Yasugi, T; Kawai, T; Mizunuma, K; Horiguchi, S; Iguchi, H; Ikeda, M
1992-01-01
A diffusive sampling method with water as absorbent was examined in comparison with 3 conventional methods of diffusive sampling with carbon cloth as absorbent, pumping through National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) charcoal tubes, and pumping through NIOSH silica gel tubes to measure time-weighted average concentration of dimethylformamide (DMF). DMF vapors of constant concentrations at 3-110 ppm were generated by bubbling air at constant velocities through liquid DMF followed by dilution with fresh air. Both types of diffusive samplers could either absorb or adsorb DMF in proportion to time (0.25-8 h) and concentration (3-58 ppm), except that the DMF adsorbed was below the measurable amount when carbon cloth samplers were exposed at 3 ppm for less than 1 h. When both diffusive samplers were loaded with DMF and kept in fresh air, the DMF in water samplers stayed unchanged for at least for 12 h. The DMF in carbon cloth samplers showed a decay with a half-time of 14.3 h. When the carbon cloth was taken out immediately after termination of DMF exposure, wrapped in aluminum foil, and kept refrigerated, however, there was no measurable decrease in DMF for at least 3 weeks. When the air was drawn at 0.2 l/min, a breakthrough of the silica gel tube took place at about 4,000 ppm.min (as the lower 95% confidence limit), whereas charcoal tubes could tolerate even heavier exposures, suggesting that both tubes are fit to measure the 8-h time-weighted average of DMF at 10 ppm. PMID:1577523
Baimatova, Nassiba; Koziel, Jacek A; Kenessov, Bulat
2015-05-11
A new and simple method for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene (BTEX) quantification in vehicle exhaust was developed based on diffusion-controlled extraction onto a retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The rationale was to develop a method based on existing and proven SPME technology that is feasible for field adaptation in developing countries. Passive sampling with SPME fiber retracted into the needle extracted nearly two orders of magnitude less mass (n) compared with exposed fiber (outside of needle) and sampling was in a time weighted-averaging (TWA) mode. Both the sampling time (t) and fiber retraction depth (Z) were adjusted to quantify a wider range of Cgas. Extraction and quantification is conducted in a non-equilibrium mode. Effects of Cgas, t, Z and T were tested. In addition, contribution of n extracted by metallic surfaces of needle assembly without SPME coating was studied. Effects of sample storage time on n loss was studied. Retracted TWA-SPME extractions followed the theoretical model. Extracted n of BTEX was proportional to Cgas, t, Dg, T and inversely proportional to Z. Method detection limits were 1.8, 2.7, 2.1 and 5.2 mg m(-3) (0.51, 0.83, 0.66 and 1.62 ppm) for BTEX, respectively. The contribution of extraction onto metallic surfaces was reproducible and influenced by Cgas and t and less so by T and by the Z. The new method was applied to measure BTEX in the exhaust gas of a Ford Crown Victoria 1995 and compared with a whole gas and direct injection method. PMID:25911428
Baimatova, Nassiba; Koziel, Jacek A; Kenessov, Bulat
2015-05-11
A new and simple method for benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and o-xylene (BTEX) quantification in vehicle exhaust was developed based on diffusion-controlled extraction onto a retracted solid-phase microextraction (SPME) fiber coating. The rationale was to develop a method based on existing and proven SPME technology that is feasible for field adaptation in developing countries. Passive sampling with SPME fiber retracted into the needle extracted nearly two orders of magnitude less mass (n) compared with exposed fiber (outside of needle) and sampling was in a time weighted-averaging (TWA) mode. Both the sampling time (t) and fiber retraction depth (Z) were adjusted to quantify a wider range of Cgas. Extraction and quantification is conducted in a non-equilibrium mode. Effects of Cgas, t, Z and T were tested. In addition, contribution of n extracted by metallic surfaces of needle assembly without SPME coating was studied. Effects of sample storage time on n loss was studied. Retracted TWA-SPME extractions followed the theoretical model. Extracted n of BTEX was proportional to Cgas, t, Dg, T and inversely proportional to Z. Method detection limits were 1.8, 2.7, 2.1 and 5.2 mg m(-3) (0.51, 0.83, 0.66 and 1.62 ppm) for BTEX, respectively. The contribution of extraction onto metallic surfaces was reproducible and influenced by Cgas and t and less so by T and by the Z. The new method was applied to measure BTEX in the exhaust gas of a Ford Crown Victoria 1995 and compared with a whole gas and direct injection method.
40 CFR 51.906 - Redesignation to nonattainment following initial designations for the 8-hour NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality... subsequently redesignated to nonattainment for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS, any absolute, fixed date applicable...
40 CFR 51.906 - Redesignation to nonattainment following initial designations for the 8-hour NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality... subsequently redesignated to nonattainment for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS, any absolute, fixed date applicable...
40 CFR 51.906 - Redesignation to nonattainment following initial designations for the 8-hour NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality... subsequently redesignated to nonattainment for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS, any absolute, fixed date applicable...
40 CFR 51.906 - Redesignation to nonattainment following initial designations for the 8-hour NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality... subsequently redesignated to nonattainment for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS, any absolute, fixed date applicable...
40 CFR 51.906 - Redesignation to nonattainment following initial designations for the 8-hour NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... following initial designations for the 8-hour NAAQS. 51.906 Section 51.906 Protection of Environment... Standard § 51.906 Redesignation to nonattainment following initial designations for the 8-hour NAAQS. For any area that is initially designated attainment or unclassifiable for the 8-hour NAAQS and that...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-12-20
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...; Fredericksburg 8-Hour Ozone Maintenance Area Revision to Approved Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ] ACTION: Final rule; correcting amendment. SUMMARY: This...
40 CFR 51.915 - What emissions inventory requirements apply under the 8-hour NAAQS?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.915 What... emissions inventories for these areas, the ozone-relevant data element requirements under 40 CFR part...
40 CFR 51.915 - What emissions inventory requirements apply under the 8-hour NAAQS?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.915 What... emissions inventories for these areas, the ozone-relevant data element requirements under 40 CFR part...
40 CFR 51.915 - What emissions inventory requirements apply under the 8-hour NAAQS?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.915 What... emissions inventories for these areas, the ozone-relevant data element requirements under 40 CFR part...
A 4.8 hour periodicity in the spectra of Cyg X-3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Becker, R. H.; Robinson-Saba, J. L.; Boldt, E. A.; Holt, S. S.; Pravdo, S. H.; Serlemitsos, P. J.; Swank, J. H.
1978-01-01
The X-ray spectra from three observations of the X-ray binary Cyg X-3 by the cosmic X-ray spectroscopy experiment on OSO can be represented by power-law continua with strong iron line emission. Comparisons of spectra taken within the same observation at various phases of the 4.8 hour period reveal a relative excess of low energy X-ray emission near zero phase (i.e. the minimum) of the 4.8 hour modulation. In addition, the centroid of the line emission is observed to vary in phase with the 4.8 hour cycle. The possibility of persistent thermal X-ray emission from material surrounding the binary system is introduced in an effort to account for the observed effects.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-10-29
... ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) for ozone. This action is being taken under the Clean Air Act (CAA... requirements of Section 12(d) of the National Technology Transfer and Advancement Act of 1995 (15 U.S.C. 272...; Fredericksburg 8-Hour Ozone Maintenance Area Revision to Approved Motor Vehicle Emissions Budgets...
40 CFR 51.915 - What emissions inventory requirements apply under the 8-hour NAAQS?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.915 What... emissions inventory requirement in section 172(c)(3) of the Act shall apply, and an emission inventory SIP... emissions inventories for these areas, the ozone-relevant data element requirements under 40 CFR part...
40 CFR 51.915 - What emissions inventory requirements apply under the 8-hour NAAQS?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... emissions inventories for these areas, the ozone-relevant data element requirements under 40 CFR part 51... nonattainment area subject only to title I, part D, subpart 1 of the Act in accordance with § 51.902(b), the... apply under the 8-hour NAAQS? 51.915 Section 51.915 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-09-01
... Part 81 Air pollution control, National parks, Wilderness areas. Authority: 42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq... Baltimore Area) did not attain the 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS) by its... Agency, Region III, 1650 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19103. D. Hand Delivery: At...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... demonstration requirements apply for purposes of the 8-hour ozone NAAQS? 51.908 Section 51.908 Protection of..., AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient... purposes of the 8-hour ozone NAAQS? (a) What is the attainment demonstration requirement for an...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... demonstration requirements apply for purposes of the 8-hour ozone NAAQS? 51.908 Section 51.908 Protection of..., AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient... purposes of the 8-hour ozone NAAQS? (a) What is the attainment demonstration requirement for an...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... demonstration requirements apply for purposes of the 8-hour ozone NAAQS? 51.908 Section 51.908 Protection of..., AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient... purposes of the 8-hour ozone NAAQS? (a) What is the attainment demonstration requirement for an...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... demonstration requirements apply for purposes of the 8-hour ozone NAAQS? 51.908 Section 51.908 Protection of..., AND SUBMITTAL OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient... purposes of the 8-hour ozone NAAQS? (a) What is the attainment demonstration requirement for an...
40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? The requirements for new source review for the 8-hour ozone standard are located in § 51.165 of this part....
40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? The requirements for new source review for the 8-hour ozone standard are located in § 51.165 of this part....
40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? The requirements for new source review for the 8-hour ozone standard are located in § 51.165 of this part....
40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? The requirements for new source review for the 8-hour ozone standard are located in § 51.165 of this part....
40 CFR 51.914 - What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? 51.914 Section 51.914 Protection of Environment... Standard § 51.914 What new source review requirements apply for 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas? The requirements for new source review for the 8-hour ozone standard are located in § 51.165 of this part....
40 CFR 52.1393 - Interstate Transport Declaration for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1393 Section 52.1393 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1393 Interstate Transport Declaration for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. The... Section 110(a)(2)(D)(i) for the 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS promulgated in July 1997. The...
40 CFR 52.1393 - Interstate Transport Declaration for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1393 Section 52.1393 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1393 Interstate Transport Declaration for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. The... Section 110(a)(2)(D)(i) for the 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS promulgated in July 1997. The...
40 CFR 52.1393 - Interstate Transport Declaration for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1393 Section 52.1393 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1393 Interstate Transport Declaration for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. The... Section 110(a)(2)(D)(i) for the 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS promulgated in July 1997. The...
40 CFR 52.1393 - Interstate Transport Declaration for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1393 Section 52.1393 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Montana § 52.1393 Interstate Transport Declaration for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. The... Section 110(a)(2)(D)(i) for the 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS promulgated in July 1997. The...
40 CFR 51.916 - What are the requirements for an Ozone Transport Region under the 8-hour NAAQS?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What are the requirements for an Ozone... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.916 What are the requirements for an Ozone Transport Region under the 8-hour NAAQS? (a) In...
40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...
40 CFR 52.387 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.387 Section 52.387 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.387 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. On March 13, 2007, the State...)(D)(i) interstate transport requirements of the Clean Air Act for the 1997 8-hour ozone and...
40 CFR 51.916 - What are the requirements for an Ozone Transport Region under the 8-hour NAAQS?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are the requirements for an Ozone... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.916 What are the requirements for an Ozone Transport Region under the 8-hour NAAQS? (a) In...
40 CFR 51.916 - What are the requirements for an Ozone Transport Region under the 8-hour NAAQS?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are the requirements for an Ozone... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.916 What are the requirements for an Ozone Transport Region under the 8-hour NAAQS? (a) In...
40 CFR 52.387 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.387 Section 52.387 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.387 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. On March 13, 2007, the State...)(D)(i) interstate transport requirements of the Clean Air Act for the 1997 8-hour ozone and...
40 CFR 51.916 - What are the requirements for an Ozone Transport Region under the 8-hour NAAQS?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are the requirements for an Ozone... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.916 What are the requirements for an Ozone Transport Region under the 8-hour NAAQS? (a) In...
40 CFR 52.387 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.387 Section 52.387 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.387 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. On March 13, 2007, the State...)(D)(i) interstate transport requirements of the Clean Air Act for the 1997 8-hour ozone and...
40 CFR 52.2499 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.2499 Section 52.2499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) Washington § 52.2499 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. On January 17, 2007,...
40 CFR 52.387 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.387 Section 52.387 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.387 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. On March 13, 2007, the State...)(D)(i) interstate transport requirements of the Clean Air Act for the 1997 8-hour ozone and...
40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level of the national 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone, measured by...
40 CFR 51.916 - What are the requirements for an Ozone Transport Region under the 8-hour NAAQS?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are the requirements for an Ozone... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.916 What are the requirements for an Ozone Transport Region under the 8-hour NAAQS? (a) In...
40 CFR 52.97 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.97 Section 52.97 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION....97 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. On February 7, 2008, the...
40 CFR 52.97 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.97 Section 52.97 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION....97 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. On February 7, 2008, the...
40 CFR 52.97 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.97 Section 52.97 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION....97 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. On February 7, 2008, the...
40 CFR 52.2499 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.2499 Section 52.2499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) Washington § 52.2499 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. On January 17, 2007,...
40 CFR 52.97 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.97 Section 52.97 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION....97 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. On February 7, 2008, the...
40 CFR 52.2499 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.2499 Section 52.2499 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...) Washington § 52.2499 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. On January 17, 2007,...
40 CFR 52.387 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.387 Section 52.387 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION... § 52.387 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone and PM2.5 NAAQS. On March 13, 2007, the State...)(D)(i) interstate transport requirements of the Clean Air Act for the 1997 8-hour ozone and...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-08-24
... designation (for most areas the effective date of the 1997 8-hour designation was June 15, 2004). 40 CFR 51... (69 FR 23951, April 30, 2004). The rule further provides that an area remains subject to these applicable requirements until the area attains the 1997 8-hour NAAQS. 40 CFR 51.905(b). Additionally,...
40 CFR 51.913 - How do the section 182(f) NOX exemption provisions apply for the 8-hour NAAQS?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... provisions apply for the 8-hour NAAQS? 51.913 Section 51.913 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.913... petition the Administrator for an exemption from NOX obligations under section 182(f) for any...
40 CFR 51.913 - How do the section 182(f) NOX exemption provisions apply for the 8-hour NAAQS?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... provisions apply for the 8-hour NAAQS? 51.913 Section 51.913 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.913... petition the Administrator for an exemption from NOX obligations under section 182(f) for any...
40 CFR 51.913 - How do the section 182(f) NOX exemption provisions apply for the 8-hour NAAQS?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Provisions for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.913... designated nonattainment for the 8-hour ozone NAAQS and for any area in a section 184 ozone transport region...) A section 182(f) NOX exemption granted for the 1-hour ozone standard does not relieve the area...
40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... ozone NAAQS are codified in 40 CFR part 81. ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...
40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... with respect to the 1997 ozone NAAQS are codified in 40 CFR part 81. ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-09-20
..., e-mail address, and telephone and fax numbers. Questions concerning the August 24, 2010 (75 FR 51960... holding the public hearing was published in the Federal Register on August 24, 2010 (75 FR 51960), and is... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 51 RIN 2060-AP30 Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air...
40 CFR 50.10 - National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... with respect to the 1997 ozone NAAQS are codified in 40 CFR part 81. ... ambient air quality standards for ozone. 50.10 Section 50.10 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL....10 National 8-hour primary and secondary ambient air quality standards for ozone. (a) The level...
40 CFR 51.913 - How do the section 182(f) NOX exemption provisions apply for the 8-hour NAAQS?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do the section 182(f) NOX exemption... How do the section 182(f) NOX exemption provisions apply for the 8-hour NAAQS? (a) A person may petition the Administrator for an exemption from NOX obligations under section 182(f) for any...
40 CFR 51.913 - How do the section 182(f) NOX exemption provisions apply for the 8-hour NAAQS?
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false How do the section 182(f) NOX exemption... How do the section 182(f) NOX exemption provisions apply for the 8-hour NAAQS? (a) A person may petition the Administrator for an exemption from NOX obligations under section 182(f) for any...
77 FR 28423 - Final Rule To Implement the 1997 8-Hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-05-14
... based.'' The process for making these adjustments is described at 69 FR 23863 et seq. (April 30, 2004... rulemaking (74 FR 2936). \\1\\ 74 FR 2936, January 16, 2009. III. This Action A. Classification of 8-Hour Ozone... Determination, pursuant to 40 CFR 51.918, 70 FR 71702). The obligation to complete and submit those...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-11-09
... for a 1-year extension, the Philadelphia Area's 4th highest daily 8-hour monitored ozone value during...), as required by 40 CFR 51.907(a). The highest-reading monitoring site had a 4th high value for 2009 of... Control Measure'' proposed July 22, 2010 (75 FR 42672); and (2) The maximum 4th highest daily...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-06-09
.... Louis (MO-IL) metropolitan nonattainment area on February 28, 2011 (76 FR 10815). A detailed discussion... that the area has attained the NAAQS during the 2008- 2010 monitoring period. On March 27, 2008 (73 FR... addressed this 2008 revised standard and proposed to set the primary 8-hour ozone standard within the...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-01-18
... of 8-hour Ozone Standard and Related Reference Conditions, and Update of Appendices AGENCY... reference conditions, and updating the list of appendices under ``Documents Incorporated by Reference.'' In... Reference Conditions, and Update of Appendices,'' that is located in the ``Rules and Regulations''...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... classified as moderate or higher under subpart 2 pursuant to § 51.903? An area classified as moderate or... area subject only to subpart 1 in accordance with § 51.902(b)? An area subject to § 51.902(b) shall be... demonstration requirements apply for purposes of the 8-hour ozone NAAQS? 51.908 Section 51.908 Protection...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-12-20
...-Hour Ozone Nonattainment Area; Texas AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Final rule... nonattainment area failed to attain the 1997 8-hour ozone national ambient air quality standard (NAAQS or... Federal Regulations (CFR) for moderate nonattainment areas. This final determination is based on...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-02-28
... 12898 (59 FR 7629, February 16, 1994). In addition, this proposed 8-hour ozone clean NAAQS data... that the area has attained the NAAQS during the 2008-2010 monitoring period. On March 27, 2008 (73 FR... by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-03-11
...).) List of Subjects in 40 CFR Part 81 Environmental protection, Air pollution control, National parks... Baltimore nonattainment area, which is classified as moderate for the 1997 8-hour ozone National Ambient Air....S. Environmental Protection Agency, Region III, 1650 Arch Street, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... suspended in 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas that have air quality data that meets the NAAQS? 51.918... 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.918 Can any SIP planning requirements be suspended in 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas that have air quality data that meets the NAAQS? Upon...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... suspended in 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas that have air quality data that meets the NAAQS? 51.918... 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.918 Can any SIP planning requirements be suspended in 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas that have air quality data that meets the NAAQS? Upon...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... suspended in 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas that have air quality data that meets the NAAQS? 51.918... 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.918 Can any SIP planning requirements be suspended in 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas that have air quality data that meets the NAAQS? Upon...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... suspended in 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas that have air quality data that meets the NAAQS? 51.918... 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.918 Can any SIP planning requirements be suspended in 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas that have air quality data that meets the NAAQS? Upon...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? 51.917 Section 51.917 Protection of... Air Quality Standard § 51.917 What is the effective date of designation for the Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area? The Las Vegas, NV, 8-hour ozone nonattainment area (designated on September...
Observation of gamma rays with a 4.8 hour periodicity from CYG X-3
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lamb, R. C.; Fichtel, C. E.; Hartman, R. C.; Kniffen, D. A.; Thompson, D. J.
1976-01-01
Energetic (E35 MeV) Gamma rays were observed from Cyg X-3 with the SAS-2 Gamma ray telescope. They are modulated at the 4.8 sup h period observed in the X-ray and infrared regions, and within the statistical error are in phase with this emission. The flux above 100 MeV has an average value of (4.4 + or - 1.1)x 10 to the -6 power/sq cm/sec. If the distance to Cyg X-3 is 10 kpcs, this flux implies a luminosity of more than 10 to the 37th power ergs/s if the radiation is isotropic and about 10 to the 36th power ergs/s if the radiation is restricted to a cone of one steradian, as it might be in a pulsar.
Behavioral changes in neonatal swine after an 8-hour rest during prolonged transportation.
Williams, J L; Richert, B T; Marchant-Forde, J N; Eicher, S D
2012-09-01
Long distance transportation of weaned piglets (Sus scrofa) is increasingly common in the united states and may result in delayed eating, drinking, or normal social behaviors. A potential solution is a mid-journey rest (lairage). The objective of this study was to determine if a lairage altered behavior after a 16-h transport. Pigs that weighed approximately 18 kg each (n = 894) were housed in 16 pens with 8 pens per treatment. Lairaged pigs were transported for 8 h and given an 8-h rest with food and water, whereas control pigs were transported continuously for 16 h. The heaviest, the lightest, and 2 average-BW pigs relative to the average weight of the pen were observed by video recording for 24 h immediately before and after transport, and during d 6 and 13 after transport. Postures (lying, sitting, and standing) were recorded using 10-min-interval scan sampling, and behavioral categories included inactivity, activities (eating, drinking, alert, manipulating pen, rooting, and walking) and social interactions (aggression, belly nosing, playing, tail biting, and positive social behaviors). In both treatments, sitting occurred most before transport (P < 0.01) than at other times, but did not differ between treatments. Standing increased (time effect; P < 0.01) for both treatments immediately after transport through d 6, but returned to pre-transport values by d 13. In contrast, lying decreased (time effect; P < 0.01) after transport, but returned to above pre-transport values by d 13. Time effects were evident for activity (P < 0.01), pen manipulation (P = 0.05), rooting (P < 0.01), initiation of belly-nosing (P = 0.01), and receiving belly-nosing (P = 0.03); however, initiation of aggression did not differ for day (P = 0.19) or treatment (P = 0.56). Lairaged pigs initiated more (P = 0.05) play than continuously transported pigs, but no differences (P = 0.84) were seen in receipt of play behavior. Pigs that were to be transported for 16 h continuously walked less
Hughes, R.L.; Yonas, H.; Gur, D.; Latchaw, R.
1989-06-01
Cerebral blood flow mapping with stable xenon-enhanced computed tomography (Xe/CT) was performed in conjunction with conventional computed tomography (CT) within the first 8 hours after the onset of symptoms in seven patients with cerebral infarction. Six patients had hemispheric infarctions, and one had a progressive brainstem infarction. Three patients with very low (less than 10 ml/100 g/min) blood flow in an anatomic area appropriate for the neurologic deficit had no clinical improvement by the time of discharge from the hospital; follow-up CT scans of these three patients confirmed infarction in the area of very low blood flow. Three patients with moderate blood flow reductions (15-45 ml/100 g/min) in the appropriate anatomic area had significant clinical improvement from their initial deficits and had normal follow-up CT scans. One patient studied 8 hours after stroke had increased blood flow (hyperemia) in the appropriate anatomic area and made no clinical recovery.
40 CFR 52.1989 - Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS. 52.1989 Section 52.1989 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... (CONTINUED) Oregon § 52.1989 Interstate Transport for the 1997 8-hour ozone NAAQS and 1997 PM2.5 NAAQS....
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... suspended in 8-hour ozone nonattainment areas that have air quality data that meets the NAAQS? 51.918 Section 51.918 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS... 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.918 Can any SIP planning requirements...
Time-weighted accumulations ap(. tau. ) and Kp(. tau. )
Wrenn, G.L. )
1987-09-01
The planetary geomagnetic indices Kp and ap are widely used in space geophysics. They provide an estimate of maximum magnetic perturbation within a 3-hour period. Many geophysical properties are clearly related to the indices, through energy transfer from a common disturbance source, but direct correlation is often lacking because of poor matching between the frequency of sampling and the physical response functions. The index ap({tau}) is a simple accumulation of the linear ap calculated with an attenuation factor {tau} included to take account of natural temporal relaxation. The case for ap({tau}) and the related Kp({tau}) is made using applications to the variability of the plasma environment in the ionosphere and inner magnetosphere. These examples of improved correlation suggest that time-weighted integration might profitably be applied to other indices.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.907 For an area that... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false For an area that fails to attain the 8... the CAA? 51.907 Section 51.907 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... for Implementation of 8-hour Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.907 For an area that... 40 Protection of Environment 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false For an area that fails to attain the 8... the CAA? 51.907 Section 51.907 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.905 How do areas transition from the 1-hour NAAQS to the 8-hour NAAQS...)(3)(iii) of this section. 40 CFR part 81, subpart C identifies the boundaries of areas and the area... obligations approved into the SIP pursuant to 40 CFR 51.121 and 51.122 may be modified by the State only...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... Ambient Air Quality Standard § 51.905 How do areas transition from the 1-hour NAAQS to the 8-hour NAAQS...)(3)(iii) of this section. 40 CFR part 81, subpart C identifies the boundaries of areas and the area... obligations approved into the SIP pursuant to 40 CFR 51.121 and 51.122 may be modified by the State only...
Sather, Mark E; Cavender, Kevin
2016-07-13
In the last 30 years ambient ozone concentrations have notably decreased in the South Central U.S. Yet, current ambient ozone concentrations measured over the past three years 2013-2015 in this area of the U.S. are not meeting the U.S. 2015 8 hour ozone standard of 70 parts per billion (ppb). This paper provides an update on long-term trends analyses of ambient 8 hour ozone and ozone precursor monitoring data collected over the past 30 years (1986-2015) in four South Central U.S. cities, following up on two previously published reviews of 20 and 25 year trends for these cities. All four cities have benefitted from national ozone precursor controls put in place during the 1990s and 2000s involving cleaner vehicles (vehicle fleet turnover/replacement over time), cleaner fuels, cleaner gasoline and diesel engines, and improved inspection/maintenance programs for existing vehicles. Additional ozone precursor emission controls specific to each city are detailed in this paper. The controls have resulted in impressive ambient ozone and ambient ozone precursor concentration reductions in the four South Central U.S. cities over the past 30 years, including 31-70% ambient nitrogen oxides (NOx) concentration declines from historical peaks to the present, 43-72% volatile organic compound (VOC) concentration declines from historical peaks to the present, a related 45-76% VOC reactivity decline for a subset of VOC species from historical peaks to the present, and an 18-38 ppb reduction in city 8 hour ozone design value concentrations. A new challenge for each of the four South Central U.S. cities will be meeting the U.S. 2015 8 hour ozone standard of 70 ppb. PMID:27282109
Horvath, S.M.; Bedi, J.F. )
1989-10-01
Seventeen non-smoking young men served as subjects to determine the alteration in carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) concentrations during exposure to 0 or 9 ppm carbon monoxide for 8 hours (CO) at sea level or an altitude of 2134 meters (7000 feet) in a hypobaric chamber. Nine subjects rested during the exposure and 8 exercised for 10 minutes of each exposure hour at a mean ventilation of 25 L (BTPS). All subjects performed a maximal aerobic capacity test at the completion of their respective exposures. Carboxyhemoglobin concentrations fell in all subjects during their exposures to 0 ppm CO at sea level or 2134 m. During the 8-h exposures to 9 ppm CO, COHb rose linearly from approximately 0.2 percent to 0.7 percent. No significant differences in uptake were found whether the subjects were resting or intermittently exercising during their 8-h exposures. COHb levels attained were similar at both sea level and 2134 m. Maximal aerobic capacity was reduced approximately 7-10 percent consequent to altitude exposure during 0 ppm CO exposures. These values were not altered following exposure for 8 h to 9 ppm CO in either the resting or exercising subjects.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Markley, F. Landis; Cheng, Yang; Crassidis, John L.; Oshman, Yaakov
2007-01-01
Many applications require an algorithm that averages quaternions in an optimal manner. For example, when combining the quaternion outputs of multiple star trackers having this output capability, it is desirable to properly average the quaternions without recomputing the attitude from the the raw star tracker data. Other applications requiring some sort of optimal quaternion averaging include particle filtering and multiple-model adaptive estimation, where weighted quaternions are used to determine the quaternion estimate. For spacecraft attitude estimation applications, derives an optimal averaging scheme to compute the average of a set of weighted attitude matrices using the singular value decomposition method. Focusing on a 4-dimensional quaternion Gaussian distribution on the unit hypersphere, provides an approach to computing the average quaternion by minimizing a quaternion cost function that is equivalent to the attitude matrix cost function Motivated by and extending its results, this Note derives an algorithm that deterniines an optimal average quaternion from a set of scalar- or matrix-weighted quaternions. Rirthermore, a sufficient condition for the uniqueness of the average quaternion, and the equivalence of the mininiization problem, stated herein, to maximum likelihood estimation, are shown.
Tomak, Leman; Bek, Yuksel; Tomak, Yılmaz
2015-01-01
Time-weighted graphs are used to detect small shifts in statistical process control. The aim of this study is to evaluate the inclination of the acetabular component with CUmulative SUM (CUSUM) chart, Moving Average (MA) chart, and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average (EWMA) chart. The data were obtained directly from thirty patients who had undergone total hip replacement surgery at Ondokuz Mayis University, Faculty of Medicine. The inclination of the acetabular component of these people, after total hip replacement, was evaluated. CUSUM chart, Moving Average chart, and Exponentially Weighted Moving Average were used to evaluate the quality control process of acetabular component inclination. MINITAB Statistical Software 15.0 was used to generate these control charts. The assessment done with time-weighted charts revealed that the acetabular inclination angles were settled within control limits and the process was under control. It was determined that the change within the control limits had a random pattern. As a result of this study it has been obtained that time-weighted quality control charts which are used mostly in the field of industry can also be used in the field of medicine. It has provided us with a faster visual decision. PMID:26413501
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... decimal place of the computed value is rounded, with values equal to or greater than 5 rounding up. Thus....089 0.086 0.084 0.080 1995 98% 0.087 0.085 0.083 0.080 0.075 Average 98% (2) As shown in example...
Development of accumulated heat stress index based on time-weighted function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Ji-Sun; Byun, Hi-Ryong; Kim, Do-Woo
2016-05-01
Heat stress accumulates in the human body when a person is exposed to a thermal condition for a long time. Considering this fact, we have defined the accumulated heat stress (AH) and have developed the accumulated heat stress index (AHI) to quantify the strength of heat stress. AH represents the heat stress accumulated in a 72-h period calculated by the use of a time-weighted function, and the AHI is a standardized index developed by the use of an equiprobability transformation (from a fitted Weibull distribution to the standard normal distribution). To verify the advantage offered by the AHI, it was compared with four thermal indices the humidex, the heat index, the wet-bulb globe temperature, and the perceived temperature used by national governments. AH and the AHI were found to provide better detection of thermal danger and were more useful than other indices. In particular, AH and the AHI detect deaths that were caused not only by extremely hot and humid weather, but also by the persistence of moderately hot and humid weather (for example, consecutive daily maximum temperatures of 28-32 °C), which the other indices fail to detect.
Chrien, R.E.
1986-10-01
The principles of resonance averaging as applied to neutron capture reactions are described. Several illustrations of resonance averaging to problems of nuclear structure and the distribution of radiative strength in nuclei are provided. 30 refs., 12 figs.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mitchem, John
1989-01-01
Examples used to illustrate Simpson's paradox for secondary students include probabilities, university admissions, batting averages, student-faculty ratios, and average and expected class sizes. Each result is explained. (DC)
Reznik, Ed; Chaudhary, Osman; Segrè, Daniel
2013-09-01
The Michaelis-Menten equation for an irreversible enzymatic reaction depends linearly on the enzyme concentration. Even if the enzyme concentration changes in time, this linearity implies that the amount of substrate depleted during a given time interval depends only on the average enzyme concentration. Here, we use a time re-scaling approach to generalize this result to a broad category of multi-reaction systems, whose constituent enzymes have the same dependence on time, e.g. they belong to the same regulon. This "average enzyme principle" provides a natural methodology for jointly studying metabolism and its regulation.
Bradley, Paul M.; Journey, Celeste A.; Bringham, Mark E.; Burns, Douglas A.; Button, Daniel T.; Riva-Murray, Karen
2013-01-01
To assess inter-comparability of fluvial mercury (Hg) observations at substantially different scales, Hg concentrations, yields, and bivariate-relations were evaluated at nested-basin locations in the Edisto River, South Carolina and Hudson River, New York. Differences between scales were observed for filtered methylmercury (FMeHg) in the Edisto (attributed to wetland coverage differences) but not in the Hudson. Total mercury (THg) concentrations and bivariate-relationships did not vary substantially with scale in either basin. Combining results of this and a previously published multi-basin study, fish Hg correlated strongly with sampled water FMeHg concentration (p = 0.78; p = 0.003) and annual FMeHg basin yield (p = 0.66; p = 0.026). Improved correlation (p = 0.88; p < 0.0001) was achieved with time-weighted mean annual FMeHg concentrations estimated from basin-specific LOADEST models and daily streamflow. Results suggest reasonable scalability and inter-comparability for different basin sizes if wetland area or related MeHg-source-area metrics are considered.
Bradley, Paul M; Journey, Celeste A; Brigham, Mark E; Burns, Douglas A; Button, Daniel T; Riva-Murray, Karen
2013-01-01
To assess inter-comparability of fluvial mercury (Hg) observations at substantially different scales, Hg concentrations, yields, and bivariate-relations were evaluated at nested-basin locations in the Edisto River, South Carolina and Hudson River, New York. Differences between scales were observed for filtered methylmercury (FMeHg) in the Edisto (attributed to wetland coverage differences) but not in the Hudson. Total mercury (THg) concentrations and bivariate-relationships did not vary substantially with scale in either basin. Combining results of this and a previously published multi-basin study, fish Hg correlated strongly with sampled water FMeHg concentration (ρ = 0.78; p = 0.003) and annual FMeHg basin yield (ρ = 0.66; p = 0.026). Improved correlation (ρ = 0.88; p < 0.0001) was achieved with time-weighted mean annual FMeHg concentrations estimated from basin-specific LOADEST models and daily streamflow. Results suggest reasonable scalability and inter-comparability for different basin sizes if wetland area or related MeHg-source-area metrics are considered. PMID:22982552
Bonnor, W.B.
1987-05-01
The Einstein-Straus (1945) vacuole is here used to represent a bound cluster of galaxies embedded in a standard pressure-free cosmological model, and the average density of the cluster is compared with the density of the surrounding cosmic fluid. The two are nearly but not quite equal, and the more condensed the cluster, the greater the difference. A theoretical consequence of the discrepancy between the two densities is discussed. 25 references.
Americans' Average Radiation Exposure
NA
2000-08-11
We live with radiation every day. We receive radiation exposures from cosmic rays, from outer space, from radon gas, and from other naturally radioactive elements in the earth. This is called natural background radiation. It includes the radiation we get from plants, animals, and from our own bodies. We also are exposed to man-made sources of radiation, including medical and dental treatments, television sets and emission from coal-fired power plants. Generally, radiation exposures from man-made sources are only a fraction of those received from natural sources. One exception is high exposures used by doctors to treat cancer patients. Each year in the United States, the average dose to people from natural and man-made radiation sources is about 360 millirem. A millirem is an extremely tiny amount of energy absorbed by tissues in the body.
Dissociating Averageness and Attractiveness: Attractive Faces Are Not Always Average
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeBruine, Lisa M.; Jones, Benedict C.; Unger, Layla; Little, Anthony C.; Feinberg, David R.
2007-01-01
Although the averageness hypothesis of facial attractiveness proposes that the attractiveness of faces is mostly a consequence of their averageness, 1 study has shown that caricaturing highly attractive faces makes them mathematically less average but more attractive. Here the authors systematically test the averageness hypothesis in 5 experiments…
Normally Expected Aberrations in the 8-hour Dynamic EKG
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fleck, R. L.; Arnoldi, L. B.; Townsend, J. C.; Tonesk, X.
1970-01-01
The establishment of norms for interpreting long term dynamic electrocardiograms is attempted by correlating a completely disease symptom and cardiac risk factor free sample with a non-pure sample in the direction of normality on various variables. Out of a population of 362 subjects exposed to dynamic electrocardiogram testing, a discrimination between normals and abnormals in terms of traditional risk factors was observed. The two groups differed significantly on the following variables: cholesterol, smoking, systolic blood pressure, white blood count, fasting blood sugar, uric acid, resting EKG, year of birth, and coronary insufficiency.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Samuvel, K.; Ramachandran, K.
2016-05-01
BaTi0.5CO0.5O3 (BTCO) nanoparticles were prepared by the solid state reaction technique using different starting materials and the microstructure examined by XRD, FESEM, BDS and VSM. X-ray diffraction and electron diffraction patterns showed that the nanoparticles were the tetragonal BTCO phase. The BTCO nanoparticles prepared from the starting materials of as prepared titanium-oxide, Cobalt -oxide and barium carbonate have spherical grain morphology, an average size of 65 nm and a fairly narrow size distribution. The nano-scale presence and the formation of the tetragonal perovskite phase as well as the crystallinity were detected using the mentioned techniques. Dielectric properties of the samples were measured at different frequencies. Broadband dielectric spectroscopy is applied to investigate the electrical properties of disordered perovskite-like ceramics in a wide temperature range. The doped BTCO samples exhibited low loss factor at 1 kHz and 1 MHz frequencies respectively.
Averaging Models: Parameters Estimation with the R-Average Procedure
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Vidotto, G.; Massidda, D.; Noventa, S.
2010-01-01
The Functional Measurement approach, proposed within the theoretical framework of Information Integration Theory (Anderson, 1981, 1982), can be a useful multi-attribute analysis tool. Compared to the majority of statistical models, the averaging model can account for interaction effects without adding complexity. The R-Average method (Vidotto &…
Averaging Internal Consistency Reliability Coefficients
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Feldt, Leonard S.; Charter, Richard A.
2006-01-01
Seven approaches to averaging reliability coefficients are presented. Each approach starts with a unique definition of the concept of "average," and no approach is more correct than the others. Six of the approaches are applicable to internal consistency coefficients. The seventh approach is specific to alternate-forms coefficients. Although the…
The Average of Rates and the Average Rate.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lindstrom, Peter
1988-01-01
Defines arithmetic, harmonic, and weighted harmonic means, and discusses their properties. Describes the application of these properties in problems involving fuel economy estimates and average rates of motion. Gives example problems and solutions. (CW)
High average power pockels cell
Daly, Thomas P.
1991-01-01
A high average power pockels cell is disclosed which reduces the effect of thermally induced strains in high average power laser technology. The pockels cell includes an elongated, substantially rectangular crystalline structure formed from a KDP-type material to eliminate shear strains. The X- and Y-axes are oriented substantially perpendicular to the edges of the crystal cross-section and to the C-axis direction of propagation to eliminate shear strains.
Determining GPS average performance metrics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moore, G. V.
1995-01-01
Analytic and semi-analytic methods are used to show that users of the GPS constellation can expect performance variations based on their location. Specifically, performance is shown to be a function of both altitude and latitude. These results stem from the fact that the GPS constellation is itself non-uniform. For example, GPS satellites are over four times as likely to be directly over Tierra del Fuego than over Hawaii or Singapore. Inevitable performance variations due to user location occur for ground, sea, air and space GPS users. These performance variations can be studied in an average relative sense. A semi-analytic tool which symmetrically allocates GPS satellite latitude belt dwell times among longitude points is used to compute average performance metrics. These metrics include average number of GPS vehicles visible, relative average accuracies in the radial, intrack and crosstrack (or radial, north/south, east/west) directions, and relative average PDOP or GDOP. The tool can be quickly changed to incorporate various user antenna obscuration models and various GPS constellation designs. Among other applications, tool results can be used in studies to: predict locations and geometries of best/worst case performance, design GPS constellations, determine optimal user antenna location and understand performance trends among various users.
Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.
Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal
2010-01-26
Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception.
Vocal attractiveness increases by averaging.
Bruckert, Laetitia; Bestelmeyer, Patricia; Latinus, Marianne; Rouger, Julien; Charest, Ian; Rousselet, Guillaume A; Kawahara, Hideki; Belin, Pascal
2010-01-26
Vocal attractiveness has a profound influence on listeners-a bias known as the "what sounds beautiful is good" vocal attractiveness stereotype [1]-with tangible impact on a voice owner's success at mating, job applications, and/or elections. The prevailing view holds that attractive voices are those that signal desirable attributes in a potential mate [2-4]-e.g., lower pitch in male voices. However, this account does not explain our preferences in more general social contexts in which voices of both genders are evaluated. Here we show that averaging voices via auditory morphing [5] results in more attractive voices, irrespective of the speaker's or listener's gender. Moreover, we show that this phenomenon is largely explained by two independent by-products of averaging: a smoother voice texture (reduced aperiodicities) and a greater similarity in pitch and timbre with the average of all voices (reduced "distance to mean"). These results provide the first evidence for a phenomenon of vocal attractiveness increases by averaging, analogous to a well-established effect of facial averaging [6, 7]. They highlight prototype-based coding [8] as a central feature of voice perception, emphasizing the similarity in the mechanisms of face and voice perception. PMID:20129047
Vibrational averages along thermal lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Monserrat, Bartomeu
2016-01-01
A method is proposed for the calculation of vibrational quantum and thermal expectation values of physical properties from first principles. Thermal lines are introduced: these are lines in configuration space parametrized by temperature, such that the value of any physical property along them is approximately equal to the vibrational average of that property. The number of sampling points needed to explore the vibrational phase space is reduced by up to an order of magnitude when the full vibrational density is replaced by thermal lines. Calculations of the vibrational averages of several properties and systems are reported, namely, the internal energy and the electronic band gap of diamond and silicon, and the chemical shielding tensor of L-alanine. Thermal lines pave the way for complex calculations of vibrational averages, including large systems and methods beyond semilocal density functional theory.
Averaging of globally coupled oscillators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swift, James W.; Strogatz, Steven H.; Wiesenfeld, Kurt
1992-03-01
We study a specific system of symmetrically coupled oscillators using the method of averaging. The equations describe a series array of Josephson junctions. We concentrate on the dynamics near the splay-phase state (also known as the antiphase state, ponies on a merry-go-round, or rotating wave). We calculate the Floquet exponents of the splay-phase periodic orbit in the weak-coupling limit, and find that all of the Floquet exponents are purely imaginary; in fact, all the Floquet exponents are zero except for a single complex conjugate pair. Thus, nested two-tori of doubly periodic solutions surround the splay-phase state in the linearized averaged equations. We numerically integrate the original system, and find startling agreement with the averaging results on two counts: The observed ratio of frequencies is very close to the prediction, and the solutions of the full equations appear to be either periodic or doubly periodic, as they are in the averaged equations. Such behavior is quite surprising from the point of view of generic dynamical systems theory-one expects higher-dimensional tori and chaotic solutions. We show that the functional form of the equations, and not just their symmetry, is responsible for this nongeneric behavior.
Averaging inhomogeneous cosmologies - a dialogue.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchert, T.
The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.
Averaging inhomogenous cosmologies - a dialogue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchert, T.
The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.
Polyhedral Painting with Group Averaging
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Farris, Frank A.; Tsao, Ryan
2016-01-01
The technique of "group-averaging" produces colorings of a sphere that have the symmetries of various polyhedra. The concepts are accessible at the undergraduate level, without being well-known in typical courses on algebra or geometry. The material makes an excellent discovery project, especially for students with some background in…
Averaging Robertson-Walker cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, Iain A.; Robbers, Georg; Behrend, Juliane
2009-04-01
The cosmological backreaction arises when one directly averages the Einstein equations to recover an effective Robertson-Walker cosmology, rather than assuming a background a priori. While usually discussed in the context of dark energy, strictly speaking any cosmological model should be recovered from such a procedure. We apply the scalar spatial averaging formalism for the first time to linear Robertson-Walker universes containing matter, radiation and dark energy. The formalism employed is general and incorporates systems of multiple fluids with ease, allowing us to consider quantitatively the universe from deep radiation domination up to the present day in a natural, unified manner. Employing modified Boltzmann codes we evaluate numerically the discrepancies between the assumed and the averaged behaviour arising from the quadratic terms, finding the largest deviations for an Einstein-de Sitter universe, increasing rapidly with Hubble rate to a 0.01% effect for h = 0.701. For the ΛCDM concordance model, the backreaction is of the order of Ωeff0 approx 4 × 10-6, with those for dark energy models being within a factor of two or three. The impacts at recombination are of the order of 10-8 and those in deep radiation domination asymptote to a constant value. While the effective equations of state of the backreactions in Einstein-de Sitter, concordance and quintessence models are generally dust-like, a backreaction with an equation of state weff < -1/3 can be found for strongly phantom models.
Model averaging in linkage analysis.
Matthysse, Steven
2006-06-01
Methods for genetic linkage analysis are traditionally divided into "model-dependent" and "model-independent," but there may be a useful place for an intermediate class, in which a broad range of possible models is considered as a parametric family. It is possible to average over model space with an empirical Bayes prior that weights models according to their goodness of fit to epidemiologic data, such as the frequency of the disease in the population and in first-degree relatives (and correlations with other traits in the pleiotropic case). For averaging over high-dimensional spaces, Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) has great appeal, but it has a near-fatal flaw: it is not possible, in most cases, to provide rigorous sufficient conditions to permit the user safely to conclude that the chain has converged. A way of overcoming the convergence problem, if not of solving it, rests on a simple application of the principle of detailed balance. If the starting point of the chain has the equilibrium distribution, so will every subsequent point. The first point is chosen according to the target distribution by rejection sampling, and subsequent points by an MCMC process that has the target distribution as its equilibrium distribution. Model averaging with an empirical Bayes prior requires rapid estimation of likelihoods at many points in parameter space. Symbolic polynomials are constructed before the random walk over parameter space begins, to make the actual likelihood computations at each step of the random walk very fast. Power analysis in an illustrative case is described. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. PMID:16652369
Ensemble averaging of acoustic data
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stefanski, P. K.
1982-01-01
A computer program called Ensemble Averaging of Acoustic Data is documented. The program samples analog data, analyzes the data, and displays them in the time and frequency domains. Hard copies of the displays are the program's output. The documentation includes a description of the program and detailed user instructions for the program. This software was developed for use on the Ames 40- by 80-Foot Wind Tunnel's Dynamic Analysis System consisting of a PDP-11/45 computer, two RK05 disk drives, a tektronix 611 keyboard/display terminal, and FPE-4 Fourier Processing Element, and an analog-to-digital converter.
Flexible time domain averaging technique
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Ming; Lin, Jing; Lei, Yaguo; Wang, Xiufeng
2013-09-01
Time domain averaging(TDA) is essentially a comb filter, it cannot extract the specified harmonics which may be caused by some faults, such as gear eccentric. Meanwhile, TDA always suffers from period cutting error(PCE) to different extent. Several improved TDA methods have been proposed, however they cannot completely eliminate the waveform reconstruction error caused by PCE. In order to overcome the shortcomings of conventional methods, a flexible time domain averaging(FTDA) technique is established, which adapts to the analyzed signal through adjusting each harmonic of the comb filter. In this technique, the explicit form of FTDA is first constructed by frequency domain sampling. Subsequently, chirp Z-transform(CZT) is employed in the algorithm of FTDA, which can improve the calculating efficiency significantly. Since the signal is reconstructed in the continuous time domain, there is no PCE in the FTDA. To validate the effectiveness of FTDA in the signal de-noising, interpolation and harmonic reconstruction, a simulated multi-components periodic signal that corrupted by noise is processed by FTDA. The simulation results show that the FTDA is capable of recovering the periodic components from the background noise effectively. Moreover, it can improve the signal-to-noise ratio by 7.9 dB compared with conventional ones. Experiments are also carried out on gearbox test rigs with chipped tooth and eccentricity gear, respectively. It is shown that the FTDA can identify the direction and severity of the eccentricity gear, and further enhances the amplitudes of impulses by 35%. The proposed technique not only solves the problem of PCE, but also provides a useful tool for the fault symptom extraction of rotating machinery.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Averaging. 91.1304 Section 91.1304... Averaging. (a) A manufacturer may use averaging across engine families to demonstrate a zero or positive credit balance for a model year. Positive credits to be used in averaging may be obtained from...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Averaging. 91.1304 Section 91.1304... Averaging. (a) A manufacturer may use averaging across engine families to demonstrate a zero or positive credit balance for a model year. Positive credits to be used in averaging may be obtained from...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Averaging. 91.1304 Section 91.1304... Averaging. (a) A manufacturer may use averaging across engine families to demonstrate a zero or positive credit balance for a model year. Positive credits to be used in averaging may be obtained from...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Molfese, Dennis L.; Key, Alexandra Fonaryova; Kelly, Spencer; Cunningham, Natalie; Terrell, Shona; Ferguson, Melissa; Molfese, Victoria J.; Bonebright, Terri
2006-01-01
Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded from 27 children (14 girls, 13 boys) who varied in their reading skill levels. Both behavior performance measures recorded during the ERP word classification task and the ERP responses themselves discriminated between children with above-average, average, and below-average reading skills. ERP…
40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...
40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... averaging plan is in compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an averaging...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an averaging...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an averaging...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an averaging...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... are defined as follows: (1) Eligible engines rated at or above 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (2) Eligible engines rated under 19 kW, other than marine diesel engines, constitute an averaging set. (3) Marine diesel engines rated at or above 19 kW constitute an averaging...
Spectral averaging techniques for Jacobi matrices
Rio, Rafael del; Martinez, Carmen; Schulz-Baldes, Hermann
2008-02-15
Spectral averaging techniques for one-dimensional discrete Schroedinger operators are revisited and extended. In particular, simultaneous averaging over several parameters is discussed. Special focus is put on proving lower bounds on the density of the averaged spectral measures. These Wegner-type estimates are used to analyze stability properties for the spectral types of Jacobi matrices under local perturbations.
Averaging and Adding in Children's Worth Judgements
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Schlottmann, Anne; Harman, Rachel M.; Paine, Julie
2012-01-01
Under the normative Expected Value (EV) model, multiple outcomes are additive, but in everyday worth judgement intuitive averaging prevails. Young children also use averaging in EV judgements, leading to a disordinal, crossover violation of utility when children average the part worths of simple gambles involving independent events (Schlottmann,…
Average-cost based robust structural control
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hagood, Nesbitt W.
1993-01-01
A method is presented for the synthesis of robust controllers for linear time invariant structural systems with parameterized uncertainty. The method involves minimizing quantities related to the quadratic cost (H2-norm) averaged over a set of systems described by real parameters such as natural frequencies and modal residues. Bounded average cost is shown to imply stability over the set of systems. Approximations for the exact average are derived and proposed as cost functionals. The properties of these approximate average cost functionals are established. The exact average and approximate average cost functionals are used to derive dynamic controllers which can provide stability robustness. The robustness properties of these controllers are demonstrated in illustrative numerical examples and tested in a simple SISO experiment on the MIT multi-point alignment testbed.
Spatial limitations in averaging social cues
Florey, Joseph; Clifford, Colin W. G.; Dakin, Steven; Mareschal, Isabelle
2016-01-01
The direction of social attention from groups provides stronger cueing than from an individual. It has previously been shown that both basic visual features such as size or orientation and more complex features such as face emotion and identity can be averaged across multiple elements. Here we used an equivalent noise procedure to compare observers’ ability to average social cues with their averaging of a non-social cue. Estimates of observers’ internal noise (uncertainty associated with processing any individual) and sample-size (the effective number of gaze-directions pooled) were derived by fitting equivalent noise functions to discrimination thresholds. We also used reverse correlation analysis to estimate the spatial distribution of samples used by participants. Averaging of head-rotation and cone-rotation was less noisy and more efficient than averaging of gaze direction, though presenting only the eye region of faces at a larger size improved gaze averaging performance. The reverse correlation analysis revealed greater sampling areas for head rotation compared to gaze. We attribute these differences in averaging between gaze and head cues to poorer visual processing of faces in the periphery. The similarity between head and cone averaging are examined within the framework of a general mechanism for averaging of object rotation. PMID:27573589
Cosmological ensemble and directional averages of observables
Bonvin, Camille; Clarkson, Chris; Durrer, Ruth; Maartens, Roy; Umeh, Obinna E-mail: chris.clarkson@gmail.com E-mail: roy.maartens@gmail.com
2015-07-01
We show that at second order, ensemble averages of observables and directional averages do not commute due to gravitational lensing—observing the same thing in many directions over the sky is not the same as taking an ensemble average. In principle this non-commutativity is significant for a variety of quantities that we often use as observables and can lead to a bias in parameter estimation. We derive the relation between the ensemble average and the directional average of an observable, at second order in perturbation theory. We discuss the relevance of these two types of averages for making predictions of cosmological observables, focusing on observables related to distances and magnitudes. In particular, we show that the ensemble average of the distance in a given observed direction is increased by gravitational lensing, whereas the directional average of the distance is decreased. For a generic observable, there exists a particular function of the observable that is not affected by second-order lensing perturbations. We also show that standard areas have an advantage over standard rulers, and we discuss the subtleties involved in averaging in the case of supernova observations.
Spectral and parametric averaging for integrable systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ma, Tao; Serota, R. A.
2015-05-01
We analyze two theoretical approaches to ensemble averaging for integrable systems in quantum chaos, spectral averaging (SA) and parametric averaging (PA). For SA, we introduce a new procedure, namely, rescaled spectral averaging (RSA). Unlike traditional SA, it can describe the correlation function of spectral staircase (CFSS) and produce persistent oscillations of the interval level number variance (IV). PA while not as accurate as RSA for the CFSS and IV, can also produce persistent oscillations of the global level number variance (GV) and better describes saturation level rigidity as a function of the running energy. Overall, it is the most reliable method for a wide range of statistics.
Spatial limitations in averaging social cues.
Florey, Joseph; Clifford, Colin W G; Dakin, Steven; Mareschal, Isabelle
2016-01-01
The direction of social attention from groups provides stronger cueing than from an individual. It has previously been shown that both basic visual features such as size or orientation and more complex features such as face emotion and identity can be averaged across multiple elements. Here we used an equivalent noise procedure to compare observers' ability to average social cues with their averaging of a non-social cue. Estimates of observers' internal noise (uncertainty associated with processing any individual) and sample-size (the effective number of gaze-directions pooled) were derived by fitting equivalent noise functions to discrimination thresholds. We also used reverse correlation analysis to estimate the spatial distribution of samples used by participants. Averaging of head-rotation and cone-rotation was less noisy and more efficient than averaging of gaze direction, though presenting only the eye region of faces at a larger size improved gaze averaging performance. The reverse correlation analysis revealed greater sampling areas for head rotation compared to gaze. We attribute these differences in averaging between gaze and head cues to poorer visual processing of faces in the periphery. The similarity between head and cone averaging are examined within the framework of a general mechanism for averaging of object rotation. PMID:27573589
Dynamic Multiscale Averaging (DMA) of Turbulent Flow
Richard W. Johnson
2012-09-01
A new approach called dynamic multiscale averaging (DMA) for computing the effects of turbulent flow is described. The new method encompasses multiple applications of temporal and spatial averaging, that is, multiscale operations. Initially, a direct numerical simulation (DNS) is performed for a relatively short time; it is envisioned that this short time should be long enough to capture several fluctuating time periods of the smallest scales. The flow field variables are subject to running time averaging during the DNS. After the relatively short time, the time-averaged variables are volume averaged onto a coarser grid. Both time and volume averaging of the describing equations generate correlations in the averaged equations. These correlations are computed from the flow field and added as source terms to the computation on the next coarser mesh. They represent coupling between the two adjacent scales. Since they are computed directly from first principles, there is no modeling involved. However, there is approximation involved in the coupling correlations as the flow field has been computed for only a relatively short time. After the time and spatial averaging operations are applied at a given stage, new computations are performed on the next coarser mesh using a larger time step. The process continues until the coarsest scale needed is reached. New correlations are created for each averaging procedure. The number of averaging operations needed is expected to be problem dependent. The new DMA approach is applied to a relatively low Reynolds number flow in a square duct segment. Time-averaged stream-wise velocity and vorticity contours from the DMA approach appear to be very similar to a full DNS for a similar flow reported in the literature. Expected symmetry for the final results is produced for the DMA method. The results obtained indicate that DMA holds significant potential in being able to accurately compute turbulent flow without modeling for practical
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 34 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Averaging. 1037.710 Section 1037.710 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS CONTROL OF EMISSIONS FROM NEW HEAVY-DUTY MOTOR VEHICLES Averaging, Banking, and Trading for Certification §...
Average Transmission Probability of a Random Stack
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Lu, Yin; Miniatura, Christian; Englert, Berthold-Georg
2010-01-01
The transmission through a stack of identical slabs that are separated by gaps with random widths is usually treated by calculating the average of the logarithm of the transmission probability. We show how to calculate the average of the transmission probability itself with the aid of a recurrence relation and derive analytical upper and lower…
Whatever Happened to the Average Student?
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Krause, Tom
2005-01-01
Mandated state testing, college entrance exams and their perceived need for higher and higher grade point averages have raised the anxiety levels felt by many of the average students. Too much focus is placed on state test scores and college entrance standards with not enough focus on the true level of the students. The author contends that…
Determinants of College Grade Point Averages
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Bailey, Paul Dean
2012-01-01
Chapter 2: The Role of Class Difficulty in College Grade Point Averages. Grade Point Averages (GPAs) are widely used as a measure of college students' ability. Low GPAs can remove a students from eligibility for scholarships, and even continued enrollment at a university. However, GPAs are determined not only by student ability but also by…
40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...: Class Tier Model year FEL cap(g/km) HC+NOX Class I or II Tier 1 2006 and later 5.0 Class III Tier 1 2006... States. (c) To use the averaging program, do the following things: (1) Certify each vehicle to a family... to the nearest tenth of a g/km. Use consistent units throughout the calculation. The averaging...
40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...: Class Tier Model year FEL cap(g/km) HC+NOX Class I or II Tier 1 2006 and later 5.0 Class III Tier 1 2006... States. (c) To use the averaging program, do the following things: (1) Certify each vehicle to a family... to the nearest tenth of a g/km. Use consistent units throughout the calculation. The averaging...
40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
...: Class Tier Model year FEL cap(g/km) HC+NOX Class I or II Tier 1 2006 and later 5.0 Class III Tier 1 2006... States. (c) To use the averaging program, do the following things: (1) Certify each vehicle to a family... to the nearest tenth of a g/km. Use consistent units throughout the calculation. The averaging...
40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
...: Class Tier Model year FEL cap(g/km) HC+NOX Class I or II Tier 1 2006 and later 5.0 Class III Tier 1 2006... States. (c) To use the averaging program, do the following things: (1) Certify each vehicle to a family... to the nearest tenth of a g/km. Use consistent units throughout the calculation. The averaging...
40 CFR 86.449 - Averaging provisions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...: Class Tier Model year FEL cap(g/km) HC+NOX Class I or II Tier 1 2006 and later 5.0 Class III Tier 1 2006... States. (c) To use the averaging program, do the following things: (1) Certify each vehicle to a family... to the nearest tenth of a g/km. Use consistent units throughout the calculation. The averaging...
40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...
40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...
40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... operator may average TF emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 1 of... operator also may average POM emissions from potlines and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 2... limit in Table 1 of this subpart (for TF emissions) and/or Table 2 of this subpart (for POM...
40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... averaging. (a) General. The owner or operator of an existing potline or anode bake furnace in a State that... by total aluminum production. (c) Anode bake furnaces. The owner or operator may average TF emissions from anode bake furnaces and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 3 of this subpart...
40 CFR 63.846 - Emission averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... averaging. (a) General. The owner or operator of an existing potline or anode bake furnace in a State that... by total aluminum production. (c) Anode bake furnaces. The owner or operator may average TF emissions from anode bake furnaces and demonstrate compliance with the limits in Table 3 of this subpart...
Averaged equations for distributed Josephson junction arrays
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bennett, Matthew; Wiesenfeld, Kurt
2004-06-01
We use an averaging method to study the dynamics of a transmission line studded by Josephson junctions. The averaged system is used as a springboard for studying experimental strategies which rely on spatial non-uniformity to achieve enhanced synchronization. A reduced model for the near resonant case elucidates in physical terms the key to achieving stable synchronized dynamics.
New results on averaging theory and applications
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cândido, Murilo R.; Llibre, Jaume
2016-08-01
The usual averaging theory reduces the computation of some periodic solutions of a system of ordinary differential equations, to find the simple zeros of an associated averaged function. When one of these zeros is not simple, i.e., the Jacobian of the averaged function in it is zero, the classical averaging theory does not provide information about the periodic solution associated to a non-simple zero. Here we provide sufficient conditions in order that the averaging theory can be applied also to non-simple zeros for studying their associated periodic solutions. Additionally, we do two applications of this new result for studying the zero-Hopf bifurcation in the Lorenz system and in the Fitzhugh-Nagumo system.
The Hubble rate in averaged cosmology
Umeh, Obinna; Larena, Julien; Clarkson, Chris E-mail: julien.larena@gmail.com
2011-03-01
The calculation of the averaged Hubble expansion rate in an averaged perturbed Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker cosmology leads to small corrections to the background value of the expansion rate, which could be important for measuring the Hubble constant from local observations. It also predicts an intrinsic variance associated with the finite scale of any measurement of H{sub 0}, the Hubble rate today. Both the mean Hubble rate and its variance depend on both the definition of the Hubble rate and the spatial surface on which the average is performed. We quantitatively study different definitions of the averaged Hubble rate encountered in the literature by consistently calculating the backreaction effect at second order in perturbation theory, and compare the results. We employ for the first time a recently developed gauge-invariant definition of an averaged scalar. We also discuss the variance of the Hubble rate for the different definitions.
Clarifying the Relationship between Average Excesses and Average Effects of Allele Substitutions.
Alvarez-Castro, José M; Yang, Rong-Cai
2012-01-01
Fisher's concepts of average effects and average excesses are at the core of the quantitative genetics theory. Their meaning and relationship have regularly been discussed and clarified. Here we develop a generalized set of one locus two-allele orthogonal contrasts for average excesses and average effects, based on the concept of the effective gene content of alleles. Our developments help understand the average excesses of alleles for the biallelic case. We dissect how average excesses relate to the average effects and to the decomposition of the genetic variance. PMID:22509178
Light propagation in the averaged universe
Bagheri, Samae; Schwarz, Dominik J. E-mail: dschwarz@physik.uni-bielefeld.de
2014-10-01
Cosmic structures determine how light propagates through the Universe and consequently must be taken into account in the interpretation of observations. In the standard cosmological model at the largest scales, such structures are either ignored or treated as small perturbations to an isotropic and homogeneous Universe. This isotropic and homogeneous model is commonly assumed to emerge from some averaging process at the largest scales. We assume that there exists an averaging procedure that preserves the causal structure of space-time. Based on that assumption, we study the effects of averaging the geometry of space-time and derive an averaged version of the null geodesic equation of motion. For the averaged geometry we then assume a flat Friedmann-Lemaître (FL) model and find that light propagation in this averaged FL model is not given by null geodesics of that model, but rather by a modified light propagation equation that contains an effective Hubble expansion rate, which differs from the Hubble rate of the averaged space-time.
Averaging of Backscatter Intensities in Compounds
Donovan, John J.; Pingitore, Nicholas E.; Westphal, Andrew J.
2002-01-01
Low uncertainty measurements on pure element stable isotope pairs demonstrate that mass has no influence on the backscattering of electrons at typical electron microprobe energies. The traditional prediction of average backscatter intensities in compounds using elemental mass fractions is improperly grounded in mass and thus has no physical basis. We propose an alternative model to mass fraction averaging, based of the number of electrons or protons, termed “electron fraction,” which predicts backscatter yield better than mass fraction averaging. PMID:27446752
Average shape of transport-limited aggregates.
Davidovitch, Benny; Choi, Jaehyuk; Bazant, Martin Z
2005-08-12
We study the relation between stochastic and continuous transport-limited growth models. We derive a nonlinear integro-differential equation for the average shape of stochastic aggregates, whose mean-field approximation is the corresponding continuous equation. Focusing on the advection-diffusion-limited aggregation (ADLA) model, we show that the average shape of the stochastic growth is similar, but not identical, to the corresponding continuous dynamics. Similar results should apply to DLA, thus explaining the known discrepancies between average DLA shapes and viscous fingers in a channel geometry. PMID:16196793
Average Shape of Transport-Limited Aggregates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Davidovitch, Benny; Choi, Jaehyuk; Bazant, Martin Z.
2005-08-01
We study the relation between stochastic and continuous transport-limited growth models. We derive a nonlinear integro-differential equation for the average shape of stochastic aggregates, whose mean-field approximation is the corresponding continuous equation. Focusing on the advection-diffusion-limited aggregation (ADLA) model, we show that the average shape of the stochastic growth is similar, but not identical, to the corresponding continuous dynamics. Similar results should apply to DLA, thus explaining the known discrepancies between average DLA shapes and viscous fingers in a channel geometry.
Average-passage flow model development
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamczyk, John J.; Celestina, Mark L.; Beach, Tim A.; Kirtley, Kevin; Barnett, Mark
1989-01-01
A 3-D model was developed for simulating multistage turbomachinery flows using supercomputers. This average passage flow model described the time averaged flow field within a typical passage of a bladed wheel within a multistage configuration. To date, a number of inviscid simulations were executed to assess the resolution capabilities of the model. Recently, the viscous terms associated with the average passage model were incorporated into the inviscid computer code along with an algebraic turbulence model. A simulation of a stage-and-one-half, low speed turbine was executed. The results of this simulation, including a comparison with experimental data, is discussed.
40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...
40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...
40 CFR 76.11 - Emissions averaging.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
...) ACID RAIN NITROGEN OXIDES EMISSION REDUCTION PROGRAM § 76.11 Emissions averaging. (a) General... compliance with the Acid Rain emission limitation for NOX under the plan only if the following...
Total pressure averaging in pulsating flows
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krause, L. N.; Dudzinski, T. J.; Johnson, R. C.
1972-01-01
A number of total-pressure tubes were tested in a non-steady flow generator in which the fraction of period that pressure is a maximum is approximately 0.8, thereby simulating turbomachine-type flow conditions. Most of the tubes indicated a pressure which was higher than the true average. Organ-pipe resonance which further increased the indicated pressure was encountered within the tubes at discrete frequencies. There was no obvious combination of tube diameter, length, and/or geometry variation used in the tests which resulted in negligible averaging error. A pneumatic-type probe was found to measure true average pressure, and is suggested as a comparison instrument to determine whether nonlinear averaging effects are serious in unknown pulsation profiles. The experiments were performed at a pressure level of 1 bar, for Mach number up to near 1, and frequencies up to 3 kHz.
Spacetime Average Density (SAD) cosmological measures
Page, Don N.
2014-11-01
The measure problem of cosmology is how to obtain normalized probabilities of observations from the quantum state of the universe. This is particularly a problem when eternal inflation leads to a universe of unbounded size so that there are apparently infinitely many realizations or occurrences of observations of each of many different kinds or types, making the ratios ambiguous. There is also the danger of domination by Boltzmann Brains. Here two new Spacetime Average Density (SAD) measures are proposed, Maximal Average Density (MAD) and Biased Average Density (BAD), for getting a finite number of observation occurrences by using properties of the Spacetime Average Density (SAD) of observation occurrences to restrict to finite regions of spacetimes that have a preferred beginning or bounce hypersurface. These measures avoid Boltzmann brain domination and appear to give results consistent with other observations that are problematic for other widely used measures, such as the observation of a positive cosmological constant.
Average Passenger Occupancy (APO) in Your Community.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Stenstrup, Al
1995-01-01
Provides details of an activity in which students in grades 4-10 determine the Average Passenger Occupancy (APO) in their community and develop, administer, and analyze a survey to determine attitudes toward carpooling. (DDR)
Rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections
Friese, Daniel H. Beerepoot, Maarten T. P.; Ruud, Kenneth
2014-11-28
Rotational averaging of tensors is a crucial step in the calculation of molecular properties in isotropic media. We present a scheme for the rotational averaging of multiphoton absorption cross sections. We extend existing literature on rotational averaging to even-rank tensors of arbitrary order and derive equations that require only the number of photons as input. In particular, we derive the first explicit expressions for the rotational average of five-, six-, and seven-photon absorption cross sections. This work is one of the required steps in making the calculation of these higher-order absorption properties possible. The results can be applied to any even-rank tensor provided linearly polarized light is used.
Averaging Sampled Sensor Outputs To Detect Failures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panossian, Hagop V.
1990-01-01
Fluctuating signals smoothed by taking consecutive averages. Sampling-and-averaging technique processes noisy or otherwise erratic signals from number of sensors to obtain indications of failures in complicated system containing sensors. Used under both transient and steady-state conditions. Useful in monitoring automotive engines, chemical-processing plants, powerplants, and other systems in which outputs of sensors contain noise or other fluctuations in measured quantities.
Monthly average polar sea-ice concentration
Schweitzer, Peter N.
1995-01-01
The data contained in this CD-ROM depict monthly averages of sea-ice concentration in the modern polar oceans. These averages were derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) instruments aboard satellites of the U.S. Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program from 1978 through 1992. The data are provided as 8-bit images using the Hierarchical Data Format (HDF) developed by the National Center for Supercomputing Applications.
Instrument to average 100 data sets
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Tuma, G. B.; Birchenough, A. G.; Rice, W. J.
1977-01-01
An instrumentation system is currently under development which will measure many of the important parameters associated with the operation of an internal combustion engine. Some of these parameters include mass-fraction burn rate, ignition energy, and the indicated mean effective pressure. One of the characteristics of an internal combustion engine is the cycle-to-cycle variation of these parameters. A curve-averaging instrument has been produced which will generate the average curve, over 100 cycles, of any engine parameter. the average curve is described by 2048 discrete points which are displayed on an oscilloscope screen to facilitate recording and is available in real time. Input can be any parameter which is expressed as a + or - 10-volt signal. Operation of the curve-averaging instrument is defined between 100 and 6000 rpm. Provisions have also been made for averaging as many as four parameters simultaneously, with a subsequent decrease in resolution. This provides the means to correlate and perhaps interrelate the phenomena occurring in an internal combustion engine. This instrument has been used successfully on a 1975 Chevrolet V8 engine, and on a Continental 6-cylinder aircraft engine. While this instrument was designed for use on an internal combustion engine, with some modification it can be used to average any cyclically varying waveform.
Time-averaging water quality assessment
Reddy, L.S.; Ormsbee, L.E.; Wood, D.J.
1995-07-01
While reauthorization of the Safe Drinking Water Act is pending, many water utilities are preparing to monitor and regulate levels of distribution system constituents that affect water quality. Most frequently, utilities are concerned about average concentrations rather than about tracing a particular constituent`s path. Mathematical and computer models, which provide a quick estimate of average concentrations, could play an important role in this effort. Most water quality models deal primarily with isolated events, such as tracing a particular constituent through a distribution system. This article proposes a simple, time-averaging model that obtains average, maximum, and minimum constituent concentrations and ages throughout the network. It also computes percentage flow contribution and percentage constituent concentration. The model is illustrated using two water distribution systems, and results are compared with those obtained using a dynamic water quality model. Both models predict average water quality parameters with no significant deviations; the time-averaging approach is a simple and efficient alternative to the dynamic model.
Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes
Kostov, Valentin
2010-04-01
Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus is more directly applicable to our observations. In contrast to previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, and includes all non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Swiss-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass-compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein-de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. Voids aligned along a certain direction give rise to a distance modulus correction which increases with redshift and is caused by cumulative gravitational lensing. That correction is present even for small voids and depends on their density contrast, not on their radius. Averaging over all directions destroys the cumulative lensing correction even in a non-randomized simple cubic lattice of voids. At low redshifts, the average distance modulus correction does not vanish due to the peculiar velocities, despite the photon flux conservation argument. A formula for the maximal possible average correction as a function of redshift is derived and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The formula applies to voids of any size that: (a)have approximately constant densities in their interior and walls; and (b)are not in a deep nonlinear regime. The average correction calculated in random and simple cubic void lattices is severely damped below the predicted maximal one after a single void diameter. That is traced to cancellations between the corrections from the fronts and backs of different voids. The results obtained
Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kostov, Valentin Angelov
Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus it is more directly applicable to our observations. Unlike previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, an includes all possible non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Sweese-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass- compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein - de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. For voids aligned in a certain direction, there is a cumulative gravitational lensing correction to the distance modulus that increases with redshift. That correction is present even for small voids and depends on the density contrast of the voids, not on their radius. Averaging over all directions destroys the cumulative correction even in a non-randomized simple cubic lattice of voids. Despite the well known argument for photon flux conservation, the average distance modulus correction at low redshifts is not zero due to the peculiar velocities. A formula for the maximum possible average correction as a function of redshift is derived and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The formula applies to voids of any size that: (1) have approximately constant densities in their interior and walls, (2) are not in a deep nonlinear regime. The actual average correction calculated in random and simple cubic void lattices is severely damped below the predicted maximum. That is traced to cancelations between the corrections coming from the fronts and backs of different voids at the same redshift from the
Books average previous decade of economic misery.
Bentley, R Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
2014-01-01
For the 20(th) century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a 'literary misery index' derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade.
Books Average Previous Decade of Economic Misery
Bentley, R. Alexander; Acerbi, Alberto; Ormerod, Paul; Lampos, Vasileios
2014-01-01
For the 20th century since the Depression, we find a strong correlation between a ‘literary misery index’ derived from English language books and a moving average of the previous decade of the annual U.S. economic misery index, which is the sum of inflation and unemployment rates. We find a peak in the goodness of fit at 11 years for the moving average. The fit between the two misery indices holds when using different techniques to measure the literary misery index, and this fit is significantly better than other possible correlations with different emotion indices. To check the robustness of the results, we also analysed books written in German language and obtained very similar correlations with the German economic misery index. The results suggest that millions of books published every year average the authors' shared economic experiences over the past decade. PMID:24416159
The modulated average structure of mullite.
Birkenstock, Johannes; Petříček, Václav; Pedersen, Bjoern; Schneider, Hartmut; Fischer, Reinhard X
2015-06-01
Homogeneous and inclusion-free single crystals of 2:1 mullite (Al(4.8)Si(1.2)O(9.6)) grown by the Czochralski technique were examined by X-ray and neutron diffraction methods. The observed diffuse scattering together with the pattern of satellite reflections confirm previously published data and are thus inherent features of the mullite structure. The ideal composition was closely met as confirmed by microprobe analysis (Al(4.82 (3))Si(1.18 (1))O(9.59 (5))) and by average structure refinements. 8 (5) to 20 (13)% of the available Si was found in the T* position of the tetrahedra triclusters. The strong tendencey for disorder in mullite may be understood from considerations of hypothetical superstructures which would have to be n-fivefold with respect to the three-dimensional average unit cell of 2:1 mullite and n-fourfold in case of 3:2 mullite. In any of these the possible arrangements of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral units would inevitably be unfavorable. Three directions of incommensurate modulations were determined: q1 = [0.3137 (2) 0 ½], q2 = [0 0.4021 (5) 0.1834 (2)] and q3 = [0 0.4009 (5) -0.1834 (2)]. The one-dimensional incommensurately modulated crystal structure associated with q1 was refined for the first time using the superspace approach. The modulation is dominated by harmonic occupational modulations of the atoms in the di- and the triclusters of the tetrahedral units in mullite. The modulation amplitudes are small and the harmonic character implies that the modulated structure still represents an average structure in the overall disordered arrangement of the vacancies and of the tetrahedral structural units. In other words, when projecting the local assemblies at the scale of a few tens of average mullite cells into cells determined by either one of the modulation vectors q1, q2 or q3 a weak average modulation results with slightly varying average occupation factors for the tetrahedral units. As a result, the real
An improved moving average technical trading rule
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papailias, Fotis; Thomakos, Dimitrios D.
2015-06-01
This paper proposes a modified version of the widely used price and moving average cross-over trading strategies. The suggested approach (presented in its 'long only' version) is a combination of cross-over 'buy' signals and a dynamic threshold value which acts as a dynamic trailing stop. The trading behaviour and performance from this modified strategy are different from the standard approach with results showing that, on average, the proposed modification increases the cumulative return and the Sharpe ratio of the investor while exhibiting smaller maximum drawdown and smaller drawdown duration than the standard strategy.
Successive averages of firmly nonexpansve mappings
Flam, S.
1994-12-31
The problem considered here is to find common fixed points of (possibly infinitely) many firmly nonexpansive selfmappings in a Hilbert space. For this purpose we use averaged relaxations of the original mappings, the averages being Bochner integrals with respect to chosen measures. Judicious choices of such measures serve to enhance the convergence towards common fixed points. Since projection operators onto closed convex sets are firmly non expansive, the methods explored are applicable for solving convex feasibility problems. In particular, by varying the measures our analysis encompasses recent developments of so-called block-iterative algorithms. We demonstrate convergence theorems which cover and extend many known results.
Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences
Cade, Brian S.
2015-01-01
Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the
Attractors and Time Averages for Random Maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araujo, Vitor
2006-07-01
Considering random noise in finite dimensional parameterized families of diffeomorphisms of a compact finite dimensional boundaryless manifold M, we show the existence of time averages for almost every orbit of each point of M, imposing mild conditions on the families. Moreover these averages are given by a finite number of physical absolutely continuous stationary probability measures. We use this result to deduce that situations with infinitely many sinks and Henon-like attractors are not stable under random perturbations, e.g., Newhouse's and Colli's phenomena in the generic unfolding of a quadratic homoclinic tangency by a one-parameter family of diffeomorphisms.
Model averaging and muddled multimodel inferences.
Cade, Brian S
2015-09-01
Three flawed practices associated with model averaging coefficients for predictor variables in regression models commonly occur when making multimodel inferences in analyses of ecological data. Model-averaged regression coefficients based on Akaike information criterion (AIC) weights have been recommended for addressing model uncertainty but they are not valid, interpretable estimates of partial effects for individual predictors when there is multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Multicollinearity implies that the scaling of units in the denominators of the regression coefficients may change across models such that neither the parameters nor their estimates have common scales, therefore averaging them makes no sense. The associated sums of AIC model weights recommended to assess relative importance of individual predictors are really a measure of relative importance of models, with little information about contributions by individual predictors compared to other measures of relative importance based on effects size or variance reduction. Sometimes the model-averaged regression coefficients for predictor variables are incorrectly used to make model-averaged predictions of the response variable when the models are not linear in the parameters. I demonstrate the issues with the first two practices using the college grade point average example extensively analyzed by Burnham and Anderson. I show how partial standard deviations of the predictor variables can be used to detect changing scales of their estimates with multicollinearity. Standardizing estimates based on partial standard deviations for their variables can be used to make the scaling of the estimates commensurate across models, a necessary but not sufficient condition for model averaging of the estimates to be sensible. A unimodal distribution of estimates and valid interpretation of individual parameters are additional requisite conditions. The standardized estimates or equivalently the t
SOURCE TERMS FOR AVERAGE DOE SNF CANISTERS
K. L. Goluoglu
2000-06-09
The objective of this calculation is to generate source terms for each type of Department of Energy (DOE) spent nuclear fuel (SNF) canister that may be disposed of at the potential repository at Yucca Mountain. The scope of this calculation is limited to generating source terms for average DOE SNF canisters, and is not intended to be used for subsequent calculations requiring bounding source terms. This calculation is to be used in future Performance Assessment calculations, or other shielding or thermal calculations requiring average source terms.
Glenzinski, D.; /Fermilab
2008-01-01
This paper summarizes a talk given at the Top2008 Workshop at La Biodola, Isola d Elba, Italy. The status of the world average top-quark mass is discussed. Some comments about the challanges facing the experiments in order to further improve the precision are offered.
Average configuration of the induced venus magnetotail
McComas, D.J.; Spence, H.E.; Russell, C.T.
1985-01-01
In this paper we discuss the interaction of the solar wind flow with Venus and describe the morphology of magnetic field line draping in the Venus magnetotail. In particular, we describe the importance of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) X-component in controlling the configuration of field draping in this induced magnetotail, and using the results of a recently developed technique, we examine the average magnetic configuration of this magnetotail. The derived J x B forces must balance the average, steady state acceleration of, and pressure gradients in, the tail plasma. From this relation the average tail plasma velocity, lobe and current sheet densities, and average ion temperature have been derived. In this study we extend these results by making a connection between the derived consistent plasma flow speed and density, and the observational energy/charge range and sensitivity of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) plasma analyzer, and demonstrate that if the tail is principally composed of O/sup +/, the bulk of the plasma should not be observable much of the time that the PVO is within the tail. Finally, we examine the importance of solar wind slowing upstream of the obstacle and its implications for the temperature of pick-up planetary ions, compare the derived ion temperatures with their theoretical maximum values, and discuss the implications of this process for comets and AMPTE-type releases.
A Functional Measurement Study on Averaging Numerosity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Tira, Michael D.; Tagliabue, Mariaelena; Vidotto, Giulio
2014-01-01
In two experiments, participants judged the average numerosity between two sequentially presented dot patterns to perform an approximate arithmetic task. In Experiment 1, the response was given on a 0-20 numerical scale (categorical scaling), and in Experiment 2, the response was given by the production of a dot pattern of the desired numerosity…
Cryo-Electron Tomography and Subtomogram Averaging.
Wan, W; Briggs, J A G
2016-01-01
Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) allows 3D volumes to be reconstructed from a set of 2D projection images of a tilted biological sample. It allows densities to be resolved in 3D that would otherwise overlap in 2D projection images. Cryo-ET can be applied to resolve structural features in complex native environments, such as within the cell. Analogous to single-particle reconstruction in cryo-electron microscopy, structures present in multiple copies within tomograms can be extracted, aligned, and averaged, thus increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and resolution. This reconstruction approach, termed subtomogram averaging, can be used to determine protein structures in situ. It can also be applied to facilitate more conventional 2D image analysis approaches. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to cryo-ET and subtomogram averaging. We describe the overall workflow, including tomographic data collection, preprocessing, tomogram reconstruction, subtomogram alignment and averaging, classification, and postprocessing. We consider theoretical issues and practical considerations for each step in the workflow, along with descriptions of recent methodological advances and remaining limitations. PMID:27572733
Bayesian Model Averaging for Propensity Score Analysis
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kaplan, David; Chen, Jianshen
2013-01-01
The purpose of this study is to explore Bayesian model averaging in the propensity score context. Previous research on Bayesian propensity score analysis does not take into account model uncertainty. In this regard, an internally consistent Bayesian framework for model building and estimation must also account for model uncertainty. The…
Cryo-Electron Tomography and Subtomogram Averaging.
Wan, W; Briggs, J A G
2016-01-01
Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) allows 3D volumes to be reconstructed from a set of 2D projection images of a tilted biological sample. It allows densities to be resolved in 3D that would otherwise overlap in 2D projection images. Cryo-ET can be applied to resolve structural features in complex native environments, such as within the cell. Analogous to single-particle reconstruction in cryo-electron microscopy, structures present in multiple copies within tomograms can be extracted, aligned, and averaged, thus increasing the signal-to-noise ratio and resolution. This reconstruction approach, termed subtomogram averaging, can be used to determine protein structures in situ. It can also be applied to facilitate more conventional 2D image analysis approaches. In this chapter, we provide an introduction to cryo-ET and subtomogram averaging. We describe the overall workflow, including tomographic data collection, preprocessing, tomogram reconstruction, subtomogram alignment and averaging, classification, and postprocessing. We consider theoretical issues and practical considerations for each step in the workflow, along with descriptions of recent methodological advances and remaining limitations.
Initial Conditions in the Averaging Cognitive Model
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noventa, S.; Massidda, D.; Vidotto, G.
2010-01-01
The initial state parameters s[subscript 0] and w[subscript 0] are intricate issues of the averaging cognitive models in Information Integration Theory. Usually they are defined as a measure of prior information (Anderson, 1981; 1982) but there are no general rules to deal with them. In fact, there is no agreement as to their treatment except in…
Why Johnny Can Be Average Today.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Sturrock, Alan
1997-01-01
During a (hypothetical) phone interview with a university researcher, an elementary principal reminisced about a lifetime of reading groups with unmemorable names, medium-paced math problems, patchworked social studies/science lessons, and totally "average" IQ and batting scores. The researcher hung up at the mention of bell-curved assembly lines…
HIGH AVERAGE POWER OPTICAL FEL AMPLIFIERS.
BEN-ZVI, ILAN, DAYRAN, D.; LITVINENKO, V.
2005-08-21
Historically, the first demonstration of the optical FEL was in an amplifier configuration at Stanford University [l]. There were other notable instances of amplifying a seed laser, such as the LLNL PALADIN amplifier [2] and the BNL ATF High-Gain Harmonic Generation FEL [3]. However, for the most part FELs are operated as oscillators or self amplified spontaneous emission devices. Yet, in wavelength regimes where a conventional laser seed can be used, the FEL can be used as an amplifier. One promising application is for very high average power generation, for instance FEL's with average power of 100 kW or more. The high electron beam power, high brightness and high efficiency that can be achieved with photoinjectors and superconducting Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL) combine well with the high-gain FEL amplifier to produce unprecedented average power FELs. This combination has a number of advantages. In particular, we show that for a given FEL power, an FEL amplifier can introduce lower energy spread in the beam as compared to a traditional oscillator. This properly gives the ERL based FEL amplifier a great wall-plug to optical power efficiency advantage. The optics for an amplifier is simple and compact. In addition to the general features of the high average power FEL amplifier, we will look at a 100 kW class FEL amplifier is being designed to operate on the 0.5 ampere Energy Recovery Linac which is under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory's Collider-Accelerator Department.
Averaging on Earth-Crossing Orbits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gronchi, G. F.; Milani, A.
The orbits of planet-crossing asteroids (and comets) can undergo close approaches and collisions with some major planet. This introduces a singularity in the N-body Hamiltonian, and the averaging of the equations of motion, traditionally used to compute secular perturbations, is undefined. We show that it is possible to define in a rigorous way some generalised averaged equations of motion, in such a way that the generalised solutions are unique and piecewise smooth. This is obtained, both in the planar and in the three-dimensional case, by means of the method of extraction of the singularities by Kantorovich. The modified distance used to approximate the singularity is the one used by Wetherill in his method to compute probability of collision. Some examples of averaged dynamics have been computed; a systematic exploration of the averaged phase space to locate the secular resonances should be the next step. `Alice sighed wearily. ``I think you might do something better with the time'' she said, ``than waste it asking riddles with no answers'' (Alice in Wonderland, L. Carroll)
29 CFR 1910.1045 - Acrylonitrile.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... per million parts of air (2 ppm) as an eight (8)-hour time-weighted average. (ii) Ceiling limit. The... shall be made from air samples that are representative of each employee's exposure to AN over an eight... covers each employee required by this section to use a respirator. (ii) If air-purifying...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-07-30
... equal or exceed 85 decibels measured on the A scale (dBA) for an 8-hour time-weighted average (TWA) (action level); take action to reduce noise exposures to the 90 dBA permissible exposure limit (PEL); and provide an effective hearing conservation program (HCP) for all workers exposed to noise at a...
Average entanglement for Markovian quantum trajectories
Vogelsberger, S.; Spehner, D.
2010-11-15
We study the evolution of the entanglement of noninteracting qubits coupled to reservoirs under monitoring of the reservoirs by means of continuous measurements. We calculate the average of the concurrence of the qubits wave function over all quantum trajectories. For two qubits coupled to independent baths subjected to local measurements, this average decays exponentially with a rate depending on the measurement scheme only. This contrasts with the known disappearance of entanglement after a finite time for the density matrix in the absence of measurements. For two qubits coupled to a common bath, the mean concurrence can vanish at discrete times. Our analysis applies to arbitrary quantum jump or quantum state diffusion dynamics in the Markov limit. We discuss the best measurement schemes to protect entanglement in specific examples.
New applications for high average power beams
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neau, E. L.; Turman, B. N.; Patterson, E. L.
1993-06-01
The technology base formed by the development of high peak power simulators, laser drivers, FEL's, and ICF drivers from the early 60's through the late 80's is being extended to high average power short-pulse machines with the capabilities of supporting new types of manufacturing processes and performing new roles in environmental cleanup applications. This paper discusses a process for identifying and developing possible commercial applications, specifically those requiring very high average power levels of hundreds of kilowatts to perhaps megawatts. The authors discuss specific technology requirements and give examples of application development efforts. The application development work is directed at areas that can possibly benefit from the high specific energies attainable with short pulse machines.
Rigid shape matching by segmentation averaging.
Wang, Hongzhi; Oliensis, John
2010-04-01
We use segmentations to match images by shape. The new matching technique does not require point-to-point edge correspondence and is robust to small shape variations and spatial shifts. To address the unreliability of segmentations computed bottom-up, we give a closed form approximation to an average over all segmentations. Our method has many extensions, yielding new algorithms for tracking, object detection, segmentation, and edge-preserving smoothing. For segmentation, instead of a maximum a posteriori approach, we compute the "central" segmentation minimizing the average distance to all segmentations of an image. For smoothing, instead of smoothing images based on local structures, we smooth based on the global optimal image structures. Our methods for segmentation, smoothing, and object detection perform competitively, and we also show promising results in shape-based tracking.
From cellular doses to average lung dose.
Hofmann, W; Winkler-Heil, R
2015-11-01
Sensitive basal and secretory cells receive a wide range of doses in human bronchial and bronchiolar airways. Variations of cellular doses arise from the location of target cells in the bronchial epithelium of a given airway and the asymmetry and variability of airway dimensions of the lung among airways in a given airway generation and among bronchial and bronchiolar airway generations. To derive a single value for the average lung dose which can be related to epidemiologically observed lung cancer risk, appropriate weighting scenarios have to be applied. Potential biological weighting parameters are the relative frequency of target cells, the number of progenitor cells, the contribution of dose enhancement at airway bifurcations, the promotional effect of cigarette smoking and, finally, the application of appropriate regional apportionment factors. Depending on the choice of weighting parameters, detriment-weighted average lung doses can vary by a factor of up to 4 for given radon progeny exposure conditions.
High-average-power exciplex laser system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sentis, M.
The LUX high-average-power high-PRF exciplex laser (EL) system being developed at the Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Marseille is characterized, and some preliminary results are presented. The fundamental principles and design criteria of ELs are reviewed, and the LUX components are described and illustrated, including a closed-circuit subsonic wind tunnel and a 100-kW-average power 1-kHz-PRF power pulser providing avalanche-discharge preionization by either an electron beam or an X-ray beam. Laser energy of 50 mJ has been obtained at wavelength 308 nm in the electron-beam mode (14.5 kV) using a 5300/190/10 mixture of Ne/Xe/HCl at pressure 1 bar.
Apparent and average accelerations of the Universe
Bolejko, Krzysztof; Andersson, Lars E-mail: larsa@math.miami.edu
2008-10-15
In this paper we consider the relation between the volume deceleration parameter obtained within the Buchert averaging scheme and the deceleration parameter derived from supernova observation. This work was motivated by recent findings that showed that there are models which despite having {Lambda} = 0 have volume deceleration parameter q{sup vol}<0. This opens the possibility that back-reaction and averaging effects may be used as an interesting alternative explanation to the dark energy phenomenon. We have calculated q{sup vol} in some Lemaitre-Tolman models. For those models which are chosen to be realistic and which fit the supernova data, we find that q{sup vol}>0, while those models which we have been able to find which exhibit q{sup vol}<0 turn out to be unrealistic. This indicates that care must be exercised in relating the deceleration parameter to observations.
Emissions averaging top option for HON compliance
Kapoor, S. )
1993-05-01
In one of its first major rule-setting directives under the CAA Amendments, EPA recently proposed tough new emissions controls for nearly two-thirds of the commercial chemical substances produced by the synthetic organic chemical manufacturing industry (SOCMI). However, the Hazardous Organic National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (HON) also affects several non-SOCMI processes. The author discusses proposed compliance deadlines, emissions averaging, and basic operating and administrative requirements.
Stochastic Games with Average Payoff Criterion
Ghosh, M. K.; Bagchi, A.
1998-11-15
We study two-person stochastic games on a Polish state and compact action spaces and with average payoff criterion under a certain ergodicity condition. For the zero-sum game we establish the existence of a value and stationary optimal strategies for both players. For the nonzero-sum case the existence of Nash equilibrium in stationary strategies is established under certain separability conditions.
Iterative methods based upon residual averaging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Neuberger, J. W.
1980-01-01
Iterative methods for solving boundary value problems for systems of nonlinear partial differential equations are discussed. The methods involve subtracting an average of residuals from one approximation in order to arrive at a subsequent approximation. Two abstract methods in Hilbert space are given and application of these methods to quasilinear systems to give numerical schemes for such problems is demonstrated. Potential theoretic matters related to the iteration schemes are discussed.
The Average Velocity in a Queue
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Frette, Vidar
2009-01-01
A number of cars drive along a narrow road that does not allow overtaking. Each driver has a certain maximum speed at which he or she will drive if alone on the road. As a result of slower cars ahead, many cars are forced to drive at speeds lower than their maximum ones. The average velocity in the queue offers a non-trivial example of a mean…
Average Annual Rainfall over the Globe
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Agrawal, D. C.
2013-01-01
The atmospheric recycling of water is a very important phenomenon on the globe because it not only refreshes the water but it also redistributes it over land and oceans/rivers/lakes throughout the globe. This is made possible by the solar energy intercepted by the Earth. The half of the globe facing the Sun, on the average, intercepts 1.74 ×…
Geomagnetic effects on the average surface temperature
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ballatore, P.
Several results have previously shown as the solar activity can be related to the cloudiness and the surface solar radiation intensity (Svensmark and Friis-Christensen, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 59, 1225, 1997; Veretenenkoand Pudovkin, J. Atmos. Sol. Terr. Phys., 61, 521, 1999). Here, the possible relationships between the averaged surface temperature and the solar wind parameters or geomagnetic activity indices are investigated. The temperature data used are the monthly SST maps (generated at RAL and available from the related ESRIN/ESA database) that represent the averaged surface temperature with a spatial resolution of 0.5°x0.5° and cover the entire globe. The interplanetary data and the geomagnetic data are from the USA National Space Science Data Center. The time interval considered is 1995-2000. Specifically, possible associations and/or correlations of the average temperature with the interplanetary magnetic field Bz component and with the Kp index are considered and differentiated taking into account separate geographic and geomagnetic planetary regions.
Annual average radon concentrations in California residences.
Liu, K S; Hayward, S B; Girman, J R; Moed, B A; Huang, F Y
1991-09-01
A study was conducted to determine the annual average radon concentrations in California residences, to determine the approximate fraction of the California population regularly exposed to radon concentrations of 4 pCi/l or greater, and to the extent possible, to identify regions of differing risk for high radon concentrations within the state. Annual average indoor radon concentrations were measured with passive (alpha track) samplers sent by mail and deployed by home occupants, who also completed questionnaires on building and occupant characteristics. For the 310 residences surveyed, concentrations ranged from 0.10 to 16 pCi/l, with a geometric mean of whole-house (bedroom and living room) average concentrations of 0.85 pCi/l and a geometric standard deviation of 1.91. A total of 88,000 California residences (0.8 percent) were estimated to have radon concentrations exceeding 4 pCi/l. When the state was divided into six zones based on geology, significant differences in geometric mean radon concentrations were found between several of the zones. Zones with high geometric means were the Sierra Nevada mountains, the valleys east of the Sierra Nevada, the central valley (especially the southern portion), and Ventura and Santa Barbara Counties. Zones with low geometric means included most coastal counties and the portion of the state from Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties south.
Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars.
Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather
2005-08-01
The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.
Model averaging, optimal inference, and habit formation
FitzGerald, Thomas H. B.; Dolan, Raymond J.; Friston, Karl J.
2014-01-01
Postulating that the brain performs approximate Bayesian inference generates principled and empirically testable models of neuronal function—the subject of much current interest in neuroscience and related disciplines. Current formulations address inference and learning under some assumed and particular model. In reality, organisms are often faced with an additional challenge—that of determining which model or models of their environment are the best for guiding behavior. Bayesian model averaging—which says that an agent should weight the predictions of different models according to their evidence—provides a principled way to solve this problem. Importantly, because model evidence is determined by both the accuracy and complexity of the model, optimal inference requires that these be traded off against one another. This means an agent's behavior should show an equivalent balance. We hypothesize that Bayesian model averaging plays an important role in cognition, given that it is both optimal and realizable within a plausible neuronal architecture. We outline model averaging and how it might be implemented, and then explore a number of implications for brain and behavior. In particular, we propose that model averaging can explain a number of apparently suboptimal phenomena within the framework of approximate (bounded) Bayesian inference, focusing particularly upon the relationship between goal-directed and habitual behavior. PMID:25018724
Fast Optimal Transport Averaging of Neuroimaging Data.
Gramfort, A; Peyré, G; Cuturi, M
2015-01-01
Knowing how the Human brain is anatomically and functionally organized at the level of a group of healthy individuals or patients is the primary goal of neuroimaging research. Yet computing an average of brain imaging data defined over a voxel grid or a triangulation remains a challenge. Data are large, the geometry of the brain is complex and the between subjects variability leads to spatially or temporally non-overlapping effects of interest. To address the problem of variability, data are commonly smoothed before performing a linear group averaging. In this work we build on ideas originally introduced by Kantorovich to propose a new algorithm that can average efficiently non-normalized data defined over arbitrary discrete domains using transportation metrics. We show how Kantorovich means can be linked to Wasserstein barycenters in order to take advantage of the entropic smoothing approach used by. It leads to a smooth convex optimization problem and an algorithm with strong convergence guarantees. We illustrate the versatility of this tool and its empirical behavior on functional neuroimaging data, functional MRI and magnetoencephalography (MEG) source estimates, defined on voxel grids and triangulations of the folded cortical surface. PMID:26221679
Modern average global sea-surface temperature
Schweitzer, Peter N.
1993-01-01
The data contained in this data set are derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer Multichannel Sea Surface Temperature data (AVHRR MCSST), which are obtainable from the Distributed Active Archive Center at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena, Calif. The JPL tapes contain weekly images of SST from October 1981 through December 1990 in nine regions of the world ocean: North Atlantic, Eastern North Atlantic, South Atlantic, Agulhas, Indian, Southeast Pacific, Southwest Pacific, Northeast Pacific, and Northwest Pacific. This data set represents the results of calculations carried out on the NOAA data and also contains the source code of the programs that made the calculations. The objective was to derive the average sea-surface temperature of each month and week throughout the whole 10-year series, meaning, for example, that data from January of each year would be averaged together. The result is 12 monthly and 52 weekly images for each of the oceanic regions. Averaging the images in this way tends to reduce the number of grid cells that lack valid data and to suppress interannual variability.
Digital Averaging Phasemeter for Heterodyne Interferometry
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Donald; Spero, Robert; Shaklan, Stuart; Halverson, Peter; Kuhnert, Andreas
2004-01-01
A digital averaging phasemeter has been built for measuring the difference between the phases of the unknown and reference heterodyne signals in a heterodyne laser interferometer. This phasemeter performs well enough to enable interferometric measurements of distance with accuracy of the order of 100 pm and with the ability to track distance as it changes at a speed of as much as 50 cm/s. This phasemeter is unique in that it is a single, integral system capable of performing three major functions that, heretofore, have been performed by separate systems: (1) measurement of the fractional-cycle phase difference, (2) counting of multiple cycles of phase change, and (3) averaging of phase measurements over multiple cycles for improved resolution. This phasemeter also offers the advantage of making repeated measurements at a high rate: the phase is measured on every heterodyne cycle. Thus, for example, in measuring the relative phase of two signals having a heterodyne frequency of 10 kHz, the phasemeter would accumulate 10,000 measurements per second. At this high measurement rate, an accurate average phase determination can be made more quickly than is possible at a lower rate.
Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars.
Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather
2005-08-01
The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin. PMID:16078866
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Fluctuations of wavefunctions about their classical average
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benet, L.; Flores, J.; Hernández-Saldaña, H.; Izrailev, F. M.; Leyvraz, F.; Seligman, T. H.
2003-02-01
Quantum-classical correspondence for the average shape of eigenfunctions and the local spectral density of states are well-known facts. In this paper, the fluctuations of the quantum wavefunctions around the classical value are discussed. A simple random matrix model leads to a Gaussian distribution of the amplitudes whose width is determined by the classical shape of the eigenfunction. To compare this prediction with numerical calculations in chaotic models of coupled quartic oscillators, we develop a rescaling method for the components. The expectations are broadly confirmed, but deviations due to scars are observed. This effect is much reduced when both Hamiltonians have chaotic dynamics.
Collimation of average multiplicity in QCD jets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arleo, François; Pérez Ramos, Redamy
2009-11-01
The collimation of average multiplicity inside quark and gluon jets is investigated in perturbative QCD in the modified leading logarithmic approximation (MLLA). The role of higher order corrections accounting for energy conservation and the running of the coupling constant leads to smaller multiplicity collimation as compared to leading logarithmic approximation (LLA) results. The collimation of jets produced in heavy-ion collisions has also been explored by using medium-modified splitting functions enhanced in the infrared sector. As compared to elementary collisions, the angular distribution of the jet multiplicity is found to broaden in QCD media at all energy scales.
Average characteristics of partially coherent electromagnetic beams.
Seshadri, S R
2000-04-01
Average characteristics of partially coherent electromagnetic beams are treated with the paraxial approximation. Azimuthally or radially polarized, azimuthally symmetric beams and linearly polarized dipolar beams are used as examples. The change in the mean squared width of the beam from its value at the location of the beam waist is found to be proportional to the square of the distance in the propagation direction. The proportionality constant is obtained in terms of the cross-spectral density as well as its spatial spectrum. The use of the cross-spectral density has advantages over the use of its spatial spectrum.
Auto-exploratory average reward reinforcement learning
Ok, DoKyeong; Tadepalli, P.
1996-12-31
We introduce a model-based average reward Reinforcement Learning method called H-learning and compare it with its discounted counterpart, Adaptive Real-Time Dynamic Programming, in a simulated robot scheduling task. We also introduce an extension to H-learning, which automatically explores the unexplored parts of the state space, while always choosing greedy actions with respect to the current value function. We show that this {open_quotes}Auto-exploratory H-learning{close_quotes} performs better than the original H-learning under previously studied exploration methods such as random, recency-based, or counter-based exploration.
A Green's function quantum average atom model
Starrett, Charles Edward
2015-05-21
A quantum average atom model is reformulated using Green's functions. This allows integrals along the real energy axis to be deformed into the complex plane. The advantage being that sharp features such as resonances and bound states are broadened by a Lorentzian with a half-width chosen for numerical convenience. An implementation of this method therefore avoids numerically challenging resonance tracking and the search for weakly bound states, without changing the physical content or results of the model. A straightforward implementation results in up to a factor of 5 speed-up relative to an optimized orbital based code.
Average observational quantities in the timescape cosmology
Wiltshire, David L.
2009-12-15
We examine the properties of a recently proposed observationally viable alternative to homogeneous cosmology with smooth dark energy, the timescape cosmology. In the timescape model cosmic acceleration is realized as an apparent effect related to the calibration of clocks and rods of observers in bound systems relative to volume-average observers in an inhomogeneous geometry in ordinary general relativity. The model is based on an exact solution to a Buchert average of the Einstein equations with backreaction. The present paper examines a number of observational tests which will enable the timescape model to be distinguished from homogeneous cosmologies with a cosmological constant or other smooth dark energy, in current and future generations of dark energy experiments. Predictions are presented for comoving distance measures; H(z); the equivalent of the dark energy equation of state, w(z); the Om(z) measure of Sahni, Shafieloo, and Starobinsky; the Alcock-Paczynski test; the baryon acoustic oscillation measure, D{sub V}; the inhomogeneity test of Clarkson, Bassett, and Lu; and the time drift of cosmological redshifts. Where possible, the predictions are compared to recent independent studies of similar measures in homogeneous cosmologies with dark energy. Three separate tests with indications of results in possible tension with the {lambda}CDM model are found to be consistent with the expectations of the timescape cosmology.
Global atmospheric circulation statistics: Four year averages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wu, M. F.; Geller, M. A.; Nash, E. R.; Gelman, M. E.
1987-01-01
Four year averages of the monthly mean global structure of the general circulation of the atmosphere are presented in the form of latitude-altitude, time-altitude, and time-latitude cross sections. The numerical values are given in tables. Basic parameters utilized include daily global maps of temperature and geopotential height for 18 pressure levels between 1000 and 0.4 mb for the period December 1, 1978 through November 30, 1982 supplied by NOAA/NMC. Geopotential heights and geostrophic winds are constructed using hydrostatic and geostrophic formulae. Meridional and vertical velocities are calculated using thermodynamic and continuity equations. Fields presented in this report are zonally averaged temperature, zonal, meridional, and vertical winds, and amplitude of the planetary waves in geopotential height with zonal wave numbers 1-3. The northward fluxes of sensible heat and eastward momentum by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition and Eliassen-Palm flux propagation vectors and divergences by the standing and transient eddies along with their wavenumber decomposition are also given. Large interhemispheric differences and year-to-year variations are found to originate in the changes in the planetary wave activity.
MACHINE PROTECTION FOR HIGH AVERAGE CURRENT LINACS
Jordan, Kevin; Allison, Trent; Evans, Richard; Coleman, James; Grippo, Albert
2003-05-01
A fully integrated Machine Protection System (MPS) is critical to efficient commissioning and safe operation of all high current accelerators. The Jefferson Lab FEL [1,2] has multiple electron beam paths and many different types of diagnostic insertion devices. The MPS [3] needs to monitor both the status of these devices and the magnet settings which define the beam path. The matrix of these devices and beam paths are programmed into gate arrays, the output of the matrix is an allowable maximum average power limit. This power limit is enforced by the drive laser for the photocathode gun. The Beam Loss Monitors (BLMs), RF status, and laser safety system status are also inputs to the control matrix. There are 8 Machine Modes (electron path) and 8 Beam Modes (average power limits) that define the safe operating limits for the FEL. Combinations outside of this matrix are unsafe and the beam is inhibited. The power limits range from no beam to 2 megawatts of electron beam power.
Motional averaging in a superconducting qubit.
Li, Jian; Silveri, M P; Kumar, K S; Pirkkalainen, J-M; Vepsäläinen, A; Chien, W C; Tuorila, J; Sillanpää, M A; Hakonen, P J; Thuneberg, E V; Paraoanu, G S
2013-01-01
Superconducting circuits with Josephson junctions are promising candidates for developing future quantum technologies. Of particular interest is to use these circuits to study effects that typically occur in complex condensed-matter systems. Here we employ a superconducting quantum bit--a transmon--to perform an analogue simulation of motional averaging, a phenomenon initially observed in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. By modulating the flux bias of a transmon with controllable pseudo-random telegraph noise we create a stochastic jump of its energy level separation between two discrete values. When the jumping is faster than a dynamical threshold set by the frequency displacement of the levels, the initially separate spectral lines merge into a single, narrow, motional-averaged line. With sinusoidal modulation a complex pattern of additional sidebands is observed. We show that the modulated system remains quantum coherent, with modified transition frequencies, Rabi couplings, and dephasing rates. These results represent the first steps towards more advanced quantum simulations using artificial atoms. PMID:23361011
High average power linear induction accelerator development
Bayless, J.R.; Adler, R.J.
1987-07-01
There is increasing interest in linear induction accelerators (LIAs) for applications including free electron lasers, high power microwave generators and other types of radiation sources. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory has developed LIA technology in combination with magnetic pulse compression techniques to achieve very impressive performance levels. In this paper we will briefly discuss the LIA concept and describe our development program. Our goals are to improve the reliability and reduce the cost of LIA systems. An accelerator is presently under construction to demonstrate these improvements at an energy of 1.6 MeV in 2 kA, 65 ns beam pulses at an average beam power of approximately 30 kW. The unique features of this system are a low cost accelerator design and an SCR-switched, magnetically compressed, pulse power system. 4 refs., 7 figs.
Average Gait Differential Image Based Human Recognition
Chen, Jinyan; Liu, Jiansheng
2014-01-01
The difference between adjacent frames of human walking contains useful information for human gait identification. Based on the previous idea a silhouettes difference based human gait recognition method named as average gait differential image (AGDI) is proposed in this paper. The AGDI is generated by the accumulation of the silhouettes difference between adjacent frames. The advantage of this method lies in that as a feature image it can preserve both the kinetic and static information of walking. Comparing to gait energy image (GEI), AGDI is more fit to representation the variation of silhouettes during walking. Two-dimensional principal component analysis (2DPCA) is used to extract features from the AGDI. Experiments on CASIA dataset show that AGDI has better identification and verification performance than GEI. Comparing to PCA, 2DPCA is a more efficient and less memory storage consumption feature extraction method in gait based recognition. PMID:24895648
Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.
Caponi, Sandra
2013-01-01
Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine. PMID:23970171
[Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge].
Caponi, Sandra
2013-01-01
Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine. PMID:24141918
Average deployments versus missile and defender parameters
Canavan, G.H.
1991-03-01
This report evaluates the average number of reentry vehicles (RVs) that could be deployed successfully as a function of missile burn time, RV deployment times, and the number of space-based interceptors (SBIs) in defensive constellations. Leakage estimates of boost-phase kinetic-energy defenses as functions of launch parameters and defensive constellation size agree with integral predictions of near-exact calculations for constellation sizing. The calculations discussed here test more detailed aspects of the interaction. They indicate that SBIs can efficiently remove about 50% of the RVs from a heavy missile attack. The next 30% can removed with two-fold less effectiveness. The next 10% could double constellation sizes. 5 refs., 7 figs.
Asymmetric network connectivity using weighted harmonic averages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Morrison, Greg; Mahadevan, L.
2011-02-01
We propose a non-metric measure of the "closeness" felt between two nodes in an undirected, weighted graph using a simple weighted harmonic average of connectivity, that is a real-valued Generalized Erdös Number (GEN). While our measure is developed with a collaborative network in mind, the approach can be of use in a variety of artificial and real-world networks. We are able to distinguish between network topologies that standard distance metrics view as identical, and use our measure to study some simple analytically tractable networks. We show how this might be used to look at asymmetry in authorship networks such as those that inspired the integer Erdös numbers in mathematical coauthorships. We also show the utility of our approach to devise a ratings scheme that we apply to the data from the NetFlix prize, and find a significant improvement using our method over a baseline.
Scaling crossover for the average avalanche shape
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Papanikolaou, Stefanos; Bohn, Felipe; Sommer, Rubem L.; Durin, Gianfranco; Zapperi, Stefano; Sethna, James P.
2010-03-01
Universality and the renormalization group claim to predict all behavior on long length and time scales asymptotically close to critical points. In practice, large simulations and heroic experiments have been needed to unambiguously test and measure the critical exponents and scaling functions. We announce here the measurement and prediction of universal corrections to scaling, applied to the temporal average shape of Barkhausen noise avalanches. We bypass the confounding factors of time-retarded interactions (eddy currents) by measuring thin permalloy films, and bypass thresholding effects and amplifier distortions by applying Wiener deconvolution. We show experimental shapes that are approximately symmetric, and measure the leading corrections to scaling. We solve a mean-field theory for the magnetization dynamics and calculate the relevant demagnetizing-field correction to scaling, showing qualitative agreement with the experiment. In this way, we move toward a quantitative theory useful at smaller time and length scales and farther from the critical point.
Quetelet, the average man and medical knowledge.
Caponi, Sandra
2013-01-01
Using two books by Adolphe Quetelet, I analyze his theory of the 'average man', which associates biological and social normality with the frequency with which certain characteristics appear in a population. The books are Sur l'homme et le développement de ses facultés and Du systeme social et des lois qui le régissent. Both reveal that Quetelet's ideas are permeated by explanatory strategies drawn from physics and astronomy, and also by discursive strategies drawn from theology and religion. The stability of the mean as opposed to the dispersion of individual characteristics and events provided the basis for the use of statistics in social sciences and medicine.
Average oxidation state of carbon in proteins
Dick, Jeffrey M.
2014-01-01
The formal oxidation state of carbon atoms in organic molecules depends on the covalent structure. In proteins, the average oxidation state of carbon (ZC) can be calculated as an elemental ratio from the chemical formula. To investigate oxidation–reduction (redox) patterns, groups of proteins from different subcellular locations and phylogenetic groups were selected for comparison. Extracellular proteins of yeast have a relatively high oxidation state of carbon, corresponding with oxidizing conditions outside of the cell. However, an inverse relationship between ZC and redox potential occurs between the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm. This trend provides support for the hypothesis that protein transport and turnover are ultimately coupled to the maintenance of different glutathione redox potentials in subcellular compartments. There are broad changes in ZC in whole-genome protein compositions in microbes from different environments, and in Rubisco homologues, lower ZC tends to occur in organisms with higher optimal growth temperature. Energetic costs calculated from thermodynamic models are consistent with the notion that thermophilic organisms exhibit molecular adaptation to not only high temperature but also the reducing nature of many hydrothermal fluids. Further characterization of the material requirements of protein metabolism in terms of the chemical conditions of cells and environments may help to reveal other linkages among biochemical processes with implications for changes on evolutionary time scales. PMID:25165594
Calculating Free Energies Using Average Force
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Darve, Eric; Pohorille, Andrew; DeVincenzi, Donald L. (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
A new, general formula that connects the derivatives of the free energy along the selected, generalized coordinates of the system with the instantaneous force acting on these coordinates is derived. The instantaneous force is defined as the force acting on the coordinate of interest so that when it is subtracted from the equations of motion the acceleration along this coordinate is zero. The formula applies to simulations in which the selected coordinates are either unconstrained or constrained to fixed values. It is shown that in the latter case the formula reduces to the expression previously derived by den Otter and Briels. If simulations are carried out without constraining the coordinates of interest, the formula leads to a new method for calculating the free energy changes along these coordinates. This method is tested in two examples - rotation around the C-C bond of 1,2-dichloroethane immersed in water and transfer of fluoromethane across the water-hexane interface. The calculated free energies are compared with those obtained by two commonly used methods. One of them relies on determining the probability density function of finding the system at different values of the selected coordinate and the other requires calculating the average force at discrete locations along this coordinate in a series of constrained simulations. The free energies calculated by these three methods are in excellent agreement. The relative advantages of each method are discussed.
Average oxidation state of carbon in proteins.
Dick, Jeffrey M
2014-11-01
The formal oxidation state of carbon atoms in organic molecules depends on the covalent structure. In proteins, the average oxidation state of carbon (Z(C)) can be calculated as an elemental ratio from the chemical formula. To investigate oxidation-reduction (redox) patterns, groups of proteins from different subcellular locations and phylogenetic groups were selected for comparison. Extracellular proteins of yeast have a relatively high oxidation state of carbon, corresponding with oxidizing conditions outside of the cell. However, an inverse relationship between Z(C) and redox potential occurs between the endoplasmic reticulum and cytoplasm. This trend provides support for the hypothesis that protein transport and turnover are ultimately coupled to the maintenance of different glutathione redox potentials in subcellular compartments. There are broad changes in Z(C) in whole-genome protein compositions in microbes from different environments, and in Rubisco homologues, lower Z(C) tends to occur in organisms with higher optimal growth temperature. Energetic costs calculated from thermodynamic models are consistent with the notion that thermophilic organisms exhibit molecular adaptation to not only high temperature but also the reducing nature of many hydrothermal fluids. Further characterization of the material requirements of protein metabolism in terms of the chemical conditions of cells and environments may help to reveal other linkages among biochemical processes with implications for changes on evolutionary time scales.
Global Average Brightness Temperature for April 2003
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2003-01-01
[figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1
This image shows average temperatures in April, 2003, observed by AIRS at an infrared wavelength that senses either the Earth's surface or any intervening cloud. Similar to a photograph of the planet taken with the camera shutter held open for a month, stationary features are captured while those obscured by moving clouds are blurred. Many continental features stand out boldly, such as our planet's vast deserts, and India, now at the end of its long, clear dry season. Also obvious are the high, cold Tibetan plateau to the north of India, and the mountains of North America. The band of yellow encircling the planet's equator is the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), a region of persistent thunderstorms and associated high, cold clouds. The ITCZ merges with the monsoon systems of Africa and South America. Higher latitudes are increasingly obscured by clouds, though some features like the Great Lakes, the British Isles and Korea are apparent. The highest latitudes of Europe and Eurasia are completely obscured by clouds, while Antarctica stands out cold and clear at the bottom of the image.
The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder Experiment, with its visible, infrared, and microwave detectors, provides a three-dimensional look at Earth's weather. Working in tandem, the three instruments can make simultaneous observations all the way down to the Earth's surface, even in the presence of heavy clouds. With more than 2,000 channels sensing different regions of the atmosphere, the system creates a global, 3-D map of atmospheric temperature and humidity and provides information on clouds, greenhouse gases, and many other atmospheric phenomena. The AIRS Infrared Sounder Experiment flies onboard NASA's Aqua spacecraft and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., under contract to NASA. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.
Gupta, Tejpal; Jalali, Rakesh; Goswami, Savita; Nair, Vimoj; Moiyadi, Aliasgar; Epari, Sridhar; Sarin, Rajiv
2012-08-01
Purpose: To report on acute toxicity, longitudinal cognitive function, and early clinical outcomes in children with average-risk medulloblastoma. Methods and Materials: Twenty children {>=}5 years of age classified as having average-risk medulloblastoma were accrued on a prospective protocol of hyperfractionated radiation therapy (HFRT) alone. Radiotherapy was delivered with two daily fractions (1 Gy/fraction, 6 to 8 hours apart, 5 days/week), initially to the neuraxis (36 Gy/36 fractions), followed by conformal tumor bed boost (32 Gy/32 fractions) for a total tumor bed dose of 68 Gy/68 fractions over 6 to 7 weeks. Cognitive function was prospectively assessed longitudinally (pretreatment and at specified posttreatment follow-up visits) with the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children to give verbal quotient, performance quotient, and full-scale intelligence quotient (FSIQ). Results: The median age of the study cohort was 8 years (range, 5-14 years), representing a slightly older cohort. Acute hematologic toxicity was mild and self-limiting. Eight (40%) children had subnormal intelligence (FSIQ <85), including 3 (15%) with mild mental retardation (FSIQ 56-70) even before radiotherapy. Cognitive functioning for all tested domains was preserved in children evaluable at 3 months, 1 year, and 2 years after completion of HFRT, with no significant decline over time. Age at diagnosis or baseline FSIQ did not have a significant impact on longitudinal cognitive function. At a median follow-up time of 33 months (range, 16-58 months), 3 patients had died (2 of relapse and 1 of accidental burns), resulting in 3-year relapse-free survival and overall survival of 83.5% and 83.2%, respectively. Conclusion: HFRT without upfront chemotherapy has an acceptable acute toxicity profile, without an unduly increased risk of relapse, with preserved cognitive functioning in children with average-risk medulloblastoma.
Interpreting Sky-Averaged 21-cm Measurements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mirocha, Jordan
2015-01-01
Within the first ~billion years after the Big Bang, the intergalactic medium (IGM) underwent a remarkable transformation, from a uniform sea of cold neutral hydrogen gas to a fully ionized, metal-enriched plasma. Three milestones during this epoch of reionization -- the emergence of the first stars, black holes (BHs), and full-fledged galaxies -- are expected to manifest themselves as extrema in sky-averaged ("global") measurements of the redshifted 21-cm background. However, interpreting these measurements will be complicated by the presence of strong foregrounds and non-trivialities in the radiative transfer (RT) modeling required to make robust predictions.I have developed numerical models that efficiently solve the frequency-dependent radiative transfer equation, which has led to two advances in studies of the global 21-cm signal. First, frequency-dependent solutions facilitate studies of how the global 21-cm signal may be used to constrain the detailed spectral properties of the first stars, BHs, and galaxies, rather than just the timing of their formation. And second, the speed of these calculations allows one to search vast expanses of a currently unconstrained parameter space, while simultaneously characterizing the degeneracies between parameters of interest. I find principally that (1) physical properties of the IGM, such as its temperature and ionization state, can be constrained robustly from observations of the global 21-cm signal without invoking models for the astrophysical sources themselves, (2) translating IGM properties to galaxy properties is challenging, in large part due to frequency-dependent effects. For instance, evolution in the characteristic spectrum of accreting BHs can modify the 21-cm absorption signal at levels accessible to first generation instruments, but could easily be confused with evolution in the X-ray luminosity star-formation rate relation. Finally, (3) the independent constraints most likely to aide in the interpretation
A Microgenetic Analysis of Strategic Variability in Gifted and Average-Ability Children
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Steiner, Hillary Hettinger
2006-01-01
Many researchers have described cognitive differences between gifted and average-performing children. Regarding strategy use, the gifted advantage is often associated with differences such as greater knowledge of strategies, quicker problem solving, and the ability to use strategies more appropriately. The current study used microgenetic methods…
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-07-01
... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average gasoline sulfur level is calculated as follows: ER10FE00.007 Where: Sa = The...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? 80.205 Section 80.205 Protection of... ADDITIVES Gasoline Sulfur Gasoline Sulfur Standards § 80.205 How is the annual refinery or importer average and corporate pool average sulfur level determined? (a) The annual refinery or importer average...
Instantaneous, phase-averaged, and time-averaged pressure from particle image velocimetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Kat, Roeland
2015-11-01
Recent work on pressure determination using velocity data from particle image velocimetry (PIV) resulted in approaches that allow for instantaneous and volumetric pressure determination. However, applying these approaches is not always feasible (e.g. due to resolution, access, or other constraints) or desired. In those cases pressure determination approaches using phase-averaged or time-averaged velocity provide an alternative. To assess the performance of these different pressure determination approaches against one another, they are applied to a single data set and their results are compared with each other and with surface pressure measurements. For this assessment, the data set of a flow around a square cylinder (de Kat & van Oudheusden, 2012, Exp. Fluids 52:1089-1106) is used. RdK is supported by a Leverhulme Trust Early Career Fellowship.
Determining average path length and average trapping time on generalized dual dendrimer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Ling; Guan, Jihong
2015-03-01
Dendrimer has wide number of important applications in various fields. In some cases during transport or diffusion process, it transforms into its dual structure named Husimi cactus. In this paper, we study the structure properties and trapping problem on a family of generalized dual dendrimer with arbitrary coordination numbers. We first calculate exactly the average path length (APL) of the networks. The APL increases logarithmically with the network size, indicating that the networks exhibit a small-world effect. Then we determine the average trapping time (ATT) of the trapping process in two cases, i.e., the trap placed on a central node and the trap is uniformly distributed in all the nodes of the network. In both case, we obtain explicit solutions of ATT and show how they vary with the networks size. Besides, we also discuss the influence of the coordination number on trapping efficiency.
7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Average midrib length. 51.577 Section 51.577... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the branches in the outer whorl measured from the point...
7 CFR 51.577 - Average midrib length.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average midrib length. 51.577 Section 51.577... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Celery Definitions § 51.577 Average midrib length. Average midrib length means the average length of all the branches in the outer whorl measured from the point...
7 CFR 760.640 - National average market price.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false National average market price. 760.640 Section 760.640....640 National average market price. (a) The Deputy Administrator will establish the National Average... average quality loss factors that are reflected in the market by county or part of a county. (c)...
40 CFR 80.67 - Compliance on average.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Compliance on average. 80.67 Section...) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.67 Compliance on average. The requirements... with one or more of the requirements of § 80.41 is determined on average (“averaged gasoline”)....
47 CFR 80.759 - Average terrain elevation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Average terrain elevation. 80.759 Section 80... Average terrain elevation. (a)(1) Draw radials from the antenna site for each 45 degrees of azimuth...) Calculate the height above average terrain by averaging the values calculated for each radial....
47 CFR 80.759 - Average terrain elevation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Average terrain elevation. 80.759 Section 80... Average terrain elevation. (a)(1) Draw radials from the antenna site for each 45 degrees of azimuth...) Calculate the height above average terrain by averaging the values calculated for each radial....
47 CFR 80.759 - Average terrain elevation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Average terrain elevation. 80.759 Section 80... Average terrain elevation. (a)(1) Draw radials from the antenna site for each 45 degrees of azimuth...) Calculate the height above average terrain by averaging the values calculated for each radial....
47 CFR 80.759 - Average terrain elevation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Average terrain elevation. 80.759 Section 80... Average terrain elevation. (a)(1) Draw radials from the antenna site for each 45 degrees of azimuth...) Calculate the height above average terrain by averaging the values calculated for each radial....
47 CFR 80.759 - Average terrain elevation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Average terrain elevation. 80.759 Section 80... Average terrain elevation. (a)(1) Draw radials from the antenna site for each 45 degrees of azimuth...) Calculate the height above average terrain by averaging the values calculated for each radial....
20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation...
20 CFR 226.62 - Computing average monthly compensation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing average monthly compensation. 226... RETIREMENT ACT COMPUTING EMPLOYEE, SPOUSE, AND DIVORCED SPOUSE ANNUITIES Years of Service and Average Monthly Compensation § 226.62 Computing average monthly compensation. The employee's average monthly compensation...
Kinetic energy equations for the average-passage equation system
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Johnson, Richard W.; Adamczyk, John J.
1989-01-01
Important kinetic energy equations derived from the average-passage equation sets are documented, with a view to their interrelationships. These kinetic equations may be used for closing the average-passage equations. The turbulent kinetic energy transport equation used is formed by subtracting the mean kinetic energy equation from the averaged total instantaneous kinetic energy equation. The aperiodic kinetic energy equation, averaged steady kinetic energy equation, averaged unsteady kinetic energy equation, and periodic kinetic energy equation, are also treated.
Westphal, M; Frazier, E; Miller, M C
1979-01-01
A five-year review of accounting data at a university hospital shows that immediately following institution of concurrent PSRO admission and length of stay review of Medicare-Medicaid patients, there was a significant decrease in length of stay and a fall in average charges generated per patient against the inflationary trend. Similar changes did not occur for the non-Medicare-Medicaid patients who were not reviewed. The observed changes occurred even though the review procedure rarely resulted in the denial of services to patients, suggesting an indirect effect of review. PMID:393658
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... and average carbon-related exhaust emissions. 600.510-12 Section 600.510-12 Protection of Environment... Carbon-Related Exhaust Emissions § 600.510-12 Calculation of average fuel economy and average carbon.... (iv) (2) Average carbon-related exhaust emissions will be calculated to the nearest one gram per...
Cost averaging techniques for robust control of flexible structural systems
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hagood, Nesbitt W.; Crawley, Edward F.
1991-01-01
Viewgraphs on cost averaging techniques for robust control of flexible structural systems are presented. Topics covered include: modeling of parameterized systems; average cost analysis; reduction of parameterized systems; and static and dynamic controller synthesis.
Average American 15 Pounds Heavier Than 20 Years Ago
... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160233.html Average American 15 Pounds Heavier Than 20 Years Ago ... since the late 1980s and early 1990s, the average American has put on 15 or more additional ...
7 CFR 760.640 - National average market price.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false National average market price. 760.640 Section 760.640....640 National average market price. (a) The Deputy Administrator will establish the National Average Market Price (NAMP) using the best sources available, as determined by the Deputy Administrator,...
20 CFR 404.220 - Average-monthly-wage method.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average-monthly-wage method. 404.220 Section... INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.220 Average-monthly-wage method. (a) Who is eligible for this method. You...
27 CFR 19.37 - Average effective tax rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average effective tax rate..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Taxes Effective Tax Rates § 19.37 Average effective tax rate. (a) The proprietor may establish an average effective tax rate for any...
Sample Size Bias in Judgments of Perceptual Averages
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Price, Paul C.; Kimura, Nicole M.; Smith, Andrew R.; Marshall, Lindsay D.
2014-01-01
Previous research has shown that people exhibit a sample size bias when judging the average of a set of stimuli on a single dimension. The more stimuli there are in the set, the greater people judge the average to be. This effect has been demonstrated reliably for judgments of the average likelihood that groups of people will experience negative,…
7 CFR 1410.44 - Average adjusted gross income.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income. 1410.44 Section 1410... Average adjusted gross income. (a) Benefits under this part will not be available to persons or legal entities whose average adjusted gross income exceeds $1,000,000 or as further specified in part...
34 CFR 668.196 - Average rates appeals.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Average rates appeals. 668.196 Section 668.196....196 Average rates appeals. (a) Eligibility. (1) You may appeal a notice of a loss of eligibility under... calculated as an average rate under § 668.183(d)(2). (2) You may appeal a notice of a loss of...
18 CFR 301.7 - Average System Cost methodology functionalization.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Average System Cost... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS FOR FEDERAL POWER MARKETING ADMINISTRATIONS AVERAGE... ACT § 301.7 Average System Cost methodology functionalization. (a) Functionalization of each...
34 CFR 668.215 - Average rates appeals.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Average rates appeals. 668.215 Section 668.215... Average rates appeals. (a) Eligibility. (1) You may appeal a notice of a loss of eligibility under § 668... as an average rate under § 668.202(d)(2). (2) You may appeal a notice of a loss of eligibility...
47 CFR 1.959 - Computation of average terrain elevation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Computation of average terrain elevation. 1.959... Procedures § 1.959 Computation of average terrain elevation. Except as otherwise specified in § 90.309(a)(4) of this chapter, average terrain elevation must be calculated by computer using elevations from a...
47 CFR 1.959 - Computation of average terrain elevation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Computation of average terrain elevation. 1.959... Procedures § 1.959 Computation of average terrain elevation. Except as otherwise specified in § 90.309(a)(4) of this chapter, average terrain elevation must be calculated by computer using elevations from a...
47 CFR 1.959 - Computation of average terrain elevation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Computation of average terrain elevation. 1.959... of average terrain elevation. Except as otherwise specified in § 90.309(a)(4) of this chapter, average terrain elevation must be calculated by computer using elevations from a 30 second point or...
47 CFR 1.959 - Computation of average terrain elevation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Computation of average terrain elevation. 1.959... Procedures § 1.959 Computation of average terrain elevation. Except as otherwise specified in § 90.309(a)(4) of this chapter, average terrain elevation must be calculated by computer using elevations from a...
47 CFR 1.959 - Computation of average terrain elevation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Computation of average terrain elevation. 1.959... of average terrain elevation. Except as otherwise specified in § 90.309(a)(4) of this chapter, average terrain elevation must be calculated by computer using elevations from a 30 second point or...
78 FR 16711 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-03-18
... of Prisons Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates in Fiscal Year 2011 was $28,893.40. The average annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community...
76 FR 6161 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-02-03
... of Prisons Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates in Fiscal Year 2009 was $25,251. The average annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community Corrections...
76 FR 57081 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-09-15
... of Prisons Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates in Fiscal Year 2010 was $28,284. The average annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community Corrections...
20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-04-01
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Computing your average monthly wage. 404.221... DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Computing Primary Insurance Amounts Average-Monthly-Wage Method of Computing Primary Insurance Amounts § 404.221 Computing your average monthly wage. (a) General. Under the...
7 CFR 51.2561 - Average moisture content.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average moisture content. 51.2561 Section 51.2561... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Pistachio Nuts § 51.2561 Average moisture content. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement of the grades, except...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... of 40 CFR part 60, section 4.3, to calculate the daily geometric average concentrations of sulfur... 40 Protection of Environment 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic... convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units? (a) Use the equation...
MODEL AVERAGING BASED ON KULLBACK-LEIBLER DISTANCE
Zhang, Xinyu; Zou, Guohua; Carroll, Raymond J.
2016-01-01
This paper proposes a model averaging method based on Kullback-Leibler distance under a homoscedastic normal error term. The resulting model average estimator is proved to be asymptotically optimal. When combining least squares estimators, the model average estimator is shown to have the same large sample properties as the Mallows model average (MMA) estimator developed by Hansen (2007). We show via simulations that, in terms of mean squared prediction error and mean squared parameter estimation error, the proposed model average estimator is more efficient than the MMA estimator and the estimator based on model selection using the corrected Akaike information criterion in small sample situations. A modified version of the new model average estimator is further suggested for the case of heteroscedastic random errors. The method is applied to a data set from the Hong Kong real estate market.
Random time averaged diffusivities for Lévy walks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Froemberg, D.; Barkai, E.
2013-07-01
We investigate a Lévy walk alternating between velocities ±v0 with opposite sign. The sojourn time probability distribution at large times is a power law lacking its mean or second moment. The first case corresponds to a ballistic regime where the ensemble averaged mean squared displacement (MSD) at large times is ⟨x2⟩ ∝ t2, the latter to enhanced diffusion with ⟨x2⟩ ∝ tν, 1 < ν < 2. The correlation function and the time averaged MSD are calculated. In the ballistic case, the deviations of the time averaged MSD from a purely ballistic behavior are shown to be distributed according to a Mittag-Leffler density function. In the enhanced diffusion regime, the fluctuations of the time averages MSD vanish at large times, yet very slowly. In both cases we quantify the discrepancy between the time averaged and ensemble averaged MSDs.
Fiber-optic large area average temperature sensor
Looney, L.L.; Forman, P.R.
1994-05-01
In many instances the desired temperature measurement is only the spatial average temperature over a large area; eg. ground truth calibration for satellite imaging system, or average temperature of a farm field. By making an accurate measurement of the optical length of a long fiber-optic cable, we can determine the absolute temperature averaged over its length and hence the temperature of the material in contact with it.
Thermodynamic properties of average-atom interatomic potentials for alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nöhring, Wolfram Georg; Curtin, William Arthur
2016-05-01
The atomistic mechanisms of deformation in multicomponent random alloys are challenging to model because of their extensive structural and compositional disorder. For embedded-atom-method interatomic potentials, a formal averaging procedure can generate an average-atom EAM potential and this average-atom potential has recently been shown to accurately predict many zero-temperature properties of the true random alloy. Here, the finite-temperature thermodynamic properties of the average-atom potential are investigated to determine if the average-atom potential can represent the true random alloy Helmholtz free energy as well as important finite-temperature properties. Using a thermodynamic integration approach, the average-atom system is found to have an entropy difference of at most 0.05 k B/atom relative to the true random alloy over a wide temperature range, as demonstrated on FeNiCr and Ni85Al15 model alloys. Lattice constants, and thus thermal expansion, and elastic constants are also well-predicted (within a few percent) by the average-atom potential over a wide temperature range. The largest differences between the average atom and true random alloy are found in the zero temperature properties, which reflect the role of local structural disorder in the true random alloy. Thus, the average-atom potential is a valuable strategy for modeling alloys at finite temperatures.
Aberration averaging using point spread function for scanning projection systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ooki, Hiroshi; Noda, Tomoya; Matsumoto, Koichi
2000-07-01
Scanning projection system plays a leading part in current DUV optical lithography. It is frequently pointed out that the mechanically induced distortion and field curvature degrade image quality after scanning. On the other hand, the aberration of the projection lens is averaged along the scanning direction. This averaging effect reduces the residual aberration significantly. The aberration averaging based on the point spread function and phase retrieval technique in order to estimate the effective wavefront aberration after scanning is described in this paper. Our averaging method is tested using specified wavefront aberration, and its accuracy is discussed based on the measured wavefront aberration of recent Nikon projection lens.
Exploring Students' Conceptual Understanding of the Averaging Algorithm.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cai, Jinfa
1998-01-01
Examines 250 sixth-grade students' understanding of arithmetic average by assessing their understanding of the computational algorithm. Results indicate that the majority of the students knew the "add-them-all-up-and-divide" averaging algorithm, but only half of the students were able to correctly apply the algorithm to solve a…
Delineating the Average Rate of Change in Longitudinal Models
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Kelley, Ken; Maxwell, Scott E.
2008-01-01
The average rate of change is a concept that has been misunderstood in the literature. This article attempts to clarify the concept and show unequivocally the mathematical definition and meaning of the average rate of change in longitudinal models. The slope from the straight-line change model has at times been interpreted as if it were always the…
A procedure to average 3D anatomical structures.
Subramanya, K; Dean, D
2000-12-01
Creating a feature-preserving average of three dimensional anatomical surfaces extracted from volume image data is a complex task. Unlike individual images, averages present right-left symmetry and smooth surfaces which give insight into typical proportions. Averaging multiple biological surface images requires careful superimposition and sampling of homologous regions. Our approach to biological surface image averaging grows out of a wireframe surface tessellation approach by Cutting et al. (1993). The surface delineating wires represent high curvature crestlines. By adding tile boundaries in flatter areas the 3D image surface is parametrized into anatomically labeled (homology mapped) grids. We extend the Cutting et al. wireframe approach by encoding the entire surface as a series of B-spline space curves. The crestline averaging algorithm developed by Cutting et al. may then be used for the entire surface. Shape preserving averaging of multiple surfaces requires careful positioning of homologous surface regions such as these B-spline space curves. We test the precision of this new procedure and its ability to appropriately position groups of surfaces in order to produce a shape-preserving average. Our result provides an average that well represents the source images and may be useful clinically as a deformable model or for animation.
7 CFR 701.17 - Average adjusted gross income limitation.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 9003), each applicant must meet the provisions of the Adjusted Gross Income Limitations at 7 CFR part... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average adjusted gross income limitation. 701.17... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.17 Average adjusted gross income...
27 CFR 19.613 - Average effective tax rate records.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Average effective tax rate records. 19.613 Section 19.613 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Tax Records § 19.613 Average effective tax rate...
Path-averaged differential meter of atmospheric turbulence parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Antoshkin, L. V.; Botygina, N. N.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Lukin, V. P.
2010-10-01
A path-averaged differential meter of the structure constant of the atmospheric refractive index, C {/n 2}, has been developed and tested. The results of a model numerical experiment on measuring C {/n 2} and the horizontal component of average wind velocity transverse to the path are reported.
20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-04-01
... is rounded down to $502. (e) “Deemed” average monthly wage for certain deceased veterans of World War II. Certain deceased veterans of World War II are “deemed” to have an average monthly wage of $160... your elapsed years.) (2) If you are a male and you reached age 62 in— (i) 1972 or earlier, we count...
20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR
2012-04-01
... is rounded down to $502. (e) “Deemed” average monthly wage for certain deceased veterans of World War II. Certain deceased veterans of World War II are “deemed” to have an average monthly wage of $160... your elapsed years.) (2) If you are a male and you reached age 62 in— (i) 1972 or earlier, we count...
20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-04-01
... is rounded down to $502. (e) “Deemed” average monthly wage for certain deceased veterans of World War II. Certain deceased veterans of World War II are “deemed” to have an average monthly wage of $160... your elapsed years.) (2) If you are a male and you reached age 62 in— (i) 1972 or earlier, we count...
20 CFR 404.221 - Computing your average monthly wage.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... is rounded down to $502. (e) “Deemed” average monthly wage for certain deceased veterans of World War II. Certain deceased veterans of World War II are “deemed” to have an average monthly wage of $160... your elapsed years.) (2) If you are a male and you reached age 62 in— (i) 1972 or earlier, we count...
Interpreting Bivariate Regression Coefficients: Going beyond the Average
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Halcoussis, Dennis; Phillips, G. Michael
2010-01-01
Statistics, econometrics, investment analysis, and data analysis classes often review the calculation of several types of averages, including the arithmetic mean, geometric mean, harmonic mean, and various weighted averages. This note shows how each of these can be computed using a basic regression framework. By recognizing when a regression model…
78 FR 49770 - Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2013-08-15
... of Prisons Annual Determination of Average Cost of Incarceration AGENCY: Bureau of Prisons, Justice. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The fee to cover the average cost of incarceration for Federal inmates in Fiscal... annual cost to confine an inmate in a Community Corrections Center for Fiscal Year 2012 was $27,003...
Hadley circulations for zonally averaged heating centered off the equator
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lindzen, Richard S.; Hou, Arthur Y.
1988-01-01
Consistent with observations, it is found that moving peak heating even 2 deg off the equator leads to profound asymmetries in the Hadley circulation, with the winter cell amplifying greatly and the summer cell becoming negligible. It is found that the annually averaged Hadley circulation is much larger than the circulation forced by the annually averaged heating.
7 CFR 51.2548 - Average moisture content determination.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-01-01
... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Average moisture content determination. 51.2548... moisture content determination. (a) Determining average moisture content of the lot is not a requirement of... drawn composite sample. Official certification shall be based on the air-oven method or other...
Technical note: Revisiting the geometric theorems for volume averaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wood, Brian D.
2013-12-01
The geometric theorems reported by Quintard and Whitaker [5, Appendix B] are re-examined. We show (1) The geometrical theorems can be interpreted in terms of the raw spatial moments of the pore structure within the averaging volume. (2) For the case where the first spatial moment is aligned with the center of mass of the averaging volume, the geometric theorems can be expressed in terms of the central moments of the porous medium. (3) When the spatial moments of the pore structure are spatially stationary, the geometrical theorems allow substantial simplification of nonlocal terms arising in the averaged equations. (4) In the context of volume averaging, the geometric theorems of Quintard and Whitaker [5, Appendix B] are better interpreted as statements regarding the spatial stationarity of specific volume averaged quantities rather than an explicit statement about the media disorder.
On various definitions of shadowing with average error in tracing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Xinxing; Oprocha, Piotr; Chen, Guanrong
2016-07-01
When computing a trajectory of a dynamical system, influence of noise can lead to large perturbations which can appear, however, with small probability. Then when calculating approximate trajectories, it makes sense to consider errors small on average, since controlling them in each iteration may be impossible. Demand to relate approximate trajectories with genuine orbits leads to various notions of shadowing (on average) which we consider in the paper. As the main tools in our studies we provide a few equivalent characterizations of the average shadowing property, which also partly apply to other notions of shadowing. We prove that almost specification on the whole space induces this property on the measure center which in turn implies the average shadowing property. Finally, we study connections among sensitivity, transitivity, equicontinuity and (average) shadowing.
Average cross-responses in correlated financial markets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shanshan; Schäfer, Rudi; Guhr, Thomas
2016-09-01
There are non-vanishing price responses across different stocks in correlated financial markets, reflecting non-Markovian features. We further study this issue by performing different averages, which identify active and passive cross-responses. The two average cross-responses show different characteristic dependences on the time lag. The passive cross-response exhibits a shorter response period with sizeable volatilities, while the corresponding period for the active cross-response is longer. The average cross-responses for a given stock are evaluated either with respect to the whole market or to different sectors. Using the response strength, the influences of individual stocks are identified and discussed. Moreover, the various cross-responses as well as the average cross-responses are compared with the self-responses. In contrast to the short-memory trade sign cross-correlations for each pair of stocks, the sign cross-correlations averaged over different pairs of stocks show long memory.
Do Diurnal Aerosol Changes Affect Daily Average Radiative Forcing?
Kassianov, Evgueni I.; Barnard, James C.; Pekour, Mikhail S.; Berg, Larry K.; Michalsky, Joseph J.; Lantz, K.; Hodges, G. B.
2013-06-17
Strong diurnal variability of aerosol has been observed frequently for many urban/industrial regions. How this variability may alter the direct aerosol radiative forcing (DARF), however, is largely unknown. To quantify changes in the time-averaged DARF, we perform an assessment of 29 days of high temporal resolution ground-based data collected during the Two-Column Aerosol Project (TCAP) on Cape Cod, which is downwind of metropolitan areas. We demonstrate that strong diurnal changes of aerosol loading (about 20% on average) have a negligible impact on the 24-h average DARF, when daily averaged optical properties are used to find this quantity. However, when there is a sparse temporal sampling of aerosol properties, which may preclude the calculation of daily averaged optical properties, large errors (up to 100%) in the computed DARF may occur. We describe a simple way of reducing these errors, which suggests the minimal temporal sampling needed to accurately find the forcing.
Some series of intuitionistic fuzzy interactive averaging aggregation operators.
Garg, Harish
2016-01-01
In this paper, some series of new intuitionistic fuzzy averaging aggregation operators has been presented under the intuitionistic fuzzy sets environment. For this, some shortcoming of the existing operators are firstly highlighted and then new operational law, by considering the hesitation degree between the membership functions, has been proposed to overcome these. Based on these new operation laws, some new averaging aggregation operators namely, intuitionistic fuzzy Hamacher interactive weighted averaging, ordered weighted averaging and hybrid weighted averaging operators, labeled as IFHIWA, IFHIOWA and IFHIHWA respectively has been proposed. Furthermore, some desirable properties such as idempotency, boundedness, homogeneity etc. are studied. Finally, a multi-criteria decision making method has been presented based on proposed operators for selecting the best alternative. A comparative concelebration between the proposed operators and the existing operators are investigated in detail. PMID:27441128
LANDSAT-4 horizon scanner full orbit data averages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stanley, J. P.; Bilanow, S.
1983-01-01
Averages taken over full orbit data spans of the pitch and roll residual measurement errors of the two conical Earth sensors operating on the LANDSAT 4 spacecraft are described. The variability of these full orbit averages over representative data throughtout the year is analyzed to demonstrate the long term stability of the sensor measurements. The data analyzed consist of 23 segments of sensor measurements made at 2 to 4 week intervals. Each segment is roughly 24 hours in length. The variation of full orbit average as a function of orbit within a day as a function of day of year is examined. The dependence on day of year is based on association the start date of each segment with the mean full orbit average for the segment. The peak-to-peak and standard deviation values of the averages for each data segment are computed and their variation with day of year are also examined.
The causal meaning of Fisher’s average effect
LEE, JAMES J.; CHOW, CARSON C.
2013-01-01
Summary In order to formulate the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection, Fisher defined the average excess and average effect of a gene substitution. Finding these notions to be somewhat opaque, some authors have recommended reformulating Fisher’s ideas in terms of covariance and regression, which are classical concepts of statistics. We argue that Fisher intended his two averages to express a distinction between correlation and causation. On this view, the average effect is a specific weighted average of the actual phenotypic changes that result from physically changing the allelic states of homologous genes. We show that the statistical and causal conceptions of the average effect, perceived as inconsistent by Falconer, can be reconciled if certain relationships between the genotype frequencies and non-additive residuals are conserved. There are certain theory-internal considerations favouring Fisher’s original formulation in terms of causality; for example, the frequency-weighted mean of the average effects equaling zero at each locus becomes a derivable consequence rather than an arbitrary constraint. More broadly, Fisher’s distinction between correlation and causation is of critical importance to gene-trait mapping studies and the foundations of evolutionary biology. PMID:23938113
Programmable noise bandwidth reduction by means of digital averaging
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Poklemba, John J. (Inventor)
1993-01-01
Predetection noise bandwidth reduction is effected by a pre-averager capable of digitally averaging the samples of an input data signal over two or more symbols, the averaging interval being defined by the input sampling rate divided by the output sampling rate. As the averaged sample is clocked to a suitable detector at a much slower rate than the input signal sampling rate the noise bandwidth at the input to the detector is reduced, the input to the detector having an improved signal to noise ratio as a result of the averaging process, and the rate at which such subsequent processing must operate is correspondingly reduced. The pre-averager forms a data filter having an output sampling rate of one sample per symbol of received data. More specifically, selected ones of a plurality of samples accumulated over two or more symbol intervals are output in response to clock signals at a rate of one sample per symbol interval. The pre-averager includes circuitry for weighting digitized signal samples using stored finite impulse response (FIR) filter coefficients. A method according to the present invention is also disclosed.
Phase-compensated averaging for analyzing electroencephalography and magnetoencephalography epochs.
Matani, Ayumu; Naruse, Yasushi; Terazono, Yasushi; Iwasaki, Taro; Fujimaki, Norio; Murata, Tsutomu
2010-05-01
Stimulus-locked averaging for electroencephalography and/or megnetoencephalography (EEG/MEG) epochs cancels out ongoing spontaneous activities by treating them as noise. However, such spontaneous activities are the object of interest for EEG/MEG researchers who study phase-related phenomena, e.g., long-distance synchronization, phase-reset, and event-related synchronization/desynchronization (ERD/ERS). We propose a complex-weighted averaging method, called phase-compensated averaging, to investigate phase-related phenomena. In this method, any EEG/MEG channel is used as a trigger for averaging by setting the instantaneous phases at the trigger timings to 0 so that cross-channel averages are obtained. First, we evaluated the fundamental characteristics of this method by performing simulations. The results showed that this method could selectively average ongoing spontaneous activity phase-locked in each channel; that is, it evaluates the directional phase-synchronizing relationship between channels. We then analyzed flash evoked potentials. This method clarified the directional phase-synchronizing relationship from the frontal to occipital channels and recovered another piece of information, perhaps regarding the sequence of experiments, which is lost when using only conventional averaging. This method can also be used to reconstruct EEG/MEG time series to visualize long-distance synchronization and phase-reset directly, and on the basis of the potentials, ERS/ERD can be explained as a side effect of phase-reset. PMID:20172813
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I convert my 1-hour arithmetic averages into appropriate averaging times and units? 60.1755 Section 60.1755 Protection of Environment... or Before August 30, 1999 Model Rule-Continuous Emission Monitoring § 60.1755 How do I convert my...
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Staudt, Beate; Neubauer, Aljoscha C.
2006-01-01
In this study the "neural efficiency" phenomenon (more efficient brain function in brighter as compared to less intelligent individuals) was investigated regarding differences in intelligence (average vs. above-average intelligence) and scholastic achievement (achievers vs. underachievers). The cortical activation (assessed by event-related…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Mask, Nan; Bowen, Charles E.
1984-01-01
Compared the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (Revised) (WISC-R) and the Leiter International Performance Scale with 40 average and above average students. Results indicated a curvilinear relationship between the WISC-R and the Leiter, which correlates higher at the mean and deviates as the Full Scale varies from the mean. (JAC)
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Saleh, Mohammad; Lazonder, Ard W.; Jong, Ton de
2007-01-01
Average-ability students often do not take full advantage of learning in mixed-ability groups because they hardly engage in the group interaction. This study examined whether structuring collaboration by group roles and ground rules for helping behavior might help overcome this participatory inequality. In a plant biology course, heterogeneously…
Average waiting time in FDDI networks with local priorities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gercek, Gokhan
1994-01-01
A method is introduced to compute the average queuing delay experienced by different priority group messages in an FDDI node. It is assumed that no FDDI MAC layer priorities are used. Instead, a priority structure is introduced to the messages at a higher protocol layer (e.g. network layer) locally. Such a method was planned to be used in Space Station Freedom FDDI network. Conservation of the average waiting time is used as the key concept in computing average queuing delays. It is shown that local priority assignments are feasable specially when the traffic distribution is asymmetric in the FDDI network.
Bounce-averaged Kinetic Equations and Neoclassical Polarization Density
First Author = B.H. Fong; T.S. Hahm
1998-07-01
The rigorous formulation of the bounce-averaged equations is presented based upon the Poincare-Cartan one-form andLie perturbation methods. The resulting bounce-averaged Vlasov equation is Hamiltonian, thus suitable for theself-consistent simulation of low-frequency electrostatic turbulence in the trapped ion mode regime. In the bounce-kineticPoisson equation, the "neoclassical polarization density" arises from the difference between bounce-averaged banana centerand real trapped particle densities across a field line. This representation of the neoclassical polarization drift as ashielding term provides a systematic way to study the long-term behavior of the turbulence-driven E x B flow.
A new approach to high-order averaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chartier, P.; Murua, A.; Sanz-Serna, J. M.
2012-09-01
We present a new approach to perform high-order averaging in oscillatory periodic or quasi-periodic dynamical systems. The averaged system is expressed in terms of (i) scalar coefficients that are universal, i.e. independent of the system under consideration and (ii) basis functions that may be written in an explicit, systematic way in terms of the derivatives of the Fourier coefficients of the vector field being averaged. The coefficients may be recursively computed in a simple fashion. This approach may be used to obtain exponentially small error estimates, as those first derived by Neishtadt for the periodic case and Simó in the quasi-periodic scenario.
Averaging underwater noise levels for environmental assessment of shipping.
Merchant, Nathan D; Blondel, Philippe; Dakin, D Tom; Dorocicz, John
2012-10-01
Rising underwater noise levels from shipping have raised concerns regarding chronic impacts to marine fauna. However, there is a lack of consensus over how to average local shipping noise levels for environmental impact assessment. This paper addresses this issue using 110 days of continuous data recorded in the Strait of Georgia, Canada. Probability densities of ~10(7) 1-s samples in selected 1/3 octave bands were approximately stationary across one-month subsamples. Median and mode levels varied with averaging time. Mean sound pressure levels averaged in linear space, though susceptible to strong bias from outliers, are most relevant to cumulative impact assessment metrics. PMID:23039575
Time average vibration fringe analysis using Hilbert transformation
Kumar, Upputuri Paul; Mohan, Nandigana Krishna; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad
2010-10-20
Quantitative phase information from a single interferogram can be obtained using the Hilbert transform (HT). We have applied the HT method for quantitative evaluation of Bessel fringes obtained in time average TV holography. The method requires only one fringe pattern for the extraction of vibration amplitude and reduces the complexity in quantifying the data experienced in the time average reference bias modulation method, which uses multiple fringe frames. The technique is demonstrated for the measurement of out-of-plane vibration amplitude on a small scale specimen using a time average microscopic TV holography system.
42 CFR 423.279 - National average monthly bid amount.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-10-01
... adjustment. (1) Upon the development of an appropriate methodology, the national average monthly bid amount... applied an adjustment. (4) CMS does not apply any geographic adjustment until an appropriate...
Determining the Average Age of School Plant Building Space.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Uerling, Donald F.
1984-01-01
Presents a method for calculating the age of the space in a specific building inventory, and suggests some practical applications. A fourfold procedure is provided for finding the average age of total building space. (TE)
Does subduction zone magmatism produce average continental crust
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ellam, R. M.; Hawkesworth, C. J.
1988-01-01
The question of whether present day subduction zone magmatism produces material of average continental crust composition, which perhaps most would agree is andesitic, is addressed. It was argued that modern andesitic to dacitic rocks in Andean-type settings are produced by plagioclase fractionation of mantle derived basalts, leaving a complementary residue with low Rb/Sr and a positive Eu anomaly. This residue must be removed, for example by delamination, if the average crust produced in these settings is andesitic. The author argued against this, pointing out the absence of evidence for such a signature in the mantle. Either the average crust is not andesitic, a conclusion the author was not entirely comfortable with, or other crust forming processes must be sought. One possibility is that during the Archean, direct slab melting of basaltic or eclogitic oceanic crust produced felsic melts, which together with about 65 percent mafic material, yielded an average crust of andesitic composition.
The origin of consistent protein structure refinement from structural averaging.
Park, Hahnbeom; DiMaio, Frank; Baker, David
2015-06-01
Recent studies have shown that explicit solvent molecular dynamics (MD) simulation followed by structural averaging can consistently improve protein structure models. We find that improvement upon averaging is not limited to explicit water MD simulation, as consistent improvements are also observed for more efficient implicit solvent MD or Monte Carlo minimization simulations. To determine the origin of these improvements, we examine the changes in model accuracy brought about by averaging at the individual residue level. We find that the improvement in model quality from averaging results from the superposition of two effects: a dampening of deviations from the correct structure in the least well modeled regions, and a reinforcement of consistent movements towards the correct structure in better modeled regions. These observations are consistent with an energy landscape model in which the magnitude of the energy gradient toward the native structure decreases with increasing distance from the native state.
Total-pressure-tube averaging in pulsating flows.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Krause, L. N.
1973-01-01
A number of total-pressure tubes were tested in a nonsteady flow generator in which the fraction of period that pressure is a maximum is approximately 0.8, thereby simulating turbomachine-type flow conditions. The tests were performed at a pressure level of 1 bar, for Mach numbers up to near 1, and frequencies up to 3 kHz. Most of the tubes indicated a pressure which was higher than the true average. Organ-pipe resonances which further increased the indicated pressure were encountered within the tubes at discrete frequencies. There was no obvious combination of tube diameter, length, and/or geometry variation used in the tests which resulted in negligible averaging error. A pneumatic-type probe was found to measure true average pressure, and is suggested as a comparison instrument to determine whether nonlinear averaging effects are serious in unknown pulsation profiles.
Effects of spatial variability and scale on areal -average evapotranspiration
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Famiglietti, J. S.; Wood, Eric F.
1993-01-01
This paper explores the effect of spatial variability and scale on areally-averaged evapotranspiration. A spatially-distributed water and energy balance model is employed to determine the effect of explicit patterns of model parameters and atmospheric forcing on modeled areally-averaged evapotranspiration over a range of increasing spatial scales. The analysis is performed from the local scale to the catchment scale. The study area is King's Creek catchment, an 11.7 sq km watershed located on the native tallgrass prairie of Kansas. The dominant controls on the scaling behavior of catchment-average evapotranspiration are investigated by simulation, as is the existence of a threshold scale for evapotranspiration modeling, with implications for explicit versus statistical representation of important process controls. It appears that some of our findings are fairly general, and will therefore provide a framework for understanding the scaling behavior of areally-averaged evapotranspiration at the catchment and larger scales.
Average local ionization energy generalized to correlated wavefunctions
Ryabinkin, Ilya G.; Staroverov, Viktor N.
2014-08-28
The average local ionization energy function introduced by Politzer and co-workers [Can. J. Chem. 68, 1440 (1990)] as a descriptor of chemical reactivity has a limited utility because it is defined only for one-determinantal self-consistent-field methods such as the Hartree–Fock theory and the Kohn–Sham density-functional scheme. We reinterpret the negative of the average local ionization energy as the average total energy of an electron at a given point and, by rewriting this quantity in terms of reduced density matrices, arrive at its natural generalization to correlated wavefunctions. The generalized average local electron energy turns out to be the diagonal part of the coordinate representation of the generalized Fock operator divided by the electron density; it reduces to the original definition in terms of canonical orbitals and their eigenvalues for one-determinantal wavefunctions. The discussion is illustrated with calculations on selected atoms and molecules at various levels of theory.
40 CFR 80.67 - Compliance on average.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... ultimate consumers in the same covered area as was the reformulated gasoline which exceeds the average... standard, compare the actual total with the compliance total. (3) For the VOC, NOX, and toxics...
Distribution of population-averaged observables in stochastic gene expression.
Bhattacharyya, Bhaswati; Kalay, Ziya
2014-01-01
Observation of phenotypic diversity in a population of genetically identical cells is often linked to the stochastic nature of chemical reactions involved in gene regulatory networks. We investigate the distribution of population-averaged gene expression levels as a function of population, or sample, size for several stochastic gene expression models to find out to what extent population-averaged quantities reflect the underlying mechanism of gene expression. We consider three basic gene regulation networks corresponding to transcription with and without gene state switching and translation. Using analytical expressions for the probability generating function of observables and large deviation theory, we calculate the distribution and first two moments of the population-averaged mRNA and protein levels as a function of model parameters, population size, and number of measurements contained in a data set. We validate our results using stochastic simulations also report exact results on the asymptotic properties of population averages which show qualitative differences among different models. PMID:24580265
Average Lorentz self-force from electric field lines
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Aashish, Sandeep; Haque, Asrarul
2015-09-01
We generalize the derivation of electromagnetic fields of a charged particle moving with a constant acceleration Singal (2011 Am. J. Phys. 79 1036) to a variable acceleration (piecewise constants) over a small finite time interval using Coulomb's law, relativistic transformations of electromagnetic fields and Thomson's construction Thomson (1904 Electricity and Matter (New York: Charles Scribners) ch 3). We derive the average Lorentz self-force for a charged particle in arbitrary non-relativistic motion via averaging the fields at retarded time.
Characterization of mirror-based modulation-averaging structures.
Komljenovic, Tin; Babić, Dubravko; Sipus, Zvonimir
2013-05-10
Modulation-averaging reflectors have recently been proposed as a means for improving the link margin in self-seeded wavelength-division multiplexing in passive optical networks. In this work, we describe simple methods for determining key parameters of such structures and use them to predict their averaging efficiency. We characterize several reflectors built by arraying fiber-Bragg gratings along a segment of an optical fiber and show very good agreement between experiments and theoretical models. PMID:23669835
Flavor Physics Data from the Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG)
The Heavy Flavor Averaging Group (HFAG) was established at the May 2002 Flavor Physics and CP Violation Conference in Philadelphia, and continues the LEP Heavy Flavor Steering Group's tradition of providing regular updates to the world averages of heavy flavor quantities. Data are provided by six subgroups that each focus on a different set of heavy flavor measurements: B lifetimes and oscillation parameters, Semi-leptonic B decays, Rare B decays, Unitarity triangle parameters, B decays to charm final states, and Charm Physics.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-12-22
... discussion of EPA's rationale for applying this interpretation in the Phase 2 Rule, see 70 FR at 71647- 49... FR 71612, November 29, 2005). \\2\\ The memorandum is available on the EPA Technology and Transfer... approach for crediting reductions from outside nonattainment areas (``outside'' reductions). See 72...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2012-06-13
... Order Reviews I. Proposed Action On April 11, 2012 (70 FR 21690), EPA proposed to approve the ``Eight... Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993); Does not impose an information...); Does not have Federalism implications as specified in Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
Long chain omega-3 fatty acids are important in nutrition and disease management. Flavored emulsified fish oil supplements provide an alternative to encapsulated fish oils. Oil in water emulsions may offer an advantage in bio-availability of the fatty acids. Chylomicrons transport triglyceride from...
Eastern Texas Air Quality Forecasting System to Support TexAQS-II and 8-hour Ozone Modeling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Byun, D. W.
2005-12-01
The main objective of the Second Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS-II) for 2005 and 2006 is to understand emissions and processes associated with the formation and transport of ozone and regional haze in Texas. The target research area is the more populated eastern half of the state, roughly from Interstate 35 eastward. Accurate meteorological and photochemical modeling efforts are essential to support this study and further enhance modeling efforts for establishing the State Implementation Plan (SIP) by Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ). An air quality forecasting (AQF) system for Eastern Texas has been developed to provide these data and to further facilitate retrospective simulations to allow for model improvement and increased understanding of ozone episodes and emissions. We perform two-day air quality forecasting simulations with the 12-km Eastern Texas regional domain, and the 4-km Houston-Galveston area (HGA) domain utilizing a 48-CPU Beowulf Linux computer system. The dynamic boundary conditions are provided by the 36-km resolution conterminous US (CONUS) domain CMAQ simulations. Initial meteorological conditions are provided by the daily ETA forecast results. The results of individual runs are stored and made available to researchers and state and local officials via internet to study the patterns of air quality and its relationship to weather conditions and emissions. The data during the pre- and post-processing stages are in tens of gigabytes and must be managed efficiently during both the actual real-time and the subsequent computation periods. The nature of these forecasts and the time at which the initial data is available necessitates that models be executed within tight deadlines. A set of complex operational scripts is used to allow automatic operation of the data download, sequencing processors, performing graphical analysis, building database archives, and presenting on the web.
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-01-21
... November 9, 2010 (75 FR 68736), EPA published a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPR) for the States. The NPR... Executive Order Reviews A. General Requirements Under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993...'' (66 FR 28355, May 22, 2001). This action merely approves state law as meeting Federal requirements...
Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
One factor that could impact the feasibility of commercial on-farm slaughter of broilers is the time delay from on-farm slaughter to scalding and defeathering in the commercial plant that could be 4 h or more. This experiment evaluated feather retention force (FRF) in broilers that were slaughtered ...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2011-01-21
... attainment date be extended to June 15, 2011. On November 9, 2010 (75 FR 68733), EPA proposed to approve New...).'' IV. Statutory and Executive Order Reviews Under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4, 1993...'' (66 FR 28355 (May 22, 2001)). This action merely finds that an area has qualified for a...
Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014
2010-11-09
...'' subject to review by the Office of Management and Budget under Executive Order 12866 (58 FR 51735, October... Executive Order 13132 (64 FR 43255, August 10, 1999); Is not an economically significant regulatory action based on health or safety risks subject to Executive Order 13045 (62 FR 19885, April 23, 1997); ] Is...
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Hagren, Virve; von Lode, Piia; Syrjälä, Anniina; Korpimäki, Teemu; Tuomola, Mika; Kauko, Otto; Nurmi, Jussi
2008-07-15
We describe a system consisting of rapid sample enrichment and homogeneous end-point PCR analysis that enables the detection of Salmonella in various food matrices in 8 h. Sample preparation starts with 6 h enrichment step in supplemented broth, after which Salmonella cells are collected with immunomagnetic particles. The particles are washed and dispensed to ready-to-use PCR reaction vessels, which contain dried assay-specific reagents and an internal amplification control. PCR is performed with a novel instrument platform utilising the sensitive label technology of time-resolved fluorometry. Qualitative assay results are automatically interpreted and available in 45 min after sample addition. The overall accuracy, sensitivity and specificity of the Magda CA Salmonella system were 99.1%, 98.4% and 100.0%, respectively, based on the evaluation of 107 samples (beef, pork, poultry and ready-to-eat meals) artificially contaminated with sub-lethally injured Salmonella cells.
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van Leeuwen, Wessel M A; Kircher, Albert; Dahlgren, Anna; Lützhöft, Margareta; Barnett, Mike; Kecklund, Göran; Åkerstedt, Torbjörn
2013-11-01
Seafarer sleepiness jeopardizes safety at sea and has been documented as a direct or contributing factor in many maritime accidents. This study investigates sleep, sleepiness, and neurobehavioral performance in a simulated 4 h on/8 h off watch system as well as the effects of a single free watch disturbance, simulating a condition of overtime work, resulting in 16 h of work in a row and a missed sleep opportunity. Thirty bridge officers (age 30 ± 6 yrs; 29 men) participated in bridge simulator trials on an identical 1-wk voyage in the North Sea and English Channel. The three watch teams started respectively with the 00-04, the 04-08, and the 08-12 watches. Participants rated their sleepiness every hour (Karolinska Sleepiness Scale [KSS]) and carried out a 5-min psychomotor vigilance test (PVT) test at the start and end of every watch. Polysomnography (PSG) was recorded during 6 watches in the first and the second half of the week. KSS was higher during the first (mean ± SD: 4.0 ± 0.2) compared with the second (3.3 ± 0.2) watch of the day (p < 0.001). In addition, it increased with hours on watch (p < 0.001), peaking at the end of watch (4.1 ± 0.2). The free watch disturbance increased KSS profoundly (p < 0.001): from 4.2 ± 0.2 to 6.5 ± 0.3. PVT reaction times were slower during the first (290 ± 6 ms) compared with the second (280 ± 6 ms) watch of the day (p < 0.001) as well as at the end of the watch (289 ± 6 ms) compared with the start (281 ± 6 ms; p = 0.001). The free watch disturbance increased reaction times (p < 0.001) from 283 ± 5 to 306 ± 7 ms. Similar effects were observed for PVT lapses. One third of all participants slept during at least one of the PSG watches. Sleep on watch was most abundant in the team working 00-04 and it increased following the free watch disturbance. This study reveals that-within a 4 h on/8 h off shift system-subjective and objective sleepiness peak during the night and early morning watches, coinciding with a time frame in which relatively many maritime accidents occur. In addition, we showed that overtime work strongly increases sleepiness. Finally, a striking amount of participants fell asleep while on duty.
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2010-03-04
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2012-04-11
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Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)
The implementation of on farm slaughter could eliminate potential animal welfare issues associated with cooping, transport, dumping, and shackling live broilers. This research evaluated evisceration efficiency and the microbiological implications of delaying scalding and defeathering for up to 8 h a...
Exact Averaging of Stochastic Equations for Flow in Porous Media
Karasaki, Kenzi; Shvidler, Mark; Karasaki, Kenzi
2008-03-15
It is well known that at present, exact averaging of the equations for flow and transport in random porous media have been proposed for limited special fields. Moreover, approximate averaging methods--for example, the convergence behavior and the accuracy of truncated perturbation series--are not well studied, and in addition, calculation of high-order perturbations is very complicated. These problems have for a long time stimulated attempts to find the answer to the question: Are there in existence some, exact, and sufficiently general forms of averaged equations? Here, we present an approach for finding the general exactly averaged system of basic equations for steady flow with sources in unbounded stochastically homogeneous fields. We do this by using (1) the existence and some general properties of Green's functions for the appropriate stochastic problem, and (2) some information about the random field of conductivity. This approach enables us to find the form of the averaged equations without directly solving the stochastic equations or using the usual assumption regarding any small parameters. In the common case of a stochastically homogeneous conductivity field we present the exactly averaged new basic nonlocal equation with a unique kernel-vector. We show that in the case of some type of global symmetry (isotropy, transversal isotropy, or orthotropy), we can for three-dimensional and two-dimensional flow in the same way derive the exact averaged nonlocal equations with a unique kernel-tensor. When global symmetry does not exist, the nonlocal equation with a kernel-tensor involves complications and leads to an ill-posed problem.
Simple Moving Average: A Method of Reporting Evolving Complication Rates.
Harmsen, Samuel M; Chang, Yu-Hui H; Hattrup, Steven J
2016-09-01
Surgeons often cite published complication rates when discussing surgery with patients. However, these rates may not truly represent current results or an individual surgeon's experience with a given procedure. This study proposes a novel method to more accurately report current complication trends that may better represent the patient's potential experience: simple moving average. Reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) is an increasingly popular and rapidly evolving procedure with highly variable reported complication rates. The authors used an RSA model to test and evaluate the usefulness of simple moving average. This study reviewed 297 consecutive RSA procedures performed by a single surgeon and noted complications in 50 patients (16.8%). Simple moving average for total complications as well as minor, major, acute, and chronic complications was then calculated using various lag intervals. These findings showed trends toward fewer total, major, and chronic complications over time, and these trends were represented best with a lag of 75 patients. Average follow-up within this lag was 26.2 months. Rates for total complications decreased from 17.3% to 8% at the most recent simple moving average. The authors' traditional complication rate with RSA (16.8%) is consistent with reported rates. However, the use of simple moving average shows that this complication rate decreased over time, with current trends (8%) markedly lower, giving the senior author a more accurate picture of his evolving complication trends with RSA. Compared with traditional methods, simple moving average can be used to better reflect current trends in complication rates associated with a surgical procedure and may better represent the patient's potential experience. [Orthopedics.2016; 39(5):e869-e876.].
Average Soil Water Retention Curves Measured by Neutron Radiography
Cheng, Chu-Lin; Perfect, Edmund; Kang, Misun; Voisin, Sophie; Bilheux, Hassina Z; Horita, Juske; Hussey, Dan
2011-01-01
Water retention curves are essential for understanding the hydrologic behavior of partially-saturated porous media and modeling flow transport processes within the vadose zone. In this paper we report direct measurements of the main drying and wetting branches of the average water retention function obtained using 2-dimensional neutron radiography. Flint sand columns were saturated with water and then drained under quasi-equilibrium conditions using a hanging water column setup. Digital images (2048 x 2048 pixels) of the transmitted flux of neutrons were acquired at each imposed matric potential (~10-15 matric potential values per experiment) at the NCNR BT-2 neutron imaging beam line. Volumetric water contents were calculated on a pixel by pixel basis using Beer-Lambert s law after taking into account beam hardening and geometric corrections. To remove scattering effects at high water contents the volumetric water contents were normalized (to give relative saturations) by dividing the drying and wetting sequences of images by the images obtained at saturation and satiation, respectively. The resulting pixel values were then averaged and combined with information on the imposed basal matric potentials to give average water retention curves. The average relative saturations obtained by neutron radiography showed an approximate one-to-one relationship with the average values measured volumetrically using the hanging water column setup. There were no significant differences (at p < 0.05) between the parameters of the van Genuchten equation fitted to the average neutron radiography data and those estimated from replicated hanging water column data. Our results indicate that neutron imaging is a very effective tool for quantifying the average water retention curve.
Hill, R Jedd; Smith, Philip A
2015-01-01
Carbon dioxide (CO2) makes up a relatively small percentage of atmospheric gases, yet when used or produced in large quantities as a gas, a liquid, or a solid (dry ice), substantial airborne exposures may occur. Exposure to elevated CO2 concentrations may elicit toxicity, even with oxygen concentrations that are not considered dangerous per se. Full-shift sampling approaches to measure 8-hr time weighted average (TWA) CO2 exposures are used in many facilities where CO2 gas may be present. The need to assess rapidly fluctuating CO2 levels that may approach immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) conditions should also be a concern, and several methods for doing so using fast responding measurement tools are discussed in this paper. Colorimetric detector tubes, a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) detector, and a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy instrument were evaluated in a laboratory environment using a flow-through standard generation system and were found to provide suitable accuracy and precision for assessing rapid fluctuations in CO2 concentration, with a possible effect related to humidity noted only for the detector tubes. These tools were used in the field to select locations and times for grab sampling and personal full-shift sampling, which provided laboratory analysis data to confirm IDLH conditions and 8-hr TWA exposure information. Fluctuating CO2 exposures are exemplified through field work results from several workplaces. In a brewery, brief CO2 exposures above the IDLH value occurred when large volumes of CO2-containing liquid were released for disposal, but 8-hr TWA exposures were not found to exceed the permissible level. In a frozen food production facility nearly constant exposure to CO2 concentrations above the permissible 8-hr TWA value were seen, as well as brief exposures above the IDLH concentration which were associated with specific tasks where liquid CO2 was used. In a poultry processing facility the use of dry
Hill, R Jedd; Smith, Philip A
2015-01-01
Carbon dioxide (CO2) makes up a relatively small percentage of atmospheric gases, yet when used or produced in large quantities as a gas, a liquid, or a solid (dry ice), substantial airborne exposures may occur. Exposure to elevated CO2 concentrations may elicit toxicity, even with oxygen concentrations that are not considered dangerous per se. Full-shift sampling approaches to measure 8-hr time weighted average (TWA) CO2 exposures are used in many facilities where CO2 gas may be present. The need to assess rapidly fluctuating CO2 levels that may approach immediately dangerous to life or health (IDLH) conditions should also be a concern, and several methods for doing so using fast responding measurement tools are discussed in this paper. Colorimetric detector tubes, a non-dispersive infrared (NDIR) detector, and a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy instrument were evaluated in a laboratory environment using a flow-through standard generation system and were found to provide suitable accuracy and precision for assessing rapid fluctuations in CO2 concentration, with a possible effect related to humidity noted only for the detector tubes. These tools were used in the field to select locations and times for grab sampling and personal full-shift sampling, which provided laboratory analysis data to confirm IDLH conditions and 8-hr TWA exposure information. Fluctuating CO2 exposures are exemplified through field work results from several workplaces. In a brewery, brief CO2 exposures above the IDLH value occurred when large volumes of CO2-containing liquid were released for disposal, but 8-hr TWA exposures were not found to exceed the permissible level. In a frozen food production facility nearly constant exposure to CO2 concentrations above the permissible 8-hr TWA value were seen, as well as brief exposures above the IDLH concentration which were associated with specific tasks where liquid CO2 was used. In a poultry processing facility the use of dry
Discrete Models of Fluids: Spatial Averaging, Closure, and Model Reduction
Panchenko, Alexander; Tartakovsky, Alexandre; Cooper, Kevin
2014-03-06
The main question addressed in the paper is how to obtain closed form continuum equations governing spatially averaged dynamics of semi-discrete ODE models of fluid flow. In the presence of multiple small scale heterogeneities, the size of these ODE systems can be very large. Spatial averaging is then a useful tool for reducing computational complexity of the problem. The averages satisfy balance equations of mass, momentum and energy. These equations are exact, but they do not form a continuum model in the true sense of the word because calculation of stress and heat flux requires solving the underlying ODE system. To produce continuum equations that can be simulated without resolving micro-scale dynamics, we developed a closure method based on the use of regularized deconvolutions. We mostly deal with non-linear averaging suitable for Lagrangian particle solvers, but consider Eulerian linear averaging where appropriate. The results of numerical experiments show good agreement between our closed form flux approximations and their exact counterparts.
Spatially averaged flow over a wavy boundary revisited
McLean, S.R.; Wolfe, S.R.; Nelson, J.M.
1999-01-01
Vertical profiles of streamwise velocity measured over bed forms are commonly used to deduce boundary shear stress for the purpose of estimating sediment transport. These profiles may be derived locally or from some sort of spatial average. Arguments for using the latter procedure are based on the assumption that spatial averaging of the momentum equation effectively removes local accelerations from the problem. Using analogies based on steady, uniform flows, it has been argued that the spatially averaged velocity profiles are approximately logarithmic and can be used to infer values of boundary shear stress. This technique of using logarithmic profiles is investigated using detailed laboratory measurements of flow structure and boundary shear stress over fixed two-dimensional bed forms. Spatial averages over the length of the bed form of mean velocity measurements at constant distances from the mean bed elevation yield vertical profiles that are highly logarithmic even though the effect of the bottom topography is observed throughout the water column. However, logarithmic fits of these averaged profiles do not yield accurate estimates of the measured total boundary shear stress. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.
The average longitudinal air shower profile: exploring the shape information
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Conceição, R.; Andringa, S.; Diogo, F.; Pimenta, M.
2015-08-01
The shape of the extensive air shower (EAS) longitudinal profile contains information about the nature of the primary cosmic ray. However, with the current detection capabilities, the assessment of this quantity in an event-by-event basis is still very challenging. In this work we show that the average longitudinal profile can be used to characterise the average behaviour of high energy cosmic rays. Using the concept of universal shower profile it is possible to describe the shape of the average profile in terms of two variables, which can be already measured by the current experiments. These variables present sensitivity to both average primary mass composition and to hadronic interaction properties in shower development. We demonstrate that the shape of the average muon production depth profile can be explored in the same way as the electromagnetic profile having a higher power of discrimination for the state of the art hadronic interaction models. The combination of the shape variables of both profiles provides a new powerful test to the existing hadronic interaction models, and may also provide important hints about multi-particle production at the highest energies.
Genuine non-self-averaging and ultraslow convergence in gelation.
Cho, Y S; Mazza, M G; Kahng, B; Nagler, J
2016-08-01
In irreversible aggregation processes droplets or polymers of microscopic size successively coalesce until a large cluster of macroscopic scale forms. This gelation transition is widely believed to be self-averaging, meaning that the order parameter (the relative size of the largest connected cluster) attains well-defined values upon ensemble averaging with no sample-to-sample fluctuations in the thermodynamic limit. Here, we report on anomalous gelation transition types. Depending on the growth rate of the largest clusters, the gelation transition can show very diverse patterns as a function of the control parameter, which includes multiple stochastic discontinuous transitions, genuine non-self-averaging and ultraslow convergence of the transition point. Our framework may be helpful in understanding and controlling gelation.
How do children form impressions of persons? They average.
Hendrick, C; Franz, C M; Hoving, K L
1975-05-01
The experiment reported was concerned with impression formation in children. Twelve subjects in each of Grades K, 2, 4, and 6 rated several sets of single trait words and trait pairs. The response scale consisted of a graded series of seven schematic faces which ranged from a deep frown to a happy smile. A basic question was whether children use an orderly integration rule in forming impressions of trait pairs. The answer was clear. At all grade levels a simple averaging model adequately accounted for pair ratings. A second question concerned how children resolve semantic inconsistencies. Responses to two highly inconsistent trait pairs suggested that subjects responded in the same fashion, essentially averaging the two traits in a pair. Overall, the data strongly supported an averaging model, and indicated that impression formation of children is similar to previous results obtained from adults. PMID:21287081
A generalization to stochastic averaging in random vibration
Red-Horse, J.R.
1992-06-01
Stochastic Averaging is applied to a class of randomly excited single- degree-of-freedom oscillators possessing linear damping and nonlinear stiffness terms. The assumed excitation form involves an externally applied evolutionary Gaussian stochastic process. Special emphasis is placed on casting the problem in a more formal mathematical framework than that traditionally used in engineering applications. For the case under consideration, it is shown that a critical step involves the selection of an appropriate period of oscillation over which the temporal averaging can be performed. As an example, this averaging procedure is performed on a Duffing oscillator. The validity of the derived result is partially confirmed by reducing it is to special case, for which there is a known solution, and comparing both solutions.
How do children form impressions of persons? They average.
Hendrick, C; Franz, C M; Hoving, K L
1975-05-01
The experiment reported was concerned with impression formation in children. Twelve subjects in each of Grades K, 2, 4, and 6 rated several sets of single trait words and trait pairs. The response scale consisted of a graded series of seven schematic faces which ranged from a deep frown to a happy smile. A basic question was whether children use an orderly integration rule in forming impressions of trait pairs. The answer was clear. At all grade levels a simple averaging model adequately accounted for pair ratings. A second question concerned how children resolve semantic inconsistencies. Responses to two highly inconsistent trait pairs suggested that subjects responded in the same fashion, essentially averaging the two traits in a pair. Overall, the data strongly supported an averaging model, and indicated that impression formation of children is similar to previous results obtained from adults.
The Health Effects of Income Inequality: Averages and Disparities.
Truesdale, Beth C; Jencks, Christopher
2016-01-01
Much research has investigated the association of income inequality with average life expectancy, usually finding negative correlations that are not very robust. A smaller body of work has investigated socioeconomic disparities in life expectancy, which have widened in many countries since 1980. These two lines of work should be seen as complementary because changes in average life expectancy are unlikely to affect all socioeconomic groups equally. Although most theories imply long and variable lags between changes in income inequality and changes in health, empirical evidence is confined largely to short-term effects. Rising income inequality can affect individuals in two ways. Direct effects change individuals' own income. Indirect effects change other people's income, which can then change a society's politics, customs, and ideals, altering the behavior even of those whose own income remains unchanged. Indirect effects can thus change both average health and the slope of the relationship between individual income and health.
Size and emotion averaging: costs of dividing attention after all.
Brand, John; Oriet, Chris; Tottenham, Laurie Sykes
2012-03-01
Perceptual averaging is a process by which sets of similar items are represented by summary statistics such as their average size, luminance, or orientation. Researchers have argued that this process is automatic, able to be carried out without interference from concurrent processing. Here, we challenge this conclusion and demonstrate a reliable cost of computing the mean size of circles distinguished by colour (Experiments 1 and 2) and the mean emotionality of faces distinguished by sex (Experiment 3). We also test the viability of two strategies that could have allowed observers to guess the correct response without computing the average size or emotionality of both sets concurrently. We conclude that although two means can be computed concurrently, doing so incurs a cost of dividing attention. PMID:22390476
Genuine non-self-averaging and ultraslow convergence in gelation.
Cho, Y S; Mazza, M G; Kahng, B; Nagler, J
2016-08-01
In irreversible aggregation processes droplets or polymers of microscopic size successively coalesce until a large cluster of macroscopic scale forms. This gelation transition is widely believed to be self-averaging, meaning that the order parameter (the relative size of the largest connected cluster) attains well-defined values upon ensemble averaging with no sample-to-sample fluctuations in the thermodynamic limit. Here, we report on anomalous gelation transition types. Depending on the growth rate of the largest clusters, the gelation transition can show very diverse patterns as a function of the control parameter, which includes multiple stochastic discontinuous transitions, genuine non-self-averaging and ultraslow convergence of the transition point. Our framework may be helpful in understanding and controlling gelation. PMID:27627355
Time-averaged photon-counting digital holography.
Demoli, Nazif; Skenderović, Hrvoje; Stipčević, Mario
2015-09-15
Time-averaged holography has been using photo-emulsions (early stage) and digital photo-sensitive arrays (later) to record holograms. We extend the recording possibilities by utilizing a photon-counting camera, and we further investigate the possibility of obtaining accurate hologram reconstructions in rather severe experimental conditions. To achieve this, we derived an expression for fringe function comprising the main parameters affecting the hologram recording. Influence of the main parameters, namely the exposure time and the number of averaged holograms, is analyzed by simulations and experiments. It is demonstrated that taking long exposure times can be avoided by averaging over many holograms with the exposure times much shorter than the vibration cycle. Conditions in which signal-to-noise ratio in reconstructed holograms can be substantially increased are provided. PMID:26371907
Genuine non-self-averaging and ultraslow convergence in gelation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cho, Y. S.; Mazza, M. G.; Kahng, B.; Nagler, J.
2016-08-01
In irreversible aggregation processes droplets or polymers of microscopic size successively coalesce until a large cluster of macroscopic scale forms. This gelation transition is widely believed to be self-averaging, meaning that the order parameter (the relative size of the largest connected cluster) attains well-defined values upon ensemble averaging with no sample-to-sample fluctuations in the thermodynamic limit. Here, we report on anomalous gelation transition types. Depending on the growth rate of the largest clusters, the gelation transition can show very diverse patterns as a function of the control parameter, which includes multiple stochastic discontinuous transitions, genuine non-self-averaging and ultraslow convergence of the transition point. Our framework may be helpful in understanding and controlling gelation.
Neutron average cross sections of {sup 237}Np
Noguere, G.
2010-04-15
This work reports {sup 237}Np neutron resonance parameters obtained from the simultaneous analysis of time-of-flight data measured at the GELINA, ORELA, KURRI, and LANSCE facilities. A statistical analysis of these resonances relying on average R-matrix and optical model calculations was used to establish consistent l-dependent average resonance parameters involved in the description of the unresolved resonance range of the {sup 237}Np neutron cross sections. For neutron orbital angular momentum l=0, we obtained an average radiation width
Time-average TV holography for vibration fringe analysis
Kumar, Upputuri Paul; Kalyani, Yanam; Mohan, Nandigana Krishna; Kothiyal, Mahendra Prasad
2009-06-01
Time-average TV holography is widely used method for vibration measurement. The method generates speckle correlation time-averaged J0 fringes that can be used for full-field qualitative visualization of mode shapes at resonant frequencies of an object under harmonic excitation. In order to map the amplitudes of vibration, quantitative evaluation of the time-averaged fringe pattern is desired. A quantitative evaluation procedure based on the phase-shifting technique used in two beam interferometry has also been adopted for this application with some modification. The existing procedure requires a large number of frames to be recorded for implementation. We propose a procedure that will reduce the number of frames required for the analysis. The TV holographic system used and the experimental results obtained with it on an edge-clamped, sinusoidally excited square aluminium plate sample are discussed.
An Advanced Time Averaging Modelling Technique for Power Electronic Circuits
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jankuloski, Goce
For stable and efficient performance of power converters, a good mathematical model is needed. This thesis presents a new modelling technique for DC/DC and DC/AC Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) converters. The new model is more accurate than the existing modelling techniques such as State Space Averaging (SSA) and Discrete Time Modelling. Unlike the SSA model, the new modelling technique, the Advanced Time Averaging Model (ATAM) includes the averaging dynamics of the converter's output. In addition to offering enhanced model accuracy, application of linearization techniques to the ATAM enables the use of conventional linear control design tools. A controller design application demonstrates that a controller designed based on the ATAM outperforms one designed using the ubiquitous SSA model. Unlike the SSA model, ATAM for DC/AC augments the system's dynamics with the dynamics needed for subcycle fundamental contribution (SFC) calculation. This allows for controller design that is based on an exact model.
Optimum orientation versus orientation averaging description of cluster radioactivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seif, W. M.; Ismail, M.; Refaie, A. I.; Amer, Laila H.
2016-07-01
While the optimum-orientation concept is frequently used in studies on cluster decays involving deformed nuclei, the orientation-averaging concept is used in most alpha decay studies. We investigate the different decay stages in both the optimum-orientation and the orientation-averaging pictures of the cluster decay process. For decays of 232,233,234U and 236,238Pu isotopes, the quantum knocking frequency and penetration probability based on the Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin approximation are used to find the decay width. The obtained decay width and the experimental half-life are employed to estimate the clusters preformation probability. We found that the orientation-averaged decay width is one or two orders of magnitude less than its value along the non-compact optimum orientation. Correspondingly, the extracted preformation probability based on the averaged decay width increases with the same orders of magnitude compared to its value obtained considering the optimum orientation. The cluster preformation probabilities estimated by the two considered schemes are in more or less comparable agreement with the Blendowske–Walliser (BW) formula based on the preformation probability of α ({S}α {{a}{{v}}{{e}}}) obtained from the orientation-averaging scheme. All the results, including the optimum-orientation ones, deviate substantially from the BW law based on {S}α {{o}{{p}}{{t}}} that was estimated from the optimum-orientation scheme. To account for the nuclear deformations, it is more relevant to calculate the decay width by averaging over the different possible orientations of the participating deformed nuclei, rather than considering the corresponding non-compact optimum orientation.
Creating "Intelligent" Ensemble Averages Using a Process-Based Framework
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baker, Noel; Taylor, Patrick
2014-05-01
The CMIP5 archive contains future climate projections from over 50 models provided by dozens of modeling centers from around the world. Individual model projections, however, are subject to biases created by structural model uncertainties. As a result, ensemble averaging of multiple models is used to add value to individual model projections and construct a consensus projection. Previous reports for the IPCC establish climate change projections based on an equal-weighted average of all model projections. However, individual models reproduce certain climate processes better than other models. Should models be weighted based on performance? Unequal ensemble averages have previously been constructed using a variety of mean state metrics. What metrics are most relevant for constraining future climate projections? This project develops a framework for systematically testing metrics in models to identify optimal metrics for unequal weighting multi-model ensembles. The intention is to produce improved ("intelligent") unequal-weight ensemble averages. A unique aspect of this project is the construction and testing of climate process-based model evaluation metrics. A climate process-based metric is defined as a metric based on the relationship between two physically related climate variables—e.g., outgoing longwave radiation and surface temperature. Several climate process metrics are constructed using high-quality Earth radiation budget data from NASA's Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) instrument in combination with surface temperature data sets. It is found that regional values of tested quantities can vary significantly when comparing the equal-weighted ensemble average and an ensemble weighted using the process-based metric. Additionally, this study investigates the dependence of the metric weighting scheme on the climate state using a combination of model simulations including a non-forced preindustrial control experiment, historical simulations, and
Optimum orientation versus orientation averaging description of cluster radioactivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seif, W. M.; Ismail, M.; Refaie, A. I.; Amer, Laila H.
2016-07-01
While the optimum-orientation concept is frequently used in studies on cluster decays involving deformed nuclei, the orientation-averaging concept is used in most alpha decay studies. We investigate the different decay stages in both the optimum-orientation and the orientation-averaging pictures of the cluster decay process. For decays of 232,233,234U and 236,238Pu isotopes, the quantum knocking frequency and penetration probability based on the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation are used to find the decay width. The obtained decay width and the experimental half-life are employed to estimate the clusters preformation probability. We found that the orientation-averaged decay width is one or two orders of magnitude less than its value along the non-compact optimum orientation. Correspondingly, the extracted preformation probability based on the averaged decay width increases with the same orders of magnitude compared to its value obtained considering the optimum orientation. The cluster preformation probabilities estimated by the two considered schemes are in more or less comparable agreement with the Blendowske-Walliser (BW) formula based on the preformation probability of α ({S}α {{a}{{v}}{{e}}}) obtained from the orientation-averaging scheme. All the results, including the optimum-orientation ones, deviate substantially from the BW law based on {S}α {{o}{{p}}{{t}}} that was estimated from the optimum-orientation scheme. To account for the nuclear deformations, it is more relevant to calculate the decay width by averaging over the different possible orientations of the participating deformed nuclei, rather than considering the corresponding non-compact optimum orientation.
AMPERE AVERAGE CURRENT PHOTOINJECTOR AND ENERGY RECOVERY LINAC.
BEN-ZVI,I.; BURRILL,A.; CALAGA,R.; ET AL.
2004-08-17
High-power Free-Electron Lasers were made possible by advances in superconducting linac operated in an energy-recovery mode. In order to get to much higher power levels, say a fraction of a megawatt average power, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. We describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun employing a new secondary-emission multiplying cathode, an accelerator cavity, both capable of producing of the order of one ampere average current and plans for an ERL based on these units.
Improving the Average Response Time in Collective I/O
Jin, Chen; Sehrish, Saba; Liao, Wei-keng; Choudhary, Alok; Schuchardt, Karen L.
2011-09-21
In collective I/O, MPI processes exchange requests so that the rearranged requests can result in the shortest file system access time. Scheduling the exchange sequence determines the response time of participating processes. Existing implementations that simply follow the increasing order of file ofsets do not necessary produce the best performance. To minimize the average response time, we propose three scheduling algorithms that consider the number of processes per file stripe and the number of accesses per process. Our experimental results demonstrate improvements of up to 50% in the average response time using two synthetic benchmarks and a high-resolution climate application.
A preliminary, precise measurement of the average B hadron lifetime
SLD Collaboration
1994-07-01
The average B hadron lifetime was measured using data collected with the SLD detector at the SLC in 1993. From a sample of {approximately}50,000 Z{sup 0} events, a sample enriched in Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b} was selected by applying an impact parameter tag. The lifetime was extracted from the decay length distribution of inclusive vertices reconstructed in three dimensions. A binned maximum likelihood method yielded an average B hadron lifetime of {tau}{sub B} = 1.577 {plus_minus} 0.032(stat.) {plus_minus} 0.046(syst.) ps.
An improved switching converter model using discrete and average techniques
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Shortt, D. J.; Lee, F. C.
1982-01-01
The nonlinear modeling and analysis of dc-dc converters has been done by averaging and discrete-sampling techniques. The averaging technique is simple, but inaccurate as the modulation frequencies approach the theoretical limit of one-half the switching frequency. The discrete technique is accurate even at high frequencies, but is very complex and cumbersome. An improved model is developed by combining the aforementioned techniques. This new model is easy to implement in circuit and state variable forms and is accurate to the theoretical limit.
Comparison of peak and average nitrogen dioxide concentrations inside homes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franklin, Peter; Runnion, Tina; Farrar, Drew; Dingle, Peter
Most health studies measuring indoor nitrogen dioxide (NO 2) concentrations have utilised long-term passive monitors. However, this method may not provide adequate information on short-term peaks, which may be important when examining health effects of this pollutant. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationship between short-term peak (peak) and long-term average (average) NO 2 concentrations in kitchens and the effect of gas cookers on this relationship. Both peak and average NO 2 levels were measured simultaneously in the kitchens of 53 homes using passive sampling techniques. All homes were non-smoking and sampling was conducted in the summer months. Geometric mean (95% confidence interval (CI)) average NO 2 concentrations for all homes were 16.2 μg m -3 (12.7-20.6 μg m -3). There was no difference between homes with and without gas cookers ( p=0.40). Geometric mean (95%CI) peak NO 2 concentrations were 45.3 μg m -3 (36.0-57.1 μg m -3). Unlike average concentrations, peak concentrations were significantly higher in homes with gas cookers (64.0 μg m -3, 48.5-82.0 μg m -3) compared to non-gas homes (25.1 μg m -3, 18.3-35.5 μg m -3) ( p<0.001). There was only a moderate correlation between the peak and average concentrations measured in all homes ( r=0.39, p=0.004). However, when the data were analysed separately based on the presence of gas cookers, the correlation between peak and average NO 2 concentrations was improved in non-gas homes ( r=0.59, p=0.005) but was not significant in homes with gas cookers ( r=0.19, p=0.33). These results suggest that average NO 2 concentrations do not adequately identify exposure to short-term peaks of NO 2 that may be caused by gas cookers. The lack of peak exposure data in many epidemiological studies may explain some of the inconsistent findings.
Analytical solution of average path length for Apollonian networks
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Zhongzhi; Chen, Lichao; Zhou, Shuigeng; Fang, Lujun; Guan, Jihong; Zou, Tao
2008-01-01
With the help of recursion relations derived from the self-similar structure, we obtain the solution of average path length, dmacr t , for Apollonian networks. In contrast to the well-known numerical result dmacr t∝(lnNt)3/4 [J. S. Andrade, Jr. , Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 018702 (2005)], our rigorous solution shows that the average path length grows logarithmically as dmacr t∝lnNt in the infinite limit of network size Nt . The extensive numerical calculations completely agree with our closed-form solution.
Method of Best Representation for Averages in Data Evaluation
Birch, M. Singh, B.
2014-06-15
A new method for averaging data for which incomplete information is available is presented. For example, this method would be applicable during data evaluation where only the final outcomes of the experiments and the associated uncertainties are known. This method is based on using the measurements to construct a mean probability density for the data set. This “expected value method” (EVM) is designed to treat asymmetric uncertainties and has distinct advantages over other methods of averaging, including giving a more realistic uncertainty, being robust to outliers and consistent under various representations of the same quantity.
Bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck code for stellarator transport
Mynick, H.E.; Hitchon, W.N.G.
1985-07-01
A computer code for solving the bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck equation appropriate to stellarator transport has been developed, and its first applications made. The code is much faster than the bounce-averaged Monte-Carlo codes, which up to now have provided the most efficient numerical means for studying stellarator transport. Moreover, because the connection to analytic kinetic theory of the Fokker-Planck approach is more direct than for the Monte-Carlo approach, a comparison of theory and numerical experiment is now possible at a considerably more detailed level than previously.
Electronic structure of substitutionally disordered alloys: Direct configurational averaging
Wolverton, C.; de Fontaine, D.; Dreysse, H.; Ceder, G.
1992-04-01
The method of direct configurational averaging (DCA) has been proposed to study the electronic structure of disordered alloys. Local density of states and band structure energies are obtained by averaging over a small number of configrations within a tight-binding Hamiltonian. Effective cluster interactions, the driving quantities for ordering in solids, are computed for various alloys using a tight-binding form of the linearized muffin-tin orbital method (TB-LMTO). The DCA calculations are used to determine various energetic and thermodynamic quantities for binary and ternasy alloys. (Pd, Rh, V).
High average power scaleable thin-disk laser
Beach, Raymond J.; Honea, Eric C.; Bibeau, Camille; Payne, Stephen A.; Powell, Howard; Krupke, William F.; Sutton, Steven B.
2002-01-01
Using a thin disk laser gain element with an undoped cap layer enables the scaling of lasers to extremely high average output power values. Ordinarily, the power scaling of such thin disk lasers is limited by the deleterious effects of amplified spontaneous emission. By using an undoped cap layer diffusion bonded to the thin disk, the onset of amplified spontaneous emission does not occur as readily as if no cap layer is used, and much larger transverse thin disks can be effectively used as laser gain elements. This invention can be used as a high average power laser for material processing applications as well as for weapon and air defense applications.
Collision and average velocity effects on the ratchet pinch
Vlad, M.; Benkadda, S.
2008-03-15
A ratchet-type average velocity V{sup R} appears for test particles moving in a stochastic potential and a magnetic field that is space dependent. This model is developed by including particle collisions and an average velocity. We show that these components of the motion can destroy the ratchet velocity but they also can produce significant increase of V{sup R}, depending on the parameters. The amplification of the ratchet pinch is a nonlinear effect that appears in the presence of trajectory eddying.
Average wave function method for gas-surface scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Singh, Harjinder; Dacol, Dalcio K.; Rabitz, Herschel
1986-02-01
The average wave function method (AWM) is applied to scattering of a gas off a solid surface. The formalism is developed for both periodic as well as disordered surfaces. For an ordered lattice an explicit relation is derived for the Bragg peaks along with a numerical illustration. Numerical results are presented for atomic clusters on a flat hard wall with a Gaussian-like potential at each atomic scattering site. The effect of relative lateral displacement of two clusters upon the scattering pattern is shown. The ability of AWM to accommodate disorder through statistical averaging over cluster configurations is illustrated. Enhanced uniform backscattering is observed with increasing roughness on the surface.
A preliminary measurement of the average B hadron lifetime
Manly, S.L.; SLD Collaboration
1994-09-01
The average B hadron lifetime was measured using data collected with the SLD detector at the SLC in 1993. From a sample of {approximately}50,000 Z{sup 0} events, a sample enriched in Z{sup 0} {yields} b{bar b} was selected by applying an impact parameter tag. The lifetime was extracted from the decay length distribution of inclusive vertices reconstructed in three dimensions. A binned maximum likelihood method yielded an average B hadron lifetime of {tau}{sub B} = 1.577{plus_minus}0.032(stat.){plus_minus}0.046(syst.) ps.
Averaging processes in granular flows driven by gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, Giulia; Armanini, Aronne
2016-04-01
One of the more promising theoretical frames to analyse the two-phase granular flows is offered by the similarity of their rheology with the kinetic theory of gases [1]. Granular flows can be considered a macroscopic equivalent of the molecular case: the collisions among molecules are compared to the collisions among grains at a macroscopic scale [2,3]. However there are important statistical differences in dealing with the two applications. In the two-phase fluid mechanics, there are two main types of average: the phasic average and the mass weighed average [4]. The kinetic theories assume that the size of atoms is so small, that the number of molecules in a control volume is infinite. With this assumption, the concentration (number of particles n) doesn't change during the averaging process and the two definitions of average coincide. This hypothesis is no more true in granular flows: contrary to gases, the dimension of a single particle becomes comparable to that of the control volume. For this reason, in a single realization the number of grain is constant and the two averages coincide; on the contrary, for more than one realization, n is no more constant and the two types of average lead to different results. Therefore, the ensamble average used in the standard kinetic theory (which usually is the phasic average) is suitable for the single realization, but not for several realization, as already pointed out in [5,6]. In the literature, three main length scales have been identified [7]: the smallest is the particles size, the intermediate consists in the local averaging (in order to describe some instability phenomena or secondary circulation) and the largest arises from phenomena such as large eddies in turbulence. Our aim is to solve the intermediate scale, by applying the mass weighted average, when dealing with more than one realizations. This statistical approach leads to additional diffusive terms in the continuity equation: starting from experimental
Time Series ARIMA Models of Undergraduate Grade Point Average.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Rogers, Bruce G.
The Auto-Regressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) Models, often referred to as Box-Jenkins models, are regression methods for analyzing sequential dependent observations with large amounts of data. The Box-Jenkins approach, a three-stage procedure consisting of identification, estimation and diagnosis, was used to select the most appropriate…
Bounding quantum gate error rate based on reported average fidelity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanders, Yuval R.; Wallman, Joel J.; Sanders, Barry C.
2016-01-01
Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Here we use reported average gate fidelity to determine an upper bound on the quantum-gate error rate, which is the appropriate metric for assessing progress towards fault-tolerant quantum computation, and we demonstrate that this bound is asymptotically tight for general noise. Although this bound is unlikely to be saturated by experimental noise, we demonstrate using explicit examples that the bound indicates a realistic deviation between the true error rate and the reported average fidelity. We introduce the Pauli distance as a measure of this deviation, and we show that knowledge of the Pauli distance enables tighter estimates of the error rate of quantum gates.
Bounding quantum gate error rate based on reported average fidelity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sanders, Yuval; Wallman, Joel; Sanders, Barry
Remarkable experimental advances in quantum computing are exemplified by recent announcements of impressive average gate fidelities exceeding 99.9% for single-qubit gates and 99% for two-qubit gates. Although these high numbers engender optimism that fault-tolerant quantum computing is within reach, the connection of average gate fidelity with fault-tolerance requirements is not direct. Here we use reported average gate fidelity to determine an upper bound on the quantum-gate error rate, which is the appropriate metric for assessing progress towards fault-tolerant quantum computation, and we demonstrate that this bound is asymptotically tight for general noise. Although this bound is unlikely to be saturated by experimental noise, we demonstrate using explicit examples that the bound indicates a realistic deviation between the true error rate and the reported average fidelity. We introduce the Pauli-distance as a measure of this deviation, and we show that knowledge of the Pauli-distance enables tighter estimates of the error rate of quantum gates.
Evaluating Methods for Constructing Average High-Density Electrode Positions
Richards, John E.; Boswell, Corey; Stevens, Michael; Vendemia, Jennifer M.C.
2014-01-01
Accurate analysis of scalp-recorded electrical activity requires the identification of electrode locations in 3D space. For example, source analysis of EEG/ERP (electroencephalogram, EEG; event-related-potentials, ERP) with realistic head models requires the identification of electrode locations on the head model derived from structural MRI recordings. Electrode systems must cover the entire scalp in sufficient density to discriminate EEG activity on the scalp and to complete accurate source analysis. The current study compares techniques for averaging electrode locations from 86 participants with the 128 channel “Geodesic Sensor Net” (GSN; EGI, Inc.), 38 participants with the 128 channel “Hydrocel Geodesic Sensor Net” (HGSN; EGI, Inc.), and 174 participants with the 81 channels in the 10-10 configurations. A point-set registration between the participants and an average MRI template resulted in an average configuration showing small standard errors, which could be transformed back accurately into the participants’ original electrode space. Average electrode locations are available for the GSN (86 participants), Hydrocel-GSN (38 participants), and 10-10 and 10-5 systems (174 participants) PMID:25234713
Analysis of Finger Pulse by Standard Deviation Using Moving Average
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Asakawa, Takashi; Nishihara, Kazue; Yoshidome, Tadashi
We propose a method of analyzing a finger pulse by standard deviation using moving average for measuring mental load. Frequency analysis, Lorentz plot and Lyapnov exponent have been carried out to present measurement. However, this technique is analyzable in a shorter time than the existing technique.
HIGH AVERAGE POWER UV FREE ELECTRON LASER EXPERIMENTS AT JLAB
Douglas, David; Evtushenko, Pavel; Gubeli, Joseph; Hernandez-Garcia, Carlos; Legg, Robert; Neil, George; Powers, Thomas; Shinn, Michelle D; Tennant, Christopher; Williams, Gwyn
2012-07-01
Having produced 14 kW of average power at {approx}2 microns, JLAB has shifted its focus to the ultraviolet portion of the spectrum. This presentation will describe the JLab UV Demo FEL, present specifics of its driver ERL, and discuss the latest experimental results from FEL experiments and machine operations.
AVERAGE ANNUAL SOLAR UV DOSE OF THE CONTINENTAL US CITIZEN
The average annual solar UV dose of US citizens is not known, but is required for relative risk assessments of skin cancer from UV-emitting devices. We solved this problem using a novel approach. The EPA's "National Human Activity Pattern Survey" recorded the daily ou...
40 CFR 63.652 - Emissions averaging provisions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... annual credits and debits in the Periodic Reports as specified in § 63.655(g)(8). Every fourth Periodic... reported in the next Periodic Report. (iii) The following procedures and equations shall be used to..., dimensionless (see table 33 of subpart G). P=Weighted average rack partial pressure of organic HAP's...
40 CFR 63.652 - Emissions averaging provisions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... annual credits and debits in the Periodic Reports as specified in § 63.655(g)(8). Every fourth Periodic... reported in the next Periodic Report. (iii) The following procedures and equations shall be used to..., dimensionless (see table 33 of subpart G). P=Weighted average rack partial pressure of organic HAP's...
All above Average: Secondary School Improvement as an Impossible Endeavour
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Taylor, Phil
2015-01-01
This article argues that secondary school improvement in England, when viewed as a system, has become an impossible endeavour. This arises from the conflation of improvement with effectiveness, judged by a narrow range of outcome measures and driven by demands that all schools should somehow be above average. The expectation of comparable…
27 CFR 19.249 - Average effective tax rate.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-04-01
... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Average effective tax rate. 19.249 Section 19.249 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Distilled Spirits Taxes Effective Tax Rates §...
Grade Point Average and Changes in (Great) Grade Expectations.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Wendorf, Craig A.
2002-01-01
Examines student grade expectations throughout a semester in which students offered their expectations three times during the course: (1) within the first week; (2) midway through the semester; and (3) the week before the final examination. Finds that their expectations decreased stating that their cumulative grade point average was related to the…
Touching Epistemologies: Meanings of Average and Variation in Nursing Practice.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Noss, Richard; Pozzi, Stefano; Hoyles, Celia
1999-01-01
Presents a study on the meanings of average and variation displayed by pediatric nurses. Traces how these meanings shape and are shaped by nurses' interpretations of trends in patient and population data. Suggests a theoretical framework for making sense of the data that compares and contrasts nurses' epistemology with that of official…
40 CFR 63.503 - Emissions averaging provisions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.503 Emissions averaging... limited to twenty. This number may be increased by up to five additional points if pollution prevention... pollution prevention measures are used to control five or more of the emission points included in...
40 CFR 63.1332 - Emissions averaging provisions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1332 Emissions averaging... if pollution prevention measures are used to control five or more of the emission points included in... additional emission points if pollution prevention measures are used to control five or more of the...
Robustness of spatial average equalization: a statistical reverberation model approach.
Bharitkar, Sunil; Hilmes, Philip; Kyriakakis, Chris
2004-12-01
Traditionally, multiple listener room equalization is performed to improve sound quality at all listeners, during audio playback, in a multiple listener environment (e.g., movie theaters, automobiles, etc.). A typical way of doing multiple listener equalization is through spatial averaging, where the room responses are averaged spatially between positions and an inverse equalization filter is found from the spatially averaged result. However, the equalization performance, will be affected if there is a mismatch between the position of the microphones (which are used for measuring the room responses for designing the equalization filter) and the actual center of listener head position (during playback). In this paper, we will present results on the effects of microphone-listener mismatch on spatial average equalization performance. The results indicate that, for the analyzed rectangular configuration, the region of effective equalization depends on (i) the distance of a listener from the source, (ii) the amount of mismatch between the responses, and (iii) the frequency of the audio signal. We also present some convergence analysis to interpret the results.
40 CFR 63.1332 - Emissions averaging provisions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group IV Polymers and Resins § 63.1332 Emissions averaging... based on either organic HAP or TOC. (3) For the purposes of these provisions, whenever Method 18, 40 CFR... through provisions outside this section, Method 18 or Method 25A, 40 CFR part 60, appendix A, may be...
40 CFR 63.503 - Emissions averaging provisions.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
...; housekeeping measures; and in-process recycling that returns waste materials directly to production as raw... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions: Group I Polymers and Resins § 63.503 Emissions averaging... TOC. (3) For the purposes of the provisions in this section, whenever Method 18, 40 CFR part...
Discrete Averaging Relations for Micro to Macro Transition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, Chenchen; Reina, Celia
2016-05-01
The well-known Hill's averaging theorems for stresses and strains as well as the so-called Hill-Mandel principle of macrohomogeneity are essential ingredients for the coupling and the consistency between the micro and macro scales in multiscale finite element procedures (FE$^2$). We show in this paper that these averaging relations hold exactly under standard finite element discretizations, even if the stress field is discontinuous across elements and the standard proofs based on the divergence theorem are no longer suitable. The discrete averaging results are derived for the three classical types of boundary conditions (affine displacement, periodic and uniform traction boundary conditions) using the properties of the shape functions and the weak form of the microscopic equilibrium equations. The analytical proofs are further verified numerically through a simple finite element simulation of an irregular representative volume element undergoing large deformations. Furthermore, the proofs are extended to include the effects of body forces and inertia, and the results are consistent with those in the smooth continuum setting. This work provides a solid foundation to apply Hill's averaging relations in multiscale finite element methods without introducing an additional error in the scale transition due to the discretization.
Reducing Noise by Repetition: Introduction to Signal Averaging
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Hassan, Umer; Anwar, Muhammad Sabieh
2010-01-01
This paper describes theory and experiments, taken from biophysics and physiological measurements, to illustrate the technique of signal averaging. In the process, students are introduced to the basic concepts of signal processing, such as digital filtering, Fourier transformation, baseline correction, pink and Gaussian noise, and the cross- and…
Adaptive Spontaneous Transitions between Two Mechanisms of Numerical Averaging.
Brezis, Noam; Bronfman, Zohar Z; Usher, Marius
2015-01-01
We investigated the mechanism with which humans estimate numerical averages. Participants were presented with 4, 8 or 16 (two-digit) numbers, serially and rapidly (2 numerals/second) and were instructed to convey the sequence average. As predicted by a dual, but not a single-component account, we found a non-monotonic influence of set-size on accuracy. Moreover, we observed a marked decrease in RT as set-size increases and RT-accuracy tradeoff in the 4-, but not in the 16-number condition. These results indicate that in accordance with the normative directive, participants spontaneously employ analytic/sequential thinking in the 4-number condition and intuitive/holistic thinking in the 16-number condition. When the presentation rate is extreme (10 items/sec) we find that, while performance still remains high, the estimations are now based on intuitive processing. The results are accounted for by a computational model postulating population-coding underlying intuitive-averaging and working-memory-mediated symbolic procedures underlying analytical-averaging, with flexible allocation between the two. PMID:26041580
Adaptive Spontaneous Transitions between Two Mechanisms of Numerical Averaging
Brezis, Noam; Bronfman, Zohar Z.; Usher, Marius
2015-01-01
We investigated the mechanism with which humans estimate numerical averages. Participants were presented with 4, 8 or 16 (two-digit) numbers, serially and rapidly (2 numerals/second) and were instructed to convey the sequence average. As predicted by a dual, but not a single-component account, we found a non-monotonic influence of set-size on accuracy. Moreover, we observed a marked decrease in RT as set-size increases and RT-accuracy tradeoff in the 4-, but not in the 16-number condition. These results indicate that in accordance with the normative directive, participants spontaneously employ analytic/sequential thinking in the 4-number condition and intuitive/holistic thinking in the 16-number condition. When the presentation rate is extreme (10 items/sec) we find that, while performance still remains high, the estimations are now based on intuitive processing. The results are accounted for by a computational model postulating population-coding underlying intuitive-averaging and working-memory-mediated symbolic procedures underlying analytical-averaging, with flexible allocation between the two. PMID:26041580
State-Variable Representations For Moving-Average Sampling
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Polites, Michael E.
1991-01-01
Two state-variable representations derived for continuous-time plant driven by control algorithm including zero-order hold and measurements sampled at mutliple rates by multiple-input/multiple-output moving-average processes. New representations enhance observability and controllability of plant. Applications include mathematical modeling of navigation systems including star trackers, gyroscopes, and accelerometers.
Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection
Tiszauer, Detlev H.; Hackel, Lloyd A.
1998-03-17
The viewers' perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts.
Speckle averaging system for laser raster-scan image projection
Tiszauer, D.H.; Hackel, L.A.
1998-03-17
The viewers` perception of laser speckle in a laser-scanned image projection system is modified or eliminated by the addition of an optical deflection system that effectively presents a new speckle realization at each point on the viewing screen to each viewer for every scan across the field. The speckle averaging is accomplished without introduction of spurious imaging artifacts. 5 figs.
Synthesizing average 3D anatomical shapes using deformable templates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Christensen, Gary E.; Johnson, Hans J.; Haller, John W.; Melloy, Jenny; Vannier, Michael W.; Marsh, Jeffrey L.
1999-05-01
A major task in diagnostic medicine is to determine whether or not an individual has a normal or abnormal anatomy by examining medical images such as MRI, CT, etc. Unfortunately, there are few quantitative measures that a physician can use to discriminate between normal and abnormal besides a couple of length, width, height, and volume measurements. In fact, there is no definition/picture of what normal anatomical structures--such as the brain-- look like let alone normal anatomical variation. The goal of this work is to synthesize average 3D anatomical shapes using deformable templates. We present a method for empirically estimating the average shape and variation of a set of 3D medical image data sets collected from a homogeneous population of topologically similar anatomies. Results are shown for synthesizing the average brain image volume from a set of six normal adults and synthesizing the average skull/head image volume from a set of five 3 - 4 month old infants with sagittal synostosis.
The method of averages applied to the KS differential equations
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Graf, O. F., Jr.; Mueller, A. C.; Starke, S. E.
1977-01-01
A new approach for the solution of artificial satellite trajectory problems is proposed. The basic idea is to apply an analytical solution method (the method of averages) to an appropriate formulation of the orbital mechanics equations of motion (the KS-element differential equations). The result is a set of transformed equations of motion that are more amenable to numerical solution.
Average Strength Parameters of Reactivated Mudstone Landslide for Countermeasure Works
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nakamura, Shinya; Kimura, Sho; Buddhi Vithana, Shriwantha
2015-04-01
Among many approaches to landslide stability analysis, in several landslide-related studies, shear strength parameters obtained from laboratory shear tests have been used with the limit equilibrium method. In most of them, it concluded that the average strength parameters, i.e. average cohesion (c'avg) and average angle of shearing resistance (φ'avg), calculated from back analysis were in agreement with the residual shear strength parameters measured by torsional ring-shear tests on undisturbed and remolded samples. However, disagreement with this contention can be found elsewhere that the residual shear strength measured using a torsional ring-shear apparatus were found to be lower than the average strength calculated by back analysis. One of the reasons why the singular application of residual shear strength in stability analysis causes an underestimation of the safety factor is the fact that the condition of the slip surface of a landslide can be heterogeneous. It may consist of portions that have already reached residual conditions along with other portions that have not on the slip surface. With a view of accommodating such possible differences of slip surface conditions of a landslide, it is worthy to first grasp an appropriate perception of the heterogeneous nature of the actual slip-surface to ensure a more suitable selection of measured shear strength values for stability calculation of landslides. For the present study, the determination procedure of the average strength parameters acting along the slip surface has been presented through the stability calculations of reactivated landslides in the area of Shimajiri-mudstone, Okinawa, Japan. The average strength parameters along slip surfaces of landslides have been estimated using the results of laboratory shear tests of the slip surface/zone soils accompanying a rational way of accessing the actual, heterogeneous slip surface conditions. The results tend to show that the shear strength acting along the
High average power diode pumped solid state lasers for CALIOPE
Comaskey, B.; Halpin, J.; Moran, B.
1994-07-01
Diode pumping of solid state media offers the opportunity for very low maintenance, high efficiency, and compact laser systems. For remote sensing, such lasers may be used to pump tunable non-linear sources, or if tunable themselves, act directly or through harmonic crystals as the probe. The needs of long range remote sensing missions require laser performance in the several watts to kilowatts range. At these power performance levels, more advanced thermal management technologies are required for the diode pumps. The solid state laser design must now address a variety of issues arising from the thermal loads, including fracture limits, induced lensing and aberrations, induced birefringence, and laser cavity optical component performance degradation with average power loading. In order to highlight the design trade-offs involved in addressing the above issues, a variety of existing average power laser systems are briefly described. Included are two systems based on Spectra Diode Laboratory`s water impingement cooled diode packages: a two times diffraction limited, 200 watt average power, 200 Hz multi-rod laser/amplifier by Fibertek, and TRW`s 100 watt, 100 Hz, phase conjugated amplifier. The authors also present two laser systems built at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) based on their more aggressive diode bar cooling package, which uses microchannel cooler technology capable of 100% duty factor operation. They then present the design of LLNL`s first generation OPO pump laser for remote sensing. This system is specified to run at 100 Hz, 20 nsec pulses each with 300 mJ, less than two times diffraction limited, and with a stable single longitudinal mode. The performance of the first testbed version will be presented. The authors conclude with directions their group is pursuing to advance average power lasers. This includes average power electro-optics, low heat load lasing media, and heat capacity lasers.
Condition monitoring of gearboxes using synchronously averaged electric motor signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ottewill, J. R.; Orkisz, M.
2013-07-01
Due to their prevalence in rotating machinery, the condition monitoring of gearboxes is extremely important in the minimization of potentially dangerous and expensive failures. Traditionally, gearbox condition monitoring has been conducted using measurements obtained from casing-mounted vibration transducers such as accelerometers. A well-established technique for analyzing such signals is the synchronous signal average, where vibration signals are synchronized to a measured angular position and then averaged from rotation to rotation. Driven, in part, by improvements in control methodologies based upon methods of estimating rotor speed and torque, induction machines are used increasingly in industry to drive rotating machinery. As a result, attempts have been made to diagnose defects using measured terminal currents and voltages. In this paper, the application of the synchronous signal averaging methodology to electric drive signals, by synchronizing stator current signals with a shaft position estimated from current and voltage measurements is proposed. Initially, a test-rig is introduced based on an induction motor driving a two-stage reduction gearbox which is loaded by a DC motor. It is shown that a defect seeded into the gearbox may be located using signals acquired from casing-mounted accelerometers and shaft mounted encoders. Using simple models of an induction motor and a gearbox, it is shown that it should be possible to observe gearbox defects in the measured stator current signal. A robust method of extracting the average speed of a machine from the current frequency spectrum, based on the location of sidebands of the power supply frequency due to rotor eccentricity, is presented. The synchronous signal averaging method is applied to the resulting estimations of rotor position and torsional vibration. Experimental results show that the method is extremely adept at locating gear tooth defects. Further results, considering different loads and different
Optimum Low Thrust Elliptic Orbit Transfer Using Numerical Averaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarzi, Zahi Bassem
Low-thrust electric propulsion is increasingly being used for spacecraft missions primarily due to its high propellant efficiency. Since analytical solutions for general low-thrust transfers are not available, a simple and fast method for low-thrust trajectory optimization is of great value for preliminary mission planning. However, few low-thrust trajectory tools are appropriate for preliminary mission design studies. The method presented in this paper provides quick and accurate solutions for a wide range of transfers by using numerical orbital averaging to improve solution convergence and include orbital perturbations. Thus allowing preliminary trajectories to be obtained for transfers which involve many revolutions about the primary body. This method considers minimum fuel transfers using first order averaging to obtain the fuel optimum rates of change of the equinoctial orbital elements in terms of each other and the Lagrange multipliers. Constraints on thrust and power, as well as minimum periapsis, are implemented and the equations are averaged numerically using a Gaussian quadrature. The use of numerical averaging allows for more complex orbital perturbations to be added without great difficulty. Orbital perturbations due to solar radiation pressure, atmospheric drag, a non-spherical central body, and third body gravitational effects have been included. These perturbations have not been considered by previous methods using analytical averaging. Thrust limitations due to shadowing have also been considered in this study. To allow for faster convergence of a wider range of problems, the solution to a transfer which minimizes the square of the thrust magnitude is used as a preliminary guess for the minimum fuel problem. Thus, this method can be quickly applied to many different types of transfers which may include various perturbations. Results from this model are shown to provide a reduction in propellant mass required over previous minimum fuel solutions
High-average-power diode-pumped Yb: YAG lasers
Avizonis, P V; Beach, R; Bibeau, C M; Emanuel, M A; Harris, D G; Honea, E C; Monroe, R S; Payne, S A; Skidmore, J A; Sutton, S B
1999-10-01
A scaleable diode end-pumping technology for high-average-power slab and rod lasers has been under development for the past several years at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). This technology has particular application to high average power Yb:YAG lasers that utilize a rod configured gain element. Previously, this rod configured approach has achieved average output powers in a single 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter Yb:YAG rod of 430 W cw and 280 W q-switched. High beam quality (M{sup 2} = 2.4) q-switched operation has also been demonstrated at over 180 W of average output power. More recently, using a dual rod configuration consisting of two, 5 cm long by 2 mm diameter laser rods with birefringence compensation, we have achieved 1080 W of cw output with an M{sup 2} value of 13.5 at an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 27.5%. With the same dual rod laser operated in a q-switched mode, we have also demonstrated 532 W of average power with an M{sup 2} < 2.5 at 17% optical-to-optical conversion efficiency. These q-switched results were obtained at a 10 kHz repetition rate and resulted in 77 nsec pulse durations. These improved levels of operational performance have been achieved as a result of technology advancements made in several areas that will be covered in this manuscript. These enhancements to our architecture include: (1) Hollow lens ducts that enable the use of advanced cavity architectures permitting birefringence compensation and the ability to run in large aperture-filling near-diffraction-limited modes. (2) Compound laser rods with flanged-nonabsorbing-endcaps fabricated by diffusion bonding. (3) Techniques for suppressing amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and parasitics in the polished barrel rods.
Discrete models of fluids: spatial averaging, closure and model reduction
Panchenko, Alexander; Tartakovsky, Alexandre M.; Cooper, Kevin
2014-04-15
We consider semidiscrete ODE models of single-phase fluids and two-fluid mixtures. In the presence of multiple fine-scale heterogeneities, the size of these ODE systems can be very large. Spatial averaging is then a useful tool for reducing computational complexity of the problem. The averages satisfy exact balance equations of mass, momentum, and energy. These equations do not form a satisfactory continuum model because evaluation of stress and heat flux requires solving the underlying ODEs. To produce continuum equations that can be simulated without resolving microscale dynamics, we recently proposed a closure method based on the use of regularized deconvolution. Here we continue the investigation of deconvolution closure with the long term objective of developing consistent computational upscaling for multiphase particle methods. The structure of the fine-scale particle solvers is reminiscent of molecular dynamics. For this reason we use nonlinear averaging introduced for atomistic systems by Noll, Hardy, and Murdoch-Bedeaux. We also consider a simpler linear averaging originally developed in large eddy simulation of turbulence. We present several simple but representative examples of spatially averaged ODEs, where the closure error can be analyzed. Based on this analysis we suggest a general strategy for reducing the relative error of approximate closure. For problems with periodic highly oscillatory material parameters we propose a spectral boosting technique that augments the standard deconvolution and helps to correctly account for dispersion effects. We also conduct several numerical experiments, one of which is a complete mesoscale simulation of a stratified two-fluid flow in a channel. In this simulation, the operation count per coarse time step scales sublinearly with the number of particles.
Averaged universe confronted with cosmological observations: A fully covariant approach
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wijenayake, Tharake; Lin, Weikang; Ishak, Mustapha
2016-10-01
One of the outstanding problems in general relativistic cosmology is that of the averaging, that is, how the lumpy universe that we observe at small scales averages out to a smooth Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) model. The root of the problem is that averaging does not commute with the Einstein equations that govern the dynamics of the model. This leads to the well-known question of backreaction in cosmology. In this work, we approach the problem using the covariant framework of macroscopic gravity. We use its cosmological solution with a flat FLRW macroscopic background where the result of averaging cosmic inhomogeneities has been encapsulated into a backreaction density parameter denoted ΩA . We constrain this averaged universe using available cosmological data sets of expansion and growth including, for the first time, a full cosmic microwave background analysis from Planck temperature anisotropy and polarization data, the supernova data from Union 2.1, the galaxy power spectrum from WiggleZ, the weak lensing tomography shear-shear cross correlations from the CFHTLenS survey, and the baryonic acoustic oscillation data from 6Df, SDSS DR7, and BOSS DR9. We find that -0.0155 ≤ΩA≤0 (at the 68% C.L.), thus providing a tight upper bound on the backreaction term. We also find that the term is strongly correlated with cosmological parameters, such ΩΛ, σ8, and H0. While small, a backreaction density parameter of a few percent should be kept in consideration along with other systematics for precision cosmology.
The Average Quality Factors by TEPC for Charged Particles
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Kim, Myung-Hee Y.; Nikjoo, Hooshang; Cucinotta, Francis A.
2004-01-01
The quality factor used in radiation protection is defined as a function of LET, Q(sub ave)(LET). However, tissue equivalent proportional counters (TEPC) measure the average quality factors as a function of lineal energy (y), Q(sub ave)(Y). A model of the TEPC response for charged particles considers energy deposition as a function of impact parameter from the ion s path to the volume, and describes the escape of energy out of sensitive volume by delta-rays and the entry of delta rays from the high-density wall into the low-density gas-volume. A common goal for operational detectors is to measure the average radiation quality to within accuracy of 25%. Using our TEPC response model and the NASA space radiation transport model we show that this accuracy is obtained by a properly calibrated TEPC. However, when the individual contributions from trapped protons and galactic cosmic rays (GCR) are considered; the average quality factor obtained by TEPC is overestimated for trapped protons and underestimated for GCR by about 30%, i.e., a compensating error. Using TEPC's values for trapped protons for Q(sub ave)(y), we obtained average quality factors in the 2.07-2.32 range. However, Q(sub ave)(LET) ranges from 1.5-1.65 as spacecraft shielding depth increases. The average quality factors for trapped protons on STS-89 demonstrate that the model of the TEPC response is in good agreement with flight TEPC data for Q(sub ave)(y), and thus Q(sub ave)(LET) for trapped protons is overestimated by TEPC. Preliminary comparisons for the complete GCR spectra show that Q(sub ave)(LET) for GCR is approximately 3.2-4.1, while TEPC measures 2.9-3.4 for QQ(sub ave)(y), indicating that QQ(sub ave)(LET) for GCR is underestimated by TEPC.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Panda, J.; Seasholtz, R. G.
2005-01-01
Recent advancement in the molecular Rayleigh scattering based technique allowed for simultaneous measurement of velocity and density fluctuations with high sampling rates. The technique was used to investigate unheated high subsonic and supersonic fully expanded free jets in the Mach number range of 0.8 to 1.8. The difference between the Favre averaged and Reynolds averaged axial velocity and axial component of the turbulent kinetic energy is found to be small. Estimates based on the Morkovin's "Strong Reynolds Analogy" were found to provide lower values of turbulent density fluctuations than the measured data.
Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR
2010-07-01
... must meet the minimum driving range requirements established by the Secretary of Transportation (49 CFR... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Calculation of average fuel economy... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) ENERGY POLICY FUEL ECONOMY AND CARBON-RELATED EXHAUST EMISSIONS...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... part, section 4.3, to calculate the daily geometric average concentrations of sulfur dioxide emissions. If you are monitoring the percent reduction of sulfur dioxide, use EPA Reference Method 19 in... potential sulfur dioxide emissions. (c) If you operate a Class I municipal waste combustion unit, use...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... of 40 CFR part 60, section 4.3, to calculate the daily geometric average concentrations of sulfur dioxide emissions. If you are monitoring the percent reduction of sulfur dioxide, use EPA Reference Method... dioxide emissions. (c) If you operate a Class I municipal waste combustion unit, use EPA Reference...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR
2011-07-01
... part, section 4.3, to calculate the daily geometric average concentrations of sulfur dioxide emissions. If you are monitoring the percent reduction of sulfur dioxide, use EPA Reference Method 19 in... potential sulfur dioxide emissions. (c) If you operate a Class I municipal waste combustion unit, use...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... part, section 4.3, to calculate the daily geometric average concentrations of sulfur dioxide emissions. If you are monitoring the percent reduction of sulfur dioxide, use EPA Reference Method 19 in... potential sulfur dioxide emissions. (c) If you operate a Class I municipal waste combustion unit, use...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR
2013-07-01
... of 40 CFR part 60, section 4.3, to calculate the daily geometric average concentrations of sulfur dioxide emissions. If you are monitoring the percent reduction of sulfur dioxide, use EPA Reference Method... dioxide emissions. (c) If you operate a Class I municipal waste combustion unit, use EPA Reference...
Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR
2014-07-01
... of 40 CFR part 60, section 4.3, to calculate the daily geometric average concentrations of sulfur dioxide emissions. If you are monitoring the percent reduction of sulfur dioxide, use EPA Reference Method... dioxide emissions. (c) If you operate a Class I municipal waste combustion unit, use EPA Reference...
Estimates of Random Error in Satellite Rainfall Averages
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bell, Thomas L.; Kundu, Prasun K.
2003-01-01
Satellite rain estimates are most accurate when obtained with microwave instruments on low earth-orbiting satellites. Estimation of daily or monthly total areal rainfall, typically of interest to hydrologists and climate researchers, is made difficult, however, by the relatively poor coverage generally available from such satellites. Intermittent coverage by the satellites leads to random "sampling error" in the satellite products. The inexact information about hydrometeors inferred from microwave data also leads to random "retrieval errors" in the rain estimates. In this talk we will review approaches to quantitative estimation of the sampling error in area/time averages of satellite rain retrievals using ground-based observations, and methods of estimating rms random error, both sampling and retrieval, in averages using satellite measurements themselves.
Ampere Average Current Photoinjector and Energy Recovery Linac
Ilan Ben-Zvi; A. Burrill; R. Calaga; P. Cameron; X. Chang; D. Gassner; H. Hahn; A. Hershcovitch; H.C. Hseuh; P. Johnson; D. Kayran; J. Kewisch; R. Lambiase; Vladimir N. Litvinenko; G. McIntyre; A. Nicoletti; J. Rank; T. Roser; J. Scaduto; K. Smith; T. Srinivasan-Rao; K.-C. Wu; A. Zaltsman; Y. Zhao; H. Bluem; A. Burger; Mike Cole; A. Favale; D. Holmes; John Rathke; Tom Schultheiss; A. Todd; J. Delayen; W. Funk; L. Phillips; Joe Preble
2004-08-01
High-power Free-Electron Lasers were made possible by advances in superconducting linac operated in an energy-recovery mode, as demonstrated by the spectacular success of the Jefferson Laboratory IR-Demo. In order to get to much higher power levels, say a fraction of a megawatt average power, many technological barriers are yet to be broken. BNL's Collider-Accelerator Department is pursuing some of these technologies for a different application, that of electron cooling of high-energy hadron beams. I will describe work on CW, high-current and high-brightness electron beams. This will include a description of a superconducting, laser-photocathode RF gun employing a new secondary-emission multiplying cathode and an accelerator cavity, both capable of producing of the order of one ampere average current.
Measurements of Aperture Averaging on Bit-Error-Rate
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bastin, Gary L.; Andrews, Larry C.; Phillips, Ronald L.; Nelson, Richard A.; Ferrell, Bobby A.; Borbath, Michael R.; Galus, Darren J.; Chin, Peter G.; Harris, William G.; Marin, Jose A.; Burdge, Geoffrey L.; Wayne, David; Pescatore, Robert
2005-01-01
We report on measurements made at the Shuttle Landing Facility (SLF) runway at Kennedy Space Center of receiver aperture averaging effects on a propagating optical Gaussian beam wave over a propagation path of 1,000 in. A commercially available instrument with both transmit and receive apertures was used to transmit a modulated laser beam operating at 1550 nm through a transmit aperture of 2.54 cm. An identical model of the same instrument was used as a receiver with a single aperture that was varied in size up to 20 cm to measure the effect of receiver aperture averaging on Bit Error Rate. Simultaneous measurements were also made with a scintillometer instrument and local weather station instruments to characterize atmospheric conditions along the propagation path during the experiments.
Detrending moving average algorithm: Frequency response and scaling performances.
Carbone, Anna; Kiyono, Ken
2016-06-01
The Detrending Moving Average (DMA) algorithm has been widely used in its several variants for characterizing long-range correlations of random signals and sets (one-dimensional sequences or high-dimensional arrays) over either time or space. In this paper, mainly based on analytical arguments, the scaling performances of the centered DMA, including higher-order ones, are investigated by means of a continuous time approximation and a frequency response approach. Our results are also confirmed by numerical tests. The study is carried out for higher-order DMA operating with moving average polynomials of different degree. In particular, detrending power degree, frequency response, asymptotic scaling, upper limit of the detectable scaling exponent, and finite scale range behavior will be discussed. PMID:27415389
Modeling an Application's Theoretical Minimum and Average Transactional Response Times
Paiz, Mary Rose
2015-04-01
The theoretical minimum transactional response time of an application serves as a ba- sis for the expected response time. The lower threshold for the minimum response time represents the minimum amount of time that the application should take to complete a transaction. Knowing the lower threshold is beneficial in detecting anomalies that are re- sults of unsuccessful transactions. On the converse, when an application's response time falls above an upper threshold, there is likely an anomaly in the application that is causing unusual performance issues in the transaction. This report explains how the non-stationary Generalized Extreme Value distribution is used to estimate the lower threshold of an ap- plication's daily minimum transactional response time. It also explains how the seasonal Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average time series model is used to estimate the upper threshold for an application's average transactional response time.
Model Independent Constraints of the Averaged Neutrino Masses Revisited
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fukuyama, Takeshi; Nishiura, Hiroyuki
2013-11-01
Averaged neutrino masses defined by <{m}ν >ab≡ (\\vert∑_ {j = 1}3UajUbjmj) \\vert (a, b = e, μ , τ ) are reanalyzed using up-to-date observed MNS parameters and neutrino masses by the neutrino oscillation experiments together with the cosmological constraint on neutrino masses. The values of
High average power supercontinuum generation in a fluoroindate fiber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Swiderski, J.; Théberge, F.; Michalska, M.; Mathieu, P.; Vincent, D.
2014-01-01
We report the first demonstration of Watt-level supercontinuum (SC) generation in a step-index fluoroindate (InF3) fiber pumped by a 1.55 μm fiber master-oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) system. The SC is generated in two steps: first ˜1 ns amplified laser diode pulses are broken up into soliton-like sub-pulses leading to initial spectrum extension and then launched into a fluoride fiber to obtain further spectral broadening. The pump MOPA system can operate at a changeable repetition frequency delivering up to 19.2 W of average power at 2 MHz. When the 8-m long InF3 fiber was pumped with 7.54 W at 420 kHz, output average SC power as high as 2.09 W with 27.8% of slope efficiency was recorded. The achieved SC spectrum spread from 1 to 3.05 μm.
A K-fold Averaging Cross-validation Procedure
Jung, Yoonsuh; Hu, Jianhua
2015-01-01
Cross-validation type of methods have been widely used to facilitate model estimation and variable selection. In this work, we suggest a new K-fold cross validation procedure to select a candidate ‘optimal’ model from each hold-out fold and average the K candidate ‘optimal’ models to obtain the ultimate model. Due to the averaging effect, the variance of the proposed estimates can be significantly reduced. This new procedure results in more stable and efficient parameter estimation than the classical K-fold cross validation procedure. In addition, we show the asymptotic equivalence between the proposed and classical cross validation procedures in the linear regression setting. We also demonstrate the broad applicability of the proposed procedure via two examples of parameter sparsity regularization and quantile smoothing splines modeling. We illustrate the promise of the proposed method through simulations and a real data example.
Averaged model for momentum and dispersion in hierarchical porous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chabanon, Morgan; David, Bertrand; Goyeau, BenoÃ®t.
2015-08-01
Hierarchical porous media are multiscale systems, where different characteristic pore sizes and structures are encountered at each scale. Focusing the analysis to three pore scales, an upscaling procedure based on the volume-averaging method is applied twice, in order to obtain a macroscopic model for momentum and diffusion-dispersion. The effective transport properties at the macroscopic scale (permeability and dispersion tensors) are found to be explicitly dependent on the mesoscopic ones. Closure problems associated to these averaged properties are numerically solved at the different scales for two types of bidisperse porous media. Results show a strong influence of the lower-scale porous structures and flow intensity on the macroscopic effective transport properties.
Detrending moving average algorithm: Frequency response and scaling performances
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbone, Anna; Kiyono, Ken
2016-06-01
The Detrending Moving Average (DMA) algorithm has been widely used in its several variants for characterizing long-range correlations of random signals and sets (one-dimensional sequences or high-dimensional arrays) over either time or space. In this paper, mainly based on analytical arguments, the scaling performances of the centered DMA, including higher-order ones, are investigated by means of a continuous time approximation and a frequency response approach. Our results are also confirmed by numerical tests. The study is carried out for higher-order DMA operating with moving average polynomials of different degree. In particular, detrending power degree, frequency response, asymptotic scaling, upper limit of the detectable scaling exponent, and finite scale range behavior will be discussed.
Inferring average generation via division-linked labeling.
Weber, Tom S; Perié, Leïla; Duffy, Ken R
2016-08-01
For proliferating cells subject to both division and death, how can one estimate the average generation number of the living population without continuous observation or a division-diluting dye? In this paper we provide a method for cell systems such that at each division there is an unlikely, heritable one-way label change that has no impact other than to serve as a distinguishing marker. If the probability of label change per cell generation can be determined and the proportion of labeled cells at a given time point can be measured, we establish that the average generation number of living cells can be estimated. Crucially, the estimator does not depend on knowledge of the statistics of cell cycle, death rates or total cell numbers. We explore the estimator's features through comparison with physiologically parameterized stochastic simulations and extrapolations from published data, using it to suggest new experimental designs.
A database of age-appropriate average MRI templates.
Richards, John E; Sanchez, Carmen; Phillips-Meek, Michelle; Xie, Wanze
2016-01-01
This article summarizes a life-span neurodevelopmental MRI database. The study of neurostructural development or neurofunctional development has been hampered by the lack of age-appropriate MRI reference volumes. This causes misspecification of segmented data, irregular registrations, and the absence of appropriate stereotaxic volumes. We have created the "Neurodevelopmental MRI Database" that provides age-specific reference data from 2 weeks through 89 years of age. The data are presented in fine-grained ages (e.g., 3 months intervals through 1 year; 6 months intervals through 19.5 years; 5 year intervals from 20 through 89 years). The base component of the database at each age is an age-specific average MRI template. The average MRI templates are accompanied by segmented partial volume estimates for segmenting priors, and a common stereotaxic atlas for infant, pediatric, and adult participants. The database is available online (http://jerlab.psych.sc.edu/NeurodevelopmentalMRIDatabase/).
Robust myelin water quantification: averaging vs. spatial filtering.
Jones, Craig K; Whittall, Kenneth P; MacKay, Alex L
2003-07-01
The myelin water fraction is calculated, voxel-by-voxel, by fitting decay curves from a multi-echo data acquisition. Curve-fitting algorithms require a high signal-to-noise ratio to separate T(2) components in the T(2) distribution. This work compared the effect of averaging, during acquisition, to data postprocessed with a noise reduction filter. Forty regions, from five volunteers, were analyzed. A consistent decrease in the myelin water fraction variability with no bias in the mean was found for all 40 regions. Images of the myelin water fraction of white matter were more contiguous and had fewer "holes" than images of myelin water fractions from unfiltered echoes. Spatial filtering was effective for decreasing the variability in myelin water fraction calculated from 4-average multi-echo data.
Removing Cardiac Artefacts in Magnetoencephalography with Resampled Moving Average Subtraction
Ahlfors, Seppo P.; Hinrichs, Hermann
2016-01-01
Magnetoencephalography (MEG) signals are commonly contaminated by cardiac artefacts (CAs). Principle component analysis and independent component analysis have been widely used for removing CAs, but they typically require a complex procedure for the identification of CA-related components. We propose a simple and efficient method, resampled moving average subtraction (RMAS), to remove CAs from MEG data. Based on an electrocardiogram (ECG) channel, a template for each cardiac cycle was estimated by a weighted average of epochs of MEG data over consecutive cardiac cycles, combined with a resampling technique for accurate alignment of the time waveforms. The template was subtracted from the corresponding epoch of the MEG data. The resampling reduced distortions due to asynchrony between the cardiac cycle and the MEG sampling times. The RMAS method successfully suppressed CAs while preserving both event-related responses and high-frequency (>45 Hz) components in the MEG data. PMID:27503196
Pulsar average waveforms and hollow cone beam models
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Backer, D. C.
1975-01-01
An analysis of pulsar average waveforms at radio frequencies from 40 MHz to 15 GHz is presented. The analysis is based on the hypothesis that the observer sees one cut of a hollow-cone beam pattern and that stationary properties of the emission vary over the cone. The distributions of apparent cone widths for different observed forms of the average pulse profiles (single, double/unresolved, double/resolved, triple and multiple) are in modest agreement with a model of a circular hollow-cone beam with random observer-spin axis orientation, a random cone axis-spin axis alignment, and a small range of physical hollow-cone parameters for all objects.
Averaging of nuclear modulation artefacts in RIDME experiments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Keller, Katharina; Doll, Andrin; Qi, Mian; Godt, Adelheid; Jeschke, Gunnar; Yulikov, Maxim
2016-11-01
The presence of artefacts due to Electron Spin Echo Envelope Modulation (ESEEM) complicates the analysis of dipolar evolution data in Relaxation Induced Dipolar Modulation Enhancement (RIDME) experiments. Here we demonstrate that averaging over the two delay times in the refocused RIDME experiment allows for nearly quantitative removal of the ESEEM artefacts, resulting in potentially much better performance than the so far used methods. The analytical equations are presented and analyzed for the case of electron and nuclear spins S = 1 / 2, I = 1 / 2 . The presented analysis is also relevant for Double Electron Electron Resonance (DEER) and Chirp-Induced Dipolar Modulation Enhancement (CIDME) techniques. The applicability of the ESEEM averaging approach is demonstrated on a Gd(III)-Gd(III) rigid ruler compound in deuterated frozen solution at Q band (35 GHz).
Thermal effects in high average power optical parametric amplifiers.
Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Hädrich, Steffen; Peschel, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas
2013-03-01
Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) have the reputation of being average power scalable due to the instantaneous nature of the parametric process (zero quantum defect). This Letter reveals serious challenges originating from thermal load in the nonlinear crystal caused by absorption. We investigate these thermal effects in high average power OPAs based on beta barium borate. Absorption of both pump and idler waves is identified to contribute significantly to heating of the nonlinear crystal. A temperature increase of up to 148 K with respect to the environment is observed and mechanical tensile stress up to 40 MPa is found, indicating a high risk of crystal fracture under such conditions. By restricting the idler to a wavelength range far from absorption bands and removing the crystal coating we reduce the peak temperature and the resulting temperature gradient significantly. Guidelines for further power scaling of OPAs and other nonlinear devices are given.
Thermal effects in high average power optical parametric amplifiers.
Rothhardt, Jan; Demmler, Stefan; Hädrich, Steffen; Peschel, Thomas; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas
2013-03-01
Optical parametric amplifiers (OPAs) have the reputation of being average power scalable due to the instantaneous nature of the parametric process (zero quantum defect). This Letter reveals serious challenges originating from thermal load in the nonlinear crystal caused by absorption. We investigate these thermal effects in high average power OPAs based on beta barium borate. Absorption of both pump and idler waves is identified to contribute significantly to heating of the nonlinear crystal. A temperature increase of up to 148 K with respect to the environment is observed and mechanical tensile stress up to 40 MPa is found, indicating a high risk of crystal fracture under such conditions. By restricting the idler to a wavelength range far from absorption bands and removing the crystal coating we reduce the peak temperature and the resulting temperature gradient significantly. Guidelines for further power scaling of OPAs and other nonlinear devices are given. PMID:23455291
[Average values of electrocardiograph parameters in healthy, adult Wistar rats].
Zaciragić, Asija; Nakas-ićindić, Emina; Hadzović, Almira; Avdagić, Nesina
2004-01-01
Average values of heart rate (HR) and the average duration of electrocardiograph parameters were investigated (RR interval, P wave, PQ interval, QRS complex and QT interval) in healthy, adult Wistar rats of both sexes (n=86). Electrocardiogram (ECG) was recorded by Shiller Resting ECG, and for analysis of recordings SEMA-200 Vet computer program was used. Prior to registration animals were exposed to light ether anesthesia. Mean value of HR was 203.03+/-3.09 beats/min in whole sample. Observed differences in mean values of heart rate and duration of followed ECG parameters between sexes were not statistically significant. Results gathered in our study could serve as standard values for electrocardiograph parameters in future research where will be used Wistar rats in conditions of registration and analysis of ECG that are described in our paper.
The B-dot Earth Average Magnetic Field
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Capo-Lugo, Pedro A.; Rakoczy, John; Sanders, Devon
2013-01-01
The average Earth's magnetic field is solved with complex mathematical models based on mean square integral. Depending on the selection of the Earth magnetic model, the average Earth's magnetic field can have different solutions. This paper presents a simple technique that takes advantage of the damping effects of the b-dot controller and is not dependent of the Earth magnetic model; but it is dependent on the magnetic torquers of the satellite which is not taken into consideration in the known mathematical models. Also the solution of this new technique can be implemented so easily that the flight software can be updated during flight, and the control system can have current gains for the magnetic torquers. Finally, this technique is verified and validated using flight data from a satellite that it has been in orbit for three years.
Correct averaging in transmission radiography: Analysis of the inverse problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wagner, Michael; Hampel, Uwe; Bieberle, Martina
2016-05-01
Transmission radiometry is frequently used in industrial measurement processes as a means to assess the thickness or composition of a material. A common problem encountered in such applications is the so-called dynamic bias error, which results from averaging beam intensities over time while the material distribution changes. We recently reported on a method to overcome the associated measurement error by solving an inverse problem, which in principle restores the exact average attenuation by considering the Poisson statistics of the underlying particle or photon emission process. In this paper we present a detailed analysis of the inverse problem and its optimal regularized numerical solution. As a result we derive an optimal parameter configuration for the inverse problem.
Light-cone averages in a Swiss-cheese universe
Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino
2008-01-15
We analyze a toy Swiss-cheese cosmological model to study the averaging problem. In our Swiss-cheese model, the cheese is a spatially flat, matter only, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution (i.e., the Einstein-de Sitter model), and the holes are constructed from a Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein's equations. We study the propagation of photons in the Swiss-cheese model, and find a phenomenological homogeneous model to describe observables. Following a fitting procedure based on light-cone averages, we find that the expansion scalar is unaffected by the inhomogeneities (i.e., the phenomenological homogeneous model is the cheese model). This is because of the spherical symmetry of the model; it is unclear whether the expansion scalar will be affected by nonspherical voids. However, the light-cone average of the density as a function of redshift is affected by inhomogeneities. The effect arises because, as the universe evolves, a photon spends more and more time in the (large) voids than in the (thin) high-density structures. The phenomenological homogeneous model describing the light-cone average of the density is similar to the {lambda}CDM concordance model. It is interesting that, although the sole source in the Swiss-cheese model is matter, the phenomenological homogeneous model behaves as if it has a dark-energy component. Finally, we study how the equation of state of the phenomenological homogeneous model depends on the size of the inhomogeneities, and find that the equation-of-state parameters w{sub 0} and w{sub a} follow a power-law dependence with a scaling exponent equal to unity. That is, the equation of state depends linearly on the distance the photon travels through voids. We conclude that, within our toy model, the holes must have a present size of about 250 Mpc to be able to mimic the concordance model.
Non-self-averaging in Ising spin glasses and hyperuniversality.
Lundow, P H; Campbell, I A
2016-01-01
Ising spin glasses with bimodal and Gaussian near-neighbor interaction distributions are studied through numerical simulations. The non-self-averaging (normalized intersample variance) parameter U_{22}(T,L) for the spin glass susceptibility [and for higher moments U_{nn}(T,L)] is reported for dimensions 2,3,4,5, and 7. In each dimension d the non-self-averaging parameters in the paramagnetic regime vary with the sample size L and the correlation length ξ(T,L) as U_{nn}(β,L)=[K_{d}ξ(T,L)/L]^{d} and so follow a renormalization group law due to Aharony and Harris [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3700 (1996)PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3700]. Empirically, it is found that the K_{d} values are independent of d to within the statistics. The maximum values [U_{nn}(T,L)]_{max} are almost independent of L in each dimension, and remarkably the estimated thermodynamic limit critical [U_{nn}(T,L)]_{max} peak values are also practically dimension-independent to within the statistics and so are "hyperuniversal." These results show that the form of the spin-spin correlation function distribution at criticality in the large L limit is independent of dimension within the ISG family. Inspection of published non-self-averaging data for three-dimensional Heisenberg and XY spin glasses the light of the Ising spin glass non-self-averaging results show behavior which appears to be compatible with that expected on a chiral-driven ordering interpretation but incompatible with a spin-driven ordering scenario. PMID:26871035
Light-cone averages in a Swiss-cheese universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marra, Valerio; Kolb, Edward W.; Matarrese, Sabino
2008-01-01
We analyze a toy Swiss-cheese cosmological model to study the averaging problem. In our Swiss-cheese model, the cheese is a spatially flat, matter only, Friedmann-Robertson-Walker solution (i.e., the Einstein-de Sitter model), and the holes are constructed from a Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi solution of Einstein’s equations. We study the propagation of photons in the Swiss-cheese model, and find a phenomenological homogeneous model to describe observables. Following a fitting procedure based on light-cone averages, we find that the expansion scalar is unaffected by the inhomogeneities (i.e., the phenomenological homogeneous model is the cheese model). This is because of the spherical symmetry of the model; it is unclear whether the expansion scalar will be affected by nonspherical voids. However, the light-cone average of the density as a function of redshift is affected by inhomogeneities. The effect arises because, as the universe evolves, a photon spends more and more time in the (large) voids than in the (thin) high-density structures. The phenomenological homogeneous model describing the light-cone average of the density is similar to the ΛCDM concordance model. It is interesting that, although the sole source in the Swiss-cheese model is matter, the phenomenological homogeneous model behaves as if it has a dark-energy component. Finally, we study how the equation of state of the phenomenological homogeneous model depends on the size of the inhomogeneities, and find that the equation-of-state parameters w0 and wa follow a power-law dependence with a scaling exponent equal to unity. That is, the equation of state depends linearly on the distance the photon travels through voids. We conclude that, within our toy model, the holes must have a present size of about 250 Mpc to be able to mimic the concordance model.
The role of the harmonic vector average in motion integration.
Johnston, Alan; Scarfe, Peter
2013-01-01
The local speeds of object contours vary systematically with the cosine of the angle between the normal component of the local velocity and the global object motion direction. An array of Gabor elements whose speed changes with local spatial orientation in accordance with this pattern can appear to move as a single surface. The apparent direction of motion of plaids and Gabor arrays has variously been proposed to result from feature tracking, vector addition and vector averaging in addition to the geometrically correct global velocity as indicated by the intersection of constraints (IOC) solution. Here a new combination rule, the harmonic vector average (HVA), is introduced, as well as a new algorithm for computing the IOC solution. The vector sum can be discounted as an integration strategy as it increases with the number of elements. The vector average over local vectors that vary in direction always provides an underestimate of the true global speed. The HVA, however, provides the correct global speed and direction for an unbiased sample of local velocities with respect to the global motion direction, as is the case for a simple closed contour. The HVA over biased samples provides an aggregate velocity estimate that can still be combined through an IOC computation to give an accurate estimate of the global velocity, which is not true of the vector average. Psychophysical results for type II Gabor arrays show perceived direction and speed falls close to the IOC direction for Gabor arrays having a wide range of orientations but the IOC prediction fails as the mean orientation shifts away from the global motion direction and the orientation range narrows. In this case perceived velocity generally defaults to the HVA.
Average diagonal entropy in nonequilibrium isolated quantum systems.
Giraud, Olivier; García-Mata, Ignacio
2016-07-01
The diagonal entropy was introduced as a good entropy candidate especially for isolated quantum systems out of equilibrium. Here we present an analytical calculation of the average diagonal entropy for systems undergoing unitary evolution and an external perturbation in the form of a cyclic quench. We compare our analytical findings with numerical simulations of various quantum systems. Our calculations elucidate various heuristic relations proposed recently in the literature. PMID:27575092
Non-self-averaging in Ising spin glasses and hyperuniversality
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lundow, P. H.; Campbell, I. A.
2016-01-01
Ising spin glasses with bimodal and Gaussian near-neighbor interaction distributions are studied through numerical simulations. The non-self-averaging (normalized intersample variance) parameter U22(T ,L ) for the spin glass susceptibility [and for higher moments Un n(T ,L ) ] is reported for dimensions 2 ,3 ,4 ,5 , and 7. In each dimension d the non-self-averaging parameters in the paramagnetic regime vary with the sample size L and the correlation length ξ (T ,L ) as Un n(β ,L ) =[Kdξ (T ,L ) /L ] d and so follow a renormalization group law due to Aharony and Harris [Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 3700 (1996), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.77.3700]. Empirically, it is found that the Kd values are independent of d to within the statistics. The maximum values [Unn(T,L ) ] max are almost independent of L in each dimension, and remarkably the estimated thermodynamic limit critical [Unn(T,L ) ] max peak values are also practically dimension-independent to within the statistics and so are "hyperuniversal." These results show that the form of the spin-spin correlation function distribution at criticality in the large L limit is independent of dimension within the ISG family. Inspection of published non-self-averaging data for three-dimensional Heisenberg and X Y spin glasses the light of the Ising spin glass non-self-averaging results show behavior which appears to be compatible with that expected on a chiral-driven ordering interpretation but incompatible with a spin-driven ordering scenario.
Characterizing individual painDETECT symptoms by average pain severity
Sadosky, Alesia; Koduru, Vijaya; Bienen, E Jay; Cappelleri, Joseph C
2016-01-01
Background painDETECT is a screening measure for neuropathic pain. The nine-item version consists of seven sensory items (burning, tingling/prickling, light touching, sudden pain attacks/electric shock-type pain, cold/heat, numbness, and slight pressure), a pain course pattern item, and a pain radiation item. The seven-item version consists only of the sensory items. Total scores of both versions discriminate average pain-severity levels (mild, moderate, and severe), but their ability to discriminate individual item severity has not been evaluated. Methods Data were from a cross-sectional, observational study of six neuropathic pain conditions (N=624). Average pain severity was evaluated using the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form, with severity levels defined using established cut points for distinguishing mild, moderate, and severe pain. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was followed by ridit analysis to represent the probability that a randomly selected subject from one average pain-severity level had a more favorable outcome on the specific painDETECT item relative to a randomly selected subject from a comparator severity level. Results A probability >50% for a better outcome (less severe pain) was significantly observed for each pain symptom item. The lowest probability was 56.3% (on numbness for mild vs moderate pain) and highest probability was 76.4% (on cold/heat for mild vs severe pain). The pain radiation item was significant (P<0.05) and consistent with pain symptoms, as well as with total scores for both painDETECT versions; only the pain course item did not differ. Conclusion painDETECT differentiates severity such that the ability to discriminate average pain also distinguishes individual pain item severity in an interpretable manner. Pain-severity levels can serve as proxies to determine treatment effects, thus indicating probabilities for more favorable outcomes on pain symptoms. PMID:27555789
Average diagonal entropy in nonequilibrium isolated quantum systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giraud, Olivier; García-Mata, Ignacio
2016-07-01
The diagonal entropy was introduced as a good entropy candidate especially for isolated quantum systems out of equilibrium. Here we present an analytical calculation of the average diagonal entropy for systems undergoing unitary evolution and an external perturbation in the form of a cyclic quench. We compare our analytical findings with numerical simulations of various quantum systems. Our calculations elucidate various heuristic relations proposed recently in the literature.
Separability criteria with angular and Hilbert space averages
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo; Oh, C. H.; Umetsu, Koichiro; Yu, Sixia
2016-05-01
The practically useful criteria of separable states ρ =∑kwkρk in d = 2 × 2 are discussed. The equality G(a , b) = 4 [ < ψ | P(a) ⊗ P(b) | ψ > - < ψ | P(a) ⊗ 1 | ψ > < ψ | 1 ⊗ P(b) | ψ > ] = 0 for any two projection operators P(a) and P(b) provides a necessary and sufficient separability criterion in the case of a separable pure state ρ = | ψ > < ψ | . We propose the separability criteria of mixed states, which are given by Tr ρ { a ṡ σ ⊗ b ṡ σ } =(1 / 3) C cos φ for two spin 1 / 2 systems and 4 Tr ρ { P(a) ⊗ P(b) } = 1 +(1 / 2) C cos 2 φ for two photon systems, respectively, after taking a geometrical angular average of a and b with fixed cos φ = a ṡ b. Here - 1 ≤ C ≤ 1, and the difference in the numerical coefficients 1 / 2 and 1 / 3 arises from the different rotational properties of the spinor and the transverse photon. If one instead takes an average over the states in the d = 2 Hilbert space, the criterion for two photon systems is replaced by 4 Tr ρ { P(a) ⊗ P(b) } = 1 +(1 / 3) C cos 2 φ. Those separability criteria are shown to be very efficient using the existing experimental data of Aspect et al. in 1981 and Sakai et al. in 2006. When the Werner state is applied to two photon systems, it is shown that the Hilbert space average can judge its inseparability but not the geometrical angular average.
Targeted Cancer Screening in Average-Risk Individuals.
Marcus, Pamela M; Freedman, Andrew N; Khoury, Muin J
2015-11-01
Targeted cancer screening refers to use of disease risk information to identify those most likely to benefit from screening. Researchers have begun to explore the possibility of refining screening regimens for average-risk individuals using genetic and non-genetic risk factors and previous screening experience. Average-risk individuals are those not known to be at substantially elevated risk, including those without known inherited predisposition, without comorbidities known to increase cancer risk, and without previous diagnosis of cancer or pre-cancer. In this paper, we describe the goals of targeted cancer screening in average-risk individuals, present factors on which cancer screening has been targeted, discuss inclusion of targeting in screening guidelines issued by major U.S. professional organizations, and present evidence to support or question such inclusion. Screening guidelines for average-risk individuals currently target age; smoking (lung cancer only); and, in some instances, race; family history of cancer; and previous negative screening history (cervical cancer only). No guidelines include common genomic polymorphisms. RCTs suggest that targeting certain ages and smoking histories reduces disease-specific cancer mortality, although some guidelines extend ages and smoking histories based on statistical modeling. Guidelines that are based on modestly elevated disease risk typically have either no or little evidence of an ability to affect a mortality benefit. In time, targeted cancer screening is likely to include genetic factors and past screening experience as well as non-genetic factors other than age, smoking, and race, but it is of utmost importance that clinical implementation be evidence-based.
High average power solid state laser power conditioning system
Steinkraus, R.F.
1987-03-03
The power conditioning system for the High Average Power Laser program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is described. The system has been operational for two years. It is high voltage, high power, fault protected, and solid state. The power conditioning system drives flashlamps that pump solid state lasers. Flashlamps are driven by silicon control rectifier (SCR) switched, resonant charged, (LC) discharge pulse forming networks (PFNs). The system uses fiber optics for control and diagnostics. Energy and thermal diagnostics are monitored by computers.
Line broadening estimate from averaged energy differences of coupled states
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lavrentieva, Nina N.; Dudaryonok, Anna S.; Ma, Qiancheng
2014-11-01
The method to the calculation of rotation-vibrational line half-width of asymmetric top molecules is proposed. The influence of the buffer gas on the internal state of the absorbing molecule is emphasized in this method. The basic expressions of present approach are given. The averaged energy differences method was used for the calculation of H2O and HDO lines broadening. Comparisons of the calculated line shape parameters with the experimental values in different absorption bands are made.
Snapshots of Anderson localization beyond the ensemble average
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
El-Dardiry, Ramy G. S.; Faez, Sanli; Lagendijk, Ad
2012-09-01
We study (1+1)D transverse localization of electromagnetic radiation at microwave frequencies directly by two-dimensional spatial scans. Since the longitudinal direction can be mapped onto time, our experiments provide unique snapshots of the buildup of localized waves. The evolution of the wave functions is compared with semianalytical calculations. Studies beyond ensemble averages reveal counterintuitive surprises. Oscillations of the wave functions are observed in space and explained in terms of a beating between the eigenstates.
Averaging cross section data so we can fit it
Brown, D.
2014-10-23
The ^{56}Fe cross section we are interested in have a lot of fluctuations. We would like to fit the average of the cross section with cross sections calculated within EMPIRE. EMPIRE is a Hauser-Feshbach theory based nuclear reaction code, requires cross sections to be smoothed using a Lorentzian profile. The plan is to fit EMPIRE to these cross sections in the fast region (say above 500 keV).
Effects of velocity averaging on the shapes of absorption lines
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Pickett, H. M.
1980-01-01
The velocity averaging of collision cross sections produces non-Lorentz line shapes, even at densities where Doppler broadening is not apparent. The magnitude of the effects will be described using a model in which the collision broadening depends on a simple velocity power law. The effect of the modified profile on experimental measures of linewidth, shift and amplitude will be examined and an improved approximate line shape will be derived.
Average dynamics of a finite set of coupled phase oscillators
Dima, Germán C. Mindlin, Gabriel B.
2014-06-15
We study the solutions of a dynamical system describing the average activity of an infinitely large set of driven coupled excitable units. We compared their topological organization with that reconstructed from the numerical integration of finite sets. In this way, we present a strategy to establish the pertinence of approximating the dynamics of finite sets of coupled nonlinear units by the dynamics of its infinitely large surrogate.
Self-averaging in complex brain neuron signals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bershadskii, A.; Dremencov, E.; Fukayama, D.; Yadid, G.
2002-12-01
Nonlinear statistical properties of Ventral Tegmental Area (VTA) of limbic brain are studied in vivo. VTA plays key role in generation of pleasure and in development of psychological drug addiction. It is shown that spiking time-series of the VTA dopaminergic neurons exhibit long-range correlations with self-averaging behavior. This specific VTA phenomenon has no relation to VTA rewarding function. Last result reveals complex role of VTA in limbic brain.
Calculating ensemble averaged descriptions of protein rigidity without sampling.
González, Luis C; Wang, Hui; Livesay, Dennis R; Jacobs, Donald J
2012-01-01
Previous works have demonstrated that protein rigidity is related to thermodynamic stability, especially under conditions that favor formation of native structure. Mechanical network rigidity properties of a single conformation are efficiently calculated using the integer body-bar Pebble Game (PG) algorithm. However, thermodynamic properties require averaging over many samples from the ensemble of accessible conformations to accurately account for fluctuations in network topology. We have developed a mean field Virtual Pebble Game (VPG) that represents the ensemble of networks by a single effective network. That is, all possible number of distance constraints (or bars) that can form between a pair of rigid bodies is replaced by the average number. The resulting effective network is viewed as having weighted edges, where the weight of an edge quantifies its capacity to absorb degrees of freedom. The VPG is interpreted as a flow problem on this effective network, which eliminates the need to sample. Across a nonredundant dataset of 272 protein structures, we apply the VPG to proteins for the first time. Our results show numerically and visually that the rigidity characterizations of the VPG accurately reflect the ensemble averaged [Formula: see text] properties. This result positions the VPG as an efficient alternative to understand the mechanical role that chemical interactions play in maintaining protein stability.
Aerodynamic surface stress intermittency and conditionally averaged turbulence statistics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, William; Lanigan, David
2015-11-01
Aeolian erosion is induced by aerodynamic stress imposed by atmospheric winds. Erosion models prescribe that sediment flux, Q, scales with aerodynamic stress raised to exponent, n, where n > 1 . Since stress (in fully rough, inertia-dominated flows) scales with incoming velocity squared, u2, it follows that q ~u2n (where u is some relevant component of the flow). Thus, even small (turbulent) deviations of u from its time-mean may be important for aeolian activity. This rationale is augmented given that surface layer turbulence exhibits maximum Reynolds stresses in the fluid immediately above the landscape. To illustrate the importance of stress intermittency, we have used conditional averaging predicated on stress during large-eddy simulation of atmospheric boundary layer flow over an arid, bare landscape. Conditional averaging provides an ensemble-mean visualization of flow structures responsible for erosion `events'. Preliminary evidence indicates that surface stress peaks are associated with the passage of inclined, high-momentum regions flanked by adjacent low-momentum regions. We characterize geometric attributes of such structures and explore streamwise and vertical vorticity distribution within the conditionally averaged flow field. This work was supported by the National Sci. Foundation, Phys. and Dynamic Meteorology Program (PM: Drs. N. Anderson, C. Lu, and E. Bensman) under Grant # 1500224. Computational resources were provided by the Texas Adv. Comp. Center at the Univ. of Texas.
Temporal averaging of atmospheric turbulence-induced optical scintillation.
Yura, H T; Beck, S M
2015-08-24
Based on the Rytov approximation we have developed for weak scintillation conditions a general expression for the temporal averaged variance of irradiance. The present analysis provides, for what we believe is the first time, a firm theoretical basis for the often-observed reduction of irradiance fluctuations of an optical beam due to atmospheric turbulence. Accurate elementary analytic approximations are presented here for plane, spherical and beam waves for predicting the averaging times required to obtain an arbitrary value of the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean of an optical beam propagating through an arbitrary path in the atmosphere. In particular, a novel application of differential absorption measurement for the purpose of measuring column-integrated concentrations of various so-called greenhouse gas (GHG) atmospheric components is considered where the results of our analysis indicates that relatively short averaging times, on the order of a few seconds, are required to reduce the irradiance fluctuations to a value precise enough for GHG measurements of value to climate related studies.
Local and average behaviour in inhomogeneous superdiffusive media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vezzani, Alessandro; Burioni, Raffaella; Caniparoli, Luca; Lepri, Stefano
2011-05-01
We consider a random walk on one-dimensional inhomogeneous graphs built from Cantor fractals. Our study is motivated by recent experiments that demonstrated superdiffusion of light in complex disordered materials, thereby termed Lévy glasses. We introduce a geometric parameter α which plays a role analogous to the exponent characterising the step length distribution in random systems. We study the large-time behaviour of both local and average observables; for the latter case, we distinguish two different types of averages, respectively over the set of all initial sites and over the scattering sites only. The 'single long-jump approximation" is applied to analytically determine the different asymptotic behaviour as a function of α and to understand their origin. We also discuss the possibility that the root of the mean square displacement and the characteristic length of the walker distribution may grow according to different power laws; this anomalous behaviour is typical of processes characterised by Lévy statistics and here, in particular, it is shown to influence average quantities.
H∞ control of switched delayed systems with average dwell time
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhicheng; Gao, Huijun; Agarwal, Ramesh; Kaynak, Okyay
2013-12-01
This paper considers the problems of stability analysis and H∞ controller design of time-delay switched systems with average dwell time. In order to obtain less conservative results than what is seen in the literature, a tighter bound for the state delay term is estimated. Based on the scaled small gain theorem and the model transformation method, an improved exponential stability criterion for time-delay switched systems with average dwell time is formulated in the form of convex matrix inequalities. The aim of the proposed approach is to reduce the minimal average dwell time of the systems, which is made possible by a new Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional combined with the scaled small gain theorem. It is shown that this approach is able to tolerate a smaller dwell time or a larger admissible delay bound for the given conditions than most of the approaches seen in the literature. Moreover, the exponential H∞ controller can be constructed by solving a set of conditions, which is developed on the basis of the exponential stability criterion. Simulation examples illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.
Kilowatt average-power laser for subpicosecond materials processing
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benson, Stephen V.; Neil, George R.; Bohn, Courtlandt L.; Biallas, George; Douglas, David; Dylla, H. Frederick; Fugitt, Jock; Jordan, Kevin; Krafft, Geoffrey; Merminga, Lia; Preble, Joe; Shinn, Michelle D.; Siggins, Tim; Walker, Richard; Yunn, Byung
2000-04-01
The performance of laser pulses in the sub-picosecond range for materials processing is substantially enhanced over similar fluences delivered in longer pulses. Recent advances in the development of solid state lasers have progressed significantly toward the higher average powers potentially useful for many applications. Nonetheless, prospects remain distant for multi-kilowatt sub-picosecond solid state systems such as would be required for industrial scale surface processing of metals and polymers. We present operation results from the world's first kilowatt scale ultra-fast materials processing laser. A Free Electron Laser (FEL) called the IR Demo is operational as a User Facility at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia, USA. In its initial operation at high average power it is capable of wavelengths in the 2 to 6 micron range and can produce approximately 0.7 ps pulses in a continuous train at approximately 75 MHz. This pulse length has been shown to be nearly optimal for deposition of energy in materials at the surface. Upgrades in the near future will extend operation beyond 10 kW CW average power in the near IR and kilowatt levels of power at wavelengths from 0.3 to 60 microns. This paper will cover the design and performance of this groundbreaking laser and operational aspects of the User Facility.
Cortical evoked potentials recorded from the guinea pig without averaging.
Walloch, R A
1975-01-01
Potentials evoked by tonal pulses and recorded with a monopolar electrode on the pial surface over the auditory cortex of the guinea pig are presented. These potentials are compared with average potentials recorded in previous studies with an electrode on the dura. The potentials recorded by these two techniques have similar waveforms, peak latencies and thresholds. They appear to be generated within the same region of the cerebral cortex. As can be expected, the amplitude of the evoked potentials recorded from the pial surface is larger than that recorded from the dura. Consequently, averaging is not needed to extract the evoked potential once the dura is removed. The thresholds for the evoked cortical potential are similar to behavioral thresholds for the guinea pig at high frequencies; however, evoked potential thresholds are eleveate over behavioral thresholds at low frequencies. The removal of the dura and the direct recording of the evoked potential appears most appropriate for acute experiments. The recording of an evoked potential with dura electrodes empploying averaging procedures appears most appropriate for chronic studies.
High Average Power, High Energy Short Pulse Fiber Laser System
Messerly, M J
2007-11-13
Recently continuous wave fiber laser systems with output powers in excess of 500W with good beam quality have been demonstrated [1]. High energy, ultrafast, chirped pulsed fiber laser systems have achieved record output energies of 1mJ [2]. However, these high-energy systems have not been scaled beyond a few watts of average output power. Fiber laser systems are attractive for many applications because they offer the promise of high efficiency, compact, robust systems that are turn key. Applications such as cutting, drilling and materials processing, front end systems for high energy pulsed lasers (such as petawatts) and laser based sources of high spatial coherence, high flux x-rays all require high energy short pulses and two of the three of these applications also require high average power. The challenge in creating a high energy chirped pulse fiber laser system is to find a way to scale the output energy while avoiding nonlinear effects and maintaining good beam quality in the amplifier fiber. To this end, our 3-year LDRD program sought to demonstrate a high energy, high average power fiber laser system. This work included exploring designs of large mode area optical fiber amplifiers for high energy systems as well as understanding the issues associated chirped pulse amplification in optical fiber amplifier systems.
Development of over 300-watts average power excimer laser
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hirata, Kazuhiro; Kawamura, Joichi; Katou, Hiroyuki; Sajiki, Kazuaki; Okada, Makoto
2004-05-01
The high power excimer laser was developed. We have supplied the 240 watts (800 mJ, 300 Hz) average power excimer laser for industrial use, mainly for TFT LCD annealing. We are going to add the 300 watts (1 J, 300 Hz) average power laser for our line-up. This 300 watts new laser is based on the 240 watts laser, but improved some points. The electrodes size is longer and the electrical power circuit is reinforcement. Laser gas recipe is changed to be good for new system. In our test, we could oscillate over 300 watts average power operation. 310 watts servo operation is able to oscillate over 40 million pulses with less than 1.0 per cent for σ output stability. 330 watts servo operation is able to oscillate over 30 million pulses with almost less than 1.0 per cent for σ output stability. Experimental and theoretical studies of various parameters influencing the laser performance will be continued with further investigations and future improvements. We have confidence that it will be possible for this laser to produce higher power with long gas life.
Noise reduction of video imagery through simple averaging
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vorder Bruegge, Richard W.
1999-02-01
Examiners in the Special Photographic Unit of the Federal Bureau of Investigation Laboratory Division conduct examinations of questioned photographic evidence of all types, including surveillance imagery recorded on film and video tape. A primary type of examination includes side-by- side comparisons, in which unknown objects or people depicted in the questioned images are compared with known objects recovered from suspects or with photographs of suspects themselves. Most imagery received in the SPU for such comparisons originate from time-lapse video or film systems. In such circumstances, the delay between sequential images is so great that standard image summing and/or averaging techniques are useless as a means of improving image detail in questioned subjects or objects without also resorting to processing-intensive pattern reconstruction algorithms. Occasionally, however, the receipt of real-time video imagery will include a questioned object at rest. In such cases, it is possible to use relatively simple image averaging techniques as a means of reducing transient noise in the images, without further compromising the already-poor resolution inherent in most video surveillance images. This paper presents an example of one such case in which multiple images were averaged to reduce the transient noise to a sufficient degree to permit the positive identification of a vehicle based upon the presence of scrape marks and dents on the side of the vehicle.
CD SEM metrology macro CD technology: beyond the average
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bunday, Benjamin D.; Michelson, Di K.; Allgair, John A.; Tam, Aviram; Chase-Colin, David; Dajczman, Asaf; Adan, Ofer; Har-Zvi, Michael
2005-05-01
Downscaling of semiconductor fabrication technology requires an ever-tighter control of the production process. CD-SEM, being the major image-based critical dimension metrology tool, is constantly being improved in order to fulfill these requirements. One of the methods used for increasing precision is averaging over several or many (ideally identical) features, usually referred to as "Macro CD". In this paper, we show that there is much more to Macro CD technology- metrics characterizing an arbitrary array of similar features within a single SEM image-than just the average. A large amount of data is accumulated from a single scan of a SEM image, providing informative and statistically valid local process characterization. As opposed to other technologies, Macro CD not only provides extremely precise average metrics, but also allows for the reporting of full information on each of the measured features and of various statistics (such as the variability) on all currently reported CD SEM metrics. We present the mathematical background behind Macro CD technology and the opportunity for reducing number of sites for SPC, along with providing enhanced-sensitivity CD metrics.
Average wavefunction method for multiple scattering theory and applications
Singh, H.
1985-01-01
A general approximation scheme, the average wavefunction approximation (AWM), applicable to scattering of atoms and molecules off multi-center targets, is proposed. The total potential is replaced by a sum of nonlocal, separable interactions. Each term in the sum projects the wave function onto a weighted average in the vicinity of a given scattering center. The resultant solution is an infinite order approximation to the true solution, and choosing the weighting function as the zeroth order solution guarantees agreement with the Born approximation to second order. In addition, the approximation also becomes increasingly more accurate in the low energy long wave length limit. A nonlinear, nonperturbative literature scheme for the wave function is proposed. An extension of the scheme to multichannel scattering suitable for treating inelastic scattering is also presented. The method is applied to elastic scattering of a gas off a solid surface. The formalism is developed for both periodic as well as disordered surfaces. Numerical results are presented for atomic clusters on a flat hard wall with a Gaussian like potential at each atomic scattering site. The effect of relative lateral displacement of two clusters upon the scattering pattern is shown. The ability of AWM to accommodate disorder through statistical averaging over cluster configuration is illustrated. Enhanced uniform back scattering is observed with increasing roughness on the surface. Finally, the AWM is applied to atom-molecule scattering.
Average energy gap of AIBIIIC2VI optoelectronic materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Virendra; Chandra, Dinesh
1991-03-01
(In this paper we propose a model based on plasma oscillations theory of solids for the calculatio f th average energy gap of optoelectronic materials having A B-''- 1C2 chalcopyrite stru eture. In the present calculation special care of delectrons in the case of noble and transition metal compounds has been taken into account. Our calculated values are in excellent agreement with the reported values). The dielectric theory of Phillips1 Van Vechten2''3 and Levine has been widely used in a varity of physicochemical problems relating to crystal structures nonlinear optical susceptibilit ies dielectric constant cohesive energies heats of formation average energy gaps etc. Using the concept of these theories the author 5 has recently developed a model based on plasma oscill ations theory of solids for the calculation of the covalent (Eh)afld ionic (C) energy gaps of several semiconductors having different crystal structures. . In the present paper we extend the calculation of the average energy gap in the case of AIBIIIC2VI semiconductors. The expressons for the Eh and C in terms of plasmon energy can be written as7 Eh K1 (tw)L6533 eV (1) C K2b (!iw)2" ex [ K3(hw)" 3 ] eV . (2) If delectrons are present in the crystal following relationhas been developed for the ionic energy gap while the covalent energy gap remains the same. C Kb (w)2" exp [K5 (''hw) (hw)2" 3J eV () where K''s