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Sample records for 8-bit gray scale

  1. 8-Bit Gray Scale Images of Fingerprint Image Groups

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST 8-Bit Gray Scale Images of Fingerprint Image Groups (PC database for purchase)   The NIST database of fingerprint images contains 2000 8-bit gray scale fingerprint image pairs. A newer version of the compression/decompression software on the CDROM can be found at the website http://www.nist.gov/itl/iad/ig/nigos.cfm as part of the NBIS package.

  2. A VLSI single chip 8-bit finite field multiplier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deutsch, L. J.; Shao, H. M.; Hsu, I. S.; Truong, T. K.

    1985-01-01

    A Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) architecture and layout for an 8-bit finite field multiplier is described. The algorithm used in this design was developed by Massey and Omura. A normal basis representation of finite field elements is used to reduce the multiplication complexity. It is shown that a drastic improvement was achieved in this design. This multiplier will be used intensively in the implementation of an 8-bit Reed-Solomon decoder and in many other related projects.

  3. The FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard for gray-scale fingerprint image compression

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M. ); Hopper, T. )

    1993-01-01

    The FBI has recently adopted a standard for the compression of digitized 8-bit gray-scale fingerprint images. The standard is based on scalar quantization of a 64-subband discrete wavelet transform decomposition of the images, followed by Huffman coding. Novel features of the algorithm include the use of symmetric boundary conditions for transforming finite-length signals and a subband decomposition tailored for fingerprint images scanned at 500 dpi. The standard is intended for use in conjunction with ANSI/NBS-CLS 1-1993, American National Standard Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint Information, and the FBI's Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System.

  4. The FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard for gray-scale fingerprint image compression

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M.; Hopper, T.

    1993-05-01

    The FBI has recently adopted a standard for the compression of digitized 8-bit gray-scale fingerprint images. The standard is based on scalar quantization of a 64-subband discrete wavelet transform decomposition of the images, followed by Huffman coding. Novel features of the algorithm include the use of symmetric boundary conditions for transforming finite-length signals and a subband decomposition tailored for fingerprint images scanned at 500 dpi. The standard is intended for use in conjunction with ANSI/NBS-CLS 1-1993, American National Standard Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint Information, and the FBI`s Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System.

  5. FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard for gray-scale fingerprint image compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradley, Jonathan N.; Brislawn, Christopher M.; Hopper, Thomas

    1993-08-01

    The FBI has recently adopted a standard for the compression of digitized 8-bit gray-scale fingerprint images. The standard is based on scalar quantization of a 64-subband discrete wavelet transform decomposition of the images, followed by Huffman coding. Novel features of the algorithm include the use of symmetric boundary conditions for transforming finite- length signals and a subband decomposition tailored for fingerprint images scanned at 500 dpi. The standard is intended for use in conjunction with ANSI/NBS-CLS 1-1993, American National Standard Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint Information, and the FBI's Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System.

  6. Quantized-"Gray-Scale" Electronic Synapses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamb, James L.; Daud, Taher; Thakoor, Anilkumar P.

    1990-01-01

    Proposed array of programmable synaptic connections for electronic neural network applications offers multiple quantized levels of connection strength using only simple, two-terminal, binary microswitch devices. Subgrids in fine grid of programmable resistive connections connected externally in parallel to form coarser synaptic grid. By selection of pattern of connections in each subgrid, connection strength of synaptic node represented by that subgrid set at quantized "gray level". Device structures promise implementations of quantized-"gray-scale" synaptic arrays with very high density.

  7. Compression of gray-scale fingerprint images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopper, Thomas

    1994-03-01

    The FBI has developed a specification for the compression of gray-scale fingerprint images to support paperless identification services within the criminal justice community. The algorithm is based on a scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform decomposition of the images, followed by zero run encoding and Huffman encoding.

  8. NSC 800, 8-bit CMOS microprocessor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suszko, S. F.

    1984-01-01

    The NSC 800 is an 8-bit CMOS microprocessor manufactured by National Semiconductor Corp., Santa Clara, California. The 8-bit microprocessor chip with 40-pad pin-terminals has eight address buffers (A8-A15), eight data address -- I/O buffers (AD(sub 0)-AD(sub 7)), six interrupt controls and sixteen timing controls with a chip clock generator and an 8-bit dynamic RAM refresh circuit. The 22 internal registers have the capability of addressing 64K bytes of memory and 256 I/O devices. The chip is fabricated on N-type (100) silicon using self-aligned polysilicon gates and local oxidation process technology. The chip interconnect consists of four levels: Aluminum, Polysi 2, Polysi 1, and P(+) and N(+) diffusions. The four levels, except for contact interface, are isolated by interlevel oxide. The chip is packaged in a 40-pin dual-in-line (DIP), side brazed, hermetically sealed, ceramic package with a metal lid. The operating voltage for the device is 5 V. It is available in three operating temperature ranges: 0 to +70 C, -40 to +85 C, and -55 to +125 C. Two devices were submitted for product evaluation by F. Stott, MTS, JPL Microprocessor Specialist. The devices were pencil-marked and photographed for identification.

  9. Instrumentation of digital gray-scale US.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, A

    1993-11-01

    Modern, high-resolution, gray-scale, ultrasound (US) imaging equipment is computer based, with all hardware signal processing functions under software control. This systems architecture permits maximum flexibility in function, rapid upgrades, and reliable performance. With modern US equipment, the spatial dimensions of the analog image are transformed into a digital matrix of picture elements (pixels). The volume of tissue, or voxel, that contributes to the echo amplitudes received from each pixel depends crucially on the section (ie, "slice") thickness at the voxel depth. Partial volume effects are more likely to occur in a longer voxel located at a depth outside the section thickness focal zone. The echo signal voltage, or amplitude, is acquired by an analog-to-digital converter simultaneously with the pixel location of the image echo origin. The most accurate echo amplitudes (with least partial volume averaging) occur at the highest image magnification when the voxel dimensions are the smallest in and out of the scan plane. With computer-based imaging, postprocessing procedures, such as fill-in algorithms and digital calipers (measurements of distances in images), can be used to aid in diagnosis. PMID:8290732

  10. Direct extraction of topographic features from gray scale haracter images

    SciTech Connect

    Seong-Whan Lee; Young Joon Kim

    1994-12-31

    Optical character recognition (OCR) traditionally applies to binary-valued imagery although text is always scanned and stored in gray scale. However, binarization of multivalued image may remove important topological information from characters and introduce noise to character background. In order to avoid this problem, it is indispensable to develop a method which can minimize the information loss due to binarization by extracting features directly from gray scale character images. In this paper, we propose a new method for the direct extraction of topographic features from gray scale character images. By comparing the proposed method with the Wang and Pavlidis`s method we realized that the proposed method enhanced the performance of topographic feature extraction by computing the directions of principal curvature efficiently and prevented the extraction of unnecessary features. We also show that the proposed method is very effective for gray scale skeletonization compared to Levi and Montanari`s method.

  11. Investigation of varying gray scale levels for remote manipulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierschwale, John M.; Stuart, Mark A.; Sampaio, Carlos E.

    1991-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of variant monitor gray scale levels and workplace illumination levels on operators' ability to discriminate between different colors on a monochrome monitor. It was determined that 8-gray scale viewing resulted in significantly worse discrimination performance compared to 16- and 32-gray scale viewing and that there was only a negligible difference found between 16 and 32 shades of gray. Therefore, it is recommended that monitors used while performing remote manipulation tasks have 16 or above shades of gray since this evaluation has found levels lower than this to be unacceptable for color discrimination task. There was no significant performance difference found between a high and a low workplace illumination condition. Further analysis was conducted to determine which specific combinations of colors can be used in conjunction with each other to ensure errorfree color coding/brightness discrimination performance while viewing a monochrome monitor. It was found that 92 three-color combination and 9 four-color combinations could be used with 100 percent accuracy. The results can help to determine which gray scale levels should be provided on monochrome monitors as well as which colors to use to ensure the maximal performance of remotely-viewed color discrimination/coding tasks.

  12. Seismic wave separation by the gray-scale Hough transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjadj, Asma; Benaïssa, Zahia; Benaissa, Abdelkader; Boudella, Amar; Ouadfeul, Sid Ali

    2016-04-01

    In a Vertical Seismic Profile (VSP) recording, the useful signal is composed of the superposition of two wavefields: 1/ a downgoing wavefield with positive apparent velocities, and 2/ an upgoing wavefield with negative apparent velocities. To make best use of them, they need to be separated. Several methods exist to perform this separation, each with its advantages and disadvantages. The most frequently used in the industry is median filtering which remains, however, unsuitable when amplitude preservation is critical. In this study, we purpose a new method based on the gray-scale Hough transform (GSHT) which is an extension of the conventional Hough transform used to detect straight lines and other curves. The GSHT has been proposed to detect thick lines or bands in a gray-scale image. The technique, we suggest here, directly maps the gray-scale PSV image, including the downgoing and upgoing events linear bands, in image coordinate space (x, t, G) to the gray Hough parameter counting space (ρ, θ, G). In this new space, the downgoing events appear in the negative angles θ quadrant and the upgoing in the positive quadrant. The inverse GSHT algorithm, we developed, is then performed to extract the bands that satisfy the filtering conditions: θ negative for the downgoing PSV wavefield and θ positive for the upgoing PSV wavefield. The experimental results on synthetic and real VSP datasets are convincing. The wave separation is well performed, even in the presence of loud noise levels, with signal to noise ratio improvement and amplitude preservation, in contrast to median filtering. Key words: Conventional Hough transform - Gray-scale Hough transform - Inverse gray-scale Hough transform - VSP - Seismic wave - Upgoing wavefield - Downgoing wavefield.

  13. Gray scale and color flow Doppler characterization of uterine tumors.

    PubMed

    Carter, J R; Lau, M; Saltzman, A K; Hartenbach, E M; Chen, M D; Johnson, P R; Fowler, J M; Carlson, J W; Carson, L F; Twiggs, L B

    1994-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate gray scale and color flow characteristics of a group of patients with a suspected uterine pathologic condition. One hundred and twenty-two consecutive patients at the Women's Cancer Center, University of Minnesota, undergoing transvaginal sonography and color flow Doppler imaging for suspected uterine corpus abnormality made up the study group. After gray scale morphologic assessment, color flow Doppler imaging of the tumor and uterus was performed, including the ipsilateral uterine artery. Malignant tumors were confirmed pathologically in all 35 patients who had them. In comparing patients with benign versus malignant tumors, gray scale morphologic assessment confirmed that malignant uterine tumors (31 endometrial cancers and four sarcomas) were more likely to have a thickened echoic endometrium (P = < 0.0001), be enlarged (P = 0.004), to be retroverted (P = 0.02), and to lack a subendometrial halo (P < 0.0001). Patients with four benign and 13 malignant tumors demonstrated increased flow when assessed by CFD. The calculated sensitivity of increased color flow in predicting malignancy was 39%, with a specificity of 92%, a positive predictive value of 77%, and a negative predictive value of 71%. No difference existed between the benign and malignant groups for the systolic, diastolic, and mean velocities and for the calculated pulsatility index and resistive index in both sampled uterine and intramyometrial or tumor vessels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7837328

  14. Gray-Scale Processing For Tracking Of Welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gutow, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Digital analysis of video-image-processing system contributes to automation of weld-seam tracking. Makes no contact with seam. Small television camera views seam just ahead of point currently being welded. Arc provides illumination. Periodically frame grabber digitizes video image and stores in computer memory as gray-scale values. Seam located by analyzing Hough-transform arrays of derivatives of digitally-filtered image data. Information on location and orientation of seam used as feedback by welding robot to correct deviations of electrode from seam as welding continues.

  15. Temperature-compensated 8-bit column driver for AMLCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingwall, Andrew G. F.; Lin, Mark L.

    1995-06-01

    An all-digital, 5 V input, 50 Mhz bandwidth, 10-bit resolution, 128- column, AMLCD column driver IC has been designed and tested. The 10-bit design can enhance display definition over 6-bit nd 8-bit column drivers. Precision is realized with on-chip, switched-capacitor DACs plus transparently auto-offset-calibrated, opamp outputs. Increased resolution permits multiple 10-bit digital gamma remappings in EPROMs over temperature. Driver IC features include externally programmable number of output column, bi-directional digital data shifting, user- defined row/column/pixel/frame inversion, power management, timing control for daisy-chained column drivers, and digital bit inversion. The architecture uses fewer reference power supplies.

  16. Machine-Print Database of Gray Scale and Binary Images (MPDB)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    NIST Machine-Print Database of Gray Scale and Binary Images (MPDB) (PC database for purchase)   The NIST machine-printed database (Special Database 8) contains gray scale and binary images of machine printed pages. There are a total of 3,063,168 characters in the set. A reference file is included for each page.

  17. Histogram and gray level co-occurrence matrix on gray-scale ultrasound images for diagnosing lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    PubMed

    Shin, Young Gyung; Yoo, Jaeheung; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Hong, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hye Sun; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Han, Kyunghwa; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether texture analysis using histogram and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) parameters can help clinicians diagnose lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) and differentiate LT according to pathologic grade. The background thyroid pathology of 441 patients was classified into no evidence of LT, chronic LT (CLT), and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Histogram and GLCM parameters were extracted from the regions of interest on ultrasound. The diagnostic performances of the parameters for diagnosing and differentiating LT were calculated. Of the histogram and GLCM parameters, the mean on histogram had the highest Az (0.63) and VUS (0.303). As the degrees of LT increased, the mean decreased and the standard deviation and entropy increased. The mean on histogram from gray-scale ultrasound showed the best diagnostic performance as a single parameter in differentiating LT according to pathologic grade as well as in diagnosing LT. PMID:27336835

  18. Fast retrieval of calcification from sequential intravascular ultrasound gray-scale images.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Sun; Bing-Ru, Liu

    2016-08-12

    Intravascular ultrasound (IVUS)-based tissue characterization is invaluable for the computer-aided diagnosis and interventional treatment of cardiac vessel diseases. Although the analysis of raw backscattered signals allows more accurate plaque characterization than gray-scale images, its applications are limited due to its nature of electrocardiogram-gated acquisition. Images acquired by IVUS devices that do not allow the acquisition of raw signals cannot be characterized. To address these limitations, we developed a method for fast frame-by-frame retrieval and location of calcification according to the jump features of radial gray-level variation curves from sequential IVUS gray-scale images. The proposed method consists of three main steps: (1) radial gray-level variation curves are extracted from each filtered polar view, (2) sequential images are preliminarily queried according to the maximal slopes of radial gray-level variation curves, and finally, (3) key frames that include calcification are selected through checking the gray-level features of successive pixel columns in the preliminary results. Experimental results with clinically acquired in vivo data sets indicate key frames that include calcification can be retrieved with the advantages of simplicity, high efficiency, and accuracy. Recognition results correlate well with manual characterization results obtained by experienced physicians and through virtual histology. PMID:27567774

  19. Binarization of Gray-Scaled Digital Images Via Fuzzy Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominquez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new fast-computational technique based on fuzzy entropy measure has been developed to find an optimal binary image threshold. In this method, the image pixel membership functions are dependent on the threshold value and reflect the distribution of pixel values in two classes; thus, this technique minimizes the classification error. This new method is compared with two of the best-known threshold selection techniques, Otsu and Huang-Wang. The performance of the proposed method supersedes the performance of Huang-Wang and Otsu methods when the image consists of textured background and poor printing quality. The three methods perform well but yield different binarization approaches if the background and foreground of the image have well-separated gray-level ranges.

  20. Binarization of Gray-Scaled Digital Images Via Fuzzy Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominquez, Jesus A.; Klinko, Steve; Voska, Ned (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    A new fast-computational technique based on fuzzy entropy measure has been developed to find an optimal binary image threshold. In this method, the image pixel membership functions are dependent on the threshold value and reflect the distribution of pixel values in two classes; thus, this technique minimizes the classification error. This new method is compared with two of the best-known threshold selection techniques, Otsu and Huang-Wang. The performance of the proposed method supersedes the performance of Huang- Wang and Otsu methods when the image consists of textured background and poor printing quality. The three methods perform well but yield different binarization approaches if the background and foreground of the image have well-separated gray-level ranges.

  1. Digital CODEC for real-time processing of broadcast quality video signals at 1.8 bits/pixel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Whyte, Wayne A.

    1991-01-01

    Advances in very large scale integration and recent work in the field of bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques have combined to make digital video processing technically feasible an potentially cost competitive for broadcast quality television transmission. A hardware implementation was developed for DPCM (differential pulse code midulation)-based digital television bandwidth compression algorithm which processes standard NTSC composite color television signals and produces broadcast quality video in real time at an average of 1.8 bits/pixel. The data compression algorithm and the hardware implementation of the codec are described, and performance results are provided.

  2. Digital CODEC for real-time processing of broadcast quality video signals at 1.8 bits/pixel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalkhauser, Mary JO; Whyte, Wayne A., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Advances in very large-scale integration and recent work in the field of bandwidth efficient digital modulation techniques have combined to make digital video processing technically feasible and potentially cost competitive for broadcast quality television transmission. A hardware implementation was developed for a DPCM-based digital television bandwidth compression algorithm which processes standard NTSC composite color television signals and produces broadcast quality video in real time at an average of 1.8 bits/pixel. The data compression algorithm and the hardware implementation of the CODEC are described, and performance results are provided.

  3. Recall of patterns using binary and gray-scale autoassociative morphological memories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sussner, Peter

    2005-08-01

    Morphological associative memories (MAM's) belong to a class of artificial neural networks that perform the operations erosion or dilation of mathematical morphology at each node. Therefore we speak of morphological neural networks. Alternatively, the total input effect on a morphological neuron can be expressed in terms of lattice induced matrix operations in the mathematical theory of minimax algebra. Neural models of associative memories are usually concerned with the storage and the retrieval of binary or bipolar patterns. Thus far, the emphasis in research on morphological associative memory systems has been on binary models, although a number of notable features of autoassociative morphological memories (AMM's) such as optimal absolute storage capacity and one-step convergence have been shown to hold in the general, gray-scale setting. In previous papers, we gained valuable insight into the storage and recall phases of AMM's by analyzing their fixed points and basins of attraction. We have shown in particular that the fixed points of binary AMM's correspond to the lattice polynomials in the original patterns. This paper extends these results in the following ways. In the first place, we provide an exact characterization of the fixed points of gray-scale AMM's in terms of combinations of the original patterns. Secondly, we present an exact expression for the fixed point attractor that represents the output of either a binary or a gray-scale AMM upon presentation of a certain input. The results of this paper are confirmed in several experiments using binary patterns and gray-scale images.

  4. Content-addressable holographic data storage system for invariant pattern recognition of gray-scale images.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Joby; Bhagatji, Alpana; Singh, Kehar

    2010-01-20

    Conventionally a holographic data storage system uses binary digital data as the input pages. We propose and demonstrate the use of a holographic data storage system for the purpose of invariant pattern recognition of gray-scale images. To improve the correlation accuracy for gray-scale images, we present a coding technique, phase Fourier transform (phase-FT) coding, to code a gray-scale image into a random and balanced digital binary image. In addition to the fact that a digital data page is obtained for incorporation into a holographic data storage system, this phase-FT coded image produces dc-free homogenized Fourier spectrum. This coded image can also be treated as an image for further processing, such as synthesis of distortion-invariant filters for invariant pattern recognition. A space-domain synthetic discriminant function (SDF) filter has been synthesized using these phase-FT coded images for rotation-invariant pattern recognition. Both simulation and experimental results are presented. The results show good correlation accuracy in comparison to correlation results obtained for SDF filter synthesized using the original gray-scale images themselves. PMID:20090813

  5. Optimal Binarization of Gray-Scaled Digital Images via Fuzzy Reasoning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dominguez, Jesus A. (Inventor); Klinko, Steven J. (Inventor)

    2007-01-01

    A technique for finding an optimal threshold for binarization of a gray scale image employs fuzzy reasoning. A triangular membership function is employed which is dependent on the degree to which the pixels in the image belong to either the foreground class or the background class. Use of a simplified linear fuzzy entropy factor function facilitates short execution times and use of membership values between 0.0 and 1.0 for improved accuracy. To improve accuracy further, the membership function employs lower and upper bound gray level limits that can vary from image to image and are selected to be equal to the minimum and the maximum gray levels, respectively, that are present in the image to be converted. To identify the optimal binarization threshold, an iterative process is employed in which different possible thresholds are tested and the one providing the minimum fuzzy entropy measure is selected.

  6. A Parallel Algorithm for Connected Component Labelling of Gray-scale Images on Homogeneous Multicore Architectures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niknam, Mehdi; Thulasiraman, Parimala; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2010-11-01

    Connected component labelling is an essential step in image processing. We provide a parallel version of Suzuki's sequential connected component algorithm in order to speed up the labelling process. Also, we modify the algorithm to enable labelling gray-scale images. Due to the data dependencies in the algorithm we used a method similar to pipeline to exploit parallelism. The parallel algorithm method achieved a speedup of 2.5 for image size of 256 × 256 pixels using 4 processing threads.

  7. Hardware implementation of pixel detection in gray-scale holographic data storage systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chi-Yun; Chiueh, Tzi-Dar

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents hardware implementation of an efficient solution to recovering gray-scale data pixels of images that have undergone interpixel interference in holographic data storage systems. The adopted algorithm, called the turbo receiver using interference-aware dual-list (TRIDL) detection, enjoys benefits of low error rate performance and low complexity. To verify the functionality and feasibility, this paper implements TRIDL detection with some circuit design techniques such as resource sharing on a field-programmable gate array. PMID:23207395

  8. Gray-scale transform and evaluation for digital x-ray chest images on CRT monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furukawa, Isao; Suzuki, Junji; Ono, Sadayasu; Kitamura, Masayuki; Ando, Yutaka

    1997-04-01

    In this paper, an experimental evaluation of a super high definition (SHD) imaging system for digital x-ray chest images is presented. The SHD imaging system is proposed as a platform for integrating conventional image media. We are involved in the use of SHD images in the total digitizing of medical records that include chest x-rays and pathological microscopic images, both which demand the highest level of quality among the various types of medical images. SHD images use progressive scanning and have a spatial resolution of 2000 by 2000 pixels or more and a temporal resolution (frame rate) of 60 frames/sec or more. For displaying medical x-ray images on a CRT, we derived gray scale transform characteristics based on radiologists' comments during the experiment, and elucidated the relationship between that gray scale transform and the linearization transform for maintaining the linear relationship with the luminance of film on a light box (luminance linear transform). We then carried out viewing experiments based on a five-stage evaluation. Nine radiologists participated in our experiment, and the ten cases evaluated included pulmonary fibrosis, lung cancer, and pneumonia. The experimental results indicated that conventional film images and those on super high definition CRT monitors have nearly the same quality. They also show that the gray scale transform for CRT images decided according to radiologists' comments agrees with the luminance linear transform in the high luminance region. And in the low luminance region, it was found that the gray scale transform had the characteristics of level expansion to increase the number of levels that can be expressed.

  9. Estimation of trabecular thickness in gray-scale images through granulometric analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, Rodrigo; Borga, Magnus; Smedby, Örjan

    2012-02-01

    This paper extends to gray-scale the method proposed by Hildebrand and Rüegsegger for estimating thickness of trabecular bone, which is the most used in trabecular bone research, where local thickness at a point is defined as the diameter of the maximum inscribed ball that includes that point. The proposed extension takes advantage of the equivalence between this method and the opening function computed for the granulometry generated by the opening operation of mathematical morphology with ball-shaped structuring elements of different diameter. The proposed extension (a) uses gray-scale instead of binary mathematical morphology, (b) uses all values of the pattern spectrum of the granulometry instead of the maximum peak as used for binary images, (c) corrects bias on local thickness estimations generated by partial volume effects, and (d) uses the gray-scale as a weighting function for global thickness estimation. The proposed extension becomes equivalent to the original method when it is applied to binary images. A new non-flat structuring element is also proposed in order to reduce the discretization errors generated by traditional flat structuring elements. Translation invariance can be attained by up-sampling the images through interpolation by a factor of two. Results for synthetic and real images show that the quality of the measurements obtained through the original method strongly depends on the binarization process, whereas the measurements obtained through the proposed extension do not. Consequently, the proposed extension is more appropriate for images with limited resolution where binarization is not trivial.

  10. Implementation of high-resolution time-to-digital converter in 8-bit microcontrollers.

    PubMed

    Bengtsson, Lars E

    2012-04-01

    This paper will demonstrate how a time-to-digital converter (TDC) with sub-nanosecond resolution can be implemented into an 8-bit microcontroller using so called "direct" methods. This means that a TDC is created using only five bidirectional digital input-output-pins of a microcontroller and a few passive components (two resistors, a capacitor, and a diode). We will demonstrate how a TDC for the range 1-10 μs is implemented with 0.17 ns resolution. This work will also show how to linearize the output by combining look-up tables and interpolation. PMID:22559576

  11. Implementation of high-resolution time-to-digital converter in 8-bit microcontrollers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bengtsson, Lars E.

    2012-04-01

    This paper will demonstrate how a time-to-digital converter (TDC) with sub-nanosecond resolution can be implemented into an 8-bit microcontroller using so called "direct" methods. This means that a TDC is created using only five bidirectional digital input-output-pins of a microcontroller and a few passive components (two resistors, a capacitor, and a diode). We will demonstrate how a TDC for the range 1-10 μs is implemented with 0.17 ns resolution. This work will also show how to linearize the output by combining look-up tables and interpolation.

  12. Performance of concatenated codes using 8-bit and 10-bit Reed-Solomon codes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pollara, F.; Cheung, K.-M.

    1989-01-01

    The performance improvement of concatenated coding systems using 10-bit instead of 8-bit Reed-Solomon codes is measured by simulation. Three inner convolutional codes are considered: (7,1/2), (15,1/4), and (15,1/6). It is shown that approximately 0.2 dB can be gained at a bit error rate of 10(-6). The loss due to nonideal interleaving is also evaluated. Performance comparisons at very low bit error rates may be relevant for systems using data compression.

  13. Mapping gray-scale image to 3D surface scanning data by ray tracing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Jones, Peter R. M.

    1997-03-01

    The extraction and location of feature points from range imaging is an important but difficult task in machine vision based measurement systems. There exist some feature points which are not able to be detected from pure geometric characteristics, particularly in those measurement tasks related to the human body. The Loughborough Anthropometric Shadow Scanner (LASS) is a whole body surface scanner based on structured light technique. Certain applications of LASS require accurate location of anthropometric landmarks from the scanned data. This is sometimes impossible from existing raw data because some landmarks do not appear in the scanned data. Identification of these landmarks has to resort to surface texture of the scanned object. Modifications to LASS were made to allow gray-scale images to be captured before or after the object was scanned. Two-dimensional gray-scale image must be mapped to the scanned data to acquire the 3D coordinates of a landmark. The method to map 2D images to the scanned data is based on the colinearity conditions and ray-tracing method. If the camera center and image coordinates are known, the corresponding object point must lie on a ray starting from the camera center and connecting to the image coordinate. By intersecting the ray with the scanned surface of the object, the 3D coordinates of a point can be solved. Experimentation has demonstrated the feasibility of the method.

  14. Requirements and approaches to adapting laser writers for fabrication of gray-scale masks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolkov, Victor P.; Shimansky, Ruslan; Poleshchuk, Alexander G.; Cherkashin, Vadim V.; Kharissov, Andrey A.; Denk, Dmitry

    2001-11-01

    The photolithography using gray-scale masks (GSM) with multilevel transmittance is now one of promising ways for manufacturing of high efficiency diffractive optical elements and microoptics. Such masks can be most effectively fabricated by laser or electron-beam writers on materials with a transmittance changing under influence of high-energy beams. The basic requirements for adaptation of existing and developed scanning laser writers are formulated. These systems create an image by continuous movement of a writing beam along one coordinate and overlapping of adjacent written tracks along another coordinate. Several problems must be solved at the GSM manufacturing: the calibration of the influence of the laser beam on a recording material without transferring the gray-scale structure into photoresist; the transmittance at the current exposed pixel depends on surrounding structures generated before recording of the current track and a character of the laser beam power modulation; essential increasing of the computed data in comparison with binary elements. The offered solutions are based on the results of investigations of the materials with variable transmittance (LDW-glass, a-Si film) and takes into account the specificity of diffractive blazed microstructures. The reduction of data amount for fabrication of multi-level DOEs is effectively performed using offered vector-gradient data format, which is based on piecewise-linear approximation of phase profile. The presented approaches to adaptation of laser writers are realized in software and hardware, and they allow to solve the basic problems of manufacturing GSMs.

  15. The gray-scale ink-jet printer: value in making hard copies of digital images.

    PubMed

    Combs, M J; Snell, J; Cail, W S; Maier, T; Buck, D A

    1995-01-01

    Referring physicians often are supplied with copies of images to illustrate a report of the findings of a radiologic study or so that the radiologist can retain the original images. The increasing costs of production, film, and recovery of chemicals have enhanced the requirement for a clean, low-cost dry printing process. An ink-jet gray-scale paper printer (Unitone, Scitex Medical Systems, Bedford, MA) can print high-quality (300 dots per inch [dpi]) images with an effective 10-bit gray scale range by using the Hertz continuous ink-jet method [1-3], which does not require the use of a darkroom or hazardous chemicals. Several types of media (matte paper, glossy paper, transparency film) with a printing area of 26.9 x 43.7 cm (10.6 x 17.4 inches) may be used. The consumables are approximately 50-70% less expensive than the cost of silver halide film, providing a cost advantage over film for referral and archival copies. The results of an initial evaluation of the ink-jet printer at our institution are reported here. PMID:7998544

  16. Extraction and analysis of the width, gray scale and radian in Chinese signature handwriting.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaohong

    2015-10-01

    Forensic handwriting examination is a relevant identification process in forensic science. This research obtained ideas from the process of features detection and analysis in forensic handwriting examination. A Chinese signature database was developed and comprised original signatures, freehand imitation forgeries, random forgeries and tracing imitation forgeries. The features of width, gray scale and radian combined with stroke orders were automatically extracted after image processing. A correlation coefficient was used to precisely characterize and express the similarities between signatures. To validate the differences between writers, a multivariate analysis of the variance was employed. The canonical discriminant analysis was performed between the original and non-original signatures; the cross-validation estimated the discriminating power of the width, gray scale and radian data. It is suggested that the extraction and analysis of these properties in Chinese signatures is reasonable. Meanwhile, forensic handwriting examination using the quantitative feature extraction and statistical analysis methods in this research could be performed with a satisfactory result in the discriminant analysis. PMID:26209129

  17. Region-of-interest-based progressive transmission of gray-scale images across the Internet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogge, Boris; Lemahieu, Ignace L.; Philips, Wilfried R.; Denecker, Koen N.; De Neve, Peter; Van Assche, Steven

    1998-12-01

    On the Internet, transmission time of large images is still an important issue. In order to reduce transmission time this paper introduces an efficient method to send 8-bit greyscale images across the Internet. The method allows progressive transmission up to lossless reconstruction. It also allows the user to select a region of interest. This method is particularly useful when image quality and transmission speed are two desired properties. The method uses TCP-IP as a transport protocol.

  18. Analysis of subgrid-scale vertical transport in convective boundary layers at gray-zone resolutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Hyeyum Hailey; Hong, Song-You

    2013-04-01

    The gray zone of a physics process in numerical models is defined as the range of model resolution in which the process is partly resolved by model dynamics and partly parameterized. In this study, we examine the effects of grid size on resolved and parameterized vertical transport for horizontal grid scales including the gray zone. To assess how stability alters the dependency on grid size, four convective boundary layer (CBL)s with different surface heating and geostrophic winds are considered. For this purpose, reference data for grid-scale (GS) and subgrid-scale (SGS) fields are constructed for 50-4000 mesh sizes by filtering 25-m large-eddy simulations (LES) data. As wind shear becomes stronger, turbulent kinetic energy and the vertical transport of potential temperature and momentum are more resolved for a given grid spacing. A passive scalar with bottom-up diffusion behaves in a similar fashion. For a top-down diffusion scalar, the cospectral peak scale of the scalar flux is larger than the horizontal size of the thermals and increases in time. For the scalar, the entrainment ratio, in conjunction with the shear, influences the mesh-size dependency of GS and SGS transport. The total vertical transport of heat and the bottom-up scalar is decomposed into a non-local mixing owing to the coherent structures and remaining local mixing. The contribution of the resolved parts is larger when roll-like structures are present than when only thermals exist, for both non-local and local fluxes. The grid-size dependency of the non-local flux and its sensitivity to stability predominantly determines the dependency of total (non-local plus local) transport.

  19. Gray scale operation of a multichannel optical convolver using the Semetex magnetooptic spatial light modulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Jeffrey A.; Day, Timothy; Lilly, Roger A.; Taber, Donald B.; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1988-01-01

    A new multichannel optical correlator/convolver architecture which uses an acoustooptic light modulator for the input channel and a Semetex magnetooptic spatial light modulator (MOSLM) for the set of parallel reference channels is presented. Details of the anamorphic optical system are discussed. Experimental results illustrate the use of the system as a convolver for performing digital multiplication by analog convolution (DMAC). A limited gray scale capability for data stored by the MOSLM is demonstrated by implementing this DMAC algorithm with trinary logic. Use of the MOSLM allows the number of parallel channels for the convolver to be increased significantly compared with previously reported techniques while retaining the capability for updating both channels at high speeds.

  20. Three-dimensional patterning and morphological control of porous nanomaterials by gray-scale direct imprinting.

    PubMed

    Ryckman, Judson D; Jiao, Yang; Weiss, Sharon M

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for direct three-dimensional (3D) patterning of porous nanomaterials through the application of a premastered and reusable gray-scale stamp. Four classes of 3D nanostructures are demonstrated for the first time in porous media: gradient profiles, digital patterns, curves and lens shapes, and sharp features including v-grooves, nano-pits, and 'cookie-cutter' particles. Further, we demonstrate this technique enables morphological tuning and direct tailoring of nanomaterial properties, including porosity, average pore size, dielectric constant, and plasmonic response. This work opens a rapid and low-cost route for fabricating novel nanostructures and devices utilizing porous nanomaterials, with promising applications spanning diffractive and plasmonic sensing, holography, micro- and transformation optics, and drug delivery and imaging. PMID:23518798

  1. A survey of quality measures for gray-scale image compression

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eskicioglu, Ahmet M.; Fisher, Paul S.

    1993-01-01

    Although a variety of techniques are available today for gray-scale image compression, a complete evaluation of these techniques cannot be made as there is no single reliable objective criterion for measuring the error in compressed images. The traditional subjective criteria are burdensome, and usually inaccurate or inconsistent. On the other hand, being the most common objective criterion, the mean square error (MSE) does not have a good correlation with the viewer's response. It is now understood that in order to have a reliable quality measure, a representative model of the complex human visual system is required. In this paper, we survey and give a classification of the criteria for the evaluation of monochrome image quality.

  2. Three-dimensional patterning and morphological control of porous nanomaterials by gray-scale direct imprinting

    PubMed Central

    Ryckman, Judson D.; Jiao, Yang; Weiss, Sharon M.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for direct three-dimensional (3D) patterning of porous nanomaterials through the application of a premastered and reusable gray-scale stamp. Four classes of 3D nanostructures are demonstrated for the first time in porous media: gradient profiles, digital patterns, curves and lens shapes, and sharp features including v-grooves, nano-pits, and ‘cookie-cutter’ particles. Further, we demonstrate this technique enables morphological tuning and direct tailoring of nanomaterial properties, including porosity, average pore size, dielectric constant, and plasmonic response. This work opens a rapid and low-cost route for fabricating novel nanostructures and devices utilizing porous nanomaterials, with promising applications spanning diffractive and plasmonic sensing, holography, micro- and transformation optics, and drug delivery and imaging. PMID:23518798

  3. Utilization of a liquid crystal spatial light modulator in a gray scale detour phase method for Fourier holograms.

    PubMed

    Makey, Ghaith; El-Daher, Moustafa Sayem; Al-Shufi, Kanj

    2012-11-10

    This paper introduces a new modification for the well-known binary detour phase method, which is largely used to represent Fourier holograms; the modification utilizes gray scale level control provided by a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to improve the traditional binary detour phase. Results are shown by both simulation and experiment. PMID:23142903

  4. Gray-scale image fidelity and enhancement in photorefractive volume memory recorded with a pulsed signal beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guoqiang; Qian, Feng; Li, Jianlang; Liu, Liren

    1999-09-01

    We present, for the first time to our knowledge, a gray-level image recording method in photorefractive volume memory, in which the image to be recorded is illuminated periodically by a pulse while the reference beam interacts the medium continuously until the steady state is reached. By adjusting the duty cycle of the exposure of the image in recording, high fidelity can be maintained in image reconstruction for pixels of different gray-scale intensities. Furthermore, due to multiple beam coupling the weak input image can be greatly enhanced without the loss of fidelity.

  5. Identification of canonical neural events during continuous gameplay of an 8-bit style video game.

    PubMed

    Cavanagh, James F; Castellanos, Joel

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive neuroscience suffers from a unique and pervasive problem of generalizability. Since neural findings are often interpreted in the context of a specific manipulation during a carefully controlled task, it is hard to transfer knowledge from one task to another. In this report we address problems of generalizability with two methodological advancements. First, we aimed to transcend status quo experimental procedures with a continuous, engaging task environment. To this end, we created a novel 8-bit style continuous space shooter video game that elicits a multitude of goal-oriented events, such as crashing into a wall or blowing up an enemy with a missile. Second, we aimed to objectively define the psychological significance of these events. To achieve this aim, we used pattern classification of EEG data to derive predictive weights from carefully controlled pre-game exemplar events (oddball target detection and gambling wins and losses) and transferred those weights to EEG activities during video game events. All major goal-oriented events (crashes into the wall, crashes into an enemy, missile hit on an enemy) had a significant between-task transfer bias towards oddball target weights in the time range of the canonical P3, indicating the presence of similar salience detection processes. Missile hits on an enemy were specifically identified as gambling wins, confirming the hypothesis that this goal-oriented event was appetitive. These findings suggest that it is possible to identify the contribution of canonical neural activities during otherwise ambiguous and uncontrolled task performance. PMID:26952196

  6. Effects of Gray-Scale Ultrasonography Immediate Post-Contrast on Characterization of Focal Liver Lesions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Chen, Min-Hua; Wu, Wei; Dai, Ying; Fan, Zhi-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the imaging features of conventional gray scale ultrasound (US) before and after contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for focal liver lesions and 22 evaluated the role of US post-CEUS in characterizing liver lesions. 126 patients with 158 focal liver lesions underwent CEUS and US post-CEUS examination and entered this study. There were 74 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 43 hepatic metastases, and 41 hemangiomas. Imaging features of US pre-CEUS and US post-CEUS were analyzed offsite by two blinded experienced radiologists to evaluate size, boundary, echogenicity, internal texture, posterior acoustic enhancement, spatial resolution, and contrast resolution. In the end with pathological and clinical evidence, the diagnostic accuracy rate of US pre-CEUS was 53.8% (85/158 lesions), lower than that of CEUS (88.0%, 139/158 lesions); with the complementation of US post-CEUS the rate rose to 93.0% (147/158 lesions). US post-CEUS could improve the visibility of typical structures of focal liver lesions and might provide important complementary information for CEUS diagnosis. It also increases the visibility of small liver lesions compared with US pre-CEUS and helps to guide local interventional procedure. PMID:26090387

  7. Fabrication of gray-scale masks and diffractive optical elements with LDW glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolkov, Victor P.; Malyshev, Anatoly I.; Poleshchuk, Alexander G.; Cherkashin, Vadim V.; Tiziani, Hans J.; Pruss, Christof; Schoder, Thomas; Westhauser, Johann; Wu, Chuck

    2001-11-01

    In the last years the application of gray-scale masks (GSM) for diffractive optics manufacturing attracts attention because of cost-effective possibility to produce a lot of diffractive elements on hard and heat-resistant thermally stable substrates. Direct laser writing of GSMs and fabrication of diffractive optical elements are effectively realized with application of LDW-glass (material for Laser Direct Write from CANYON MATERIALS, Inc). An important advantage of this material is the real-time change of transmittance in a single-step process without liquid development. It is shown that optimal transmittance range in which track width is not more than 1 micrometers is from 5-10% (transmittance of unexposed area) to 60-65% for LDW-glass type I having thinner colored layer. Power modulation and surroundings dependent peculiarities of direct laser writing on LDW-glass are discussed. Results of fabrication of diffractive optical elements using LDW-glass masks are presented. Among several types of LDW glasses studied the advantages of new GS-11 glass are elaborated. Application of GS-11 glass for GSMs allowed to fabricate blazed diffractive structures with backward slope width of 0.8 micrometers .

  8. Clinical indications and accuracy of gray scale ultrasonography in the patient with suspected biliary tract disease.

    PubMed

    Prian, G W; Norton, L W; Eule, J; Eiseman, B

    1977-12-01

    One hundred patients with suspected biliary tract disease underwent gray scale cholecystosonography (GSCS) and had diagnostic confirmation by oral cholecystogram (OCG) and/or operation. Ultrasonography demonstrated the gallbladder in 94 of the 100 patients; 2 patients had had previous cholecystectomy and 3 of the 4 remaining patients had documented stones with no confirmation of a nonvisualizing OCG in the other patient. Among the 88 patients with OCG, GSCS findings correlated in 91 per cent (2 per cent false-positive; 7 per cent false-negative). Among the 43 operative patients, GSCS was proven correct in 91 per cent (no false positive; 9 per cent false-negative). Of 12 patients with jaundice GSCS correlated with operative findings in 75 per cent (no false-positive; 25 per cent false-negative). Diagnostic errors occurred in patients with very small biliary calculi, particularly when a single stone was impacted in the cystic duct. Failure to identify the gallbladder with ultrasound signifies probable cholelithiasis in the patient without previous cholecystectomy. On the basis of this experience, we conclude that (1) GSCS is most useful when jaundice or acute illness precludes conventional studies; (2) GSCS provides an inexpensive, quick, accurate means of diagnosing cholelithiasis with a very high specificity (97 per cent) and moderate sensitivity (88 per cent); and (3) GSCS is the optimal diagnostic procedure for evaluating the biliary tract in the acutely ill, jaundiced, vomiting, allergic, and/or pregnant patient. PMID:596532

  9. Serial gray scale intravascular ultrasound findings in late drug-eluting stent restenosis.

    PubMed

    Hakim, Diaa A; Mintz, Gary S; Sanidas, Elias; Rusinova, Reni; Weisz, Giora; Leon, Martin B; Moses, Jeffery W; Stone, Gregg W; Maehara, Akiko

    2013-03-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to assess the gray scale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) findings that might be associated with late drug-eluting stent restenosis. The study included 47 patients (54 lesions) who had undergone either baseline IVUS-guided stent implantation or IVUS-guided repeat stenting to treat in-stent restenosis and then had IVUS follow-up data for ≥1.5 years afterward without any intervening procedures. The left anterior descending artery was the culprit in 59% of cases, and 50% of the lesions were at bifurcation sites. Quantitative and qualitative IVUS analyses showed a decreased minimum lumen area at follow-up from 6.0 ± 1.8 to 3.8 ± 1.4 mm(2) (p <0.0001) that was mainly due to neointimal hyperplasia with chronic stent recoil (defined as a >15% decrease in minimum stent area) in only 2 lesions and stent fracture in only 5 lesions. Calcified neointima appeared in 12 lesions, mostly in the form of macrocalcification, and was associated with increased calcium both behind the stent and in the reference segment. In conclusion, late drug-eluting stent restenosis showed neointimal calcification in 20% of cases, and chronic stent recoil was rare. PMID:23273714

  10. Effects of Gray-Scale Ultrasonography Immediate Post-Contrast on Characterization of Focal Liver Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Wei; Chen, Min-Hua; Wu, Wei; Dai, Ying; Fan, Zhi-Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the imaging features of conventional gray scale ultrasound (US) before and after contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for focal liver lesions and 22 evaluated the role of US post-CEUS in characterizing liver lesions. 126 patients with 158 focal liver lesions underwent CEUS and US post-CEUS examination and entered this study. There were 74 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), 43 hepatic metastases, and 41 hemangiomas. Imaging features of US pre-CEUS and US post-CEUS were analyzed offsite by two blinded experienced radiologists to evaluate size, boundary, echogenicity, internal texture, posterior acoustic enhancement, spatial resolution, and contrast resolution. In the end with pathological and clinical evidence, the diagnostic accuracy rate of US pre-CEUS was 53.8% (85/158 lesions), lower than that of CEUS (88.0%, 139/158 lesions); with the complementation of US post-CEUS the rate rose to 93.0% (147/158 lesions). US post-CEUS could improve the visibility of typical structures of focal liver lesions and might provide important complementary information for CEUS diagnosis. It also increases the visibility of small liver lesions compared with US pre-CEUS and helps to guide local interventional procedure. PMID:26090387

  11. Computer-aided mass detection in mammography: False positive reduction via gray-scale invariant ranklet texture features

    SciTech Connect

    Masotti, Matteo; Lanconelli, Nico; Campanini, Renato

    2009-02-15

    In this work, gray-scale invariant ranklet texture features are proposed for false positive reduction (FPR) in computer-aided detection (CAD) of breast masses. Two main considerations are at the basis of this proposal. First, false positive (FP) marks surviving our previous CAD system seem to be characterized by specific texture properties that can be used to discriminate them from masses. Second, our previous CAD system achieves invariance to linear/nonlinear monotonic gray-scale transformations by encoding regions of interest into ranklet images through the ranklet transform, an image transformation similar to the wavelet transform, yet dealing with pixels' ranks rather than with their gray-scale values. Therefore, the new FPR approach proposed herein defines a set of texture features which are calculated directly from the ranklet images corresponding to the regions of interest surviving our previous CAD system, hence, ranklet texture features; then, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier is used for discrimination. As a result of this approach, texture-based information is used to discriminate FP marks surviving our previous CAD system; at the same time, invariance to linear/nonlinear monotonic gray-scale transformations of the new CAD system is guaranteed, as ranklet texture features are calculated from ranklet images that have this property themselves by construction. To emphasize the gray-scale invariance of both the previous and new CAD systems, training and testing are carried out without any in-between parameters' adjustment on mammograms having different gray-scale dynamics; in particular, training is carried out on analog digitized mammograms taken from a publicly available digital database, whereas testing is performed on full-field digital mammograms taken from an in-house database. Free-response receiver operating characteristic (FROC) curve analysis of the two CAD systems demonstrates that the new approach achieves a higher reduction of FP marks

  12. A 256 channel 8-Bit current digitizer ASIC for the Belle-II PXD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knopf, J.; Fischer, P.; Kreidl, C.; Peric, I.

    2011-01-01

    The international DEPFET collaboration is developing a silicon pixel vertex detector (PXD), based on monolithic arrays of DEPFET transistors, for the future physics experiment Belle-II at the SuperKEKB particle accelerator in Japan. The matrix elements are read out in a 'rolling shutter mode', i.e. rows are selected consecutively and all columns are read out in each cycle of < 100 ns. One of the major parts in the front-end electronics chain is the DEPFET Current Digitizer ASIC (DCDB). It is now in a close-to-final state. The chip provides 256 channels of analog-to-digital converters with a resolution of six to eight bits. Each converter features an individual dynamic offset correction circuit as well as programmable gain and bandwidth. Several operation modes using single sampling or double correlated sampling are possible. A large synthesized digital block is used for decoding and derandomization of the conversion results. The data is put out on eight 8-bit links, operating at a speed of 400 MHz. Additionally, a JTAG compatible interface is implemented for configuration and debugging purpose. Significant effort was made to reduce the power consumption of the DCDB, since both, voltage drop on the internal power buses and heat sources in the Belle-II experiment are a concern. The chip was realized on a 3.2mm × 5mm die using the UMC 180nm CMOS technology in a multi-project wafer run, provided by EuroPractice. An extra redistribution metal layer with bump bond pads is used, allowing for flipping the chip onto the final all-silicon DEPFET sensor module. Several tests have been performed in order to prove the chip's operation and its quality in terms of noise. The results are presented.

  13. The Suitability of Gray-Scale Electronic Readers for Dermatology Journals

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Jae Eun; Kim, Dai Hyun; Seo, Soo Hong; Kye, Young Chul

    2014-01-01

    Background The rapid development of information and communication technology has replaced traditional books by electronic versions. Most print dermatology journals have been replaced with electronic journals (e-journals), which are readily used by clinicians and medical students. Objective The objectives of this study were to determine whether e-readers are appropriate for reading dermatology journals, to conduct an attitude study of both medical personnel and students, and to find a way of improving e-book use in the field of dermatology. Methods All articles in the Korean Journal of Dermatology published from January 2010 to December 2010 were utilized in this study. Dermatology house officers, student trainees in their fourth year of medical school, and interns at Korea University Medical Center participated in the study. After reading the articles with Kindle 2, their impressions and evaluations were recorded using a questionnaire with a 5-point Likert scale. Results The results demonstrated that gray-scale e-readers might not be suitable for reading dermatology journals, especially for case reports compared to the original articles. Only three of the thirty-one respondents preferred e-readers to printed papers. The most common suggestions from respondents to encourage usage of e-books in the field of dermatology were the introduction of a color display, followed by the use of a touch screen system, a cheaper price, and ready-to-print capabilities. Conclusion In conclusion, our study demonstrated that current e-readers might not be suitable for reading dermatology journals. However, they may be utilized in selected situations according to the type and topic of the papers. PMID:25473221

  14. Characterization of photoresist and simulation of a developed resist profile for the fabrication of gray-scale diffractive optic elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong Rak; Sierchio, Justin; Zaverton, Melissa; Kim, Youngsik; Milster, Tom D.

    2012-02-01

    We have characterized a photoresist used for the fabrication of gray-scale diffractive optic elements in terms of Dill's and Mack's model parameters. The resist model parameters were employed for the simulations of developed resist profiles for sawtooth patterns executed by solving the Eikonal equation with the fast-marching method. The simulated results were shown to be in good agreement with empirical data.

  15. MIA - A free and open source software for gray scale medical image analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Gray scale images make the bulk of data in bio-medical image analysis, and hence, the main focus of many image processing tasks lies in the processing of these monochrome images. With ever improving acquisition devices, spatial and temporal image resolution increases, and data sets become very large. Various image processing frameworks exists that make the development of new algorithms easy by using high level programming languages or visual programming. These frameworks are also accessable to researchers that have no background or little in software development because they take care of otherwise complex tasks. Specifically, the management of working memory is taken care of automatically, usually at the price of requiring more it. As a result, processing large data sets with these tools becomes increasingly difficult on work station class computers. One alternative to using these high level processing tools is the development of new algorithms in a languages like C++, that gives the developer full control over how memory is handled, but the resulting workflow for the prototyping of new algorithms is rather time intensive, and also not appropriate for a researcher with little or no knowledge in software development. Another alternative is in using command line tools that run image processing tasks, use the hard disk to store intermediate results, and provide automation by using shell scripts. Although not as convenient as, e.g. visual programming, this approach is still accessable to researchers without a background in computer science. However, only few tools exist that provide this kind of processing interface, they are usually quite task specific, and don’t provide an clear approach when one wants to shape a new command line tool from a prototype shell script. Results The proposed framework, MIA, provides a combination of command line tools, plug-ins, and libraries that make it possible to run image processing tasks interactively in a command shell

  16. Intensity-Based Skeletonization of CryoEM Gray-Scale Images Using a True Segmentation-Free Algorithm

    PubMed Central

    Nasr, Kamal Al; Liu, Chunmei; Rwebangira, Mugizi; Burge, Legand; He, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Cryo-electron microscopy is an experimental technique that is able to produce 3D gray-scale images of protein molecules. In contrast to other experimental techniques, cryo-electron microscopy is capable of visualizing large molecular complexes such as viruses and ribosomes. At medium resolution, the positions of the atoms are not visible and the process cannot proceed. The medium-resolution images produced by cryo-electron microscopy are used to derive the atomic structure of the proteins in de novo modeling. The skeletons of the 3D gray-scale images are used to interpret important information that is helpful in de novo modeling. Unfortunately, not all features of the image can be captured using a single segmentation. In this paper, we present a segmentation-free approach to extract the gray-scale curve-like skeletons. The approach relies on a novel representation of the 3D image, where the image is modeled as a graph and a set of volume trees. A test containing 36 synthesized maps and one authentic map shows that our approach can improve the performance of the two tested tools used in de novo modeling. The improvements were 62 and 13 percent for Gorgon and DP-TOSS, respectively. PMID:24384713

  17. Aging and large-scale functional networks: white matter integrity, gray matter volume, and functional connectivity in the resting state.

    PubMed

    Marstaller, L; Williams, M; Rich, A; Savage, G; Burianová, H

    2015-04-01

    Healthy aging is accompanied by neurobiological changes that affect the brain's functional organization and the individual's cognitive abilities. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of global age-related differences in the cortical white and gray matter on neural activity in three key large-scale networks. We used functional-structural covariance network analysis to assess resting state activity in the default mode network (DMN), the fronto-parietal network (FPN), and the salience network (SN) of young and older adults. We further related this functional activity to measures of cortical thickness and volume derived from structural MRI, as well as to measures of white matter integrity (fractional anisotropy [FA], mean diffusivity [MD], and radial diffusivity [RD]) derived from diffusion-weighted imaging. First, our results show that, in the direct comparison of resting state activity, young but not older adults reliably engage the SN and FPN in addition to the DMN, suggesting that older adults recruit these networks less consistently. Second, our results demonstrate that age-related decline in white matter integrity and gray matter volume is associated with activity in prefrontal nodes of the SN and FPN, possibly reflecting compensatory mechanisms. We suggest that age-related differences in gray and white matter properties differentially affect the ability of the brain to engage and coordinate large-scale functional networks that are central to efficient cognitive functioning. PMID:25644420

  18. Technique for gray-scale visual light and infrared image fusion based on non-subsampled shearlet transform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Weiwei

    2014-03-01

    A novel image fusion technique based on NSST (non-subsampled shearlet transform) is presented, aiming at resolving the fusion problem of spatially gray-scale visual light and infrared images. NSST, as a new member of MGA (multi-scale geometric analysis) tools, possesses not only flexible direction features and optimal shift-invariance, but much better fusion performance and lower computational costs compared with several current popular MGA tools such as NSCT (non-subsampled contourlet transform). We specifically propose new rules for the fusion of low and high frequency sub-band coefficients of source images in the second step of the NSST-based image fusion algorithm. First, the source images are decomposed into different scales and directions using NSST. Then, the model of region average energy (RAE) is proposed and adopted to fuse the low frequency sub-band coefficients of the gray-scale visual light and infrared images. Third, the model of local directional contrast (LDC) is given and utilized to fuse the corresponding high frequency sub-band coefficients. Finally, the final fused image is obtained by using inverse NSST to all fused sub-images. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed technique, several current popular ones are compared over three different publicly available image sets using four evaluation metrics, and the experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique performs better in both subjective and objective qualities.

  19. Applying gray-scaled detour phase hologram on liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator (LCoS-SLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayem El-Daher, Moustafa

    2016-03-01

    In order to solve the representation problem of computer-generated holograms, multiple algorithms have been devised. One of which is the well-known detour phase method. This method has recently been modified to be optimized to display the generated hologram on twisted nematic spatial light modulators. In this paper, we apply the modified gray-scaled detour phase holograms on another type of spatial light modulators, which is of utmost importance in the field, namely the reflective liquid crystal on silicon spatial light modulator.

  20. 1.7 Gbit/in.2 gray-scale continuous-phase-change femtosecond image storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Q.; Maddock, J.; Rogers, E. T. F.; Roy, T.; Craig, C.; Macdonald, K. F.; Hewak, D. W.; Zheludev, N. I.

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate high-density, multi-level crystallization of a Ge2Sb2Te5 thin film using tightly focused femtosecond laser pulses. The submicron spots with 8 distinct data storage states are written on a 1.08 μm square grid. The significant change in reflectivity of every specific state of crystallized spot allows easy optical reading and identification. As a demonstration, two gray-scale images are written into the storage medium. Our results open up potential applications in ultra-fast two-dimensional parallel cognitive computing and holography.

  1. Electrical Characterization of Hughes HCMP 1852D and RCA CDP1852D 8-bit, CMOS, I/O Ports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    Twenty-five Hughes HCMP 1852D and 25 RCA CDP1852D 8-bit, CMOS, I/O port microcircuits underwent electrical characterization tests. All electrical measurements were performed on a Tektronix S-3260 Test System. Before electrical testing, the devices were subjected to a 168-hour burn-in at 125 C with the inputs biased at 10V. Four of the Hughes parts became inoperable during testing. They exhibited functional failures and out-of-range parametric measurements after a few runs of the test program.

  2. Study of the Gray Scale, Polychromatic, Distortion Invariant Neural Networks Using the Ipa Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uang, Chii-Maw

    Research in the optical neural network field is primarily motivated by the fact that humans recognize objects better than the conventional digital computers and the massively parallel inherent nature of optics. This research represents a continuous effort during the past several years in the exploitation of using neurocomputing for pattern recognition. Based on the interpattern association (IPA) model and Hamming net model, many new systems and applications are introduced. A gray level discrete associative memory that is based on object decomposition/composition is proposed for recognizing gray-level patterns. This technique extends the processing ability from the binary mode to gray-level mode, and thus the information capacity is increased. Two polychromatic optical neural networks using color liquid crystal television (LCTV) panels for color pattern recognition are introduced. By introducing a color encoding technique in conjunction with the interpattern associative algorithm, a color associative memory was realized. Based on the color decomposition and composition technique, a color exemplar-based Hamming net was built for color image classification. A shift-invariant neural network is presented through use of the translation invariant property of the modulus of the Fourier transformation and the hetero-associative interpattern association (IPA) memory. To extract the main features, a quadrantal sampling method is used to sampled data and then replace the training patterns. Using the concept of hetero-associative memory to recall the distorted object. A shift and rotation invariant neural network using an interpattern hetero-association (IHA) model is presented. To preserve the shift and rotation invariant properties, a set of binarized-encoded circular harmonic expansion (CHE) functions at the Fourier domain is used as the training set. We use the shift and symmetric properties of the modulus of the Fourier spectrum to avoid the problem of centering the CHE

  3. Modified Sigmoid Function Based Gray Scale Image Contrast Enhancement Using Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Harish Kumar; Pal, Sandeep

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of an image enhancement is to improve eminence by maximizing the information content in the test image. Conventional contrast enhancement techniques either often fails to produce reasonable results for a broad variety of low-contrast and high contrast images, or cannot be automatically applied to different images, because they are parameters dependent. Hence this paper introduces a novel hybrid image enhancement approach by taking both the local and global information of an image. In the present work, sigmoid function is being modified on the basis of contrast of the images. The gray image enhancement problem is treated as nonlinear optimization problem with several constraints and solved by particle swarm optimization. The entropy and edge information is included in the objective function as quality measure of an image. The effectiveness of modified sigmoid function based enhancement over conventional methods namely linear contrast stretching, histogram equalization, and adaptive histogram equalization are better revealed by the enhanced images and further validated by statistical analysis of these images.

  4. A 10 MS/s 8-bit charge-redistribution ADC for hybrid pixel applications in 65 m CMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishishita, Tetsuichi; Hemperek, Tomasz; Krüger, Hans; Koch, Manuel; Germic, Leonard; Wermes, Norbert

    2013-12-01

    The design and measurement results of an 8-bit SAR ADC, based on a charge-redistribution DAC, are presented. This ADC is characterized by superior power efficiency and small area, realized by employing a lateral metal-metal capacitor array and a dynamic two-stage comparator. To avoid the need for a high-speed clock and its associated power consumption, an asynchronous logic was implemented in a logic control cell. A test chip has been developed in a 65 nm CMOS technology, including eight ADC channels with different layout flavors of the capacitor array, a transimpedance amplifier as a signal input structure, a serializer, and a custom-made LVDS driver for data transmission. The integral (INL) and differential (DNL) nonlinearities are measured below 0.5 LSB and 0.8 LSB, respectively, for the best channel operating at a sampling frequency of 10 MS/s. The area occupies 40 μm×70 μm for one ADC channel. The power consumption is estimated as 4 μW at 1 MS/s and 38 μW at 10 MS/s with a supply rail of 1.2 V. These excellent performance features and the natural radiation hardness of the design, due to the thin gate oxide thickness of transistors, are very interesting for front-end electronics ICs of future hybrid-pixel detector systems.

  5. Low Temperature Testing of a Radiation Hardened CMOS 8-Bit Flash Analog-to-Digital (A/D) Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, Scott S.; Hammond, Ahmad; Elbuluk, Malik E.; Patterson, Richard L.; Overton, Eric; Ghaffarian, Reza; Ramesham, Rajeshuni; Agarwal, Shri G.

    2001-01-01

    Power processing electronic systems, data acquiring probes, and signal conditioning circuits are required to operate reliably under harsh environments in many of NASA:s missions. The environment of the space mission as well as the operational requirements of some of the electronic systems, such as infrared-based satellite or telescopic observation stations where cryogenics are involved, dictate the utilization of electronics that can operate efficiently and reliably at low temperatures. In this work, radiation-hard CMOS 8-bit flash A/D converters were characterized in terms of voltage conversion and offset in the temperature range of +25 to -190 C. Static and dynamic supply currents, ladder resistance, and gain and offset errors were also obtained in the temperature range of +125 to -190 C. The effect of thermal cycling on these properties for a total of ten cycles between +80 and - 150 C was also determined. The experimental procedure along with the data obtained are reported and discussed in this paper.

  6. A 5 Giga Samples Per Second 8-Bit Analog to Digital Printed Circuit Board for Radio Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Homin; Liu, Howard; Guzzino, Kim; Kubo, Derek; Li, Chao-Te; Chang, Ray; Chen, Ming-Tang

    2014-08-01

    We have designed, manufactured, and characterized an 8-bit 5 Giga samples per second (Gsps) ADC printed circuit board assembly (PCBA). An e2v EV8AQ160 ADC chip was used in the design and the board is plug compatible with the field programmable gate array (FPGA) board developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) community. Astronomical interference fringes were demonstrated across a single baseline pair of antennas using two ADC boards on the Yuan Tseh Lee Array for Microwave Background Anisotropy (AMiBA) telescope. Several radio interferometers are using this board for bandwidth expansion, such as Submillimeter Array; also, several experimental telescopes are building new spectrometers using the same board. The ADC boards were attached directly to the Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware (ROACH-2) FPGA board for processing of the digital output signals. This ADC board provides the capability of digitizing radio frequency signals from DC to 2 GHz (3 dB bandwidth), and to an extended bandwidth of 2.5 GHz (5 dB) with derated performance. The following worst-case performance parameters were obtained over 2 GHz: spur free dynamic range (SFDR) of 44 dB, signal-to-noise and distortion (SINAD) of 35 dB, and effective number of bits (ENOB) of 5.5.

  7. The role of elastosonography, gray-scale and colour flow Doppler sonography in prediction of malignancy in thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Tatar, Idil Gunes; Kurt, Aydin; Yilmaz, Kerim Bora; Doğan, Mehmet; Hekimoglu, Baki; Hucumenoglu, Sema

    2014-01-01

    Background Ultrasound is as a noninvasive method commonly used in the work-up of thyroid nodules. This study aimed to evaluate the usefulness of sonographic and elastosonographic parameters in the discrimination of malignancy. Patients and methods. 150 thyroid nodules were evaluated by gray-scale, Doppler and elastosonography. The cytological analysis revealed that 141 nodules were benign and 9 were malignant. Results Orientation of the nodule was the only sonographic parameter associated with malignancy (p = 0.003). In the strain ratio analysis the best cut-off point was 1.935 to discriminate malignancy (p = 0.000), with 100% sensitivity, 76% specificity, 100% negative predictive value, 78.5% positive predictive value and 78% accuracy rate. There was a statistically significant correlation between the elasticity score and malignancy (p = 0.001). Most of the benign nodules had score 2 and 3, none of them displayed score 5. On the other hand, none of the malignant nodules had score 1 and 2, most of them displaying score 5. Conclusions A change in the diagnostic algorithm of the thyroid nodules should be considered integrating the elastosonographic analysis. PMID:25435847

  8. Is There Subclinical Synovitis in Early Psoriatic Arthritis? A Clinical Comparison With Gray-Scale and Power Doppler Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Freeston, Jane E; Coates, Laura C; Nam, Jackie L; Moverley, Anna R; Hensor, Elizabeth M A; Wakefield, Richard J; Emery, Paul; Helliwell, Philip S; Conaghan, Philip G

    2014-01-01

    Objective Arthritis activity assessments in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) have traditionally relied on tender and swollen joint counts, but in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple studies have demonstrated subclinical inflammation using modern imaging. The aim of this study was to compare clinical examination and ultrasound (US) findings in an early PsA cohort. Methods Forty-nine disease-modifying antirheumatic drug–naive patients with recent-onset PsA (median disease duration 10 months) underwent gray-scale (GS) and power Doppler (PD) US of 40 joints plus tender and swollen joint counts of 68/66 joints. GS and PD were scored on a 0–3 semiquantitative scale for each joint. Clinically active joints were defined as tender and/or swollen and US active joints were defined as a GS score ≥2 and/or a PD score ≥1. Results The most common sites for subclinical synovitis were the wrist (30.6%), knee (21.4%), metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints (26.5–33.7%), and metacarpophalangeal joints (10.2–19.4%). Excluding MTP joints and ankles, 37 (75.5%) of 49 patients had subclinical synovitis with a median of 3 (interquartile range [IQR] 1–4) joints involved. In contrast, clinical overestimation of synovitis occurred most commonly at the shoulder (38%) and ankle (28.6%). Twelve of 49 patients were classified clinically as having oligoarthritis; of these, subclinical synovitis identified 8 (75%) as having polyarthritis with an increase in their median joint count from 3 (IQR 1–4) to 6 (IQR 5–7). Conclusion This study has demonstrated that subclinical synovitis, as identified by US, is very common in early PsA and led to the majority of oligoarthritis patients being reclassified as having polyarthritis. Further research is required into the relationship of such subclinical synovitis to structural progression. PMID:24022986

  9. A Large Scale (N=400) Investigation of Gray Matter Differences in Schizophrenia Using Optimized Voxel-based Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Meda, Shashwath A.; Giuliani, Nicole R.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Jagannathan, Kanchana; Schretlen, David J.; Pulver, Anne; Cascella, Nicola; Keshavan, Matcheri; Kates, Wendy; Buchanan, Robert; Sharma, Tonmoy; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Many studies have employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of MRI images as an automated method of investigating cortical gray matter differences in schizophrenia. However, results from these studies vary widely, likely due to different methodological or statistical approaches. Objective To use VBM to investigate gray matter differences in schizophrenia in a sample significantly larger than any published to date, and to increase statistical power sufficiently to reveal differences missed in smaller analyses. Methods Magnetic resonance whole brain images were acquired from four geographic sites, all using the same model 1.5T scanner and software version, and combined to form a sample of 200 patients with both first episode and chronic schizophrenia and 200 healthy controls, matched for age, gender and scanner location. Gray matter concentration was assessed and compared using optimized VBM. Results Compared to the healthy controls, schizophrenia patients showed significantly less gray matter concentration in multiple cortical and subcortical regions, some previously unreported. Overall, we found lower concentrations of gray matter in regions identified in prior studies, most of which reported only subsets of the affected areas. Conclusions Gray matter differences in schizophrenia are most comprehensively elucidated using a large, diverse and representative sample. PMID:18378428

  10. A 1500-year record of climatic and environmental change in Elk Lake, Minnesota I: Varve thickness and gray-scale density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dean, W.; Anderson, R.; Platt, Bradbury J.; Anderson, D.

    2002-01-01

    The deepest part (29.5 m) of Elk Lake, Clearwater County, northwestern Minnesota, contains a complete Holocene section that is continuously varved. The varve components are predominantly autochthonous (CaCO3, organic matter, biogenic silica, and several iron and manganese minerals), but the varves do contain a minor detrital-clastic (aluminosilicate) component that is predominantly wind-borne (eolian) and provides an important record of atmospheric conditions. Singular spectrum analysis (SSA) and wavelet analysis of varve thickness recognized significant periodicities in the multicentennial and multidecadal bands that varied in power (i.e., variable significance) and position (i.e., variable period) within the periodic bands. Persistent periodicities of about 10, 22, 40, and 90 years, and, in particular, multicentennial periodicities in varve thickness and other proxy variables are similar to those in spectra of radiocarbon production, a proxy for past solar activity. This suggests that there may be a solar control, perhaps through geomagnetic effects on atmospheric circulation. Multicentennial and multidecadal periodicities also occur in wavelet spectra of relative gray-scale density. However, gray-scale density does not appear to correlate with any of the measured proxy variables, and at this point we do not know what controlled gray scale.

  11. Comparison of CT-Number and Gray Scale Value of Different Dental Materials and Hard Tissues in CT and CBCT

    PubMed Central

    Emadi, Naghmeh; Safi, Yaser; Akbarzadeh Bagheban, Alireza; Asgary, Saeed

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Computed tomography (CT) and cone-beam CT (CBCT) are valuable diagnostic aids for many clinical applications. This study was designed to compare the gray scale value (GSV) and Hounsfield unit (HU) of selected dental materials and various hard tissues using CT or CBCT. Methods and Materials: Three samples of all test materials including amalgam (AM), composite resin (CR), glass ionomer (GI), zinc-oxide eugenol (ZOE), calcium-enriched mixture (CEM) cement, AH-26 root canal sealer (AH-26), gutta-percha (GP), Coltosol (Col), Dycal (DL), mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), zinc phosphate (ZP), and polycarbonate cement (PC) were prepared and scanned together with samples of bone, dentin and enamel using two CBCT devices, Scanora 3D (S3D) and NewTom VGi (NTV) and a spiral CT (SCT) scanner (Somatom Emotion 16 multislice spiral CT);. Subsequently, the HU and GSV values were determined and evaluated. The data were analyzed by the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. The level of significance was determined at 0.05. Results: There were significant differences among the three different scanners (P<0.05). The differences between HU/GSV values of 12 selected dental materials using NTV was significant (P<0.05) and for S3D and SCT was insignificant (P>0.05). All tested materials showed maximum values in S3D and SCT (3094 and 3071, respectively); however, bone and dentin showed low/medium values (P<0.05). In contrast, the tested materials and tissues showed a range of values in NTV (366 to15383; P<0.05). Conclusion: Scanner system can influence the obtained HU/GSV of dental materials. NTV can discriminate various dental materials, in contrast to S3D/SCT scanners. NTV may be a more useful diagnostic aid for clinical practice. PMID:25386210

  12. Emerging factors associated with the decline of a gray fox population and multi-scale land cover associations of mesopredators in the Chicago metropolitan area.

    SciTech Connect

    Willingham, Alison N.; /Ohio State U.

    2008-01-01

    Statewide surveys of furbearers in Illinois indicate gray (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and red (Vulpes vulpes) foxes have experienced substantial declines in relative abundance, whereas other species such as raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans) have exhibited dramatic increases during the same time period. The cause of the declines of gray and red foxes has not been identified, and the current status of gray foxes remains uncertain. Therefore, I conducted a large-scale predator survey and tracked radiocollared gray foxes from 2004 to 2007 in order to determine the distribution, survival, cause-specific mortality sources and land cover associations of gray foxes in an urbanized region of northeastern Illinois, and examined the relationships between the occurrence of gray fox and the presence other species of mesopredators, specifically coyotes and raccoons. Although generalist mesopredators are common and can reach high densities in many urban areas their urban ecology is poorly understood due to their secretive nature and wariness of humans. Understanding how mesopredators utilize urbanized landscapes can be useful in the management and control of disease outbreaks, mitigation of nuisance wildlife issues, and gaining insight into how mesopredators shape wildlife communities in highly fragmented areas. I examined habitat associations of raccoons, opossums (Didelphis virginiana), domestic cats (Felis catus), coyotes, foxes (gray and red), and striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis) at multiple spatial scales in an urban environment. Gray fox occurrence was rare and widely dispersed, and survival estimates were similar to other studies. Gray fox occurrence was negatively associated with natural and semi-natural land cover types. Fox home range size increased with increasing urban development suggesting that foxes may be negatively influenced by urbanization. Gray fox occurrence was not associated with coyote or raccoon presence. However, spatial avoidance and

  13. TinyECCK: Efficient Elliptic Curve Cryptography Implementation over GF(2m) on 8-Bit Micaz Mote

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Seog Chung; Han, Dong-Guk; Kim, Hyung Chan; Hong, Seokhie

    In this paper, we revisit a generally accepted opinion: implementing Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem (ECC) over GF(2m) on sensor motes using small word size is not appropriate because XOR multiplication over GF(2m) is not efficiently supported by current low-powered microprocessors. Although there are some implementations over GF(2m) on sensor motes, their performances are not satisfactory enough to be used for wireless sensor networks (WSNs). We have found that a field multiplication over GF(2m) are involved in a number of redundant memory accesses and its inefficiency is originated from this problem. Moreover, the field reduction process also requires many redundant memory accesses. Therefore, we propose some techniques for reducing unnecessary memory accesses. With the proposed strategies, the running time of field multiplication and reduction over GF(2163) can be decreased by 21.1% and 24.7%, respectively. These savings noticeably decrease execution times spent in Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm (ECDSA) operations (signing and verification) by around 15-19%. We present TinyECCK (Tiny Elliptic Curve Cryptosystem with Koblitz curve-a kind of TinyOS package supporting elliptic curve operations) which is the first implementation of Koblitz curve on sensor motes as far as we know. Through comparisons with existing software implementations of ECC built in C or hybrid of C and inline assembly on sensor motes, we show that TinyECCK outperforms them in terms of running time, code size and supporting services. Furthermore, we show that a field multiplication over GF(2m) can be faster than that over GF(p) on 8-bit Atmegal28 processor by comparing TinyECCK with TinyECC, a well-known ECC implementation over GF(p). TinyECCK with sect163kl can generate a signature and verify it in 1.37 and 2.32 secs on a Micaz mote with 13,748-byte of ROM and 1,004-byte of RAM.

  14. Semi-Automated Classification of Gray Scale Aerial Photographs using Geographic Object Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harb Rabia, Ahmed; Terribile, Fabio

    2013-04-01

    crops fields, olive tree fields, vineyards, mixed vineyards and olive trees, roads, rivers and urban areas). Results showed that in the segmentation process, grater values of scale, shape and compactness parameters are more suitable for classifying forest and river objects. While lower values of scale, shape and compactness parameters are more suitable for classifying objects of agricultural crops fields, olive tree fields, vineyards, mixed vineyards and olive trees, roads and urban areas. Applying map accuracy assessment test revealed high accuracy of the generated map of approximately 87%. Forest and river objects were recognized through the main spectral signal value of the object. Tree stripes were recognized through the object's main spectral signal value, shape and size. Many different features were used for classifying the other classes' objects. Among others, features like object's density, texture, relative border to other classes, width, contrast and standard deviation were used in the classification process. The results showed that after developing the rule set process tree, classifying an aerial photograph can be faster by more than thirty times the classical techniques based on the computer machine speed. Generally, GEOBIA is a promising technique for classifying and interpreting gray scale aerial photographs.

  15. Measurement of micro-motions within non-transparent objects using gray scale information in x-ray stereo projection imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salih, Wasil H. M.; Buytaert, Jan A. N.; Dirckx, Joris J. J.

    2011-03-01

    We propose a new technique to measure the 3D motion of marker points along a straight path within an object using x-ray stereo projections. From recordings of two x-ray projections at different angles, the 3D coordinates of marker points can be determined. By synchronizing the x-ray exposure time to the motion event, a moving marker leaves a trace in the image of which the gray scale is linearly proportional to the marker velocity. By measuring the marker gray scale along the motion path, the velocity at each point is determined and the position as a function of time is obtained by integration. In combination with the 3D information from two stereo recordings, the full 3D motion is obtained. The difference in position between the new method and laser vibrometry was less than 5 µm. The 3D motion measurement is performed within seconds, making the method ideal for applications in biomechanics. In combination with a full CT-scan of the object, the motion information on the marker points can be used to measure and visualize how an internal rigid 3D structure moves. We demonstrate the method on the malleus ossicle motion in the gerbil middle ear as a function of pressure on the eardrum.

  16. Impact of nodular size on the predictive values of gray-scale, color-Doppler ultrasound, and sonoelastography for assessment of thyroid nodules

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Yu-rong; Wu, Yu-lian; Luo, Zhi-yan; Wu, Ning-bo; Liu, Xue-ming

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To define the roles of gray-scale, color-Doppler ultrasound, and sonoelastography for the assessment of thyroid nodule to determine whether nodule size affects the differential diagnosis of benign and malignant. Methods: A total of 243 consecutive subjects (214 women, 29 men) with 329 thyroid nodules were examined by gray-scale, color-Doppler ultrasound, and sonoelastography in this prospective study. All patients underwent surgery and the final diagnosis was obtained from histopathological examination. Results: Three hundred and twenty-nine nodules (208 benign, 121 malignant) were divided into small (SNs, 5–10 mm, n=137) and large (LNs, >10 mm, n=192) nodules. Microcalcifications were more frequent in malignant LNs than in malignant SNs, but showed no significant difference between benign LNs and SNs. Poorly-circumscribed margins were not significantly different between malignant SNs and LNs, but were less frequent in benign LNs than in benign SNs. Among all nodules, marked intranodular vascularity was more frequent in LNs than in SNs. By comparison, shape ratio of anteroposterior to transverse dimensions (A/T) ≥1 was less frequent in LNs than in SNs. Otherwise, among all nodules, marked hypoechogenicity and elasticity score of 4–6 showed no significant difference between LNs and SNs. Conclusions: The predictive values of microcalcifications, nodular margins, A/T ratio, and marked intranodular vascularity depend on nodule size, but the predictive values of echogenicity and elastography do not. PMID:22949361

  17. Digital discrimination of neutrons and γ rays with organic scintillation detectors in an 8-bit sampling system using frequency gradient analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jun; Luo, Xiao-Liang; Liu, Guo-Fu; Lin, Cun-Bao; Wang, Yan-Ling; Hu, Qing-Qing; Peng, Jin-Xian

    2012-06-01

    The feasibility of using frequency gradient analysis (FGA), a digital method based on Fourier transform, to discriminate neutrons and γ rays in the environment of an 8-bit sampling system has been investigated. The performances of most pulse shape discrimination methods in a scintillation detection system using the time-domain features of the photomultiplier tube anode signal will be lower or non-effective in this low resolution sampling system. However, the FGA method using the frequency-domain features of the anode signal exhibits a strong insensitivity to noise and can be used to discriminate neutrons and γ rays in the above sampling system. A detailed study of the quality of the FGA method in BC501A liquid scintillators is presented using a 5 G samples/s 8-bit oscilloscope and a 14.1 MeV neutron generator. A comparison of the discrimination results of the time-of-flight and conventional charge comparison (CC) methods proves the applicability of this technique. Moreover, FGA has the potential to be implemented in current embedded electronics systems to provide real-time discrimination in standalone instruments.

  18. Gray-scale and color duplex Doppler ultrasound of hand joints in the evaluation of disease activity and treatment in rheumatoid arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanac, Gordana; Morović-Vergles, Jadranka; Brkljačić, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the role of gray-scale and color duplex-Doppler ultrasound (CDUS) in diagnosis of changes of hand joints and assessment of treatment efficacy in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) by comparing qualitative and quantitative US parameters with clinical and laboratory indicators of disease activity. Methods Ulnocarpal (UC), metacarpophalangeal (MCP), and proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints in 30 patients with RA were examined by gray-scale and CDUS before and after six months of treatment. Morphologic and quantitative Doppler findings (synovial thickness, effusion quantity, vascularization degree, resistance index, velocities) were compared with clinical indicators of disease progression: disease activity score (DAS 28), Health Assessment Questionnaire (HAQ), rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and C reactive protein (CRP). Results Clinical indicators changed significantly after treatment: ESR from 38.1 ± 22.4 mm/h to 27.8 ± 20.9 mm/h (P = 0.013), DAS 28 from 5.47 ± 1.56 to 3.87 ± 1.65 (P < 0.001), and HAQ from 1.26 ± 0.66 to 0.92 ± 0.74 (P = 0.030), indicating therapeutic effectiveness. In all MCP and UC joints we observed a significant change in at least one US parameter, in 6 out of 12 joints we observed a significant change in ≥2 parameters, and in 2 UC joints we observed significant changes in ≥3 parameters. The new finding was that the cut-off values of resistance index of 0.40 at baseline and of 0.55 after the treatment indicated the presence of active disease and the efficacy of treatment, respectively; also it was noticed that PIP joints can be omitted from examination protocol. Conclusion Gray scale and CDUS are useful in diagnosis of changes in UC and MCP joints of patients with RA and in monitoring the treatment efficacy. PMID:26088853

  19. Operating characteristics of pixelated gray-scale optically addressed spatial light modulators incorporating the twisted smectic-C* liquid crystal effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Louis W.; Davey, Anthony B.; Travis, Adrian R.

    1998-08-01

    An optically addressed spatial light modulator using the twisted smectic-C* liquid crystal effect in the light- modulating layer and an intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon in the photosensitive layer is fabricated. The device incorporates a layer of pixelated aluminum mirrors, sandwiched between photosensitive and modulating layers, to increase the reflectivity of the modulated output read beam. The device is capable of achieving an intrinsic gray-scale optical output. A spatial resolution of 27 lp/mm (i.e., 54 lines/mm) at 50% modulation depth driving at 2.0 kHz and a maximum frame rate of 2.5 kHz at 80% modulation depth for which a frame cycle includes erase, write, and read operations have been demonstrated. Other operating characteristics, i.e., the sensitivity and contrast ratio, are reported.

  20. Four-Channel, 8 x 8 Bit, Two-Dimensional Parallel Transmission by use of Space-Code-Division Multiple-Access Encoder and Decoder Modules.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, M; Kitayama, K; Igasaki, Y; Kaneda, K

    1998-07-10

    We experimentally demonstrate four-channel multiplexing of 64-bit (8 x 8) two-dimensional (2-D) parallel data links on the basis of optical space-code-division multiple access (CDMA) by using new modules of optical spatial encoders and a decoder with a new high-contrast 9-m-long image fiber with 3 x 10(4) cores. Each 8 x 8 bit plane (64-bit parallel data) is optically encoded with an 8 x 8, 2-D optical orthogonal signature pattern. The encoded bit planes are spatially multiplexed and transmitted through an image fiber. A receiver can recover the intended input bit plane by means of an optical decoding process. This result should encourage the application of optical space-CDMA to future high-throughput 2-D parallel data links connecting massively parallel processors. PMID:18285889

  1. Forum on Alternate Assessment and "Gray Area" Assessment: A Report on the Pre-Conference Session at the National Conference on Large Scale Assessment (Snowbird, Utah, June 11-12, 1999).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center on Educational Outcomes, Minneapolis, MN.

    This report discusses the outcomes of a June 11-12, 1999, forum that addressed alternative assessments and gray areas in large-scale assessments for students with disabilities. The forum included 161 representatives from 42 state departments of education, 3 large school districts, 1 territory, and the Department of Defense Dependent Schools. Five…

  2. A quantum watermarking scheme using simple and small-scale quantum circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyake, S.; Nakamae, K.

    2016-05-01

    A new quantum gray-scale image watermarking scheme by using simple and small-scale quantum circuits is proposed. The NEQR representation for quantum images is used. The image sizes for carrier and watermark are assumed to be 2n × 2n and n × n, respectively. At first, a classical watermark with n × n image size and 8 bits gray scale is expanded to an image with 2n × 2n image size and 2 bits gray scale. Then the expanded image is scrambled to be a meaningless image by the SWAP gates that controlled by the keys only known to the operator. The scrambled image is embedded into the carrier image by the CNOT gates (XOR operation). The watermark is extracted from the watermarked image by applying operations in the reverse order. Simulation-based experimental results show that our proposed scheme is excellent in terms of three items, visual quality, robustness performance under noises, and computational complexity.

  3. Gray Matter Axonal Connectivity Maps

    PubMed Central

    Bonilha, Leonardo; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Nesland, Travis; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2015-01-01

    Structural brain connectivity is generally assessed through methods that rely on pre-defined regions of interest (e.g., Brodmann’s areas), thus preventing analyses that are largely free from a priori anatomical assumptions. Here, we introduce a novel and practical technique to evaluate a voxel-based measure of axonal projections connecting gray matter tissue [gray matter axonal connectivity map (GMAC)]. GMACs are compatible with voxel-based statistical approaches, and can be used to assess whole brain, scale-free, gray matter connectivity. In this study, we demonstrate how whole-brain GMACs can be generated from conventional structural connectome methodology, describing each step in detail, as well as providing tools to allow for the calculation of GMAC. To illustrate the utility of GMAC, we demonstrate the relationship between age and gray matter connectivity, using voxel-based analyses of GMAC. We discuss the potential role of GMAC in further analyses of cortical connectivity in healthy and clinical populations. PMID:25798111

  4. Henry Gray, plagiarist.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    The first edition of Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical (1858) was greeted with accolades, but also provoked serious controversy concerning Henry Gray's failure to acknowledge the work of earlier anatomists. A review in the Medical Times (1859) accused Gray of intellectual theft. The journal took the unusual step of substantiating its indictment by publishing twenty parallel texts from Gray and from a pre-existing textbook, Quain's Anatomy. At the recent "Vesalius Continuum" conference in Zakynthos, Greece (2014) Professor Brion Benninger disputed the theft by announcing from the floor the results of a computer analysis of both texts, which he reported exonerated Gray by revealing no evidence of plagiarism. The analysis has not been forthcoming, however, despite requests. Here the historian of Gray's Anatomy supplements the argument set out in the Medical Times 150 years ago with data suggesting unwelcome personality traits in Henry Gray, and demonstrating the utility of others' work to his professional advancement. Fair dealing in the world of anatomy and indeed the genuineness of the lustre of medical fame are important matters, but whether quantitative evidence has anything to add to the discussion concerning Gray's probity can be assessed only if Benninger makes public his computer analysis. PMID:26696521

  5. Gray Areas of Assessment Systems. Synthesis Report 32.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Patricia; Quenemoen, Rachel; Olsen, Kenneth; Thurlow, Martha

    This paper discusses students with disabilities who do not fit into large-scale traditional assessment systems, seeks to clarify what is meant by "gray areas of assessment," delineates the primary issues that surround and contribute to gray areas, and provides suggestions for developing fully inclusive systems. It provides brief case studies of…

  6. Portrait of James Gray.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mark F.

    1989-01-01

    Jim Gray's vision of "teachers teaching teachers" writing, through dogged persistence, has become reality as the National Writing Project, precursor to the Bay Area Writing Project. These projects, depending on cooperative university-school relations and effecting meaningful change over time, have influenced nearly one million teachers since their…

  7. The Graying Professoriat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gilroy, Marilyn

    2009-01-01

    "The graying of the professoriat," a catchphrase that refers to the increase in the number of full-time faculty working beyond the traditional retirement age of 65, is sparking concern in colleges and universities. The trend is affecting four- and two-year schools and raising questions about the teaching effectiveness, productivity, and vitality…

  8. Shades of Gray.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, John C.; Calibeo, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    A university's financing choices cover many shades of gray. Some off-balance-sheet financing uses no debt capacity, while others represent or imply full financial commitment. Many others fall in between. The choices made by a number of institutions in financing facility expansions or improvements are discussed, and the Moody's Investors Service…

  9. Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in gray water.

    PubMed

    Butkovskyi, Andrii; Jeremiasse, Adriaan W; Hernandez Leal, Lucia; van der Zande, Ton; Rijnaarts, Huub; Zeeman, Grietje

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in real gray water effluent was studied for the first time. Six compounds that are frequently found in personal care and household products, namely methylparaben, propylparaben, bisphenol A, triclosan, galaxolide, and 4- methylbenzilidene camphor (4-MBC), were analyzed in the effluent of the aerobic gray water treatment system in full operation. The effluent was used for lab-scale experiments with an electrochemical cell operated in batch mode. Three different anodes and five different cathodes have been tested. Among the anodes, Ru/Ir mixed metal oxide showed the best performance. Ag and Pt cathodes worked slightly better than Ti and mixed metal oxide cathodes. The compounds that contain a phenolic ring (parabens, bisphenol A, and triclosan) were completely transformed on this anode at a specific electric charge Q = 0.03 Ah/L. The compounds, which contain a benzene ring and multiple side methyl methyl groups (galaxolide, 4-MBC) required high energy input (Q ≤ 0.6 Ah/L) for transformation. Concentrations of adsorbable organohalogens (AOX) in the gray water effluent increased significantly upon treatment for all electrode combinations tested. Oxidation of gray water on mixed metal oxide anodes could not be recommended as a post-treatment step for gray water treatment according to the results of this study. Possible solutions to overcome disadvantages revealed within this study are proposed. PMID:24364736

  10. Irrespective of size, scales, color or body shape, all fish are just fish: object categorization in the gray bamboo shark Chiloscyllium griseum.

    PubMed

    Schluessel, V; Duengen, D

    2015-03-01

    Object categorization is an important cognitive adaptation, quickly providing an animal with relevant and potentially life-saving information. It can be defined as the process whereby objects that are not the same, are nonetheless grouped together according to some defining feature(s) and responded to as if they were the same. In this way, knowledge about one object, behavior or situation can be extrapolated onto another without much cost and effort. Many vertebrates including humans, monkeys, birds and teleosts have been shown to be able to categorize, with abilities varying between species and tasks. This study assessed object categorization skills in the gray bamboo shark Chiloscyllium griseum. Sharks learned to distinguish between the two categories, 'fish' versus 'snail' independently of image features and image type, i.e., black and white drawings, photographs, comics or negative images. Transfer tests indicated that sharks predominantly focused on and categorized the positive stimulus, while disregarding the negative stimulus. PMID:25385574

  11. DICOM part 14: GSDF-calibrated medical grade monitor vs a DICOM part 14: GSDF-calibrated “commercial off-the-shelf” (COTS) monitor for viewing 8-bit dental images

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, J P

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether there is any difference in the presented image quality between a medical grade monitor and a “commercial off-the- shelf” (COTS) monitor when displaying an 8-bit dental image. Methods: The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) part 14: greyscale standard display function (GSDF) was verified for both monitors. A visual grading characteristics (VGC) curve was constructed to measure the difference in image quality between the two monitors by comparing radiological structures displayed on each monitor with a DICOM part 14: GSDF-calibrated laptop monitor as reference. Results: All of the monitors conformed to within the American Association of Physicists in Medicine Task Group 18 10% tolerance levels for the assessment of the DICOM part 14: GSDF. There was no difference in the preferred perceived visual sensation for the displayed image between the two tested monitors with the area under the VGC curve = 0.53 and 95% confidence interval = 0.47–0.59. Conclusions: A DICOM part 14: GSDF COTS monitor is capable of displaying an image quality that is equally preferred to a DICOM part 14: GSDF medical grade monitor for an 8-bit image file. PMID:25421807

  12. Comment on "An improved gray Lattice Boltzmann model for simulating fluid flow in multi-scale porous media": Intrinsic links between LBE Brinkman schemes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginzburg, Irina

    2016-02-01

    In this Comment on the recent work (Zhu and Ma, 2013) [11] by Zhu and Ma (ZM) we first show that all three local gray Lattice Boltzmann (GLB) schemes in the form (Zhu and Ma, 2013) [11]: GS (Chen and Zhu, 2008; Gao and Sharma, 1994) [1,4], WBS (Walsh et al., 2009) [12] and ZM, fail to get constant Darcy's velocity in series of porous blocks. This inconsistency is because of their incorrect definition of the macroscopic velocity in the presence of the heterogeneous momentum exchange, while the original WBS model (Walsh et al., 2009) [12] does this properly. We improve the GS and ZM schemes for this and other related deficiencies. Second, we show that the "discontinuous velocity" they recover on the stratified interfaces with their WBS scheme is inherent, in different degrees, to all LBE Brinkman schemes, including ZM scheme. None of them guarantees the stress and the velocity continuity by their implicit interface conditions, even in the frame of the two-relaxation-times (TRT) collision operator where these two properties are assured in stratified Stokes flow, Ginzburg (2007) [5]. Third, the GLB schemes are presented in work (Zhu and Ma, 2013) [11] as the alternative ones to direct, Brinkman-force based (BF) schemes (Freed, 1998; Nie and Martys, 2007) [3,8]. Yet, we show that the BF-TRT scheme (Ginzburg, 2008) [6] gets the solutions of any of the improved GLB schemes for specific, viscosity-dependent choice of its one or two local relaxation rates. This provides the principal difference between the GLB and BF: while the BF may respect the linearity of the Stokes-Brinkman equation rigorously, the GLB-TRT cannot, unless it reduces to the BF via the inverse transform of the relaxation rates. Furthermore, we show that, in limited parameter space, "gray" schemes may run one another. From the practical point of view, permeability values obtained with the GLB are viscosity-dependent, unlike with the BF. Finally, the GLB shares with the BF a so-called anisotropy (Ginzburg

  13. The Gray-Hobbs Vision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dokecki, Paul R.; Newbrough, J. R.

    1996-01-01

    Susan Gray and Nicholas Hobbs were influential in the development of the Kennedy Center at Peabody College of Vanderbilt University, which was designed to include an emphasis on research and training in education and human development. This paper describes Gray's and Hobbs' work and explains how their vision extended to the creation of the Kennedy…

  14. Large-Scale Fusion of Gray Matter and Resting-State Functional MRI Reveals Common and Distinct Biological Markers across the Psychosis Spectrum in the B-SNIP Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zheng; Meda, Shashwath A.; Keshavan, Matcheri S.; Tamminga, Carol A.; Sweeney, John A.; Clementz, Brett A.; Schretlen, David J.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Lui, Su; Pearlson, Godfrey D.

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether aberrant interactions between brain structure and function present similarly or differently across probands with psychotic illnesses [schizophrenia (SZ), schizoaffective disorder (SAD), and bipolar I disorder with psychosis (BP)] and whether these deficits are shared with their first-degree non-psychotic relatives. A total of 1199 subjects were assessed, including 220 SZ, 147 SAD, 180 psychotic BP, 150 first-degree relatives of SZ, 126 SAD relatives, 134 BP relatives, and 242 healthy controls (1). All subjects underwent structural MRI (sMRI) and resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) scanning. Joint-independent component analysis (jICA) was used to fuse sMRI gray matter and rs-fMRI amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations data to identify the relationship between the two modalities. jICA revealed two significantly fused components. The association between functional brain alteration in a prefrontal–striatal–thalamic–cerebellar network and structural abnormalities in the default mode network was found to be common across psychotic diagnoses and correlated with cognitive function, social function, and schizo-bipolar scale scores. The fused alteration in the temporal lobe was unique to SZ and SAD. The above effects were not seen in any relative group (including those with cluster-A personality). Using a multivariate-fused approach involving two widely used imaging markers, we demonstrate both shared and distinct biological traits across the psychosis spectrum. Furthermore, our results suggest that the above traits are psychosis biomarkers rather than endophenotypes. PMID:26732139

  15. Digital camcorder image stabilizer based on gray-coded bit-plane block matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, YeouMin; Chiang, Huang-Cheng; Wang, Sheng-Jyh

    2001-10-01

    We propose an efficient algorithm to eliminate the nonpleasing effect caused by involuntary hand movement of camera holders. In our approach, 1-bit gray-coded bit- plane block matching, instead of 8-bit gray-level block matching, is used to greatly simplify the computation of motion estimation. This computation saving makes possible a finer division of image frame and thus facilitates the employment of a much more robust procedure for motion decision. To deal with various interfering factors in motion estimation, the temporal information of each local motion vector is also used to efficiently distinguish random-like movement from temporally correlated movement. To compensate for camera rotation, an affine model is used in the motion compensation unit without adding too much computation load. Having considered both programming flexibility and hardware efficiency, the motion decision unit and the motion compensation unit are coded in a microprocessor that interconnects with the stabilization hardware, which consists of the motion estimation unit and the digital zooming unit. A slightly simplified version of the proposed stabilizer is implemented on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) board.

  16. Gray scale x-ray mask

    DOEpatents

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Gonzales, Marcela

    2006-03-07

    The present invention describes a method for fabricating an embossing tool or an x-ray mask tool, providing microstructures that smoothly vary in height from point-to-point in etched substrates, i.e., structure which can vary in all three dimensions. The process uses a lithographic technique to transfer an image pattern in the surface of a silicon wafer by exposing and developing the resist and then etching the silicon substrate. Importantly, the photoresist is variably exposed so that when developed some of the resist layer remains. The remaining undeveloped resist acts as an etchant barrier to the reactive plasma used to etch the silicon substrate and therefore provides the ability etch structures of variable depths.

  17. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  18. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    DOEpatents

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  19. Gray Mold or Botrytis Blight

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea can cause an intermittent decay of leaves or seed production organs of beet. The disease is not usually economically important on sugar beet, but can be severe enough to need control on swiss chard. This chapter describes the disease and pathogen and mentions ...

  20. Gray, Stephen (1666-1736)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Astronomer and scientist, born in Canterbury, Kent, England. Something of a scientific enigma, Gray at first devoted his energy to astronomy, observing eclipses, sunspots, the satellites of Jupiter, and communicating his results to the first Astronomer Royal, JOHN FLAMSTEED. He was interested in instrumentation and invented a microscope in which a drop of water was the lens. In his later years, h...

  1. On the construction of generalized Gray code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beletsky, Anatoly; Viet Hung, Nguyen

    2006-03-01

    This paper concerns the problem of expanding the standard classical Gray code [l]. The incentive reason which stipulates interest to Gray transformations is to find the base Walsh systems that provide much faster operating speed to the fast Fourier transform (FFT) processors on comparison with the base discrete exponential functions (DEF). This result is useful to find more effective method for estimation of Doppler frequency in discovery - measuring of wideband radio-location signals in frequency space. The generalized Gray code is constructed by various methods. At first, the expansion of Gray codes can be attained due to increasing the number of channels, by which the entrance operands of transformation are related to the output operands. And, secondly, in the separate (all) flow lines of operands(graph's ribs of transformation) we can insert additional multiplying elements with the coefficient of transmission, which is the positive integer and the module does not exceed m-1. In the paper, the algorithms of transformation of digital code combinations are offered, dilative the number of simple Gray transformation. By the achieved generalized Gray codes the problem of clusterization is successfully resolved. This problem can be described that: by only simple original Gray codes not for all parameters of m (base number) and n (bit's number of code) is succeeded link all elements in great symmetric systems of the Vilenkina-Chrestenson functions. Useful applications of the generalized Gray transformations can turn out in cryptography, antinoise coding and others.

  2. Properties of gray and binary representations.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Jonathan; Whitley, Darrell; Barbulescu, Laura; Watson, Jean-Paul

    2004-01-01

    Representations are formalized as encodings that map the search space to the vertex set of a graph. We define the notion of bit equivalent encodings and show that for such encodings the corresponding Walsh coefficients are also conserved. We focus on Gray codes as particular types of encoding and present a review of properties related to the use of Gray codes. Gray codes are widely used in conjunction with genetic algorithms and bit-climbing algorithms for parameter optimization problems. We present new convergence proofs for a special class of unimodal functions; the proofs show that a steepest ascent bit climber using any reflected Gray code representation reaches the global optimum in a number of steps that is linear with respect to the encoding size. There are in fact many different Gray codes. Shifting is defined as a mechanism for dynamically switching from one Gray code representation to another in order to escape local optima. Theoretical results that substantially improve our understanding of the Gray codes and the shifting mechanism are presented. New proofs also shed light on the number of unique Gray code neighborhoods accessible via shifting and on how neighborhood structure changes during shifting. We show that shifting can improve the performance of both a local search algorithm as well as one of the best genetic algorithms currently available. PMID:15096305

  3. The Effect of Illumination on Gray Color

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Da Pos, Osvaldo; Baratella, Linda; Sperandio, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored the perceptual process of integration of luminance information in the production of the gray color of an object placed in an environment viewed from a window. The mean luminance of the object was varied for each mean luminance of the environment. Participants matched the gray color of the object with that of Munsell…

  4. Flexible operability and amplification of gray pulses.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingliang; Zhang, Shumin; Han, Mengmeng; Zhang, Huaxing; Wen, Fang; Yang, Zhenjun

    2014-07-15

    We have investigated experimentally the flexible production and amplification of gray pulses for the first time to our knowledge. Switchable wavelengths, tunable pulse-widths, and adjustable contrasts have all been obtained in a fiber laser. Amplification of gray pulses was also experimentally investigated in detail. The contrast of the pulses could also be increased in an amplifier. The robust stability that results from the interactions between adjacent harmonic mode locking counterparts of gray pulses was found to last for up to ten hours. To the best of our knowledge, the gray pulses trains we have generated are the most stable achieved to date in an all-fiber laser system. This finding can be used as a guide for the establishment of robust gray pulses as laser sources. PMID:25121665

  5. Age Strengthening of Gray Cast Iron Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    Von L. Richards; Wayne Nicola

    2003-06-26

    The primary objective of this research is to identify the age strengthening mechanism in gray and ductile cast iron, and to quantify the parameters that control it. It is also to contribute to a new predictive model for gray and ductile iron strength and hardness. This work shows that age strengthening occurs on a sigmoidal-logarithmic scale in gray and ductile cast irons, to a statistically significant extent. This is similar to Avrami-Johnson-Mehl kinetics for phase transformations in metals. It occurs in both cupola-melted iron and induction melted iron. However, it does not happen in all compositions. We have developed some understanding of the process. Data suggests that nitrogen and nitride-forming trace elements have a significant role in the process, but that is yet not fully characterized. Also, the time dependence of the bulk hardness and strength increase, the nano-scale precipitation evidence from neutron scattering, differential scanning calorimetry results and matrix micro-hardness increase in ferrite all indicate that age strengthening occurs by a precipitation or pre-precipitate cluster formation mechanism.

  6. Gray whale sightings in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, September 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwahara, Yuka; Fujiwara, Amane; Ito, Keizo; Miyashita, Kazushi; Mitani, Yoko

    2016-06-01

    Gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) are distributed within the productive neritic and estuarine waters of the North Pacific Ocean, the Bering Sea, and adjacent waters of the Arctic Ocean. They migrate to high-latitude feeding grounds each spring. Their main feeding grounds in the Arctic include the Chirikov Basin, the northeastern Chukchi Sea from Pt. Hope to Cape Lisburne and Pt. Lay to Pt. Barrow, and the northwestern Chukchi Sea along the Chukotka coast. Although sightings are rare in the Canadian Beaufort Sea, we observed three gray whales in two groups in this area in September 2014. A mud plume was observed near one of the whales, suggesting the animal had been feeding. In the Alaskan Beaufort Sea, large-scale monitoring of the distributions of marine mammals has been continuously conducted since 1979; however, there has been less monitoring in the Canadian Beaufort Sea. Therefore, it is necessary to record opportunistic sightings, such as those described here.

  7. Phase-image-based sparse-gray-level data pages for holographic data storage.

    PubMed

    Das, Bhargab; Joseph, Joby; Singh, Kehar

    2009-10-01

    We propose a method for implementation of gray-scale sparse block modulation codes with a single spatial light modulator in phase mode for holographic data storage. Sparse data pages promise higher recording densities with reduced consumption of the dynamic range of the recording material and reduced interpixel cross talk. A balanced sparse-gray-level phase data page gives a homogenized Fourier spectrum that improves the interference efficiency between the signal and the reference beams. Construction rules for sparse three-gray-level phase data pages, readout methods, and interpixel cross talk are discussed extensively. We also explore theoretically the potential storage density improvement while using low-pass filtering and sparse-gray-level phase data pages for holographic storage, and demonstrate the trade-off between code rate, block length, and estimated capacity gain. PMID:19798361

  8. Gray zone lymphomas in pediatric patients.

    PubMed

    Liang, Xiayuan; Greffe, Brian; Cook, Bruce; Giller, Roger; Graham, Douglas K; McGranahan, Amy N; Wang, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Gray zone lymphomas are defined as lymphoid malignancies that cannot be reliably classified into a single distinct disease entity after all available morphologic, immunophenotypic, and molecular investigations have been performed. The 2008 World Health Organization Classification proposed 2 gray zone lesions: (1) B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and Burkitt lymphoma and (2) B-cell lymphoma, unclassifiable, with features intermediate between diffuse large B-cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkin lymphoma. These gray zone lesions are rare, especially in pediatric patients, and create a great challenge to both pathologists and oncologists because this differential diagnosis has direct implications for management strategies. In this manuscript, we report 2 cases of pediatric patients with gray zone lymphoma and review clinicopathologic features, treatment options, and outcomes of this uncommon tumor. PMID:20331368

  9. Gray solitons on the surface of water.

    PubMed

    Chabchoub, A; Kimmoun, O; Branger, H; Kharif, C; Hoffmann, N; Onorato, M; Akhmediev, N

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of surface gravity water waves can be described by the self-defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Recent observations of black solitons on the surface of water confirmed its validity for finite, below critical depth. The black soliton is a limiting case of a family of gray soliton solutions with finite amplitude depressions. Here, we report observations of gray solitons in water waves, thus, complementing our previous observations of black solitons. PMID:24580162

  10. Gray solitons on the surface of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chabchoub, A.; Kimmoun, O.; Branger, H.; Kharif, C.; Hoffmann, N.; Onorato, M.; Akhmediev, N.

    2014-01-01

    The dynamics of surface gravity water waves can be described by the self-defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equation. Recent observations of black solitons on the surface of water confirmed its validity for finite, below critical depth. The black soliton is a limiting case of a family of gray soliton solutions with finite amplitude depressions. Here, we report observations of gray solitons in water waves, thus, complementing our previous observations of black solitons.

  11. The Graying of American Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thronson, Harley A., Jr.; Lindstedt, S. L. "Bud"

    1986-10-01

    We consider the distribution of scientific ages of professors in ten astronomy departments in the United States and find that the average astronomer is growing older at a rate of about 6 months per year at present. This aging will continue through the end of the 1990s, at which time we predict that the average professorial astronomer will be around 50 years old. The cause of this aging is the expansion of the profession that began in the late 1960s, an expansion that was not maintained for more than one decade. As a consequence, perhaps as many as one-third of all the professor-level astronomers in the country obtained doctorates between 1964 and 1970, inclusive. For comparison we briefly consider the distribution of ages of physicists and physiologists. The number of physiologists as a function of date of doctorate has been slightly increasing since around 1960; thus this profession has also been slowly getting older with time. The average age of physicists is significantly greater than that for astronomers. Because of the significant influence of social and political forces on university decisions, we find that the total budget for NASA has been a good predictor for the past demand for professorial astronomers, but the total NSF budget is not. We predict the future demand for astronomers in the U.S. and suggest, as a result of the expansion in the 1960s, that demand will increase significantly near the end of the 1990s, making employment easier to obtain and suitable job candidates, particularly postdoctoral associates, more difficult to find. We point out that because of greater average age, the physics community will have to find solutions to the problems of an elderly population before astronomers will. Furthermore, there may be a small increase in the demand for astronomers as large numbers of physicists retire in the early- to mid-1990s. Additional consequences of a graying astronomy are briefly considered.

  12. Gray matter alterations and correlation of nutritional intake with the gray matter volume in prediabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neurophysiology of prediabetes plays an important role in preventive medicine. The dysregulation of glucose metabolism is likely linked to changes in neuron-related gray matter. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate gray matter alterations in medication-naive prediabetic patients. We expected to find alterations in the gray matter of prediabetic patients. A total of 64 prediabetic patients and 54 controls were enrolled. All subjects received T1 scans using a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging machine. Subjects also completed nutritional intake records at the 24-hour and 3-day time points to determine their carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake. We utilized optimized voxel-based morphometry to estimate the gray matter differences between the patients and controls. In addition, the preprandial serum glucose level and the carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake levels were tested to determine whether these parameters were correlated with the gray matter volume. Prediabetic patients had lower gray matter volumes than controls in the right anterior cingulate gyrus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, left super temporal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus (corrected P < 0.05; voxel threshold: 33). Gray matter volume in the right anterior cingulate was also negatively correlated with the preprandial serum glucose level gyrus in a voxel-dependent manner (r = –0.501; 2-tailed P = 0.001). The cingulo-temporal and insula gray matter alterations may be associated with the glucose dysregulation in prediabetic patients. PMID:27336893

  13. Gray matter alterations and correlation of nutritional intake with the gray matter volume in prediabetes.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2016-06-01

    The neurophysiology of prediabetes plays an important role in preventive medicine. The dysregulation of glucose metabolism is likely linked to changes in neuron-related gray matter. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate gray matter alterations in medication-naive prediabetic patients. We expected to find alterations in the gray matter of prediabetic patients.A total of 64 prediabetic patients and 54 controls were enrolled. All subjects received T1 scans using a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging machine. Subjects also completed nutritional intake records at the 24-hour and 3-day time points to determine their carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake. We utilized optimized voxel-based morphometry to estimate the gray matter differences between the patients and controls. In addition, the preprandial serum glucose level and the carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake levels were tested to determine whether these parameters were correlated with the gray matter volume.Prediabetic patients had lower gray matter volumes than controls in the right anterior cingulate gyrus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, left super temporal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus (corrected P < 0.05; voxel threshold: 33). Gray matter volume in the right anterior cingulate was also negatively correlated with the preprandial serum glucose level gyrus in a voxel-dependent manner (r = -0.501; 2-tailed P = 0.001).The cingulo-temporal and insula gray matter alterations may be associated with the glucose dysregulation in prediabetic patients. PMID:27336893

  14. Discovery of the gray phenotype and white-gray-opaque tristable phenotypic transitions in Candida dubliniensis.

    PubMed

    Yue, Huizhen; Hu, Jian; Guan, Guobo; Tao, Li; Du, Han; Li, Houmin; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-04-01

    Candida dubliniensis is closely related to Candida albicans, a major causative agent of candidiasis, and is primarily associated with oral colonization and infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients. Despite the high similarity of genomic and phenotypic features between the 2 species, C. dubliniensis is much less virulent and less prevalent than C. albicans. The ability to change morphological phenotypes is a striking feature of Candida species and is linked to virulence. In this study, we report a novel phenotype, the gray phenotype, in C. dubliniensis. Together with the previously reported white and opaque cell types, the gray phenotype forms a tristable phenotypic switching system in C. dubliniensis that is similar to the white-gray-opaque tristable switching system in C. albicans. Gray cells of C. dubliniensis are similar to their counterparts in C. albicans in terms of several biological aspects including cellular morphology, mating competence, and genetic regulatory mechanisms. However, the gray phenotypes of the 2 species have some distinguishing features. For example, the secreted aspartyl protease (Sap) activity is induced by bovine serum albumin (BSA) in gray cells of C. albicans, but not in gray cells of C. dubliniensis. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the biological features and regulatory mechanisms of white-gray-opaque tristable transitions are largely conserved in the 2 pathogenic Candida species. PMID:26714067

  15. Cost Comparison of Conventional Gray Combined Sewer Overflow Control Infrastructure versus a Green/Gray Combination

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper outlines a life-cycle cost analysis comparing a green (rain gardens) and gray (tunnels) infrastructure combination to a gray-only option to control combined sewer overflow in the Turkey Creek Combined Sewer Overflow Basin, in Kansas City, MO. The plan area of this Bas...

  16. ROPS deficiency of gray-market tractors.

    PubMed

    Myers, M L; Purschwitz, M A

    2012-04-01

    Many used tractors that are imported from Japan are adding to the current national inventory in the U.S. and Canada of farm tractors that lack a rollover protective structure (ROPS). Gray-market tractors are built for use by the manufacturer for a certain country but are imported against the manufacture's wishes to a second country for use there, usually as a used tractor. Gray-market tractors may lack ROPS and seatbelts, depending on the date of manufacturer. The objective of this investigation is to describe the gray market for tractors imported from Japan into the U.S. and the policy implications regarding the hazards associated with these imports. Operator manuals and warning labels are typically not written in English. Foreign manufacturers that market tractors in the U.S. have established a variety of disincentives for the importation of gray-market tractors, including issuing warnings, not servicing or providing parts for these tractors, and banning their importation through actions by the U.S. International Trade Commission. Nonetheless, a U.S. market has developed that imports and provides services and parts for gray-market tractors, and some companies provide certified ROPS on the tractors that they sell. A product safety perspective and related policies are presented as an approach to ensuring that these imports are equipped with ROPS and seatbelts. PMID:22655522

  17. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Christopher; Geist, David

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  18. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    SciTech Connect

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R.; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  19. Bone mineral density in cone beam computed tomography: Only a few shades of gray

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Marcio José da Silva; de Souza, Thainara Salgueiro; Mota Júnior, Sergio Luiz; Fraga, Marcelo Reis; Vitral, Robert Willer Farinazzo

    2014-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) has often been used to determine the quality of craniofacial bone structures through the determination of mineral density, which is based on gray scales of the images obtained. However, there is no consensus regarding the accuracy of the determination of the gray scales in these exams. This study aims to provide a literature review concerning the reliability of CBCT to determine bone mineral density. The gray values obtained with CBCT show a linear relationship with the attenuation coefficients of the materials, Hounsfield Units values obtained with medical computed tomography, and density values from dual energy X-ray absorciometry. However, errors are expected when CBCT images are used to define the quality of the scanned structures because these images show inconsistencies and arbitrariness in the gray values, particularly when related to abrupt change in the density of the object, X-ray beam hardening effect, scattered radiation, projection data discontinuity-related effect, differences between CBCT devices, changes in the volume of the field of view (FOV), and changes in the relationships of size and position between the FOV and the object evaluated. A few methods of mathematical correction of the gray scales in CBCT have been proposed; however, they do not generate consistent values that are independent of the devices and their configurations or of the scanned objects. Thus, CBCT should not be considered the examination of choice for the determination of bone and soft tissue mineral density at the current stage, particularly when values obtained are to be compared to predetermined standard values. Comparisons between symmetrically positioned structures inside the FOV and in relation to the exomass of the object, as it occurs with the right and left sides of the skull, seem to be viable because the effects on the gray scale in the regions of interest are the same. PMID:25170398

  20. Gray's paradox: A fluid mechanical perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bale, Rahul; Hao, Max; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Patel, Namrata; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2014-07-01

    Nearly eighty years ago, Gray reported that the drag power experienced by a dolphin was larger than the estimated muscle power - this is termed as Gray's paradox. We provide a fluid mechanical perspective of this paradox. The viewpoint that swimmers necessarily spend muscle energy to overcome drag in the direction of swimming needs revision. For example, in undulatory swimming most of the muscle energy is directly expended to generate lateral undulations of the body, and the drag power is balanced not by the muscle power but by the thrust power. Depending on drag model utilized, the drag power may be greater than muscle power without being paradoxical.

  1. Gray's paradox: A fluid mechanical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Bale, Rahul; Hao, Max; Bhalla, Amneet Pal Singh; Patel, Namrata; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2014-01-01

    Nearly eighty years ago, Gray reported that the drag power experienced by a dolphin was larger than the estimated muscle power – this is termed as Gray's paradox. We provide a fluid mechanical perspective of this paradox. The viewpoint that swimmers necessarily spend muscle energy to overcome drag in the direction of swimming needs revision. For example, in undulatory swimming most of the muscle energy is directly expended to generate lateral undulations of the body, and the drag power is balanced not by the muscle power but by the thrust power. Depending on drag model utilized, the drag power may be greater than muscle power without being paradoxical. PMID:25082341

  2. Detection of microscopic anisotropy in gray matter and in a novel tissue phantom using double Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo MR.

    PubMed

    Komlosh, M E; Horkay, F; Freidlin, R Z; Nevo, U; Assaf, Y; Basser, P J

    2007-11-01

    A double Pulsed Gradient Spin Echo (d-PGSE) MR experiment was used to measure and assess the degree of local diffusion anisotropy in brain gray matter, and in a novel "gray matter" phantom that consists of randomly oriented tubes filled with water. In both samples, isotropic diffusion was observed at a macroscopic scale while anisotropic diffusion was observed at a microscopic scale, however, the nature of the resulting echo attenuation profiles were qualitatively different. Gray matter, which contains multiple cell types and fibers, exhibits a more complicated echo attenuation profile than the phantom. Since microscopic anisotropy was observed in both samples in the low q regime comparable to that achievable in clinical scanner, it may offer a new potential contrast mechanism for characterizing gray matter microstructure in medical and biological applications. PMID:17869147

  3. Response to Biber, Gray, and Poonpon (2011)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, WeiWei

    2013-01-01

    The recent "TESOL Quarterly" article by Biber, Gray, and Poonpon (2011) raises important considerations with respect to the use of syntactic complexity (SC) measures in second language (L2) studies. The article draws the field's attention to one particular measure--complexity of noun phrases (NP) (i.e., noun phrases with modifiers, such as…

  4. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Kirk I; Leckie, Regina L; Weinstein, Andrea M

    2014-09-01

    In this review, we explore the association among physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6 months-1 year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume. PMID:24952993

  5. Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus, bibliography. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Setzler-Hamilton, E.; Oliver, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    The report categorizes the research literature on gray whales according to major research topics, issues of concern to Outer Continental Shelf oil and gas development, and geographic areas. The report has an extensive cross-index. Selected references are depicted on an accompanying poster.

  6. Physical activity, fitness, and gray matter volume

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Kirk I.; Leckie, Regina L.; Weinstein, Andrea M.

    2014-01-01

    In this review we explore the association between physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and exercise on gray matter volume in older adults. We conclude that higher cardiorespiratory fitness levels are routinely associated with greater gray matter volume in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and less consistently in other regions. We also conclude that physical activity is associated with greater gray matter volume in the same regions that are associated with cardiorespiratory fitness including the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Some heterogeneity in the literature may be explained by effect moderation by age, stress, or other factors. Finally, we report promising results from randomized exercise interventions that suggest that the volume of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex remain pliable and responsive to moderate intensity exercise for 6-months to 1-year. Physical activity appears to be a propitious method for influencing gray matter volume in late adulthood, but additional well-controlled studies are necessary to inform public policies about the potential protective or therapeutic effects of exercise on brain volume. PMID:24952993

  7. The Return to Gray Flannel Thinking.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, James J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The liberal mood of the 1960s has given way to a conservatism reminiscent of the gray flannel thinking of the 1950s. Today's young people are cautious, cynical, and dead serious about personal survival. Innovation and liberalism in education are being replaced by fiscal conservatism and emphasis on standards. (Author/SJL)

  8. Norma Gray: Leading the Way for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casto, James E.

    1999-01-01

    Founded by Norma Gray in 1972 as an early-childhood demonstration center, River Valley Child Development Services now operates various programs related to young children in nine southern West Virginia counties and a statewide apprenticeship program for child-development specialists. Programs provide child care, after-school programs,…

  9. Government Publications and Gray Literature in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anameric, Hakan

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates bibliographic control of government publications and gray literature in Turkey, in order to determine what further measures are needed to support researchers in both Turkey and abroad. It reports the circumstances surrounding the creation of "The Bibliography of Government Publications" prepared in 1971, and outlines how…

  10. 6. IRON FENCE SEPARATING GRAY'S FERRY AVENUE AND NAVAL GROUNDS. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. IRON FENCE SEPARATING GRAY'S FERRY AVENUE AND NAVAL GROUNDS. FENCE IS ORIGINAL--NOTE GREEK ACROTERIANS. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Externalizing personality traits, empathy, and gray matter volume in healthy young drinkers.

    PubMed

    Charpentier, Judith; Dzemidzic, Mario; West, John; Oberlin, Brandon G; Eiler, William J A; Saykin, Andrew J; Kareken, David A

    2016-02-28

    Externalizing psychopathology has been linked to prefrontal abnormalities. While clinically diagnosed subjects show altered frontal gray matter, it is unknown if similar deficits relate to externalizing traits in non-clinical populations. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to retrospectively analyze the cerebral gray matter volume of 176 young adult social to heavy drinkers (mean age=24.0±2.9, male=83.5%) from studies of alcoholism risk. We hypothesized that prefrontal gray matter volume and externalizing traits would be correlated. Externalizing personality trait components-Boredom Susceptibility-Impulsivity (BS/IMP) and Empathy/Low Antisocial Behaviors (EMP/LASB)-were tested for correlations with gray matter partial volume estimates (gmPVE). Significantly large clusters (pFWE<0.05, family-wise whole-brain corrected) of gmPVE correlated with EMP/LASB in dorsolateral and medial prefrontal regions, and in occipital cortex. BS/IMP did not correlate with gmPVE, but one scale of impulsivity (Eysenck I7) correlated positively with bilateral inferior frontal/orbitofrontal, and anterior insula gmPVE. In this large sample of community-dwelling young adults, antisocial behavior/low empathy corresponded with reduced prefrontal and occipital gray matter, while impulsivity correlated with increased inferior frontal and anterior insula cortical volume. These findings add to a literature indicating that externalizing personality features involve altered frontal architecture. PMID:26778367

  12. Comparison of gray matter volume and thickness for analysis of cortical changes in Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiachao; Li, Ziyi; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Wang, Zhiqun; Li, Kunchen; Guo, Xiaojuan

    2011-03-01

    Gray matter volume and cortical thickness are two indices of concern in brain structure magnetic resonance imaging research. Gray matter volume reflects mixed-measurement information of cerebral cortex, while cortical thickness reflects only the information of distance between inner surface and outer surface of cerebral cortex. Using Scaled Subprofile Modeling based on Principal Component Analysis (SSM_PCA) and Pearson's Correlation Analysis, this study further provided quantitative comparisons and depicted both global relevance and local relevance to comprehensively investigate morphometrical abnormalities in cerebral cortex in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thirteen patients with AD and thirteen age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Results showed that factor scores from the first 8 principal components accounted for ~53.38% of the total variance for gray matter volume, and ~50.18% for cortical thickness. Factor scores from the fifth principal component showed significant correlation. In addition, gray matter voxel-based volume was closely related to cortical thickness alterations in most cortical cortex, especially, in some typical abnormal brain regions such as insula and the parahippocampal gyrus in AD. These findings suggest that these two measurements are effective indices for understanding the neuropathology in AD. Studies using both gray matter volume and cortical thickness can separate the causes of the discrepancy, provide complementary information and carry out a comprehensive description of the morphological changes of brain structure.

  13. UPDATE OF GRAY KERNEL DISEASE OF MACADAMIA - 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gray kernel is an important disease of macadamia that affects the quality of kernels with gray discoloration and a permeating, foul odor that can render entire batches of nuts unmarketable. We report on the successful production of gray kernel in raw macadamia kernels artificially inoculated with s...

  14. Changes in Gray Matter Induced by Learning—Revisited

    PubMed Central

    Driemeyer, Joenna; Boyke, Janina; Gaser, Christian; Büchel, Christian; May, Arne

    2008-01-01

    Background Recently, activation-dependant structural brain plasticity in humans has been demonstrated in adults after three months of training a visio-motor skill. Learning three-ball cascade juggling was associated with a transient and highly selective increase in brain gray matter in the occipito-temporal cortex comprising the motion sensitive area hMT/V5 bilaterally. However, the exact time-scale of usage-dependant structural changes occur is still unknown. A better understanding of the temporal parameters may help to elucidate to what extent this type of cortical plasticity contributes to fast adapting cortical processes that may be relevant to learning. Principal Findings Using a 3 Tesla scanner and monitoring whole brain structure we repeated and extended our original study in 20 healthy adult volunteers, focussing on the temporal aspects of the structural changes and investigated whether these changes are performance or exercise dependant. The data confirmed our earlier observation using a mean effects analysis and in addition showed that learning to juggle can alter gray matter in the occipito-temporal cortex as early as after 7 days of training. Neither performance nor exercise alone could explain these changes. Conclusion We suggest that the qualitative change (i.e. learning of a new task) is more critical for the brain to change its structure than continued training of an already-learned task. PMID:18648501

  15. Is incest common in gray wolf packs?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, D.; Meier, T.; Geffen, E.; Mech, L.D.; Burch, J.W.; Adams, L.G.; Wayne, R.K.

    1997-01-01

    Wolf packs generally consist of a breeding pair and their maturing offspring that help provision and protect pack young. Because the reproductive tenure in wolves often is short, reproductively mature offspring might replace their parents, resulting in sibling or parent-offspring matings. To determine the extent of incestuous pairings, we measure relatedness based on variability in 20 microsatellite loci of mated pairs, parent-offspring pairs and siblings in two populations of gray wolves. Our 16 sampled mated pairs had values of relatedness not overlapping those of known parent-offspring or sibling dyads, which is consistent with their being unrelated or distantly related. These results suggest that full siblings or a parent and their offspring rarely mate and that incest avoidance is an important constraint on gray wolf behavioral ecology.

  16. Raising the curtain on the gray region.

    PubMed

    Kirchmer, C J; Lombard, S M

    2000-01-01

    The gray region in EPA Document QA/G-4 is defined as the range of possible parameter values near the action level where the cost of determining that the alternative condition is true outweighs the expected consequences of a decision error. The gray region is also described as a range of true parameter values within the alternative condition near the action level where it is "too close to call." EPA Document QA/G-4HW states that during the planning stage the action level is based on an ideal decision rule, while during the assessment stage an operational decision rule is used. This paper analyzes the factors that define the gray region and the action level, including the errors of the first kind (a) and second kind (beta) and the number of samples taken to determine the mean result. The relationship between the Decision Performance Curve presented in EPA QA/G-4 and the statistical power curve is also discussed. The statistically derived critical level is identified as the concentration of importance for decision-making. The action level is defined in terms of the critical level so that its value is consistent for decisions made during both planning (a priori decisions) and assessment (a posteriori decisions). PMID:12008893

  17. Scales

    MedlinePlus

    Scales are a visible peeling or flaking of outer skin layers. These layers are called the stratum ... Scales may be caused by dry skin, certain inflammatory skin conditions, or infections. Eczema , ringworm , and psoriasis ...

  18. Optical Pseudocolor Encoding Of Gray-Scale Image

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chao, Tien-Hsin; Liu, Hua-Kuang

    1990-01-01

    Optical encoding much faster than digital electronic encoding. In optical pseudocolor-encoding apparatus brightness modulation in image from television camera transformed into polarization modulation in LCTV, and then into pseudocolor modulation in image on projection screen. Advantageous for such purposes as thermography, inspection of circuit boards, mammography, and mapping.

  19. Gray Matter Involvement in Radiologically Isolated Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Labiano-Fontcuberta, Andrés; Mato-Abad, Virginia; Álvarez-Linera, Juan; Hernández-Tamames, Juan Antonio; Martínez-Ginés, Mª Luisa; Aladro, Yolanda; Ayuso, Lucía; Domingo-Santos, Ángela; Benito-León, Julián

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The unanticipated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection in the brain of asymptomatic subjects of white matter lesions suggestive of multiple sclerosis has recently been named as radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS). The pathophysiological processes of RIS remain largely unknown and questions as to whether gray matter alterations actually occur in this entity are yet to be investigated in more detail. By means of a 3 T multimodal MRI approach, we searched for cortical and deep gray matter changes in a cohort of RIS patients. Seventeen RIS patients, 17 clinically isolated syndrome (CIS) patients (median disease duration from symptom onset = 12 months), and 17 healthy controls underwent MRI and neuropsychological testing. Normalized deep gray matter volumes and regional cortical thickness were assessed using FreeSurfer. SIENAX was used to obtain normalized global and cortical brain volumes. Voxelwise morphometry analysis was performed by using SPM8 software to localize regions of brain tissue showing significant changes of fractional anisotropy or mean diffusivity. Although no differences were observed between CIS and healthy controls groups, RIS patients showed significantly lower normalized cortical volume (673 ± 27.07 vs 641 ± 35.88 [cm3 × 103, Tukey P test = 0.009) and mean thalamic volume (0.0051 ± 0.4 vs 0.0046 ± 0.4 mm, P = 0.014) compared with healthy controls. RIS patients also showed significant thinning in a number of cortical areas, that were primarily distributed in frontal and temporal lobes (P < 0.05, uncorrected). Strong correlations were observed between T2-white matter lesion volume and regional cortical thickness (rho spearman ranging from 0.60 to 0.80). Our data suggest that white matter lesions on T2-weighted images are not the only hallmark of RIS. Future longitudinal studies with larger samples are warranted to better clarify the effect of RIS-related white matter lesions on gray matter

  20. Fusion of white and gray matter geometry: a framework for investigating brain development

    PubMed Central

    Savadjiev, Peter; Rathi, Yogesh; Bouix, Sylvain; Smith, Alex R.; Schultz, Robert T.; Verma, Ragini; Westin, Carl-Fredrik

    2014-01-01

    Current neuroimaging investigation of the white matter typically focuses on measurements derived from diffusion tensor imaging, such as fractional anisotropy (FA). In contrast, imaging studies of the gray matter oftentimes focus on morphological features such as cortical thickness, folding and surface curvature. As a result, it is not clear how to combine findings from these two types of approaches in order to obtain a consistent picture of morphological changes in both gray and white matter. In this paper, we propose a joint investigation of gray and white matter morphology by combining geometrical information from white and the gray matter. To achieve this, we first introduce a novel method for computing multi-scale white matter tract geometry. Its formulation is based on the differential geometry of curve sets and is easily incorporated into a continuous scale-space framework. We then incorporate this method into a novel framework for “fusing” white and gray matter geometrical information. Given a set of fiber tracts originating in a particular cortical region, the key idea is to compute two scalar fields that represent geometrical characteristics of the white matter and of the surface of the cortical region. A quantitative marker is created by combining the distributions of these scalar values using Mutual Information. This marker can be then used in the study of normal and pathological brain structure and development. We apply this framework to a study on autism spectrum disorder in children. Our preliminary results support the view that autism may be characterized by early brain overgrowth, followed by reduced or arrested growth [7]. PMID:25066750

  1. Insular Gray Matter Volume and Objective Quality of Life in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Uwatoko, Teruhisa; Yoshizumi, Miho; Miyata, Jun; Ubukata, Shiho; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Kawada, Ryosaku; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Sugihara, Genichi; Aso, Toshihiko; Urayama, Shinichi; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2015-01-01

    Improving quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome for schizophrenia treatment, although the fundamental determinants are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the association between brain structural abnormalities and objective quality of life in schizophrenia patients. Thirty-three schizophrenia patients and 42 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The Quality of Life Scale was used to measure objective quality of life in schizophrenia patients. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to identify regional brain alterations that correlate with Quality of Life Scale score in the patient group. Schizophrenia patients showed gray matter reductions in the frontal, temporal, limbic, and subcortical regions. We then performed voxel-based multiple regression analysis in these regions to identify any correlations between regional gray matter volume and Quality of Life Scale scores. We found that among four subcategories of the scale, the Instrumental Role category score correlated with gray matter volume in the right anterior insula in schizophrenia patients. In addition, this correlation was shown to be mediated by negative symptoms. Our findings suggest that the neural basis of objective quality of life might differ topographically from that of subjective QOL in schizophrenia. PMID:26544607

  2. Insular Gray Matter Volume and Objective Quality of Life in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Uwatoko, Teruhisa; Yoshizumi, Miho; Miyata, Jun; Ubukata, Shiho; Fujiwara, Hironobu; Kawada, Ryosaku; Kubota, Manabu; Sasamoto, Akihiko; Sugihara, Genichi; Aso, Toshihiko; Urayama, Shinichi; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Murai, Toshiya; Takahashi, Hidehiko

    2015-01-01

    Improving quality of life has been recognized as an important outcome for schizophrenia treatment, although the fundamental determinants are not well understood. In this study, we investigated the association between brain structural abnormalities and objective quality of life in schizophrenia patients. Thirty-three schizophrenia patients and 42 age-, sex-, and education-matched healthy participants underwent magnetic resonance imaging. The Quality of Life Scale was used to measure objective quality of life in schizophrenia patients. Voxel-based morphometry was performed to identify regional brain alterations that correlate with Quality of Life Scale score in the patient group. Schizophrenia patients showed gray matter reductions in the frontal, temporal, limbic, and subcortical regions. We then performed voxel-based multiple regression analysis in these regions to identify any correlations between regional gray matter volume and Quality of Life Scale scores. We found that among four subcategories of the scale, the Instrumental Role category score correlated with gray matter volume in the right anterior insula in schizophrenia patients. In addition, this correlation was shown to be mediated by negative symptoms. Our findings suggest that the neural basis of objective quality of life might differ topographically from that of subjective QOL in schizophrenia. PMID:26544607

  3. Gray-shading for the SD-4060 graphics device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, C.

    1975-01-01

    Grays, a FORTRAN program, is described which will generate gray shading for the SD-4060 graphics device. The program produces 10 shades of gray ranging from no shading at all to complete coverage of the film frame. The graphing capabilities are summarized and illustrated. The figures displayed are representative of the microfilm output, but the distinction between various intensities is much clearer on the film, especially at the more intense shading.

  4. Multiwavelength pyrometer for gray and non-gray surfaces in the presence of interfering radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ng, Daniel L. P. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method and apparatus for detecting the temperature of gray and non-gray bodies in the presence of interfering radiation are presented. A gray body has a constant emissivity less than 1 and a non-gray body has an emissivity which varies with wavelength. The emissivity and reflectivity of the surface is determined over a range of wavelengths. Spectra are also measured of the extraneous interference radiation source and the surface of the object to be measured in the presence of the extraneous interference radiation source. An auxiliary radiation source is used to determine the reflectivity of the surface and also the emissivity. The measured spectrum of the surfaces in the presence of the extraneous interference radiation source is set equal to the emissivity of the surface multiplied by a Planck function containing a temperature term T plus the surface reflectivity multiplied by the spectrum of the extraneous interference radiation source. The equation is then solved for T to determine the temperature of the surface.

  5. The greenhouse effect in a gray planetary atmosphere.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wildt, R.

    1966-01-01

    Hopf analytical solution for values of ratio of gray absorption coefficients for insolating and escaping radiation /greenhouse parameter/ assumed constant at all depths, presenting temperature distribution graphs

  6. Inoculated Slightly Hypereutectic Gray Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chisamera, Mihai; Riposan, Iulian; Stan, Stelian; Militaru, Cristina; Anton, Irina; Barstow, Michael

    2012-03-01

    The current experimental investigation in this article was designed to characterize the structure of mold (M) and ladle (L) inoculated, low-S (0.025 wt.% S), low-Al (0.003 wt.% Al), slightly hypereutectic (CE = 4.4-4.5 wt.%) electric melted gray irons, typical for high performance thin-wall castings. It describes the effect of a Ca, Al, Zr-FeSi inoculant addition of 0-0.25 wt.% on structure characteristics, and compares to similar treatments with hypoeutectic irons (3.5-3.6 wt.% CE, 0.025 wt.% S, and 0.003 wt.% Al). A complex structure including primary graphite, austenite dendrites, and eutectic cells is obtained in hypereutectic irons, as the result of nonequilibrium solidification following the concept of a coexisting region. Dendrites appear to be distributed between eutectic cells at higher eutectic undercooling, while in inoculated irons and for lower undercooling, the eutectic cells are "reinforced" by eutectic austenite dendrites. A Zr, Ca, Al-FeSi alloy appears to be an effective inoculant in low S, low Al, gray cast irons, especially for a late inoculation technique, with beneficial effects on both graphite and austenite phases. First, inoculation influenced the nucleation of graphite/eutectic cell, and then their characteristics. A further role of these active elements directly contributed to form nucleation sites for austenite, as complex (Mn,X)S particles.

  7. Gray component replacement using color mixing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, Henry R.

    1994-05-01

    A new approach to the gray component replacement (GCR) has been developed. It employs the color mixing theory for modeling the spectral fit between the 3-color and 4-color prints. To achieve this goal, we first examine the accuracy of the models with respect to the experimental results by applying them to the prints made by a Canon Color Laser Copier-500 (CLC-500). An empirical halftone correction factor is used for improving the data fitting. Among the models tested, the halftone corrected Kubelka-Munk theory gives the closest fit, followed by the halftone corrected Beer-Bouguer law and the Yule-Neilsen approach. We then apply the halftone corrected BB law to GCR. The main feature of this GCR approach is based on the spectral measurements of the primary color step wedges and a software package implementing the color mixing model. The software determines the amount of the gray component to be removed, then adjusts each primary color until a good match of the peak wavelengths between the 3-color and 4-color spectra is obtained. Results indicate that the average (Delta) Eab between cmy and cmyk renditions of 64 color patches is 3.11 (Delta) Eab. Eighty-seven percent of the patches has (Delta) Eab less than 5 units. The advantage of this approach is its simplicity; there is no need for the black printer and under color addition. Because this approach is based on the spectral reproduction, it minimizes the metamerism.

  8. Gray and White Matter Contributions to Cognitive Frontostriatal Deficits in Non-Demented Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Price, Catherine C.; Tanner, Jared; Nguyen, Peter T.; Schwab, Nadine A.; Mitchell, Sandra; Slonena, Elizabeth; Brumback, Babette; Okun, Michael S.; Mareci, Thomas H.; Bowers, Dawn

    2016-01-01

    Objective This prospective investigation examined: 1) processing speed and working memory relative to other cognitive domains in non-demented medically managed idiopathic Parkinson’s disease, and 2) the predictive role of cortical/subcortical gray thickness/volume and white matter fractional anisotropy on processing speed and working memory. Methods Participants completed a neuropsychological protocol, Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale, brain MRI, and fasting blood draw to rule out vascular contributors. Within group a priori anatomical contributors included bilateral frontal thickness, caudate nuclei volume, and prefrontal white matter fractional anisotropy. Results Idiopathic Parkinson’s disease (n = 40; Hoehn & Yahr stages 1–3) and non-Parkinson’s disease ‘control’ peers (n = 40) matched on demographics, general cognition, comorbidity, and imaging/blood vascular metrics. Cognitively, individuals with Parkinson’s disease were significantly more impaired than controls on tests of processing speed, secondary deficits on working memory, with subtle impairments in memory, abstract reasoning, and visuoperceptual/spatial abilities. Anatomically, Parkinson’s disease individuals were not statistically different in cortical gray thickness or subcortical gray volumes with the exception of the putamen. Tract Based Spatial Statistics showed reduced prefrontal fractional anisotropy for Parkinson’s disease relative to controls. Within Parkinson’s disease, prefrontal fractional anisotropy and caudate nucleus volume partially explained processing speed. For controls, only prefrontal white matter was a significant contributor to processing speed. There were no significant anatomical predictors of working memory for either group. Conclusions Caudate nuclei volume and prefrontal fractional anisotropy, not frontal gray matter thickness, showed unique and combined significance for processing speed in Parkinson’s disease. Findings underscore the

  9. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs: a case series

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Wei-Xue; Mao, Qiu-Xia; Xiao, Xue-Min; Li, Zhi-Liang; Yu, Rui-Xing

    2014-01-01

    Alopecia areata is an unpredictable, non-scarring hair loss condition. Patchy alopecia areata sparing gray hairs is rare. Here we present 4 cases with patchy non-scarring hair loss, which attacked pigmented hairs only and spared gray hairs. It should be differentiated from vitiligo, colocalization of vitiligo and alopecia areata, and depigmented hair regrowth after alopecia areata. PMID:25097478

  10. The National Writing Project: A Best Idea from James Gray.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jago, Carol

    2003-01-01

    Discusses how James Gray, founder of the Bay Area Writing Project and later the National Writing Project, began with a simple idea--successful teachers are the best teachers of teachers. Describes how James Gray laid a foundation for what has become a national network with 175 sites across the nation, providing a professional home for thousands of…

  11. 33 CFR 80.1375 - Grays Harbor, WA.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grays Harbor, WA. 80.1375 Section 80.1375 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES Thirteenth District § 80.1375 Grays Harbor, WA. A line...

  12. Aberrant Paralimbic Gray Matter in Criminal Psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ermer, Elsa; Cope, Lora M.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2014-01-01

    Psychopaths impose large costs on society, as they are frequently habitual, violent criminals. The pervasive nature of emotional and behavioral symptoms in psychopathy suggests that several associated brain regions may contribute to the disorder. Studies employing a variety of methods have converged on a set of brain regions in paralimbic cortex and limbic areas that appear to be dysfunctional in psychopathy. The present study further tests this hypothesis by investigating structural abnormalities using voxel-based morphometry in a sample of incarcerated men (N [H11005] 296). Psychopathy was associated with decreased regional gray matter in several paralimbic and limbic areas, including bilateral parahippocampal, amygdala, and hippocampal regions, bilateral temporal pole, posterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. The consistent identification of paralimbic cortex and limbic structures in psychopathy across diverse methodologies strengthens the interpretation that these regions are crucial for understanding neural dysfunction in psychopathy. PMID:22149911

  13. Three-temperature plasma shock solutions with gray radiation diffusion

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Johnson, Bryan M.; Klein, Richard I.

    2016-04-19

    Here we discuss the effects of radiation on the structure of shocks in a fully ionized plasma are investigated by solving the steady-state fluid equations for ions, electrons, and radiation. The electrons and ions are assumed to have the same bulk velocity but separate temperatures, and the radiation is modeled with the gray diffusion approximation. Both electron and ion conduction are included, as well as ion viscosity. When the material is optically thin, three-temperature behavior occurs. When the diffusive flux of radiation is important but radiation pressure is not, two-temperature behavior occurs, with the electrons strongly coupled to the radiation.more » Since the radiation heats the electrons on length scales that are much longer than the electron–ion Coulomb coupling length scale, these solutions resemble radiative shock solutions rather than plasma shock solutions that neglect radiation. When radiation pressure is important, all three components are strongly coupled. Results with constant values for the transport and coupling coefficients are compared to a full numerical simulation with a good match between the two, demonstrating that steady shock solutions constitute a straightforward and comprehensive verification test methodology for multi-physics numerical algorithms.« less

  14. Three-temperature plasma shock solutions with gray radiation diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, B. M.; Klein, R. I.

    2016-04-01

    The effects of radiation on the structure of shocks in a fully ionized plasma are investigated by solving the steady-state fluid equations for ions, electrons, and radiation. The electrons and ions are assumed to have the same bulk velocity but separate temperatures, and the radiation is modeled with the gray diffusion approximation. Both electron and ion conduction are included, as well as ion viscosity. When the material is optically thin, three-temperature behavior occurs. When the diffusive flux of radiation is important but radiation pressure is not, two-temperature behavior occurs, with the electrons strongly coupled to the radiation. Since the radiation heats the electrons on length scales that are much longer than the electron-ion Coulomb coupling length scale, these solutions resemble radiative shock solutions rather than plasma shock solutions that neglect radiation. When radiation pressure is important, all three components are strongly coupled. Results with constant values for the transport and coupling coefficients are compared to a full numerical simulation with a good match between the two, demonstrating that steady shock solutions constitute a straightforward and comprehensive verification test methodology for multi-physics numerical algorithms.

  15. Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaffhauser, Dian

    2009-01-01

    The common approach to scaling, according to Christopher Dede, a professor of learning technologies at the Harvard Graduate School of Education, is to jump in and say, "Let's go out and find more money, recruit more participants, hire more people. Let's just keep doing the same thing, bigger and bigger." That, he observes, "tends to fail, and fail…

  16. Mapping gray matter volume and cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xiaojuan; Li, Ziyi; Chen, Kewei; Yao, Li; Wang, Zhiqun; Li, Kuncheng

    2010-03-01

    Gray matter volume and cortical thickness are two important indices widely used to detect neuropathological changes in brain structural magnetic resonance imaging. Using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM) protocol and surface-based cortical thickness measure, this study comprehensively investigated the regional changes in cortical gray matter volume and cortical thickness in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thirteen patients with AD and fourteen age- and gender-matched healthy controls were included in this study. Results showed that voxel-based gray matter volume and cortical thickness reductions were highly correlated in the temporal lobe and its medial structure in AD. Moreover significant reduced cortical regions of gray matter volume were obviously more than that of cortical thickness. These findings suggest that gray matter volume and cortical thickness, as two important imaging markers, are effective indices for detecting the neuroanatomical alterations and help us understand the neuropathology from different views in AD.

  17. Prefrontal Gray Matter and Motivation for Treatment in Cocaine-Dependent Individuals with and without Personality Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-López, Laura; Albein-Urios, Natalia; Martinez-Gonzalez, José Miguel; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Verdejo-García, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Addiction treatment is a long-term goal and therefore prefrontal–striatal regions regulating goal-directed behavior are to be associated with individual differences on treatment motivation. We aimed at examining the association between gray matter volumes in prefrontal cortices and striatum and readiness to change at treatment onset in cocaine users with and without personality disorders. Participants included 17 cocaine users without psychiatric comorbidities, 17 cocaine users with Cluster B disorders, and 12 cocaine users with Cluster C disorders. They completed the University of Rhode Island Change Assessment Scale, which measures four stages of treatment change (precontemplation, contemplation, action, and maintenance) and overall readiness to change, and were scanned in a 3 T MRI scanner. We defined three regions of interest (ROIs): the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (including medial orbitofrontal cortex and subgenual and rostral anterior cingulate cortex), the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (i.e., superior medial frontal cortex), and the neostriatum (caudate and putamen). We found that readiness to change correlated with different aspects of ventromedial prefrontal gray matter as a function of diagnosis. In cocaine users with Cluster C comorbidities, readiness to change positively correlated with gyrus rectus gray matter, whereas in cocaine users without comorbidities it negatively correlated with rostral anterior cingulate cortex gray matter. Moreover, maintenance scores positively correlated with dorsomedial prefrontal gray matter in cocaine users with Cluster C comorbidities, but negatively correlated with this region in cocaine users with Cluster B and cocaine users without comorbidities. Maintenance scores also negatively correlated with dorsal striatum gray matter in cocaine users with Cluster C comorbidities. We conclude that the link between prefrontal–striatal gray matter and treatment motivation is modulated by co-existence of personality

  18. Scales

    ScienceCinema

    Murray Gibson

    2010-01-08

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain ? a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  19. Scales

    SciTech Connect

    Murray Gibson

    2007-04-27

    Musical scales involve notes that, sounded simultaneously (chords), sound good together. The result is the left brain meeting the right brain — a Pythagorean interval of overlapping notes. This synergy would suggest less difference between the working of the right brain and the left brain than common wisdom would dictate. The pleasing sound of harmony comes when two notes share a common harmonic, meaning that their frequencies are in simple integer ratios, such as 3/2 (G/C) or 5/4 (E/C).

  20. Evaluation of the Degree of Knee Joint Osteoarthritis in Patients with Early Gray Hair

    PubMed Central

    Kazemi, Behrooz; Ashraf, Alireza; Namazi, Mohammad Reza; Zarei, Fariba; Foruzi, Shima

    2013-01-01

    Background: Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common form of arthritis and one of the causes of pain and disability. The hair graying characteristic correlates strictly with chronological aging and take places to varying degrees in all individuals, disregarding gender or race. Aims: Comparison of the degrees of clinical and radiologic severity of the knee OA in individuals with early hair graying compared to ordinary individuals. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 patients with knee OA and similar demographic characteristics were enrolled in this study. All patients were classified in to 3 age subgroups in each of the case and control groups (30-40 year, 41-50 year, 51-60 year). In the case group, the patients must had early hair graying, too. Knee OA were classified using the Kellgren-Lawrence (KL) grading scale. Western Ontario McMaster University Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) was applied to assess clinical severity of the knee OA. Results: The mean ± SD of WOMAC index in the case group was 60.7 ± 15.9 and in the control group was 55.3 ± 15.3 (P = 0.1). The mean rank of KL scale in case group was 35.3 and in the control group was 25.6 (P = 0.02). Conclusion: Even at the same age of OA onset, the rate of progression of radiological findings and the grade of joint destruction in individuals with early hair graying are greater than normal individuals. However, clinical and functional relevant remain unclear. PMID:24403769

  1. Black and gray Helmholtz-Kerr soliton refraction

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Curto, Julio; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; McDonald, Graham S.

    2011-01-15

    Refraction of black and gray solitons at boundaries separating different defocusing Kerr media is analyzed within a Helmholtz framework. A universal nonlinear Snell's law is derived that describes gray soliton refraction, in addition to capturing the behavior of bright and black Kerr solitons at interfaces. Key regimes, defined by beam and interface characteristics, are identified, and predictions are verified by full numerical simulations. The existence of a unique total nonrefraction angle for gray solitons is reported; both internal and external refraction at a single interface is shown possible (dependent only on incidence angle). This, in turn, leads to the proposal of positive or negative lensing operations on soliton arrays at planar boundaries.

  2. Research on the gray distortion and calibration of machine vision system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yucheng; Wang, Jianping; Ying, Yibin; Rao, Xiuqin

    2004-11-01

    The laws of gray distortion of machine vision system were discussed, and a method for gray calibration was presented. Five standard templates with unanimous gray value were used as the research objects. The average gray values of X direction and Y direction of the standard template images were obtained according to row and column. The gray distortion models were developed with moving average model of two image pixels. The models of five standard templates were developed separately, and the correlation coefficients of each model were above 0.96. The parameters of the gray distortion model were independent to the templates themselves. The gray calibration models of row and column were developed based on the gray distortion models separately, and the image gray values of other templates were proportion to the true value after gray calibration with the gray calibration models. The test verified the method.

  3. Obituary: Albert Gray Mowbray, 1916-2002

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hockey, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    Albert G. Mowbray was born on 23 June 1916. He was the son of Albert Henry Mowbray, a professor of economics at the University of California, Berkeley [UCB], and Elizabeth Gray Mowbray. He had one sister, Mary Elizabeth. Mowbray did undergraduate and graduate work at UCB. His 1943 PhD. dissertation had to do with the apparent sizes of globular clusters. Mowbray became an observing assistant at Lick Observatory in about 1942; later that year he went to the Perkins Observatory, operated for Ohio Wesleyan University by the Ohio State University [OSU]. Due to the wartime shortage of instructors, he also taught physics at OSU. In 1946 Mowbray joined the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. By 1948 he lived in Pasadena California, and was a volunteer observer at the Mount Wilson Observatory. Later, until 1956, he was employed by UCB professor Leland Cunningham, a solar-system dynamicist. Mowbray did computations and measured plates for Cunningham. Mowbray joined the physics faculty at San Jose State College (now California State University, San Jose) in 1957. In addition to the AAS, Mowbray was a member of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. He died in San Francisco, California, on 21 August 2002. The kind assistance of George Herbig, Virginia Trimble, and Elizabeth Roemer is acknowledged.

  4. Diterpene glycosides from Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray.

    PubMed

    Ceunen, Stijn; Wim, De Borggraeve; Compernolle, Frans; Mai, Anh Hung; Geuns, Jan M C

    2013-09-20

    The rare Mexican species Stevia phlebophylla A. Gray was long considered to be the only known Stevia species, beside the well-known S. rebaudiana, containing the highly sweet diterpenoid steviol glycosides. We report a re-evaluation of this claim after phytochemically screening leaves obtained from two herbarium specimens of S. phlebophylla for the presence of steviol glycosides. Despite extensive MS analyses, no steviol glycosides could be unambiguously verified. Instead, the main chromatographic peak eluting at retention times similar to those of steviol glycosides was identified as a new compound, namely 16β-hydroxy-17-acetoxy-ent-kauran-19-oic acid-(6-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl) ester (1) on the basis of extensive NMR and MS data as well as the characterization of its acid hydrolysate. Seven more compounds were detected by ESIMS which are possibly structurally related to 1. It can therefore be concluded that S. phlebophylla is unlikely to contain significant amounts of steviol glycosides, if any. PMID:23831634

  5. Potential ungulate prey for Gray Wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Francis J.; Mack, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Data were gathered for six ungulate species that reside in or near Yellowstone National Park. If gray wolves (Canis lupus) are reintroduced into the Yellowstone area, their avoidance of human activities or their management by human may determine their range. Therefore, the area of wolf occupation cannot be predicted now. We restricted our analysis to Yellowstone National Park and to the adjacent national forest wilderness areas. We included mostly ungulate herds that summer inside or adjacent to the park and that would probably be affected by wolves. Our wolf study area includes Yellowstone National Park and adjacent wilderness areas most likely to be occupied by wolves. We reviewed publications, park records, survey reports, and state fish and game surveys and reports for statistics on ungulate populations. These data [provide an overview of ungulate populations and harvests. Each ungulate herd is described in detail. We restricted our analysis to 1980-89, because population surveys were more complete during that period and because population estimates of most ungulate populations had increased by the 1980's. We feel the higher estimates of the 1980's reflect more up-to-date techniques and are most representative of the situation into which the wolves would be reintroduced.

  6. Severe maxillary osteomyelitis in a Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Dental injuries to or abnormalities in functionally important teeth and associated bones in predators may significantly reduce the ability to kill and consume prey (Lazar et al. 2009). This impairment is likely exacerbated in coursing predators, such as Gray Wolves, that bite and hold onto fleeing and kicking prey with their teeth. Damage to carnassials (upper fourth premolar, P4, and lower first molar, M1) and associated bones in Gray Wolves may especially inhibit the consumption of prey because these teeth slice meat and crush bone. Here I report maxillary osteomyelitis involving the carnassials in a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota of such severity that I hypothesize it ultimately caused the Gray Wolf to starve to death.

  7. Gray Matter Is Targeted in First-Attack Multiple Sclerosis

    SciTech Connect

    Schutzer, Steven E.; Angel, Thomas E.; Liu, Tao; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Xie, Fang; Bergquist, Jonas P.; Vecsei, Lazlo'; Zadori, Denes; Camp, David G.; Holland, Bart K.; Smith, Richard D.; Coyle, Patricia K.

    2013-09-10

    The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS), its driving pathogenesis at the earliest stages, and what factors allow the first clinical attack to manifest remain unknown. Some imaging studies suggest gray rather than white matter may be involved early, and some postulate this may be predictive of developing MS. Other imaging studies are in conflict. To determine if there was objective molecular evidence of gray matter involvement in early MS we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of first-attack MS patients (two independent groups) compared to established relapsing remitting (RR) MS and controls. We found that the CSF proteins in first-attack patients were differentially enriched for gray matter components (axon, neuron, synapse). Myelin components did not distinguish these groups. The results support that gray matter dysfunction is involved early in MS, and also may be integral for the initial clinical presentation.

  8. Cognitive Radios Exploiting Gray Spaces via Compressed Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieruch, Dennis; Jung, Peter; Wirth, Thomas; Dekorsy, Armin; Haustein, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    We suggest an interweave cognitive radio system with a gray space detector, which is properly identifying a small fraction of unused resources within an active band of a primary user system like 3GPP LTE. Therefore, the gray space detector can cope with frequency fading holes and distinguish them from inactive resources. Different approaches of the gray space detector are investigated, the conventional reduced-rank least squares method as well as the compressed sensing-based orthogonal matching pursuit and basis pursuit denoising algorithm. In addition, the gray space detector is compared with the classical energy detector. Simulation results present the receiver operating characteristic at several SNRs and the detection performance over further aspects like base station system load for practical false alarm rates. The results show, that especially for practical false alarm rates the compressed sensing algorithm are more suitable than the classical energy detector and reduced-rank least squares approach.

  9. Physical interpretation of gray cloud observed from airplanes.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Rintaro; Iwabuchi, Hironobu

    2016-07-20

    When obliquely observed from an airplane, gray clouds near the horizon are sometimes observed to overlap with white clouds. Photographic observation from an airplane and simulations using a three-dimensional radiative transfer model are conducted to understand why such clouds appear gray. From observations, the brightness depression rate of gray clouds relative to surrounding whitish clouds is about 25%, whereas in simulations, it is as high as about 30%. Conditions necessary for the observation of gray clouds are as follows: (1) two clouds at different altitudes do not overlap, but the higher cloud overlaps with the lower cloud along the line of sight when these clouds are observed in near-horizontal direction, and (2) the higher cloud is optically thin in the vertical direction, but optically thick along the line of sight. PMID:27463934

  10. 24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. INTERIOR VIEW, WILLIAM GRAY AT SIZING GUAGE ADJACENT TO BRADLEY HAMMER; NOTE THIS IS THE SAME TOOL AS BEING FORGED ABOVE - Warwood Tool Company, Foot of Nineteenth Street, Wheeling, Ohio County, WV

  11. The ARGOS system used for tracking gray whales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mate, B. R.; Beaty, D.; Hoisington, C.; Kutz, R.; Mate, M. L.

    1983-01-01

    The development of satellite whale tags used to track gray whales in the eastern north Pacific Ocean is summarized. Two gray whales were radio-tagged in San Ignacio Lagoon (Mexico) and tracked on their northbound migration. One of the transmitters was modified to record and relay depth-of-dive information at 15 sec intervals throughout the course of the dive. Technical elements of data acquisition and analysis are outlined. The major biological findings are discussed.

  12. Regional gray matter density associated with emotional intelligence: evidence from voxel-based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Fukushima, Ai; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2011-09-01

    Emotional Intelligence (EI) is the ability to monitor one's own and others' emotions and the ability to use the gathered information to guide one's thinking and action. EI is thought to be important for social life making it a popular subject of research. However, despite the existence of previous functional imaging studies on EI, the relationship between regional gray matter morphology and EI has never been investigated. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and a questionnaire (Emotional Intelligence Scale) to measure EI to identify the gray matter correlates of each factor of individual EI (Intrapersonal factor, Interpersonal factor, Situation Management factor). We found significant negative relationships between the Intrapersonal factor and regional gray matter density (rGMD) (1-a) in an anatomical cluster that included the right anterior insula, (1-b) in the right cerebellum, (1-c) in an anatomical cluster that extends from the cuneus to the precuneus, (1-d) and in an anatomical cluster that extends from the medial prefrontal cortex to the left lateral fronto-polar cortex. We also found significant positive correlations between the Interpersonal factor and rGMD in the right superior temporal sulcus, and significant negative correlations between the Situation Management factor and rGMD in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex. These findings suggest that each factor of EI in healthy young people is related to the specific brain regions known to be involved in the networks of social cognition and self-related recognition, and in the somatic marker circuitry. PMID:20740644

  13. Gray Wolves as Climate Change Buffers in Yellowstone

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus) together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change. PMID:15757363

  14. Alcohol exposure in utero is associated with decreased gray matter volume in neonates.

    PubMed

    Donald, Kirsten A; Fouche, J P; Roos, Annerine; Koen, Nastassja; Howells, Fleur M; Riley, Edward P; Woods, Roger P; Zar, Heather J; Narr, Katherine L; Stein, Dan J

    2016-02-01

    Neuroimaging studies have indicated that prenatal alcohol exposure is associated with alterations in the structure of specific brain regions. However, the temporal specificity of such changes and their behavioral consequences are less known. Here we explore the brain structure of infants with in utero exposure to alcohol shortly after birth. T2 structural MRI images were acquired from 28 alcohol-exposed infants and 45 demographically matched healthy controls at 2-4 weeks of age on a 3T Siemens Allegra system as part of large birth cohort study, the Drakenstein Child Health Study (DCHS). Neonatal neurobehavior was assessed at this visit; early developmental outcome assessed on the Bayley Scales of Infant Development III at 6 months of age. Volumes of gray matter regions were estimated based on the segmentations of the University of North Carolina neonatal atlas. Significantly decreased total gray matter volume was demonstrated for the alcohol-exposed cohort compared to healthy control infants (p < 0.001). Subcortical gray matter regions that were significantly different between groups after correcting for overall gray matter volume included left hippocampus, bilateral amygdala and left thalamus (p < 0.01). These findings persisted even when correcting for infant age, gender, ethnicity and maternal smoking status. Both early neurobehavioral and developmental adverse outcomes at 6 months across multiple domains were significantly associated with regional volumes primarily in the temporal and frontal lobes in infants with prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcohol exposure during the prenatal period has potentially enduring neurobiological consequences for exposed children. These findings suggest the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on brain growth is present very early in the first year of life, a period during which the most rapid growth and maturation occurs. PMID:26616173

  15. Origins of R2* orientation dependence in gray and white matter.

    PubMed

    Rudko, David A; Klassen, L Martyn; de Chickera, Sonali N; Gati, Joseph S; Dekaban, Gregory A; Menon, Ravi S

    2014-01-01

    Estimates of the apparent transverse relaxation rate (R2*) can be used to quantify important properties of biological tissue. Surprisingly, the mechanism of R2* dependence on tissue orientation is not well understood. The primary goal of this paper was to characterize orientation dependence of R2* in gray and white matter and relate it to independent measurements of two other susceptibility based parameters: the local Larmor frequency shift (fL) and quantitative volume magnetic susceptibility (Δχ). Through this comparative analysis we calculated scaling relations quantifying R2' (reversible contribution to the transverse relaxation rate from local field inhomogeneities) in a voxel given measurements of the local Larmor frequency shift. R2' is a measure of both perturber geometry and density and is related to tissue microstructure. Additionally, two methods (the Generalized Lorentzian model and iterative dipole inversion) for calculating Δχ were compared in gray and white matter. The value of Δχ derived from fitting the Generalized Lorentzian model was then connected to the observed R2* orientation dependence using image-registered optical density measurements from histochemical staining. Our results demonstrate that the R2* and fL of white and cortical gray matter are well described by a sinusoidal dependence on the orientation of the tissue and a linear dependence on the volume fraction of myelin in the tissue. In deep brain gray matter structures, where there is no obvious symmetry axis, R2* and fL have no orientation dependence but retain a linear dependence on tissue iron concentration and hence Δχ. PMID:24374633

  16. Decreased gray matter volume in the left hippocampus and bilateral calcarine cortex in coal mine flood disaster survivors with recent onset PTSD.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Tan, Qingrong; Yin, Hong; Zhang, Xiaoliang; Huan, Yi; Tang, Lihua; Wang, Huaihai; Xu, Junqing; Li, Lingjiang

    2011-05-31

    Although limbic structure changes have been found in chronic and recent onset post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients, there are few studies about brain structure changes in recent onset PTSD patients after a single extreme and prolonged trauma. In the current study, 20 coal mine flood disaster survivors underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and region of interest (ROI) techniques were used to detect the gray matter and white matter volume changes in 10 survivors with recent onset PTSD and 10 survivors without PTSD. The correlation between the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) and gray matter density in the ROI was also studied. Compared with survivors without PTSD, survivors with PTSD had significantly decreased gray matter volume and density in left anterior hippocampus, left parahippocampal gyrus, and bilateral calcarine cortex. The CAPS score correlated negatively with the gray matter density in bilateral calcarine cortex and left hippocampus in coal mine disaster survivors. Our study suggests that the gray matter volume and density of limbic structure decreased in recent onset PTSD patients who were exposed to extreme trauma. PTSD symptom severity was associated with gray matter density in calcarine cortex and hippocampus. PMID:21498053

  17. White and gray pumice in pyroclastic deposits. (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, H. M.; Cashman, K. V.

    2013-12-01

    Many primary pyroclastic deposits contain at least two different colors of pumice, including volumetrically dominant white and subordinate gray. White pumice is vesicular, microlite-free, and in most cases represents direct samples of the principal magma reservoir. In contrast, subordinate gray pumice with lower vesicularity and/or more abundant microlites may sample either deep recharge OR shallow vanguard magma, where both may record information on eruption triggers. Pumice may appear gray for several reasons: 1. Gray pumice has a less-evolved bulk composition than white pumice. Presence of less-evolved (generally deep-derived) magma provides information about possible recharge magma and/or pre-eruptive compositional variation in the magma storage region. A well-known example of this difference is the 1912 eruption of Novarupta [Hildreth & Fierstein, 2012], which includes white (rhyolite) and gray (andesite and dacite) pumice. 2. Gray pumice contains elevated microlite number densities and/or microlite crystallinities and is compositionally similar to white pumice. a. Gray pumice contains abundant broken crystal fragments and lithic fragments. Broken crystals and incorporated white pumice indicate passage through the primary magma reservoir. Incorporated lithic fragments indicate breakage of wall rock and creation of new transport pathways. Microlites and breadcrusted surfaces indicate slow and/or episodic ascent at shallow levels. This textural association indicates that proto-gray pumice magma played an active role in creating a conduit to the surface. In some cases, small differences in chemistry may further indicate differences in magma batches (recharge pulses). This textural variation is found in the products of high-crystallinity large-volume (Plinian or boil-over style) eruptions, as in the Cerro Galan Ignimbrite, Argentina [Wright et al., 2011]. b. Gray pumice contains abundant microlites due to differences in decompression and/or cooling history. In

  18. Medial Frontal White and Gray Matter Contributions to General Intelligence

    PubMed Central

    Bouix, Sylvain; Kubicki, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC) and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) are part of a wider neural network that plays an important role in general intelligence and executive function. We used structural brain imaging to quantify magnetic resonance gray matter volume and diffusion tensor white matter integrity of the mOFC-rACC network in 26 healthy participants who also completed neuropsychological tests of intellectual abilities and executive function. Stochastic tractography, the most effective Diffusion Tensor Imaging method for examining white matter connections between adjacent gray matter regions, was employed to assess the integrity of mOFC-rACC pathways. Fractional anisotropy (FA), which reflects the integrity of white matter connections, was calculated. Results indicated that higher intelligence correlated with greater gray matter volumes for both mOFC and rACC, as well as with increased FA for left posterior mOFC-rACC connectivity. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that DTI-derived FA of left posterior mOFC-rACC uniquely accounted for 29%–34% of the variance in IQ, in comparison to 11%–16% uniquely explained by gray matter volume of the left rACC. Together, left rACC gray matter volume and white matter connectivity between left posterior mOFC and rACC accounted for up to 50% of the variance in general intelligence. This study is to our knowledge the first to examine white matter connectivity between OFC and ACC, two gray matter regions of interests that are very close in physical proximity, and underscores the important independent contributions of variations in rACC gray matter volume and mOFC-rACC white matter connectivity to individual differences in general intelligence. PMID:25551572

  19. Monitoring gray wolf populations using multiple survey methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ausband, David E.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Zager, Pete; Miller, David A.W.; Waits, Lisette P.; Ackerman, Bruce B.; Mack, Curt M.

    2013-01-01

    The behavioral patterns and large territories of large carnivores make them challenging to monitor. Occupancy modeling provides a framework for monitoring population dynamics and distribution of territorial carnivores. We combined data from hunter surveys, howling and sign surveys conducted at predicted wolf rendezvous sites, and locations of radiocollared wolves to model occupancy and estimate the number of gray wolf (Canis lupus) packs and individuals in Idaho during 2009 and 2010. We explicitly accounted for potential misidentification of occupied cells (i.e., false positives) using an extension of the multi-state occupancy framework. We found agreement between model predictions and distribution and estimates of number of wolf packs and individual wolves reported by Idaho Department of Fish and Game and Nez Perce Tribe from intensive radiotelemetry-based monitoring. Estimates of individual wolves from occupancy models that excluded data from radiocollared wolves were within an average of 12.0% (SD = 6.0) of existing statewide minimum counts. Models using only hunter survey data generally estimated the lowest abundance, whereas models using all data generally provided the highest estimates of abundance, although only marginally higher. Precision across approaches ranged from 14% to 28% of mean estimates and models that used all data streams generally provided the most precise estimates. We demonstrated that an occupancy model based on different survey methods can yield estimates of the number and distribution of wolf packs and individual wolf abundance with reasonable measures of precision. Assumptions of the approach including that average territory size is known, average pack size is known, and territories do not overlap, must be evaluated periodically using independent field data to ensure occupancy estimates remain reliable. Use of multiple survey methods helps to ensure that occupancy estimates are robust to weaknesses or changes in any 1 survey method

  20. On 3-gauge transformations, 3-curvatures, and Gray-categories

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei

    2014-04-15

    In the 3-gauge theory, a 3-connection is given by a 1-form A valued in the Lie algebra g, a 2-form B valued in the Lie algebra h, and a 3-form C valued in the Lie algebra l, where (g,h,l) constitutes a differential 2-crossed module. We give the 3-gauge transformations from one 3-connection to another, and show the transformation formulae of the 1-curvature 2-form, the 2-curvature 3-form, and the 3-curvature 4-form. The gauge configurations can be interpreted as smooth Gray-functors between two Gray 3-groupoids: the path 3-groupoid P{sub 3}(X) and the 3-gauge group G{sup L} associated to the 2-crossed module L, whose differential is (g,h,l). The derivatives of Gray-functors are 3-connections, and the derivatives of lax-natural transformations between two such Gray-functors are 3-gauge transformations. We give the 3-dimensional holonomy, the lattice version of the 3-curvature, whose derivative gives the 3-curvature 4-form. The covariance of 3-curvatures easily follows from this construction. This Gray-categorical construction explains why 3-gauge transformations and 3-curvatures have the given forms. The interchanging 3-arrows are responsible for the appearance of terms with the Peiffer commutator (, )

  1. Nonspecific Effect of Stress on Brain Gray Matter Volume in Drug-naive Female Patients with First Depressive Episode

    PubMed Central

    Zhuo, Chuan-Jun; Bian, Hai-Man; Gao, Yan-Jie; Ma, Xiao-Lei; Ji, Sheng-Zhang; Yao, Meng-Yuan; Zhai, Ning; Sun, Xin-Hai; Ma, Xiao-Yan; Tian, Hong-Jun; Li, Gong-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to observe the differences in brain gray matter volume in drug-naive female patients after the first episode of major depression with and without stressful life events (SLEs) before the onset of depression. Methods: Forty-three drug-naive female patients voluntarily participated in the present study after the first major depressive episode. The life event scale was used to evaluate the severity of the impact of SLEs during 6 months before the onset of the major depressive episode. High-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained, and the VBM and SPM8 software process were used to process and analyze the MRI. Results: Compared to that in patients without SLEs, the volume of brain gray matter was lower in the bilateral temporal lobe, right occipital lobe, and right limbic lobe in the SLE group. However, the gray matter volume did not differ significantly between the two groups after the application of false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Conclusions: Although the results of the present study suggest the absence of significant differences in brain gray matter volume between female drug-naive patients after the first episode of major depression with and without SLEs after FDR correction, the study provides useful information for exploring the definitive role of stress in the onset of depression. PMID:26831228

  2. An embedded three-dimensional profilometry based on a combination of gray-code and phase shifting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Dong; Tian, Jindong

    2010-11-01

    An embedded three-dimensional (3-D) profilometry system based on a combination of gray-code and phase shifting (GCPS) method is proposed. This system consists of a digital-micromirror-device (DMD) based video projector, a high-speed CCD camera and an embedded digital signal processing hardware system based on DSP. In this technique, seven gray-code patterns and three sinusoidal fringe patterns with 120-deg phase shift are integrated in red, green and blue channels to form four color fringe patterns. When the four color fringe patterns are sent to the DMD based projector without color filter, the previous gray-code patterns and three sinusoidal fringe patterns are repeatedly projected to an object surface in gray-scale sequentially. These fringe patterns deformed by the object surface are captured by a high-speed CCD camera synchronized with the projector. An embedded hardware system is developed for synchronization between the camera and the projector and taking full advantage of DSP parallel processing capability for real-time phase retrieve and 3-D reconstruction. Since the number of projected images of GCPS is reduced from 11 to 4, the measurement speed is enhanced dramatically. Experimental results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed technique for high-speed 3-D shape measurement.

  3. Set-Shifting Ability Is Associated with Gray Matter Volume in Older People with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumimoto, Kota; Makizako, Hyuma; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Doi, Takehiko; Suzuki, Takao

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims An understanding of the association between gray matter volume and executive functioning could provide strategies to reduce dementia risk in older people with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods In a cross-sectional analysis, we assessed executive functioning in 83 older people with MCI using three standard neuropsychological tests: set shifting (difference between Trail Making Test Parts B and A), working memory (difference between Digit Span forward and backward from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV), and selective attention/response inhibition (difference between the second and third conditions of the color- and picture-word Stroop test). Gray matter volume was computed from brain MRIs and SIENAX from FSL software. Results Gray matter volume was significantly associated with set-shifting performance after accounting for age, gender, body mass index, education, and global cognition (standardized β = −0.376, p = 0.001), but not with working memory or selective attention/response inhibition. Conclusion The executive function of set-shifting ability was correlated with gray matter volume in older people with MCI. PMID:26628898

  4. Graying severity score: A useful tool for evaluation of premature canities

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Archana; Daulatabad, Deepashree; Grover, Chander

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is no uniform grading scale for objective assessment of premature canities that can serve as a reference. The aim of the study was to devise an objective and reproducible scoring system to assess the severity of premature canities. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study conducted from November 2011 to April 2013 in a tertiary care setup with 52 apparently healthy individuals with onset of premature graying of scalp hair before the age of 20 years. A new scoring system (Graying Severity Score, GSS) was devised to evaluate the extent of graying taking into account five representative sites from the scalp by two independent investigators and analysed for agreement. GSS ranged from 0 to 15 that was further graded as mild, moderate, and severe. Results: The highest total GSS attained was 13 and lowest was 4 (mean = 6.6 ± 1.97). Of the 52 patients 17 (32.69%) had mild, 32 (61.54%) moderate, and only 3 (5.77%) had severe GSS. Scores of both investigators were found to have good agreement. The intraclass correlation calculated by the two-way mixed model using the absolute agreement definition for the GSS was 0.967 (CI = 0.944–0.981; P = 0.000) and for GSS grade was 0.962 (P = 0.000). In the study subjects the frontal and the vertex regions were found to be the worst affected. Conclusion: GSS is a novel, numeric, objective, and reproducible tool for evaluation of premature canities that can be used to follow up and assess therapeutic response. Further large scale studies are recommended to optimize its utility. PMID:27294049

  5. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, Annual Report 2005.

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, Kathleen E.

    2008-02-04

    The goal of this project is to enhance and restore the ecological integrity and ecosystem function of the Grays River watershed. The recommended restoration and enhancement efforts developed in this project should incorporate local community stakeholder interests and needs. The objectives of this project are (1) to perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessment; (2) to develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) to gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River sub-basin.

  6. Gray Matter Volume Changes in the Apathetic Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Hongjie; Onoda, Keiichi; Yamaguchi, Shuhei

    2015-01-01

    This study is to test the hypothesis that apathy in healthy participants is closely related to the prefrontal-basal-ganglia circuit and associated structural changes. We selected 36 healthy aged participants with (n = 18) or without apathy (n = 18) from our database. Participants underwent structural MRI scanning, providing data for voxel-based morphometric analysis to explore gray matter changes associated with apathy. Compared to the non-apathy group, the apathy group showed reduced gray matter volume of the right putamen, whereas volumes of the bilateral inferior frontal gyri and left inferior occipital gyrus showed increase. When depression scores were included in a regression model as a covariate, apathetic participants showed decreased gray matter volume in the right precentral gyrus compared to the non-apathetic participants. These findings suggest that apathy is associated with the gray matter volume in the prefrontal-basal-ganglia network, and may have a neuroanatomical basis distinct from depression in healthy elderly. PMID:26082708

  7. Headspace Volatiles of Scutellaria californica A. Gray Flowers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile constituents of California skullcap (Scutellaria californica A. Gray) flowers were isolated by solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and analyzed by GC and GC/MS. A total of 52 constituents were identified (constituting 90.79% of the total area), 12 of which were tentatively identified. Cary...

  8. TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICANAMERICAN SOLDIERS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    TRICKY AND GRAY, TWO HORSES HELD BY UNIDENTIFIED AFRICAN-AMERICAN SOLDIERS, POST IN 1939 (FORT HUACHUCA HISTORICAL MUSEUM, PHOTOGRAPH 1939.00.00.06, PHOTOGRAPHER UNIDENTIFIED, CREATED BY AND PROPERTY OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY) - Fort Huachuca, Cavalry Stables, Clarkson Road, Sierra Vista, Cochise County, AZ

  9. Ultraviolet damage on natural gray hair and its photoprotection.

    PubMed

    Gao, T; Bedell, A

    2001-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of natural gray hair obtained from the heads of individuals and as well as commercial samples were investigated. No statistically significant differences were observed in terms of their central maximum diameter, central cross-sectional area, central ellipticity, average tensile strength, and average extent of transverse swelling between gray and black hair. The correlation between the elongation and the contraction of the cross-sectional area of hair fibers during extension was established as a statistically linear function, with a coefficient of 0.758. The damage on natural gray hair from ultraviolet (UV) irradiation were assessed by measuring the following parameters: hair color, Young's modulus, stress-to-break, wet combing force, dynamic advancing contact angle, tryptophan damage, cuticle abrasion, and transverse swelling of hair fiber in 0.1 N NaOH solution. It has been found that gray hair undergoes more severe UV damage and needs more UV protection than dark brown hair. Experimental results indicate that the quaternized UV absorber, cinnamidopropyltrimonium chloride (CATC), delivered from a simple shampoo system, is more substantive on hair and more effective in protecting hair from UV damage than a conventional UV filter. CATC also provided an additional conditioning benefit on hair. PMID:11382847

  10. SAMPLING AND ANALYSIS OF WASTES GENERATED BY GRAY IRON FOUNDRIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thirty (30) wastes generated by 21 gray iron foundries in Pennsylvania and Michigan were sampled and analyzed. The samples were collected by Northrop Services, Inc., in accordance with strict chain-of-custody procedures, and sent to the Environmental Monitoring Systems Laboratory...

  11. Mentoring Graduate Students: The Good, Bad, and Gray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Jolly-Ballantine, John-Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Good mentoring of graduate students influences their perseverance and success to completion, whereas bad mentoring can result in negative outcomes, including delayed degree completion or non-completion. What the authors refer to as the gray zone is that which falls between good and bad mentoring. Examples are partial mentoring or changes in…

  12. "Adam of the Road" by Elizabeth Janet Gray. Literature Unit.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Mari Lu

    Intended as an aid to classroom teachers, this 48-page handbook presents a literature unit based on the children's book, "Adam of the Road" by Elizabeth Janet Gray. It begins with sample lesson plans, pre-reading activities, author information, a book summary, and vocabulary lists and suggested vocabulary activities. Next, chapters of "Adam of the…

  13. William S. Gray and the Dick and Jane Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mavrogenes, Nancy A.

    William S. Gray, Professor of Education and Dean of the College of Education at the University of Chicago, began work in 1929 on a major revision of the "Elson Readers," a popular basal series published by Scott, Foresman and Company. Organized around the daily life of two ordinary children, the "Dick and Jane" readers ultimately became the most…

  14. INTERIOR VIEW, GRAY IRON MOLDING MACHINE WITH MOLDER, R. L. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, GRAY IRON MOLDING MACHINE WITH MOLDER, R. L. BRANDY MOLDING A RAIL CASTING (LAWLER NO. 1337, A 16' x 35' MOLD WITH A 5' COPE AND A 4' DRAG). DRAG IS FILLED WITH SAND. - Lawler Machine & Foundry Company, Molding Area, 760 North Forty-fourth Street, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Sequencing the Genome of the Heirloom Watermelon Cultivar Charleston Gray

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genome of the watermelon cultivar Charleston Gray, a major heirloom which has been used in breeding programs of many watermelon cultivars, was sequenced. Our strategy involved a hybrid approach using the Illumina and 454/Titanium next-generation sequencing technologies. For Illumina, shotgun g...

  16. The occurrence of hepatozoon in the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Herman, C.M.; Price, D.L.

    1955-01-01

    Hepatozoon sciuri (Coles, 1914) is reported from gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Washington, D.C. and Maryland. Blood smears stained with Giemsa's stain revealed a parasitemia in 16 to 71% of the squirrels examined. A technique for laking the red cells and concentrating the white cells in blood samples demonstrated this protozoon to be present in every squirrel so tested.

  17. Does Gray-Tailed Vole Activity Affect Soil Quality?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Voles are well-known crop pests, especially when peak populations are present, but their role in soil fertility and impacts on agricultural sustainability are not well understood. Five months after the abrupt disappearance of a peak in a gray-tailed vole (Microtus canicaudus) population, we examined...

  18. 76 FR 27307 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine... Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: Georgia conservation. Applicants are...

  19. Feasibility of dynamic models of the interaction of potential oil spills with bowhead and gray whales in the Bering, Chukchi, and Beaufort Seas

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, M.; Bowles, A.E.; Anderson, E.L.; Leatherwood, S.; Spaulding, M.L.

    1984-08-01

    Feasibility and design considerations for developing computer models of migratory bow-head and gray whales and linking such models to oil spill models for application in Alaskan Outer Continental Shelf areas were evaluated. A summary of all relevant bowhead and gray whale distributional and migration data were summarized and presented at monthly intervals. The data were, for the most part, deemed sufficient to prepare whale migration simulation models. A variety of whale migration conceptual models were devised and ranking was achieved by means of a scaling-weighted protocol. Existing oil spill trajectory and fate models, as well as conceptual models, were similarly ranked.

  20. The Effect of Climate Variability on Gray Whales (Eschrichtius robustus) within Their Wintering Areas.

    PubMed

    Salvadeo, Christian J; Gómez-Gallardo U, Alejandro; Nájera-Caballero, Mauricio; Urbán-Ramirez, Jorge; Lluch-Belda, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The environmental conditions of the breeding and feeding grounds of the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) fluctuates at inter-annual scales in response to regional and basin climate patterns. Thus, the goals of this study were to assess if there are any relationships between summer sea ice on their feeding ground and counts of gray whale mother-calf (MC) pairs at Ojo de Liebre Lagoon (OLL); and if El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences the winter distribution of gray whales MC pairs in the three primary breeding lagoons of OLL, San Ignacio Lagoon (SIL) and Santo Domingo Channel north of Bahia Magdalena (SDCh). Maximum February counts of MC pairs were compared with the length of the open-water season at the Bering Sea during the previous year. Then, an ENSO index and sea surface temperature anomalies outside the primary lagoons was compared with the maximum February counts of MC pairs at these lagoons. Results showed that maximum counts of MC pairs in OLL correlates with sea ice conditions in their feeding grounds from the previous feeding season, and this relationship can be attributed to changes in nutritive condition of females. ENSO-related variability influences distribution of MC pairs in the southern area of SDCh during the warm 1998 El Niño and cold 1999 La Niña. This supports the hypothesis that changes in the whales' distribution related to sea temperature occurs to reduce thermal-stress and optimize energy utilization for newborn whales. Although this last conclusion should be considered in view of the limited data available from all the whales' wintering locations in all the years considered. PMID:26309028

  1. The Effect of Climate Variability on Gray Whales (Eschrichtius robustus) within Their Wintering Areas

    PubMed Central

    Salvadeo, Christian J.; Gómez-Gallardo U., Alejandro; Nájera-Caballero, Mauricio; Urbán-Ramirez, Jorge; Lluch-Belda, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The environmental conditions of the breeding and feeding grounds of the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) fluctuates at inter-annual scales in response to regional and basin climate patterns. Thus, the goals of this study were to assess if there are any relationships between summer sea ice on their feeding ground and counts of gray whale mother-calf (MC) pairs at Ojo de Liebre Lagoon (OLL); and if El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences the winter distribution of gray whales MC pairs in the three primary breeding lagoons of OLL, San Ignacio Lagoon (SIL) and Santo Domingo Channel north of Bahia Magdalena (SDCh). Maximum February counts of MC pairs were compared with the length of the open-water season at the Bering Sea during the previous year. Then, an ENSO index and sea surface temperature anomalies outside the primary lagoons was compared with the maximum February counts of MC pairs at these lagoons. Results showed that maximum counts of MC pairs in OLL correlates with sea ice conditions in their feeding grounds from the previous feeding season, and this relationship can be attributed to changes in nutritive condition of females. ENSO-related variability influences distribution of MC pairs in the southern area of SDCh during the warm 1998 El Niño and cold 1999 La Niña. This supports the hypothesis that changes in the whales’ distribution related to sea temperature occurs to reduce thermal-stress and optimize energy utilization for newborn whales. Although this last conclusion should be considered in view of the limited data available from all the whales’ wintering locations in all the years considered. PMID:26309028

  2. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) parasite diversity in central Mexico.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Camacho, Norma; Pineda-López, Raúl Francisco; de Jesús Guerrero-Carrillo, María; Cantó-Alarcón, Germinal Jorge; Jones, Robert Wallace; Moreno-Pérez, Marco Antonio; Mosqueda-Gualito, Juan Joel; Zamora-Ledesma, Salvador; Camacho-Macías, Brenda

    2016-08-01

    Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775) and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC) were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico) Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013-2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species), mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission. PMID:27408801

  3. Breeding biology of the blue-gray noddy

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rauson, M.J.; Harrison, C.S.; Clapp, R.B.

    1984-01-01

    Blue-gray Noddies, the smallest marine terns, are similar in many respects to all tropical terns in Hawaii: single-egg clutches are laid, growth and development take about 7 weeks, breeding is colonial. Its small size results in eggs that comprise over 27% of adult body weight, compared to 15-20% for most marine terns (Langham 1983). Blue-gray Noddies are widespread in the tropical Pacific, but populations are generally small. This may be the result of its inshore feeding habits and the fact that it is a resident species (Diamond 1978). However, populations in the Hawaiian Archipelago are probably limited by the availability of suitable nest sites in cliffs or rocky outcrops, not food supplies..... Food habits in Hawaii confirm the unique dependence of this species on sea-striders but consumption may be seasonal Blue-gray Noddies take the smallest prey of any seabird in Hawaii and may feed on a lower trophic level..... The Hawaiian population is apparently heavier and produces larger eggs than Blue-gray Noddies elsewhere in the Pacific. This conforms with the general proposition that Hawaiian seabirds are larger than those in the central Pacific (Harrison et al. 1983). The Hawaiian population also has a more predictable breeding season than those farther south.This may be due to a greater seasonality of food supply, but the factors that control the timing of breeding are not clear. There does not appear to be any competition for nest sites with other seabirds.....Our information on growth and development will enable future investigators to estimate the ages of chicks during brief visits to Blue-gray Noddy colonies. This will facilitate programs that are designed to monitor the basic health of seabird populations and to detect changes from baseline that may result from human activities or oceanographic conditions.

  4. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Subcortical Gray Matter Structures in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Sehatpour, Pejman; Long, Jun; Gui, Weihua; Qiao, Jianping; Javitt, Daniel C.; Wang, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    A failure of adaptive inference—misinterpreting available sensory information for appropriate perception and action—is at the heart of clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, implicating key subcortical structures in the brain including the hippocampus. We used high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) fractal geometry analysis to study subtle and potentially biologically relevant structural alterations (in the geometry of protrusions, gyri and indentations, sulci) in subcortical gray matter (GM) in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy individuals. In particular, we focus on utilizing Fractal Dimension (FD), a compact shape descriptor that can be computed using inputs with irregular (i.e., not necessarily smooth) surfaces in order to quantify complexity (of geometrical properties and configurations of structures across spatial scales) of subcortical GM in this disorder. Probabilistic (entropy-based) information FD was computed based on the box-counting approach for each of the seven subcortical structures, bilaterally, as well as the brainstem from high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images in chronic patients with schizophrenia (n = 19) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 19) (age ranges: patients, 22.7–54.3 and healthy controls, 24.9–51.6 years old). We found a significant reduction of FD in the left hippocampus (median: 2.1460, range: 2.07–2.18 vs. median: 2.1730, range: 2.15–2.23, p<0.001; Cohen’s effect size, U3 = 0.8158 (95% Confidence Intervals, CIs: 0.6316, 1.0)), the right hippocampus (median: 2.1430, range: 2.05–2.19 vs. median: 2.1760, range: 2.12–2.21, p = 0.004; U3 = 0.8421 (CIs: 0.5263, 1)), as well as left thalamus (median: 2.4230, range: 2.40–2.44, p = 0.005; U3 = 0.7895 (CIs: 0.5789, 0.9473)) in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy individuals. Our findings provide in-vivo quantitative evidence for reduced surface complexity of hippocampus, with reduced FD indicating a less complex, less regular GM

  5. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Subcortical Gray Matter Structures in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guihu; Denisova, Kristina; Sehatpour, Pejman; Long, Jun; Gui, Weihua; Qiao, Jianping; Javitt, Daniel C; Wang, Zhishun

    2016-01-01

    A failure of adaptive inference-misinterpreting available sensory information for appropriate perception and action-is at the heart of clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, implicating key subcortical structures in the brain including the hippocampus. We used high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D) fractal geometry analysis to study subtle and potentially biologically relevant structural alterations (in the geometry of protrusions, gyri and indentations, sulci) in subcortical gray matter (GM) in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy individuals. In particular, we focus on utilizing Fractal Dimension (FD), a compact shape descriptor that can be computed using inputs with irregular (i.e., not necessarily smooth) surfaces in order to quantify complexity (of geometrical properties and configurations of structures across spatial scales) of subcortical GM in this disorder. Probabilistic (entropy-based) information FD was computed based on the box-counting approach for each of the seven subcortical structures, bilaterally, as well as the brainstem from high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR) images in chronic patients with schizophrenia (n = 19) and age-matched healthy controls (n = 19) (age ranges: patients, 22.7-54.3 and healthy controls, 24.9-51.6 years old). We found a significant reduction of FD in the left hippocampus (median: 2.1460, range: 2.07-2.18 vs. median: 2.1730, range: 2.15-2.23, p<0.001; Cohen's effect size, U3 = 0.8158 (95% Confidence Intervals, CIs: 0.6316, 1.0)), the right hippocampus (median: 2.1430, range: 2.05-2.19 vs. median: 2.1760, range: 2.12-2.21, p = 0.004; U3 = 0.8421 (CIs: 0.5263, 1)), as well as left thalamus (median: 2.4230, range: 2.40-2.44, p = 0.005; U3 = 0.7895 (CIs: 0.5789, 0.9473)) in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy individuals. Our findings provide in-vivo quantitative evidence for reduced surface complexity of hippocampus, with reduced FD indicating a less complex, less regular GM surface detected in

  6. Building Consensus toward a Shared Purpose: A Profile of President David Gray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2011-01-01

    The author presents a profile of APPA president David Gray. One might say that David Gray's path into higher education facilities management was anything but traditional. Today, Gray is the assistant vice president of facilities services at Middle Tennessee State University. His professional career, however, actually began in banking. In 1993 he…

  7. 75 FR 68756 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Petition Availability

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as a depleted stock under the Marine Mammal... assessment report for Eastern North Pacific gray whales is available on the Internet at the following...

  8. The correlation between gray matter volume and perceived social support: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Che, XianWei; Wei, DongTao; Li, WenFu; Li, HaiJiang; Qiao, Lei; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, QingLin; Liu, YiJun

    2014-01-01

    Social support refers to interpersonal exchanges that include the combinations of aid, affirmation and affection. Perceived social support is a kind of subjective judgment of one's availability of social support. In spite of the importance of perceived social support to health, however, its neural substrate remains unknown. To address this question, voxel-based morphometry was employed to investigate the neural bases of individual differences in responses to the Perceived Social Support Scale (PSSS) in healthy volunteers (144 men and 203 women; mean age = 19.9; SD = 1.33, age range : 17-27). As a result, multiple regression analysis revealed that the PSSS scores were significantly and positively correlated with gray matter volume in a cluster that mainly included areas in posterior parts of posterior cingulate cortex, bilateral lingual cortex, left occipital lobe and cuneus. Highly-supported individuals had larger gray matter volume in these brain regions, implying a relatively high level of ability to engage in self-referential processes and social cognition. Our results provide a biological basis for exploring perceived social support particularly in relationship to various health parameters and outcomes. PMID:24397344

  9. Neural and Neural Gray-Box Modeling for Entry Temperature Prediction in a Hot Strip Mill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrios, José Angel; Torres-Alvarado, Miguel; Cavazos, Alberto; Leduc, Luis

    2011-10-01

    In hot strip mills, initial controller set points have to be calculated before the steel bar enters the mill. Calculations rely on the good knowledge of rolling variables. Measurements are available only after the bar has entered the mill, and therefore they have to be estimated. Estimation of process variables, particularly that of temperature, is of crucial importance for the bar front section to fulfill quality requirements, and the same must be performed in the shortest possible time to preserve heat. Currently, temperature estimation is performed by physical modeling; however, it is highly affected by measurement uncertainties, variations in the incoming bar conditions, and final product changes. In order to overcome these problems, artificial intelligence techniques such as artificial neural networks and fuzzy logic have been proposed. In this article, neural network-based systems, including neural-based Gray-Box models, are applied to estimate scale breaker entry temperature, given its importance, and their performance is compared to that of the physical model used in plant. Several neural systems and several neural-based Gray-Box models are designed and tested with real data. Taking advantage of the flexibility of neural networks for input incorporation, several factors which are believed to have influence on the process are also tested. The systems proposed in this study were proven to have better performance indexes and hence better prediction capabilities than the physical models currently used in plant.

  10. Food Irradiation Is Done in Grays, not Rads

    SciTech Connect

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2002-07-01

    One federal agency has chosen to use exclusively modern SI units of radiation dose in its regulations: the FDA. While not exactly hot news, this bold move by a U.S. government agency on November 26, 1997, should be noted by those who wish to encourage the switch from curies, working level months, rads, rems, and roentgens to becquerels, joule hours per cubic meter, grays, sieverts, and coulombs per kilogram. The regulation is 21 CFR 179, Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food. Specifically, 21 CFR 179.26 (b) 8. permits meat irradiation up to 4.5 kGy for refrigerated meat and 7.0 kGy for frozen meat. Prior to the 1997 addition, radiation doses had been quoted in grays (kGy) with rad (Mrad) values in parentheses. In the 1997 addition, the Mrads disappeared.

  11. CASTRO: A NEW COMPRESSIBLE ASTROPHYSICAL SOLVER. II. GRAY RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, W.; Almgren, A.; Bell, J.; Howell, L.; Burrows, A.

    2011-10-01

    We describe the development of a flux-limited gray radiation solver for the compressible astrophysics code, CASTRO. CASTRO uses an Eulerian grid with block-structured adaptive mesh refinement based on a nested hierarchy of logically rectangular variable-sized grids with simultaneous refinement in both space and time. The gray radiation solver is based on a mixed-frame formulation of radiation hydrodynamics. In our approach, the system is split into two parts, one part that couples the radiation and fluid in a hyperbolic subsystem, and another parabolic part that evolves radiation diffusion and source-sink terms. The hyperbolic subsystem is solved explicitly with a high-order Godunov scheme, whereas the parabolic part is solved implicitly with a first-order backward Euler method.

  12. Radiobiology and gray science: flaws in landmark new radiation protections.

    PubMed

    Shrader-Frechette, Kristin

    2005-04-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection--whose regularly updated recommendations are routinely adopted as law throughout the globe--recently issued the first-ever ICRP protections for the environment. These draft 2005 proposals are significant both because they offer the commission's first radiation protections for any non-human parts of the planet and because they will influence both the quality of radiation risk assessment and environmental protection, as well as the global costs of nuclear-weapons cleanup, reactor decommissioning and radioactive waste management. This piece argues that the 2005 recommendations are scientifically and ethically flawed, or gray, in at least three respects: first, in largely ignoring scientific journals while employing mainly "gray literature;" second, in relying on non-transparent dose estimates and models, rather than on actual radiation measurements; and third, in ignoring classical ethical constraints on acceptable radiation risk. PMID:15915855

  13. Sub-Doppler cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colzi, Giacomo; Durastante, Gianmaria; Fava, Eleonora; Serafini, Simone; Lamporesi, Giacomo; Ferrari, Gabriele

    2016-02-01

    We report on the realization of sub-Doppler laser cooling of sodium atoms in gray molasses using the D1 optical transition (3 s 1/2 2S →3 p 1/2 2P) at 589.8 nm. The technique is applied to samples containing 3 ×109 atoms, previously cooled to 350 μ K in a magneto-optical trap, and it leads to temperatures as low as 9 μ K and phase-space densities in the range of 10-4. The capture efficiency of the gray molasses is larger than 2/3, and we observe no density-dependent heating for densities up to 1011cm-3 .

  14. High-Transmission Filters for Realizing Gray-Body Radiators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, J.; Yamada, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Calibration of infrared radiation thermometers at non-unity emissivity settings is a poorly solved problem for establishment of traceability to meet user needs, for instruments with both fixed and variable emissivity setting functions. A variable-temperature gray-body radiator having a constant value of emissivity independent of both wavelength and temperature can be a perfect tool for the calibration purpose. In this paper, two types of high-transmittance optical neutral density filters, one utilizing a rotating-sector optical chopper, and another of a wire-mesh type, are shown to perform well with a precise transmittance between 90 % and 100 % in the wide infrared wavelength range. These optical filters in combination with a blackbody cavity traceable to ITS-90 can realize reliable gray-body radiation. These methods are applied successfully to several models of infrared thermometers operated in the emissivity correction mode.

  15. Historical bathymetric changes near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Burch, T.L.; Sherwood, C.R. )

    1992-12-01

    Large changes in the distribution of sediment near the entrance to Grays Harbor, Washington, have occurred since the long rock jetties were built to confine flow. Spits to the north and south of the entrance have grown, the entrance channel has deepened, and the outer bar has eroded and moved offshore. The shorelines of North Beach and South Beach have experienced significant amounts of both erosion and accretion since the jetties were constructed around the turn of the century. Recently, the erosion rate at South Beach has increased and, because Half Moon Bay is growing at the expense of the shoreward side of Point Chehalis, the vegetated portion of the spit is now less than 350 ft wide at the narrowest section. The US Army Corps of Engineers, Seattle District, requested that Battelle/Marine Sciences Laboratory evaluate long-term trends in erosion near the entrance to Grays Harbor.

  16. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Magaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  17. Estrogen treatment prevents gray matter atrophy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    MacKenzie-Graham, Allan J; Rinek, Gilda A; Avedisian, Andrea; Morales, Laurie B; Umeda, Elizabeth; Boulat, Benoit; Jacobs, Russell E; Toga, Arthur W; Voskuhl, Rhonda R

    2012-07-01

    Gray matter atrophy is an important correlate to clinical disability in multiple sclerosis (MS), and many treatment trials include atrophy as an outcome measure. Atrophy has been shown to occur in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most commonly used animal model of MS. The clinical severity of EAE is reduced in estrogen-reated mice, but it remains unknown whether estrogen treatment can reduce gray matter atrophy in EAE. In this study, mice with EAE were treated with either estrogen receptor (ER)-α ligand or ER-β ligand, and diffusion tensor images (DTI) were collected and neuropathology was performed. DTI showed atrophy in the cerebellar gray matter of vehicle-treated EAE mice compared with healthy controls but not in ER-α or ER-β ligand-treated EAE mice. Neuropathology demonstrated that Purkinje cell numbers were decreased in vehicle-treated EAE mice, whereas neither ER ligand-treated EAE groups showed a decrease. This is the first report of a neuroprotective therapy in EAE that unambiguously prevents gray matter atrophy while sparing a major neuronal cell type. Fractional anisotropy (FA) in the cerebellar white matter was decreased in vehicle- and ER-β ligand-treated but not in ER-α ligand-treated EAE mice. Inflammatory cell infiltration was increased in vehicle- and ER-β ligand-treated but not in ER-α ligand-treated EAE mice. Myelin staining was decreased in vehicle-treated EAE mice and was spared in both ER ligand-treated groups. This is consistent with decreased FA as a potential biomarker for inflammation rather than myelination or axonal damage in the cerebellum in EAE. PMID:22411609

  18. The impact of aging on gray matter structural covariance networks.

    PubMed

    Montembeault, Maxime; Joubert, Sven; Doyon, Julien; Carrier, Julie; Gagnon, Jean-François; Monchi, Oury; Lungu, Ovidiu; Belleville, Sylvie; Brambati, Simona Maria

    2012-11-01

    Previous anatomical volumetric studies have shown that healthy aging is associated with gray matter tissue loss in specific cerebral regions. However, these studies may have potentially missed critical elements of age-related brain changes, which largely exist within interrelationships among brain regions. This magnetic resonance imaging research aims to assess the effects of aging on the organization of gray matter structural covariance networks. Here, we used voxel-based morphometry on high-definition brain scans to compare the patterns of gray matter structural covariance networks that sustain different sensorimotor and high-order cognitive functions among young (n=88, mean age=23.5±3.1 years, female/male=55/33) and older (n=88, mean age=67.3±5.9 years, female/male=55/33) participants. This approach relies on the assumption that functionally correlated brain regions show correlations in gray matter volume as a result of mutually trophic influences or common experience-related plasticity. We found reduced structural association in older adults compared with younger adults, specifically in high-order cognitive networks. Major differences were observed in the structural covariance networks that subserve the following: a) the language-related semantic network, b) the executive control network, and c) the default-mode network. Moreover, these cognitive functions are typically altered in the older population. Our results indicate that healthy aging alters the structural organization of cognitive networks, shifting from a more distributed (in young adulthood) to a more localized topological organization in older individuals. PMID:22776455

  19. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    PubMed

    Mech, L David; Christensen, Bruce W; Asa, Cheryl S; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species. PMID:24586418

  20. Production of Hybrids between Western Gray Wolves and Western Coyotes

    PubMed Central

    Mech, L. David; Christensen, Bruce W.; Asa, Cheryl S.; Callahan, Margaret; Young, Julie K.

    2014-01-01

    Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus) and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans) to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon) is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species. PMID:24586418

  1. A Case for Hydrothermal Gray Hematite in Aram Chaos

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Catling, D. C.; Moore, J. M.

    2003-01-01

    The Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) on Mars Global Surveyor has detected deposits of coarsegrained, gray crystalline hematite in Sinus Meridiani, Aram Chaos, and Vallis Marineris [1]. Detailed features in the hematite spectral signature of the Sinus Meridiani region show that the spectrum is consistent with emission dominated by crystal c-faces of hematite, implying that the hematite is specular [2]. Gray specular hematite (also known as specularite ) is a particular gray crystalline form that has intergrown, hexagonal plates with a silvery metallic luster. We believe that the key to the origin of specularite is that it requires crystallization at temperatures in excess of about 100 C. In reviewing the occurrence of gray hematite on Earth, we find no exceptions to this warm temperature requirement [3]. Thermal crystallization on Mars could occur (1) as diagenesis at a depth of a few kilometers of sediments originally formed in lowtemperature waters, or (2) as direct precipitation from hydrothermal solution. Aram Chaos has unique chaotic terrain that offers more clues to the formation of the hematite than the relatively featureless flat terrain (as seen from orbit) of Sinus Meridiani. Aram Chaos provides the opportunity to look at a combination of TES data, Mars Orbiter Camera images, and Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) topography. This combination of data suggests that high concentrations of hematite were formed in planar strata and have since been exposed by erosion of an overlying light-toned, caprock. Lesser concentrations of hematite are found adjacent to these strata at lower elevations, which we interpret as perhaps a lag deposit. The topography and the collapsed nature of the chaotic terrain favor a hydrothermally charged aquifer as the original setting where the hematite formed. An alternative sedimentary origin requires post-depositional burial to a depth of 3-5 km to induce thermally driven recrystallization of fine-grained iron oxides to coarse

  2. Emissivity of isothermal spherical cavity with gray lambertian walls.

    PubMed

    Nicodemus, F E

    1968-07-01

    An exact expression for the emissivity of an ideally diffuse, gray, isothermal, spherical cavity is derived directly, making no geometrical approximations, and is shown to agree with the results of DeVos, Gouffé, and Sparrow and Jonsson, as compared by Fecteau. It appears that, even under ideal conditions, the spherical configuration is the only one that will have uniform isotropic emissivity over a wide angle, approaching a full hemisphere, across the entire aperture. PMID:20068803

  3. Mapping ventricular expansion onto cortical gray matter in older adults.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Sarah K; Gutman, Boris A; Joshi, Shantanu H; Toga, Arthur W; Jack, Clifford R; Weiner, Michael W; Thompson, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Dynamic changes in the brain's lateral ventricles on magnetic resonance imaging are powerful biomarkers of disease progression in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ventricular measures can represent accumulation of diffuse brain atrophy with very high effect sizes. Despite having no direct role in cognition, ventricular expansion co-occurs with volumetric loss in gray and white matter structures. To better understand relationships between ventricular and cortical changes over time, we related ventricular expansion to atrophy in cognitively relevant cortical gray matter surfaces, which are more challenging to segment. In ADNI participants, percent change in ventricular volumes at 1-year (N = 677) and 2-year (N = 536) intervals was significantly associated with baseline cortical thickness and volume in the full sample controlling for age, sex, and diagnosis, and in MCI separately. Ventricular expansion in MCI was associated with thinner gray matter in frontal, temporal, and parietal regions affected by AD. Ventricular expansion reflects cortical atrophy in early AD, offering a useful biomarker for clinical trials of interventions to slow AD progression. PMID:25311280

  4. POD Model Reconstruction for Gray-Box Fault Detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Park, Han; Zak, Michail

    2007-01-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is the mathematical basis of a method of constructing low-order mathematical models for the "gray-box" fault-detection algorithm that is a component of a diagnostic system known as beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAM). POD has been successfully applied in reducing computational complexity by generating simple models that can be used for control and simulation for complex systems such as fluid flows. In the present application to BEAM, POD brings the same benefits to automated diagnosis. BEAM is a method of real-time or offline, automated diagnosis of a complex dynamic system.The gray-box approach makes it possible to utilize incomplete or approximate knowledge of the dynamics of the system that one seeks to diagnose. In the gray-box approach, a deterministic model of the system is used to filter a time series of system sensor data to remove the deterministic components of the time series from further examination. What is left after the filtering operation is a time series of residual quantities that represent the unknown (or at least unmodeled) aspects of the behavior of the system. Stochastic modeling techniques are then applied to the residual time series. The procedure for detecting abnormal behavior of the system then becomes one of looking for statistical differences between the residual time series and the predictions of the stochastic model.

  5. Gray bats and pollution in Missouri and northern Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bunck, C.M.; Cromartie, E.; LaVal, R.K.; Tuttle, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    Gray bats died with lethal brain concentrations of dieldrin and rising levels of heptachlor epoxide in 1976, 1977, and 1978 at Bat Caves No. 2-3, Franklin County, Missouri. The colony disappeared in 1979. Dieldrin was banned in 1974 and 1981 was the last year for heptachlor use in Missouri. The State is recommendiing three organophosphates (chlorpyrifos or Dursban, dyfonate or Fonophos, and ethoprop or Mocap) as substitutes for heptachlor. All three compounds have excellent records in the environment. Analyses of insects collected where bats of this colony fed showed beetles, particularly rove beetles (Staphylinidae), to be the most heavily contaminated part of the bat's diet. Lactation concentrated these residues so that levels in milk were approximately 30 times those in the insect diet. Gray bats found dead in caves in northern Alabama showed DDD (a DDT derivative) contamination. Bats from the colony at Cave Springs Cave on the Wheeler National Wildlife Refuge contained up to 29 ppm DDD in their brains, but this is probably less than one-half the lethal level. Bats from other colonies contained less. The DDD contamination enters the Terinessee River just above the Wheeler Refuge and is seen in gray bat colonies as far as 60 miles downriver.

  6. Abnormal gray matter volume and resting-state functional connectivity in former heroin-dependent individuals abstinent for multiple years.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lubin; Zou, Feng; Zhai, Tianye; Lei, Yu; Tan, Shuwen; Jin, Xiao; Ye, Enmao; Shao, Yongcong; Yang, Yihong; Yang, Zheng

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have suggested that heroin addiction is associated with structural and functional brain abnormalities. However, it is largely unknown whether these characteristics of brain abnormalities would be persistent or restored after long periods of abstinence. Considering the very high rates of relapse, we hypothesized that there may exist some latent neural vulnerabilities in abstinent heroin users. In this study, structural and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 30 former heroin-dependent (FHD) subjects who were drug free for more than 3 years and 30 non-addicted control (CN) volunteers. Voxel-based morphometry was used to identify possible gray matter volume differences between the FHD and CN groups. Alterations in resting-state functional connectivity in FHD were examined using brain areas with gray matter deficits as seed regions. Significantly reduced gray matter volume was observed in FHD in an area surrounding the parieto-occipital sulcus, which included the precuneus and cuneus. Functional connectivity analyses revealed that the FHD subjects showed reduced positive correlation within the default mode network and visual network and decreased negative correlation between the default mode network, visual network and task positive network. Moreover, the altered functional connectivity was correlated with self-reported impulsivity scores in the FHD subjects. Our findings suggest that disruption of large-scale brain systems is present in former heroin users even after multi-year abstinence, which could serve as system-level neural underpinnings for behavioral dysfunctions associated with addiction. PMID:25727574

  7. Gray matter volume differences specific to formal thought disorder in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Horn, Helge; Federspiel, Andrea; Wirth, Miranka; Müller, Thomas J; Wiest, Roland; Walther, Sebastian; Strik, Werner

    2010-05-30

    Formal thought disorder (FTD) is one of the main symptoms of schizophrenia. To date there are no whole brain volumetric studies investigating gray matter (GM) differences specifically associated with FTD. Here, we studied 20 right-handed schizophrenia patients that differed in the severity of formal thought disorder and 20 matched healthy controls, using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The severity of FTD was measured with the Scale for the Assessment of Thought, Language, and Communication. The severity was negatively correlated with the GM volume of the left superior temporal sulcus, the left temporal pole, the right middle orbital gyrus and the right cuneus/lingual gyrus. Structural abnormalities specific for FTD were found to be unrelated to GM differences associated with schizophrenia in general. The specific GM abnormalities within the left temporal lobe may help to explain language disturbances included in FTD. PMID:20418073

  8. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The presence of hair plays an important role in people’s overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. Methods: The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. Results: In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Conclusion: Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products. PMID:27516675

  9. [Usefulness of gray platelets observation in ARC syndrome].

    PubMed

    Benet, Blandine; Lainey, Elodie; Fenneteau, Odile; Baudouin, Véronique; Hurtaud-Roux, Marie-Françoise

    2010-01-01

    Arthrogryposis Renal Fanconi syndrome and Cholestasis (ARC syndrome) is an extremely rare disease (62 cases) and is uneasy to diagnose. This congenital multisystem disorder affects newborns who usually die in the first year of life. The three cases here report the main clinical and biological features of this unknown disease and show how careful platelets morphology examination on blood smear can help for diagnosis. The three cases were observed at Robert Debré hospital in Paris over a twenty years period. In the first case, ARC syndrome was diagnosed after death. For the two following newborns, gray platelets detection in association with clinical symptoms allowed an earlier diagnosis. PMID:20650745

  10. Pesticide contamination of endangered gray bats and their food base in Boone County, Missouri, 1982

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clawson, R.L.; Clark, D.R., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Gray bat guano from Devil's Icebox and Hunters Caves contained dieldrin at levels previously associated with gray bat mortality. Two of four gray bats found dead in Holton Cave had lethal brain concentrations of dieldrin. Twenty-five of 28 (86%) insect samples from bat foraging areas contained measurable dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide or both. Beetle samples were most heavily contaminated containing up to 2.2 ppm and 1.1 ppm heptachlor epoxide. The addition of Holton Cave brings to five the number of Missouri caves where gray bats have died of food chain pesticide poisoning.

  11. Deformation-based surface morphometry applied to gray matter deformation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Moo K; Worsley, Keith J; Robbins, Steve; Paus, Tomás; Taylor, Jonathan; Giedd, Jay N; Rapoport, Judith L; Evans, Alan C

    2003-02-01

    We present a unified statistical approach to deformation-based morphometry applied to the cortical surface. The cerebral cortex has the topology of a 2D highly convoluted sheet. As the brain develops over time, the cortical surface area, thickness, curvature, and total gray matter volume change. It is highly likely that such age-related surface changes are not uniform. By measuring how such surface metrics change over time, the regions of the most rapid structural changes can be localized. We avoided using surface flattening, which distorts the inherent geometry of the cortex in our analysis and it is only used in visualization. To increase the signal to noise ratio, diffusion smoothing, which generalizes Gaussian kernel smoothing to an arbitrary curved cortical surface, has been developed and applied to surface data. Afterward, statistical inference on the cortical surface will be performed via random fields theory. As an illustration, we demonstrate how this new surface-based morphometry can be applied in localizing the cortical regions of the gray matter tissue growth and loss in the brain images longitudinally collected in the group of children and adolescents. PMID:12595176

  12. Cross-fostering in gray wolves (Canis lupus lupus).

    PubMed

    Scharis, Inger; Amundin, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Cross-fostering in canids, with captive-bred pups introduced into endangered wild populations, might aid conservation efforts by increasing genetic diversity and lowering the risk of inbreeding depression. The gray wolf (Canis lupus lupus) population in Scandinavia suffers from severe inbreeding due to a narrow genetic base and geographical isolation. This study aimed at evaluating the method to cross-foster wolf pups from zoo-born to zoo-born litters. The following was assessed: female initial acceptance of foster pups, growth rate in relation to age difference between foster pups and pups in recipient litters and survival over the first 33 weeks. The study included four litters added by two foster pups in each. The age differences between the foster pups and the recipient litters were 2-8 days. After augmentation, all four females accepted the foster pups, demonstrated by her moving the entire litter to a new den site. Growth rate was dependent on the age difference of the pups in the foster litters, with a considerably slower growth rate in the 8 days younger pups. However, these pups later appeared to be at no disadvantage. Foster pups had a higher survival rate than females' pups, however, the causes of death were probably not kin or non-kin related. The results indicate that cross-fostering works in gray wolves and that this might be a plausible way to increase genetic variation in the wild population. PMID:25773058

  13. Alcohol use as a behavioural sign of disinhibition: evidence from J.A. Gray's model of personality.

    PubMed

    Pardo, Yolanda; Aguilar, Raúl; Molinuevo, Beatriz; Torrubia, Rafael

    2007-10-01

    Based on Gray's Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory, the influence of behavioural disinhibition upon alcohol consumption was studied. A sample of undergraduates answered different questionnaires related to the Behavioural Inhibition System and Behavioural Activation System. In relation to alcohol use, three aspects of alcohol consumption were assessed: frequency, quantity of alcohol intake and the age at first drink. From a series of correlation and regression analyses, we found that both high scores on BAS-related scales and low scores on those scales related to the BIS were jointly associated with current alcohol-taking habits. Additionally, the Sensitivity to Reward (SR) scale (BAS) was negatively correlated with, and a predictor of, the onset age of alcohol use. We conclude by proposing that research on alcohol use can benefit from this well-grounded theory of the neuropsychology of the individual differences. PMID:17407802

  14. Alpha Dithering to Correct Low-Opacity 8 Bit Compositing Errors

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, P L; Frank, R J; LaMar, E C

    2003-03-31

    This paper describes and analyzes a dithering technique for accurately specifying small values of opacity ({alpha}) that would normally not be possible because of the limited number of bits available in the alpha channel of graphics hardware. This dithering technique addresses problems related to compositing numerous low-opacity semitransparent polygons to create volumetric effects with graphics hardware. The paper also describes the causes and a possible solution to artifacts that arise from parallel or distributed volume rendering using bricking on multiple GPU's.

  15. Mechanically verified hardware implementing an 8-bit parallel IO Byzantine agreement processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, J. Strother

    1992-01-01

    Consider a network of four processors that use the Oral Messages (Byzantine Generals) Algorithm of Pease, Shostak, and Lamport to achieve agreement in the presence of faults. Bevier and Young have published a functional description of a single processor that, when interconnected appropriately with three identical others, implements this network under the assumption that the four processors step in synchrony. By formalizing the original Pease, et al work, Bevier and Young mechanically proved that such a network achieves fault tolerance. We develop, formalize, and discuss a hardware design that has been mechanically proven to implement their processor. In particular, we formally define mapping functions from the abstract state space of the Bevier-Young processor to a concrete state space of a hardware module and state a theorem that expresses the claim that the hardware correctly implements the processor. We briefly discuss the Brock-Hunt Formal Hardware Description Language which permits designs both to be proved correct with the Boyer-Moore theorem prover and to be expressed in a commercially supported hardware description language for additional electrical analysis and layout. We briefly describe our implementation.

  16. White and Gray Matter Abnormalities in Narcolepsy with Cataplexy

    PubMed Central

    Scherfler, Christoph; Frauscher, Birgit; Schocke, Michael; Nocker, Michael; Gschliesser, Viola; Ehrmann, Laura; Niederreiter, Markus; Esterhammer, Regina; Seppi, Klaus; Brandauer, Elisabeth; Poewe, Werner; Högl, Birgit

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: The authors applied diffusion-tensor imaging including measurements of mean diffusivity (MD), which is a parameter of brain tissue integrity, fractional anisotropy (FA), which is a parameter of neuronal fiber integrity, and voxel-based morphometry, which is a measure of gray and white matter volume, to detect brain tissue changes in patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy. Design: N/A. Patients: Patients with narcolepsy-cataplexy (n = 16) and age-matched healthy control subjects (n = 12) were studied. Interventions: Whole cerebral MD, FA measures, and the volumes of the gray and white matter compartments were analyzed using statistical parametric mapping. Measurement and Results: Significant MD increases and concomitant FA decreases were localized in the fronto-orbital cortex (P < 0.001) and the anterior cingulate (FA, P < 0.001; MD, P = 0.03) in narcolepsy-cataplexy. Additional MD increases without FA changes were detected in the ventral tegmental area, the dorsal raphe nuclei (P < 0.001), and the hypothalamus (P < 0.01). FA signal decreases were observed in the white matter tracts of the inferior frontal and inferior temporal cortices of narcolepsy-cataplexy patients (P < 0.001). Brain volume loss was evident in focal areas of the inferior and superior temporal cortices (P < 0.001) and the cingulate (P = 0.038). Conclusions: Areas of increased diffusivity in the hypothalamus appear consistent with hypocretinergic cell loss reported in narcolepsy-cataplexy. Signal abnormalities in the ventral tegmental area and the dorsal raphe nuclei correspond to major synaptic targets of hypocretin neurons that were associated with the regulation of the sleep-wake cycle. Brain tissue alterations identified in the frontal cortex and cingulate are crucial in the maintenance of attention and reward-dependent decision making, both known to be impaired in narcolepsy-cataplexy. Citation: Scherfler C; Frauscher B; Schocke M; Nocker M; Gschliesser V; Ehrmann L

  17. Mapping Gray Matter Development: Implications for Typical Development and Vulnerability to Psychopathology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gogtay, Nitin; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have scanned large numbers of children and adolescents repeatedly over time, as their brains develop, tracking volumetric changes in gray and white matter in remarkable detail. Focusing on gray matter changes specifically, here we explain how earlier studies using lobar volumes of specific…

  18. 76 FR 78240 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Japan, 56 FR 21658 (May 10, 1991), and Amended Final Determination of Sales at Less Than Fair Value and Antidumping Order: Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan, 60 FR 39150 (August 1, 1995). As a result of... Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan, 76 FR 76760 (December 8, 2011), and USITC Publication...

  19. Modeling public health interventions for improved access to the gray literature

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Anne M.; Liddy, Elizabeth D.; Bradley, Jana; Wheatley, Joyce A.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: Much of the useful information in public health (PH) is considered gray literature, literature that is not available through traditional, commercial pathways. The diversity and nontraditional format of this information makes it difficult to locate. The aim of this Robert Wood Johnson Foundation–funded project is to improve access to PH gray literature reports through established natural language processing (NLP) techniques. This paper summarizes the development of a model for representing gray literature documents concerning PH interventions. Methods: The authors established a model-based approach for automatically analyzing and representing the PH gray literature through the evaluation of a corpus of PH gray literature from seven PH Websites. Input from fifteen PH professionals assisted in the development of the model and prioritization of elements for NLP extraction. Results: Of 365 documents collected, 320 documents were used for analysis to develop a model of key text elements of gray literature documents relating to PH interventions. Survey input from a group of potential users directed the selection of key elements to include in the document summaries. Conclusions: A model of key elements relating to PH interventions in the gray literature can be developed from the ground up through document analysis and input from members of the PH workforce. The model provides a framework for developing a method to identify and store key elements from documents (metadata) as document surrogates that can be used for indexing, abstracting, and determining the shape of the PH gray literature. PMID:16239945

  20. Recovery of hair coat color in Gray Collie (cyclic neutropenia)-normal bone marrow transplant chimeras.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, T. J.

    1978-01-01

    Gray Collie-normal bone marrow transplantation chimeras showed normal coloration of the hair coat on tails and several other areas 2 years after successful transplantation of bone marrow to correct cyclic neutropenia of the Gray Collie syndrome. Images Figures 1-2 PMID:347941

  1. Evaluating Cultures: The Instrumentalism, Pluralist Perfectionism, and Particularism of John Gray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Matthew Thomas

    2012-01-01

    In this article, Matthew Johnson examines the possibility of using elements of John Gray's work to advance a means of evaluating cultures, in order to inform the development of pluralist perfectionist forms of public policy and, in particular, educational programs. Johnson engages critically with elements of Gray's value pluralism, such as his…

  2. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, T. Russell

    2012-01-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural…

  3. Subcortical Gray Matter Volume Abnormalities in Healthy Bipolar Offspring: Potential Neuroanatomical Risk Marker for Bipolar Disorder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Almeida, Jorge R. C.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Nau, Sharon; Kalas, Catherine; Monk, Kelly; Kupfer, David J.; Phillips, Mary L.

    2008-01-01

    A study is conducted to examine the extent to which bipolar disorder (BD) is associated with gray matter volume abnormalities in brain regions in healthy bipolar offspring relative to age-matched controls. Results show increased gray matter volume in the parahippocampus/hippocampus in healthy offspring at genetic risk for BD.

  4. Regional Gray Matter Volume Deficits in Adolescents with First-Episode Psychosis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janssen, Joost; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Graell, Montserrat; Fraguas, David; Zabala, Arantzazu; Vazquez, Veronica Garcia; Desco, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2008-01-01

    The regional gray matter volumes of adolescents with first-episode psychosis are compared with those of a control group. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on 70 patients with early onset FEP and on 51 individuals without FEP. Findings revealed that volume deficits in the left medial frontal gray matter were common in individuals with…

  5. Differential regional gray matter volumes in patients with on-line game addiction and professional gamers

    PubMed Central

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with on-line game addiction (POGA) and professional video game players play video games for extended periods of time, but experience very different consequences for their on-line game play. Brain regions consisting of anterior cingulate, thalamus and occpito-temporal areas may increase the likelihood of becoming a pro-gamer or POGA. Twenty POGA, seventeen pro-gamers, and eighteen healthy comparison subjects (HC) were recruited. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 1.5 Tesla Espree MRI scanner (SIEMENS, Erlangen, Germany). Voxel-wise comparisons of gray matter volume were performed between the groups using the two-sample t-test with statistical parametric mapping (SPM5). Compared to HC, the POGA group showed increased impulsiveness and perseverative errors, and volume in left thalamus gray matter, but decreased gray matter volume in both inferior temporal gyri, right middle occipital gyrus, and left inferior occipital gyrus, compared with HC. Pro-gamers showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus, but decreased gray matter volume in left middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus compared with HC. Additionally, the pro-gamer group showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus and decreased left thalamus gray matter volume compared with the POGA group. The current study suggests that increased gray matter volumes of the left cingulate gyrus in pro-gamers and of the left thalamus in POGA may contribute to the different clinical characteristics of pro-gamers and POGA. PMID:22277302

  6. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell Hunter, T.

    2012-07-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural selection had not presented any new scientific or theological difficulties for traditional Christian belief. From his personal correspondence with the author of the Origin, Gray well knew that Darwin did not affirm God's "particular" design of nature but conceded to the possibility that evolution proceeded according to "designed laws." From this concession, Gray attempted to develop a post-Darwinian natural theology which encouraged theistic naturalists to view God's design of nature through the evolutionary process in a manner similar to the way in which they viewed God's Providential interaction with human history. Indeed, securing a fair reading of the Origin was not Gray's sole aim as a promoter of Darwinian ideas. In Darwin's theory of natural selection, Gray believed he had discovered the means by which a more robust natural theological conception of the living and evolving natural world could be developed. In this paper I outline Gray's efforts to produce and popularize a theistic interpretation of Darwinian theory in order to correct various misconceptions concerning Gray's natural theological views and their role in the Darwinian Revolution.

  7. A gray wolf (Canis lupus) delivers live prey to a pup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David

    2014-01-01

    A two-year-old sibling Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) carefully captured an Arctic Hare (Lepus arcticus) leveret alive on Ellesmere Island, Nunavut, Canada, and delivered it alive to a pup 28–33 days old. This appears to be the first observation of a Gray Wolf delivering live prey to a pup.

  8. Causality in Condensates: Gray Solitons as Relics of BEC Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zurek, Wojciech H.

    2009-03-01

    Symmetry breaking during phase transitions can lead to the formation of topological defects (such as vortex lines in superfluids). However, the usually studied Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) have the shape of a cigar, a geometry that impedes vortex formation, survival, and detection. I show that, in elongated traps, one can expect the formation of gray solitons (long-lived, nontopological “phase defects”) as a result of the same mechanism. Their number will rise approximately in proportion to the transition rate. This steep rise is due to the increasing size of the region of the BEC cigar where the phase of the condensate wave function is chosen locally (rather than passed on from the already formed BEC).

  9. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2010-01-01

    Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

  10. Failure analysis of blistered organic coatings on gray iron castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tianen, Matthew N.

    This study investigates the blistering failure of a two part coating consisting of talc-filled polyester resin and polyurethane primer on large gray iron castings. Surface metallography was performed and failed coating was characterized by scanning electron microscopy. Corrosion products were found inside of coating blisters. The proposed blistering mechanism is osmosis as a result of soluble species produced by the corrosion. It was believed that excessively thin primer layers resulted in a poor barrier to permeation of water, leading to blisters, and that a basecoat containing a corrosion inhibitor like zinc phosphate would reduce blistering. These hypotheses were tested with designed experiments using environmental testing in humidity and submersion environments. Thicker primer layers resulted in significant reductions in blistering and prolonged the time required before blister formation. A basecoat containing zinc phosphate was not found to be effective at reducing blistering in this coating system.

  11. Changes in brain gray matter due to repetitive painful stimulation.

    PubMed

    Teutsch, S; Herken, W; Bingel, U; Schoell, E; May, A

    2008-08-15

    Using functional imaging, we recently investigated how repeated painful stimulation over several days is processed, perceived and modulated in the healthy human brain. Considering that activation-dependent brain plasticity in humans on a structural level has already been demonstrated in adults, we were interested in whether repeated painful stimulation may lead to structural changes of the brain. 14 healthy subjects were stimulated daily with a 20 min pain paradigm for 8 consecutive days, using structural MRI performed on days 1, 8, 22 and again after 1 year. Using voxel based morphometry, we are able to show that repeated painful stimulation resulted in a substantial increase of gray matter in pain transmitting areas, including mid-cingulate and somatosensory cortex. These changes are stimulation dependent, i.e. they recede after the regular nociceptive input is stopped. This data raises some interesting questions regarding structural plasticity of the brain concerning the experience of both acute and chronic pain. PMID:18582579

  12. Representation of aversive prediction errors in the human periaqueductal gray

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mathieu; Shohamy, Daphna; Daw, Nathaniel; Jepma, Marieke; Wimmer, Elliott; Wager, Tor D.

    2014-01-01

    Pain is a primary driver of learning and motivated action. It is also a target of learning, as nociceptive brain responses are shaped by learning processes. We combined an instrumental pain avoidance task with an axiomatic approach to assessing fMRI signals related to prediction errors (PEs), which drive reinforcement-based learning. We found that pain PEs were encoded in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), an important structure for pain control and learning in animal models. Axiomatic tests combined with dynamic causal modeling suggested that ventromedial prefrontal cortex, supported by putamen, provides an expected value-related input to the PAG, which then conveys PE signals to prefrontal regions important for behavioral regulation, including orbitofrontal, anterior mid-cingulate, and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices. Thus, pain-related learning involves distinct neural circuitry, with implications for behavior and pain dynamics. PMID:25282614

  13. Representation of aversive prediction errors in the human periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Roy, Mathieu; Shohamy, Daphna; Daw, Nathaniel; Jepma, Marieke; Wimmer, G Elliott; Wager, Tor D

    2014-11-01

    Pain is a primary driver of learning and motivated action. It is also a target of learning, as nociceptive brain responses are shaped by learning processes. We combined an instrumental pain avoidance task with an axiomatic approach to assessing fMRI signals related to prediction errors (PEs), which drive reinforcement-based learning. We found that pain PEs were encoded in the periaqueductal gray (PAG), a structure important for pain control and learning in animal models. Axiomatic tests combined with dynamic causal modeling suggested that ventromedial prefrontal cortex, supported by putamen, provides an expected value-related input to the PAG, which then conveys PE signals to prefrontal regions important for behavioral regulation, including orbitofrontal, anterior mid-cingulate and dorsomedial prefrontal cortices. Thus, pain-related learning involves distinct neural circuitry, with implications for behavior and pain dynamics. PMID:25282614

  14. The correlation between emotional intelligence and gray matter volume in university students.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yafei; Zhang, Qinglin; Li, Wenfu; Wei, Dongtao; Qiao, Lei; Qiu, Jiang; Hitchman, Glenn; Liu, Yijun

    2014-11-01

    A number of recent studies have investigated the neurological substrates of emotional intelligence (EI), but none of them have considered the neural correlates of EI that are measured using the Schutte Self-Report Emotional Intelligence Scale (SSREIS). This scale was developed based on the EI model of Salovey and Mayer (1990). In the present study, SSREIS was adopted to estimate EI. Meanwhile, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) were used to evaluate the gray matter volume (GMV) of 328 university students. Results found positive correlations between Monitor of Emotions and VBM measurements in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex. In addition, Utilization of Emotions was positively correlated with the GMV in the parahippocampal gyrus, but was negatively correlated with the VBM measurements in the fusiform gyrus and middle temporal gyrus. Furthermore, Social Ability had volume correlates in the vermis. These findings indicate that the neural correlates of the EI model, which primarily focuses on the abilities of individuals to appraise and express emotions, can also regulate and utilize emotions to solve problems. PMID:25282329

  15. The organization of defensive behavior elicited by optogenetic excitation of rat lateral or ventrolateral periaqueductal gray.

    PubMed

    Assareh, Neda; Sarrami, Mahsa; Carrive, Pascal; McNally, Gavan P

    2016-08-01

    Rodents display characteristic defense responses to predators that are influenced by predatory imminence. The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) serves an important role controlling these responses. The most influential model states that variations in defensive topography are due to distinct PAG regions: ventrolateral PAG (VLPAG) controls postencounter defense, such as freezing and immobility, whereas lateral PAG (LPAG) controls circa-strike defense, such as escape and flight. Here we used channel rhodopsin (ChR2) stimulation to probe the structure of defensive behavior controlled by LPAG and VLPAG. Suprathreshold LPAG stimulation evoked circa-strike defense that was replaced by freezing at stimulation offset. Suprathreshold VLPAG stimulation evoked postencounter-freezing and immobility-but never circa-strike defense. More interestingly, the topography of defensive behavior evoked from LPAG scaled with variations in 465 nm light power. As light power increased, LPAG animals expressed the full defensive syntax of freezing then activity then flight characteristic of increasing predatory imminence. In contrast, the frequency, not topography, of defensive behavior evoked from VLPAG scaled with variations in light power. These findings suggest that LPAG and VLPAG can control variations in defense with increasing predatory imminence in 2 ways. First, consistent with past models, topographical variation can be assembled from different defensive responses controlled by the LPAG (circa-strike) and VLPAG (postencounter). Second, topographical variation can be assembled from variations in LPAG activity itself. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27243807

  16. Regional Mosaic of Chaos and Gray Band on Europa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This mosaic of part of Jupiter's moon, Europa, shows a region that is characterized by mottled (dark and splotchy) terrain. The images in this mosaic were obtained by Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on NASA's Galileo spacecraft during its eleventh orbit around Jupiter. North is to the top of the image, and the sun illuminates the scene from the right. Prior to obtaining these pictures, the age and origin of mottled terrain were not known. As seen here, the mottled appearance results from areas of the bright, icy crust that have been broken apart (known as 'chaos' terrain), exposing a darker underlying material. This terrain is typified by the area in the upper right-hand part of the image. The mottled terrain represents some of the most recent geologic activity on Europa. Also shown in this image is a smooth, gray band (lower part of image) representing a zone where the Europan crust has been fractured, separated, and filled in with material derived from the interior. The chaos terrain and the gray band show that this satellite has been subjected to intense geological deformation.

    The mosaic, centered at 2.9 degrees south latitude and 234.1 degrees west longitude, covers an area of 365 kilometers by 335 kilometers (225 miles by 210 miles). The smallest distinguishable features in the image are about 460 meters (1500 feet) across. These images were obtained on November 6, 1997, when the Galileo spacecraft was approximately 21,700 kilometers (13,237 miles) from Europa.

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC. JPL is a division of California Institute of Technology.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the World Wide Web, on the Galileo home page at URL http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  17. Aliphatic Hydrocarbons in Surface Sediments of Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rapp, J.B.; Kvenvolden, K.A.; Clifton, H.E.

    1982-01-01

    Willapa Bay and Grays Harbor are two adjacent estuaries along the coast of Washington state. Willapa Bay is a recreational area minimally affected by industry; Grays Harbor, on the other hand, is moderately industrialized. Aliphatic hydrocarbons in surface sediments from these two estuaries reflect the differences in human activities. For example, the mean concentration of aliphatic hydrocarbons for seven stations in Willapa Bay is 1,000 ?g/g (relative to organic carbon) while in Grays Harbor this mean concentration for six stations is 1,900 ?g/g. The difference is attributed mainly to the greater urban and industrial pollution in Grays Harbor. The gas chromatographic records of aliphatic hydrocarbons also reflect the extent of hydrocarbon pollution by the presence of a chromatographically unresolved mixture of hydrocarbons. This kind of mixture is more evident in sediments from Grays Harbor, and in both estuaries it is more concentrated in sediments collected nearest to urban centers.

  18. An assessment of some non-gray global radiation models in enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meulemans, J.

    2016-01-01

    The accuracy of several non-gray global gas/soot radiation models, namely the Wide-Band Correlated-K (WBCK) model, the Spectral Line Weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model with one optimized gray gas (SLW-1), the (non-gray) Weighted-Sum-of-Gray-Gases (WSGG) model with different sets of coefficients (Smith et al., Soufiani and Djavdan, Taylor and Foster) was assessed on several test cases from the literature. Non-isothermal (or isothermal) participating media containing non-homogeneous (or homogeneous) mixtures of water vapor, carbon dioxide and soot in one-dimensional planar enclosures and multi-dimensional rectangular enclosures were investigated. For all the considered test cases, a benchmark solution (LBL or SNB) was used in order to compute the relative error of each model on the predicted radiative source term and the wall net radiative heat flux.

  19. The Weighted Gray Situation Decision-Making Model Based on the Gray Theory of Decision-Making and Its Application -- An Example of Forest Health Park of Hainan Province

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuailin; Bai, Zhiyong

    This paper analyses the complication of influence construction of eco-tourism park decision-making, through study on gray situation theory of decision making establishes an new model of decision-making, -- weighted gray situation decision-making model based on the gray situation theory of decision-making, and on the empirical analysis, it gives a new method of gray situation theory used in decision-making of construction.

  20. Anomalous Gray Matter Structural Networks in Patients with Hepatitis B Virus-Related Cirrhosis without Overt Hepatic Encephalopathy

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Ying-Wei; Cai, Pei-Qiang; Li, Jing; Jiang, Gui-Hua; Deng, Yan-Jia; Zhang, Xue-Lin; Wu, Pei-Hong; Xie, Chuan-Miao; Wen, Ge

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Increasing evidence suggests that cirrhosis may affect the connectivity among different brain regions in patients before overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE) occurs. However, there has been no study investigating the structural reorganization of these altered connections at the network level. The primary focus of this study was to investigate the abnormal topological organization of the structural network in patients with hepatitis B virus-related cirrhosis (HBV-RC) without OHE using structural MRI. Methods Using graph theoretical analysis, we compared the global and regional topological properties of gray matter structural networks between 28 patients with HBV-RC without OHE and 30 age-, sex- and education-matched healthy controls. The structural correlation networks were constructed for the two groups based on measures of gray matter volume. Results The brain network of the HBV-RC group exhibited a significant decrease in the clustering coefficient and reduced small-worldness at the global level across a range of network densities. Regionally, brain areas with altered nodal degree/betweenness centrality were observed predominantly in association cortices (frontal and temporal regions) (p < 0.05, uncorrected), including a significantly decreased nodal degree in the inferior temporal gyrus (p < 0.001, uncorrected). Furthermore, the HBV-RC group exhibited a loss of association hubs and the emergence of an increased number of non-association hubs compared with the healthy controls. Conclusion The results of this large-scale gray matter structural network study suggest reduced topological organization efficiency in patients with HBV-RC without OHE. Our findings provide new insight concerning the mechanisms of neurobiological reorganization in the HBV-RC brain from a network perspective. PMID:25786256

  1. The Contra-Diction of Design: Blake's Illustrations to Gray's "Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lussier, Mark

    1989-01-01

    Argues that William Blake's illustrations for Thomas Gray's "Ode on the Death of a Favourite Cat" testify to the contradictions in Gray's poetry. States that Blake's designs offer another language, a contra-diction, that deconstructs Gray's conscious discourse and liberates his unconscious discourse. (RS)

  2. Demonstrating Pathogenicity of Enterobacter cloacae on Macadamia and Identifying Associated Volatiles of Gray Kernel of Macadamia in Hawaii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gray kernel is an important disease of macadamia that affects the quality of kernels, causing gray discoloration and a permeating, foul odor. Gray kernel symptoms were produced in raw, in-shell kernels of three cultivars of macadamia that were inoculated with strains of Enterobacter cloacae. Koch’...

  3. AD-1 with research pilot Richard E. Gray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Standing in front of the AD-1 Oblique Wing research aircraft is research pilot Richard E. Gray. Richard E. Gray joined National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, in November 1978, as an aerospace research pilot. In November 1981, Dick joined the NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, as a research pilot. Dick was a former Co-op at the NASA Flight Research Center (a previous name of the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility), serving as an Operations Engineer. At Ames-Dryden, Dick was a pilot for the F-14 Aileron Rudder Interconnect Program, AD-1 Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and Pilot Induced Oscillations investigations. He also flew the F-104, T-37, and the F-15. On November 8, 1982, Gray was fatally injured in a T-37 jet aircraft while making a pilot proficiency flight. Dick graduated with a Bachelors degree in Aeronautical Engineering from San Jose State University in 1969. He joined the U.S. Navy in July 1969, becoming a Naval Aviator in January 1971, when he was assigned to F-4 Phantoms at Naval Air Station (NAS) Miramar, California. In 1972, he flew 48 combat missions in Vietnam in F-4s with VF-111 aboard the USS Coral Sea. After making a second cruise in 1973, Dick was assigned to Air Test and Evaluation Squadron Four (VX-4) at NAS Point Mugu, California, as a project pilot on various operational test and evaluation programs. In November 1978, Dick retired from the Navy and joined NASA's Johnson Space Center. At JSC Gray served as chief project pilot on the WB-57F high-altitude research projects and as the prime television chase pilot in a T-38 for the landing portion of the Space Shuttle orbital flight tests. Dick had over 3,000 hours in more than 30 types of aircraft, an airline transport rating, and 252 carrier arrested landings. He was a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots serving on the Board of Directors as Southwest Section Technical Adviser in

  4. AD-1 with research pilot Richard E. Gray

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Standing in front of the AD-1 Oblique Wing research aircraft is research pilot Richard E. Gray. Richard E. Gray joined National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, in November 1978, as an aerospace research pilot. In November 1981, Dick joined the NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, as a research pilot. Dick was a former Co-op at the NASA Flight Research Center (a previous name of the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility), serving as an Operations Engineer. At Ames-Dryden, Dick was a pilot for the F-14 Aileron Rudder Interconnect Program, AD-1 Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and Pilot Induced Oscillations investigations. He also flew the F-104, T-37, and the F-15. On November 8, 1982, Gray was fatally injured in a T-37 jet aircraft while making a pilot proficiency flight. Dick graduated with a Bachelors degree in Aeronautical Engineering from San Jose State University in 1969. He joined the U.S. Navy in July 1969, becoming a Naval Aviator in January 1971, when he was assigned to F-4 Phantoms at Naval Air Station (NAS) Miramar, California. In 1972, he flew 48 combat missions in Vietnam in F-4s with VF-111 aboard the USS Coral Sea. After making a second cruise in 1973, Dick was assigned to Air Test and Evaluation Squadron Four (VX-4) at NAS Point Mugu, California, as a project pilot on various operational test and evaluation programs. In November 1978, Dick retired from the Navy and joined NASA's Johnson Space Center. At JSC Gray served as chief project pilot on the WB-57F high-altitude research projects and as the prime television chase pilot in a T-38 for the landing portion of the Space Shuttle orbital flight tests. Dick had over 3,000 hours in more than 30 types of aircraft, an airline transport rating, and 252 carrier arrested landings. He was a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots serving on the Board of Directors as Southwest Section Technical Adviser in

  5. Internal cave gating for protection of colonies of the endangered gray bat (Myotis grisescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, K.W.; Leslie, David M., Jr.; Payton, M.E.; Puckette, William L.; Hensley, S.L.

    2003-01-01

    Persistent human disturbance is a major cause for the decline in populations of many cave-dwelling bats and other sensitive cave-obligate organisms. Cave gating has been used to climinate human disturbance, but few studies have assessed directly the impact of such management activities on resident bats. In northeastern Oklahoma, USA, 25 entrances of caves inhabited by two endangered species and one endangered subspecies of bats are protected from human entry with internal gates. Because cave gates may impede ingress and egress of bats at caves, we evaluated the impacts of internal gates before and after their construction at six colonies of endangered gray bats (Myotis grisescens) from 1981 to 2001. No caves were abandoned by gray bats after the construction of internal gates; in fact, total numbers of gray bats using the six caves increased from 60,130 in 1981 to 70,640 in 2001. Two caves harbored more gray bats after gating, and three caves had no change in gray bat numbers after gating. We also compared initiations of emergences at three gated and three open-passage caves in June and July 1999-2000. No differences in timing of initiation of emergence were found between colonies in gated versus open-passage caves. Our results support the use of internal gates to protect and thereby enhance recovery of colonies of endangered gray bats. Additional research is encouraged to confirm that our observations on gray bats are generally applicable to other species of cave-dwelling bats.

  6. Gray Matter Features of Reading Disability: A Combined Meta-Analytic and Direct Analysis Approach1234

    PubMed Central

    Berninger, Virginia W.; Gebregziabher, Mulugeta; Tsu, Loretta

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry dyslexia studies and direct analysis of 293 reading disability and control cases from six different research sites were performed to characterize defining gray matter features of reading disability. These analyses demonstrated consistently lower gray matter volume in left posterior superior temporal sulcus/middle temporal gyrus regions and left orbitofrontal gyrus/pars orbitalis regions. Gray matter volume within both of these regions significantly predicted individual variation in reading comprehension after correcting for multiple comparisons. These regional gray matter differences were observed across published studies and in the multisite dataset after controlling for potential age and gender effects, and despite increased anatomical variance in the reading disability group, but were not significant after controlling for total gray matter volume. Thus, the orbitofrontal and posterior superior temporal sulcus gray matter findings are relatively reliable effects that appear to be dependent on cases with low total gray matter volume. The results are considered in the context of genetics studies linking orbitofrontal and superior temporal sulcus regions to alleles that confer risk for reading disability. PMID:26835509

  7. MR volume segmentation of gray matter and white matter using manual thresholding: Dependence on image brightness

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, G.J.; Barta, P.E.; Peng, L.W.; Lee, S.; Brettschneider, P.D.; Shah, A.; Henderer, J.D.; Schlaepfer, T.E.; Pearlson, G.D. Tufts Univ. School of Medicine, Boston, MA )

    1994-02-01

    To describe a quantitative MR imaging segmentation method for determination of the volume of cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter, and white matter in living human brain, and to determine the method's reliability. We developed a computer method that allows rapid, user-friendly determination of cerebrospinal fluid, gray matter, and white matter volumes in a reliable manner, both globally and regionally. This method was applied to a large control population (N = 57). Initially, image brightness had a strong correlation with the gray-white ratio (r = .78). Bright images tended to overestimate, dim images to underestimate gray matter volumes. This artifact was corrected for by offsetting each image to an approximately equal brightness. After brightness correction, gray-white ratio was correlated with age (r = -.35). The age-dependent gray-white ratio was similar to that for the same age range in a prior neuropathology report. Interrater reliability was high (.93 intraclass correlation coefficient). The method described here for gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid volume calculation is reliable and valid. A correction method for an artifact related to image brightness was developed. 12 refs., 3 figs.

  8. Examining the effect of psychopathic traits on gray matter volume in a community substance abuse sample

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Lora M.; Shane, Matthew S.; Segall, Judith M.; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K.; Stevens, Michael C.; Pearlson, Godfrey D.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    Psychopathy is believed to be associated with brain abnormalities in both paralimbic (i.e., orbitofrontal cortex, insula, temporal pole, parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate) and limbic (i.e., amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate) regions. Recent structural imaging studies in both community and prison samples are beginning to support this view. Sixty six participants, recruited from community corrections centers, were administered the Hare Psychopathy Checklist Revised (PCL R), and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel based morphometry was used to test the hypothesis that psychopathic traits would be associated with gray matter reductions in limbic and paralimbic regions. Effects of lifetime drug and alcohol use on gray matter volume were covaried. Psychopathic traits were negatively associated with gray matter volumes in right insula and right hippocampus. Additionally, psychopathic traits were positively associated with gray matter volumes in bilateral orbital frontal cortex and right anterior cingulate. Exploratory regression analyses indicated that gray matter volumes within right hippocampus and left orbital frontal cortex combined to explain 21.8% of the variance in psychopathy scores. These results support the notion that psychopathic traits are associated with abnormal limbic and paralimbic gray matter volume. Furthermore, gray matter increases in areas shown to be functionally impaired suggests that the structure function relationship may be more nuanced than previously thought. PMID:23217577

  9. Aerobic Fitness is Associated with Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Snook, Erin M.; Motl, Robert W.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2009-01-01

    Alterations in gray and white matter have been well documented in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Severity and extent of such brain tissue damage have been associated with cognitive impairment, disease duration and neurological disability, making quantitative indices of tissue damage important markers of disease progression. In this study, we investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of gray matter atrophy and white matter integrity. Employing a voxel-based approach to analyses of gray matter and white matter, we specifically examined whether higher levels of fitness in multiple sclerosis participants were associated with preserved gray matter volume and integrity of white matter. We found a positive association between cardiorespiratory fitness and regional gray matter volumes and higher focal fractional anisotropy values. Statistical mapping revealed that higher levels of fitness were associated with greater gray matter volume in the midline cortical structures including the medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus. Further, we also found increasing levels of fitness were associated with higher fractional anisotropy in the left thalamic radiation and right anterior corona radiata. Both preserved gray matter volume and white-matter tract integrity were associated with better performance on measures of processing speed. Taken together, these results suggest that fitness exerts a prophylactic influence on the cerebral atrophy observed early on preserving neuronal integrity in multiple sclerosis, thereby reducing long-term disability. PMID:19560443

  10. Sex differences in orbitofrontal gray as a partial explanation for sex differences in antisocial personality.

    PubMed

    Raine, A; Yang, Y; Narr, K L; Toga, A W

    2011-02-01

    Attention is increasingly being given to understanding sex difference in psychopathology to better understand the etiology of disorders. This study tests the hypothesis that sex differences in ventral and middle frontal gray volume contribute to sex differences in antisocial personality disorder (APD) and crime. Participants were recruited from temporary employment agencies, consisting of normal controls, substance/alcohol-dependent controls, axis I/II psychiatric controls and individuals with APD. An independent sample of female volunteers was also recruited. Magnetic resonance imaging volumes of superior frontal, middle frontal, inferior frontal, orbital frontal and rectal gyral frontal gray matter, and dimensional scores of APD and criminal behavior were assessed. APD males when compared with male controls showed an 8.7% reduction in orbitofrontal gray volume, a 17.3% reduction in middle frontal gray and a 16.1% reduction in right rectal gray. Reduced middle and orbitofrontal volumes were significantly associated with increased APD symptoms and criminal offending in both males and females. Males as a whole had reduced orbitofrontal and middle frontal gray volume when compared with females, and controlling for these brain differences reduced the gender difference in the antisocial personality/behavior by 77.3%. Findings were not a function of psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial risk factors, head injury or trauma exposure. Findings implicate structural differences in the ventral and middle frontal gray as both a risk factor for APD and as a partial explanation for sex differences in APD. PMID:20029391

  11. Aerobic fitness is associated with gray matter volume and white matter integrity in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Ruchika Shaurya; Snook, Erin M; Motl, Robert W; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-06-23

    Alterations in gray and white matter have been well documented in individuals with multiple sclerosis. Severity and extent of such brain tissue damage have been associated with cognitive impairment, disease duration and neurological disability, making quantitative indices of tissue damage important markers of disease progression. In this study, we investigated the association between cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of gray matter atrophy and white matter integrity. Employing voxel-based approaches to analysis of gray matter and white matter, we specifically examined whether higher levels of fitness in multiple sclerosis participants were associated with preserved gray matter volume and integrity of white matter. We found a positive association between cardiorespiratory fitness and regional gray matter volumes and higher focal fractional anisotropy values. Statistical mapping revealed that higher levels of fitness were associated with greater gray matter volume in the midline cortical structures including the medial frontal gyrus, anterior cingulate cortex and the precuneus. Further, we also found that increasing levels of fitness were associated with higher fractional anisotropy in the left thalamic radiation and right anterior corona radiata. Both preserved gray matter volume and white matter tract integrity were associated with better performance on measures of processing speed. Taken together, these results suggest that fitness exerts a prophylactic influence on the structural decline observed early on, preserving neuronal integrity in multiple sclerosis, thereby reducing long-term disability. PMID:19560443

  12. A pilot study of gray matter volume changes associated with paroxetine treatment and response in social anxiety disorder.

    PubMed

    Talati, Ardesheer; Pantazatos, Spiro P; Hirsch, Joy; Schneier, Franklin

    2015-03-30

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) has received relatively little attention in neurobiological studies. We sought to identify neuro-anatomical changes associated with successful treatment for the disorder. Fourteen patients (31 years; 57% female) with DSM-IV generalized SAD were imaged before and after 8-weeks of paroxetine treatment on a 1.5 T GE Signa MRI scanner. Symptoms were assessed by a clinician using the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale (LSAS). Longitudinal changes in voxel based morphometry (VBM) were determined using the VBM8 Toolbox for SPM8. Symptom severity decreased by 46% following treatment (p<0.001). At week 8, significant gray matter reductions were detected in bilateral caudate and putamen, and right thalamus, and increases in the cerebellum. Gray matter decreases in left thalamus were correlated with clinical response. This is the first study to our knowledge to identify treatment related correlates of symptom improvement for SAD. Replication in larger samples with control groups is needed to confirm these findings, as well as to test their specificity and temporal stability. PMID:25659476

  13. Brain Gray Matter Abnormalities in First-Episode, Treatment-Naive Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Bochao; Cai, Wu; Wang, Xiuli; Lei, Du; Guo, Yingkun; Yang, Xun; Wu, Qizhu; Gong, Jianping; Gong, Qiyong; Ning, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Although several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have been conducted in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the brain structural abnormalities in OCD, especially in children, are not yet well characterized. We aimed to identify gray matter (GM) abnormalities in the early stage of pediatric OCD and examine the relationship between these structural abnormalities with clinical characteristics. Examinations of 30 first-episode, treatment-naive pediatric OCD patients without any comorbidities and 30 matched healthy controls (HCs) were performed with 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to conduct voxel-wise tests for group differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV). Compared to HCs, the patient group exhibited more GMV in the bilateral putamen and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and less GMV in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The GMV alternation in the right putamen of OCD patients was positively correlated with Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) scores, while the GMV alternation in the left IPL exhibited a trend to negatively correlate with HAM-A scores. Our current results suggest that the GM abnormalities were defined in the early stage of pediatric OCD. Moreover, these findings provided further evidence of brain GM abnormalities that are not only present in the classical fronto–striatal–thalamic circuit but also in the default mode network (DMN), which may represent the interaction of abnormally functional organization of both network in pediatric OCD. PMID:27445736

  14. Brain Gray Matter Abnormalities in First-Episode, Treatment-Naive Children with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Bochao; Cai, Wu; Wang, Xiuli; Lei, Du; Guo, Yingkun; Yang, Xun; Wu, Qizhu; Gong, Jianping; Gong, Qiyong; Ning, Gang

    2016-01-01

    Although several magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have been conducted in children with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), the brain structural abnormalities in OCD, especially in children, are not yet well characterized. We aimed to identify gray matter (GM) abnormalities in the early stage of pediatric OCD and examine the relationship between these structural abnormalities with clinical characteristics. Examinations of 30 first-episode, treatment-naive pediatric OCD patients without any comorbidities and 30 matched healthy controls (HCs) were performed with 3.0 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration using Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to conduct voxel-wise tests for group differences in regional gray matter volume (GMV). Compared to HCs, the patient group exhibited more GMV in the bilateral putamen and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and less GMV in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL). The GMV alternation in the right putamen of OCD patients was positively correlated with Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) scores, while the GMV alternation in the left IPL exhibited a trend to negatively correlate with HAM-A scores. Our current results suggest that the GM abnormalities were defined in the early stage of pediatric OCD. Moreover, these findings provided further evidence of brain GM abnormalities that are not only present in the classical fronto-striatal-thalamic circuit but also in the default mode network (DMN), which may represent the interaction of abnormally functional organization of both network in pediatric OCD. PMID:27445736

  15. Temporal and Vertical Distributions of Bacterioplankton at the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xinxin; Sun, Shulei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Hollibaugh, James T.

    2014-01-01

    Large spatial scales and long-term shifts of bacterial community composition (BCC) in the open ocean can often be reliably predicted based on the dynamics of physical-chemical variables. The power of abiotic factors in shaping BCC on shorter time scales in shallow estuarine mixing zones is less clear. We examined the diurnal variation in BCC at different water depths in the spring and fall of 2011 at a station in the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (GRNMS). This site is located in the transition zone between the estuarine plume and continental shelf waters of the South Atlantic Bight. A total of 234,516 pyrotag sequences of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were recovered; they were taxonomically affiliated with >200 families of 23 bacterial phyla. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis revealed significant differences in BCC between spring and fall samples, likely due to seasonality in the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and nitrate plus nitrite. Within each diurnal sampling, BCC differed significantly by depth only in the spring and differed significantly between day and night only in the fall. The former variation largely tracked changes in light availability, while the latter was most correlated with concentrations of polyamines and chlorophyll a. Our results suggest that at the GRNMS, a coastal mixing zone, diurnal variation in BCC is attributable to the mixing of local and imported bacterioplankton rather than to bacterial growth in response to environmental changes. Our results also indicate that, like members of the Roseobacter clade, SAR11 bacteria may play an important role in processing dissolved organic material in coastal oceans. PMID:25416764

  16. Temporal and vertical distributions of bacterioplankton at the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxin; Sun, Shulei; Zhang, Yu-Qin; Hollibaugh, James T; Mou, Xiaozhen

    2015-02-01

    Large spatial scales and long-term shifts of bacterial community composition (BCC) in the open ocean can often be reliably predicted based on the dynamics of physical-chemical variables. The power of abiotic factors in shaping BCC on shorter time scales in shallow estuarine mixing zones is less clear. We examined the diurnal variation in BCC at different water depths in the spring and fall of 2011 at a station in the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (GRNMS). This site is located in the transition zone between the estuarine plume and continental shelf waters of the South Atlantic Bight. A total of 234,516 pyrotag sequences of bacterial 16S rRNA genes were recovered; they were taxonomically affiliated with >200 families of 23 bacterial phyla. Nonmetric multidimensional scaling analysis revealed significant differences in BCC between spring and fall samples, likely due to seasonality in the concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and nitrate plus nitrite. Within each diurnal sampling, BCC differed significantly by depth only in the spring and differed significantly between day and night only in the fall. The former variation largely tracked changes in light availability, while the latter was most correlated with concentrations of polyamines and chlorophyll a. Our results suggest that at the GRNMS, a coastal mixing zone, diurnal variation in BCC is attributable to the mixing of local and imported bacterioplankton rather than to bacterial growth in response to environmental changes. Our results also indicate that, like members of the Roseobacter clade, SAR11 bacteria may play an important role in processing dissolved organic material in coastal oceans. PMID:25416764

  17. Spatial and temporal variability of clouds and precipitation over Germany: multiscale simulations across the "gray zone"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barthlott, C.; Hoose, C.

    2015-11-01

    This paper assesses the resolution dependance of clouds and precipitation over Germany by numerical simulations with the COnsortium for Small-scale MOdeling (COSMO) model. Six intensive observation periods of the HOPE (HD(CP)2 Observational Prototype Experiment) measurement campaign conducted in spring 2013 and 1 summer day of the same year are simulated. By means of a series of grid-refinement resolution tests (horizontal grid spacing 2.8, 1 km, 500, and 250 m), the applicability of the COSMO model to represent real weather events in the gray zone, i.e., the scale ranging between the mesoscale limit (no turbulence resolved) and the large-eddy simulation limit (energy-containing turbulence resolved), is tested. To the authors' knowledge, this paper presents the first non-idealized COSMO simulations in the peer-reviewed literature at the 250-500 m scale. It is found that the kinetic energy spectra derived from model output show the expected -5/3 slope, as well as a dependency on model resolution, and that the effective resolution lies between 6 and 7 times the nominal resolution. Although the representation of a number of processes is enhanced with resolution (e.g., boundary-layer thermals, low-level convergence zones, gravity waves), their influence on the temporal evolution of precipitation is rather weak. However, rain intensities vary with resolution, leading to differences in the total rain amount of up to +48 %. Furthermore, the location of rain is similar for the springtime cases with moderate and strong synoptic forcing, whereas significant differences are obtained for the summertime case with air mass convection. Domain-averaged liquid water paths and cloud condensate profiles are used to analyze the temporal and spatial variability of the simulated clouds. Finally, probability density functions of convection-related parameters are analyzed to investigate their dependance on model resolution and their impact on cloud formation and subsequent precipitation.

  18. From d-tubocurarine to sugammadex: the contributions of T. Cecil Gray to modern anaesthetic practice.

    PubMed

    Shafer, S L

    2011-07-01

    One hundred years after Morton's demonstration of the anaesthetic effects of ether, T. Cecil Gray revolutionized anaesthesia with his introduction of balanced general anaesthesia. Gray's technique involved i.v. induction, administration of a neuromuscular blocking agent (curare), tracheal intubation, controlled ventilation, maintenance of unconsciousness with a light inhaled anaesthetic (supplemented with opioids if necessary), and reversal of neuromuscular blocking agent at the conclusion of the anaesthetic. In the 65 yr since his seminal papers, our drugs have changed, and i.v. anaesthetics suitable for maintenance of anaesthesia have been introduced, but the basic principles of general anaesthesia today are those set forward by Gray 65 yr ago. PMID:21613280

  19. Uncertainty analysis of diffuse-gray radiation enclosure problems: A hypersensitive case study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Robert P.; Luck, Rogelio; Hodge, B. K.; Steele, W. Glenn

    1993-01-01

    An uncertainty analysis of diffuse-gray enclosure problems is presented. The genesis was a diffuse-gray enclosure problem which proved to be hypersensitive to the specification of view factors. This genesis is discussed in some detail. The uncertainty analysis is presented for the general diffuse-gray enclosure problem and applied to the hypersensitive case study. It was found that the hypersensitivity could be greatly reduced by enforcing both closure and reciprocity for the view factors. The effects of uncertainties in the surface emissivities and temperatures are also investigated.

  20. Interindividual differences in cognitive flexibility: influence of gray matter volume, functional connectivity and trait impulsivity

    PubMed Central

    Langner, Robert; Cieslik, Edna C.; Rottschy, Claudia; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility, a core aspect of executive functioning, is required for the speeded shifting between different tasks and sets. Using an interindividual differences approach, we examined whether cognitive flexibility, as assessed by the Delis–Kaplan card-sorting test, is associated with gray matter volume (GMV) and functional connectivity (FC) of regions of a core network of multiple cognitive demands as well as with different facets of trait impulsivity. The core multiple-demand network was derived from three large-scale neuroimaging meta-analyses and only included regions that showed consistent associations with sustained attention, working memory as well as inhibitory control. We tested to what extent self-reported impulsivity as well as GMV and resting-state FC in this core network predicted cognitive flexibility independently and incrementally. Our analyses revealed that card-sorting performance correlated positively with GMV of the right anterior insula, FC between bilateral anterior insula and midcingulate cortex/supplementary motor area as well as the impulsivity dimension “Premeditation.” Importantly, GMV, FC and impulsivity together accounted for more variance of card-sorting performance than every parameter alone. Our results therefore indicate that various factors contribute individually to cognitive flexibility, underlining the need to search across multiple modalities when aiming to unveil the mechanisms behind executive functioning. PMID:24878823

  1. Altered Gray Matter Structural Covariance Networks in Early Stages of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Montembeault, Maxime; Rouleau, Isabelle; Provost, Jean-Sébastien; Brambati, Simona Maria

    2016-06-01

    Clinical symptoms observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients may reflect variations within specific large-scale brain networks, modeling AD as a disconnection syndrome. The present magnetic resonance imaging study aims to compare the organization of gray matter structural covariance networks between 109 cognitively unimpaired controls (CTRL) and 109 AD patients positive to beta-amyloid at the early stages of the disease, using voxel-based morphometry. The default-mode network (DMN; medial temporal lobe subsystem) was less extended in AD patients in comparison with CTRL, with a significant decrease in the structural association between the entorhinal cortex and the medial prefrontal and the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices. The DMN (midline core subsystem) was also less extended in AD patients. Trends toward increased structural association were observed in the salience and executive control networks. The observed changes suggest that early disruptions in structural association between heteromodal association cortices and the entorhinal cortex could contribute to an isolation of the hippocampal formation, potentially giving rise to the clinical hallmark of AD, progressive memory impairment. It also provides critical support to the hypothesis that the reduced connectivity within the DMN in early AD is accompanied by an enhancement of connectivity in the salience and executive control networks. PMID:25994962

  2. Cognitive impairment and gray matter volume abnormalities in silent cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Zhang, Lan; Xiang, Mingqing; Luo, Wei; Huang, Jinbai; Li, Maokun; Xiong, Xunbo; Wang, Hua

    2015-10-21

    To investigate the association between cognitive impairment and gray matter volume (GMV) abnormalities in silent cerebral infarction (SCI) patients, the GMV of 62 pairs of patients and well-matched healthy controls was calculated. All participants underwent a P300 test, a Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) test. Compared with controls, the patients showed decreased GMV in the left superior frontal gyrus, left inferior frontal gyrus, left superior temporal gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus, and bilateral parahippocampal gyrus; no significantly increasing GMV was found. The volumes of the frontal and temporal lobes were positively correlated with the score of the MoCA scale and P300 amplitudes (r≥0.62, P<0.01). The P300 latency was negatively correlated with the volumes of the frontal lobe, the temporal lobe, and the hippocampus (r≤-0.71, P<0.05). No significant correlations between the GMV of the abnormal brain regions and four clinical characteristics in SCI patients were found, suggesting that cognitive deficiency existed in SCI patients and the reduced GMV might contribute to the pathology of cognitive deficiency in SCI patients. PMID:26313037

  3. Estimating occupancy and predicting numbers of gray wolf packs in Montana using hunter surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rich, Lindsey N.; Russell, Robin E.; Glenn, Elizabeth M.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Gude, Justin A.; Podruzny, Kevin M.; Sime, Carolyn A.; Laudon, Kent; Ausband, David E.; Nichols, James D.

    2013-01-01

    Reliable knowledge of the status and trend of carnivore populations is critical to their conservation and management. Methods for monitoring carnivores, however, are challenging to conduct across large spatial scales. In the Northern Rocky Mountains, wildlife managers need a time- and cost-efficient method for monitoring gray wolf (Canis lupus) populations. Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) conducts annual telephone surveys of >50,000 deer and elk hunters. We explored how survey data on hunters' sightings of wolves could be used to estimate the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs and predict their abundance in Montana for 2007–2009. We assessed model utility by comparing our predictions to MFWP minimum known number of wolf packs. We minimized false positive detections by identifying a patch as occupied if 2–25 wolves were detected by ≥3 hunters. Overall, estimates of the occupancy and distribution of wolf packs were generally consistent with known distributions. Our predictions of the total area occupied increased from 2007 to 2009 and predicted numbers of wolf packs were approximately 1.34–1.46 times the MFWP minimum counts for each year of the survey. Our results indicate that multi-season occupancy models based on public sightings can be used to monitor populations and changes in the spatial distribution of territorial carnivores across large areas where alternative methods may be limited by personnel, time, accessibility, and budget constraints.

  4. A Voxel Based Morphometry Study of Brain Gray Matter Volumes in Juvenile Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Jayarajan, Rajan Nishanth; Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Viswanath, Biju; Kalmady, Sunil V.; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Srinath, Shoba; Chandrashekar, C.R.; Janardhan Reddy, Y.C.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Adult patients with Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) have been shown to have gray matter (GM) volume differences from healthy controls in multiple regions – the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), medial frontal gyri (MFG), striatum, thalamus, and superior parietal lobule. However, there is paucity of data with regard to juvenile OCD. Hence, we examined GM volume differences between juvenile OCD patients and matched healthy controls using voxel based morphometry (VBM) with the above apriori regions of interest. Method: Fifteen right handed juvenile patients with OCD and age- sex- handedness- matched healthy controls were recruited after administering the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview-KID and the Children’s Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale, and scanned using a 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner. VBM methodology was followed. Results: In comparison with healthy controls, patients had significantly smaller GM volumes in left ACC. YBOCS total score (current) showed significant negative correlation with GM volumes in bilateral OFC, and left superior parietal lobule. Conclusion: These findings while reiterating the important role of the orbito-fronto-striatal circuitry, also implicate in the parietal lobe – especially the superior parietal lobule as an important structure involved in the pathogenesis of OCD. PMID:26379719

  5. Worldwide patterns of genomic variation and admixture in gray wolves.

    PubMed

    Fan, Zhenxin; Silva, Pedro; Gronau, Ilan; Wang, Shuoguo; Armero, Aitor Serres; Schweizer, Rena M; Ramirez, Oscar; Pollinger, John; Galaverni, Marco; Ortega Del-Vecchyo, Diego; Du, Lianming; Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Zhihe; Xing, Jinchuan; Vilà, Carles; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Godinho, Raquel; Yue, Bisong; Wayne, Robert K

    2016-02-01

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a widely distributed top predator and ancestor of the domestic dog. To address questions about wolf relationships to each other and dogs, we assembled and analyzed a data set of 34 canine genomes. The divergence between New and Old World wolves is the earliest branching event and is followed by the divergence of Old World wolves and dogs, confirming that the dog was domesticated in the Old World. However, no single wolf population is more closely related to dogs, supporting the hypothesis that dogs were derived from an extinct wolf population. All extant wolves have a surprisingly recent common ancestry and experienced a dramatic population decline beginning at least ∼30 thousand years ago (kya). We suggest this crisis was related to the colonization of Eurasia by modern human hunter-gatherers, who competed with wolves for limited prey but also domesticated them, leading to a compensatory population expansion of dogs. We found extensive admixture between dogs and wolves, with up to 25% of Eurasian wolf genomes showing signs of dog ancestry. Dogs have influenced the recent history of wolves through admixture and vice versa, potentially enhancing adaptation. Simple scenarios of dog domestication are confounded by admixture, and studies that do not take admixture into account with specific demographic models are problematic. PMID:26680994

  6. Gray and white matter structural changes in corticobasal syndrome.

    PubMed

    Upadhyay, Neeraj; Suppa, Antonio; Piattella, Maria Cristina; Di Stasio, Flavio; Petsas, Nikolaos; Colonnese, Claudio; Colosimo, Carlo; Berardelli, Alfredo; Pantano, Patrizia

    2016-01-01

    We investigated gray matter and white matter (WM) changes in corticobasal syndrome (CBS). T1-weighted and diffusion tensor images (3T-magnet) were obtained in 11 patients and 11 healthy subjects (HS). Magnetic resonance imaging data were analyzed using FreeSurfer and Tracts Constrained by Underlying Anatomy to evaluate cortical thickness (CTh), surface area, and subcortical volumes as well as diffusion tensor image parameters along the major WM tracts. Compared with HS, the whole patient group showed decreased CTh in the prefrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, supplementary motor area, insula, and temporal pole bilaterally. When we divided patients into 2 subgroups (left: L-CBS, right: R-CBS) on the basis of the clinically more affected upper limb, the most prominent decrease in CTh occurred in the hemisphere contralateral to the more affected side. The whole patient group also had volume loss in the putamen, hippocampus, and accumbens bilaterally, in the corpus callosum and right amygdala. Finally, we found diffusion changes in several WM tracts with axial diffusivity being altered more than radial diffusivity. The upper limb motor severity negatively correlated with the contralateral CTh in the precentral and/or postcentral gyri and contralateral volumes of putamen and accumbens. The CTh asymmetry in postcentral and/or paracentral gyri also negatively correlated with disease duration. Cortical thinning, volume loss, and fiber tract degeneration in specific brain regions are important pathophysiological abnormalities in CBS. PMID:26545629

  7. Optional strategies for reduced metabolism in gray mouse lemurs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, J.; Ganzhorn, J. U.

    2009-06-01

    Among the order of primates, torpor has been described only for the small Malagasy cheirogaleids Microcebus and Cheirogaleus. The nocturnal, gray mouse lemur, Microcebus murinus (approx. 60 g), is capable of entering into and spontaneously arousing from apparently daily torpor during the dry season in response to reduced temperatures and low food and water sources. Mark-recapture studies indicated that this primate species might also hibernate for several weeks, although physiological evidence is lacking. In the present study, we investigated patterns of body temperature in two free-ranging M. murinus during the austral winter using temperature-sensitive data loggers implanted subdermally. One lemur hibernated and remained inactive for 4 weeks. During this time, body temperature followed the ambient temperature passively with a minimum body temperature of 11.5°C, interrupted by irregular arousals to normothermic levels. Under the same conditions, the second individual displayed only short bouts of torpor in the early morning hours but maintained stable normothermic body temperatures throughout its nocturnal activity. Reduction of body temperature was less pronounced in the mouse lemur that utilized short bouts of torpor with a minimum value of 27°C. Despite the small sample size, our findings provide the first physiological confirmation that free-ranging individuals of M. murinus from the humid evergreen littoral rain forest have the option to utilize short torpor bouts or hibernation under the same conditions as two alternative energy-conserving physiological solutions to environmental constraints.

  8. Differences in gray matter structure correlated to nationalism and patriotism

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Nationalism and patriotism both entail positive evaluations of one’s nation. However, the former inherently involves derogation of other nations, whereas the latter is independent of comparisons with other nations. We used voxel-based morphometry and psychological measures and determined nationalism and patriotism’s association with gray matter density (rGMD) and their cognitive nature in healthy individuals (433 men and 344 women; age, 20.7 ± 1.9 years) using whole-brain multiple regression analyses and post hoc analyses. We found higher nationalism associated with greater rGMD in (a) areas of the posterior cingulate cortex and greater rGMD in (b) the orbitofrontal cortex, and smaller rGMD in (c) the right amygdala area. Furthermore, we found higher patriotism associated with smaller rGMD in the (d) rostrolateral prefrontal cortex. Post hoc analyses revealed the mean rGMD of the cluster (a) associated with compassion, that of (b) associated with feeling of superiority, that of (c) associated with suicide ideation, and that of (d) associated with quality of life. These results indicate that individual nationalism may be mediated by neurocognitive mechanisms in social-related areas and limbic neural mechanisms, whereas patriotism may be mediated by neurocognitive mechanisms in areas related to well-being. PMID:27418362

  9. Gray matter damage in multiple sclerosis: Impact on clinical symptoms.

    PubMed

    van Munster, Caspar E P; Jonkman, Laura E; Weinstein, Henry C; Uitdehaag, Bernard M J; Geurts, Jeroen J G

    2015-09-10

    Traditionally, multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered to be a disease primarily affecting the white matter (WM). However, the development of some clinical symptoms such as cognitive impairment cannot be fully explained by the severity of WM pathology alone. During the past decades it became clear that gray matter (GM) damage of the brain is also of major importance in patients with MS. Thanks to improved magnetic resonance imaging techniques, the in vivo detection of GM pathology became possible, enabling a better understanding of the manifestation of various clinical symptoms, such as cognitive impairment. Using higher field strengths and specific sequences, detection of cortical lesions was increased. However, despite these improvements, visualization of cortical MS lesions remains difficult (only about 30-50% of histopathologically confirmed lesions can be detected at 7 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)). Furthermore, more research is needed to understand the exact interplay of cortical lesions, GM atrophy and WM pathology in the development of clinical symptoms. In this review, we summarize the historical background that preceded current research and provide an overview of the current knowledge on clinical consequences of GM pathology in MS in terms of disability, cognitive impairment and other clinically important signs such as epileptic seizures. PMID:26164500

  10. Alterations in gray matter volume due to unilateral hearing loss

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingchao; Xu, Pengfei; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhenmin; Zhao, Fu; Gao, Zhixian; Xu, Lei; Luo, Yue-jia; Fan, Jin; Liu, Pinan

    2016-01-01

    Although extensive research on neural plasticity resulting from hearing deprivation has been conducted, the direct influence of compromised audition on the auditory cortex and the potential impact of long durations of incomplete sensory stimulation on the adult cortex are still not fully understood. In this study, using voxel-based morphometry, we evaluated gray matter (GM) volume changes that may be associated with reduced hearing ability and the duration of hearing impairment in 42 unilateral hearing loss (UHL) patients with acoustic neuromas compared to 24 normal controls. We found significant GM volume increases in the somatosensory and motor systems and GM volume decreases in the auditory (i.e., Heschl’s gyrus) and visual systems (i.e., the calcarine cortex) in UHL patients. The GM volume decreases in the primary auditory cortex (i.e., superior temporal gyrus and Heschl’s gyrus) correlated with reduced hearing ability. Meanwhile, the GM volume decreases in structures involving high-level cognitive control functions (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) correlated positively with hearing loss duration. Our findings demonstrated that the severity and duration of UHL may contribute to the dissociated morphology of auditory and high-level neural structures, providing insight into the brain’s plasticity related to chronic, persistent partial sensory loss. PMID:27174521

  11. Hydrogeology of the gray limestone aquifer in southern Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.; Cunningham, Kevin J.

    2000-01-01

    Results from 35 new test coreholes and aquifer-test, water-level, and water-quality data were combined with existing hydrogeologic data to define the extent, thickness, hydraulic properties, and degree of confinement of the gray limestone aquifer in southern Florida. This aquifer, previously known to be present only in southeastern Florida (Miami-Dade, Broward, and Palm Beach Counties) below, and to the west of, the Biscayne aquifer, extends over most of central-south Florida, including eastern and central Collier County and southern Hendry County; it is the same as the lower Tamiami aquifer to the north, and it becomes the water-table aquifer and the upper limestone part of the lower Tamiami aquifer to the west. The aquifer generally is composed of gray, shelly, lightly to moderately cemented limestone with abundant shell fragments or carbonate sand, abundant skeletal moldic porosity, and minor quartz sand. The gray limestone aquifer comprises the Ochopee Limestone of the Tamiami Formation, and, in some areas, the uppermost permeable part of an unnamed formation principally composed of quartz sand. Underlying the unnamed formation is the Peace River Formation of the upper Hawthorn Group, the top of which is the base of the surficial aquifer system. Overlying the aquifer and providing confinement in much of the area is the Pinecrest Sand Member of the Tamiami Formation. The thickness of the aquifer is comparatively uniform, generally ranging from 30 to 100 feet. The unnamed formation part of the aquifer is up to 20 feet thick. The Ochopee Limestone accumulated in a carbonate ramp depositional system and contains a heterozoan carbonate-particle association. The principal rock types of the aquifer are pelecypod lime rudstones and floatstones and permeable quartz sands and sandstones. The pore types are mainly intergrain and separate vug (skeletal-moldic) pore spaces. The rock fabric and associated primary and secondary pore spaces combine to form a dual diffuse

  12. Neuroimaging of the Periaqueductal Gray: State of the Field

    PubMed Central

    Linnman, Clas; Moulton, Eric A.; Barmettler, Gabi; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2011-01-01

    This review and meta-analysis aims at summarizing and integrating the human neuroimaging studies that report periaqueductal gray (PAG) involvement; 250 original manuscripts on human neuroimaging of the PAG were identified. A narrative review and meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimates is included. Behaviors covered include pain and pain modulation, anxiety, bladder and bowel function and autonomic regulation. Methods include structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, functional connectivity measures, diffusion weighted imaging and positron emission tomography. Human neuroimaging studies in healthy and clinical populations largely confirm the animal literature indicating that the PAG is involved in homeostatic regulation of salient functions such as pain, anxiety and autonomic function. Methodological concerns in the current literature, including resolution constraints, imaging artifacts and imprecise neuroanatomical labeling are discussed, and future directions are proposed. A general conclusion is that PAG neuroimaging is a field with enormous potential to translate animal data onto human behaviors, but with some growing pains that can and need to be addressed in order to add to our understanding of the neurobiology of this key region. PMID:22197740

  13. Differences in gray matter structure correlated to nationalism and patriotism.

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Hikaru; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sekiguchi, Atsushi; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nakagawa, Seishu; Miyauchi, Carlos Makoto; Iizuka, Kunio; Yokoyama, Ryoichi; Shinada, Takamitsu; Yamamoto, Yuki; Hanawa, Sugiko; Araki, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Kunitoki, Keiko; Sassa, Yuko; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    Nationalism and patriotism both entail positive evaluations of one's nation. However, the former inherently involves derogation of other nations, whereas the latter is independent of comparisons with other nations. We used voxel-based morphometry and psychological measures and determined nationalism and patriotism's association with gray matter density (rGMD) and their cognitive nature in healthy individuals (433 men and 344 women; age, 20.7 ± 1.9 years) using whole-brain multiple regression analyses and post hoc analyses. We found higher nationalism associated with greater rGMD in (a) areas of the posterior cingulate cortex and greater rGMD in (b) the orbitofrontal cortex, and smaller rGMD in (c) the right amygdala area. Furthermore, we found higher patriotism associated with smaller rGMD in the (d) rostrolateral prefrontal cortex. Post hoc analyses revealed the mean rGMD of the cluster (a) associated with compassion, that of (b) associated with feeling of superiority, that of (c) associated with suicide ideation, and that of (d) associated with quality of life. These results indicate that individual nationalism may be mediated by neurocognitive mechanisms in social-related areas and limbic neural mechanisms, whereas patriotism may be mediated by neurocognitive mechanisms in areas related to well-being. PMID:27418362

  14. Hippocampal gray matter volume in bilateral vestibular failure.

    PubMed

    Göttlich, Martin; Jandl, Nico M; Sprenger, Andreas; Wojak, Jann F; Münte, Thomas F; Krämer, Ulrike M; Helmchen, Christoph

    2016-05-01

    Bilateral vestibular failure (BVF) is a severe chronic disorder of the labyrinth or the eighth cranial nerve characterized by unsteadiness of gait and disabling oscillopsia during head movements. According to animal data, vestibular input to the hippocampus is proposed to contribute to spatial memory and spatial navigation. Except for one seminal study showing the association of impaired spatial navigation and hippocampal atrophy, patient data in BVF are lacking. Therefore, we performed a voxel-wise comparison of the hippocampal gray matter volume (GMV) in a clinically representative sample of 27 patients with incomplete BVF and 29 age- and gender-matched healthy controls to test the hypothesis of hippocampal atrophy in BVF. Although the two groups did not generally differ in their hippocampal GMV, a reduction of GMV in the bilateral hippocampal CA3 region was significantly correlated with increased vestibulopathy-related clinical impairment. We propose that GMV reduction in the hippocampus of BVF patients is related to the severity of vestibular-induced disability which is in line with combined hippocampal atrophy and disorders of spatial navigation in complete vestibular deafferentation due to bilateral nerve section. Clinically, however, the most frequent etiologies of BVF cause incomplete lesions. Accordingly, hippocampus atrophy and deficits in spatial navigation occur possibly less frequently than previously suspected. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1998-2006, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26918638

  15. Worldwide patterns of genomic variation and admixture in gray wolves

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Zhenxin; Silva, Pedro; Gronau, Ilan; Wang, Shuoguo; Armero, Aitor Serres; Schweizer, Rena M.; Ramirez, Oscar; Pollinger, John; Galaverni, Marco; Ortega Del-Vecchyo, Diego; Du, Lianming; Zhang, Wenping; Zhang, Zhihe; Xing, Jinchuan; Vilà, Carles; Marques-Bonet, Tomas; Godinho, Raquel; Yue, Bisong; Wayne, Robert K.

    2016-01-01

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a widely distributed top predator and ancestor of the domestic dog. To address questions about wolf relationships to each other and dogs, we assembled and analyzed a data set of 34 canine genomes. The divergence between New and Old World wolves is the earliest branching event and is followed by the divergence of Old World wolves and dogs, confirming that the dog was domesticated in the Old World. However, no single wolf population is more closely related to dogs, supporting the hypothesis that dogs were derived from an extinct wolf population. All extant wolves have a surprisingly recent common ancestry and experienced a dramatic population decline beginning at least ∼30 thousand years ago (kya). We suggest this crisis was related to the colonization of Eurasia by modern human hunter–gatherers, who competed with wolves for limited prey but also domesticated them, leading to a compensatory population expansion of dogs. We found extensive admixture between dogs and wolves, with up to 25% of Eurasian wolf genomes showing signs of dog ancestry. Dogs have influenced the recent history of wolves through admixture and vice versa, potentially enhancing adaptation. Simple scenarios of dog domestication are confounded by admixture, and studies that do not take admixture into account with specific demographic models are problematic. PMID:26680994

  16. Gray- and white-matter anatomy of absolute pitch possessors.

    PubMed

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Hansen, Mads; Lerch, Jason P; Vuust, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Absolute pitch (AP), the ability to identify a musical pitch without a reference, has been examined behaviorally in numerous studies for more than a century, yet only a few studies have examined the neuroanatomical correlates of AP. Here, we used MRI and diffusion tensor imaging to investigate structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole-brain vertex-wise cortical thickness (CT) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. APs displayed increased CT in a number of areas including the bilateral superior temporal gyrus (STG), the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found higher fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior STG in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a relation between the white-matter results and the CT in the right parahippocampal gyrus. In this study, we present novel findings in AP research that may have implications for the understanding of the neuroanatomical underpinnings of AP ability. PMID:24304583

  17. Alterations in gray matter volume due to unilateral hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingchao; Xu, Pengfei; Li, Peng; Wang, Zhenmin; Zhao, Fu; Gao, Zhixian; Xu, Lei; Luo, Yue-Jia; Fan, Jin; Liu, Pinan

    2016-01-01

    Although extensive research on neural plasticity resulting from hearing deprivation has been conducted, the direct influence of compromised audition on the auditory cortex and the potential impact of long durations of incomplete sensory stimulation on the adult cortex are still not fully understood. In this study, using voxel-based morphometry, we evaluated gray matter (GM) volume changes that may be associated with reduced hearing ability and the duration of hearing impairment in 42 unilateral hearing loss (UHL) patients with acoustic neuromas compared to 24 normal controls. We found significant GM volume increases in the somatosensory and motor systems and GM volume decreases in the auditory (i.e., Heschl's gyrus) and visual systems (i.e., the calcarine cortex) in UHL patients. The GM volume decreases in the primary auditory cortex (i.e., superior temporal gyrus and Heschl's gyrus) correlated with reduced hearing ability. Meanwhile, the GM volume decreases in structures involving high-level cognitive control functions (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex) correlated positively with hearing loss duration. Our findings demonstrated that the severity and duration of UHL may contribute to the dissociated morphology of auditory and high-level neural structures, providing insight into the brain's plasticity related to chronic, persistent partial sensory loss. PMID:27174521

  18. A self-organizing CMAC network with gray credit assignment.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Ming-Feng; Chang, Kuang-Chiung

    2006-06-01

    This paper attempts to incorporate the structure of the cerebellar-model-articulation-controller (CMAC) network into the Kohonen layer of the self-organizing map (SOM) to construct a self-organizing CMAC (SOCMAC) network. The proposed SOCMAC network can perform the function of an SOM and can distribute the learning error into the memory contents of all addressed hypercubes as a CMAC. The learning of the SOCMAC is in an unsupervised manner. The neighborhood region of the SOCMAC is implicit in the structure of a two-dimensional CMAC network and needs not be defined in advance. Based on gray relational analysis, a credit-assignment technique for SOCMAC learning is introduced to hasten the overall learning process. This paper also analyzes the convergence properties of the SOCMAC. It is shown that under the proposed updating rule, both the memory contents and the state outputs of the SOCMAC converge almost surely. The SOCMAC is applied to solve both data-clustering and data-classification problems, and simulation results show that the proposed network achieves better performance than other known SOMs. PMID:16761815

  19. Effects of canine parvovirus on gray wolves in Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term effects of disease on wild animal population demography is not well documented. We studied a gray wolf (Canis lupus) population in a 2,060km2 area of Minnesota for 15 years to determine its response to canine parvovirus (CPV). The CPV had little effect (P gt 0.05) on wolf population size while epizootic during 1979-83. However, after CPV became enzootic, percentage of pups captured during summer-fall 1984-93 and changes in subsequent winter wolf numbers were each inversely related to the serological prevalence of CPV in wolves captured during July-November (r2 = 0.39 and 0.72, P = 0.05 and lt 0.01, respectively). The CPV antibody prevalence in adult wolves increased to 87% in 1993 (r2 = 0.28, P = 0.05). However, because population level remained stable, CPV-induced mortality appeared to compensate for other mortality factors such as starvation. We -predict that the winter wolf population will decline when CPV prevalence in adults consistently exceeds 76%. The CPV may become important in limiting wolf populations.

  20. Neuroimaging of the periaqueductal gray: state of the field.

    PubMed

    Linnman, Clas; Moulton, Eric A; Barmettler, Gabi; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2012-03-01

    This review and meta-analysis aims at summarizing and integrating the human neuroimaging studies that report periaqueductal gray (PAG) involvement; 250 original manuscripts on human neuroimaging of the PAG were identified. A narrative review and meta-analysis using activation likelihood estimates is included. Behaviors covered include pain and pain modulation, anxiety, bladder and bowel function and autonomic regulation. Methods include structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging, functional connectivity measures, diffusion weighted imaging and positron emission tomography. Human neuroimaging studies in healthy and clinical populations largely confirm the animal literature indicating that the PAG is involved in homeostatic regulation of salient functions such as pain, anxiety and autonomic function. Methodological concerns in the current literature, including resolution constraints, imaging artifacts and imprecise neuroanatomical labeling are discussed, and future directions are proposed. A general conclusion is that PAG neuroimaging is a field with enormous potential to translate animal data onto human behaviors, but with some growing pains that can and need to be addressed in order to add to our understanding of the neurobiology of this key region. PMID:22197740

  1. Identification of discrete functional subregions of the human periaqueductal gray

    PubMed Central

    Satpute, Ajay B.; Wager, Tor D.; Cohen-Adad, Julien; Bianciardi, Marta; Choi, Ji-Kyung; Buhle, Jason T.; Wald, Lawrence L.; Barrett, Lisa Feldman

    2013-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) region is organized into distinct subregions that coordinate survival-related responses during threat and stress [Bandler R, Keay KA, Floyd N, Price J (2000) Brain Res 53 (1):95–104]. To examine PAG function in humans, researchers have relied primarily on functional MRI (fMRI), but technological and methodological limitations have prevented researchers from localizing responses to different PAG subregions. We used high-field strength (7-T) fMRI techniques to image the PAG at high resolution (0.75 mm isotropic), which was critical for dissociating the PAG from the greater signal variability in the aqueduct. Activation while participants were exposed to emotionally aversive images segregated into subregions of the PAG along both dorsal/ventral and rostral/caudal axes. In the rostral PAG, activity was localized to lateral and dorsomedial subregions. In caudal PAG, activity was localized to the ventrolateral region. This shifting pattern of activity from dorsal to ventral PAG along the rostrocaudal axis mirrors structural and functional neurobiological observations in nonhuman animals. Activity in lateral and ventrolateral subregions also grouped with distinct emotional experiences (e.g., anger and sadness) in a factor analysis, suggesting that each subregion participates in distinct functional circuitry. This study establishes the use of high-field strength fMRI as a promising technique for revealing the functional architecture of the PAG. The techniques developed here also may be extended to investigate the functional roles of other brainstem nuclei. PMID:24082116

  2. Research on encoding multi-gray-scale phase hologram and wavefront reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxin; Zhou, Hao; Li, Jingyao; Qiao, Yujing; Gao, Wei

    2016-04-01

    Application of computer-generated holography for wavefront generation is beneficial for optical interferometry and 3D image display. However, there is a noticeable encoding error in computer-generated holograms, which is encoded by using the object's wavefront function in a computer. The encoding error will be transmitted and amplified during fabrication of a hologram, which can cause a reconstructed error in the generated wavefront. A correction method of encoding errors based on the least-squares fitting is proposed. A validating experiment is completed by using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator to reconstruct a group of paraboloid wavefronts. The results show that encoding errors increase the reconstructed error of a wavefront less than optical system errors, and the root-mean-square value drops 0.022λ after the correction of the encoding error, but it falls 0.092λ after the correction of optical system errors. The total error has been reduced by 0.114λ. This research is helpful for prediction of encoding errors and improvement of wavefront reconstruction accuracy. PMID:27139675

  3. Evaluating The Gray Scale Response Difference Associated With Bullet Comparisons Using Optical Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, Victoria J.

    Firearms examiners have long been interested in a method that would image the striae of a bullet so that it could be entered into a database for subsequent comparison to other bullets. As the development, use, and application of these databases grew so did the problems associated with them. The algorithms were breaking down and the software was not functioning at the level of precision expected by firearms examiners, thus analysts stopped using the databases and returned to the traditional laborious methods of bullet analysis using the comparison microscope. However, the use of the comparison microscope is not without its own set of limits. When using a comparison microscope two separate stages with two separate light sources are necessary, because the determination of the distribution of striae on a bullet is sensitive to bullet position and orientation. It is suggested that many of the problems associated with bullet based database systems are directly related to methods in which images are captured, along with the number and type of images. The goal of this research was to ultimately determine if bullet comparisons using optical microscopic imaging were possible, rather than live bullet-to-bullet comparisons. Once that was determined, we set out to identify which microscope would produce the best results for bullet comparison utilizing captured images, and the minimum number of images that should be taken of a single land impression to account for all potential variations in bullet profiles. To identify profile measurement error inherent in orientation, rotational and translational miss-orientation, we measured the profile of an NIST SRM 2460 standard bullet miss- oriented in systematic ways using a light microscope. We then repeated these measurements with a Zeta 3D-20 optical microscope and a Leica FSC comparison microscope; to determine which microscope produced the greatest correspondence for miss-oriented NIST bullet profiles. The method applied utilized captured images that were converted into light contrast profiles, which were a representation of the bullet surface based on light intensities. From these profiles identified peaks and valleys were grouped into resolution bins or segments of a particular length which are used to subdivide the land impression of the bullet and discriminate peaks and valleys. Results from the profile comparison were, The light microscope produced the highest level of correspondence with 100% total peak correspondence for both laterally and rotationally shifted profiles, 330microm and 6° respectively, with a 20microm bin resolution. We concluded from this study that bullet comparison through the use of images captured by optical microscopy is possible. We further suggest that something similar to the Zeiss Universal light microscope with reflected through-the-lens illumination be used for this methodology for bullet analysis and comparison using a bin resolution should be no less than 15 microns. With this microscope the minimum number of images required to account for potential miss-orientation, or bullet profile variations, is 11 images per land impression.

  4. Fuzzy epsilon filters for removal of thermal and speckle noise from gray-scale images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bessai, H. J.

    1994-11-01

    This paper develops constructions of filters for semi-automatic enhancement of still images. It emphasizes the joint application of linear and nonlinear filtering techniques. The decision which filter type is to be activated predominantly depends on perceptual criteria. These means of judging are readily described in terms of linguistic variables, i.e., the user is relieved from the tedious task of evaluating noise statistics. The decision process itself is supported by standard fuzzy reasoning techniques and corrected updates of the crisp outputs are available on a user-defined frame-by-frame or window-by-window basis. Thus, both handling of the filter tools and the individual filtering depth (gain, bandwidth, etc.) are controlled by a common rule base. Experiments with noisy grayscale images demonstrate that compared to non-joint methods, the proposed solution results in acceptable scene interpretation and clear identification of originally concealed objects.

  5. Ground-water resources of Wheeler and eastern Gray Counties, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maderak, M.L.

    1973-01-01

    Wheeler and eastern Gray Counties are in the east·central part of the Texas Panhandle. The two counties are characterized by rolling to fairly rugged topography with many sand-dune areas and a well developed drainage system.

  6. Cortical gray matter lesions in acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsushi; Mizuguchi, Masashi; Mimaki, Masakazu; Takahashi, Kan; Jimi, Hanako; Oka, Akira; Igarashi, Takashi

    2009-09-01

    In acute encephalopathy with febrile convulsive status epilepticus (AEFCSE), subcortical white matter lesions on diffusion-weighted images are sometimes encountered on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), such as in acute encephalopathy with biphasic seizures and late reduced diffusion (AESD). We report here a severe case of AEFCSE following respiratory syncytial virus infection, with emphasis on the cranial MRI findings. MRI in this patient showed widespread T2-hyperintensity along the cerebral cortical gray matter from day 3 to day 22. Lesions with reduced diffusion were noted on day 3 in the deep zone of gray matter of the left occipito-temporo-parietal cortex, but on day 7 they shifted to the subcortical white matter of both the cerebral hemispheres. These MRI findings provide radiologic evidence for damage to the cortical gray matter in AEFCSE. The serial change of diffusion-weighted images suggests that the cortical gray matter may be injured prior to the involvement of the subcortical white matter. PMID:18848752

  7. 75 FR 17899 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-08

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice and... Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. BILLING CODE......

  8. 76 FR 12070 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine...), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice and.... Basta, Director, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, National Ocean Service, National......

  9. 77 FR 8810 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine...), National Oceanic and ] Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Notice and... J. Basta, Director, Office of National Marine Sanctuaries, National Ocean Service,......

  10. What's the Latest on the SI Scene? Peta, Exa, Gray and Becquerel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Science News, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes additions and changes to the official SI (International System) of units, including two new prefixes, exa and peta, and two new units, becquerel as a unit for activity, and gray as a unit for joules per kilogram. (MLH)

  11. Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution in America: Louis Agassiz vs. Asa Gray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Elaine Claire Daughetee

    1975-01-01

    Provides some background information on the contributions of Louis Agassiz and Asa Gray to the history of American science as these two men disagreed concerning the ideas in Darwin's "The Orgin of Species." (PB)

  12. Thermal Microstructural Multiscale Simulation of Solidification and Eutectoid Transformation of Hypereutectic Gray Cast Iron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrutia, Alejandro; Celentano, Diego J.; Gunasegaram, Dayalan R.; Deeva, Natalia

    2014-08-01

    Although the gray cast iron solidification process has been the subject of several modeling studies, almost all available models appear to deal with only the more widely used hypoeutectic compositions. Models related to hypereutectic gray iron compositions with lamellar (or flake) graphite, and in particular for the proeutectic and eutectoid zones, are hard to find in the open literature. Hence, in the present work, a thermal microstructural multiscale model is proposed to describe the solidification and eutectoid transformation of a slightly hypereutectic composition leading to lamellar graphite gray iron morphology. The main predictions were: (a) temperature evolutions; (b) fractions of graphite, ferrite, and pearlite; (c) density; and (d) size of ferrite, pearlite, and gray eutectic grains; (e) average interlamellar graphite spacing; and (f) its thickness. The predicted cooling curves and fractions for castings with two different compositions and two different pouring temperatures were validated using experimental data. The differences between this model and existing models for hypoeutectic compositions are discussed.

  13. Third Annual Foreign Acquisitions Workshop: Improving Access to Foreign Gray Literature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The theme of the Third Annual Foreign Acquisitions Workshop was the acquisition of and access to foreign (non-U.S.) gray literature. Individual presentations addressed general topics related to the value and scope of gray literature, specialized and foreign gray-literature sources, intellectual property issues, and U.S. Federal Agency activities. Additional topics focused on electronic access and evaluation techniques and the current and potential uses of networking technology. The workshop papers are presented in their entirety or in abstract or outline form. Appendices include a listing of databases that include foreign gray literature, a bibliography, and a report on U.S.-Japan cooperation in the use of scientific and technical information.

  14. Aberrant Paralimbic Gray Matter in Incarcerated Male Adolescents With Psychopathic Traits RH: Paralimbic Gray Matter and Psychopathy

    PubMed Central

    Ermer, Elsa; Cope, Lora M.; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between brain structure and psychopathic traits in maximum-security incarcerated male adolescents: Do the associations between brain volumes in paralimbic and limbic regions and psychopathic traits observed in incarcerated adult men extend to an independent sample of incarcerated male adolescents? Method A structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of regional gray matter volumes (GMV) by using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) in maximum-security incarcerated male adolescents (N=218) assessed for psychopathic traits using the Hare Psychopathy Checklist–Youth Version (PCL-YV). All analyses controlled for effects of age, substance use, and brain size. Results Consistent with hypotheses and the adult literature, psychopathic traits were associated with decreased regional GMV in diffuse paralimbic regions, including orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral temporal poles, and posterior cingulate cortex. Conclusions These results strengthen the interpretation that paralimbic regions are central for understanding neural dysfunction associated with psychopathic traits and that psychopathy is best conceptualized as a neurodevelopmental disorder. PMID:23265637

  15. Mechanical properties of gray and white matter brain tissue by indentation

    PubMed Central

    Budday, Silvia; Nay, Richard; de Rooij, Rijk; Steinmann, Paul; Wyrobek, Thomas; Ovaert, Timothy C.; Kuhl, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    The mammalian brain is composed of an outer layer of gray matter, consisting of cell bodies, dendrites, and unmyelinated axons, and an inner core of white matter, consisting primarily of myelinated axons. Recent evidence suggests that microstructural differences between gray and white matter play an important role during neurodevelopment. While brain tissue as a whole is rheologically well characterized, the individual features of gray and white matter remain poorly understood. Here we quantify the mechanical properties of gray and white matter using a robust, reliable, and repeatable method, flat-punch indentation. To systematically characterize gray and white matter moduli for varying indenter diameters, loading rates, holding times, post-mortem times, and locations we performed a series of n=192 indentation tests. We found that indenting thick, intact coronal slices eliminates the common challenges associated with small specimens: it naturally minimizes boundary effects, dehydration, swelling, and structural degradation. When kept intact and hydrated, brain slices maintained their mechanical characteristics with standard deviations as low as 5% throughout the entire testing period of five days post mortem. White matter, with an average modulus of 1.895kPa±0.592kPa, was on average 39% stiffer than gray matter, p<0.01, with an average modulus of 1.389kPa±0.289kPa, and displayed larger regional variations. It was also more viscous than gray matter and responded less rapidly to mechanical loading. Understanding the rheological differences between gray and white matter may have direct implications on diagnosing and understanding the mechanical environment in neurodevelopment and neurological disorders. PMID:25819199

  16. Scattering coefficients and gray-body factor for 1D BEC acoustic black holes: Exact results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbri, Alessandro; Balbinot, Roberto; Anderson, Paul R.

    2016-03-01

    A complete set of exact analytic solutions to the mode equation is found in the region exterior to the acoustic horizon for a class of 1D Bose-Einstein condensate acoustic black holes. From these, analytic expressions for the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor are obtained. The results are used to verify previous predictions regarding the behaviors of the scattering coefficients and gray-body factor in the low-frequency limit.

  17. Gray-level transformations for interactive image enhancement. M.S. Thesis. Final Technical Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fittes, B. A.

    1975-01-01

    A gray-level transformation method suitable for interactive image enhancement was presented. It is shown that the well-known histogram equalization approach is a special case of this method. A technique for improving the uniformity of a histogram is also developed. Experimental results which illustrate the capabilities of both algorithms are described. Two proposals for implementing gray-level transformations in a real-time interactive image enhancement system are also presented.

  18. Diabetes, gray matter loss and cognition in the setting of Parkinson Disease

    PubMed Central

    Petrou, M; Davatzikos, C; Hsieh, M; Albin, RL; Kotagal, V; Müller, ML; Koeppe, RA; Herman, WH; Frey, KA; Bohnen, NI

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Parkinson disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting motor and cognitive functions. Prior studies showed that PD patients with diabetes (DM) demonstrate worse clinical outcomes compared to non-diabetic PD subjects. Our study aimed at defining the relationship between DM, gray matter volume and cognition in PD patients. Materials and Methods 36 PD subjects (12 with DM, 24 without DM, mean age=66). Subjects underwent high resolution T1 weighted brain MR imaging, 11C-DTBZ PET imaging to quantify nigrostriatal dopaminergic denervation, clinical and cognitive assessments. MR images were post-processed to determine total and lobar cortical gray matter volumes. Cognitive testing scores were converted to z-scores for specific cognitive domains and a composite global cognitive z-score based on normative data computed. ANCOVA, accounting for effects of age, gender, intracranial volume (ICV) and striatal DTBZ binding was used to test the relationship between DM and gray matter volumes. Results Impact of diabetes on total gray matter volume was significant (p=0.02). Post hoc analyses of lobar cortical gray matter volumes revealed that DM was more selectively associated with lower gray matter volumes in the frontal regions (p=0.01). Cognitive post hoc analyses showed that interaction of total gray matter volume and DM status was significantly associated with composite (p=0.007), executive (p=0.02) and visuospatial domain cognitive z-scores (p=0.005). These associations were also significant for the frontal cortical gray matter. Conclusions DM may exacerbate brain atrophy and cognitive functions in PD with greater vulnerability in the frontal lobes. PMID:26874576

  19. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d’Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional anisotropy (FA); mean diffusivity (MD); axial diffusivity (AD); and radial diffusivity (RD)] were calculated via voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis, respectively. Sixty-eight college students (42 female) were enrolled and separated into two groups [MPD group, N = 34; control group (CG), N = 34] based on Mobile Phone Addiction Index (MPAI) scale score. Trait impulsivity was also measured using the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11). In light of underlying trait impulsivity, results revealed decreased GMV in the MPD group relative to controls in regions such as the right superior frontal gyrus (sFG), right inferior frontal gyrus (iFG), and bilateral thalamus (Thal). In the MPD group, GMV in the above mentioned regions was negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. Results also showed significantly less FA and AD measures of WM integrity in the MPD group relative to controls in bilateral hippocampal cingulum bundle fibers (CgH). Additionally, in the MPD group, FA of the CgH was also negatively correlated with scores on the MPAI. These findings provide the first morphological evidence of altered brain structure with mobile phone overuse, and may help to better understand the neural mechanisms of MPD in relation to other behavioral and substance addiction disorders. PMID:27199831

  20. Quantification of potential exposure of gray partridge (Perdix perdix) to pesticide active substances in farmlands.

    PubMed

    Bro, Elisabeth; Millot, Florian; Decors, Anouk; Devillers, James

    2015-07-15

    Estimating exposure of wild birds to plant protection products is of key importance in the risk assessment process evaluating their harmful potential. In this paper, we propose an ecologically-relevant methodology to estimate potential exposure to active substances (ASs) of a farmland focal bird, the gray partridge Perdix perdix. It is based on bird habitat use of fields at the time of pesticide applications. It accounts for spatio-temporal heterogeneity at population and landscape scales. We identify and quantify the potential exposure to 179 ASs of 140 clutches during pre-laying, laying, and incubation phases, and of 75 coveys. The data come from a large scale field study combining radiotelemetry and a farmer survey. They were collected in 12 different representative sites. The proportion of clutches potentially exposed to a given chemical was ≥5% for 32 ASs; prothioconazole and epoxiconazole ranking first. 71% of clutches were potentially exposed to ≥1 AS and 67% to ≥2 ASs. Mixtures involved 2 to 22 ASs. They emerged from commercial formulations, tank mixtures, bird habitat use, and combinations. ASs were fungicides (53%), herbicides (25%), and insecticides (16%) used on a variety of crops in April-June, when ground-nesting birds are breeding. The European Food Safety Authority conclusions report a long-term first-tier toxicity-to-exposure ratio (TERlt) <5 for 11 out of 19 documented ASs, and higher-tier TERlt <5 for 5 out of 10 ASs. This suggests a potential risk for bird reproduction in farmlands. Globally 13% of coveys were potentially exposed to 18 ASs during the first month (1-4 coveys per AS). The use of our field data in future research and risk assessment is discussed. PMID:25847175

  1. Structure and Property Studies on Austempered and As-Cast Ausferritic Gray Cast Irons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vadiraj, Aravind; Balachandran, G.; Kamaraj, M.

    2010-10-01

    A high-strength and wear-resistant alloyed gray iron with ausferritic microstructure on solidification directly from molten condition could be made in a Ni and Mo alloyed gray cast iron. The as-cast ausferritic cast iron was compared with two conventionally austempered gray iron with and without Ni and Mo additions. The various phase constitution and volume fractions were analyzed using optical, SEM and XRD analyses. The various aspects of the alloy chemistry and processing conditions have been correlated with the microstructure and mechanical properties obtained. The analysis showed that the Ni-Mo alloyed austempered gray iron and the directly as-cast austempered gray iron had similar phase constitutions. The strength of the direct as-cast alloy with ausferritic microstructure was higher than the others due to its higher austenite content and carbide distribution. The wear rate of the conventionally austempered Ni and Mo containing alloy and direct as-cast ausferritic alloys is 20% of the austempered gray iron without Ni and Mo with friction coefficient less than 0.4.

  2. Cannabis, Cigarettes, and Their Co-Occurring Use: Disentangling Differences in Gray Matter Volume

    PubMed Central

    Jagannathan, Kanchana; Hager, Nathan; Childress, Anna Rose; Rao, Hengyi; Franklin, Teresa R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Structural magnetic resonance imaging techniques are powerful tools for examining the effects of drug use on the brain. The nicotine and cannabis literature has demonstrated differences between nicotine cigarette smokers and cannabis users compared to controls in brain structure; however, less is known about the effects of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use. Methods: We used voxel-based morphometry to examine gray matter volume differences between four groups: (1) cannabis-dependent individuals who do not smoke tobacco (Cs); (2) cannabis-dependent individuals who smoke tobacco (CTs); (3) cannabis-naïve, nicotine-dependent individuals who smoke tobacco (Ts); and (4) healthy controls (HCs). We also explored associations between gray matter volume and measures of cannabis and tobacco use. Results: A significant group effect was observed in the left putamen, thalamus, right precentral gyrus, and left cerebellum. Compared to HCs, the Cs, CTs, and Ts exhibited larger gray matter volumes in the left putamen. Cs also had larger gray matter volume than HCs in the right precentral gyrus. Cs and CTs exhibited smaller gray matter volume than HCs in the thalamus, and CTs and Ts had smaller left cerebellar gray matter volume than HCs. Conclusions: This study extends previous research that independently examined the effects of cannabis or tobacco use on brain structure by including an examination of co-occurring cannabis and tobacco use, and provides evidence that cannabis and tobacco exposure are associated with alterations in brain regions associated with addiction. PMID:26045474

  3. Higher Potassium Concentration in Shoots Reduces Gray Mold in Sweet Basil.

    PubMed

    Yermiyahu, Uri; Israeli, Lior; David, Dalia Rav; Faingold, Inna; Elad, Yigal

    2015-08-01

    Nutritional elements can affect plant susceptibility to plant pathogens, including Botrytis cinerea. We tested the effect of potassium (K) fertilization on gray mold in sweet basil grown in pots, containers, and soil. Increased K in the irrigation water and in the sweet basil tissue resulted in an exponential decrease in gray mold severity. Potassium supplied to plants by foliar application resulted in a significant decrease in gray mold in plants grown with a low rate of K fertigation. Lower K fertigation resulted in a significant increase in B. cinerea infection under semi-commercial conditions. Gray mold severity in harvested shoots was significantly negatively correlated with K concentration in the irrigation solution, revealing resistance to B. cinerea infection as a result of high K concentration in sweet basil tissue. Gray mold was reduced following K foliar application of the plants. In general, there was no synergy between the fertigation and foliar spray treatments. Proper K fertilization can replace some of the required chemical fungicide treatments and it may be integrated into gray mold management for improved disease suppression. PMID:25760521

  4. The gray phenotype and tristable phenotypic transitions in the human fungal pathogen Candida tropicalis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yulong; Tao, Li; Zhang, Qiuyu; Guan, Guobo; Nobile, Clarissa J; Zheng, Qiushi; Ding, Xuefen; Huang, Guanghua

    2016-08-01

    Phenotypic plasticity, the ability to switch between different morphological types, plays critical roles in environmental adaptation, leading to infections, and allowing for sexual reproduction in pathogenic Candida species. Candida tropicalis, which is both an emerging human fungal pathogen and an environmental fungus, can switch between two heritable cell types termed white and opaque. In this study, we report the discovery of a novel phenotype in C. tropicalis, named the gray phenotype. Similar to Candida albicans and Candida dubliniensis, white, gray, and opaque cell types of C. tropicalis also form a tristable switching system, where gray cells are relatively small and elongated. In C. tropicalis, gray cells exhibit intermediate levels of mating competency and virulence in a mouse systemic infection model compared to the white and opaque cell types, express a set of cell type-enriched genes, and exhibit both common and species-specific biological features. The key regulators of white-opaque transitions, Wor1 and Efg1, are not required for the gray phenotype. A comparative study of the gray phenotypes in C. tropicalis, C. albicans, and C. dubliniensis provides clues to explain the virulence properties and niche preferences of C. tropicalis. PMID:27246518

  5. A visible/infrared gray image fusion algorithm based on the YUV color transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jin; Jin, Weiqi; Li, Jiakun; Li, Li

    2012-11-01

    Color fusion technology, one of the typical technologies, has been emphasized all over the world. Multiband images are fused into a color image. Some effective visible and thermal infrared color fusion algorithms have been proposed now. We have successfully run a real-time natural sense of visible/infrared color fusion algorithm in DSP and FPGA hardware processing platforms. However, according to different needs, gray image fusion technology has its own unique applications. Based on the natural sense of color image fusion algorithm of the visible and infrared, we have proposed a visible / infrared gray image fusion algorithm. Firstly we do a YUV color fusion. Then we output the brightness of the fusion as gray fusion images. This algorithm for image fusion is compared with typical fusion algorithms: the weighted average, the Laplace Pyramid and the Haar basis wavelet. Several objective evaluation indicators are selected. The results of objective and subjective comparison show that the algorithm has most advantages. It shows that multiband gray image fusion in the color space is available. The algorithm is implemented on a DSP hardware image processing platform real-time with the TI's chip as the kernel processor. It makes natural sense of color fusion and gray fusion for visible light (low level light) and thermal imaging integrated. Users are convenient to choose model of the natural sense of color fusion or gray fusion for real-time video imaging output

  6. Effects of sonic booms on breeding gray seals and harbor seals on Sable Island, Canada.

    PubMed

    Perry, Elizabeth A; Boness, Daryl J; Insley, Stephen J

    2002-01-01

    The Concorde produces audible sonic booms as it passes 15 km north of Sable Island, Nova Scotia, where gray and harbor seals occur year round. The purpose of this research was to assess how sonic booms affect these seals. The intensity of the booms was measured and three types of data (beach counts, frequency of behavior, and heart rate) were collected before and after booms during the breeding seasons of the two species. In addition to the data taken during breeding, beach counts were made before and after booms during the gray seal moult. The greatest range in overpressure within a single boom was 2.70 psf during gray seal breeding and 2.07 psf during harbor seal breeding. No significant differences were found in the behavior or beach counts of gray seals following sonic booms, regardless of the season. Beach counts and most behaviors of harbor seals also did not differ significantly following booms, however, harbor seals became more vigilant. The heart rates of four gray seal mothers and three pups showed no clear change as a result of booms, but six male harbor seals showed a nonsignificant tendency toward elevated heart rates during the 15-s interval of the boom. These results suggest sonic booms produced by the Concorde, in level flight at altitude and producing on average a sonic boom of 0.9 psf, do not substantially affect the breeding behavior of gray or harbor seals. PMID:11837965

  7. Effects of sonic booms on breeding gray seals and harbor seals on Sable Island, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perry, Elizabeth A.; Boness, Daryl J.; Insley, Stephen J.

    2002-01-01

    The Concorde produces audible sonic booms as it passes 15 km north of Sable Island, Nova Scotia, where gray and harbor seals occur year round. The purpose of this research was to assess how sonic booms affect these seals. The intensity of the booms was measured and three types of data (beach counts, frequency of behavior, and heart rate) were collected before and after booms during the breeding seasons of the two species. In addition to the data taken during breeding, beach counts were made before and after booms during the gray seal moult. The greatest range in overpressure within a single boom was 2.70 psf during gray seal breeding and 2.07 psf during harbor seal breeding. No significant differences were found in the behavior or beach counts of gray seals following sonic booms, regardless of the season. Beach counts and most behaviors of harbor seals also did not differ significantly following booms, however, harbor seals became more vigilant. The heart rates of four gray seal mothers and three pups showed no clear change as a result of booms, but six male harbor seals showed a nonsignificant tendency toward elevated heart rates during the 15-s interval of the boom. These results suggest sonic booms produced by the Concorde, in level flight at altitude and producing on average a sonic boom of 0.9 psf, do not substantially affect the breeding behavior of gray or harbor seals.

  8. Clinical Phenotype of Adult Fragile X Gray Zone Allele Carriers: a Case Series.

    PubMed

    Debrey, Sarah M; Leehey, Maureen A; Klepitskaya, Olga; Filley, Christopher M; Shah, Raj C; Kluger, Benzi; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Spector, Elaine; Tassone, Flora; Hall, Deborah A

    2016-10-01

    Considerable research has focused on patients with trinucleotide (CGG) repeat expansions in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) gene that fall within either the full mutation (>200 repeats) or premutation range (55-200 repeats). Recent interest in individuals with gray zone expansions (41-54 CGG repeats) has grown due to reported phenotypes that are similar to those observed in premutation carriers, including neurological, molecular, and cognitive signs. The purpose of this manuscript is to describe a series of adults with FMR1 alleles in the gray zone presenting with movement disorders or memory loss. Gray zone carriers ascertained in large FMR1 screening studies were identified and their clinical phenotypes studied. Thirty-one gray zone allele carriers were included, with mean age of symptom onset of 53 years in patients with movement disorders and 57 years in those with memory loss. Four patients were chosen for illustrative case reports and had the following diagnoses: early-onset Parkinson disease (PD), atypical parkinsonism, dementia, and atypical essential tremor. Some gray zone carriers presenting with parkinsonism had typical features, including bradykinesia, rigidity, and a positive response to dopaminergic medication. These patients had a higher prevalence of peripheral neuropathy and psychiatric complaints than would be expected. The patients seen in memory clinics had standard presentations of cognitive impairment with no apparent differences. Further studies are necessary to determine the associations between FMR1 expansions in the gray zone and various phenotypes of neurological dysfunction. PMID:27372099

  9. The Gray-Thornton Model of Granular Segregation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shearer, Michael; May, Lindsay B. H.; Giffen, Nicholas; Daniels, Karen E.

    2010-05-01

    In this paper, we explore properties of the Gray-Thornton model for particle size segregation in granular avalanches. The model equation is a single conservation law expressing conservation of mass under shear for the concentration of the smaller of two types of particle in a bidisperse mixture. Sharp interfaces across which the concentration jumps are shock wave solutions of the partial differential equation. We show that they can form internally from smooth data, as well as propagate in from boundaries of the domain. We prove a general stability result that expresses the physically reasonable notion that an interface should be stable only if the concentration of small particles is larger below the interface than above. Once shocks form, they are sheared by the flow, leading to loss of stability when an interface becomes vertical. The subsequent evolution of a mixing zone, a two-dimensional rarefaction solution of the equation that replaces the unstable part of the shock can be tracked explicitly for a short time. We conducted experiments to test the continuum model against real flow in a Couette geometry, in which a bidisperse mixture is confined in the annular region between concentric vertical cylinders. Initially, the material is placed in the annulus with a layer of large particles below a layer of small particles. The sample is then sheared by rotating the bottom confining plate, while a heavy top plate is allowed to move vertically to accommodate Reynolds dilatancy. Comparison to predictions of the model show reasonable agreement with the rate at which the sample mixes, and with the rate of the subsequent resegregation. However, the model naturally fails to capture short-time dilatancy, finite size effects, or three-dimensional effects.

  10. Electroconvulsive therapy increases temporal gray matter volume and cortical thickness.

    PubMed

    Sartorius, Alexander; Demirakca, Traute; Böhringer, Andreas; Clemm von Hohenberg, Christian; Aksay, Suna Su; Bumb, Jan Malte; Kranaster, Laura; Ende, Gabriele

    2016-03-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a treatment of choice for severe and therapy resistant forms of major depressive episodes (MDE). Temporal brain volume alterations in MDE have been described for more than two decades. In our prospective study we aimed to investigate individual pre-post ECT treatment whole brain gray matter (GM) volume changes (quantified with voxel-based morphometry) in a sample of 18 patients with MDE. In addition, we studied the effect of ECT on voxel-based cortical thickness in cortical brain regions. The most prominent longitudinal GM increases (significant at a whole brain corrected level) occurred in temporal lobe regions. Within specific region of interest analyses we detected highly significant increases of GM in the hippocampus and the amygdala and to a lesser extent in the habenula (left p=0.003, right p=0.032). A voxel based cortical thickness analysis revealed an increase in cortical temporal regions (basically temporal pole and insula) further corroborating our cortical voxel-based morphometry results. Neither GM decreases or white matter increases nor correlations of GM changes with basic psychopathological parameters were detected. We corroborate earlier findings of hippocampal and amygdala GM volume increase following an acute ECT series in patients with MDE. Temporal GM volume increase was significant on a whole brain level and further corroborated by a cortical thickness analysis. Our data widely exclude white matter loss as an indirect cause of GM growth. Our data add further evidence to the hypothesis that ECT enables plasticity falsifying older ideas of ECT induced "brain damaging". PMID:26792445

  11. Line drawing extraction from gray level images by feature integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Hoi J.; Crevier, Daniel; Lepage, Richard; Myler, Harley R.

    1994-10-01

    We describe procedures that extract line drawings from digitized gray level images, without use of domain knowledge, by modeling preattentive and perceptual organization functions of the human visual system. First, edge points are identified by standard low-level processing, based on the Canny edge operator. Edge points are then linked into single-pixel thick straight- line segments and circular arcs: this operation serves to both filter out isolated and highly irregular segments, and to lump the remaining points into a smaller number of structures for manipulation by later stages of processing. The next stages consist in linking the segments into a set of closed boundaries, which is the system's definition of a line drawing. According to the principles of Gestalt psychology, closure allows us to organize the world by filling in the gaps in a visual stimulation so as to perceive whole objects instead of disjoint parts. To achieve such closure, the system selects particular features or combinations of features by methods akin to those of preattentive processing in humans: features include gaps, pairs of straight or curved parallel lines, L- and T-junctions, pairs of symmetrical lines, and the orientation and length of single lines. These preattentive features are grouped into higher-level structures according to the principles of proximity, similarity, closure, symmetry, and feature conjunction. Achieving closure may require supplying missing segments linking contour concavities. Choices are made between competing structures on the basis of their overall compliance with the principles of closure and symmetry. Results include clean line drawings of curvilinear manufactured objects. The procedures described are part of a system called VITREO (viewpoint-independent 3-D recognition and extraction of objects).

  12. Extensive Gray Matter Volume Reduction in Treatment-Resistant Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Valerie M; Goldstein, Meghan E; Kydd, Robert R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Approximately one-third of people with schizophrenia are treatment-resistant and some do not achieve remission with clozapine, the gold-standard antipsychotic medication for treatment-resistant schizophrenia. This study compared global and regional brain volumes between treatment-respondent and treatment-resistant patients with schizophrenia, including a group of patients who were clozapine-resistant. Methods: T1-weighted brain MRIs were obtained on a 3T scanner in 20 controls and 52 people with schizophrenia who were selected based on their symptomatic responses to antipsychotic medication: 18 responded well to first-line atypical antipsychotics (FLR), 19 were treatment-resistant but responsive to clozapine monotherapy (TR), and 15 were ultra-treatment-resistant and did not respond to clozapine (UTR). Treatment groups were matched for disease duration and current psychopathology. SIENAX and FSL-VBM were used to investigate differences in the global brain, gray matter (GM), white matter, ventricular cerebrospinal fluid volumes, and regional GM volumes. Results: GM volume was significantly reduced in the TR and UTR groups compared with controls and the FLR group (p < 0.05). GM volume was significantly reduced in TR patients compared with FLRs in the superior, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, pre- and post-central gyri, middle and superior frontal gyri, right supramarginal gyrus, and right lateral occipital cortex. UTR patients showed reduced GM compared with FLRs in their right parietal operculum and left cerebellum. No significant volume differences were observed between TR and UTR groups. Conclusions: These differences are unlikely to be solely due to medication effects, and reduced GM volume in treatment-resistant schizophrenia may represent an accelerated disease course or a different underlying pathology. PMID:25716781

  13. The enzymatic synthesis of rubber polymer in Parthenium argentatum Gray

    SciTech Connect

    Benedict, C.R.; Madhavan, S.; Greenblatt, G.A.; Venkatachalam, K.V.; Foster, M.A. )

    1990-03-01

    Washed rubber particles isolated from stem homogenates of Parthenium argentatum Gray by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration on columns of LKB Ultrogel AcA34 contain rubber transferase which catalyzes the polymerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into rubber polymer. The polymerization reaction requires Mg{sup 2+} isopentenyl pyrophosphate, and an allylic pyrophosphate. The K{sub m} values for Mg{sup 2+}, isopentenyl pyrophosphate, and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate were 5.2 {times} 10{sup {minus}4} molar, 8.3 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} molar, and 9.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} molar, respectively. The molecular characteristics of the rubber polymer synthesized from ({sup 14}C)isopentenyl pyrophosphate were examined by gel permeation chromatography. The peak molecular weight of the radioactive polymer increased from 70,000 in 15 minutes to 750,000 in 3 hours. The weight average molecular weight of the polymer synthesized over a 3 hour period was 1.17 {times} 10{sup 6} compared to 1.49 {times} 10{sup 6} for the natural rubber polymer extracted from the rubber particles. Over 90% of the in vitro formation of the rubber polymer was de novo from dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. Treatment of the washed rubber particles with 3-((3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio) -1-propanesulfonate solubilized the rubber transferase. The solubilized enzyme(s) catalyzed the polymerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into rubber polymer with a peak molecular weight of 1 {times} 10{sup 5} after 3 hours of incubation with Mg{sup 2+} and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate. The data support the conclusion that the soluble preparation of rubber transferase is capable of catalyzing the formation of a high molecular weight rubber polymer from an allylic pyrophosphate initiator and isopentenyl pyrophosphate monomer.

  14. Intrinsic functional connectivity of periaqueductal gray subregions in humans.

    PubMed

    Coulombe, Marie-Andree; Erpelding, Nathalie; Kucyi, Aaron; Davis, Karen Deborah

    2016-04-01

    The periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) is a key brain region of the descending pain modulation pathway. It is also involved in cardiovascular functions, anxiety, and fear; however, little is known about PAG subdivisions in humans. The aims of this study were to use resting-state fMRI-based functional connectivity (FC) to parcellate the human PAG and to determine FC of its subregions. To do this, we acquired resting-state fMRI scans from 79 healthy subjects and (1) used a data-driven method to parcellate the PAG, (2) used predefined seeds in PAG subregions to evaluate PAG FC to the whole brain, and (3) examined sex differences in PAG FC. We found that clustering of the left and right PAG yielded similar patterns of caudal, middle, and rostral subdivisions in the coronal plane, and dorsal and ventral subdivisions in the sagittal plane. FC analysis of predefined subregions revealed that the ventolateral(VL)-PAG was supfunctionally connected to brain regions associated with descending pain modulation (anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), upper pons/medulla), whereas the lateral (L) and dorsolateral (DL) subregions were connected with brain regions implicated in executive functions (prefrontal cortex, striatum, hippocampus). We also found sex differences in FC including areas implicated in pain, salience, and analgesia including the ACC and the insula in women, and the MCC, parahippocampal gyrus, and the temporal pole in men. The organization of the human PAG thus provides a framework to understand the circuitry underlying the broad range of responses to pain and its modulation in men and women. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1514-1530, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26821847

  15. European red squirrel population dynamics driven by squirrelpox at a gray squirrel invasion interface

    PubMed Central

    Chantrey, Julian; Dale, Timothy D; Read, Jonathan M; White, Steve; Whitfield, Fiona; Jones, David; McInnes, Colin J; Begon, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Infectious disease introduced by non-native species is increasingly cited as a facilitator of native population declines, but direct evidence may be lacking due to inadequate population and disease prevalence data surrounding an outbreak. Previous indirect evidence and theoretical models support squirrelpox virus (SQPV) as being potentially involved in the decline of red squirrels (Sciurus vulgaris) following the introduction of the non-native gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) to the United Kingdom. The red squirrel is a major UK conservation concern and understanding its continuing decline is important for any attempt to mitigate the decline. The red squirrel–gray squirrel system is also exemplary of the interplay between infectious disease (apparent competition) and direct competition in driving the replacement of a native by an invasive species. Time series data from Merseyside are presented on squirrel abundance and squirrelpox disease (SQPx) incidence, to determine the effect of the pathogen and the non-native species on the native red squirrel populations. Analysis indicates that SQPx in red squirrels has a significant negative impact on squirrel densities and their population growth rate (PGR). There is little evidence for a direct gray squirrel impact; only gray squirrel presence (but not density) proved to influence red squirrel density, but not red squirrel PGR. The dynamics of red SQPx cases are largely determined by previous red SQPx cases, although previous infection of local gray squirrels also feature, and thus, SQPV-infected gray squirrels are identified as potentially initiating outbreaks of SQPx in red squirrels. Retrospective serology indicates that approximately 8% of red squirrels exposed to SQPV may survive infection during an epidemic. This study further highlights the UK red squirrel – gray squirrel system as a classic example of a native species population decline strongly facilitated by infectious disease introduced by a non

  16. Female Adolescents with Severe Substance and Conduct Problems Have Substantially Less Brain Gray Matter Volume

    PubMed Central

    Dalwani, Manish S.; McMahon, Mary Agnes; Mikulich-Gilbertson, Susan K.; Young, Susan E.; Regner, Michael F.; Raymond, Kristen M.; McWilliams, Shannon K.; Banich, Marie T.; Tanabe, Jody L.; Crowley, Thomas J; Sakai, Joseph T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages. Hypotheses: Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex), conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate), valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex) and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum). Methods We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years) with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM) and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8) toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold. Results Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls. Conclusions Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in

  17. Complex surface three-dimensional shape measurement method based on defocused Gray code plus phase-shifting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Zhuohuan; Fu, Yanjun; Li, Biao; Chai, Minggang

    2016-08-01

    Binary pattern defocused projection method can overcome the nonlinear gamma of the projector, as well as filter high harmonics and high-frequency noise. However, high-accuracy three-dimensional (3-D) shape measurement of complex surface using it still remains a challenge. Therefore, a novel Gray code plus phase-shifting method based on defocusing is proposed to solve the problem. The edges of Gray code patterns become blurred owing to defocus, which makes the recovery of accurate Gray code patterns difficult. To solve this problem, the positive and inverse Gray code patterns are projected to obtain threshold values, which are used to achieve the binarization of Gray code patterns. This method is robust and suitable for different defocus levels. Compared with the traditional Gray code plus phase-shifting method, the experimental results prove the effectiveness and feasibility of the proposed method.

  18. Apparent predation by Gray Jays, Perisoreus canadensis, on Long-toed Salamanders, Ambystoma macrodactylum, in the Oregon Cascade Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, M.P.; Pearl, C.A.; Bury, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    We report observations of Gray Jays (Perisoreus canadensis) appearing to consume larval Long-toed Salamanders (Ambystoma macrodactylum) in a drying subalpine pond in Oregon, USA. Corvids are known to prey upon a variety of anuran amphibians, but to our knowledge, this is the first report of predation by any corvid on aquatic salamanders. Long-toed Salamanders appear palatable to Gray Jays, and may provide a food resource to Gray Jays when salamander larvae are concentrated in drying temporary ponds.

  19. Regional gray matter atrophy in relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis: baseline analysis of multi-center data.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sushmita; Staewen, Terrell D; Cofield, Stacy S; Cutter, Gary R; Lublin, Fred D; Wolinsky, Jerry S; Narayana, Ponnada A

    2015-03-01

    Regional gray matter (GM) atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) at disease onset and its temporal variation can provide objective information regarding disease evolution. An automated pipeline for estimating atrophy of various GM structures was developed using tensor based morphometry (TBM) and implemented on a multi-center sub-cohort of 1008 relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients enrolled in a Phase 3 clinical trial. Four hundred age and gender matched healthy controls were used for comparison. Using the analysis of covariance, atrophy differences between MS patients and healthy controls were assessed on a voxel-by-voxel analysis. Regional GM atrophy was observed in a number of deep GM structures that included thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and cortical GM regions. General linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the effects of age, gender, and scanner field strength, and imaging sequence on the regional atrophy. Correlations between regional GM volumes and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores, disease duration (DD), T2 lesion load (T2 LL), T1 lesion load (T1 LL), and normalized cerebrospinal fluid (nCSF) were analyzed using Pearson׳s correlation coefficient. Thalamic atrophy observed in MS patients compared to healthy controls remained consistent within subgroups based on gender and scanner field strength. Weak correlations between thalamic volume and EDSS (r=-0.133; p<0.001) and DD (r=-0.098; p=0.003) were observed. Of all the structures, thalamic volume moderately correlated with T2 LL (r=-0.492; P-value<0.001), T1 LL (r=-0.473; P-value<0.001) and nCSF (r=-0.367; P-value<0.001). PMID:25787188

  20. Regional Gray Matter Atrophy in Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: Baseline Analysis of Multi-Center Data

    PubMed Central

    Datta, Sushmita; Staewen, Terrell D.; Cofield, Stacy S.; Cutter, Gary R.; Lublin, Fred D.; Wolinsky, Jerry S.; Narayana, Ponnada A.

    2015-01-01

    Regional gray matter (GM) atrophy in multiple sclerosis (MS) at disease onset and its temporal variation can provide objective information regarding disease evolution. An automated pipeline for estimating atrophy of various GM structures was developed using tensor based morphometry (TBM) and implemented on a multi-center sub-cohort of 1008 relapsing remitting MS (RRMS) patients enrolled in a Phase 3 clinical trial. Four hundred age and gender matched healthy controls were used for comparison. Using the analysis of covariance, atrophy differences between MS patients and healthy controls were assessed on a voxel-by-voxel analysis. Regional GM atrophy was observed in a number of deep GM structures that included thalamus, caudate nucleus, putamen, and cortical GM regions. General linear regression analysis was performed to analyze the effects of age, gender, and scanner field strength, and imaging sequence on the regional atrophy. Correlations between regional GM volumes and expanded disability status scale (EDSS) scores, disease duration (DD), T2 lesion load (T2 LL), T1 lesion load (T1 LL), and normalized cerebrospinal fluid (nCSF) were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Thalamic atrophy observed in MS patients compared to healthy controls remained consistent within subgroups based on gender and scanner field strength. Weak correlations between thalamic volume and EDSS (r = −0.133; p < 0.001) and DD (r = −0.098; p = 0.003) were observed. Of all the structures, thalamic volume moderately correlated with T2 LL (r = −0.492; p-value < 0.001), T1 LL (r = −0.473; p-value < 0.001) and nCSF (r = −0.367; p-value < 0.001). PMID:25787188

  1. Diffuse Decreased Gray Matter in Patients with Idiopathic Craniocervical Dystonia: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Piccinin, Camila C.; Piovesana, Luiza G.; Santos, Maria C. A.; Guimarães, Rachel P.; De Campos, Brunno M.; Rezende, Thiago J. R.; Campos, Lidiane S.; Torres, Fabio R.; Amato-Filho, Augusto C.; França, Marcondes C.; Lopes-Cendes, Iscia; Cendes, Fernando; D’Abreu, Anelyssa

    2015-01-01

    Background: Recent studies have addressed the role of structures other than the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of craniocervical dystonia (CCD). Neuroimaging studies have attempted to identify structural abnormalities in CCD but a clear pattern of alteration has not been established. We performed whole-brain evaluation using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify patterns of gray matter (GM) changes in CCD. Methods: We compared 27 patients with CCD matched in age and gender to 54 healthy controls. VBM was used to compare GM volumes. We created a two-sample t-test corrected for subjects’ age, and we tested with a level of significance of p < 0.001 and false discovery rate (FDR) correction (p < 0.05). Results: Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated significant reductions of GM using p < 0.001 in the cerebellar vermis IV/V, bilaterally in the superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, anterior cingulate and paracingulate, insular cortex, lingual gyrus, and calcarine fissure; in the left hemisphere in the supplementary motor area, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, rolandic operculum, hippocampus, middle occipital gyrus, cerebellar lobules IV/V, superior, and middle temporal gyri; in the right hemisphere, the middle cingulate and precentral gyrus. Our study did not report any significant result using the FDR correction. We also detected correlations between GM volume and age, disease duration, duration of botulinum toxin treatment, and the Marsden–Fahn dystonia scale scores. Conclusion: We detected large clusters of GM changes chiefly in structures primarily involved in sensorimotor integration, motor planning, visuospatial function, and emotional processing. PMID:25620953

  2. A GENERAL CIRCULATION MODEL FOR GASEOUS EXOPLANETS WITH DOUBLE-GRAY RADIATIVE TRANSFER

    SciTech Connect

    Rauscher, Emily; Menou, Kristen

    2012-05-10

    We present a new version of our code for modeling the atmospheric circulation on gaseous exoplanets, now employing a 'double-gray' radiative transfer scheme, which self-consistently solves for fluxes and heating throughout the atmosphere, including the emerging (observable) infrared flux. We separate the radiation into infrared and optical components, each with its own absorption coefficient, and solve standard two-stream radiative transfer equations. We use a constant optical absorption coefficient, while the infrared coefficient can scale as a power law with pressure; however, for simplicity, the results shown in this paper use a constant infrared coefficient. Here we describe our new code in detail and demonstrate its utility by presenting a generic hot Jupiter model. We discuss issues related to modeling the deepest pressures of the atmosphere and describe our use of the diffusion approximation for radiative fluxes at high optical depths. In addition, we present new models using a simple form for magnetic drag on the atmosphere. We calculate emitted thermal phase curves and find that our drag-free model has the brightest region of the atmosphere offset by {approx}12 Degree-Sign from the substellar point and a minimum flux that is 17% of the maximum, while the model with the strongest magnetic drag has an offset of only {approx}2 Degree-Sign and a ratio of 13%. Finally, we calculate rates of numerical loss of kinetic energy at {approx}15% for every model except for our strong-drag model, where there is no measurable loss; we speculate that this is due to the much decreased wind speeds in that model.

  3. Overlapping and Distinct Gray and White Matter Abnormalities in Schizophrenia and Bipolar I Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Dana; Ardekani, Babak A.; Burdick, Katherine E.; Robinson, Delbert G.; John, Majnu; Malhotra, Anil K.; Szeszko, Philip R.

    2013-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder may share common neurobiological mechanisms, but few studies have directly compared gray and white matter structure in these disorders. We used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and a region-of-interest based analysis to identify overlapping and distinct gray and white matter abnormalities in 35 patients with schizophrenia and 20 patients with bipolar I disorder in comparison to 56 healthy volunteers. Methods We examined fractional anisotropy within the white matter and mean diffusivity within the gray matter in 42 regions-of-interest defined on a probabilistic atlas following non-linear registration of the images to atlas space. Results Patients with schizophrenia had significantly lower fractional anisotropy in temporal (superior temporal and parahippocampal) and occipital (superior and middle occipital) white matter compared to patients with bipolar disorder and healthy volunteers. In contrast, both patient groups demonstrated significantly higher mean diffusivity in frontal (inferior frontal and lateral orbitofrontal) and temporal (superior temporal and parahippocampal) gray matter compared to healthy volunteers, but did not differ from each other. Discussion Our study implicates overlapping gray matter frontal and temporal lobe structural alterations in the neurobiology of schizophrenia and bipolar I disorder, but suggests that temporal and occipital lobe white matter deficits may be an additional risk factor for schizophrenia. Our findings may have relevance for future diagnostic classification systems and the identification of susceptibility genes for these disorders. PMID:23796123

  4. Evaluation of a formula that categorizes female gray wolf breeding status by nipple size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.; Mech, L. David

    2015-01-01

    The proportion by age class of wild Canis lupus (Gray Wolf) females that reproduce in any given year remains unclear; thus, we evaluated the applicability to our long-term (1972–2013) data set of the Mech et al. (1993) formula that categorizes female Gray Wolf breeding status by nipple size and time of year. We used the formula to classify Gray Wolves from 68 capture events into 4 categories (yearling, adult non-breeder, former breeder, current breeder). To address issues with small sample size and variance, we created an ambiguity index to allow some Gray Wolves to be classed into 2 categories. We classified 20 nipple measurements ambiguously: 16 current or former breeder, 3 former or adult non-breeder, and 1 yearling or adult non-breeder. The formula unambiguously classified 48 (71%) of the nipple measurements; based on supplemental field evidence, at least 5 (10%) of these were incorrect. When used in conjunction with an ambiguity index we developed and with corrections made for classifications involving very large nipples, and supplemented with available field evidence, the Mech et al. (1993) formula provided reasonably reliable classification of breeding status in wild female Gray Wolves.

  5. The genetic basis of melanism in the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).

    PubMed

    McRobie, Helen; Thomas, Alison; Kelly, Jo

    2009-01-01

    The black squirrel is a melanic variant of the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis). We found 3 coat color variants in the gray squirrel: the wild-type gray, a jet-black, and a brown-black phenotype. These 3 morphs are due to varying distributions of eumelanin and phaeomelanin pigment in hairs. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R) plays a central role in regulating eumelanin and phaeomelanin production. We sequenced the MC1R gene for all 3 coat color phenotypes and found a 24 base-pair deletion. The gray phenotype was homozygous for the wild-type allele E(+), the jet-black phenotype was homozygous for the MC1R-Delta24 allele E(B), and the brown-black phenotype was heterozygous for the E(+) and E(B) alleles. We conclude that melanism in gray squirrels is associated with the MC1R-Delta24 E(B) allele at amino acid positions 87-94 and that this allele is incompletely dominant to the wild-type allele. We predict that the MC1R-Delta24 E(B) allele encodes a constitutively active or hyperactive receptor. PMID:19643815

  6. Gray matter heterotopias: MR characteristics and correlation with developmental and neurologic manifestations.

    PubMed

    Barkovich, A J; Kjos, B O

    1992-02-01

    Magnetic resonance (MR) images and clinical records of 20 patients with gray matter heterotopias were retrospectively reviewed to correlate MR characteristics of the heterotopias with clinical findings. On the basis of the MR images, patients were divided into three groups: those with subependymal heterotopias (eight patients), focal subcortical gray matter heterotopias (six patients), and diffuse subcortical heterotopias (six patients). Patients with subependymal heterotopias had a significantly higher prevalence of normal development than patients in the other two groups (P = .02). When all patients with gray matter heterotopias were considered, patients with thick heterotopias and those with overlying cortical gyral anomalies, which correlated with one another, had a significantly higher prevalence of developmental delay (P = .002). Patients with thick focal gray matter heterotopias had a substantially increased prevalence of motor dysfunction. In three cases, gray matter heterotopias were associated with infoldings of dysplastic cortex containing blood vessels or cerebrospinal fluid. If not properly analyzed, these anomalies can be mistaken for vascular or cystic tumors. PMID:1732969

  7. Biological control of strawberry gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea using Bacillus licheniformis N1 formulation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Hyun; Lee, Soo Hee; Kim, Choul Sung; Lim, Eun Kyung; Choi, Ki Hyuck; Kong, Hyun Gi; Kim, Dae Wook; Lee, Seon-Woo; Moon, Byung Ju

    2007-03-01

    Bacillus licheniformis N1 is a biological control agent to control gray mold diseases caused by Botrytis cinerea. Various formulations of B. licheniformis N1 were generated and evaluated for the activity to control strawberry gray mold. The wettable powder type formulation N1E was selected in pot experiments with remarkable disease control activity on both strawberry leaves and flowers. The N1E formulation contained 400 g of corn starch, 50 ml of olive oil, and 50 g of sucrose per a liter of bacterial fermentation culture. Optimum dilution of N1E to appropriately control the strawberry gray mold appeared to be 100-fold dilution in plastic house artificial infection experiments. The significant reduction of symptom development in the senescent leaves was apparent by the treatment of N1E at 100-fold dilution when N1E was applied before Bo. cinerea inoculation, but not after the inoculation. Both artificial infection experiments in a plastic house and natural infection experiments in the farm plastic house under production conditions revealed that the disease severity of gray mold on strawberry leaves and flowers was significantly reduced by N1E treatment. The disease control value of N1E on strawberry leaves was 81% under production conditions, as compared with the 61.5% conferred by a chemical fungicide, iprodione. This study suggests that our previously generated formulation of B. licheniformis N1 will be effective to control strawberry gray mold by its preventive activity. PMID:18050947

  8. Reduced gray matter volume in psychotic disorder patients with a history of childhood sexual abuse.

    PubMed

    Sheffield, Julia M; Williams, Lisa E; Woodward, Neil D; Heckers, Stephan

    2013-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with smaller gray matter volume, similar to the pattern seen in psychotic disorders. We explored the relationship between childhood abuse, psychosis, and brain volume in a group of 60 individuals with a psychotic disorder and 26 healthy control subjects. We used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to quantify gray and white matter volume and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) to measure childhood abuse. Within the psychotic disorder group, total gray matter volume was inversely correlated with the severity of childhood sexual abuse (r=-.34, p=.008), but not the other types of abuse. When the 24 patients with sexual abuse were compared with demographically matched samples of 23 patients without sexual abuse and 26 control subjects, only patients with a history of sexual abuse had reduced total gray matter volume (t(48)=2.3, p=.03; Cohen's d=.63). Voxel-based analysis revealed a cluster in the prefrontal cortex where volume was negatively correlated with sexual abuse severity. Voxel based comparison of the three matched groups revealed a similar pattern of results, with widespread reductions in psychosis patients with sexual abuse relative to controls that were not found in psychosis patients without sexual abuse. These findings indicate that some of the variance of gray matter volume in psychotic disorders can be explained by a history of sexual abuse. PMID:23178105

  9. Non-gray gas radiation effect on mixed convection in lid driven square cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherifi, Mohammed; Benbrik, Abderrahmane; Laouar-Meftah, Siham; Lemonnier, Denis

    2016-06-01

    A numerical study is performed to investigate the effect of non-gray radiation on mixed convection in a vertical two sided lid driven square cavity filled with air-H2O-CO2 gas mixture. The vertical moving walls of the enclosure are maintained at two different but uniform temperatures. The horizontal walls are thermally insulated and considered as adiabatic walls. The governing differential equations are solved by a finite-volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm was adopted to solve the pressure-velocity coupling. The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is solved by the discrete ordinates method (DOM). The spectral line weighted sum of gray gases model (SLW) is used to account for non-gray radiation properties. Simulations are performed in configurations where thermal and shear forces induce cooperating buoyancy forces. Streamlines, isotherms, and Nusselt number are analyzed for three different values of Richardson's number (from 0.1 to 10) and by considering three different medium (transparent medium, gray medium using the Planck mean absorption coefficient, and non-gray medium assumption).

  10. Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary.

    PubMed

    Bellander, Martin; Berggren, Rasmus; Mårtensson, Johan; Brehmer, Yvonne; Wenger, Elisabeth; Li, Tie-Qiang; Bodammer, Nils C; Shing, Yee-Lee; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Lövdén, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10weeks. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N=33) compared to an active control group (N=23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus. PMID:26477659

  11. Novel high speed method using gray level vector modulation for 3D shape measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Gui-Wen; Li, Dong; Tian, Jin-Dong

    2014-11-01

    Binocular Vision Technique is widely used in three-dimensional (3-D) measurement. Matching of pictures captured from two cameras is the most critical and difficult step in 3-D shape reconstruction. The method combines codedstructured light and spatial phase is usually adopted. However, being time consuming in matching, this method could not meet the requirements of real-time 3-D vision. In order to satisfy the high speed characteristic of real-time measurement, a novel method using gray level vector modulation is introduced. Combining binary code with gray coding principle, new coding patterns using gray level vector method is designed and projected onto the object surface. Each pixel corresponds to the designed sequence of gray values as a feature vector. The unique gray level vector is then dimensionally reduced to a resulting value which could be used as characteristic information for binocular matching. Experimental results further demonstrated the correctness and feasibility of the proposed method with fewer component patterns and less computational time.

  12. Regional gray matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia determined with optimized voxel-based morphometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, XiaoJuan; Yao, Li; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei

    2006-03-01

    This study examined regional gray matter abnormalities across the whole brain in 19 patients with schizophrenia (12 males and 7 females), comparing with 11 normal volunteers (7 males and 4 females). The customized brain templates were created in order to improve spatial normalization and segmentation. Then automated preprocessing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was conducted using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The statistical voxel based analysis was implemented in terms of two-sample t-test model. Compared with normal controls, regional gray matter concentration in patients with schizophrenia was significantly reduced in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, precentral and parahippocampal areas, left thalamus and hypothalamus as well as, however, significant increases in gray matter concentration were not observed across the whole brain in the patients. This study confirms and extends some earlier findings on gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. Previous behavior and fMRI researches on schizophrenia have suggested that cognitive capacity decreased and self-conscious weakened in schizophrenic patients. These regional gray matter abnormalities determined through structural MRI with optimized VBM may be potential anatomic underpinnings of schizophrenia.

  13. Gray matter network disruptions and amyloid beta in cognitively normal adults.

    PubMed

    Tijms, Betty M; ten Kate, Mara; Wink, Alle Meije; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Ecay, Mirian; Clerigue, Montserrat; Estanga, Ainara; Garcia Sebastian, Maite; Izagirre, Andrea; Villanua, Jorge; Martinez Lage, Pablo; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Sanz Arigita, Ernesto; Barkhof, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Gray matter networks are disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is unclear when these disruptions start during the development of AD. Amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ42) is among the earliest changes in AD. We studied, in cognitively healthy adults, the relationship between Aβ42 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and single-subject cortical gray matter network measures. Single-subject gray matter networks were extracted from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in a sample of cognitively healthy adults (N = 185; age range 39-79, mini-mental state examination >25, N = 12 showed abnormal Aβ42 < 550 pg/mL). Degree, clustering coefficient, and path length were computed at whole brain level and for 90 anatomical areas. Associations between continuous Aβ42 CSF levels and single-subject cortical gray matter network measures were tested. Smoothing splines were used to determine whether a linear or nonlinear relationship gave a better fit to the data. Lower Aβ42 CSF levels were linearly associated at whole brain level with lower connectivity density, and nonlinearly with lower clustering values and higher path length values, which is indicative of a less-efficient network organization. These relationships were specific to medial temporal areas, precuneus, and the middle frontal gyrus (all p < 0.05). These results suggest that mostly within the normal spectrum of amyloid, lower Aβ42 levels can be related to gray matter networks disruptions. PMID:26559882

  14. Gray matter changes following limb amputation with high and low intensities of phantom limb pain.

    PubMed

    Preissler, Sandra; Feiler, Johanna; Dietrich, Caroline; Hofmann, Gunther O; Miltner, Wolfgang H R; Weiss, Thomas

    2013-05-01

    Limb amputation and chronic phantom limb pain (PLP) are both associated with neural alterations at all levels of the neuraxis. We investigated gray matter volume of 21 upper limb amputees and 14 healthy control subjects. Results demonstrate that amputation is associated with reduced gray matter in areas in the motor cortex representing the amputated limb. Additionally, patients show an increase in gray matter in brain regions that belong to the dorsal and ventral visual stream. We subdivided the patient group into patients with medium to high PLP (HPLP; N = 11) and those with slight PLP (SPLP; N = 10). HPLP patients showed reduced gray matter in brain areas involved in pain processing. SPLP patients showed a significant gray matter increase in regions of the visual stream. Results indicate that all patients may have an enhanced need for visual control to compensate the lack of sensory feedback of the missing limb. As we found these alterations primarily in the SPLP patient group, successful compensation may have an impact on PLP development. Therefore, we hypothesize that visual adaptation mechanisms may compensate for the lack of sensorimotor feedback and may therefore function as a protection mechanism against high PLP development. PMID:22510531

  15. Climate impacts on transocean dispersal and habitat in gray whales from the Pleistocene to 2100.

    PubMed

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Meyer, Matthias; Post, Klaas; Czechowski, Paul; Gravlund, Peter; Gaines, Cork; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Kaschner, Kristin; Turvey, Samuel T; van der Plicht, Johannes; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

    2015-04-01

    Arctic animals face dramatic habitat alteration due to ongoing climate change. Understanding how such species have responded to past glacial cycles can help us forecast their response to today's changing climate. Gray whales are among those marine species likely to be strongly affected by Arctic climate change, but a thorough analysis of past climate impacts on this species has been complicated by lack of information about an extinct population in the Atlantic. While little is known about the history of Atlantic gray whales or their relationship to the extant Pacific population, the extirpation of the Atlantic population during historical times has been attributed to whaling. We used a combination of ancient and modern DNA, radiocarbon dating and predictive habitat modelling to better understand the distribution of gray whales during the Pleistocene and Holocene. Our results reveal that dispersal between the Pacific and Atlantic was climate dependent and occurred both during the Pleistocene prior to the last glacial period and the early Holocene immediately following the opening of the Bering Strait. Genetic diversity in the Atlantic declined over an extended interval that predates the period of intensive commercial whaling, indicating this decline may have been precipitated by Holocene climate or other ecological causes. These first genetic data for Atlantic gray whales, particularly when combined with predictive habitat models for the year 2100, suggest that two recent sightings of gray whales in the Atlantic may represent the beginning of the expansion of this species' habitat beyond its currently realized range. PMID:25753251

  16. Pathologic findings in Western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) from a notoedric mange epidemic in the San Bernardino Mountains, California.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, Nicole; Swift, Pam; Villepique, Jeffrey T; Clifford, Deana L; Nyaoke, Akinyi; De la Mora, Alfonso; Moore, Janet; Foley, Janet

    2013-12-01

    Notoedric mange, caused by the contagious, burrowing mite Notoedres centrifera, has been associated with several large-scale population declines of western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) and has been a significant obstacle to population recovery in Washington State where the species is listed as threatened. In 2009, residents and wildlife rehabilitators in the isolated San Bernardino Mountains of southern California reported a dramatic die-off of western gray squirrels, in what had been a previously dense and robust population. Individuals were observed suffering from abnormal neurologic behaviors (ataxia and obtundation) and severe skin disease. Full necropsy of five squirrels from the epidemic showed that all had moderate to severe infestation with mange mites and severe dermatitis characterized by hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, intralesional mites, intracorneal pustules and superficial bacteria. Mites from affected squirrels were evaluated by light and electron microscopy and identified as N. centrifera based on morphologic criteria. Additionally, the internal transcribed spacer-2 region of the mite was cloned, sequenced and accessioned in GenBank. The cause for the abnormal neurologic behavior was not confirmed on post-mortem examination. However, we hypothesize that mange can cause incoordination and obtundation as a result of malnutrition and dehydration, and intense pruritis may induce abnormal or erratic behavior that could be mistaken for neurologic signs. While we have characterized the severe impact this disease can have on individual animals, more work is needed to understand the impact on squirrel populations, particularly in view of the anecdotal reports of dramatic population declines that may take decades to recover. PMID:24533345

  17. Modality-spanning deficits in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in functional networks, gray matter, and white matter.

    PubMed

    Kessler, Daniel; Angstadt, Michael; Welsh, Robert C; Sripada, Chandra

    2014-12-10

    Previous neuroimaging investigations in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have separately identified distributed structural and functional deficits, but interconnections between these deficits have not been explored. To unite these modalities in a common model, we used joint independent component analysis, a multivariate, multimodal method that identifies cohesive components that span modalities. Based on recent network models of ADHD, we hypothesized that altered relationships between large-scale networks, in particular, default mode network (DMN) and task-positive networks (TPNs), would co-occur with structural abnormalities in cognitive regulation regions. For 756 human participants in the ADHD-200 sample, we produced gray and white matter volume maps with voxel-based morphometry, as well as whole-brain functional connectomes. Joint independent component analysis was performed, and the resulting transmodal components were tested for differential expression in ADHD versus healthy controls. Four components showed greater expression in ADHD. Consistent with our a priori hypothesis, we observed reduced DMN-TPN segregation co-occurring with structural abnormalities in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex, two important cognitive control regions. We also observed altered intranetwork connectivity in DMN, dorsal attention network, and visual network, with co-occurring distributed structural deficits. There was strong evidence of spatial correspondence across modalities: For all four components, the impact of the respective component on gray matter at a region strongly predicted the impact on functional connectivity at that region. Overall, our results demonstrate that ADHD involves multiple, cohesive modality spanning deficits, each one of which exhibits strong spatial overlap in the pattern of structural and functional alterations. PMID:25505309

  18. Pathologic findings in Western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) from a notoedric mange epidemic in the San Bernardino Mountains, California☆

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, Nicole; Swift, Pam; Villepique, Jeffrey T.; Clifford, Deana L.; Nyaoke, Akinyi; De la Mora, Alfonso; Moore, Janet; Foley, Janet

    2013-01-01

    Notoedric mange, caused by the contagious, burrowing mite Notoedres centrifera, has been associated with several large-scale population declines of western gray squirrels (Sciurus griseus) and has been a significant obstacle to population recovery in Washington State where the species is listed as threatened. In 2009, residents and wildlife rehabilitators in the isolated San Bernardino Mountains of southern California reported a dramatic die-off of western gray squirrels, in what had been a previously dense and robust population. Individuals were observed suffering from abnormal neurologic behaviors (ataxia and obtundation) and severe skin disease. Full necropsy of five squirrels from the epidemic showed that all had moderate to severe infestation with mange mites and severe dermatitis characterized by hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, intralesional mites, intracorneal pustules and superficial bacteria. Mites from affected squirrels were evaluated by light and electron microscopy and identified as N. centrifera based on morphologic criteria. Additionally, the internal transcribed spacer-2 region of the mite was cloned, sequenced and accessioned in GenBank. The cause for the abnormal neurologic behavior was not confirmed on post-mortem examination. However, we hypothesize that mange can cause incoordination and obtundation as a result of malnutrition and dehydration, and intense pruritis may induce abnormal or erratic behavior that could be mistaken for neurologic signs. While we have characterized the severe impact this disease can have on individual animals, more work is needed to understand the impact on squirrel populations, particularly in view of the anecdotal reports of dramatic population declines that may take decades to recover. PMID:24533345

  19. Volume changes and brain-behavior relationships in white matter and subcortical gray matter in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Prapti; Lebel, Catherine; Narr, Katherine L; Mattson, Sarah N; May, Philip A; Adnams, Colleen M; Riley, Edward P; Jones, Kenneth L; Kan, Eric C; Sowell, Elizabeth R

    2015-06-01

    Children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) may have cognitive, behavioral and brain abnormalities. Here, we compare rates of white matter and subcortical gray matter volume change in PAE and control children, and examine relationships between annual volume change and arithmetic ability, behavior, and executive function. Participants (n = 75 PAE/64 control; age: 7.1-15.9 years) each received two structural magnetic resonance scans, ~2 years apart. Assessments included Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-IV), the Child Behavior Checklist and the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function. Subcortical white and gray volumes were extracted for each hemisphere. Group volume differences were tested using false discovery rate (q < 0.05). Analyses examined group-by-age interactions and group-score interactions for correlations between change in volume and raw behavioral scores. Results showed that subjects with PAE had smaller volumes than control subjects across the brain. Significant group-score interactions were found in temporal and parietal regions for WISC arithmetic scores and in frontal and parietal regions for behavioral measures. Poorer cognitive/ behavioral outcomes were associated with larger volume increases in PAE, while control subjects generally showed no significant correlations. In contrast with previous results demonstrating different trajectories of cortical volume change in PAE, our results show similar rates of subcortical volume growth in subjects with PAE and control subjects. We also demonstrate abnormal brain-behavior relationships in subjects with PAE, suggesting different use of brain resources. Our results are encouraging in that, due to the stable volume differences, there may be an extended window of opportunity for intervention in children with PAE. PMID:25711175

  20. Normal volumes and microstructural integrity of deep gray matter structures in AQP4+ NMOSD

    PubMed Central

    Heine, Josephine; Pache, Florence; Lacheta, Anna; Borisow, Nadja; Kuchling, Joseph; Bellmann-Strobl, Judith; Ruprecht, Klemens; Brandt, Alexander U.; Paul, Friedemann

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess volumes and microstructural integrity of deep gray matter structures in a homogeneous cohort of patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD). Methods: This was a cross-sectional study including 36 aquaporin-4 antibody-positive (AQP4 Ab-positive) Caucasian patients with NMOSD and healthy controls matched for age, sex, and education. Volumetry of deep gray matter structures (DGM; thalamus, caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, hippocampus, amygdala, nucleus accumbens) was performed using 2 independent automated methods. Microstructural integrity was assessed based on diffusion tensor imaging. Results: Both volumetric analysis methods consistently revealed similar volumes of DGM structures in patients and controls without significant group differences. Moreover, no differences in DGM microstructural integrity were observed between groups. Conclusions: Deep gray matter structures are not affected in AQP4 Ab-positive Caucasian patients with NMOSD. NMOSD imaging studies should be interpreted with respect to Ab status, educational background, and ethnicity of included patients. PMID:27144219

  1. Potential Effects of Sediment Erosion on Chum Salmon Redds in the Grays River, Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, Katie

    2007-11-01

    Riverbed scour can negatively impact buried salmon eggs, especially during strong flood events. An analysis of predicted scour depth was conducted so that it could be compared with known chum spawning areas and depths in the Grays River, Southwest Washington. Field data and hydraulic models were analyzed for several variables used in calculating scour depth. The resulting model predicted that only 2.6% of the Grays River watershed should be scoured at the 90th percentile flows. The maximum scour depth estimated by the calculations was 49.6 mm. This is not deep enough to affect chum salmon eggs that are usually buried at depths of 150-350 mm. Predicted scour locations were also compared with known spawning locations and scour did not occur in the same areas as chum spawning. Thus, scour during the 90th percentile flows in the Grays River should not have any impact on chum salmon eggs.

  2. Distribution and abundance of western gray whales off northeastern Sakhalin Island, Russia, 2001-2003.

    PubMed

    Meier, S K; Yazvenko, S B; Blokhin, S A; Wainwright, P; Maminov, M K; Yakovlev, Y M; Newcomer, M W

    2007-11-01

    In 2001-2003, >60,000 km of aerial surveys and 7,700 km of vessel surveys were conducted during June to November when critically endangered Korean-Okhotsk or western gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) were present off the northeast coast of Sakhalin Island, Russia. Results of surveys in all years indicated gray whales occurred in predominantly two areas, (1) adjacent to Piltun Bay, and (2) offshore from Chayvo Bay, hereafter referred to as the Piltun and offshore feeding areas. In the Piltun feeding area, the majority of whales were observed in waters shallower than 20 m and were distributed from several hundred meters to approximately 5 km from the shoreline. In the offshore feeding area during all years, the distribution of gray whales extended from southwest to northeast in waters 30-65 m in depth. During all years, the distribution and abundance of whales changed in both the Piltun and offshore feeding areas, and both north-south and inshore-offshore movements were documented within and between feeding seasons. The discovery of a significant number of whales feeding in the offshore area each year was a substantial finding of this study and raises questions regarding western gray whale abundance and population levels, feeding behavior and ecology, and individual site-fidelity. Fluctuations in the number of whales observed within the Piltun and offshore feeding areas and few sightings outside of these two areas indicate that gray whales move between the Piltun and offshore feeding areas during their summer-fall feeding season. Seasonal shifts in the distribution and abundance of gray whales between and within both the Piltun and offshore feeding areas are thought, in part, to be a response to seasonal changes in the distribution and abundance of prey. However, the mechanism driving the movements of whales along the northeast coast of Sakhalin Island is likely very complex and influenced by a multitude of factors. PMID:17703367

  3. Insular and Hippocampal Gray Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Kugel, Harald; Krug, Axel; Schöning, Sonja; Ohrmann, Patricia; Uhlmann, Christina; Postert, Christian; Suslow, Thomas; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo; Dannlowski, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder is a serious psychiatric illness with a highly variable and heterogeneous clinical course. Due to the lack of consistent data from previous studies, the study of morphometric changes in major depressive disorder is still a major point of research requiring additional studies. The aim of the study presented here was to characterize and quantify regional gray matter abnormalities in a large sample of clinically well-characterized patients with major depressive disorder. Methods For this study one-hundred thirty two patients with major depressive disorder and 132 age- and gender-matched healthy control participants were included, 35 with their first episode and 97 with recurrent depression. To analyse gray matter abnormalities, voxel-based morphometry (VBM8) was employed on T1 weighted MRI data. We performed whole-brain analyses as well as a region-of-interest approach on the hippocampal formation, anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala, correlating the number of depressive episodes. Results Compared to healthy control persons, patients showed a strong gray-matter reduction in the right anterior insula. In addition, region-of-interest analyses revealed significant gray-matter reductions in the hippocampal formation. The observed alterations were more severe in patients with recurrent depressive episodes than in patients with a first episode. The number of depressive episodes was negatively correlated with gray-matter volume in the right hippocampus and right amygdala. Conclusions The anterior insula gray matter structure appears to be strongly affected in major depressive disorder and might play an important role in the neurobiology of depression. The hippocampal and amygdala volume loss cumulating with the number of episodes might be explained either by repeated neurotoxic stress or alternatively by higher relapse rates in patients showing hippocampal atrophy. PMID:25051163

  4. Breakfast Staple Types Affect Brain Gray Matter Volume and Cognitive Function in Healthy Children

    PubMed Central

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-01-01

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence. PMID:21170334

  5. Evaluating Green/Gray Infrastructure for CSO/Stormwater Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    The NRMRL is conducting this project to evaluate the water quality and quantity benefits of a large-scale application of green infrastructure (low-impact development/best management practices) retrofits in an entire subcatchment. It will document ORD's effort to demonstrate the e...

  6. White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) fawn risk from Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) predation during summer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Morris, Aaron; Barber-Meyer, Shannon M.

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about how often various prey animals are at risk of predation by Gray Wolves (Canis lupus). We used a system to monitor the presence during the day of two radio-collared Gray Wolves within 2 km of a radio-collared White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) with a fawn or fawns in August 2013 in the Superior National Forest of northeastern Minnesota. We concluded that the fawn or fawns were at risk of predation by at least one wolf at least daily.

  7. Side-scan sonar assessment of gray whale feeding in the Bering Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, K.R.; Nelson, C.H.

    1984-01-01

    Side-scan sonar was used to map and measure feeding pits of the California gray whale over 22,000 square kilometers of the northeastern Bering Sea floor. The distribution of pits, feeding whales, ampeliscid amphipods (whale prey), and a fine-sand substrate bearing the amphipods were all closely correlated. The central Chirikov Basin and nearshore areas of Saint Lawrence Island supply at least 6.5 percent of the total gray whale food resource in summer. While feeding, the whales resuspend at least 1.2 x 108 cubic meters of sediment annually; this significantly affects the geology and biology of the region.

  8. The myth and reality of Gray's paradox: implication of dolphin drag reduction for technology.

    PubMed

    Fish, Frank E

    2006-06-01

    The inconsistency for the calculated high drag on an actively swimming dolphin and underestimated muscle power available resulted in what has been termed Gray's paradox. Although Gray's paradox was flawed, it has been the inspiration for a variety of drag reduction mechanisms. This review examines the present state of knowledge of drag reduction specific to dolphins. Streamlining and special behaviors provide the greatest drag reduction for dolphins. Mechanisms to control flow by maintaining a completely laminar boundary layer over the body have not been demonstrated for dolphins. PMID:17671302

  9. Andrew Sexton Gray (1826-1907). A founder of Australian ophthalmology: his life and times.

    PubMed

    Lowe, R F

    1985-11-01

    Andrew Sexton Gray was born in Limerick, Ireland, medically trained in Dublin, and was assistant to William Wilde, the distinguished oculist and aurist. He migrated to Victoria in 1859, was surgeon to a railway's construction company, then in 1862 began practice as a surgeon and oculist in Melbourne. In 1863 he founded a charitable eye and ear hospital, and had a very active, long life devoted mostly to ophthalmology. The hospital progressively expanded and became the centre for training for many ophthalmologists, as well as the nucleus for the cohesion of Victorian ophthalmology. History shows Andrew Sexton Gray to have been a founder of Australian ophthalmology. PMID:3914312

  10. Interactions of Brown Bears, Ursus arctos, and Gray Wolves, Canis lupus, at Katmai National Park and Preserve, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, T.S.; Partridge, S.T.; Schoen, J.W.

    2004-01-01

    We describe several encounters between Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) and Gray Wolves (Canis lupus) that were observed at Katmai National Park and Preserve in southwest Alaska. Katmai Brown Bears and Gray Wolves were observed interacting in a variety of behavioral modes that ranged from agonistic to tolerant. These observations provide additional insight regarding the behavioral plasticity associated with bear-wolf interactions.

  11. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  12. 75 FR 70903 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-19

    ... on the petition (75 FR 68756). That Federal Register notice began NMFS' 15-day public comment period... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA018 Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of... petition to designate the Eastern North Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as...

  13. 76 FR 65212 - Caterpillar, Inc., Large Power Systems Division, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Gray...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-20

    .... The notice was published in the Federal Register on January 25, 2010 (75 FR 3935). At the request of... Leased Workers From Gray Interplant Systems, Inc, ATS, URS, River City, GCA, Lozier, Obrien Bros., HK... company reports that workers leased from Gray Interplant Systems, Inc., ATS, URS, River City, GCA,...

  14. 15 CFR Appendix A to Subpart I of... - Boundary Coordinates for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Research Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Boundary Coordinates for the Gray's...—Boundary Coordinates for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Research Area The research area boundary is defined by the coordinates provided in Table 1 and the following textual description. The...

  15. 78 FR 60813 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removing the Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) From the List...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... hearings that published in the Federal Register on September 5, 2013, at 78 FR 54614. We are holding public...) or written comments regarding the June 13, 2013 (78 FR 35664), proposal to remove the gray wolf from... Vertebrate Population Segments (DPS policy) (61 FR 4722, February 7, 1996) and specifically to gray...

  16. 77 FR 32913 - Accountability Measures for the Recreational Sector of Gray Triggerfish in the Gulf of Mexico for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-04

    ... temporary rule to reduce overfishing of gray triggerfish on an interim basis (77 FR 28308). The final... implementing gray triggerfish management measures (77 FR 28308, May 14, 2012), which include a draft... triggerfish rebuilding plan beginning in the 2008 fishing year (73 FR 38139, July 3, 2008). In 2011, a...

  17. Obtaining the curve “Phase shift vs gray level” of a spatial light modulator Holoeye LC2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villalobos-Mendoza, B.; Granados-Agustín, F. S.; Aguirre-Aguirre, D.; Cornejo-Rodríguez, A.

    2015-04-01

    In this work, the process to obtain the curve “Graylevel vs phase shift” of a transmissive spatial light modulator (SLM) HoloeyeLC2012 is described. This work arises from the need that exists for having a new optical surface testing method at INAOE's Optical Workshop. The SLM was placed in one arm of a Twyman-Green interferometer. The fringe shifts in the interference patterns were produced by displaying the different gray levels in the SLM. The gray level images displayed in the SLM were divided in two equal parts, the upper part was varying the different gray levels from 0 to 255 and the lower part stayed fixed with a gray level of 0 as reference. We show the different phase shifts and the experimental interferograms. From this analysis it was found out that a noticeable phase shift can be obtained from the 50 to the 190 gray levels.

  18. Effect of bionic coupling units' forms on wear resistance of gray cast iron under dry linear reciprocating sliding condition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pang, Zuobo; Zhou, Hong; Xie, Guofeng; Cong, Dalong; Meng, Chao; Ren, Luquan

    2015-07-01

    In order to get close to the wear form of guide rails, the homemade linear reciprocating wear testing machine was used for the wear test. In order to improve the wear-resistance of gray cast iron guide rail, bionic coupling units of different forms were manufactured by a laser. Wear behavior of gray-cast-iron with bionic-coupling units has been studied under dry sliding condition at room temperature using the wear testing machine. The wear resistance was evaluated by means of weight loss measurement and wear morphology. The results indicated that bionic coupling unit could improve the wear resistance of gray cast iron. The wear resistance of gray cast iron with reticulation bionic coupling unit is the best. When the load and speed changed, reticulation bionic coupling unit still has excellent performance in improving the wear resistance of gray cast iron.

  19. 76 FR 77670 - Research Area Within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary; Notice of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-14

    ... within the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary on October 14, 2011 (76 FR 63824). Pursuant to Section... regulations published on October 14, 2011 (76 FR 63824) are effective on December 4, 2011. FOR FURTHER... Reef National Marine Sanctuary; Notice of Effective Date AGENCY: Office of National Marine...

  20. Influence of White and Gray Matter Connections on Endogenous Human Cortical Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Hawasli, Ammar H.; Kim, DoHyun; Ledbetter, Noah M.; Dahiya, Sonika; Barbour, Dennis L.; Leuthardt, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    Brain oscillations reflect changes in electrical potentials summated across neuronal populations. Low- and high-frequency rhythms have different modulation patterns. Slower rhythms are spatially broad, while faster rhythms are more local. From this observation, we hypothesized that low- and high-frequency oscillations reflect white- and gray-matter communications, respectively, and synchronization between low-frequency phase with high-frequency amplitude represents a mechanism enabling distributed brain-networks to coordinate local processing. Testing this common understanding, we selectively disrupted white or gray matter connections to human cortex while recording surface field potentials. Counter to our original hypotheses, we found that cortex consists of independent oscillatory-units (IOUs) that maintain their own complex endogenous rhythm structure. IOUs are differentially modulated by white and gray matter connections. White-matter connections maintain topographical anatomic heterogeneity (i.e., separable processing in cortical space) and gray-matter connections segregate cortical synchronization patterns (i.e., separable temporal processing through phase-power coupling). Modulation of distinct oscillatory modules enables the functional diversity necessary for complex processing in the human brain. PMID:27445767

  1. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

  2. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  3. The mathematical model reduces the effect of distance to the scatter images gray level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Li-na

    2013-09-01

    In x-ray scanning system, scatter images are obtained to provide information on material density. The forward and backward scatter is related to solid angle. Scatter is therefore dependent on the distance of the scanned object from the x-ray source. In the real world, an object may be placed anywhere on the conveyer belt, so the measured intensity will contain errors relative to the ideal intensity. This makes classification results less reliable. Extraction of characteristic values L associated with the density; need to know the gray levels of scatter images, so how to base on forward scatter and back scatter images to determine the scatter image gray level is first necessary to solve the problem. The author combined with the forward scatter and backscatter images,then established higher order gray-level mathematical model of scattering images, to eliminate the impact of distance on the scatter images, to obtain more accurate gray level of scatter image. Then compare the error use of LMS algorithm and the LS algorithm to solving mathematical model parameters, LS algorithm ultimately prove less error and experimental validation of the superiority of the LS algorithm.

  4. Isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts, but also can act as intermediate hosts by harbor tissue stages of the parasite that ca...

  5. GRay: A Massively Parallel GPU-based Code for Ray Tracing in Relativistic Spacetimes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal

    2013-11-01

    We introduce GRay, a massively parallel integrator designed to trace the trajectories of billions of photons in a curved spacetime. This graphics-processing-unit (GPU)-based integrator employs the stream processing paradigm, is implemented in CUDA C/C++, and runs on nVidia graphics cards. The peak performance of GRay using single-precision floating-point arithmetic on a single GPU exceeds 300 GFLOP (or 1 ns per photon per time step). For a realistic problem, where the peak performance cannot be reached, GRay is two orders of magnitude faster than existing central-processing-unit-based ray-tracing codes. This performance enhancement allows more effective searches of large parameter spaces when comparing theoretical predictions of images, spectra, and light curves from the vicinities of compact objects to observations. GRay can also perform on-the-fly ray tracing within general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic algorithms that simulate accretion flows around compact objects. Making use of this algorithm, we calculate the properties of the shadows of Kerr black holes and the photon rings that surround them. We also provide accurate fitting formulae of their dependencies on black hole spin and observer inclination, which can be used to interpret upcoming observations of the black holes at the center of the Milky Way, as well as M87, with the Event Horizon Telescope.

  6. Analysis of the reproducibility of the gray values and noise of a direct digital radiography system.

    PubMed

    Poleti, Marcelo Lupion; Fernandes, Thais Maria Freire; Teixeira, Renata Cordeiro; Capelozza, Ana Lúcia Alvares; Rubira-Bullen, Izabel Regina Fischer

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproducibility of the gray values and noise of a direct digital radiography system (Visualix eHD) for various exposure times and analyzed regions. To obtain radiographic images in a standardized manner, the digital sensor of the system and a stepwedge were positioned in a phantom at a focus-film distance of 30 cm in a dental device at 70 kV, 7 mA and 2.2 mm filtration. Ten consecutive repetitions of X-ray imaging were performed at each exposure time (0.05, 0.07, 0.09 and 0.13 s). Gray values were analyzed using ImageJ software in five regions of interest (ROIs): alveolar bone (AB), soft tissue (ST) and three steps of the stepwedge (S1, S2 and S3). The results showed that both the variability of the gray values and the noise were statistically greater (p < 0.05) in the most radiolucent region (ST). Only the noise was affected by the exposure time. In conclusion, the reproducibility of the gray values and the noise of the Visualix eHD system can vary in specific areas with different radiolucency. PMID:26017488

  7. Gray matter injury associated with periventricular leukomalacia in the premature infant

    PubMed Central

    Folkerth, Rebecca D.; Billiards, Saraid S.; Trachtenberg, Felicia L.; Drinkwater, Mark E.; Volpe, Joseph J.; Kinney, Hannah C.

    2007-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies indicate reduced volumes of certain gray matter regions in survivors of prematurity with periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). We hypothesized that subacute and/or chronic gray matter lesions are increased in incidence and severity in PVL cases compared to non-PVL cases at autopsy. Forty-one cases of premature infants were divided based on cerebral white matter histology: PVL (n = 17) with cerebral white matter gliosis and focal periventricular necrosis; diffuse white matter gliosis (DWMG) (n = 17) without necrosis; and “ Negative” group (n = 7) with no abnormalities. Neuronal loss was found almost exclusively in PVL, with significantly increased incidence and severity in the thalamus (38%), globus pallidus (33%), and cerebellar dentate nucleus (29%) compared to DWMG cases. The incidence of gliosis was significantly increased in PVL compared to DWMG cases in the deep gray nuclei (thalamus/basal ganglia; 50–60% of PVL cases), and basis pontis (100% of PVL cases). Thalamic and basal ganglionic lesions occur almost exclusively in infants with PVL. Gray matter lesions occur in a third or more of PVL cases suggesting that white matter injury generally does not occur in isolation, and that the term “perinatal panencephalopathy” may better describe the scope of the neuropathology. PMID:17912538

  8. Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density

    PubMed Central

    Hölzel, Britta K.; Carmody, James; Vangel, Mark; Congleton, Christina; Yerramsetti, Sita M.; Gard, Tim; Lazar, Sara W.

    2010-01-01

    Therapeutic interventions that incorporate training in mindfulness meditation have become increasingly popular, but to date, little is known about neural mechanisms associated with these interventions. Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), one of the most widely used mindfulness training programs, has been reported to produce positive effects on psychological well-being and to ameliorate symptoms of a number of disorders. Here, we report a controlled longitudinal study to investigate pre-post changes in brain gray matter concentration attributable to participation in an MBSR program. Anatomical MRI images from sixteen healthy, meditation-naïve participants were obtained before and after they underwent the eight-week program. Changes in gray matter concentration were investigated using voxel-based morphometry, and compared to a wait-list control group of 17 individuals. Analyses in a priori regions of interest confirmed increases in gray matter concentration within the left hippocampus. Whole brain analyses identified increases in the posterior cingulate cortex, the temporo-parietal junction, and the cerebellum in the MBSR group compared to the controls. The results suggest that participation in MBSR is associated with changes in gray matter concentration in brain regions involved in learning and memory processes, emotion regulation, self-referential processing, and perspective taking. PMID:21071182

  9. Adult and Organizational Learning and Policy Development in Environments of Gray

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fair-Szofran, Nancy C.

    2010-01-01

    Adult and Organizational Learning and Policy Development in Environments of Gray The purpose of this study was to describe, analyze and provide an understanding of the values that influence state legislators' decision-making as it relates to appropriations, tuition and fees, and financial aid for public postsecondary education in Idaho. The study…

  10. 76 FR 76760 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-08

    ... review. Background The Commission instituted this review on May 2, 2011 (76 FR 24519) and determined on August 5, 2011 that it would conduct an expedited review (76 FR 50252, August 12, 2011). The Commission... COMMISSION Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan Determination On the basis of the record...

  11. Suppression of Botrytis Gray Mold in Hiemalis Begonia with Potting Mix Amendments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Botrytis gray mold, arguably the most prevalent disease of hiemalis begonia in the greenhouse, causes lesions on flowers, leaves and stems throughout the cropping cycle. Traditional control recommendations rely heavily on cultural practices and the regular application of fungicides. Since Botrytis...

  12. Many-body processes in black and gray matter-wave solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krönke, Sven; Schmelcher, Peter

    2015-05-01

    We perform a comparative beyond-mean-field study of black and gray solitonic excitations in a finite ensemble of ultracold bosons confined to a one-dimensional box. An optimized density-engineering potential is developed and employed together with phase imprinting to cleanly initialize gray solitons. By means of ab initio simulations with the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree method for bosons, we demonstrate that quantum fluctuations limit the lifetime of the soliton contrast, which increases with increasing soliton velocity. A natural orbital analysis reveals a two-stage process underlying the decay of the soliton contrast. The broken parity symmetry of gray solitons results in a local asymmetry of the orbital mainly responsible for the decay, which leads to a characteristic asymmetry of remarkably localized two-body correlations. The emergence and decay of these correlations as well as their displacement from the instantaneous soliton position are analyzed in detail. Finally, the role of phase imprinting for the many-body dynamics is illuminated and additional nonlocal correlations in pairs of counterpropagating gray solitons are observed.

  13. Cortical Gray Matter in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Structural Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Batty, Martin J.; Liddle, Elizabeth B.; Pitiot, Alain; Toro, Roberto; Groom, Madeleine J.; Scerif, Gaia; Liotti, Mario; Liddle, Peter F.; Paus, Tomas; Hollis, Chris

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have shown smaller brain volume and less gray matter in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Relatively few morphological studies have examined structures thought to subserve inhibitory control, one of the diagnostic features of ADHD. We examined one such region, the pars opercularis,…

  14. Correlation between Gray/White Matter Volume and Cognition in Healthy Elderly People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Wu, Kai; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    This study applied volumetric analysis and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) of brain magnetic resonance (MR) images to assess whether correlations exist between global and regional gray/white matter volume and the cognitive functions of semantic memory and short-term memory, which are relatively well preserved with aging, using MR image data from 109…

  15. Gray Matter Characteristics in Mid and Old Aged Adults with ASD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the brain anatomy of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows a different developmental pattern then typical age-matched peers. There is however, a paucity of studies examining gray matter in mid and late adulthood in ASD. In this cross-sectional neuroimaging study, we, performed vertex-wise…

  16. Comparative Chromosome Map and Heterochromatin Features of the Gray Whale Karyotype (Cetacea).

    PubMed

    Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Lemskaya, Natalia A; Perelman, Polina L; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Cetacean karyotypes possess exceptionally stable diploid numbers and highly conserved chromosomes. To date, only toothed whales (Odontoceti) have been analyzed by comparative chromosome painting. Here, we studied the karyotype of a representative of baleen whales, the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus, Mysticeti), by Zoo-FISH with dromedary camel and human chromosome-specific probes. We confirmed a high degree of karyotype conservation and found an identical order of syntenic segments in both branches of cetaceans. Yet, whale chromosomes harbor variable heterochromatic regions constituting up to a third of the genome due to the presence of several types of repeats. To investigate the cause of this variability, several classes of repeated DNA sequences were mapped onto chromosomes of whale species from both Mysticeti and Odontoceti. We uncovered extensive intrapopulation variability in the size of heterochromatic blocks present in homologous chromosomes among 3 individuals of the gray whale by 2-step differential chromosome staining. We show that some of the heteromorphisms observed in the gray whale karyotype are due to distinct amplification of a complex of common cetacean repeat and heavy satellite repeat on homologous autosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate localization of the telomeric repeat in the heterochromatin of both gray and pilot whale (Globicephala melas, Odontoceti). Heterochromatic blocks in the pilot whale represent a composite of telomeric and common repeats, while heavy satellite repeat is lacking in the toothed whale consistent with previous studies. PMID:27088853

  17. Sea-floor gouges caused by migrating gray whales off northern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cacchione, D.A.; Drake, D.E.; Field, M.E.; Tate, G.B.

    1987-01-01

    Side-scan sonar records collected during March and April 1981 and 1982 off northern California contain elongate depressions whose sizes and shapes are similar to sea-floor gouges made by feeding gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) in the northern Bering Sea and in shallow embayments off British Columbia. The discovery of the whale gouges in the sonar records was unexpected, and supports some of the previous speculation that gray whales feed opportunistically during migration. Gouges occupy about 0.032% of the 7.6 km2 of sea floor that was surveyed, which represents about 575 metric tons of excavated material. Although seemingly minor in amount, the total amount of bottom sediment removed from the central and northern California continental shelf by gray whale activities year after year represents macroscale biologically induced erosion and could have significant geological implications in shelf erosion and depositional schemes. This is the only published evidence of benthic feeding by gray whales along their migration route off northern California. ?? 1987.

  18. Paul Gray's narrowing scope: a "developmental lag" in his theory and technique.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Sidney H

    2006-01-01

    A cental thesis of Paul Gray's work is that a "developmental lag" pervades modern psychoanalysis in its failure to assimilate and apply knowledge gained about the role of the unconscious ego in intrapsychic life. But Gray himself, it is proposed, has become a victim of a new "developmental lag," of his own construction. As he somewhat single-mindedly pursued the ramifications of his "developmental lag" concept, Gray may have foreclosed on some noteworthy ideas developing around him. The most important example is his claim--herein refuted--that proper interpretive technique can avoid being infused with transference. He also seems to have rejected the theoretical importance of the internalization of the analyst and the clinical usefulness of countertransference. While emphasizing defense analysis, he ignores defenses such as splitting, denial, and disavowal as substantive problems for his technique of close-process attention. Gray's "undoing" of the rapprochement between "ego analysis" and "id analysis" by viewing the matter as an either-or proposition undermines the very real value of his contribution to the field. PMID:16602350

  19. Dependency of machinability in gray cast iron on nitride-induced age strengthening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teague, Jared Ashley

    Work of previous researchers has suggested that room temperature age strengthening in gray cast irons improves machinability. Verification and quantification of the machinability improvement is important to industry. Improved machinability will reduce overall manufacturing costs and reduce raw material consumption by decreasing the rate at which tools are replaced. Experimental work was performed to determine a connection between improved machinability in gray cast iron and changes in machining mechanics. An industrial tool wear study verified that age strengthening improved machinability by reducing tool wear to less than one-quarter of the unaged value. Laboratory tests on iron castings from the same foundry determined that tool forces decreased with age strengthening. Additional tool force experiments were performed on castings produced in the Missouri S&T laboratory of varying carbon equivalent and microstructure. Results showed that casting microstructure played a key role in determining how age strengthening affects machinability and that the equilibrium precipitate content did not solely dictate magnitudes of hardness increases or tool force decreases after age strengthening. Machining work with industrial castings resulted in cases in which gray iron decreased in machinability after age strengthening, a situation that was previously only anecdotally reported. The determination was made that irons containing greater than one percent free ferrite increase in machinability after age strengthening. Research concluded that gray iron age strengthening improved machinability by lowering fracture toughness which decreases tool-chip contact time thereby reducing tool temperature and tool wear.

  20. 75 FR 17055 - Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Regulations on the Use of Spearfishing Gear; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-05

    ... Administration (NOAA) published a document in the Federal Register on February 19, 2010 (75 FR 7361) on the use... possession of spearfishing gear in Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (75 FR 7361). After the regulations... inadvertently missing a word in Sec. 922.92(a)(11)(iii). This document corrects the final regulations...

  1. 77 FR 27719 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: sport fishing, conservation and charter... Science Circle, Savannah, GA 31411; 912-598-2381). Completed applications should be sent to the same... , 10 Ocean Science Circle, Savannah, GA 31411; 912-598-2381). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The...

  2. Dorsolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal gray matter density changes associated with bipolar depression

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, John O.; Bonner, Julie C.; Rosen, Allyson C.; Wang, Po W.; Hoblyn, Jennifer C.; Hill, Shelley J.; Ketter, Terence A.

    2009-01-01

    Mood states are associated with alterations in cerebral blood flow and metabolism, yet changes in cerebral structure are typically viewed in the context of enduring traits, genetic predispositions, or the outcome of chronic psychiatric illness. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were obtained from two groups of patients with bipolar disorder. In one group, patients met criteria for a current major depressive episode whereas in the other no patient did. No patient in either group met criteria for a current manic, hypomanic, or mixed episode. Groups were matched with respect to age and illness severity. Analyses of gray matter density were performed with Statistical Parametric Mapping software (SPM5). Compared with non-depressed bipolar subjects, depressed bipolar subjects exhibited lower gray matter density in the right dorsolateral and bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortices and portions of the left parietal lobe. In addition, gray matter density was greater in the left temporal lobe and right posterior cingulate cortex/parahippocampal gyrus in depressed than in non-depressed subjects. Our findings highlight the importance of mood state in structural studies of the brain—an issue that has received insufficient attention to date. Moreover, our observed differences in gray matter density overlap metabolic areas of change and thus have implications for the conceptualization and treatment of affective disorders. PMID:19351579

  3. DENSITY-DEPENDENT RESPONSES OF GRAY-TAILED VOLES TO MOWING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Voles (Microtus spp.) commonly inhabit forage crops and may cause excessive damage to these crops. owever, cover removal by mowing or haying may cause vole populations to decline. o determine if gray-tailed voles responded to mowing of alfalfa in a density-dependent manner, the a...

  4. GRay: A MASSIVELY PARALLEL GPU-BASED CODE FOR RAY TRACING IN RELATIVISTIC SPACETIMES

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal

    2013-11-01

    We introduce GRay, a massively parallel integrator designed to trace the trajectories of billions of photons in a curved spacetime. This graphics-processing-unit (GPU)-based integrator employs the stream processing paradigm, is implemented in CUDA C/C++, and runs on nVidia graphics cards. The peak performance of GRay using single-precision floating-point arithmetic on a single GPU exceeds 300 GFLOP (or 1 ns per photon per time step). For a realistic problem, where the peak performance cannot be reached, GRay is two orders of magnitude faster than existing central-processing-unit-based ray-tracing codes. This performance enhancement allows more effective searches of large parameter spaces when comparing theoretical predictions of images, spectra, and light curves from the vicinities of compact objects to observations. GRay can also perform on-the-fly ray tracing within general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic algorithms that simulate accretion flows around compact objects. Making use of this algorithm, we calculate the properties of the shadows of Kerr black holes and the photon rings that surround them. We also provide accurate fitting formulae of their dependencies on black hole spin and observer inclination, which can be used to interpret upcoming observations of the black holes at the center of the Milky Way, as well as M87, with the Event Horizon Telescope.

  5. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either <75th percentile (normal weight) or >95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  6. Parahippocampal gray matter alterations in Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2 identified by voxel based morphometry.

    PubMed

    Mercadillo, Roberto E; Galvez, Víctor; Díaz, Rosalinda; Hernández-Castillo, Carlos Roberto; Campos-Romo, Aurelio; Boll, Marie-Catherine; Pasaye, Erick H; Fernandez-Ruiz, Juan

    2014-12-15

    Spinocerebellar Ataxia Type 2 (SCA2) is a genetic disorder causing cerebellar degeneration that result in motor and cognitive alterations. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses have found neurodegenerative patterns associated to SCA2, but they show some discrepancies. Moreover, behavioral deficits related to non-cerebellar functions are scarcely discussed in those reports. In this work we use behavioral and cognitive tests and VBM to identify and confirm cognitive and gray matter alterations in SCA2 patients compared with control subjects. Also, we discuss the cerebellar and non-cerebellar functions affected by this disease. Our results confirmed gray matter reduction in the cerebellar vermis, pons, and insular, frontal, parietal and temporal cortices. However, our analysis also found unreported loss of gray matter in the parahippocampal gyrus bilaterally. Motor performance test ratings correlated with total gray and white matter reductions, but executive performance and clinical features such as CAG repetitions and disease progression did not show any correlation. This pattern of cerebellar and non-cerebellar morphological alterations associated with SCA2 has to be considered to fully understand the motor and non-motor deficits that include language production and comprehension and some social skill changes that occur in these patients. PMID:25263602

  7. Performance of Elementary-Grade African American Students on the Gray Oral Reading Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, Holly K.; Thompson, Connie A.; Washington, Julie A.; Potter, Stephanie L.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: African American students perform disproportionately more poorly on standardized reading assessments than their majority peers. Poor reading performances may be related to test biases inherent in standardized reading instruments. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the appropriateness of the Gray Oral Reading Tests-Third…

  8. Dieldrin-induced mortality in an endangered species, the gray bat (Myotis grisescens)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; LaVal, R.K.; Swineford, D.M.

    1978-01-01

    Brains of juvenile gray bats, Myotis grisescens, found dead beneath maternity roosts in two Missouri caves contained lethal concentrations of dieldrin. One colony appeared to be abnormally small, and more dead bats were found a year after the juvenile bats had been collected. This is the first report to link the field mortality of bats directly to insecticide residues acquired through the food chain.

  9. Characterization of Microsatellite Loci in Smicronyx Sodidus, the Gray Sunflower Seed Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The gray sunflower seed weevil (GSSW) Smicronyx sordidus, native to North America, is one of the major seed pests of cultivated sunflowers in the Central and Northern Great Plains. The larvae of GSSW feed on the kernels of the sunflower seeds, and may cause severe damage to this economically importa...

  10. Environmental, irrigation and fertilization impacts on the seed quality of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The commercialization of guayule for hypoallergenic latex has renewed interest in factors that affect seed quality. The objective of this study was to determine the seed quality of guayule (Parthenium argentatum Gray) grown under various field conditions in Arizona, USA. In experiment I guayule line...

  11. Continuous ozone concentrations during cold storage to control postharvest gray mold in grapes, 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gray mold, caused by B. cinerea, causes severe losses since it spreads easily among berries during cold storage. Currently, it is controlled by fumigation with SO2 or SO2 emitting sheets within boxes. Alternative methods, such as storage in ozone atmospheres, are needed because SO2 is banned in orga...

  12. Sulfur dioxide-releasing perforated plastic liners to control postharvest gray mold of Redglobe table grapes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    "Gray mold, caused by Botrytis cinerea, limits the duration of table grape storage. Periodic sulfur dioxide (SO2) fumigation and in-package SO2 generating pads are two common strategies that protect grapes after harvest. Our objectives were to compare the effectiveness of packaging Redglobe grapes i...

  13. Browsing Document Collections: Automatically Organizing Digital Libraries and Hypermedia Using the Gray Code.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Losee, Robert M.

    1997-01-01

    Proposes a model for digital library and hypermedia organizations that is adaptive, providing different conceptual orderings to support browsing for different individuals' or groups' needs. Highlights include types of links, document ordering and the Gray code (a binary programming code), adaptive classification, and an economic model for document…

  14. Demonstration of Green/Gray Infrastructure for Combined Sewer Overflow Control

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project is a major national demonstration of the integration of green and gray infrastructure for combined sewer overflow (CSO) control in a cost-effective and environmentally friendly manner. It will use Kansas City, MO, as a case example. The project will have a major in...

  15. 77 FR 64797 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: K- 12 education, non-living resources research... relation to the seat for which they are applying; community and professional affiliations; philosophy... area affected by the sanctuary. Applicants who are chosen for the K-12 education or...

  16. 76 FR 68428 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: conservation, university education, charter...; philosophy regarding the protection and management of marine resources; and possibly the length of residence... education and charter/ commercial fishing seats should expect to serve 3-year terms, pursuant to the...

  17. Effect of oil and oil products on lipase activity in gray forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kireeva, N. A.; Tarasenko, E. M.; Shamaeva, A. A.; Novoselova, E. I.

    2006-08-01

    The effect of different rates of oil and oil products on the lipase activity in gray forest soil was studied under field and laboratory conditions. It was found that hydrocarbons activate the lipolytic activity of the soil. Along with the activation of lipolysis, an increase in the number of hydrocarbon-oxidizing microorganisms and a decrease in the content of oil products were observed.

  18. 11. VIEW OF HORIZONTAL MIXER (GedgeGray Co., Lockland, Ohio), LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. VIEW OF HORIZONTAL MIXER (Gedge-Gray Co., Lockland, Ohio), LOCATED IN THE BASEMENT, MIXED ANIMAL FEED TO ORDER. THE WATER-POWERED MIXER WAS SUPERSEDED BY TWO ELECTRIC-POWERED VERTICAL MIXERS, ADDED IN THE 1940S. Photographer: Louise Taft Cawood, July 1986 - Alexander's Grist Mill, Lock 37 on Ohio & Erie Canal, South of Cleveland, Valley View, Cuyahoga County, OH

  19. Normalization of Cortical Gray Matter Deficits in Nonpsychotic Siblings of Patients with Childhood-Onset Schizophrenia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattai, Anand A.; Weisinger, Brian; Greenstein, Deanna; Stidd, Reva; Clasen, Liv; Miller, Rachel; Tossell, Julia W.; Rapoport, Judith L.; Gogtay, Nitin

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Cortical gray matter (GM) abnormalities in patients with childhood-onset schizophrenia (COS) progress during adolescence ultimately localizing to prefrontal and temporal cortices by early adult age. A previous study of 52 nonpsychotic siblings of COS probands had significant prefrontal and temporal GM deficits that appeared to…

  20. In Search of a Usable Philosophy of Education: The Vision of J. Glenn Gray.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Preskill, Stephen

    1997-01-01

    Explores J. Glenn Gray's neglected philosophy of education as a meaningful framework for grounding the practices of teachers. Addresses tensions between individuality and community, argues for a vision that honors wholeness and synthesis, contends love of beauty as an integral part of education, and embraces plurality and public action as one of…

  1. Study the effect of gray component replacement level on reflectance spectra and color reproduction accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiridonov, I.; Shopova, M.; Boeva, R.

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study is investigation of gray component replacement (GCR) levels on reflectance spectrum for different overprints of the inks and color reproduction accuracy. The most commonly implemented method in practice for generation of achromatic composition is gray component replacement (GCR). The experiments in this study, have been performed in real production conditions with special test form generated by specialized software. The measuring of reflection spectrum of printed colors, gives a complete conception for the effect of different gray component replacement levels on color reproduction accuracy. For better data analyses and modeling of processes, we have calculated (converted) the CIEL*a*b* color coordinates from the reflection spectra data. The assessment of color accuracy by using different GCR amount has been made by calculation of color difference ΔE* ab. In addition for the specific printing conditions we have created ICC profiles with different GCR amounts. A comparison of the color gamuts has been performed. For a first time a methodology is implemented for examination and estimation of effect of GCR levels on color reproduction accuracy by studying a big number of colors in entire visible spectrum. Implementation in practice of the results achieved in this experiment, will lead to improved gray balance and better color accuracy. Another important effect of this research is reduction of financial costs of printing production by decreasing of ink consumption, indirect reduction of emissions during the manufacture of inks and facilitates the process of deinking during the recycling paper.

  2. Gray Education in Israel: Supplemental Curricula in Israeli Schools in the 1990's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Erik; Cohen, Einat

    Since the 1980s, the Israeli Ministry of Education has created curricular supplements. This document presents findings of a study that examined the issue of supplemental educational services, particularly classroom services that are funded by external sources. These services have been named "gray education" because they fall between the…

  3. Cortical gray matter loss in schizophrenia: Could microglia be the culprit?

    PubMed

    Rački, Valentino; Petrić, Daniela; Kučić, Natalia; Gržeta, Nika; Jurdana, Kristina; Rončević-Gržeta, Ika

    2016-03-01

    Cortical gray matter loss in schizophrenia remains a great therapeutic difficulty. Each psychotic episode causes irreversible cortical gray matter loss, that causes the patients to never regain their previous state of functioning. Microglial cells are part of the innate immune system and their functions, among others, include phagocytosis and release of neurotrophic factors. They have a key impact on developmental and plasticity-induced removal of neuronal precursors, live-but-stressed neurons and synapses, while also stimulating synaptic growth and development. We hypothesize that microglia are the culprit for the cortical gray matter loss in schizophrenia through abnormal synaptic pruning, phagocytosis of stressed neurons and lacking neurotrophic factor release. Furthermore, we propose a research that could validate the hypotheses using serum samples of first-episode early-onset patients. By measuring the serum levels of milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8), subcomponent in the classical pathway of complement activation (C1q), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10), we could gain an insight into the state of microglial activation during various stages of the disease. If this hypothesis is valid, new targeted drugs could be developed in order to reduce the deterioration of cortical gray matter, thereby possibly improving negative symptoms and cognitive deficits. PMID:26880628

  4. Brain gray and white matter differences in healthy normal weight and obese children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To compare brain gray and white matter development in healthy normal weight and obese children. Twenty-four healthy 8- to 10-year-old children whose body mass index was either 95th percentile (obese) completed an MRI examination which included T1-weighted three-d...

  5. Evaluation of Lettuce Germplasm Resistance to Gray Mold Disease for Organic Cultivations

    PubMed Central

    Shim, Chang Ki; Kim, Min Jeong; Kim, Yong Ki; Jee, Hyeong Jin

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 212 accessions of lettuce germplasm to gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. The lettuce germplasm were composed of five species: Lactuca sativa (193 accessions), L. sativa var. longifolia (2 accessions), L. sativa var. crispa (2 accessions), L. saligna (2 accessions), and L. serriola (1 accession); majority of these originated from Korea, Netherlands, USA, Russia, and Bulgaria. After 35 days of spray inoculation with conidial suspension (3×107 conidia/ml) of B. cinerea on the surface of lettuce leaves, tested lettuce germplasm showed severe symptoms of gray mold disease. There were 208 susceptible accessions to B. cinerea counted with 100% of disease incidence and four resistant accessions, IT908801, K000598, K000599, and K021055. Two moderately resistant accessions of L. sativa, K021055 and IT908801, showed 20% of disease incidence of gray mold disease at 45 days after inoculation; and two accessions of L. saligna, K000598 and K000599, which are wild relatives of lettuce germplasm with loose-leaf type, showed complete resistance to B. cinerea. These four accessions are candidates for breeding lettuce cultivars resistant to gray mold disease. PMID:25288990

  6. 19 CFR 133.23 - Restrictions on importation of gray market articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restrictions on importation of gray market articles. 133.23 Section 133.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY TRADEMARKS, TRADE NAMES, AND COPYRIGHTS Importations Bearing Registered and/or Recorded Trademarks or...

  7. Synergistic Effects of Age on Patterns of White and Gray Matter Volume across Childhood and Adolescence1,2,3

    PubMed Central

    Krongold, Mark; Cooper, Cassandra; Lebel, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The human brain develops with a nonlinear contraction of gray matter across late childhood and adolescence with a concomitant increase in white matter volume. Across the adult population, properties of cortical gray matter covary within networks that may represent organizational units for development and degeneration. Although gray matter covariance may be strongest within structurally connected networks, the relationship to volume changes in white matter remains poorly characterized. In the present study we examined age-related trends in white and gray matter volume using T1-weighted MR images from 360 human participants from the NIH MRI study of Normal Brain Development. Images were processed through a voxel-based morphometry pipeline. Linear effects of age on white and gray matter volume were modeled within four age bins, spanning 4-18 years, each including 90 participants (45 male). White and gray matter age-slope maps were separately entered into k-means clustering to identify regions with similar age-related variability across the four age bins. Four white matter clusters were identified, each with a dominant direction of underlying fibers: anterior–posterior, left–right, and two clusters with superior–inferior directions. Corresponding, spatially proximal, gray matter clusters encompassed largely cerebellar, fronto-insular, posterior, and sensorimotor regions, respectively. Pairs of gray and white matter clusters followed parallel slope trajectories, with white matter changes generally positive from 8 years onward (indicating volume increases) and gray matter negative (decreases). As developmental disorders likely target networks rather than individual regions, characterizing typical coordination of white and gray matter development can provide a normative benchmark for understanding atypical development. PMID:26464999

  8. Grays River Watershed Restoration Status Report 2007, May 1, 2007 - October 30, 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanrahan, Tim

    2008-10-20

    The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Project 2003-013-00, 'Grays River Watershed Restoration', began in FY04 and continues into FY09. This status report is intended to summarize accomplishments during the period 1 May 2007 through 30 October 2008. Accomplishments are summarized by Work Elements, as detailed in the Statement of Work (see BPA's project management database PISCES). The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is collaborating with the Columbia River Estuary Task Force (CREST) on implementation of the Grays River Restoration Project. The Grays River is vitally important to the recovery of Lower Columbia River (LCR) chum salmon because it currently has the most viable population remaining in the LCR region. The Grays River watershed is also important to the recovery of salmon and steelhead in the LCR ecosystem. Today, numbers of naturally spawning salmon and steelhead have declined to levels far below historical numbers because of habitat limiting factors that include but are not limited to the lack of habitat connectivity, diversity, channel stability, riparian function and altered stream flow conditions. The objective of this project is to restore habitat-forming processes to enhance salmon and steelhead populations in the Grays River, following recommendations developed during the FY04-06 BPA-sponsored Grays River Watershed Assessment (BPA Project No. 2003-013-00). Specifically, this project will be the first step in restoring channel structure and function that will increase instream habitat diversity, channel stability, and riparian integrity in the critical response reach upstream and adjacent to critical salmon spawning areas of the Grays River. The major component of this strategy is the planning, design, installation, and monitoring of engineered logjams (ELJ) that will rejuvenate historic channel and floodplain processes. Additional restoration measures include reforesting the riparian corridor to enhance future large woody debris

  9. D-serine in the midbrain periaqueductal gray contributes to morphine tolerance in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Song; Sun, Mengjie; Li, Youyan

    2016-01-01

    Background The N-methyl-D-aspartate subtype of glutamate receptor plays a critical role in morphine tolerance. D-serine, a co-agonist of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor, participates in many physiological and pathophysiological processes via regulating N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation. The purinergic P2X7 receptor activation can induce the D-serine release in the central nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the role of the ventrolateral midbrain periaqueductal gray D-serine in the mechanism of morphine tolerance in rats. The development of morphine tolerance was induced in normal adult male Sprague–Dawley rats through subcutaneous injection of morphine (10 mg/kg). The analgesic effect of morphine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) was assessed by measuring mechanical withdrawal thresholds in rats with an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer. The D-serine concentration and serine racemase expression levels in the ventrolateral midbrain periaqueductal gray were evaluated through enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot analysis, respectively. The effects of intra-ventrolateral midbrain periaqueductal gray injections of the D-serine degrading enzyme D-amino acid oxidase and antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeting the P2X7 receptor on chronic morphine-treated rats were also explored. Results We found that repeated morphine administrations decreased the antinociceptive potency of morphine evidenced by the percent changes in mechanical pain threshold in rats. By contrast, the D-serine contents and the expression levels of the serine racemase protein were upregulated in the ventrolateral midbrain periaqueductal gray in morphine-tolerant rats. The development of morphine tolerance was markedly alleviated by intra-ventrolateral midbrain periaqueductal gray injections of D-amino acid oxidase or antisense oligodeoxynucleotide targeting the P2X7 receptor. Conclusions Our data indicate that the development of antinociceptive tolerance to morphine is partially

  10. Change in Brainstem Gray Matter Concentration Following a Mindfulness-Based Intervention is Correlated with Improvement in Psychological Well-Being

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Omar; Hölzel, Britta K.; Vangel, Mark; Brach, Narayan; Carmody, James; Lazar, Sara W.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals can improve their levels of psychological well-being (PWB) through utilization of psychological interventions, including the practice of mindfulness meditation, which is defined as the non-judgmental awareness of experiences in the present moment. We recently reported that an 8-week-mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) course lead to increases in gray matter concentration in several brain areas, as detected with voxel-based morphometry of magnetization prepared rapid acquisition gradient echo MRI scans, including the pons/raphe/locus coeruleus area of the brainstem. Given the role of the pons and raphe in mood and arousal, we hypothesized that changes in this region might underlie changes in well-being. A subset of 14 healthy individuals from a previously published data set completed anatomical MRI and filled out the PWB scale before and after MBSR participation. PWB change was used as the predictive regressor for changes in gray matter density within those brain regions that had previously shown pre- to post-MBSR changes. Results showed that scores on five PWB subscales as well as the PWB total score increased significantly over the MBSR course. The change was positively correlated with gray matter concentration increases in two symmetrically bilateral clusters in the brainstem. Those clusters appeared to contain the area of the pontine tegmentum, locus coeruleus, nucleus raphe pontis, and the sensory trigeminal nucleus. No clusters were negatively correlated with the change in PWB. This preliminary study suggests a neural correlate of enhanced PWB. The identified brain areas include the sites of synthesis and release of the neurotransmitters, norepinephrine and serotonin, which are involved in the modulation of arousal and mood, and have been related to a variety of affective functions as well as associated clinical dysfunctions. PMID:24600370

  11. Linking white matter and deep gray matter alterations in premanifest Huntington disease

    PubMed Central

    Faria, Andreia V.; Ratnanather, J. Tilak; Tward, Daniel J.; Lee, David Soobin; van den Noort, Frieda; Wu, Dan; Brown, Timothy; Johnson, Hans; Paulsen, Jane S.; Ross, Christopher A.; Younes, Laurent; Miller, Michael I.

    2016-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which only symptomatic treatment is available. A better understanding of the pathology, and identification of biomarkers will facilitate the development of disease-modifying treatments. HD is potentially a good model of a neurodegenerative disease for development of biomarkers because it is an autosomal-dominant disease with complete penetrance, caused by a single gene mutation, in which the neurodegenerative process can be assessed many years before onset of signs and symptoms of manifest disease. Previous MRI studies have detected abnormalities in gray and white matter starting in premanifest stages. However, the understanding of how these abnormalities are related, both in time and space, is still incomplete. In this study, we combined deep gray matter shape diffeomorphometry and white matter DTI analysis in order to provide a better mapping of pathology in the deep gray matter and subcortical white matter in premanifest HD. We used 296 MRI scans from the PREDICT-HD database. Atrophy in the deep gray matter, thalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens was analyzed by surface based morphometry, and while white matter abnormalities were analyzed in (i) regions of interest surrounding these structures, using (ii) tractography-based analysis, and using (iii) whole brain atlas-based analysis. We detected atrophy in the deep gray matter, particularly in putamen, from early premanifest stages. The atrophy was greater both in extent and effect size in cases with longer exposure to the effects of the CAG expansion mutation (as assessed by greater CAP-scores), and preceded detectible abnormalities in the white matter. Near the predicted onset of manifest HD, the MD increase was widespread, with highest indices in the deep and posterior white matter. This type of in-vivo macroscopic mapping of HD brain abnormalities can potentially indicate when and where therapeutics could be targeted to delay

  12. Soil biochemical properties in brown and gray mine soils with and without hydroseeding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-09-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with a herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After 6 years, the average tree volume index was nearly 10 times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray mine soils (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  13. Soil biochemical properties after six years in amended brown and gray mine soils in West Virginia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Sexstone, A.; Skousen, J.

    2015-06-01

    Surface coal mining in the eastern USA disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year and removes valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. Reclamation involves restoring the landscape to approximate original contour, replacing the topsoil, and revegetating the site with trees and herbaceous species to a designated post-mining land use. Re-establishing an ecosystem of ecological and economic value as well as restoring soil quality on disturbed sites are the goals of land reclamation, and microbial properties of mine soils can be indicators of restoration success. Reforestation plots were constructed in 2007 using weathered brown sandstone or unweathered gray sandstone as topsoil substitutes to evaluate tree growth and soil properties at Arch Coal's Birch River Mine in West Virginia, USA. All plots were planted with 12 hardwood tree species and subplots were hydroseeded with an herbaceous seed mix and fertilizer. After six years, average tree volume index was nearly ten times greater for trees grown in brown (3853 cm3) compared to gray mine soils (407 cm3). Average pH of brown mine soils increased from 4.7 to 5.0, while gray mine soils declined from 7.9 to 7.0. Hydroseeding doubled tree volume index and ground cover on both mine soils. Hydroseeding doubled microbial biomass carbon (MBC) on brown mine soils (8.7 vs. 17.5 mg kg-1), but showed no effect on gray (13.3 vs. 12.8 mg kg-1). Hydroseeding also increased the ratio of MBC to soil organic C in both soils and more than tripled the ratio for potentially mineralizable nitrogen (PMN) to total N. Brown mine soils were a better growth medium than gray mine soils and hydroseeding was an important component of reclamation due to improved biochemical properties and microbial activity in mine soils.

  14. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Matsudaira, Izumi; Yokota, Susumu; Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old). We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between a specific

  15. The Narrow Niche hypothesis: gray squirrels shed new light on primate origins.

    PubMed

    Orkin, Joseph D; Pontzer, Herman

    2011-04-01

    Current hypotheses for primate origins propose that nails and primate-like grasping hands and feet were important early adaptations for feeding in fine branches. Comparative research in this area has focused on instances of convergence in extant animals, showing that species with primate-like morphology feed predominantly from terminal branches. Little has been done to test whether animals without primate-like morphology engage in similar behavior. We tested the fine-branch niche hypothesis for primate origins by observing branch use in Eastern gray squirrels, Sciurus carolinensis, a species lacking primate grasping adaptations that has been understudied in the context of primate origins. We hypothesized that because gray squirrels lack primate-like grasping adaptations, they would avoid feeding and foraging in terminal branches. Instantaneous focal animal sampling was used to examine the locomotor and postural behaviors used while feeding and foraging. Our results demonstrate habitual and effective usage of terminal branches by gray squirrels while feeding and foraging, primarily on tree seeds (e.g., oak, maple, and elm). Discriminant function analysis indicates that gray squirrels feed and forage like primates, unlike some other tree squirrel species. Given the absence of primate-like features in gray squirrels, we suggest that although selection for fine-branch foraging may be a necessary condition for primate origins, it is not sufficient. We propose an alternative model of primate origins. The Narrow Niche hypothesis suggests that the primate morphological suite evolved not only from selection pressure for fine branch use, but also from a lack of engagement in other activities. PMID:21404237

  16. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Matsudaira, Izumi; Yokota, Susumu; Hashimoto, Teruo; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Kohei; Asano, Michiko; Sassa, Yuko; Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2016-01-01

    A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old). We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between a specific

  17. Hardwood tree growth after eight years on brown and gray mine soils in west virginia.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Kokes, L; Emerson, P; Delong, C; Thomas, C; Skousen, J

    2013-09-01

    Surface coal mining in Appalachia disturbs hundreds of hectares of land every year with the removal of valuable and ecologically diverse eastern deciduous forests. After the passage of the Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act in 1977, coal mine operators began planting a variety of grasses and legumes as a fast and economical way to reestablish a permanent vegetative cover to meet erosion and site stabilization requirements. However, soil compaction and competitive forage species have arrested the recolonization of native hardwood tree species on these reclaimed sites. Three 2.8-ha demonstration plots were established at Catenary Coal's Samples Mine in Kanawha County, West Virginia, of weathered brown sandstone and unweathered gray sandstone. Half of each plot was compacted. Each plot was hydroseeded with a low-competition herbaceous cover and planted with 11 hardwood tree species. After eight growing seasons, average tree volume index was nearly 10 times greater for trees grown in the brown sandstone treatments, 3853 cm, compared with 407 cm in gray sandstone. Trees growing on compacted treatments had a lower mean volume index, 2281 cm, than trees growing on uncompacted treatments, 3899 cm. Average pH of brown sandstone was 5.2 to 5.7, while gray sandstone was 7.9. The gray sandstone had much lower fine soil fraction (<2-mm) content (40%) than brown sandstone (70%), which influenced nutrient- and water-holding capacity. Brown sandstone showed significantly greater tree growth and survival and at this stage is a more suitable topsoil substitute than gray sandstone on this site. PMID:24216413

  18. Home range characteristics of great gray owls in Yosemite National Park, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Riper, Charles, III; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.

    2006-01-01

    We studied home range and habitat use of radio-tagged Great Gray Owls (Strix nebulosa) in Yosemite, California. From 1986–90 we made 5338 relocations on nine adult and three juvenile owls. Home-range size was not correlated with number of locations and was significantly different between breeding and nonbreeding periods. Breeding female summer home range averaged 61.47 ha and during the winter 2457.27 ha, while males average 19.89 and 2112.87 ha, respectively. Juveniles and nonbreeding birds had home-range sizes intermediate between seasonal values of breeding owls. Home ranges for California Great Gray Owls were larger than has been recorded for all studies in North America, but smaller than in Europe. All owls were found to have intensive high-use activity centers (x− = 17.56 ha) in summer, with use patterns influenced primarily by meadows. Over 60% of all relocations occurred within 100 m of a meadow. Great Gray Owls habitat usage during summer was concentrated in fir (Abies spp.) and lodgepole (Pinus contorta) habitat types, while during the winter, birds moved to lower elevations into Sierra mixed conifer habitats. This post-breeding movement was the cause of the large nonbreeding home ranges. During winter, paired birds did not remain together, even though all birds moved to lower elevation habitats below deep snow-pack levels. We suggest that Great Gray Owls in California have responded to the relatively hot and southern habitat with unique adaptations that have allowed several local populations to persist within the upper montane Sierra Nevada forest zone. The protection of meadow foraging habitat, as well as nesting locations, will be important for the continued preservation of this southernmost North American population of Great Gray Owls in Yosemite National Park.

  19. Video-rate fuzzy Golay processor for wafer scale integration

    SciTech Connect

    Steinvorth, R.H.

    1987-01-01

    The fuzzy Golay transformation is a novel approach for gray-level image processing. Fuzzy-set theory is used to modify the binary image processing techniques developed by M. J. Golay to permit direct gray-level image processing without thresholding. The comparison between gray-level pixels is accomplished with the Pixel Closeness Value (PCV) while comparison between gray-level neighborhoods uses the Neighborhood Closeness Value (NCV). Feature extraction is done by comparing the gray-level image neighborhood to a subset of the fourteen Golay neighborhoods using the NCV function. The Fuzzy Golay Processor (FGP) is an architecture designed to implement the fuzzy Golay transformation. The design of the FGP has been optimized to permit a successful implementation in Wafer Scale Integration (WSI). A system containing four FGPs is capable of performing thirty fuzzy Golay transformations per second on a 256 by 256 eight-bit pixel image. Such a system could fit on a four-inch wafer with enough redundant dies to allow a 30% die yield. The required dies are four Input-Output Modules (IOM) and 56 Neighborhood Evaluation Modules (NEM).

  20. The Genome of Black Cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray)

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, Gerald A; DiFazio, Stephen P; Jansson, Bo S; Bohlmann, J.; Grigoriev, I.; Hellsten, U.; Putman, N.; Ralph, S.; Rombauts, S.; Salamov, A.; Schein, J.; Sterck, L.; Aerts, A.; Bhalerao, R. R.; Bhalerao, Rishikesh P; Blaudez, D.; Boerjan, W.; Brun, A.; Brunner, A.; Busov, V.; Campbell, M.; Larimer, Frank W; Detter, J C; Richardson, P M; Chen, Gwo-Liang; Gunter, Lee E; Kalluri, Udaya C; LoCascio, Philip F; Uberbacher, Edward C; Yin, Tongming

    2006-01-01

    We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. More than 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event; about 8000 pairs of duplicated genes from that event survived in the Populus genome. A second, older duplication event is indistinguishably coincident with the divergence of the Populus and Arabidopsis lineages. Nucleotide substitution, tandem gene duplication, and gross chromosomal rearrangement appear to proceed substantially more slowly in Populus than in Arabidopsis. Populus has more protein-coding genes than Arabidopsis, ranging on average from 1.4 to 1.6 putative Populus homologs for each Arabidopsis gene. However, the relative frequency of protein domains in the two genomes is similar. Overrepresented exceptions in Populus include genes associated with lignocellulosic wall biosynthesis, meristem development, disease resistance, and metabolite transport.

  1. The Genome of Black Cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuskan, G. A.; DiFazio, S.; Jansson, S.; Bohlmann, J.; Grigoriev, I.; Hellsten, U.; Putnam, N.; Ralph, S.; Rombauts, S.; Salamov, A.; Schein, J.; Sterck, L.; Aerts, A.; Bhalerao, R. R.; Bhalerao, R. P.; Blaudez, D.; Boerjan, W.; Brun, A.; Brunner, A.; Busov, V.; Campbell, M.; Carlson, J.; Chalot, M.; Chapman, J.; Chen, G.-L.; Cooper, D.; Coutinho, P. M.; Couturier, J.; Covert, S.; Cronk, Q.; Cunningham, R.; Davis, J.; Degroeve, S.; Déjardin, A.; dePamphilis, C.; Detter, J.; Dirks, B.; Dubchak, I.; Duplessis, S.; Ehlting, J.; Ellis, B.; Gendler, K.; Goodstein, D.; Gribskov, M.; Grimwood, J.; Groover, A.; Gunter, L.; Hamberger, B.; Heinze, B.; Helariutta, Y.; Henrissat, B.; Holligan, D.; Holt, R.; Huang, W.; Islam-Faridi, N.; Jones, S.; Jones-Rhoades, M.; Jorgensen, R.; Joshi, C.; Kangasjärvi, J.; Karlsson, J.; Kelleher, C.; Kirkpatrick, R.; Kirst, M.; Kohler, A.; Kalluri, U.; Larimer, F.; Leebens-Mack, J.; Leplé, J.-C.; Locascio, P.; Lou, Y.; Lucas, S.; Martin, F.; Montanini, B.; Napoli, C.; Nelson, D. R.; Nelson, C.; Nieminen, K.; Nilsson, O.; Pereda, V.; Peter, G.; Philippe, R.; Pilate, G.; Poliakov, A.; Razumovskaya, J.; Richardson, P.; Rinaldi, C.; Ritland, K.; Rouzé, P.; Ryaboy, D.; Schmutz, J.; Schrader, J.; Segerman, B.; Shin, H.; Siddiqui, A.; Sterky, F.; Terry, A.; Tsai, C.-J.; Uberbacher, E.; Unneberg, P.; Vahala, J.; Wall, K.; Wessler, S.; Yang, G.; Yin, T.; Douglas, C.; Marra, M.; Sandberg, G.; Van de Peer, Y.; Rokhsar, D.

    2006-09-01

    We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. More than 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event; about 8000 pairs of duplicated genes from that event survived in the Populus genome. A second, older duplication event is indistinguishably coincident with the divergence of the Populus and Arabidopsis lineages. Nucleotide substitution, tandem gene duplication, and gross chromosomal rearrangement appear to proceed substantially more slowly in Populus than in Arabidopsis. Populus has more protein-coding genes than Arabidopsis, ranging on average from 1.4 to 1.6 putative Populus homologs for each Arabidopsis gene. However, the relative frequency of protein domains in the two genomes is similar. Overrepresented exceptions in Populus include genes associated with lignocellulosic wall biosynthesis, meristem development, disease resistance, and metabolite transport.

  2. The genome of black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr.&Gray)

    SciTech Connect

    Tuskan, G.A.; DiFazio, S.; Jansson, S.; Bohlmann, J.; Grigoriev,I.; Hellsten, U.; Putnam, N.; Ralph, S.; Rombauts, S.; Salamov, A.; Schein, J.; Sterck, L.; Aerts, A.; Bhalerao, R.R.; Bhalerao, R.P.; Blaudez, D.; Boerjan, W.; Brun, A.; Brunner, A.; Busov, V.; Campbell, M.; Carlson, J.; Chalot, M.; Chapman, J.; Chen, G.-L.; Cooper, D.; Coutinho,P.M.; Couturier, J.; Covert, S.; Cronk, Q.; Cunningham, R.; Davis, J.; Degroeve, S.; Dejardin, A.; dePamphillis, C.; Detter, J.; Dirks, B.; Dubchak, I.; Duplessis, S.; Ehiting, J.; Ellis, B.; Gendler, K.; Goodstein, D.; Gribskov, M.; Grimwood, J.; Groover, A.; Gunter, L.; Hamberger, B.; Heinze, B.; Helariutta, Y.; Henrissat, B.; Holligan, D.; Holt, R.; Huang, W.; Islam-Faridi, N.; Jones, S.; Jones-Rhoades, M.; Jorgensen, R.; Joshi, C.; Kangasjarvi, J.; Karlsson, J.; Kelleher, C.; Kirkpatrick, R.; Kirst, M.; Kohler, A.; Kalluri, U.; Larimer, F.; Leebens-Mack, J.; Leple, J.-C.; Locascio, P.; Lou, Y.; Lucas, S.; Martin,F.; Montanini, B.; Napoli, C.; Nelson, D.R.; Nelson, D.; Nieminen, K.; Nilsson, O.; Peter, G.; Philippe, R.; Pilate, G.; Poliakov, A.; Razumovskaya, J.; Richardson, P.; Rinaldi, C.; Ritland, K.; Rouze, P.; Ryaboy, D.; Schmutz, J.; Schrader, J.; Segerman, B.; Shin, H.; Siddiqui,A.; Sterky, F.; Terry, A.; Tsai, C.; Uberbacher, E.; Unneberg, P.; Vahala, J.; Wall, K.; Wessler, S.; Yang, G.; Yin, T.; Douglas, C.; Marra,M.; Sandberg, G.; Van der Peer, Y.; Rokhsar, D.

    2006-09-01

    We report the draft genome of the black cottonwood tree, Populus trichocarpa. Integration of shotgun sequence assembly with genetic mapping enabled chromosome-scale reconstruction of the genome. Over 45,000 putative protein-coding genes were identified. Analysis of the assembled genome revealed a whole-genome duplication event, with approximately 8,000 pairs of duplicated genes from that event surviving in the Populus genome. A second, older duplication event is indistinguishably coincident with the divergence of the Populus and Arabidopsis lineages. Nucleotide substitution, tandem gene duplication and gross chromosomal rearrangement appear to proceed substantially slower in Populus relative to Arabidopsis. Populus has more protein-coding genes than Arabidopsis, ranging on average between 1.4-1.6 putative Populus homologs for each Arabidopsis gene. However, the relative frequency of protein domains in the two genomes is similar. Overrepresented exceptions in Populus include genes associated with disease resistance, meristem development, metabolite transport and lignocellulosic wall biosynthesis.

  3. Sex differences in orbito-frontal gray as a partial explanation for sex differences in antisocial personality

    PubMed Central

    Raine, Adrian; Yang, Yaling; Narr, Katherine L.; Toga, Arthur W.

    2009-01-01

    Attention is increasingly being given to understanding sex difference in psychopathology to better understand the etiology of disorders. This study tests the hypothesis that sex differences in ventral and middle frontal gray volume contribute to sex differences in antisocial personality disorder and crime. Participants were recruited from temporary employment agencies, consisting of normal controls, substance / alcohol dependent controls, Axis I/II psychiatric controls, and individuals with antisocial personality disorder (APD). An independent sample of female volunteers was also recruited. MRI volumes of superior frontal, middle frontal, inferior frontal, orbital frontal, and rectal gyral frontal gray matter, and dimensional scores of APD and criminal behavior. APD males compared to male controls showed an 8.7 % reduction in orbitofrontal gray volume, a 17.3% reduction in middle frontal gray, and a 16.1% reduction in right rectal gray. Reduced middle and orbito-frontal volumes were significantly associated with increased APD symptoms and criminal offending in both males and females. Males as a whole had reduced orbitofrontal and middle frontal gray volume compared to females, and controlling for these brain differences reduced the gender difference in antisocial personality/behavior by 77.3%. Findings were not a function of psychiatric comorbidity, psychosocial risk factors, head injury, or trauma exposure. Findings implicate structural differences in the ventral and middle frontal gray as both a risk factor for antisocial personality disorder and as a partial explanation for sex differences in antisocial personality disorder. PMID:20029391

  4. Brain Gray Matter Changes Associated with Mindfulness Meditation in Older Adults: An Exploratory Pilot Study using Voxel-based Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Kurth, Florian; Luders, Eileen; Wu, Brian; Black, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have previously been associated with structural gray matter changes in normal healthy adults. However, it remains unknown if standardized MBIs can induce similar changes in older adults and those with health complaints as well. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effect of a standardized MBI on the gray matter tissue of older adults with sleep disturbances. Methods This exploratory single-group pilot longitudinal study examined local gray matter changes over a six-week MBI period. Participants included six older adult community volunteers (M=66.5 years of age, SD=5.5, range=58–75; 66% female) with sleep disturbances recruited through advertisement in local newspapers/flyers posted at a university medical center and affiliated clinics in Los Angeles, CA. The MBI was delivered as a weekly, two-hour, six-session, group-based course in mindfulness meditation. Gray matter was measured voxel-wise pre- and post-intervention. Results A significant gray matter increase was identified within the precuneus, possibly implicating meditation-induced changes of the default mode network. In contrast, observed significant gray matter decreases may have been driven by MBI-related remediation of brain architecture subserving sleep complaints. Conclusions Exploratory findings suggest that mindfulness meditation practice is associated with a detectable alteration of cerebral gray matter in older adults. PMID:25632405

  5. Eye, nose, hair, and throat: external anatomy of the head of a neonate gray whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Eschrichtiidae).

    PubMed

    Berta, Annalisa; Ekdale, Eric G; Zellmer, Nicholas T; Deméré, Thomas A; Kienle, Sarah S; Smallcomb, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    Information is scarce on gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) anatomy and that of mysticetes in general. Dissection of the head of a neonatal gray whale revealed novel anatomical details of the eye, blowhole, incisive papilla with associated nasopalatine ducts, sensory hairs, and throat grooves. Compared to a similar sized right whale calf, the gray whale eyeball is nearly twice as long. The nasal cartilages of the gray whale, located between the blowholes, differ from the bowhead in having accessory cartilages. A small, fleshy incisive papilla bordered by two blind nasopalatine pits near the palate's rostral tip, previously undescribed in gray whales, may be associated with the vomeronasal organ, although histological evidence is needed for definitive identification. Less well known among mysticetes are the numerous elongated, stiff sensory hairs (vibrissae) observed on the gray whale rostrum from the ventral tip to the blowhole and on the mandible. These hairs are concentrated on the chin, and those on the lower jaw are arranged in a V-shaped pattern. We confirm the presence of two primary, anteriorly converging throat grooves, confined to the throat region similar to those of ziphiid and physeteroid odontocetes. A third, shorter groove occurs lateral to the left primary groove. The throat grooves in the gray whale have been implicated in gular expansion during suction feeding. PMID:25737431

  6. Fine-grained Goethite as a Precursor for Martian Gray Hematite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glotch, T. D.; Morris, R. V.; Sharp, T. G.; Christensen, P. R.

    2003-01-01

    Several isolated deposits of gray, crystalline hematite on Mars were discovered using data returned from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) instrument aboard the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft. Christensen et al. provided five testable hypotheses regarding the formation of crystalline hematite on Mars: 1) low-temperature precipitation of Fe oxides/hydroxides from standing, oxygenated, Fe-rich water, followed by subsequent alteration to gray hematite, 2) low-temperature leaching of iron-bearing silicates and other materials leaving a Fe-rich residue laterite-style weathering) which is subsequently altered to gray hematite, 3) direct precipitation of gray hematite from Fe-rich circulating fluids of hydrothermal or other origin, 4) formation of gray hematitic surface coatings during weathering, and 5) thermal oxidation of magnetite-rich lavas. Since this initial work, several authors have examined the hematite deposits to determine their formation mechanism. Lane et al. cited the absence of a 390/ cm absorption in the martian hematite spectrum as evidence for platy hematite grains. Their model for the formation of the deposits includes deposition of any of a variety of iron oxides or oxyhydroxides by aqueous or hydrothermal fluids, burial and metamorphosis to gray platy hematite grains, and exhumation in recent times. Based on a detailed geomorphic examination of the Sinus Meridiani region, Hynek et al. conclude that the most likely method of hematite formation was either emplacement by a hydrothermal fluid or oxidation of a magnetite-rich pyroclastic deposit. Similarly, Arvidson et al., favor a model involving the alteration of pyroclastic deposits by aqueous or hydrothermal fluids. Finally, based on geochemical modeling and an examination of Aram Chaos, Catling and Moore favor emplacement by hydrothermal fluids with a minimum temperature of 100 C. Comparison of the average martian hematite spectrum measured by TES to hematite emissivity spectra for a variety

  7. Surface-based reconstruction and diffusion MRI in the assessment of gray and white matter damage in multiple sclerosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffini, Matteo; Bergsland, Niels; LaganÃ, Marcella; Tavazzi, Eleonora; Tortorella, Paola; Rovaris, Marco; Baselli, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Despite advances in the application of nonconventional MRI techniques in furthering the understanding of multiple sclerosis pathogenic mechanisms, there are still many unanswered questions, such as the relationship between gray and white matter damage. We applied a combination of advanced surface-based reconstruction and diffusion tensor imaging techniques to address this issue. We found significant relationships between white matter tract integrity indices and corresponding cortical structures. Our results suggest a direct link between damage in white and gray matter and contribute to the notion of gray matter loss relating to clinical disability.

  8. Multifractal analysis of 2D gray soil images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Torres, Ivan; Losada, Juan Carlos; Heck, Richard; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2015-04-01

    Soil Images. Nonlinear Process in Geophysics, 15, 881-891, 2008. Tarquis, A.M., R.J. Heck, D. Andina, A. Alvarez and J.M. Antón. Multifractal analysis and thresholding of 3D soil images. Ecological Complexity, 6, 230-239, 2009. Tarquis, A.M.; D. Giménez, A. Saa, M.C. Díaz. and J.M. Gascó. Scaling and Multiscaling of Soil Pore Systems Determined by Image Analysis. Scaling Methods in Soil Systems. Pachepsky, Radcliffe and Selim Eds., 19-33, 2003. CRC Press, Boca Ratón, Florida. Acknowledgements First author acknowledges the financial support obtained from Soil Imaging Laboratory (University of Gueplh, Canada) in 2014.

  9. Efficacy of Combined Formulations of Fungicides with Different Modes of Action in Controlling Botrytis Gray Mold Disease in Chickpea

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, M. H.; Hossain, M. Ashraf; Kashem, M. A.; Kumar, Shiv; Rafii, M. Y.; Latif, M. A.

    2014-01-01

    Botrytis gray mold (BGM) caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers. Ex. Fr. is an extremely devastating disease of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) and has a regional as well as an international perspective. Unfortunately, nonchemical methods for its control are weak and ineffective. In order to identify an effective control measure, six fungicides with different modes of action were evaluated on a BGM susceptible chickpea variety BARIchhola-1 at a high BGM incidence location (Madaripur) in Bangladesh for three years (2008, 2009, and 2010). Among the six fungicides tested, one was protectant [Vondozeb 42SC, a.i. mancozeb (0.2%)], two systemic [Bavistin 50 WP, a.i. carbendazim (0.2%), and Protaf 250EC, propiconazole (0.05%)], and three combination formulations [Acrobat MZ690, dimethomorph 9% + mancozeb 60%, (0.2%); Secure 600 WG, phenomadone + mancozeb (0.2%); and Companion, mancozeb 63% + carbendazim 12% (0.2%)]. The results showed superiority of combination formulations involving both protectant and systemic fungicides over the sole application of either fungicide separately. Among the combination fungicides, Companion was most effective, resulting in the lowest disease severity (3.33 score on 1–9 scale) and the highest increase (38%) of grain yield in chickpea. Therefore, this product could be preferred over the sole application of either solo protectant or systemic fungicides to reduce yield losses and avoid fungicide resistance. PMID:24723819

  10. Decreased bilateral thalamic gray matter volume in first-episode schizophrenia with prominent hallucinatory symptoms: A volumetric MRI study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Peng; Xi, Yibin; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Chen, Yunchun; Li, Xiangrui; Li, Weiguo; Zhu, Xia; Cui, Long-Biao; Tan, Qingrong; Liu, Wenming; Li, Chen; Miao, Danmin; Yin, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Studies comparing gray matter (GM) volume of schizophrenic patients with or without auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs) to that of normal controls remain controversial. This project aims to investigate changes of GM volumes of drug-naïve schizophrenic patients with and without AVHs. Eighteen first episode schizophrenic (FES) patients with AVHs, 18 FES patients without AVHs, and 18 healthy controls were scanned using structural MRI. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis was conducted to investigate changes of GM volume among the three groups. Patients with and without AVHs exhibited reduced GM volumes relative to normal controls in the left superior temporal gyrus, frontal regions, cerebellum and caudate. Further analysis of the GM of subcortical structures found that patients with AVHs had reduced thalamic volume than healthy controls. No significant difference was found between patients with and without AVHs. Significant correlation was found between the total scores of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and bilateral thalamic volume. ROC analysis of thalamic volumes of the patients with AVHs and normal controls showed that the area under the curve was 0.698 (P = 0.043). The decreased thalamic volumes might serve as a biomarker for discriminating FES AVHs patients from normals. PMID:26403064

  11. Relation between injury of the periaqueductal gray and central pain in patients with mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Sung Ho; Park, So Min; Kwon, Hyeok Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The periaqueductal gray (PAG) plays a pivotal role in pain modulation. We attempted to examine the relation between injury of the PAG and central pain in patients with mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). Sixty-one patients with mild TBI with central pain and 31 healthy control subjects were recruited for this study. Visual analog scale (VAS) was used for evaluation of central pain. The region of interest was defined for the PAG and the fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were measured. The FA value was significantly lower in the patient group than in the control group (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference in the ADC value was observed between the patient and control groups (P > 0.05). VAS score of the patient group showed significant moderate negative correlation with the FA (r = −0.38), while no significant correlation was observed between VAS score and the ADC value (P < 0.05). We demonstrated injury of the PAG in patients with central pain following mild TBI and the degree of injury of the PAG was closely related to the degree of central pain. PMID:27368020

  12. Critically endangered western gray whales migrate to the eastern North Pacific

    PubMed Central

    Mate, Bruce R.; Ilyashenko, Valentin Yu.; Bradford, Amanda L.; Vertyankin, Vladimir V.; Tsidulko, Grigory A.; Rozhnov, Vyacheslav V.; Irvine, Ladd M.

    2015-01-01

    Western North Pacific gray whales (WGWs), once considered extinct, are critically endangered with unknown migratory routes and reproductive areas. We attached satellite-monitored tags to seven WGWs on their primary feeding ground off Sakhalin Island, Russia, three of which subsequently migrated to regions occupied by non-endangered eastern gray whales (EGWs). A female with the longest-lasting tag visited all three major EGW reproductive areas off Baja California, Mexico, before returning to Sakhalin Island the following spring. Her 22 511 km round-trip is the longest documented mammal migration and strongly suggests that some presumed WGWs are actually EGWs foraging in areas historically attributed to WGWs. The observed migration routes provide evidence of navigational skills across open water that break the near-shore north–south migratory paradigm of EGWs. Despite evidence of genetic differentiation, these tagging data indicate that the population identity of whales off Sakhalin Island needs further evaluation. PMID:25878049

  13. Critically endangered western gray whales migrate to the eastern North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Mate, Bruce R; Ilyashenko, Valentin Yu; Bradford, Amanda L; Vertyankin, Vladimir V; Tsidulko, Grigory A; Rozhnov, Vyacheslav V; Irvine, Ladd M

    2015-04-01

    Western North Pacific gray whales (WGWs), once considered extinct, are critically endangered with unknown migratory routes and reproductive areas. We attached satellite-monitored tags to seven WGWs on their primary feeding ground off Sakhalin Island, Russia, three of which subsequently migrated to regions occupied by non-endangered eastern gray whales (EGWs). A female with the longest-lasting tag visited all three major EGW reproductive areas off Baja California, Mexico, before returning to Sakhalin Island the following spring. Her 22 511 km round-trip is the longest documented mammal migration and strongly suggests that some presumed WGWs are actually EGWs foraging in areas historically attributed to WGWs. The observed migration routes provide evidence of navigational skills across open water that break the near-shore north-south migratory paradigm of EGWs. Despite evidence of genetic differentiation, these tagging data indicate that the population identity of whales off Sakhalin Island needs further evaluation. PMID:25878049

  14. Mercury in gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska: Increased exposure through consumption of marine prey

    PubMed Central

    McGrew, Ashley K.; Ballweber, Lora R.; Moses, Sara K.; Stricker, Craig A.; Beckmen, Kimberlee B.; Salman, Mo D.; O’Hara, Todd M.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) bioaccumulates in the tissues of organisms and biomagnifies within food-webs. Gray wolves (Canis lupus) in Alaska primarily acquire Hg through diet; therefore, comparing the extent of Hg exposure in wolves, in conjunction with stable isotopes, from interior and coastal regions of Alaska offers important insight into their feeding ecology. Liver, kidney, and skeletal muscle samples from 162 gray wolves were analyzed for total mercury (THg) concentrations and stable isotopic signatures (δ13C, δ15N, and δ34S). Median hepatic THg concentrations were significantly higher in wolves with coastal access compared to wolves from interior Alaska. Stable isotope ratios, in conjunction with THg concentrations, provide strong evidence that coastal wolves are utilizing marine prey representing several trophic levels. The utilization of cross-ecosystem food resources by coastal wolves is clearly contributing to increased THg exposure, and may ultimately have negative health implications for these animals. PMID:24056451

  15. Gray-molasses cooling of 39K to a high phase-space density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomon, G.; Fouché, L.; Wang, P.; Aspect, A.; Bouyer, P.; Bourdel, T.

    2013-12-01

    We present new techniques in cooling 39K atoms using laser light close to the D1 transition. First, a new compressed-MOT configuration is taking advantage of gray-molasses-type cooling induced by blue-detuned D1 light. It yields an optimized density of atoms. Then, we use pure D1 gray molasses to further cool the atoms to an ultra-low temperature of 6\\ \\mu\\text{K} . The resulting phase-space density is 2\\times 10^{-4} and will ease future experiments with ultracold potassium. As an example, we use it to directly load up to 3\\times 10^7 atoms in a far detuned optical trap, a result that opens the way to the all-optical production of potassium degenerate gases.

  16. Production and Machining of Thin Wall Gray and Ductile Cast Iron

    SciTech Connect

    Fleischman, E.H.; Li, H.; Griffin, R.; Bates, C.E.; Eleftheriou, E.

    2000-11-03

    The University of Alabama at Birmingham, in cooperation with the American Foundry Society, companies across North America, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, is conducting a project to develop an understanding of the factors that control the machinability of cast gray and ductile iron. Differences of as much as 500% have been found in machinability have been observed at the same strength. The most machinable irons were those with a high cell counts and few carbonitride inclusions. Additions of tin and copper can be added to both gray and ductile iron to stabilize the pearlite, but excessive additions (above those required to produce the desired pearlite content) degrade the machinability.

  17. Evaluation of conditions necessary for successful bioprocessing of gray water in a microgravity environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, James E.; Supra, Laura; MacKnight, Allen

    2000-01-01

    A unique combination of researchers are investigating biological and engineering aspects of a biological wastewater treatment system which could effectively function to treat gray water in a microgravity environment such as that on the International Space Station and human-occupied interplanetary spacecraft. As part of the effort, 23 bacterial strains have been isolated from a bioprocessor operating at unit gravity and various strain combinations have been tested in microgravity for survivability and reduction of total organic carbon in ersatz gray water. All tested strains survive equally well in microgravity and unit gravity and each is capable of reducing TOC in microgravity. While the results reported are encouraging, they also reveal that current testing procedures and equipment are inadequate for fully evaluating bioprocessing in microgravity. .

  18. Extensive learning is associated with gray matter changes in the right hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Koch, Kathrin; Reess, Tim Jonas; Rus, Oana Georgiana; Zimmer, Claus

    2016-01-15

    Longitudinal voxel-based morphometry studies have demonstrated increases in gray matter volume in hippocampal areas following extensive cognitive learning. Moreover, there is increasing evidence for the relevance of the subiculum in the context of learning and memory. Using longitudinal FreeSurfer analyses and hippocampus subfield segmentation the present study investigated the effects of 14weeks of intensive learning on hippocampal and subicular gray matter volume in a sample of medical students compared to control subjects not engaged in any cognitive learning activities. We found that extensive learning resulted in a significant increase of right hippocampal volume. Volume of the left hippocampus and the subiculum remained unchanged. The current findings emphasize the role of the hippocampus in semantic learning and memory processes and provide further evidence for the neuroplastic ability of the hippocampus in the context of cognitive learning. PMID:26518629

  19. Gray Matter Characteristics in Mid and Old Aged Adults with ASD.

    PubMed

    Koolschijn, P Cédric M P; Geurts, Hilde M

    2016-08-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the brain anatomy of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows a different developmental pattern then typical age-matched peers. There is however, a paucity of studies examining gray matter in mid and late adulthood in ASD. In this cross-sectional neuroimaging study, we, performed vertex-wise whole-brain and region-of-interest analyses of cortical volume, thickness, surface area, and gyrification index in 51 adults with and 49 without ASD, between 30 and 75 years. There was significant age-related volume loss and cortical thinning, but there were no group differences. The lack of significant anatomical differences between intellectual able individuals with and without ASD, suggests that ASD is not (strongly) related to gray matter morphology in mid and late adulthood. PMID:27177894

  20. The 21st LH Gray Conference (June 4-6, 2008)

    SciTech Connect

    C. M. L. West; Martin, C. J.; Sutton, D. G.; Wright, E. G.

    2009-01-12

    The 21st LH Gray Conference, organised by the LH Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics which included: non-targeted effects of radiation, exposure to high natural background radiation, non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, lessons learnt from Chernobyl, radiation in the workplace, biokinetic modelling, uncertainties in risk estimation, issues in diagnostic medical exposures, lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and how the radiobiology-radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today.

  1. Physical activity and memory functions: are neurotrophins and cerebral gray matter volume the missing link?

    PubMed

    Flöel, A; Ruscheweyh, R; Krüger, K; Willemer, C; Winter, B; Völker, K; Lohmann, H; Zitzmann, M; Mooren, F; Breitenstein, C; Knecht, S

    2010-02-01

    Epidemiological studies reveal better cognitive function in physically active individuals. Possible mediators for this effect are neurotrophins, which are up-regulated through physical exercise and induce neuronal growth and synaptogenesis in the animal model. Here we cross-sectionally assessed 75 healthy older individuals for levels of physical activity, aerobic fitness, and memory encoding, as well as neurotrophin levels and cerebral gray matter volume. We found that physical activity, but not cardiovascular fitness, was associated with better memory encoding after controlling for age, sex, education, depression, alcohol consumption, and smoking. Higher levels of physical activity were associated with higher levels of the neurotrophin granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) and increased cerebral gray matter volume in prefrontal and cingulate cortex as assessed by magnetic resonance voxel-based morphometry. While mediating factors will need to be further elucidated, these findings indicate that even low-level physical activity exerts beneficial effects on memory functions in older individuals. PMID:19853041

  2. Age-related hair changes in men: mechanisms and management of alopecia and graying.

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, Paradi

    2015-01-01

    The appearance of human scalp hair is often tied to perceptions of youth and virility, especially in men. Hair loss, or alopecia and hair graying are commonly associated with advancing age and are frequently a source for emotional distress and anxiety. Our understanding of the complex molecular signals and mechanisms that regulate and influence the hair follicle has expanded in recent years. By harnessing this understanding we are poised to address the esthetic concerns of aging hair. Additionally, changes in the hair follicle may be a reflection of systemic senescent signals, thus because of its accessibility, the hair follicle may serve as an important research tool in gerontology. In this review, the most current knowledge and research regarding mechanisms of androgenetic alopecia, senescent alopecia, and graying are discussed, as are extrinsic factors that may contribute to hair changes with age. Evidence based management strategies for treatment of age-related hair changes are also reviewed. PMID:25466305

  3. Object permanence in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    PubMed

    Fiset, Sylvain; Plourde, Vickie

    2013-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that phylogenetic constraints exerted on dogs by the process of domestication have altered the ability of dogs to represent the physical world and the displacement of objects. In this study, invisible (Experiment 1) and visible (Experiment 2) displacement problems were administered to determine whether domestic dogs' and gray wolves' cognitive capacities to infer the position of a hidden object differ. The results revealed that adult dogs and wolves performed similarly in searching for disappearing objects: Both species succeeded the visible displacement tasks but failed the invisible displacement problems. We conclude that physical cognition for finding hidden objects in domestic dogs and gray wolves is alike and unrelated to the process of domestication. PMID:23106804

  4. Self-correction phase unwrapping method based on Gray-code light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Dongliang; Da, Feipeng

    2012-08-01

    Gray-code light projection phase unwrapping method combined with phase shift technique can test objects with complex or discontinuous surface. But the captured Gray-code patterns are always not sharp cut-off in the black and white conversion boundaries, which may introduce wrong decoding phase order and lead to 2π phase errors in the unwrapped phase. In the experiment, each of the wrong phase order jumps is limited in the range of some pixels distance difference from its nearest 2π phase jump along the X direction in the wrapped phase. These phase jumps are used to correct the decoding results in order to avoid 2π phase errors. A self-correction phase unwrapping method is proposed which can yield reliable unwrapped phase for 3-D shape measurement.

  5. Paralimbic Gray Matter Reductions in Incarcerated Adolescent Females with Psychopathic Traits

    PubMed Central

    Cope, Lora M.; Ermer, Elsa; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K.; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2013-01-01

    Psychopathy-related paralimbic and limbic structural brain abnormalities have been implicated in incarcerated adult and adolescent male samples. However, there have been few neuroimaging studies of psychopathic traits in females in general and no studies from incarcerated female youth in particular. Here we present the first study to examine the relationship between brain gray matter volumes and psychopathic traits (assessed using the Psychopathy Checklist-Youth Version [PCL-YV]) in a sample of maximum-security incarcerated female adolescents (N = 39; mean age = 17.6 years). Consistent with male samples, regional gray matter volumes were negatively related to psychopathic traits in female youth offenders in limbic and paralimbic areas, including orbitofrontal cortex, parahippocampal cortex, temporal poles, and left hippocampus. These results provide evidence that psychopathic traits manifest similar neural abnormalities across sex and age. PMID:24682609

  6. Exome sequencing identifies NBEAL2 as the causative gene for Gray Platelet Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Albers, Cornelis A; Cvejic, Ana; Favier, Rémi; Bouwmans, Evelien E; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Bertone, Paul; Jordan, Gregory; Kettleborough, Ross NW; Kiddle, Graham; Kostadima, Myrto; Read, Randy J; Sipos, Botond; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Smethurst, Peter A; Stephens, Jonathan; Voss, Katrin; Nurden, Alan; Rendon, Augusto; Nurden, Paquita; Ouwehand, Willem H

    2012-01-01

    Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is a predominantly recessive platelet disorder characterized by a mild thrombocytopenia with large platelets and a paucity of α-granules; these abnormalities cause mostly moderate but in rare cases severe bleeding. We sequenced the exomes of four unrelated cases and identified as the causative gene NBEAL2, a gene with previously unknown function but a member of a gene family involved in granule development. Silencing of nbeal2 in zebrafish abrogated thrombocyte formation. PMID:21765411

  7. Exact Bogoliubov-de Gennes solutions for gray-soliton backgrounds

    SciTech Connect

    Walczak, P. B.; Anglin, J. R.

    2011-07-15

    We derive and discuss the complete set of exact solutions to the one-dimensional Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations for small-amplitude excitations around general gray-soliton solutions to the cubic nonlinear Schroedinger equation. Our results extend the previously known case of the motionless dark-soliton background. We derive our nonzero-frequency solutions using a variant of the factorization method for Schroedinger equations with reflectionless potentials. We also discuss the zero-mode solutions at length.

  8. Gene by Disease Interaction on Orbitofrontal Gray Matter in Cocaine Addiction

    SciTech Connect

    Alia-Klein, N.; Alia-Klein, N.; Parvaz, M.A.; Woicik, P.A.; Konova, A.; Maloney, T.; Shumay, E.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Biegon, A.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-12-05

    Chronic cocaine use has been associated with structural deficits in brain regions having dopamine receptive neurons. However, the concomitant use of other drugs and common genetic variability in monoamine regulation present additional structural variability. We therefore examined variations in gray matter volume (GMV) as a function of lifetime drug use and the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype in cocaine use disorders (CUD) and healthy controls.

  9. Migrations of California gray whales tracked by oxygen-18 variations in their epizoic barnacles

    SciTech Connect

    Killingley, J.S.

    1980-02-15

    Barnacles attached to the California gray whale have oxygen isotope compositions that serve as a record of changing ocean temperatures as the whale migrates between arctic and subtropical waters. The isotopic values for the barnacles can be used to track whale migrations and to reconstruct the recent movements of beached whales. The method may be useful for tracing the movements of other animals, living or fossil, and for reconstructing the voyages of ancient ships.

  10. Bowhead and gray whale migration model description. Interim report No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-03-22

    Migration models for bowhead and gray whales in Alaskan waters were conceptualized, programmed, calibrated, and tested against observations. These verification tests do not supply irrefutable evidence that the model reproduces an average migratory pattern for either species. This is due in part to the high degree of interannual variability that normally occurs in Arctic and sub-Arctic environments. Furthermore, the model structure is flexible enough to allow changes to be readily implemented.

  11. Style and non-style in anatomical illustration: From Renaissance Humanism to Henry Gray.

    PubMed

    Kemp, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Style is a familiar category for the analysis of art. It is less so in the history of anatomical illustration. The great Renaissance and Baroque picture books of anatomy illustrated with stylish woodcuts and engravings, such as those by Charles Estienne, Andreas Vesalius and Govard Bidloo, showed figures in dramatic action in keeping with philosophical and theological ideas about human nature. Parallels can be found in paintings of the period, such as those by Titian, Michelangelo and Hans Baldung Grien. The anatomists also claimed to portray the body in an objective manner, and showed themselves as heroes of the discovery of human knowledge. Rembrandt's painting of Dr Nicholas Tulp is the best-known image of the anatomist as hero. The British empirical tradition in the 18th century saw William Cheselden and William Hunter working with techniques of representation that were intended to guarantee detailed realism. The ambition to portray forms life-size led to massive volumes, such as those by Antonio Mascagni. John Bell, the Scottish anatomist, criticized the size and pretensions of the earlier books and argued for a plain style adapted to the needs of teaching and surgery. Henry Gray's famous Anatomy of 1858, illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter, aspired to a simple descriptive mode of functional representation that avoided stylishness, resulting in a style of its own. Successive editions of Gray progressively saw the replacement of Gray's method and of all his illustrations. The 150th anniversary edition, edited by Susan Standring, radically re-thinks the role of Gray's book within the teaching of medicine. PMID:20447244

  12. Machinable, Thin-Walled, Gray and Ductile Iron Casting Production, Phase III

    SciTech Connect

    Charles Bates; Hanjun Li; Robin Griffin

    2003-12-08

    This report presents the results of research conducted to determine the effects of normal and abnormal processing and compositional variations on machinability (tool wear rate) of gray and ductile iron. The procedures developed allow precise tool wear measurements to be made and interpreted in terms of microstructures and compositions. Accurate data allows the most efficient ways for improving machinability to be determined without sacrificing properties of the irons.

  13. A New Approach for Deep Gray Matter Analysis Using Partial-Volume Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Bonnier, Guillaume; Kober, Tobias; Schluep, Myriam; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Krueger, Gunnar; Meuli, Reto

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The existence of partial volume effects in brain MR images makes it challenging to understand physio-pathological alterations underlying signal changes due to pathology across groups of healthy subjects and patients. In this study, we implement a new approach to disentangle gray and white matter alterations in the thalamus and the basal ganglia. The proposed method was applied to a cohort of early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy subjects to evaluate tissue-specific alterations related to diffuse inflammatory or neurodegenerative processes. Method Forty-three relapsing-remitting MS patients and nineteen healthy controls underwent 3T MRI including: (i) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, double inversion recovery, magnetization-prepared gradient echo for lesion count, and (ii) T1 relaxometry. We applied a partial volume estimation algorithm to T1 relaxometry maps to gray and white matter local concentrations as well as T1 values characteristic of gray and white matter in the thalamus and the basal ganglia. Statistical tests were performed to compare groups in terms of both global T1 values, tissue characteristic T1 values, and tissue concentrations. Results Significant increases in global T1 values were observed in the thalamus (p = 0.038) and the putamen (p = 0.026) in RRMS patients compared to HC. In the Thalamus, the T1 increase was associated with a significant increase in gray matter characteristic T1 (p = 0.0016) with no significant effect in white matter. Conclusion The presented methodology provides additional information to standard MR signal averaging approaches that holds promise to identify the presence and nature of diffuse pathology in neuro-inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:26845760

  14. Structure elucidation, anticancer and antioxidant activities of a novel polysaccharide from Gomphus clavatus Gray.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiang; Hou, Yiling; Zhu, Yuanxiu; Wang, Panpan; Fu, Lei; Zhu, Hongqing; Zhang, Nan; Qin, Hang; Qu, Wei; Wang, Fang; Hou, Wanru

    2015-06-01

    A novel heteropolysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of Gomphus clavatus Gray was isolated through Sephadex G-200 and DEAE-cellulose columns. The Gomphus clavatus Gray polysaccharide (GCG-1) was mainly composed of β-D-glucosepyranose (β-D-Glu) and α-D-galactopyranose (α-D-Gal) in a ratio of 3:2 and had a molecular weight of ~50,000 Da. The structure of GCG-1 was investigated by a combination of total hydrolysis, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, methylation analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and infrared spectra. The results indicated that GCG-1 had a backbone of (1 → 4)-β-D-glucosepyranose residues with branches at O-6 and the branches consisted of two with (1 → 3)-α-D-galactopyranose residue. Antioxidation test in vitro showed that it possessed strong free radical scavenging activity, which may be comparable to vitamin C and butylated hydroxytoluene. GCG-1 also induced the apoptosis of HepG-2 cells and affected the mRNA expression of various housekeeping genes in the HepG-2 cells. The results indicated that Gomphus clavatus Gray may be an ideal sources for antioxidant and anticancer agents. PMID:25901792

  15. Microstructural and crystallographic features of ausferrite in as-cast gray iron

    SciTech Connect

    Ferry, M. . E-mail: m.ferry@unsw.edu.au; Xu, W.

    2004-09-15

    Ausferrite has been shown to form during casting of gray iron by carefully controlling the alloying additions Mo, Mn, Si and Cu and consists of an acicular ferrite constituent, termed bainitic ferrite ({alpha}{sub B}), which develops during continuous cooling as a coarse, feathery-type structure within the prior austenite ({gamma}) grains. Regardless of alloy composition, the ausferrite that forms in the microstructure during casting in volume fractions greater than {approx}0.1 was found to have a constant bainitic ferrite/retained austenite ratio ({alpha}{sub B}/{gamma}{approx}3). Electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) in the scanning electron microscope has demonstrated that {alpha}{sub B} and {gamma} in ausferrite is related by the Kurdjumov-Sachs orientation relationship: {l_brace}111{r_brace}{sub {gamma}}//{l_brace}011{r_brace}{sub {alpha}} and <011>{sub {gamma}}//<111>{sub {alpha}} with a number of {alpha}{sub B} variants possible within a given austenite grain. This study confirms that the ausferrite generated in gray iron by direct casting has comparable microstructural and crystallographic characteristics to that produced in austempered gray and ductile irons.

  16. Segmentation of MRI brain scans into gray matter, white matter, and CSF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sandor, Tamas; Ong, Hoo-Tee; Valtchinov, Vladimir I.; Albert, Marilyn; Jolesz, Ferenc A.

    1997-04-01

    An algorithm is described that can separate gray matter, white matter and CSF in brain scans taken with 3DFFT T1- weighted gradient echo magnetic resonance imaging. Although the algorithm is fully automated, it requires brain contours as input that utilize user-defined features. The inter- and intra-operator errors stemming from the variability of the contour definition and affecting the segmentation were assessed by using coronal brain scans of 19 subjects. The inter-operator errors were (1.61 plus or minus 2.38)% (P equals 0.01) for gray matter, (0.31 plus or minus 2.06)% (P equals 0.53) for white matter and (0.28 plus or minus 3.84)% (P equals 0.76) for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). the intra- operator error was (0.28 plus or minus 0.55)% (P greater than 0.04) for gray matter, (0.40 plus or minus 0.37)% (P equals 0.0002) for white matter and (0.26 plus or minus 1.31)% (P equals 0.39) for CSF.

  17. Reorientational versus Kerr dark and gray solitary waves using modulation theory.

    PubMed

    Assanto, Gaetano; Marchant, T R; Minzoni, Antonmaria A; Smyth, Noel F

    2011-12-01

    We develop a modulation theory model based on a Lagrangian formulation to investigate the evolution of dark and gray optical spatial solitary waves for both the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) equation and the nematicon equations describing nonlinear beams, nematicons, in self-defocusing nematic liquid crystals. Since it has an exact soliton solution, the defocusing NLS equation is used as a test bed for the modulation theory applied to the nematicon equations, which have no exact solitary wave solution. We find that the evolution of dark and gray NLS solitons, as well as nematicons, is entirely driven by the emission of diffractive radiation, in contrast to the evolution of bright NLS solitons and bright nematicons. Moreover, the steady nematicon profile is nonmonotonic due to the long-range nonlocality associated with the perturbation of the optic axis. Excellent agreement is obtained with numerical solutions of both the defocusing NLS and nematicon equations. The comparisons for the nematicon solutions raise a number of subtle issues relating to the definition and measurement of the width of a dark or gray nematicon. PMID:22304206

  18. Jacobian integration method increases the statistical power to measure gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis☆

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Kunio; Guizard, Nicolas; Fonov, Vladimir S.; Narayanan, Sridar; Collins, D. Louis; Arnold, Douglas L.

    2013-01-01

    Gray matter atrophy provides important insights into neurodegeneration in multiple sclerosis (MS) and can be used as a marker of neuroprotection in clinical trials. Jacobian integration is a method for measuring volume change that uses integration of the local Jacobian determinants of the nonlinear deformation field registering two images, and is a promising tool for measuring gray matter atrophy. Our main objective was to compare the statistical power of the Jacobian integration method to commonly used methods in terms of the sample size required to detect a treatment effect on gray matter atrophy. We used multi-center longitudinal data from relapsing–remitting MS patients and evaluated combinations of cross-sectional and longitudinal pre-processing with SIENAX/FSL, SPM, and FreeSurfer, as well as the Jacobian integration method. The Jacobian integration method outperformed these other commonly used methods, reducing the required sample size by a factor of 4–5. The results demonstrate the advantage of using the Jacobian integration method to assess neuroprotection in MS clinical trials. PMID:24266007

  19. Obesity Associated Cerebral Gray and White Matter Alterations Are Interrelated in the Female Brain

    PubMed Central

    Möller, Harald E.; Anwander, Alfred; Lepsien, Jöran; Schroeter, Matthias L.; Villringer, Arno; Pleger, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is known to affect the brain's gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) structure but the interrelationship of such changes remains unclear. Here we used T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in combination with voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to assess the relationship between obesity-associated alterations of gray matter density (GMD) and anisotropic water diffusion in WM, respectively. In a small cohort of lean to obese women, we confirmed previous reports of obesity-associated alterations of GMD in brain regions involved in executive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC) and habit learning (i.e., dorsal striatum). Gray matter density alterations of the DLPFC were negatively correlated with radial diffusivity in the entire corpus callosum. Within the genu of the corpus callosum we found a positive correlation with axial diffusivity. In posterior region and inferior areas of the body of the corpus callosum, axial diffusivity correlated negatively with altered GMD in the dorsal striatum. These findings suggest that, in women, obesity-related alterations of GMD in brain regions involved in executive control and habit learning might relate to alterations of associated WM fiber bundles within the corpus callosum. PMID:25494174

  20. Importance of extended spatial coverage for quantitative susceptibility mapping of iron-rich deep gray matter.

    PubMed

    Elkady, Ahmed M; Sun, Hongfu; Wilman, Alan H

    2016-05-01

    Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) is an emerging area of brain research with clear application to brain iron studies in deep gray matter. However, acquisition of standard whole brain QSM can be time-consuming. One means to reduce scan time is to use a focal acquisition restricted only to the regions of interest such as deep gray matter. However, the non-local dipole field necessary for QSM reconstruction extends far beyond the structure of interest. We demonstrate the practical implications of these non-local fields on the choice of brain volume for QSM. In an illustrative numerical simulation and then in human brain experiments, we examine the effect on QSM of volume reduction in each dimension. For the globus pallidus, as an example of iron-rich deep gray matter, we demonstrate that substantial errors can arise even when the field-of-view far exceeds the physical structural boundaries. Thus, QSM reconstruction requires a non-local field-of-view prescription to ensure minimal errors. An axial QSM acquisition, centered on the globus pallidus, should encompass at least 76mm in the superior-inferior direction to conserve susceptibility values from the globus pallidus. This dimension exceeds the physical coronal extent of this structure by at least five-fold. As QSM sees wider use in the neuroscience community, its unique requirement for an extended field-of-view needs to be considered. PMID:26721523

  1. FMR1 Gray Zone Alleles: Association with Parkinson Disease in Women?

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Deborah A; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Zhang, Wenting; Tassone, Flora; Spector, Elaine; Zerbe, Gary; Hagerman, Paul J; Ouyang, Bichun; Leehey, Maureen A

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Carriers of fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1) repeat expansions in the premutation range (55–200 CGG repeats), especially males, often develop tremor, ataxia, and parkinsonism.1–2 These neurological signs are believed to be due to elevated levels of expanded CGG repeat FMR1 mRNA. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of FMR1 repeat expansions in a movement disorder population, comprised of all types of tremor, ataxia or parkinsonism subjects. Methods We screened 335 consecutive movement disorders patients with tremor, ataxia, or parkinsonism and 273 controls confirmed to have no movement disorders. Results There was no difference in FMR1 premutation size expansions in the cases compared to controls. Eleven percent of the women with Parkinson disease (PD) had FMR1 gray zone expansions compared to 4.4% of female controls, odds ratio of 3.2 (95% CI 1.2–8.7). Gray zone expansions in patients with other phenotypes were not overrepresented in comparison with controls. Conclusions FMR1 premutation range expansions are not more common in a mixed movement disorder population compared to controls. Our results, however, suggest that FMR1 gray zone alleles may be associated with PD in women. PMID:21567456

  2. Chemical contaminants in gray whales (eschichtius robustus) stranded in Alaska, Washington, and California, USA. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Varanasi, U.; Stein, J.E.; Tilbury, K.L.; Meador, J.P.; Sloan, C.A.

    1993-08-01

    The concentrations of chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHs) such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 1,1,1-trichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethanes (DDTs), 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p- chlorophenyl) ethenes (DDEs), and chlordanes, and essential (e.g., zinc, selenium, copper) and toxic (e.g., mercury, lead) elements were measured in tissues and stomach contents from 22 gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) stranded between 1988 and 1991. The stranding sites ranged from the relatively pristine areas of Kodiak Island, Alaska, to more urbanized areas in Puget Sound, Washington, and San Francisco Bay, California, with the majority of the sites on the Washington outer coast and in Puget Sound. Similar to concentrations in tissues, no significant differences were observed in concentrations of elements in stomach contents between whales stranded in Puget Sound and whales stranded at the more pristine sites. The lack of data from apparently healthy gray whales limits the assessment of whether the levels of anthropogenic contaminants found in tissues may have deleterious effects on the health of gray whales.

  3. New perspective on the pathophysiology of panic: merging serotonin and opioids in the periaqueductal gray

    PubMed Central

    Graeff, F.G.

    2012-01-01

    Panic disorder patients are vulnerable to recurrent panic attacks. Two neurochemical hypotheses have been proposed to explain this susceptibility. The first assumes that panic patients have deficient serotonergic inhibition of neurons localized in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain that organize defensive reactions to cope with proximal threats and of sympathomotor control areas of the rostral ventrolateral medulla that generate most of the neurovegetative symptoms of the panic attack. The second suggests that endogenous opioids buffer normal subjects from the behavioral and physiological manifestations of the panic attack, and their deficit brings about heightened suffocation sensitivity and separation anxiety in panic patients, making them more vulnerable to panic attacks. Experimental results obtained in rats performing one-way escape in the elevated T-maze, an animal model of panic, indicate that the inhibitory action of serotonin on defense is connected with activation of endogenous opioids in the periaqueductal gray. This allows reconciliation of the serotonergic and opioidergic hypotheses of panic pathophysiology, the periaqueductal gray being the fulcrum of serotonin-opioid interaction. PMID:22437485

  4. Longitudinal development of cortical and subcortical gray matter from birth to 2 years.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, John H; Shi, Feng; Woolson, Sandra L; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Short, Sarah J; Lin, Weili; Zhu, Hongtu; Hamer, Robert M; Styner, Martin; Shen, Dinggang

    2012-11-01

    Very little is known about cortical development in the first years of life, a time of rapid cognitive development and risk for neurodevelopmental disorders. We studied regional cortical and subcortical gray matter volume growth in a group of 72 children who underwent magnetic resonance scanning after birth and at ages 1 and 2 years using a novel longitudinal registration/parcellation approach. Overall, cortical gray matter volumes increased substantially (106%) in the first year of life and less so in the second year (18%). We found marked regional differences in developmental rates, with primary motor and sensory cortices growing slower in the first year of life with association cortices growing more rapidly. In the second year of life, primary sensory regions continued to grow more slowly, while frontal and parietal regions developed relatively more quickly. The hippocampus grew less than other subcortical structures such as the amygdala and thalamus in the first year of life. It is likely that these patterns of regional gray matter growth reflect maturation and development of underlying function, as they are consistent with cognitive and functional development in the first years of life. PMID:22109543

  5. Hyla chrysoscelis (Cope’s gray treefrog) x Hyla cinerea (green treefrog): putative natural hybrid

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Jenkins, Jill A.; Olivier, Heather M.; Layton, Rebekah R.

    2015-01-01

    Naturally–occurring hybrid treefrogs have been occasionally found in the eastern United States. However, these hybrids are almost always between members of the same species group. On 10 Jun 2014, at 2145 h, we located an individual making an unusual advertisement call along Bayou Manual Road in Sherburne Wildlife Management Area in the Atchafalaya Basin of south-central Louisiana, USA, and brought it back to the laboratory for further study. Physically, the treefrog appeared intermediate between a Green Treefrog and a Cope’s Gray Treefrog, which are members of different species groups. Call analysis also showed the individual to be intermediate between the two putative parental species. Flow cytometry was used to estimate the total genome size from nuclei of whole blood cells, and also determined the individual to be intermediate of the putative parental species. Despite vocalizing for mates, the hybrid did not appear to have viable spermatozoa, and was likely the result of an anomalous mis-mating event between a male Cope’s Gray Treefrog and a female Green Treefrog. To our knowledge, natural hybrids between a Cope’s Gray Treefrog and a Green Treefrog have not been previously reported.

  6. The role of theory in the psychophysiology of personality: from Ivan Pavlov to Jeffrey Gray.

    PubMed

    Corr, Philip J; Perkins, Adam M

    2006-12-01

    Psychophysiological approaches to personality have made significant progress in recent years, partly as a spin-off of technological innovation (e.g., functional neuroimaging) and partly as a result of an emerging theoretical consensus regarding the structure and biology of basic processes. In this field, Jeffrey Gray's influential psychophysiological theory of personality - now widely known as Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory (RST) - owes much to Pavlov, who devoted a large proportion of his later life to personality differences and their implications for psychiatry. In this article, we trace the influence of Pavlov on Hans Eysenck's and Jeffrey Gray's work, and then provide a brief description of RST in order to highlight some of the central problems - as well as some tentative solutions - in the psychophysiology of personality. Specifically, the importance of theory in personality research is stressed by the contrast of Gray's theoretically driven model with less fertile atheoretical (i.e., exploratory-inductive) approaches. The fecundity of RST, which has been in continual development over a period of thirty years, is discussed in the light of Karl Popper's views on the nature of science, especially the formulation of the 'problem situation', which sets up the theoretical and operational conditions under which hypotheses may be challenged and tested to destruction. In this respect, we see the truth of Lewin's [Lewin, K., 1951. Field theory in social science: selected theoretical papers. In: Cartwright, D., (Ed.). Harper & Row, New York] famous phrase, "There is nothing so practical as a good theory". PMID:16515814

  7. Effects of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray extract on adipocyte differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Di Giacomo, Claudia; Vanella, Luca; Sorrenti, Valeria; Santangelo, Rosa; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Calabrese, Giovanna; Genovese, Carlo; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Ragusa, Salvatore; Acquaviva, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray (Asteraceae) is widely used in traditional medicine. There is increasing interest on the in vivo protective effects of natural compounds contained in plants against oxidative damage caused from reactive oxygen species. In the present study the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of aqueous, methanol and dichloromethane extracts of leaves of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray were determined; furthermore, free radical scavenging capacity of each extract and the ability of these extracts to inhibit in vitro plasma lipid peroxidation were also evaluated. Since oxidative stress may be involved in trasformation of pre-adipocytes into adipocytes, to test the hypothesis that Tithonia extract may also affect adipocyte differentiation, human mesenchymal stem cell cultures were treated with Tithonia diversifolia aqueous extract and cell viability, free radical levels, Oil-Red O staining and western bolt analysis for heme oxygenase and 5'-adenosine monophoshate-activated protein kinase were carried out. Results obtained in the present study provide evidence that Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray exhibits interesting health promoting properties, resulting both from its free radical scavenger capacity and also by induction of protective cellular systems involved in cellular stress defenses and in adipogenesis of mesenchymal cells. PMID:25848759

  8. Patterns of gray and white matter changes in individuals at risk for Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Heidi I L; van Boxtel, Martin P J; Gronenschild, Ed H B M; Williams, Victoria J; Burgmans, Saartje; Uylings, Harry B M; Jolles, Jelle; Verhey, Frans R J

    2012-11-01

    Structural brain changes precede cognitive and clinical symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD). We aimed to examine the gray and white matter tissue changes in individuals with memory decline over a 12-year period, who might be at risk for AD. The participants were selected from the longitudinal Maastricht Aging Study based on their scores on the verbal word learning task. A group with profound memory decline over a 12-year period (n = 20) was identified and matched with a group that did not meet this criterion (n = 20). All of the participants underwent MRI scanning. Diffusion tensor imaging and cortical thickness analyses were performed to investigate the white and gray matter differences respectively. We found decreased white matter integrity in the memory decline group compared to the control group in frontal and parietal brain regions and in several cortico-cortical and cortico-subcortical tracts. Cortical thinning in the memory decline group was found in frontal, parietal, medial temporal and occipital areas. These results showed similarities with the structural brain changes observed in early AD. Thus, not only may cognitive changes be detected years before the clinical diagnosis, but typical gray and white matter changes appear to be present in older people with memory decline as well. This suggests that a combination of cognitive decline and structural brain changes might be an ideal biomarker for AD pathogenesis. PMID:22920268

  9. Gray-Body Radiation Using a Blackbody Source and an Optical Chopper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Arteaga, H.; Cárdenas-García, D.

    2015-08-01

    The emissivity of most material surfaces that can be used as radiation sources is a function of wavelength. On the other hand, blackbody cavities with emissivities higher than 0.995 in a wide wavelength range are readily available in many laboratories. If it were possible to attenuate by a constant factor the radiation emitted by those blackbodies, then they could be used as gray-body radiators. A neutral density filter is not an option to attenuate the radiation from a blackbody source because its transmittance is wavelength dependent. Optical choppers, usually rotating disk shutters, are widely used to modulate the intensity of a light beam. The apparent transmittance of an optical chopper is defined in terms of the mark-to-space ratio. Most optical choppers have a 1:1 ratio which would be equivalent to 50 % transmittance. To attenuate the radiation coming from a blackbody, the optical chopper should have a stable rotating speed and a high chopping frequency so its mark-to-space cycle time is very short compared to a radiation thermometer response time. If this condition is fulfilled, the radiation thermometer would display a temperature reading as if it were aiming to a gray-body at the temperature of the blackbody and with an emissivity equal to the optical chopper transmittance. This method to obtain a gray-body radiator using a blackbody source and an optical chopper is discussed, and some measurements including its uncertainty analysis are reported.

  10. Effects of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray Extract on Adipocyte Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Di Giacomo, Claudia; Vanella, Luca; Sorrenti, Valeria; Santangelo, Rosa; Barbagallo, Ignazio; Calabrese, Giovanna; Genovese, Carlo; Mastrojeni, Silvana; Ragusa, Salvatore; Acquaviva, Rosaria

    2015-01-01

    Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray (Asteraceae) is widely used in traditional medicine. There is increasing interest on the in vivo protective effects of natural compounds contained in plants against oxidative damage caused from reactive oxygen species. In the present study the total phenolic and flavonoid contents of aqueous, methanol and dichloromethane extracts of leaves of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray were determined; furthermore, free radical scavenging capacity of each extract and the ability of these extracts to inhibit in vitro plasma lipid peroxidation were also evaluated. Since oxidative stress may be involved in trasformation of pre-adipocytes into adipocytes, to test the hypothesis that Tithonia extract may also affect adipocyte differentiation, human mesenchymal stem cell cultures were treated with Tithonia diversifolia aqueous extract and cell viability, free radical levels, Oil-Red O staining and western bolt analysis for heme oxygenase and 5'-adenosine monophoshate-activated protein kinase were carried out. Results obtained in the present study provide evidence that Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl.) A. Gray exhibits interesting health promoting properties, resulting both from its free radical scavenger capacity and also by induction of protective cellular systems involved in cellular stress defenses and in adipogenesis of mesenchymal cells. PMID:25848759

  11. Analysis of mammographic microcalcifications using gray-level image structure features

    SciTech Connect

    Dhawan, A.P.; Chitre, Y.; Kaiser-Bonasso, C.; Moskowitz, M.

    1996-06-01

    Most of the techniques used in the computerized analysis of mammographic microcalcifications use shape features on the segmented regions of microcalcifications extracted from the digitized mammograms. Since mammographic images usually suffer from poorly defined microcalcification features, the extraction of shape features based on a segmentation process may not accurately represent microcalcifications. In this paper, the authors define a set of image structure features for classification of malignancy. Two categories of correlated gray-level image structure features are defined for classification of difficult-to-diagnose cases. The first category of features includes second-order histogram statistics-based features representing the global texture and the wavelet decomposition-based features representing the local texture of the microcalcification area of interest. The second category of features represents the first-order gray-level histogram-based statistics of the segmented microcalcification regions and the size, number, and distance features of the segmented microcalcification cluster. Various features in each category were correlated with the biopsy examination results of 191 difficult-to-diagnose cases for selection of the best set of features representing the complete gray-level image structure information. The selection of the best features was performed using the multivariate cluster analysis as well as a genetic algorithm (GA)-based search method. The selected features were used for classification using backpropagation neural network and parametric statistical classifiers. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed to compare the neural network-based classification with linear and k-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifiers.

  12. Nutrient concentrations in tree leaves on brown and gray reclaimed mine soils in West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Wilson-Kokes, Lindsay; Skousen, Jeff

    2014-05-15

    Surface mining in Appalachia disrupts large areas of forested land. Federal and state laws require disturbed lands be reclaimed by re-constructing the landscape and replacing soil materials to provide a rooting medium. If insufficient quantities of native topsoil are available, substitute materials derived from the overburden may be used as soil media. This study examined soil and foliar nutrient concentrations of three hardwood tree species on areas where brown and gray sandstone overburden were applied as substitute growth media at the Birch River mine in West Virginia. Soil and foliar nutrient concentrations found in four experimental plots were compared to soil and foliar nutrient concentrations found in a nearby native Appalachian forest. Many foliar nutrients such as phosphorus and potassium were lower in all three tree species on most mine soils compared to trees growing in nearby native forest soils and to tree nutrient concentrations from the literature. Foliar and soil nutrient concentrations in the Brown mine soil were similar to those found in native forest soil, while the Gray mine soil provided significantly lower levels of nutrients. Overall, low nutrient availability in mine soils translates into generally lower foliar nutrient concentrations in trees growing on mine soils. After six years, amended topsoil substitutes and Brown mine soil produced higher foliar nutrient concentrations than Gray mine soil. PMID:24631603

  13. Measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Reilly, J.J.; Fedak, M.A. )

    1990-09-01

    The body composition of living gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (TBW) by {sup 2}H or {sup 3}H dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and TBW that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. TBW was overestimated by both {sup 2}HHO and {sup 3}HHO dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (SE) with 2H and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with {sup 3}H. The relationships for prediction of total body fat (TBF), protein (TBP), gross energy (TBGE), and ash (TBA) were as follows: %TBF = 105.1 - 1.47 (%TBW); %TBP = 0.42 (%TBW) - 4.75; TBGE (MJ) = 40.8 (mass in kg) - 48.5 (TBW in kg) - 0.4; and TBA (kg) = 0.1 - 0.008 (mass in kg) + 0.05 (TBW in kg). These relationships are applicable to gray seals of both sexes over a wide range of age and body conditions, and they predict the body composition of gray seals more accurately than the predictive equations derived from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and from the equation of Pace and Rathbun, which has been reported to be generally applicable to mammals.

  14. Correlation of polishing-induced shallow subsurface damages with laser-induced gray haze damages in fused silica optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiang; Zhao, Heng; Wang, Gang; Zhou, Peifan; Ma, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Laser-induced damage in fused silica optics greatly restricts the performances of laser facilities. Gray haze damage, which is always initiated on ceria polished optics, is one of the most important damage morphologies in fused silica optics. In this paper, the laser-induced gray haze damages of four fused silica samples polished with CeO2, Al2O3, ZrO2, and colloidal silica slurries are investigated. Four samples all present gray haze damages with much different damage densities. Then, the polishing-induced contaminant and subsurface damages in four samples are analyzed. The results reveal that the gray haze damages could be initiated on the samples without Ce contaminant and are inclined to show a tight correlation with the shallow subsurface damages.

  15. MRI-based correction for PET partial volume effects in the presence of heterogeneity in gray matter radioactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Meltzer, C.C.; Zubieta, J.K.; Links, J.M.

    1994-05-01

    Quantitation of small structures with PET may be inaccurate due to partial volume averaging of surrounding structures. We have previously described a method of correcting PET data for the effects of partial volume averaging on gray matter quantitation. This method may incompletely correct gray matter structures when local tissue concentrations are highly heterogenous. We present an extension of our previous method that by accounting for gray matter heterogeneity, allows for partial volume correction in small structures that can be delineated on MR images. Spoiled gradient echo MR data were acquired coplanar to the PET imaging plane. For each PET slice, 17 contiguous 1.5 mm-thick MR images were tri-segmented into gray matter, white matter, matter maps were created by and the for gray a second step, the structure of for volume and spill-in from surrounding gray and white matter. PET images simulated from MR data from patients with Alzheimer disease and controls demonstrated full recovery of tracer concentration in the amygdala over a range of contrasts (from that of white matter to 4x gray matter) (error = 0.36{plus_minus}0.29%) and sizes (152-725mm{sup 3}) (error = 0.11{plus_minus}0.17%). The method was validated with sphere phantoms and a 5-compartment brain phantom in actual PET acquisitions. This newly developed and validated MR-based partial volume correction algorithm for PET, accurately derives non-homogeneous gray matter radioactivity concentrations and should improve quantitation of subcortical structures.

  16. A comprehensive assessment of gray and white matter volumes and their relationship to outcome and severity in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Mitelman, Serge A.; Brickman, Adam M.; Shihabuddin, Lina; Newmark, Randall E.; Hazlett, Erin A.; Haznedar, M. Mehmet; Buchsbaum, Monte S.

    2007-01-01

    Preliminary data suggest an association of posterior cortical gray matter reduction with poor outcome in schizophrenia. We made a systematic MRI assessment of regional gray and white matter volumes, parcellated into 40 Brodmann’s areas, in 104 patients with schizophrenia (51 with good outcomes, 53 with poor outcomes) and 41 normal comparison subjects, and investigated correlations of regional morphometry with outcome and severity of the illness. Schizophrenia patients displayed differential reductions in frontal and to a lesser degree temporal gray matter volumes in both hemispheres, most pronounced in the frontal pole and lateral temporal cortex. White matter volumes in schizophrenia patients were bilaterally increased, primarily in the frontal, parietal, and isolated temporal regions, with volume reductions confined to anterior cingulate gyrus. In patients with schizophrenia as a group, higher illness severity was associated with reduced temporal gray matter volumes and expanded frontal white matter volumes in both hemispheres. In comparison to good-outcome group, patients with poor outcomes had lower temporal, occipital, and to a lesser degree parietal gray matter volumes in both hemispheres and temporal, parietal, occipital, and posterior cingulate white matter volumes in the right hemisphere. While gray matter deficits in the granular cortex were observed in all schizophrenia patients, agranular cortical deficits in the left hemisphere were peculiar to patients with poor outcomes. These results provide support for frontotemporal gray matter reduction and frontoparietal white matter expansion in schizophrenia. Poor outcome is associated with more posterior distribution (posteriorization) of both gray and white matter changes, and with preferential impairment in the unimodal visual and paralimbic cortical regions. PMID:17587598

  17. Testing the effectiveness of an acoustic deterrent for gray whales along the Oregon coast

    SciTech Connect

    Lagerquist, Barbara; Winsor, Martha; Mate, Bruce

    2012-12-31

    This study was conducted to determine whether a low-powered sound source could be effective at deterring gray whales from areas that may prove harmful to them. With increased interest in the development of marine renewal energy along the Oregon coast the concern that such development may pose a collision or entanglement risk for gray whales. A successful acoustic deterrent could act as a mitigation tool to prevent harm to whales from such risks. In this study, an acoustic device was moored on the seafloor in the pathway of migrating gray whales off Yaquina Head on the central Oregon coast. Shore-based observers tracked whales with a theodolite (surveyor’s tool) to accurately locate whales as they passed the headland. Individual locations of different whales/whale groups as well as tracklines of the same whale/whale groups were obtained and compared between times with the acoustic device was transmitting and when it was off. Observations were conducted on 51 d between January 1 and April 15, 2012. A total of 143 individual whale locations were collected for a total of 243 whales, as well as 57 tracklines for a total of 142 whales. Inclement weather and equipment problems resulted in very small sample sizes, especially during experimental periods, when the device was transmitting. Because of this, the results of this study were inconclusive. We feel that another season of field testing is warranted to successfully test the effectiveness of the deterrent, but recommend increasing the zone of influence to 3 km to ensure the collection of adequate sample sizes. Steps have been taken to acquire the necessary federal research permit modification to authorize the increased zone of influence and to modify the acoustic device for the increased power. With these changes we are confident we will be able to determine whether the deterrent is effective at deflecting gray whales. A successful deterrent device may serve as a valuable mitigation tool to protect gray whales, and

  18. Three geese resembling Gray-Bellied Brant/Lawrence's Brant from Long Island, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buckley, P.A.; Mitra, S.S.

    2002-01-01

    Three oddly plumaged brant, intermediate in several respects between 'Atlantic' or 'Pale-bellied Brant' (hrota) and ?Black Brant? (nigricans) were photographed and described on western Long Island, New York during 2002 (two in March, the third in October). Their plumage corresponded to that of the little-studied, and apparently genetically distinctive small population known among goose biologists as 'Gray-bellied Brant,' which breeds only on a few islands in the western Canadian High Arctic, stages in migration in the inner Aleutians, and winters in a small portion of the Greater Puget Sound area. But Gray-bellied Brant also wander, having recently been found in winter as far from Puget Sound as Baja California in the west, and Iceland and the British Isles to the east?these strays presumably having migrated southwest with Pacific-wintering nigricans and southeast with Atlantic-wintering hrota, respectively. Despite their tendency to associate with locally wintering hrota and nigricans, mixed pairs or hybrid young involving these vagrants have never been demonstrated in North America?nor have mixed pairs or hybrid young between hrota and nigricans, despite widespread belief to the contrary. Complicating the picture is that the type specimen of nigricans, a distinctive New Jersey specimen collected in 1846, also differs from 'true' Pacific Coast Black Brant in several respects, in a manner qualitatively similar to the LI birds described herein. The appearance of the type, often referred to informally as 'Lawrence?s Brant,' differs from typical Black Brant to such an extent that Delacour and Zimmer (1952) rejected application of nigricans to Pacific Black Brant, to which the name orientalis would have to be applied instead. Recent examination of museum specimens of breeding- and winter-area Gray-bellies confirms that Lawrence?s Brant closely resembles some of them?as do these three Long Island birds. Whatever the ultimate statuses of Gray-bellied and Lawrence's Brant

  19. Association of regional gray matter volumes in the brain with disruptive behavior disorders in male and female children

    PubMed Central

    Michalska, Kalina J.; Decety, Jean; Zeffiro, Thomas A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2014-01-01

    Because the disruptive behavior disorders are highly impairing conditions, it is important to determine if structural variations in brain are associated early in life with these problems among children. Structural MRI data were acquired from 111 9–11 year olds (58 girls and 53 boys), 43 who met diagnostic criteria for oppositional defiant disorder and/or conduct disorder and 68 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to examine associations of behavioral measures with gray matter volumes in whole-brain analyses. Unlike previous studies, variation in gray matter volume was not found to be associated with a disruptive behavior disorder diagnosis in any brain region at p < .05 with FWE correction. Nonetheless, an inverse nonlinear association of the number of conduct disorder (CD) symptoms with gray matter volume along the left superior temporal sulcus was significant in the full sample (p < .05 with FWE correction), with a trend in the right hemisphere (p < 0.001 uncorrected). There also was a trend toward a stronger association of the number of CD symptoms with gray matter volume along the left superior temporal sulcus in girls than boys. The present findings did not replicate previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in the anterior insula, amygdala, and frontal cortex in youth with CD, but are consistent with previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in temporal regions, particularly in girls. PMID:25610787

  20. Gray Expectations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fogg, Piper

    2003-01-01

    Describes Emory's Emeritus College, conceived as a cure for the isolation that many professors feel in retirement and now one of a growing number of programs that keep them involved in campus life. (EV)