these discontinuities the field magnitude {vert bar}B{vert bar} always displays a maximum. If ion-polarized RDs exist, they would contain a minimum in {vert bar}B{vert bar}. However, no such structures have been found.

  6. Comparison of continuous and discontinuous discretizations for the Stokes flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehmann, Ragnar; Kaus, Boris J. P.; Lukáčová-Medvid'ová, Maria

    2013-04-01

    Finite element methods (FEM) of various types are widely used to solve incompressible flow problems in general and Stokes flow in particular. We present first results of a study comparing two numerical methods: the continuous Galerkin and the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method. For this purpose a Matlab code was developed employing 2D Stokes flow in a model setup with known analytical solution. [2] Nonlinearities of, e.g., the viscosity can lead to discontinuities in the velocity-pressure solution. Hence, using continuous approximations may result in avoidable inaccuracies. In contrast to the FEM, the DG method allows for discontinuities of velocity and pressure across interior mesh edges. This increases the number of degrees of freedom by a constant factor depending on the chosen element. A parameter is introduced to penalize the jumps in the velocity. The DG method provides the capability to locally adapt the polynomial degree of the shape functions. Moreover, it only needs communication between directly adjacent mesh cells, which makes it highly flexible and easy to parallelize. The velocity and pressure errors of the methods are measured in the L1-norm [1]. Orders of convergence are determined and compared. [1] Duretz, T., May, D.A., Garya, T.V. and Tackley, P.J., 2011. Discretization errors and free surface stabilization in the finite difference and marker-in-cell method for applied geodynamics: A numerical Study, Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst., 12, Q07004, doi:10.1029/2011GC003567. [2] Zhong, S., 1996. Analytic solution for Stokes' flow with lateral variations in viscosity, Geophys. J. Int., 124, 18-128, doi:10.1111/j.1365-246X.1996.tb06349.x.

  7. Effects of 60 Hz electric fields on operant and social stress behaviors of nonhuman primates

    SciTech Connect

    Rogers, W.R.; Lucas, J.H.; Moore, G.T.; Orr, J.L.

    1985-01-01

    An overall description of this research program is presented. The objectives are to investigate using nonhuman primates, possible behavioral effects associated with exposure to high-intensity, 60 Hz, electric fields. 6 tabs.

  8. 5 Hz, >250 mJ Optical Parametric Chirped-Pulse Amplifier at 1053 nm

    SciTech Connect

    Bagnoud, V.; Begishev, I.A.; Guardalben, M.J.; Puth, J.; Zuegel, J.D.

    2005-07-15

    A 250 mJ, 5 Hz repetition rate optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier with near-Fourier-transform-limited, 430 fs pulses and a beam that can be focused to near the diffraction limit is demonstrated.

  9. The auditory transient 40-Hz response is insensitive to changes in stimulus features.

    PubMed

    Tiitinen, H; Sinkkonen, J; May, P; Näätänen, R

    1994-12-30

    Ten subjects were presented with tone pips occasionally interspersed with deviant tone pips of a higher frequency. The transient 40-Hz response was insensitive to change in qualitative stimulus features. In contrast, stimulus changes elicited a later and slower event-related potential, the mismatch negativity (MMN). As a response to changes in stimulus features implies the existence of a memory system, and because changes in qualitative stimulus aspects do not activate the generator mechanisms underlying the 40-Hz response, the 40-Hz response can be dissociated from memory mechanisms. Furthermore, the analysis of phase-locked (synchronous) and non-phase-locked (asynchronous) responses revealed that the 40-Hz response might be caused by the synchronization of already active oscillators. PMID:7703412

  10. Early diet affects the development of 3-6 Hz EEG activity in infants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This longitudinal study investigated whether diet affects brain physiological functions during infancy. Power spectra (3-6 Hz) of electroencephalographic signals (high density recordings) in the bilateral prefrontal, frontal, central, parietal, occipital, anterior temporal, mid-temporal, and posteri...

  11. Narrow-band 5 kHz hiss observed in the vicinity of the plasmapause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondoh, T.; Nakamura, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Murakami, T.

    1981-01-01

    Latitudinal distributions of narrow-band 5 kHz hisses have been statistically obtained by using VLF electric field data received from the ISIS-1 and -2 at Syowa station, Antarctica and Kashima station, Japan, in order to study an origin of the narrow-band 5 kHz hisses which are often observed on the ground in mid- and low-latitudes. The result shows that the narrow-band 5 kHz hiss occurs most frequently at geomagnetically invariant latitudes from 55 to 63 deg, which are roughly the plasmapause latitudes at various geomagnetic activities, both in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. The narrow-band 5 kHz hiss seems to be generated by the cyclotron instabilities of several keV to a few ten keV electrons for the most feasible electron density of 10 to 1000 per cu cm in the vicinity of the equatorial plasmapause.

  12. Are we allowed to discontinue medical treatment in this child?

    PubMed

    Leeuwenburgh-Pronk, Wendela G; Miller-Smith, Laura; Forman, Vicki; Lantos, John D; Tibboel, Dick; Buysse, Corinne

    2015-03-01

    One of the most difficult ethical dilemmas in pediatrics today arises when a child has complex chronic conditions that are not curable and cause discomfort with no prospect of any improvement on quality of life. In the context of medical futility, it is harmful to prolong medical treatment. The question is: How can medical treatment be discontinued when the child is not dependent on mechanical ventilation or ICU treatment? What is the appropriate palliative care and does it justify the use of sedatives or analgesics if this also might shorten life? PMID:25647670

  13. A discontinuous Galerkin method for Vlasov - like systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamba, I. M.; Cheng, Yingda; Morrison, P. J.

    2011-10-01

    The discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method developed by some of us for integrating the Vlasov-Poisson system is described and generalized. Higher order polynomials on basis elements are used and extensive error analyses, including recurrence properties, are discussed. The method is conservative and preserves positivity of the distribution function. Several linear and nonlinear examples are treated that elucidate the DG methods ability to resolve filamentation and obtain high resolution BGK states. PJM was upported by U.S. Dept. of Energy Contract # DE-FG05-80ET-53088.

  14. Creep deformation characteristics of ductile discontinuous fiber reinforced composites

    SciTech Connect

    Biner, S.B.

    1993-10-01

    Role of material parameters and geometric parameters of ductile reinforcing phase on the creep deformation behavior of 20% discontinuously reinforced composite was numerically investigated including debonding and pull-out mechanisms. Results indicate that for rigidly bonded interfaces, the creep rate of the composite is not significantly influenced by the material properties and geometric parameters of the ductile reinforcing phase due to development of large hydrostatic stress and constrained deformation in the reinforcement. For debonding interfaces, the geometric parameters of the reinforcing phase are important; however, event with very weak interfacial behavior low composite creep rates can be achieved by suitable selection of the geometric parameters of the ductile reinforcing phase.

  15. Acoustic scattering in flexible waveguide involving step discontinuity.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Muhammad; Nawaz, Rab; Ayub, Muhammad; Wahab, Abdul

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the propagation and scattering of acoustic waves in a flexible wave-guide involving step discontinuity at an interface is considered. The emerging boundary value problem is non-Sturm-Liouville and is solved by employing a hybrid mode-matching technique. The physical scattering process and attenuation of duct modes versus frequency regime and change of height is studied. Moreover, the mode-matching solution is validated through a series of numerical experiments by testifying the power conservation identity and matching interface conditions. PMID:25084019

  16. Cryogenic thermal storage system for discontinuous industrial vacuum processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruzzi, M.; Chesi, A.; Baldi, A.; Tarani, F.; Mori, R.; Scaringella, M.; Carnevale, E.

    2012-10-01

    Phase Change Materials are proposed for refrigerating systems in discontinuous industrial vacuum processes where temperatures as low as -140 ÷ -100°C are necessary within time-frames representing 10÷20% of total operating time. An application is proposed for cooling systems used in a Physical Vapour Deposition (PVD) apparatus. A prototype has been manufactured which couples a cryopump with a reservoir filled with MethylCycloPentane (MCP-C6H12) and a distribution line where nitrogen in the gaseous state is flowing. Preliminary tests show that temperatures of about -120°C are actually achieved within time windows compatible with PVD applications.

  17. Damping behavior of Discontinuous Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haldar, Amit Kumar; Aggarwal, Ishan; Batra, N. K.

    2010-11-01

    Discontinuous fiber reinforced composites are being used in many antivibration applications due to their time and temperature dependent specific mechanical properties. For utilization of this material to specific engineering applications there is a need to understand the damping behavior of composites under dynamic loading. For this work, unreinforced and 20% long and short reinforced glass fiber polypropylene composite materials were tested for free transverse vibration damping characteristics under static as well as fatigue loading conditions. The damping characteristics are quantified by decay pattern and natural frequency. Presence of reinforced fibers increases the damping capacity. Among reinforcements, short fiber reinforced polypropylene shows increased damping capacity then long glass fiber reinforced polypropylene.

  18. Discontinuous Spectral Difference Method for Conservation Laws on Unstructured Grids

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yen; Vinokur, Marcel

    2004-01-01

    A new, high-order, conservative, and efficient discontinuous spectral finite difference (SD) method for conservation laws on unstructured grids is developed. The concept of discontinuous and high-order local representations to achieve conservation and high accuracy is utilized in a manner similar to the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) and the Spectral Volume (SV) methods, but while these methods are based on the integrated forms of the equations, the new method is based on the differential form to attain a simpler formulation and higher efficiency. Conventional unstructured finite-difference and finite-volume methods require data reconstruction based on the least-squares formulation using neighboring point or cell data. Since each unknown employs a different stencil, one must repeat the least-squares inversion for every point or cell at each time step, or to store the inversion coefficients. In a high-order, three-dimensional computation, the former would involve impractically large CPU time, while for the latter the memory requirement becomes prohibitive. In addition, the finite-difference method does not satisfy the integral conservation in general. By contrast, the DG and SV methods employ a local, universal reconstruction of a given order of accuracy in each cell in terms of internally defined conservative unknowns. Since the solution is discontinuous across cell boundaries, a Riemann solver is necessary to evaluate boundary flux terms and maintain conservation. In the DG method, a Galerkin finite-element method is employed to update the nodal unknowns within each cell. This requires the inversion of a mass matrix, and the use of quadratures of twice the order of accuracy of the reconstruction to evaluate the surface integrals and additional volume integrals for nonlinear flux functions. In the SV method, the integral conservation law is used to update volume averages over subcells defined by a geometrically similar partition of each grid cell. As the order of

  19. GPU-accelerated discontinuous Galerkin methods on hybrid meshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Jesse; Wang, Zheng; Modave, Axel; Remacle, Jean-Francois; Warburton, T.

    2016-08-01

    We present a time-explicit discontinuous Galerkin (DG) solver for the time-domain acoustic wave equation on hybrid meshes containing vertex-mapped hexahedral, wedge, pyramidal and tetrahedral elements. Discretely energy-stable formulations are presented for both Gauss-Legendre and Gauss-Legendre-Lobatto (Spectral Element) nodal bases for the hexahedron. Stable timestep restrictions for hybrid meshes are derived by bounding the spectral radius of the DG operator using order-dependent constants in trace and Markov inequalities. Computational efficiency is achieved under a combination of element-specific kernels (including new quadrature-free operators for the pyramid), multi-rate timestepping, and acceleration using Graphics Processing Units.

  20. Strong wind structure near a sea-land roughness discontinuity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sacré, C.

    1981-08-01

    During the winters of 1977 and 1978, the Centre Scientifique et Technique du Bâtiment (CSTB) carried out a study on the Atlantic littoral in order to determine the modifications to which an air flow is subjected in the surface boundary layer, as it crosses a sea-land discontinuity. The study shows that, in the zone directly leeward of the shore, the structure of the flow is strongly influenced by the acceleration effect of the dune and by the magnitude of the land roughness. In particular, there is a significant disturbance of the ‘logarithmic’ equilibrium of the air flow.

  1. Continuous and Discontinuous Dynamic Unbinding Transitions in Drawn Film Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galvagno, M.; Tseluiko, D.; Lopez, H.; Thiele, U.

    2014-04-01

    When a plate is withdrawn from a liquid bath a coating layer is deposited whose thickness and homogeneity depend on the velocity and the wetting properties of the plate. Using a long-wave mesoscopic hydrodynamic description that incorporates wettability via a Derjaguin (disjoining) pressure we identify four qualitatively different dynamic transitions between microscopic and macroscopic coatings that are out-of-equilibrium equivalents of known equilibrium unbinding transitions. Namely, these are continuous and discontinuous dynamic wetting and emptying transitions. Several of their features have no equivalent at equilibrium.

  2. BIOVENTING - Groundwater Aeration by Discontinuous Oxygen Gas Pulse Injections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schirmer, M.

    2003-12-01

    Groundwater aeration by discontinuous oxygen gas pulse injections appears to be a promising concept for enhanced natural attenuation of dissolved contaminants that are susceptible for oxygenase enzyme attacks. Oxygen amendments facilitate indigenous microbiota to catabolize groundwater pollutants, such as aromatics, that are considered to be recalcitrant in absence of dissolved oxygen. As a rule, natural attenuation of many pollutants under aerobic conditions is considerably faster than under anaerobic conditions. Thus, enhancing the dissolved oxygen level appears to be worthwhile. In situ aeration of groundwater has been accomplished by air sparging, H2O2-supply, or by utilization of oxygen release compounds. However, continuous aeration of previously anaerobic groundwater is not desirable for several reasons: (a) economic efforts too high, (b) pollutant dislocation towards surface (desired only in air sparging), (c) risk of aquifer clogging (gas clogging, oxidation of ferrous iron, formation of bioslimes). In contrast, discontinuous oxygen gas sparging provides only for periodical groundwater aeration which is followed by microaerobic and suboxic conditions. Microaerobic conditions can prevail spatially (e.g., at plume fringes or within biofilms) or temporarily (e.g., at discontinuous bioventing). They still allow adapted bacteria to transform environmental pollutants to less toxic compounds, e.g., aromatic ring cleavage after dioxygenasis attack. Ring cleavage products, on the other hand, may be degraded more easily by anaerobic consortia than the initial aromatic compounds, making oxygen depletion periods highly intriguing in regard to an initiation of natural attenuation processes at plume fringes. In our work we outline the effect of oxygen depletion conditions on biodegradation of monchlorobenzene (MCB) as they occur subsequently to temporary aeration periods. For microaerobic conditions, relative to the oxygen supply, a stoichiometric transformation of MCB

  3. Effect of guideway discontinuities on magnetic levitation and drag forces

    SciTech Connect

    Rossing, T.D.; Korte, R.; Hull, J.R. )

    1991-11-15

    Transients in the lift and drag forces on a NdFeB permanent magnet were observed as the magnet passed over various discontinuities in a rotating aluminum disk at velocities of 4 to 25 m/s. For full cuts in the disk, the amplitude of the lift and drag transients and the wave form of the drag transient depend on the width, and the amplitudes are much larger than for partial cuts. The use of a backing plate to join two cut segments is ineffective.

  4. Simulating diffusion processes in discontinuous media: Benchmark tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejay, Antoine; Pichot, Géraldine

    2016-06-01

    We present several benchmark tests for Monte Carlo methods simulating diffusion in one-dimensional discontinuous media. These benchmark tests aim at studying the potential bias of the schemes and their impact on the estimation of micro- or macroscopic quantities (repartition of masses, fluxes, mean residence time, …). These benchmark tests are backed by a statistical analysis to filter out the bias from the unavoidable Monte Carlo error. We apply them on four different algorithms. The results of the numerical tests give a valuable insight into the fine behavior of these schemes, as well as rules to choose between them.

  5. Starting, Choosing, Changing, and Discontinuing Drug Treatment for Epilepsy Patients.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Dieter

    2016-05-01

    Epilepsy is a serious brain disease with seizures as the main symptom, which can be successfully treated with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). AEDs are usually started as soon as the epilepsy diagnosis has been established. About 80% of adults with new-onset epilepsy will achieve lasting seizure remission on AEDs. However, 20% continue to have seizures despite treatment (drug-resistant epilepsy). AEDs can be safely discontinued after several years of seizure remission during early treatment. Remarkably, 60% of all treated patients remain in remission off AEDs, making epilepsy one of the best treatable among chronic brain diseases. PMID:27086984

  6. Aging and the 4-kHz Air-Bone Gap

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nondahl, David M.; Tweed, Ted S.; Cruickshanks, Karen J.; Wiley, Terry L.; Dalton, Dayna S.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors assessed age- and sex-related patterns in the prevalence and 10-year incidence of 4-kHz air-bone gaps and associated factors. Method: Data were obtained as part of the longitudinal, population-based Epidemiology of Hearing Loss Study ( Cruickshanks et al., 1998). An air-bone gap at 4 kHz was defined as an…

  7. An extrasolar extreme-ultraviolet object. II - The nature of HZ 43. [hot white dwarf star

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margon, B.; Liebert, J.; Lampton, M.; Spinrad, H.; Bowyer, S.; Gatewood, G.

    1976-01-01

    A variety of data are presented concerning the spectrum, distance, temperature, and evolutionary state of the hot white dwarf HZ 43, the first extrasolar object to be detected in the EUV band. The data include spectrophotometry of the star and its red dwarf companion (HZ 43B), a trigonometric parallax for the star, its tangential velocity, and results of soft X-ray and EUV observations. The main conclusions are that: (1) the spectrum of HZ 43A is that of a hot DAwk star, (2) HZ 43B is a dM3.5e star, (3) the distance of the system is about 65 pc, (4) the tangential velocity is not atypical of white dwarfs, and (5) the stellar energy distribution of HZ 43A is well fitted by a black body with an effective temperature of approximately 110,000 K. Evolutionary implications of the existence of an object as hot as HZ 43A are briefly considered, and it is suggested that the progenitors of hot DA stars must include objects hotter than spectral type sdB, with logical possibilities being nuclei of planetary nebulae and sdO stars.

  8. Ultrasonic Plastic Welding Using 90 kHz Upper and Lower Vibration Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsujino, Jiromaru; Ishii, Yasuhiro; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Yamazaki, Hiroyuki

    1994-05-01

    Direct and transmission welding characteristics of an ultrasonic plastic welding system using 90 kHz upper and lower vibration systems are studied. By using high frequency, welding characteristics of plastic specimens may be improved because ultrasonic vibration absorption by plastic material increases as vibration frequency increases. The 90 kHz ultrasonic vibration source designed consists of a radial-to-longitudinal vibration direction converter with four bolt-clamped Langevin-type piezoelectric ceramic (lead-zircon-titanate; PZT) transducers of 15 mm in diameter. The 90 kHz welding equipment consists of two vibration sources positioned at upper and lower parts and a welding frame. In the case of direct welding of various sheet specimens, the required total velocity of 90 kHz upper and lower welding tips is less than 60% that of 27 kHz welding tips. Direct and transmission welding characteristics of a 90 kHz welding system with two vibration sources are significantly improved compared with those of conventional systems.

  9. Total and local impedances of the chest wall up to 10 Hz.

    PubMed

    Barnas, G M; Yoshino, K; Fredberg, J; Kikuchi, Y; Loring, S H; Mead, J

    1990-04-01

    To understand how bical mechanical chest wall (CW) properties are related to those of the CW as a whole, we measured esophageal and gastric pressures, CW volume changes (measured with a head-out body plethysmograph), and anteroposterior and transverse CW diameter changes (measured with magnetometers attached to the surface) during sinusoidal forcing at the mouth (2.5% vital capacity, 0.5-10 Hz) in four healthy subjects. Total CW resistance decreased sharply as frequency rose to 3-4 Hz and remained relatively constant at higher frequencies. Total CW reactance became less negative with increasing frequency but showed no tendency to change sign. Above 2 Hz, diameters measured at different locations changed asynchronously between and within the rib cage and abdomen. "Local pathway impedances" (ratios of esophageal or gastric pressure to a rate of diameter change) showed frequency dependence similar to that of the total CW less than 3 Hz. Local pathway impedances increased during contraction of respiratory muscles acting on the pathway. We conclude that 1) total CW behavior is mainly a reflection of its individual local properties at less than or equal to 3 Hz, 2) local impedances within the rib cage or within the abdomen can change independently in some situations, and 3) asynchronies that develop within the CW during forcing greater than 3 Hz suggest that two compartments may be insufficient to describe CW properties from impedance measurements. PMID:2140827

  10. Two degree discontinuity as explained by boundary mixing

    SciTech Connect

    Minster, J.F.

    1985-09-20

    A three dimensional description of the two-degree discontinuity (TDD) in the North Atlantic western basin is made from the TTO and 1981 North Atlantic section data. In 1981 this break in the Theta-S slope of the Atlantic deep waters is found at Theta = 1.90/sup 0/C, S = 34.895 per thousand, near the western flank of the basin, and it seems to follow an isopycnal at sigma = 45.89 per thousand. It encounters the western boundary at the level of the Western Boundary Undercurrent (WBUC). Based on nutrient data, the TDD is more sharply defined along the western flank of the basin than along the Mid-Atlantic Ridge, where the TDD water is fresher and colder and where one finds more Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) above the discontinuity. The TDD is consistent with vertical mixing being dominantly a boundary process: along the western flank of the basin, upward mixing of AABW is stopped at the WBUC level by the strong southward flow of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW). Along the ridge, boundary mixing allows AABW to mix upward with waters from shallower levels. 22 references, 9 figures, 2 tables.

  11. Pulsations of rapidly rotating stars with compositional discontinuities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reese, Daniel R.; Lara, Francisco Espinosa; Rieutord, Michel

    2014-02-01

    Recent observations of rapidly rotating stars have revealed the presence of regular patterns in their pulsation spectra. This has raised the question as to their physical origin, and, in particular, whether they can be explained by an asymptotic frequency formula for low-degree acoustic modes, as recently discovered through numerical calculations and theoretical considerations. In this context, a key question is whether compositional/density gradients can adversely affect such patterns to the point of hindering their identification. To answer this question, we calculate frequency spectra using two-dimensional ESTER stellar models. These models use a multi-domain spectral approach, allowing us to easily insert a compositional discontinuity while retaining a high numerical accuracy. We analyse the effects of such discontinuities on both the frequencies and eigenfunctions of pulsation modes in the asymptotic regime. We find that although there is more scatter around the asymptotic frequency formula, the semi-large frequency separation can still be clearly identified in a spectrum of low-degree acoustic modes.

  12. Hollow cylindrical plasma filament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding

    SciTech Connect

    Alshershby, Mostafa; Hao Zuoqiang; Lin Jingquan

    2013-01-15

    We have explored here a hollow cylindrical laser plasma multifilament waveguide with discontinuous finite thickness cladding, in which the separation between individual filaments is in the range of several millimeters and the waveguide cladding thickness is in the order of the microwave penetration depth. Such parameters give a closer representation of a realistic laser filament waveguide sustained by a long stable propagation of femtosecond (fs) laser pulses. We report how the waveguide losses depend on structural parameters like normalized plasma filament spacing, filament to filament distance or pitch, normal spatial frequency, and radius of the plasma filament. We found that for typical plasma parameters, the proposed waveguide can support guided modes of microwaves in extremely high frequency even with a cladding consisting of only one ring of plasma filaments. The loss of the microwave radiation is mainly caused by tunneling through the discontinuous finite cladding, i.e., confinement loss, and is weakly dependent on the plasma absorption. In addition, the analysis indicates that the propagation loss is fairly large compared with the loss of a plasma waveguide with a continuous infinite thickness cladding, while they are comparable when using a cladding contains more than one ring. Compared to free space propagation, this waveguide still presents a superior microwave transmission to some distance in the order of the filamentation length; thus, the laser plasma filaments waveguide may be a potential channel for transporting pulsed-modulated microwaves if ensuring a long and stable propagation of fs laser pulses.

  13. Long discontinuous fiber composite structure: Forming and structural mechanics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pipes, R. B.; Santare, M. H.; Otoole, B. J.; Beaussart, A. J.; Deheer, D. C.; Okine, R. K.

    1991-01-01

    Cost effective composite structure has motivated the investigation of several new approaches to develop composite structure from innovative material forms. Among the promising new approaches is the conversion of planar sheet to components of complex curvature through sheet forming or stretch forming. In both cases, the potential for material stretch in the fiber direction appears to offer a clear advantage in formability over continuous fiber systems. In the present study, the authors have established a framework which allows the simulation of the anisotropic mechanisms of deformation of long discontinuous fiber laminates wherein the matrix phase is a viscous fluid. The initial study focuses upon the establishment of micromechanics models for prediction of the effective anisotropic viscosities of the oriented fiber assembly in a viscous matrix. Next, the developed constitutive relation is employed through an analogy with incompressible elasticity to exercise the finite element technique for determination of local fiber orientation and laminate thickness after forming. Results are presented for the stretch bending of a curved beam from an arbitrary composite laminate and the bulging of a clamped sheet. Structural analyses are conducted to determine the effect of microstructure on the performance of curved beams manufactured from long discontinuous fiber composites. For the purposes of this study, several curved beams with ideal and non-ideal microstructures are compared for response under pure bending. Material parameters are determined from a separate microstructural analysis.

  14. WITHDRAWN--a resource for withdrawn and discontinued drugs.

    PubMed

    Siramshetty, Vishal B; Nickel, Janette; Omieczynski, Christian; Gohlke, Bjoern-Oliver; Drwal, Malgorzata N; Preissner, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Post-marketing drug withdrawals can be associated with various events, ranging from safety issues such as reported deaths or severe side-effects, to a multitude of non-safety problems including lack of efficacy, manufacturing, regulatory or business issues. During the last century, the majority of drugs voluntarily withdrawn from the market or prohibited by regulatory agencies was reported to be related to adverse drug reactions. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of toxicity is of utmost importance for current and future drug discovery. Here, we present WITHDRAWN, a resource for withdrawn and discontinued drugs publicly accessible at http://cheminfo.charite.de/withdrawn. Today, the database comprises 578 withdrawn or discontinued drugs, their structures, important physico-chemical properties, protein targets and relevant signaling pathways. A special focus of the database lies on the drugs withdrawn due to adverse reactions and toxic effects. For approximately one half of the drugs in the database, safety issues were identified as the main reason for withdrawal. Withdrawal reasons were extracted from the literature and manually classified into toxicity types representing adverse effects on different organs. A special feature of the database is the presence of multiple search options which will allow systematic analyses of withdrawn drugs and their mechanisms of toxicity. PMID:26553801

  15. Polaronic discontinuities induced by off-diagonal coupling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuyu; Duan, Liwei; Chen, Qinghu; Zhao, Yang

    2012-07-21

    In this paper, we study a form of the Holstein molecular crystal model in which the influence of lattice vibrations on the transfers of electronic excitations between neighboring sites (off-diagonal coupling) is taken into account. Using the Toyozawa Ansatz and the Lanczos algorithm, the Holstein Hamiltonian with two types of off-diagonal coupling is studied focusing on a number of analyticity issues in the ground state. For finite-sized lattices and antisymmetric coupling, a sequence of discontinuities are found in the polaron energy dispersion, the size of the ground-state phonon cloud, and the linearized von Neumann entropy used to quantify the quantum entanglement between the exciton and the phonons in the ground state. Such behavior is accompanied by a shift of the ground-state crystal momentum from zero to nonzero values as the coupling strength is increased. In the thermodynamic limit, all discontinuities associated with antisymmetric coupling vanish except the one corresponding to the initial departure of the ground-state wavevector from the Brillouin zone center. For the case of symmetric off-diagonal coupling, a smooth crossover is found to exist in all parameters regimes. PMID:22830684

  16. WITHDRAWN—a resource for withdrawn and discontinued drugs

    PubMed Central

    Siramshetty, Vishal B.; Nickel, Janette; Omieczynski, Christian; Gohlke, Bjoern-Oliver; Drwal, Malgorzata N.; Preissner, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Post-marketing drug withdrawals can be associated with various events, ranging from safety issues such as reported deaths or severe side-effects, to a multitude of non-safety problems including lack of efficacy, manufacturing, regulatory or business issues. During the last century, the majority of drugs voluntarily withdrawn from the market or prohibited by regulatory agencies was reported to be related to adverse drug reactions. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of toxicity is of utmost importance for current and future drug discovery. Here, we present WITHDRAWN, a resource for withdrawn and discontinued drugs publicly accessible at http://cheminfo.charite.de/withdrawn. Today, the database comprises 578 withdrawn or discontinued drugs, their structures, important physico-chemical properties, protein targets and relevant signaling pathways. A special focus of the database lies on the drugs withdrawn due to adverse reactions and toxic effects. For approximately one half of the drugs in the database, safety issues were identified as the main reason for withdrawal. Withdrawal reasons were extracted from the literature and manually classified into toxicity types representing adverse effects on different organs. A special feature of the database is the presence of multiple search options which will allow systematic analyses of withdrawn drugs and their mechanisms of toxicity. PMID:26553801

  17. Asymptotic, multigroup flux reconstruction and consistent discontinuity factors

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Trahan, Travis J.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2015-05-12

    Recent theoretical work has led to an asymptotically derived expression for reconstructing the neutron flux from lattice functions and multigroup diffusion solutions. The leading-order asymptotic term is the standard expression for flux reconstruction, i.e., it is the product of a shape function, obtained through a lattice calculation, and the multigroup diffusion solution. The first-order asymptotic correction term is significant only where the gradient of the diffusion solution is not small. Inclusion of this first-order correction term can significantly improve the accuracy of the reconstructed flux. One may define discontinuity factors (DFs) to make certain angular moments of the reconstructed fluxmore » continuous across interfaces between assemblies in 1-D. Indeed, the standard assembly discontinuity factors make the zeroth moment (scalar flux) of the reconstructed flux continuous. The inclusion of the correction term in the flux reconstruction provides an additional degree of freedom that can be used to make two angular moments of the reconstructed flux continuous across interfaces by using current DFs in addition to flux DFs. Thus, numerical results demonstrate that using flux and current DFs together can be more accurate than using only flux DFs, and that making the second angular moment continuous can be more accurate than making the zeroth moment continuous.« less

  18. Asymptotic, multigroup flux reconstruction and consistent discontinuity factors

    SciTech Connect

    Trahan, Travis J.; Larsen, Edward W.

    2015-05-12

    Recent theoretical work has led to an asymptotically derived expression for reconstructing the neutron flux from lattice functions and multigroup diffusion solutions. The leading-order asymptotic term is the standard expression for flux reconstruction, i.e., it is the product of a shape function, obtained through a lattice calculation, and the multigroup diffusion solution. The first-order asymptotic correction term is significant only where the gradient of the diffusion solution is not small. Inclusion of this first-order correction term can significantly improve the accuracy of the reconstructed flux. One may define discontinuity factors (DFs) to make certain angular moments of the reconstructed flux continuous across interfaces between assemblies in 1-D. Indeed, the standard assembly discontinuity factors make the zeroth moment (scalar flux) of the reconstructed flux continuous. The inclusion of the correction term in the flux reconstruction provides an additional degree of freedom that can be used to make two angular moments of the reconstructed flux continuous across interfaces by using current DFs in addition to flux DFs. Thus, numerical results demonstrate that using flux and current DFs together can be more accurate than using only flux DFs, and that making the second angular moment continuous can be more accurate than making the zeroth moment continuous.

  19. Investigations of discontinuous permafrost using electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewkowicz, Antoni

    2016-04-01

    We have used electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) extensively over the past five years to examine frozen ground characteristics at natural and disturbed sites within the discontinuous permafrost zones of northern Canada. Examples of pure research include investigations to delimit permafrost patch size, to examine changes in permafrost conditions at altitudinal treeline, and to assess permafrost thickness in palsa bogs. Applied research has included hazard mapping where ERT, in association with boreholes, has been used to characterize permafrost conditions in different terrain units at Yukon communities as part of planning for climate change adaptation. ERT has also been used to examine temporal change through repeated surveys at sites equipped with permanent arrays. Rapid change is occurring at sites which were subject to recent forest fire in the Northwest Territories. Gradual reductions in average resistivity at sites along the Alaska Highway in Yukon and northern British Columbia indicate progressive increases in unfrozen moisture while ground temperatures at the same sites have increased only very slightly. We conclude that ERT should become a standard technique for the investigation of discontinuous permafrost sites and should be incorporated as a monitoring technique within international programs such as the Global Terrestrial Network for Permafrost.

  20. Discontinuity detection in multivariate space for stochastic simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Archibald, Rick Gelb, Anne Saxena, Rishu Xiu Dongbin

    2009-04-20

    Edge detection has traditionally been associated with detecting physical space jump discontinuities in one dimension, e.g. seismic signals, and two dimensions, e.g. digital images. Hence most of the research on edge detection algorithms is restricted to these contexts. High dimension edge detection can be of significant importance, however. For instance, stochastic variants of classical differential equations not only have variables in space/time dimensions, but additional dimensions are often introduced to the problem by the nature of the random inputs. The stochastic solutions to such problems sometimes contain discontinuities in the corresponding random space and a prior knowledge of jump locations can be very helpful in increasing the accuracy of the final solution. Traditional edge detection methods typically require uniform grid point distribution. They also often involve the computation of gradients and/or Laplacians, which can become very complicated to compute as the number of dimensions increases. The polynomial annihilation edge detection method, on the other hand, is more flexible in terms of its geometric specifications and is furthermore relatively easy to apply. This paper discusses the numerical implementation of the polynomial annihilation edge detection method to high dimensional functions that arise when solving stochastic partial differential equations.