5. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT 8FOOT TRANSONIC PRESSURE TUNNEL PLENUM ...
5. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT 8-FOOT TRANSONIC PRESSURE TUNNEL PLENUM FLOOR AREA. NOTE SCHLIEREN OPTICAL SYSTEM ON STRUCTURE AT RIGHT CENTER. - NASA Langley Research Center, 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel, 640 Thornell Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA
1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT EXTERIOR OF 8FOOT TRANSONIC PRESSURE ...
1. VIEW LOOKING SOUTHEAST AT EXTERIOR OF 8-FOOT TRANSONIC PRESSURE TUNNEL. NOTE EXPANSION RINGS. - NASA Langley Research Center, 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel, 640 Thornell Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA
2. VIEW LOOKING EASTNORTHEAST AT EXTERIOR OF 8FOOT TRANSONIC PRESSURE ...
2. VIEW LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST AT EXTERIOR OF 8-FOOT TRANSONIC PRESSURE TUNNEL (BUILDING 640). NOTE NACA LOGO OVER DOORWAY. - NASA Langley Research Center, 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel, 640 Thornell Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA
The NASA Langley 8-foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel calibration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.; Harris, Charles D.; Reagon, Patricia G.
1994-01-01
The NASA Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel is a continuous-flow, variable-pressure wind tunnel with control capability to independently vary Mach number, stagnation pressure, stagnation temperature, and humidity. The top and bottom walls of the test section are axially slotted to permit continuous variation of the test section Mach number from 0.2 to 1.2, the slot-width contour provides a gradient-free test section 50 in. long for Mach numbers equal to or greater than 1.0 and 100 in. long for Mach numbers less than 1.0. The stagnation pressure may be varied from 0.25 to 2.0 atm. The tunnel test section has been recalibrated to determine the relationship between the free-stream Mach number and the test chamber reference Mach number. The hardware was the same as that of an earlier calibration in 1972 but the pressure measurement instrumentation available for the recalibration was about an order of magnitude more precise. The principal result of the recalibration was a slightly different schedule of reentry flap settings for Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.05 than that determined during the 1972 calibration. Detailed tunnel contraction geometry, test section geometry, and limited test section wall boundary layer data are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, Charles D.; Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.
1988-01-01
Modifications to the NASA Langley 8 Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel in support of the Lamina Flow Control (LFC) Experiment included the installation of a honeymoon and five screens in the settling chamber upstream of the test section 41-long test section liner that extended from the upstream end of the test section contraction region, through the best section, and into the diffuser. The honeycomb and screens were installed as permanent additions to the facility, and the liner was a temporary addition to be removed at the conclusion of the LFC Experiment. These modifications are briefly described.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, T. C.
1980-01-01
Pressure and load distributions for a related group of simulated launch vehicle configurations are presented. The configurations were selected so that the nose cone and interstage transition flare components were relatively close to one another and subject to mutual interference effects. Tests extended over a Mach number range from 0.40 to 1.20 at angles of attack from 0 deg to about 10 deg. The test Reynolds numbers, based on main stage diameter, were of the order of 0.00000098.
4. VIEW LOOKING NORTHNORTHEAST AT TEST SECTION OF 8FOOT TRANSONIC ...
4. VIEW LOOKING NORTH-NORTHEAST AT TEST SECTION OF 8-FOOT TRANSONIC PRESSURE TUNNEL SHOWING ACCESS PORT TO TEST SECTION (RIGHT) AND PLENUM SURROUNDING AREA. - NASA Langley Research Center, 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel, 640 Thornell Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bobbitt, Percy J.; Ferris, James C.; Harvey, William D.; Goradia, Suresh H.
1992-01-01
A description is given of the development of, and results from, the hybrid laminar flow control (HLFC) experiment conducted in the NASA LaRC 8 ft Transonic Pressure Tunnel on a 7 ft chord, 23 deg swept model. The methods/codes used to obtain the contours of the HLFC model surface and to define the suction requirements are outlined followed by a discussion of the model construction, suction system, instrumentation, and some example results from the wind tunnel tests. Included in the latter are the effects of Mach number, suction level, and the extent of suction. An assessment is also given of the effect of the wind tunnel environment on the suction requirements. The data show that, at or near the design Mach number, large extents of laminar flow can be achieved with suction mass flows over the first 25 percent, or less, of the chord. Top surface drag coefficients with suction extending from the near leading edge to 20 percent of the chord were approximately 40 percent lower than those obtained with no suction. The results indicate that HLFC can be designed for transonic speeds with lift and drag coefficients approaching those of LFC designs but with much smaller extents and levels of suction.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gera, J.
1977-01-01
A .042-scale model of the F-8C airplane was investigated in a transonic wind tunnel at high subsonic Mach numbers and a range of angles of attack between-3 and 20 degrees. The effect of symmetrically deflected ailerons on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics was measured. Some data were also obtained on the lateral control effectiveness of asymmetrically deflected horizontal tail surfaces.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Larson, T. J.; Flechner, S. G.; Siemers, P. M., III
1980-01-01
The results of a wind tunnel investigation on an all flush orifice air data system for use on a KC-135A aircraft are presented. The investigation was performed to determine the applicability of fixed all flush orifice air data systems that use only aircraft surfaces for orifices on the nose of the model (in a configuration similar to that of the shuttle entry air data system) provided the measurements required for the determination of stagnation pressure, angle of attack, and angle of sideslip. For the measurement of static pressure, additional flush orifices in positions on the sides of the fuselage corresponding to those in a standard pitot-static system were required. An acceptable but less accurate system, consisting of orifices only on the nose of the model, is defined and discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nichols, M. E.
1974-01-01
Aerodynamic force and moment tests were conducted on an 0.015-scale space shuttle vehicle configuration 140A/B model (49-0) in a transonic pressure tunnel. The test was carried out at Mach numbers 0.35, 0.60, 0.80, 0.90, 0.98, and 1.20, and at Reynolds numbers ranging from 1.90 million per foot to 3.97 million per foot, depending on tunnel total pressure capability and model structural limits. The model attitude was varied in angle-of-attack from minus 2 deg to +22 deg at 0 deg and 5 deg angles of yaw, and in angle-of-sidelip from minus 5 to +10 deg at 0 deg, 7.5 deg, and 15 deg angles of pitch. The purpose of this test was to establish and verify longitudinal and lateral-directional characteristics of the 140A/B Configuration Orbiter and to determine the effects of surface deflections on vehicle performance, stability, and control.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nichols, M. E.
1976-01-01
Test procedures, history, and plotted coefficient data are presented for an aero-loads investigation on the updated configuration-5 space shuttle launch vehicle at Mach numbers from 0.600 to 1.205. Six-component vehicle forces and moments, base and sting-cavity pressures, elevon hinge moments, wing-root bending and torsion moments, and normal shear force data were obtained. Full simulation of updated vehicle protuberances and attach hardware was employed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nichols, M. E.
1976-01-01
Test procedures, history, and data from the wind tunnel test are presented. Aero-loads were investigated on the updated configuration-5 space shuttle launch vehicle at Mach numbers from 0.600 to 1.205. Six-component vehicle forces and moments, base and sting-cavity pressures, elevon hinge moments, wing-root bending and torsion moments, and normal shear force data were obtained. Full simulation of updated vehicle protuberances and attach hardware was employed. Various elevon deflection angles were tested with two different forward orbiter-to-external-tank attach-strut configurations. The entire model was supported by means of a balance mounted in the orbiter through its base and suspended from a sting.
Characteristics of the Langley 8-foot Transonic Tunnel with Slotted Test Section
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, Ray H; Ritchie, Virgil S; Pearson, Albin O
1958-01-01
A large wind tunnel, approximately 8 feet in diameter, has been converted to transonic operation by means of slots in the boundary extending in the direction of flow. The usefulness of such a slotted wind tunnel, already known with respect to the reduction of the subsonic blockage interference and the production of continuously variable supersonic flows, has been augmented by devising a slot shape with which a supersonic test region with excellent flow quality could be produced. Experimental locations of detached shock waves ahead of axially symmetric bodies at low supersonic speeds in the slotted test section agreed satisfactorily with predictions obtained by use of existing approximate methods.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1957-01-01
the wall interference problem. It was an accidental discovery which showed that slotted throats might solve the transonic problem. Most engineers were skeptical but Stack persisted. Initially, plans were to modify the 16-Foot tunnel but in the spring of 1948, Stack announced that the 8-Foot HST would also be modified. As Hansen notes: 'The 8-Foot HST began regular transonic operations for research purposes on 6 October 1950.' The concept was a success and led to plans for a new wind tunnel which would be known as the 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gilbert, Michael; Raju, Ivatury; Piascik, Robert; Cameron, Kenneth; Kirsch, Michael; Hoffman, Eric; Murthy, Pappu; Hopson, George; Greulich, Owen; Frazier, Wayne
2009-01-01
The 8-Foot HTT (refer to Figure 4.0-1) is used to conduct tests of air-breathing hypersonic propulsion systems at Mach numbers 4, 5, and 7. Methane, Air, and LOX are mixed and burned in a combustor to produce test gas stream containing 21 percent by volume oxygen. The NESC was requested by the NASA LaRC Executive Safety Council to review the rationale for a proposed change to the recertification requirements, specifically the internal inspection requirements, of the 8-Foot HTT LOX Run Tank and LOX Storage Tank. The Run Tank is an 8,000 gallon cryogenic tank used to provide LOX to the tunnel during operations, and is pressured during the tunnel run to 2,250 pounds per square inch gage (psig). The Storage Tank is a 25,000 gallon cryogenic tank used to store LOX at slightly above atmospheric pressure as a external shell, with space between the shells maintained under vacuum conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Petrozzi, M. T.; Milam, M. D.
1975-01-01
Experimental aerodynamic investigations were conducted in NASA/Langley 8-Foot transonic pressure tunnel on a sting mounted 0.010-scale outer mold line model of 104A/B configuration of the Rockwell International space shuttle vehicle. Component aerodynamic force and moment data and base and balance cavity pressures were recorded over an angle of attack range of -10 deg to +10 deg at Mach numbers of 0.6, 0.8, 0.9, 0.98, 1.13, and 1.2. Selected configurations were tested at sideslip angles from -10 deg to +10 deg. For all configurations involving the orbit, wing bending and torsion were measured on the right wing. Inboard elevon setting of 0 deg, +4 deg and +8 deg and outboard settings of 0 deg, +4 deg and +8 deg were tested.
8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1953-01-01
Semi-automatic readout equipment installed in the 1950s used for data recording and reduction in the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (HST). A 1957 NACA report on wind tunnel facilities at Langley included these comments on the data recording and reduction equipment for the 8-foot HST: 'The data recording and reduction equipment used for handling steady force and pressure information at the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel is similar to that described for the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. Very little dynamic data recording equipment, however, is available.' The description of the 16-foot transonic tunnel equipment is as follows: 'A semiautomatic force data readout system provides tabulated raw data and punch card storage of raw data concurrent with the operation of the wind tunnel. Provision is made for 12 automatic channels of strain gage-data output, and eight channels of four-digit manually operated inputs are available for tabulating and punching constants, configuration codes, and other information necessary for data reduction and identification. The data are then processed on electronic computing machines to obtain the desired coefficients. These coefficients and their proper identification are then machine tabulated to provide a printed record of the results. The punched cards may also be fed into an automatic plotting device for the preparation of plots necessary for data analysis.'
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, C. D.
1974-01-01
Refinements in a 10 percent thick supercritical airfoil produced improvements in the overall drag characteristics at normal force coefficients from about 0.30 to 0.65 compared with earlier supercritical airfoils which were developed for a normal force coefficient of 0.7. The drag divergence Mach number of the improved supercritical airfoil (airfoil 26a) varied from approximately 0.82 at a normal force coefficient to of 0.30, to 0.78 at a normal force coefficient of 0.80 with no drag creep evident. Integrated section force and moment data, surface pressure distributions, and typical wake survey profiles are presented.
Cavity Unsteady-Pressure Measurements at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tracy, Maureen B.; Plentovich, E. B.
1997-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to determine the flow characteristics of rectangular cavities with varying relative dimensions at subsonic and transonic speeds. Cavities were tested with width-to-depth ratios of 1, 4, 8, and 16 for length-to-depth ratios l/h of 1 through 17.5. The maximum cavity depth was 2.4 in., and the turbulent boundary layer approaching the cavity was approximately 0.5 in. thick. Unsteady- and mean static-pressure measurements were made at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.20 to 0.95 at a unit Reynolds number per foot of approximately 3 x 10(exp 6); however, only unsteady-pressure results are presented in this paper. Results indicate that as l/h increases, cavity flows changed from resonant to nonresonant with resonant amplitudes decreasing gradually. Resonant spectra are obtained largely in cavities with mean static-pressure distributions characteristic of open and transitional flows. Resonance sometimes occurred for closed flow. Increasing cavity width or decreasing cavity depth while holding l/h fixed had the effect of increasing resonant amplitudes and sometimes induced resonance. The effects due to changes in width are more pronounced. Decreasing Mach number has the effect of broadening the resonances.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mugler, John P., Jr.
1958-01-01
Pressure distributions are presented for a thin highly tapered untwisted 45 deg sweptback wing in combination with a body. These tests were made in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at both 1.0 and 0.5 atmosphere stagnation pressures at Mach numbers from 0.800 to 1.200 through an angle-of-attack range of -4 deg to 12 deg.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ball, J. W.; Edwards, C. R.
1976-01-01
Tests were conducted in the NASA/LaRC 8 foot transonic wind tunnel from March 26 through 31, 1976. The model was a 0.015 scale SSV Orbiter with forebody modifications to simulate slight reductions in the reusable surface insulation (RSI) thickness. Six component aerodynamic force and moment data were obtained at Mach numbers from 0.35 to 1.20 over an angle of attack range from -2 deg to 20 deg at sideslip angles of 0 deg and 5 deg.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1977-01-01
A transonic pressure tunnel test is reported on an early version of the space shuttle orbiter (designated 089B-139) 0.0165 scale model to systematically determine both longitudinal and lateral control effectiveness associated with various combinations of inboard, outboard, and full span wing trailing edge controls. The test was conducted over a Mach number range from 0.6 to 1.08 at angles of attack from -2 deg to 23 deg at 0 deg sideslip.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitcomb, Richard T
1948-01-01
A compilation is made in tabular form of all the pressures measured on a thin high-aspect-ratio wing and aileron with no sweep and with 30 degree and 45 degree of sweepback and sweepforward at high subsonic Mach numbers in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel.
8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (8-Foot HST)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1936-01-01
Control panel below the test section of the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (8-Foot HST). Authorized July 17, 1933, construction of the 8-Foot HST was paid for with funds from the Federal Public Works Administration. Manly Hood and Russell Robinson designed the unusual facility which could produce a 500 mph wind stream across an 8-Foot test section. The concrete shell was not part of the original design. Like most projects funded through New Deal programs, the PWA restricted the amount of money which could be spent on materials. The majority of funds were supposed to be expended on labor. Though originally, Hood and Robinson had planned a welded steel pressure vessel around the test section, PWA officials proposed the idea of concrete. This picture shows the test section inside the igloo-like structure with walls of 1-foot thick reinforced concrete. The thick walls were needed 'because of the Bernoulli effect, [which meant that] the text chamber had to withstand powerful, inwardly directed pressure. Operating personnel located inside the igloo were subjected to pressures equivalent to 10,000-foot altitude and had to wear oxygen masks and enter through airlocks. A heat exchanger removed the large quantities of heat generated by the big fan.'
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1936-01-01
Control panel below the test section of the 8-Foot High Speed Tunnel (8-Foot HST). Authorized July 17, 1933, construction of the 8-Foot HST was paid for with funds from the Federal Public Works Administration. Manly Hood and Russell Robinson designed the unusual facility which could produce a 500 mph wind stream across an 8-Foot test section. The concrete shell was not part of the original design. Like most projects funded through New Deal programs, the PWA restricted the amount of money which could be spent on materials. The majority of funds were supposed to be expended on labor. Though originally, Hood and Robinson had planned a welded steel pressure vessel around the test section, PWA officials proposed the idea of concrete. This picture shows the test section inside the igloo-like structure with walls of 1-foot thick reinforced concrete. The thick walls were needed 'because of the Bernoulli effect, [which meant that] the text chamber had to withstand powerful, inwardly directed pressure. Operating personnel located inside the igloo were subjected to pressures equivalent to 10,000-foot altitude and had to wear oxygen masks and enter through airlocks. A heat exchanger removed the large quantities of heat generated by the big fan.'
Experimental cavity pressure measurements at subsonic and transonic speeds. Static-pressure results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Plentovich, E. B.; Stallings, Robert L., Jr.; Tracy, M. B.
1993-01-01
An experimental investigation was conducted to determine cavity flow-characteristics at subsonic and transonic speeds. A rectangular box cavity was tested in the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 0.95 at a unit Reynolds number of approximately 3 x 10(exp 6) per foot. The boundary layer approaching the cavity was turbulent. Cavities were tested over a range of length-to-depth ratios (l/h) of 1 to 17.5 for cavity width-to-depth ratios of 1, 4, 8, and 16. Fluctuating- and static-pressure data in the cavity were obtained; however, only static-pressure data is analyzed. The boundaries between the flow regimes based on cavity length-to-depth ratio were determined. The change to transitional flow from open flow occurs at l/h at approximately 6-8 however, the change from transitional- to closed-cavity flow occurred over a wide range of l/h and was dependent on Mach number and cavity configuration. The change from closed to open flow as found to occur gradually. The effect of changing cavity dimensions showed that if the vlaue of l/h was kept fixed but the cavity width was decreased or cavity height was increased, the cavity pressure distribution tended more toward a more closed flow distribution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parrell, H.; Gamble, J. D.
1977-01-01
Transonic Wind Tunnel tests were run on a .015 scale model of the space shuttle orbiter vehicle in the 8-foot transonic wind tunnel. Purpose of the test program was to obtain basic shuttle aerodynamic data through a full range of elevon and aileron deflections, verification of data obtained at other facilities, and effects of Reynolds number. Tests were performed at Mach numbers from .35 to 1.20 and Reynolds numbers from 3,500,000 to 8,200,000 per foot. The high Reynolds number conditions (nominal 8,000,000/foot) were obtained using the ejector augmentation system. Angle of attack was varied from -2 to +20 degrees at sideslip angles of -2, 0, and +2 degrees. Sideslip was varied from -6 to +8 degrees at constant angles of attack from 0 to +20 degrees. Aileron settings were varied from -5 to +10 degrees at elevon deflections of -10, 0, and +10 degrees. Fixed aileron settings of 0 and 2 degrees in combination with various fixed elevon settings between -20 and +5 degrees were also run at varying angles of attack.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardin, R. B.; Burrows, R. R.
1975-01-01
A test is presented which was performed to determine the effect of cold jet gas plumes generated from main propulsion system and solid rocket motor nozzles on: (1) six-component force and moment data, (2) wing static pressures, (3) wing hinge moment, (4) elevon hinge moment, (5) rudder hinge moment, and (6) orbiter MPS nozzle pressure loads. The effects of rudder deflection, nozzle gimbal angle, and plume size were also obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flechner, S. G.; Patterson, J. C., Jr.; Fournier, P. G.
1981-01-01
A modified wing with the long core separate flow nacelle and several E(3) nacelles was utilized. The effects of nacelle and pylon cant angles and nacelle longitudinal and vertical location were investigated over a Mach number range from 0.70 to 0.83. The results at the cruise condition 0.82 Mach number and 0.55 lift coefficient are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.
2004-01-01
A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) technique was applied in a wind tunnel experiment in the NASA Langley Research Center 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to quantify the vortex-induced surface static pressures on a slender, faceted missile model at subsonic and transonic speeds. Global PSP calibrations were obtained using an in-situ method featuring the simultaneous electronically-scanned pressures (ESP) measurements. Both techniques revealed the significant influence leading-edge vortices on the surface pressure distributions. The mean error in the PSP measurements relative to the ESP data was approximately 0.6 percent at M(sub infinity)=0.70 and 2.6 percent at M(sub infinity)=0.90 and 1.20. The vortex surface pressure signatures obtained from the PSP and ESP techniques were correlated with the off-surface vortex cross-flow structures obtained using a laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization technique. The on-surface and off-surface techniques were complementary, since each provided details of the vortex-dominated flow that were not clear or apparent in the other.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.
2004-01-01
A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) technique was applied in a wind tunnel experiment in the NASA Langley Research Center 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to quantify the vortex-induced surface static pressures on a slender, faceted missile model at subsonic and transonic speeds. Satisfactory global calibrations of the PSP were obtained at =0.70, 0.90, and 1.20, angles of attack from 10 degrees to 20 degrees, and angles of sideslip of 0 and 2.5 degrees using an in-situ method featuring the simultaneous acquisition of electronically-scanned pressures (ESP) at 57 discrete locations on the model. Both techniques clearly revealed the significant influence on the surface pressure distributions of the vortices shed from the sharp, chine-like leading edges. The mean error in the PSP measurements relative to the ESP data was approximately 0.6 percent at M infinity =0.70 and 2.6 percent at M infinity =0.90 and 1.20. The vortex surface pressure signatures obtained from the PSP and ESP techniques were correlated with the off-surface vortex cross-flow structures obtained using a laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization technique. The on-surface and off-surface techniques were complementary, since each provided details of the vortex-dominated flow that were not clear or apparent in the other.
Initial Assesment of Space Launch System Transonic Unsteady Pressure Environment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sekula, Martin K.; Piatak, David J.; Rausch, Russ D.; Florance, James R.; Ramey, James M.
2015-01-01
A series of wind tunnel tests were conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel to assess the transonic buffet environment for the Space Launch System (SLS) launch vehicle. An initial test, conducted in 2012, indicated an elevated buffet environment prompting a second test to provide further insight into the buffet phenomena and assess potential solutions to reduce the response levels of these environments. During the course of the test program, eight variants of the SLS-10000 configuration were examined. The effect of these configuration variants on the coefficient of the root-mean-square fluctuation of pressure about the mean as a function of test condition indicates that the maximum fluctuating pressure levels are extremely sensitive to the geometry of the forward attachment of the solid rocket boosters (SRBs) to the SLS Core. The addition of flow fences or changes to the SRB nose cone geometry can alleviate the unsteady pressure environment.
Langley 16- Ft. Transonic Tunnel Pressure Sensitive Paint System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sprinkle, Danny R.; Obara, Clifford J.; Amer, Tahani R.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Carmine, Michael T.; Sealey, Bradley S.; Burkett, Cecil G.
2001-01-01
This report describes the NASA Langley 16-Ft. Transonic Tunnel Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) System and presents results of a test conducted June 22-23, 2000 in the tunnel to validate the PSP system. The PSP system provides global surface pressure measurements on wind tunnel models. The system was developed and installed by PSP Team personnel of the Instrumentation Systems Development Branch and the Advanced Measurement and Diagnostics Branch. A discussion of the results of the validation test follows a description of the system and a description of the test.
Billet planting, 8-foot rows, residue updates
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Cultural practices are continually tested and upgraded to maximize sugarcane yield in Louisiana. Over the past 3 years extensive research went in to comparing the industry standard 6-foot row spacing to a wider, 8 foot row. Each 8 foot row was double drilled with seed canes that were 2-3 feet apart....
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.; Gonzalez, Hugo A.
2006-01-01
A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) technique was applied in a wind tunnel experiment in the NASA Langley Research Center 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to study the effect of wing fillets on the global vortex induced surface static pressure field about a sharp leading-edge 76 deg./40 deg. double delta wing, or strake-wing, model at subsonic and transonic speeds. Global calibrations of the PSP were obtained at M(sub infinity) = 0.50, 0.70, 0.85, 0.95, and 1.20, a Reynolds number per unit length of 2.0 million, and angles of attack from 10 degrees to 20 degrees using an insitu method featuring the simultaneous acquisition of electronically scanned pressures (ESP) at discrete locations on the model. The mean error in the PSP measurements relative to the ESP data was approximately 2 percent or less at M(sub infinity) = 0.50 to 0.85 but increased to several percent at M(sub infinity) =0.95 and 1.20. The PSP pressure distributions and pseudo-colored, planform-view pressure maps clearly revealed the vortex-induced pressure signatures at all Mach numbers and angles of attack. Small fillets having parabolic or diamond planforms situated at the strake-wing intersection were respectively designed to manipulate the vortical flows by removing the leading-edge discontinuity or introducing additional discontinuities. The fillets caused global changes in the vortex-dominated surface pressure field that were effectively captured in the PSP measurements. The vortex surface pressure signatures were compared to available off-surface vortex cross-flow structures obtained using a laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization technique. The fillet effects on the PSP pressure distributions and the observed leading-edge vortex flow characteristics were consistent with the trends in the measured lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients.
Louisiana farm discussion: 8 foot row spacing
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
This year several tests in growersâ€™ fields were used to compare traditional 6-foot row spacing to 8-foot row spacing. Cane is double-drilled in the wider row spacing. The wider row spacing would accommodate John Deere 3522 harvester. Field data indicate the sugarcane yields are very comparable in 8-...
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogar, T. J.; Sajben, M.
1986-10-01
The propagation of compression pulses in a supercritically operated transonic diffuser was investigated by use of pressure measurements along the top wall of the model. The pulses were generated at the downstream end of the diffuser by the abrupt injection of a secondary flow of air. Two types of waves were observed: (1) an upstream-traveling acoustic wave and (2) a downstream-traveling convective wave which resulted from the impingement of the acoustic wave on the shock. Wave speeds were determined for a range of diffuser pressure ratios including separated, strong-shock flows and fully attached, weak-shock flows. Streamwise distributions of initial and reflected pulse amplitudes were determined for one weak and one strong-shock case over a 3-to-1 range of initial pulse strengths.
Experimental Investigation of High-Pressure Steam Induced Stall of a Transonic Rotor
2007-06-01
engine, so the steam -induced stall characteristic of its compressor must be well understood to help prevent any catastrophic failures of the aircraft...INVESTIGATION OF HIGH-PRESSURE STEAM INDUCED STALL OF A TRANSONIC ROTOR by Joesph J. Koessler June 2007 Thesis Advisor: Garth V. Hobson...2007 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Masterâ€™s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Experimental Investigation of High-Pressure Steam Induced Stall of a
Analysis of Fluctuating Static Pressure Measurements in the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Igoe, William B.
1996-01-01
Dynamic measurements of fluctuating static pressure levels were taken with flush-mounted, high-frequency response pressure transducers at 11 locations in the circuit of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) across the complete operating range of this wind tunnel. Measurements were taken at test-section Mach numbers from 0.1 to 1.2, at pressures from 1 to 8.6 atm, and at temperatures from ambient to -250 F, which resulted in dynamic flow disturbance measurements at the highest Reynolds numbers available in a transonic ground test facility. Tests were also made by independent variation of the Mach number, the Reynolds number, or the fan drive power while the other two parameters were held constant, which for the first time resulted in a distinct separation of the effects of these three important parameters.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gloss, B. B.; Nystrom, D.
1981-01-01
The National Transonic Facility (NTF), a fan-driven, transonic, pressurized, cryogenic wind tunnel, will operate over the Mach number range of 0.10 to 1.20 with stagnation pressures varying from 1.00 to about 8.8 atm and stagnation temperatures varying from 77 to 340 K. The NTF is cooled to cryogenic temperatures by the injection of liquid nitrogen into the tunnel stream with gaseous nitrogen as the test gas. The NTF can also operate at ambient temperatures using a conventional chilled water heat exchanger with air on nitrogen as the test gas. The methods used in estimating the fan pressure ratio requirements are described. The estimated NTF operating envelopes at Mach numbers from 0.10 to 1.20 are presented.
Evaluation of flow quality in two large NASA wind tunnels at transonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harvey, W. D.; Stainback, P. C.; Owen, F. K.
1980-01-01
Wind tunnel testing of low drag airfoils and basic transition studies at transonic speeds are designed to provide high quality aerodynamic data at high Reynolds numbers. This requires that the flow quality in facilities used for such research be excellent. To obtain a better understanding of the characteristics of facility disturbances and identification of their sources for possible facility modification, detailed flow quality measurements were made in two prospective NASA wind tunnels. Experimental results are presented of an extensive and systematic flow quality study of the settling chamber, test section, and diffuser in the Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel and the Ames 12 foot pressure wind tunnel. Results indicate that the free stream velocity and pressure fluctuation levels in both facilities are low at subsonic speeds and are so high as to make it difficult to conduct meaningful boundary layer control and transition studies at transonic speeds.
The Langley 8-ft transonic pressure tunnel laminar-flow-control experiment
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bobbitt, Percy J.; Harvey, William D.; Harris, Charles D.; Brooks, Cuyler W., Jr.
1992-01-01
An account is given of the considerations involved in selecting the NASA-Langley transonic pressure tunnel's design and test parameters, as well as its liner and a swept wing for laminar flow control (LFC) experimentation. Attention is given to the types and locations of the instrumentation employed. Both slotted and perforated upper surfaces were tested with partial- and full-chord suction; representative results are presented for all.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Henderson, William P.; Burley, James R., II
1987-01-01
An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel to determine the effects on empennage arrangement on single-engine nozzle/afterbody static pressures. Tests were done at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20, nozzle pressure ratios from 1.0 (jet off) to 8.0. and angles of attack from -3 to 9 deg (at jet off conditions), depending on Mach number. Three empennage arrangements (aft, staggered, and forward) were investigated. Extensive measurements were made of static pressure on the nozzle/afterbody in the vicinity of the tail surfaces.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hallissy, J. B.; Ayers, T. G.
1977-01-01
An investigation was conducted in the NASA Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.975 with a variable-wing-sweep airplane model in order to evaluate a series of wings designed to demonstrate the maneuver potential of the supercritical airfoil concept. Both conventional and supercritical wing designs for several planform configurations were investigated with wing sweep angles from 16.0 deg to 72.5 deg, depending on Mach number and wing configuration. The supercritical wing configuration showed significant improvements over the conventional configurations in drag-divergence Mach number and in drag level at transonic maneuver conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, R. M.; Wynne, E. C.; Mabey, D. G.
1985-01-01
Pressure data measured by the British Royal Aircraft Establishment for the AGARD SMP tailplane are compared with results calculated using the transonic small perturbation code XTRAN3S. A brief description of the analysis is given and a recently developed finite difference grid is described. Results are presented for five steady and nine harmonically oscillating cases near zero angle of attack and for a range of subsonic and transonic Mach numbers.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tcheng, P.
1977-01-01
A dynamic response test performed in a eight foot transonic pressure tunnel is described. The dynamics of the flow process of the wind tunnel at transonic conditions were obtained. Descriptions of the test conditions, instrumentation, presentation of raw data, analysis of data, and finally, based on experimental evidences, an attempt to construct an input output relationship of the flow process from the viewpoints of control engineering are included.
Effect of high rotor pressure-surface diffusion on performance of a transonic turbine
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Miser, James W; Stewart, Warner L; Monroe, Daniel E
1955-01-01
The subject turbine was investigated to determine the effect of high rotor pressure-surface diffusion on turbine performance. A comparison of the subject turbine with the most efficient transonic turbine in the present series of investigations showed that the efficiency of the subject turbine was almost as high, the suction-surface diffusion parameter was about the same, and the solidity was reduced by 36 percent. Because the loss per blade increased greatly with an increase in pressure-surface diffusion, the latter is also considered to be an important design consideration.
Within-Tunnel Variations in Pressure Data for Three Transonic Wind Tunnels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
DeLoach, Richard
2014-01-01
This paper compares the results of pressure measurements made on the same test article with the same test matrix in three transonic wind tunnels. A comparison is presented of the unexplained variance associated with polar replicates acquired in each tunnel. The impact of a significance component of systematic (not random) unexplained variance is reviewed, and the results of analyses of variance are presented to assess the degree of significant systematic error in these representative wind tunnel tests. Total uncertainty estimates are reported for 140 samples of pressure data, quantifying the effects of within-polar random errors and between-polar systematic bias errors.
Pressure-distribution measurements on a transonic low-aspect ratio wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keener, E. R.
1985-01-01
Experimental surface pressure distributions and oil flow photographs are presented for a 0.90 m semispan model of NASA/Lockheed Wing C, a generic transonic, supercritical, low aspect ratio, highly 3-dimensional configuration. This wing was tested at the design angle of attack of 5 deg over a Mach number range from 0.25 to 0.96, and a Reynolds number range from 3.4 x 1,000,000 to 10 x 1,000,000. Pressures were measured with both the tunnel floor and ceiling suction slots open for most of the tests but taped closed for some tests to simulate solid walls. A comparison is made with the measured pressures from a small model in high Reynolds number facility and with predicted pressures using two three dimesional, transonic full potential flow wing codes: design code FLO22 (nonconservative) and TWING code (conservative). At the given design condition, a small region of flow separation occurred. At a Mach number of 0.82 the flow was unseparated and the surface flow angles were less than 10 deg, indicating that the boundary layer flow was not 3-D. Evidence indicate that wings that are optimized for mild shock waves and mild pressure recovery gradients generally have small 3-D boundary layer flow at design conditions for unseparated flow.
Jet Effects on Base and Afterbody Pressures of a Cylindrical Afterbody at Transonic Speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cubbage, James M , Jr
1956-01-01
An investigation of the effects of jet nozzle geometry, size of base annulus, and base bleed upon the base and afterbody pressures of a cylindrical afterbody at transonic speeds has been conducted. Sonic and supersonic conical nozzles with jet-to-base diameter ratios from 0.25 to 0.85 were investigated with a cold jet at jet total-pressure ratios up to approximately 8.0 through a Mach number range from 0.6 to 1.25. Base pressure coefficients of about -0.55 were measured for the sonic nozzles at a Mach number of 1 or greater. The jet-to-base diameter ratio had a substantial effect on the base pressure obtained on the cylindrical afterbody of this investigation. Base bleed was beneficial in increasing the base pressure under certain conditions but had little or no effect at certain other conditions.
Pressure drop and thrust predictions for transonic micronozzle flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gomez, J.; Groll, R.
2016-02-01
In this paper, the expansion of xenon, argon, krypton, and neon gases through a Laval nozzle is studied experimentally and numerically. The pressurized gases are accelerated through the nozzle into a vacuum chamber in an attempt to simulate the operating conditions of a cold-gas thruster for attitude control of a micro-satellite. The gases are evaluated at several mass flow rates ranging between 0.178 mg/s and 3.568 mg/s. The Re numbers are low (8-256) and the estimated values of Kn number lie between 0.33 and 0.02 (transition and slip-flow regime). Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) and continuum-based simulations with a no-slip boundary condition are performed. The DSMC and the experimental results show good agreement in the range Kn > 0.1, while the Navier-Stokes results describe the experimental data more accurately for Kn < 0.05. Comparison between the experimental and Navier-Stokes results shows high deviations at the lower mass flow rates and higher Kn numbers. A relation describing the deviation of the pressure drop through the nozzle as a function of Kn is obtained. For gases with small collision cross sections, the experimental pressure results deviate more strongly from the no-slip assumption. From the analysis of the developed function, it is possible to correct the pressure results for the studied gases, both in the slip-flow and transition regimes, with four gas-independent accommodation coefficients. The thrust delivered by the cold-gas thruster and the specific impulse is determined based on the numerical results. Furthermore, an increase of the thickness of the viscous boundary layer through the diffuser of the micronozzle is observed. This results in a shock-less decrease of the Mach number and the flow velocity, which penalizes thrust efficiency. The negative effect of the viscous boundary layer on thrust efficiency can be lowered through higher values of Re and a reduction of the diffuser length.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, Thomas C.
1961-01-01
Results have been obtained i n t h e Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.40 t o 1.20 for several configurations of the Scout vehicle and f o r a number of related models. Tests extended over an angle-of-attack range from about -10 degrees to 10 degrees at a Reynolds number per foot of about 3.8 x 10 sup 6.
An Overview of Unsteady Pressure Measurements in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuster, David M.; Edwards, John W.; Bennett, Robert M.
2000-01-01
The NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel has served as a unique national facility for aeroelastic testing for over forty years. A significant portion of this testing has been to measure unsteady pressures on models undergoing flutter, forced oscillations, or buffet. These tests have ranged from early launch vehicle buffet to flutter of a generic high-speed transport. This paper will highlight some of the test techniques, model design approaches, and the many unsteady pressure tests conducted in the TDT. The objectives and results of the data acquired during these tests will be summarized for each case and a brief discussion of ongoing research involving unsteady pressure measurements and new TDT capabilities will be presented.
Transonic Dynamics Tunnel Force and Pressure Data Acquired on the HSR Rigid Semispan Model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuster, David M.; Rausch, Russ D.
1999-01-01
This report describes the aerodynamic data acquired on the High Speed Research Rigid Semispan Model (HSR-RSM) during NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) Test 520 conducted from 18 March to 4 April, 1996. The purpose of this test was to assess the aerodynamic character of a rigid high speed civil transport wing. The wing was fitted with a single trailing edge control surface which was both steadily deflected and oscillated during the test to investigate the response of the aerodynamic data to steady and unsteady control motion. Angle-of-attack and control surface deflection polars at subsonic, transonic and low-supersonic Mach numbers were obtained in the tunnel?s heavy gas configuration. Unsteady pressure and steady loads data were acquired on the wing, while steady pressures were measured on the fuselage. These data were reduced using a variety of methods, programs and computer systems. The reduced data was ultimately compiled onto a CD-ROM volume which was distributed to HSR industry team members in July, 1996. This report documents the methods used to acquire and reduce the data, and provides an assessment of the quality, repeatability, and overall character of the aerodynamic data measured during this test.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Usry, J. W.; Wallace, J. W.
1971-01-01
The forebody drag of a supercritical body of revolution was measured in free flight over a Mach number range of 0.85 to 1.05 and a Reynolds number range of 11.5 x 10 to the 6th power to 19.4 x 10 to the 6th power and was compared with wind-tunnel data. The forebody drag coefficient for a Mach number less than 0.96 was 0.111 compared with the wind-tunnel value of 0.103. A gradual increase in the drag occurred in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at a lower Mach number than in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel or in the free-flight test. The sharp drag rise occurred near Mach 0.98 in free flight whereas the rise occurred near Mach 0.99 in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. The sharp rise was not as pronounced in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel and was probably affected by tunnel-wall-interference effects. The increase occurred more slowly and at a higher Mach number. These results indicate that the drag measurements made in the wind tunnels near Mach 1 were significantly affected by the relative size of the model and the wind tunnel.
Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint at 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.; Lipford, William E.; Goodman, Kyle Z.
2015-01-01
Recently both Pressure- and Temperature-Sensitive Paint experiments were conducted at cryogenic conditions in the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. This represented a re-introduction of the techniques to the facility after more than a decade, and provided a means to upgrade the measurements using newer technology as well as demonstrate that the techniques were still viable in the facility. Temperature-Sensitive Paint was employed on a laminar airfoil for transition detection and Pressure-Sensitive Paint was employed on a supercritical airfoil. This report will detail the techniques and their unique challenges that need to be overcome in cryogenic environments. In addition, several optimization strategies will also be discussed.
Analytical method for predicting the pressure distribution about a nacelle at transonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keith, J. S.; Ferguson, D. R.; Merkle, C. L.; Heck, P. H.; Lahti, D. J.
1973-01-01
The formulation and development of a computer analysis for the calculation of streamlines and pressure distributions around two-dimensional (planar and axisymmetric) isolated nacelles at transonic speeds are described. The computerized flow field analysis is designed to predict the transonic flow around long and short high-bypass-ratio fan duct nacelles with inlet flows and with exhaust flows having appropriate aerothermodynamic properties. The flow field boundaries are located as far upstream and downstream as necessary to obtain minimum disturbances at the boundary. The far-field lateral flow field boundary is analytically defined to exactly represent free-flight conditions or solid wind tunnel wall effects. The inviscid solution technique is based on a Streamtube Curvature Analysis. The computer program utilizes an automatic grid refinement procedure and solves the flow field equations with a matrix relaxation technique. The boundary layer displacement effects and the onset of turbulent separation are included, based on the compressible turbulent boundary layer solution method of Stratford and Beavers and on the turbulent separation prediction method of Stratford.
Heat transfer coefficient measurements on the pressure surface of a transonic airfoil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kodzwa, Paul M.; Eaton, John K.
2010-02-01
This paper presents steady-state recovery temperature and heat transfer coefficient measurements on the pressure surface of a modern, highly cambered transonic airfoil. These measurements were collected with a peak Mach number of 1.5 and a maximum turbulence intensity of 30%. We used a single passage model to simulate the idealized two-dimensional flow path between rotor blades in a modern transonic turbine. This set up offered a simpler construction than a linear cascade, yet produced an equivalent flow condition. We performed validated high accuracy (Â±0.2Â°C) surface temperature measurements using wide-band thermochromic liquid crystals allowing separate measurements of the previously listed parameters with the same heat transfer surface. We achieved maximum heat transfer coefficient uncertainties that were equivalent to similar investigations (Â±10%). Two key observations are the heat transfer coefficient along the aft portion of the airfoil is sensitive to the surface heat flux and is highly insensitive to the level of freestream turbulence. Possible explanations for these observations are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allison, Dennis O.; Sewall, William G.
1995-01-01
Longitudinal characteristics and wing-section pressure distributions are compared for the EA-6B airplane with and without airfoil modifications. The airfoil modifications were designed to increase low-speed maximum lift for maneuvering, while having a minimal effect on transonic performance. Section contour changes were confined to the leading-edge slat and trailing-edge flap regions of the wing. Experimental data are analyzed from tests in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel on the baseline and two modified wing-fuselage configurations with the slats and flaps in their retracted positions. Wing modification effects on subsonic and transonic performance are seen in wing-section pressure distributions of the various configurations at similar lift coefficients. The modified-wing configurations produced maximum lift coefficients which exceeded those of the baseline configuration at low-speed Mach numbers (0.300 and 0.400). This benefit was related to the behavior of the wing upper surface leading-edge suction peak and the behavior of the trailing-edge pressure. At transonic Mach numbers (0.725 to 0.900), the wing modifications produced a somewhat stronger nose-down pitching moment, a slightly higher drag at low-lift levels, and a lower drag at higher lift levels.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ladson, Charles L.; Hill, Acquilla S.; Johnson, William G., Jr.
1987-01-01
Tests were conducted in the 2-D test section of the Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel on a NACA 0012 airfoil to obtain aerodynamic data as a part of the Advanced Technology Airfoil Test (ATAT) program. The test program covered a Mach number range of 0.30 to 0.82 and a Reynolds number range of 3.0 to 45.0 x 10 to the 6th power. The stagnation pressure was varied between 1.2 and 6.0 atmospheres and the stagnation temperature was varied between 300 K and 90 K to obtain these test conditions. Tabulated pressure distributions and integrated force and moment coefficients are presented as well as plots of the surface pressure distributions. The data are presented uncorrected for wall interference effects and without analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jones, Gregory; Balakrishna, Sundareswara; DeMoss, Joshua; Goodliff, Scott; Bailey, Matthew
2015-01-01
Pressure fluctuations have been measured over the course of several tests in the National Transonic Facility to study unsteady phenomenon both with and without the influence of a model. Broadband spectral analysis will be used to characterize the length scales of the tunnel. Special attention will be given to the large-scale, low frequency data that influences the Mach number and force and moment variability. This paper will also discuss the significance of the vorticity and sound fields that can be related to the Common Research Model and will also highlight the comparisons to an empty tunnel configuration. The effectiveness of vortex generators placed at the interface of the test section and wind tunnel diffuser showed promise in reducing the empty tunnel unsteadiness, however, the vortex generators were ineffective in the presence of a model.
A numerical method for relating two- and three-dimensional pressure distributions on transonic wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kroo, Ilan; Van Der Velden, Alexander J. M.
1990-01-01
This paper presents a preliminary design method for determining a wing's design pressure distribution and geometry based on airfoil normal Mach numbers and airfoil loading. In this method, the perturbation velocities in supercritical regions are computed from airfoil transonic normal Mach numbers and include the influence of local sweep, taper, and three-dimensional induced velocities, so that the appearance and strength of shocks can be expected to resemble those of the airfoil. The velocities in subcritical wing regions are scaled first with simple sweep theory, and then to achieve the desired load distribution. The method was applied to the design of an oblique flying wing, using a linear potential method. The required wing area could be reduced by 14 percent using this method rather than simple sweep theory.
Recent transonic unsteady pressure measurements at the NASA Langley Research Center
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Hess, R. W.
1985-01-01
Four semispan wing model configurations were studied in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The first model had a clipped delta planform with a circular arc airfoil, the second model had a high aspect ratio planform with a supercritical airfoil, the third model has a rectangular planform with a supercritical airfoil and the fourth model had a high aspect ratio planform with a supercritical airfoil. To generate unsteady flow, the first and third models were equipped with pitch oscillation mechanisms and the first, second and fourth models were equipped with control surface oscillation mechanisms. The fourth model was similar in planform and airfoil shape to the second model, but it is the only one of the four models that has an elastic wing structure. The unsteady pressure studies of the four models are described and some typical results for each model are presented. Comparison of selected experimental data with analytical results also are included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watkins, A. Neal; Leighty, Bradley D.; Lipford, William E.; Oglesby, Donald M.; Goodman, Kyle Z.; Goad, William K.; Goad, Linda R.; Massey, Edward A.
2009-01-01
The Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) method was used to measure global surface pressures on a model at full-scale flight Reynolds numbers. In order to achieve these conditions, the test was carried out at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) operating under cryogenic conditions in a nitrogen environment. The upper surface of a wing on a full-span 0.027 scale commercial transport was painted with a porous PSP formulation and tested at 120K. Data was acquired at Mach 0.8 with a total pressure of 200 kPa, resulting in a Reynolds number of 65 x 106/m. Oxygen, which is required for PSP operation, was injected using dry air so that the oxygen concentration in the flow was approximately 1535 ppm. Results show qualitative agreement with expected results. This preliminary test is the first time that PSP has been successfully deployed to measure global surface pressures at cryogenic condition in the NTF. This paper will describe the system as installed, the results obtained from the test, as well as proposed upgrades and future tests.
Transonic static and dynamic stability characteristics of a finned projectile configuration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Boyden, R. P.; Brooks, C. W., Jr.; Davenport, E. E.
1978-01-01
Static and dynamic stability tests were made of a finned projectile configuration with the aft-mounted fins arranged in a cruciform pattern. The tests were made at free stream Mach numbers of 0.7, 0.9, 1.1, and 1.2 in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel. Some of the parameters measured during the tests were lift, drag, pitching moment, pitch damping, and roll damping. Configurations tested included the body with undeflected fins, the body with various fin deflections for control, and the body with fins removed. Theoretical estimates of the stability derivatives were made for the fins on configuration.
Doehler, Joachim
1994-12-20
Disclosed herein is an improved gas gate for interconnecting regions of differing gaseous composition and/or pressure. The gas gate includes a narrow, elongated passageway through which substrate material is adapted to move between said regions and inlet means for introducing a flow of non-contaminating sweep gas into a central portion of said passageway. The gas gate is characterized in that the height of the passageway and the flow rate of the sweep gas therethrough provides for transonic flow of the sweep gas between the inlet means and at least one of the two interconnected regions, thereby effectively isolating one region, characterized by one composition and pressure, from another region, having a differing composition and/or pressure, by decreasing the mean-free-path length between collisions of diffusing species within the transonic flow region. The gas gate preferably includes a manifold at the juncture point where the gas inlet means and the passageway interconnect.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flechner, S. G.
1979-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation to identify changes in stability and control characteristics of a model KC-135A due to the addition of winglets is presented. Static longitudinal and lateral-directional aerodynamic characteristics were determined for the model with and without winglets. Variations in the aerodynamic characteristics at various Mach numbers, angles of attack, and angles of slidslip are discussed. The effect of the winglets on the drag and lift coefficients are evaluated and the low speed and high speed characteristics of the model are reported.
The Total-Pressure Recovery and Drag Characteristics of Several Auxiliary Inlets at Transonic Speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dennard, John S.
1959-01-01
Several flush and scoop-type auxiliary inlets have been tested for a range of Mach numbers from 0.55 to 1.3 to determine their transonic total-pressure recovery and drag characteristics. The inlet dimensions were comparable with the thickness of the boundary layer in which they were tested. Results indicate that flush inlets should be inclined at very shallow angles with respect to the surface for optimum total-pressure recovery and drag characteristics. Deep, narrow inlets have lower drag than wide shallow ones at Mach numbers greater than 0.9 but at lower Mach numbers the wider inlets proved superior. Inlets with a shallow approach ramp, 7 deg, and diverging ramp walls which incorporated boundary-layer bypass had lower drag than any other inlet tested for Mach numbers up to 1.2 and had the highest pressure recovery of all of the flush inlets. The scoop inlets, which operated in a higher velocity flow than the flush inlets, had higher drag coefficients. Several of these auxiliary inlets projected multiple, periodic shock waves into the stream when they were operated at low mass-flow ratios.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.
1980-01-01
A supercritical wing with an aspect ratio of 10.76 and with two trailing-edge oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing is instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic-pressure gages for studying the effects of control-surface position and motion on steady- and unsteady-pressures at transonic speeds. Results from initial tests conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at two Reynolds numbers are presented in tabular form.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ng, W.-F.; Rosson, J. C.
1986-01-01
A newly developed, 3-mm-diam, dual hot-wire aspirating probe was used to measure the time-resolved stagnation temperature and pressure in a transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. The probe consists of two coplanar constant temperature hot wires at different overheat ratios operating in a 1.5-mm-diam channel with a choked exit. Thus, the constant Mach number flow by the wires is influenced only by free-stream stagnation temperature and pressure. Diffusion of the free-stream Mach number to a lower value in the channel reduces the dynamic drag on the hot-wire. Frequency response of the present design is dc to 20 kHz. The probe was used to measure the unsteady wake shed from an oscillating airfoil tested in the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at NASA-Langley Research Center. The hot-wire lasted for more than ten hours before breaking, proving the ruggedness of the probe and the usefulness of the technique in a high dynamic pressure, transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Typical data obtained from the experiment are presented after reduction to stagnation pressure and temperature.
Unsteady Pressures in a Transonic Fan Cascade Due to a Single Oscillating Airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Capece, V. R.; Hayden, J.
2002-01-01
An extensive set of unsteady pressure data was acquired along the midspan of a modern transonic fan blade for simulated flutter conditions. The data set was acquired in a nine-blade linear cascade with an oscillating middle blade to provide a database for the influence coefficient method to calculate instantaneous blade loadings. The cascade was set for an incidence of 10 dg. The data were acquired on three stationary blades on each side of the middle blade that was oscillated at an amplitude of 0.6 dg. The matrix of test conditions covered inlet Mach numbers of 0.5, 0.8, and 1.1 and the oscillation frequencies of 200, 300, 400, and 500 Hz. A simple quasiunsteady two-dimensional computer simulation was developed to aid in the running of the experimental program. For high Mach number subsonic inlet flows the blade pressures exhibit very strong, low-frequency, self-induced oscillations even without forced blade oscillations, while for low subsonic and supersonic inlet Mach numbers the blade pressure unsteadiness is quite low. The amplitude of forced pressure fluctuations on neighboring stationary blades strongly depends on the inlet Mach number and forcing frequency. The flowfield behavior is believed to be governed by strong nonlinear effects due to a combination of viscosity, compressibility, and unsteadiness. Therefore, the validity of the quasi-unsteady simplified computer simulation is limited to conditions when the flowfield is behaving in a linear, steady manner. Finally, an extensive set of unsteady pressure data was acquired to help development and verification of computer codes for blade flutter effects.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Washburn, K. E.; Gloss, B. B.
1978-01-01
Wind tunnel studies are reported on both the canard and wing surfaces of a model that is geometrically identical to one used in several force and moment tests to provide insight into the various aerodynamic interference effects. In addition to detailed pressures measurements, the pressures were integrated to illustrate the effects of Mach number, canard location, and canard-wing interference on various aerodynamic parameters. Transonic pressure tunnel Mach numbers ranged from 0.70 to 1.20 for data taken from 0 deg to approximately 16 deg angle-of-attack at 0 deg sideslip.
Methodology of Blade Unsteady Pressure Measurement in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Capece, V. R.; Jett, T. A.; Senyitko, R. G.
2002-01-01
In this report the methodology adopted to measure unsteady pressures on blade surfaces in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade under conditions of simulated blade flutter is described. The previous work done in this cascade reported that the oscillating cascade produced waves, which for some interblade phase angles reflected off the wind tunnel walls back into the cascade, interfered with the cascade unsteady aerodynamics, and contaminated the acquired data. To alleviate the problems with data contamination due to the back wall interference, a method of influence coefficients was selected for the future unsteady work in this cascade. In this approach only one blade in the cascade is oscillated at a time. The majority of the report is concerned with the experimental technique used and the experimental data generated in the facility. The report presents a list of all test conditions for the small amplitude of blade oscillations, and shows examples of some of the results achieved. The report does not discuss data analysis procedures like ensemble averaging, frequency analysis, and unsteady blade loading diagrams reconstructed using the influence coefficient method. Finally, the report presents the lessons learned from this phase of the experimental effort, and suggests the improvements and directions of the experimental work for tests to be carried out for large oscillation amplitudes.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Couch, L. M.; Brooks, C. W., Jr.
1973-01-01
Experimental data were obtained in two wind tunnels for 13 models over a Mach number range from 0.70 to 1.02. Effects of increasing test-section blockage ratio in the transonic region near a Mach number of 1.0 included change in the shape of the drag curves, premature drag creep, delayed drag divergence, and a positive increment of pressures on the model afterbodies. Effects of wall interference were apparent in the data even for a change in blockage ratio from a very low 0.000343 to an even lower 0.000170. Therefore, models having values of blockage ratio of 0.0003 - an order of magnitude below the previously considered safe value of 0.0050 - had significant errors in the drag-coefficient values obtained at speeds near a Mach number of 1.0. Furthermore, the flow relief afforded by slots or perforations in test-section walls - designed according to previously accepted criteria for interference-free subsonic flow - does not appear to be sufficient to avoid significant interference of the walls with the model flow field for Mach numbers very close to 1.0.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pitts, William C; Nielsen, Jack N; Kaattari, George E
1957-01-01
A method is presented for calculating the lift and centers of pressure of wing-body and wing-body-tail combinations at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds. A set of design charts and a computing table are presented which reduce the computations to routine operations. Comparison between the estimated and experimental characteristics for a number of wing-body and wing-body-tail combinations shows correlation to within + or - 10 percent on lift and to within about + or - 0.02 of the body length on center of pressure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.; Watson, J. J.
1981-01-01
A high aspect ratio supercritical wing with oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing model was instrumented with 252 static orifices and 164 in situ dynamic pressure gases for studying the effects of control surface position and sinusoidal motion on steady and unsteady pressures. Data from the present test (this is the second in a series of tests on this model) were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60 and 0.78 and are presented in tabular form.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spencer, B., Jr.; Stone, D. R.
1973-01-01
The experimental aerodynamic characteristics of three basic wing planforms on a conceptual orbiter fuselage (designated the LO-100) have been obtained in the 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel. The study included variations in the forward portion (fillet) of each basic wing. Fillet sweeps to 78 deg were investigated while holding the spanwise intersection of the fillet and wing constant. The data were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.35 to 1.2 and at Reynolds number (depending on Mach number) of 1.9 million to 2.11 million per foot. The angle of attack was varied from about minus 2 deg to 22 deg at 0 deg of sideslip.
Instrumentation systems for the Langley Research Center 8-foot high temperature tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walsh, James J., Jr.; O'Connor, Laura A.
1989-01-01
A description is presented of the 8-foot high-temperature tunnel, a Mach 7 blowdown-type facility in which methane is burned in air under pressure, with the resulting combustion products utilized as the test medium. The instrumentation environment and requirements are identified, and instrumentation design, including wiring, sensors, and data acquisition system are described. The design and installation of a fast oxygen monitoring system to maintain the partial pressure of oxygen at 21 percent in the tunnel test section is included. Also, the new data acquisition system hardware details and data-reduction capabilities are defined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Igoe, William B.
1991-01-01
Dynamic measurements of fluctuating static pressure levels were made using flush mounted high frequency response pressure transducers at eleven locations in the circuit of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) over the complete operating range of this wind tunnel. Measurements were made at test section Mach numbers from 0.2 to 1.2, at pressure from 1 to 8.6 atmospheres and at temperatures from ambient to -250 F, resulting in dynamic flow disturbance measurements at the highest Reynolds numbers available in a transonic ground test facility. Tests were also made independently at variable Mach number, variable Reynolds number, and variable drivepower, each time keeping the other two variables constant thus allowing for the first time, a distinct separation of these three important variables. A description of the NTF emphasizing its flow quality features, details on the calibration of the instrumentation, results of measurements with the test section slots covered, downstream choke, effects of liquid nitrogen injection and gaseous nitrogen venting, comparisons between air and nitrogen, isolation of the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and fan drive power, and identification of the sources of significant flow disturbances is included. The results indicate that primary sources of flow disturbance in the NTF may be edge-tones generated by test section sidewall re-entry flaps and the venting of nitrogen gas from the return leg of the tunnel circuit between turns 3 and 4 in the cryogenic mode of operation. The tests to isolate the effects of Mach number, Reynolds number, and drive power indicate that Mach number effects predominate. A comparison with other transonic wind tunnels shows that the NTF has low levels of test section fluctuating static pressure especially in the high subsonic Mach number range from 0.7 to 0.9.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tracy, M. B.; Plentovich, E. B.
1993-01-01
Static and fluctuating pressure distributions were obtained along the floor of a rectangular-box cavity in an experiment performed in the LaRC 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. The cavity studied was 11.25 in. long and 2.50 in. wide with a variable height to obtain length-to-height ratios of 4.4, 6.7, 12.67, and 20.0. The data presented herein were obtained for yaw angles of 0 deg and 15 deg over a Mach number range from 0.2 to 0.9 at a Reynolds number of 30 x 10(exp 6) per ft with a boundary-layer thickness of approximately 0.5 in. The results indicated that open and transitional-open cavity flow supports tone generation at subsonic and transonic speeds at Mach numbers of 0.6 and above. Further, pressure fluctuations associated with acoustic tone generation can be sustained when static pressure distributions indicate that transitional-closed and closed flow fields exist in the cavity. Cavities that support tone generation at 0 deg yaw also supported tone generation at 15 deg yaw when the flow became transitional-closed. For the latter cases, a reduction in tone amplitude was observed. Both static and fluctuating pressure data must be considered when defining cavity flow fields, and the flow models need to be refined to accommodate steady and unsteady flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.
2010-01-01
Laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization and pressure sensitive paint (PSP) techniques were applied in a unified approach to wind tunnel testing of slender wing and missile configurations dominated by vortex flows and shock waves at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds. The off-surface cross-flow patterns using the LVS technique were combined with global PSP surface static pressure mappings to characterize the leading-edge vortices and shock waves that coexist and interact at high angles of attack. The synthesis of LVS and PSP techniques was also effective in identifying the significant effects of passive surface porosity and the presence of vertical tail surfaces on the flow topologies. An overview is given of LVS and PSP applications in selected experiments on small-scale models of generic slender wing and missile configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) and 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (8-Foot TPT).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.
2008-01-01
Laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization and pressure sensitive paint (PSP) techniques were applied in a unified approach to wind tunnel testing of slender wing and missile configurations dominated by vortex flows and shock waves at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds. The off-surface cross-flow patterns using the LVS technique were combined with global PSP surface static pressure mappings to characterize the leading-edge vortices and shock waves that coexist and interact at high angles of attack (alpha). The synthesis of LVS and PSP techniques was also effective in identifying the significant effects of passive surface porosity and the presence of vertical tail surfaces on the flow topologies. An overview is given of LVS and PSP applications in selected experiments on small-scale models of generic slender wing and missile configurations in the NASA Langley Research Center (NASA LaRC) Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) and 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel (8-Foot TPT).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watkins, A. Neal; Lipford, William E.; Leighty, Bradley D.; Goodman, Kyle Z.; Goad, William K.; Goad, Linda R.
2011-01-01
This report will serve to present results of a test of the pressure sensitive paint (PSP) technique on the Common Research Model (CRM). This test was conducted at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at NASA Langley Research Center. PSP data was collected on several surfaces with the tunnel operating in both cryogenic mode and standard air mode. This report will also outline lessons learned from the test as well as possible approaches to challenges faced in the test that can be applied to later entries.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Reis, M. L. C. C.; Falcao Filho, J. B. P.; Basso, E.; Caldas, V. R.
2015-02-01
A test campaign of the Brazilian sounding rocket Sonda III was carried out at the Pilot Transonic Wind Tunnel, TTP. The aim of the campaign was to investigate aerodynamic phenomena taking place at the connection region of the first and second stages. Shock and expansion waves are expected at this location causing high gradients in airflow properties around the vehicle. Pressure taps located on the surface of a Sonda III half model measure local static pressures. Other measured parameters were freestream static and total pressures of the airflow. Estimated parameters were pressure coefficients and Mach numbers. Uncertainties associated with the estimated parameters were calculated by employing the Law of Propagation of Uncertainty and the Monte Carlo method. It was found that both uncertainty evaluation methods resulted in similar values. A Computational Fluid Dynamics simulation code was elaborated to help understand the changes in the flow field properties caused by the disturbances.
11. INTERIOR VIEW OF 8FOOT HIGH SPEED WIND TUNNEL. SAME ...
11. INTERIOR VIEW OF 8-FOOT HIGH SPEED WIND TUNNEL. SAME CAMERA POSITION AS VA-118-B-10 LOOKING IN THE OPPOSITE DIRECTION. - NASA Langley Research Center, 8-Foot High Speed Wind Tunnel, 641 Thornell Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA
2. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SETTLING CHAMBER OF 8FOOT HIGH ...
2. VIEW LOOKING NORTHWEST AT SETTLING CHAMBER OF 8-FOOT HIGH SPEED WIND TUNNEL. Jet Lowe, HAER Photographer, December 1995. - NASA Langley Research Center, 8-Foot High Speed Wind Tunnel, 641 Thornell Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA
The Olduvai Hominid 8 foot: adult or subadult?
DeSilva, Jeremy M; Zipfel, Bernhard; Van Arsdale, Adam P; Tocheri, Matthew W
2010-05-01
Olduvai Hominid 8 (OH 8), an articulating set of fossil hominin tarsal and metatarsal bones, is critical to interpretations of the evolution of hominin pedal morphology and bipedal locomotion. It has been suggested that OH 8 may represent the foot of a subadult and may be associated with the OH 7 mandible, the type specimen of Homo habilis. This assertion is based on the presence of what may be unfused distal metatarsal epiphyses. Accurately assessing the skeletal maturity of the OH 8 foot is important for interpretations of the functional morphology and locomotor behavior of Plio-Pleistocene hominins. In this study, we compare metatarsal fusion patterns and internal bone morphology of the lateral metatarsals among subadult hominines (85 modern humans, 48 Pan, and 25 Gorilla) to assess the likelihood that OH 8 belonged to either an adult or subadult hominin. Our results suggest that if OH 8 is indeed from a subadult, then it displays a metatarsal developmental pattern that is unobserved in our comparative sample. In OH 8, the fully fused base of the first metatarsal and the presence of trabecular bone at the distal ends of the second and third metatarsal shafts make it highly improbable that it belonged to a subadult, let alone a subadult that matches the developmental age of the OH 7 mandible. In total, the results of this study suggest that the OH 8 foot most likely belonged to an adult hominin.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, James H.
2011-01-01
The luminescence lifetime technique was used to make pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) measurements on a 2.7% Common Research Model in the NASA Ames 11ft Transonic Wind Tunnel. PSP data were obtained on the upper and lower surfaces of the wing and horizontal tail, as well as one side of the fuselage. Data were taken for several model attitudes of interest at Mach numbers between 0.70 and 0.87. Image data were mapped onto a three-dimensional surface grid suitable both for comparison with CFD and for integration of pressures to determine loads. Luminescence lifetime measurements were made using strobed LED (light-emitting diode) lamps to illuminate the PSP and fast-framing interline transfer cameras to acquire the PSP emission.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gross, A. R.; Steinle, F. W., Jr.
1975-01-01
A NACA 64A010 pressure-instrumented airfoil was tested at transonic speeds over a range of angle of attack from -1 to 12 degrees at various Reynolds numbers ranging from 2 to 6 million in air, argon, Freon 12, and a mixture of argon and Freon 12 having a ratio of specific heats corresponding to air. Good agreement of results is obtained for conditions where compressibility is not significant and for the air and comparable argon-Freon 12 mixture. Comparison of heavy gas results with air, when adjusted for transonic similarity, show improved, but less than desired agreement.
Navier-Stokes calculation of transonic flow past the NTF 65-deg delta wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, Chivey
1992-01-01
Viscous flow past a wind tunnel model of a 65-degree swept angle Delta wing at transonic speeds is being studied. The model was tested in the 8-foot cryogenic transonic wind tunnel at the National Transonic Facility. Aerodynamic forces and wing surface pressure data were obtained at various angles of attack, Mach numbers, and Reynold's numbers for four different leading edges of the wing. The objectives of the present investigation are: (1) to perform numerical modeling of the flow around the wing; (2) to validate the experimental data with a Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics code and vice versa; (3) to investigate the effects of the sting mount of the wing; (4) to evaluate the effects of leading edge radius on the flow; and (5) to explain the Reynold's number effect as indicated by the test data. Several computer programs were developed to define the surfaces of the wing, the four leading edges, and the sting mount. Based on these geometric databases, the surface grids of a single-block computational domain was generated interactively on the IRIS workstation using the GRIDGEN2D module of GRIDGEN. To refine the grids and to avoid excessive loss of grid points due to collapsed edges, a 9-block computational domain containing approximately 750,000 grid points was developed with the GRIDBLOCK module to replace the single-block grid.
Computational design of low aspect ratio wing-winglet configurations for transonic wind-tunnel tests
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kuhlman, John M.; Brown, Christopher K.
1989-01-01
Computational designs were performed for three different low aspect ratio wing planforms fitted with nonplanar winglets; one of the three configurations was selected to be constructed as a wind tunnel model for testing in the NASA LaRC 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel. A design point of M = 0.8, C(sub L) is approximate or = to 0.3 was selected, for wings of aspect ratio equal to 2.2, and leading edge sweep angles of 45 deg and 50 deg. Winglet length is 15 percent of the wing semispan, with a cant angle of 15 deg, and a leading edge sweep of 50 deg. Winglet total area equals 2.25 percent of the wing reference area. The design process and the predicted transonic performance are summarized for each configuration. In addition, a companion low-speed design study was conducted, using one of the transonic design wing-winglet planforms but with different camber and thickness distributions. A low-speed wind tunnel model was constructed to match this low-speed design geometry, and force coefficient data were obtained for the model at speeds of 100 to 150 ft/sec. Measured drag coefficient reductions were of the same order of magnitude as those predicted by numerical subsonic performance predictions.
Design of thermal protection system for 8 foot HTST combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moskowitz, S.
1973-01-01
The combustor in the 8-foot high temperature structures tunnel at the NASA-Langley Research Center has encountered cracking over a period of 50-250 tunnel tests within a limited range of the required operating envelope. A program was conducted which analyzed the failed combustor liner hardware and determined that the mechanism of failure was vibratory fatigue. A vibration damper system using wave springs located axially between the liner T-bar and the liner support was designed as an intermediate solution to extend the life of the current two-pass regenerative air-cooled liner. The effects of liner wall thickness, cooling air passage height, stiffener ring geometry, reflective coatings, and liner material selection were investigated for these designs. Preliminary layout design arrangements including the external water-cooling system requirements, weight estimates, installation requirements and preliminary estimates of manufacturing costs were prepared for the most promissing configurations. A state-of-the-art review of thermal barrier coatings and an evaluation of reflective coatings for the gasside surface of air-cooled liners are included.
The Design of a High-Q, MACH-5 Nozzle for the Langley 8-Foot HTT
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gaffey, Richard L., Jr.; Stewart, Brian K.; Harvin, Stephen F.
2006-01-01
A new nozzle has ben designed for the NASA Langley Research Center 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel. The new nozzle was designed with a Mach-5 exit flow at a Mach-5 flight-enthalpy test condition and has a smaller throat area than the existing Mach-5 nozzle which significantly increases the range of dynamic pressures that can be achieved in the facility. The nozzle was designed using the NASA Langley IMOCND computer program which solves the potential equation using the classical method of characteristics. Several axisymmetric nozzle contours were generated and evaluated using viscous computational fluid dynamics. A number of items were considered in the evaluation, including flow uniformity, thermal and structural design, manufacturing schedule and cost. Once the final contour was selected, studies were done to determine the effects of manufacturing irregularities (steps and cavities at joints). These studies were done to develop manufacturing specifications and assembly tolerances.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hess, Robert W.; Seidel, David A.; Igoe, William B.; Lawing, Pierce L.
1987-01-01
Steady and unsteady pressures were measured on a 2-D supercritical airfoil in the Langley Research Center 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel at Reynolds numbers from 6 x 1,000,000 to 35 x 1,000,000. The airfoil was oscillated in pitch at amplitudes from plus or minus .25 degrees to plus or minus 1.0 degrees at frequencies from 5 Hz to 60 Hz. The special requirements of testing an unsteady pressure model in a pressurized cryogenic tunnel are discussed. Selected steady measured data are presented and are compared with GRUMFOIL calculations at Reynolds number of 6 x 1,000,000 and 30 x 1,000,000. Experimental unsteady results at Reynolds numbers of 6 x 1,000,000 and 30 x 1,000,000 are examined for Reynolds number effects. Measured unsteady results at two mean angles of attack at a Reynolds number of 30 x 1,000,000 are also examined.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacobs, P. F.; Flechner, S. G.; Montoya, L. C.
1977-01-01
The effects of winglets and a simple wing-tip extension on the aerodynamic forces and moments and the flow-field cross flow velocity vectors behind the wing tip of a first generation jet transport wing were investigated in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel using a semi-span model. The test was conducted at Mach numbers of 0.30, 0.70, 0.75, 0.78, and 0.80. At a Mach number of 0.30, the configurations were tested with combinations of leading- and trailing-edge flaps.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, R. M.
1979-01-01
Total pressure probes mounted in the test section of a 0.3 meter transonic cryogenic tunnel were used to detect the onset of condensation effects for free stream Mach numbers of 0.50, 0.75, 0.85, and 0.95 and for total pressure between one and five atmospheres. The amount of supercooling was found to be about 3 K and suggests that condensation was occurring on pre-existing liquid nitrogen droplets resulting from incomplete evaporation of the liquid nitrogen injected to cool the tunnel. The liquid nitrogen injection process presently being used for the 0.3 m tunnel was found to result in a wide spectrum of droplet sizes being injected into the flow. Since the relatively larger droplets took much more time to evaporate than the more numerous smaller droplets, the larger ones reached the test section first as the tunnel operating temperature was reduced. However, condensation effects in the test section were not immediately measurable because there was not a sufficient number of the larger droplets to have an influence on the thermodynamics of the flow.
Tabulated pressure measurements on an executive-type jet transport model with a supercritical wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bartlett, D. W.
1975-01-01
A 1/9 scale model of an existing executive type jet transport refitted with a supercritical wing was tested on in the 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel. The supercritical wing had the same sweep as the original airplane wing but had maximum thickness chord ratios 33 percent larger at the mean geometric chord and almost 50 percent larger at the wing-fuselage juncture. Wing pressure distributions and fuselage pressure distributions in the vicinity of the left nacelle were measured at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 0.90 at angles of attack that generally varied from -2 deg to 10 deg. Results are presented in tabular form without analysis.
Unsteady transonic aerodynamics
Nixon, D.
1989-01-01
Various papers on unsteady transonic aerodynamics are presented. The topics addressed include: physical phenomena associated with unsteady transonic flows, basic equations for unsteady transonic flow, practical problems concerning aircraft, basic numerical methods, computational methods for unsteady transonic flows, application of transonic flow analysis to helicopter rotor problems, unsteady aerodynamics for turbomachinery aeroelastic applications, alternative methods for modeling unsteady transonic flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sandford, M. C.; Ricketts, R. H.
1983-01-01
A high aspect ratio supercritical wing with oscillating control surfaces is described. The semispan wing model was instrumented with 252 static pressure orifices and 164 in situ dynamic pressure gages for studying the effects of control surface position and sinusoidal motion on steady and unsteady pressures. Results from the present test (the third in a series of tests on this model) were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.60, 0.78, and 0.86 and are presented in tabular form.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, Robert M.; Bland, Samuel R.; Batina, John T.; Gibbons, Michael D.; Mabey, Dennis G.
1987-01-01
A transonic unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelasticity code has been developed for application to realistic aircraft configurations. The new code is called CAP-TSD which is an acronym for Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance. The CAP-TSD code uses a time-accurate approximate factorization algorithm for solution of the unsteady transonic small-disturbance equation that is efficient for solution of steady and unsteady transonic flow problems including supersonic freestream flows. The new code can treat complete aircraft geometries with multiple lifting surfaces and bodies. Applications to wings in supersonic freestream flow are presented. Comparisons with selected exact solutions from linear theory are presented showing generally favorable results. Calculations for both steady and oscillatory cases for the F-5 and RAE tailplane models are compared with experimental data and also show good overall agreement. Selected steady calculations are further compared with a steady flow Euler code.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, C. B.; Stainback, P. C.
1986-01-01
There is theoretical and experimental evidence which indicates that a sudden or step change in the rate at which the liquid nitrogen is injected into the circuit of a cryogenic wind tunnel can cause a temperature front in the flow for several tunnel circuit times. A temperature front, which occurs at intervals equal to the circuit time, is a sudden increase or decrease in the temperature of the flow followed by a nearly constant temperature. Since these fronts can have an effect on the control of the tunnel as well as the time required to establish steady flow conditions in the test section of cryogenic wind tunnel, tests were conducted in the settling chamber in the Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (0.3-m TCT) in which high response instrumentation was used to measure the possible existence of these temperature fronts. Three different techniques were used to suddenly change the rate of liquid nitrogen being injected into the tunnel and the results from these three types of tests showed that temperature fronts do not appear to be present in the 0.3-m TCT. Also included are the velocity and pressure fluctuations measured in the settling chamber downstream of the screens and the associated power spectra.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eberle, A.
1978-01-01
Analysis of the pressure minimum integral in the calculation of three-dimensional potential flow around wings makes it possible to use non-rectangular mesh networks for distributing the three-dimensional potential into discrete points. The method is comparatively easily expanded to the treatment of realistic airplane configurations. Shock-pressure affected pressure distributions on any wings are determined with accuracy using this method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pendergraft, O. C., Jr.; Carson, G. T., Jr.
1984-01-01
Static pressure coefficient distributions on the forebody, afterbody, and nozzles of a 1/12 scale F-15 propulsion model was determined in the 16 foot transonic tunnel for Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20, angles of attack from -2 deg to 7 deg and ratio of jet total pressure to free stream static pressure from 1 up to about 7, depending on Mach number. The effects of nozzle geometry and horizontal tail deflection on the pressure distributions were investigated. Boundary layer total pressure profiles were determined at two locations ahead of the nozzles on the top nacelle surface. Reynolds number varied from about 1.0 x 10 to the 7th power per meter, depending on Mach number.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manro, M. E.
1982-01-01
Wind tunnel tests of arrow-wing body configurations consisting of flat, twisted, and cambered twisted wings, as well as a variety of leading and trailing edge control surface deflections, were conducted at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.05 to provide an experimental pressure data base for comparison with theoretical methods. Theory to experiment comparisons of detailed pressure distributions were made using state of the art attached flow methods. Conditions under which these theories are valid for these wings are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grossman, B.; Moretti, G.
1973-01-01
A computer program to predict the inviscid, transonic flow field about isolated nacelles was developed. The problem was to be formulated to solve Euler's equations without any approximation (such as small disturbances) and hence the terminology exact solution. The flow field was complicated by the presence of imbedded shock waves, an engine-inlet interface, and exhaust plumes. Furthermore, the transonic nacelles of interest had a very slender but blunt cowl lip. This created two distinct length scales, the length of the nacelle and the cowl lip radius that can differ by several orders of magnitude. These aspects of the flow field presented many numerical difficulties. The approach to the problem was to calculate the nacelle flow field using the method of time-dependent computations (TDC). Although at the time of the issuance of this contract, other approaches to transonic flow calculations existed, it was felt that TDC offered the most effective means of meeting the goals of the contract.
Airfoil, platform, and cooling passage measurements on a rotating transonic high-pressure turbine
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nickol, Jeremy B.
An experiment was performed at The Ohio State University Gas Turbine Laboratory for a film-cooled high-pressure turbine stage operating at design-corrected conditions, with variable rotor and aft purge cooling flow rates. Several distinct experimental programs are combined into one experiment and their results are presented. Pressure and temperature measurements in the internal cooling passages that feed the airfoil film cooling are used as boundary conditions in a model that calculates cooling flow rates and blowing ratio out of each individual film cooling hole. The cooling holes on the suction side choke at even the lowest levels of film cooling, ejecting more than twice the coolant as the holes on the pressure side. However, the blowing ratios are very close due to the freestream massflux on the suction side also being almost twice as great. The highest local blowing ratios actually occur close to the airfoil stagnation point as a result of the low freestream massflux conditions. The choking of suction side cooling holes also results in the majority of any additional coolant added to the blade flowing out through the leading edge and pressure side rows. A second focus of this dissertation is the heat transfer on the rotor airfoil, which features uncooled blades and blades with three different shapes of film cooling hole: cylindrical, diffusing fan shape, and a new advanced shape. Shaped cooling holes have previously shown immense promise on simpler geometries, but experimental results for a rotating turbine have not previously been published in the open literature. Significant improvement from the uncooled case is observed for all shapes of cooling holes, but the improvement from the round to more advanced shapes is seen to be relatively minor. The reduction in relative effectiveness is likely due to the engine-representative secondary flow field interfering with the cooling flow mechanics in the freestream, and may also be caused by shocks and other
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pendergraft, O. C., Jr.
1979-01-01
Static pressure coefficient distributions on the forebody, afterbody, and nozzles of a 1/12 scale F-15 propulsion model were determined. The effects of nozzle power setting and horizontal tail deflection angle on the pressure coefficient distributions were investigated.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wornom, Dewey E.
1960-01-01
Force tests of a model of a proposed six-engine hull-type seaplane were performed in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel. The results of these tests have indicated that the model had a subsonic zero-lift drag coefficient of 0.0240 with the highest zero-lift drag coefficient slightly greater than twice the subsonic drag level. Pitchup tendencies were noted for subsonic Mach numbers at relatively high lift coefficients. Wing leading-edge droop increased the maximum lift-drag ratio approximately 8 percent at a Mach number of 0.80 but this effect was negligible at a Mach number of 0.90 and above. The configuration exhibited stable lateral characteristics over the test Mach number range.
Test Capabilities and Recent Experiences in the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hodge, Jeffrey S.; Harvin, Stephen F.
2000-01-01
The NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel is a combustion-heated hypersonic blowdown-to-atmosphere wind tunnel that provides flight enthalpy simulation for Mach numbers of 4, 5, and 7 through an altitude range from 50,000 to 120,000 feet. The open-.jet test section is 8-ft. in diameter and 12-ft. long. The test section will accommodate large air-breathing hypersonic propulsion systems as well as structural and thermal protection system components. Stable wind tunnel test conditions can be provided for 60 seconds. Additional test capabilities are provided by a radiant heater system used to simulate ascent or entry heating profiles. The test medium is the combustion products of air and methane that are burned in a pressurized combustion chamber. Oxygen is added to the test medium for air-breathing propulsion tests so that the test gas contains 21 percent molar oxygen. The facility was modified extensively in the late 1980's to provide airbreathing propulsion testing capability. In this paper, a brief history and general description of the facility are presented along with a discussion of the types of supported testing. Recently completed tests are discussed to explain the capabilities this facility provides and to demonstrate the experience of the staff.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jenkins, Renaldo V.; Hill, Acquilla S.; Ray, Edward J.
1988-01-01
This report presents in graphic and tabular forms the aerodynamic coefficient and surface pressure distribution data for a NASA SC(2)-0714 airfoil tested in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. The test was another in a series of tests involved in the joint NASA/U.S. Industry Advanced Technology Airfoil Tests program. This 14% thick supercritical airfoil was tested at Mach numbers from 0.6 to 0.76 and angles of attack from -2.0 to 6.0 degrees. The test Reynolds numbers were 4 million, 6 million, 10 million, 15 million, 30 million, 40 million, and 45 million.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawing, P. L.; Adcock, J. B.; Ladson, C. L.
1980-01-01
Calibration data for the two dimensional test section of the Langley 0.3 Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel were used to develop a Mach number-Reynolds number correlation for the fan pressure ratio in terms of test section conditions. Well established engineering relationships combined to form an equation which is functionally analogous to the correlation. A geometric loss coefficient which is independent of Reynolds number or Mach number was determined. Present and anticipated uses of this concept include improvement of tunnel control schemes, comparison of efficiencies for operationally similar wind tunnels, prediction of tunnel test conditions and associated energy usage, and determination of Reynolds number scaling laws for similar fluid flow systems.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, C. D.; Bartlett, D. W.
1972-01-01
Basic pressure measurements were made on a 0.087-scale model of a supercritical wing research airplane in the Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.25 to 1.00 to determine the effects on the local aerodynamic loads over the wing and rear fuselage of area-rule additions to the sides of the fuselage. In addition, pressure measurements over the surface of the area-rule additions themselves were obtained at angles of sideslip of approximately - 5 deg, 0 deg, and 5 deg to aid in the structural design of the additions. Except for representative figures, results are presented in tabular form without analysis.
The Langley Annular Transonic Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Habel, Louis W; Henderson, James H; Miller, Mason F
1952-01-01
Report describes the development of the Langley annular transonic tunnel, a facility in which test Mach numbers from 0.6 to slightly over 1.0 are achieved by rotating the test model in an annular passage between two concentric cylinders. Data obtained for two-dimensional airfoil models in the Langley annular transonic tunnel at subsonic and sonic speeds are shown to be in reasonable agreement with experimental data from other sources and with theory when comparisons are made for nonlifting conditions or for equal normal-force coefficients rather than for equal angles of attack. The trends of pressure distributions obtained from measurements in the Langley annular transonic tunnel are consistent with distributions calculated for Prandtl-Meyer flow.
Some anomalies observed in wind-tunnel tests of a blunt body at transonic and supersonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brooks, J. D.
1976-01-01
An investigation of anomalies observed in wind tunnel force tests of a blunt body configuration was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.20 to 1.35 in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel and at Mach numbers of 1.50, 1,80, and 2.16 in the Langley Unitary Plan wind tunnel. At a Mach number of 1.35, large variations occurred in axial force coefficient at a given angle of attack. At transonic and low supersonic speeds, the total drag measured in the wind tunnel was much lower than that measured during earlier ballistic range tests. Accurate measurements of total drag for blunt bodies will require the use of models smaller than those tested thus far; however, it appears that accurate forebody drag results can be obtained by using relatively large models. Shock standoff distance is presented from experimental data over the Mach number range from 1.05 to 4.34. Theory accurately predicts the shock standoff distance at Mach numbers up to 1.75.
Test Capability Enhancements to the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harvin, S. F.; Cabell, K. F.; Gallimore, S. D.; Mekkes, G. L.
2006-01-01
The NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel produces true enthalpy environments simulating flight from Mach 4 to Mach 7, primarily for airbreathing propulsion and aerothermal/thermo-structural testing. Flow conditions are achieved through a methane-air heater and nozzles producing aerodynamic Mach numbers of 4, 5 or 7 and have exit diameters of 8 feet or 4.5 feet. The 12-ft long free-jet test section, housed inside a 26-ft vacuum sphere, accommodates large test articles. Recently, the facility underwent significant upgrades to support hydrocarbon fueled scramjet engine testing and to expand flight simulation capability. The upgrades were required to meet engine system development and flight clearance verification requirements originally defined by the joint NASA-Air Force X-43C Hypersonic Flight Demonstrator Project and now the Air Force X-51A Program. Enhancements to the 8-Ft. HTT were made in four areas: 1) hydrocarbon fuel delivery; 2) flight simulation capability; 3) controls and communication; and 4) data acquisition/processing. The upgrades include the addition of systems to supply ethylene and liquid JP-7 to test articles; a Mach 5 nozzle with dynamic pressure simulation capability up to 3200 psf, the addition of a real-time model angle-of-attack system; a new programmable logic controller sub-system to improve process controls and communication with model controls; the addition of MIL-STD-1553B and high speed data acquisition systems and a classified data processing environment. These additions represent a significant increase to the already unique test capability and flexibility of the facility, and complement the existing array of test support hardware such as a model injection system, radiant heaters, six-component force measurement system, and optical flow field visualization hardware. The new systems support complex test programs that require sophisticated test sequences and precise management of process fluids. Furthermore, the new systems, such
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lo, K. H.; Zare-Behtash, H.; Kontis, K.; Qin, N.
Surface pressure measurement by Pressure Sensitive Paint (PSP) becomes an active area of research in the engineering industry. Conventional pressure measurement techniques require to incoporate pressure taps within the model.
Transonic airfoil design using Cartesian coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, L. A.
1976-01-01
A numerical technique for designing transonic airfoils having a prescribed pressure distribution (the inverse problem) is presented. The method employs the basic features of Jameson's iterative solution for the full potential equation, except that inverse boundary conditions and Cartesian coordinates are used. The method is a direct-inverse approach that controls trailing-edge closure. Examples show the application of the method to design aft-cambered and other airfoils specifically for transonic flight.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W. G., Jr.; Hill, A. S.; Eichmann, O.
1985-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation of a NASA 12-percent-thick, advanced-technology supercritical airfoil was conducted in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT). This investigation represents another in the series of NASA/U.S. industry two-dimensional airfoil studies to be completed in the Advanced Technology Airfoil Tests program. Test temperature was varied from 220 K to 96 K at pressures ranging from 1.2 to 4.3 atm. Mach number was varied from 0.50 to 0.80. This investigation was designed to: (1) test a NASA advanced-technology airfoil from low to flight equivalent Reynolds numbers, (2) provide experience in cryogenic wind-tunnel model design and testing techniques, and (3) demonstrate the suitability of the 0.3-m TCT as an airfoil test facility. All the test objectives were met. The pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated format and as plots of pressure coefficient versus position on the airfoil. This report was prepared for use in conjunction with the aerodynamic coefficient data published in NASA-TM-86371. Data are included which demonstrate the effects of fixed transition. Also included are remarks on the model design and fabrication.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, W. G., Jr.; Hill, A. S.
1985-01-01
A wind-tunnel investigation designed to test a Boeing advanced-technology airfoil from low to flight-equivalent Reynolds numbers has been completed in the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. This investigation represents the first in a series of NASA/U.S. industry two-dimensional airfoil studies to be completed in the Advanced Technology Airfoil Test program. Test temperature was varied from ambient to about 100 K at pressures ranging from about 1.2 to 6.0 atm. Mach number was varied from about 0.40 to 0.80. These variables provided a Reynolds number (based on airfoil chord) range from 4.4 X 10 to the 6th power to 50.0 X 10 to the 6th power. All the test objectives were met. The pressure data are presented without analysis in plotted and tabulated formats for use in conjunction with the aerodynamic coefficient data published as NASA TM-81922. At the time of the test, these pressure data were considered proprietary and have only recently been made available by Boeing for general release. Data are included which demonstrate the effects of fixed transition. Also included are remarks on the model design, the model structural integrity, and the overall test experience.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.; Inenaga, Andrew S.
1994-01-01
Laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization systems that are fiber-optic based were developed and installed for aerodynamic research in the Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel and the Langley 7- by 10-Foot High Speed Tunnel. Fiber optics are used to deliver the laser beam through the plenum shell that surrounds the test section of each facility and to the light-sheet-generating optics positioned in the ceiling window of the test section. Water is injected into the wind tunnel diffuser section to increase the relative humidity and promote condensation of the water vapor in the flow field about the model. The condensed water vapor is then illuminated with an intense sheet of laser light to reveal features of the flow field. The plenum shells are optically sealed; therefore, video-based systems are used to observe and document the flow field. Operational experience shows that the fiber-optic-based systems provide safe, reliable, and high-quality off-surface flow visualization in smaller and larger scale subsonic and transonic wind tunnels. The design, the installation, and the application of the Langley Research Center (LaRC) LVS flow visualization systems in larger scale wind tunnels are highlighted. The efficiency of the fiber optic LVS systems and their insensitivity to wind tunnel vibration, the tunnel operating temperature and pressure variations, and the airborne contaminants are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.
2013-01-01
A wind tunnel experiment was conducted in the NASA Langley 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to determine the effects of passive porosity on vortex flow interactions about a slender wing configuration at subsonic and transonic speeds. Flow-through porosity was applied in several arrangements to a leading-edge extension, or LEX, mounted to a 65-degree cropped delta wing as a longitudinal instability mitigation technique. Test data were obtained with LEX on and off in the presence of a centerline vertical tail and twin, wing-mounted vertical fins to quantify the sensitivity of the aerodynamics to tail placement and orientation. A close-coupled canard was tested as an alternative to the LEX as a passive flow control device. Wing upper surface static pressure distributions and six-component forces and moments were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.50, 0.85, and 1.20, unit Reynolds number of 2.5 million, angles of attack up to approximately 30 degrees, and angles of sideslip to +/-8 degrees. The off-surface flow field was visualized in cross planes on selected configurations using a laser vapor screen flow visualization technique. Tunnel-to-tunnel data comparisons and a Reynolds number sensitivity assessment were also performed. 15.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Liou, M. S.; Messiter, A. F.
1980-01-01
An asymptotic description is derived for the interaction between a shock wave and a turbulent boundary layer in transonic flow, for a particular limiting case. The dimensionless difference between the external flow velocity and critical sound speed is taken to be much smaller than one, but large in comparison with the dimensionless friction velocity. The basic results are derived for a flat plate, and corrections for longitudinal wall curvature and for flow in a circular pipe are also shown. Solutions are given for the wall pressure distribution and the shape of the shock wave. Solutions for the wall shear stress are obtained, and a criterion for incipient separation is derived. Simplified solutions for both the wall pressure and skin friction distributions in the interaction region are given. These results are presented in a form suitable for use in computer programs.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Luoma, Arvo A.
1954-01-01
The longitudinal stability and control characteristics of a 1/30-scale model of the Republic XF-103 airplane were investigated in the Langley 8-foot transonic tunnel. The effect of speed brakes located at the end of the fuselage was also investigated. The main part of the investigation was made with internal flow in the model, but some data were obtained with no internal flow. The longitudinal stability and control at transonic-speeds appeared satisfactory. The transonic drag rise was small. The speed brakes had no adverse effects on longitudinal stability.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deveikis, W. D.; Hunt, L. R.
1973-01-01
Surface pressure and cold-wall heating rate distributions (wall-temperature to total-temperature ratio approximately 0.2) were obtained on a large, flat calibration panel at a nominal Mach number of 7 in an 8-foot high-temperature structures tunnel. Panel dimensions were 42.5 by 60.0 in. Test objectives were: (1) to map available flat-plate loading and heating provided by the facility and (2) to determine effectiveness of leading-edge bluntness, boundary-layer trips, and aerodynamic fences in generating a uniform, streamwise turbulent flow field over the test surface of a flat-sided panel holder.
A vapor generator for transonic flow visualization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bruce, Robert A.; Hess, Robert W.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.
1989-01-01
A vapor generator was developed for use in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). Propylene glycol was used as the vapor material. The vapor generator system was evaluated in a laboratory setting and then used in the TDT as part of a laser light sheet flow visualization system. The vapor generator provided satisfactory seeding of the air flow with visible condensate particles, smoke, for tests ranging from low subsonic through transonic speeds for tunnel total pressures from atmospheric pressure down to less than 0.1 atmospheric pressure.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Selna, James; Schlaff, Bernard A
1951-01-01
The drag and pressure recovery of an NACA submerged-inlet model and an NACA series I nose-inlet model were investigated in the transonic flight range. The tests were conducted over a mass-flow-ratio range of 0.4 to 0.8 and a Mach number range of about 0.8 to 1.10 employing large-scale recoverable free-fall models. The results indicate that the Mach number of drag divergence of the inlet models was about the same as that of a basic model without inlets. The external drag coefficients of the nose-inlet model were less than those of the submerged-inlet model throughout the test range. The difference in drag coefficient based on the maximum cross-sectional area of the models was about 0.02 at supersonic speeds and about 0.015 at subsonic speeds. For a hypothetical airplane with a ratio of maximum fuselage cross-sectional area to wing area of 0.06, the difference in airplane drag coefficient would be relatively small, about 0.0012 at supersonic speeds and about 0.0009 at subsonic speeds. Additional drag comparisons between the two inlet models are made considering inlet incremental and additive drag.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nielsen, Jack N; Kaattari, George E; Anastasio, Robert F
1953-01-01
A method is presented for calculating the lift and pitching-moment characteristics of circular cylindrical bodies in combination with triangular, rectangular, or trapezoidal wings or tails through the subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speed ranges. The method covers unbanked wings, sweptback leading edges or sweptforward trailing edges, low angles of attack, and the effects of wing and tail incidence. The wing-body interference is handled by the method presented in NACA RM's A51J04 and A52B06, and the wing-tail interference is treated by assuming one completely rolled-up vortex per wing panel and evaluating the tail load by strip theory. A computing table and set of design charts are presented which reduce the calculations to routine operations. Comparison is made between the estimated and experimental characteristics for a large number of wing-body and wing-body-tail combinations. Generally speaking, the lifts were estimated to within plus-or-minus 10 percent and the centers of pressure were estimated to within plus-or-minus 0.02 of the body length. The effect of wing deflection on wing-tail interference at supersonic speeds was not correctly predicted for triangular wings with supersonic leading edges.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gloss, B. B.
1974-01-01
A generalized wind-tunnel model, typical of highly maneuverable aircraft, was tested in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.70 to 1.20 to determine the effects of canard location and size on canard-wing interference effects and aerodynamic center shift at transonic speeds. The canards had exposed areas of 16.0 and 28.0 percent of the wing reference area and were located in the chord plane of the wing or in a position 18.5 percent of the wing mean geometric chord above or below the wing chord plane. Two different wing planforms were tested, one with leading-edge sweep of 60 deg and the other 44 deg; both wings had the same reference area and span. The results indicated that the largest benefits in lift and drag were obtained with the canard above the wing chord plane for both wings tested. The low canard configuration for the 60 deg swept wing proved to be more stable and produced a more linear pitching-moment curve than the high and coplanar canard configurations for the subsonic test Mach numbers.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venkateswaran, S.; Hunt, L. Roane; Prabhu, Ramadas K.
1992-07-01
The Langley 8 foot high temperature tunnel (8 ft HTT) is used to test components of hypersonic vehicles for aerothermal loads definition and structural component verification. The test medium of the 8 ft HTT is obtained by burning a mixture of methane and air under high pressure; the combustion products are expanded through an axisymmetric conical contoured nozzle to simulate atmospheric flight at Mach 7. This facility was modified to raise the oxygen content of the test medium to match that of air and to include Mach 4 and Mach 5 capabilities. These modifications will facilitate the testing of hypersonic air breathing propulsion systems for a wide range of flight conditions. A computational method to predict the thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of the equilibrium chemically reacting oxygen enriched methane-air combustion products was implemented in a computer code. This code calculates the fuel, air, and oxygen mass flow rates and test section flow properties for Mach 7, 5, and 4 nozzle configurations for given combustor and mixer conditions. Salient features of the 8 ft HTT are described, and some of the predicted tunnel operational characteristics are presented in the carpet plots to assist users in preparing test plans.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Venkateswaran, S.; Hunt, L. Roane; Prabhu, Ramadas K.
1992-01-01
The Langley 8 foot high temperature tunnel (8 ft HTT) is used to test components of hypersonic vehicles for aerothermal loads definition and structural component verification. The test medium of the 8 ft HTT is obtained by burning a mixture of methane and air under high pressure; the combustion products are expanded through an axisymmetric conical contoured nozzle to simulate atmospheric flight at Mach 7. This facility was modified to raise the oxygen content of the test medium to match that of air and to include Mach 4 and Mach 5 capabilities. These modifications will facilitate the testing of hypersonic air breathing propulsion systems for a wide range of flight conditions. A computational method to predict the thermodynamic, transport, and flow properties of the equilibrium chemically reacting oxygen enriched methane-air combustion products was implemented in a computer code. This code calculates the fuel, air, and oxygen mass flow rates and test section flow properties for Mach 7, 5, and 4 nozzle configurations for given combustor and mixer conditions. Salient features of the 8 ft HTT are described, and some of the predicted tunnel operational characteristics are presented in the carpet plots to assist users in preparing test plans.
Research capabilities of the NASA Langley 8-foot high temperature tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Puster, Richard L.
1991-01-01
The NASA Langley Research Center's 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel (8' HTT) has been modified to facilitate the testing of hypersonic airbreathing propulsion systems in addition to aerothermal load definition and structural concept verification at Mach 4, 5, and 7. The 8' HTT simulates flight from 60 to 125 kft with run times of 1 to 2 min. The 8-ft diameter and 12-ft-long free jet length enables the testing of large engines or multiple subscale engines. Methane and air combustion products provide the true temperature environment; an oxygen system enriches the combustion products to the same volume fraction of oxygen as air to enable the testing of airbreathing engines. A hydrogen system provides model fuel for cooling and combustion. High use tunnel components have been upgraded or replaced.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huebner, Lawrence D.; Rock, Kenneth E.; Voland, Randall T.; Wieting, Allan R.
1996-01-01
The NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel has recently been modified to produce a unique testing capability for hypersonic airbreathing propulsion systems. Prior to these modifications, the facility was used primarily for aerothermal loads and structural verification testing at true flight total enthalpy conditions for Mach numbers between 6 and 7. One of the recent modifications was an oxygen replenishment system which allows operating airbreathing propulsion systems to be tested at true flight total enthalpies. Following the modifications to the facility, calibration runs were performed at total enthalpies corresponding to flight Mach numbers of 6.3 and 6.8 to establish the flow characteristics of the facility with its new capabilities. The results of this calibration, as well as modifications to tunnel combustor hardware prior to calibration to improve tunnel flow quality, are described in this paper.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fang, Shuo; Disotell, Kevin J.; Long, Samuel R.; Gregory, James W.; Semmelmayer, Frank C.; Guyton, Robert W.
2011-06-01
The current work focuses on the development and application of fast-responding polymer/ceramic pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) as an advanced surface pressure measurement technique for unsteady flow fields in large-scale wind tunnels. To demonstrate the unsteady PSP technique, the unsteady surface pressure distribution over a hemispherical dome placed in the United States Air Force Research Laboratory's Trisonic Gasdynamics Facility (TGF) was studied by phase-locking to the characteristic frequency in the flow caused by an unsteady separated shear layer shed from the dome. The wind tunnel was operated at stagnation pressures of 23.92 and 71.84 kPa, with the test section flow at Mach 0.6. Under the two operating conditions, the predominant shear layer frequency was measured to be 272 and 400 Hz, respectively. The quasi-periodic shear layer frequency enabled a phase-averaged method to be employed for capturing the unsteady shock motion on the hemisphere. Unsteady pressure data resulting from this technique are shown to correlate well with measurements acquired by conventional measurement techniques. Measurement uncertainty in the phase-averaging technique will be discussed. To address measurement uncertainties from temperature sensitivity and model movement, a new implementation of an AC-coupled data representation is offered.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Torres, Francisco J.
1987-01-01
Six airfoil interferograms were evaluated using a semiautomatic image-processor system which digitizes, segments, and extracts the fringe coordinates along a polygonal line. The resulting fringe order function was converted into density and pressure distributions and a comparison was made with pressure transducer data at the same wind tunnel test conditions. Three airfoil shapes were used in the evaluation to test the capabilities of the image processor with a variety of flows. Symmetric, supercritical, and circulation-control airfoil interferograms provided fringe patterns with shocks, separated flows, and high-pressure regions for evaluation. Regions along the polygon line with very clear fringe patterns yielded results within 1% of transducer measurements, while poorer quality regions, particularly near the leading and trailing edges, yielded results that were not as good.
Viscous effects on transonic airfoil stability and response
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Berry, H. M.; Batina, J. T.; Yang, T. Y.
1985-01-01
Viscous effects on transonic airfoil stability and response are investigated using an integral boundary layer model coupled to the inviscid XTRAN2L transonic small disturbance code. Unsteady transonic airloads required for stability analyses are computed using a pulse transfer function analysis including viscous effects. The pulse analysis provides unsteady aerodynamic forces for a wide range of reduced frequency in a single flow field computation. Nonlinear time marching aeroelastic solutions are presented which show the effects of viscosity on airfoil response behavior and flutter. Effects of amplitude on time marching responses are demonstrated. A state space aeroelastic model employing Pade approximants to describe the unsteady airloads is used to study the effects of viscosity on transonic airfoil stability. State space dynamic pressure root loci are in good overall agreement with time marching damping and frequency estimates. Parallel sets of results with and without viscous effects reveal the effects of viscosity on transonic unsteady airloads and aeroelastic characteristics of airfoils.
CFD and transonic helicopter sound
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Purcell, Timothy W.
1988-01-01
A computational method which predicts far-field impulsive noise from a transonic motor blade is demonstrated. This method couples near-field results from a full-potential finite-difference method with a new Kirchhoff integral formulation to extend the finite-difference results into the acoustic far-field. This Kirchhoff formula is written in a blade-fixed coordinate system. It requires initial data from the potential code on a plane at the sonic radius. A recent hovering rotor experiment is described where accurate pressure measurements were recorded on the sonic cylinder and at 2 and 3 radii. The potential code prediction of sonic cylinder pressures is excellent. Acoustic far-field pressure predictions show good agreement with hover experimental data over the range of speeds from 0.85 to 0.92 tip Mach number, the latter of which have delocalized transonic flow. These results are some of the first successful predictions for peak pressure amplitudes using a computational code.
Inverse transonic airfoil design including viscous interaction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, L. A.
1976-01-01
A numerical technique was developed for the analysis of specified transonic airfoils or for the design of airfoils having a prescribed pressure distribution, including the effect of weak viscous interaction. The method uses the full potential equation, a stretched Cartesian coordinate system, and the Nash-MacDonald turbulent boundary layer method. Comparisons with experimental data for typical transonic airfoils show excellent agreement. An example shows the application of the method to design a thick aft-cambered airfoil, and the effects of viscous interaction on its performance are discussed.
Experience with transonic unsteady aerodynamic calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, J. W.; Bland, S. R.; Seidel, D. A.
1984-01-01
Comparisons of calculated and experimental transonic unsteady pressures and airloads for four of the AGARD Two Dimensional Aeroelastic Configurations and for a rectangular supercritical wing are presented. The two dimensional computer code, XTRAN2L, implementing the transonic small perturbation equation was used to obtain results for: (1) pitching oscillations of the NACA 64A010A; NLR 7301 and NACA 0012 airfoils; (2) flap oscillations for the NACA 64A006 and NRL 7301 airfoils; and (3) transient ramping motions for the NACA 0012 airfoils. Results from the three dimensional code XTRAN3S are compared with data from a rectangular supercritical wing oscillating in pitch. These cases illustrate the conditions under which the transonic inviscid small perturbation equation provides reasonable predictions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Penland, J. A.; Hallissy, J. B.; Dillon, J. L.
1979-01-01
The static longitudinal, lateral, and directional stability characteristics of a hypersonic research airplane concept having a 70 deg swept double-delta wing were investigated. Force tests were conducted in the Langley 8 foot transonic pressure tunnel for a Reynolds number (based on fuselage length) range of 6.30 x 10 to the 6th power to 7.03 x 10 to the 6th power, at angles of attack from about -4 deg to 23 deg, and at angles of sideslip of 0 deg and 5 deg. The configuration variables included the wing planform, tip fins, the center vertical tail, and scramjet engine modules. Variations of the more important aerodynamic parameters with Mach number for Mach numbers from 0.20 to 6.0 are summarized. A state-of-the-art example of theoretically predicting performance parameters and static longitudinal and directional stability over the Mach number range is included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Taylor, Robert A.
1959-01-01
The measured static-pressure distributions at the model surface and in the surrounding flow field are presented for a basic parabolic-arc body having a fineness ratio of 14 and for three additional bodies obtained by modifying the basic parabolic-arc body along the middle portion of the body length by adding a bump, by indenting, or by quadripole shaping. The data were obtained with the various bodies at zero angle of attack. The Mach number varied from 0.80 to 1.20 with a corresponding Reynolds number (based on body length) variation of 27 x 10(exp 6) to 38 x 10(exp 6). The data are subject to tunnel-wall interference and do not represent free-air conditions.
Hyper-X Engine Testing in the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Huebner, Lawrence D.; Rock, Kenneth E.; Witte, David W.; Ruf, Edward G.; Andrews, Earl H., Jr.
2000-01-01
Airframe-integrated scramjet engine tests have 8 completed at Mach 7 in the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel under the Hyper-X program. These tests provided critical engine data as well as design and database verification for the Mach 7 flight tests of the Hyper-X research vehicle (X-43), which will provide the first-ever airframe- integrated scramjet flight data. The first model tested was the Hyper-X Engine Model (HXEM), and the second was the Hyper-X Flight Engine (HXFE). The HXEM, a partial-width, full-height engine that is mounted on an airframe structure to simulate the forebody features of the X-43, was tested to provide data linking flowpath development databases to the complete airframe-integrated three-dimensional flight configuration and to isolate effects of ground testing conditions and techniques. The HXFE, an exact geometric representation of the X-43 scramjet engine mounted on an airframe structure that duplicates the entire three-dimensional propulsion flowpath from the vehicle leading edge to the vehicle base, was tested to verify the complete design as it will be flight tested. This paper presents an overview of these two tests, their importance to the Hyper-X program, and the significance of their contribution to scramjet database development.
Final analysis and design of a thermal protection system for 8-foot HTST combustor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moskowitz, S.
1973-01-01
The cylindrical shell combustor with T-bar supports in the 8-foot HTST at the NASA-Langley Research Center encountered vibratory fatigue cracking over a period of 50-250 tunnel tests within a limited range of the required operating envelope. A preliminary design study provided several suitable thermal protection system designs for the combustor, one of which was a two-pass regenerative type air-cooled omega-shaped segment liner. A final design layout of the omega segment liner was prepared and analyzed for steady-state and transient conditions. The design of a support system for the fuel spray bar assembly was also included. Detail drawings suitable for fabrication purposes were also prepared. Liner design problems defined during the preliminary study included (1) the ingress of gas into the attachment bulb section of the omega segment, (2) the large thermal gradient along the leg of the omega bulb attachment section and, (3) the local peak metal temperature at the radius between the liner ID and the leg of the bulb attachment. These were resolved during the final design task. Analyses of the final design of the omega segment liner indicated that all design goals were met and the design provided the capability of operating over the required test envelope with a life expectancy substantially above the goal of 1500 cycles.
Olduvai Hominin 8 foot pathology: a comparative study attempting a differential diagnosis.
Weiss, Elizabeth
2012-02-01
Olduvai Hominin (OH) 8, a 1.76 million year old left foot skeleton, has osteophytic lipping on the metatarsal bases, which when compared to a modern sample, may help paleoanthropologists determine whether the foot bones represent an injured subadult or an osteoarthritic adult. This study compares the OH 8 lipping pattern to those of 140 individual Amerindians comprising four different age classes to determine whether the OH 8 lipping is likely to be age-related osteoarthritis. OH 8 metatarsal lipping followed a pattern similar to that determined in the comparative sample to be age-related osteoarthritis. Similarities include metatarsal base lipping that is frequently located on the dorsal surface, metatarsal base lipping that is more severe on the lateral metatarsals compared to the medial metatarsals, and the presence of a pseudojoint between metatarsal 1 and metatarsal 2. The chance of finding an individual with osteoarthritis lipping increases from 3.45% in the age group 18-22 years to 55% in individuals over 35 years. The chance of finding a pseudojoint increases from 1.32% in non-osteoarthritic individuals to 15.15% in individuals with osteoarthritis. Results from this study indicate that the OH 8 foot bones are most likely from an adult and more likely to belong to Paranthropus boisei, the skull of which was found in the same excavations with OH 8, than to the juvenile Homo habilis holotype.
Susman, Randall L; Patel, Biren A; Francis, Megan J; Cardoso, Hugo F V
2011-01-01
The morphology of the Olduvai Hominid (OH) 8 foot and the sequence of metatarsal epiphyseal fusion in modern humans and chimpanzees support the hypothesis that OH 8 belonged to an individual of approximately the same relative age as the OH 7 subadult, the holotype of Homo habilis. Modern humans and chimpanzees exhibit a variety of metatarsal epiphyseal fusion patterns, including one identical to that observed in OH 8 in which metatarsal 1 fuses before metatarsals 2-5. More than the metatarsal fusion sequence, however, the principal evidence of the youthful age of OH 8 lies in the morphology of metatarsals 1, 2, and 3. Because both OH 8 and OH 7 come from the same stratum at the FLK NN type site, the most parsimonious explanation of the OH 8 and OH 7 data is that this material belonged to the same individual, as originally proposed by Louis Leakey. The proposition that OH 8 belonged to an adult is unsupported by morphology, including radiographic evidence, and the fusion sequences in human and chimpanzee skeletal material reported here and in the literature.
Performance of two transonic airfoil wind tunnels utilizing limited ventilation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, J. D.; Gregorek, G. M.
1984-01-01
A limited-zone ventilated wall panel was developed for a closed-wall icing tunnel which permitted correct simulation of transonic flow over model rotor airfoil sections with and without ice accretions. Candidate porous panels were tested in the Ohio State University 6- x 12-inch transonic airfoil tunnel and result in essentially interference-free flow, as evidenced by pressure distributions over a NACA 0012 airfoil for Mach numbers up to 0.75. Application to the NRC 12- x 12-inch icing tunnel showed a similar result, which allowed proper transonic flow simulation in that tunnel over its full speed range.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Runckel, Jack F.; Hieser, Gerald
1961-01-01
An investigation has been conducted at the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the loading characteristics of flap-type ailerons located at inboard, midspan, and outboard positions on a 45 deg. sweptback-wing-body combination. Aileron normal-force and hinge-moment data have been obtained at Mach numbers from 0.80 t o 1.03, at angles of attack up to about 27 deg., and at aileron deflections between approximately -15 deg. and 15 deg. Results of the investigation indicate that the loading over the ailerons was established by the wing-flow characteristics, and the loading shapes were irregular in the transonic speed range. The spanwise location of the aileron had little effect on the values of the slope of the curves of hinge-moment coefficient against aileron deflection, but the inboard aileron had the greatest value of the slope of the curves of hinge-moment coefficient against angle of attack and the outboard aileron had the least. Hinge-moment and aileron normal-force data taken with strain-gage instrumentation are compared with data obtained with pressure measurements.
Calibration of transonic and supersonic wind tunnels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, T. D.; Pope, T. C.; Cooksey, J. M.
1977-01-01
State-of-the art instrumentation and procedures for calibrating transonic (0.6 less than M less than 1.4) and supersonic (M less than or equal to 3.5) wind tunnels were reviewed and evaluated. Major emphasis was given to transonic tunnels. Continuous, blowdown and intermittent tunnels were considered. The required measurements of pressure, temperature, flow angularity, noise and humidity were discussed, and the effects of measurement uncertainties were summarized. A comprehensive review of instrumentation currently used to calibrate empty tunnel flow conditions was included. The recent results of relevant research are noted and recommendations for achieving improved data accuracy are made where appropriate. It is concluded, for general testing purposes, that satisfactory calibration measurements can be achieved in both transonic and supersonic tunnels. The goal of calibrating transonic tunnels to within 0.001 in centerline Mach number appears to be feasible with existing instrumentation, provided correct calibration procedures are carefully followed. A comparable accuracy can be achieved off-centerline with carefully designed, conventional probes, except near Mach 1. In the range 0.95 less than M less than 1.05, the laser Doppler velocimeter appears to offer the most promise for improved calibration accuracy off-centerline.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Albertson, Cindy W.
1987-01-01
A model to be used in the flow studies and curved Thermal Protection System (TPS) evaluations was tested in the Langley 8 Foot High-Temperature Tunnel at a nominal Mach number of 6.8. The purpose of the study was to define the surface pressure and heating rates at high angles of attack (in support of curved metallic TPS studies) and to determine the conditions for which the model would be suitable as a test bed for aerothermal load studies. The present study was conducted at a nominal total temperature of 2400 and 3300 R, dynamic pressures from 2.3 to 10.9 psia, and free-stream Reynolds numbers from 4000,000 to 1,700,000/ft. The measurements consisted primarily of surface pressure and cold-wall (530 R) heating rates. Qualitative comparisons between predictions and data show that for this configuration, aerothermal tests should be limited to angles of attack between 10 and -10 degrees. Outside this range, the effects of free-stream flow nonuniformity appear in the data, as a result of the long length of the model. However, for TPS testing, this is not a concern and tests can be performed at angles of attack ranging from 20 to -20 degrees. Laminar and naturally turbulent boundary layers are available over limited ranges of conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, Julio; Luckring, James M.
1996-01-01
An experimental wind tunnel test of a 65 deg delta wing model with interchangeable leading edges was conducted in the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF). The objective was to investigate the effects of Reynolds and Mach numbers on slender-wing leading-edge vortex flows with four values of wing leading-edge bluntness. Experimentally obtained pressure data are presented without analysis in tabulated and graphical formats across a Reynolds number range of 6 x 10(exp 6) to 36 x 10(exp 6) at a Mach number of 0.85 and across a Mach number range of 0.4 to 0.9 at a Reynolds number of 6 x 10(exp 6). Normal-force and pitching-moment coefficient plots for these Reynolds number and Mach number ranges are also presented.
Improved Nozzle Testing Techniques in Transonic Flow
1975-10-01
the difficulties related to transonic testing techniques. The presence of a model mounting system, proximity of the tunnel walls, the method and amount...avec la methode exposee rtf 2. (b) Le coefficient de poussee interne KTJ , qui represente le precedent exprime en pressions relatives PQAJ KTi... method was developed to define a valid total pressure, based on a mast flow averaging procedure, for a distorted jet pipe flow. The results for the AGARD
Magnus effects on spinning transonic missiles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seginer, A.; Rosenwasser, I.
1983-01-01
Magnus forces and moments were measured on a basic-finner model spinning in transonic flow. Spin was induced by canted fins or by full-span or semi-span, outboard and inboard roll controls. Magnus force and moment reversals were caused by Mach number, reduced spin rate, and angle of attack variations. Magnus center of pressure was found to be independent of the angle of attack but varied with the Mach number and model configuration or reduced spin rate.
Transonic compressor technology advancements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Benser, W. A.
1974-01-01
The highlights of the NASA program on transonic compressors are presented. Effects of blade shape and throat area on losses and flow range are discussed. Some effects of casing treatment on stall margin are presented. Results of tests with varying solidity are also presented. High Mach number, highly loaded stators are discussed and some results of stator hub slit suction are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1976-01-01
A 0.03-scale model of the 747 CAM/Orbiter was tested in an 8 x 12 foot transonic wind tunnel. Dynamic loads, pressure, and empennage flow field data were obtained using pressure transducers, strain gages, and a split film anemometer. The test variables included Mach number, angle of attack, sideslip angle, orbiter tailcone on and off, orbiter partial tailcone, orbiter nozzle air scoops, orbiter body flap angle, and orbiter elevon angle.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chu, Julio; Lawing, Pierce L.
1990-01-01
A high Reynolds number test of a 5 percent thick low aspect ratio semispan wing was conducted in the adaptive wall test section of the Langley 0.3 m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel. The model tested had a planform and a NACA 64A-105 airfoil section that is similar to that of the pressure instrumented canard on the X-29 experimental aircraft. Chordwise pressure data for Mach numbers of 0.3, 0.7, and 0.9 were measured for an angle-of-attack range of -4 to 15 deg. The associated Reynolds numbers, based on the geometric mean chord, encompass most of the flight regime of the canard. This test was a free transition investigation. A summary of the wing pressures are presented without analysis as well as adapted test section top and bottom wall pressure signatures. However, the presented graphical data indicate Reynolds number dependent complex leading edge separation phenomena. This data set supplements the existing high Reynolds number database and are useful for computational codes comparison.
National Transonic Facility Model and Tunnel Vibrations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, John W.
1997-01-01
Since coming online in 1984, the National Transonic Facility (NTF) cryogenic wind tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center has provided unique high Reynolds number testing capability. While turbulence levels in the tunnel, expressed in terms of percent dynamic pressure, are typical of other transonic wind tunnels, the significantly increased load levels utilized to achieve flight Reynolds numbers, in conjunction with the unique structural design requirements for cryogenic operation, have brought forward the issue of model and model support structure vibrations. This paper reports new experimental measurements documenting aerodynamic and structural dynamics processes involved in such vibrations experienced in the NTF. In particular, evidence of local un-steady airloads developed about the model support strut is shown and related to well documented acoustic features known as "Parker" modes. Two-dimensional unsteady viscous computations illustrate this model support structure loading mechanism.
Transonic turbine blade cascade testing facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verhoff, Vincent G.; Camperchioli, William P.; Lopez, Isaac
1992-01-01
NASA LeRC has designed and constructed a new state-of-the-art test facility. This facility, the Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade, is used to evaluate the aerodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of blade geometries for future turbine applications. The facility's capabilities make it unique: no other facility of its kind can combine the high degree of airflow turning, infinitely adjustable incidence angle, and high transonic flow rates. The facility air supply and exhaust pressures are controllable to 16.5 psia and 2 psia, respectively. The inlet air temperatures are at ambient conditions. The facility is equipped with a programmable logic controller with a capacity of 128 input/output channels. The data acquisition system is capable of scanning up to 1750 channels per sec. This paper discusses in detail the capabilities of the facility, overall facility design, instrumentation used in the facility, and the data acquisition system. Actual research data is not discussed.
Pressure-Sensitive Paint Investigation of Double-Delta Wing Vortex Flow Manipulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.; Gonzalez, Hugo A.
2004-01-01
A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) technique was applied in a wind tunnel experiment in the NASA Langley Research Center 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to quantify the effect of wing fillets on the global vortex-induced surface static pressure field about a sharp leading-edge 76o/40o double delta wing, or strake-wing, model at subsonic and transonic speeds. Global calibrations of the PSP were obtained at M = 0.50, 0.70, 0.85, 0.95, and 1.20, a Reynolds number per unit length of 2.0 million, and angles of attack from 10 degrees to 20 degrees using an in-situ method featuring the simultaneous acquisition of electronically-scanned pressures (ESP) at discrete locations on the model. The mean error in the PSP measurements relative to the ESP data was approximately 2 percent or less at M = 0.50 to 0.85 but increased to several percent at M =0.95 and 1.20. The PSP pressure distributions and pseudo-colored planform view pressure maps clearly revealed the vortex-induced pressure signatures at all Mach numbers and angles of attack. Small fillets having a parabolic or diamond planform situated at the strake-wing intersection were designed to manipulate the vortical flows by, respectively, removing the leading-edge discontinuity or introducing additional discontinuities. The fillets caused global changes in the vortex-dominated surface pressure field that were effectively captured in the PSP measurements. The vortex surface pressure signatures were compared to available off-surface vortex cross-flow structures obtained using a laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization technique. The fillet effects on the PSP pressure distributions and the observed leading-edge vortex flow characteristics were consistent with the trends in the measured lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients.
Pressure-Sensitive Paint Investigation of Double-Delta Wing Vortex Flow Manipulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.; Gonzalez, Hugo A.
2005-01-01
A pressure-sensitive paint (PSP) technique was applied in a wind tunnel experiment in the NASA Langley Research Center 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel to quantify the effect of wing fillets on the global vortex-induced surface static pressure field about a sharp leading-edge 76 deg/40 deg double delta wing, or strake-wing, model at subsonic and transonic speeds. Global calibrations of the PSP were obtained at M = 0.50, 0.70, 0.85, 0.95, and 1.20, a Reynolds number per unit length of 2.0 million, and angles of attack from 10 degrees to 30 degrees using an in-situ method featuring the simultaneous acquisition of electronically-scanned pressures (ESP) at discrete locations on the model. The mean error in the PSP measurements relative to the ESP data was approximately 2 percent or less at M = 0.50 to 0.85 but increased to several percent at M = 0.95 and 1.20. The PSP pressure distributions and pseudo-colored planform view pressure maps clearly revealed the vortex-induced pressure signatures at all Mach numbers and angles of attack. Small fillets having a parabolic or diamond planform situated at the strake-wing intersection were designed to manipulate the vortical flows by, respectively, removing the leading-edge discontinuity or introducing additional discontinuities. The fillets caused global changes in the vortex-dominated surface pressure field that were effectively captured in the PSP measurements. The vortex surface pressure signatures were compared to available off-surface vortex cross-flow structures obtained using a laser vapor screen (LVS) flow visualization technique. The fillet effects on the PSP pressure distributions and the observed leading-edge vortex flow characteristics were consistent with the trends in the measured lift, drag, and pitching moment coefficients.
National transonic facility Mach number system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kern, F. A.; Knight, C. W.; Zasimowich, R. F.
1985-01-01
The Mach number system for the Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility was designed to measure pressures to determine Mach number to within + or - 0.002. Nine calibration laboratory type fused quartz gages, four different range gages for the total pressure measurement, and five different range gages for the static pressure measurement were used to satisfy the accuracy requirement over the 103,000-890,000 Pa total pressure range of the tunnel. The system which has been in operation for over 1 year is controlled by a programmable data process controller to select, through the operation of solenoid valves, the proper range fused quartz gage to maximize the measurement accuracy. The pressure gage's analog outputs are digitized by the process controller and transmitted to the main computer for Mach number computation. An automatic two-point on-line calibration of the nine quartz gages is provided using a high accuracy mercury manometer.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garabedian, P. R.
1979-01-01
Computer codes for the design and analysis of transonic airfoils are considered. The design code relies on the method of complex characteristics in the hodograph plane to construct shockless airfoil. The analysis code uses artificial viscosity to calculate flows with weak shock waves at off-design conditions. Comparisons with experiments show that an excellent simulation of two dimensional wind tunnel tests is obtained. The codes have been widely adopted by the aircraft industry as a tool for the development of supercritical wing technology.
Near-Stall Modal Disturbances Within a Transonic Compressor Rotor
2011-12-01
TERMS Transonic, Compressor, Pressure Instability, Low Dominant Frequencies, Turbomachinery , Near Stall Disturbances. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 153 16...pre-stall operations. Due to technological advancement in turbomachinery , disturbances that have potential to lead to instability within a...This technique fills a gap in current turbomachinery related literature because it provides a better understanding of modal disturbances in
TRANDES: A FORTRAN program for transonic airfoil analysis or design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, L. A.
1977-01-01
A program called TRANDES is presented that is used for the analysis of steady, irrotational transonic flow over specified two-dimensional airfoils in free air or for the design of airfoils having a prescribed pressure distribution, including the effects of weak viscous interaction. Instructions on program usage, listings of the program, and sample cases are given.
Transonic airfoil analysis and design using Cartesian coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, L. A.
1975-01-01
An inverse numerical technique for designing transonic airfoils having a prescribed pressure distribution is presented. The method uses the full potential equation, inverse boundary conditions, and Cartesian coordinates. It includes simultaneous airfoil update and utilizes a direct-inverse approach that permits a logical method for controlling trailing edge closure. The method can also be used for the analysis of flowfields about specified airfoils. Comparison with previous results shows that accurate results can be obtained with a Cartesian grid. Examples show the application of the method to design aft-cambered and other airfoils specifically for transonic flight.
Unsteady transonic flow calculations for realistic aircraft configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.; Seidel, David A.; Bland, Samuel R.; Bennett, Robert M.
1987-01-01
A transonic unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelasticity code has been developed for application to realistic aircraft configurations. The new code is called CAP-TSD which is an acronym for Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance. The CAP-TSD code uses a time-accurate approximate factorization (AF) algorithm for solution of the unsteady transonic small-disturbance equation. The AF algorithm is very efficient for solution of steady and unsteady transonic flow problems. It can provide accurate solutions in only several hundred time steps yielding a significant computational cost savings when compared to alternative methods. The new code can treat complete aircraft geometries with multiple lifting surfaces and bodies including canard, wing, tail, control surfaces, launchers, pylons, fuselage, stores, and nacelles. Applications are presented for a series of five configurations of increasing complexity to demonstrate the wide range of geometrical applicability of CAP-TSD. These results are in good agreement with available experimental steady and unsteady pressure data. Calculations for the General Dynamics one-ninth scale F-16C aircraft model are presented to demonstrate application to a realistic configuration. Unsteady results for the entire F-16C aircraft undergoing a rigid pitching motion illustrated the capability required to perform transonic unsteady aerodynamic and aeroelastic analyses for such configurations.
Transonic Flow Past Cone Cylinders
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Solomon, George E
1955-01-01
Experimental results are presented for transonic flow post cone-cylinder, axially symmetric bodies. The drag coefficient and surface Mach number are studied as the free-stream Mach number is varied and, wherever possible, the experimental results are compared with theoretical predictions. Interferometric results for several typical flow configurations are shown and an example of shock-free supersonic-to-subsonic compression is experimentally demonstrated. The theoretical problem of transonic flow past finite cones is discussed briefly and an approximate solution of the axially symmetric transonic equations, valid for a semi-infinite cone, is presented.
Method to predict external store carriage characteristics at transonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, Bruce S.
1988-01-01
Development of a computational method for prediction of external store carriage characteristics at transonic speeds is described. The geometric flexibility required for treatment of pylon-mounted stores is achieved by computing finite difference solutions on a five-level embedded grid arrangement. A completely automated grid generation procedure facilitates applications. Store modeling capability consists of bodies of revolution with multiple fore and aft fins. A body-conforming grid improves the accuracy of the computed store body flow field. A nonlinear relaxation scheme developed specifically for modified transonic small disturbance flow equations enhances the method's numerical stability and accuracy. As a result, treatment of lower aspect ratio, more highly swept and tapered wings is possible. A limited supersonic freestream capability is also provided. Pressure, load distribution, and force/moment correlations show good agreement with experimental data for several test cases. A detailed computer program description for the Transonic Store Carriage Loads Prediction (TSCLP) Code is included.
Transonic flutter calculations using the Euler equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bendiksen, Oddvar O.; Kousen, Kenneth A.
1989-01-01
In transonic flutter problems where shock motion plays an important part, it is believed that accurate predictions of the flutter boundaries will require the use of codes based on the Euler equations. Only Euler codes can obtain the correct shock location and shock strength, and the crucially important shock excursion amplitude and phase lag. The present study is based on the finite volume scheme developed by Jameson and Venkatakrishnan for the 2-D unsteady Euler equations. The equations are solved in integral form on a moving grid. The variable are pressure, density, Cartesian velocity components, and total energy.
Unsteady Airloads in Separated and Transonic Flow
1977-07-01
hodograph method of Boerstoel (defs. 1, 2). While the airfoil was oscillating in pitch about an axis at 40 per cent of the chord detailed pressure...Aerospace Programs (NIVR). The authors are indebted to the NIVR and Fokker-VFW for the permission to use this material. 7. REFERENCES 1 Boerstoel , J.W...and Transonic shock-free aerofoil design by an analytic Huizing, G.H. hodograph method Journal of Aircraft, 12 No. 9, pp 730-736, 1975, 2 Boerstoel
Geometrical acoustics and transonic helicopter sound
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Isom, Morris; Purcell, Timothy W.; Strawn, Roger C.
1987-01-01
A new method is presented for predicting the impulsive noise generated by a transonic rotor blade. The method is a combined approach involving computational fluid dynamics and geometrical acoustics. A full-potential finite-difference method is used to obtain the pressure field close to the blade. A Kirchhoff integral formulation is then used to extend these finite-difference results into the far field. This Kirchhoff formula is based on geometrical acoustics approximations. It requires initial data across a plane at the sonic radius in a blade-fixed coordinate system. This data is provided by the finite-difference solution. Acoustic pressure predictions show good agreement with hover experimental data for cases with hover tip Mach numbers of 0.88 through 0.96. The cases above 0.92 tip Mach number are dominated by non-linear transonic effects seen as strong shocks on and off the blade tip. This paper gives the first successful predictions of far-field acoustic pressures for high-speed impulsive noise over a range of Mach numbers after delocalization.
14. Photocopy of photograph (original in the Langley Research Center ...
14. Photocopy of photograph (original in the Langley Research Center Archives, Hampton, VA LaRC) (L-90-2684) AERIAL VIEW OF THE 8-FOOT HIGH SPEED TUNNEL (FOREGROUND) AND THE 8-FOOT TRANSONIC PRESSURE TUNNEL (REAR). - NASA Langley Research Center, 8-Foot High Speed Wind Tunnel, 641 Thornell Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mason, M. L.; Putnam, L. E.
1979-01-01
The flow field behind a circular arc nozzle with exhaust jet was studied at subsonic free stream Mach numbers. A conical probe was used to measure the pitot pressure in the jet and free stream regions. Pressure data were recorded for two nozzle configurations at nozzle pressure ratios of 2.0, 2.9, and 5.0. At each set of test conditions, the probe was traversed from the jet center line into the free stream region at seven data acquisition stations. The survey began at the nozzle exit and extended downstream at intervals. The pitot pressure data may be applied to the evaluation of computational flow field models, as illustrated by a comparison of the flow field data with results of inviscid jet plume theory.
Intermittent Flow Regimes in a Transonic Fan Airfoil Cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lepicovsky, J.; McFarland, E. R.; Chima, R. V.; Capece, V. R.; Hayden, J.
2002-01-01
A study was conducted in the NASA Glenn Research Center linear cascade on the intermittent flow on the suction surface of an airfoil section from the tip region of a modern low aspect ratio fan blade. Experimental results revealed that, at a large incidence angle, a range of transonic inlet Mach numbers exist where the leading-edge shock-wave pattern was unstable. Flush mounted high frequency response pressure transducers indicated large local jumps in the pressure in the leading edge area, which generates large intermittent loading on the blade leading edge. These measurements suggest that for an inlet Mach number between 0.9 and 1.0 the flow is bi-stable, randomly switching between subsonic and supersonic flows. Hence, it appears that the change in overall flow conditions in the transonic region is based on the frequency of switching between two stable flow states rather than on the continuous increase of the flow velocity. To date, this flow behavior has only been observed in a linear transonic cascade. Further research is necessary to confirm this phenomenon occurs in actual transonic fans and is not the byproduct of an endwall restricted linear cascade.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hwang, C.; Pi, W. S.
1978-01-01
A wind tunnel test of a 1/7 scale F-5A model is described. The pressure, force, and dynamic response measurements during buffet and wing rock are evaluated. Effects of Mach number, angle of attack, sideslip angle, and control surface settings were investigated. The mean and fluctuating static pressure data are presented and correlated with some corresponding flight test data of a F-5A aircraft. Details of the instrumentation and the specially designed support system which allowed the model to oscillate in roll to simulate wing rock are also described. A limit cycle mechanism causing wing rock was identified from this study, and this mechanism is presented.
Design, Test, and Evaluation of a Transonic Axial Compressor Rotor with Splitter Blades
2013-09-01
documented that uses commercial-off-the-shelf software (MATLAB, SolidWorks , and ANSYS-CFX) for the geometric rendering and analysis of a transonic axial...that uses commercial-off-the- shelf software (MATLAB, SolidWorks , and ANSYS-CFX) for the geometric rendering and analysis of a transonic axial...Postgraduate School NPSMF NPS Military Fan NTG No Tip Gap PS Pressure Side SB Splitter Blade SS Suction Side SolidWorks A solid modeling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nugent, Jack; Pendergraft, Odis C., Jr.
1987-01-01
Afterbody and nozzle pressures measured on a 1/12-scale model and in flight on a twin-jet fighter aircraft were compared as Mach number varied from 0.6 to 1.2, Reynolds number from 17.5 million to 302.5 million, and angle of attack from 1 to 7 deg. At Mach 0.6 and 0.8, nozzle pressure coefficient distributions and nozzle axial force coefficients agreed and showed good recompression. At Mach 0.9 and 1.2, flow complexity caused a loss in recompression for both flight and wind tunnel nozzle data. The flight data exhibited less negative values of pressure coefficient and lower axial force coefficients than did the wind tunnel data. Reynolds number effects were noted only at these Mach numbers. Jet temperature and mass flux ratio did not affect the comparisons of nozzle axial flow coefficient. At subsonic speeds, the levels of pressure coefficient distributions on the upper fuselage and lower nacelle surfaces for flight were less negative than those for the model. The model boundary layer thickness at the aft rake station exceeded that for the forward rake station and increased with increasing angle of attack. The flight boundary layer thickness at the aft rake station was less than that for the forward rake station and decreased with increasing angle of attack.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hess, R. W.; Wynne, E. C.; Cazier, F. W.
1982-01-01
Pressures were measured with Freon as the test medium. Data taken at M = 0.9 is presented for static and oscillatory deflections of the trailing edge control surface and for the wing in pitch. Comparisons of the static measured data are made with results computed using the Bailey-Ballhaus small disturbance code.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mann, M. J.; Mercer, C. E.
1986-01-01
A transonic computational analysis method and a transonic design procedure have been used to design the wing and the canard of a forward-swept-wing fighter configuration for good transonic maneuver performance. A model of this configuration was tested in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel. Oil-flow photographs were obtained to examine the wind flow patterns at Mach numbers from 0.60 to 0.90. The transonic theory gave a reasonably good estimate of the wing pressure distributions at transonic maneuver conditions. Comparison of the forward-swept-wing configuration with an equivalent aft-swept-wing-configuration showed that, at a Mach number of 0.90 and a lift coefficient of 0.9, the two configurations have the same trimmed drag. The forward-swept wing configuration was also found to have trimmed drag levels at transonic maneuver conditions which are comparable to those of the HiMAT (highly maneuverable aircraft technology) configuration and the X-29 forward-swept-wing research configuration. The configuration of this study was also tested with a forebody strake.
Experimental transonic flutter characteristics of supersonic cruise configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Durham, Michael H.; Cole, Stanley R.; Cazier, F. W., Jr.; Keller, Donald F.; Parker, Ellen C.; Wilkie, W. Keats
1990-01-01
The flutter characteristics of a generic arrow-wing supersonic transport configuration are studied. The wing configuration has a 3 percent biconvex airfoil and a leading-edge sweep of 73 deg out to a cranked tip with a 60 deg leading-edge sweep. The ground vibration tests and flutter test procedure are described. The effects of flutter on engine nacelles, fuel loading, wing-mounted vertical fin, wing angle-of-attack, and wing tip mass and stiffness distributions are analyzed. The data reveal that engine nacelles reduce the transonic flutter dynamic pressure by 25-30 percent; fuel loadings decrease dynamic pressures by 25 percent; 4-6 deg wing angles-of-attack cause steep transonic boundaries; and 5-10 percent changes in flutter dynamic pressures are the result of the wing-mounted vertical fin and wing-tip mass and stiffness distributions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Andrews, C. D.; Cooper, C. E., Jr.
1974-01-01
An experimental aerodynamic investigation was conducted to provide data for studies to determine the criteria for simulating rocket engine plume induced aerodynamic effects in the wind tunnel using a simulated gaseous plume. Model surface and base pressure data were obtained in the presence of both a simulated and a prototype gaseous plume for a matrix of plume properties to enable investigators to determine the parameters that correlate the simulated and prototype plume-induced data. The test program was conducted in the Marshall Space Flight Center's 14 x 14-inch trisonic wind tunnel using two models, the first being a strut mounted cone-ogive-cylinder model with a fineness ratio of 9. Model exterior pressures, model plenum chamber and nozzle performance data were obtained at Mach numbers of 0.9, 1.2, 1.46, and 3.48. The exhaust plume was generated by using air as the simulant gas, or Freon-14 (CF4) as the prototype gas, over a chamber pressure range from 0 to 2,000 psia and a total temperature range from 50 to 600 F.
Design considerations of the national transonic facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Baals, D. D.
1976-01-01
The inability of existing wind tunnels to provide aerodynamic test data at transonic speeds and flight Reynolds numbers was examined. The proposed transonic facility is a high Reynolds number transonic wind tunnel designed to meet the research and development needs of industry, and the scientific community. The facility employs the cryogenic approach to achieve high transonic Reynolds numbers at acceptable model loads and tunnel power. By using temperature as a test variable, a unique capability to separate scale effects from model aeroelastic effects is provided. The performance envelope of the facility is shown to provide a ten fold increase in transonic Reynolds number capability compared to currently available facilities.
Asymptotic methods for internal transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamson, T. C., Jr.; Messiter, A. F.
1989-01-01
For many internal transonic flows of practical interest, some of the relevant nondimensional parameters typically are small enough that a perturbation scheme can be expected to give a useful level of numerical accuracy. A variety of steady and unsteady transonic channel and cascade flows is studied with the help of systematic perturbation methods which take advantage of this fact. Asymptotic representations are constructed for small changes in channel cross-section area, small flow deflection angles, small differences between the flow velocity and the sound speed, small amplitudes of imposed oscillations, and small reduced frequencies. Inside a channel the flow is nearly one-dimensional except in thin regions immediately downstream of a shock wave, at the channel entrance and exit, and near the channel throat. A study of two-dimensional cascade flow is extended to include a description of three-dimensional compressor-rotor flow which leads to analytical results except in thin edge regions which require numerical solution. For unsteady flow the qualitative nature of the shock-wave motion in a channel depends strongly on the orders of magnitude of the frequency and amplitude of impressed wall oscillations or fluctuations in back pressure. One example of supersonic flow is considered, for a channel with length large compared to its width, including the effect of separation bubbles and the possibility of self-sustained oscillations. The effect of viscosity on a weak shock wave in a channel is discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodyer, M. J.
1984-01-01
Two dimensional airfoil testing in an adaptive wall test-section wind tunnel requires the computation of the imaginary flow fields extending outward from the top and bottom test section walls. A computer program was developed to compute the flow field which would be associated with an arbitrary test section wall shape. The program is based on incompressible flow theory with a Prandtl-Glauert compressibility correction. The program was validated by comparing the streamline and the pressure field generated by a source in uniform flow with the results from the computer program. A listing of the program, the validation test results, and a sample program are included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sawyer, J. W.; Whitcomb, C. F.
1971-01-01
A wind-tunnel investigation was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.20 to 1.00 and Reynolds numbers, based on maximum afterbody diameter, from 2.25 million to 6.90 million on solid models of an attached inflatable decelerator (AID) concept. Tests were conducted to obtain static and ram surface pressure distributions about the basic shapes and at various separation distances between the 120 deg conical forebody and the inflated afterbody shape. The resulting data were used to study the feasibility of extracting a payload from a conical forebody by means of an AID.
Design optimization of transonic airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Joh, C.-Y.; Grossman, B.; Haftka, R. T.
1991-01-01
Numerical optimization procedures were considered for the design of airfoils in transonic flow based on the transonic small disturbance (TSD) and Euler equations. A sequential approximation optimization technique was implemented with an accurate approximation of the wave drag based on the Nixon's coordinate straining approach. A modification of the Euler surface boundary conditions was implemented in order to efficiently compute design sensitivities without remeshing the grid. Two effective design procedures producing converged designs in approximately 10 global iterations were developed: interchanging the role of the objective function and constraint and the direct lift maximization with move limits which were fixed absolute values of the design variables.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bobbitt, P. J.; Manro, M. E.
1976-01-01
A wind-tunnel test of an arrow-wing body configuration consisting of flat and twisted wings, as well as a variety of leading- and trailing-edge control-surface deflections, was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.40 to 2.50 to provide an experimental data base for comparison with theoretical methods. Theory-to-experiment comparisons of detailed pressure distributions were made using current state-of-the-art and newly developed attached- and separated-flow methods. Conditions were delineated under which these theories provide accurate basic and incremental aeroelastic loads predictions. Current state-of-the-art linear and nonlinear attached-flow methods were adequate only at small-angle-of-attack cruise conditions. Of the several separated-vortex methods evaluated, only the one utilizing a combination of linear source and quadratically varying doublet panels showed promise of yielding accurate loads distributions at moderate to large angles of attack.
Unsteady transonic potential flow over a flexible fuselage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gibbons, Michael D.
1993-01-01
A flexible fuselage capability has been developed and implemented within version 1.2 of the CAP-TSD code. The capability required adding time dependent terms to the fuselage surface boundary conditions and the fuselage surface pressure coefficient. The new capability will allow modeling the effect of a flexible fuselage on the aeroelastic stability of complex configurations. To assess the flexible fuselage capability several steady and unsteady calculations have been performed for slender fuselages with circular cross-sections. Steady surface pressures are compared with experiment at transonic flight conditions. Unsteady cross-sectional lift is compared with other analytical results at a low subsonic speed and a transonic case has been computed. The comparisons demonstrate the accuracy of the flexible fuselage modifications.
Future Research on Transonic Unsteady Aerodynamics and its Aeroelastic Applications
1987-08-01
Fig. 20 shows the instantaneous pressures on an NACA 0012 airfoil oscillating in pitch about its quarter chord. In this case, M = 0.755, a(t...Unsteady Transonic Small Disturbance Equation. NASA TM 85723, 1983. Landon, R. H.: NACA 0012. Oscillatory and Transient Pitching. Compendium of...of aspect-ratio 6 rectangular wing with NACA 0012 airfoil at Mach lumber 0.82, 0=0 1-14 0 o Integral equation 0 Experinnent r Sonic
Numerical simulation of transonic flows in diffusers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, M.-S.; Coakley, T. J.; Bergmann, M. Y.
1981-01-01
Numerical simulations were made of two-dimensional transonic flows in diffusers, including flow separation induced by a shock or adverse pressure gradient. The mass-averaged, time-dependent, compressible Navier-Stokes equations, simplified by the thin-layer approximation, were solved using MacCormack's hybrid method. The eddy-viscosity formulation was described by the Wilcox-Rubesin's two-equation, k-omega model. Detailed comparison of the computed results with measurements showed good agreement in all cases, including one with massive separation induced by a strong shock. The computation correctly predicted the details of a distinct lambda shock pattern, closely duplicating the configuration observed experimentally in spark-schlieren photographs.
Transonic Shocks in Multidimensional Divergent Nozzles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bae, Myoungjean; Feldman, Mikhail
2011-07-01
We establish existence, uniqueness and stability of transonic shocks for a steady compressible non-isentropic potential flow system in a multidimensional divergent nozzle with an arbitrary smooth cross-section, for a prescribed exit pressure. The proof is based on solving a free boundary problem for a system of partial differential equations consisting of an elliptic equation and a transport equation. In the process, we obtain unique solvability for a class of transport equations with velocity fields of weak regularity (non-Lipschitz), an infinite dimensional weak implicit mapping theorem which does not require continuous FrÃ©chet differentiability, and regularity theory for a class of elliptic partial differential equations with discontinuous oblique boundary conditions.
An inverse method with regularity condition for transonic airfoil design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zhu, Ziqiang; Xia, Zhixun; Wu, Liyi
1991-01-01
It is known from Lighthill's exact solution of the incompressible inverse problem that in the inverse design problem, the surface pressure distribution and the free stream speed cannot both be prescribed independently. This implies the existence of a constraint on the prescribed pressure distribution. The same constraint exists at compressible speeds. Presented here is an inverse design method for transonic airfoils. In this method, the target pressure distribution contains a free parameter that is adjusted during the computation to satisfy the regularity condition. Some design results are presented in order to demonstrate the capabilities of the method.
Unsteady transonic aerodynamics - An aeronautics challenge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spreiter, J. R.; Stahara, S. S.
1975-01-01
The paper presents a review of the historical development in unsteady transonic aerodynamics, along with the foundations and accomplishments of several approaches to solve the equations of unsteady transonic flow. The discussion covers the linearized unsteady flow theory, numerical solution of the exact equations for an inviscid compressible gas, nonlinear small disturbance theory of transonic flow and linearization of the unsteady component about the nonlinear solution for the steady state, local linearization solution for unsteady transonic flow, unsteady transonic flow theory for slender wings and bodies, and three-dimensional unsteady transonic flows. The relation between the calculated results and experiment is examined. It is shown that the newly emerging numerical methods are capable of solving the nonlinear equations for two-dimensional flow and can be extended to three-dimensional flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferris, J. C.
1973-01-01
The Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel to determine the wing chordwise pressure distribution for a 0.09-scale model of a research airplane incorporating a 17-percent-thick supercritical wing. Airfoil profile drag was determined from wake pressure measurements at the 42-percent-semispan wing station. The investigation was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.30 to 0.80 over an angle-of-attack range sufficient to include buffet onset. The Reynolds number based on the mean geometric chord varied from 2 x 10 to the 6th power at Mach number 0.30 to 3.33 x 10 to the 6th power at Mach number 0.65 and was maintained at a constant value of 3.86 x 10 to the 6th power at Mach numbers from 0.70 to 0.80. Pressure coefficients for four wing semispan stations and wing-section normal-force and pitching-moment coefficients for two semispan stations are presented in tabular form over the Mach number range from 0.30 to 0.80. Plotted chordwise pressure distributions and wake profiles are given for a selected range of section normal-force coefficients over the same Mach number range.
Investigation of Northrop F-5A wing buffet intensity in transonic flight
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chintsun, H.; Pi, W. S.
1974-01-01
A flight test and data processing program utilizing a Northrop F-5A aircraft instrumented to acquire buffet pressures and response data during transonic maneuvers is discussed. The data are presented in real-time format followed by spectral and statistical analyses. Also covered is a comparison of the aircraft response data with computed responses based on the measured buffet pressures.
MAVRIC Flutter Model Transonic Limit Cycle Oscillation Test
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Edwards, John W.; Schuster, David M.; Spain, Charles V.; Keller, Donald F.; Moses, Robert W.
2001-01-01
The Models for Aeroelastic Validation Research Involving Computation semi-span wind-tunnel model (MAVRIC-I), a business jet wing-fuselage flutter model, was tested in NASA Langley's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel with the goal of obtaining experimental data suitable for Computational Aeroelasticity code validation at transonic separation onset conditions. This research model is notable for its inexpensive construction and instrumentation installation procedures. Unsteady pressures and wing responses were obtained for three wingtip configurations of clean, tipstore, and winglet. Traditional flutter boundaries were measured over the range of M = 0.6 to 0.9 and maps of Limit Cycle Oscillation (LCO) behavior were made in the range of M = 0.85 to 0.95. Effects of dynamic pressure and angle-of-attack were measured. Testing in both R134a heavy gas and air provided unique data on Reynolds number, transition effects, and the effect of speed of sound on LCO behavior. The data set provides excellent code validation test cases for the important class of flow conditions involving shock-induced transonic flow separation onset at low wing angles, including LCO behavior.
Transonic Performance Characteristics of Several Jet Noise Suppressors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schmeer, James W.; Salters, Leland B., Jr.; Cassetti, Marlowe D.
1960-01-01
An investigation of the transonic performance characteristics of several noise-suppressor configurations has been conducted in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel. The models were tested statically and over a Mach number range from 0.70 to 1.05 at an angle of attack of 0 deg. The primary jet total-pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to about 4.5. The effect of secondary air flow on the performance of two of the configurations was investigated. A hydrogen peroxide turbojet-engine simulator was used to supply the hot-jet exhaust. An 8-lobe afterbody with centerbody, short shroud, and secondary air had the highest thrust-minus-drag coefficients of the six noise-suppressor configurations tested. The 12-tube and 12-lobe afterbodies had the lowest internal losses. The presence of an ejector shroud partially shields the external pressure distribution of the 8-lobe after-body from the influence of the primary jet. A ring-airfoil shroud increased the static thrust of the annular nozzle but generally decreased the thrust minus drag at transonic Mach numbers.
Subsonic-transonic stall flutter study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stardter, H.
1979-01-01
The objective of the Subsonic/Transonic Stall Flutter Program was to obtain detailed measurements of both the steady and unsteady flow field surrounding a rotor and the mechanical state of the rotor while it was operating in both steady and flutter modes to provide a basis for future analysis and for development of theories describing the flutter phenomenon. The program revealed that while all blades flutter at the same frequency, they do not flutter at the same amplitude, and their interblade phase angles are not equal. Such a pattern represents the superposition of a number of rotating nodal diameter patterns, each characterized by a different amplitude and different phase indexing, but each rotating at a speed that results in the same flutter frequency as seen in the rotor system. Review of the steady pressure contours indicated that flutter may alter the blade passage pressure distribution. The unsteady pressure amplitude contour maps reveal regions of high unsteady pressure amplitudes near the leading edge, lower amplitudes near the trailing.
A method for the design of transonic flexible wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Leigh Ann; Campbell, Richard L.
1990-01-01
Methodology was developed for designing airfoils and wings at transonic speeds which includes a technique that can account for static aeroelastic deflections. This procedure is capable of designing either supercritical or more conventional airfoil sections. Methods for including viscous effects are also illustrated and are shown to give accurate results. The methodology developed is an interactive system containing three major parts. A design module was developed which modifies airfoil sections to achieve a desired pressure distribution. This design module works in conjunction with an aerodynamic analysis module, which for this study is a small perturbation transonic flow code. Additionally, an aeroelastic module is included which determines the wing deformation due to the calculated aerodynamic loads. Because of the modular nature of the method, it can be easily coupled with any aerodynamic analysis code.
9. VIEW OF 10,000 CFM COMPRESSOR WITH 1 MEGAWATT MOTOR ...
9. VIEW OF 10,000 CFM COMPRESSOR WITH 1 MEGAWATT MOTOR DRIVE. USED TO ESTABLISH AND MAINTAIN BASE LINE PRESSURE CONSTANT WITHIN ONE PSI. - NASA Langley Research Center, 8-Foot Transonic Pressure Tunnel, 640 Thornell Avenue, Hampton, Hampton, VA
Transonic Airfoils with a Given Pressure Distribution,
1981-06-01
erovse sidst necesosar mod Ideatify b lock mmb)L An inverse design procedure for airfoils, based on hodograph techniques, has been developed. For...w L-:- " " -- - r- L i -- _ 9 ABSTRACT An inverse design procedure for airfoils, based on hodograph tech...generated in the hodograph plane by Nieuwand,5 Bauer, Garabedian and Korn,6 Boerstoel and Huizing,7 and Sobieczky.8 More recently, the development of
Semidirect computations for transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swisshelm, J. M.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1983-01-01
A semidirect method, driven by a Poisson solver, was developed for inviscid transonic flow computations. It is an extension of a recently introduced algorithm for solving subsonic rotational flows. Shocks are captured by implementing a form of artificial compressibility. Nonisentropic cases are computed using a shock tracking procedure coupled with the Rankine-Hugoniot relationships. Results are presented for both subsonic and transonic flows. For the test geometry, an unstaggered cascade of 20 percent thick circular arc airfoils at zero angle of attack, shocks are crisply resolved in supercritical situations and the algorithm converges rapidly. In addition, the convergence rate appears to be nearly independent of the entropy and vorticity production at the shock.
Transonic CFD applications at Boeing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tinoco, E. N.
1989-01-01
The use of computational methods for three dimensional transonic flow design and analysis at the Boeing Company is presented. A range of computational tools consisting of production tools for every day use by project engineers, expert user tools for special applications by computational researchers, and an emerging tool which may see considerable use in the near future are described. These methods include full potential and Euler solvers, some coupled to three dimensional boundary layer analysis methods, for transonic flow analysis about nacelle, wing-body, wing-body-strut-nacelle, and complete aircraft configurations. As the examples presented show, such a toolbox of codes is necessary for the variety of applications typical of an industrial environment. Such a toolbox of codes makes possible aerodynamic advances not previously achievable in a timely manner, if at all.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rivers, Melissa B.; Quest, Jurgen; Rudnik, Ralf
2015-01-01
Experimental aerodynamic investigations of the NASA Common Research Model have been conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility, the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, and the European Transonic Wind Tunnel. In the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, data have been obtained at only a chord Reynolds number of 5 million for a wing/body/tail = 0 degree incidence configuration. Data have been obtained at chord Reynolds numbers of 5, 19.8 and 30 million for the same configuration in the National Transonic Facility and in the European Transonic Facility. Force and moment, surface pressure, wing bending and twist, and surface flow visualization data were obtained in all three facilities but only the force and moment, surface pressure and wing bending and twist data are presented herein.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rivers, Melissa; Quest, Juergen; Rudnik, Ralf
2015-01-01
Experimental aerodynamic investigations of the NASA Common Research Model have been conducted in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility, the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, and the European Transonic Wind Tunnel. In the NASA Ames 11-ft wind tunnel, data have been obtained at only a chord Reynolds number of 5 million for a wing/body/tail = 0 degree incidence configuration. Data have been obtained at chord Reynolds numbers of 5, 19.8 and 30 million for the same configuration in the National Transonic Facility and in the European Transonic Facility. Force and moment, surface pressure, wing bending and twist, and surface flow visualization data were obtained in all three facilities but only the force and moment and surface pressure data are presented herein.
Unsteady transonic flow in cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Surampudi, S. P.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1984-01-01
There is a need for methods to predict the unsteady air loads associated with flutter of turbomachinery blading at transonic speeds. The results of such an analysis in which the steady relative flow approaching a cascade of thin airfoils is assumed to be transonic, irrotational, and isentropic is presented. The blades in the cascade are allowed to undergo a small amplitude harmonic oscillation which generates a small unsteady flow superimposed on the existing steady flow. The blades are assumed to oscillate with a prescribed motion of constant amplitude and interblade phase angle. The equations of motion are obtained by linearizing about a uniform flow the inviscid nonheat conducting continuity and momentum equations. The resulting equations are solved by employing the Weiner Hopf technique. The solution yields the unsteady aerodynamic forces acting on the cascade at Mach number equal to 1. Making use of an unsteady transonic similarity law, these results are compared with the results obtained from linear unsteady subsonic and supersonic cascade theories. A parametric study is conducted to find the effects of reduced frequency, solidity, stagger angle, and position of pitching axis on the flutter.
Status of the KTH-NASA Wind-Tunnel Test for Acquisition of Transonic Nonlinear Aeroelastic Data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.; Ringertz, Ulf; Stenfelt, Gloria; Eller, David; Keller, Donald F.; Chwalowski, Pawel
2016-01-01
This paper presents a status report on the collaboration between the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Sweden and the NASA Langley Research Center regarding the design, fabrication, modeling, and testing of a full-span lighter configuration in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The goal of the test is to acquire transonic limit-cycle- oscillation (LCO) data, including accelerations, strains, and unsteady pressures. Finite element models (FEMs) and aerodynamic models are presented and discussed along with results obtained to date.
Refined numerical solution of the transonic flow past a wedge
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liang, S.-M.; Fung, K.-Y.
1985-01-01
A numerical procedure combining the ideas of solving a modified difference equation and of adaptive mesh refinement is introduced. The numerical solution on a fixed grid is improved by using better approximations of the truncation error computed from local subdomain grid refinements. This technique is used to obtain refined solutions of steady, inviscid, transonic flow past a wedge. The effects of truncation error on the pressure distribution, wave drag, sonic line, and shock position are investigated. By comparing the pressure drag on the wedge and wave drag due to the shocks, a supersonic-to-supersonic shock originating from the wedge shoulder is confirmed.
A transonic-small-disturbance wing design methodology
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Phillips, Pamela S.; Waggoner, Edgar G.; Campbell, Richard L.
1988-01-01
An automated transonic design code has been developed which modifies an initial airfoil or wing in order to generate a specified pressure distribution. The design method uses an iterative approach that alternates between a potential-flow analysis and a design algorithm that relates changes in surface pressure to changes in geometry. The analysis code solves an extended small-disturbance potential-flow equation and can model a fuselage, pylons, nacelles, and a winglet in addition to the wing. A two-dimensional option is available for airfoil analysis and design. Several two- and three-dimensional test cases illustrate the capabilities of the design code.
Applications of a transonic wing design method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Richard L.; Smith, Leigh A.
1989-01-01
A method for designing wings and airfoils at transonic speeds using a predictor/corrector approach was developed. The procedure iterates between an aerodynamic code, which predicts the flow about a given geometry, and the design module, which compares the calculated and target pressure distributions and modifies the geometry using an algorithm that relates differences in pressure to a change in surface curvature. The modular nature of the design method makes it relatively simple to couple it to any analysis method. The iterative approach allows the design process and aerodynamic analysis to converge in parallel, significantly reducing the time required to reach a final design. Viscous and static aeroelastic effects can also be accounted for during the design or as a post-design correction. Results from several pilot design codes indicated that the method accurately reproduced pressure distributions as well as the coordinates of a given airfoil or wing by modifying an initial contour. The codes were applied to supercritical as well as conventional airfoils, forward- and aft-swept transport wings, and moderate-to-highly swept fighter wings. The design method was found to be robust and efficient, even for cases having fairly strong shocks.
Investigation of Transonic Reynolds Number Scaling on a Twin-Engine Transport
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Curtin, M. M.; Bogue, D. R.; Om, D.; Rivers, S. M. B.; Pendergraft, O. C., Jr.; Wahls, R. A.
2002-01-01
This paper discusses Reynolds number scaling for aerodynamic parameters including force and wing pressure measurements. A full-span model of the Boeing 777 configuration was tested at transonic conditions in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at Reynolds numbers (based on mean aerodynamic chord) from 3.0 to 40.0 million. Data was obtained for a tail-off configuration both with and without wing vortex generators and flap support fairings. The effects of aeroelastics were separated from Reynolds number effects by varying total pressure and temperature independently. Data from the NTF at flight Reynolds number are compared with flight data to establish the wind tunnel/flight correlation. The importance of high Reynolds number testing and the need for developing a process for transonic Reynolds number scaling is discussed. This paper also identifies issues that need to be worked for Boeing Commercial to continue to conduct future high Reynolds number testing in the NTF.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Allison, Dennis O.; Cavallo, Peter A.
2003-01-01
An equivalent-plate structural deformation technique was coupled with a steady-state unstructured-grid three-dimensional Euler flow solver and a two-dimensional strip interactive boundary-layer technique. The objective of the research was to assess the extent to which a simple accounting for static model deformations could improve correlations with measured wing pressure distributions and lift coefficients at transonic speeds. Results were computed and compared to test data for a wing-fuselage model of a generic low-wing transonic transport at a transonic cruise condition over a range of Reynolds numbers and dynamic pressures. The deformations significantly improved correlations with measured wing pressure distributions and lift coefficients. This method provided a means of quantifying the role of dynamic pressure in wind-tunnel studies of Reynolds number effects for transonic transport models.
2007-10-01
dynamics (CFD) code against wind tunnel data for the stationary CONEX collected at the Technion [Ref. 61. corrugations or other details) and the third...transonic airfoils and retreating-side stall typical of helicopter rotors. Yet, even these two examples of separated flow have been accounted for in...manipulation. It has full doors at one end, corrugated sides, indented top edges and lift point lugs at the top corners. The flight test unit is shown in
Laser velocimetry applied to transonic and supersonic aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, D. A.; Bachalo, W. D.; Moddaress, D.
1976-01-01
As a further demonstration of the capabilities of laser velocity in compressible aerodynamics, measurements obtained in a Mach 2.9 separated turbulent boundary layer and in the transonic flow past a two-dimensional airfoil section are presented and compared to data realized by conventional techniques. In the separated-flow study, the comparisons were made against pitot-static pressure data. Agreement in mean velocities was realized where the pressure measurements could be considered reliable; however, in regions of instantaneous reverse velocities, the laser results were found to be consistent with the physics of the flow whereas the pressure data were not. The laser data obtained in regions of extremely high turbulence suggest that velocity biasing does not occur if the particle occurrence rate is low relative to the turbulent fluctuation rate. Streamwise turbulence intensities are also presented. In the transonic airfoil study, velocity measurements obtained immediately outside the upper surface boundary layer of a 6-inch chord MACA 64A010 airfoil are compared to edge velocities inferred from surface pressure measurements. For free-stream Mach numbers of 0.6 and 0.8, the agreement in results was very good. Dual scatter optical arrangements in conjunction with a single particle, counter-type signal processor were employed in these investigations. Half-micron-diameter polystyrene spheres and naturally occurring condensed oil vapor acted as light scatterers in the two respective flows. Bragg-cell frequency shifting was utilized in the separated flow study.
A finite element method for the computation of transonic flow past airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eberle, A.
1980-01-01
A finite element method for the computation of the transonic flow with shocks past airfoils is presented using the artificial viscosity concept for the local supersonic regime. Generally, the classic element types do not meet the accuracy requirements of advanced numerical aerodynamics requiring special attention to the choice of an appropriate element. A series of computed pressure distributions exhibits the usefulness of the method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Griffin, S. A.; Madsen, A. P.; Mcclain, A. A.
1984-01-01
The feasibility of designing advanced technology, highly maneuverable, fighter aircraft models to achieve full scale Reynolds number in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) is examined. Each of the selected configurations are tested for aeroelastic effects through the use of force and pressure data. A review of materials and material processes is also included.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seidel, D. A.; Sandford, M. C.; Eckstrom, C. V.
1985-01-01
Transonic steady and unsteady aerodynamic data were measured on a large elastic wing in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The wing had a supercritical airfoil shape and a leading-edge sweepback of 28.8 deg. The wing was heavily instrumented to measure both static and dynamic pressures and deflections. A hydraulically driven outboard control surface was oscillated to generate unsteady airloads on the wing. Representative results from the wind tunnel tests are presented and discussed, and the unexpected occurrence of an unusual dynamic wing instability, which was sensitive to angle of attack, is reported.
Computations for the 16-foot transonic tunnel, NASA, Langley Research Center, revision 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mercer, Charles E.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Capone, Francis J.; Grayston, Alan M.; Sherman, C. D.
1987-01-01
The equations used by the 16 foot transonic tunnel in the data reduction programs are presented in eight modules. Each module consists of equations necessary to achieve a specific purpose. These modules are categorized in the following groups: tunnel parameters; jet exhaust measurements; skin friction drag; balance loads and model attitudes calculations; internal drag (or exit-flow distributions); pressure coefficients and integrated forces; thrust removal options; and turboprop options. This document is a companion document to NASA TM-83186, A User's Guide to the Langley 16 Foot Transonic Tunnel, August 1981.
An experimental investigation of internal area ruling for transonic and supersonic channel flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, W. B.; Vanrintel, H. L.; Rizvi, G.
1982-01-01
A simulated transonic rotor channel model was examined experimentally to verify the flow physics of internal area ruling. Pressure measurements were performed in the high speed wind tunnel at transonic speeds with Mach 1.5 and Mach 2 nozzle blocks to get an indication of the approximate shock losses. The results showed a reduction in losses due to internal area ruling with the Mach 1.5 nozzle blocks. The reduction in total loss coefficient was of the order of 17 percent for a high blockage model and 7 percent for a cut-down model.
Mathematical Models Of Turbulence In Transonic Flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubesin, Morris W.; Viegas, John R.
1989-01-01
Predictions of several models compared with measurements of well-documented flow. Report reviews performances of variety of mathematical models of turbulence in transonic flow. Predictions of models compared with measurements of flow in wind tunnel along outside of cylinder having axisymmetric bump of circular-arc cross section in meridional plane. Review part of continuing effort to calibrate and verify computer codes for prediction of transonic flows about airfoils. Johnson-and-King model proved superior in predicting transonic flow over bumpy cylinder.
Computation of wave drag for transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Garabedian, P. R.
1976-01-01
The paper develops a method for calculating wave drag for two-dimensional transonic flow, with particular application to the prediction of the drag rise Mach number of a supercritical wing section. The method is based on a transonic similarity model which is defined by a normalized small perturbation equation and represents shock waves by the addition of an artificial viscosity term in the region of supersonic flow to the partial differential equation. The drag formula obtained allows the computer simulation of transonic wind tunnel data taking account of boundary layer and wall effects.
The Use of Heavy Gas for Increased Reynolds Numbers in Transonic Wind Tunnels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Anders, J. B.; Anderson, W. K.; Murthy, A. V.
1998-01-01
The use of a high molecular weight test gas to increase the Reynolds number range of transonic wind tunnels is explored. Modifications to a small transonic wind tunnel are described and the real gas properties of the example heavy gas (sulfur hexafluoride) are discussed. Sulfur hexafluoride is shown to increase the test Reynolds number by a factor of more than 2 over air at the same Mach number. Experimental and computational pressure distributions on an advanced supercritical airfoil configuration at Mach 0.7 in both sulfur hexafluoride and nitrogen are presented. Transonic similarity theory is shown to be partially successful in transforming the heavy gas results to equivalent nitrogen (air) results, provided the correct definition of gamma is used.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cunningham, A. M., Jr.
1973-01-01
A study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using combined subsonic and supersonic linear theory as a means for solving unsteady transonic flow problems in an economical and yet realistic manner. With some modification, existing linear theory methods are combined into a single program and a simple algorithm is derived for determining interference between lifting surface elements of different Mach number. The method is applied to a wide variety of problems for which measured unsteady pressure distributions and Mach number distributions are available. By comparing theory and experiment, the transonic method solutions show a significant improvement over uniform flow solutions. It is concluded that with these refinements the method will provide a means for performing realistic transonic flutter and dynamic response analyses at costs which are compatible with current linear theory based solutions.
An airfoil flutter model suspension system to accommodate large static transonic airloads
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, W. H., III
1985-01-01
A pitch/plunge flutter model suspension system and associated two-dimensional MBB-A3 airfoil models is described. The system is designed for installation in the Langley 6-by-19-inch and 6-by-18-inch transonic blowdown wind tunnels to enable systematic study of the transonic flutter characteristics and static pressure distributions of supercritical airfoils at transonic Mach numbers. A compound spring suspension concept is introduced which simultaneously meets requirements for low plunge-mode stiffness, lightweight suspended model, and large steady lift due to angle of attack without the need for excessive static deflections of the plunge spring. The system features variable pitch and plunge frequencies, changeable airfoil rotation axes, and a self aligning control system to maintain a constant mean position of the model with changing airload.
Wind-US Unstructured Flow Solutions for a Transonic Diffuser
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mohler, Stanley R., Jr.
2005-01-01
The Wind-US Computational Fluid Dynamics flow solver computed flow solutions for a transonic diffusing duct. The calculations used an unstructured (hexahedral) grid. The Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model was used. Static pressures along the upper and lower wall agreed well with experiment, as did velocity profiles. The effect of the smoothing input parameters on convergence and solution accuracy was investigated. The meaning and proper use of these parameters are discussed for the benefit of Wind-US users. Finally, the unstructured solver is compared to the structured solver in terms of run times and solution accuracy.
Transonic interference reduction by limited ventilation wall panels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, John D.
1986-01-01
In two wind tunnels used for the two-dimensional airfoil tests, each wall above and below the model was modified by replacing small segments of the solid boundaries with perforated plates vented into sealed chambers. Perforated segments having approximately 40 percent open area were found to reduce the transonic wall interference to a negligible level, for a model chord-to-tunnel height ratio of 0.5. This report describes the physical arrangement and presents typical model pressure distributions to illustrate the effectiveness of the technique.
Development of a nonlinear unsteady transonic flow theory
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stahara, S. S.; Spreiter, J. R.
1973-01-01
A nonlinear, unsteady, small-disturbance theory capable of predicting inviscid transonic flows about aerodynamic configurations undergoing both rigid body and elastic oscillations was developed. The theory is based on the concept of dividing the flow into steady and unsteady components and then solving, by method of local linearization, the coupled differential equation for unsteady surface pressure distribution. The equations, valid at all frequencies, were derived for two-dimensional flows, numerical results, were obtained for two classses of airfoils and two types of oscillatory motions.
Calculations of transonic boattail flow at small angle of attack
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nakayama, A.; Chow, W. L.
1979-01-01
A transonic flow past a boattailed afterbody under a small angle of attack was examined. It is known that the viscous effect offers significant modifications of the pressure distribution on the afterbody. Thus, the formulation for the inviscid flow was based on the consideration of a flow past a nonaxisymmetric body. The full three dimensional potential equation was solved through numerical relaxation, and quasi-axisymmetric boundary layer calculations were performed to estimate the displacement effect. It was observed again that the viscous effects were not negligible. The trend of the final results agreed well with the experimental data.
Rotor wake characteristics of a transonic axial flow fan
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hathaway, M. D.; Gertz, J.; Epstein, A.; Strazisar, A. J.
1985-01-01
State of the art turbomachinery flow analysis codes are not capable of predicting the viscous flow features within turbomachinery blade wakes. Until efficient 3D viscous flow analysis codes become a reality there is therefore a need for models which can describe the generation and transport of blade wakes and the mixing process within the wake. To address the need for experimental data to support the development of such models, high response pressure measurements and laser anemometer velocity measurements were obtained in the wake of a transonic axial flow fan rotor.
A hybrid algorithm for transonic airfoil and wing design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Campbell, Richard L.; Smith, Leigh A.
1987-01-01
The present method for the design of transonic airfoils and wings employs a predictor/corrector approach in which an analysis code calculates the flowfield for an initial geometry, then modifies it on the basis of the difference between calculated and target pressures. This allows the design method to be straightforwardly coupled with any existing analysis code, as presently undertaken with several two- and three-dimensional potential flow codes. The results obtained indicate that the method is robust and accurate, even in the cases of airfoils with strongly supercritical flow and shocks. The design codes are noted to require computational resources typical of current pure-inverse methods.
Transonic Turbulent Flow Predictions With Two-Equation Turbulence Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, William W.; Shih, Tsan-Hsing
1996-01-01
Solutions of the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equations for two well-documented transonic turbulent flows are compared in detail with existing experimental data. While the boundary layer in the first case remains attached, a region of extensive flow separation has been observed in the second case. Two recently developed k-epsilon, two-equation, eddy-viscosity models are used to model the turbulence field. These models satisfy the realizability constraints of the Reynolds stresses. Comparisons with the measurements are made for the wall pressure distribution, the mean streamwise velocity profiles, and turbulent quantities. Reasonably good agreement is obtained with the experimental data.
Transonic wall interference effects on bodies of revolution.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Couch, L. M.
1972-01-01
Efforts to develop a near sonic transport have placed renewed emphasis on obtaining accurate aerodynamic force and pressure data in the near sonic speed range. Comparison of wind-tunnel and flight data obtained for a blunt-nose body of revolution showed significant discrepancies in drag levels near Mach 1 - apparently due to wind-tunnel wall interference. Subsequent tests of geometrically similar bodies of revolution showed that increasing the model-to-test-section blockage ratio from 0.00017 to 0.0043 resulted in altered drag curve shapes, delayed drag divergence, and 'transonic creep' from subsonic drag levels due to increased wall interference.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, H. N.; Wieting, A. R.
1984-01-01
A planned modification of the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to make it a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems is described, and some of the ongoing supporting research for that modification is discussed. The modification involves: (1) the addition of an oxygen-enrichment system which will allow the methane-air combustion-heated test stream to simulate air for propulsion testing; and (2) supplemental nozzles to expand the test simulation capability from the current nominal Mach number to 7.0 include Mach numbers 3.0, 4.5, and 5.0. Detailed design of the modifications is currently underway and the modified facility is scheduled to be available for tests of large scale propulsion systems by mid 1988.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kelly, H. N.; Wieting, A. R.
1984-01-01
A planned modification of the NASA Langley 8-Foot High Temperature Tunnel to make it a unique national research facility for hypersonic air-breathing propulsion systems is described, and some of the ongoing supporting research for that modification is discussed. The modification involves: (1) the addition of an oxygen-enrichment system which will allow the methane-air combustion-heated test stream to simulate air for propulsion testing; and (2) supplemental nozzles to expand the test simulation capability from the current nominal Mach number to 7.0 include Mach numbers 3.0, 4.5, and 5.0. Detailed design of the modifications is currently underway and the modified facility is scheduled to be available for tests of large scale propulsion systems by mid 1988.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hardin, R.; Burrows, R. R.
1974-01-01
Wind tunnel tests were conducted to obtain aerodynamic force data for Mach numbers from 0.60 to 1.20. Data were obtained for an alpha range of -10 deg to +10 deg (beta = 0 deg beta = 5 deg) and beta range of -10 deg to +10 deg (alpha = 0 deg). Longitudinal and lateral-directional stability and control data were obtained for tank alone, tank plus SRB's, tank plus Orbiter, and mated configuration of tank + Orbiter + SRB's. Also, single-component rudder hinge moment data were obtained at rudder deflections of 0 and -20 deg for each Mach number tested. Plots of aerodynamic coefficients vs. Mach number are presented, using data from both test IA41 and tests LRC-UPWT-1056, 1073 (IA42A/B) for Mach numbers of 1.60 to 4.63. The model tested in IA42A/B was the same model as tested in IA41.
Flow Disturbance Characterization Measurements in the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, Rudolph A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Melton, Latunia; Eppink, Jenna; Kegerise, Michael A.; Tsoi, Andrew
2012-01-01
Recent flow measurements have been acquired in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) to assess the unsteady flow environment in the test section. The primary purpose of the test is to determine the feasibility of the NTF to conduct laminar-flow-control testing and boundary-layer transition sensitive testing. The NTF can operate in two modes, warm (air) and cold/cryogenic (nitrogen) test conditions for testing full and semispan scaled models. The warm-air mode enables low to moderately high Reynolds numbers through the use of high tunnel pressure, and the nitrogen mode enables high Reynolds numbers up to flight conditions, depending on aircraft type and size, utilizing high tunnel pressure and cryogenic temperatures. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project is interested in demonstrating different laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant operating conditions throughout the transonic Mach number range and the NTF is well suited for the initial ground-based demonstrations. Roll polar data at selected test conditions were obtained to look at the uniformity of the flow disturbance field in the test section. Data acquired from the rake probes included mean total temperatures, mean and fluctuating static/total pressures, and mean and fluctuating hot-wire measurements. . Based on the current measurements and previous data, an assessment was made that the NTF is a suitable facility for ground-based demonstrations of laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant conditions in the cryogenic mode.
Ares Launch Vehicle Transonic Buffet Testing and Analysis Techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piatak, David J.; Sekula, Martin K.; Rausch, Russ D.
2010-01-01
It is necessary to define the launch vehicle buffet loads to ensure that structural components and vehicle subsystems possess adequate strength, stress, and fatigue margins when the vehicle structural dynamic response to buffet forcing functions are considered. In order to obtain these forcing functions, the accepted method is to perform wind-tunnel testing of a rigid model instrumented with hundreds of unsteady pressure transducers designed to measure the buffet environment across the desired frequency range. The buffet wind-tunnel test program for the Ares Crew Launch Vehicle employed 3.5 percent scale rigid models of the Ares I and Ares I-X launch vehicles instrumented with 256 unsteady pressure transducers each. These models were tested at transonic conditions at the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at NASA Langley Research Center. The ultimate deliverable of the Ares buffet test program are buffet forcing functions (BFFs) derived from integrating the measured fluctuating pressures on the rigid wind-tunnel models. These BFFs are then used as input to a multi-mode structural analysis to determine the vehicle response to buffet and the resulting buffet loads and accelerations. This paper discusses the development of the Ares I and I-X rigid buffet model test programs from the standpoint of model design, instrumentation system design, test implementation, data analysis techniques to yield final products, and presents normalized sectional buffet forcing function root-mean-squared levels.
Hot wire anemometry in transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horstman, C. C.; Rose, W. C.
1975-01-01
The use of hot-wire anemometry for obtaining fluctuating data in transonic flows has been evaluated. From hot-wire heat loss correlations based on previous transonic data, the sensitivity coefficients for velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations have been calculated for a wide range of test conditions and sensor parameters. For sensor Reynolds numbers greater than 20 and high sensor overheat ratios, the velocity sensitivity remains independent of Mach number and equal to the density sensitivity. These conclusions were verified by comparisons of predicted sensitivities with those from recent direct calibrations in transonic flows. Based on these results, techniques are presented to obtain meaningful measurements of fluctuating velocity, density, and Reynolds shear stress using hot-wire and hot-film anemometers. Examples of these measurements are presented for two transonic boundary layers.
Hot-wire anemometry in transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Horstman, C. C.; Rose, W. C.
1977-01-01
The use of hot-wire anemometry for obtaining fluctuating data in transonic flows has been evaluated. From hot-wire heat loss correlations based on previous transonic data, the sensitivity coefficients for velocity, density, and total temperature fluctuations have been calculated for a wide range of test conditions and sensor parameters. For sensor Reynolds number greater than 20 and high sensor overheat ratios, the velocity sensitivity remains independent of Mach number and equal to the density sensitivity. These conditions were verified by comparisons of predicted sensitivities with those from recent direct calibrations in transonic flows. Based on these results, techniques are presented to obtain meaningful measurements of fluctuating velocity, density, and Reynolds shear stress using hot-wire and hot-film anemometers. Example of these measurements are presented for two transonic boundary layers.
FLEET Velocimetry Measurements on a Transonic Airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.
2017-01-01
Femtosecond laser electronic excitation tagging (FLEET) velocimetry was used to study the flowfield around a symmetric, transonic airfoil in the NASA Langley 0.3-m TCT facility. A nominal Mach number of 0.85 was investigated with a total pressure of 125 kPa and total temperature of 280 K. Two-components of velocity were measured along vertical profiles at different locations above, below, and aft of the airfoil at angles of attack of 0 deg, 3.5 deg, and 7deg. Measurements were assessed for their accuracy, precision, dynamic range, spatial resolution, and overall measurement uncertainty in the context of the applied flowfield. Measurement precisions as low as 1 m/s were observed, while overall uncertainties ranged from 4 to 5 percent. Velocity profiles within the wake showed sufficient accuracy, precision, and sensitivity to resolve both the mean and fluctuating velocities and general flow physics such as shear layer growth. Evidence of flow separation is found at high angles of attack.
Recent advances in transonic axial compressor aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biollo, Roberto; Benini, Ernesto
2013-01-01
Transonic axial flow compressors are fundamental components in aircraft engines as they make it possible to maximize pressure ratios per stage unit. This is achieved through a careful combination of both tangential flow deflections and, above all, by taking advantage of shock wave formation around the rotor blades. The resulting flow field is really complex as it features highly three-dimensional inviscid/viscous structures, strong shock-boundary layer interaction and intense tip clearance effects which negatively influence compressor efficiency. Complications are augmented at part load operation, where stall-related phenomena occur. Therefore, considerable research efforts are being spent, both numerically and experimentally, to improve efficiency and stall margin at peak efficiency and near stall operation. The present work aims at giving a complete review of the most recent advances in the field of aerodynamic design and operation of such machines. A great emphasis has been given to highlight the most relevant contribution in this field and to suggest the prospects for future developments.
Flow Control in a Transonic Diffuser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gartner, Jeremy; Amitay, Michael
2014-11-01
In some airplanes such as fighter jets and UAV, short inlet ducts replace the more conventional ducts due to their shorter length. However, these ducts are associated with low length-to-diameter ratio and low aspect ratio and, thus, experience massive separation and the presence of secondary flow structures. These flow phenomena are undesirable as they lead to pressure losses and distortion at the Aerodynamic Interface Plane (AIP), where the engine face is located. It causes the engine to perform with a lower efficiency as it would with a straight duct diffuser. Different flow control techniques were studied on the short inlet duct, with the goal to reattach the flow and minimize the distortions at the AIP. Due to the complex interaction between the separation and the secondary flow structures, the necessity to understand the flow mechanisms, and how to control them at a more fundamental level, a new transonic diffuser with an upper ramp and a straight floor was designed and built. The objective of this project is to explore the effectiveness of different flow control techniques in a high subsonic (up to Mach 0.8) diffuser, so that the quasi two-dimensional separation and the formation of secondary flow structure can be isolated using a canonical flow field. Supported by Northrop Grumman.
A model for transonic plasma flow
Guazzotto, Luca; Hameiri, Eliezer
2014-02-15
A linear, two-dimensional model of a transonic plasma flow in equilibrium is constructed and given an explicit solution in the form of a complex Laplace integral. The solution indicates that the transonic state can be solved as an elliptic boundary value problem, as is done in the numerical code FLOW [Guazzotto et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 604 (2004)]. Moreover, the presence of a hyperbolic region does not necessarily imply the presence of a discontinuity or any other singularity of the solution.
Transonic disk accretion onto black holes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liang, E. P. T.; Thompson, K. A.
1980-01-01
The solution for the radial drift velocity of thin disk accretion onto black holes must be transonic, and is analogous to the critical solution in spherical Bondi accretion, except for the presence of angular momentum. The transonic requirement yields a correct treatment of the inner region of the disk not found in the conventional Keplerian models and may lead to significantly different overall disk structures. Possible observational consequences, relevant to the black hole hypothesis for Cyg X-1 and other candidates, are discussed.
Transonic analysis of canted winglets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rosen, B. S.
1984-01-01
A computational method developed to provide a transonic analysis for upper/lower surface wing-tip mounted winglets is described. Winglets with arbitrary planform, cant and toe angle, and airfoil section can be modeled. The embedded grid approach provides high flow field resolution and the required geometric flexibility. In particular, coupled Cartesian/cylindrical grid systems are used to model the complex geometry presented by canted upper/lower surface winglets. A new rotated difference scheme is introduced in order to maintain the stability of the small-disturbance formulation in the presence of large spanwise velocities. Wing and winglet viscous effects are modeled using a two-dimensional 'strip' boundary layer analysis. Correlations with wind tunnel and flight test data for three transport configurations are included.
Numerical simulations of unsteady transonic flow in diffusers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liou, M.-S.; Coakley, T. J.
1982-01-01
Forced and naturally occurring, self-sustaining oscillations of transonic flows in two-dimensional diffusers were computed using MacCormack's hybrid method. Depending upon the shock strengths and the area ratios, the flow was fully attached or separated by either the shock or the adverse pressure gradient associated with the enlarging diffuser area. In the case of forced oscillations, a sinusoidal plane pressure wave at frequency 300 Hz was prescribed at the exit. A sufficiently large amount of data were acquired and Fourier analyzed. The distrbutions of time-mean pressures, the power spectral density, and the amplitude with phase angle along the top wall and in the core region were determined. Comparison with experimental results for the forced oscillation generally gave very good agreement; some success was achieved for the case of self-sustaining oscillation despite substantial three-dimensionality in the test. An observation of the sequence of self-sustaining oscillations was given.
Numerical optimization design of advanced transonic wing configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cosentino, G. B.; Holst, T. L.
1985-01-01
A computationally efficient and versatile technique for use in the design of advanced transonic wing configurations has been developed. A reliable and fast transonic wing flow-field analysis program, TWING, has been coupled with a modified quasi-Newton method, unconstrained optimization algorithm, QNMDIF, to create a new design tool. Fully three-dimensional wing designs utilizing both specified wing pressure disributions and drag-to-lift ratio minimization as design objectives are demonstrated. Because of the high computational efficiency of each of the components of the design code, in particular the vectorization of TWING and the high speed of the Cray X-MP vector computer, the computer time required for a typical wing design is reduced by approximately an order of magnitude over previous methods. In the results presented here, this computed wave drag has been used as the quantity to be optimized (minimized) with great success, yielding wing designs with nearly shock-free (zero wave drag) pressure distributions and very reasonable wing section shapes.
Numerical optimization design of advanced transonic wing configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cosentino, G. B.; Holst, T. L.
1984-01-01
A computationally efficient and versatile technique for use in the design of advanced transonic wing configurations has been developed. A reliable and fast transonic wing flow-field analysis program, TWING, has been coupled with a modified quasi-Newton method, unconstrained optimization algorithm, QNMDIF, to create a new design tool. Fully three-dimensional wing designs utilizing both specified wing pressure distributions and drag-to-lift ration minimization as design objectives are demonstrated. Because of the high computational efficiency of each of the components of the design code, in particular the vectorization of TWING and the high speed of the Cray X-MP vector computer, the computer time required for a typical wing design is reduced by approximately an order of magnitude over previous methods. In the results presented here, this computed wave drag has been used as the quantity to be optimized (minimized) with great success, yielding wing designs with nearly shock-free (zero wave drag) pressure distributions and very reasonable wing section shapes.
Flow Disturbance Measurements in the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, Rudolph A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Melton, Latunia; Eppink, Jenna; Kegerise, Michael A.
2013-01-01
Recent flow measurements have been acquired in the National Transonic Facility to assess the test-section unsteady flow environment. The primary purpose of the test is to determine the feasibility of the facility to conduct laminar-flow-control testing and boundary-layer transition-sensitive testing at flight-relevant operating conditions throughout the transonic Mach number range. The facility can operate in two modes, warm and cryogenic test conditions for testing full and semispan-scaled models. Data were acquired for Mach and unit Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.2 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 0.95 and 3.3 Ã— 10(exp 6) less than Re/m less than 220Ã—10(exp 6) collectively at air and cryogenic conditions. Measurements were made in the test section using a survey rake that was populated with 19 probes. Roll polar data at selected conditions were obtained to look at the uniformity of the flow disturbance field in the test section. Data acquired included mean total temperatures, mean and fluctuating static/total pressures, and mean and fluctuating hot-wire measurements. This paper focuses primarily on the unsteady pressure and hot-wire results. Based on the current measurements and previous data, an assessment was made that the facility may be a suitable facility for ground-based demonstrations of laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant conditions in the cryogenic mode.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Seidel, B. S.; Matwey, M. D.; Adamczyk, J. J.
1980-01-01
In the present paper, a semi-actuator-disk theory is reviewed that was developed previously for the distorted inflow to a single-stage axial-flow compressor. Flow distortion occurs far upstream; it may be a distortion in stagnation temperature, stagnation pressure, or both. Losses, quasi-steady deviation angles, and reference incidence correlations are included in the analysis, and both subsonic and transonic relative Mach numbers are considered. The theory is compared with measurements made in a transonic fan stage, and a parameter study is carried out to determine the influence of solidity on the attenuation of distortions in stagnation pressure and stagnation temperature.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, F. T.; Samant, S. S.; Bieterman, M. B.; Melvin, R. G.; Young, D. P.; Bussoletti, J. E.; Hilmes, C. L.
1992-01-01
The TranAir computer program calculates transonic flow about arbitrary configurations at subsonic, transonic, and supersonic freestream Mach numbers. TranAir solves the nonlinear full potential equations subject to a variety of boundary conditions modeling wakes, inlets, exhausts, porous walls, and impermeable surfaces. Regions with different total temperature and pressure can be represented. The user's manual describes how to run the TranAir program and its graphical support programs.
3D CFD modeling of subsonic and transonic flowing-gas DPALs with different pumping geometries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yacoby, Eyal; Sadot, Oren; Barmashenko, Boris D.; Rosenwaks, Salman
2015-10-01
Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (3D CFD) modeling of subsonic (Mach number M ~ 0.2) and transonic (M ~ 0.9) diode pumped alkali lasers (DPALs), taking into account fluid dynamics and kinetic processes in the lasing medium is reported. The performance of these lasers is compared with that of supersonic (M ~ 2.7 for Cs and M ~ 2.4 for K) DPALs. The motivation for this study stems from the fact that subsonic and transonic DPALs require much simpler hardware than supersonic ones where supersonic nozzle, diffuser and high power mechanical pump (due to a drop in the gas total pressure in the nozzle) are required for continuous closed cycle operation. For Cs DPALs with 5 x 5 cm2 flow cross section pumped by large cross section (5 x 2 cm2) beam the maximum achievable power of supersonic devices is higher than that of the transonic and subsonic devices by only ~ 3% and ~ 10%, respectively. Thus in this case the supersonic operation mode has no substantial advantage over the transonic one. The main processes limiting the power of Cs supersonic DPALs are saturation of the D2 transition and large ~ 60% losses of alkali atoms due to ionization, whereas the influence of gas heating is negligible. For K transonic DPALs both the gas heating and ionization effects are shown to be unimportant. The maximum values of the power are higher than those in Cs transonic laser by ~ 11%. The power achieved in the supersonic and transonic K DPAL is higher than for the subsonic version, with the same resonator and K density at the inlet, by ~ 84% and ~ 27%, respectively, showing a considerable advantaged of the supersonic device over the transonic one. For pumping by rectangular beams of the same (5 x 2 cm2) cross section, comparison between end-pumping - where the laser beam and pump beam both propagate at along the same axis, and transverse-pumping - where they propagate perpendicularly to each other, shows that the output power and optical-to-optical efficiency are not
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, David T.; Hooker, John R.; Wick, Andrew; Plumley, Ryan W.; Zeune, Cale H.; Ol, Michael V.; DeMoss, Joshua A.
2017-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation of a 0.04-scale model of the Lockheed Martin Hybrid Wing Body (HWB) with Over Wing Nacelles (OWN) air mobility transport configuration was conducted in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center under a collaborative partnership between NASA, the Air Force Research Laboratory, and Lockheed Martin Aeronautics Company. The wind tunnel test sought to validate the transonic aerodynamic performance of the HWB and to validate the efficiency benefits of the OWN installation as compared to the traditional under-wing installation. The semispan HWB model was tested in a clean wing configuration and also tested with two different nacelles representative of a modern turbofan engine and a future advanced high bypass ratio engine. The nacelles were installed in three different locations with two over-wing positions and one under-wing position. Five-component force and moment data, surface static pressure data, and aeroelastic deformation data were acquired. For the cruise configuration, the model was tested in an angle-of-attack range between -2 and 10 degrees at free-stream Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.9 and at unit Reynolds numbers between 8 and 39 million per foot, achieving a maximum of 80% of flight Reynolds numbers across the Mach number range. The test results validated pretest computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations of the HWB performance including the OWN benefit and the results also exhibited excellent transonic drag data repeatability to within +/-1 drag count. This paper details the experimental setup and model overview, presents some sample data results, and describes the facility improvements that led to the success of the test.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mattson, Axel T.
1946-01-01
The results of tests made to determine the aerodynamic characteristics of a solid brake, a slotted brake, and a dive-recovery flap mounted on a high aspect ratio wing at high Mach numbers are presented. The data were obtained in the Langley 8-foot high-speed tunnel for corrected Mach numbers up to 0.940. The results have been analyzed with regard to the suitability of dive-control devices for a proposed high-speed airplane in limiting the airplane terminal Mach number by the use of dive brakes and in achieving favorable dive-recovery characteristics by the use of a dive-recovery flap. The analysis of the results indicated that the slotted brake would limit the proposed airplane terminal Mach number to values below 0.880 for altitudes up to 35,000 feet and a wing loading of 80 pounds per square foot and the dive-recovery flap would produce trim changes required for controlled pull-outs at 25,000 feet for a Mach number range from 0.800 to 0.900. Basic changes in spanwise loading are presented to aid in the evaluation of the wing strength requirements.
Computation of viscous transonic flow about a lifting airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walitt, L.; Liu, C. Y.
1976-01-01
The viscous transonic flow about a stationary body in free air was numerically investigated. The geometry chosen was a symmetric NACA 64A010 airfoil at a freestream Mach number of 0.8, a Reynolds number of 4 million based on chord, and angles of attack of 0 and 2 degrees. These conditions were such that, at 2 degrees incidence unsteady periodic motion was calculated along the aft portion of the airfoil and in its wake. Although no unsteady measurements were made for the NACA 64A010 airfoil at these flow conditions, interpolated steady measurements of lift, drag, and surface static pressures compared favorably with corresponding computed time-averaged lift, drag, and surface static pressures.
Formation of multiple shocklets in a transonic diffuser flow
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Handa, T.; Miyazato, Y.; Masuda, M.; Matsuo, K.
Multiple shocklets are frequently generated in transonic diffuser flows. The present paper investigates the formation of these shocklets with a high-speed CCD camera combined with the schlieren method. It is observed that compression waves steepen while propagating upstream, and eventually become new shock waves. The ordinary shock wave is found to move upstream beyond the nozzle throat or to disappear while moving downstream depending on the pressure ratio across the nozzle. This phenomenon is also analyzed with the one-dimensional Euler equations by assuming a pressure disturbance given by the sine function at the channel exit. The calculated results are found to reproduce quite well the experimental behavior of the shocklets. The effect of the frequency of disturbance is also studied numerically, and it is shown that the multiple shocklet pattern appears when the amplitude of disturbance is not large and the diverging part of the channel downstream of the ordinary shock wave is long.
Subsonic and transonic propeller noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewy, S.; Gounet, H.
Models for the noise levels from propellers are discussed, with results compared to in-flight measurements. Methods originally applied to noise from light aircraft are modified and extended to high speed passenger aircraft. Noise emitted from propellers has three components: a monopolar emission due to the air displaced by a blade; a bipolar form from average and fluctuating forces exerted by the blades; and a quadripolar component produced by deformation of the streamlines around the blade profile and defined by the Lighthill tensor. The latter is not a factor in the subsonic regime and can be neglected. Attention is given to a formalism which accounts for the sound level along each band, the frequency harmonics at each blade passage, the number of blades, and the rotation rate. The measured directivities of the two components are described. It is found that the radiated noise levels can be reduced in slow aircraft by lowering the peripheral velocity while keeping the same power with more blades. Calculations including the quadripolar term are necessary for modeling noise levels in transonic propellers.
Turbulence and modeling in transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rubesin, Morris W.; Viegas, John R.
1989-01-01
A review is made of the performance of a variety of turbulence models in the evaluation of a particular well documented transonic flow. This is done to supplement a previous attempt to calibrate and verify transonic airfoil codes by including many more turbulence models than used in the earlier work and applying the calculations to an experiment that did not suffer from uncertainties in angle of attack and was free of wind tunnel interference. It is found from this work, as well as in the earlier study, that the Johnson-King turbulence model is superior for transonic flows over simple aerodynamic surfaces, including moderate separation. It is also shown that some field equation models with wall function boundary conditions can be competitive with it.
Transonic aeroelasticity analysis for rotor blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, I-Chung; Gea, Lie-Mine
1989-01-01
A numerical method is presented for calculating the unsteady transonic rotor flow with aeroelasticity effects. The blade structural dynamic equations based on beam theory were formulated by FEM and were solved in the time domain, instead of the frequency domain. For different combinations of precone, droop, and pitch, the correlations are very good in the first three flapping modes and the first twisting mode. However, the predicted frequencies are too high for the first lagging mode at high rotational speeds. This new structure code has been coupled into a transonic rotor flow code, TFAR2, to demonstrate the capability of treating elastic blades in transonic rotor flow calculations. The flow fields for a model-scale rotor in both hover and forward flight are calculated. Results show that the blade elasticity significantly affects the flow characteristics in forward flight.
Transonic Tones and Excess Broadband Noise in Overexpanded Supersonic Jets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zaman, Khairul B. M. Q.
2009-01-01
Noise characteristics of convergent-divergent (C-D) nozzles in the overexpanded regime are the focus of this paper. The flow regime is encountered during takeoff and landing of certain airplanes and also with rocket nozzles in launch-pad environment. Experimental results from laboratory-scale single nozzles are discussed. The flow often undergoes a resonance accompanied by emission of tones (referred to as transonic tones). The phenomenon is different from the well-known screech tones. Unlike screech, the frequency increases with increasing supply pressure. There is a staging behavior odd harmonic stages occur at lower pressures while the fundamental occurs in a range of relatively higher pressures. A striking feature is that tripping of the nozzle s internal boundary layer tends to suppress the resonance. However, even in the absence of tones the broadband levels are found to be high. That is, relative to a convergent case and at same pressure ratio, the C-D nozzles are found to be noisier, often by more than 10dB. This excess broadband noise (referred to as EBBN) is further explored. Its characteristics are found to be different from the well-known broadband shockassociated noise ( BBSN ). For example, while the frequency of the BBSN peak varies with observation angle no such variation is noted with EBBN. The mechanisms of the transonic tone and the EBBN are not completely understood yet. They appear to be due to unsteady shock motion inside the nozzle. The shock drives the flow downstream like a vibrating diaphragm, and resonance takes place similarly as with acoustic resonance of a conical section having one end closed and the other end open. When the boundary layer is tripped, apparently a breakdown of azimuthal coherence suppresses the resonance. However, there is still unsteady shock motion albeit with superimposed randomness. Such random motion of the internal shock and its interaction with the separated boundary layer produces the EBBN.
Upgrades at the NASA Langley Research Center National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paryz, Roman W.
2012-01-01
Several projects have been completed or are nearing completion at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) National Transonic Facility (NTF). The addition of a Model Flow-Control/Propulsion Simulation test capability to the NTF provides a unique, transonic, high-Reynolds number test capability that is well suited for research in propulsion airframe integration studies, circulation control high-lift concepts, powered lift, and cruise separation flow control. A 1992 vintage Facility Automation System (FAS) that performs the control functions for tunnel pressure, temperature, Mach number, model position, safety interlock and supervisory controls was replaced using current, commercially available components. This FAS upgrade also involved a design study for the replacement of the facility Mach measurement system and the development of a software-based simulation model of NTF processes and control systems. The FAS upgrades were validated by a post upgrade verification wind tunnel test. The data acquisition system (DAS) upgrade project involves the design, purchase, build, integration, installation and verification of a new DAS by replacing several early 1990's vintage computer systems with state of the art hardware/software. This paper provides an update on the progress made in these efforts. See reference 1.
Transonic blade-vortex interactions noise: A parametric study
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lyrintzis, A. S.; Xue, Y.
1990-01-01
Transonic Blade-Vortex Interactions (BVI) are simulated numerically and the noise mechanisms are investigated. The 2-D high frequency transonic small disturbance equation is solved numerically (VTRAN2 code). An Alternating Direction Implicit (ADI) scheme with monotone switches is used; viscous effects are included on the boundary and the vortex is simulated by the cloud-in-cell method. The Kirchoff method is used for the extension of the numerical 2-D near field aerodynamic results to the linear acoustic 3-D far field. The viscous effect (shock/boundary layer interaction) on BVI is investigated. The different types of shock motion are identified and compared. Two important disturbances with different directivity exist in the pressure signal and are believed to be related to the fluctuating lift and drag forces. Noise directivity for different cases is shown. The maximum radiation occurs at an angle between 60 and 90 deg below the horizontal for an airfoil fixed coordinate system and depends on the details of the airfoil shape. Different airfoil shapes are studied and classified according to the BVI noise produced.
Viscous three-dimensional calculations of transonic fan performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chima, Rodrick V.
1991-01-01
A 3-D flow analysis code was used to compute the design speed operating line of a transonic fan rotor, and the results were compared with experimental data. The code is an explicit finite difference code with an algebraic turbulence model. The transonic fan, called rotor 67, was tested experimentally at NASA-Lewis with conventional aerodynamic probes and with user anemometry and was included as one of the AGARD test cases for the computation of internal flows. The experimental data are described. Maps of total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency versus mass flow were computed and are compared with the experimental maps, with good agreement. Detailed comparisons between calculations and experiment are made at two operating points, one near peak efficiency and the other near stall. Blade-to-blade contour plots are used to show the shock structure. Comparisons of circumferentially integrated flow quantities downstream of the rotor show spanwise distributions of several aerodynamic parameters. Calculated Mach number distributions are compared with laser anemometer data within the blade row and the wake to quantify the accuracy of the calculations. Particle traces are used to show the nature of secondary flow.
Viscous three-dimensional calculations of transonic fan performance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chima, Rodrick V.
1992-01-01
A 3-D flow analysis code was used to compute the design speed operating line of a transonic fan rotor, and the results were compared with experimental data. The code is an explicit finite difference code with an algebraic turbulence model. The transonic fan, called Rotor 67, was tested experimentally at NASA Lewis conventional aerodynamic probes and with user anemometry and was included as one of the AGARD test cases for the computation of internal flows. The experimental data are described. Maps of total pressure ratio and adiabatic efficiency vs mass flow were computed and are compared with the experimental maps, with good agreement. Detailed comparisons between calculations and experiment are made at two operating points, one near peak efficiency and the other near stall. Blade-to-blade contour plots are used to show the shock structure. Comparisons of circumferentially integrated flow quantities downstream of the rotor show spanwise distributions of several aerodynamic parameters. Calculated Mach number distributions are compared with laser anemometer data within the blade row and the wake to quantify the accuracy of the calculations. Particle traces are used to show the nature of secondary flow.
Aftbody Closure Effects on the Reference H Configuration at Subsonic and Transonic Speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wahls, Richard A.; Owens, Lewis R., Jr.; Londenberg, W. Kelly
1999-01-01
Experience with afterbody closure effects and accompanying test techniques issues on a High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT)-class configuration is described. An experimental data base has been developed which includes force, moment, and surface pressure data for the High Speed Research (HSR) Reference H configuration with a closed afterbody at subsonic and transonic speeds, and with a cylindrical afterbody at transonic and supersonic speeds. A supporting computational study has been performed using the USM3D unstructured Euler solver for the purposes of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method assessment and model support system interference assessment with a focus on lower blade mount effects on longitudinal data at transonic speeds. Test technique issues related to a lower blade sting mount strategy are described based on experience in the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The assessment and application of the USM3D code to the afterbody/sting interference problem is discussed. Finally, status and plans to address critical test technique issues and for continuation of the computational study are presented.
Force Measurement Improvements to the National Transonic Facility Sidewall Model Support System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Goodliff, Scott L.; Balakrishna, Sundareswara; Butler, David; Cagle, C. Mark; Chan, David; Jones, Gregory S.; Milholen, William E., II
2016-01-01
The National Transonic Facility is a transonic pressurized cryogenic facility. The development of the high Reynolds number semi-span capability has advanced over the years to include transonic active flow control and powered testing using the sidewall model support system. While this system can be used in total temperatures down to -250Ã‚ F for conventional unpowered configurations, it is limited to temperatures above -60Ã‚ F when used with powered models that require the use of the high-pressure air delivery system. Thermal instabilities and non-repeatable mechanical arrangements revealed several data quality shortfalls by the force and moment measurement system. Recent modifications to the balance cavity recirculation system have improved the temperature stability of the balance and metric model-to-balance hardware. Changes to the mechanical assembly of the high-pressure air delivery system, particularly hardware that interfaces directly with the model and balance, have improved the repeatability of the force and moment measurement system. Drag comparisons with the high-pressure air system removed will also be presented in this paper.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hilburger, Mark W.; Waters, W. Allen, Jr.; Haynie, Waddy T.
2015-01-01
Results from the testing of cylinder test article SBKF-P2-CYLTA01 (referred to herein as TA01) are presented. The testing was conducted at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), November 19?21, 2008, in support of the Shell Buckling Knockdown Factor (SBKF) Project.i The test was used to verify the performance of a newly constructed buckling test facility at MSFC and to verify the test article design and analysis approach used by the SBKF project researchers. TA01 is an 8-foot-diameter (96-inches), 78.0-inch long, aluminum-lithium (Al-Li), orthogrid-stiffened cylindrical shell similar to those used in current state-of-the-art launch vehicle structures and was designed to exhibit global buckling when subjected to compression loads. Five different load sequences were applied to TA01 during testing and included four sub-critical load sequences, i.e., loading conditions that did not cause buckling or material failure, and one final load sequence to buckling and collapse. The sub-critical load sequences consisted of either uniform axial compression loading or combined axial compression and bending and the final load sequence subjected TA01 to uniform axial compression. Traditional displacement transducers and strain gages were used to monitor the test article response at nearly 300 locations and an advanced digital image correlation system was used to obtain low-speed and high-speed full-field displacement measurements of the outer surface of the test article. Overall, the test facility and test article performed as designed. In particular, the test facility successfully applied all desired load combinations to the test article and was able to test safely into the postbuckling range of loading, and the test article failed by global buckling. In addition, the test results correlated well with initial pretest predictions.
Static Aeroelastic Analysis of Transonic Wind Tunnel Models Using Finite Element Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hooker, John R.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Valla, Robert
1997-01-01
A computational method for accurately predicting the static aeroelastic deformations of typical transonic transport wind tunnel models is described. The method utilizes a finite element method (FEM) for predicting the deformations. Extensive calibration/validation of this method was carried out using a novel wind-off wind tunnel model static loading experiment and wind-on optical wing twist measurements obtained during a recent wind tunnel test in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) at NASA LaRC. Further validations were carried out using a Navier-Stokes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) flow solver to calculate wing pressure distributions about several aeroelastically deformed wings and comparing these predictions with NTF experimental data. Results from this aeroelastic deformation method are in good overall agreement with experimentally measured values. Including the predicted deformations significantly improves the correlation between CFD predicted and experimentally measured wing & pressures.
Resonance Effects in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lepicovsky, J.; Capece, V. R.; Ford, C. T.
2003-01-01
Investigations of unsteady pressure loadings on the blades of fans operating near the stall flutter boundary are carried out under simulated conditions in the NASA Transonic Flutter Cascade facility (TFC). It has been observed that for inlet Mach numbers of about 0.8, the cascade flowfield exhibits intense low-frequency pressure oscillations. The origins of these oscillations were not clear. It was speculated that this behavior was either caused by instabilities in the blade separated flow zone or that it was a tunnel resonance phenomenon. It has now been determined that the strong low-frequency oscillations, observed in the TFC facility, are not a cascade phenomenon contributing to blade flutter, but that they are solely caused by the tunnel resonance characteristics. Most likely, the self-induced oscillations originate in the system of exit duct resonators. For sure, the self-induced oscillations can be significantly suppressed for a narrow range of inlet Mach numbers by tuning one of the resonators. A considerable amount of flutter simulation data has been acquired in this facility to date, and therefore it is of interest to know how much this tunnel self-induced flow oscillation influences the experimental data at high subsonic Mach numbers since this facility is being used to simulate flutter in transonic fans. In short, can this body of experimental data still be used reliably to verify computer codes for blade flutter and blade life predictions? To answer this question a study on resonance effects in the NASA TFC facility was carried out. The results, based on spectral and ensemble averaging analysis of the cascade data, showed that the interaction between self-induced oscillations and forced blade motion oscillations is very weak and can generally be neglected. The forced motion data acquired with the mistuned tunnel, when strong self-induced oscillations were present, can be used as reliable forced pressure fluctuations provided that they are extracted
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bonhaus, Daryl L.; Wornom, Stephen F.
1991-01-01
Two codes which solve the 3-D Thin Layer Navier-Stokes (TLNS) equations are used to compute the steady state flow for two test cases representing typical finite wings at transonic conditions. Several grids of C-O topology and varying point densities are used to determine the effects of grid refinement. After a description of each code and test case, standards for determining code efficiency and accuracy are defined and applied to determine the relative performance of the two codes in predicting turbulent transonic wing flows. Comparisons of computed surface pressure distributions with experimental data are made.
Performance characteristics of an isolated coannular plug nozzle at transonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mercer, C. E.; Burley, J. R., II
1985-01-01
The Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel was used to evaluate the performance characteristics of a coannular plug nozzle at static conditions (Mach number of 0) and at Mach numbers from 0.65 to 1.20. Jet total pressure ratio was varied from 1.0 (jet off) to 10.0. Thirty-seven configurations generated by the combination of three geometric variables - plug angle, shroud boattail length (fixed exit radius), and shroud extension length - were tested.
Data reduction formulas for the 16-foot transonic tunnel: NASA Langley Research Center, revision 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mercer, Charles E.; Berrier, Bobby L.; Capone, Francis J.; Grayston, Alan M.
1992-01-01
The equations used by the 16-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel in the data reduction programs are presented in nine modules. Each module consists of equations necessary to achieve a specific purpose. These modules are categorized in the following groups: (1) tunnel parameters; (2) jet exhaust measurements; (3) skin friction drag; (4) balance loads and model attitudes calculations; (5) internal drag (or exit-flow distribution); (6) pressure coefficients and integrated forces; (7) thrust removal options; (8) turboprop options; and (9) inlet distortion.
Unsteady effects of a control surface in two dimensional subsonic and transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Grenon, R.; Desopper, A.; Sides, J.
1980-01-01
The experimental results of steady and unsteady pressure measurements, carried out in subsonic and transonic flow on a 16 percent relative thickness supercritical aerofoil, equipped with a trailing edge flap involving 25 percent of the chord, in a sinusoidal motion are given. These experimental results are compared with those obtained by various methods of steady and unsteady inviscid flow calculations. Some calculation results in which viscous effects have been taken into account, for both steady and unsteady flows, are also presented.
Constraints for transonic black hole accretion
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abramowicz, Marek A.; Kato, Shoji
1989-01-01
Regularity conditions and global topological constraints leave some forbidden regions in the parameter space of the transonic isothermal, rotating matter onto black holes. Unstable flows occupy regions touching the boundaries of the forbidden regions. The astrophysical consequences of these results are discussed.
Status of the National Transonic Facility Characterization
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bobbitt, C., Jr.; Everhart, J.
2001-01-01
This paper describes the current activities at the National Transonic Facility to document the test-section flow and to support tunnel improvements. The paper is divided into sections on the tunnel calibration, flow quality measurements, data quality assurance, and implementation of wall interference corrections.
Video model deformation system for the National Transonic Facility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.
1983-08-01
A photogrammetric closed circuit television system to measure model deformation at the National Transonic Facility is described. The photogrammetric approach was chosen because of its inherent rapid data recording of the entire object field. Video cameras are used to acquire data instead of film cameras due to the inaccessibility of cameras which must be housed within the cryogenic, high pressure plenum of this facility. A rudimentary theory section is followed by a description of the video-based system and control measures required to protect cameras from the hostile environment. Preliminary results obtained with the same camera placement as planned for NTF are presented and plans for facility testing with a specially designed test wing are discussed.
Inlet flow field investigation. Part 1: Transonic flow field survey
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yetter, J. A.; Salemann, V.; Sussman, M. B.
1984-01-01
A wind tunnel investigation was conducted to determine the local inlet flow field characteristics of an advanced tactical supersonic cruise airplane. A data base for the development and validation of analytical codes directed at the analysis of inlet flow fields for advanced supersonic airplanes was established. Testing was conducted at the NASA-Langley 16-foot Transonic Tunnel at freestream Mach numbers of 0.6 to 1.20 and angles of attack from 0.0 to 10.0 degrees. Inlet flow field surveys were made at locations representative of wing (upper and lower surface) and forebody mounted inlet concepts. Results are presented in the form of local inlet flow field angle of attack, sideflow angle, and Mach number contours. Wing surface pressure distributions supplement the flow field data.
X-29 High Alpha Test in the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Underwood, Pamela J.; Owens, Lewis R.; Wahls, Richard A.; Williams, Susan
2003-01-01
This paper describes the X-29A research program at the National Transonic Facility. This wind tunnel test leveraged the X-29A high alpha flight test program by enabling ground-to-flight correlation studies with an emphasis on Reynolds number effects. The background and objectives of this test program, as well as the comparison of high Reynolds number wind tunnel data to X-29A flight test data are presented. The effects of Reynolds number on the forebody pressures at high angles of attack are also presented. The purpose of this paper is to document this test and serve as a reference for future ground-to-flight correlation studies, and high angle-of-attack investigations. Good ground-to-flight correlations were observed for angles of attack up to 50 deg, and Reynolds number effects were also observed.
Viscous effect on airfoils for unsteady transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, S. C.
1982-01-01
The viscous effect on aerodynamic performance of an arbitrary airfoil executing low frequency maneuvers during transonic flight was investigated. The small disturbance code, LTRAN2, was modified by using a conventional integral method, BLAYER, for the boundary layer and an empirical relation, viscous wedge, for simulating the suddenly thickened boundary layer behind the shock. Before the shock, only the boundary layer displacement thickness was evaluated. After the shock, the empirical wedge thickness was superimposed on the boundary layer thickness along the surface as well as in the wake region. The pressure coefficients were calculated for both steady and unsteady states. The viscous solution takes fewer iterations to obtain the converged steady state solution. Comparisons made with experimental data and the inviscid solution show that the viscous solution agrees better with the experimental data with about the same (or slightly less) amount of computational time.
Video model deformation system for the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.
1983-01-01
A photogrammetric closed circuit television system to measure model deformation at the National Transonic Facility is described. The photogrammetric approach was chosen because of its inherent rapid data recording of the entire object field. Video cameras are used to acquire data instead of film cameras due to the inaccessibility of cameras which must be housed within the cryogenic, high pressure plenum of this facility. A rudimentary theory section is followed by a description of the video-based system and control measures required to protect cameras from the hostile environment. Preliminary results obtained with the same camera placement as planned for NTF are presented and plans for facility testing with a specially designed test wing are discussed.
Investigating the Transonic Flutter Boundary of the Benchmark Supercritical Wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heeg, Jennifer; Chwalowski, Pawel
2017-01-01
This paper builds on the computational aeroelastic results published previously and generated in support of the second Aeroelastic Prediction Workshop for the NASA Benchmark Supercritical Wing configuration. The computational results are obtained using FUN3D, an unstructured grid Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes solver developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. The analysis results focus on understanding the dip in the transonic flutter boundary at a single Mach number (0.74), exploring an angle of attack range of ??1 to 8 and dynamic pressures from wind off to beyond flutter onset. The rigid analysis results are examined for insights into the behavior of the aeroelastic system. Both static and dynamic aeroelastic simulation results are also examined.
A solution to water vapor in the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gloss, Blair B.; Bruce, Robert A.
1989-01-01
As cryogenic wind tunnels are utilized, problems associated with the low temperature environment are being discovered and solved. Recently, water vapor contamination was discovered in the National Transonic Facility, and the source was shown to be the internal insulation which is a closed-cell polyisocyanurate foam. After an extensive study of the absorptivity characteristics of the NTF thermal insulation, the most practical solution to the problem was shown to be the maintaining of a dry environment in the circuit at all times. Utilizing a high aspect ratio transport model, it was shown that the moisture contamination effects on the supercritical wing pressure distributions were within the accuracy of setting test conditions and as such were considered negligible for this model.
A linear aerodynamic analysis for unsteady transonic cascades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verdon, J. M.; Caspar, J. R.
1984-01-01
A potential flow analysis to predict unsteady airloads produced by the vibrations of turbomachinery blades operating at transonic Mach numbers is presented. The unsteady aerodynamic model includes the effects of blade geometry, finite mean pressure variation across the blade row, high frequency blade motion, and shock motion within the framework of a linearized, frequency domain formulation. The unsteady equations are solved implicit, least squares, finite difference approximation which is applicable on arbitrary grids. A numerical solution for the entire unsteady field is determined by matching a solution determined on a rectilinear type cascade mesh, which covers an extended blade passage region, to a solution determined on a detailed polar type local mesh, which covers and extends well beyond the supersonic region(s) adjacent to a blade surface. Cascades of double circular arc and flat plate blades demonstrate the unsteady analysis, and partially illustrate the effects of blade geometry, inlet Mach number, blade vibration frequency and shock motion on unsteady response.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1973-01-01
A study has been made of possible ways to improve the performance of the Langley Research Center's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The major effort was directed toward obtaining increased dynamic pressure in the Mach number range from 0.8 to 1.2, but methods to increase Mach number capability were also considered. Methods studied for increasing dynamic pressure capability were higher total pressure, auxiliary suction, reducing circuit losses, reduced test medium temperature, smaller test section and higher molecular weight test medium. Increased Mach number methods investigated were nozzle block inserts, variable geometry nozzle, changes in test section wall configuration, and auxiliary suction.
SWIFT Code Assessment for Two Similar Transonic Compressors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chima, Rodrick V.
2009-01-01
One goal of the NASA Fundamental Aeronautics Program is the assessment of computational fluid dynamic (CFD) codes used for the design and analysis of many aerospace systems. This paper describes the assessment of the SWIFT turbomachinery analysis code for two similar transonic compressors, NASA rotor 37 and stage 35. The two rotors have identical blade profiles on the front, transonic half of the blade but rotor 37 has more camber aft of the shock. Thus the two rotors have the same shock structure and choking flow but rotor 37 produces a higher pressure ratio. The two compressors and experimental data are described here briefly. Rotor 37 was also used for test cases organized by ASME, IGTI, and AGARD in 1994-1998. Most of the participating codes over predicted pressure and temperature ratios, and failed to predict certain features of the downstream flowfield. Since then the AUSM+ upwind scheme and the k- turbulence model have been added to SWIFT. In this work the new capabilities were assessed for the two compressors. Comparisons were made with overall performance maps and spanwise profiles of several aerodynamic parameters. The results for rotor 37 were in much better agreement with the experimental data than the original blind test case results although there were still some discrepancies. The results for stage 35 were in very good agreement with the data. The results for rotor 37 were very sensitive to turbulence model parameters but the results for stage 35 were not. Comparison of the rotor solutions showed that the main difference between the two rotors was not blade camber as expected, but shock/boundary layer interaction on the casing.
Investigation of Unsteady Flow Behavior in Transonic Compressor Rotors with LES and PIV Measurements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hah, Chunill; Voges, Melanie; Mueller, Martin; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter
2009-01-01
In the present study, unsteady flow behavior in a modern transonic axial compressor rotor is studied in detail with large eddy simulation (LES) and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The main purpose of the study is to advance the current understanding of the flow field near the blade tip in an axial transonic compressor rotor near the stall and peak-efficiency conditions. Flow interaction between the tip leakage vortex and the passage shock is inherently unsteady in a transonic compressor. Casing-mounted unsteady pressure transducers have been widely applied to investigate steady and unsteady flow behavior near the casing. Although many aspects of flow have been revealed, flow structures below the casing cannot be studied with casing-mounted pressure transducers. In the present study, unsteady velocity fields are measured with a PIV system and the measured unsteady flow fields are compared with LES simulations. The currently applied PIV measurements indicate that the flow near the tip region is not steady even at the design condition. This self-induced unsteadiness increases significantly as the compressor rotor operates near the stall condition. Measured data from PIV show that the tip clearance vortex oscillates substantially near stall. The calculated unsteady characteristics of the flow from LES agree well with the PIV measurements. Calculated unsteady flow fields show that the formation of the tip clearance vortex is intermittent and the concept of vortex breakdown from steady flow analysis does not seem to apply in the current flow field. Fluid with low momentum near the pressure side of the blade close to the leading edge periodically spills over into the adjacent blade passage. The present study indicates that stall inception is heavily dependent on unsteady behavior of the flow field near the leading edge of the blade tip section for the present transonic compressor rotor.
On slender-body theory at transonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harder, Keith C; Klunker, E B
1957-01-01
The basic ideas of the slender-body approximation have been applied to the nonlinear transonic-flow equation for the velocity potential in order to obtain some of the essential features of slender-body theory at transonic speeds. The results of the investigation are presented from a unified point of view which demonstrates the similarity of slender-body solutions in the various Mach number ranges. The transonic area rule and some conditions concerning its validity follow from the analysis. (author)
Transonic Symposium: Theory, Application, and Experiment, volume 1, part 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foughner, Jerome T., Jr. (Compiler)
1989-01-01
In order to assess the state of the art in transonic flow disciplines and to glimpse at future directions, NASA-Langley held a Transonic Symposium. Emphasis was placed on steady, three dimensional external, transonic flow and its simulation, both numerically and experimentally. The symposium included technical sessions on wind tunnel and flight experiments; computational fluid dynamic applications; inviscid methods and grid generation; viscous methods and boundary layer stability; and wind tunnel techniques and wall interference. This, being volume 1, is unclassified.
Transonic Symposium: Theory, Application and Experiment, volume 2
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foughner, Jerome T., Jr. (Compiler)
1989-01-01
Papers presented at the Transonic Symposium are compiled. The following subject areas are covered: National Transonic Facility status; transonic aerodynamics of slender wing-body configuration; laminar flow flight experiments; laminar flow wind tunnel experiments; computational support of X-29A flight experiment; transition location on a clean-up glove installed on a F-14 aircraft; and design studies for a laminar glove for the X-29 aircraft.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, S. W. D.
1978-01-01
Work was continued with the low speed self streamlining wind tunnel (SSWT) using the NACA 0012-64 airfoil in an effort to explain the discrepancies between the NASA Langley low turbulence pressure tunnel (LTPT) and SSWT results obtained with the airfoil stalled. Conventional wind tunnel corrections were applied to straight wall SSWT airfoil data, to illustrate the inadequacy of standard correction techniques in circumstances of high blockage. Also one SSWT test was re-run at different air speeds to investigate the effects of such changes (perhaps through changes in Reynold's number and freestream turbulence levels) on airfoil data and wall contours. Mechanical design analyses for the transonic self-streamlining wind tunnel (TSWT) were completed by the application of theoretical airfoil flow field data to the elastic beam and streamline analysis. The control system for the transonic facility, which will eventually allow on-line computer operation of the wind tunnel, was outlined.
The application of CFD for military aircraft design at transonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, C. W.; Braymen, W. W.; Bhateley, I. C.; Londenberg, W. K.
1989-01-01
Numerous computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes are available that solve any of several variations of the transonic flow equations from small disturbance to full Navier-Stokes. The design philosophy at General Dynamics Fort Worth Division involves use of all these levels of codes, depending on the stage of configuration development. Throughout this process, drag calculation is a central issue. An overview is provided for several transonic codes and representative test-to-theory comparisons for fighter-type configurations are presented. Correlations are shown for lift, drag, pitching moment, and pressure distributions. The future of applied CFD is also discussed, including the important task of code validation. With the progress being made in code development and the continued evolution in computer hardware, the routine application of these codes for increasingly more complex geometries and flow conditions seems apparent.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, S. W. D.
1977-01-01
Work has continued with the low speed self streamlining wind tunnel (SSWT) using the NACA 0012-64 airfoil in an effort to explain the discrepancies between the NASA Langley low turbulence pressure tunnel (LTPT) and SSWT results obtained with the airfoil stalled. Conventional wind tunnel corrections were applied to straight wall SSWT airfoil data, to illustrate the inadequacy of standard correction techniques in circumstances of high blockage. Also one SSWT test was re-run at different air speeds to investigate the effects of such changes on airfoil data and wall contours. Mechanical design analyses for the transonic self streamlining wind tunnel (TSWT) were completed by the application of theoretical airfoil flow field data to the elastic beam and streamline analysis. The control system for the transonic facility is outlined.
Application of shock tubes to transonic airfoil testing at high Reynolds numbers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cook, W. J.; Chaney, M. J.; Presley, L. L.; Chapman, G. T.
1978-01-01
Performance analysis of a gas-driven shock tube shows that transonic airfoil flows with chord Reynolds numbers of the order of 100 million can be produced, with limitations being imposed by the structural integrity of the facility or the model. A study of flow development over a simple circular arc airfoil at zero angle of attack was carried out in a shock tube at low and intermediate Reynolds numbers to assess the testing technique. Results obtained from schlieren photography and airfoil pressure measurements show that steady transonic flows similar to those produced for the same airfoil in a wind tunnel can be generated within the available testing time in a shock tube with properly contoured test section walls.
Calculation of three-dimensional unsteady transonic flows past helicopter blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chattot, J. J.
1980-01-01
A finite difference code for predicting the high speed flow over the advancing helicopter rotor is presented. The code solves the low frequency, transonic small disturbance equation and is suitable for modeling the effects of advancing blade unsteadiness on blades of nearly arbitrary planform. The method employs a quasi-conservative mixed differencing scheme and solves the resulting difference equations by an alternating direction scheme. Computed results showed good agreement with experimental blade pressure data and illustrate some of the effects of varying the rotor planform. The flow unsteadiness is shown to be an indispensible part of a transonic solution. Close to the tip at high advance ratio, cross flow effects can significantly affect the solution.
TWINTAN: A program for transonic wall interference assessment in two-dimensional wind tunnels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kemp, W. B., Jr.
1980-01-01
A method for assessing the wall interference in transonic two dimensional wind tunnel test was developed and implemented in a computer program. The method involves three successive solutions of the transonic small disturbance potential equation to define the wind tunnel flow, the perturbation attriburable to the model, and the equivalent free air flow around the model. Input includes pressure distributions on the model and along the top and bottom tunnel walls which are used as boundary conditions for the wind tunnel flow. The wall induced perturbation fields is determined as the difference between the perturbation in the tunnel flow solution and the perturbation attributable to the model. The methodology used in the program is described and detailed descriptions of the computer program input and output are presented. Input and output for a sample case are given.
High-Tip-Speed, Low-Loading Transonic Fan Stage. Part 1: Aerodynamic and Mechanical Design
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wright, L. C.; Vitale, N. G.; Ware, T. C.; Erwin, J. R.
1973-01-01
A high-tip-speed, low-loading transonic fan stage was designed to deliver an overall pressure ratio of 1.5 with an adiabatic efficiency of 86 percent. The design flow per unit annulus area is 42.0 pounds per square foot. The fan features a hub/tip ratio of 0.46, a tip diameter of 28.74 in. and operates at a design tip speed of 1600 fps. For these design conditions, the rotor blade tip region operates with supersonic inlet and supersonic discharge relative velocities. A sophisticated quasi-three-dimensional characteristic section design procedure was used for the all-supersonic sections and the inlet of the midspan transonic sections. For regions where the relative outlet velocities are supersonic, the blade operates with weak oblique shocks only.
Boundary-layer measurements on a transonic low-aspect ratio wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Keener, Earl R.
1985-01-01
Tabulations and plots are presented of boundary-layer velocity and flow-direction surveys from wind-tunnel tests of a large-scale (0.90 m semi-span) model of the NASA/Lockheed Wing C. This wing is a generic, transonic, supercritical, highly three-dimensional, low-aspect-ratio configuration designed with the use of a three-dimensional, transonic full-potential-flow wing code (FLO22). Tests were conducted at the design angle of attack of 5 deg over a Mach number range from 0.25 to 0.96 and a Reynolds number range of 3.4x10 to the 6th power. Wing pressures were measured at five span stations, and boundary-layer surveys were measured at the midspan station. The data are presented without analysis.
Three-dimensional, transonic rotor flow field reconstructed from holographic interferogram data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kittleson, J. K.; Yu, Y. H.; Becker, F.
1985-01-01
Holographic interferometry and computer-assisted tomography (CAT) are used to determine the transonic flow field of a model rotor blade in hover. A pulsed ruby laser records 40 interferograms with a 61 cm-diam view field near the model rotor-blade tip operating at a tip Mach number of 0.90. After digitizing the interferograms and extracting fringe-order functions, the data are transferred to a CAT code. The CAT code then calculates pressure coefficients in several planes above the blade surface. The values from the holography-CAT method compare favorably with previously obtained numerical computations and laser velocimeter measurements at most locations near the blade tip. The results demonstrate the technique's potential for three-dimensional transonic rotor flow studies.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montoya, L. C.; Flechner, S. G.; Jacobs, P. F.
1977-01-01
Pressure and spanwise load distributions on a first-generation jet transport semispan model at high subsonic speeds are presented for the basic wing and for configurations with an upper winglet only, upper and lower winglets, and a simple wing-tip extension. Selected data are discussed to show the general trends and effects of the various configurations.
Kuechemann Carrots for transonic drag reduction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bechert, D. W.; Hage, W.; Stanewsky, E.
1999-11-01
Wave drag reduction bodies on the suction side of transonic wings are investigated. Following the original invention by O. Frenzl (1942), subsequently, such bodies have been suggested by Kuechemann and Whitcomb. These devices have been used sucessfully on various TUPOLEV aircraft and on the CONVAIR 990 airliner. New transonic wind tunnel data from an unswept wing with an array of Kuechemann Carrots are presented (airfoil: CAST 10/DOA-2). In a certain parameter range (M= 0.765-0.86) the measurements exhibit a significant reduction of the shock strength on a wing between the Kuechemann Carrots. This entails a dramatic reduction of drag, in a certain Mach number and angular regime up to 50-60%.
Transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Doig, G.
2014-08-01
A review of recent and historical work in the field of transonic and supersonic ground effect aerodynamics has been conducted, focussing on applied research on wings and aircraft, present and future ground transportation, projectiles, rocket sleds and other related bodies which travel in close ground proximity in the compressible regime. Methods for ground testing are described and evaluated, noting that wind tunnel testing is best performed with a symmetry model in the absence of a moving ground; sled or rail testing is ultimately preferable, though considerably more expensive. Findings are reported on shock-related ground influence on aerodynamic forces and moments in and accelerating through the transonic regime - where force reversals and the early onset of local supersonic flow is prevalent - as well as more predictable behaviours in fully supersonic to hypersonic ground effect flows.
Buffet test in the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Hergert, Dennis W.; Butler, Thomas W.; Herring, Fred M.
1992-01-01
A buffet test of a commercial transport model was accomplished in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. This aeroelastic test was unprecedented for this wind tunnel and posed a high risk to the facility. This paper presents the test results from a structural dynamics and aeroelastic response point of view and describes the activities required for the safety analysis and risk assessment. The test was conducted in the same manner as a flutter test and employed onboard dynamic instrumentation, real time dynamic data monitoring, automatic, and manual tunnel interlock systems for protecting the model. The procedures and test techniques employed for this test are expected to serve as the basis for future aeroelastic testing in the National Transonic Facility. This test program was a cooperative effort between the Boeing Commercial Airplane Company and the NASA Langley Research Center.
Analysis of a theoretically optimized transonic airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lores, M. E.; Burdges, K. P.; Shrewsbury, G. D.
1978-01-01
Numerical optimization was used in conjunction with an inviscid, full potential equation, transonic flow analysis computer code to design an upper surface contour for a conventional airfoil to improve its supercritical performance. The modified airfoil was tested in a compressible flow wind tunnel. The modified airfoil's performance was evaluated by comparison with test data for the baseline airfoil and for an airfoil developed by optimization of leading edge of the baseline airfoil. While the leading edge modification performed as expected, the upper surface re-design did not produce all of the expected performance improvements. Theoretical solutions computed using a full potential, transonic airfoil code corrected for viscosity were compared to experimental data for the baseline airfoil and the upper surface modification. These correlations showed that the theory predicted the aerodynamics of the baseline airfoil fairly well, but failed to accurately compute drag characteristics for the upper surface modification.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tyson, R. W.; Muraca, R. J.
1975-01-01
The local linearization method for axisymmetric flow is combined with the transonic equivalence rule to calculate pressure distribution on slender bodies at free-stream Mach numbers from .8 to 1.2. This is an approximate solution to the transonic flow problem which yields results applicable during the preliminary design stages of a configuration development. The method can be used to determine the aerodynamic loads on parabolic arc bodies having either circular or elliptical cross sections. It is particularly useful in predicting pressure distributions and normal force distributions along the body at small angles of attack. The equations discussed may be extended to include wing-body combinations.
Recent Enhancements to the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kilgore, W. A.; Balakrishna, S.; Bobbitt, C. W.; Underwood, P.
2003-01-01
The National Transonic Facility continues to make enhancements to provide quality data in a safe, efficient and cost effective method for aerodynamic ground testing. Recent enhancements discussed in this paper include the restoration of reliability and improved performance of the heat exchanger systems resulting in the expansion of the NTF air operations envelope. Additionally, results are presented from a continued effort to reduce model dynamics through the use of a new stiffer balance and sting.
Recent Enhancements to the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kilgore, W. A.; Balakrishna, S.; Bobbitt, C. W.; Underwood, P.
2003-01-01
The National Transonic Facility continues to make enhancements to provide quality data in a safe, efficient and cost effective method for aerodynamic ground testing. Recent enhancements discussed in this paper include the restoration of reliability and improved performance of the heat exchanger systems resulting in the expansion of the NTF air operations envelope. Additionally, results are presented from a continued effort to reduce model dynamics through the use of a new stiffer balance and sting
Transonic airfoil and axial flow rotary machine
Nagai, Naonori; Iwatani, Junji
2015-09-01
Sectional profiles close to a tip 124 and a part between a midportion 125 and a hub 123 are shifted to the upstream of an operating fluid flow in a sweep direction. Accordingly, an S shape is formed in which the tip 124 and the part between the midportion 125 and the hub 123 protrude. As a result, it is possible reduce various losses due to shook, waves, thereby forming a transonic airfoil having an excellent aerodynamic characteristic.
Transonic Cascade Measurements to Support Analytical Modeling
2007-11-02
RECEIVED JUL 0 12005 FINAL REPORT FOR: AFOSR GRANT F49260-02-1-0284 TRANSONIC CASCADE MEASUREMENTS TO SUPPORT ANALYTICAL MODELING Paul A. Durbin ...PAD); 650-723-1971 (JKE) durbin @vk.stanford.edu; eaton@vk.stanford.edu submitted to: Attn: Dr. John Schmisseur Air Force Office of Scientific Research...both spline and control points for subsequent wall shape definitions. An algebraic grid generator was used to generate the grid for the blade-wall
50 years of transonic aircraft design
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jameson, Antony; Ou, Kui
2011-07-01
This article traces the evolution of long range jet transport aircraft over the 50 years since Kuechemann founded the journal Progress in Aerospace Sciences. The article is particularly focused on transonic aerodynamics. During Kuechemann's life time a good qualitative understanding had been achieved of transonic flow and swept wing design, but transonic flow remained intractable to quantitative prediction. During the last 50 years this situation has been completely transformed by the introduction of sophisticated numerical algorithms and an astonishing increase in the available computational power, with the consequence that aerodynamic design is now carried out largely by computer simulation. Moreover developments in aerodynamic shape optimization based on control theory enable a competitive swept wing to be designed in just two simulations, as illustrated in the article. While the external appearance of long range jet aircraft has not changed much, advances in information technology have actually transformed the entire design and manufacturing process through parallel advances in computer aided design (CAD), computational structural mechanics (CSM) and multidisciplinary optimization (MDO). They have also transformed aircraft operations through the adoption of digital fly-by-wire and advanced navigational techniques.
Unsteady design-point flow phenomena in transonic compressors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gertz, J. B.; Epstein, A. H.
1986-01-01
High-frequency response probes which had previously been used exclusively in the MIT Blowndown Facility were successfully employed in two conventional steady state axial flow compressor facilities to investigate the unsteady flowfields of highly loaded transonic compressors at design point operation. Laser anemometry measurements taken simultaneously with the high response data were also analyzed. The time averaged high response data of static and total pressure agreed quite well with the conventional steady state instrumentation except for flow angle which showed a large spread in values at all radii regardless of the type of instrumentation used. In addition, the time resolved measurements confirmed earlier test results obtained in the MIT Blowdown Facility for the same compressor. The results of these tests have further revealed that the flowfields of highly loaded transonic compressors are heavily influenced by unsteady flow phenomena. The high response measurements exhibited large variations in the blade to blade flow and in the blade passage flow. The observed unsteadiness in the blade wakes is explained in terms of the rotor blades' shed vorticity in periodic vortex streets. The wakes were modeled as two-dimensional vortex streets with finite size cores. The model fit the data quite well as it was able to reproduce the average wake shape and bi-modal probability density distributions seen in the laser anemometry data. The presence of vortex streets in the blade wakes also explains the large blade to blade fluctuations seen by the high response probes which is simply due to the intermittent sampling of the vortex street as it is swept past a stationary probe.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Manro, M. E.; Manning, K. J. R.; Hallstaff, T. H.; Rogers, J. T.
1975-01-01
A wind tunnel test of an arrow-wing-body configuration consisting of flat and twisted wings, as well as a variety of leading- and trailing-edge control surface deflections, was conducted at Mach numbers from 0.4 to 1.1 to provide an experimental pressure data base for comparison with theoretical methods. Theory-to-experiment comparisons of detailed pressure distributions were made using current state-of-the-art attached and separated flow methods. The purpose of these comparisons was to delineate conditions under which these theories are valid for both flat and twisted wings and to explore the use of empirical methods to correct the theoretical methods where theory is deficient.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Montoya, L. C.; Jacobs, P. F.; Flechner, S. G.
1977-01-01
Pressure and spanwise load distributions on a first-generation jet transport semispan model at a Mach number of 0.30 are given for the basic wing and for configurations with an upper winglet only, upper and lower winglets, and a simple wing-tip extension. To simulate second-segment-climb lift conditions, leading- and/or trailing-edge flaps were added to some configurations.
Performance of tandem-bladed transonic compressor rotor with tip speed of 1375 feet per second
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Urasek, D. C.; Janetzke, D. C.
1972-01-01
The design and experimental performance of a 20-inch diameter tandem-bladed axial-flow transonic compressor rotor is presented. Radial surveys were made of the flow conditions. At design speed the peak efficiency was 0.88 and occurred at an equivalent weight flow of 63 pounds per second. At peak efficiency the total pressure and total temperature ratios were 1.77 and 1.20, respectively. The stall margin at design speed was 10 percent based on weight flows and total pressure ratios at peak efficiency and near stall.
Off-design correlation for losses due to part-span dampers on transonic rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, W. B.; Crouse, J. E.; Sandercock, D. M.
1980-01-01
Experimental data from 10 transonic fan rotors were used to correlate losses created by part-span dampers located near the midchord position on the rotor blades. The design tip speed of these rotors varied from 419 to 425 m/sec, and the design pressure ratio varied from 1.6 to 2.0. Additional loss caused by the dampers for operating conditions between 50 and 100 percent of design speed were correlated with relevant aerodynamic and geometric parameters. The resulting correlation predicts the variation of total-pressure-loss coefficient in the damper region to a good approximation.
Transonic Shock-Wave/Boundary-Layer Interactions on an Oscillating Airfoil
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Davis, Sanford S.; Malcolm, Gerald N.
1980-01-01
Unsteady aerodynamic loads were measured on an oscillating NACA 64A010 airfoil In the NASA Ames 11 by 11 ft Transonic Wind Tunnel. Data are presented to show the effect of the unsteady shock-wave/boundary-layer interaction on the fundamental frequency lift, moment, and pressure distributions. The data show that weak shock waves induce an unsteady pressure distribution that can be predicted quite well, while stronger shock waves cause complex frequency-dependent distributions due to flow separation. An experimental test of the principles of linearity and superposition showed that they hold for weak shock waves while flows with stronger shock waves cannot be superimposed.
Correlation of part-span damper losses through transonic rotors operating near design point
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roberts, W. B.
1977-01-01
The design-point losses caused by part-span dampers (PSD) were correlated for 21 transonic axial flow fan rotors that had tip speeds varying from 350 to 488 meters per second and design pressure ratios of 1.5 to 2.0. For these rotors a correlation using mean inlet Mach number at the damper location, along with relevant geometric and aerodynamic loading parameters, predicts the variation of total pressure loss coefficient in the region of the damper to a good approximation.
Thin airfoil theory based on approximate solution of the transonic flow equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spreiter, John R; Alksne, Alberta Y
1958-01-01
A method is presented for the approximate solution of the nonlinear equations of transonic flow theory. Solutions are found for two-dimensional flows at a Mach number of 1 and for purely subsonic and purely supersonic flows. Results are obtained in closed analytic form for a large and significant class of nonlifting airfoils. At a Mach number of 1 general expressions are given for the pressure distribution on an airfoil of specified geometry and for the shape of an airfoil having a prescribed pressure distribution. Extensive comparisons are made with available data, particularly for a Mach number of 1, and with existing solutions.
Thin airfoil theory based on approximate solution of the transonic flow equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spreiter, John R; Alksne, Alberta Y
1957-01-01
A method is presented for the approximate solution of the nonlinear equations transonic flow theory. Solutions are found for two-dimensional flows at a Mach number of 1 and for purely subsonic and purely supersonic flows. Results are obtained in closed analytic form for a large and significant class of nonlifting airfoils. At a Mach number of 1 general expressions are given for the pressure distribution on an airfoil of specified geometry and for the shape of an airfoil having a prescribed pressure distribution. Extensive comparisons are made with available data, particularly for a Mach number of 1, and with existing solutions.
Real-gas effects associated with one-dimensional transonic flow of cryogenic nitrogen
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adcock, J. B.
1976-01-01
Real gas solutions for one-dimensional isentropic and normal-shock flows of nitrogen were obtained for a wide range of temperatures and pressures. These calculations are compared to ideal gas solutions and are presented in tables. For temperatures (300 K and below) and pressures (1 to 10 atm) that cover those anticipated for transonic cryogenic tunnels, the solutions are analyzed to obtain indications of the magnitude of inviscid flow simulation errors. For these ranges, the maximum deviation of the various isentropic and normal shock parameters from the ideal values is about 1 percent or less, and for most wind tunnel investigations this deviation would be insignificant.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wornom, Dewey E.
1959-01-01
An investigation of a model of a standard size body in combination with a representative 45 deg swept-wing-fuselage model has been conducted in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel over a Mach number range from 0.80 to 1.43. The body, with a fineness ratio of 8.5, was tested with and without fins, and was pylon-mounted beneath the fuselage or wing. Force measurements were obtained on the wing-fuselage model with and without the body, for an angle-of-attack range from -2 deg to approximately 12 deg and an angle-of-sideslip range from -8 deg to 8 deg. In addition, body loads were measured over the same angle-of-attack and angle-of-sideslip range. The Reynolds number for the investigation, based on the wing mean aerodynamic chord, varied from 1.85 x 10(exp 6) to 2.85 x 10(exp 6). The addition of the body beneath the fuselage or the wing increased the drag coefficient of the complete model over the Mach number range tested. On the basis of the drag increase per body, the under-fuselage position was the more favorable. Furthermore, the bodies tended to increase the lateral stability of the complete model. The variation of body loads with angle of attack for the unfinned bodies was generally small and linear over the Mach number range tested with the addition of fins causing large increases in the rates of change of normal-force coefficient and nose-down pitching-moment coefficient. The variation of body side-force coefficient with sideslip for the unfinned body beneath the fuselage was at least twice as large as the variation of this load for the unfinned body beneath the wing. The addition of fins to the body beneath either the fuselage or the wing approximately doubled the rate of change of body side-force coefficient with sideslip. Furthermore, the variation of body side-force coefficient with sideslip for the body beneath the wing was at least twice as large as the variation of this load with angle of attack.
An Experimental Study of the Transonic Equivalence Rule with Lift,
1982-03-01
Baurdoux, H.I. Symmetrical Transonic Potential Flows Around Quasi-Elliptical Airfoil Boerstoel , J.W. Sections. NLR-TR69007U, National Aerospace...Laboratory, The Netherlands, December 1968. 14. Kacprzynski, J.J. Wind Tunnel Tests of a Boerstoel Shockless Symmetrical Airfoil. NRC, NAE, 5x5 ft Transonic
Shock-boundary layer interaction and transonic flutter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tumkur Karnick, Pradeepa; Venkatraman, Kartik
2012-11-01
The transonic flutter dip of an aeroelastic system is primarily caused by compressibility of the flowing fluid. Viscous effects are not dominant in the pre-transonic dip region. In fact, an Euler solver can predict this flutter boundary with considerable accuracy. However with an increase in Mach number the shock moves towards the trailing edge causing shock induced separation. This shock-boundary layer interaction changes the flutter boundary in the transonic and post-transonic dip region significantly. We discuss the effect of viscosity in changing the flutter boundary in the post-transonic dip region using a RANS solver coupled to a two-degree of freedom model of the structural dynamics of a wing.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ivanco, Thomas G.
2013-01-01
NASA Langley Research Center's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) is the world's most capable aeroelastic test facility. Its large size, transonic speed range, variable pressure capability, and use of either air or R-134a heavy gas as a test medium enable unparalleled manipulation of flow-dependent scaling quantities. Matching these scaling quantities enables dynamic similitude of a full-scale vehicle with a sub-scale model, a requirement for proper characterization of any dynamic phenomenon, and many static elastic phenomena. Select scaling parameters are presented in order to quantify the scaling advantages of TDT and the consequence of testing in other facilities. In addition to dynamic testing, the TDT is uniquely well-suited for high risk testing or for those tests that require unusual model mount or support systems. Examples of recently conducted dynamic tests requiring unusual model support are presented. In addition to its unique dynamic test capabilities, the TDT is also evaluated in its capability to conduct aerodynamic performance tests as a result of its flow quality. Results of flow quality studies and a comparison to a many other transonic facilities are presented. Finally, the ability of the TDT to support future NASA research thrusts and likely vehicle designs is discussed.
Wall-modeled large-eddy simulation of transonic airfoil buffet at high Reynolds number
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukushima, Yuma; Kawai, Soshi
2016-11-01
In this study, we conduct the wall-modeled large-eddy simulation (LES) of transonic buffet phenomena over the OAT15A supercritical airfoil at high Reynolds number. The transonic airfoil buffet involves shock-turbulent boundary layer interactions and shock vibration associated with the flow separation downstream of the shock wave. The wall-modeled LES developed by Kawai and Larsson PoF (2012) is tuned on the K supercomputer for high-fidelity simulation. We first show the capability of the present wall-modeled LES on the transonic airfoil buffet phenomena and then investigate the detailed flow physics of unsteadiness of shock waves and separated boundary layer interaction phenomena. We also focus on the sustaining mechanism of the buffet phenomena, including the source of the pressure waves propagated from the trailing edge and the interactions between the shock wave and the generated sound waves. This work was supported in part by MEXT as a social and scientific priority issue to be tackled by using post-K computer. Computer resources of the K computer was provided by the RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science (Project ID: hp150254).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gamble, J. D.; Buhl, M. L., Jr.; Parrell, H.
1975-01-01
The objective of the test was to generate a detailed aerodynamic data base which can be used to substantiate the aerodynamic design data book for the current shuttle orbiter configuration. Special attention was directed to definition of nonlinear aerodynamic characteristics by taking data at small increments in Mach number, angle of attack, and elevon position. Six-component aerodynamic force and moment and elevon position data were recorded over an angle-of-attack range from -4 deg to 20 deg, at angles of sideslip of 0 deg and 2 deg. The test Mach numbers were from 0.35 to 1.20. The Reynolds number for most of the test was held at a constant 3.5 million per foot.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Muhlstein, L., Jr.; Steinle, F., Jr.
1976-01-01
Fluid dynamic research with the objective of developing new and improved technology in both test facility concepts and test techniques is being reported. A summary of efforts and results thus far obtained in four areas is presented. The four area are: (1) the use of heavy gases to obtain high Reynolds numbers at transonic speeds: (2) high Reynolds number tests of the C-141A wing configuration; (3) performance and flow quality of the pilot injector driven wind tunnel; and (4) integration time required to extract accurate static and dynamic data from tests in transonic wind tunnels. Some of the principal conclusions relative to each of the four areas are: (1) Initial attempts to apply analytical corrections to test results using gases with gamma other than 1.4 to simulate conditions in air show promise but need significant improvement; (2) for the C-141A configuration, no Reynolds number less than the full scale flight value provides an accurate simulation of the full scale flow; (3) high ratios of tunnel mass flow rate to injection mass flow rate and high flow quality can be obtained in an injector driven transonic wind tunnel; and (4) integration times of 0.5 to 1.0 sec may be required for static force and pressure tests, respectively, at some transonic test conditions in order to obtain the required data accuracy.
Investigation of Seal-to-Floor Effects on Semi-Span Transonic Models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sleppy, Mark A.; Engel, Eric A.; Watson, Kevin T.; Atler, Douglas M.
2009-01-01
In an effort to achieve the maximum possible Reynolds number (Re) when conducting production testing for flight loads aerodynamic databases, it has been the preferred practice of The Boeing Company / Commercial Airplanes (BCA) -- Loads and Dynamics Group since the early 1990's to test large scale semi-span models in the 11- By 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel (TWT) leg of the Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC). There are many problems related to testing large scale semi-span models of high aspect ratio flexible transport wings, such as; floor boundary layer effects, wing spanwise wall effects, solid blockage buoyancy effects, floor mechanical interference effects, airflow under the model effects, or tunnel flow gradient effects. For most of these issues, BCA has developed and implemented either standard testing methods or numerical correction schemes and these will not be discussed in this document. Other researchers have reported on semi-span transonic testing correction issues, however most of the reported research has been for low Mach testing. Some of the reports for low Mach testing address the difficult problem of preventing undesirable airflow under a semi-span model while ensuring unrestricted main balance functionality, however, for transonic models this issue has gone unresolved. BCA has been cognizant for sometime that there are marked differences in wing pressure distributions from semi-span transonic model testing than from full model or flight testing. It has been suspected that these differences are at least in part due to airflow under the model. Previous efforts by BCA to address this issue have proven to be ineffective or inconclusive and in one situation resulted in broken hardware. This paper reports on a Boeing-NASA collaborative investigation based on a series of small tests conducted between June 2006 and November 2007 in the 11 by 11 foot Transonic Wind Tunnel at NASA Ames on three large commercial jet
Investigation of Inlet Concepts for Maneuver Improvement at Transonic Speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Latham, E.; Gawienowski, J.; Meriwether, F.
1977-01-01
A 15 percent scale lightweight fighter type inlet forebody was tested in the Ames 14 foot transonic wind tunnel at Mach numbers of 0.7, 0.9, and 1.04. The inlet was a two dimensional horizontal ramp system designed for a Mach number of 2.2. Four inlet devices designed to prevent or delay cowl-lip boundary layer separation or to improve the inlet internal flow characteristics at high angles of attack were investigated. The devices used to control cowl-lip separation consisted of cowl leading edge flaps, slotted flaps, and tangential blowing. To improve the internal flow characteristics, discrete jet nozzle flows were directed downstream and parallel to the duct surface in the subsonic diffuser to energize the wall boundary layer. The discrete jets used in the subsonic diffuser were also tested in combination with each of the cowl leading edge devices. Test measurements included engine-face total pressure recovery, steady state distortion, dynamic distortion, duct boundary layer profiles, and duct-surface static pressures.
Development of an Uncertainty Model for the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walter, Joel A.; Lawrence, William R.; Elder, David W.; Treece, Michael D.
2010-01-01
This paper introduces an uncertainty model being developed for the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The model uses a Monte Carlo technique to propagate standard uncertainties of measured values through the NTF data reduction equations to calculate the combined uncertainties of the key aerodynamic force and moment coefficients and freestream properties. The uncertainty propagation approach to assessing data variability is compared with ongoing data quality assessment activities at the NTF, notably check standard testing using statistical process control (SPC) techniques. It is shown that the two approaches are complementary and both are necessary tools for data quality assessment and improvement activities. The SPC approach is the final arbiter of variability in a facility. Its result encompasses variation due to people, processes, test equipment, and test article. The uncertainty propagation approach is limited mainly to the data reduction process. However, it is useful because it helps to assess the causes of variability seen in the data and consequently provides a basis for improvement. For example, it is shown that Mach number random uncertainty is dominated by static pressure variation over most of the dynamic pressure range tested. However, the random uncertainty in the drag coefficient is generally dominated by axial and normal force uncertainty with much less contribution from freestream conditions.
A New Forced Oscillation Capability for the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piatak, David J.; Cleckner, Craig S.
2002-01-01
A new forced oscillation system has been installed and tested at NASA Langley Research Center's Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The system is known as the Oscillating Turntable (OTT) and has been designed for the purpose of oscillating, large semispan models in pitch at frequencies up to 40 Hz to acquire high-quality unsteady pressure and loads data. Precisely controlled motions of a wind-tunnel model on the OTT can yield unsteady aerodynamic phenomena associated with flutter, limit cycle oscillations, shock dynamics, and non-linear aerodynamic effects on many vehicle configurations. This paper will discuss general design and components of the OTT and will present test data from performance testing and from research tests on two rigid semispan wind-tunnel models. The research tests were designed to challenge the OTT over a wide range of operating conditions while acquiring unsteady pressure data on a small rectangular supercritical wing and a large supersonic transport wing. These results will be presented to illustrate the performance capabilities, consistency of oscillations, and usefulness of the OTT as a research tool.
Active Flow Control of a Transonic Shock over Curved Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gissen, Abraham N.; Vukasinovic, Bojan; Glezer, Ari; Gogineni, Sivaram P.
2013-11-01
The effects of fluidic actuation on the evolution and dynamics of a transonic shock over a two-dimensional convex surface by controlling the ensuing shock-induced separation are investigated in wind tunnel experiments. Actuation is effected by a spanwise array of high-frequency (nominally 10 kHz) fluidic oscillating jets. The flow field upstream and downstream of the shock is investigated using high-speed Schlieren and PIV (3,000fps), and surface pressure measurements. It is shown that control of the shock-induced separating shear layer by exploiting direct control of small-scale motion can alter the degree of flow attachment and have a profound effect on the shock dynamics. The actuation diminishes shock oscillations near the surface, and leads to streamwise shock displacement that is proportional to the actuation strength (as measured, for example, by the mass flow rate coefficient). The strong correlation between the shock displacement and surface pressure are explored for application of closed-loop control.
Three-dimensional flows in a transonic compressor rotor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reid, Lonnie; Celestina, Mark L.; Dewitt, Kenneth; Keith, Theo
1991-01-01
This study involves an experimental and numerical investigation of the three-dimensional flows in a transonic compressor rotor. A variety of data which could be used, in a complementary fashion, to validate/calibrate the computational fluid dynamics turbomachinery code and improve understanding of the flow physics, were acquired. Detailed radial survey data which consisted of total pressure, total temperature, static pressure and flow angle were obtained at stations upstream and downstream of the rotor blade. Detailed velocity and turbulence profiles were obtained upstream of the rotor and used as the upstream boundary conditions for the numerical analysis. Calibrated flush-mounted hot film probes were used to measure wall shear stress on the hub and casing walls upstream of the rotor. The blade-to-blade shear-stress angle distributions were obtained at two axial locations on the rotor casing, using flush-mounted hot film probes. A numerical analysis conducted using a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes code was compared with the experimental results.
Buffet test in the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Hergert, Dennis W.; Butler, Thomas W.; Herring, Fred M.
1992-01-01
A buffet test of a commercial transport model was accomplished in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. This aeroelastic test was unprecedented for this wind tunnel and posed a high risk for the facility. Presented here are the test results from a structural dynamics and aeroelastic response point of view. The activities required for the safety analysis and risk assessment are described. The test was conducted in the same manner as a flutter test and employed on-board dynamic instrumentation, real time dynamic data monitoring, and automatic and manual tunnel interlock systems for protecting the model.
Transonic airfoil flowfield analysis using Cartesian coordinates
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Carlson, L. A.
1975-01-01
A numerical technique for analyzing transonic airfoils is presented. The method employs the basic features of Jameson's iterative solution for the full potential equation, except that Cartesian coordinates are used rather than a grid which fits the airfoil, such as the conformal circle-plane or 'sheared parabolic' coordinates which were used previously. Comparison with previous results shows that it is not necessary to match the computational grid to the airfoil surface, and that accurate results can be obtained with a Cartesian grid for lifting supercritical airfoils.
Transonic Cascade Measurements to Support Analytical Modeling
2008-07-20
wing chord is 117 mm, the span is 47.5 mm, and the inlet and exit heights are 39.7 and 18.7 mm respectively. The rest of the wind tunnel was designed...around the geometry to adapt it to our steady-flow, transonic wind tunnel used previously in this program, while maximizing optical access to the wing ...the wing surface isentropic Mach number distribution using equation 4.1. 4.4 Overall Wind Tunnel System Flow is provided by an Ingersoll-Rand
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Murthy, S. V.; Steinle, F. W.
1986-01-01
Based on the existing boundary layer transition data, the effects of compressibility, pressure fluctuations, and free-stream turbulence have been reexamined for subsonic and transonic flow speeds. It is confirmed that the compressibility effects may be adequately expressed in terms of a simple correlation with free-stream Mach number. Pressure fluctuations, especially at low levels, do not seem to significantly affect the transition phenomenon. Effects of free-stream turbulence in high-subsonic and transonic flows are similar to the trends observed for low-speed flows and the transition process is hastened. The trends, as seen from slender cone flow data, seem to suggest power law correlations between transition Reynolds number and free-stream turbulence.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Al-Saadi, Jassim A.
1993-01-01
A computational simulation of a transonic wind tunnel test section with longitudinally slotted walls is developed and described herein. The nonlinear slot model includes dynamic pressure effects and a plenum pressure constraint, and each slot is treated individually. The solution is performed using a finite-difference method that solves an extended transonic small disturbance equation. The walls serve as the outer boundary conditions in the relaxation technique, and an interaction procedure is used at the slotted walls. Measured boundary pressures are not required to establish the wall conditions but are currently used to assess the accuracy of the simulation. This method can also calculate a free-air solution as well as solutions that employ the classical homogeneous wall conditions. The simulation is used to examine two commercial transport aircraft models at a supercritical Mach number for zero-lift and cruise conditions. Good agreement between measured and calculated wall pressures is obtained for the model geometries and flow conditions examined herein. Some localized disagreement is noted, which is attributed to improper simulation of viscous effects in the slots.
Overview of the Space Launch System Transonic Buffet Environment Test Program
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piatak, David J.; Sekula, Martin K.; Rausch, Russ D.; Florance, James R.; Ivanco, Thomas G.
2015-01-01
Fluctuating aerodynamic loads are a significant concern for the structural design of a launch vehicle, particularly while traversing the transonic flight environment. At these trajectory conditions, unsteady aerodynamic pressures can excite the vehicle dynamic modes of vibration and result in high structural bending moments and vibratory environments. To ensure that vehicle structural components and subsystems possess adequate strength, stress, and fatigue margins in the presence of buffet and other environments, buffet forcing functions are required to conduct the coupled load analysis of the launch vehicle. The accepted method to obtain these buffet forcing functions is to perform wind-tunnel testing of a rigid model that is heavily instrumented with unsteady pressure transducers designed to measure the buffet environment within the desired frequency range. Two wind-tunnel tests of a 3 percent scale rigid buffet model have been conducted at the Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) as part of the Space Launch System (SLS) buffet test program. The SLS buffet models have been instrumented with as many as 472 unsteady pressure transducers to resolve the buffet forcing functions of this multi-body configuration through integration of the individual pressure time histories. This paper will discuss test program development, instrumentation, data acquisition, test implementation, data analysis techniques, and several methods explored to mitigate high buffet environment encountered during the test program. Preliminary buffet environments will be presented and compared using normalized sectional buffet forcing function root-meansquared levels along the vehicle centerline.
Computational design of natural laminar flow wings for transonic transport application
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Waggoner, Edgar G.; Campbell, Richard L.; Phillips, Pamela S.; Viken, Jeffrey K.
1986-01-01
Two research programs are described which directly relate to the application of natural laminar flow (NLF) technology to transonic transport-type wind planforms. Each involved using state-of-the-art computational methods to design three-dimensional wing contours which generate significant runs of favorable pressure gradients. The first program supported the Variable Sweep Transition Flight Experiment and involves design of a full-span glove which extends from the leading edge to the spoiler hinge line on the upper surface of an F-14 outer wing panel. Boundary-layer and static-pressure data will be measured on this design during the supporting wind-tunnel and flight tests. These data will then be analyzed and used to infer the relationship between crossflow and Tollmein-Schlichting disturbances on laminar boundary-layer transition. A wing was designed computationally for a corporate transport aircraft in the second program. The resulting wing design generated favorable pressure gradients from the leading edge aft to the mid-chord on both upper and lower surfaces at the cruise design point. Detailed descriptions of the computational design approach are presented along with the various constraints imposed on each of the designs. Wing surface pressure distributions, which support the design objective and were derived from transonic three-dimensional analyses codes, are also presented. Current status of each of the research programs is included in the summary.
1979-12-01
Volume 3: Transonic-Supersonic Speed Regime; and Volume 4: F-4 Phantom II Aircraft. N ., ,..â€¢ .. c-", i. iii Im TABLE OF CONTENTS 4. Page LIST OF...numbers. Stability characteristics in the form of center of pressure, CM/CN, neutral point DCM !/CN and pif:ching moment slope CM are presented in
Numerical calculations of two dimensional, unsteady transonic flows with circulation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Beam, R. M.; Warming, R. F.
1974-01-01
The feasibility of obtaining two-dimensional, unsteady transonic aerodynamic data by numerically integrating the Euler equations is investigated. An explicit, third-order-accurate, noncentered, finite-difference scheme is used to compute unsteady flows about airfoils. Solutions for lifting and nonlifting airfoils are presented and compared with subsonic linear theory. The applicability and efficiency of the numerical indicial function method are outlined. Numerically computed subsonic and transonic oscillatory aerodynamic coefficients are presented and compared with those obtained from subsonic linear theory and transonic wind-tunnel data.
The analysis and design of transonic two-element airfoil systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Volpe, G.; Grossman, B.
1979-01-01
The multiphase effort in the development of tools for the analysis and design of two-element airfoil systems, that is, airfoils with a slat or a flap at transonic speeds is described. The first phase involved the development of a method to compute the inviscid flow over such configurations. In the second phase the inviscid code was coupled to a boundary layer calculation program in order to compute the loss in performance due to viscous effects. An inverse code that constructs the airfoil system corresponding to a desired pressure distribution is described.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hsieh, T.
1986-10-01
Investigation of downstream boundary effects on the frequency of self-excited oscillations in two-dimensional, separated transonic diffuser flows were conducted numerically by solving the compressible, Reynolds-averaged, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equation with two equation turbulence models. It was found that the flow fields are very sensitive to the location of the downstream boundary. Extension of the diffuser downstream boundary significantly reduces the frequency and amplitude of oscillations for pressure, velocity, and shock. The existence of a suction slot in the experimental setpup obscures the physical downstream boundary and therefore presents a difficulty for quantitative comparisons between computation and experiment.
Unsteady separated boundary layer in a transonic diffuser flow with self-excited oscillations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsieh, T.; Coakley, T. J.
1986-01-01
A numerical investigation of two-dimensional unsteady boundary layer in a transonic diffuser flow with self-excited oscillations and strong flow separation by solving the compressible, Reynolds-averaged, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equations with two-equations turbulence model is described. Three different meshes with constant streamwise mesh distribution and varying vertical mesh distribution were used. Results obtained indicate that a refinement of mesh studied here has minimal effect on the mean boundary layer flow but significantly increases the amplitude of oscillation of all flow variables. Comparisons of unsteady wall pressure, velocity profile, terminal shock, and separation pocket among computations and with experiment are presented.
Empty test section streamlining of the transonic self-streamlining wind tunnel fitted with new walls
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, M. C.
1988-01-01
The original flexible top and bottom walls of the Transonic Self-Streamlining Wind Tunnel (TSWT), at the University of Southampton, have been replaced with new walls featuring a larger number of static pressure tappings and detailed mechanical improvements. This report describes the streamling method, results, and conclusions of a series of tests aimed at defining sets of aerodynamically straight wall contours for the new flexible walls. This procedure is a necessary prelude to model testing. The quality of data obtained compares favorably with the aerodynamically straight data obtained with the old walls. No operational difficulties were experienced with the new walls.
Unsteady features of the flow on a bump in transonic environment
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Budovsky, A. D.; Sidorenko, A. A.; Polivanov, P. A.; Vishnyakov, O. I.; Maslov, A. A.
2016-10-01
The study deals with experimental investigation of unsteady features of separated flow on a profiled bump in transonic environment. The experiments were conducted in T-325 wind tunnel of ITAM for the following flow conditions: P0 = 1 bar, T0 = 291 K. The base flow around the model was studied by schlieren visualization, steady and unsteady wall pressure measurements and PIV. The experimentally data obtained using PIV are analyzed by Proper Orthogonal Decomposition (POD) technique to investigate the underlying unsteady flow organization, as revealed by the POD eigenmodes. The data obtained show that flow pulsations revealed upstream and downstream of shock wave are correlated and interconnected.
Sidewall Mach Number Distributions for the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Florance, James R.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.
2001-01-01
The Transonic Dynamics Tunnel(TDT) was recalibrated due to the conversion of the heavy gas test medium from R-12 to R-134a. The objectives of the tests were to determine the relationship between the free-stream Mach number and the measured test section Mach number, and to quantify any necessary corrections. Other tests included the measurement of pressure distributions along the test-section walls, test-section centerline, at certain tunnel stations via a rake apparatus, and in the tunnel settling chamber. Wall boundary layer, turbulence, and flow angularity measurements were also performed. This paper discusses the determination of sidewall Mach number distributions.
Description of 0.186-scale model of high-speed duct of national transonic facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gentry, C. L., Jr.; Igoe, W. B.; Fuller, D. E.
1981-01-01
The National Transonic Facility (NTF) is a pressurized cryogenic wind tunnel with a 2.5 m square test section. A 0.186-scale model of the NTF was used to simulate the aerodynamic performance of the components of the high-speed duct of the NTF. These components consist of a wide-angle diffuser, settling chamber, contraction section, test section, model support section, and high-speed diffuser. The geometry of the model tunnel, referred to as the diffuser flow apparatus is described, and some of its operating characteristics are presented.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Spaid, Frank W.; Roos, Frederick W.; Hicks, Raymond M.
1990-01-01
The upper surface boundary layer on a transport wing model was extensively surveyed with miniature yaw probes at a subsonic and a transonic cruise condition. Additional data were obtained at a second transonic test condition, for which a separated region was present at mid-semispan, aft of mid-chord. Significant variation in flow direction with distance from the surface was observed near the trailing edge except at the wing root and tip. The data collected at the transonic cruise condition show boundary layer growth associated with shock wave/boundary layer interaction, followed by recovery of the boundary layer downstream of the shock. Measurements of fluctuating surface pressure and wingtip acceleration were also obtained. The influence of flow field unsteadiness on the boundary layer data is discussed. Comparisons among the data and predictions from a variety of computational methods are presented. The computed predictions are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data in the outboard regions where 3-D effects are moderate and adverse pressure gradients are mild. In the more highly loaded mid-span region near the trailing edge, displacement thickness growth was significantly underpredicted, except when unrealistically severe adverse pressure gradients associated with inviscid calculations were used to perform boundary layer calculations.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Erickson, Gary E.
1991-01-01
The vortex dominated aerodynamic characteristics of a generic 65 degree cropped delta wing model were studied in a wind tunnel at subsonic through supersonic speeds. The lee-side flow fields over the wing-alone configuration and the wing with leading edge extension (LEX) added were observed at M (infinity) equals 0.40 to 1.60 using a laser vapor screen technique. These results were correlated with surface streamline patterns, upper surface static pressure distributions, and six-component forces and moments. The wing-alone exhibited vortex breakdown and asymmetry of the breakdown location at the subsonic and transonic speeds. An earlier onset of vortex breakdown over the wing occurred at transonic speeds due to the interaction of the leading edge vortex with the normal shock wave. The development of a shock wave between the vortex and wing surface caused an early separation of the secondary boundary layer. With the LEX installed, wing vortex breakdown asymmetry did not occur up to the maximum angle of attack in the present test of 24 degrees. The favorable interaction of the LEX vortex with the wing flow field reduced the effects of shock waves on the wing primary and secondary vortical flows. The direct interaction of the wing and LEX vortex cores diminished with increasing Mach number. The maximum attainable vortex-induced pressure signatures were constrained by the vacuum pressure limit at the transonic and supersonic speeds.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chaparro, Daniel; Fujiwara, Gustavo E. C.; Ting, Eric; Nguyen, Nhan
2016-01-01
The need to rapidly scan large design spaces during conceptual design calls for computationally inexpensive tools such as the vortex lattice method (VLM). Although some VLM tools, such as Vorview have been extended to model fully-supersonic flow, VLM solutions are typically limited to inviscid, subcritical flow regimes. Many transport aircraft operate at transonic speeds, which limits the applicability of VLM for such applications. This paper presents a novel approach to correct three-dimensional VLM through coupling of two-dimensional transonic small disturbance (TSD) solutions along the span of an aircraft wing in order to accurately predict transonic aerodynamic loading and wave drag for transport aircraft. The approach is extended to predict flow separation and capture the attenuation of aerodynamic forces due to boundary layer viscosity by coupling the TSD solver with an integral boundary layer (IBL) model. The modeling framework is applied to the NASA General Transport Model (GTM) integrated with a novel control surface known as the Variable Camber Continuous Trailing Edge Flap (VCCTEF).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ehlers, F. E.; Weatherill, W. H.
1982-01-01
A finite difference method for solving the unsteady transonic flow about harmonically oscillating wings is investigated. The procedure is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady differential equation for small disturbances. The differential equation for the unsteady velocity potential is linear with spatially varying coefficients and with the time variable eliminated by assuming harmonic motion. A study is presented of the shock motion associated with an oscillating airfoil and its representation by the harmonic procedure. The effects of the shock motion and the resulting pressure pulse are shown to be included in the harmonic pressure distributions and the corresponding generalized forces. Analytical and experimental pressure distributions for the NACA 64A010 airfoil are compared for Mach numbers of 0.75, 0.80 and 0.842. A typical section, two-degree-of-freedom flutter analysis of a NACA 64A010 airfoil is performed. The results show a sharp transonic bucket in one case and abrupt changes in instability modes.
Modernization and Activation of the NASA Ames 11- by 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kmak, Frank J.
2000-01-01
The Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel (UPWT) was modernized to improve performance, capability, productivity, and reliability. Automation systems were installed in all three UPWT tunnel legs and the Auxiliaries facility. Major improvements were made to the four control rooms, model support systems, main drive motors, and main drive speed control. Pressure vessel repairs and refurbishment to the electrical distribution system were also completed. Significant changes were made to improve test section flow quality in the 11-by 11-Foot Transonic leg. After the completion of the construction phase of the project, acceptance and checkout testing was performed to demonstrate the capabilities of the modernized facility. A pneumatic test of the tunnel circuit was performed to verify the structural integrity of the pressure vessel before wind-on operations. Test section turbulence, flow angularity, and acoustic parameters were measured throughout the tunnel envelope to determine the effects of the tunnel flow quality improvements. The new control system processes were thoroughly checked during wind-off and wind-on operations. Manual subsystem modes and automated supervisory modes of tunnel operation were validated. The aerodynamic and structural performance of both the new composite compressor rotor blades and the old aluminum rotor blades was measured. The entire subsonic and supersonic envelope of the 11-by 11-Foot Transonic leg was defined up to the maximum total pressure.
7. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO TRANSONIC ...
7. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD
2. VIEW SOUTH OF TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING AND SUPERSONIC ...
2. VIEW SOUTH OF TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING AND SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD
5. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO TRANSONIC ...
5. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD
1. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING AND TRANSONIC ...
1. VIEW SOUTHWEST OF SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING AND TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD
4. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO TRANSONIC ...
4. VIEW NORTHWEST OF SUPERSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD
3. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO SUBSONIC ...
3. VIEW SOUTHEAST OF TRANSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING TO SUBSONIC WIND TUNNEL BUILDING - Naval Surface Warfare Center, Bounded by Clara Barton Parkway & McArthur Boulevard, Silver Spring, Montgomery County, MD
Design optimization of axisymmetric bodies in nonuniform transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lan, C. Edward
1989-01-01
An inviscid transonic code capable of designing an axisymmetric body in a uniform or nonuniform flow was developed. The design was achieved by direct optimiation by coupling an analysis code with an optimizer. Design examples were provided for axisymmetric bodies with fineness ratios of 8.33 and 5 at different Mach numbers. It was shown that by reducing the nose radius and increasing the afterbody thickness of initial shapes obtained from symmetric NACA four-digit airfoil contours, wave drag could be reduced by 29 percent for a body of fineness ratio 8.33 in a nonuniform transonic flow of M = 0.98 to 0.995. The reduction was 41 percent for a body of fineness ratio 5 in a uniform transonic flow of M = 0.925 and 65 percent for the same body but in a nonuniform transonic flow of M = 0.90 to 0.95.
Performance of turbulence models for transonic flows in a diffuser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Yangwei; Wu, Jianuo; Lu, Lipeng
2016-09-01
Eight turbulence models frequently used in aerodynamics have been employed in the detailed numerical investigations for transonic flows in the Sajben diffuser, to assess the predictive capabilities of the turbulence models for shock wave/turbulent boundary layer interactions (SWTBLI) in internal flows. The eight turbulence models include: the Spalart-Allmaras model, the standard k - 𝜀 model, the RNG k - 𝜀 model, the realizable k - 𝜀 model, the standard k - Ï‰ model, the SST k - Ï‰ model, the v2Â¯ - f model and the Reynolds stress model. The performance of the different turbulence models adopted has been systematically assessed by comparing the numerical results with the available experimental data. The comparisons show that the predictive performance becomes worse as the shock wave becomes stronger. The v2Â¯ - f model and the SST k - Ï‰ model perform much better than other models, and the SST k - Ï‰ model predicts a little better than the v2Â¯ - f model for pressure on walls and velocity profile, whereas the v2Â¯ - f model predicts a little better than the SST k - Ï‰ model for separation location, reattachment location and separation length for strong shock case.
Transonic Unsteady Aerodynamics and Aeroelasticity 1987, part 1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bland, Samuel R. (Compiler)
1989-01-01
Computational fluid dynamics methods have been widely accepted for transonic aeroelastic analysis. Previously, calculations with the TSD methods were used for 2-D airfoils, but now the TSD methods are applied to the aeroelastic analysis of the complete aircraft. The Symposium papers are grouped into five subject areas, two of which are covered in this part: (1) Transonic Small Disturbance (TSD) theory for complete aircraft configurations; and (2) Full potential and Euler equation methods.
Separated transonic airfoil flow calculations with a nonequilibrium turbulence model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
King, L. S.; Johnson, D. A.
1985-01-01
Navier-Stokes transonic airfoil calculations based on a recently developed nonequilibrium, turbulence closure model are presented for a supercritical airfoil section at transonic cruise conditions and for a conventional airfoil section at shock-induced stall conditions. Comparisons with experimental data are presented which show that this nonequilibrium closure model performs significantly better than the popular Baldwin-Lomax and Cebeci-Smith equilibrium algebraic models when there is boundary-layer separation that results from the inviscid-viscous interactions.
Transonic Wing Shape Optimization Using a Genetic Algorithm
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holst, Terry L.; Pulliam, Thomas H.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2002-01-01
A method for aerodynamic shape optimization based on a genetic algorithm approach is demonstrated. The algorithm is coupled with a transonic full potential flow solver and is used to optimize the flow about transonic wings including multi-objective solutions that lead to the generation of pareto fronts. The results indicate that the genetic algorithm is easy to implement, flexible in application and extremely reliable.
TAIR- TRANSONIC AIRFOIL ANALYSIS COMPUTER CODE
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Dougherty, F. C.
1994-01-01
The Transonic Airfoil analysis computer code, TAIR, was developed to employ a fast, fully implicit algorithm to solve the conservative full-potential equation for the steady transonic flow field about an arbitrary airfoil immersed in a subsonic free stream. The full-potential formulation is considered exact under the assumptions of irrotational, isentropic, and inviscid flow. These assumptions are valid for a wide range of practical transonic flows typical of modern aircraft cruise conditions. The primary features of TAIR include: a new fully implicit iteration scheme which is typically many times faster than classical successive line overrelaxation algorithms; a new, reliable artifical density spatial differencing scheme treating the conservative form of the full-potential equation; and a numerical mapping procedure capable of generating curvilinear, body-fitted finite-difference grids about arbitrary airfoil geometries. Three aspects emphasized during the development of the TAIR code were reliability, simplicity, and speed. The reliability of TAIR comes from two sources: the new algorithm employed and the implementation of effective convergence monitoring logic. TAIR achieves ease of use by employing a "default mode" that greatly simplifies code operation, especially by inexperienced users, and many useful options including: several airfoil-geometry input options, flexible user controls over program output, and a multiple solution capability. The speed of the TAIR code is attributed to the new algorithm and the manner in which it has been implemented. Input to the TAIR program consists of airfoil coordinates, aerodynamic and flow-field convergence parameters, and geometric and grid convergence parameters. The airfoil coordinates for many airfoil shapes can be generated in TAIR from just a few input parameters. Most of the other input parameters have default values which allow the user to run an analysis in the default mode by specifing only a few input parameters
Correlation of transonic-cone preston-tube data and skin friction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Abu-Mostafa, A. S.; Reed, T. D.
1984-01-01
Preston-tube measurements obtained on the Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) Transition Cone have been correlated with theoretical skin friction coefficients in transitional and turbulent flow. This has been done for the NASA Ames 11-Ft Transonic Wind Tunnel (11 TWT) and flight tests. The developed semi-empirical correlations of Preston-tube data have been used to derive a calibration procedure for the 11 TWT flow quality. This procedure has been applied to the corrected laminar data, and an effective freestream unit Reynolds number is defined by requiring a matching of the average Preston-tube pressure in flight and in the tunnel. This study finds that the operating Reynolds number is below the effective value required for a match in laminar Preston-tube data. The distribution of this effective Reynolds number with Mach number correlates well with the freestream noise level in this tunnel. Analyses of transitional and turbulent data, however, did not result in effective Reynolds numbers that can be correlated with background noise. This is a result of the fact that vorticity fluctuations present in transitional and turbulent boundary layers dominate Preston-tube pressure fluctuations and, therefore, mask the tunnel noise eff ects. So, in order to calibrate the effects of noise on transonic wind tunnel tests only laminar data should be used, preferably at flow conditions similar to those in flight tests. To calibrate the effects of transonic wind-tunnel noise on drag measurements, however, the Preston-tube data must be supplemented with direct measurements of skin friction.
The National Transonic Facility: A Research Retrospective
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wahls, R. A.
2001-01-01
An overview of the National Transonic Facility (NTF) from a research utilization perspective is provided. The facility was born in the 1970s from an internationally recognized need for a high Reynolds number test capability based on previous experiences with preflight predictions of aerodynamic characteristics and an anticipated need in support of research and development for future aerospace vehicle systems. Selection of the cryogenic concept to meet the need, unique capabilities of the facility, and the eventual research utilization of the facility are discussed. The primary purpose of the paper is to expose the range of investigations that have used the NTF since being declared operational in late 1984; limited research results are included, though many more can be found in the references.
Flutter Analysis of a Transonic Fan
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srivastava, R.; Bakhle, M. A.; Keith, T. G., Jr.; Stefko, G. L.
2002-01-01
This paper describes the calculation of flutter stability characteristics for a transonic forward swept fan configuration using a viscous aeroelastic analysis program. Unsteady Navier-Stokes equations are solved on a dynamically deforming, body fitted, grid to obtain the aeroelastic characteristics using the energy exchange method. The non-zero inter-blade phase angle is modeled using phase-lagged boundary conditions. Results obtained show good correlation with measurements. It is found that the location of shock and variation of shock strength strongly influenced stability. Also, outboard stations primarily contributed to stability characteristics. Results demonstrate that changes in blade shape impact the calculated aerodynamic damping, indicating importance of using accurate blade operating shape under centrifugal and steady aerodynamic loading for flutter prediction. It was found that the calculated aerodynamic damping was relatively insensitive to variation in natural frequency.
A transonic rectangular grid embedded panel method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, F. T.; Bussoletti, J. E.; James, R. M.; Young, D. P.; Woo, A. C.
1982-01-01
A method is presented that has the potential for solving transonic flow problems about the same complex aircraft configurations currently being analyzed by subsonic panel methods. This method does not require the generation of surface fitted grids. Instead it uses rectangular grids and subgrids together with embedded surface panels on which boundary conditions are imposed. Both the Euler and full potential equations are considered. The method of least squares is used to reduce the solution of these equations to the solution of a sequence of Poisson problems. The Poisson problems are solved using fast Fourier transforms and panel influence coefficient techniques. The overall method is still in its infancy but some two dimensional results are shown illustrating various key features.
Transonic Flow Computations Using Nonlinear Potential Methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Holst, Terry L.; Kwak, Dochan (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
This presentation describes the state of transonic flow simulation using nonlinear potential methods for external aerodynamic applications. The presentation begins with a review of the various potential equation forms (with emphasis on the full potential equation) and includes a discussion of pertinent mathematical characteristics and all derivation assumptions. Impact of the derivation assumptions on simulation accuracy, especially with respect to shock wave capture, is discussed. Key characteristics of all numerical algorithm types used for solving nonlinear potential equations, including steady, unsteady, space marching, and design methods, are described. Both spatial discretization and iteration scheme characteristics are examined. Numerical results for various aerodynamic applications are included throughout the presentation to highlight key discussion points. The presentation ends with concluding remarks and recommendations for future work. Overall. nonlinear potential solvers are efficient, highly developed and routinely used in the aerodynamic design environment for cruise conditions. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
Demonstration of PIV in a Transonic Compressor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wernet, Mark P.
1998-01-01
Particle Imaging Velocimetry (PIV) is a powerful measurement technique which can be used as an alternative or complementary approach to Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) in a wide range of research applications. PIV data are measured simultaneously at multiple points in space, which enables the investigation of the non-stationary spatial structures typically encountered in turbomachinery. Many of the same issues encountered in the application of LDV techniques to rotating machinery apply in the application of PIV. Preliminary results from the successful application of the standard 2-D PIV technique to a transonic axial compressor are presented. The lessons learned from the application of the 2-D PIV technique will serve as the basis for applying 3-component PIV techniques to turbomachinery.
A model for unsteady transonic indicial responses
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fung, K.-Y.
1982-01-01
A method of characterizing the indicial curve for the response frequencies of flutter in the transonic regime by means of a time scale parameter is illustrated. Time linearization of the unsteady potential equation is assumed adequate and the perturbed potential about a steady flow is defined with appropriate boundary conditions. An indicial motion can then be obtained for a given mode, with the lift and drag coefficients which result from a step change in incidence or control surface deflection available to describe any kind of motion. The lift and drag coefficients are shown to result analytically by addition of the multiplicand involving the time scale parameter. If the coefficients are maximized, then at reduced frequencies only two parameters are necessary to form the indicial response curve.
Design of a transonically profiled wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kiekebusch, B.
1978-01-01
The application of well known design concepts with the combined use of thick transonic profiles to aircraft wing design was investigated. Optimization in terms of weight and operational costs was emphasized. It is shown that the usual design criteria and concepts are too restricted and do not sufficiently represent the physical processes over the wing. Suggestions are made for improving this situation, and a design example given. Compared with a wing design according to previously used criteria, the new design is found to be superior in the most important functions. It is concluded that an isobar concept adjusted to the planform in conjunction with an 'organically' designed wing will lead to the weight optimum solutions of wing profiles.
Analysis of three-dimensional transonic compressors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bourgeade, A.
1984-01-01
A method for computing the three-dimensional transonic flow around the blades of a compressor or of a propeller is given. The method is based on the use of the velocity potential, on the hypothesis that the flow is inviscid, irrotational and isentropic. The equation of the potential is solved in a transformed space such that the surface of the blade is mapped into a plane where the periodicity is implicit. This equation is in a nonconservative form and is solved with the help of a finite difference method using artificial time. A computer code is provided and some sample results are given in order to demonstrate the influence of three-dimensional effects and the blade's rotation.
Transonic Blunt Body Aerodynamic Coefficients Computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sancho, Jorge; Vargas, M.; Gonzalez, Ezequiel; Rodriguez, Manuel
2011-05-01
In the framework of EXPERT (European Experimental Re-entry Test-bed) accurate transonic aerodynamic coefficients are of paramount importance for the correct trajectory assessment and parachute deployment. A combined CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) modelling and experimental campaign strategy was selected to obtain accurate coefficients. A preliminary set of coefficients were obtained by CFD Euler inviscid computation. Then experimental campaign was performed at DNW facilities at NLR. A profound review of the CFD modelling was done lighten up by WTT results, aimed to obtain reliable values of the coefficients in the future (specially the pitching moment). Study includes different turbulence modelling and mesh sensitivity analysis. Comparison with the WTT results is explored, and lessons learnt are collected.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Paryz, Roman W.
2014-01-01
Several upgrade projects have been completed at the NASA Langley Research Center National Transonic Facility over the last 1.5 years in an effort defined as STARBUKS - Subsonic Transonic Applied Refinements By Using Key Strategies. This multi-year effort was undertaken to improve NTF's overall capabilities by addressing Accuracy and Validation, Productivity, and Reliability areas at the NTF. This presentation will give a brief synopsis of each of these efforts.
A wake traverse technique for use in a 2 dimensional transonic flexible walled test section
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, S. W. D.
1982-01-01
Reported two dimensional validation data from the Transonic Self-Streamlining Wind Tunnel (TSWT) concerns model lift. The models tested provided data on their pressure distributions. This information was numerically integrated over the model surface to determine lift, pressure drag and pitching moment. However, the pressure drag is only a small component of the total drag at nominal angles of attack and cannot be used to assess the quality of flow simulation. An intrusive technique for obtaining information on the total drag of a model in TSWT is described. The technique adopted is the wake traverse method. The associated tunnel hardware and control and data reduction software are outlined and some experimental results are presented for discussion.
Investigation of flow phenomena in a transonic fan rotor using laser anemometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strazisar, A. J.
1985-01-01
Several flow phenomena including flowfield periodicity, rotor shock oscillation, and rotor shock system geometry were investigated in a transonic low aspect ratio fan rotor using laser anemometry. Flow periodicity is found to increase with increasing rotor pressure rise, and to correlate with blade geometry variations. Analysis of time-accurate laser anemometer data indicates that the rotor shock oscillates about its mean location with an amplitude of 3 to 4 percent of rotor chord. The shock surface is nearly two-dimensional for levels of rotor pressure rise at and above the peak efficiency level but becomes more complex for lower levels of pressure rise. Spanwise shock lean generates radial flows due to streamline deflection in the hub-to-shroud streamsurface.
Investigation of flow phenomena in a transonic fan rotor using laser anemometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Strazisar, A. J.
1984-01-01
Several flow phenomena including flowfield periodicity, rotor shock oscillation, and rotor shock system geometry were investigated in a transonic low aspect ratio fan rotor using laser anemometry. Flow periodicity is found to increase with increasing rotor pressure rise, and to correlate with blade geometry variations. Analysis of time-accurate laser anemometer data indicates that the rotor shock oscillates about its mean location with an amplitude of 3 to 4 percent of rotor chord. The shock surface is nearly two-dimensional or levels of rotor pressure rise at and above the peak efficiency level but becomes more complex for lower levels of pressure rise. Spanwise shock lean generates radial flows due to streamline deflection in the hub-to-shroud streamsurface.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.; Bennett, Robert M.
1992-01-01
The CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code, developed at the NASA Langley Research Center, is applied to the Active Flexible Wing wind-tunnel model for prediction of transonic aeroelastic behavior. A semi-span computational model is used for evaluation of symmetric motions, and a full-span model is used for evaluation of antisymmetric motions. Static aeroelastic solutions using CAP-TSD are computed. Dynamic (flutter) analyses then are performed as perturbations about the static aeroelastic deformations and presented as flutter boundaries in terms of Mach number and dynamic pressure. Flutter boundaries that take into account modal refinements, vorticity and entropy corrections, antisymmetric motions and sensitivity to the modeling of the wing tip ballast stores also are presented and compared with experimental flutter results.
TWINTN4: A program for transonic four-wall interference assessment in two-dimensional wind tunnels
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kemp, W. B., Jr.
1984-01-01
A method for assessing the wall interference in transonic two-dimensional wind tunnel tests including the effects of the tunnel sidewall boundary layer was developed and implemented in a computer program named TWINTN4. The method involves three successive solutions of the transonic small disturbance potential equation to define the wind tunnel flow, the equivalent free air flow around the model, and the perturbation attributable to the model. Required input includes pressure distributions on the model and along the top and bottom tunnel walls which are used as boundary conditions for the wind tunnel flow. The wall-induced perturbation field is determined as the difference between the perturbation in the tunnel flow solution and the perturbation attributable to the model. The methodology used in the program is described and detailed descriptions of the computer program input and output are presented. Input and output for a sample case are given.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Flemming, Robert J.
1984-01-01
Five full scale rotorcraft airfoils were tested in the NASA Ames Eleven-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel for full scale Reynolds numbers at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 1.07. The models, which spanned the tunnel from floor to ceiling, included two modern baseline airfoils, the SC1095 and SC1094 R8, which have been previously tested in other facilities. Three advanced transonic airfoils, designated the SSC-A09, SSC-A07, and SSC-B08, were tested to confirm predicted performance and provide confirmation of advanced airfoil design methods. The test showed that the eleven-foot tunnel is suited to two-dimensional airfoil testing. Maximum lift coefficients, drag coefficients, pitching moments, and pressure coefficient distributions are presented. The airfoil analysis codes agreed well with the data, with the Grumman GRUMFOIL code giving the best overall performance correlation.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.; Bennett, Robert M.
1992-01-01
The Computational Aeroelasticity Program-Transonic Small Disturbance (CAP-TSD) code, developed at LaRC, is applied to the active flexible wing wind-tunnel model for prediction of transonic aeroelastic behavior. A semi-span computational model is used for evaluation of symmetric motions, and a full-span model is used for evaluation of antisymmetric motions, and a full-span model is used for evaluation of antisymmetric motions. Static aeroelastic solutions using CAP-TSD are computed. Dynamic deformations are presented as flutter boundaries in terms of Mach number and dynamic pressure. Flutter boundaries that take into account modal refinements, vorticity and entropy corrections, antisymmetric motion, and sensitivity to the modeling of the wing tip ballast stores are also presented with experimental flutter results.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, R. M.
1986-01-01
In the context of an overall development of transonic, cryogenic wnd tunnel technology, NASA has been investigating the onset of condensation effects in nitrogen gas. The temperature at which condensation occurs determines the minimum operating temperature (MOT) of cryogenic tunnels. The apparatus and airfoils are discussed, taking into account a description of the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT), the drag rake, the airfoils, and the technique used for determining the onset of condensation effects. Attention is also given to the types of nucleation processes, the relative sensitivity of drag rake and surface pressure measurements, correlations between data and theory, the prediction of minimum operating temperatures for the 0.3-m TCT, and MOT's for different tunnels.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Puster, R. L.; Karns, J. R.; Vasquez, P.; Kelliher, W. C.
1981-01-01
A Mach 7, blowdown wind tunnel was used to investigate aerothermal structural phenomena on large to full scale high speed vehicle components. The high energy test medium, which provided a true temperature simulation of hypersonic flow at 24 to 40 km altitude, was generated by the combustion of methane with air at high pressures. Since the wind tunnel, as well as the models, must be protected from thermally induced damage, ceramics and coatings were used extensively. Coatings were used both to protect various wind tunnel components and to improve the quality of the test stream. Planned modifications for the wind tunnel included more extensive use of ceramics in order to minimize the number of active cooling systems and thus minimize the inherent operational unreliability and cost that accompanies such systems. Use of nonintrusive data acquisition techniques, such as infrared radiometry, allowed more widespread use of ceramics for models to be tested in high energy wind tunnels.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewy, Serge; Polacsek, Cyril; Barrier, Raphael
2014-12-01
Tone noise radiated through the inlet of a turbofan is mainly due to rotor-stator interactions at subsonic regimes (approach flight), and to the shock waves attached to each blade at supersonic helical tip speeds (takeoff). The axial compressor of a helicopter turboshaft engine is transonic as well and can be studied like turbofans at takeoff. The objective of the paper is to predict the sound power at the inlet radiating into the free field, with a focus on transonic conditions because sound levels are much higher. Direct numerical computation of tone acoustic power is based on a RANS (Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes) solver followed by an integration of acoustic intensity over specified inlet cross-sections, derived from Cantrell and Hart equations (valid in irrotational flows). In transonic regimes, sound power decreases along the intake because of nonlinear propagation, which must be discriminated from numerical dissipation. This is one of the reasons why an analytical approach is also suggested. It is based on three steps: (i) appraisal of the initial pressure jump of the shock waves; (ii) 2D nonlinear propagation model of Morfey and Fisher; (iii) calculation of the sound power of the 3D ducted acoustic field. In this model, all the blades are assumed to be identical such that only the blade passing frequency and its harmonics are predicted (like in the present numerical simulations). However, transfer from blade passing frequency to multiple pure tones can be evaluated in a fourth step through a statistical analysis of irregularities between blades. Interest of the analytical method is to provide a good estimate of nonlinear acoustic propagation in the upstream duct while being easy and fast to compute. The various methods are applied to two turbofan models, respectively in approach (subsonic) and takeoff (transonic) conditions, and to a Turbomeca turboshaft engine (transonic case). The analytical method in transonic appears to be quite reliable by comparison
Analysis of Ares Crew Launch Vehicle Transonic Alternating Flow Phenomenon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sekula, Martin K.; Piatak, David J.; Rausch, Russ D.
2012-01-01
A transonic wind tunnel test of the Ares I-X Rigid Buffet Model (RBM) identified a Mach number regime where unusually large buffet loads are present. A subsequent investigation identified the cause of these loads to be an alternating flow phenomenon at the Crew Module-Service Module junction. The conical design of the Ares I-X Crew Module and the cylindrical design of the Service Module exposes the vehicle to unsteady pressure loads due to the sudden transition between a subsonic separated and a supersonic attached flow about the cone-cylinder junction as the local flow randomly fluctuates back and forth between the two flow states. These fluctuations produce a square-wave like pattern in the pressure time histories resulting in large amplitude, impulsive buffet loads. Subsequent testing of the Ares I RBM found much lower buffet loads since the evolved Ares I design includes an ogive fairing that covers the Crew Module-Service Module junction, thereby making the vehicle less susceptible to the onset of alternating flow. An analysis of the alternating flow separation and attachment phenomenon indicates that the phenomenon is most severe at low angles of attack and exacerbated by the presence of vehicle protuberances. A launch vehicle may experience either a single or, at most, a few impulsive loads since it is constantly accelerating during ascent rather than dwelling at constant flow conditions in a wind tunnel. A comparison of a windtunnel- test-data-derived impulsive load to flight-test-data-derived load indicates a significant over-prediction in the magnitude and duration of the buffet load. I. Introduction One
Aeroloads and secondary flows in a transonic mixed flow turbine stage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kirtley, K. R.; Beach, T. A.; Rogo, Cass
1992-01-01
A numerical simulation of a transonic mixed flow turbine stage has been carried out using an average passage Navier-Stokes analysis. The mixed flow turbine stage considered here consists of a transonic nozzle vane and a highly loaded rotor. The simulation was run at the design pressure ratio and is assessed by comparing results with those of an established throughflow design system. The three-dimensional aerodynamic loads are studied as well as the development and migration of secondary flows and their contribution to the total pressure loss. The numerical results indicate that strong passage vortices develop in the nozzle vane, mix out quickly, and have little impact on the rotor flow. The rotor is highly loaded near the leading edge. Within the rotor passage, strong spanwise flows and other secondary flows exist along with the tip leakage vortex. The rotor exit loss distribution is similar in character to that found in radial inflow turbines. The secondary flows and non-uniform work extraction also tend to significantly redistribute a non-uniform inlet total temperature profile by the exit of the stage.
Three-Dimensional Flow Field Measurements in a Transonic Turbine Cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Giel, P. W.; Thurman, D. R.; Lopez, I.; Boyle, R. J.; VanFossen, G. J.; Jett, T. A.; Camperchioli, W. P.; La, H.
1996-01-01
Three-dimensional flow field measurements are presented for a large scale transonic turbine blade cascade. Flow field total pressures and pitch and yaw flow angles were measured at an inlet Reynolds number of 1.0 x 10(exp 6) and at an isentropic exit Mach number of 1.3 in a low turbulence environment. Flow field data was obtained on five pitchwise/spanwise measurement planes, two upstream and three downstream of the cascade, each covering three blade pitches. Three-hole boundary layer probes and five-hole pitch/yaw probes were used to obtain data at over 1200 locations in each of the measurement planes. Blade and endwall static pressures were also measured at an inlet Reynolds number of 0.5 x 10(exp 6) and at an isentropic exit Mach number of 1.0. Tests were conducted in a linear cascade at the NASA Lewis Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The test article was a turbine rotor with 136 deg of turning and an axial chord of 12.7 cm. The flow field in the cascade is highly three-dimensional as a result of thick boundary layers at the test section inlet and because of the high degree of flow turning. The large scale allowed for very detailed measurements of both flow field and surface phenomena. The intent of the work is to provide benchmark quality data for CFD code and model verification.
Aerodynamic Measurements on a Large Splitter Plate for the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schuster, David M.
2001-01-01
Tests conducted in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) assess the aerodynamic characteristics of a splitter plate used to test some semispan models in this facility. Aerodynamic data are analyzed to determine the effect of the splitter plate on the operating characteristics of the TDT, as well as to define the range of conditions over which the plate can be reasonably used to obtain aerodynamic data. Static pressures measurements on the splitter plate surface and the equipment fairing between the wind tunnel wall and the splitter plate are evaluated to determine the flow quality around the apparatus over a range of operating conditions. Boundary layer rake data acquired near the plate surface define the viscous characteristics of the flow over the plate. Data were acquired over a range of subsonic, transonic and supersonic conditions at dynamic pressures typical for models tested on this apparatus. Data from this investigation should be used as a guide for the design of TDT models and tests using the splitter plate, as well as to guide future splitter plate design for this facility.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ehlers, F. E.; Weatherill, W. H.; Yip, E. L.
1984-01-01
A finite difference method to solve the unsteady transonic flow about harmonically oscillating wings was investigated. The procedure is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady differential equation for small disturbances. The differential equation for the unsteady velocity potential is linear with spatially varying coefficients and with the time variable eliminated by assuming harmonic motion. An alternating direction implicit procedure was investigated, and a pilot program was developed for both two and three dimensional wings. This program provides a relatively efficient relaxation solution without previously encountered solution instability problems. Pressure distributions for two rectangular wings are calculated. Conjugate gradient techniques were developed for the asymmetric, indefinite problem. The conjugate gradient procedure is evaluated for applications to the unsteady transonic problem. Different equations for the alternating direction procedure are derived using a coordinate transformation for swept and tapered wing planforms. Pressure distributions for swept, untaped wings of vanishing thickness are correlated with linear results for sweep angles up to 45 degrees.
The effects of rotational flow, viscosity, thickness, and shape on transonic flutter dip phenomena
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reddy, T. S. R.; Srivastava, Rakesh; Kaza, Krishna Rao V.
1988-01-01
The transonic flutter dip phenomena on thin airfoils, which are employed for propfan blades, is investigated using an integrated Euler/Navier-Stokes code and a two degrees of freedom typical section structural model. As a part of the code validation, the flutter characteristics of the NACA 64A010 airfoil are also investigated. In addition, the effects of artificial dissipation models, rotational flow, initial conditions, mean angle of attack, viscosity, airfoil thickness and shape on flutter are investigated. The results obtained with a Euler code for the NACA 64A010 airfoil are in reasonable agreement with published results obtained by using transonic small disturbance and Euler codes. The two artificial dissipation models, one based on the local pressure gradient scaled by a common factor and the other based on the local pressure gradient scaled by a spectral radius, predicted the same flutter speeds except in the recovery region for the case studied. The effects of rotational flow, initial conditions, mean angle of attack, and viscosity for the Reynold's number studied seem to be negligible or small on the minima of the flutter dip.
An approach for aerodynamic optimization of transonic fan blades
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khelghatibana, Maryam
Aerodynamic design optimization of transonic fan blades is a highly challenging problem due to the complexity of flow field inside the fan, the conflicting design requirements and the high-dimensional design space. In order to address all these challenges, an aerodynamic design optimization method is developed in this study. This method automates the design process by integrating a geometrical parameterization method, a CFD solver and numerical optimization methods that can be applied to both single and multi-point optimization design problems. A multi-level blade parameterization is employed to modify the blade geometry. Numerical analyses are performed by solving 3D RANS equations combined with SST turbulence model. Genetic algorithms and hybrid optimization methods are applied to solve the optimization problem. In order to verify the effectiveness and feasibility of the optimization method, a singlepoint optimization problem aiming to maximize design efficiency is formulated and applied to redesign a test case. However, transonic fan blade design is inherently a multi-faceted problem that deals with several objectives such as efficiency, stall margin, and choke margin. The proposed multi-point optimization method in the current study is formulated as a bi-objective problem to maximize design and near-stall efficiencies while maintaining the required design pressure ratio. Enhancing these objectives significantly deteriorate the choke margin, specifically at high rotational speeds. Therefore, another constraint is embedded in the optimization problem in order to prevent the reduction of choke margin at high speeds. Since capturing stall inception is numerically very expensive, stall margin has not been considered as an objective in the problem statement. However, improving near-stall efficiency results in a better performance at stall condition, which could enhance the stall margin. An investigation is therefore performed on the Pareto-optimal solutions to
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tanaka, K.; Hirose, H.
1986-01-01
The development of transonic aerodynamic computation methods and specific examples, as well as examples of three-dimensional transonic computation in design, are discussed. The case of the transonic transport and the case of the small transport are analyzed. Requirements for programs of the future are itemized.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Glazkov, S. A.; Gorbushin, A. R.; Osipova, S. L.; Semenov, A. V.
2016-10-01
The report describes the results of flow field experimental research in TsAGI T-128 transonic wind tunnel. During the tests Mach number, stagnation pressure, test section wall perforation ratio, angles between the test section panels and mixing chamber flaps varied. Based on the test results one determined corrections to the free-stream Mach number related to the flow speed difference in the model location and in the zone of static pressure measurement on the test section walls, nonuniformity of the longitudinal velocity component in the model location, optimal position of the movable test section elements to provide flow field uniformity in the test section and minimize the test leg drag.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hall, R. M.; Adcock, J. B.
1981-01-01
The real gas behavior of nitrogen, the gas normally used in transonic cryogenic tunnels, is reported for the following flow processes: isentropic expansion, normal shocks, boundary layers, and interactions between shock waves and boundary layers. The only difference in predicted pressure ratio between nitrogen and an ideal gas which may limit the minimum operating temperature of transonic cryogenic wind tunnels occur at total pressures approaching 9 atm and total temperatures 10 K below the corresponding saturation temperature. These pressure differences approach 1 percent for both isentropic expansions and normal shocks. Alternative cryogenic test gases were also analyzed. Differences between air and an ideal diatomic gas are similar in magnitude to those for nitrogen and should present no difficulty. However, differences for helium and hydrogen are over an order of magnitude greater than those for nitrogen or air. It is concluded that helium and cryogenic hydrogen would not approximate the compressible flow of an ideal diatomic gas.
Investigations for Supersonic Transports at Transonic and Supersonic Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rivers, S. Melissa B.; Owens, Lewis R.; Wahls, Richard A.
2007-01-01
Several computational studies were conducted as part of NASA s High Speed Research Program. Results of turbulence model comparisons from two studies on supersonic transport configurations performed during the NASA High-Speed Research program are given. The effects of grid topology and the representation of the actual wind tunnel model geometry are also investigated. Results are presented for both transonic conditions at Mach 0.90 and supersonic conditions at Mach 2.48. A feature of these two studies was the availability of higher Reynolds number wind tunnel data with which to compare the computational results. The transonic wind tunnel data was obtained in the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley, and the supersonic data was obtained in the Boeing Polysonic Wind Tunnel. The computational data was acquired using a state of the art Navier-Stokes flow solver with a wide range of turbulence models implemented. The results show that the computed forces compare reasonably well with the experimental data, with the Baldwin-Lomax with Degani-Schiff modifications and the Baldwin-Barth models showing the best agreement for the transonic conditions and the Spalart-Allmaras model showing the best agreement for the supersonic conditions. The transonic results were more sensitive to the choice of turbulence model than were the supersonic results.
Numerical solutions of the Navier-Stokes equations for transonic afterbody flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swanson, R. C., Jr.
1980-01-01
The time dependent Navier-Stokes equations in mass averaged variables are solved for transonic flow over axisymmetric boattail plume simulator configurations. Numerical solution of these equations is accomplished with the unsplit explict finite difference algorithm of MacCormack. A grid subcycling procedure and computer code vectorization are used to improve computational efficiency. The two layer algebraic turbulence models of Cebeci-Smith and Baldwin-Lomax are employed for investigating turbulence closure. Two relaxation models based on these baseline models are also considered. Results in the form of surface pressure distribution for three different circular arc boattails at two free stream Mach numbers are compared with experimental data. The pressures in the recirculating flow region for all separated cases are poorly predicted with the baseline turbulence models. Significant improvements in the predictions are usually obtained by using the relaxation models.
Wall Boundary Layer Measurements for the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wieseman, Carol D.; Bennett, Robert M.
2007-01-01
Measurements of the boundary layer parameters in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics tunnel were conducted during extensive calibration activities following the facility conversion from a Freon-12 heavy-gas test medium to R-134a. Boundary-layer rakes were mounted on the wind-tunnel walls, ceiling, and floor. Measurements were made over the range of tunnel operation envelope in both heavy gas and air and without a model in the test section at three tunnel stations. Configuration variables included open and closed east sidewall wall slots, for air and R134a test media, reentry flap settings, and stagnation pressures over the full range of tunnel operation. The boundary layer thickness varied considerably for the six rakes. The thickness for the east wall was considerably larger that the other rakes and was also larger than previously reported. There generally was some reduction in thickness at supersonic Mach numbers, but the effect of stagnation pressure, and test medium were not extensive.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liu, D. D.; Kao, Y. F.; Fung, K. Y.
1989-01-01
A transonic equivalent strip (TES) method was further developed for unsteady flow computations of arbitrary wing planforms. The TES method consists of two consecutive correction steps to a given nonlinear code such as LTRAN2; namely, the chordwise mean flow correction and the spanwise phase correction. The computation procedure requires direct pressure input from other computed or measured data. Otherwise, it does not require airfoil shape or grid generation for given planforms. To validate the computed results, four swept wings of various aspect ratios, including those with control surfaces, are selected as computational examples. Overall trends in unsteady pressures are established with those obtained by XTRAN3S codes, Isogai's full potential code and measured data by NLR and RAE. In comparison with these methods, the TES has achieved considerable saving in computer time and reasonable accuracy which suggests immediate industrial applications.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ferri, A.; Roffe, G.
1975-01-01
A series of experiments were performed to evaluate the effectiveness of a three-dimensional land and groove wall geometry and a variable permeability distribution to reduce the interference produced by the porous walls of a supercritical transonic test section. The three-dimensional wall geometry was found to diffuse the pressure perturbations caused by small local mismatches in wall porosity permitting the use of a relatively coarse wall porosity control to reduce or eliminate wall interference effects. The wall porosity distribution required was found to be a sensitive function of Mach number requiring that the Mach number repeatability characteristics of the test apparatus be quite good. The effectiveness of a variable porosity wall is greatest in the upstream region of the test section where the pressure differences across the wall are largest. An effective variable porosity wall in the down stream region of the test section requires the use of a slightly convergent test section geometry.
Application of FLEET Velocimetry in the NASA Langley 0.3-meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Burns, Ross A.; Danehy, Paul M.; Halls, Benjamin R.; Jiang, Naibo
2015-01-01
Femtosecond laser electronic excitation and tagging (FLEET) velocimetry is demonstrated in a large-scale transonic cryogenic wind tunnel. Test conditions include total pressures, total temperatures, and Mach numbers ranging from 15 to 58 psia, 200 to 295 K, and 0.2 to 0.75, respectively. Freestream velocity measurements exhibit accuracies within 1 percent and precisions better than 1 m/s. The measured velocities adhere closely to isentropic flow theory over the domain of temperatures and pressures that were tested. Additional velocity measurements are made within the tunnel boundary layer; virtual trajectories traced out by the FLEET signal are indicative of the characteristic turbulent behavior in this region of the flow, where the unsteadiness increases demonstrably as the wall is approached. Mean velocities taken within the boundary layer are in agreement with theoretical velocity profiles, though the fluctuating velocities exhibit a greater deviation from theoretical predictions.
Investigation of passive shock wave-boundary layer control for transonic airfoil drag reduction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nagamatsu, H. T.; Brower, W. B., Jr.; Bahi, L.; Ross, J.
1982-01-01
The passive drag control concept, consisting of a porous surface with a cavity beneath it, was investigated with a 12-percent-thick circular arc and a 14-percent-thick supercritical airfoil mounted on the test section bottom wall. The porous surface was positioned in the shock wave/boundary layer interaction region. The flow circulating through the porous surface, from the downstream to the upstream of the terminating shock wave location, produced a lambda shock wave system and a pressure decrease in the downstream region minimizing the flow separation. The wake impact pressure data show an appreciably drag reduction with the porous surface at transonic speeds. To determine the optimum size of porosity and cavity, tunnel tests were conducted with different airfoil porosities, cavities and flow Mach numbers. A higher drag reduction was obtained by the 2.5 percent porosity and the 1/4-inch deep cavity.
Investigation of Three-Dimensional Unsteady Flow Characteristics in Transonic Diffusers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Proshchanka, Dzianis; Yonezawa, Koichi; Tsujimoto, Yoshinobu
Three-dimensional characteristics of unsteady flow in supercritical transonic diffuser are investigated. For various pressure ratios three-dimensional flow containing a normal shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction regions with shockwave and pseudo-shockwaves fluctuating in longitudinal and spanwise directions is observed. Experimental and numerical investigations show details of the flowfield in the vicinity of terminal shock, interaction regions and downstream turbulent unsteady flow. Spectral analysis of pressure fluctuations reveals existence of two characteristic frequencies attributed to the shockwave fluctuation in longitudinal direction for the lower frequency case and acoustic resonance in spanwise direction for the higher one. Vortices appear at each corner in transversal sections modifying the core flow. As a result, size and depth of longitudinal and vertical penetration of separation regions impelled by the terminal shock is either increased or decreased.
Development and validation of a hybrid-computer simulator for a transonic cryogenic wind tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Thibodeaux, J. J.; Balakrishna, S.
1980-01-01
A study was undertaken to model the cryogenic wind tunnel process, to validate the model by the use of experimental data from the Langley 0.3 Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel, and to construct an interactive simulator of the cryogenic tunnel using the validated model. Additionally, this model was used for designing closed loop feedback control laws for regulation of temperature and pressure in the 0.3 meter cryogenic tunnel. The global mathematical model of the cryogenic tunnel that were developed consists of coupled, nonlinear differential governing equations based on an energy state concept of the physical cryogenic phenomena. Process equations and comparisons between actual tunnel responses and computer simulation predictions were examined. Also included are the control laws and simulator responses obtained using the feedback schemes for closed loop control of temperature and pressure were also included.
Validation of the NPARC code for nozzle afterbody flows at transonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Debonis, James R.; Georgiadis, Nicholas J.; Smith, Crawford F.
1995-01-01
The NPARC code, a Reynolds-averaged full Navier-Stokes code, was validated for nozzle afterbody (boatail) flow fields at transonic speeds. The flow fields about three geometries were studied: an axisymmetric nozzle with attached flow; an axisymmetric nozzle with separated flow: and a two-dimensional (rectangular) nozzle with separated flow. Three turbulence models, Baldwin-Lomax, Baldwin-Barth, and Chien k-epsilon, were used to determine the effect of turbulence model selection on the flow field solution. Static pressure distributions on the nozzle surfaces and pitot pressure measurements in the exhaust plume were examined. Results from the NPARC code compared very well with experimental data for all cases. For attached flow fields, the effect of the turbulence models showed no discernable differences. The Baldwin-Barth model yielded better results than either the Chien k-epsilon or the Baldwin-Lomax model for separated flow fields.
Theory of viscous transonic flow over airfoils at high Reynolds number
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melnik, R. E.; Chow, R.; Mead, H. R.
1977-01-01
This paper considers viscous flows with unseparated turbulent boundary layers over two-dimensional airfoils at transonic speeds. Conventional theoretical methods are based on boundary layer formulations which do not account for the effect of the curved wake and static pressure variations across the boundary layer in the trailing edge region. In this investigation an extended viscous theory is developed that accounts for both effects. The theory is based on a rational analysis of the strong turbulent interaction at airfoil trailing edges. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is employed to develop formal series solutions of the full Reynolds equations in the limit of Reynolds numbers tending to infinity. Procedures are developed for combining the local trailing edge solution with numerical methods for solving the full potential flow and boundary layer equations. Theoretical results indicate that conventional boundary layer methods account for only about 50% of the viscous effect on lift, the remaining contribution arising from wake curvature and normal pressure gradient effects.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reznick, Steve
1988-01-01
Transonic Euler/Navier-Stokes computations are accomplished for wing-body flow fields using a computer program called Transonic Navier-Stokes (TNS). The wing-body grids are generated using a program called ZONER, which subdivides a coarse grid about a fighter-like aircraft configuration into smaller zones, which are tailored to local grid requirements. These zones can be either finely clustered for capture of viscous effects, or coarsely clustered for inviscid portions of the flow field. Different equation sets may be solved in the different zone types. This modular approach also affords the opportunity to modify a local region of the grid without recomputing the global grid. This capability speeds up the design optimization process when quick modifications to the geometry definition are desired. The solution algorithm embodied in TNS is implicit, and is capable of capturing pressure gradients associated with shocks. The algebraic turbulence model employed has proven adequate for viscous interactions with moderate separation. Results confirm that the TNS program can successfully be used to simulate transonic viscous flows about complicated 3-D geometries.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, David T.; Milholen, William E., II; Jones, Gregory S.; Goodliff, Scott L.
2014-01-01
A second wind tunnel test of the FAST-MAC circulation control semi-span model was recently completed in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center. The model allowed independent control of four circulation control plenums producing a high momentum jet from a blowing slot near the wing trailing edge that was directed over a 15% chord simple-hinged flap. The model was configured for transonic testing of the cruise configuration with 0deg flap deflection to determine the potential for drag reduction with the circulation control blowing. Encouraging results from analysis of wing surface pressures suggested that the circulation control blowing was effective in reducing the transonic drag on the configuration, however this could not be quantified until the thrust generated by the blowing slot was correctly removed from the force and moment balance data. This paper will present the thrust removal methodology used for the FAST-MAC circulation control model and describe the experimental measurements and techniques used to develop the methodology. A discussion on the impact to the force and moment data as a result of removing the thrust from the blowing slot will also be presented for the cruise configuration, where at some Mach and Reynolds number conditions, the thrust-removed corrected data showed that a drag reduction was realized as a consequence of the blowing.
Analysis of the National Transonic Facility mishap
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fasanella, Edwin L.; Robinson, Martha P.
1990-01-01
The nonlinear dynamic finite element code DYnamic Crash Analysis of STructures (DYCAST) was used to model an accident scenario that occurred at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) wind tunnel. A post mishap investigation revealed that a total of five upstream bulkhead fairing plates were missing, three in one location and two in another. These plates were drawn into the wind tunnel's composite fan blades causing extensive damage. A DYCAST model was developed to determine if one-half of a small thermal shield flange clamp, weighing approximately 2.7 lbs., could have spun off the NTF drive shaft and impacted the bulkhead fairing plates with sufficient energy to cause failure of the attachment bolts. The clamp was presumed to have spun off at a tangent from the NTF drive shaft at a velocity of 1624 in/sec (drive shaft rotating at 580 rpm). The DYCAST analytical model predicts that impact of the 2.7 lbs projectile failed all of the bolts in two of the fairing plates allowing them to escape from the bulkhead ring with a low velocity of a few in/sec.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lewis, M. C.
1984-01-01
Validation data from the Transonic Self-Streamlining Wind Tunnel has proved the feasibility of streamlining two dimensional flexible walls at low speeds and up to transonic speeds, the upper limit being the speed where the flexible walls are just supercritical. At this condition, breakdown of the wall setting strategy is evident in that convergence is neither as rapid nor as stable as for lower speeds, and wall streamlining criteria are not always completely satisfied. The only major step necessary to permit the extension of two dimensional testing into higher transonic speeds is the provision of a rapid algorithm to solve for mixed flow in the imagery flow fields. The status of two dimensional high transonic testing in the Transonic Self-Streamlining Wind Tunnel is outlined and, in particular, the progress of adapting an algorithm, which solves the Transonic Small Perturbation Equation, for predicting the imagery flow fields is detailed.
Large Eddy Simulation of Transonic Flow Field in NASA Rotor 37
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hah, Chunill
2009-01-01
The current paper reports on numerical investigations on the flow characteristics in a transonic axial compressor, NASA Rotor 37. The flow field was used previously as a CFD blind test case conducted by American Society of Mechanical Engineers in 1994. Since the CFD blind-test exercise, many numerical studies on the flow field in the NASA Rotor 37 have been reported. Although steady improvements have been reported in both numerical procedure and turbulence closure, it is believed that all the important aspects of the flow field have not been fully explained with numerical studies based on the Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) solution. Experimental data show large dip in total pressure distribution near the hub at downstream of the rotor at 100% rotor speed. Most original numerical solutions from the blind test exercise did not predict this total pressure deficit correctly. This total pressure deficit at the rotor exit was attributed to a hub corner flow separation by the author. Several subsequent numerical studies with different turbulence closure model also calculated this dip in total pressure rise. Also, several studies attributed this total pressure deficit to a small leakage flow coming from the hub in the test article. As the experimental study cannot be repeated, either explanation cannot be validated. The primary purpose of the current investigation is to investigate the transonic flow field with both RANS and a Large Eddy Simulation (LES). The RANS approach gives similar results presented at the original blind test exercise. Although the RANS calculates higher overall total pressure rise, the total pressure deficit near the hub is calculated correctly. The numerical solution shows that the total pressure deficit is due to a hub corner flow separation. The calculated pressure rise from the LES agrees better with the measured total pressure rise especially near the casing area where the passage shock interacts with the tip clearance vortex and flow
A Small-Disturbance Theory of Transonic Combustion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rusak, Zvi
2003-11-01
A new small-disturbance model for combustion with transonic flow in a converging-diverging channel is presented. Attention is confined to dilute premixtures so that exothermicity is weak. The model explores the nonlinear interactions between the near-sonic speed of the flow, the small geometry changes from a straight channel, and the small heat release due to the chemical reaction. The asymptotic analysis results in the similarity parameters that govern the reacting flow field. Also, the problem can be described by a nonhomogeneous (extended) transonic small-disturbance (TSD) equation which is coupled with an ordinary differential equation for the calculation of the reactant mass fraction in the combustible gas. An iterative numerical scheme which combines the Murman and Cole (1971) method for the solution of the TSD equation with Simpson's integration rule for the estimation of the reactant mass fraction is developed. The model is used to study transonic combustion at various inlet temperatures and Mach numbers.
Finite elements and finite differences for transonic flow calculations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hafez, M. M.; Murman, E. M.; Wellford, L. C.
1978-01-01
The paper reviews the chief finite difference and finite element techniques used for numerical solution of nonlinear mixed elliptic-hyperbolic equations governing transonic flow. The forms of the governing equations for unsteady two-dimensional transonic flow considered are the Euler equation, the full potential equation in both conservative and nonconservative form, the transonic small-disturbance equation in both conservative and nonconservative form, and the hodograph equations for the small-disturbance case and the full-potential case. Finite difference methods considered include time-dependent methods, relaxation methods, semidirect methods, and hybrid methods. Finite element methods include finite element Lax-Wendroff schemes, implicit Galerkin method, mixed variational principles, dual iterative procedures, optimal control methods and least squares.
Thermodynamic evaluation of transonic compressor rotors using the finite volume approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nicholson, S.; Moore, J.
1986-01-01
A method was developed which calculates two-dimensional, transonic, viscous flow in ducts. The finite volume, time marching formulation is used to obtain steady flow solutions of the Reynolds-averaged form of the Navier Stokes equations. The entire calculation is performed in the physical domain. The method is currently limited to the calculation of attached flows. The features of the current method can be summarized as follows. Control volumes are chosen so that smoothing of flow properties, typically required for stability, is now needed. Different time steps are used in the different governing equations to improve the convergence speed of the viscous calculations. A new pressure interpolation scheme is introduced which improves the shock capturing ability of the method. A multi-volume method for pressure changes in the boundary layer allows calculations which use very long and thin control volumes. A special discretization technique is also used to stabilize these calculations. A special formulation of the energy equation is used to provide improved transient behavior of solutions which use the full energy equation. The method is then compared with a wide variety of test cases. The freestream Mach numbers range from 0.075 to 2.8 in the calculations. Transonic viscous flow in a converging diverging nozzle is calculated with the method; the Mach number upstream of the shock is approximately 1.25. The agreement between the calculated and measured shock strength and total pressure losses is good. Essentially incompressible turbulent boundary layer flow in a adverse pressure gradient is calculated and the computed distribution of mean velocity and shear stress are in good agreement with the measurements. At the other end of the Mach number range, a flat plate turbulent boundary layer with a freestream Mach number of 2.8 is calculated using the full energy equation; the computed total temperature distribution and recovery factor agree well with the measurements when a
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pierzga, M. J.; Wood, J. R.
1984-01-01
An experimental investigation of the three dimensional flow field through a low aspect ratio, transonic, axial flow fan rotor has been conducted using an advanced laser anemometer (LA) system. Laser velocimeter measurements of the rotor flow field at the design operating speed and over a range of through flow conditions are compared to analytical solutions. The numerical technique used herein yields the solution to the full, three dimensional, unsteady Euler equations using an explicit time marching, finite volume approach. The numerical analysis, when coupled with a simplified boundary layer calculation, generally yields good agreement with the experimental data. The test rotor has an aspect ratio of 1.56, a design total pressure ratio of 1.629 and a tip relative Mach number of 1.38. The high spatial resolution of the LA data matrix (9 radial by 30 axial by 50 blade to blade) permits details of the transonic flow field such as shock location, turning distribution and blade loading levels to be investigated and compared to analytical results.
A study of the noise mechanisms of transonic blade-vortex interactions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lyrintzis, Anastasios S.; Xue, Y.
1990-01-01
Transonic blade-vortex interactions (BVI) are simulated numerically and the noise mechanisms are investigated. The two-dimensional high frequency transonic small disturbance equation is solved numerically (VTRAN2 code). An ADI scheme with monotone switches is used; viscous effects are included on the boundary, and the vortex is simulated by the cloud in cell method. The Kirchhoff method is used for the extension of the numerical two-dimensional near-field aerodynamic results to the linear acoustic three dimensional far field. The viscous effects (shock/boundary layer interactions) on BVI is investigated. The different types of shock motion are identified and compared. Two important disturbances with different directivity exist in the pressure signal and are believed to be related to the fluctuating lift and drag forces. Noise directivity for different cases is shown. The maximum radiation occurs at an angle between 60 and 90 degrees below the horizontal for an airfoil-fixed coordinate system and depends on the details of the airfoil shape. Different airfoil shapes are studied and classified according to the BVI noise produced.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, David T.; Balakrishna, Sundareswara; Walker, Eric L.; Goodliff, Scott L.
2015-01-01
Recent data quality improvements at the National Transonic Facility have an intended goal of reducing the Mach number variation in a data point to within plus or minus 0.0005, with the ultimate goal of reducing the data repeatability of the drag coefficient for full-span subsonic transport models at transonic speeds to within half a drag count. This paper will discuss the Mach stability improvements achieved through the use of an existing second throat capability at the NTF to create a minimum area at the end of the test section. These improvements were demonstrated using both the NASA Common Research Model and the NTF Pathfinder-I model in recent experiments. Sonic conditions at the throat were verified using sidewall static pressure data. The Mach variation levels from both experiments in the baseline tunnel configuration and the choked tunnel configuration will be presented and the correlation between Mach number and drag will also be examined. Finally, a brief discussion is given on the consequences of using the second throat in its location at the end of the test section.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, David T.
2015-01-01
Recent data quality improvements at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) have an intended goal of reducing the Mach number variation in a data point to within unit vector A plus or minus 0.0005, with the ultimate goal of reducing the data repeatability of the drag coefficient for full-span subsonic transport models at transonic speeds to within half of a drag count. This paper will discuss the Mach stability improvements achieved through the use of an existing second throat capability at the NTF to create a minimum area at the end of the test section. These improvements were demonstrated using both the NASA Common Research Model and the NTF Pathfinder-I model in recent experiments. Sonic conditions at the throat were verified using sidewall static pressure data. The Mach variation levels from both experiments in the baseline tunnel configuration and the choked tunnel configuration will be presented. Finally, a brief discussion is given on the consequences of using the second throat in its location at the end of the test section.
Transonic Flutter Suppression Control Law Design, Analysis and Wind Tunnel Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhopadhyay, Vivek
1999-01-01
The benchmark active controls technology and wind tunnel test program at NASA Langley Research Center was started with the objective to investigate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamics and active flutter suppression of wings in transonic flow. The paper will present the flutter suppression control law design process, numerical nonlinear simulation and wind tunnel test results for the NACA 0012 benchmark active control wing model. The flutter suppression control law design processes using (1) classical, (2) linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and (3) minimax techniques are described. A unified general formulation and solution for the LQG and minimax approaches, based on the steady state differential game theory is presented. Design considerations for improving the control law robustness and digital implementation are outlined. It was shown that simple control laws when properly designed based on physical principles, can suppress flutter with limited control power even in the presence of transonic shocks and flow separation. In wind tunnel tests in air and heavy gas medium, the closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure was increased to the tunnel upper limit of 200 psf The control law robustness and performance predictions were verified in highly nonlinear flow conditions, gain and phase perturbations, and spoiler deployment. A non-design plunge instability condition was also successfully suppressed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhopadhyay, Vivek
1999-01-01
The benchmark active controls technology and wind tunnel test program at NASA Langley Research Center was started with the objective to investigate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamics and active flutter suppression of wings in transonic flow. The paper will present the flutter suppression control law design process, numerical nonlinear simulation and wind tunnel test results for the NACA 0012 benchmark active control wing model. The flutter suppression control law design processes using (1) classical, (2) linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and (3) minimax techniques are described. A unified general formulation and solution for the LQG and minimax approaches, based on the steady state differential game theory is presented. Design considerations for improving the control law robustness and digital implementation are outlined. It was shown that simple control laws when properly designed based on physical principles, can suppress flutter with limited control power even in the presence of transonic shocks and flow separation. In wind tunnel tests in air and heavy gas medium, the closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure was increased to the tunnel upper limit of 200 psf. The control law robustness and performance predictions were verified in highly nonlinear flow conditions, gain and phase perturbations, and spoiler deployment. A non-design plunge instability condition was also successfully suppressed.
Transonic Flutter Suppression Control Law Design, Analysis and Wind-Tunnel Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhopadhyay, Vivek
1999-01-01
The benchmark active controls technology and wind tunnel test program at NASA Langley Research Center was started with the objective to investigate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamics and active flutter suppression of wings in transonic flow. The paper will present the flutter suppression control law design process, numerical nonlinear simulation and wind tunnel test results for the NACA 0012 benchmark active control wing model. The flutter suppression control law design processes using classical, and minimax techniques are described. A unified general formulation and solution for the minimax approach, based on the steady state differential game theory is presented. Design considerations for improving the control law robustness and digital implementation are outlined. It was shown that simple control laws when properly designed based on physical principles, can suppress flutter with limited control power even in the presence of transonic shocks and flow separation. In wind tunnel tests in air and heavy gas medium, the closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure was increased to the tunnel upper limit of 200 psf. The control law robustness and performance predictions were verified in highly nonlinear flow conditions, gain and phase perturbations, and spoiler deployment. A non-design plunge instability condition was also successfully suppressed.
Transonic Flutter Suppression Control Law Design, Analysis and Wind-Tunnel Results
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mukhopadhyay, Vivek
1999-01-01
The benchmark active controls technology and wind tunnel test program at NASA Langley Research Center was started with the objective to investigate the nonlinear, unsteady aerodynamics and active flutter suppression of wings in transonic flow. The paper will present the flutter suppression control law design process, numerical nonlinear simulation and wind tunnel test results for the NACA 0012 benchmark active control wing model. The flutter suppression control law design processes using (1) classical, (2) linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG), and (3) minimax techniques are described. A unified general formulation and solution for the LQG and minimax approaches, based on the steady state differential game theory is presented. Design considerations for improving the control law robustness and digital implementation are outlined. It was shown that simple control laws when properly designed based on physical principles, can suppress flutter with limited control power even in the presence of transonic shocks and flow separation. In wind tunnel tests in air and heavy gas medium, the closed-loop flutter dynamic pressure was increased to the tunnel upper limit of 200 psf. The control law robustness and performance predictions were verified in highly nonlinear flow conditions, gain and phase perturbations, and spoiler deployment. A non-design plunge instability condition was also successfully suppressed.
Transonic aeroelastic analysis of launch vehicle configurations. Ph.D. Thesis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Filgueirasdeazevedo, Joao Luiz
1988-01-01
A numerical study of the aeroelastic stability of typical launch vehicle configurations in transonic flight is performed. Recent computational fluid dynamics techniques are used to simulate the transonic aerodynamic flow fields, as opposed to relying on experimental data for the unsteady aerodynamic pressures. The flow solver is coupled to an appropriate structural representation of the vehicle. The aerodynamic formulation is based on the thin layer approximation to the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, where the account for turbulent mixing is done by the two-layer Baldwin and Lomax algebraic eddy viscosity model. The structural-dynamic equations are developed considering free-free flexural vibration of an elongated beam with variable properties and are cast in modal form. Aeroelastic analyses are performed by integrating simultaneously in the two sets of equations. By tracing the growth or decay of a perturbed oscillation, the aeroelastic stability of a given constant configuration can be ascertained. The method is described in detail, and results that indicate its application are presented. Applications include some validation cases for the algorithm developed, as well as the study of configurations known to have presented flutter programs in the past.
Semi-span model testing in the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chokani, Ndaona; Milholen, William E., II
1993-01-01
A semi-span testing technique has been proposed for the NASA Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility (NTF). Semi-span testing has several advantages including (1) larger model size, giving increased Reynolds number capability; (2) improved model fidelity, allowing ease of flap and slat positioning which ultimately improves data quality; and (3) reduced construction costs compared with a full-span model. In addition, the increased model size inherently allows for increased model strength, reducing aeroelastic effects at the high dynamic pressure levels necessary to simulate flight Reynolds numbers. The Energy Efficient Transport (EET) full-span model has been modified to become the EET semi-span model. The full-span EET model was tested extensively at both NASA LRC and NASA Ames Research Center. The available full-span data will be useful in validating the semi-span test strategy in the NTF. In spite of the advantages discussed above, the use of a semi-span model does introduce additional challenges which must be addressed in the testing procedure. To minimize the influence of the sidewall boundary layer on the flow over the semi-span model, the model must be off-set from the sidewall. The objective is to remove the semi-span model from the sidewall boundary layer by use of a stand-off geometry. When this is done however, the symmetry along the centerline of the full-span model is lost when the semi-span model is mounted on the wind tunnel sidewall. In addition, the large semi-span model will impose a significant pressure loading on the sidewall boundary layer, which may cause separation. Even under flow conditions where the sidewall boundary layer remains attached, the sidewall boundary layer may adversely effect the flow over the semi-span model. Also, the increased model size and sidewall mounting requires a modified wall correction strategy. With these issues in mind, the semi-span model has been well instrumented with surface pressure taps to
Implicit, nonswitching, vector-oriented algorithm for steady transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lottati, I.
1983-01-01
A rapid computation of a sequence of transonic flow solutions has to be performed in many areas of aerodynamic technology. The employment of low-cost vector array processors makes the conduction of such calculations economically feasible. However, for a full utilization of the new hardware, the developed algorithms must take advantage of the special characteristics of the vector array processor. The present investigation has the objective to develop an efficient algorithm for solving transonic flow problems governed by mixed partial differential equations on an array processor.
Contributions of Transonic Dynamics Tunnel Testing to Airplane Flutter Clearance
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Rivera, Jose A.; Florance, James R.
2000-01-01
The Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) became in operational in 1960, and since that time has achieved the status of the world's premier wind tunnel for testing large in aeroelastically scaled models at transonic speeds. The facility has many features that contribute to its uniqueness for aeroelastic testing. This paper will briefly describe these capabilities and features, and their relevance to aeroelastic testing. Contributions to specific airplane configurations and highlights from the flutter tests performed in the TDT aimed at investigating the aeroelastic characteristics of these configurations are presented.
Transonic limit cycle oscillation analysis using reduced order aerodynamic models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dowell, E. H.; Thomas, J. P.; Hall, K. C.
2004-01-01
Limit cycle oscillations have been observed in flight operations of modern aircraft, wind tunnel experiments and mathematical models. Both fluid and structural nonlinearities are thought to contribute to these phenomena. With recent advances in reduced order aerodynamic modeling, it is now feasible to analyze limit cycle oscillations that may occur in transonic flow including the effects of structural and fluid nonlinearities. In this paper an airfoil with control surface freeplay (a common structural nonlinearity) is used to investigate transonic flutter and limit cycle oscillations. The reduced order aerodynamic model used in this paper assumes the shock motion is small and in proportion to the structural motions.
Users Guide for the National Transonic Facility Research Data System
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foster, Jean M.; Adcock, Jerry B.
1996-01-01
The National Transonic Facility is a complex cryogenic wind tunnel facility. This report briefly describes the facility, the data systems, and the instrumentation used to acquire research data. The computational methods and equations are discussed in detail and many references are listed for those who need additional technical information. This report is intended to be a user's guide, not a programmer's guide; therefore, the data reduction code itself is not documented. The purpose of this report is to assist personnel involved in conducting a test in the National Transonic Facility.
Recent Enhancements to the National Transonic Facility (Mixed Mode Operations)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kilgore, W. Allen; Chan, David; Balakrishna, S.; Wahls, Richard A.
2006-01-01
The U.S. National Transonic Facility continues to make enhancements to provide quality data in a safe, efficient and cost effective method for aerodynamic ground testing. Recent enhancements discussed in this paper include the development of a Mixed-mode of operations that combine Air-mode operations with Nitrogen-mode operations. This implementation and operational results of this new Mixed-mode expands the ambient temperature transonic region of testing beyond the Air-mode limitations at a significantly reduced cost over Nitrogen Mode operation.
Design of transonic compressor cascades using hodograph method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chen, Zuoyi; Guo, Jingrong
1991-01-01
The use of the Hodograph Method in the design of a transonic compressor cascade is discussed. The design of the flow mode in the transonic compressor cascade must be as follows: the flow in the nozzle part should be uniform and smooth; the location of the sonic line should be reasonable; and the aerodynamic character of the flow canal in the subsonic region should be met. The rate through cascade may be determined by the velocity distribution in the subsonic region (i.e., by the numerical solution of the Chaplygin equation). The supersonic sections A'C' and AD are determined by the analytical solution of the Mixed-Type Hodograph equation.
On transonic flow past a wave-shaped wall
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaplan, Carl
1953-01-01
This report is an extension of a previous investigation (described in NACA rep. 1069) concerned with the solution of the nonlinear differential equation for transonic flow past a wavy wall. In the present work several new notions are introduced which permit the solution of the recursion formulas arising from the method of integration in series. In addition, a novel numerical tests of convergence, applied to the power series (in transonic similarity parameter) representing the local Mach number distribution at the boundary, indicates that smooth symmetrical potential flow past the wavy wall is no longer possible once the critical value of the stream Mach number has been exceeded.
National Transonic Facility: A review of the operational plan
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Liepmann, H. W.; Black, R. E.; Dietz, R. O.; Kirchner, M. E.; Sears, W. R.
1980-01-01
The proposed National Transonic Facility (NTF) operational plan is reviewed. The NTF will provide an aerodynamic test capability significantly exceeding that of other transonic regime wind tunnels now available. A limited number of academic research program that might use the NTF are suggested. It is concluded that the NTF operational plan is useful for management, technical, instrumentation, and model building techniques available in the specialized field of aerodynamic analysis and simulation. It is also suggested that NASA hold an annual conference to discuss wind tunnel research results and to report on developments that will further improve the utilization and cost effectiveness of the NTF and other wind tunnels.
Issac, Jason Cherian ses in transonic flow
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Issac, Jason Cherion; Kapania, Rakesh K.
1993-01-01
Flutter analysis of a two degree of freedom airfoil in compressible flow is performed using a state-space representation of the unsteady aerodynamic behavior. Indicial response functions are used to represent the normal force and moment response of the airfoil. The structural equations of motion of the airfoil with bending and torsional degrees of freedom are coupled to the unsteady air loads and the aeroelastic system so modelled is solved as an eigenvalue problem to determine the stability. The aeroelastic equations are also directly integrated with respect to time and the time-domain results compared with the results from the eigenanalysis. A good agreement is obtained. The derivatives of the flutter speed obtained from the eigenanalysis are calculated with respect to the mass and stiffness parameters by both analytical and finite-difference methods for various transonic Mach numbers. The experience gained from the two degree of freedom model is applied to study the sensitivity of the flutter response of a wing with respect to various shape parameters. The parameters being considered are as follows: (1) aspect ratio; (2) surface area of the wing; (3) taper ratio; and (4) sweep. The wing deflections are represented by Chebyshev polynomials. The compressible aerodynamic state-space model used for the airfoil section is extended to represent the unsteady aerodynamic forces on a generally laminated tapered skewed wing. The aeroelastic equations are solved as an eigenvalue problem to determine the flutter speed of the wing. The derivatives of the flutter speed with respect to the shape parameters are calculated by both analytical and finite difference methods.
Study of Near-Stall Flow Behavior in a Modern Transonic Fan with Composite Sweep
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hah, Chunill; Shin, Hyoun-Woo
2011-01-01
Detailed flow behavior in a modern transonic fan with a composite sweep is investigated in this paper. Both unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) methods are applied to investigate the flow field over a wide operating range. The calculated flow fields are compared with the data from an array of high-frequency response pressure transducers embedded in the fan casing. The current study shows that a relatively fine computational grid is required to resolve the flow field adequately and to calculate the pressure rise across the fan correctly. The calculated flow field shows detailed flow structure near the fan rotor tip region. Due to the introduction of composite sweep toward the rotor tip, the flow structure at the rotor tip is much more stable compared to that of the conventional blade design. The passage shock stays very close to the leading edge at the rotor tip even at the throttle limit. On the other hand, the passage shock becomes stronger and detaches earlier from the blade passage at the radius where the blade sweep is in the opposite direction. The interaction between the tip clearance vortex and the passage shock becomes intense as the fan operates toward the stall limit, and tip clearance vortex breakdown occurs at near-stall operation. URANS calculates the time-averaged flow field fairly well. Details of measured RMS static pressure are not calculated with sufficient accuracy with URANS. On the other hand, LES calculates details of the measured unsteady flow features in the current transonic fan with composite sweep fairly well and reveals the flow mechanism behind the measured unsteady flow field.
Selected data from a transonic flexible walled test section
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wolf, S. W. D.
1980-01-01
Twenty four test runs of the Transonic Self-Streamlining Wind Tunnel were performed with the flexible walls 'streamlined' around a two dimensional section of four inch chord, over the Mach number range 0.3 to 0.89. Relevant wall and model data for the streamlined cases are presented.
Basis Function Approximation of Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wesley Waisang; Pak, Chan-Gi
2010-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients [AIC] matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal AIC matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO(TradeMark) flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing [ATW] 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle
Basis Function Approximation of Transonic Aerodynamic Influence Coefficient Matrix
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Li, Wesley W.; Pak, Chan-gi
2011-01-01
A technique for approximating the modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrices by using basis functions has been developed and validated. An application of the resulting approximated modal aerodynamic influence coefficients matrix for a flutter analysis in transonic speed regime has been demonstrated. This methodology can be applied to the unsteady subsonic, transonic, and supersonic aerodynamics. The method requires the unsteady aerodynamics in frequency-domain. The flutter solution can be found by the classic methods, such as rational function approximation, k, p-k, p, root-locus et cetera. The unsteady aeroelastic analysis for design optimization using unsteady transonic aerodynamic approximation is being demonstrated using the ZAERO flutter solver (ZONA Technology Incorporated, Scottsdale, Arizona). The technique presented has been shown to offer consistent flutter speed prediction on an aerostructures test wing 2 configuration with negligible loss in precision in transonic speed regime. These results may have practical significance in the analysis of aircraft aeroelastic calculation and could lead to a more efficient design optimization cycle.
Unsteady transonic algorithm improvements for realistic aircraft applications
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batina, John T.
1987-01-01
Improvements to a time-accurate approximate factorization (AF) algorithm were implemented for steady and unsteady transonic analysis of realistic aircraft configurations. These algorithm improvements were made to the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) code developed at the Langley Research Center. The code permits the aeroelastic analysis of complete aircraft in the flutter critical transonic speed range. The AF algorithm of the CAP-TSD code solves the unsteady transonic small-disturbance equation. The algorithm improvements include: an Engquist-Osher (E-O) type-dependent switch to more accurately and efficiently treat regions of supersonic flow; extension of the E-O switch for second-order spatial accuracy in these regions; nonreflecting far field boundary conditions for more accurate unsteady applications; and several modifications which accelerate convergence to steady-state. Calculations are presented for several configurations including the General Dynamics one-ninth scale F-16C aircraft model to evaluate the algorithm modifications. The modifications have significantly improved the stability of the AF algorithm and hence the reliability of the CAP-TSD code in general.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Weatherill, W. H.; Ehlers, F. E.
1979-01-01
The design and usage of a pilot program for calculating the pressure distributions over harmonically oscillating airfoils in transonic flow are described. The procedure used is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady differential equations for small disturbances. The steady velocity potential which must be obtained from some other program, was required for input. The unsteady equation, as solved, is linear with spatially varying coefficients. Since sinusoidal motion was assumed, time was not a variable. The numerical solution was obtained through a finite difference formulation and either a line relaxation or an out of core direct solution method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Butler, T. D.; Weatherill, W. H.; Sebastian, J. D.; Ehlers, F. E.
1977-01-01
The design and usage of a pilot program using a finite difference method for calculating the pressure distributions over harmonically oscillating wings in transonic flow are discussed. The procedure used is based on separating the velocity potential into steady and unsteady parts and linearizing the resulting unsteady differential equation for small disturbances. The steady velocity potential which must be obtained from some other program, is required for input. The unsteady differential equation is linear, complex in form with spatially varying coefficients. Because sinusoidal motion is assumed, time is not a variable. The numerical solution is obtained through a finite difference formulation and a line relaxation solution method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Silva, Walter A.; Chwalowski, Pawel; Wieseman, Carol D.; Eller, David; Ringertz, Ulf
2017-01-01
A status report is provided on the collaboration between the Royal Institute of Technology (KTH) in Sweden and the NASA Langley Research Center regarding the aeroelastic analyses of a full-span fighter configuration wind-tunnel model. This wind-tunnel model was tested in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) in the summer of 2016. Large amounts of data were acquired including steady/unsteady pressures, accelerations, strains, and measured dynamic deformations. The aeroelastic analyses presented include linear aeroelastic analyses, CFD steady analyses, and analyses using CFD-based reduced-order models (ROMs).
The NASA Langley Research Center 0.3-meter transonic cryogenic tunnel T-P/Re-M controller manual
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Balakrishna, S.; Kilgore, W. Allen
1989-01-01
A new microcomputer based controller for the 0.3-m Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel (TCT) has been commissioned in 1988 and has reliably operated for more than a year. The tunnel stagnation pressure, gas stagnation temperature, tunnel wall structural temperature and flow Mach number are precisely controlled by the new controller in a stable manner. The tunnel control hardware, software, and the flow chart to assist in calibration of the sensors, actuators, and the controller real time functions are described. The software installation details are also presented. The report serves as the maintenance and trouble shooting manual for the 0.3-m TCT controller.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chima, R. V.; Strazisar, A. J.
1982-01-01
A procedure for using an efficient axisymmetric code to generate downstream pressure input for more costly Euler codes is discussed. Two and three dimensional inviscid solutions for the flow within a transonic axial compressor rotor at design speed are compared to laser anemometer measurements at maximum flow and near stall operating points. Computational details of the 2-D axisymmetric stream function solution and the 3-D full Euler solution are described. Relative Mach number contours, shock location, and shock strength as measured and as predicted by the 3-D code are compared. Downstream of the rotor the inviscid computations agree with each other but predict higher pressure ratios than those measured. Euler codes require a downstream pressure as input. Since that pressure controls the computed mass flow and shock system, it must be consistent with an inviscid solution.
Study of Convective Flow Effects in Endwall Casing Treatments in Transonic Compressor Rotors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hah, Chunill; Mueller, Martin W.; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter
2012-01-01
The unsteady convective flow effects in a transonic compressor rotor with a circumferential-groove casing treatment are investigated in this paper. Experimental results show that the circumferential-groove casing treatment increases the compressor stall margin by almost 50% for the current transonic compressor rotor. Steady flow simulation of the current casing treatment, however, yields only a 15% gain in stall margin. The flow field at near-stall operation is highly unsteady due to several self-induced flow phenomena. These include shock oscillation, vortex shedding at the trailing edge, and interaction between the passage shock and the tip clearance vortex. The primary focus of the current investigation is to assess the effects of flow unsteadiness and unsteady flow convection on the circumferential-groove casing treatment. Unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) and Large Eddy Simulation (LES) techniques were applied in addition to steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) to simulate the flow field at near-stall operation and to determine changes in stall margin. The current investigation reveals that unsteady flow effects are as important as steady flow effects on the performance of the circumferential grooves casing treatment in extending the stall margin of the current transonic compressor rotor. The primary unsteady flow mechanism is unsteady flow injection from the grooves into the main flow near the casing. Flows moving into and out of the grooves are caused due to local pressure difference near the grooves. As the pressure field becomes transient due to self-induced flow oscillation, flow injection from the grooves also becomes unsteady. The unsteady flow simulation shows that this unsteady flow injection from the grooves is substantial and contributes significantly to extending the compressor stall margin. Unsteady flows into and out of the grooves have as large a role as steady flows in the circumferential grooves. While the
Computational Analysis of the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel Using FUN3D
Chwalowski, Pawel; Quon, Eliot; Brynildsen, Scott E.
2016-01-04
This paper presents results from an explanatory two-year effort of applying Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to analyze the empty-tunnel flow in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The TDT is a continuous-flow, closed circuit, 16- x 16-foot slotted-test-section wind tunnel, with capabilities to use air or heavy gas as a working fluid. In this study, experimental data acquired in the empty tunnel using the R-134a test medium was used to calibrate the computational data. The experimental calibration data includes wall pressures, boundary-layer profiles, and the tunnel centerline Mach number profiles. Subsonic and supersonic flow regimes were considered, focusing on Mach 0.5, 0.7 and Mach 1.1 in the TDT test section. This study discusses the computational domain, boundary conditions, and initial conditions selected in the resulting steady-state analyses using NASA's FUN3D CFD software.
Numerical simulation of three-dimensional transonic turbulent projectile aerodynamics by TVD schemes
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shiau, Nae-Haur; Hsu, Chen-Chi; Chyu, Wei-Jao
1989-01-01
The two-dimensional symmetric TVD scheme proposed by Yee has been extended to and investigated for three-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes simulation of complex aerodynamic problems. An existing three-dimensional Navier-stokes code based on the beam and warming algorithm is modified to provide an option of using the TVD algorithm and the flow problem considered is a transonic turbulent flow past a projectile with sting at ten-degree angle of attack. Numerical experiments conducted for three flow cases, free-stream Mach numbers of 0.91, 0.96 and 1.20 show that the symmetric TVD algorithm can provide surface pressure distribution in excellent agreement with measured data; moreover, the rate of convergence to attain a steady state solution is about two times faster than the original beam and warming algorithm.
Numerical simulation of transonic separated flows over low-aspect ratio wings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kaynak, U.; Holst, T. L.; Sorenson, R. L.; Cantwell, B. J.
1986-01-01
Transonic flow fields about a low-aspect-ratio advanced technology wing have been computed using a viscous/inviscid zonal approach. The flow field near the wing where viscous effects are important was solved using the 'Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations' in 'thin-layer' form. The Euler equations were used to determine the flow field in regions away from the wing where viscous effects are insignificant. A zonal grid using an H-H topology was generated around the wing by first solving a set of Poisson's equations for the global grid. This grid was then subdivided into separate zones of viscous or inviscid flow as suggested by the flow physics. A series of flow cases were computed and compared with corresponding sets of experimental data. All cases showed good agreement with experiment in terms of the pressure field. Also, a good correlation between computed separated surface flow and experimental oil flow was obtained.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilmoth, R. G.
1982-01-01
A viscous-inviscid interaction method to calculate the subsonic and transonic flow over nozzle afterbodies with supersonic jet exhausts was developed. The method iteratively combines a relaxation solution of the full potential equation for the inviscid external flow, a shock capturing-shock fitting inviscid jet solution, an integral boundary layer solution, a control volume method for treating separated flows, and an overlaid mixing layer solution. A computer program called RAXJET which incorporates the method, illustrates the predictive capabilities of the method by comparison with experimental data is described, a user's guide to the computer program is provided. The method accurately predicts afterbody pressures, drag, and flow field properties for attached and separated flows for which no shock induced separation occurs.
An improved viscid/inviscid interaction procedure for transonic flow over airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melnik, R. E.; Chow, R. R.; Mead, H. R.; Jameson, A.
1985-01-01
A new interacting boundary layer approach for computing the viscous transonic flow over airfoils is described. The theory includes a complete treatment of viscous interaction effects induced by the wake and accounts for normal pressure gradient effects across the boundary layer near trailing edges. The method is based on systematic expansions of the full Reynolds equation of turbulent flow in the limit of Reynolds numbers, Reynolds infinity. Procedures are developed for incorporating the local trailing edge solution into the numerical solution of the coupled full potential and integral boundary layer equations. Although the theory is strictly applicable to airfoils with cusped or nearly cusped trailing edges and to turbulent boundary layers that remain fully attached to the airfoil surface, the method was successfully applied to more general airfoils and to flows with small separation zones. Comparisons of theoretical solutions with wind tunnel data indicate the present method can accurately predict the section characteristics of airfoils including the absolute levels of drag.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Reed, W. H., III
1981-01-01
Testing of wind-tunnel aeroelastic models is a well established, widely used means of studying flutter trends, validating theory and investigating flutter margins of safety of new vehicle designs. The Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel was designed specifically for work on dynamics and aeroelastic problems of aircraft and space vehicles. A cross section of aeroelastic research and testing in the facility since it became operational more than two decades ago is presented. Examples selected from a large store of experience illustrate the nature and purpose of some major areas of work performed in the tunnel. These areas include: specialized experimental techniques; development testing of new aircraft and launch vehicle designs; evaluation of proposed "fixes" to solve aeroelastic problems uncovered during development testing; study of unexpected aeroelastic phenomena (i.e., "surprises"); control of aeroelastic effects by active and passive means; and, finally, fundamental research involving measurement of unsteady pressures on oscillating wings and control surface.
Transonic Navier-Stokes solutions of three-dimensional afterbody flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Compton, William B., III; Thomas, James L.; Abeyounis, William K.; Mason, Mary L.
1989-01-01
The performance of a three-dimensional Navier-Stokes solution technique in predicting the transonic flow past a nonaxisymmetric nozzle was investigated. The investigation was conducted at free-stream Mach numbers ranging from 0.60 to 0.94 and an angle of attack of 0 degrees. The numerical solution procedure employs the three-dimensional, unsteady, Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations written in strong conservation form, a thin layer assumption, and the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. The equations are solved by using the finite-volume principle in conjunction with an approximately factored upwind-biased numerical algorithm. In the numerical procedure, the jet exhaust is represented by a solid sting. Wind-tunnel data with the jet exhaust simulated by high pressure air were also obtained to compare with the numerical calculations.
Flight test and numerical simulation of transonic flow around YAV-8B Harrier II wing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gea, Lie-Mine; Chyu, Wei J.; Stortz, Michael W.; Roberts, Andrew C.; Chow, Chuen-Yen
1991-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method is used to study the aerodynamics of the YAV-8B Harrier II wing in the transonic region. A numerical procedure is developed to compute the flow field around the complicated wing-pylon-fairing geometry. The surface definition of the wing and pylons were obtained from direct measurement using theodolite triangulation. A thin-layer Navier-Stokes code with the Chimera technique is used to compute flow solutions. The computed pressure distributions at several span stations are compared with flight test data and show good agreement. Computed results are correlated with flight test data that show the flow is severely separated in the vicinity of the wing-pylon junction. Analysis shows that shock waves are induced by pylon swaybrace fairings, that the flow separation is much stronger at the outboard pylon and that the separation is caused mainly by the crossflow passing the geometry of wing-pylon junction.
Flow Angularity Measurements in the NASA-Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yeager, William T., Jr.; Wilbur, Matthew L.; Mirick, Paul H.; Rivera, Jose A., Jr.
2005-01-01
An investigation using a survey rake with 11 five-hole pyramid-head probes has been conducted in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) to measure the test section flow angularity. Flow measurements were made in a 10-ft square grid centered about the test section centerline at a single streamwise location for nine Mach numbers ranging from 0.50 to 1.19 at dynamic pressures of 100 and 225 pounds per square foot. Test section flow angularity was found to be minimal with a generally random flow pattern. Corrections for survey rake induced in-plane flow were determined to be necessary; however, corrections for rake induced lift effects were not required.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Springer, Anthony M.
1998-01-01
The aerodynamic characteristics of two similar models of a lifting body configuration were run in two transonic wind tunnels, one a 16 foot the other a 14-inch and are compared. The 16 foot test used a 2% model while the 14-inch test used a 0.7% scale model. The wind tunnel model configurations varied only in vertical tail size and an aft sting shroud. The results from these two tests compare the effect of tunnel size, Reynolds number, dynamic pressure and blockage on the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of the vehicle. The data accuracy and uncertainty are also presented. It was concluded from these tests that the data resultant from a small wind tunnel compares very well to that of a much larger wind tunnel in relation to total vehicle aerodynamic characteristics.
Skin Friction at Very High Reynolds Numbers in the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Watson, Ralph D.; Anders, John B.; Hall, Robert M.
2006-01-01
Skin friction coefficients were derived from measurements using standard measurement technologies on an axisymmetric cylinder in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF) at Mach numbers from 0.2 to 0.85. The pressure gradient was nominally zero, the wall temperature was nominally adiabatic, and the ratio of boundary layer thickness to model diameter within the measurement region was 0.10 to 0.14, varying with distance along the model. Reynolds numbers based on momentum thicknesses ranged from 37,000 to 605,000. The measurements approximately doubled the range of available data for flat plate skin friction coefficients. Three different techniques were used to measure surface shear. The maximum error of Preston tube measurements was estimated to be 2.5 percent, while that of Clauser derived measurements was estimated to be approximately 5 percent. Direct measurements by skin friction balance proved to be subject to large errors and were not considered reliable.
Description of the insulation system for the Langley 0.3-Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lawing, P. L.; Dress, D. A.; Kilgore, R. A.
1985-01-01
The thermal insulation system of the Langley 0.3 Meter Transonic Cryogenic Tunnel is described. The insulation system is designed to operate from room temperature down to about 77.4 K, the temperature of liquid nitrogen at 1 atmosphere. A detailed description is given of the primary insulation sytem consists of glass fiber mats, a three part vapor barrier, and a dry positive pressure purge system. Also described are several secondary insulation systems required for the test section, actuators, and tunnel supports. An appendix briefly describes the original insulation system which is considered inferior to the one presently in place. The time required for opening and closing portions of the insulation system for modification or repair to the tunnel has been reduced, typically, from a few days for the original thermal insulating system to a few hours for the present system.
Some calculations of transonic potential flow for the NACA 64A006 airfoil with oscillating flap
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bennett, R. M.; Bland, S. R.
1978-01-01
A method for calculating the transonic flow over steady and oscillating airfoils was developed by Isogai. It solves the full potential equation with a semi-implicit, time-marching, finite difference technique. Steady flow solutions are obtained from time asymptotic solutions for a steady airfoil. Corresponding oscillatory solutions are obtained by initiating an oscillation and marching in time for several cycles until a converged periodic solution is achieved. In this paper the method is described in general terms, and results are compared with experimental data for both steady flow and for oscillations at several values of reduced frequency. Good agreement for static pressures is shown for subcritical speeds, with increasing deviation as Mach number is increased into the supercritical speed range. Fair agreement with experiment was obtained at high reduced frequencies with larger deviations at low reduced frequencies.
Test results at transonic speeds on a contoured over-the-wing propfan model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Levin, Alan D.; Smeltzer, Donald B.; Smith, Ronald C.
1986-01-01
A semispan wing/body model with a powered highly loaded propeller has been tested to provide data on the propulsion installation drag of advanced propfan-powered aircraft. The model had a supercritical wing with a contoured over-the-wing nacelle. It was tested in the Ames Research Center's (ARC) 14-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel at a total pressure of 1 atm. The test was conducted at angles of attack from -0.5 to 4 deg at Mach numbers ranging from 0.6 to 0.8. The test objectives were to determine propeller performance, exhaust jet effects, propeller slipstream interference drag, and total powerplant installation drag. Test results indicated a total powerplant installation drag of 82 counts (0.0082) at a Mach number of 0.8 and a lift coefficient of 0.5, which is approximately 29 percent of a typical airplane cruise drag.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hsieh, T.; Coakley, T. J.
1987-01-01
An investigation of downstream boundary effects on the frequency of self-excited oscillations in two-dimensional, separated transonic diffuser flows has been conducted numerically by solving the compressible, Reynolds-averaged, thin-layer Navier-Stokes equation with a two-equation turbulence model. It was found that the unsteady diffuser flowfields are very sensitive to the location of the downstream boundary. Extension of the diffuser downstream boundary significantly reduces the frequency and amplitude of oscillations for pressure, velocity and shock. Computational results suggest that the mechanism causing the self-excited oscillation changes from viscous convective wave dominated oscillations to inviscid acoustic wave dominated oscillations when the location of downstream boundary varies from 8.66 to 134.7 throat height. The existence of a suction slot in the experimental setup obscures the physical downstream boundary and, therefore, presents a difficulty for quantitative comparisons between computation and experiment.
Real-time data acquisition system for the NASA Langley transonic dynamics tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cole, P. H.
1979-01-01
The hardware configuration of the Transonic Dynamics Wind Tunnel Data Acquisition System (DAS) which consists of an analog front end that can process up to 260 channels of data is presented. The DAS also has a multi-channel analog-to-digital subsystem that can process up to 50,000 samples of data per sec, and a digital computer with standard and nonstandard devices, with graphics capability. The software configuration of the DAS and complex hardware/software interfaces are described, which can provide automatic amplifier gain and offset adjustment for each data channel. Finally, a summary of specific DAS applications is given including the real-time processing of dynamic deflection data, unsteady pressure measurements, and flutter and buffet data.
Extending a transonic small disturbance code to treat swept vertical surfaces
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gibbons, Michael D.
1992-01-01
A flexible-swept vertical surface capability has been developed and implemented within the CAP-TSD transonic small disturbance (TSD) code. The new capability required a modification to the TSD equation and a grid transformation for swept vertical surfaces. Modifications to the vertical surface boundary conditions allow it to be treated as a flexible surface. The new capability extends the range of problems which the code can treat. In order to assess the accuracy of the modifications, calculations were performed for a rectangular T-tail configuration and an AGARD T-tail configuration. Unsteady forces and moments are presented for the rectangular T-tail oscillating in yaw for a range of reduced frequencies. Comparisons are presented with linear theory and experiment. Steady and unsteady surface pressures are presented for the AGARD T-tail along with generalized aerodynamic forces. Comparisons are made with linear theory. The comparisons demonstrate the accuracy of the vertical surface modifications.
Navier-Stokes simulation of transonic wing flow fields using a zonal grid approach
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chaderjian, Neal M.
1988-01-01
The transonic Navier-Stokes code was used to simulate flow fields about isolated wings for workshop wind-tunnel and free-air cases using the thin-layer Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations. An implicit finite-difference scheme based on a diagonal version of the Beam-Warming algorithm was used to integrate the governing equations. A zonal grid approach was used to allow efficient grid refinement near the wing surface. The flow field was sensitive to the turbulent transition model, and flow unsteadiness was observed for a wind-tunnel case but not for the corresponding free-air case. The specification of experimental pressure at the wind-tunnel exit plane is the primary reason for the difference of these two numerical solutions.
Computational Analysis of the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel Using FUN3D
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chwalowski, Pawel; Quon, Eliot; Brynildsen, Scott E.
2016-01-01
This paper presents results from an exploratory two-year effort of applying Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) to analyze the empty-tunnel flow in the NASA Langley Research Center Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The TDT is a continuous-flow, closed circuit, 16- x 16-foot slotted-test-section wind tunnel, with capabilities to use air or heavy gas as a working fluid. In this study, experimental data acquired in the empty tunnel using the R-134a test medium was used to calibrate the computational data. The experimental calibration data includes wall pressures, boundary-layer profiles, and the tunnel centerline Mach number profiles. Subsonic and supersonic flow regimes were considered, focusing on Mach 0.5, 0.7 and Mach 1.1 in the TDT test section. This study discusses the computational domain, boundary conditions, and initial conditions selected and the resulting steady-state analyses using NASA's FUN3D CFD software.
Some observations about the components of transonic fan noise from narrow-band spectral analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Saule, A. V.
1974-01-01
Qualitative and quantitative spectral analyses are presented that give the broadband-noise, discrete-tone, and multiple-tone properties of the noise generated by a full-scale high-bypass single-stage axial-flow transonic fan (fan B, NASA Quiet Engine Program). The noise components were obtained from narrow-band spectra in conjunction with 1/3-octave-band spectra. Variations in the pressure levels of the noise components with fan speed, forward-quadrant azimuth angle, and frequency are presented and compared. The study shows that much of the apparent broadband noise on 1/3-octave-band plots consists of a complex system of shaft-order tones. The analyses also indicate the difficulties in determining or defining noise components, especially the broadband level under the discrete tones. The sources which may be associated with the noise components are discussed.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sleeper, Robert K.; Keller, Donald F.; Perry, Boyd, III; Sandford, Maynard C.
1993-01-01
Preliminary measurements of the vertical and lateral velocity components of tunnel turbulence were obtained in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel test section using a constant-temperature anemometer equipped with a hot-film X-probe. For these tests air was the test medium. Test conditions included tunnel velocities ranging from 100 to 500 fps at atmospheric pressure. Standard deviations of turbulence velocities were determined and power spectra were computed. Unconstrained optimization was employed to determine parameter values of a general spectral model of a form similar to that used to describe atmospheric turbulence. These parameters, and others (notably break frequency and integral scale length), were determined at each test condition and compared with those of Dryden and Von Karman atmospheric turbulence spectra. When the data were discovered to be aliased, the spectral model was modified to account for and 'eliminate' the aliasing.
Measurements of Flow Turbulence in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wiesman, Carol D.; Sleeper, Robert K.
2005-01-01
An assessment of the flow turbulence in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT) was conducted during calibration activities following the facility conversion from a Freon-12 heavy-gas test medium to an R134a heavy-gas test medium. Total pressure, static pressure, and acoustic pressure levels were measured at several locations on a stingmounted rake. The test measured wall static pressures at several locations although this paper presents only those from one location. The test used two data acquisition systems, one sampling at 1000 Hz and the second sampling at 125 000 Hz, for acquiring time-domain data. This paper presents standard deviations and power spectral densities of the turbulence points throughout the wind tunnel envelope in air and R134a. The objective of this paper is to present the turbulence characteristics for the test section. No attempt is made to assess the causes of the turbulence. The present paper looks at turbulence in terms of pressure fluctuations. Reference 1 looked at tunnel turbulence in terms of velocity fluctuations.
Survey of Primary Flow Measurement Parameters at the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Piatak, David J.
2003-01-01
An assessment of the methods and locations used to measure the primary flow conditions in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel was conducted during calibration activities following the facility conversion from a Freon-12 heavy-gas test medium to R-134a. A survey of stagnation pressure, plenum static pressure, and stagnation temperature was undertaken at many pertinent locations in the settling chamber, plenum, and contraction section of the wind tunnel and these measurements were compared to those of the existing primary flow measurement systems. Local flow velocities were measured in the settling chamber using a pitot probe. Results illustrate that small discrepancies exist between measured primary tunnel flow conditions and the survey measurements. These discrepancies in tunnel stagnation pressure, plenum pressure, and stagnation temperature were found to be approximately +/- 1-3 psf and 2-3 degrees Fahrenheit. The propagation of known instrument errors in measured primary flow conditions and its impact on tunnel Mach number, dynamic pressure, flow velocity, and Reynolds number have been investigated analytically and shown to require careful attention when considering the uncertainty in measured test section conditions.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sekula, Martin K.; Piatak, David J.; Rausch, Russ D.
2010-01-01
A transonic wind tunnel test of the Ares I-X Rigid Buffet Model (RBM) identified a Mach number regime where unusually large buffet loads are present. A subsequent investigation identified the cause of these loads to be an alternating flow phenomenon at the Crew Module-Service Module junction. The conical design of the Ares I-X Crew Module and the cylindrical design of the Service Module exposes the vehicle to unsteady pressure loads due to the sudden transition from separated to attached flow about the cone-cylinder junction with increasing Mach number. For locally transonic conditions at this junction, the flow randomly fluctuates back and forth between a subsonic separated flow and a supersonic attached flow. These fluctuations produce a square-wave like pattern in the pressure time histories which, upon integration result in large amplitude, impulsive buffet loads. Subsequent testing of the Ares I RBM found much lower buffet loads since the evolved Ares I design includes an ogive fairing that covers the Crew Module-Service Module junction, thereby making the vehicle less susceptible to the onset of alternating flow. An analysis of the alternating flow separation and attachment phenomenon indicates that the phenomenon is most severe at low angles of attack and exacerbated by the presence of vehicle protuberances. A launch vehicle may experience either a single or, at most, a few impulsive loads since it is constantly accelerating during ascent rather than dwelling at constant flow conditions in a wind tunnel. A comparison of a wind-tunnel-test-data-derived impulsive load to flight-test-data-derived load indicates a significant over-prediction in the magnitude and duration of the buffet load
Aerodynamic Measurements of an Incidence Tolerant Blade in a Transonic Turbine Cascade
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
McVetta, Ashlie B.; Giel, Paul W.
2012-01-01
An overview of the recent facility modifications to NASA s Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility and aerodynamic measurements on the VSPT incidence-tolerant blade are presented. This work supports the development of variable-speed power turbine (VSPT) speed-change technology for the NASA Large Civil Tilt Rotor (LCTR) vehicle. In order to maintain acceptable main rotor propulsive efficiency, the VSPT operates over a nearly 50% speed range from takeoff to altitude cruise. This results in 50 or more variations in VSPT blade incidence angles. The Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility has the ability to operate over a wide range of Reynolds numbers and Mach numbers, but had to be modified in order to accommodate the negative incidence angle variation required by the LCTR VSPT operation. Details of the modifications are described. An incidence-tolerant blade was developed under an RTPAS study contract and tested in the cascade to look at the effects of large incidence angle and Reynolds number variations. Recent test results are presented which include midspan exit total pressure and flow angle measurements obtained at three inlet angles representing the cruise, take-off, and maximum incidence flight mission points. For each inlet angle, data were obtained at five flow conditions with exit Reynolds numbers varying from 2.12 106 to 2.12 105 and two isentropic exit Mach numbers of 0.72 and 0.35. Three-dimensional flowfield measurements were also acquired at the cruise and take-off points. The flowfield measurements were acquired using a five-hole and three-hole pneumatic probe located in a survey plane 8.6% axial chord downstream of the blade trailing edge plane and covering three blade passages. Blade and endwall static pressure distributions were also acquired for each flow condition.
On slender-body theory and the area rule at transonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harder, Keith C; Klunker, E B
1956-01-01
The basic ideas of the slender-body approximation have been applied to the nonlinear transonic-flow equation for the velocity potential in order to obtain some of the essential features of slender-body theory at transonic speeds. The results of the investigation are presented from a unified point of view which demonstrates the similarity of slender-body solutions in the various Mach number ranges. The transonic area rule and some conditions concerning its validity follow from the analysis.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Harris, C. D.
1974-01-01
A lifting airfoil theoretically designed for shockless supercritical flow utilizing a complex hodograph method has been evaluated in the Langley 8-foot transonic pressure tunnel at design and off-design conditions. The experimental results are presented and compared with those of an experimentally designed supercritical airfoil which were obtained in the same tunnel.
Emerging technology for transonic wind-tunnel-wall interference assessment and corrections
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Newman, P. A.; Kemp, W. B., Jr.; Garriz, J. A.
1988-01-01
Several nonlinear transonic codes and a panel method code for wind tunnel/wall interference assessment and correction (WIAC) studies are reviewed. Contrasts between two- and three-dimensional transonic testing factors which affect WIAC procedures are illustrated with airfoil data from the NASA/Langley 0.3-meter transonic cyrogenic tunnel and Pathfinder I data. Also, three-dimensional transonic WIAC results for Mach number and angle-of-attack corrections to data from a relatively large 20 deg swept semispan wing in the solid wall NASA/Ames high Reynolds number Channel I are verified by three-dimensional thin-layer Navier-Stokes free-air solutions.
Transonic Investigation of Two-Dimensional Nozzles Designed for Supersonic Cruise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capone, Francis J.; Deere, Karen A.
2001-01-01
An experimental and computational investigation has been conducted to determine the off-design uninstalled drag characteristics a of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle designed for a supersonic cruise civil transport. The main objective of this investigation was to determine the effects of varying nozzle external flap curvature and sidewall boattail angle and curvature on nozzle drag The experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.20 at nozzle pressure ratios up to nine. Three-dimensional simulations of nozzle performance were obtained with the computational fluid dynamics code PAB using turbulence closure and nonlinear Reynolds stress modeling. The results of this investigation indicate that excellent correlation between experimental and predicted results was obtained for the nozzle with a moderate amount of boattail curvature. The nozzle with an external flap having a sharp shoulder (no curvature) had the lowest nozzle pressure drag. At a Mach number of 1.2, sidewall pressure drag doubled as sidewall boattail angle was increased from 4 to 8 deg. Reducing the height of the sidewall caused large decreases in both the sidewall and flap pressure drags.
High-tip-speed, low-loading transonic fan stage. Part 3: Final report
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ware, T. C.; Kobayashi, R. J.; Jackson, R. J.
1974-01-01
Tests were conducted on a high-tip-speed, low-loading transonic fan stage to determine the performance and inlet flow distortion tolerance of the design. The fan was designed for high efficiency at a moderate pressure ratio by designing the hub section to operate at minimum loss when the tip operates with an oblique shock. The design objective was an efficiency of 86 percent at a pressure ratio of 1.5, a specific flow (flow per unit annulus area) of 42 lb/sec-sq. ft (205.1 kgm/sec-m sq), and a tip speed of 1600 ft/sec (488.6 m/sec). During testing, a peak efficiency of 84 percent was achieved at design speed and design specific flow. At the design speed and pressure ratio, the flow was 4 percent greater than design, efficiency was 81 percent, and a stall margin of 24 percent was obtained. The stall line was improved with hub radial distortion but was reduced when the stage was tested with tip radial and circumferential flow distortions. Blade-to-blade values of static pressures were measured over the rotor blade tips.
Transonic Investigation of Two-Dimensional Nozzles Designed for Supersonic Cruise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capone, Francis J.; Deere, Karen A.
2015-01-01
An experimental and computational investigation has been conducted to determine the off-design uninstalled drag characteristics of a two-dimensional convergent-divergent nozzle designed for a supersonic cruise civil transport. The overall objectives were to: (1) determine the effects of nozzle external flap curvature and sidewall boattail variations on boattail drag; (2) develop an experimental data base for 2D nozzles with long divergent flaps and small boattail angles and (3) provide data for correlating computational fluid dynamic predictions of nozzle boattail drag. The experimental investigation was conducted in the Langley 16-Foot Transonic Tunnel at Mach numbers from 0.80 to 1.20 at nozzle pressure ratios up to 9. Three-dimensional simulations of nozzle performance were obtained with the computational fluid dynamics code PAB3D using turbulence closure and nonlinear Reynolds stress modeling. The results of this investigation indicate that excellent correlation between experimental and predicted results was obtained for the nozzle with a moderate amount of boattail curvature. The nozzle with an external flap having a sharp shoulder (no curvature) had the lowest nozzle pressure drag. At a Mach number of 1.2, sidewall pressure drag doubled as sidewall boattail angle was increased from 4deg to 8deg. Reducing the height of the sidewall caused large decreases in both the sidewall and flap pressure drags. Summary
Active load control during rolling maneuvers. [performed in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Woods-Vedeler, Jessica A.; Pototzky, Anthony S.; Hoadley, Sherwood T.
1994-01-01
A rolling maneuver load alleviation (RMLA) system has been demonstrated on the active flexible wing (AFW) wind tunnel model in the Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel (TDT). The objective was to develop a systematic approach for designing active control laws to alleviate wing loads during rolling maneuvers. Two RMLA control laws were developed that utilized outboard control-surface pairs (leading and trailing edge) to counteract the loads and that used inboard trailing-edge control-surface pairs to maintain roll performance. Rolling maneuver load tests were performed in the TDT at several dynamic pressures that included two below and one 11 percent above open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. The RMLA system was operated simultaneously with an active flutter suppression system above open-loop flutter dynamic pressure. At all dynamic pressures for which baseline results were obtained, torsion-moment loads were reduced for both RMLA control laws. Results for bending-moment load reductions were mixed; however, design equations developed in this study provided conservative estimates of load reduction in all cases.
Averaging techniques for steady and unsteady calculations of a transonic fan stage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wyss, M. L.; Chima, R. V.; Tweedt, D. L.
1993-01-01
It is often desirable to characterize a turbomachinery flow field with a few lumped parameters such as total pressure ratio or stage efficiency. Various averaging schemes may be used to compute these parameters. The momentum, energy, and area averaging schemes are described and compared. The schemes were compared for two computed solutions of the midspan section of a transonic fan stage: a steady averaging-plane solution in which average rotor outflow conditions were used as stator inflow conditions, and an unsteady rotor-stator interaction solution. The solutions were computed on identical grids using similar Navier-Stokes codes and an algebraic turbulence model. The unsteady solution is described, some unsteady flow phenomena are discussed, and the steady pressure distributions are compared. Despite large unsteady pressure fluctuations on the stator surface, the steady pressure distribution matched the average unsteady distribution almost exactly. Stator wake profiles, stator loss coefficient, and stage efficiency were computed for the two solutions with the three averaging schemes and are compared. In general, the energy averaging scheme gave good agreement between the averaging-plane solution and the time-averaged unsteady solution, even though certain phenomena due to unsteady wake migration were neglected.
Averaging techniques for steady and unsteady calculations of a transonic fan stage
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wyss, M. L.; Chima, R. V.; Tweedt, D. L.
1993-01-01
It is often desirable to characterize a turbomachinery flow field with a few lumped parameters such as total pressure ratio or stage efficiency. Various averaging schemes may be used to compute these parameters. Here three averaging schemes, the momentum, energy, and area averaging schemes, are described and compared for two computed solutions of the midspan section of a transonic fan stage: a steady averaging-plane solution in which average rotor outflow conditions were used as stator inflow conditions and an unsteady rotor-stator interaction solution. The unsteady solution is described, some unsteady flow phenomena are discussed and the steady pressure distributions are compared. Despite large unsteady pressure fluctuations on the stator surface, the steady pressure distribution matched the average unsteady distribution almost exactly. Stator wake profiles, stator loss coefficient, and stage efficiency were computed for the two solutions with the three averaging schemes and are compared. In general the energy averaging scheme gave good agreement between the averaging-plane solution and the time-averaged unsteady solution, even though certain phenomena due to unsteady wake migration were neglected.
Transonic Loads Characteristics of a 3-Percent-Thick 60 deg Delta-Wing-Body
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Swihart, John M.; Foss, Willard E., Jr.
1961-01-01
An investigation has been made in the Langley 16-foot transonic tunnel to determine the aerodynamic loading characteristics of a 3-percent-thick, aspect-ratio - 2.06, 60 deg delta-wing-body combination. The Mach number range was from 0.80 t o 1.05 and the average Reynolds number based on wing mean aerodynamic chord was 10 x 10(exp 6). The angle-of-attack range was from 0 deg to 26 deg but was limited at the highest Mach numbers by tunnel drive power. Pressure distributions, spanwise loadings, integrated wing coefficients, and tabulated pressure coefficients are presented for the range of Mach numbers and angles of attack. The results indicate that a free leading-edge separation vortex is the dominant flow-field phenomenon at all Mach numbers and that, consequently, there are only slight changes in the spanwise loadings with Mach number. There is a slight outboard shift in center of pressure with an increase in Mach number. The chord-wise position of the center of pressure varies from 46 t o 55 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord when the Mach number i s increased from 0.80 to l.05.
Aerodynamic Inner Workings of Circumferential Grooves in a Transonic Axial Compressor
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hah, Chunill; Mueller, Martin; Schiffer, Heinz-Peter
2007-01-01
The current paper reports on investigations of the fundamental flow mechanisms of circumferential grooves applied to a transonic axial compressor. Experimental results show that the compressor stall margin is significantly improved with the current set of circumferential grooves. The primary focus of the current investigation is to advance understanding of basic flow mechanics behind the observed improvement of stall margin. Experimental data and numerical simulations of a circumferential groove were analyzed in detail to unlock the inner workings of the circumferential grooves in the current transonic compressor rotor. A short length scale stall inception occurs when a large flow blockage is built on the pressure side of the blade near the leading edge and incoming flow spills over to the adjacent blade passage due to this blockage. The current study reveals that a large portion of this blockage is created by the tip clearance flow originating from 20% to 50% chord of the blade from the leading edge. Tip clearance flows originating from the leading edge up to 20% chord form a tip clearance core vortex and this tip clearance core vortex travels radially inward. The tip clearance flows originating from 20% to 50% chord travels over this tip clearance core vortex and reaches to the pressure side. This part of tip clearance flow is of low momentum as it is coming from the casing boundary layer and the blade suction surface boundary layer. The circumferential grooves disturb this part of the tip clearance flow close to the casing. Consequently the buildup of the induced vortex and the blockage near the pressure side of the passage is reduced. This is the main mechanism of the circumferential grooves that delays the formation of blockage near the pressure side of the passage and delays the onset of short length scale stall inception. The primary effect of the circumferential grooves is preventing local blockage near the pressure side of the blade leading edge that
Recent developments in finite element analysis for transonic airfoils
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hafez, M. M.; Murman, E. M.
1979-01-01
The prediction of aerodynamic forces in the transonic regime generally requires a flow field calculation to solve the governing non-linear mixed elliptic-hyperbolic partial differential equations. Finite difference techniques were developed to the point that design and analysis application are routine, and continual improvements are being made by various research groups. The principal limitation in extending finite difference methods to complex three-dimensional geometries is the construction of a suitable mesh system. Finite element techniques are attractive since their application to other problems have permitted irregular mesh elements to be employed. The purpose of this paper is to review the recent developments in the application of finite element methods to transonic flow problems and to report some recent results.
A review of hot wire anemometry in transonic flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stainback, P. C.
1985-01-01
The present paper provides a review of hot wire anemometry for compressible flows, giving particular attention to the transonic flow problem. It is pointed out that the first and most important definitive work in hot wire anemometry for compressible flows was reported by Kovasznay (1953). The existence of three independent fluctuating modes in compressible flows for small perturbations was found, taking into account the vorticity mode, the entropy mode, and the sound-wave mode. A review of Kovasznays' method for supersonic flows is also presented, and advances reported by Markovin (1956) are examined. Attention is given to experiments conducted by Horstman and Rose (1977), a general solution to the hot wire problem at transonic conditions sought by Stainback et al. (1983), and some apparent problems.
Transonic stability and control of aircraft using CFD methods
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Vinh, Lam-Son; Edwards, John W.; Seidel, David A.; Batina, John T.
1988-01-01
Implementation of a capability to calculate longitudinal short-period response in the CAP-TSD (Computational Aeroelasticity Program - Transonic Small Disturbance) finite-difference code is described. The code, developed recently at the NASA Langley Research Center, is capable of solving steady and unsteady flows about complete aircraft configurations and is used primarily for aeroelastic calculations in the critical transonic speed range. The longitudinal short-period equations of motion in state-space form have been coupled to the time-accurate lift and moment calculated by the program. Transient responses to an elevator pulse for free-flying aircraft demonstrate the new capability. A trim routine is also added to the code to obtain trim automatically during steady-state flow field convergence. Stability and control derivatives are estimated from the calculated transient response by a maximum likelihood estimation program. Results for a fighter configuration and a general aviation configuration are presented to assess the capability.
National Transonic Facility model and model support vibration problems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Young, Clarence P., Jr.; Popernack, Thomas G., Jr.; Gloss, Blair B.
1990-01-01
Vibrations of models and model support system were encountered during testing in the National Transonic Facility. Model support system yaw plane vibrations have resulted in model strain gage balance design load limits being reached. These high levels of vibrations resulted in limited aerodynamic testing for several wind tunnel models. The yaw vibration problem was the subject of an intensive experimental and analytical investigation which identified the primary source of the yaw excitation and resulted in attenuation of the yaw oscillations to acceptable levels. This paper presents the principal results of analyses and experimental investigation of the yaw plane vibration problems. Also, an overview of plans for development and installation of a permanent model system dynamic and aeroelastic response measurement and monitoring system for the National Transonic Facility is presented.
Unsteady Subsonic and Transonic Potential Flow over Helicopter Rotor Blades
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Isom, M. P.
1974-01-01
Differential equations and boundary conditions for a rotor blade in forward flight, with subsonic or transonic tip Mach number, are derived. A variety of limiting flow regimes determined by different limits involving blade thickness ratio, aspect ratio, advance ratio and maximum tip Mach number is discussed. The transonic problem is discussed in some detail, and in particular the conditions that make this problem quasi-steady or essentially unsteady are determined. Asymptotic forms of equations and boundary conditions that are valid in an appropriately scaled region of the tip and an azimuthal sector on the advancing side are derived. The equations are then put in a form that is valid from the blade tip inboard through the strip theory region.
Assessment of the National Transonic Facility for Laminar Flow Testing
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Crouch, Jeffrey D.; Sutanto, Mary I.; Witkowski, David P.; Watkins, A. Neal; Rivers, Melissa B.; Campbell, Richard L.
2010-01-01
A transonic wing, designed to accentuate key transition physics, is tested at cryogenic conditions at the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley. The collaborative test between Boeing and NASA is aimed at assessing the facility for high-Reynolds number testing of configurations with significant regions of laminar flow. The test shows a unit Reynolds number upper limit of 26 M/ft for achieving natural transition. At higher Reynolds numbers turbulent wedges emanating from the leading edge bypass the natural transition process and destroy the laminar flow. At lower Reynolds numbers, the transition location is well correlated with the Tollmien-Schlichting-wave N-factor. The low-Reynolds number results suggest that the flow quality is acceptable for laminar flow testing if the loss of laminar flow due to bypass transition can be avoided.
Validation of Blockage Interference Corrections in the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Walker, Eric L.
2007-01-01
A validation test has recently been constructed for wall interference methods as applied to the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The goal of this study was to begin to address the uncertainty of wall-induced-blockage interference corrections, which will make it possible to address the overall quality of data generated by the facility. The validation test itself is not specific to any particular modeling. For this present effort, the Transonic Wall Interference Correction System (TWICS) as implemented at the NTF is the mathematical model being tested. TWICS uses linear, potential boundary conditions that must first be calibrated. These boundary conditions include three different classical, linear. homogeneous forms that have been historically used to approximate the physical behavior of longitudinally slotted test section walls. Results of the application of the calibrated wall boundary conditions are discussed in the context of the validation test.
Analysis of transonic flow about lifting wing-body configurations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Barnwell, R. W.
1975-01-01
An analytical solution was obtained for the perturbation velocity potential for transonic flow about lifting wing-body configurations with order-one span-length ratios and small reduced-span-length ratios and equivalent-thickness-length ratios. The analysis is performed with the method of matched asymptotic expansions. The angles of attack which are considered are small but are large enough to insure that the effects of lift in the region far from the configuration are either dominant or comparable with the effects of thickness. The modification to the equivalence rule which accounts for these lift effects is determined. An analysis of transonic flow about lifting wings with large aspect ratios is also presented.
Space Shuttle Model In The 16 Foot Transonic Tunnel
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
1978-01-01
What may appear at first glance to be a swimming shark is a wind tunnel model of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, being tested at NASA's Langley Research Center in Hampton,VA. The Orbiter model is 5.5 feet long (1/20th of the real Orbiter's length) and has remotely operated control surfaces. Inside Langley's 16 foot Transonic Wind Tunnel, the model simulated Orbiter re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere, when it must fly through the transonic speed range (the range that crosses the sound barrier). Information on Orbiter stability and control, collected and analyzed during the tests, were integrated with other data to become part of computerized flight simulation programs.
Reynolds Number Effects on a Supersonic Transport at Transonic Conditions
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wahls, R. N.; Owens, L. R.; Rivers, S. M. B.
2001-01-01
A High Speed Civil Transport configuration was tested in the National Transonic Facility at the NASA Langley Research Center as part of NASA's High Speed Research Program. The primary purposes of the tests were to assess Reynolds number scale effects and the high Reynolds number aerodynamic characteristics of a realistic, second generation supersonic transport while providing data for the assessment of computational methods. The tests included longitudinal and lateral/directional studies at low speed high-lift and transonic conditions across a range of Reynolds numbers from that available in conventional wind tunnels to near flight conditions. Results are presented which focus on both the Reynolds number and static aeroelastic sensitivities of longitudinal characteristics at Mach 0.90 for a configuration without an empennage.
Transonic wind-tunnel tests of a lifting parachute model
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foughner, J. T., Jr.; Reed, J. F.; Wynne, E. C.
1976-01-01
Wind-tunnel tests have been made in the Langley transonic dynamics tunnel on a 0.25-scale model of Sandia Laboratories' 3.96-meter (13-foot), slanted ribbon design, lifting parachute. The lifting parachute is the first stage of a proposed two-stage payload delivery system. The lifting parachute model was attached to a forebody representing the payload. The forebody was designed and installed in the test section in a manner which allowed rotational freedom about the pitch and yaw axes. Values of parachute axial force coefficient, rolling moment coefficient, and payload trim angles in pitch and yaw are presented through the transonic speed range. Data are presented for the parachute in both the reefed and full open conditions. Time history records of lifting parachute deployment and disreefing tests are included.
A parametric study of transonic blade-vortex interaction noise
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lyrintzis, A. S.
1991-01-01
Several parameters of transonic blade-vortex interactions (BVI) are being studied and some ideas for noise reduction are introduced and tested using numerical simulation. The model used is the two-dimensional high frequency transonic small disturbance equation with regions of distributed vorticity (VTRAN2 code). The far-field noise signals are obtained by using the Kirchhoff method with extends the numerical 2-D near-field aerodynamic results to the linear acoustic 3-D far-field. The BVI noise mechanisms are explained and the effects of vortex type and strength, and angle of attack are studied. Particularly, airfoil shape modifications which lead to noise reduction are investigated. The results presented are expected to be helpful for better understanding of the nature of the BVI noise and better blade design.
A tomographic technique for aerodynamics at transonic speeds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lee, G.
1985-01-01
Computer aided tomography (CAT) provides a means of noninvasively measuring the air density distribution around an aerodynamic model. This technique is global in that a large portion of the flow field can be measured. A test of the applicability of CAT to transonic velocities was studied. A hemispherical-nose cylinder afterbody model was tested at a Mach number of 0.8 with a new laser holographic interferometer at the 2- by 2-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel. Holograms of the flow field were taken and were reconstructed into interferograms. The fringe distribution (a measure of the local densities) was digitized for subsequent data reduction. A computer program based on the Fourier-transform technique was developed to convert the fringe distribution into three-dimensional densities around the model. Theoretical aerodynamic densities were calculated for evaluating and assessing the accuracy of the data obtained from the tomographic method.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Chan, David T.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.
2011-01-01
A 6%-scale unpowered model of the Orion Launch Abort Vehicle (LAV) ALAS-11-rev3c configuration was tested in the NASA Langley National Transonic Facility to obtain static aerodynamic data at flight Reynolds numbers. Subsonic and transonic data were obtained for Mach numbers between 0.3 and 0.95 for angles of attack from -4 to +22 degrees and angles of sideslip from -10 to +10 degrees. Data were also obtained at various intermediate Reynolds numbers between 2.5 million and 45 million depending on Mach number in order to examine the effects of Reynolds number on the vehicle. Force and moment data were obtained using a 6-component strain gauge balance that operated both at warm temperatures (+120 . F) and cryogenic temperatures (-250 . F). Surface pressure data were obtained with electronically scanned pressure units housed in heated enclosures designed to survive cryogenic temperatures. Data obtained during the 3-week test entry were used to support development of the LAV aerodynamic database and to support computational fluid dynamics code validation. Furthermore, one of the outcomes of the test was the reduction of database uncertainty on axial force coefficient for the static unpowered LAV. This was accomplished as a result of good data repeatability throughout the test and because of decreased uncertainty on scaling wind tunnel data to flight.
Reduction of Tunnel Dynamics at the National Transonic Facility (Invited)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kilgore, W. A.; Balakrishna, S.; Butler, D. H.
2001-01-01
This paper describes the results of recent efforts to reduce the tunnel dynamics at the National Transonic Facility. The results presented describe the findings of an extensive data analysis, the proposed solutions to reduce dynamics and the results of implementing these solutions. These results show a 90% reduction in the dynamics around the model support structure and a small impact on reducing model dynamics. Also presented are several continuing efforts to further reduce dynamics.
National Transonic Facility Fan Blade prepreg material characterization tests
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Klich, P. J.; Richards, W. H.; Ahl, E. L., Jr.
1981-01-01
The test program for the basic prepreg materials used in process development work and planned fabrication of the national transonic facility fan blade is presented. The basic prepreg materials and the design laminate are characterized at 89 K, room temperature, and 366 K. Characterization tests, test equipment, and test data are discussed. Material tests results in the warp direction are given for tensile, compressive, fatigue (tension-tension), interlaminar shear and thermal expansion.
Characteristic boundary conditions for three-dimensional transonic unsteady aerodynamics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Whitlow, W., Jr.
1984-01-01
Characteristic far-field boundary conditions for the three-dimensional unsteady transonic small disturbance potential equation have been developed. The boundary conditions were implemented in the XTRAN3S finite difference code and tested for a flat plate rectangular wing with a pulse in angle of attack; the freestream Mach number was 0.85. The calculated force response shows that the characteristic boundary conditions reduce disturbances that are reflected from the computational boundaries.
Data quality analysis at the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stewart, Pamela N.
1990-01-01
The data quality analysis program that was developed at Langley Research Center's National Transonic Facility is described. The program provides a computer driven systematic analysis of data taken during calibrations of the high speed digital data acquisition system. Five distinct checks that are performed on the calibration data are outlined. The five checks are for non-linearity, noise, short term drift, long term drift, and the proper functioning of the calibrator. The program has established a standard set of evaluation guidelines.
Calculation of transonic flows using an extended integral equation method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Nixon, D.
1976-01-01
An extended integral equation method for transonic flows is developed. In the extended integral equation method velocities in the flow field are calculated in addition to values on the aerofoil surface, in contrast with the less accurate 'standard' integral equation method in which only surface velocities are calculated. The results obtained for aerofoils in subcritical flow and in supercritical flow when shock waves are present compare satisfactorily with the results of recent finite difference methods.
Cryogenic Balance Technology at the National Transonic Facility
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Parker, P. A.
2001-01-01
This paper provides an overview of force measurement at the National Transonic Facility (NTF). The NTF has unique force measurement requirements that dictate an integration of all aspects of balance design, production, and calibration. An overview of current force measurement capabilities is provided along with new balance development efforts. Research activities in the areas of thermal compensation and balance calibration are presented. Also, areas of future research are detailed.